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Sample records for modulates myocardial metabolism

  1. Compound danshen dripping pills modulate the perturbed energy metabolism in a rat model of acute myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiahua; Yong, Yonghong; Aa, Jiye; Cao, Bei; Sun, Runbin; Yu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Jingqiu; Yang, Na; Yan, Lulu; Li, Xinxin; Cao, Jing; Aa, Nan; Yang, Zhijian; Kong, Xiangqing; Wang, Liansheng; Zhu, Xuanxuan; Ma, Xiaohui; Guo, Zhixin; Zhou, Shuiping; Sun, He; Wang, Guangji

    2016-01-01

    The continuous administration of compound danshen dripping pills (CDDP) showed good efficacy in relieving myocardial ischemia clinically. To probe the underlying mechanism, metabolic features were evaluated in a rat model of acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol (ISO) and administrated with CDDP using a metabolomics platform. Our data revealed that the ISO-induced animal model showed obvious myocardial injury, decreased energy production, and a marked change in metabolomic patterns in plasma and heart tissue. CDDP pretreatment increased energy production, ameliorated biochemical indices, modulated the changes and metabolomic pattern induced by ISO, especially in heart tissue. For the first time, we found that ISO induced myocardial ischemia was accomplished with a reduced fatty acids metabolism and an elevated glycolysis for energy supply upon the ischemic stress; while CDDP pretreatment prevented the tendency induced by ISO and enhanced a metabolic shift towards fatty acids metabolism that conventionally dominates energy supply to cardiac muscle cells. These data suggested that the underlying mechanism of CDDP involved regulating the dominant energy production mode and enhancing a metabolic shift toward fatty acids metabolism in ischemic heart. It was further indicated that CDDP had the potential to prevent myocardial ischemia in clinic. PMID:27905409

  2. Compound danshen dripping pills modulate the perturbed energy metabolism in a rat model of acute myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiahua; Yong, Yonghong; Aa, Jiye; Cao, Bei; Sun, Runbin; Yu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Jingqiu; Yang, Na; Yan, Lulu; Li, Xinxin; Cao, Jing; Aa, Nan; Yang, Zhijian; Kong, Xiangqing; Wang, Liansheng; Zhu, Xuanxuan; Ma, Xiaohui; Guo, Zhixin; Zhou, Shuiping; Sun, He; Wang, Guangji

    2016-12-01

    The continuous administration of compound danshen dripping pills (CDDP) showed good efficacy in relieving myocardial ischemia clinically. To probe the underlying mechanism, metabolic features were evaluated in a rat model of acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol (ISO) and administrated with CDDP using a metabolomics platform. Our data revealed that the ISO-induced animal model showed obvious myocardial injury, decreased energy production, and a marked change in metabolomic patterns in plasma and heart tissue. CDDP pretreatment increased energy production, ameliorated biochemical indices, modulated the changes and metabolomic pattern induced by ISO, especially in heart tissue. For the first time, we found that ISO induced myocardial ischemia was accomplished with a reduced fatty acids metabolism and an elevated glycolysis for energy supply upon the ischemic stress; while CDDP pretreatment prevented the tendency induced by ISO and enhanced a metabolic shift towards fatty acids metabolism that conventionally dominates energy supply to cardiac muscle cells. These data suggested that the underlying mechanism of CDDP involved regulating the dominant energy production mode and enhancing a metabolic shift toward fatty acids metabolism in ischemic heart. It was further indicated that CDDP had the potential to prevent myocardial ischemia in clinic.

  3. Diurnal variations in myocardial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bray, Molly S; Young, Martin E

    2008-07-15

    The heart is challenged by a plethora of extracellular stimuli over the course of a normal day, each of which distinctly influences myocardial contractile function. It is therefore not surprising that myocardial metabolism also oscillates in a time-of-day dependent manner. What is becoming increasingly apparent is that the heart exhibits diurnal variations in its intrinsic properties, including responsiveness to extracellular stimuli. This article summarizes our current knowledge regarding the mechanism(s) mediating diurnal variations in myocardial metabolism. Particular attention is focused towards the intramyocardial circadian clock, a cell autonomous molecular mechanism that appears to regulate myocardial metabolism both directly (e.g. triglyceride and glycogen metabolism) and indirectly (through modulation of the responsiveness of the myocardium to workload, insulin, and fatty acids). In doing so, the circadian clock within the cardiomyocyte allows the heart to anticipate environmental stimuli (such as changes in workload, feeding status) prior to their onset. This synchronization between the myocardium and its environment is enhanced by regular feeding schedules. Conversely, loss of synchronization may occur through disruption of the circadian clock and/or diurnal variations in neurohumoral factors (as observed during diabetes mellitus). Here, we discuss the possibility that loss of synchronization between the heart and its environment predisposes the heart to metabolic maladaptation and subsequent myocardial contractile dysfunction.

  4. Diurnal variations in myocardial metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The heart is challenged by a plethora of extracellular stimuli over the course of a normal day, each of which distinctly influences myocardial contractile function. It is therefore not surprising that myocardial metabolism also oscillates in a time-of-day dependent manner. What is becoming increasin...

  5. Cardioselective Dominant-negative Thyroid Hormone Receptor (Δ337T) Modulates Myocardial Metabolism and Contractile Dfficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hyyti, Outi M.; Olson, Aaron; Ge, Ming; Ning, Xue-Han; Buroker, Norman E.; Chung, Youngran; Jue, Thomas; Portman, Michael A.

    2008-06-03

    Dominant- negative thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) show elevated expression relative to ligand-binding TRs during cardiac hypertrophy. We tested the hypothesis that overexpression of a dominant-negative TR alters cardiac metabolism and contractile efficiency (CE). We used mice expressing the cardioselective dominant-negative TRβ1 mutation Δ337T. Isolated working Δ337T hearts and nontransgenic control (Con) hearts were perfused with 13C-labeled free fatty acids (FFA), acetoacetate (ACAC), lactate, and glucose at physiological concentrations for 30 min. 13C NMR spectroscopy and isotopomer analyses were used to determine substrate flux and fractional contributions (Fc) of acetyl-CoA to the citric acid cycle (CAC). Δ337T hearts exhibited rate depression but higher developed pressure and CE, defined as work per oxygen consumption (MV˙ O2). Unlabeled substrate Fc from endogenous sources was higher in Δ337T, but ACAC Fc was lower. Fluxes through CAC, lactate, ACAC, and FFA were reduced in Δ337T. CE and Fc differences were reversed by pacing Δ337T to Con rates, accompanied by an increase in FFA Fc. Δ337T hearts lacked the ability to increase MV˙ O2. Decreases in protein expression for glucose transporter-4 and hexokinase-2 and increases in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-2 and -4 suggest that these hearts are unable to increase carbohydrate oxidation in response to stress. These data show that Δ337T alters the metabolic phenotype in murine heart by reducing substrate flux for multiple pathways. Some of these changes are heart rate dependent, indicating that the substrate shift may represent an accommodation to altered contractile protein kinetics, which can be disrupted by pacing stress.

  6. Telmisartan attenuates myocardial apoptosis induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats: modulation of nitric oxide metabolism and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao; Zhu, Die; Guo, Xue-ling; Deng, Yan; Shang, Jin; Liu, Kui; Liu, Hui-guo

    2015-05-01

    NO and NO synthase (NOS) are known to play key roles in the development of myocardial apoptosis induced by ischemia/hypoxia. Current evidence suggests that angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, such as telmisartan, lower blood pressure and produce beneficial regulatory effects on NO and NOS. Here, we examined the protective role of telmisartan in myocardial apoptosis induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 8 h of intermittent hypoxia/day, with/without telmisartan for 8 weeks. Myocardial apoptosis, NO and NOS activity, and levels of inflammatory mediators and radical oxygen species were determined. Treatment with telmisartan preserved endothelial NOS expression and inhibited inducible NOS and excessive NO generation, while reducing oxidation/nitration stress and inflammatory responses. Administration of telmisartan before CIH significantly ameliorated the CIH-induced myocardial apoptosis. This study show that pre-CIH telmisartan administration ameliorated myocardial injury following CIH by attenuating CIH-induced myocardial apoptosis via regulation of NOS activity and inhibition of excessive NO generation, oxidation/nitration stress, and inflammatory responses.

  7. Pharmacological Agents Targeting Myocardial Metabolism for the Management of Chronic Stable Angina : an Update.

    PubMed

    Guarini, Giacinta; Huqi, Alda; Morrone, Doralisa; Marzilli, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Despite continuous advances in myocardial revascularization procedures and intracoronary devices, patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) still experience worse prognosis and poor quality of life (QoL). Indeed, chronic stable angina (CSA) is a common disease with a large burden on healthcare costs. Traditionally, CSA is interpreted as episodes of reversible myocardial ischemia related to the presence of stable coronary artery plaque causing myocardial demand/supply mismatch when myocardial oxygen consumption increases. Accordingly, revascularization procedures are performed with the aim to remove the flow limiting stenosis, whereas traditional medical therapy (hemodynamic agents) aims at reducing myocardial oxygen demands. However, although effective, none of these treatment strategies or their combination is either able to confer symptomatic relief in all patients, nor to reduce mortality. Failure to significantly improve QoL and prognosis may be attributed at least in part to this "restrictive" understanding of IHD. Despite for many years myocardial metabolic derangement has been overlooked, recently it has gained increased attention with the development of new pharmacological agents (metabolic modulators) able to influence myocardial substrate selection and utilization thus improving cardiac efficiency. Shifting cardiac metabolism from free fatty acids (FA) towards glucose is a promising approach for the treatment of patients with stable angina, independently of the underling disease (macrovascular and/or microvascular disease). In this sense cardiac metabolic modulators open the way to a "revolutionary" understanding of ischemic heart disease and its common clinical manifestations, where myocardial ischemia is no longer considered as the mere oxygen and metabolites demand/supply unbalance, but as an energetic disorder. Keeping in mind such an alternative approach to the disease, development of new pharmacological agents directed toward multiple metabolic

  8. Role of cardiomyocyte circadian clock in myocardial metabolic adaptation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marked circadian rhythmicities in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology exist. The cardiomyocyte circadian clock has recently been linked to circadian rhythms in myocardial gene expression, metabolism, and contractile function. For instance, the cardiomyocyte circadian clock is essential f...

  9. Mangiferin Modulation of Metabolism and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fomenko, Ekaterina Vladimirovna; Chi, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    The recent emergence of a worldwide epidemic of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes, demands effective strategy to develop nutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals to halt this trend. Natural products have long been and continue to be an attractive source of nutritional and pharmacological therapeutics. One such natural product is mangiferin (MGF), the predominant constituent of extracts of the mango plant Mangifera indica L. Reports on biological and pharmacological effects of MGF increased exponentially in recent years. MGF has documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies indicate that it modulates multiple biological processes involved in metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. MGF has been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities and disorders in animal models and humans. This review focuses on the recently reported biological and pharmacological effects of MGF on metabolism and metabolic disorders. PMID:27534809

  10. Mangiferin modulation of metabolism and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fomenko, Ekaterina Vladimirovna; Chi, Yuling

    2016-09-10

    The recent emergence of a worldwide epidemic of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes, demands effective strategy to develop nutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals to halt this trend. Natural products have long been and continue to be an attractive source of nutritional and pharmacological therapeutics. One such natural product is mangiferin (MGF), the predominant constituent of extracts of the mango plant Mangifera indica L. Reports on biological and pharmacological effects of MGF increased exponentially in recent years. MGF has documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies indicate that it modulates multiple biological processes involved in metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. MGF has been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities and disorders in animal models and humans. This review focuses on the recently reported biological and pharmacological effects of MGF on metabolism and metabolic disorders. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(5):492-503, 2016.

  11. Relation between the kinetics of thallium-201 in myocardial scintigraphy and myocardial metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, H; Akioka, K; Takagi, M; Tanaka, A; Takeuchi, K; Yoshikawa, J; Ochi, H

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To investigate the relations between myocardial metabolism and the kinetics of thallium-201 in myocardial scintigraphy.
Methods—46 patients within six weeks after the onset of acute myocardial infarction underwent resting myocardial dual isotope, single acquisition, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using radioiodinated 15-iodophenyl 3-methyl pentadecaenoic acid (BMIPP) and thallium-201, exercise thallium-201 SPECT, and positron emission tomography (PET) using nitrogen-13 ammonia (NH3) and [F18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) under fasting conditions. The left ventricle was divided into nine segments, and the severity of defects was assessed visually.
Results—In the resting SPECT, less BMIPP uptake than thallium-201 uptake was observed in all of 40 segments with reverse redistribution of thallium-201, and in 21 of 88 segments with a fixed defect of thallium-201 (p < 0.0001); and more FDG uptake than NH3 uptake (NH3-FDG mismatch) was observed in 35 of 40 segments with reverse redistribution and in 38 of 88 segments with fixed defect (p < 0.0001). Less BMIPP uptake in the resting SPECT was observed in 49 of 54 segments with slow stress redistribution in exercise SPECT, and in nine of 17 segments with rapid stress redistribution (p < 0.0005); NH3-FDG mismatch was observed in 42 of 54 segments with slow stress redistribution and in five of 17 segments with rapid stress redistribution (p < 0.0005).
Conclusions—Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy provides information about not only myocardial perfusion and viability but also about myocardial metabolism in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

 Keywords: thallium-201 SPECT;  BMIPP SPECT;  FDG PET;  myocardial infarction;  redistribution PMID:9764055

  12. Metabolic Modulators in Heart Disease: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2017-07-01

    Ischemic heart disease and heart failure are leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. They continue to be major burden on health care systems throughout the world, despite major advances made over the past 40 years in developing new therapeutic approaches to treat these debilitating diseases. A potential therapeutic approach that has been underutilized in treating ischemic heart disease and heart failure is "metabolic modulation." Major alterations in myocardial energy substrate metabolism occur in ischemic heart disease and heart failure, and are associated with an energy deficit in the heart. A metabolic shift from mitochondrial oxidative metabolism to glycolysis, as well as an uncoupling between glycolysis and glucose oxidation, plays a crucial role in the development of cardiac inefficiency (oxygen consumed per work performed) and functional impairment in ischemic heart disease as well as in heart failure. This has led to the concept that optimizing energy substrate use with metabolic modulators can be a potentially promising approach to decrease the severity of ischemic heart disease and heart failure, primarily by improving cardiac efficiency. Two approaches for metabolic modulator therapy are to stimulate myocardial glucose oxidation and/or inhibit fatty acid oxidation. In this review, the past, present, and future of metabolic modulators as an approach to optimizing myocardial energy substrate metabolism and treating ischemic heart disease and heart failure are discussed. This includes a discussion of pharmacological interventions that target enzymes involved in fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose oxidation in the heart, as well as enzymes involved in ketone and branched chain amino acid catabolism in the heart. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Circadian rhythms in myocardial metabolism and function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Circadian rhythms in myocardial function and dysfunction are firmly established in both animal models and humans. For example, the incidence of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death increases when organisms awaken. Such observations have classically been explained by circadian rhythms in neurohumoral...

  14. Effects of activation of endocannabinoid system on myocardial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Polak, Agnieszka; Harasim, Ewa; Chabowski, Adrian

    2016-05-21

    Endocannabinoids exert their effect on the regulation of energy homeostasis via activation of specific receptors. They control food intake, secretion of insulin, lipids and glucose metabolism, lipid storage. Long chain fatty acids are the main myocardial energy substrate. However, the heart exerts enormous metabolic flexibility emphasized by its ability to utilzation not only fatty acids, but also glucose, lactate and ketone bodies. Endocannabinoids can directly act on the cardiomyocytes through the CB1 and CB2 receptors present in cardiomyocytes. It appears that direct activation of CB1 receptors promotes increased lipogenesis, pericardial steatosis and bioelectrical dysfunction of the heart. In contrast, stimulation of CB2 receptors exhibits cardioprotective properties, helping to maintain appropriate amount of ATP in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the effects of endocannabinoids at both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, such as liver, pancreas, or adipose tissue, resulting indirectly in plasma availability of energy substrates and affects myocardial metabolism. To date, there is little evidence that describes effects of activation of the endocannabinoid system in the cardiovascular system under physiological conditions. In the present paper the impact of metabolic diseases, i. e. obesity and diabetes, as well as the cardiovascular diseases - hypertension, myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction on the deregulation of the endocannabinoid system and its effect on the metabolism are described.

  15. Linking the cardiomyocyte circadian clock to myocardial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Durgan, David J; Young, Martin E

    2008-04-01

    The energetic demands imposed upon the heart vary dramatically over the course of the day. In the face of equally commanding oscillations in the neurohumoral mileu, the heart must respond both rapidly and appropriately to its diurnal environment, for the survival of the organism. A major response of the heart to alterations in workload, nutrients, and various neurohumoral stimuli is at the level of metabolism. Failure of the heart to achieve adequate metabolic adaptation results in contractile dysfunction. Substantial evidence is accumulating which suggests that a transcriptionally based timekeeping mechanism known as the circadian clock plays a role in mediating myocardial metabolic rhythms. Here, we provide an overview of our current knowledge regarding the interplay between the circadian clock within the cardiomyocyte and myocardial metabolism. This includes a particular focus on circadian clock mediated regulation of endogenous energy stores, as well as those mechanisms orchestrating circadian rhythms in metabolic gene expression. An essential need to elucidate fully the functions of this molecular mechanism in the heart remains.

  16. Altered phosphate metabolism in myocardial infarction: P-31 MR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bottomley, P.A.; Herfkens, R.J.; Smith, L.S.; Bashore, T.M.

    1987-12-01

    The high-energy myocardial phosphate metabolism of four patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction after coronary angioplasty and drug therapy was evaluated with cardiac-gated phosphorus magnetic resonance (MR) depth-resolved surface coil spectroscopy (DRESS) 5-9 days after the onset of symptoms. Significant reductions (about threefold) in the phosphocreatine (PCr) to inorganic phosphate (Pi) ratio and elevations in the Pi to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio were observed in endocardially or transmurally derived MR spectra when compared with values from epicardially displaced spectra and values from seven healthy volunteers (P less than .05). High-energy phosphate metabolites and Pi ratios did not vary significantly during the cardiac cycle in healthy volunteers. However, contamination of Pi resonances by phosphomonoester components, including blood 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, precluded accurate spectral quantification of Pi and pH. The results indicate that localized P-31 MR spectroscopy may be used to directly assess cellular energy reserve in clinical myocardial infarction and to evaluate metabolic response to interventions.

  17. Regulation of myocardial metabolism by the cardiomyocyte circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Chatham, John C; Young, Martin E

    2013-02-01

    On a daily basis, the heart is subjected to dramatic fluctuations in energetic demand and neurohumoral influences, many of which occur in a temporally predictable manner. In order to preserve cardiac performance, the heart must therefore maintain metabolic flexibility, even within the confines of a single day. Recent studies have established mechanistic links between time-of-day-dependent oscillations in myocardial metabolism and the cardiomyocyte circadian clock. More specifically, evidence suggests that this cell autonomous molecular mechanism regulates myocardial glucose uptake, flux through both glycolysis and the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, and pyruvate oxidation, as well as glycogen, triglyceride, and protein turnover. These observations have led to the hypothesis that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock confers the selective advantage of anticipation of increased energetic demand during the awake period. Here, we review the accumulative evidence in support of this hypothesis thus far, and discuss the possibility that attenuation of these metabolic rhythms, through disruption of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock, contributes towards the etiology of cardiac dysfunction in various disease states. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Focus on Cardiac Metabolism". Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Adaptation of myocardial substrate metabolism to a ketogenic nutrient environment.

    PubMed

    Wentz, Anna E; d'Avignon, D André; Weber, Mary L; Cotter, David G; Doherty, Jason M; Kerns, Robnet; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Reddy, Naveen; Sambandam, Nandakumar; Crawford, Peter A

    2010-08-06

    Heart muscle is metabolically versatile, converting energy stored in fatty acids, glucose, lactate, amino acids, and ketone bodies. Here, we use mouse models in ketotic nutritional states (24 h of fasting and a very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet) to demonstrate that heart muscle engages a metabolic response that limits ketone body utilization. Pathway reconstruction from microarray data sets, gene expression analysis, protein immunoblotting, and immunohistochemical analysis of myocardial tissue from nutritionally modified mouse models reveal that ketotic states promote transcriptional suppression of the key ketolytic enzyme, succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT; encoded by Oxct1), as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-dependent induction of the key ketogenic enzyme HMGCS2. Consistent with reduction of SCOT, NMR profiling demonstrates that maintenance on a ketogenic diet causes a 25% reduction of myocardial (13)C enrichment of glutamate when (13)C-labeled ketone bodies are delivered in vivo or ex vivo, indicating reduced procession of ketones through oxidative metabolism. Accordingly, unmetabolized substrate concentrations are higher within the hearts of ketogenic diet-fed mice challenged with ketones compared with those of chow-fed controls. Furthermore, reduced ketone body oxidation correlates with failure of ketone bodies to inhibit fatty acid oxidation. These results indicate that ketotic nutrient environments engage mechanisms that curtail ketolytic capacity, controlling the utilization of ketone bodies in ketotic states.

  19. Myocardial reloading after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation alters substrate metabolism while promoting protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly Priddy, Colleen M; Ledee, Dolena R; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy; Olson, Aaron K; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A

    2013-08-19

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart, providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. ECMO also induces stress which can adversely affect the ability to reload or wean the heart from the circuit. Metabolic impairments induced by altered loading and/or stress conditions may impact weaning. However, cardiac substrate and amino acid requirements upon weaning are unknown. We assessed the hypothesis that ventricular reloading with ECMO modulates both substrate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) and myocardial protein synthesis. Sixteen immature piglets (7.8 to 15.6 kg) were separated into 2 groups based on ventricular loading status: 8-hour ECMO (UNLOAD) and postwean from ECMO (RELOAD). We infused into the coronary artery [2-(13)C]-pyruvate as an oxidative substrate and [(13)C6]-L-leucine as an indicator for amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis. Upon RELOAD, each functional parameter, which were decreased substantially by ECMO, recovered to near-baseline level with the exclusion of minimum dP/dt. Accordingly, myocardial oxygen consumption was also increased, indicating that overall mitochondrial metabolism was reestablished. At the metabolic level, when compared to UNLOAD, RELOAD altered the contribution of various substrates/pathways to tissue pyruvate formation, favoring exogenous pyruvate versus glycolysis, and acetyl-CoA formation, shifting away from pyruvate decarboxylation to endogenous substrate, presumably fatty acids. Furthermore, there was also a significant increase of tissue concentrations for all CAC intermediates (≈80%), suggesting enhanced anaplerosis, and of fractional protein synthesis rates (>70%). RELOAD alters both cytosolic and mitochondrial energy substrate metabolism, while favoring leucine incorporation into protein synthesis rather than oxidation in the CAC. Improved understanding of factors governing these metabolic perturbations may serve as a basis for interventions and thereby improve

  20. Myocardial Reloading After Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Alters Substrate Metabolism While Promoting Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy; Olson, Aaron K.; Rosiers, Christine Des; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart, providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. ECMO also induces stress which can adversely affect the ability to reload or wean the heart from the circuit. Metabolic impairments induced by altered loading and/or stress conditions may impact weaning. However, cardiac substrate and amino acid requirements upon weaning are unknown. We assessed the hypothesis that ventricular reloading with ECMO modulates both substrate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) and myocardial protein synthesis. Methods and Results Sixteen immature piglets (7.8 to 15.6 kg) were separated into 2 groups based on ventricular loading status: 8‐hour ECMO (UNLOAD) and postwean from ECMO (RELOAD). We infused into the coronary artery [2‐13C]‐pyruvate as an oxidative substrate and [13C6]‐L‐leucine as an indicator for amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis. Upon RELOAD, each functional parameter, which were decreased substantially by ECMO, recovered to near‐baseline level with the exclusion of minimum dP/dt. Accordingly, myocardial oxygen consumption was also increased, indicating that overall mitochondrial metabolism was reestablished. At the metabolic level, when compared to UNLOAD, RELOAD altered the contribution of various substrates/pathways to tissue pyruvate formation, favoring exogenous pyruvate versus glycolysis, and acetyl‐CoA formation, shifting away from pyruvate decarboxylation to endogenous substrate, presumably fatty acids. Furthermore, there was also a significant increase of tissue concentrations for all CAC intermediates (≈80%), suggesting enhanced anaplerosis, and of fractional protein synthesis rates (>70%). Conclusions RELOAD alters both cytosolic and mitochondrial energy substrate metabolism, while favoring leucine incorporation into protein synthesis rather than oxidation in the CAC. Improved understanding of factors governing these metabolic perturbations may

  1. Myocardial Reloading after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Alters Substrate Metabolism While Promoting Protein Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-08-19

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. Mortality after ECMO remains high.Cardiac substrate and amino acid requirements upon weaning are unknown and may impact recovery. We assessed the hypothesis that ventricular reloading modulates both substrate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) and myocardial protein synthesis. Fourteen immature piglets (7.8-15.6 kg) were separated into 2 groups based on ventricular loading status: 8 hour-ECMO (UNLOAD) and post-wean from ECMO (RELOAD). We infused [2-13C]-pyruvate as an oxidative substrate and [13C6]-L-leucine, as a tracer of amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis into the coronary artery. RELOAD showed marked elevations in myocardial oxygen consumption above baseline and UNLOAD. Pyruvate uptake was markedly increased though RELOAD decreased pyruvate contribution to oxidative CAC metabolism.RELOAD also increased absolute concentrations of all CAC intermediates, while maintaining or increasing 13C-molar percent enrichment. RELOAD also significantly increased cardiac fractional protein synthesis rates by >70% over UNLOAD. Conclusions: RELOAD produced high energy metabolic requirement and rebound protein synthesis. Relative pyruvate decarboxylation decreased with RELOAD while promoting anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation and amino acid incorporation into protein rather than to the CAC for oxidation. These perturbations may serve as therapeutic targets to improve contractile function after ECMO.

  2. Noninvasive measurement of regional myocardial glucose metabolism by positron emission computed tomography. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Schelbert, H.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1980-06-01

    While the results of regional myocardial glucose metabolism measurements using positron emission computed tomography (/sup 13/N-ammonia) are promising, their utility and value remains to be determined in man. If this technique can be applied to patients with acute myocardial ischemia or infarction it may permit delineation of regional myocardial segments with altered, yet still active metabolism. Further, it may become possible to evaluate the effects of interventions designed to salvage reversibly injured myocardium by this technique.

  3. Atorvastatin Improves Ventricular Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction by Interfering with Collagen Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Karla; Pereira do Carmo, Helison Rafael; Galluce Torina, Anali; Diógenes de Carvalho, Daniela; Carvalho Sposito, Andrei; de Souza Vilarinho, Karlos Alexandre; da Mota Silveira-Filho, Lindemberg; Martins de Oliveira, Pedro Paulo; Petrucci, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies that modulate ventricular remodeling can be useful after acute myocardial infarction (MI). In particular, statins may exert effects on molecular pathways involved in collagen metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with atorvastatin for 4 weeks would lead to changes in collagen metabolism and ventricular remodeling in a rat model of MI. Male Wistar rats were used in this study. MI was induced in rats by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Animals were randomized into three groups, according to treatment: sham surgery without LAD ligation (sham group, n = 14), LAD ligation followed by 10mg atorvastatin/kg/day for 4 weeks (atorvastatin group, n = 24), or LAD ligation followed by saline solution for 4 weeks (control group, n = 27). After 4 weeks, hemodynamic characteristics were obtained by a pressure-volume catheter. Hearts were removed, and the left ventricles were subjected to histologic analysis of the extents of fibrosis and collagen deposition, as well as the myocyte cross-sectional area. Expression levels of mediators involved in collagen metabolism and inflammation were also assessed. End-diastolic volume, fibrotic content, and myocyte cross-sectional area were significantly reduced in the atorvastatin compared to the control group. Atorvastatin modulated expression levels of proteins related to collagen metabolism, including MMP1, TIMP1, COL I, PCPE, and SPARC, in remote infarct regions. Atorvastatin had anti-inflammatory effects, as indicated by lower expression levels of TLR4, IL-1, and NF-kB p50. Treatment with atorvastatin for 4 weeks was able to attenuate ventricular dysfunction, fibrosis, and left ventricular hypertrophy after MI in rats, perhaps in part through effects on collagen metabolism and inflammation. Atorvastatin may be useful for limiting ventricular remodeling after myocardial ischemic events.

  4. Atorvastatin Improves Ventricular Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction by Interfering with Collagen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Karla; Pereira do Carmo, Helison Rafael; Galluce Torina, Anali; Diógenes de Carvalho, Daniela; Carvalho Sposito, Andrei; de Souza Vilarinho, Karlos Alexandre; da Mota Silveira-Filho, Lindemberg; Martins de Oliveira, Pedro Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Therapeutic strategies that modulate ventricular remodeling can be useful after acute myocardial infarction (MI). In particular, statins may exert effects on molecular pathways involved in collagen metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether treatment with atorvastatin for 4 weeks would lead to changes in collagen metabolism and ventricular remodeling in a rat model of MI. Methods Male Wistar rats were used in this study. MI was induced in rats by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Animals were randomized into three groups, according to treatment: sham surgery without LAD ligation (sham group, n = 14), LAD ligation followed by 10mg atorvastatin/kg/day for 4 weeks (atorvastatin group, n = 24), or LAD ligation followed by saline solution for 4 weeks (control group, n = 27). After 4 weeks, hemodynamic characteristics were obtained by a pressure-volume catheter. Hearts were removed, and the left ventricles were subjected to histologic analysis of the extents of fibrosis and collagen deposition, as well as the myocyte cross-sectional area. Expression levels of mediators involved in collagen metabolism and inflammation were also assessed. Results End-diastolic volume, fibrotic content, and myocyte cross-sectional area were significantly reduced in the atorvastatin compared to the control group. Atorvastatin modulated expression levels of proteins related to collagen metabolism, including MMP1, TIMP1, COL I, PCPE, and SPARC, in remote infarct regions. Atorvastatin had anti-inflammatory effects, as indicated by lower expression levels of TLR4, IL-1, and NF-kB p50. Conclusion Treatment with atorvastatin for 4 weeks was able to attenuate ventricular dysfunction, fibrosis, and left ventricular hypertrophy after MI in rats, perhaps in part through effects on collagen metabolism and inflammation. Atorvastatin may be useful for limiting ventricular remodeling after myocardial ischemic events. PMID:27880844

  5. Effect of NO synthase inhibition on myocardial metabolism during moderate ischemia.

    PubMed

    Martin, Claus; Schulz, Rainer; Post, Heiner; Gres, Petra; Heusch, Gerd

    2003-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the control of myocardial metabolism. In normoperfused myocardium, NO synthase inhibition shifts myocardial metabolism from free fatty acid (FFA) toward carbohydrate utilization. Ischemic myocardium is characterized by a similar shift toward preferential carbohydrate utilization, although NO synthesis is increased. The importance of NO for myocardial metabolism during ischemia has not been analyzed in detail. We therefore assessed the influence of NO synthase inhibition with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA) on myocardial metabolism during moderate ischemia in anesthetized pigs. In control animals, the increase in left ventricular pressure with l-NNA was mimicked by aortic constriction. Before ischemia, l-NNA decreased myocardial FFA consumption (MV(FFA); P < 0.05), while consumption of carbohydrate and O(2) (MVo(2)) remained constant. ATP equivalents [calculated with the assumption of complete oxidative substrate decomposition (ATP(eq))] decreased with l-NNA (P < 0.05), associated with a decrease of regional myocardial function (P < 0.05). In contrast, aortic constriction had no effect on MV(FFA), while MVo(2) increased (P < 0.05) and ATP(eq) and regional myocardial function remained constant. During ischemia, alterations in myocardial metabolism were similar in control and l-NNA-treated animals: MV(FFA) decreased (P < 0.05) and net lactate consumption was reversed to net lactate production (P < 0.05). Regional myocardial function was decreased (P < 0.05), although more markedly in animals receiving l-NNA (P < 0.05). We conclude that the efficiency of oxidative metabolism was impaired by l-NNA per se, paralleled by impaired regional myocardial function. During ischemia, l-NNA had no effect on myocardial substrate consumption, indicating that NO synthases were no longer effectively involved in the control of myocardial metabolism.

  6. The effect of nifedipine on myocardial perfusion and metabolism in systemic sclerosis. A positron emission tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Duboc, D.; Kahan, A.; Maziere, B.; Loc'h, C.; Crouzel, C.; Menkes, C.J.; Amor, B.; Strauch, G.; Guerin, F.; Syrota, A. )

    1991-02-01

    We assessed the effect of nifedipine on myocardial perfusion and metabolism in 9 patients with systemic sclerosis, using positron emission tomography with a perfusion tracer (potassium-38) and a metabolic tracer (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG)). Nifedipine, 20 mg 3 times daily for 1 week, induced a significant increase in 38K myocardial uptake, a significant decrease in 18FDG myocardial uptake, and a significant increase in the myocardial 38K: 18FDG ratio. These results indicate that the increase in myocardial perfusion is associated with modifications in myocardial energy metabolism, which probably result from a beneficial anti-ischemic effect of nifedipine in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  7. Myocardial Function and Lipid Metabolism in the Chronic Alcoholic Animal

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Timothy J.; Khan, Mohammad I.; Ettinger, Philip O.; Haider, Bunyad; Lyons, Michael M.; Oldewurtel, Henry A.; Weber, Marilyn

    1974-01-01

    In view of the variables that obscure the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy, a study was undertaken in mongrel dogs fed ethanol as 36% of calories for up to 22 mo. Both the experimental and control groups maintained body weight, hematocrit, plasma vitamin, and protein levels. Left ventricular function was evaluated in the intact anesthetized dog using indicator dilution for end-diastolic and stroke volume determinations. During increased afterload with angiotensin, the ethanol group exhibited a larger rise of end-diastolic pressure (P<0.01), whereas end-diastolic and stroke volume responses were significantly less than in controls. Preload increments with saline elicited a significantly higher end-diastolic pressure rise in the ethanol group (P<0.01). No hypertrophy, inflammation, or fibrosis was present and it was postulated that the enhanced diastolic stiffness was related to accumulation of Alcian Blue-positive material in the ventricular interstitium. To evaluate myocardial lipid metabolism, [1-14C]oleic acid was infused systemically. Plasma specific activity and myocardial lipid uptake were similar in both groups. There was a significantly increased incorporation of label into triglyceride, associated with a reduced 14CO2 production, considered the basis for a twofold increment of triglyceride content. In addition, diminished incorporation of [14C]oleic acid into phospholipid was observed accompanied by morphologic abnormalities of cardiac cell membranes. Potassium loss and sodium gain, like the lipid alteration, was more prominent in the subendocardium. Thus, chronic ethanol ingestion in this animal model is associated with abnormalities of ventricular function without evident malnutrition, analogous to the preclinical malfunction described in the human alcoholic. Images PMID:4368946

  8. [Myocardial infarction in young mexicans associated to metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mathiew-Quirós, Álvaro; Salinas-Martínez, Ana María; Guzmán de la Garza, Francisco Javier; Garza-Sagástegui, María Guadalupe; Guzmán-Delgado, Nancy Elena; Palmero-Hinojosa, Magda Graciela; Oliva-Sosa, Norma Edith

    2017-01-01

    Acute coronary diseases are catastrophic, especially in young patients. To determine the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) for premature acute myocardial infarction (AMI), combined with familial, behavioral, and nutritional factors in the northeast of Mexico. This is a case control study of patients less than 47 years of age with no personal history of angina, AMI, or cerebrovascular disease. Cases corresponded to patients with AMI (incident and primary cases; n = 55) and controls were blood donors located at the same hospital (n = 55). Behavioral, nutritional, and cardiometabolic risk factors were measured. Multivariate logistic regression was used for estimating odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). MS increased the risk for premature AMI (95% CI: 1.73-39.5) eightfold, followed by smoking (OR: 7.76; 95% CI: 1.27-47.3), family history of AMI or sudden death (OR: 11.0; 95% CI: 2.03-60.4), and sedentary lifestyle (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 2.52-9.80), independent of potential confounders. The study highlights the magnitude of the risk of MS for AMI in Mexican young adults. The phenomenon of coronary diseases among young adults needs essential attention from the health sector.

  9. Myocardial imaging and metabolic studies with (17-/sup 123/I)iodoheptadecanoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Freundlieb, C.; Hoeck, A.; Vyska, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Machulla, H.J.; Stoecklin, G.

    1980-11-01

    After intravenous administration of the stearic acid analogue (17-/sup 123/I)iodoheptadecanoic acid (I-123 HA), myocardial metabolism was studied in ten normal individuals, eight patients with coronary artery disease and three patients with congestive heart failure. High-quality images were obtained in sequential scintigraphy of I-123 metabolically bound in myocardial tissue. Infarcted zones as well as ischemic regions are indicated by reduced tracer uptake. Iodine-123 in the blood pool and interstitial space consists mainly of radioiodide that is liberated by fatty-acid metabolism and was corrected for. Using the proposed correction not only are the images improved but the uptake and elimination of the I-123 in the myocardial cells can be followed. The average disappearance half-time of I-123 HA from the myocardium of normal persons was 24 +- 4.7 min. In patients with coronary artery disease significant differences between myocardial regions were observed.

  10. Dynamic Bayesian sensitivity analysis of a myocardial metabolic model.

    PubMed

    Calvetti, D; Hageman, R; Occhipinti, R; Somersalo, E

    2008-03-01

    visualization modalities particularly effective at displaying simultaneously variations over time and across a sample. We perform an analysis of the sensitivity of the concentrations of lactate and glycogen in cytosol, and of ATP, ADP, NAD(+) and NADH in cytosol and mitochondria, to the parameters identifying a three compartment model for myocardial metabolism during ischemia.

  11. The circadian clock within the heart: potential influence on myocardial gene expression, metabolism, and function.

    PubMed

    Young, Martin E

    2006-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the intrinsic properties of both the heart and vasculature exhibit dramatic oscillations over the course of the day. Diurnal variations in the responsiveness of the cardiovascular system to environmental stimuli are mediated by a complex interplay between extracellular (i.e., neurohumoral factors) and intracellular (i.e., circadian clock) influences. The intracellular circadian clock is composed of a series of transcriptional modulators that together allow the cell to perceive the time of day, thereby enabling preparation for an anticipated stimulus. These molecular timepieces have been characterized recently within both vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes, giving rise to a multitude of hypotheses relating to the potential role(s) of the circadian clock as a modulator of physiological and pathophysiological cardiovascular events. For example, evidence strongly supports the hypothesis that the circadian clock within the heart modulates myocardial metabolism, which in turn facilitates anticipation of diurnal variations in workload, substrate availability, and/or the energy supply-to-demand ratio. The purpose of this review is therefore to summarize our current understanding of the molecular events governing diurnal variations in the intrinsic properties of the heart, with special emphasis on the intramyocardial circadian clock. Whether impairment of this molecular mechanism contributes toward cardiovascular disease associated with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, shift work, sleep apnea, and/or obesity will be discussed.

  12. Discrepancy between myocardial perfusion and fatty acid metabolism following acute myocardial infarction for evaluating the dysfunctional viable myocardium.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Shankar K; Sarai, Masayoshi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Hishida, Hitoshi; Ozaki, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) the area of myocardial perfusion and metabolism mismatch is designated as dysfunctional viable myocardium. (123)I-beta-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is clinically very useful for evaluating myocardial fatty acid metabolism, and (99)mTc-Tetrofosmin (TF) is a widely used tracer for myocardial perfusion. This study was designed to evaluate the degree of discrepancy between BMIPP and TF at the subacute state of AMI. Fifty-two patients (aged 59 ± 10 years; mean 46 years) with AMI were enrolled, and all of them underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients were classified according to ST-T change and PCI timing. (123)I-beta-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid and TF cardiac scintigraphy were performed on 7 ± 3.5 days of admission using a dual headed gamma camera. Perfusion and fatty acid metabolism defect were scored on a 17 segments model. The mean BMIPP defect score on early and delayed images were 16.67 ± 10.19 and 16.25 ± 10.40, respectively. The mean TF defect score was 10 ± 7.69. Defect score of BMIPP was significantly higher than that of the TF (P < 0.0001; 95% CI 4.32-7.02), and there was a strong correlation between perfusion and metabolism defect score (r = 0.89, P < 0.00001). Forty-seven (90%) patients showed mismatched defect (BMIPP > TF), and 5 (10%) patients showed matched defect (BMIPP = TF). Mismatched defect score (MMDS) was significantly higher in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) than that of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) (P < 0.041; 95% CI 0.11-5.19). At the subacute state of AMI, most of the patients showed perfusion-metabolism mismatch, which represents the dysfunctional viable myocardium, and patients with STEMI showed higher mismatch. Copyright © 2012 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Myocardial Energy Substrate Metabolism in Heart Failure : from Pathways to Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Arata; Milner, Kenneth; Gupta, Abhishek; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in therapy, heart failure remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity and is a growing healthcare burden worldwide. Alterations in myocardial energy substrate metabolism are a hallmark of heart failure, and are associated with an energy deficit in the failing heart. Previous studies have shown that a metabolic shift from mitochondrial oxidative metabolism to glycolysis, as well as an uncoupling between glycolysis and glucose oxidation, plays a crucial role in the development of cardiac inefficiency and functional impairment in heart failure. Therefore, optimizing energy substrate utilization, particularly by increasing mitochondrial glucose oxidation, can be a potentially promising approach to decrease the severity of heart failure by improving mechanical cardiac efficiency. One approach to stimulating myocardial glucose oxidation is to inhibit fatty acid oxidation. This review will overview the physiological regulation of both myocardial fatty acid and glucose oxidation in the heart, and will discuss what alterations in myocardial energy substrate metabolism occur in the failing heart. Furthermore, lysine acetylation has been recently identified as a novel post-translational pathway by which mitochondrial enzymes involved in all aspects of cardiac energy metabolism can be regulated. Thus, we will also discuss the effect of acetylation of metabolic enzymes on myocardial energy substrate preference in the settings of heart failure. Finally, we will focus on pharmacological interventions that target enzymes involved in fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation, transcriptional regulation of fatty acid oxidation, and glucose oxidation to treat heart failure.

  14. Myocardial sympathetic innervation, function, and oxidative metabolism in non-infarcted myocardium in patients with prior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hirofumi; Matsunari, Ichiro; Nomura, Yusuke; Fujita, Wataru; Komatsu, Ryoko; Miyazaki, Yoshiharu; Nekolla, Stephan G; Kajinami, Kouji

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sympathetic innervation, contractile function, and the oxidative metabolism of the non-infarcted myocardium in patients with prior myocardial infarction. In 19 patients (14 men, 5 women, 65 ± 9 years) after prior myocardial infarction, sympathetic innervation was assessed by (11)C-hydroxyephedrine (HED) positron emission tomography (PET). Oxidative metabolism was quantified using (11)C-acetate PET. Left ventricular systolic function was measured by echocardiography with speckle tracking technique. The (11)C-HED retention was positively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (r = 0.566, P < 0.05), and negatively with peak longitudinal strain in systole in the non-infarcted myocardium (r = -0.561, P < 0.05). Kmono, as an index of oxidative metabolism, was significantly correlated with rate pressure product (r = 0.649, P < 0.01), but not with (11)C-HED retention (r = 0.188, P = 0.442). Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between Kmono and LVEF (r = 0.106, P = 0.666) or peak longitudinal strain in systole (r = -0.256, P = 0.291) in the non-infarcted myocardium. When the patients were divided into two groups based on the median value of left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) (41 mL), there were no significant differences in age, sex, and rate pressure product between the groups. However, the large LVESVI group (>41 mL) was associated with reduced (11)C-HED retention and peak longitudinal strain in systole, whereas Kmono was similar between the groups. This study indicates that remodeled LV after myocardial infarction is associated with impaired sympathetic innervation and function even in the non-infarcted myocardial tissue. Furthermore, oxidative metabolism in the non-infarcted myocardium seems to be operated by normal regulatory mechanisms rather than pre-synaptic sympathetic neuronal function.

  15. Regulation by carnitine of myocardial fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism under normal and pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Calvani, M; Reda, E; Arrigoni-Martelli, E

    2000-04-01

    This review focuses on the regulation of myocardial fatty acids and glucose metabolism in physiological and pathological conditions, and the role of L-carnitine and of its derivative, propionyl-L-carnitine. Fatty acids are the major oxidation fuel for the heart, while glucose and lactate provide the remaining need. Fatty acids in cytoplasm are transformed to long-chain acyl-CoA and transferred into the mitochondrial matrix by the action of three carnitine dependent enzymes to produce acetyl-CoA through the beta-oxidation pathway. Another source of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA is from the oxidation of carbohydrates. The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex, the key irreversible rate limiting step in carbohydrate oxidation, is modulated by the intra-mitochondrial ratio acetyl-CoA/CoA. An increased ratio results in the inhibition of PDH activity. A decreased ratio can relieve the inhibition of PDH as shown by the transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to carnitine, forming acetylcarnitine, a reaction catalyzed by carnitine acetyl-transferase. This activity of L-carnitine in the modulation of the intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio affects glucose oxidation. Myocardial substrate metabolism during ischemia is dependent upon the severity of ischemia. A very severe reduction of blood flow causes a decrease of substrate flux through PDH. When perfusion is only partially reduced there is an increase in the rate of glycolysis and a switch from lactate uptake to lactate production. Tissue levels of acyl-CoA and long-chain acylcarnitine increase with important functional consequences on cell membranes. During reperfusion fatty acid oxidation quickly recovers as the prevailing source of energy, while pyruvate oxidation is inhibited. A considerable body of experimental evidence suggests that L-carnitine exert a protective effect in in vitro and in vivo models of heart ischemia and hypertrophy. Clinical trials confirm these beneficial effects although controversial results are

  16. [The influence of halogenated anesthetic agents on the hemodynamics and myocardial metabolism in ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, A V; Nesterova, Iu V; Brand, Ia B

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of anesthesia with equipotential concentrations of halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane plus 33% O2 on central hemodynamics, coronary flow, and myocardial metabolism in 60 patients undergoing myocardial revascularization surgery. The study found that halothane and isoflurane with 33% O2 caused dose-dependent and well-controlled arterial hypotension and decreased left ventricular (LV) stroke work index, myocardial consumption of O2 MCO2), total peripheral vascular resistance, and coronary vascular resistance (CVR), which increased coronary volume flow. Monoanesthesia with enflurane lowered myocardial contractility and did not change LV work; MCO2 decreased, while coronary sinus flow increased due to a decrease in CVR. Thus, the comparison of hemodynamic and myocardial effects of the three potent inhaled anesthetics--halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane - demonstrated their positive effects on myocardial oxygen balance in a form of dosed and controlled decrease in its work in cardiological patients with preserved LV contractility. The imported anesthetics enflurane and isoflurane do not have any significant advantage over the Russian-made halothane in this category of patients. At the same time, halothane vs. enflurane has a more noticeable "unloading" effect on afterload and does not cause convulsive episodes and periods of cerebral activity depression; in contrast to isoflurane, halothane dose not cause metabolic disturbances in a compromised myocardium; halothane is used in lower inhaled concentrations to achieve the same degree of myocardial work decrease without a substantial decrease in cardiac efficiency. These facts suggest that halothane has a practical advantage over the other anesthetics.

  17. Untargeted metabolic profiling reveals potential biomarkers in myocardial infarction and its application.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Shi, Peiying; Zhang, Ling; Fan, Xiaohui; Shao, Qing; Cheng, Yiyu

    2010-06-01

    Although some important biomarkers for myocardial injury have been identified, there still lacks a systematic view of the development and progression of myocardial infarction, including enzymatic regulation, metabolite levels, fluxes, etc., which are pivotal to elucidate the physiological mechanism of disease. Here we present an untargeted analytical approach based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to map the temporal metabolic profilings in blood sera of myocardial infarction rat model prepared by left coronary artery ligation. Using XCMS software (http://metlin.scripps.edu/download/), data processing was simplified greatly. We identified the changes in circulating levels of 24 metabolites during the myocardial ischemia. By combination of previous proteomic results, it gives rise to a new insight view of energy metabolism changes referring to anaerobic glycolysis, citric acid cycle, fatty acid beta-oxidation, and some amino acids metabolism. With these altered metabolism pathways as possible drug targets, we validated a role for the presented metabonomic profiling in the systematic understanding of the action mechanism of component-complex medicine herbs, such as Radix Ophiopogonis, a widely-used anti-myocardial ischemia herbal medicine in Asia.

  18. Alteration in metabolic signature and lipid metabolism in patients with angina pectoris and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Yeon; Lee, Sang-Hak; Shin, Min-Jeong; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Lipid metabolites are indispensable regulators of physiological and pathological processes, including atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the complex changes in lipid metabolites and metabolism that occur in patients with these conditions are incompletely understood. We performed lipid profiling to identify alterations in lipid metabolism in patients with angina and myocardial infarction (MI). Global lipid profiling was applied to serum samples from patients with CAD (angina and MI) and age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy subjects using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis. A multivariate analysis showed a clear separation between the patients with CAD and normal controls. Lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (lysoPE) species containing unsaturated fatty acids and free fatty acids were associated with an increased risk of CAD, whereas species of lysoPC and lyso-alkyl PC containing saturated fatty acids were associated with a decreased risk. Additionally, PC species containing palmitic acid, diacylglycerol, sphingomyelin, and ceramide were associated with an increased risk of MI, whereas PE-plasmalogen and phosphatidylinositol species were associated with a decreased risk. In MI patients, we found strong positive correlation between lipid metabolites related to the sphingolipid pathway, sphingomyelin, and ceramide and acute inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein). The results of this study demonstrate altered signatures in lipid metabolism in patients with angina or MI. Lipidomic profiling could provide the information to identity the specific lipid metabolites under the presence of disturbed metabolic pathways in patients with CAD.

  19. Genomic and Metabolic Disposition of Non-Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats to Increased Myocardial Fatty Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Devanathan, Sriram; Nemanich, Samuel T.; Kovacs, Attila; Fettig, Nicole; Gropler, Robert J.; Shoghi, Kooresh I.

    2013-01-01

    Lipotoxicity of the heart has been implicated as a leading cause of morbidity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). While numerous reports have demonstrated increased myocardial fatty acid (FA) utilization in obese T2DM animal models, this diabetic phenotype has yet to be demonstrated in non-obese animal models of T2DM. Therefore, the present study investigates functional, metabolic, and genomic differences in myocardial FA metabolism in non-obese type 2 diabetic rats. The study utilized Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats at the age of 24 weeks. Each rat was imaged with small animal positron emission tomography (PET) to estimate myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial FA metabolism. Echocardiograms (ECHOs) were performed to assess cardiac function. Levels of triglycerides (TG) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were measured in both plasma and cardiac tissues. Finally, expression profiles for 168 genes that have been implicated in diabetes and FA metabolism were measured using quantitative PCR (qPCR) arrays. GK rats exhibited increased NEFA and TG in both plasma and cardiac tissue. Quantitative PET imaging suggests that GK rats have increased FA metabolism. ECHO data indicates that GK rats have a significant increase in left ventricle mass index (LVMI) and decrease in peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E’) compared to Wistar rats, suggesting structural remodeling and impaired diastolic function. Of the 84 genes in each the diabetes and FA metabolism arrays, 17 genes in the diabetes array and 41 genes in the FA metabolism array were significantly up-regulated in GK rats. Our data suggest that GK rats’ exhibit increased genomic disposition to FA and TG metabolism independent of obesity. PMID:24205240

  20. Myocardial metabolism during hypoxia: Maintained lactate oxidation during increased glycolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mazer, C.D.; Stanley, W.C.; Hickey, R.F.; Neese, R.A.; Cason, B.A.; Demas, K.A.; Wisneski, J.A.; Gertz, E.W. )

    1990-09-01

    In the intact animal, myocardial lactate utilization and oxidation during hypoxia are not well understood. Nine dogs were chronically instrumented with flow probes on the left anterior descending coronary artery and with a coronary sinus sampling catheter. ({sup 14}C)lactate and ({sup 13}C)glucose tracers, or ({sup 13}C)lactate and ({sup 14}C)glucose were administered to quantitate lactate and glucose oxidation, lactate conversion to glucose, and simultaneous lactate extraction and release. The animals were anesthetized and exposed to 90 minutes of severe hypoxia (PO2 = 25 +/- 4 torr). Hypoxia resulted in significant increases in heart rate, cardiac output and myocardial blood flow, but no significant change in myocardial oxygen consumption. The arterial/coronary sinus differences for glucose and lactate did not change from normoxia to hypoxia; however, the rate of glucose uptake increased significantly due to the increase in myocardial blood flow. Tracer-measured lactate extraction did not decrease with hypoxia, despite a 250% increase in lactate release. During hypoxia, 90% +/- 4% of the extracted {sup 14}C-lactate was accounted for by the appearance of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in the coronary sinus, compared with 88% +/- 4% during normoxia. Thus, in addition to the expected increase in glucose uptake and lactate production, we observed an increase in lactate oxidation during hypoxia.

  1. Positron emission tomography detects tissue metabolic activity in myocardial segments with persistent thallium perfusion defects

    SciTech Connect

    Brunken, R.; Schwaiger, M.; Grover-McKay, M.; Phelps, M.E.; Tillisch, J.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1987-09-01

    Positron emission tomography with /sup 13/N-ammonia and /sup 18/F-2-deoxyglucose was used to assess myocardial perfusion and glucose utilization in 51 myocardial segments with a stress thallium defect in 12 patients. Myocardial infarction was defined by a concordant reduction in segmental perfusion and glucose utilization, and myocardial ischemia was identified by preservation of glucose utilization in segments with rest hypoperfusion. Of the 51 segments studied, 36 had a fixed thallium defect, 11 had a partially reversible defect and 4 had a completely reversible defect. Only 15 (42%) of the 36 segments with a fixed defect and 4 (36%) of the 11 segments with a partially reversible defect exhibited myocardial infarction on study with positron tomography. In contrast, residual myocardial glucose utilization was identified in the majority of segments with a fixed (58%) or a partially reversible (64%) thallium defect. All of the segments with a completely reversible defect appeared normal on positron tomography. Apparent improvement in the thallium defect on delayed images did not distinguish segments with ischemia from infarction. Thus, positron emission tomography reveals evidence of persistent tissue metabolism in the majority of segments with a fixed or partially resolving stress thallium defect, implying that markers of perfusion alone may underestimate the extent of viable tissue in hypoperfused myocardial segments.

  2. Diabetes, perioperative ischaemia and volatile anaesthetics: consequences of derangements in myocardial substrate metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Volatile anaesthetics exert protective effects on the heart against perioperative ischaemic injury. However, there is growing evidence that these cardioprotective properties are reduced in case of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A strong predictor of postoperative cardiac function is myocardial substrate metabolism. In the type 2 diabetic heart, substrate metabolism is shifted from glucose utilisation to fatty acid oxidation, resulting in metabolic inflexibility and cardiac dysfunction. The ischaemic heart also loses its metabolic flexibility and can switch to glucose or fatty acid oxidation as its preferential state, which may deteriorate cardiac function even further in case of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent experimental studies suggest that the cardioprotective properties of volatile anaesthetics partly rely on changing myocardial substrate metabolism. Interventions that target at restoration of metabolic derangements, like lifestyle and pharmacological interventions, may therefore be an interesting candidate to reduce perioperative complications. This review will focus on the current knowledge regarding myocardial substrate metabolism during volatile anaesthesia in the obese and type 2 diabetic heart during perioperative ischaemia. PMID:23452502

  3. Circadian rhythms in myocardial metabolism and contractile function; influence of workload and oleate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multiple extra-cardiac stimuli, such as workload and circulating nutrients (e.g., fatty acids), known to influence myocardial metabolism and contractile function exhibit marked circadian rhythms. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the rat heart exhibits circadian rhythms in its ...

  4. Impaired contractile recovery after low-flow myocardial ischemia in a porcine model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Janice V; Lu, Li; Ye, Shuyu; Bergman, Bryan C; Sparagna, Genevieve C; Sarraf, Mohammad; Reusch, Jane E B; Greyson, Clifford R; Schwartz, Gregory G

    2013-03-15

    Clinical metabolic syndrome conveys a poor prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome, not fully accounted for by the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. To explain this observation, we determined whether postischemic myocardial contractile and metabolic function are impaired in a porcine dietary model of metabolic syndrome without atherosclerosis. Micropigs (n = 28) were assigned to a control diet (low fat, no added sugars) or an intervention diet (high saturated fat and simple sugars, no added cholesterol) for 7 mo. The intervention diet produced obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance, but not atherosclerosis. Under open-chest, anesthetized conditions, pigs underwent 45 min of low-flow myocardial ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. In both diet groups, contractile function was similar at baseline and declined similarly during ischemia. However, after 120 min of reperfusion, regional work recovered to 21 ± 12% of baseline in metabolic syndrome pigs compared with 61 ± 13% in control pigs (P = 0.01). Ischemia-reperfusion caused a progressive decline in mechanical/metabolic efficiency (regional work/O2 consumption) in metabolic syndrome hearts, but not in control hearts. Metabolic syndrome hearts demonstrated altered fatty acyl composition of cardiolipin and increased Akt phosphorylation in both ischemic and nonischemic regions, suggesting tonic activation. Metabolic syndrome hearts used more fatty acid than control hearts (P = 0.03). When fatty acid availability was restricted by prior insulin exposure, differences between groups in postischemic contractile recovery and mechanical/metabolic efficiency were eliminated. In conclusion, pigs with characteristics of metabolic syndrome demonstrate impaired contractile and metabolic recovery after low-flow myocardial ischemia. Contributory mechanisms may include remodeling of cardiolipin, abnormal activation of Akt, and excessive utilization of fatty acid substrates.

  5. Impaired contractile recovery after low-flow myocardial ischemia in a porcine model of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Janice V.; Lu, Li; Ye, Shuyu; Bergman, Bryan C.; Sparagna, Genevieve C.; Sarraf, Mohammad; Reusch, Jane E. B.; Greyson, Clifford R.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical metabolic syndrome conveys a poor prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome, not fully accounted for by the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. To explain this observation, we determined whether postischemic myocardial contractile and metabolic function are impaired in a porcine dietary model of metabolic syndrome without atherosclerosis. Micropigs (n = 28) were assigned to a control diet (low fat, no added sugars) or an intervention diet (high saturated fat and simple sugars, no added cholesterol) for 7 mo. The intervention diet produced obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance, but not atherosclerosis. Under open-chest, anesthetized conditions, pigs underwent 45 min of low-flow myocardial ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. In both diet groups, contractile function was similar at baseline and declined similarly during ischemia. However, after 120 min of reperfusion, regional work recovered to 21 ± 12% of baseline in metabolic syndrome pigs compared with 61 ± 13% in control pigs (P = 0.01). Ischemia-reperfusion caused a progressive decline in mechanical/metabolic efficiency (regional work/O2 consumption) in metabolic syndrome hearts, but not in control hearts. Metabolic syndrome hearts demonstrated altered fatty acyl composition of cardiolipin and increased Akt phosphorylation in both ischemic and nonischemic regions, suggesting tonic activation. Metabolic syndrome hearts used more fatty acid than control hearts (P = 0.03). When fatty acid availability was restricted by prior insulin exposure, differences between groups in postischemic contractile recovery and mechanical/metabolic efficiency were eliminated. In conclusion, pigs with characteristics of metabolic syndrome demonstrate impaired contractile and metabolic recovery after low-flow myocardial ischemia. Contributory mechanisms may include remodeling of cardiolipin, abnormal activation of Akt, and excessive utilization of fatty acid substrates. PMID:23335793

  6. Myocardial glucose transporters and glycolytic metabolism during ischemia in hyperglycemic diabetic swine.

    PubMed

    Stanley, W C; Hall, J L; Smith, K R; Cartee, G D; Hacker, T A; Wisneski, J A

    1994-01-01

    We assessed the effects of 4 weeks of streptozocin-induced diabetes on regional myocardial glycolytic metabolism during ischemia in anesthetized open-chest domestic swine. Diabetic animals were hyperglycemic (12.0 +/- 2.1 v 6.6 +/- .5 mmol/L), and had lower fasting insulin levels (27 +/- 8 v 79 +/- 19 pmol/L). Myocardial glycolytic metabolism was studied with coronary flow controlled by an extracorporeal perfusion circuit. Left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) flow was decreased by 50% for 45 minutes and left circumflex (CFX) flow was constant. Myocardial glucose uptake and extraction were measured with D-[6-3H]-2-deoxyglucose (DG) and myocardial blood flow was measured with microspheres. The rate of glucose conversion to lactate and lactate uptake and output were assessed with a continuous infusion of [6-14C]glucose and [U-13C]lactate into the coronary perfusion circuit. Both diabetic and nondiabetic animals had sharp decreases in subendocardial blood flow during ischemia (from 1.21 +/- .10 to 0.43 +/- .08 mL.g-1.min-1 in the nondiabetic group, and from 1.30 +/- .15 to 0.55 +/- .11 in the diabetic group). Diabetes had no significant effect on myocardial glucose uptake or glucose conversion to lactate under either well-perfused or ischemic conditions. Forty-five minutes of ischemia resulted in significant glycogen depletion in the subendocardium in both nondiabetic and diabetic animals, with no differences between the two groups. Glycolytic metabolism is not impaired in hyperglycemic diabetic swine after 1 month of the disease when compared with that in normoglycemic nondiabetic animals. The myocardial content of the insulin-regulatable glucose transporter (GLUT 4) was measured in left ventricular biopsies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Direct regulation of myocardial triglyceride metabolism by the cardiomyocyte circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ju-Yun; Kienesberger, Petra C; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Sailors, Mary H; Durgan, David J; Villegas-Montoya, Carolina; Jahoor, Anil; Gonzalez, Raquel; Garvey, Merissa E; Boland, Brandon; Blasier, Zachary; McElfresh, Tracy A; Nannegari, Vijayalakshmi; Chow, Chi-Wing; Heird, William C; Chandler, Margaret P; Dyck, Jason R B; Bray, Molly S; Young, Martin E

    2010-01-29

    Maintenance of circadian alignment between an organism and its environment is essential to ensure metabolic homeostasis. Synchrony is achieved by cell autonomous circadian clocks. Despite a growing appreciation of the integral relation between clocks and metabolism, little is known regarding the direct influence of a peripheral clock on cellular responses to fatty acids. To address this important issue, we utilized a genetic model of disrupted clock function specifically in cardiomyocytes in vivo (termed cardiomyocyte clock mutant (CCM)). CCM mice exhibited altered myocardial response to chronic high fat feeding at the levels of the transcriptome and lipidome as well as metabolic fluxes, providing evidence that the cardiomyocyte clock regulates myocardial triglyceride metabolism. Time-of-day-dependent oscillations in myocardial triglyceride levels, net triglyceride synthesis, and lipolysis were markedly attenuated in CCM hearts. Analysis of key proteins influencing triglyceride turnover suggest that the cardiomyocyte clock inactivates hormone-sensitive lipase during the active/awake phase both at transcriptional and post-translational (via AMP-activated protein kinase) levels. Consistent with increased net triglyceride synthesis during the end of the active/awake phase, high fat feeding at this time resulted in marked cardiac steatosis. These data provide evidence for direct regulation of triglyceride turnover by a peripheral clock and reveal a potential mechanistic explanation for accelerated metabolic pathologies after prevalent circadian misalignment in Western society.

  8. Apelin modulates pathological remodeling of lymphatic endothelium after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Renaud-Gabardos, Edith; Godet, Anne-Claire; Hantelys, Fransky; Pujol, Francoise; Calise, Denis; Viars, Fanny; Valet, Philippe; Masri, Bernard; Prats, Anne-Catherine; Garmy-Susini, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Lymphatic endothelium serves as a barrier to control fluid balance and immune cell trafficking to maintain tissue homeostasis. Long-term alteration of lymphatic vasculature promotes edema and fibrosis, which is an aggravating factor in the onset of cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction. Apelin is a bioactive peptide that plays a central role in angiogenesis and cardiac contractility. Despite an established role of apelin in lymphangiogenesis, little is known about its function in the cardiac lymphatic endothelium. Here, we show that apelin and its receptor APJ were exclusively expressed on newly formed lymphatic vasculature in a pathological model of myocardial infarction. Using an apelin-knockout mouse model, we identified morphological and functional defects in lymphatic vasculature associated with a proinflammatory status. Surprisingly, apelin deficiency increased the expression of lymphangiogenic growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D and exacerbated lymphangiogenesis after myocardial infarction. Conversely, the overexpression of apelin in ischemic heart was sufficient to restore a functional lymphatic vasculature and to reduce matrix remodeling and inflammation. In vitro, the expression of apelin prevented the alteration of cellular junctions in lymphatic endothelial cells induced by hypoxia. In addition, we demonstrated that apelin controls the secretion of the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate in lymphatic endothelial cells by regulating the level of expression of sphingosine kinase 2 and the transporter SPNS2. Taken together, our results show that apelin plays a key role in lymphatic vessel maturation and stability in pathological settings. Thus, apelin may represent a novel candidate to prevent pathological lymphatic remodeling in diseases. PMID:28614788

  9. Apelin modulates pathological remodeling of lymphatic endothelium after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tatin, Florence; Renaud-Gabardos, Edith; Godet, Anne-Claire; Hantelys, Fransky; Pujol, Francoise; Morfoisse, Florent; Calise, Denis; Viars, Fanny; Valet, Philippe; Masri, Bernard; Prats, Anne-Catherine; Garmy-Susini, Barbara

    2017-06-15

    Lymphatic endothelium serves as a barrier to control fluid balance and immune cell trafficking to maintain tissue homeostasis. Long-term alteration of lymphatic vasculature promotes edema and fibrosis, which is an aggravating factor in the onset of cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction. Apelin is a bioactive peptide that plays a central role in angiogenesis and cardiac contractility. Despite an established role of apelin in lymphangiogenesis, little is known about its function in the cardiac lymphatic endothelium. Here, we show that apelin and its receptor APJ were exclusively expressed on newly formed lymphatic vasculature in a pathological model of myocardial infarction. Using an apelin-knockout mouse model, we identified morphological and functional defects in lymphatic vasculature associated with a proinflammatory status. Surprisingly, apelin deficiency increased the expression of lymphangiogenic growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D and exacerbated lymphangiogenesis after myocardial infarction. Conversely, the overexpression of apelin in ischemic heart was sufficient to restore a functional lymphatic vasculature and to reduce matrix remodeling and inflammation. In vitro, the expression of apelin prevented the alteration of cellular junctions in lymphatic endothelial cells induced by hypoxia. In addition, we demonstrated that apelin controls the secretion of the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate in lymphatic endothelial cells by regulating the level of expression of sphingosine kinase 2 and the transporter SPNS2. Taken together, our results show that apelin plays a key role in lymphatic vessel maturation and stability in pathological settings. Thus, apelin may represent a novel candidate to prevent pathological lymphatic remodeling in diseases.

  10. Resveratrol modifies risk factors for coronary artery disease in swine with metabolic syndrome and myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Robich, Michael P; Osipov, Robert M; Chu, Louis M; Han, Yuchi; Feng, Jun; Nezafat, Reza; Clements, Richard T; Manning, Warren J; Sellke, Frank W

    2011-08-16

    Resveratrol has been purported to modify risk factors for obesity and cardiovascular disease. We sought to examine the effects of resveratrol in a porcine model of metabolic syndrome and chronic myocardial ischemia. Yorkshire swine were fed either a normal diet (control), a high cholesterol diet (HCD), or a high cholesterol diet with supplemental resveratrol (HCD-R; 100mg/kg/day) for 11 weeks. After 4 weeks of diet modification a baseline cardiovascular MRI was performed and an ameroid constrictor was placed on the left circumflex coronary artery of each animal to induce chronic myocardial ischemia. At 7 weeks, a second cardiovascular MRI was performed and swine were sacrificed and myocardial tissue harvested. Resveratrol supplementation resulted in lower body mass indices, serum cholesterol, and C-reactive protein levels, improved glucose tolerance and endothelial function, and favorably augmented signaling pathways associated with myocardial metabolism. Interestingly, serum tumor necrosis factor-α levels were not influenced by resveratrol treatment. Immunoblotting for markers of metabolism demonstrated that insulin receptor substrate-1, glucose transporters 1 and 4, and phospho-AMPK were increased in the HCD-R group. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and retinol binding protein 4 were downregulated in the HCD-R group as compared to the HCD group. Myocardial perfusion and function at rest as assessed with magnetic resonance imaging were not different between groups. By favorably influencing risk factors, resveratrol may decrease the burden of chronic metabolic disease and improve cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of fatty acid metabolism in taxan-induced myocardial damage with iodine-123 BMIPP SPECT: comparative study with myocardial perfusion, left ventricular function, and histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kimimasa; Takeda, Kan; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Imai, Hiroshi; Sekine, Takao; Kamikura, Yuko

    2003-09-01

    We investigated myocardial fatty acid metabolism in taxan-induced myocardial damage in patients with advanced lung cancer. Twenty-five patients with non-small-cell lung cancer were treated with taxan combined with carboplatin intravenously for three cycles. Myocardial SPECT imaging using 99mTc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) and 123I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) was performed successively before and after chemotherapy. Regional uptake scores of BMIPP and MIBI were visually assessed and total uptake scores and the number of abnormal segments were calculated. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was obtained by first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography using MIBI. Postmortem pathological examination was performed in 5 patients. Total BMIPP uptake scores after chemotherapy were significantly lower than those before chemotherapy (23.4 +/- 3.4 vs. 26.6 +/- 0.8; p < 0.001). Mean LVEF showed a significant decrease after chemotherapy. Of the 25 patients, 4 exhibited a decrease in LVEF of more than 10%, 1 had a decrease in LVEF to below 50%, and 1 developed congestive heart failure. These 6 patients had significant decreases in total BMIPP uptake scores and increases in the number of abnormal segments as compared with the other 19 patients. Histopathological examination of myocardial tissue showed interstitial edema and disarrayed myocardial cells. Taxan impairs myocardial fatty acid metabolism. 123I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT is useful for evaluating the cardiotoxicity induced by taxan.

  12. JAK-STAT signaling and myocardial glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Frias, Miguel A; Montessuit, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    JAK-STAT signaling occurs in virtually every tissue of the body, and so does glucose metabolism. In this review, we summarize the regulation of glucose metabolism in the myocardium and ponder whether JAK-STAT signaling participates in this regulation. Despite a paucity of data directly pertaining to cardiac myocytes, we conclude that JAK-STAT signaling may contribute to the development of insulin resistance in the myocardium in response to various hormones and cytokines. PMID:24416656

  13. Myocyte repolarization modulates myocardial function in aging dogs.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Andrea; Signore, Sergio; Qanud, Khaled; Borghetti, Giulia; Meo, Marianna; Cannata, Antonio; Zhou, Yu; Wybieralska, Ewa; Luciani, Marco; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Zhang, Eric; Matsuda, Alex; Webster, Andrew; Cimini, Maria; Kertowidjojo, Elizabeth; D'Alessandro, David A; Wunimenghe, Oriyanhan; Michler, Robert E; Royer, Christopher; Goichberg, Polina; Leri, Annarosa; Barrett, Edward G; Anversa, Piero; Hintze, Thomas H; Rota, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Studies of myocardial aging are complex and the mechanisms involved in the deterioration of ventricular performance and decreased functional reserve of the old heart remain to be properly defined. We have studied a colony of beagle dogs from 3 to 14 yr of age kept under a highly regulated environment to define the effects of aging on the myocardium. Ventricular, myocardial, and myocyte function, together with anatomical and structural properties of the organ and cardiomyocytes, were evaluated. Ventricular hypertrophy was not observed with aging and the structural composition of the myocardium was modestly affected. Alterations in the myocyte compartment were identified in aged dogs, and these factors negatively interfere with the contractile reserve typical of the young heart. The duration of the action potential is prolonged in old cardiomyocytes contributing to the slower electrical recovery of the myocardium. Also, the remodeled repolarization of cardiomyocytes with aging provides inotropic support to the senescent muscle but compromises its contractile reserve, rendering the old heart ineffective under conditions of high hemodynamic demand. The defects in the electrical and mechanical properties of cardiomyocytes with aging suggest that this cell population is an important determinant of the cardiac senescent phenotype. Collectively, the delayed electrical repolarization of aging cardiomyocytes may be viewed as a critical variable of the aging myopathy and its propensity to evolve into ventricular decompensation under stressful conditions.

  14. Myocyte repolarization modulates myocardial function in aging dogs

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, Andrea; Signore, Sergio; Borghetti, Giulia; Meo, Marianna; Cannata, Antonio; Zhou, Yu; Wybieralska, Ewa; Luciani, Marco; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Zhang, Eric; Matsuda, Alex; Webster, Andrew; Cimini, Maria; Kertowidjojo, Elizabeth; D'Alessandro, David A.; Wunimenghe, Oriyanhan; Michler, Robert E.; Royer, Christopher; Goichberg, Polina; Leri, Annarosa; Barrett, Edward G.; Anversa, Piero; Hintze, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of myocardial aging are complex and the mechanisms involved in the deterioration of ventricular performance and decreased functional reserve of the old heart remain to be properly defined. We have studied a colony of beagle dogs from 3 to 14 yr of age kept under a highly regulated environment to define the effects of aging on the myocardium. Ventricular, myocardial, and myocyte function, together with anatomical and structural properties of the organ and cardiomyocytes, were evaluated. Ventricular hypertrophy was not observed with aging and the structural composition of the myocardium was modestly affected. Alterations in the myocyte compartment were identified in aged dogs, and these factors negatively interfere with the contractile reserve typical of the young heart. The duration of the action potential is prolonged in old cardiomyocytes contributing to the slower electrical recovery of the myocardium. Also, the remodeled repolarization of cardiomyocytes with aging provides inotropic support to the senescent muscle but compromises its contractile reserve, rendering the old heart ineffective under conditions of high hemodynamic demand. The defects in the electrical and mechanical properties of cardiomyocytes with aging suggest that this cell population is an important determinant of the cardiac senescent phenotype. Collectively, the delayed electrical repolarization of aging cardiomyocytes may be viewed as a critical variable of the aging myopathy and its propensity to evolve into ventricular decompensation under stressful conditions. PMID:26801307

  15. Pilot study of pioglitazone and exercise training effects on basal myocardial substrate metabolism and left ventricular function in HIV-positive individuals with metabolic complications.

    PubMed

    Cade, W Todd; Reeds, Dominic N; Overton, E Turner; Herrero, Pilar; Waggoner, Alan D; Laciny, Erin; Bopp, Coco; Lassa-Claxton, Sherry; Gropler, Robert J; Peterson, Linda R; Yarasheski, Kevin E

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with HIV infection and peripheral metabolic complications have impaired basal myocardial insulin sensitivity that is related to left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. It is unknown whether interventions shown to be effective in improving peripheral insulin sensitivity can improve basal myocardial insulin sensitivity and diastolic function in people with HIV and peripheral metabolic complications. In a pilot study, we evaluated whether the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist pioglitazone or combined endurance and resistance exercise training improves basal myocardial insulin sensitivity and diastolic function in HIV+ adults with peripheral metabolic complications. Twenty-four HIV+ adults with metabolic complications including peripheral insulin resistance were randomly assigned to 4 months of pioglitazone (PIO; 30 mg/d) or supervised, progressive endurance and resistance exercise training (EXS; 90-120 min/d, 3 d/wk). Basal myocardial substrate metabolism was quantified by radioisotope tracer methodology and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, and LV function was measured by echocardiography. Twenty participants completed the study. Neither PIO nor EXS resulted in a detectable improvement in basal myocardial insulin sensitivity or diastolic function. Post hoc analyses revealed sample sizes of more than 100 participants are needed to detect significant effects of these interventions on basal myocardial insulin sensitivity and function. PIO or EXS alone did not significantly increase basal myocardial insulin sensitivity or LV diastolic function in HIV+ individuals with peripheral metabolic complications.

  16. Myocardial citrate metabolism in control subjects and patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T T; Henningsen, P; Bagger, J P; Thomsen, P E; Eyjolfsson, K

    1980-10-01

    A significant release of citrate across the myocardium was demonstrated in twenty-two patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and in ten control subjects in fasting resting state. In both groups, increasingly negative arterio-coronary sinus (A-Cs) plasma citrate differences correlated positively to arterial plasma free fatty acid (FFA)concentrations and negatively to (A-Cs) differences of plasma glucose. This supports the hypothesis that a citrate inhibition of glycolysis at the site of phosphofructokinase is of regulatory importance for myocardial glucose metabolism, and suggests that FFA supress glucose utilization by the heart in many by this mechanism. The capacity of plasma FFA to increase myocardial citrate release was significantly higher in controls than in patients with CAD, and was found to be positively related to myocardial capacity of oxygen consumption as estimated from the product of heart rate and systolic blood pressure during an exercise tolerance test.

  17. Metabolic tissue characterization in patients with acute myocardial infarction with positron tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Schwaiger, M.; Brunken, R.C.; Grover-McKay, M.; Krivokapich, J.; Child, J.S.; Tillisch, J.H.; Marshall, R.C.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1985-05-01

    Identification of myocardium at risk in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is important for patient management. The authors previously demonstrated in animals that reversible tissue injury can be identified with PET and tracers of metabolism. To characterize reginal metabolism in AMI, 12 patients were studied <72 hours after onset of symptoms with positron tomography (PET). Regional wall motion (WM) was assessed by 2D echocardiography at the time of the PET study and again 6 weeks later. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) and exogenous glucose utilization were measured with N-13 ammonia and F-18 deoxyglucose in 5 LV segments in each patient and compared to regional WM. MBF was decreased in 29 LV segments. The irreversible tissue injury can be identified early in patients with AMI. PET frequently reveals persistent glucose utilization in ''infarcted'' myocardium when studied within 72 hours after AMI. Persistent exogenous glucose utilization detected by PET early after AMI can identify viable but jeopardized myocardium and may predict subsequent functional recovery.

  18. A proteomic study of Shengmai injection's mechanism on preventing cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury via energy metabolism modulation.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Shuyu; Fan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Yi; Kang, Liyuan; Li, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Energy metabolism modulation plays an important role in protecting the heart from ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Shengmai injection (SMI) is a Chinese medicine, which is widely used in China to treat ischemic heart diseases with speculated functions of modulating energy metabolism. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective activity of SMI via the modulation of energy metabolism, a proteomic analysis was performed on ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injured hearts of rats in this study. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to measure the protein expression profiles of heart tissues. Differentially expressed proteins among groups were identified using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS). Western blot analysis was used to validate differentially expressed proteins. Proteomic data revealed 14 major differentially expressed proteins that are related to the energy metabolism. It was found that the glucose oxidation, TCA cycle and ATP synthesis related proteins were consistently up-regulated in SMI treated rats, which is beneficial to aerobic respiration and ATP generation. In contrast, two proteins catalyzing fatty acid β-oxidation were down-regulated, implying the inhibition of this pathway to avoid high oxygen consumption. It is thus concluded that one of the major mechanisms of SMI protection against IR injury was modulation of the myocardial energy metabolism to improve cardiac efficiency through multiple metabolic pathways including stimulating glucose metabolism and inhibiting fatty acid metabolism. It provided potential protein targets for the therapeutic strategy through modulation of the myocardial energy metabolism.

  19. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Misako; Indo, Hiroko P; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Fukushige, Tomoko; Majima, Hideyuki J; Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Kanekura, Takuro; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2013-03-22

    Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of key enzymes. This results in enhanced glucose dependency and leads to cell death under low-glucose conditions. On the other hand, the reduced requirements for oxygen and nutrients from the surrounding environment, might confer the resistance to cell death induced by hypoxia and malnutrition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mangiferin protect myocardial insults through modulation of MAPK/TGF-β pathways.

    PubMed

    Suchal, Kapil; Malik, Salma; Gamad, Nanda; Malhotra, Rajiv Kumar; Goyal, Sameer N; Ojha, Shreesh; Kumari, Santosh; Bhatia, Jagriti; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2016-04-05

    Mangiferin, a xanthone glycoside isolated from leaves of Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) is known to modulate many biological targets in inflammation and oxidative stress. The present study was designed to investigate whether mangiferin exerts protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and possible role of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPKs) and Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) pathways in its cardioprotection. Male albino Wistar rats were treated with mangiferin (40 mg/kg, i.p.) for 15 days. At the end of the treatment protocol, rats were subjected to IR injury consisting of 45 min ischemia followed by 1h reperfusion. IR-control rats caused significant cardiac dysfunction, increased serum cardiac injury markers, lipid peroxidation and a significant decrease in tissue antioxidants as compared to sham group. Histopathological examination of IR rats revealed myocardial necrosis, edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells. However, pretreatment with mangiferin significantly restored myocardial oxidant-antioxidant status, maintained membrane integrity, and attenuated the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, pro-apoptotic proteins and TGF-β. Furthermore, mangiferin significantly reduced the phosphorylation of p38, and JNK and enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2. These results suggest that mangiferin protects against myocardial IR injury by modulating MAPK mediated inflammation and apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Myocardial oxidative metabolism and protein synthesis during mechanical circulatory support by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Priddy, Colleen M O'Kelly; Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R; Bouchard, Bertrand; Isern, Nancy; Olson, Aaron K; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A

    2013-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides essential mechanical circulatory support necessary for survival in infants and children with acute cardiac decompensation. However, ECMO also causes metabolic disturbances, which contribute to total body wasting and protein loss. Cardiac stunning can also occur, which prevents ECMO weaning, and contributes to high mortality. The heart may specifically undergo metabolic impairments, which influence functional recovery. We tested the hypothesis that ECMO alters oxidative metabolism and protein synthesis. We focused on the amino acid leucine and integration with myocardial protein synthesis. We used a translational immature swine model in which we assessed in heart 1) the fractional contribution of leucine (FcLeucine) and pyruvate to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA formation by nuclear magnetic resonance and 2) global protein fractional synthesis (FSR) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Immature mixed breed Yorkshire male piglets (n = 22) were divided into four groups based on loading status (8 h of normal circulation or ECMO) and intracoronary infusion [(13)C(6),(15)N]-L-leucine (3.7 mM) alone or with [2-(13)C]-pyruvate (7.4 mM). ECMO decreased pulse pressure and correspondingly lowered myocardial oxygen consumption (∼40%, n = 5), indicating decreased overall mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. However, FcLeucine was maintained and myocardial protein FSR was marginally increased. Pyruvate addition decreased tissue leucine enrichment, FcLeucine, and Fc for endogenous substrates as well as protein FSR. The heart under ECMO shows reduced oxidative metabolism of substrates, including amino acids, while maintaining 1) metabolic flexibility indicated by ability to respond to pyruvate and 2) a normal or increased capacity for global protein synthesis.

  2. Myocardial oxidative metabolic supply-demand relationships in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Marvin W; Cohen, Gerald I; Leonen, Marlo F; Mladsi, Thomas A; Di Carli, Marcelo F

    2006-07-01

    Nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) is associated with left ventricular remodeling, hypertrophy, and mitochondrial metabolic abnormalities in vitro. We evaluated the hypothesis that energy supply, as judged by the rate of myocardial oxidative metabolism, is inadequate to meet oxygen demand in patients with NIDCM compared with normal subjects. We used positron emission tomography to determine the myocardial carbon 11 acetate decay rate (kmono) as an index of energy supply, and we compared kmono with the rate-pressure product (RPP) as an index of metabolic demand in 7 patients with NIDCM and 7 normal subjects. The mean kmono value (SEM) was 0.060 +/- 0.006 min(-1) in NIDCM patients versus 0.054 +/- 0.002 in normal subjects (P = not significant). The RPP was 9949 +/- 931 beats/min.mm Hg in NIDCM patients and 6521 +/- 476 in normal subjects (P = .007). The relationship of kmono to this index of demand (kmono/RPP) was 6.2 x 10(-6) in NIDCM patients but was 8.5 x 10(-6) in normal subjects (P = .003). Thus RPP, as an index of myocardial oxygen demand, was poorly matched by the rate of oxidative metabolism in those patients with NIDCM. The kmono was closely related to RPP in normal subjects (r = 0.83, P = .02) but not in NIDCM patients. Furthermore, there was no significant relationship between kmono and wall stress as another index of oxygen demand. These results are consistent with a mitochondrial metabolic abnormality in heart failure. This metabolic mismatch detected by positron emission tomography may contribute to the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure and left ventricular remodeling.

  3. Flux balance analysis of myocardial mitochondrial metabolic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ruoyu; Liao, Sha; Liu, Bifeng; Liu, Manxi; Zhang, Hongming; Luo, Qingming

    2005-03-01

    A large number of biological information has been available from genome sequencing and bioinformatics. To further understand the qualities of the biological networks (such as metabolic network) in the complex biological system, representations of integrated function in silico have been widely investigated, and various modeling approaches have been designed, most of which are based on detailed kinetic information except flux balance analysis (FBA). FBA, just based on stoichimetrical information of reactions, is a suitable method for the study of metabolic pathways, and it analyzes the behaviors of the network from the viewpoint of the whole system. Herein, this modeling approach has been utilized to reconstruct the mitochondrial metabolic network to integrate and analyze its capability of producing energy. Besides, extreme pathways analysis (EPA) and shadow prices analysis have also been integrated to study the interior characters of the network. Our modeling results have indicated for the first time that the covalent regulative property of pyruvate dehydrogenase is restrained by the feedback of acetyl-CoA. Combined with the biological experiments, these simulations in silico could be pretty useful for the further understanding of functions and characters of the biological network as a complex system.

  4. [Modifications in myocardial energy metabolism in diabetic patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grynberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    The capacity of cardiac myocyte to regulate ATP production to face any change in energy demand is a major determinant of cardiac function. Because FA is the main heart fuel (although the most expensive one in oxygen, and prompt to induce deleterious effects), this process is based on a balanced fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Several pathological situations are associated with an accumulation of FA or derivatives, or with an excessive b-oxidation. The diabetic cardiomyocyte is characterised by an over consumption of FA. The control of the FA/glucose balance clearly appears as a new strategy for cytoprotection, particularly in diabetes and requires a reduced FA contribution to ATP production. Cardiac myocytes can control FA mitochondrial entry, but display weak ability to control FA uptake, thus the fate of non beta-oxidized FA appear as a new impairment for the cell. Both the trigger and the regulation of cardiac contraction result from membrane activity, and the other major FA function in the myocardium is their role in membrane homeostasis, through the phospholipid synthesis and remodeling pathways. Sudden death, hypercatecholaminemia, diabetes and heart failure have been associated with an altered PUFA content in cardiac membranes. Experimental data suggest that the 2 metabolic pathways involved in membrane homeostasis may represent therapeutic targets for cytoprotection. The drugs that increase cardiac phospholipid turnover (trimetazidine, ranolazine,...) display anti-ischemic non hemodynamic effect. This effect is based on a redirection of FA utilization towards phospholipid synthesis, which decrease their availability for energy production. A nutritional approach gave also promising results. Besides its anti-arrhythmic effect, the dietary docosahexaenoic acid is able to reduce FA energy consumption and hence oxygen demand. The cardiac metabolic pathways involving FA should be considered as a whole, precariously balanced. The diabetic heart being characterised by

  5. [Modifications in myocardial energy metabolism in diabetic patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grynberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    The capacity of cardiac myocyte to regulate ATP production to face any change in energy demand is a major determinant of cardiac function. Because FA is the main heart fuel (although the most expensive one in oxygen, and prompt to induce deleterious effects), this process is based on a balanced fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Several pathological situations are associated with an accumulation of FA or derivatives, or with an excessive b-oxidation. The diabetic cardiomyocyte is characterised by an over consumption of FA. The control of the FA/glucose balance clearly appears as a new strategy for cytoprotection, particularly in diabetes and requires a reduced FA contribution to ATP production. Cardiac myocytes can control FA mitochondrial entry, but display weak ability to control FA uptake, thus the fate of non beta-oxidized FA appear as a new impairment for the cell. Both the trigger and the regulation of cardiac contraction result from membrane activity, and the other major FA function in the myocardium is their role in membrane homeostasis, through the phospholipid synthesis and remodeling pathways. Sudden death, hypercatecholaminemia, diabetes and heart failure have been associated with an altered PUFA content in cardiac membranes. Experimental data suggest that the 2 metabolic pathways involved in membrane homeostasis may represent therapeutic targets for cytoprotection. The drugs that increase cardiac phospholipid turnover (trimetazidine, ranolazine,...) display anti-ischemic non hemodynamic effect. This effect is based on a redirection of FA utilization towards phospholipid synthesis, which decrease their availability for energy production. A nutritional approach gave also promising results. Besides its anti-arrhythmic effect, the dietary docosahexaenoic acid is able to reduce FA energy consumption and hence oxygen demand. The cardiac metabolic pathways involving FA should be considered as a whole, precariously balanced. The diabetic heart being characterised by

  6. Myocardial metabolic, hemodynamic, and electrocardiographic significance of reversible thallium-201 abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, R.O. 3d.; Dilsizian, V.; O'Gara, P.T.; Udelson, J.E.; Schenke, W.H.; Quyyumi, A.; Fananapazir, L.; Bonow, R.O. )

    1991-05-01

    Exercise-induced abnormalities during thallium-201 scintigraphy that normalize at rest frequently occur in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, it is not known whether these abnormalities are indicative of myocardial ischemia. Fifty patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy underwent exercise {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy and, during the same week, measurement of myocardial lactate metabolism and hemodynamics during pacing stress. Thirty-seven patients (74%) had one or more {sup 201}Tl abnormalities that completely normalized after 3 hours of rest; 26 had regional myocardial {sup 201}Tl defects, and 26 had apparent left ventricular cavity dilatation with exercise, with 15 having coexistence of these abnormal findings. Of the 37 patients with reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities, 27 (73%) had metabolic evidence of myocardial ischemia during rapid atrial pacing compared with four of 13 patients (31%) with normal {sup 201}Tl scans (p less than 0.01). Eleven patients had apparent cavity dilatation as their only {sup 201}Tl abnormality; their mean postpacing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was significantly higher than that of the 13 patients with normal {sup 201}Tl studies (33 +/- 5 versus 21 +/- 10 mm Hg, p less than 0.001). There was no correlation between the angiographic presence of systolic septal or epicardial coronary arterial compression and the presence or distribution of {sup 201}Tl abnormalities. Patients with ischemic ST segment responses to exercise had an 80% prevalence rate of reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities and a 70% prevalence rate of pacing-induced ischemia. However, 69% of patients with nonischemic ST segment responses had reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities, and 55% had pacing-induced ischemia. Reversible {sup 201}Tl abnormalities during exercise stress are markers of myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and most likely identify relatively underperfused myocardium.

  7. Myocardial VHL-HIF Signaling Controls an Embryonic Metabolic Switch Essential for Cardiac Maturation.

    PubMed

    Menendez-Montes, Ivan; Escobar, Beatriz; Palacios, Beatriz; Gómez, Manuel Jose; Izquierdo-Garcia, Jose Luis; Flores, Lorena; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis Jesus; Aragones, Julian; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesus; Torres, Miguel; Martin-Puig, Silvia

    2016-12-19

    While gene regulatory networks involved in cardiogenesis have been characterized, the role of bioenergetics remains less studied. Here we show that until midgestation, myocardial metabolism is compartmentalized, with a glycolytic signature restricted to compact myocardium contrasting with increased mitochondrial oxidative activity in the trabeculae. HIF1α regulation mirrors this pattern, with expression predominating in compact myocardium and scarce in trabeculae. By midgestation, the compact myocardium downregulates HIF1α and switches toward oxidative metabolism. Deletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Vhl results in HIF1α hyperactivation, blocking the midgestational metabolic shift and impairing cardiac maturation and function. Moreover, the altered glycolytic signature induced by HIF1 trabecular activation precludes regulation of genes essential for establishment of the cardiac conduction system. Our findings reveal VHL-HIF-mediated metabolic compartmentalization in the developing heart and the connection between metabolism and myocardial differentiation. These results highlight the importance of bioenergetics in ventricular myocardium specialization and its potential relevance to congenital heart disease.

  8. Myocardial Oxidative Metabolism and Protein Synthesis during Mechanical Circulatory Support by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Priddy, MD, Colleen M.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena; Bouchard, Bertrand; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support essential for survival in infants and children with acute cardiac decompensation. However, ECMO also causes metabolic disturbances, which contribute to total body wasting and protein loss. Cardiac stunning can also occur which prevents ECMO weaning, and contributes to high mortality. The heart may specifically undergo metabolic impairments, which influence functional recovery. We tested the hypothesis that ECMO alters oxidative. We focused on the amino acid leucine, and integration with myocardial protein synthesis. We used a translational immature swine model in which we assessed in heart (i) the fractional contribution of leucine (FcLeucine) and pyruvate (FCpyruvate) to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA formation by nuclear magnetic resonance and (ii) global protein fractional synthesis (FSR) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Immature mixed breed Yorkshire male piglets (n = 22) were divided into four groups based on loading status (8 hours of normal circulation or ECMO) and intracoronary infusion [13C6,15N]-L-leucine (3.7 mM) alone or with [2-13C]-pyruvate (7.4 mM). ECMO decreased pulse pressure and correspondingly lowered myocardial oxygen consumption (~ 40%, n = 5), indicating decreased overall mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. However, FcLeucine was maintained and myocardial protein FSR was marginally increased. Pyruvate addition decreased tissue leucine enrichment, FcLeucine, and Fc for endogenous substrates as well as protein FSR. Conclusion: The heart under ECMO shows reduced oxidative metabolism of substrates, including amino acids, while maintaining (i) metabolic flexibility indicated by ability to respond to pyruvate, and (ii) a normal or increased capacity for global protein synthesis, suggesting an improved protein balance.

  9. Assessment of myocardial oxidative metabolic reserve with positron emission tomography and carbon-11 acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Henes, C.G.; Bergmann, S.R.; Walsh, M.N.; Sobel, B.E.; Geltman, E.M. )

    1989-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that positron emission tomography (PET) with ({sup 11}C)acetate allows noninvasive regional quantification of myocardial oxidative metabolism. To assess the metabolic response of normal myocardium to increased work (oxidative metabolic reserve), clearance of myocardial {sup 11}C activity after administration of ({sup 11}C)acetate i.v. was measured with PET in seven normal subjects at rest and during dobutamine infusion. At rest, clearance of {sup 11}C was monoexponential and homogeneous. The rate constant of the first phase of {sup 11}C clearance, k1, averaged 0.054 {plus minus} 0.014 min-1 at a rate-pressure produce (RPP) of 7329 {plus minus} 1445 mmHg X bpm. During dobutamine infusion, RPP increased by an average of 141% to 17,493 {plus minus} 3582 mm Hg Z bpm. Clearance of 11C became biexponential and remained homogeneous. k1 averaged 0.198 {plus minus} 0.043 min-1 with a mean coefficient of variation of 16%.. k1 and RPP correlated closely (r = 0.91; p less than 0.001), and the slope of the k1/RPP relation remained consistent in all subjects (1.48 {plus minus} 0.42). These findings suggest that PET with ({sup 11}C)acetate and dobutamine stress may provide a promising approach for evaluation of regional myocardial oxidative metabolic reserve in patients with cardiac diseases of diverse etiologies and for assessment of the efficacy of interventions designed to enhance the recovery of metabolically comprised myocardium.

  10. Disruption of the circadian clock within the cardiomyocyte influences myocardial contractile function, metabolism, and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bray, Molly S; Shaw, Chad A; Moore, Michael W S; Garcia, Rodrigo A P; Zanquetta, Melissa M; Durgan, David J; Jeong, William J; Tsai, Ju-Yun; Bugger, Heiko; Zhang, Dongfang; Rohrwasser, Andreas; Rennison, Julie H; Dyck, Jason R B; Litwin, Sheldon E; Hardin, Paul E; Chow, Chi-Wing; Chandler, Margaret P; Abel, E Dale; Young, Martin E

    2008-02-01

    Virtually every mammalian cell, including cardiomyocytes, possesses an intrinsic circadian clock. The role of this transcriptionally based molecular mechanism in cardiovascular biology is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the circadian clock within the cardiomyocyte influences diurnal variations in myocardial biology. We, therefore, generated a cardiomyocyte-specific circadian clock mutant (CCM) mouse to test this hypothesis. At 12 wk of age, CCM mice exhibit normal myocardial contractile function in vivo, as assessed by echocardiography. Radiotelemetry studies reveal attenuation of heart rate diurnal variations and bradycardia in CCM mice (in the absence of conduction system abnormalities). Reduced heart rate persisted in CCM hearts perfused ex vivo in the working mode, highlighting the intrinsic nature of this phenotype. Wild-type, but not CCM, hearts exhibited a marked diurnal variation in responsiveness to an elevation in workload (80 mmHg plus 1 microM epinephrine) ex vivo, with a greater increase in cardiac power and efficiency during the dark (active) phase vs. the light (inactive) phase. Moreover, myocardial oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation rates were increased, whereas cardiac efficiency was decreased, in CCM hearts. These observations were associated with no alterations in mitochondrial content or structure and modest mitochondrial dysfunction in CCM hearts. Gene expression microarray analysis identified 548 and 176 genes in atria and ventricles, respectively, whose normal diurnal expression patterns were altered in CCM mice. These studies suggest that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock influences myocardial contractile function, metabolism, and gene expression.

  11. Use of the metabolic tracer carbon-11-acetate for evaluation of regional myocardial perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.Y.; Brunken, R.C.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R. )

    1991-04-01

    The high first-pass myocardial extraction fraction of carbon-11-acetate suggests that its initial uptake depends on blood flow. Accordingly, regional uptake of {sup 11}C-acetate at 4 min was compared to regional perfusion determined with nitrogen-13-ammonia in 119 segments in 15 patients with stable coronary artery disease by two methods. A close correlation was observed between initial relative myocardial concentrations (segmental activity normalized to maximal activity) of both tracers (11C-acetate = 0.88; 13N-ammonia + 0.079; s.e.e. = 0.064, r = 0.94, p less than 0.001). Furthermore, segmental net extractions (E.F), as calculated from the input function and segmental activities, of the two tracers correlated closely by E.FC-11 = 0.55E.FN-13 + 0.080 (s.e.e. = 0.045, r = 0.87, p less than 0.001). These relationships indicate that initial regional myocardial uptake of {sup 11}C-acetate reflects perfusion and that {sup 11}C-acetate permits near simultaneous evaluation of regional oxidative metabolism and of regional myocardial perfusion.

  12. [Effects of atorvastatin and CoQ(10) on myocardial energy metabolism in rabbits with hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Qu, Run-bo; Lu, Yu-sa; Gong, Fei-yu

    2012-07-10

    To explore the interventional effects of atorvastatin and CoQ(10) on myocardial energy metabolism in rabbits with hypercholesterolemia. Forty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups: i.e. normal control, high cholesterol, statin, coenzyme Q(10) 1 and coenzyme Q(10) 2. After feeding for 6 weeks, the fasting blood samples were collected through ear marginal vein and the serum level of total cholesterol was determined. Myocardium was sampled for ultrastructures by electron microscopy; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure myocardial mitochondria adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and coenzyme CoQ(10). Ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to measure the activities of mitochondrial complexes II and IV. In high cholesterol group, myocardial fibers were arrayed disorderly with partial rupture and dissolution. There was mitochondrial swelling with disorderly and fuzzy cristae. As compared with the controls, the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes II and IV declined (5.39 ± 0.53 vs 12.95 ± 0.99, 1.89 ± 0.26 vs 6.65 ± 0.95, P < 0.01), the contents of mitochondrial ATP and CoQ(10) decreased (0.17 ± 0.05 vs 0.44 ± 0.06, 0.09 ± 0.02 vs 0.25 ± 0.04, P < 0.01); for statin group versus high cholesterol group, the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes II and IV increased (9.12 ± 1.19 vs 5.39 ± 0.53, 4.61 ± 0.52 vs 1.89 ± 0.26, P < 0.01); the content differences of mitochondrial ATP and CoQ(10) were statistically insignificant. For CoQ(10) 1 group versus statin group, the differences of respiratory chain complexes II and IV were statistically insignificant; the contents of mitochondria ATP and CoQ(10) increased (0.35 ± 0.03 vs 0.16 ± 0.04, 0.17 ± 0.02 vs 0.07 ± 0.02, P < 0.01). For coenzyme Q(10) 2 group versus coenzyme Q(10) 1 group, none of the indices was statistically significant. High cholesterol can cause myocardial ultrastructural changes and impaired mitochondrial energy

  13. In vivo effects of myocardial creatine depletion on left ventricular function, morphology, and energy metabolism--consequences in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Lorentzon, Malin; Råmunddal, Truls; Bollano, Entela; Soussi, Bassam; Waagstein, Finn; Omerovic, Elmir

    2007-04-01

    The failing heart is characterized by disturbed myocardial energy metabolism and creatine (Cr) depletion. The aims of this study were to in vivo evaluate the effects of Cr depletion on: a) left ventricular (LV) function and morphology during rest and stress, b) LV energy metabolism, c) catecholamine in LV and plasma content, and d) incidence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias (MVA) during acute myocardial infarction (MI). Male rats weighing approximately 200 g were used. Two groups were studied: the rats treated with Cr analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (BGP) (n = 25) and controls (n = 23). BGP (1 M) was administered by subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps over 4 weeks. The rats (BGP n = 9, control n = 12) were than examined with transthoracic echocardiography at basal and at stress conditions induced by transesophageal pacing. In vivo (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used for evaluation of myocardial energy status (BGP n = 7, control n = 12). (31)P MRS, echocardiography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of myocardial Cr, total adenine nucleotides and catecholamines in myocardium and plasma were performed on noninfarcted hearts. Myocardial infarction was induced in a subgroup of animals (BGP n = 15, control n = 15) by ligation of the left coronary artery resulting in a large ( approximately 50%) anterolateral MI and acute HF. A computerized electrocardiogram tracing was obtained continuously before induction of MI and up to 60 minutes postinfarction. Qualitative and quantitative variables of ventricular arrhythmias were analyzed using arrhythmia score. Body weight (BW) was lower (P < .01), whereas LV/BW was higher (P < .01) in the BGP group. Total myocardial Cr pool was decreased for at least 50% (P < .01) compared with the controls. There was no difference in total nucleotide pool. Phosphocreatine/adenosine-3-phosphate ratio was lower in the BGP group (P < .01). LV systolic function was disturbed during rest and stress

  14. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Haraguchi, Misako; Indo, Hiroko P.; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Fukushige, Tomoko; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Kanekura, Takuro; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ► MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ► TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of

  15. Doxorubicin toxicity changes myocardial energy metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rong; Wang, Hui-Lin; Yu, Hai-Lun; Cui, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Meng-Ting; Xu, Xu; Gao, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-25

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an antitumor antibiotics used against malignancies. But its toxicity limits the therapy of DOX. The purpose of this study was to evaluate DOX toxicity and the alteration of energy metabolism after short term and long term treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Short term control group, short term DOX treatment group, long term control group and long term DOX treatment group. In short term treated group, rats were injected with DOX i.p. at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg every 48 h for six equal injections. In long term, treated group, rats were tail-intravenously injected with DOX at a dose of 3 mg/kg once a week for four weeks. At the end of the experiment, histopathological changes, general blood biomarkers, endogenous antioxidant enzymes, cardiac energy metabolism and related mRNA expression of AMPK signal pathway were determined. DOX induced prominent oxidative stress, a higher mortality rate, histological and ECG changes, obvious cardiac hypertrophy, acute cardiac damage and cardiac energy impairment in short term treatment rats. In long term treatment rats, DOX caused serious nephropathy and systolic dysfunction, terrible cardiac energy impairment, clear alteration of substrate utilization and AMPK signal pathway. DOX treatment can induce different damages after short term and long term treatment. In short term treatment group, rats experienced a terrible mortality rate about 40%, the acute cardiac damage, cardiac energy impairment and an early heart failure which are potential connected with reduction of glucose utilization. In the long term treatment group, serious nephropathy and obvious changes of mRNA expressions of AMPK signal pathway were observed. Meanwhile, the serious cardiac energy impairment and substrate utilization alteration denote an obviously heart failure. This study could be helpful to develop therapy strategies of DOX complications for clinical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland

  16. [Influence of microtubule depolymerization of myocardial cells on mitochondria distribution and energy metabolism in adult rats].

    PubMed

    Dang, Yong-ming; Fang, Ya-dong; Hu, Jiong-yu; Zhang, Jia-ping; Song, Hua-pei; Zhang, Yi-ming; Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Yue-sheng

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the influence of microtubule depolymerization of myocardial cells on distribution and activity of mitochondria, and energy metabolism of cells in adult rats. Myocardial cells of SD adult rats and SD suckling rats were isolated and cultured. They were divided into adult and suckling rats control groups (AC and SC, normally cultured without any stimulating factor), adult and suckling rats microtubule depolymerization agent groups (AMDA and SMDA, cultured with 8 micromol/L colchicine containing nutrient solution for 30 minutes) according to the random number table. (1) The expression of polymerized beta tubulin in myocardial cells of adult and suckling rats was detected with Western blot. (2) Myocardial cells of rats in AC and AMDA groups were collected. The expression of cytochrome c was detected with Western blot. Distribution of voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) and polymerized beta tubulin in myocardial cells were observed with immunofluorescent staining. Mitochondrial inner membrane potential was determined with immunocytochemical method. Activity of myocardial cells was detected with MTT method. Contents of ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and energy charge of cells were determined with high performance liquid chromatography. (1) The expression of polymerized beta tubulin:in AMDA group it was 0.52 + or - 0.07, which was obviously lower than that (1.25 + or - 0.12) in AC group (F = 31.002, P = 0.000); in SMDA group it was 0.76 + or - 0.12, which was significantly lower than that (1.11 + or - 0.24) in SC group (F = 31.002, P = 0.000), but was obviously higher than that in AMDA group (F = 31.002, P = 0.009). (2) The expression of cytochrome c in AC group was 0.26 + or - 0.03, which was obviously lower than that (1.55 + or - 0.13) in AMDA group (t = -24.056, P = 0.000). (3) Immunofluorescent staining result: in AC group, microtubules of myocardial cells were in linear tubiform, distributed in parallel with

  17. Fractal regional myocardial blood flows pattern according to metabolism, not vascular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yipintsoi, Tada; Kroll, Keith; Bassingthwaighte, James B

    2016-02-01

    Regional myocardial blood flows are markedly heterogeneous. Fractal analysis shows strong near-neighbor correlation. In experiments to distinguish control by vascular anatomy vs. local vasomotion, coronary flows were increased in open-chest dogs by stimulating myocardial metabolism (catecholamines + atropine) with and without adenosine. During control states mean left ventricular (LV) myocardial blood flows (microspheres) were 0.5-1 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) and increased to 2-3 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) with catecholamine infusion and to ∼4 ml·g(-1)·min(-1) with adenosine (Ado). Flow heterogeneity was similar in all states: relative dispersion (RD = SD/mean) was ∼25%, using LV pieces 0.1-0.2% of total. During catecholamine infusion local flows increased in proportion to the mean flows in 45% of the LV, "tracking" closely (increased proportionately to mean flow), while ∼40% trended toward the mean. Near-neighbor regional flows remained strongly spatially correlated, with fractal dimension D near 1.2 (Hurst coefficient 0.8). The spatial patterns remain similar at varied levels of metabolic stimulation inferring metabolic dominance. In contrast, adenosine vasodilation increased flows eightfold times control while destroying correlation with the control state. The Ado-induced spatial patterns differed from control but were self-consistent, inferring that with full vasodilation the relaxed arterial anatomy dominates the distribution. We conclude that vascular anatomy governs flow distributions during adenosine vasodilation but that metabolic vasoregulation dominates in normal physiological states.

  18. [Markers for early detection of alterations in carbohydrate metabolism after acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    de Gea-García, J H; Benali, L; Galcerá-Tomás, J; Padilla-Serrano, A; Andreu-Soler, E; Melgarejo-Moreno, A; Alonso-Fernández, N

    2014-03-01

    Undiagnosed abnormal glucose metabolism is often seen in patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction, although there is no consensus on which patients should be studied with a view to establishing an early diagnosis. The present study examines the potential of certain variables obtained upon admission to diagnose abnormal glucose metabolism. A prospective cohort study was carried out. The Intensive Care Unit of Arrixaca University Hospital (Murcia), Spain. A total of 138 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with acute myocardial infarction and without known or de novo diabetes mellitus. After one year, oral glucose tolerance testing was performed. Clinical and laboratory test parameters were recorded upon admission and one year after discharge. Additionally, after one year, oral glucose tolerance tests were made, and a study was made of the capacity of the variables obtained at admission to diagnose diabetes, based on the ROC curves and multivariate analysis. Of the 138 patients, 112 (72.5%) had glucose metabolic alteration, including 16.7% with diabetes. HbA1c was independently associated with a diagnosis of diabetes (RR: 7.28, 95%CI 1.65 to 32.05, P = .009), and showed the largest area under the ROC curve for diabetes (0.81, 95%CI 0.69 to 0.92, P = .001). In patients with acute myocardial infarction, HbA1c helps identify those individuals with abnormal glucose metabolism after one year. Thus, its determination in this group of patients could be used to identify those subjects requiring a more exhaustive study in order to establish an early diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of unsaturated fatty acids on myocardial performance, metabolism and morphology.

    PubMed

    Pinotti, M F; Silva, M D P; Sugizaki, M M; Diniz, Y S; Sant'Ana, L S; Aragon, F F; Padovani, C R; Novelli, E L B; Cicogna, A C

    2006-02-01

    Diets rich in saturated fatty acids are one of the most important causes of atherosclerosis in men, and have been replaced with diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) for the prevention of this disorder. However, the effect of UFA on myocardial performance, metabolism and morphology has not been completely characterized. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of a UFA-rich diet on cardiac muscle function, oxidative stress, and morphology. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats were fed a control (N = 8) or a UFA-rich diet (N = 8) for 60 days. Myocardial performance was studied in isolated papillary muscle by isometric and isotonic contractions under basal conditions after calcium chloride (5.2 mM) and ss-adrenergic stimulation with 1.0 microM isoproterenol. Fragments of the left ventricle free wall were used to study oxidative stress and were analyzed by light microscopy, and the myocardial ultrastructure was examined in left ventricle papillary muscle. After 60 days the UFA-rich diet did not change myocardial function. However, it caused high lipid hydroperoxide (176 +/- 5 vs 158 +/- 5, P < 0.0005) and low catalase (7 +/- 1 vs 9 +/- 1, P < 0.005) and superoxide-dismutase (18 +/- 2 vs 27 +/- 5, P < 0.005) levels, and discrete morphological changes in UFA-rich diet hearts such as lipid deposits and mitochondrial membrane alterations compared to control rats. These data show that a UFA-rich diet caused myocardial oxidative stress and mild structural alterations, but did not change mechanical function.

  20. CD36 Protein Influences Myocardial Ca2+ Homeostasis and Phospholipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Pietka, Terri A.; Sulkin, Matthew S.; Kuda, Ondrej; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Dequan; Yamada, Kathryn A.; Yang, Kui; Su, Xiong; Gross, Richard W.; Nerbonne, Jeanne M.; Efimov, Igor R.; Abumrad, Nada A.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcolemmal CD36 facilitates myocardial fatty acid (FA) uptake, which is markedly reduced in CD36-deficient rodents and humans. CD36 also mediates signal transduction events involving a number of cellular pathways. In taste cells and macrophages, CD36 signaling was recently shown to regulate store-responsive Ca2+ flux and activation of Ca2+-dependent phospholipases A2 that cycle polyunsaturated FA into phospholipids. It is unknown whether CD36 deficiency influences myocardial Ca2+ handling and phospholipid metabolism, which could compromise the heart, typically during stresses. Myocardial function was examined in fed or fasted (18–22 h) CD36−/− and WT mice. Echocardiography and telemetry identified conduction anomalies that were associated with the incidence of sudden death in fasted CD36−/− mice. No anomalies or death occurred in WT mice during fasting. Optical imaging of perfused hearts from fasted CD36−/− mice documented prolongation of Ca2+ transients. Consistent with this, knockdown of CD36 in cardiomyocytes delayed clearance of cytosolic Ca2+. Hearts of CD36−/− mice (fed or fasted) had 3-fold higher SERCA2a and 40% lower phospholamban levels. Phospholamban phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) was enhanced after fasting reflecting increased PKA activity and cAMP levels in CD36−/− hearts. Abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis in the CD36−/− myocardium associated with increased lysophospholipid content and a higher proportion of 22:6 FA in phospholipids suggests altered phospholipase A2 activity and changes in membrane dynamics. The data support the role of CD36 in coordinating Ca2+ homeostasis and lipid metabolism and the importance of this role during myocardial adaptation to fasting. Potential relevance of the findings to CD36-deficient humans would need to be determined. PMID:23019328

  1. Deoxyglucose method for the estimation of local myocardial glucose metabolism with positron computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ratib, O.; Phelps, M.E.; Huang, S.C.; Henze, E.; Selin, C.E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    The deoxyglucose method originally developed for measurements of the local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose has been investigated in terms of its application to studies of the heart with positron computed tomography (PCT) and FDG. Studies were performed in dogs to measure the tissue kinetics of FDG with PCT and by direct arterial-venous sampling. The operational equation developed in our laboratory as an extension of the Sokoloff model was used to analyze the data. The FDG method accurately predicted the true MMRGlc even when the glucose metabolic rate was normal but myocardial blood flow (MBF) was elevated 5 times the control value or when metabolism was reduced to 10% of normal and MBF increased 5 times normal. Improvements in PCT resolution are required to improve the accuracy of the estimates of the rate constants and the MMRGlc.

  2. NAD+ as a signaling molecule modulating metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cantó, Carles; Auwerx, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The ability of NAD+ to act as a metabolic cofactor and as a rate-limiting cosubstrate for many enzymes, particularly the sirtuins, has led to the identification of a pivotal role of NAD+ levels in the control of whole body metabolic homeostasis. Bioavailability and compartmentalization of NAD+ have become highly relevant issues that we need to understand in order to elucidate how NAD+ acts both as a readout of the metabolic milieu and as an effector triggering appropriate cellular adaptations. PMID:22345172

  3. Effects of a N(6)-disubstituted adenosine derivative on myocardial metabolism and ischemic stress following coronary occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kahles, H; Junggeburth, J; Lick, T; Schäfer, W; Kochsiek, K

    1987-10-01

    The effect of N(6)-phenyl-N(6)-allyladenosine (PAA, BM 11.189) on myocardial ischemic stress was evaluated in six open-chest mongrel dogs during repeated coronary occlusions of 3 min. Whereas there was not significant change in hemodynamic parameters before and during coronary occlusions after treatment, PAA reduced significantly epicardial ST-segment elevations (-34%) during ischemia and myocardial release of lactate (-43%), phosphate (-44%), and potassium (-48%) in the early reperfusion period. PAA lowered significantly arterial non esterified fatty acids and converted oxidative myocardial metabolism from lipid to predominantly carbohydrate utilization, reflected by a shift of cardiac respiratory quotient from 0.81 to 1.01. The beneficial effects of PAA on myocardial ischemic injury could be explained by an improved economy of oxidative myocardial energy supply in the jeopardized border zone of the ischemic myocardium.

  4. Effect of histamine antagonists on myocardial carcinine metabolism during compound 48/80-induced shock.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J C; Fisher, H; Flancbaum, L

    1990-10-01

    Carcinine (beta-alanylhistamine) is an imidazole dipeptide that exists in mammalian hearts, increases cardiac contractility, and is metabolically linked to carnosine (beta-alanylhistidine), a non-mast cell histidine and histamine precursor during stress. We have previously shown that tissue carnosine levels are regulated by H1 and H2 receptors. This study evaluated the effects of H1, H2, and mast cell degranulation blockers on metabolism of carcinine and related imidazoles during shock induced by compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulator. Fifty 125-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into nine ip treatment groups: saline, 48/80, lodoxamide (LOD, mast cell degranulation inhibitor), diphenhydramine (DPH, H1 antagonist), cimetidine (CIM, H2 antagonist), LOD + 48/80, CIM + 48/80, DPH + 48/80, or DPH + CIM + 48/80. Heart tissue was analyzed at 30 min by HPLC. 48/80 caused decreases in myocardial carnosine (P less than 0.01) and histidine (P less than 0.0001) levels and concomitant increases in carcinine (P less than 0.01), histamine (P less than 0.01), and 3-methylhistamine (P less than 0.05) compared to those of controls. These changes were inhibited by LOD or DPH. Treatment with CIM significantly increased myocardial carcinine levels compared to 48/80 alone (P less than 0.001) without an additional effect on the other compounds. These data indicate that carcinine is involved in the cardiac response to stress via the carnosine-histidine-histamine pathway. Compound 48/80-induced shock increases histamine metabolism via this pathway resulting in mobilization of myocardial carnosine and histidine to carcinine and histamine; this effect is increased by H2 receptor blockade.

  5. Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Modulators and Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min-Chul; Lee, Kyoung; Paik, Sang-Gi; Yoon, Do-Young

    2008-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose regulation/insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Several molecular drug targets with potential to prevent or treat metabolic disorders have been revealed. Interestingly, the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has many beneficial clinical effects. PPAR directly modulates gene expression by binding to a specific ligand. All PPAR subtypes (α, γ, and σ) are involved in glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy balance. PPAR agonists play an important role in therapeutic aspects of metabolic disorders. However, undesired effects of the existing PPAR agonists have been reported. A great deal of recent research has focused on the discovery of new PPAR modulators with more beneficial effects and more safety without producing undesired side effects. Herein, we briefly review the roles of PPAR in metabolic disorders, the effects of PPAR modulators in metabolic disorders, and the technologies with which to discover new PPAR modulators. PMID:18566691

  6. Multi-equilibrium property of metabolic networks: SSI module

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Revealing the multi-equilibrium property of a metabolic network is a fundamental and important topic in systems biology. Due to the complexity of the metabolic network, it is generally a difficult task to study the problem as a whole from both analytical and numerical viewpoint. On the other hand, the structure-oriented modularization idea is a good choice to overcome such a difficulty, i.e. decomposing the network into several basic building blocks and then studying the whole network through investigating the dynamical characteristics of the basic building blocks and their interactions. Single substrate and single product with inhibition (SSI) metabolic module is one type of the basic building blocks of metabolic networks, and its multi-equilibrium property has important influence on that of the whole metabolic networks. Results In this paper, we describe what the SSI metabolic module is, characterize the rates of the metabolic reactions by Hill kinetics and give a unified model for SSI modules by using a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with multi-variables. Specifically, a sufficient and necessary condition is first given to describe the injectivity of a class of nonlinear systems, and then, the sufficient condition is used to study the multi-equilibrium property of SSI modules. As a main theoretical result, for the SSI modules in which each reaction has no more than one inhibitor, a sufficient condition is derived to rule out multiple equilibria, i.e. the Jacobian matrix of its rate function is nonsingular everywhere. Conclusions In summary, we describe SSI modules and give a general modeling framework based on Hill kinetics, and provide a sufficient condition for ruling out multiple equilibria of a key type of SSI module. PMID:21689474

  7. Multi-equilibrium property of metabolic networks: SSI module.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Ji-Feng; Chen, Luonan

    2011-06-20

    Revealing the multi-equilibrium property of a metabolic network is a fundamental and important topic in systems biology. Due to the complexity of the metabolic network, it is generally a difficult task to study the problem as a whole from both analytical and numerical viewpoint. On the other hand, the structure-oriented modularization idea is a good choice to overcome such a difficulty, i.e. decomposing the network into several basic building blocks and then studying the whole network through investigating the dynamical characteristics of the basic building blocks and their interactions. Single substrate and single product with inhibition (SSI) metabolic module is one type of the basic building blocks of metabolic networks, and its multi-equilibrium property has important influence on that of the whole metabolic networks. In this paper, we describe what the SSI metabolic module is, characterize the rates of the metabolic reactions by Hill kinetics and give a unified model for SSI modules by using a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with multi-variables. Specifically, a sufficient and necessary condition is first given to describe the injectivity of a class of nonlinear systems, and then, the sufficient condition is used to study the multi-equilibrium property of SSI modules. As a main theoretical result, for the SSI modules in which each reaction has no more than one inhibitor, a sufficient condition is derived to rule out multiple equilibria, i.e. the Jacobian matrix of its rate function is nonsingular everywhere. In summary, we describe SSI modules and give a general modeling framework based on Hill kinetics, and provide a sufficient condition for ruling out multiple equilibria of a key type of SSI module.

  8. Changes in metabolic modules under environmental variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaas, Eivind

    2006-03-01

    During the last few years, network approaches have shown great promise as a tool to both analyze and provide understanding of complex systems as disparate as the world-wide web and cellular metabolism. Much effort has been focused on characterizing topological properties of such systems. However, in order to develop detailed descriptions of complex networks, we need to look beyond their topology and incorporate dynamical aspects. The cellular metabolism, where nodes correspond to metabolites and links indicate chemical reactions, is an excellent model system where theoretical predictions can be compared with experimental results. I will present recent insights into the principles governing the modular utilization of the cellular metabolism [1,2,3]. We find that, while most metabolic reactions have small fluxes, the metabolism's activity is dominated by an interconnected sub-network of reactions with very high fluxes [1]. For the bacteria H. pylori and E. coli and the yeast S. cerevisiae, the metabolism responds to changes in growth conditions by reorganizing the rates of select reactions predominantly within this high-flux backbone. Furthermore, these networks are organized around the metabolic core -- a set of reactions that are always in use [2]. Strikingly, the activity of the metabolic core reactions is highly synchronized, and the core reactions are significantly more essential and evolutionary conserved than the non-core ones. [1] E. Almaas, B. Kovacs, T. Vicsek, Z.N. Oltvai and A.-L. Barabasi. Nature 427, 839 (2004). [2] E. Almaas, Z.N. Oltvai and A.-L. Barabasi. PLoS Comput. Biol. In press (2005). 10.1371/journal.pcbi.0010068.eor [3] P.J. Macdonald, E. Almaas and A.-L. Barabasi. Europhys. Lett. 72, 308 (2005).

  9. Novel role of aminopeptidase-A in angiotensin-(1–7) metabolism post myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Alghamri, Mahmoud S.; Meszaros, J. Gary; Elased, Khalid M.; Grobe, Nadja

    2014-01-01

    Aminopeptidase-A (APA) is a less well-studied enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system. We propose that it is involved in cardiac angiotensin (ANG) metabolism and its pathologies. ANG-(1–7) can ameliorate remodeling after myocardial injury. The aims of this study are to 1) develop mass spectrometric (MS) approaches for the assessment of ANG processing by APA within the myocardium; and 2) investigate the role of APA in cardiac ANG-(1–7) metabolism after myocardial infarction (MI) using sensitive MS techniques. MI was induced in C57Bl/6 male mice by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Frozen mouse heart sections (in situ assay) or myocardial homogenates (in vitro assay) were incubated with the endogenous APA substrate, ANG II. Results showed concentration- and time-dependent cardiac formation of ANG III from ANG II, which was inhibited by the specific APA inhibitor, 4-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid. Myocardial APA activity was significantly increased 24 h after LAD ligation (0.82 ± 0.02 vs. 0.32 ± 0.02 ρmol·min−1·μg−1, MI vs. sham, P < 0.01). Both MS enzyme assays identified the presence of a new peptide, ANG-(2–7), m/z 784, which accumulated in the MI (146.45 ± 6.4 vs. 72.96 ± 7.0%, MI vs. sham, P < 0.05). Use of recombinant APA enzyme revealed that APA is responsible for ANG-(2–7) formation from ANG-(1–7). APA exhibited similar substrate affinity for ANG-(1–7) compared with ANG II {Km (ANG II) = 14.67 ± 1.6 vs. Km [ANG-(1–7)] = 6.07 ± 1.12 μmol/l, P < 0.05}. Results demonstrate a novel role of APA in ANG-(1–7) metabolism and suggest that the upregulation of APA, which occurs after MI, may deprive the heart of cardioprotective ANG-(1–7). Thus APA may serve as a potentially novel therapeutic target for management of tissue remodeling after MI. PMID:24464749

  10. Chronic unpredictable mild stress affects myocardial metabolic profiling of SD rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-yuan; Liu, Shao; Li, Huan-de; Cai, Hua-lin

    2012-11-01

    Depression is frequently comorbid with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but a full understanding of the mechanisms is still on its way. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model is a commonly used model to mimic clinical depression, here we present a GC/MS-based metabolic profiling approach to investigate myocardial metabolic changes of CUMS SD rats. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) were utilized to reveal differences between the model and control group. This study found that molecules proved cardioprotective involving glutamine (P=0.019) and inosine (P=0.013), fatty acid (9,12-octadecadienoic acid, P=0.002; hexadecanoic acid, P=0.006; octadecanoic acid, P=0.030) which serve as the major energy source of heart and collagen molecule precursor proline (P=0.036) had down-regulated in CUMS model group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A possible relationship between gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism in rabbits during myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Raquel R DE; Vale, Daniela F; Silva, Renato M DA; Muniz, Yolanda P; Antunes, Fernanda; Logullo, Carlos; Oliveira, André L A; Almeida, Adriana J DE

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia is responsible for many metabolic abnormalities in the heart, causing changes in organ function. One of modifications occurring in the ischemic cell is changing from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. This change causes the predominance of the use of carbohydrates as an energy substrate instead of lipids. In this case, the glycogen is essential to the maintenance of heart energy intake, being an important reserve to resist the stress caused by hypoxia, using glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation. In order to study the glucose anaerobic pathways utilization and understand the metabolic adaptations, New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to ischemia caused by Inflow occlusion technique. The animals were monitored during surgery by pH and lactate levels. Transcription analysis of the pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase enzymes were performed by qRT-PCR, and glycogen quantification was determined enzymatically. Pyruvate kinase transcription increased during ischemia, followed by glycogen consumption content. The gluconeogenesis increased in control and ischemia moments, suggesting a relationship between gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism. This result shows the significant contribution of these substrates in the organ energy supply and demonstrates the capacity of the heart to adapt the metabolism after this injury, sustaining the homeostasis during short-term myocardial ischemia.

  12. Regulation of myocardial ketone body metabolism by the gut microbiota during nutrient deprivation.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Peter A; Crowley, Jan R; Sambandam, Nandakumar; Muegge, Brian D; Costello, Elizabeth K; Hamady, Micah; Knight, Rob; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2009-07-07

    Studies in mice indicate that the gut microbiota promotes energy harvest and storage from components of the diet when these components are plentiful. Here we examine how the microbiota shapes host metabolic and physiologic adaptations to periods of nutrient deprivation. Germ-free (GF) mice and mice who had received a gut microbiota transplant from conventionally raised donors were compared in the fed and fasted states by using functional genomic, biochemical, and physiologic assays. A 24-h fast produces a marked change in gut microbial ecology. Short-chain fatty acids generated from microbial fermentation of available glycans are maintained at higher levels compared with GF controls. During fasting, a microbiota-dependent, Ppar alpha-regulated increase in hepatic ketogenesis occurs, and myocardial metabolism is directed to ketone body utilization. Analyses of heart rate, hydraulic work, and output, mitochondrial morphology, number, and respiration, plus ketone body, fatty acid, and glucose oxidation in isolated perfused working hearts from GF and colonized animals (combined with in vivo assessments of myocardial physiology) revealed that the fasted GF heart is able to sustain its performance by increasing glucose utilization, but heart weight, measured echocardiographically or as wet mass and normalized to tibial length or lean body weight, is significantly reduced in both fasted and fed mice. This myocardial-mass phenotype is completely reversed in GF mice by consumption of a ketogenic diet. Together, these results illustrate benefits provided by the gut microbiota during periods of nutrient deprivation, and emphasize the importance of further exploring the relationship between gut microbes and cardiovascular health.

  13. Quercetin modulates keratoconus metabolism in vitro

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Tina B; Sarker-Nag, Akhee; Lyon, Desiree’; Asara, John M; Karamichos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Corneal scarring is the result of a disease, infection or injury. The resulting scars cause significant loss of vision or even blindness. To-date, the most successful treatment is corneal transplantation, but it does not come without side effects. One of the corneal dystrophies that are correlated with corneal scarring is keratoconus (KC). The onset of the disease is still unknown; however, altered cellular metabolism has been linked to promoting the fibrotic phenotype and therefore scarring. We have previously shown that human keratoconus cells (HKCs) have altered metabolic activity when compared to normal human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs). In our current study, we present evidence that quercetin, a natural flavonoid, is a strong candidate for regulating metabolic activity of both HCFs and HKCs in vitro and therefore a potential therapeutic to target the altered cellular metabolism characteristic of HKCs. Targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was performed on HCFs and HKCs with and without quercetin treatment in order to identify variations in metabolite flux. Overall, our study reveals a novel therapeutic target OF Quercetin on corneal stromal cell metabolism in both healthy and diseased states. Clearly, further studies are necessary in order to dissect the mechanism of action of quercetin. PMID:26173740

  14. Evidence for Intramyocardial Disruption of Lipid Metabolism and Increased Myocardial Ketone Utilization in Advanced Human Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Kenneth C.; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Brandimarto, Jeffrey; Aziz, Moez; Mesaros, Clementina; Worth, Andrew J.; Wang, Linda L.; Javaheri, Ali; Blair, Ian A.; Margulies, Kenneth; Rame, J. Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background The failing human heart is characterized by metabolic abnormalities, but these defects remains incompletely understood. In animal models of HF there is a switch from a predominance of fatty acid utilization to the more oxygen-sparing carbohydrate metabolism. Recent studies have reported decreases in myocardial lipid content, but inclusion of diabetics and nondiabetics obscures the distinction of adapations to metabolic derangements from adaptations to heart failure per se. Methods and Results We performed both unbiased and targeted myocardial lipid surveys using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy in non-diabetic, lean, predominantly non-ischemic advanced HF patients at the time of heart transplantation or LVAD implantation. We identified significantly decreased concentrations of the majority of myocardial lipid intermediates, including long-chain acylcarnitines, the primary subset of energetic lipid substrate for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We report for the first time significantly reduced levels of intermediate and anaplerotic acyl-CoA species incorporated into Krebs cycle, while the myocardial concentration of acetyl-CoA was significantly increased in end-stage heart failure. In contrast, we observed an increased abundance of ketogenic β-hydroxybutyryl CoA, in association with increased myocardial utilization of β-hydroxybutyrate. We observed a significant increase in the expression of the gene encoding succinyl-CoA: 3oxoacid-CoA transferase (SCOT), the rate limiting enzyme for myocardial oxidation of βOHB and acetoacetate. Conclusions These findings indicate increased ketone utilization in the severely failing human heart independent of diabetes, support the role of ketone bodies as an alternative fuel and myocardial ketone oxidation as a key metabolic adaptation in the failing human heart. PMID:26819374

  15. Evidence for Intramyocardial Disruption of Lipid Metabolism and Increased Myocardial Ketone Utilization in Advanced Human Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Kenneth C; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Brandimarto, Jeffrey; Aziz, Moez; Mesaros, Clementina; Worth, Andrew J; Wang, Linda L; Javaheri, Ali; Blair, Ian A; Margulies, Kenneth B; Rame, J Eduardo

    2016-02-23

    The failing human heart is characterized by metabolic abnormalities, but these defects remains incompletely understood. In animal models of heart failure there is a switch from a predominance of fatty acid utilization to the more oxygen-sparing carbohydrate metabolism. Recent studies have reported decreases in myocardial lipid content, but the inclusion of diabetic and nondiabetic patients obscures the distinction of adaptations to metabolic derangements from adaptations to heart failure per se. We performed both unbiased and targeted myocardial lipid surveys using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy in nondiabetic, lean, predominantly nonischemic, advanced heart failure patients at the time of heart transplantation or left ventricular assist device implantation. We identified significantly decreased concentrations of the majority of myocardial lipid intermediates, including long-chain acylcarnitines, the primary subset of energetic lipid substrate for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We report for the first time significantly reduced levels of intermediate and anaplerotic acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) species incorporated into the Krebs cycle, whereas the myocardial concentration of acetyl-CoA was significantly increased in end-stage heart failure. In contrast, we observed an increased abundance of ketogenic β-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, in association with increased myocardial utilization of β-hydroxybutyrate. We observed a significant increase in the expression of the gene encoding succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid-CoA transferase, the rate-limiting enzyme for myocardial oxidation of β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. These findings indicate increased ketone utilization in the severely failing human heart independent of diabetes mellitus, and they support the role of ketone bodies as an alternative fuel and myocardial ketone oxidation as a key metabolic adaptation in the failing human heart. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Gastrointestinal inflammation: lessons from metabolic modulators.

    PubMed

    Arulampalam, V

    2008-06-01

    The link between inflammation and metabolism was apparent already early last century, but has recently been revitalized following molecular studies of atherosclerosis, obesity and insulin resistance. A growing list of nuclear receptors, pivotal players in lipid, xenobiotic and energy metabolism has been identified as having immunomodulatory functions. These receptors might hold the key to some of the questions pertinent to chronic inflammation, and can lend themselves to be manipulated as therapeutic agents. This review will attempt to appraise the importance of such mediators in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammation in the colon.

  17. Metformin improves cardiac function in mice with heart failure after myocardial infarction by regulating mitochondrial energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Yang, Fei

    2017-04-29

    To investigate whether metformin can improve the cardiac function through improving the mitochondrial function in model of heart failure after myocardial infarction. Male C57/BL6 mice aged about 8 weeks were selected and the anterior descending branch was ligatured to establish the heart failure model after myocardial infarction. The cardiac function was evaluated via ultrasound after 3 days to determine the modeling was successful, and the mice were randomly divided into two groups. Saline group (Saline) received the intragastric administration of normal saline for 4 weeks, and metformin group (Met) received the intragastric administration of metformin for 4 weeks. At the same time, Shame group (Sham) was set up. Changes in cardiac function in mice were detected at 4 weeks after operation. Hearts were taken from mice after 4 weeks, and cell apoptosis in myocardial tissue was detected using TUNEL method; fresh mitochondria were taken and changes in oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and respiratory control rate (RCR) of mitochondria in each group were detected using bio-energy metabolism tester, and change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of myocardial tissue was detected via JC-1 staining; the expressions and changes in Bcl-2, Bax, Sirt3, PGC-1α and acetylated PGC-1α in myocardial tissue were detected by Western blot. RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA levels in Sirt3 in myocardial tissues. Metformin improved the systolic function of heart failure model rats after myocardial infarction and reduced the apoptosis of myocardial cells after myocardial infarction. Myocardial mitochondrial respiratory function and membrane potential were decreased after myocardial infarction, and metformin treatment significantly improved the mitochondrial respiratory function and mitochondrial membrane potential; Metformin up-regulated the expression of Sirt3 and the activity of PGC-1α in myocardial tissue of heart failure after myocardial infarction. Metformin decreases the

  18. The effects of chronic FAAH inhibition on myocardial lipid metabolism in normotensive and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Polak, Agnieszka; Harasim-Symbor, Ewa; Malinowska, Barbara; Kasacka, Irena; Pędzińska-Betiuk, Anna; Weresa, Jolanta; Chabowski, Adrian

    2017-08-15

    There is significant evidence that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) takes part in the regulation of the cardiovascular system in hypertension. It is quite well established that hypertension causes several changes in the heart metabolism, but it is still unknown whether the ECS affects this process. Therefore, we investigated the influence of prolonged ECS activation on myocardial lipid metabolism in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats by chronic fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition. We examined the uptake and oxidation of palmitic acid during the heart perfusion as well as intramyocardial and plasma lipid contents using gas liquid chromatography. Total, plasmalemmal and intracellular expressions of selected proteins were estimated by the Western blot technique. Moreover, the left ventricle's morphology, including myocardial vessels density, was measured using immunohistochemistry. We demonstrated that hypertension induced cardiomyocytes and myocardial blood vessels hypertrophy, followed by a reduction in myocardial palmitate oxidation. Interestingly, prolonged activation of the ECS in the normotensive rats induced cardiomyocyte enlargement and intensified fatty acids metabolism. We have also shown that FAAH inhibition improved morphology of coronary blood vessels and only partially maintained its effect on lipid metabolism in the DOCA-salt hearts (i.e. elevated plasma and intramyocardial TAG contents as well as plasmalemmal FAT/CD36 and total FATP1 expressions). This study revealed that chronic FAAH inhibition has no protective effects on the heart lipid metabolism in hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Myocardial contractile and metabolic properties of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by cardiac troponin I gene mutations: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo; Wang, Longhui; Liu, Qian; Luo, Qingming

    2012-01-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is an inherited disease that is caused by sarcomeric protein gene mutations. The mechanism by which these mutant proteins cause disease is uncertain. Experimentally, cardiac troponin I (CTnI) gene mutations mainly alter myocardial performance via increases in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of cardiac contractility. In this study, we used an integrated simulation that links electrophysiology, contractile activity and energy metabolism of the myocardium to investigate alterations in myocardial contractile function and energy metabolism regulation as a result of increased Ca(2+) sensitivity in CTnI mutations. Simulation results reproduced the following typical features of FHC: (1) slower relaxation (diastolic dysfunction) caused by prolonged [Ca(2+)](i) and force transients; (2) higher energy consumption with the increase in Ca(2+) sensitivity; and (3) reduced fatty acid oxidation and enhanced glucose utilization in hypertrophied heart metabolism. Furthermore, the simulation indicated that in conditions of high energy consumption (that is, more than an 18.3% increase in total energy consumption), the myocardial energetic metabolic network switched from a net consumer to a net producer of lactate, resulting in a low coupling of glucose oxidation to glycolysis, which is a common feature of hypertrophied hearts. This study provides a novel systematic myocardial contractile and metabolic analysis to help elucidate the pathogenesis of FHC and suggests that the alterations in resting heart energy supply and demand could contribute to disease progression.

  20. Changes in myocardial substrate and energy metabolism by S-(4)-hydroxyphenylglycine and an N-(6)-derivative of adenosine.

    PubMed

    Kahles, H; Schäfer, W; Lick, T; Junggeburth, J; Kochsiek, K

    1986-01-01

    In 15 mongrel open chest dogs oxidative myocardial carbohydrate utilization was stimulated by activation of pyruvatedehydrogenase with S-(4)-hydroxyphenylglycine (HPG) or by inhibition of lipolysis with N(6)-allyl-N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine (PAA). HPG and PAA shifted cardiac respiratory quotients (RQ) from 0.83 to 0.89 and 0.99, respectively. Oxygen extraction ratio of lactate was significantly increased by both interventions. Arterial nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration decreased significantly only by PAA. The oxygen saving potency of both interventions was quantified over a wide hemodynamic range by comparing the directly measured myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) with the myocardial energy requirements calculated from its hemodynamic determinants according to the Bretschneider formula during base conditions and beta-stimulation. Inhibition of peripheral lipolysis with PAA reduced MVO2 by 14%, enzyme activation with HPG by 8%. The results show that the efficiency of the myocardial energy supply can be influenced by manipulation of the oxidative substrate metabolism.

  1. Fenofibrate Therapy Restores Antioxidant Protection and Improves Myocardial Insulin Resistance in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome and Myocardial Ischemia: The Role of Angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Lara, Luz; Sánchez-Aguilar, María; Sánchez-Mendoza, Alicia; Del Valle-Mondragón, Leonardo; Soria-Castro, Elizabeth; Carreón-Torres, Elizabeth; Díaz-Díaz, Eulises; Vázquez-Meza, Héctor; Guarner-Lans, Verónica; Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther

    2016-12-28

    Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation promotes oxidative stress which increases the risk of cardiac dysfunction in metabolic syndrome (MetS) and favors local insulin resistance. Fibrates regulate RAS improving MetS, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effect of fenofibrate treatment on the myocardic signaling pathway of Angiotensin II (Ang II)/Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) and its relationship with oxidative stress and myocardial insulin resistance in MetS rats under heart ischemia. Control and MetS rats were assigned to the following groups: (a) sham; (b) vehicle-treated myocardial infarction (MI) (MI-V); and (c) fenofibrate-treated myocardial infarction (MI-F). Treatment with fenofibrate significantly reduced triglycerides, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), insulin levels and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in MetS animals. MetS and MI increased Ang II concentration and AT1 expression, favored myocardial oxidative stress (high levels of malondialdehyde, overexpression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 4 (NOX4), decreased total antioxidant capacity and diminished expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, SOD2 and catalase) and inhibited expression of the insulin signaling cascade: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PkB, also known as Akt)/Glut-4/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). In conclusion, fenofibrate treatment favors an antioxidant environment as a consequence of a reduction of the Ang II/AT1/NOX4 signaling pathway, reestablishing the cardiac insulin signaling pathway. This might optimize cardiac metabolism and improve the vasodilator function during myocardial ischemia.

  2. Functional modules, structural topology, and optimal activity in metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Resendis-Antonio, Osbaldo; Hernández, Magdalena; Mora, Yolanda; Encarnación, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Modular organization in biological networks has been suggested as a natural mechanism by which a cell coordinates its metabolic strategies for evolving and responding to environmental perturbations. To understand how this occurs, there is a need for developing computational schemes that contribute to integration of genomic-scale information and assist investigators in formulating biological hypotheses in a quantitative and systematic fashion. In this work, we combined metabolome data and constraint-based modeling to elucidate the relationships among structural modules, functional organization, and the optimal metabolic phenotype of Rhizobium etli, a bacterium that fixes nitrogen in symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris. To experimentally characterize the metabolic phenotype of this microorganism, we obtained the metabolic profile of 220 metabolites at two physiological stages: under free-living conditions, and during nitrogen fixation with P. vulgaris. By integrating these data into a constraint-based model, we built a refined computational platform with the capability to survey the metabolic activity underlying nitrogen fixation in R. etli. Topological analysis of the metabolic reconstruction led us to identify modular structures with functional activities. Consistent with modular activity in metabolism, we found that most of the metabolites experimentally detected in each module simultaneously increased their relative abundances during nitrogen fixation. In this work, we explore the relationships among topology, biological function, and optimal activity in the metabolism of R. etli through an integrative analysis based on modeling and metabolome data. Our findings suggest that the metabolic activity during nitrogen fixation is supported by interacting structural modules that correlate with three functional classifications: nucleic acids, peptides, and lipids. More fundamentally, we supply evidence that such modular organization during functional nitrogen fixation is

  3. Cardiomyocyte glucagon receptor signaling modulates outcomes in mice with experimental myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Safina; Ussher, John R.; Baggio, Laurie L.; Kabir, M. Golam; Charron, Maureen J.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Newgard, Christopher B.; Drucker, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Glucagon is a hormone with metabolic actions that maintains normoglycemia during the fasting state. Strategies enabling either inhibition or activation of glucagon receptor (Gcgr) signaling are being explored for the treatment of diabetes or obesity. However, the cardiovascular consequences of manipulating glucagon action are poorly understood. Methods We assessed infarct size and the following outcomes following left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation; cardiac gene and protein expression, acylcarnitine profiles, and cardiomyocyte survival in normoglycemic non-obese wildtype mice, and in newly generated mice with selective inactivation of the cardiomyocyte Gcgr. Complementary experiments analyzed Gcgr signaling and cell survival in cardiomyocyte cultures and cell lines, in the presence or absence of exogenous glucagon. Results Exogenous glucagon administration directly impaired recovery of ventricular pressure in ischemic mouse hearts ex vivo, and increased mortality from myocardial infarction after LAD coronary artery ligation in mice in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner. In contrast, cardiomyocyte-specific reduction of glucagon action in adult GcgrCM−/− mice significantly improved survival, and reduced hypertrophy and infarct size following myocardial infarction. Metabolic profiling of hearts from GcgrCM−/− mice revealed a marked reduction in long chain acylcarnitines in both aerobic and ischemic hearts, and following high fat feeding, consistent with an essential role for Gcgr signaling in the control of cardiac fatty acid utilization. Conclusions Activation or reduction of cardiac Gcgr signaling in the ischemic heart produces substantial cardiac phenotypes, findings with implications for therapeutic strategies designed to augment or inhibit Gcgr signaling for the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:25685700

  4. Intra-thoracic fat volume is associated with myocardial infarction in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Umjeet S; Soliman, Abraam; McKenzie, Charles; Peters, Terry; Stirrat, John; Nevis, Immaculate; Brymer, Matthew; Joy, Tisha; Drangova, Maria; White, James A

    2013-09-10

    Visceral adiposity is increased in those with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and atherosclerotic disease burden. In this study we evaluate for associations between intra-thoracic fat volume (ITFV) and myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with MetS. Ninety-four patients with MetS, MI or both were identified from a cardiovascular CMR clinical registry. MetS was defined in accordance to published guidelines; where-as MI was defined as the presence of subendocardial-based injury on late gadolinium enhancement imaging in a coronary vascular distribution. A healthy control group was also obtained from the same registry. Patients were selected into the following groups: MetS+/MI- (N = 32), MetS-/MI + (N = 30), MetS+/MI + (N = 32), MetS-/MI- (N = 16). ITFV quantification was performed using signal threshold analysis of sequential sagittal CMR datasets (HASTE) and indexed to body mass index. The mean age of the population was 59.8 ± 12.5 years. MetS+ patients (N=64) demonstrated a significantly higher indexed ITFV compared to MetS- patients (p = 0.05). Patients in respective MetS-/MI-, MetS+/MI-, MetS-/MI+, and MetS+/MI + study groups demonstrated a progressive elevation in the indexed ITFV (22.3 ± 10.6, 28.6 ± 12.6, 30.6 ± 12.3, and 35.2 ± 1.4 ml/kg/m(2), (p = 0.002)). Among MetS+ patients those with MI showed a significantly higher indexed ITFV compared to those without MI (p = 0.02). ITFV is elevated in patients with MetS and incrementally elevated among those with evidence of prior ischemic myocardial injury. Accordingly, the quantification of ITFV may be a valuable marker of myocardial infarction risk among patients with MetS and warrants further investigation.

  5. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarct are associated with abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Yangang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test. Gastric retention and intestinal transit were detected using the carbon powder labeling method. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in the hippocampus and ileum. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection determined the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, its precursor tryptophan, and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus, distal ileum, and peripheral blood. All data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance. Three weeks after arterial occlusion, rats in the model group began to exhibit depression-like symptoms. For example, the rate of sucrose consumption was reduced, the total and central distance traveled in the open field test were reduced, and immobility time was increased, while swimming, struggling and latency to immobility were decreased in the forced swim test. Moreover, the gastric retention rate and gastrointestinal transit rate were increased in the model group. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase was increased in the hippocampus and ileum, whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism was decreased, resulting in lower 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the hippocampus and higher levels in the ileum. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarction involve abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, which may explain the somatic, cognitive

  6. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarct are associated with abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaofang; Wang, Yuefen; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Yangang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test. Gastric retention and intestinal transit were detected using the carbon powder labeling method. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in the hippocampus and ileum. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and ultraviolet detection determined the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine, its precursor tryptophan, and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus, distal ileum, and peripheral blood. All data were analyzed using one-way analyses of variance. Three weeks after arterial occlusion, rats in the model group began to exhibit depression-like symptoms. For example, the rate of sucrose consumption was reduced, the total and central distance traveled in the open field test were reduced, and immobility time was increased, while swimming, struggling and latency to immobility were decreased in the forced swim test. Moreover, the gastric retention rate and gastrointestinal transit rate were increased in the model group. Expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase was increased in the hippocampus and ileum, whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism was decreased, resulting in lower 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the hippocampus and higher levels in the ileum. Depressive disorder and gastrointestinal dysfunction after myocardial infarction involve abnormal tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, which may explain the somatic, cognitive

  7. Potassium Uptake Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gries, Casey M.; Sadykov, Marat R.; Bulock, Logan L.; Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Thomas, Vinai C.; Bose, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections, Staphylococcus aureus requires sophisticated mechanisms that function to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to its exposure to changing environmental conditions. The adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis depend largely on membrane activity, including supporting electrochemical gradients and synthesis of ATP. This is largely achieved through potassium (K+) transport, which plays an essential role in maintaining chemiosmotic homeostasis, affects antimicrobial resistance, and contributes to fitness in vivo. Here, we report that S. aureus Ktr-mediated K+ uptake is necessary for maintaining cytoplasmic pH and the establishment of a proton motive force. Metabolite analyses revealed that K+ deficiency affects both metabolic and energy states of S. aureus by impairing oxidative phosphorylation and directing carbon flux toward substrate-level phosphorylation. Taken together, these results underline the importance of K+ uptake in maintaining essential components of S. aureus metabolism. IMPORTANCE Previous studies describing mechanisms for K+ uptake in S. aureus revealed that the Ktr-mediated K+ transport system was required for normal growth under alkaline conditions but not under neutral or acidic conditions. This work focuses on the effect of K+ uptake on S. aureus metabolism, including intracellular pH and carbon flux, and is the first to utilize a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) to measure S. aureus cytoplasmic pH. These studies highlight the role of K+ uptake in supporting proton efflux under alkaline conditions and uncover a critical role for K+ uptake in establishing efficient carbon utilization. PMID:27340697

  8. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle plasticity modulates metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara; Kurdiova, Timea; Gasperikova, Daniela; Klimes, Iwar

    2008-12-01

    Obesity, accumulation of adipose tissue, develops when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Adipose tissue is essential for buffering the differences between energy intake and expenditure by accumulating lipids while skeletal muscle is the energy burning machine. Here we adopted the concept that (i) adipose tissue ability to regulate the storage capacity for lipids as well as (ii) dynamic regulation of muscle and adipose tissue secretory and metabolic activity is important for maintaining the metabolic health. This might be at least in part related to tissue plasticity, a phenomenon enabling dynamic modulation of the tissue phenotype in different physiological and pathophysiological situations. Recent advances in our understanding of the complex endocrine function of adipose tissue in regulating lipid metabolism, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodelling, inflammation and oxidative stress prompted us to review the role of tissue plasticity--dynamic changes in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle metabolic and endocrine phenotype--in determining the difference between metabolic health and disease.

  9. Natural product derivative BIO promotes recovery after myocardial infarction via unique modulation of the cardiac microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Sook; Jeong, Hye-yun; Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Woong-Hee; Cho, Haaglim; Um, JungIn; Seo, Youngha; Kang, Wan Seok; Jin, Suk-Won; Kim, Min Chul; Kim, Yong-Chul; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R.; Ahn, Youngkeun

    2016-01-01

    The cardiac microenvironment includes cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts and macrophages, which regulate remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Targeting this microenvironment is a novel therapeutic approach for MI. We found that the natural compound derivative, BIO ((2′Z,3′E)-6-Bromoindirubin-3′-oxime) modulated the cardiac microenvironment to exert a therapeutic effect on MI. Using a series of co-culture studies, BIO induced proliferation in cardiomyocytes and inhibited proliferation in cardiac fibroblasts. BIO produced multiple anti-fibrotic effects in cardiac fibroblasts. In macrophages, BIO inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory factors. Significantly, BIO modulated the molecular crosstalk between cardiac fibroblasts and differentiating macrophages to induce polarization to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. In the optically transparent zebrafish-based heart failure model, BIO induced cardiomyocyte proliferation and completely recovered survival rate. BIO is a known glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor, but these effects could not be recapitulated using the classical inhibitor, lithium chloride; indicating novel therapeutic effects of BIO. We identified the mechanism of BIO as differential modulation of p27 protein expression and potent induction of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10. In a rat MI model, BIO reduced fibrosis and improved cardiac performance. Histological analysis revealed modulation of the cardiac microenvironment by BIO, with increased presence of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Our results demonstrate that BIO produces unique effects in the cardiac microenvironment to promote recovery post-MI. PMID:27510556

  10. Natural product derivative BIO promotes recovery after myocardial infarction via unique modulation of the cardiac microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Sook; Jeong, Hye-Yun; Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Woong-Hee; Cho, Haaglim; Um, JungIn; Seo, Youngha; Kang, Wan Seok; Jin, Suk-Won; Kim, Min Chul; Kim, Yong-Chul; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R; Ahn, Youngkeun

    2016-08-11

    The cardiac microenvironment includes cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts and macrophages, which regulate remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Targeting this microenvironment is a novel therapeutic approach for MI. We found that the natural compound derivative, BIO ((2'Z,3'E)-6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime) modulated the cardiac microenvironment to exert a therapeutic effect on MI. Using a series of co-culture studies, BIO induced proliferation in cardiomyocytes and inhibited proliferation in cardiac fibroblasts. BIO produced multiple anti-fibrotic effects in cardiac fibroblasts. In macrophages, BIO inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory factors. Significantly, BIO modulated the molecular crosstalk between cardiac fibroblasts and differentiating macrophages to induce polarization to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. In the optically transparent zebrafish-based heart failure model, BIO induced cardiomyocyte proliferation and completely recovered survival rate. BIO is a known glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor, but these effects could not be recapitulated using the classical inhibitor, lithium chloride; indicating novel therapeutic effects of BIO. We identified the mechanism of BIO as differential modulation of p27 protein expression and potent induction of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10. In a rat MI model, BIO reduced fibrosis and improved cardiac performance. Histological analysis revealed modulation of the cardiac microenvironment by BIO, with increased presence of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Our results demonstrate that BIO produces unique effects in the cardiac microenvironment to promote recovery post-MI.

  11. The role and modulation of autophagy in experimental models of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Agrawal, Pratik R.; Saravolatz, Louis; Abuniat, Cadigia; Scarabelli, Gabriele; Stephanou, Anastasis; Loomba, Leena; Narula, Jagat; Scarabelli, Tiziano M.; Knight, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A physiological sequence called autophagy qualitatively determines cellular viability by removing protein aggregates and damaged cytoplasmic constituents, and contributes significantly to the degree of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. This tightly orchestrated catabolic cellular ‘housekeeping’ process provides cells with a new source of energy to adapt to stressful conditions. This process was first described as a pro-survival mechanism, but increasing evidence suggests that it can also lead to the demise of the cell. Autophagy has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple cardiac conditions including myocardial I/R injury. However, a debate persists as to whether autophagy acts as a protective mechanism or contributes to the injurious effects of I/R injury in the heart. This controversy may stem from several factors including the variability in the experimental models and species, and the methodology used to assess autophagy. This review provides updated knowledge on the modulation and role of autophagy in isolated cardiac cells subjected to I/R, and the growing interest towards manipulating autophagy to increase the survival of cardiac myocytes under conditions of stress-most notably being I/R injury. Perturbation of this evolutionarily conserved intracellular cleansing autophagy mechanism, by targeted modulation through, among others, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) modulators, calcium lowering agents, resveratrol, longevinex, sirtuin activators, the proapoptotic gene Bnip3, IP3 and lysosome inhibitors, may confer resistance to heart cells against I/R induced cell death. Thus, therapeutic manipulation of autophagy in the challenged myocardium may benefit post-infarction cardiac healing and remodeling. PMID:25593583

  12. Hierarchical decomposition of metabolic networks using k-modules.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Arne C

    2015-12-01

    The optimal solutions obtained by flux balance analysis (FBA) are typically not unique. Flux modules have recently been shown to be a very useful tool to simplify and decompose the space of FBA-optimal solutions. Since yield-maximization is sometimes not the primary objective encountered in vivo, we are also interested in understanding the space of sub-optimal solutions. Unfortunately, the flux modules are too restrictive and not suited for this task. We present a generalization, called k-module, which compensates the limited applicability of flux modules to the space of sub-optimal solutions. Intuitively, a k-module is a sub-network with low connectivity to the rest of the network. Recursive application of k-modules yields a hierarchical decomposition of the metabolic network, which is also known as branch decomposition in matroid theory. In particular, decompositions computed by existing methods, like the null-space-based approach, introduced by Poolman et al. [(2007) J. Theor. Biol. 249: , 691-705] can be interpreted as branch decompositions. With k-modules we can now compare alternative decompositions of metabolic networks to the classical sub-systems of glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, etc. They can be used to speed up algorithmic problems [theoretically shown for elementary flux modes (EFM) enumeration] and have the potential to present computational solutions in a more intuitive way independently from the classical sub-systems.

  13. Time-resolved metabolomics reveals metabolic modulation in rice foliage

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shigeru; Arita, Masanori; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Nishioka, Takaaki; Tomita, Masaru

    2008-01-01

    Background To elucidate the interaction of dynamics among modules that constitute biological systems, comprehensive datasets obtained from "omics" technologies have been used. In recent plant metabolomics approaches, the reconstruction of metabolic correlation networks has been attempted using statistical techniques. However, the results were unsatisfactory and effective data-mining techniques that apply appropriate comprehensive datasets are needed. Results Using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) and capillary electrophoresis diode-array detection (CE-DAD), we analyzed the dynamic changes in the level of 56 basic metabolites in plant foliage (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) at hourly intervals over a 24-hr period. Unsupervised clustering of comprehensive metabolic profiles using Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) allowed classification of the biochemical pathways activated by the light and dark cycle. The carbon and nitrogen (C/N) metabolism in both periods was also visualized as a phenotypic linkage map that connects network modules on the basis of traditional metabolic pathways rather than pairwise correlations among metabolites. The regulatory networks of C/N assimilation/dissimilation at each time point were consistent with previous works on plant metabolism. In response to environmental stress, glutathione and spermidine fluctuated synchronously with their regulatory targets. Adenine nucleosides and nicotinamide coenzymes were regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. We also demonstrated that SOM analysis was applicable to the estimation of unidentifiable metabolites in metabolome analysis. Hierarchical clustering of a correlation coefficient matrix could help identify the bottleneck enzymes that regulate metabolic networks. Conclusion Our results showed that our SOM analysis with appropriate metabolic time-courses effectively revealed the synchronous dynamics among metabolic modules and elucidated the underlying biochemical

  14. Time-resolved metabolomics reveals metabolic modulation in rice foliage.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shigeru; Arita, Masanori; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Nishioka, Takaaki; Tomita, Masaru

    2008-06-18

    To elucidate the interaction of dynamics among modules that constitute biological systems, comprehensive datasets obtained from "omics" technologies have been used. In recent plant metabolomics approaches, the reconstruction of metabolic correlation networks has been attempted using statistical techniques. However, the results were unsatisfactory and effective data-mining techniques that apply appropriate comprehensive datasets are needed. Using capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) and capillary electrophoresis diode-array detection (CE-DAD), we analyzed the dynamic changes in the level of 56 basic metabolites in plant foliage (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) at hourly intervals over a 24-hr period. Unsupervised clustering of comprehensive metabolic profiles using Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) allowed classification of the biochemical pathways activated by the light and dark cycle. The carbon and nitrogen (C/N) metabolism in both periods was also visualized as a phenotypic linkage map that connects network modules on the basis of traditional metabolic pathways rather than pairwise correlations among metabolites. The regulatory networks of C/N assimilation/dissimilation at each time point were consistent with previous works on plant metabolism. In response to environmental stress, glutathione and spermidine fluctuated synchronously with their regulatory targets. Adenine nucleosides and nicotinamide coenzymes were regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. We also demonstrated that SOM analysis was applicable to the estimation of unidentifiable metabolites in metabolome analysis. Hierarchical clustering of a correlation coefficient matrix could help identify the bottleneck enzymes that regulate metabolic networks. Our results showed that our SOM analysis with appropriate metabolic time-courses effectively revealed the synchronous dynamics among metabolic modules and elucidated the underlying biochemical functions. The application of

  15. Cancer Cell Metabolism and the Modulating Effects of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching-Fang; Diers, Anne R.; Hogg, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Altered metabolic phenotype has been recognized as a hallmark of tumor cells for many years, but this aspect of the cancer phenotype has come into greater focus in recent years. NOS2 (inducible nitric oxide synthase of iNOS) has been implicated as a component in many aggressive tumor phenotypes, including melanoma, glioblastoma and breast cancer. Nitric oxide has been well established as a modulator of cellular bioenergetics pathways, in many ways similar to the alteration of cellular metabolism observed in aggressive tumors. In this review we attempt to bring these concepts together with the general hypothesis that one function of NOS2 and NO in cancer is to modulate metabolic processes to facilitate increased tumor aggression. There are many mechanisms by which NO can modulate tumor metabolism, including direct inhibition of respiration, alterations in mitochondrial mass, oxidative inhibition of bioenergetic enzymes, and the stimulation of secondary signaling pathways. Here we review metabolic alterations in the context of cancer cells and discuss the role of NO as a potential mediator of these changes. PMID:25464273

  16. Combined assessment of myocardial perfusion and regional left ventricular function by analysis of contrast-enhanced power modulation images.

    PubMed

    Mor-Avi, V; Caiani, E G; Collins, K A; Korcarz, C E; Bednarz, J E; Lang, R M

    2001-07-17

    Echocardiographic contrast media have been used to assess myocardial perfusion and to enhance endocardial definition for improved assessment of left ventricular (LV) function. These methodologies, however, have been qualitative or have required extensive offline image analysis. Power modulation is a recently developed imaging technique that provides selective enhancement of microbubble-generated reflections. Our goal was to test the feasibility of using power modulation for combined quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion and regional LV function in an animal model of acute ischemia. Coronary balloon occlusions were performed in 18 anesthetized pigs. Transthoracic power modulation images (Agilent 5500) were obtained during continuous intravenous infusion of the contrast agent Definity (DuPont) at baseline and during brief coronary occlusion and reperfusion and were analyzed with custom software. At each phase, myocardial perfusion was assessed by calculation, in 6 myocardial regions of interest, of mean pixel intensity and the rate of contrast replenishment after high-power ultrasound impulses. LV function was assessed by calculation of regional fractional area change from semiautomatically detected endocardial borders. All ischemic episodes caused detectable and reversible changes in perfusion and function. Perfusion defects, validated with fluorescent microspheres, were visualized in real time and confirmed by a significant decrease in pixel intensity in the left anterior descending coronary artery territory after balloon inflation and reduced rate of contrast replenishment. Fractional area change decreased significantly in ischemic segments and was restored with reperfusion. Power modulation allows simultaneous online assessment of myocardial perfusion and regional LV wall motion, which may improve the echocardiographic diagnosis of myocardial ischemia.

  17. Modulators of nucleoside metabolism in the therapy of brain diseases.

    PubMed

    Boison, Detlev

    2011-01-01

    Nucleoside receptors are known to be important targets for a variety of brain diseases. However, the therapeutic modulation of their endogenous agonists by inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism represents an alternative therapeutic strategy that has gained increasing attention in recent years. Deficiency in endogenous nucleosides, in particular of adenosine, may causally be linked to a variety of neurological diseases and neuropsychiatric conditions ranging from epilepsy and chronic pain to schizophrenia. Consequently, augmentation of nucleoside function by inhibiting their metabolism appears to be a rational therapeutic strategy with distinct advantages: (i) in contrast to specific receptor modulation, the increase (or decrease) of the amount of a nucleoside will affect several signal transduction pathways simultaneously and therefore have the unique potential to modify complex neurochemical networks; (ii) by acting on the network level, inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism are highly suited to fine-tune, restore, or amplify physiological functions of nucleosides; (iii) therefore inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism have promise for the "soft and smart" therapy of neurological diseases with the added advantage of reduced systemic side effects. This review will first highlight the role of nucleoside function and dysfunction in physiological and pathophysiological situations with a particular emphasis on the anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, and antinociceptive roles of adenosine. The second part of this review will cover pharmacological approaches to use inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism, with a special emphasis on adenosine kinase, the key regulator of endogenous adenosine. Finally, novel gene-based therapeutic strategies to inhibit nucleoside metabolism and focal treatment approaches will be discussed.

  18. Modulators of Nucleoside Metabolism in the Therapy of Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Boison, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    Nucleoside receptors are known to be important targets for a variety of brain diseases. However, the therapeutic modulation of their endogenous agonists by inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism represents an alternative therapeutic strategy that has gained increasing attention in recent years. Deficiency in endogenous nucleosides, in particular of adenosine, may causally be linked to a variety of neurological diseases and neuropsychiatric conditions ranging from epilepsy and chronic pain to schizophrenia. Consequently, augmentation of nucleoside function by inhibiting their metabolism appears to be a rational therapeutic strategy with distinct advantages: (i) in contrast to specific receptor modulation, the increase (or decrease) of the amount of a nucleoside will affect several signal transduction pathways simultaneously and therefore have the unique potential to modify complex neurochemical networks; (ii) by acting on the network level, inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism are highly suited to fine-tune, restore, or amplify physiological functions of nucleosides; (iii) therefore inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism have promise for the “soft and smart” therapy of neurological diseases with the added advantage of reduced systemic side effects. This review will first highlight the role of nucleoside function and dysfunction in physiological and pathophysiological situations with a particular emphasis on the anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, and antinociceptive roles of adenosine. The second part of this review will cover pharmacological approaches to use inhibitors of nucleoside metabolism, with a special emphasis on adenosine kinase, the key regulator of endogenous adenosine. Finally, novel gene-based therapeutic strategies to inhibit nucleoside metabolism and focal treatment approaches will be discussed. PMID:21401494

  19. The relationship between biventricular myocardial performance and metabolic parameters during incremental exercise and recovery in healthy adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gowing, Lucy; Forsey, Jonathan; Ramanujam, Paramanantham; Miller, Felicity; Stuart, A Graham; Williams, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Background left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) myocardial reserve during exercise in adolescents has not been directly characterized. The aim of this study was to quantify myocardial performance response to exercise by using two-dimensional (2-D) speckle tracking echocardiography and describe the relationship between myocardial reserve, respiratory, and metabolic exercise parameters. A total of 23 healthy boys and girls (mean age 13.2 ± 2.7 yr; stature 159.1 ± 16.4 cm; body mass 49.5 ± 16.6 kg; BSA 1.47 ± 0.33 m2) completed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (25 W·3 min increments) with simultaneous acquisition of 2-D transthoracic echocardiography at rest, each exercise stage up to 100 W, and in recovery at 2 min and 10 min. Two-dimensional LV (LV Sl) and RV (RV Sl) longitudinal strain and LV circumferential strain (LV Sc) were analyzed to define the relationship between myocardial performance reserve and metabolic exercise parameters. Participants achieved a peak oxygen uptake (V̇o2peak) of 40.6 ± 8.9 ml·kg−1·min−1 and a work rate of 154 ± 42 W. LV Sl and LV Sc and RV Sl increased significantly across work rates (P < 0.05). LV Sl during exercise was significantly correlated to resting strain, V̇o2peak, oxygen pulse, and work rate (0.530 ≤ r ≤ 0.784, P < 0.05). This study identifies a positive and moderate relationship between LV and RV myocardial performance and metabolic parameters during exercise by using a novel methodology. Relationships detected present novel data directly describing myocardial adaptation at different stages of exercise and recovery that in the future can help directly assess cardiac reserve in patients with cardiac pathology. PMID:26475589

  20. The relationship between biventricular myocardial performance and metabolic parameters during incremental exercise and recovery in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pieles, Guido E; Gowing, Lucy; Forsey, Jonathan; Ramanujam, Paramanantham; Miller, Felicity; Stuart, A Graham; Williams, Craig A

    2015-12-15

    Background left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) myocardial reserve during exercise in adolescents has not been directly characterized. The aim of this study was to quantify myocardial performance response to exercise by using two-dimensional (2-D) speckle tracking echocardiography and describe the relationship between myocardial reserve, respiratory, and metabolic exercise parameters. A total of 23 healthy boys and girls (mean age 13.2 ± 2.7 yr; stature 159.1 ± 16.4 cm; body mass 49.5 ± 16.6 kg; BSA 1.47 ± 0.33 m(2)) completed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (25 W · 3 min increments) with simultaneous acquisition of 2-D transthoracic echocardiography at rest, each exercise stage up to 100 W, and in recovery at 2 min and 10 min. Two-dimensional LV (LV Sl) and RV (RV Sl) longitudinal strain and LV circumferential strain (LV Sc) were analyzed to define the relationship between myocardial performance reserve and metabolic exercise parameters. Participants achieved a peak oxygen uptake (V̇o 2peak) of 40.6 ± 8.9 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) and a work rate of 154 ± 42 W. LV Sl and LV Sc and RV Sl increased significantly across work rates (P < 0.05). LV Sl during exercise was significantly correlated to resting strain, V̇o 2peak, oxygen pulse, and work rate (0.530 ≤ r ≤ 0.784, P < 0.05). This study identifies a positive and moderate relationship between LV and RV myocardial performance and metabolic parameters during exercise by using a novel methodology. Relationships detected present novel data directly describing myocardial adaptation at different stages of exercise and recovery that in the future can help directly assess cardiac reserve in patients with cardiac pathology.

  1. SIRTUIN 1 AND SIRTUIN 3: PHYSIOLOGICAL MODULATORS OF METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Nogueiras, Ruben; Habegger, Kirk M.; Chaudhary, Nilika; Finan, Brian; Banks, Alexander S.; Dietrich, Marcelo O.; Horvath, Tamas L.; Sinclair, David A.; Pfluger, Paul T.; Tschöop, Matthias H.

    2013-01-01

    The sirtuins are a family of highly conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylases that act as cellular sensors to detect energy availability and modulate metabolic processes. Two sirtuins that are central to the control of metabolic processes are mammalian sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), which are localized to the nucleus and mitochondria, respectively. Both are activated by high NAD+ levels, a condition caused by low cellular energy status. By deacetylating a variety of proteins that induce catabolic processes while inhibiting anabolic processes, SIRT1 and SIRT3 coordinately increase cellular energy stores and ultimately maintain cellular energy homeostasis. Defects in the pathways controlled by SIRT1 and SIRT3 are known to result in various metabolic disorders. Consequently, activation of sirtuins by genetic or pharmacological means can elicit multiple metabolic benefits that protect mice from diet-induced obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:22811431

  2. Sirtuin 1 and sirtuin 3: physiological modulators of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nogueiras, Ruben; Habegger, Kirk M; Chaudhary, Nilika; Finan, Brian; Banks, Alexander S; Dietrich, Marcelo O; Horvath, Tamas L; Sinclair, David A; Pfluger, Paul T; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2012-07-01

    The sirtuins are a family of highly conserved NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that act as cellular sensors to detect energy availability and modulate metabolic processes. Two sirtuins that are central to the control of metabolic processes are mammalian sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), which are localized to the nucleus and mitochondria, respectively. Both are activated by high NAD(+) levels, a condition caused by low cellular energy status. By deacetylating a variety of proteins that induce catabolic processes while inhibiting anabolic processes, SIRT1 and SIRT3 coordinately increase cellular energy stores and ultimately maintain cellular energy homeostasis. Defects in the pathways controlled by SIRT1 and SIRT3 are known to result in various metabolic disorders. Consequently, activation of sirtuins by genetic or pharmacological means can elicit multiple metabolic benefits that protect mice from diet-induced obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  3. Altered myocardial metabolic adaptation to increased fatty acid availability in cardiomyocyte-specific CLOCK mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo A; Goel, Mehak; Aristorenas, Jonathan A; Shah, Krishna; He, Lan; Yang, Qinglin; Shalev, Anath; Bailey, Shannon M; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Chatham, John C; Gamble, Karen L; Young, Martin E

    2016-10-01

    A mismatch between fatty acid availability and utilization leads to cellular/organ dysfunction during cardiometabolic disease states (e.g., obesity, diabetes mellitus). This can precipitate cardiac dysfunction. The heart adapts to increased fatty acid availability at transcriptional, translational, post-translational and metabolic levels, thereby attenuating cardiomyopathy development. We have previously reported that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock regulates transcriptional responsiveness of the heart to acute increases in fatty acid availability (e.g., short-term fasting). The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the cardiomyocyte circadian clock plays a role in adaptation of the heart to chronic elevations in fatty acid availability. Fatty acid availability was increased in cardiomyocyte-specific CLOCK mutant (CCM) and wild-type (WT) littermate mice for 9weeks in time-of-day-independent (streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes) and dependent (high fat diet meal feeding) manners. Indices of myocardial metabolic adaptation (e.g., substrate reliance perturbations) to STZ-induced diabetes and high fat meal feeding were found to be dependent on genotype. Various transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms were investigated, revealing that Cte1 mRNA induction in the heart during STZ-induced diabetes is attenuated in CCM hearts. At the functional level, time-of-day-dependent high fat meal feeding tended to influence cardiac function to a greater extent in WT versus CCM mice. Collectively, these data suggest that CLOCK (a circadian clock component) is important for metabolic adaption of the heart to prolonged elevations in fatty acid availability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Trenbolone Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Myocardial Tolerance to Ischemia-Reperfusion in Male Rats With Testosterone-Deficient Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Donner, Daniel G; Elliott, Grace E; Beck, Belinda R; Bulmer, Andrew C; Lam, Alfred K; Headrick, John P; Du Toit, Eugene F

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity adds another dimension to the pathophysiology of testosterone (TEST) deficiency (TD) and potentially impairs the therapeutic efficacy of classical TEST replacement therapy. We investigated the therapeutic effects of selective androgen receptor modulation with trenbolone (TREN) in a model of TD with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Male Wistar rats (n=50) were fed either a control standard rat chow (CTRL) or a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet. After 8 weeks of feeding, rats underwent sham surgery or an orchiectomy (ORX). Alzet miniosmotic pumps containing either vehicle, 2-mg/kg·d TEST or 2-mg/kg·d TREN were implanted in HF/HS+ORX rats. Body composition, fat distribution, lipid profile, and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Infarct size was quantified to assess myocardial damage after in vivo ischaemia reperfusion, before cardiac and prostate histology was performed. The HF/HS+ORX animals had increased sc and visceral adiposity; circulating triglycerides, cholesterol, and insulin; and myocardial damage, with low circulating TEST compared with CTRLs. Both TEST and TREN protected HF/HS+ORX animals against sc fat accumulation, hypercholesterolaemia, and myocardial damage. However, only TREN protected against visceral fat accumulation, hypertriglyceridaemia, and hyperinsulinaemia and reduced myocardial damage relative to CTRLs. TEST caused widespread cardiac fibrosis and prostate hyperplasia, which were less pronounced with TREN. We propose that TEST replacement therapy may have contraindications for males with TD and obesity-related MetS. TREN treatment may be more effective in restoring androgen status and reducing cardiovascular risk in males with TD and MetS.

  5. In vivo effects of myocardial creatine depletion on left ventricular function morphology and lipid metabolism: study in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lindbom, Malin; Ramunddal, Truls; Camejo, German; Waagstein, Finn; Omerovic, Elmir

    2008-03-01

    The failing heart is characterized by disturbed myocardial energy metabolism and creatine depletion. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vivo the effects of creatine (Cr) depletion on 1) left ventricular (LV) function, morphology, and lipid metabolism and 2) to test whether functional, morphologic, and metabolic disturbances induced by Cr depletion are reversible. Male Balb/c mice approximately 20 g were used. Two groups were studied: the mice treated with creatine analogue beta-guanidinopropionic acid (BGP) (n = 30) and controls (n = 30). BGP (1 M) were administered by subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps for 4 weeks. The mice were examined in vivo using echocardiography. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for measurements of the myocardial creatine, adenosine nucleotides, and lipids. BGP was discontinued in a subgroup of mice and these animals were followed for an additional 4 weeks, after which echocardiography was performed under resting and stress conditions. Body weight was lower in BGP mice (P < .001) compared with the controls after 4 weeks. The total myocardial Cr pool was approximately 40% lower (P < .001), whereas total nucleotide pool (TAN) was 18% lower (P = n.s.) in the BGP group. LV systolic function was disturbed at rest and stress in the BGP mice (both P < .05). LV dimensions and LV mass were increased in the BGP group (P < .05). There was an accumulation of intracellular triglycerides in the BGP-treated mice (P < .05). Four weeks after BGP discontinuation Cr, TAN and TG content were restored to the normal levels while LV function, dimension, and mass were normalized. Myocardial Cr depletion results in LV dysfunction, pathologic remodeling, and lipid accumulation. These alterations are completely reversible on normalization of Cr content. Cr metabolism may be an important target for pharmacologic intervention to increase myocardial efficiency and structural integrity of the failing heart.

  6. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Modulator Fingolimod (FTY720) Attenuates Myocardial Fibrosis in Post-heterotopic Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Naseer; Linardi, Daniele; Muhammad, Nazeer; Chiamulera, Cristiano; Fumagalli, Guido; Biagio, Livio San; Gebrie, Mebratu A; Aslam, Muhammad; Luciani, Giovanni Battista; Faggian, Giuseppe; Rungatscher, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and S1P receptor modulator fingolimod have been suggested to play important cardioprotective role in animal models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injuries. To understand the cardioprotective function of S1P and its mechanism in vivo, we analyzed apoptotic, inflammatory biomarkers, and myocardial fibrosis in an in vivo heterotopic rat heart transplantation model. Methods: Heterotopic heart transplantation is performed in 60 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (350-400 g). The heart transplant recipients (n = 60) are categorized into Group A (control) and Group B (fingolimod treated 1 mg/kg intravenous). At baseline with 24 h after heart transplantation, blood and myocardial tissue are collected for analysis of myocardial biomarkers, apoptosis, inflammatory markers, oxidative stress, and phosphorylation of Akt/Erk/STAT-3 signaling pathways. Myocardial fibrosis was investigated using Masson's trichrome staining and L-hydroxyline. Results: Fingolimod treatment activates both Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinase (RISK) and Survivor Activating Factor Enhancement (SAFE) pathways as evident from activation of anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory pathways. Fingolimod treatment caused a reduction in myocardial oxidative stress and hence cardiomyocyte apoptosis resulting in a decrease in myocardial reperfusion injury. Moreover, a significant (p < 0.001) reduction in collagen staining and hydroxyproline content was observed in fingolimod treated animals 30 days after transplantation demonstrating a reduction in cardiac fibrosis. Conclusion: S1P receptor activation with fingolimod activates anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory pathways, leading to improved myocardial salvage causing a reduction in cardiac fibrosis.

  7. Impairment of energy metabolism in intact residual myocardium of rat hearts with chronic myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, S; Horn, M; Naumann, A; Tian, R; Hu, K; Laser, M; Friedrich, J; Gaudron, P; Schnackerz, K; Ingwall, J S

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that energy metabolism is impaired in residual intact myocardium of chronically infarcted rat heart, contributing to contractile dysfunction. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in rats by coronary artery ligation. Hearts were isolated 8 wk later and buffer-perfused isovolumically. MI hearts showed reduced left ventricular developed pressure, but oxygen consumption was unchanged. High-energy phosphate contents were measured chemically and by 31P-NMR spectroscopy. In residual intact left ventricular tissue, ATP was unchanged after MI, while creatine phosphate was reduced by 31%. Total creatine kinase (CK) activity was reduced by 17%, the fetal CK isoenzymes BB and MB increased, while the "adult" mitochondrial CK isoenzyme activity decreased by 44%. Total creatine content decreased by 35%. Phosphoryl exchange between ATP and creatine phosphate, measured by 31P-NMR magnetization transfer, fell by 50% in MI hearts. Thus, energy reserve is substantially impaired in residual intact myocardium of chronically infarcted rats. Because phosphoryl exchange was still five times higher than ATP synthesis rates calculated from oxygen consumption, phosphoryl transfer via CK may not limit baseline contractile performance 2 mo after MI. In contrast, when MI hearts were subjected to acute stress (hypoxia), mechanical recovery during reoxygenation was impaired, suggesting that reduced energy reserve contributes to increased susceptibility of MI hearts to acute metabolic stress. PMID:7883957

  8. A Comparative Metabolomics Approach Reveals Early Biomarkers for Metabolic Response to Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Sara E.; Farag, Mohamed A.; Holvoet, Paul; Hanafi, Rasha S.; Gad, Mohamed Z.

    2016-01-01

    Discovery of novel biomarkers is critical for early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Serum metabolite profiling of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), unstable angina (UA) and healthy controls was performed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS), solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). Multivariate data analysis revealed a metabolic signature that could robustly discriminate STEMI patients from both healthy controls and UA patients. This panel of biomarkers consisted of 19 metabolites identified in the serum of STEMI patients. One of the most intriguing biomarkers among these metabolites is hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous gasotransmitter with profound effect on the heart. Serum H2S absolute levels were further investigated using a quantitative double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This highly sensitive immunoassay confirmed the elevation of serum H2S in STEMI patients. H2S level discriminated between UA and STEMI groups, providing an initial insight into serum-free H2S bioavailability during ACS. In conclusion, the current study provides a detailed map illustrating the most predominant altered metabolic pathways and the biochemical linkages among the biomarker metabolites identified in STEMI patients. Metabolomics analysis may yield novel predictive biomarkers that will potentially allow for an earlier medical intervention. PMID:27821850

  9. Chemoprotective activity of boldine: modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kubínová, R; Machala, M; Minksová, K; Neca, J; Suchý, V

    2001-03-01

    Possible chemoprotective effects of the naturally occurring alkaloid boldine, a major alkaloid of boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.) leaves and bark, including in vitro modulations of drug-metabolizing enzymes in mouse hepatoma Hepa-1 cell line and mouse hepatic microsomes, were investigated. Boldine manifested inhibition activity on hepatic microsomal CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and CYP3A-dependent testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase activities and stimulated glutathione S-transferase activity in Hepa-1 cells. In addition to the known antioxidant activity, boldine could decrease the metabolic activation of other xenobiotics including chemical mutagens.

  10. Effects of respiratory alkalosis and acidosis on myocardial blood flow and metabolism in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kazmaier, S; Weyland, A; Buhre, W; Stephan, H; Rieke, H; Filoda, K; Sonntag, H

    1998-10-01

    Variation of the arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) is not uncommon in anesthetic practice. However, little is known about the myocardial consequences of respiratory alkalosis and acidosis, particularly in patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of variation in PaCO2 on myocardial blood flow (MBF), metabolism, and systemic hemodynamics in patients before elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. In 10 male anesthetized patients, measurements of MBF, myocardial contractility, metabolism, and systemic hemodynamics were made in a randomized sequence at PaCO2 levels of 30, 40, and 50 mmHg, respectively. The MBF was measured using the Kety-Schmidt technique with argon as a tracer. End-diastolic left ventricular pressure and the maximal increase of left ventricular pressure were assessed using a manometer-tipped catheter. The cardiac index significantly changed with varying PaCO2 levels (hypocapnia, - 9%; hypercapnia, 13%). This reaction was associated with inverse changes in systemic vascular resistance index levels. The MBF significantly increased by 15% during hypercapnia, whereas no change was found during hypocapnia. Myocardial oxygen and glucose uptake and the maximal increase of left ventricular pressure were not affected by varying PaCO2 levels. In anesthetized patients with coronary artery disease, short-term variations in PaCO2 have significant effects on MBF but do not influence global myocardial oxygen and glucose uptake. Changes in systemic hemodynamics associated with respiratory alkalosis and acidosis are caused by changes in systemic vascular resistance rather than by alterations in myocardial contractility.

  11. Myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari, Mahmood S; Schaffer, Stephen W

    2008-10-01

    Hearts of NaCl-induced hypertensive-glucose intolerant (HGI) rats develop reduced infarcts after ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) than their hypertensive (H) counterparts. Because high intake of saturated fat is a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease, we tested the hypothesis that chronic (18 weeks) consumption of a high saturated fat diet increases susceptibility to IRI, an effect more marked in the HGI rats than in the H rats. The fat-fed H (HFAT) rat displayed significantly higher body weight and plasma leptin content compared to the H, HGI, or fat-fed HGI (HGIFAT) rats which all showed similar values. In contrast, plasma triglyceride concentration was significantly higher in the HGIFAT rat than in the other three groups. Plasma insulin concentration was similar in the two H groups but higher than that of the two HGI groups. Compared to the H rat, the HGI rat was markedly glucose intolerant, with fat feeding causing comparable worsening of glucose intolerance in each group. The HGIFAT rats displayed a reduction in baseline myocardial contractility and relaxation and a higher end-diastolic pressure compared to the other three groups. Infarct size was significantly lower in the HGI rats than in the H rats. Although fat feeding did not affect infarct size of the H rat, it worsened that of the HGIFAT rat thereby abrogating the differential that existed between the H and HGI rats. In conclusion, excess fat feeding impairs myocardial function of HGI rats and increases their susceptibility to IRI. These findings are of relevance to the metabolic syndrome that manifests as a cluster of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and systemic hypertension.

  12. Intra-thoracic fat volume is associated with myocardial infarction in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral adiposity is increased in those with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and atherosclerotic disease burden. In this study we evaluate for associations between intra-thoracic fat volume (ITFV) and myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with MetS. Methods Ninety-four patients with MetS, MI or both were identified from a cardiovascular CMR clinical registry. MetS was defined in accordance to published guidelines; where-as MI was defined as the presence of subendocardial-based injury on late gadolinium enhancement imaging in a coronary vascular distribution. A healthy control group was also obtained from the same registry. Patients were selected into the following groups: MetS+/MI- (N = 32), MetS-/MI + (N = 30), MetS+/MI + (N = 32), MetS-/MI- (N = 16). ITFV quantification was performed using signal threshold analysis of sequential sagittal CMR datasets (HASTE) and indexed to body mass index. Results The mean age of the population was 59.8 ± 12.5 years. MetS+ patients (N=64) demonstrated a significantly higher indexed ITFV compared to MetS- patients (p = 0.05). Patients in respective MetS-/MI-, MetS+/MI-, MetS-/MI+, and MetS+/MI + study groups demonstrated a progressive elevation in the indexed ITFV (22.3 ± 10.6, 28.6 ± 12.6, 30.6 ± 12.3, and 35.2 ± 11.4 ml/kg/m2, (p = 0.002)). Among MetS+ patients those with MI showed a significantly higher indexed ITFV compared to those without MI (p = 0.02). Conclusions ITFV is elevated in patients with MetS and incrementally elevated among those with evidence of prior ischemic myocardial injury. Accordingly, the quantification of ITFV may be a valuable marker of myocardial infarction risk among patients with MetS and warrants further investigation. PMID:24020829

  13. Effect of QiShenYiQi pill on myocardial collagen metabolism in experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shi-Chao; Wu, Meifang; Li, Meng; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Ao; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Jun-Ping

    2017-04-01

    To observe the effect of QiShenYiQi pill (QSYQ) on myocardial collagen metabolism in experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats, and to explore its mechanism of action. Lewis rats underwent the injection of myocardial myosin mixed with freund's complete adjuvant were randomized into three groups: model, valsartan and QSYQ groups. And we treated rats which were injected phosphate buffered saline (PBS) mixed with freund's complete adjuvant as control group. Rats were intervened and euthanized at 4 and 8 weeks. We use alkaline hydrolysis to detect the content of myocardial hydroxyproline (HYP), and ELISA to detect the level of serum procollagen type I carboxyterminal peptide (PICP), procollagen type III amino-terminal peptide (PIIINP), and collagen C telopeptide type I (CTX-I). Myocardial MMP-1 and TIMP-1 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and myocardial MMP-1 and TIMP-1 mRNA expression was detected by real-time qPCR. QSYQ reduced the content of myocardial HYP, and this reduction was greater over time. QSYQ also reduced the serum concentration of PICP, PIIINP, CTX-I and the PICP/PIIINP ratio, which further reduced over time, whereas its effect on lowering PICP was significantly greater than that of valsartan at 4 and 8 weeks, and lowering CTX-I was significantly greater than that of valsartan at 8 weeks. In addition, after 4 weeks, QSYQ enhanced the protein and mRNA expression of MMP-1 and TIMP-1, and its effect on highering TIMP-1 was significantly greater than that of valsartan, whereas there was no significant difference in the expression of myocardial MMP-1 or TIMP-1 at 8 weeks. QSYQ reduced the ratio of MMP-1/TIMP-1, which further reduced over time, and the effect of QYSQ was significantly greater than that of valsartan after 4 weeks. This study provides evidence that QSYQ can reduce the rate of myocardial collagen synthesis and degradation. It also effectively improved the degree of myocardial fibrosis in experimental autoimmune myocarditis

  14. [Effect of rehabilitation after myocardial infarction on muscular metabolism. Contribution of phosphorus 31 NMR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Cottin, Y; Marcer, I; Walker, P; Verges, B; Caillaux, B X; Louis, P; Didier, J P; Casillas, J M; Brunotte, F; Wolf, J E

    1994-06-01

    P 31 NMR spectroscopy is a recent technique which allows a non-invasive and direct analysis of oxidative metabolism and pH changes, an indicator of acidosis due to lactic acid accumulation in the skeletal muscles. The authors investigated oxidative muscular metabolism of the sural triceps in 10 patients after myocardial infarction by performing a study after the acute phase and repeating the study after a programme of physical training. At rest, there were no significant differences. On the other hand, for the same level of maximal effort, the depletion in phosphocreatinine (PCr) and the accumulation of inorganic phosphate (Pi) were significantly lower after physical training: the PCr/PCr + Pi increased from 0.467 +/- 0.179 to 0.538 +/- 0.20 (p < 0.02) and the Pi/PCr ratio decreased from 1.570 +/- 1.440 to 1.181 +/- 1.069 (p < 0.05). The pH at the same level of maximal exercise did not change significantly between the two periods: 6.85 +/- 0.16 vs 6.88 +/- 0.15 (NS). The peak oxygen consumption (VO2) measured during bicycle ergometry increased significantly from 23.4 +/- 10.5 to 28.3 +/- 12.14 ml/min/kg after exercise training (p < 0.01). In addition, a correlation was observed between the improvement of the peripheral parameters (PCr/PCr + Pi) and the increase in VO2 max (r = 0.757, p < 0.01). The authors results confirm the effects of physical training on oxidative metabolisms of the peripheral muscles and its influence on improvement of global performance of coronary patients.

  15. Resveratrol preserves myocardial function and perfusion in remote nonischemic myocardium in a swine model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Robich, Michael P; Chu, Louis M; Burgess, Thomas A; Feng, Jun; Han, Yuchi; Nezafat, Reza; Leber, Michael P; Laham, Roger J; Manning, Warren J; Sellke, Frank W

    2012-11-01

    Resveratrol has been shown to reverse some of the detrimental effects of metabolic syndrome (MetS). We sought to define the impact of supplemental resveratrol on normal myocardium remote from an ischemic territory in a swine model of MetS and chronic myocardial ischemia. Yorkshire swine were fed a normal diet (control), a high cholesterol diet (HCD), or a high cholesterol diet with orally supplemented resveratrol (HCD-R; 100 mg/kg/day). Four weeks after diet modification, myocardial ischemia was induced by ameroid constrictor placement. Seven weeks later, myocardial tissue from a territory remote from the ischemia was harvested. Animals in the HCD and HCD-R groups underwent functional cardiac MRI before ischemia and before sacrifice. Tissue was harvested for protein expression analysis. After 7 weeks of ischemia, regional left ventricular systolic function was significantly increased in HCD-R as compared with HCD animals. During ventricular pacing the HCD group had significantly decreased flow (p = 0.03); perfusion in the HCD-R was preserved as compared with the control. There was no difference in microvascular relaxation. Expression of metabolic proteins Sirt-1 (p = 0.002), AMPkinase (p = 0.02), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (p = 0.002) were upregulated in the HCD-R group. Levels of protein oxidative stress were significantly increased in the HCD and HCD-R groups, as compared with the controls (p = 0.003). Activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was increased in the HCD-R group (p = 0.01). There was no difference in myocardial endothelial cell density between the groups; however, dividing endothelial cells were decreased in the HCD and HCD-R groups (p = 0.006). Resveratrol supplementation improves regional left ventricular function and preserves perfusion to myocardium remote from an area of ischemia in an animal model of metabolic syndrome and chronic myocardial ischemia. Copyright © 2012 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc

  16. Metabolic Inflammation-Differential Modulation by Dietary Constituents.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Claire L; Kennedy, Elaine B; Roche, Helen M

    2016-04-27

    Obesity arises from a sustained positive energy balance which triggers a pro-inflammatory response, a key contributor to metabolic diseases such as T2D. Recent studies, focused on the emerging area of metabolic-inflammation, highlight that specific metabolites can modulate the functional nature and inflammatory phenotype of immune cells. In obesity, expanding adipose tissue attracts immune cells, creating an inflammatory environment within this fatty acid storage organ. Resident immune cells undergo both a pro-inflammatory and metabolic switch in their function. Inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, are induced by saturated fatty acids and disrupt insulin signaling. Conversely, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids do not interrupt metabolism and inflammation to the same extent. AMPK links inflammation, metabolism and T2D, with roles to play in all and is influenced negatively by obesity. Lipid spillover results in hepatic lipotoxicity and steatosis. Also in skeletal muscle, excessive FFA can impede insulin's action and promote inflammation. Ectopic fat can also affect pancreatic β-cell function, thereby contributing to insulin resistance. Therapeutics, lifestyle changes, supplements and dietary manipulation are all possible avenues to combat metabolic inflammation and the subsequent insulin resistant state which will be explored in the current review.

  17. Metabolic Inflammation-Differential Modulation by Dietary Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Claire L.; Kennedy, Elaine B.; Roche, Helen M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity arises from a sustained positive energy balance which triggers a pro-inflammatory response, a key contributor to metabolic diseases such as T2D. Recent studies, focused on the emerging area of metabolic-inflammation, highlight that specific metabolites can modulate the functional nature and inflammatory phenotype of immune cells. In obesity, expanding adipose tissue attracts immune cells, creating an inflammatory environment within this fatty acid storage organ. Resident immune cells undergo both a pro-inflammatory and metabolic switch in their function. Inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, are induced by saturated fatty acids and disrupt insulin signaling. Conversely, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids do not interrupt metabolism and inflammation to the same extent. AMPK links inflammation, metabolism and T2D, with roles to play in all and is influenced negatively by obesity. Lipid spillover results in hepatic lipotoxicity and steatosis. Also in skeletal muscle, excessive FFA can impede insulin’s action and promote inflammation. Ectopic fat can also affect pancreatic β-cell function, thereby contributing to insulin resistance. Therapeutics, lifestyle changes, supplements and dietary manipulation are all possible avenues to combat metabolic inflammation and the subsequent insulin resistant state which will be explored in the current review. PMID:27128935

  18. Nutritional and metabolic modulation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease management.

    PubMed

    Schols, A M W J

    2003-11-01

    In this paper the perspective for nutritional modulation of systemic impairment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is discussed. Progressive weight loss is characterised by disease-specific elevated energy requirements unbalanced by dietary intake. Weight gain per se can be achieved by caloric supplementation while future studies may prove efficacy of amino acid modulation to stimulate protein synthesis and enhance muscle anabolism. Disproportionate muscle wasting resembles the cachexia syndrome as described in other chronic wasting diseases (cancer, chronic heart failure, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)). There is yet no adequate nutritional strategy available to treat cachexia in COPD. Muscle substrate metabolism has hardly been investigated, but the few data available point towards a decreased fat oxidative capacity that may show similarities with the "metabolic syndrome" as described in type II diabetes and obesity and could theoretically benefit from polyunsaturated fatty acid modulation. To adequately target the different therapeutic options, clearly more clinical (intervention) studies are needed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients that are adequately characterised by local and systemic impairment and in which molecular and metabolic markers are linked to functional outcome.

  19. Dectin-2 Deficiency Modulates Th1 Differentiation and Improves Wound Healing After Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Hang; Fan, Qin; Hu, Jian; Tao, Rong; Chen, Qiujing; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Shen, Weifeng; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Ruiyan

    2017-03-31

    Macrophages are involved in wound healing after myocardial infarction (MI). The role of Dectin-2, a pattern recognition receptor mainly expressed on myeloid cells, in the infarct healing remains unknown. The aim of this study is to determine whether Dectin-2 signaling is involved in the healing process and cardiac remodeling after MI and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. In a mouse model of permanent coronary ligation, Dectin-2, mainly expressed in macrophages, was shown to be increased in the early phase after MI. Dectin-2 knockout mice showed an improvement in the infarct healing and cardiac remodeling, compared with wild-type mice, which was demonstrated by significantly lower mortality because of cardiac rupture, increased wall thickness, and better cardiac function. Increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen I/III was observed, whereas the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were decreased in the hearts of Dectin-2 knockout mice after MI. Dectin-2 deficiency inhibited the rate of apoptotic and necrotic cell death. However, Dectin-2 did not affect immune cell infiltration and macrophage polarization, but it led to a stronger activation of the Th1/interferon-γ immune reaction, through the enhancement of interleukin-12 production in the heart. Interferon-γ was shown to downregulate transforming growth factor-β-induced expression of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen I/III in isolated cardiac fibroblasts, leading to a decrease in migration and myofibroblast differentiation. Finally, Dectin-2 knockout improved myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and infarct healing. Dectin-2 leads to an increase in cardiac rupture, impairs wound healing, and aggravates cardiac remodeling after MI through the modulation of Th1 differentiation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Chemical modulation of glycerolipid signaling and metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Sarah A.; Mathews, Thomas P.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Brown, H. Alex

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years ago, glycerolipids captured the attention of biochemical researchers as novel cellular signaling entities. We now recognize that these biomolecules occupy signaling nodes critical to a number of physiological and pathological processes. Thus, glycerolipid-metabolizing enzymes present attractive targets for new therapies. A number of fields—ranging from neuroscience and cancer to diabetes and obesity—have elucidated the signaling properties of glycerolipids. The biochemical literature teems with newly emerging small molecule inhibitors capable of manipulating glycerolipid metabolism and signaling. This ever-expanding pool of chemical modulators appears daunting to those interested in exploiting glycerolipid-signaling pathways in their model system of choice. This review distills the current body of literature surrounding glycerolipid metabolism into a more approachable format, facilitating the application of small molecule inhibitors to novel systems. PMID:24440821

  1. Chemical modulation of glycerolipid signaling and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sarah A; Mathews, Thomas P; Ivanova, Pavlina T; Lindsley, Craig W; Brown, H Alex

    2014-08-01

    Thirty years ago, glycerolipids captured the attention of biochemical researchers as novel cellular signaling entities. We now recognize that these biomolecules occupy signaling nodes critical to a number of physiological and pathological processes. Thus, glycerolipid-metabolizing enzymes present attractive targets for new therapies. A number of fields-ranging from neuroscience and cancer to diabetes and obesity-have elucidated the signaling properties of glycerolipids. The biochemical literature teems with newly emerging small molecule inhibitors capable of manipulating glycerolipid metabolism and signaling. This ever-expanding pool of chemical modulators appears daunting to those interested in exploiting glycerolipid-signaling pathways in their model system of choice. This review distills the current body of literature surrounding glycerolipid metabolism into a more approachable format, facilitating the application of small molecule inhibitors to novel systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Tools to study lipid functions.

  2. O-GlcNAcylation, novel post-translational modification linking myocardial metabolism and cardiomyocyte circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Durgan, David J; Pat, Betty M; Laczy, Boglarka; Bradley, Jerry A; Tsai, Ju-Yun; Grenett, Maximiliano H; Ratcliffe, William F; Brewer, Rachel A; Nagendran, Jeevan; Villegas-Montoya, Carolina; Zou, Chenhang; Zou, Luyun; Johnson, Russell L; Dyck, Jason R B; Bray, Molly S; Gamble, Karen L; Chatham, John C; Young, Martin E

    2011-12-30

    The cardiomyocyte circadian clock directly regulates multiple myocardial functions in a time-of-day-dependent manner, including gene expression, metabolism, contractility, and ischemic tolerance. These same biological processes are also directly influenced by modification of proteins by monosaccharides of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). Because the circadian clock and protein O-GlcNAcylation have common regulatory roles in the heart, we hypothesized that a relationship exists between the two. We report that total cardiac protein O-GlcNAc levels exhibit a diurnal variation in mouse hearts, peaking during the active/awake phase. Genetic ablation of the circadian clock specifically in cardiomyocytes in vivo abolishes diurnal variations in cardiac O-GlcNAc levels. These time-of-day-dependent variations appear to be mediated by clock-dependent regulation of O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase protein levels, glucose metabolism/uptake, and glutamine synthesis in an NAD-independent manner. We also identify the clock component Bmal1 as an O-GlcNAc-modified protein. Increasing protein O-GlcNAcylation (through pharmacological inhibition of O-GlcNAcase) results in diminished Per2 protein levels, time-of-day-dependent induction of bmal1 gene expression, and phase advances in the suprachiasmatic nucleus clock. Collectively, these data suggest that the cardiomyocyte circadian clock increases protein O-GlcNAcylation in the heart during the active/awake phase through coordinated regulation of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway and that protein O-GlcNAcylation in turn influences the timing of the circadian clock.

  3. Qishen granules inhibit myocardial inflammation injury through regulating arachidonic acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Qiyan; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Na; Lu, Linghui; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yong; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Qishen granules (QSG), a traditional Chinese medicine, have been prescribed widely in the treatment of coronary heart diseases. Previous studies demonstrated that QSG had anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective effects in mice with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the mechanisms by which QSG attenuate inflammation and prevent post-AMI heart failure (HF) are still unclear. In this study, we explored the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of QSG by in vitro and in vivo experiments. A novel inflammatory injury model of H9C2 cells was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage-conditioned media (CM). An animal model of AMI was conducted by ligation of left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery in mice. We found that QSG inhibited release of cytokines from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and protected H9C2 cardiac cells against CM-induced injury. In vivo results showed that QSG administration could improve cardiac functions and alter pathological changes in model of AMI. QSG regulated multiple key molecules, including phospholipases A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs), in arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. Interestingly, QSG also targeted TNF-α-NF-κB and IL-6-JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathways. Taken together, QSG achieve synergistic effects in mitigating post-AMI HF by regulating multiple targets in inflammatory pathways. This study provides insights into anti-inflammatory therapeutics in managing HF after AMI. PMID:27833128

  4. Influence of beta-blockers on the myocardial mRNA expressions of circadian clock- and metabolism-related genes.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Kentarou; Maekawa, Tomohiro; Ishikawa-Kobayashi, Eiko; Ando, Hitoshi; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Fujimura, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Daily rhythms are regulated by a master clock-system in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and by a peripheral clock-system in each organ. Because norepinephrine is one of the timekeepers for the myocardial circadian clock that influences cardiac metabolism, it is speculated that a beta-blocker may affect the circadian clock and metabolism in heart tissue. In this study, thirty mg/kg/day of propranolol (a lipophilic beta-blocker) or atenolol (a hydrophilic beta-blocker) was given orally to Wistar rats for 4 weeks. The mRNA expressions of Bmal1 and E4BP4 in heart tissue were suppressed by the beta-blockers. However, the mRNA expressions of these clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus were unchanged. Myocardial mRNA expressions of lactate dehydrogenase a and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 were also suppressed by the beta-blockers. In addition, ATP content in heart tissue was significantly elevated by the beta-blockers throughout 24 hours. The effects of propranolol and atenolol did not differ significantly. This study showed for the first time that a beta-blocker affects myocardial clock gene expression. Propranolol and atenolol increased ATP content in heart tissue throughout 24 hours. The influences of beta-blockers may be negligible on the SCN, and may be independent of lipid solubility on heart tissue. It is well known that these drugs exert a protective effect against myocardial ischemia, which may be mediated by an increase in the preservation of myocardial ATP. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sustained release nitrite therapy results in myocardial protection in a porcine model of metabolic syndrome with peripheral vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jessica M.; Islam, Kazi N.; Polhemus, David J.; Donnarumma, Erminia; Brewster, Luke P.; Tao, Ya-Xiong; Goodchild, Traci T.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) reduces endothelial nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and exacerbates vascular dysfunction in patients with preexisting vascular diseases. Nitrite, a storage form of NO, can mediate vascular function during pathological conditions when endogenous NO is reduced. The aims of the present study were to characterize the effects of severe MetS and obesity on dyslipidemia, myocardial oxidative stress, and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) regulation in the obese Ossabaw swine (OS) model and to examine the effects of a novel, sustained-release formulation of sodium nitrite (SR-nitrite) on coronary vascular reactivity and myocardial redox status in obese OS subjected to critical limb ischemia (CLI). After 6 mo of an atherogenic diet, obese OS displayed a MetS phenotype. Obese OS had decreased eNOS functionality and NO bioavailability. In addition, obese OS exhibited increased oxidative stress and a significant reduction in antioxidant enzymes. The efficacy of SR-nitrite therapy was examined in obese OS subjected to CLI. After 3 wk of treatment, SR-nitrite (80 mg·kg−1·day−1 bid po) increased myocardial nitrite levels and eNOS function. Treatment with SR-nitrite reduced myocardial oxidative stress while increasing myocardial antioxidant capacity. Ex vivo assessment of vascular reactivity of left anterior descending coronary artery segments demonstrated marked improvement in vasoreactivity to sodium nitroprusside but not to substance P and bradykinin in SR-nitrite-treated animals compared with placebo-treated animals. In conclusion, in a clinically relevant, large-animal model of MetS and CLI, treatment with SR-nitrite enhanced myocardial NO bioavailability, attenuated oxidative stress, and improved ex vivo coronary artery vasorelaxation. PMID:25957218

  6. Inhibition of miR-23 protects myocardial function from ischemia-reperfusion injury through restoration of glutamine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kou, Y; Zheng, W-T; Zhang, Y-R

    2016-10-01

    Myocardial disorders caused by ischemia/reperfusion (IR) continue to be among the most frequent causes of debilitating disease and death. The contribution of cellular metabolism through the production of metabolic intermediates during IR has been increasingly investigated. In this study, by using a rat IR injury model, we reported that the expression of microRNA miR-23 was induced by IR. In contrast, the glutamine metabolism was suppressed during IR. The glutamate, glutamine dehydrogenase activity, α-ketoglutarate, and glutaminase (GLS) mRNA expression were significantly decreased by IR. Moreover, the pretreatment of glutamine could protect the myocardium from IR injury. From microRNA target prediction analysis and results of luciferase assay, we found that miR-23 could directly target the 3'UTR of GLS. Finally, we demonstrated that inhibition of miR-23 protected myocardial function from IR through the restoration of glutamine metabolism. This study reveals that inhibition of miR-23 renders protective effects on rat IR injury, highlighting the importance of miR-23 and glutamine metabolism during IR, and suggests a potentially clinical benefit.

  7. Comparison between myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus damage caused angiogenesis or energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Lu, Chengzhi; Zhao, Xiangdong; Chen, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare and analyze lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and differences in capillary density level in the model of myocardial damage which caused by rats diabetes. The Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, including control, diabetic, myocardial infarction and two diseases combined group. Ligate descending branch of left coronary artery on 1/3 position or inject streptozotocin into abdominal cavity to establish two kinds of disease models. After 6 w, obtain the myocardial tissues to do the vascular density analysis of tissue sections which are stained and cell tissue enzyme. Explore change of relevant index and differences among groups. Results indicated that degree of LDH and SDH decrease in two kinds of disease model. Compared with control group, level of myocardial vascular of myocardial injury group is higher, and diabetic group is higher than non diabetic group. Quantitative result of FFA in mitochondrial suspension of single disease group is higher than that of control group and two diseases combined group. Level of FFA and LDH of two diseases combined group is consistent with control group. In conclusion, after myocardial damage, which is caused by diabetes mellitus or myocardial infarction, degree of local vascularization increases, diabetes mellitus is more obvious. After myocardial damage, process of myocardial mitochondrial glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation has some obstacles. But these two kinds of diseases all have cardiac muscle cell which can keep generated procedure of aerobic and anaerobic energy to instead the normal function of cardiac muscle.

  8. Streptomyces rhizobacteria modulate the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants.

    PubMed

    Salla, Tamiris Daros; da Silva, Ramos; Astarita, Leandro Vieira; Santarém, Eliane Romanato

    2014-12-01

    The genus Eucalyptus comprises economically important species, such as Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus, used especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of Eucalyptus are very susceptible to pathogens, mainly fungi, which leads to mortality of plant cuttings in rooting phase. One alternative to promote plant health and development is the potential use of microorganisms that act as agents for biological control, such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Rhizobacteria Streptomyces spp have been considered as PGPR. This study aimed at selecting strains of Streptomyces with ability to promote plant growth and modulate secondary metabolism of E. grandis and E. globulus in vitro plants. The experiments assessed the development of plants (root number and length), changes in key enzymes in plant defense (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and induction of secondary compounds(total phenolic and quercetinic flavonoid fraction). The isolate Streptomyces PM9 showed highest production of indol-3-acetic acid and the best potential for root induction. Treatment of Eucalyptus roots with Streptomyces PM9 caused alterations in enzymes activities during the period of co-cultivation (1-15 days), as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Shoots also showed alteration in the secondary metabolism, suggesting induced systemic response. The ability of Streptomyces sp. PM9 on promoting root growth, through production of IAA, and possible role on modulation of secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants characterizes this isolate as PGPR and indicates its potential use as a biological control in forestry.

  9. Metabolic Energy of Action Potentials Modulated by Spike Frequency Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Li, Hui-Yan; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spike frequency adaptation (SFA) exists in many types of neurons, which has been demonstrated to improve their abilities to process incoming information by synapses. The major carrier used by a neuron to convey synaptic signals is the sequences of action potentials (APs), which have to consume substantial metabolic energies to initiate and propagate. Here we use conductance-based models to investigate how SFA modulates the AP-related energy of neurons. The SFA is attributed to either calcium-activated K+ (IAHP) or voltage-activated K+ (IM) current. We observe that the activation of IAHP or IM increases the Na+ load used for depolarizing membrane, while produces few effects on the falling phase of AP. Then, the metabolic energy involved in Na+ current significantly increases from one AP to the next, while for K+ current it is less affected. As a consequence, the total energy cost by each AP gets larger as firing rate decays down. It is also shown that the minimum Na+ charge needed for the depolarization of each AP is unaffected during the course of SFA. This indicates that the activation of either adaptation current makes APs become less efficient to use Na+ influx for their depolarization. Further, our simulations demonstrate that the different biophysical properties of IM and IAHP result in distinct modulations of metabolic energy usage for APs. These investigations provide a fundamental link between adaptation currents and neuronal energetics, which could facilitate to interpret how SFA participates in neuronal information processing. PMID:27909394

  10. Metabolic Energy of Action Potentials Modulated by Spike Frequency Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Li, Hui-Yan; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spike frequency adaptation (SFA) exists in many types of neurons, which has been demonstrated to improve their abilities to process incoming information by synapses. The major carrier used by a neuron to convey synaptic signals is the sequences of action potentials (APs), which have to consume substantial metabolic energies to initiate and propagate. Here we use conductance-based models to investigate how SFA modulates the AP-related energy of neurons. The SFA is attributed to either calcium-activated K(+) (IAHP) or voltage-activated K(+) (IM) current. We observe that the activation of IAHP or IM increases the Na(+) load used for depolarizing membrane, while produces few effects on the falling phase of AP. Then, the metabolic energy involved in Na(+) current significantly increases from one AP to the next, while for K(+) current it is less affected. As a consequence, the total energy cost by each AP gets larger as firing rate decays down. It is also shown that the minimum Na(+) charge needed for the depolarization of each AP is unaffected during the course of SFA. This indicates that the activation of either adaptation current makes APs become less efficient to use Na(+) influx for their depolarization. Further, our simulations demonstrate that the different biophysical properties of IM and IAHP result in distinct modulations of metabolic energy usage for APs. These investigations provide a fundamental link between adaptation currents and neuronal energetics, which could facilitate to interpret how SFA participates in neuronal information processing.

  11. Effects of lifestyle intervention on left ventricular regional myocardial function in metabolic syndrome patients from the RESOLVE randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Ferrer, Juan; Crendal, Edward; Walther, Guillaume; Vinet, Agnes; Dutheil, Frédéric; Naughton, Geraldine; Lesourd, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Courteix, Daniel; Obert, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of lifestyle intervention on left ventricular (LV) regional myocardial function in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and investigate the relationships of the changes in myocardial function to changes in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), inflammatory profile and MetS components. Eighty-seven MetS patients were enrolled in a 6month lifestyle intervention program based on dietary management and increased physical activity, and compared with 44 aged and sex-matched healthy controls. MetS individuals were allocated to different groups randomized (computer-generated randomization) on exercise modalities (high-intensity dominant resistance or aerobic training, and moderate-intensity of both modes). EAT was measured by transthoracic echocardiography and LV longitudinal strains and strain rates were obtained using vector velocity imaging. Blood chemistry allowed assessments of adipocytokines (TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor α, PAI active: active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and adiponectin) and glucose tolerance markers. Regardless of exercise training modalities, lifestyle intervention improved significantly LV strains and strain rates (p<0.001) as well as metabolic and inflammatory profiles. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed EAT (β=0.73, p<0.01), log adiponectin (β=-0.13, p<0.05) and log TNF-α (β=0.15, p<0.05) as independent predictors of LV longitudinal strain (R(2)=0.74, p<0.001) while myocardial function improvement consecutive to lifestyle intervention was explained by EAT changes only (R(2)=0.54, p<0.001). The mechanisms through which regional myocardial function is impaired in MetS and improved consecutive to intervention involved EAT, possibly via paracrine effects of adipocytokines. EAT should be considered as a future therapeutic target of interest in the treatment of metabolic-related cardiac diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ventricular Assist Device Implantation Corrects Myocardial Lipotoxicity, Reverses Insulin Resistance and Normalizes Cardiac Metabolism in Patients with Advanced Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Chokshi, Aalap; Drosatos, Konstantinos; Cheema, Faisal H.; Ji, Ruiping; Khawaja, Tuba; Yu, Shuiqing; Kato, Tomoko; Khan, Raffay; Takayama, Hiroo; Knöll, Ralph; Milting, Hendrik; Chung, Christine S.; Jorde, Ulrich; Naka, Yoshifumi; Mancini, Donna M.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Schulze, P. Christian

    2012-01-01

    Background Heart failure is associated with impaired myocardial metabolism with a shift from fatty acids to glucose utilization for ATP generation. We hypothesized that cardiac accumulation of toxic lipid intermediates inhibits insulin signaling in advanced heart failure and that mechanical unloading of the failing myocardium corrects impaired cardiac metabolism. Methods and Results We analyzed myocardium and serum of 61 patients with heart failure (BMI 26.5±5.1 kg/m2, age 51±12 years) obtained during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation and at explantation (mean duration 185±156 days) and from 9 controls. Systemic insulin resistance in heart failure was accompanied by decreased myocardial triglyceride and overall fatty acid content but increased toxic lipid intermediates, diacylglycerol and ceramide. Increased membrane localization of protein kinase C isoforms, inhibitors of insulin signaling, and decreased activity of insulin signaling molecules Akt and FOXO, were detectable in heart failure compared to controls. LVAD implantation improved whole body insulin resistance (HOMA-IR: 4.5±0.6 to 3.2±0.5; p<0.05) and decreased myocardial levels of diacylglycerol and ceramide while triglyceride and fatty acid content remained unchanged. Improved activation of the insulin/PI3kinase/Akt signaling cascade after LVAD implantation was confirmed by increased phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO, which was accompanied by decreased membrane localization of protein kinase C isoforms after LVAD implantation. Conclusions Mechanical unloading after LVAD implantation corrects systemic and local metabolic derangements in advanced heart failure leading to reduced myocardial levels of toxic lipid intermediates and improved cardiac insulin signaling. PMID:22586279

  13. Attenuation by creatine of myocardial metabolic stress in Brattleboro rats caused by chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Constantin-Teodosiu, D.; Greenhaff, P. L.; Gardiner, S. M.; Randall, M. D.; March, J. E.; Bennett, T.

    1995-01-01

    1. The present experiment was undertaken to investigate: (a) the effect of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition, mediated by oral supplementation of the NOS inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), on measures of myocardial energy metabolism and function: (b) the effect of oral creatine supplementation on these variables, in the absence and presence of L-NAME. 2. In one series of experiments, 4 weeks oral administration of L-NAME (0.05 mg ml-1 day-1 in the drinking water) to Brattleboro rats caused significant reductions in myocardial ATP, creatine, and total creatine concentrations and an accumulation of tissue lactate when compared with control animals. Administration of creatine (0.63 mg ml-1 day-1 in the drinking water) for 4 weeks elevated myocardial creatine and total creatine concentrations and reduced lactate accumulation, but did not significantly affect ATP or phosphocreatine (PCr). Concurrent treatment with creatine and L-NAME prevented the reduction in creatine and total creatine concentrations, and significantly attenuated the accumulation of lactate and the reduction in ATP seen with L-NAME alone. 3. In a second series of experiments, 4 weeks treatment with L-NAME and creatine plus L-NAME increased mean arterial blood pressure in conscious Brattleboro rats. Hearts isolated from these animals showed decreased coronary flow and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), and total mechanical performance. Treatment with creatine alone had no measurable effect on either mean arterial blood pressure or coronary flow in isolated hearts. However, there was an increase in LVDP, but not in total mechanical performance, because there was a bradycardia. 4. These results indicate that creatine supplementation can attenuate the metabolic stress associated with L-NAME administration and that this effect occurs as a consequence of the action of creatine on myocardial energy metabolism. PMID:8719809

  14. Targeting Amino Acid Metabolism for Molecular Imaging of Inflammation Early After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Thackeray, James T.; Bankstahl, Jens P.; Wang, Yong; Wollert, Kai C.; Bengel, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Acute tissue inflammation after myocardial infarction influences healing and remodeling and has been identified as a target for novel therapies. Molecular imaging holds promise for guidance of such therapies. The amino acid 11C-methionine is a clinically approved agent which is thought to accumulate in macrophages, but not in healthy myocytes. We assessed the suitability of positron emission tomography (PET) with 11C-methionine for imaging post-MI inflammation, from cell to mouse to man. Uptake assays demonstrated 7-fold higher 11C-methionine uptake by polarized pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages over anti-inflammatory M2 subtypes (p<0.001). C57Bl/6 mice (n=27) underwent coronary artery ligation or no surgery. Serial 11C-methionine PET was performed 3, 5 and 7d later. MI mice exhibited a perfusion defect in 32-50% of the left ventricle (LV). PET detected increased 11C-methionine accumulation in the infarct territory at 3d (5.9±0.9%ID/g vs 4.7±0.9 in remote myocardium, and 2.6±0.5 in healthy mice; p<0.05 and <0.01 respectively), which declined by d7 post-MI (4.3±0.6 in infarct, 3.4±0.8 in remote; p=0.03 vs 3d, p=0.08 vs healthy). Increased 11C-methionine uptake was associated with macrophage infiltration of damaged myocardium. Treatment with anti-integrin antibodies (anti-CD11a, -CD11b, -CD49d; 100µg) lowered macrophage content by 56% and 11C-methionine uptake by 46% at 3d post-MI. A patient study at 3d after ST-elevation MI and early reperfusion confirmed elevated 11C-methionine uptake in the hypoperfused myocardial region. Targeting of elevated amino acid metabolism in pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages enables PET imaging-derived demarcation of tissue inflammation after MI. 11C-methionine-based molecular imaging may assist in the translation of novel image-guided, inflammation-targeted regenerative therapies. PMID:27570549

  15. AT1 Receptor Modulator Attenuates the Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Impairment of the Myocardial Ischemic Post-Conditioning Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun-Wei; Hon, Yan; Wan, Qi-Lin; He, Rui-Li; Wang, Zhi-Zhong; Zhao, Cui-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Ischemic post-conditioning (PostC) has been demonstrated as a novel strategy to harness nature's protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Hypercholesterolemia (HC) has been reported to block the effect of PostC on the heart. Angiotensin II type-1 (AT1) modulators have shown benefits in myocardial ischemia. The present study investigates the effect of a novel inhibitor of AT1, azilsartan in PostC of the heart of normocholesterolemic (NC) and HC rats. Materials and Methods HC was induced by the administration of high-fat diet to the animals for eight weeks. Isolated Langendorff's perfused NC and HC rat hearts were exposed to global ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 120 min. I/R-injury had been assessed by cardiac hemodynamic parameters, myocardial infarct size, release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha troponin I, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, nitrite in coronary effluent, thiobarbituric acid reactive species, a reduced form of glutathione, superoxide anion, and left ventricle collagen content in normal and HC rat hearts. Results Azilsartan post-treatment and six episodes of PostC (10 sec each) afforded cardioprotection against I/R-injury in normal rat hearts. PostC protection against I/R-injury was abolished in HC rat hearts. Azilsartan prevented the HC-mediated impairment of the beneficial effects of PostC in I/R-induced myocardial injury, which was inhibited by L-N5-(1-Iminoethyl)ornithinehydrochloride, a potent inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Conclusion Azilsartan treatment has attenuated the HC-induced impairment of beneficial effects of PostC in I/R-injury of rat hearts, by specifically modulating eNOS. Azilsartan may be explored further in I/R-myocardial injury, both in NC and HC conditions, with or without PostC. PMID:28382073

  16. The hepatic circadian clock modulates xenobiotic metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    DeBruyne, Jason P; Weaver, David R; Dallmann, Robert

    2014-08-01

    The circadian clock generates daily cycles of gene expression that regulate physiological processes. The liver plays an important role in xenobiotic metabolism and also has been shown to possess its own cell-based clock. The liver clock is synchronized by the master clock in the brain, and a portion of rhythmic gene expression can be driven by behavior of the organism as a whole even when the hepatic clock is suppressed. So far, however, there is relatively little evidence indicating whether the liver clock is functionally important in modulating xenobiotic metabolism. Thus, mice lacking circadian clock function in the whole body or specifically in liver were challenged with pentobarbital and acetaminophen, and pentobarbital sleep time (PBST) and acetaminophen toxicity, respectively, was assessed at different times of day in mutant and control mice. The results suggest that the liver clock is essential for rhythmic changes in xenobiotic detoxification. Surprisingly, it seems that the way in which the clock is disrupted determines the rate of xenobiotic metabolism in the liver. CLOCK-deficient mice are remarkably resistant to acetaminophen and exhibit a longer PBST, while PERIOD-deficient mice have a short PBST. These results indicate an essential role of the tissue-intrinsic peripheral circadian oscillator in the liver in regulating xenobiotic metabolism.

  17. Combination of Plant Metabolic Modules Yields Synthetic Synergies

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Fatemeh; Heene, Ernst; Maisch, Jan; Nick, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The great potential of pharmacologically active secondary plant metabolites is often limited by low yield and availability of the producing plant. Chemical synthesis of these complex compounds is often too expensive. Plant cell fermentation offers an alternative strategy to overcome these limitations. However, production in batch cell cultures remains often inefficient. One reason might be the fact that different cell types have to interact for metabolite maturation, which is poorly mimicked in suspension cell lines. Using alkaloid metabolism of tobacco, we explore an alternative strategy, where the metabolic interactions of different cell types in a plant tissue are technically mimicked based on different plant-cell based metabolic modules. In this study, we simulate the interaction found between the nicotine secreting cells of the root and the nicotine-converting cells of the senescent leaf, generating the target compound nornicotine in the model cell line tobacco BY-2. When the nicotine demethylase NtomCYP82E4 was overexpressed in tobacco BY-2 cells, nornicotine synthesis was triggered, but only to a minor extent. However, we show here that we can improve the production of nornicotine in this cell line by feeding the precursor, nicotine. Engineering of another cell line overexpressing the key enzyme NtabMPO1 allows to stimulate accumulation and secretion of this precursor. We show that the nornicotine production of NtomCYP82E4 cells can be significantly stimulated by feeding conditioned medium from NtabMPO1 overexpressors without any negative effect on the physiology of the cells. Co-cultivation of NtomCYP82E4 with NtabMPO1 stimulated nornicotine accumulation even further, demonstrating that the physical presence of cells was superior to just feeding the conditioned medium collected from the same cells. These results provide a proof of concept that combination of different metabolic modules can improve the productivity for target compounds in plant cell

  18. Total Flavones of Choerospondias axillaris Attenuate Cardiac Dysfunction and Myocardial Interstitial Fibrosis by Modulating NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bei; Xia, Qiumei; Gao, Zhiyong

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of total flavonoids of Choerospondias axillaris (TFC) on myocardial infarction (MI)-induced cardiac dysfunction, interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory reaction and further to clarify the potential signaling pathway involved. Rats were subjected to MI via coronary artery occlusion. The model establishment was confirmed by the occurrence of ST-segment elevation in electrocardiogram. Then, TFC was administrated at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg for 28 consecutive days (gavage). Body weight and heart weight were recorded. Hemodynamics, infarct size and myocardial fibrosis were examined. Blood samples were collected to determine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6, 10 (IL-6, IL-10) levels. The expressions of matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, 9), phosphor-IKBα (p-IKBα) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were assayed by Western blot. The results indicated that TFC significantly improved cardiac dysfunction, the heart coefficient and myocardial fibrosis in MI rat. TFC also decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, but increased IL-10 content. Moreover, treatment with TFC protected the heart from chronic MI injury by decreasing the expressions of MMP-2, 9, TGF-β1 and p-IKBα. The results suggested that TFC attenuated cardiac dysfunction and myocardial interstitial fibrosis by modulating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway.

  19. Myocardial collagen metabolism in failing hearts before and during cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Umar, Soban; Bax, Jeroen J; Klok, Margreet; van Bommel, Rutger J; Hessel, Marleen H M; den Adel, Brigit; Bleeker, Gabe B; Henneman, Maureen M; Atsma, Douwe E; van der Wall, Ernst E; Schalij, Martin J; van der Laarse, Arnoud

    2008-09-01

    In patients with heart failure cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) leads to reverse ventricular remodelling. To evaluate whether myocardial collagen metabolism in patients with heart failure is implicated in adverse ventricular remodelling and response to CRT. Collagen synthesis and degradation were assessed from the concentrations of aminoterminal propeptides of type I and type III collagen (PINP and PIIINP) and carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), respectively, in serum of 64 patients with heart failure before and after 6 months of CRT. Forty-six patients (72%) showed a > 10% reduction in LV end-systolic volume at follow-up and were classified as responders to CRT, the other 18 patients (28%) were classified as non-responders. Responders demonstrated a mean (+/-SEM) increase of serum PINP and PIIINP during follow-up, from 32.9+/-2.2 to 46.7+/-4.0 microg/L (p < 0.001) and from 4.59+/-0.24 to 5.13+/-0.36 microg/L (p < 0.05), respectively. In non-responders, serum PINP and PIIINP remained unchanged during follow-up. At baseline, responders had significantly lower serum PINP than non-responders (32.9+/-2.2 vs. 41.8+/-4.3 microg/L; p < 0.05). ICTP levels of responders at baseline tended to be higher than in non-responders (3.54+/-0.56 vs. 2.08+/-0.37 microg/L, p = ns), and in both groups ICTP levels did not change upon CRT. Reverse LV remodelling following CRT is associated with increased collagen synthesis rate in the first 6 months of follow-up.

  20. The Relationship of Myocardial Collagen Metabolism and Reverse Remodeling after Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stankovic, Ivan; Milasinovic, Goran; Nikcevic, Gabrijela; Kircanski, Bratislav; Jovanovic, Velibor; Raspopovic, Srdjan; Radovanovic, Nikola; Pavlovic, Sinisa U.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background In the majority of patients with a wide QRS complex and heart failure resistant to optimal medical therapy, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) leads to reverse ventricular remodeling and possibly to changes in cardiac collagen synthesis and degradation. We investigated the relationship of biomarkers of myocardial collagen metabolism and volumetric response to CRT. Methods We prospectively studied 46 heart failure patients (mean age 61±9 years, 87% male) who underwent CRT implantation. Plasma concentrations of amino-terminal propeptide type I (PINP), a marker of collagen synthesis, and carboxy-terminal collagen telopeptide (CITP), a marker of collagen degradation, were measured before and 6 months after CRT. Response to CRT was defined as 15% or greater reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume at 6-month follow-up. Results Baseline PINP levels showed a negative correlation with both left ventricular end-diastolic volume (r=-0.51; p=0.032), and end-systolic diameter (r=-0.47; p=0.049). After 6 months of device implantation, 28 patients (61%) responded to CRT. No significant differences in the baseline levels of PINP and CITP between responders and nonresponders were observed (p>0.05 for both). During follow-up, responders demonstrated a significant increase in serum PINP level from 31.37±18.40 to 39.2±19.19 μg/L (p=0.049), whereas in non-responders serum PINP levels did not significantly change (from 28.12±21.55 to 34.47± 18.64 μg/L; p=0.125). There were no significant changes in CITP levels in both responders and non-responders (p>0.05). Conclusions Left ventricular reverse remodeling induced by CRT is associated with an increased collagen synthesis in the first 6 months of CRT implantation.

  1. Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Modulates Adipose Metabolism Through PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Yu, Zaixin; Patel, Shailja; Jue, Dyron; Liu, Li-Fen; Kraemer, Fredric B.

    2010-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is rate-limiting for diacylglycerol and cholesteryl ester hydrolysis in adipose tissue and essential for complete hormone-stimulated lipolysis. Gene expression profiling in HSL−/− mice suggests that HSL is important for modulating adipogenesis and adipose metabolism. To test whether HSL is required for the supply of intrinsic ligands for PPARγ for normal adipose differentiation, HSL−/− and wild type (WT) littermates were fed normal chow (NC) and high fat (HF) diets supplemented with or without rosiglitazone (200 mg/kg) for 16 weeks. Results show that supplementing rosiglitazone to a NC diet completely normalized the decreased body weight and adipose depots in HSL−/− mice. Additionally, rosiglitazone resulted in similar serum glucose, total cholesterol, FFA and adiponectin values in WT and HSL−/− mice. Furthermore, rosiglitazone normalized the expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, markers of adipocyte differentiation, and enzymes involved in triacylglycerol synthesis and metabolism, and cholesteryl ester homeostasis, in HSL−/− mice. Supplementing rosiglitazone to a HF diet resulted in improved glucose tolerance in both WT and HSL−/− animals and also partial normalization in HSL−/− mice of abnormal WAT gene expression, serum chemistries, organ and body weight changes. In vitro studies showed that adipocytes from WT animals can provide ligands for activation of PPARγ, and that activation is further boosted following lipolytic stimulation; whereas adipocytes from HSL−/− mice displayed attenuated activation of PPARγ, with no change following lipolytic stimulation. These results suggest that one of the mechanisms by which HSL modulates adipose metabolism is by providing intrinsic ligands or pro-ligands for PPARγ. PMID:20950707

  2. Patterned optogenetic modulation of neurovascular and metabolic signals

    PubMed Central

    Richner, Thomas J; Baumgartner, Ryan; Brodnick, Sarah K; Azimipour, Mehdi; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Williams, Justin C; Pashaie, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    The hemodynamic and metabolic response of the cortex depends spatially and temporally on the activity of multiple cell types. Optogenetics enables specific cell types to be modulated with high temporal precision and is therefore an emerging method for studying neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling. Going beyond temporal investigations, we developed a microprojection system to apply spatial photostimulus patterns in vivo. We monitored vascular and metabolic fluorescence signals after photostimulation in Thy1-channelrhodopsin-2 mice. Cerebral arteries increased in diameter rapidly after photostimulation, while nearby veins showed a slower smaller response. The amplitude of the arterial response was depended on the area of cortex stimulated. The fluorescence signal emitted at 450/100 nm and excited with ultraviolet is indicative of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, an endogenous fluorescent enzyme involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. This fluorescence signal decreased quickly and transiently after optogenetic stimulation, suggesting that glucose metabolism is tightly locked to optogenetic stimulation. To verify optogenetic stimulation of the cortex, we used a transparent substrate microelectrode array to map cortical potentials resulting from optogenetic stimulation. Spatial optogenetic stimulation is a new tool for studying neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling. PMID:25388678

  3. Patterned optogenetic modulation of neurovascular and metabolic signals.

    PubMed

    Richner, Thomas J; Baumgartner, Ryan; Brodnick, Sarah K; Azimipour, Mehdi; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Williams, Justin C; Pashaie, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    The hemodynamic and metabolic response of the cortex depends spatially and temporally on the activity of multiple cell types. Optogenetics enables specific cell types to be modulated with high temporal precision and is therefore an emerging method for studying neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling. Going beyond temporal investigations, we developed a microprojection system to apply spatial photostimulus patterns in vivo. We monitored vascular and metabolic fluorescence signals after photostimulation in Thy1-channelrhodopsin-2 mice. Cerebral arteries increased in diameter rapidly after photostimulation, while nearby veins showed a slower smaller response. The amplitude of the arterial response was depended on the area of cortex stimulated. The fluorescence signal emitted at 450/100 nm and excited with ultraviolet is indicative of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, an endogenous fluorescent enzyme involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. This fluorescence signal decreased quickly and transiently after optogenetic stimulation, suggesting that glucose metabolism is tightly locked to optogenetic stimulation. To verify optogenetic stimulation of the cortex, we used a transparent substrate microelectrode array to map cortical potentials resulting from optogenetic stimulation. Spatial optogenetic stimulation is a new tool for studying neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling.

  4. Biphasic modulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsin-Ling; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Yeh, Steve T; Zweier, Jay L; Chen, Yeong-Renn

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is the major source of reactive oxygen species during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ischemic defect and reperfusion-induced injury to ETC are critical in the disease pathogenesis of postischemic heart. The properties of ETC were investigated in an isolated heart model of global I/R. Rat hearts were subjected to ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 1 h. Studies of mitochondrial function indicated a biphasic modulation of electron transfer activity (ETA) and ETC protein expression during I/R. Analysis of ETAs in the isolated mitochondria indicated that complexes I, II, III, and IV activities were diminished after 30 min of ischemia but increased upon restoration of flow. Immunoblotting analysis and ultrastructural analysis with transmission electron microscopy further revealed marked downregulation of ETC in the ischemic heart and then upregulation of ETC upon reperfusion. No significant difference in the mRNA expression level of ETC was detected between ischemic and postischemic hearts. However, reperfusion-induced ETC biosynthesis in myocardium can be inhibited by cycloheximide, indicating the involvement of translational control. Immunoblotting analysis of tissue homogenates revealed a similar profile in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α expression, suggesting its essential role as an upstream regulator in controlling ETC biosynthesis during I/R. Significant impairment caused by ischemic and postischemic injury was observed in the complexes I- III. Analysis of NADH ferricyanide reductase activity indicated that injury of flavoprotein subcomplex accounts for 50% decline of intact complex I activity from ischemic heart. Taken together, our findings provide a new insight into the molecular mechanism of I/R-induced mitochondrial dysfunction.

  5. Sex differences in exercise-induced physiological myocardial hypertrophy are modulated by oestrogen receptor beta.

    PubMed

    Dworatzek, Elke; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokoufeh; Schubert, Carola; Westphal, Christina; Leber, Joachim; Kusch, Angelika; Kararigas, Georgios; Fliegner, Daniela; Moulin, Maryline; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Davidson, Mercy M; Dragun, Duska; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera

    2014-06-01

    Oestrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) are involved in the regulation of pathological myocardial hypertrophy (MH). We hypothesize that both ER are also involved in physiological MH. Therefore, we investigated the role of ER in exercise-induced physiological MH in loss-of-function models and studied potential mechanisms of action. We performed 1 and 8 weeks of voluntary cage wheel running (VCR) with male and female C57BL/6J wild-type (WT), ERα- and ERβ-deleted mice. In line with other studies, female WT mice ran more than males (P ≤ 0.001). After 8 weeks of VCR, both sexes showed an increase in left ventricular mass (females: P ≤ 0.01 and males: P ≤ 0.05) with more pronounced MH in females (P < 0.05). As previously shown, female ERα-deleted mice run less than female WT mice (P ≤ 0.001). ERβ-deleted mice showed similar running performance as WT mice (females vs. male: P ≤ 0.001), but did not develop MH. Only female WT mice showed an increase in phosphorylation of serine/threonine kinase (AKT), ERK1/2, p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and ribosomal protein s6, as well as an increase in the expression of key regulators of mitochondrial function and mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins (complexes I, III, and V) after VCR. However, ERβ deletion abolished all observed sex differences. Mitochondrial remodelling occurred in female WT-VCR mice, but not in female ERβ-deleted mice. The sex-specific response of the heart to exercise is modulated by ERβ. The greater increase in physiological MH in females is mediated by induction of AKT signalling, MAPK pathways, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial adaptation via ERβ. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Vitamin A deficiency modulates iron metabolism via ineffective erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Marcela S B; Siqueira, Egle M A; Trindade, Luciano S; Arruda, Sandra F

    2014-10-01

    Vitamin A modulates inflammatory status, iron metabolism and erythropoiesis. Given that these factors modulate the expression of the hormone hepcidin (Hamp), we investigated the effect of vitamin A deficiency on molecular biomarkers of iron metabolism, the inflammatory response and the erythropoietic system. Five groups of male Wistar rats were treated: control (AIN-93G), the vitamin A-deficient (VAD) diet, the iron-deficient (FeD) diet, the vitamin A- and iron-deficient (VAFeD) diet or the diet with 12 mg atRA/kg diet replacing all-trans-retinyl palmitate by all-trans retinoic acid (atRA). Vitamin A deficiency reduced serum iron and transferrin saturation levels, increased spleen iron concentrations, reduced hepatic Hamp and kidney erythropoietin messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and up-regulated hepatic and spleen heme oxygenase-1 gene expression while reducing the liver HO-1 specific activity compared with the control. The FeD and VAFeD rats exhibited lower levels of serum iron and transferrin saturation, lower iron concentrations in tissues and lower hepatic Hamp mRNA levels compared with the control. The treatment with atRA resulted in lower serum iron and transferrin concentrations, an increased iron concentration in the liver, a decreased iron concentration in the spleen and in the gut, and decreased hepatic Hamp mRNA levels. In summary, these findings suggest that vitamin A deficiency leads to ineffective erythropoiesis by the down-regulation of renal erythropoietin expression in the kidney, resulting in erythrocyte malformation and the consequent accumulation of the heme group in the spleen. Vitamin A deficiency indirectly modulates systemic iron homeostasis by enhancing erythrophagocytosis of undifferentiated erythrocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of myocardial metabolic flexibility and work efficiency in human type 2 diabetes using 16-[18F]fluoro-4-thiapalmitate, a novel PET fatty acid tracer.

    PubMed

    Mather, K J; Hutchins, G D; Perry, K; Territo, W; Chisholm, R; Acton, A; Glick-Wilson, B; Considine, R V; Moberly, S; DeGrado, T R

    2016-03-15

    Altered myocardial fuel selection likely underlies cardiac disease risk in diabetes, affecting oxygen demand and myocardial metabolic flexibility. We investigated myocardial fuel selection and metabolic flexibility in human type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), using positron emission tomography to measure rates of myocardial fatty acid oxidation {16-[(18)F]fluoro-4-thia-palmitate (FTP)} and myocardial perfusion and total oxidation ([(11)C]acetate). Participants underwent paired studies under fasting conditions, comparing 3-h insulin + glucose euglycemic clamp conditions (120 mU·m(-2)·min(-1)) to 3-h saline infusion. Lean controls (n = 10) were compared with glycemically controlled volunteers with T2DM (n = 8). Insulin augmented heart rate, blood pressure, and stroke index in both groups (all P < 0.01) and significantly increased myocardial oxygen consumption (P = 0.04) and perfusion (P = 0.01) in both groups. Insulin suppressed available nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.0001), but fatty acid concentrations were higher in T2DM under both conditions (P < 0.001). Insulin-induced suppression of fatty acid oxidation was seen in both groups (P < 0.0001). However, fatty acid oxidation rates were higher under both conditions in T2DM (P = 0.003). Myocardial work efficiency was lower in T2DM (P = 0.006) and decreased in both groups with the insulin-induced increase in work and shift in fuel utilization (P = 0.01). Augmented fatty acid oxidation is present under baseline and insulin-treated conditions in T2DM, with impaired insulin-induced shifts away from fatty acid oxidation. This is accompanied by reduced work efficiency, possibly due to greater oxygen consumption with fatty acid metabolism. These observations suggest that improved fatty acid suppression, or reductions in myocardial fatty acid uptake and retention, could be therapeutic targets to improve myocardial ischemia tolerance in T2DM. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Late-onset caloric restriction alters skeletal muscle metabolism by modulating pyruvate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiao-Nan Joyce; Lin, Shang-Ying; Liao, Yi-Hung; Li, Zhen-Jie; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2015-06-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) attenuates age-related muscle loss. However, the underlying mechanism responsible for this attenuation is not fully understood. This study evaluated the role of energy metabolism in the CR-induced attenuation of muscle loss. The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to evaluate the effect of CR on energy metabolism and determine its relationship with muscle mass, and 2) to determine whether the effects of CR are age dependent. Young and middle-aged rats were randomized into either 40% CR or ad libitum (AL) diet groups for 14 wk. Major energy-producing pathways in muscles, i.e., glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), were examined. We found that the effects of CR were age dependent. CR improved muscle metabolism and normalized muscle mass in middle-aged animals but not young animals. CR decreased glycolysis and increased the cellular dependency for OXPHOS vs. glycolysis in muscles of middle-aged rats, which was associated with the improvement of normalized muscle mass. The metabolic reprogramming induced by CR was related to modulation of pyruvate metabolism and increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Compared with animals fed AL, middle-aged animals with CR had lower lactate dehydrogenase A content and greater mitochondrial pyruvate carrier content. Markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, including AMPK activation levels and SIRT1 and COX-IV content, also showed increased levels. In conclusion, 14 wk of CR improved muscle metabolism and preserved muscle mass in middle-aged animals but not in young developing animals. CR-attenuated age-related muscle loss is associated with reprogramming of the metabolic pathway from glycolysis to OXPHOS.

  9. Ginsenoside Rb1 protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial injury via energy metabolism regulation mediated by RhoA signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuan-Chen; Pan, Chun-Shui; Yan, Li; Li, Lin; Hu, Bai-He; Chang, Xin; Liu, Yu-Ying; Fan, Jing-Yu; Sun, Kai; -Li, Quan; Han, Jing-Yan

    2017-03-22

    Cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury remains a challenge for clinicians. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) has been reported to have the ability to attenuate I/R injury, but its effect on energy metabolism during cardiac I/R and the underlying mechanism remain unknown. In this study, we detected the effect of Rb1 on rat myocardial blood flow, myocardial infarct size, cardiac function, velocity of venule red blood cell, myocardial structure and apoptosis, energy metabolism and change in RhoA signaling pathway during cardiac I/R injury. In addition, the binding affinity of RhoA to Rb1 was detected using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Results showed that Rb1 treatment at 5 mg/kg/h protected all the cardiac injuries induced by I/R, including damaged myocardial structure, decrease in myocardial blood flow, impaired heart function and microcirculation, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, myocardial infarction and release of myocardial cTnI. Rb1 also inhibited the activation of RhoA signaling pathway and restored the production of ATP during cardiac I/R. Moreover, SPR assay showed that Rb1 was able to bind to RhoA in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that Rb1 may prevent I/R-induced cardiac injury by regulation of RhoA signaling pathway, and may serve as a potential regime to improve percutaneous coronary intervention outcome.

  10. Ginsenoside Rb1 protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial injury via energy metabolism regulation mediated by RhoA signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuan-Chen; Pan, Chun-Shui; Yan, Li; Li, Lin; Hu, Bai-He; Chang, Xin; Liu, Yu-Ying; Fan, Jing-Yu; Sun, Kai; -Li, Quan; Han, Jing-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury remains a challenge for clinicians. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) has been reported to have the ability to attenuate I/R injury, but its effect on energy metabolism during cardiac I/R and the underlying mechanism remain unknown. In this study, we detected the effect of Rb1 on rat myocardial blood flow, myocardial infarct size, cardiac function, velocity of venule red blood cell, myocardial structure and apoptosis, energy metabolism and change in RhoA signaling pathway during cardiac I/R injury. In addition, the binding affinity of RhoA to Rb1 was detected using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Results showed that Rb1 treatment at 5 mg/kg/h protected all the cardiac injuries induced by I/R, including damaged myocardial structure, decrease in myocardial blood flow, impaired heart function and microcirculation, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, myocardial infarction and release of myocardial cTnI. Rb1 also inhibited the activation of RhoA signaling pathway and restored the production of ATP during cardiac I/R. Moreover, SPR assay showed that Rb1 was able to bind to RhoA in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that Rb1 may prevent I/R-induced cardiac injury by regulation of RhoA signaling pathway, and may serve as a potential regime to improve percutaneous coronary intervention outcome. PMID:28327605

  11. Validity of estimates of myocardial oxidative metabolism with carbon-11 acetate and positron emission tomography despite altered patterns of substrate utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Myears, D.W.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1989-02-01

    We recently demonstrated that the myocardial turnover rate constant (k) measured noninvasively with positron emission tomography (PET) after intravenous administration of (/sup 11/C)acetate provides a reliable index of myocardial oxidative metabolism (MVO/sub 2/) theoretically independent of the pattern of myocardial substrate use. However, because estimates of metabolism with other metabolic tracers are sensitive to substrate use, we measured k in 12 dogs during baseline conditions and again after infusion of either glucose (n = 8) or Intralipid (n = 4), interventions that raised arterial glucose or fatty acids by more than fivefold with concomitant changes in myocardial substrate use. Following glucose administration k increased, but no difference was detected after compensation for changes in hemodynamics and myocardial work induced by the infusion (0.18 +/- 0.03 min-1) (t1/2 = 3.9 min) at baseline compared with 0.22 +/- 0.06 min-1 (t1/2 = 3.2 min, p = N.S.). k was not affected by Intralipid infusion (k = 0.15 +/- 0.06 min-1 at baseline and 0.14 +/- 0.04 min-1 during infusion), and correlated closely with MVO/sub 2/ measured directly (n = 19 comparisons, r = 0.89). The results indicate that estimates of MVO/sub 2/ using (/sup 11/C)acetate and PET are valid despite changes in the pattern of myocardial substrate utilization.

  12. Influence of central inhibition of sympathetic nervous activity on myocardial metabolism in chronic heart failure: acute effects of the imidazoline I1-receptor agonist moxonidine.

    PubMed

    Mobini, Reza; Fu, Michael; Jansson, Per-Anders; Bergh, Claes-Håkan; Scharin Täng, Margareta; Waagstein, Finn; Andersson, Bert

    2006-03-01

    Although beta-adrenergic blockade is beneficial in heart failure, inhibition of central sympathetic outflow using moxonidine has been associated with increased mortality. In the present study, we studied the acute effects of the imidazoline-receptor agonist moxonidine on haemodynamics, NA (noradrenaline) kinetics and myocardial metabolism. Fifteen patients with CHF (chronic heart failure) were randomized to a single dose of 0.6 mg of sustained-release moxonidine or matching placebo. Haemodynamics, NA kinetics and myocardial metabolism were studied over a 2.5 h time period. There was a significant reduction in pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures, together with a decrease in cardiac index in the moxonidine group. Furthermore, there was a simultaneous reduction in systemic and cardiac net spillover of NA in the moxonidine group. Analysis of myocardial consumption of substrates in the moxonidine group showed a significant increase in non-esterified fatty acid consumption and a possible trend towards an increase in myocardial oxygen consumption compared with the placebo group (P=0.16). We conclude that a single dose of moxonidine (0.6 mg) in patients already treated with a beta-blocker reduced cardiac and overall sympathetic activity. The finding of increased lipid consumption without decreased myocardial oxygen consumption indicates a lack of positive effects on myocardial metabolism under these conditions. We suggest this might be a reason for the failure of moxonidine to prevent deaths in long-term studies in CHF.

  13. Quantitative proteomic changes during post myocardial infarction remodeling reveals altered cardiac metabolism and Desmin aggregation in the infarct region.

    PubMed

    Datta, Kaberi; Basak, Trayambak; Varshney, Swati; Sengupta, Shantanu; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2017-01-30

    Myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of cardiac dysfunction, failure and sudden death. Post infarction cardiac remodeling presents a poor prognosis, with 30%-45% of patients developing heart failure, in a period of 5-25years. Oxidative stress has been labelled as the primary causative factor for cardiac damage during infarction, however, the impact it may have during the process of post infarction remodeling has not been well probed. In this study, we have implemented iTRAQ proteomics to catalogue proteins and functional processes, participating both temporally (early and late phases) and spatially (infarct and remote zones), during post myocardial infarction remodeling of the heart as functions of the differential oxidative stress manifest during the remodeling process. Cardiac metabolism was the dominant network to be affected during infarction and the remodeling time points considered in this study. A distinctive expression pattern of cytoskeletal proteins was also observed with increased remodeling time points. Further, it was found that the cytoskeletal protein Desmin, aggregated in the infarct zone during the remodeling process, mediated by the protease Calpain1. Taken together, all of these data in conjunction may lay the foundation to understand the effects of oxidative stress on the remodeling process and elaborate the mechanism behind the compromised cardiac function observed during post myocardial infarction remodeling.

  14. [The influence of physical training on metabolic indices in men with myocardial infarction and impaired glucose tolerance].

    PubMed

    Stochmal, Anna; Jasiak-Tyrkalska, Bozena; Stochmal, Ewa; Huszno, Bohdan; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina

    2007-01-01

    Body mass reduction and regular physical training form part of a strategy to treat disorders of carbohydrate metabolism associated with obesity. Evidence shows that even a slight reduction in body mass may improve carbohydrate tolerance, lipid profile and insulin resistance, reduce insulin levels and finally delay or reduce risk of diabetes mellitus. Multiple studies, including prospective studies confirm the independent protective effects of physical training against future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Myocardial infarction is a severe complication of atherosclerosis. Patients with glucose intolerance have a 2-fold higher risk of dying. Impaired glucose tolerance is negatively associated with prognosis in patients after myocardial infarction. Glucose intolerance accompanies hyperinsulinemia, a major indicator of insulin resistance. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of physical training on hyperinsulinemia/ insulin resistance in patients after myocardial infarction (MI) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). 31 men aged 37-69 years (mean 51 +/- 7.4) with IGT 3.5 years after MI, in NYHA class I and II participated in the study. Group A (n=16 men) underwent supervised physical training and group B (n=15) received standard information on physical training. Tissue glucose disposal using normoglycemic glucose clamp technique, fasting insulinemia, glycemia during OGTT, lipid profile, BMI and body mass composition were obtained in all patients. The groups were matched for age. There were no differences in BMI, percent fat content, blood pressure, diet, smoking status and pharmacotherapy. Glycemia during baseline OGTT did not differentiate the groups, either. Analysis of insulinemia and glycemia during OGTT at baseline and at 12 weeks after regular physical training showed lower levels of insulinemia and glycemia compared with baseline levels in group A (fasting glycemia 6.41+/-0.46 vs. 4.8+/-0.32 mmol/l, p<0.001; fasting insulinemia 59

  15. Restoration of myocardial bioenergetic metabolism in swine after periods of ischemic ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Skinner, F P; Levitzky, M G; Scott, R F; Fricks, J

    1975-05-01

    Myocardial mitochondrial function and high energy phosphate levels were measured in normal swine, in swine after either 5 or 10 minutes of ischemic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) while on cardiopulmonary bypass, and in swine defibrillated after either 5 or 10 minutes of IVE. The damage to myocardial mitochondria induced by IVF, such as partial uncoupling, decreased oxygen uptake, and loss of cytochrome oxidase activity, was completely reversed almost instantly by coronary artery perfusion and the restoration of sinus rhythm. After either 5 or 10 minutes of IVF followed by coronary artery reperfusion and defibrillation, myocardial creatine phosphate (CP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) return to normal levels very rapidly. However, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels remain significantly lower than control levels. If the bioenergetic mechanisms of swine and human myocardium are similar, it appears that IVF at least for a 10 minute period produces no damage to myocardial mitochondria that is not corrected by perfusion of the coronary arteries and re-establishment of sinus rhythm. Furthermore, sinus rhythm can be re-established and maintained despite signficantly lower levels of myocardial ATP.

  16. Systemic corazonin signalling modulates stress responses and metabolism in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kubrak, Olga I.; Lushchak, Oleh V.; Zandawala, Meet

    2016-01-01

    Stress triggers cellular and systemic reactions in organisms to restore homeostasis. For instance, metabolic stress, experienced during starvation, elicits a hormonal response that reallocates resources to enable food search and readjustment of physiology. Mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its insect orthologue, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), are known for their roles in modulating stress-related behaviour. Here we show that corazonin (Crz), a peptide homologous to AKH/GnRH, also alters stress physiology in Drosophila. The Crz receptor (CrzR) is expressed in salivary glands and adipocytes of the liver-like fat body, and CrzR knockdown targeted simultaneously to both these tissues increases the fly's resistance to starvation, desiccation and oxidative stress, reduces feeding, alters expression of transcripts of Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs), and affects gene expression in the fat body. Furthermore, in starved flies, CrzR-knockdown increases circulating and stored carbohydrates. Thus, our findings indicate that elevated systemic Crz signalling during stress coordinates increased food intake and diminished energy stores to regain metabolic homeostasis. Our study suggests that an ancient stress-peptide in Urbilateria evolved to give rise to present-day GnRH, AKH and Crz signalling systems. PMID:27810969

  17. Bacterial microcompartments as metabolic modules for plant synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Esquer, C Raul; Newnham, Sarah E; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are megadalton-sized protein assemblies that enclose segments of metabolic pathways within cells. They increase the catalytic efficiency of the encapsulated enzymes while sequestering volatile or toxic intermediates from the bulk cytosol. The first BMCs discovered were the carboxysomes of cyanobacteria. Carboxysomes compartmentalize the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) with carbonic anhydrase. They enhance the carboxylase activity of RuBisCO by increasing the local concentration of CO2 in the vicinity of the enzyme's active site. As a metabolic module for carbon fixation, carboxysomes could be transferred to eukaryotic organisms (e.g. plants) to increase photosynthetic efficiency. Within the scope of synthetic biology, carboxysomes and other BMCs hold even greater potential when considered a source of building blocks for the development of nanoreactors or three-dimensional scaffolds to increase the efficiency of either native or heterologously expressed enzymes. The carboxysome serves as an ideal model system for testing approaches to engineering BMCs because their expression in cyanobacteria provides a sensitive screen for form (appearance of polyhedral bodies) and function (ability to grow on air). We recount recent progress in the re-engineering of the carboxysome shell and core to offer a conceptual framework for the development of BMC-based architectures for applications in plant synthetic biology.

  18. Dietary nitrogen and calcium modulate bone metabolism in young goats.

    PubMed

    Elfers, Kristin; Liesegang, Annette; Wilkens, Mirja R; Breves, Gerhard; Muscher-Banse, Alexandra S

    2016-11-01

    Ruminants, possessing the rumino-hepatic circulation, are thought to cope easily with reduced dietary nitrogen (N) supply which is of economic and environmental interest to diminish N output. Nevertheless, feeding an N reduced diet to young goats resulted in a decrease in calcitriol and calcium (Ca) plasma concentrations. Although a dietary Ca reduction alone stimulated calcitriol synthesis and plasma Ca concentrations were restored, in combination with a reduced N supply this stimulating effect was abolished. Based on the important role bone tissue plays in maintaining Ca homeostasis, aim of the present study was to determine effects of an N reduced diet with or without a concomitant Ca reduction on bone metabolism in young goats. A dietary N reduction alone resulted in a significant rise in plasma concentrations of bone resorption marker C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) and bone formation marker osteocalcin (OC), while reduced intake of Ca as well as the combination of both dietary interventions increased bone markers only slightly. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density of metatarsi were decreased by reduced N intake, while Ca and phosphorus (P) content of dried bones remained unaffected. In contrast, a dietary Ca reduction alone led to decreased Ca and P content of dried bones. From these data it can be concluded that a dietary N reduction alone or in combination with a reduced dietary Ca supply modulated bone metabolism in young goats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Survey of the Relationship Between Metabolic Syndrome and Myocardial Infarction in Hospitals of Urmia University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Khademvatan, K.; Alinejad, V.; Eghtedar, S.; Rahbar, N.; Agakhani, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between metabolic syndrome and myocardial infarction in patients admitted to the hospitals of Urmia University of medical sciences. Methods: A case-control study population consisted of 172 patients with heart failure who were admitted to Seyedolshohada Hospital. In this method, the researchers present in the units and along with demographic questionnaire of patients, laboratory results needed for the survey (fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and HDL) with waist circumference size, blood pressure, height and weight were examined. Data after collection were analyzed using SPSS statistical software. Results: In this study of 172 patients with myocardial infarction, 56 patients (38.4%) patients were females and 112 (17.9%) were males. 1.2% of the patients were single, 84.8% were married, 0.6 were divorced and 13.5% were widowed, 116 patients (67.4%) with features of metabolic syndrome and 56 patients (32.6%) were lacking. In this study, females with myocardial infarction had more metabolic syndrome than males and in people whom relatives have a history of heart disease and also people who are overweight as well as obesity and also have features of metabolic syndrome and mean profiles of HDL, LDL, BMI, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride and waist circumference in males compared to males is higher. However, history of smoking, average number of cigarettes used per day, height and weight of males is higher than females. Other findings indicate a significant relationship between age and sex and having or not having a family history of heart failure, having or not having history of certain drugs and BMI of patient with metabolic syndrome. But a significant relationship was not found between the marital status, education, residence, income, previous history of heart disease, PCI, LDL, history of drug use, type of infarction, the extent of ejection and location with syndrome patients. In terms of

  20. Pioglitazone Attenuates Acute Cocaine Toxicity in Rat Isolated Heart: Potential Protection by Metabolic Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Guy L.; Ripper, Richard; Bern, Sarah; Lin, Bocheng; Edelman, Lucas; DiGregorio, Guido; Piano, Mariann; Feinstein, Douglas L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The authors test whether cocaine depresses mitochondrial acylcarnitine exchange and if a drug that enhances glucose metabolism could protect against cocaine-induced cardiac dysfunction. Methods Oxygen consumption with and without cocaine was compared in rat cardiac mitochondria using either octanoylcarnitine (lipid) or pyruvate (non-lipid) substrates. Isolated hearts from rats with or without pioglitazone-supplemented diet were exposed to cocaine. Results Cocaine 0.5mM inhibited respiration supported by octanoylcarnitine (82 +/− 10.4 and 45.7 +/− 4.24 ngatomO min −1 mg −1 protein +/− SEM, for control and cocaine treatment, respectively; p < 0.02) but not pyruvate-supported respiration (281 +/− 12.5 and 267 +/− 12.7 ngatomO min −1 mg −1 protein +/− SEM; p = 0.45). Cocaine altered contractility, lusitropy, coronary resistance and lactate production in isolated heart. These effects were each blunted in pioglitazone-treated hearts. Pioglitazone diet attenuated the drop in rate-pressure product (p = 0.002), cocaine-induced diastolic dysfunction (p = 0.04) and myocardial vascular resistance (p = 0.05) compared to controls. Lactate production was higher in pretreated hearts (p = 0.008) and in ventricular myocytes cultured with pioglitazone (p = 0.0001). Conclusions Cocaine inhibited octanoylcarnitine-supported mitochondrial respiration. Pioglitazone diet significantly attenuated the effects of cocaine on isolated heart. The authors postulate that inhibition of acylcarnitine exchange could contribute to cocaine-induced cardiac dysfunction and that metabolic modulation warrants further study a potential treatment for such toxicity. PMID:21487283

  1. Reduced chronotropic reserve to the metabolic requirement during exercise in advanced heart failure with old myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, H; Kobayashi, K; Takata, T; Fukuzaki, H

    1987-03-01

    We studied the metabolic and cardiac responses to exercise by expiratory gas analysis in 40 patients with old myocardial infarction and 33 normal sedentary males. On the basis of exercise energy metabolism, the elevation of the respiratory quotient (RQ; RQ = VCO2/VO2) during exercise is caused by the increase of blood lactate due to the augmented anaerobic metabolism. Functional aerobic impairment (FAI) in our study was significantly advanced in the control group and the NYHA functional class I, class II and class III groups, that is, -2.3 +/- 11.2%, +14.8 +/- 10.4%, +27.8 +/- 13.8% and +49.4 +/- 2.8%, respectively. The delta RQ values were similar among all groups; 0.29 respectively. The delta RQ values were similar among all groups; 0.29 +/- 0.06, 0.28 +/- 0.07, 0.27 +/- 0.07 and 0.29 +/- 0.09, respectively. Functional chronotropic impairment (FCI) for the same groups was -0.9 +/- 7.0%, +1.4 6.1%, +3.8 +/- 4.8% and +8.7 +/- 6.0%, and that of the class III group was significantly larger than that of the control group. Thus, in the class III congestive heart failure group, the chronotropic response to the metabolic requirement was impaired in comparison to the control group. It was concluded that the reduced chronotropic reserve was present in NYHA class III patients with old myocardial infarction, and that this mechanism might contribute to a decrease in the pump reserve of the heart, resulting in further impairment of physical capacity in these patients.

  2. Autonomic modulation during acute myocardial ischemia by low-dose pirenzepine in conscious dogs with a healed myocardial infarction: a comparison with beta-adrenergic blockade.

    PubMed

    Pedretti, Roberto F E; Prete, Giovanna; Foreman, Robert D; Adamson, Philip B; Vanoli, Emilio

    2003-05-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence documents the beneficial effects of blocking sympathetic activity and modulating heart rate to reduce risk for lethal events in ischemic heart disease. Beside beta-adrenergic receptor blockade, vagal activation is a meaningful approach but not yet easily attainable. Promising results were shown with low-dose atropine and scopolamine, but no follow-up was done because of significant adverse side effects. Pirenzepine is an atropine analogue approved to treat peptic ulcer disease in Europe that is devoid of central actions, which are mostly responsible for anti-muscarinic agents side effects. The vagomimetic action of IV low-dose pirenzepine was studied at rest under control conditions, at rest during acute coronary artery occlusion, and during exercise in conscious dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction (MI). The effects of pirenzepine were then compared, by internal control analysis, with those of atenolol (1 mg/kg). Increasing doses of pirenzepine (from 0.01 to 1 mg/kg) were tested in 11 dogs at rest by measuring time and frequency domain heart rate variability (HRV). The most effective dose (0.1 mg/kg) was used in the study. At the most effective dose, pirenzepine increased all measures of time domain HRV by 40-50%. However, the vagomimetic action of pirenzepine was lost during exercise and brief ischemia and no anti-arrhythmic action was observed. Conversely, pirenzepine effectively modulated the heart rate increase during acute ischemia at rest with an effect comparable to that of atenolol. The vagomimetic action of pirenzepine in the acutely ischemic heart supports the possibility that this intervention may be helpful for chronic autonomic modulation in post-MI patients.

  3. Coronary hemodynamics and myocardial metabolism during and after pacing stress in normal humans.

    PubMed

    Camici, P; Marraccini, P; Marzilli, M; Lorenzoni, R; Buzzigoli, G; Puntoni, R; Boni, C; Bellina, C R; Klassen, G A; L'Abbate, A

    1989-09-01

    We investigated coronary hemodynamics, myocardial utilization of circulating substrates (by coronary sinus catheterization), and overall use of oxidative fuels (by regional indirect calorimetry) in healthy adults during incremental atrial pacing (up to 159 +/- 9 beats/min), and during 25 min of recovery. Great cardiac vein flow (thermodilution) increased from 52 +/- 9 to 115 +/- 15 ml/min (P less than 0.001) with pacing; myocardial O2 uptake (301 +/- 53 to 593 +/- 71 mumol/min, P less than 0.001) and CO2 production (225 +/- 37 to 518 +/- 66 mumol/min, P less than 0.005) paralleled the pacing-induced rise in rate-pressure product (9.4 +/- 0.9 to 21.1 +/- 1.1 mmHg.beat. min-1.10(-3), P less than 0.001). During recovery, all the above variables returned to base line within 5 min, but myocardial O2 extraction remained depressed (67 +/- 2 vs. 71 +/- 3%, P less than 0.05). Circulating glucose uptake rose linearly with pacing (P less than 0.05) and remained above base line throughout recovery. By contrast, free fatty acid (FFA) uptake (10 mumol/min) did not increase with pacing and fell during recovery (P less than 0.01). Calorimetry, however, showed that net lipid oxidation exceeded FFA uptake throughout the study, whereas net carbohydrate oxidation was small at base line, rose significantly at maximal pacing (62% of myocardial energy output), and remained above base line during recovery (32% of energy output). In the basal state as well as during recovery, myocardial uptake of glucose equivalents (lactate plus glucose plus pyruvate) was in excess of carbohydrate oxidation, indicating nonoxidative disposal of these substrates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Protective Effect of Qiliqiangxin Capsule on Energy Metabolism and Myocardial Mitochondria in Pressure Overload Heart Failure Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfang; Wei, Cong; Wang, Hongtao; Tang, Siwen; Jia, Zhenhua; Wang, Lei; Xu, Dengfeng; Wu, Yiling

    2013-01-01

    Qiliqiangxin capsule (QL) was developed under the guidance of TCM theory of collateral disease and had been shown to be effective and safe for the treatment of heart failure. The present study explored the role of and mechanism by which the herbal compounds QL act on energy metabolism, in vivo, in pressure overload heart failure. SD rats received ascending aorta constriction (TAC) to establish a model of myocardial hypertrophy. The animals were treated orally for a period of six weeks. QL significantly inhibited cardiac hypertrophy due to ascending aortic constriction and improved hemodynamics. This effect was linked to the expression levels of the signaling factors in connection with upregulated energy and the regulation of glucose and lipid substrate metabolism and with a decrease in metabolic intermediate products and the protection of mitochondrial function. It is concluded that QL may regulate the glycolipid substrate metabolism by activating AMPK/PGC-1α axis and reduce the accumulation of free fatty acids and lactic acid, to protect cardiac myocytes and mitochondrial function. PMID:24078824

  5. Stress-responsive hydroxycinnamate glycosyltransferase modulates phenylpropanoid metabolism in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Babst, Benjamin A.; Chen, Han-Yi; Wang, Hong-Qiang; Payyavula, Raja S.; Thomas, Tina P.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of phenylpropanoids offers a rich inventory of bioactive chemicals that can be exploited for plant improvement and human health. Recent evidence suggests that glycosylation may play a role in the partitioning of phenylpropanoid precursors for a variety of downstream uses. This work reports the functional characterization of a stress-responsive glycosyltransferase, GT1-316 in Populus. GT1-316 belongs to the UGT84A subfamily of plant glycosyltransferase family 1 and is designated UGT84A17. Recombinant protein analysis showed that UGT84A17 is a hydroxycinnamate glycosyltransferase and able to accept a range of unsubstituted and substituted cinnamic and benzoic acids as substrates in vitro. Overexpression of GT1-316 in transgenic Populus led to plant-wide increases of hydroxycinnamoyl-glucose esters, which were further elevated under N-limiting conditions. Levels of the two most abundant flavonoid glycosides, rutin and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, decreased, while levels of other less abundant flavonoid and phenylpropanoid conjugates increased in leaves of the GT1-316-overexpressing plants. Transcript levels of representative phenylpropanoid pathway genes were unchanged in transgenic plants, supporting a glycosylation-mediated redirection of phenylpropanoid carbon flow as opposed to enhanced phenylpropanoid pathway flux. The metabolic response of N-replete transgenic plants overlapped with that of N-stressed wild types, as the majority of phenylpropanoid derivatives significantly affected by GT1-316 overexpression were also significantly changed by N stress in the wild types. These results suggest that UGT84A17 plays an important role in phenylpropanoid metabolism by modulating biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamoyl-glucose esters and their derivatives in response to developmental and environmental cues. PMID:24803501

  6. Differential Effects Of Octanoate And Heptanoate On Myocardial Metabolism During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation In An Infant Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R.; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2015-10-01

    Background: Nutritional energy support during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) should promote successful myocardial adaptation and eventual weaning from the ECMO circuit. Fatty acids (FAs) are a major myocardial energy source, and medium-chain FAs (MCFAs) are easily taken up by cell and mitochondria without membrane transporters. Oddnumbered MCFAs supply carbons to the citric acid cycle (CAC) via anaplerotic propionyl-CoA as well as acetyl-CoA, the predominant betaoxidation product for even-numbered MCFA. Theoretically, this anaplerotic pathway enhances carbon entry into the CAC, and provides superior energy state and preservation of protein synthesis. We tested this hypothesis in an immature swine model undergoing ECMO. Methods: Fifteen male Yorkshire pigs (26-45 days old) with 8-hour ECMO were received either normal saline, heptanoate (odd-numbered MCFA) or octanoate (even-numbered MCFA) at 2.3 μmol/kg body wt/min as MCFAs systemically during ECMO (n = 5 per group). The 13-Carbon (13C)-labeled substrates ([2-13C]lactate, [5,6,7-13C3]heptanoate and [U-13C6]leucine) were systemically infused as metabolic markers for the final 60 minutes before left ventricular tissue extraction. Extracted tissues were analyzed for the 13C-labeled and absolute concentrations of metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Octanoate produced markedly higher myocardial citrate concentration, and led to a higher [ATP]/[ADP] ratio compared with other http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jpen Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition For Peer Review groups. Unexpectedly, octanoate increased the flux of propionyl-CoA relative to acetyl-CoA into the CAC as well as heptanoate. MCFAs promoted increases in leucine oxidation, but were not associated with a difference in fractional protein synthesis rate. Conclusion: Octanoate provides energetic advantages to the heart over heptanoate, while preserving protein synthesis.

  7. Differential effects of octanoate and heptanoate on myocardial metabolism during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an infant swine model

    PubMed Central

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R.; Olson, Aaron K.; Isern, Nancy G.; Des Rosiers, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional energy support during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) should promote successful myocardial adaptation and eventual weaning from the ECMO circuit. Fatty acids (FAs) are a major myocardial energy source, and medium-chain FAs (MCFAs) are easily taken up by cell and mitochondria without membrane transporters. Odd-numbered MCFAs supply carbons to the citric acid cycle (CAC) via anaplerotic propionyl-CoA as well as acetyl-CoA, the predominant β-oxidation product for even-numbered MCFA. Theoretically, this anaplerotic pathway enhances carbon entry into the CAC, and provides superior energy state and preservation of protein synthesis. We tested this hypothesis in an immature swine model undergoing ECMO. Fifteen male Yorkshire pigs (26–45 days old) with 8-h ECMO received either normal saline, heptanoate (odd-numbered MCFA), or octanoate (even-numbered MCFA) at 2.3 μmol·kg body wt−1·min−1 as MCFAs systemically during ECMO (n = 5/group). The 13-carbon (13C)-labeled substrates ([2-13C]lactate, [5,6,7-13C3]heptanoate, and [U-13C6]leucine) were systemically infused as metabolic markers for the final 60 min before left ventricular tissue extraction. Extracted tissues were analyzed for the 13C-labeled and absolute concentrations of metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Octanoate produced markedly higher myocardial citrate concentration, and led to a higher [ATP]-to-[ADP] ratio compared with other groups. Unexpectedly, octanoate and heptanoate increased the flux of propionyl-CoA relative to acetyl-CoA into the CAC compared with control. MCFAs promoted increases in leucine oxidation, but were not associated with a difference in protein synthesis rate. In conclusion, octanoate provides energetic advantages to the heart over heptanoate. PMID:26232235

  8. Abnormal myocardial fatty acid metabolism in dilated cardiomyopathy detected by iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid and tomographic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ugolini, V.; Hansen, C.L.; Kulkarni, P.V.; Jansen, D.E.; Akers, M.S.; Corbett, J.R.

    1988-11-01

    The radioidinated synthetic fatty acid iodine-123 phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) has proven useful in the identification of regional abnormalities of cardiac metabolism in patients with myocardial ischemia. The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that the myocardial distribution and turnover of fatty acids, assessed noninvasively with IPPA, are altered in patients with cardiomyopathy. Nine normal volunteers and 19 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy of various etiologies underwent cardiac imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) after intravenous injection of IPPA. Apical short-axis and basal short-axis sections were reconstructed and quantitatively analyzed for relative IPPA activity distribution and washout. Patients with congestive cardiomyopathy demonstrated significantly greater heterogeneity of IPPA uptake than normal subjects (maximal percent variation of activity 27 +/- 11 vs 18 +/- 4, p less than 0.01). They also demonstrated a more rapid percent washout rate than control subjects (24 +/- 8 vs 17 +/- 6 for the apical short-axis section, p less than 0.05; 26 +/- 7 vs 18 +/- 5 for the basal short-axis section, p less than 0.01). These abnormalities of fatty acid distribution and turnover were independent of the etiology of the cardiomyopathy. The degree of heterogeneity of IPPA uptake was significantly related to the patients' New York Heart Association functional class (r = 0.64, p less than 0.01). Thus, compared with normal myocardium, the myocardium of patients with congestive cardiomyopathy demonstrates a more heterogeneous distribution of fatty acid uptake, which parallels the clinical severity of the disease. Furthermore, patients with congestive cardiomyopathy demonstrate a more rapid myocardial clearance of the labeled fatty acid, as assessed with SPECT imaging.

  9. Differential effects of octanoate and heptanoate on myocardial metabolism during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an infant swine model.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R; Olson, Aaron K; Isern, Nancy G; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A

    2015-10-01

    Nutritional energy support during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) should promote successful myocardial adaptation and eventual weaning from the ECMO circuit. Fatty acids (FAs) are a major myocardial energy source, and medium-chain FAs (MCFAs) are easily taken up by cell and mitochondria without membrane transporters. Odd-numbered MCFAs supply carbons to the citric acid cycle (CAC) via anaplerotic propionyl-CoA as well as acetyl-CoA, the predominant β-oxidation product for even-numbered MCFA. Theoretically, this anaplerotic pathway enhances carbon entry into the CAC, and provides superior energy state and preservation of protein synthesis. We tested this hypothesis in an immature swine model undergoing ECMO. Fifteen male Yorkshire pigs (26-45 days old) with 8-h ECMO received either normal saline, heptanoate (odd-numbered MCFA), or octanoate (even-numbered MCFA) at 2.3 μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1) as MCFAs systemically during ECMO (n = 5/group). The 13-carbon ((13)C)-labeled substrates ([2-(13)C]lactate, [5,6,7-(13)C3]heptanoate, and [U-(13)C6]leucine) were systemically infused as metabolic markers for the final 60 min before left ventricular tissue extraction. Extracted tissues were analyzed for the (13)C-labeled and absolute concentrations of metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Octanoate produced markedly higher myocardial citrate concentration, and led to a higher [ATP]-to-[ADP] ratio compared with other groups. Unexpectedly, octanoate and heptanoate increased the flux of propionyl-CoA relative to acetyl-CoA into the CAC compared with control. MCFAs promoted increases in leucine oxidation, but were not associated with a difference in protein synthesis rate. In conclusion, octanoate provides energetic advantages to the heart over heptanoate. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Dunnione ameliorates cisplatin ototoxicity through modulation of NAD(+) metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Jin; Pandit, Arpana; Oh, Gi-Su; Shen, AiHua; Lee, Su-Bin; Khadka, Dipendra; Lee, SeungHoon; Shim, Hyeok; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Cho, Eun-Young; Kwak, Tae Hwan; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil; So, Hong-Seob

    2016-03-01

    Ototoxicity is an important issue in patients receiving cisplatin chemotherapy. Numerous studies have demonstrated that cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is related to oxidative stress and DNA damage. However, the precise mechanism underlying cisplatin-associated ototoxicity is still unclear. The cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) has emerged as an important regulator of energy metabolism and cellular homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that the levels and activities of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) are suppressed by the reduction of intracellular NAD(+) levels in cisplatin-mediated ototoxicity. We provide evidence that the decreases in SIRT1 activity and expression facilitated by increasing poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation and microRNA-34a levels through cisplatin-mediated p53 activation aggravate the associated ototoxicity. Furthermore, we show that the induction of cellular NAD(+) levels using dunnione, which targets intracellular NQO1, prevents the toxic effects of cisplatin through the regulation of PARP-1 and SIRT1 activity. These results suggest that direct modulation of cellular NAD(+) levels by pharmacological agents could be a promising therapeutic approach for protection from cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.

  11. Altered regional myocardial metabolism in congestive cardiomyopathy detected by positron tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Geltman, E.M.; Smith, J.L.; Beecher, D.; Ludbrook, P.A.; Ter-Pogossian, M.M.; Sobel, B.E.

    1983-05-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether positron emission tomography performed after intravenous injection of /sup 11/C-palmitate permits detection and characterization of congestive cardiomyopathy. Positron emission tomography was performed after the intravenous injection of /sup 11/C-palmitate in 13 normal subjects, 17 patients with congestive cardiomyopathy, and six patients with initial transmural myocardial infarction (defined electrocardiographically). Regionally depressed accumulation of /sup 11/C-palmitate was assessed, characterized, and quantified in seven parallel transaxial reconstructions in each patient. Patients with cardiomyopathy exhibited a larger number of discrete noncontiguous regions of accumulation of palmitate within the myocardium than either control subjects or patients with transmural infarction (17.4 +/- 0.6 (SEM) versus 11.8 +/- 0.7 versus 10.3 +/- 0.6, p less than 0.005). Similarly, regions of accumulation of palmitate were irregularly shaped in patients with cardiomyopathy, with a longer normalized perimeter than either control subjects or patients with transmural infarction (2.0 +/- 0.05 versus 1.8 +/- 0.06 versus 1.9 +/- 0.09, p less than 0.05). Regional abnormalities of the accumulation of 11C-palmitate could not be explained by regional differences in left ventricular wall motion or myocardial perfusion. Thus, marked heterogeneity of regional myocardial accumulation of 11C-palmitate is detectable and quantifiable in patients with congestive cardiomyopathy by positron emission tomography and may be particularly valuable for early detection and characterization of cardiomyopathy.

  12. Zirconia--a stationary phase capable of the separation of polar markers of myocardial metabolism in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kučera, Radim; Kovaříková, Petra; Pasáková-Vrbatová, Ivana; Slaninová, Jitka; Klimeš, Jiří

    2014-05-01

    Creatine, phosphocreatine, and adenine nucleotides are highly polar markers of myocardial metabolism that are poorly retained on RP silica sorbents. Zirconia represents an alternative material to silica with high promise to be used in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). This study describes a first systematic investigation of the ability of ZrO2 to separate creatine, phosphocreatine, adenosine 5'-monophosphate, adenosine 5'-diphosphate, and adenosine 5'-triphosphate and compares the results with those obtained on TiO2 . All analytes showed a HILIC-like retention pattern when mobile phases of different strengths were tested. Stronger retention and better column performance were achieved in organic-rich mobile phases as compared to aqueous conditions, where poor retention and insufficient column performance were observed. The effect of mobile phase pH and ionic strength was evaluated as well. The analysis of myocardial tissue demonstrated that all compounds were separated in a relevant biological material and thus proved ZrO2 as a promising phase for HILIC of biological samples that deserves further investigation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Can We Prevent Obesity-Related Metabolic Diseases by Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?

    PubMed

    Brahe, Lena K; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli H

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity-related metabolic diseases and the potential of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota in metabolic disease prevention and treatment.

  14. Can We Prevent Obesity-Related Metabolic Diseases by Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiota?1

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity-related metabolic diseases and the potential of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota in metabolic disease prevention and treatment. PMID:26773017

  15. Persistent abnormal coronary flow reserve in association with abnormal glucose metabolism affects prognosis in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Løgstrup, Brian B; Høfsten, Dan E; Christophersen, Thomas B; Møller, Jacob E; Bøtker, Hans E; Pellikka, Patricia A; Egstrup, Kenneth

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate changes in coronary flow reserve (CFR) over time after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in relation to left ventricular (LV) function and glucometabolic state and prognostic implication of abnormal CFR. 154 patients with first time AMI had a comprehensive assessment of the LV function and CFR at baseline and after 3 months of follow-up. CFR was measured noninvasively in left descending artery by transthoracic echocardiography. Eighty-five patients had an abnormal CFR at baseline. At baseline patients with persistently normal CFR had higher wall motion score index (WMI), ejection fraction (EF) and S' compared with patients with abnormal CFR. At follow-up patients with persistently normal CFR had higher WMI, EF, S' and lower end-systolic diameter compared with patients with abnormal microcirculation. Performing univariate logistical regression baseline CFR (P = 0.004), S' (P = 0.045) and abnormal glucose metabolism (P = 0.001) were predictors of a decreased CFR at 3 months of follow-up. In multivariate analyses abnormal glucose metabolism (OR: 5.3; 95%CI: 1.9-14.4; P = 0.001) remained a predictor of decreased CFR at follow-up, furthermore baseline CFR (OR: 0.5; 95%CI: 0.25-0.94; P = 0.032) and S' (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47-0.94; P = 0.021) was predictors of decreased CFR. Finally, CFR was associated with a lower risk of cardiac events in patients with normal glucose metabolism (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.22-1.9; P = 0.42) than in patients with abnormal glucose metabolism (HR: 2.9; 95% CI: 1.1-7.6; P = 0.03), suggesting significant effect modification (Pinteraction = 0.03). Abnormal glucose metabolism is associated with poorer recovery of microvascular integrity after AMI. In addition, there seem to exist a prognostic interaction between glucometabolic state and abnormal CFR. © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Myocardial viability.

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Y; Kloner, R A

    1996-01-01

    Left ventricular function is a major predictor of outcome in patients with coronary artery disease. Acute ischemia, postischemic dysfunction (stunning), myocardial hibernation, or a combination of these 3 are among the reversible forms of myocardial dysfunction. In myocardial stunning, dysfunction occurs despite normal myocardial perfusion, and function recovers spontaneously over time. In acute ischemia and hibernation, there is regional hypoperfusion. Function improves only after revascularization. Evidence of myocardial viability usually relies on the demonstration of uptake of various metabolic tracers, such as thallium (thallous chloride TI 201) or fludeoxyglucose F 18, by dysfunctional myocardium or by the demonstration of contractile reserve in a dysfunctional region. This can be shown as an augmentation of function during the infusion of various sympathomimetic agents. The response of ventricular segments to increasing doses of dobutamine may indicate the underlying mechanism of dysfunction. Stunned segments that have normal perfusion show dose-dependent augmentation of function. If perfusion is reduced as in hibernating myocardium, however, a biphasic response usually occurs: function improves at low doses of dobutamine, whereas higher doses may induce ischemia and, hence, dysfunction. But in patients with severely impaired perfusion, even low doses may cause ischemia. Myocardial regions with subendocardial infarction or diffuse scarring may also have augmented contractility during catecholamine infusion due to stimulation of the subepicardial layers. In these cases, augmentation of function after revascularization is not expected. Because the underlying mechanism, prognosis, and therapy may differ among these conditions, it is crucial to differentiate among dysfunctional myocardial segments that are nonviable and have no potential to regain function, hibernating or ischemic segments in which recovery of function occurs only after revascularization, and

  17. Direct regulation of myocardial triglyceride metabolism by the cardiomyocyte circadian clock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maintenance of circadian alignment between an organism and its environment is essential to ensure metabolic homeostasis. Synchrony is achieved by cell autonomous circadian clocks. Despite a growing appreciation of the integral relation between clocks and metabolism, little is known regarding the dir...

  18. Circadian Clocks as Modulators of Metabolic Comorbidity in Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Barandas, Rita; Landgraf, Dominic; McCarthy, Michael J; Welsh, David K

    2015-12-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder are often accompanied by metabolic dysfunction symptoms, including obesity and diabetes. Since the circadian system controls important brain systems that regulate affective, cognitive, and metabolic functions, and neuropsychiatric and metabolic diseases are often correlated with disturbances of circadian rhythms, we hypothesize that dysregulation of circadian clocks plays a central role in metabolic comorbidity in psychiatric disorders. In this review paper, we highlight the role of circadian clocks in glucocorticoid, dopamine, and orexin/melanin-concentrating hormone systems and describe how a dysfunction of these clocks may contribute to the simultaneous development of psychiatric and metabolic symptoms.

  19. Modulators of Hepatic Lipoprotein Metabolism Identified in a Search for Small-Molecule Inducers of Tribbles Pseudokinase 1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Nagiec, Marek M.; Skepner, Adam P.; Negri, Joseph; Eichhorn, Michelle; Kuperwasser, Nicolas; Comer, Eamon; Muncipinto, Giovanni; Subramanian, Aravind; Clish, Clary; Musunuru, Kiran; Duvall, Jeremy R.; Foley, Michael; Perez, Jose R.; Palmer, Michelle A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent genome wide association studies have linked tribbles pseudokinase 1 (TRIB1) to the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Based on the observations that increased expression of TRIB1 reduces secretion of VLDL and is associated with lower plasma levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, higher plasma levels of HDL cholesterol and reduced risk for myocardial infarction, we carried out a high throughput phenotypic screen based on quantitative RT-PCR assay to identify compounds that induce TRIB1 expression in human HepG2 hepatoma cells. In a screen of a collection of diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS)-derived compounds, we identified a series of benzofuran-based compounds that upregulate TRIB1 expression and phenocopy the effects of TRIB1 cDNA overexpression, as they inhibit triglyceride synthesis and apoB secretion in cells. In addition, the compounds downregulate expression of MTTP and APOC3, key components of the lipoprotein assembly pathway. However, CRISPR-Cas9 induced chromosomal disruption of the TRIB1 locus in HepG2 cells, while confirming its regulatory role in lipoprotein metabolism, demonstrated that the effects of benzofurans persist in TRIB1-null cells indicating that TRIB1 is sufficient but not necessary to transmit the effects of the drug. Remarkably, active benzofurans, as well as natural products capable of TRIB1 upregulation, also modulate hepatic cell cholesterol metabolism by elevating the expression of LDLR transcript and LDL receptor protein, while reducing the levels of PCSK9 transcript and secreted PCSK9 protein and stimulating LDL uptake. The effects of benzofurans are not masked by cholesterol depletion and are independent of the SREBP-2 regulatory circuit, indicating that these compounds represent a novel class of chemically tractable small-molecule modulators that shift cellular lipoprotein metabolism in HepG2 cells from lipogenesis to scavenging. PMID:25811180

  20. Cardiac metabolism, inflammation, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors modulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ting-I; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Yao-Chang; Tsai, Wen-Chin; Chung, Cheng-Chih; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2014-09-01

    High free fatty acid with reduced glucose utilization in diabetes mellitus (DM) impairs cardiac function. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) modulate myocardial lipid and glucose homeostasis. The active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) regulates oxidative stress and inflammation, which may play a key role in the modulation of PPARs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 1,25(OH)2D3 can modulate the cardiac PPARs and fatty acid metabolism. Electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate cardiac fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and PPAR isoform expression in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, DM rats, and DM rats treated with 1,25(OH)2D3. Compared to healthy rats, DM and 1,25(OH)2D3-treated DM rats had lower body weight. DM rats had larger left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, and longer QT interval than healthy or 1,25(OH)2D3-treated DM rats. Moreover, compared to healthy or 1,25(OH)2D3-treated DM rats, DM rats had fewer cardiac PPAR-α and PPAR-δ protein expressions, but had increased cardiac PPAR-γ protein levels, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinaseα2, phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, PPAR-γ coactivator 1-α, cluster of differentiation 36, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 protein expressions. 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly changed the cardiac function and fatty acid regulations in DM hearts, which may be caused by its regulations on cardiac PPARs and proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Circulating NOS3 Modulates Left Ventricular Remodeling following Reperfused Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Ohlig, Jan; Rassaf, Tienush; Gödecke, Axel; Fischer, Jens W.; Heusch, Gerd; Merx, Marc W.; Kelm, Malte

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nitric oxide (NO) is constitutively produced and released from the endothelium and several blood cell types by the isoform 3 of the NO synthase (NOS3). We have shown that NO protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and that depletion of circulating NOS3 increases within 24h of ischemia/reperfusion the size of myocardial infarction (MI) in chimeric mice devoid of circulating NOS3. In the current study we hypothesized that circulating NOS3 also affects remodeling of the left ventricle following reperfused MI. Methods To analyze the role of circulating NOS3 we transplanted bone marrow of NOS3−/− and wild type (WT) mice into WT mice, producing chimerae expressing NOS3 only in vascular endothelium (BC−/EC+) or in both, blood cells and vascular endothelium (BC+/EC+). Both groups underwent 60 min of coronary occlusion in a closed-chest model of reperfused MI. During the 3 weeks post MI, structural and functional LV remodeling was serially assessed (24h, 4d, 1w, 2w and 3w) by echocardiography. At 72 hours post MI, gene expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM) modifying molecules was determined by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. At 3 weeks post MI, hemodynamics were obtained by pressure catheter, scar size and collagen content were quantified post mortem by Gomori’s One-step trichrome staining. Results Three weeks post MI, LV end-systolic (53.2±5.9μl;***p≤0.001;n = 5) and end-diastolic volumes (82.7±5.6μl;*p<0.05;n = 5) were significantly increased in BC−/EC+, along with decreased LV developed pressure (67.5±1.8mmHg;n = 18;***p≤0.001) and increased scar size/left ventricle (19.5±1.5%;n = 13;**p≤0.01) compared to BC+/EC+ (ESV:35.6±2.2μl; EDV:69.1±2.6μl n = 8; LVDP:83.2±3.2mmHg;n = 24;scar size/LV13.8±0.7%;n = 16). Myocardial scar of BC−/EC+ was characterized by increased total collagen content (20.2±0.8%;n = 13;***p≤0.001) compared to BC+/EC+ (15.9±0.5;n = 16), and increased collagen type I and III subtypes

  2. Circulating NOS3 modulates left ventricular remodeling following reperfused myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gorressen, Simone; Stern, Manuel; van de Sandt, Annette M; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Ohlig, Jan; Rassaf, Tienush; Gödecke, Axel; Fischer, Jens W; Heusch, Gerd; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is constitutively produced and released from the endothelium and several blood cell types by the isoform 3 of the NO synthase (NOS3). We have shown that NO protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and that depletion of circulating NOS3 increases within 24 h of ischemia/reperfusion the size of myocardial infarction (MI) in chimeric mice devoid of circulating NOS3. In the current study we hypothesized that circulating NOS3 also affects remodeling of the left ventricle following reperfused MI. To analyze the role of circulating NOS3 we transplanted bone marrow of NOS3-/- and wild type (WT) mice into WT mice, producing chimerae expressing NOS3 only in vascular endothelium (BC-/EC+) or in both, blood cells and vascular endothelium (BC+/EC+). Both groups underwent 60 min of coronary occlusion in a closed-chest model of reperfused MI. During the 3 weeks post MI, structural and functional LV remodeling was serially assessed (24 h, 4 d, 1 w, 2 w and 3 w) by echocardiography. At 72 hours post MI, gene expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM) modifying molecules was determined by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. At 3 weeks post MI, hemodynamics were obtained by pressure catheter, scar size and collagen content were quantified post mortem by Gomori's One-step trichrome staining. Three weeks post MI, LV end-systolic (53.2±5.9 μl; ***p≤0.001; n = 5) and end-diastolic volumes (82.7±5.6 μl; *p<0.05; n = 5) were significantly increased in BC-/EC+, along with decreased LV developed pressure (67.5±1.8 mm Hg; n = 18; ***p≤0.001) and increased scar size/left ventricle (19.5±1.5%; n = 13; **p≤0.01) compared to BC+/EC+ (ESV: 35.6±2.2 μl; EDV: 69.1±2.6 μl n = 8; LVDP: 83.2±3.2 mm Hg; n = 24; scar size/LV13.8±0.7%; n = 16). Myocardial scar of BC-/EC+ was characterized by increased total collagen content (20.2±0.8%; n = 13; ***p≤0.001) compared to BC+/EC+ (15.9±0.5; n = 16), and increased collagen type I and III subtypes

  3. Positron emission reconstruction tomography for the assessment of regional myocardial metabolism by the administration of substrates labeled with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ter-Pogossian, M. M.; Hoffman, E. J.; Weiss, E. S.; Coleman, R. E.; Phelps, M. E.; Welch, M. J.; Sobel, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    A positron emission transverse tomograph device was developed which provides transaxial sectional images of the distribution of positron-emitting radionuclides in the heart. The images provide a quantitative three-dimensional map of the distribution of activity unencumbered by the superimposition of activity originating from regions overlying and underlying the plane of interest. PETT is used primarily with the cyclotron-produced radionuclides oxygen-15, nitrogen-13 and carbon-11. Because of the participation of these atoms in metabolism, they can be used to label metabolic substrates and intermediary molecules incorporated in myocardial metabolism.

  4. Positron emission reconstruction tomography for the assessment of regional myocardial metabolism by the administration of substrates labeled with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ter-Pogossian, M. M.; Hoffman, E. J.; Weiss, E. S.; Coleman, R. E.; Phelps, M. E.; Welch, M. J.; Sobel, B. E.

    1975-01-01

    A positron emission transverse tomograph device was developed which provides transaxial sectional images of the distribution of positron-emitting radionuclides in the heart. The images provide a quantitative three-dimensional map of the distribution of activity unencumbered by the superimposition of activity originating from regions overlying and underlying the plane of interest. PETT is used primarily with the cyclotron-produced radionuclides oxygen-15, nitrogen-13 and carbon-11. Because of the participation of these atoms in metabolism, they can be used to label metabolic substrates and intermediary molecules incorporated in myocardial metabolism.

  5. A new network representation of the metabolism to detect chemical transformation modules.

    PubMed

    Sorokina, Maria; Medigue, Claudine; Vallenet, David

    2015-11-14

    Metabolism is generally modeled by directed networks where nodes represent reactions and/or metabolites. In order to explore metabolic pathway conservation and divergence among organisms, previous studies were based on graph alignment to find similar pathways. Few years ago, the concept of chemical transformation modules, also called reaction modules, was introduced and correspond to sequences of chemical transformations which are conserved in metabolism. We propose here a novel graph representation of the metabolic network where reactions sharing a same chemical transformation type are grouped in Reaction Molecular Signatures (RMS). RMS were automatically computed for all reactions and encode changes in atoms and bonds. A reaction network containing all available metabolic knowledge was then reduced by an aggregation of reaction nodes and edges to obtain a RMS network. Paths in this network were explored and a substantial number of conserved chemical transformation modules was detected. Furthermore, this graph-based formalism allows us to define several path scores reflecting different biological conservation meanings. These scores are significantly higher for paths corresponding to known metabolic pathways and were used conjointly to build association rules that should predict metabolic pathway types like biosynthesis or degradation. This representation of metabolism in a RMS network offers new insights to capture relevant metabolic contexts. Furthermore, along with genomic context methods, it should improve the detection of gene clusters corresponding to new metabolic pathways.

  6. Myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits with mesenteric fat accumulation are a novel animal model for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Masashi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Kuniyoshi, Nobue; Yamada, Satoshi; Ito, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    To examine whether the myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbit with visceral fat accumulation is a new animal model for human metabolic syndrome, we examined the relationship between mesenteric fat accumulation and insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Glucose tolerance tests were performed using adult (11- to 15-month-old) and middle-aged (17- to 21-month-old) WHHLMI rabbits fed standard chow restrictedly. In addition, lipoprotein lipid levels, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, mesenteric fat weight and physical and physiological parameters were measured. Mesenteric fat was stained immunohistochemically. The mesenteric adipose tissue was positive for monoclonal antibodies against macrophages, C-reactive protein and monocyte chemoattractant protein. In adult rabbits, mesenteric fat correlated to aortic lesion area, insulin resistance, fasting immunoreactive insulin, serum CRP, abdominal circumference and body weight. In middle-aged rabbits, mesenteric fat correlated to lipoprotein lipid levels in addition to the parameters showing a significant correlation in adult rabbits, excluding aortic lesion area. The WHHLMI rabbit with visceral fat accumulation is a new animal model for metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Effects of nicardipine on coronary blood flow, left ventricular inotropic state and myocardial metabolism in patients with angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, M F; Vincent, M F; Cheron, P; van den Berghe, G; Charlier, A A; Pouleur, H

    1985-01-01

    The effects of intravenous nicardipine (2.5 mg) on the left ventricular (LV) inotropic state, LV metabolism, and coronary haemodynamics were analysed in 22 patients with angina pectoris. Measurements were made at fixed heart rate (atrial pacing), under basal state, and during a cold pressor test. After nicardipine, coronary blood flow and oxygen content in the coronary sinus increased significantly. The indices of inotropic state increased slightly, and the rate of isovolumic LV pressure fall improved. Myocardial oxygen consumption was unchanged despite the significant reduction in pressure-rate product, but LV lactate uptake increased, particularly during the cold pressor test. When nicardipine was administered after propranolol, the indices of inotropic state were unaffected. The lack of direct effect of nicardipine on LV inotropic state was further confirmed by intracoronary injection of 0.1 and 0.2 mg in a separate group of 10 patients. It is concluded that the nicardipine-induced coronary dilatation seems to improve perfusion and aerobic metabolism in areas with chronic ischaemia, resulting in reduced lactate production and augmented oxygen consumption.

  8. Effects of nicardipine and nisoldipine on myocardial metabolism, coronary blood flow and oxygen supply in angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, M F; Vincent, M F; Van Hoof, F; Van den Berghe, G; Charlier, A A; Pouleur, H

    1984-12-01

    The effects of the calcium antagonists nicardipine and nisoldipine on left ventricular (LV) metabolism were analyzed in 32 patients with angina pectoris. Measurements were made at a fixed heart rate under the basal state and during a cold pressor test (CPT). After administration of the drugs, coronary blood flow increased significantly and the mean aortic pressure decreased by 10% (p less than 0.01) in the basal state and by 11% (p less than 0.01) during CPT. Despite the reduction in pressure-rate product, myocardial oxygen consumption was unchanged in the basal state (18 +/- 4 vs 19 +/- 4 ml/min, difference not significant) and during CPT (21 +/- 5 vs 21 +/- 5 ml/min, difference not significant); this discrepancy between a reduced pressure-rate product and an unchanged oxygen consumption was also noted when nicardipine was given after propranolol (0.1 mg/kg; 12 patients). Both agents also increased LV lactate uptake, particularly during CPT (+13 mumol/min, p less than 0.05 vs control CPT) and reduced LV glutamine production. In 10 patients in whom 14C-lactate was infused, the chemical LV lactate extraction ratio increased more than the 14C-lactate extraction ratio after administration of the drugs, indicating a reduction in LV lactate production. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that nicardipine and nisoldipine improve perfusion and aerobic metabolism in chronically ischemic areas, resulting in an augmented oxygen consumption and in a reduced lactate production.

  9. Sleep-Dependent Modulation of Metabolic Rate in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Bethany A; Slocumb, Melissa E; Chaitin, Hersh; DiAngelo, Justin R; Keene, Alex C

    2017-08-01

    Dysregulation of sleep is associated with metabolic diseases, and metabolic rate (MR) is acutely regulated by sleep-wake behavior. In humans and rodent models, sleep loss is associated with obesity, reduced metabolic rate, and negative energy balance, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms governing interactions between sleep and metabolism. We have developed a system to simultaneously measure sleep and MR in individual Drosophila, allowing for interrogation of neural systems governing interactions between sleep and metabolic rate. Like mammals, MR in flies is reduced during sleep and increased during sleep deprivation suggesting sleep-dependent regulation of MR is conserved across phyla. The reduction of MR during sleep is not simply a consequence of inactivity because MR is reduced ~30 minutes following the onset of sleep, raising the possibility that CO2 production provides a metric to distinguish different sleep states in the fruit fly. To examine the relationship between sleep and metabolism, we determined basal and sleep-dependent changes in MR is reduced in starved flies, suggesting that starvation inhibits normal sleep-associated effects on metabolic rate. Further, translin mutant flies that fail to suppress sleep during starvation demonstrate a lower basal metabolic rate, but this rate was further reduced in response to starvation, revealing that regulation of starvation-induced changes in MR and sleep duration are genetically distinct. Therefore, this system provides the unique ability to simultaneously measure sleep and oxidative metabolism, providing novel insight into the physiological changes associated with sleep and wakefulness in the fruit fly.

  10. The AT-hook motif-encoding gene METABOLIC NETWORK MODULATOR 1 underlies natural variation in Arabidopsis primary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baohua; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of primary metabolism is a central mechanism by which plants coordinate their various responses to biotic and abiotic challenge. To identify genes responsible for natural variation in primary metabolism, we focused on cloning a locus from Arabidopsis thaliana that influences the level of TCA cycle metabolites in planta. We found that the Met.V.67 locus was controlled by natural variation in METABOLIC NETWORK MODULATOR 1 (MNM1), which encoded an AT-hook motif-containing protein that was unique to the Brassicales lineage. MNM1 had wide ranging effects on plant metabolism and displayed a tissue expression pattern that was suggestive of a function in sink tissues. Natural variation within MNM1 had differential effects during a diurnal time course, and this temporal dependency was supported by analysis of T-DNA insertion and over-expression lines for MNM1. Thus, the cloning of a natural variation locus specifically associated with primary metabolism allowed us to identify MNM1 as a lineage-specific modulator of primary metabolism, suggesting that the regulation of primary metabolism can change during evolution. PMID:25202318

  11. L-propionylcarnitine does not affect myocardial metabolic or functional response to chronotropic and inotropic stimulation after repetitive ischemia in anesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Duncker, D J; Sassen, L M; Bartels, G L; van Meegen, J R; McFalls, E O; Krams, R; Bezstarosti, K; Lamers, J M; Verdouw, P D

    1993-09-01

    In postischemic myocardium, fatty acid oxidation may be deficient owing to depletion of carnitine and citric acid cycle intermediates and fatty acylCoA-induced inhibition of adenine nucleotide translocase. During postischemic stress, the impairment of the fatty acid oxidation may become more apparent. We therefore investigated in open-chest anesthetized pigs the effect of L-propionylcarnitine [100 mg/kg per day orally (p.o.) for 3 days and 50 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.) 2 h before the first occlusion; n = 13] on myocardial function and metabolism of postischemic (two cycles of 10-min occlusion each followed by 30-min reperfusion) myocardium under resting conditions and during chronotropic and inotropic stimulation with dobutamine. Myocardial levels of free carnitine were higher after pretreatment (5.7 +/- 1.4 vs. 4.0 +/- 1.3 mumol/g protein, p < 0.05). The ischemia-reperfusion-induced decreases in free carnitine were similar for both the untreated and treated animals, but in the latter free carnitine was not different from the baseline levels in the control animals. In untreated animals (n = 15), regional systolic segment shortening (SS) was 18.5 +/- 5.5% (means +/- SD) at baseline, but was reduced to 5.1 +/- 5.5% (p < 0.05) at the end of the second reperfusion period. Myocardial ATP levels had decreased by 30% (p < 0.05) in the presence of a maintained energy charge, while myocardial oxygen and lactate consumption had decreased to 61% and 9% of baseline, respectively. During subsequent i.v. infusion of dobutamine (2 micrograms/kg/min), SS and myocardial oxygen consumption per beat increased to 75 and 65% of baseline, respectively, whereas lactate consumption per beat increased to only 25% of baseline. Decreases in myocardial ATP and oxygen and lactate consumption were not different between treated and untreated animals. L-Propionylcarnitine-treated animals displayed slightly better postischemic recovery of systolic SS than did control animals; to 39 and 28% (p = 0

  12. Calcium-linked adjustment of myocardial metabolism to changing mechanical demands in the isolated rat heart.

    PubMed

    Rubányi, G; Kovách, A G

    1980-01-01

    Isolated rat hearts perfused by the modified Langendorff technique were used to study the effects of changes in perfusate calcium concentration (Cap2+) on left ventricular mechanical performance, O2-consumption, NADH-fluorescence and lactate release in the presence of glucose or pyruvate as the sole exogenous substrate. Stepwise elevation of Ca2+ from 0.31 to 7.8 mM resulted in a continuous increase of contractile activity and O2-consumption independent of the substrate present. Redox changes similar to State 3 to 4 transition (NAD+ reduction) were observed when mechanical activity was reduced by perfusing the hearts with 0.65 or 0.31 mM Cap2+, which was also substrate independent. At high Cap2+ (2.6--7.8 mM) increase of contractile activity and O2-consumption was accompanied by Cap2+ dependent NAD+ reduction in the presence of glucose. Inhibition of glycolisis by pyruvate reversed the direction of NADH response (NADH oxidation following Cap2+ elevation). Myocardial lactate relealse was increased by elevation of Cap2+ from 1.3 to 5.2 mM in the presence of glucose, but this effect was significantly inhibited in the pyruvate perfused hearts. It is concluded that NADH signal originates from both the cytosolic and mitochondrial NADH compartment. The direction of NAD+/NADH redox state changes following Cap2+ elevation is grately influenced by the substrate preferentially consumed by the heart. The data suggest that calcium increases the availability of reducing equivalents to the respiratory chain thereby ensuring adequate supply of ATP when myocardial mechanical demands are changing.

  13. The effects of hyperosmolal coronary perfusion on the haemodynamic, metabolic and ultrastructural changes of myocardial anoxia*

    PubMed Central

    Brachfeld, Norman; Erlandson, Robert; Christodoulou, James; Smithen, Charles

    1975-01-01

    Recovery from anoxia has been evaluated in the isovolumic non-recirculating paced perfused rat heart. Seventy studies were performed consisting of 15 min of aerobic perfusion (AP); AP+15 min anoxic perfusion; and AP+15 min anoxic perfusion+15 min reoxygenation (recovery). Krebs-Ringer-bicarbonate+5 mmol glucose (KRB) (290 mmol) was compared to KRB+mannitol (350 mmol). Mannitol decreased myocardial water content. It improved recovery of haemodynamic function after reoxygenation. With KRB alone left ventricular systolic peak pressure (LVSP) decreased 32% and maximum dP/dt by 50%. With mannitol added LVSP decreased 18% and dP/dt 21% (P<0·01). KRB and mannitol did not differentially affect total coronary flow, lactate and glucose extraction, tissue glycogen, creatine phosphate or adenine nucleotide concentrations. No difference in submicroscopic appearance was noted with either perfusate during aerobic perfusion. Anoxic hearts perfused with isosmolal KRB demonstrated the most severe ultrastructural alterations including mitochondrial swelling with disruption of cristae and extraction of matrix components, myofibrillar fusion and contraction bands, and subsarcolemmal oedema and vacuolization. These changes were only partially reversed during reoxygenated perfusion. However, cellular changes were reversed or markedly improved during both the anoxic and reoxygenation perfusion periods with hyperosmolal solutions. When studied by silicone rubber injection of the microcirculation, only focal capillary endothelial cell swelling was noted and no difference in arteriolar or capillary filling was observed with either perfusate. Mannitol appears to improve LV function by direct myocardial osmotic action unrelated to enhanced energy production. ImagesFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10 PMID:1240628

  14. Increase in cholinergic modulation with pyridostigmine induces anti-inflammatory cell recruitment soon after acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Juraci Aparecida; Ribeiro, Susan Pereira; França, Cristiane Miranda; Coelho, Otávio; Alves, Gisele; Lacchini, Silvia; Kallás, Esper Georges; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M

    2016-04-15

    We tested the hypothesis that an increase in the anti-inflammatory cholinergic pathway, when induced by pyridostigmine (PY), may modulate subtypes of lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, FOXP3+) and macrophages (M1/M2) soon after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Wistar rats, randomly allocated to receive PY (40 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in drinking water or to stay without treatment, were followed for 4 days and then were subjected to ligation of the left coronary artery. The groups-denominated as the pyridostigmine-treated infarcted (IP) and infarcted control (I) groups-were submitted to euthanasia 3 days after MI; the heart was removed for immunohistochemistry, and the peripheral blood and spleen were collected for flow cytometry analysis. Noninfarcted and untreated rats were used as controls (C Group). Echocardiographic measurements were registered on the second day after MI, and heart rate variability was measured on the third day after MI. The infarcted groups had similar MI areas, degrees of systolic dysfunction, blood pressures, and heart rates. Compared with the I Group, the IP Group showed a significant higher parasympathetic modulation and a lower sympathetic modulation, which were associated with a small, but significant, increase in diastolic function. The IP Group showed a significant increase in M2 macrophages and FOXP3(+)cells in the infarcted and peri-infarcted areas, a significantly higher frequency of circulating Treg cells (CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+)), and a less extreme decrease in conventional T cells (CD25(+)FOXP3(-)) compared with the I Group. Therefore, increasing cholinergic modulation with PY induces greater anti-inflammatory cell recruitment soon after MY in rats. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Increase in cholinergic modulation with pyridostigmine induces anti-inflammatory cell recruitment soon after acute myocardial infarction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Juraci Aparecida; Ribeiro, Susan Pereira; França, Cristiane Miranda; Coelho, Otávio; Alves, Gisele; Kallás, Esper Georges; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an increase in the anti-inflammatory cholinergic pathway, when induced by pyridostigmine (PY), may modulate subtypes of lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, FOXP3+) and macrophages (M1/M2) soon after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Wistar rats, randomly allocated to receive PY (40 mg·kg−1·day−1) in drinking water or to stay without treatment, were followed for 4 days and then were subjected to ligation of the left coronary artery. The groups—denominated as the pyridostigmine-treated infarcted (IP) and infarcted control (I) groups—were submitted to euthanasia 3 days after MI; the heart was removed for immunohistochemistry, and the peripheral blood and spleen were collected for flow cytometry analysis. Noninfarcted and untreated rats were used as controls (C Group). Echocardiographic measurements were registered on the second day after MI, and heart rate variability was measured on the third day after MI. The infarcted groups had similar MI areas, degrees of systolic dysfunction, blood pressures, and heart rates. Compared with the I Group, the IP Group showed a significant higher parasympathetic modulation and a lower sympathetic modulation, which were associated with a small, but significant, increase in diastolic function. The IP Group showed a significant increase in M2 macrophages and FOXP3+ cells in the infarcted and peri-infarcted areas, a significantly higher frequency of circulating Treg cells (CD4+CD25+FOXP3+), and a less extreme decrease in conventional T cells (CD25+FOXP3−) compared with the I Group. Therefore, increasing cholinergic modulation with PY induces greater anti-inflammatory cell recruitment soon after MY in rats. PMID:26791829

  16. Functional, metabolic and ultrastructure evidence for improved myocardial protection during severe ischaemic stress with MBS, a new crystalloid cardioplegic solution.

    PubMed

    Choong, Y S; Gavin, J B

    1996-06-01

    The duration of aortic clamping and the temperature of the arrested heart are two important factors in the overall strategy of myocardial protection with cardioplegic solutions. The isolated working rat heart was used to compare the cardioprotection effects (function, metabolism and ultrastructure) of the new "extracellular" crystalloid solution, MBS (containing glucose, aspartate and lactobionate) and St. Thomas' Hospital No. 2 (STH) during prolonged moderate hypothermic ischaemia (30 degrees C, 2 hours and 4 hours) with multidose reinfusion (2 min every 30 min interval). All MBS treated hearts (n = 9 per group) rapidly resumed spontaneous regular sinus rhythm (0.8 +/- 0.2 min) and had similar high degree of functional recovery (cardiac output: 90.2 +/- 4.5% & 80.9 +/- 3.5%, stroke volume: 89.1 +/- 4.7% & 81.9 +/- 3.4% and aortic pressure: 102.0 +/- 4.0% & 100.0 +/- 7.3% of pre-arrest values for 2 hours and 4 hours groups, respectively) during 30 min post-ischaemic reperfusion. In contrast, hearts protected with STH showed significantly (p<0.01) less recovery of left ventricular function (cardiac output: 64.3 +/- 2.9% & 5.5 +/- 3.9%, respectively) with two of the nine hearts failing to regain any cardiac pump function after 4 hours. MBS increased lactate efflux (glycolysis) and completely abolished the progressive increase in the coronary vascular resistance during 4 hours ischaemic arrest. These improvements were directly related to the significantly (p<0.01) reduced depletion of the myocardial adenosine triphosphate (13.32 +/- 1.65 vs 2.42 +/- 0.09 micromol/g dry wt) and guanosine triphosphate (1.56 +/- 0.08 vs 0.74 +/- 0.04 micromol/g dry wt) during arrest; to their enhanced repletion after reperfusion (ATP: 96% vs 36%, TAN: 90% vs 40% and GTP: 69% vs 48%); and to the absence of ultrastructural injury to cardiac myocytes and the microvasculature. We conclude that the new crystalloid cardioplegic solution MBS provides markedly improved myocardial protection

  17. Total Mechanical Unloading Minimizes Metabolic Demand of Left Ventricle and Dramatically Reduces Infarct Size in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kakino, Takamori; Arimura, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Takafumi; Nishikawa, Takuya; Sakamoto, Kazuo; Ikeda, Masataka; Kishi, Takuya; Ide, Tomomi; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) mechanically unloads the left ventricle (LV). Theoretical analysis indicates that partial LVAD support (p-LVAD), where LV remains ejecting, reduces LV preload while increases afterload resulting from the elevation of total cardiac output and mean aortic pressure, and consequently does not markedly decrease myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2). In contrast, total LVAD support (t-LVAD), where LV no longer ejects, markedly decreases LV preload volume and afterload pressure, thereby strikingly reduces MVO2. Since an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand is the fundamental pathophysiology of myocardial infarction (MI), we hypothesized that t-LVAD minimizes MVO2 and reduces infarct size in MI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differential impact of the support level of LVAD on MVO2 and infarct size in a canine model of ischemia-reperfusion. Methods In 5 normal mongrel dogs, we examined the impact of LVAD on MVO2 at 3 support levels: Control (no LVAD support), p-LVAD and t-LVAD. In another 16 dogs, ischemia was induced by occluding major branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery (90 min) followed by reperfusion (300 min). We activated LVAD from the beginning of ischemia until 300 min of reperfusion, and compared the infarct size among 3 different levels of LVAD support. Results t-LVAD markedly reduced MVO2 (% reduction against Control: -56 ± 9%, p<0.01) whereas p-LVAD did less (-21 ± 14%, p<0.05). t-LVAD markedly reduced infarct size compared to p-LVAD (infarct area/area at risk: Control; 41.8 ± 6.4, p-LVAD; 29.1 ± 5.6 and t-LVAD; 5.0 ± 3.1%, p<0.01). Changes in creatine kinase-MB paralleled those in infarct size. Conclusions Total LVAD support that minimizes metabolic demand maximizes the benefit of LVAD in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27124411

  18. Diet-Induced Metabolic Disturbances As Modulators of Brain Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.; Dasuri, Kalavathi; Nguyen, AnhThao; Liu, Dr Ying; Keller, Jeffrey N.

    2009-01-01

    A number of metabolic disturbances occur in response to the consumption of a high fat Western diet. Such metabolic disturbances can include the progressive development of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulemia, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Cumulatively, diet-induced disturbance in metabolism are known to promote increased morbidity and negatively impact life expectancy through a variety of mechanisms. While the impact of metabolic disturbances on the hepatic, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems are well established there remains a noticeable void in understanding the basis by which the central nervous system (CNS) becomes altered in response to diet-induced metabolic dysfunction. In particular, it remains to be fully elucidated which established features of diet-induced pathogenesis (observed in non-CNS tissues) are recapitulated in the brain, and identification as to whether the observed changes in the brain are a direct or indirect effect of peripheral metabolic disturbances. This review will focus on each of these key issues and identify some critical experimental questions which remain to be elucidated experimentally, as well as provide an outline of our current understanding for how diet-induced alterations in metabolism may impact the brain during aging and age-related diseases of the nervous system. PMID:18926905

  19. Cardiac Per2 Functions as Novel Link between Fatty Acid Metabolism and Myocardial Inflammation during Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Stephanie; Kominsky, Doug; Brodsky, Kelley; Eltzschig, Holger; Walker, Lori; Eckle, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of peripheral circadian rhyme pathways dominantly leads to metabolic disorders. Studies on circadian rhythm proteins in the heart indicated a role for Clock or Per2 in cardiac metabolism. In contrast to Clock−/−, Per2−/− mice have larger infarct sizes with deficient lactate production during myocardial ischemia. To test the hypothesis that cardiac Per2 represents an important regulator of cardiac metabolism during myocardial ischemia, we measured lactate during reperfusion in Per1−/−, Per2−/− or wildtype mice. As lactate measurements in whole blood indicated an exclusive role of Per2 in controlling lactate production during myocardial ischemia, we next performed gene array studies using various ischemia-reperfusion protocols comparing wildtype and Per2−/− mice. Surprisingly, high-throughput gene array analysis revealed dominantly lipid metabolism as the differentially regulated pathway in wildtype mice when compared to Per2−/−. In all ischemia-reperfusion protocols used, the enzyme enoyl-CoA hydratase, which is essential in fatty acid beta-oxidation, was regulated in wildtype animals only. Studies using nuclear magnet resonance imaging (NMRI) confirmed altered fatty acid populations with higher mono-unsaturated fatty acid levels in hearts from Per2−/− mice. Unexpectedly, studies on gene regulation during reperfusion revealed solely pro inflammatory genes as differentially regulated ‘Per2-genes’. Subsequent studies on inflammatory markers showed increasing IL-6 or TNFα levels during reperfusion in Per2−/− mice. In summary, these studies reveal an important role of cardiac Per2 for fatty acid metabolism and inflammation during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, respectively. PMID:23977055

  20. Dynamic analysis of optimality in myocardial energy metabolism under normal and ischemic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ruo-Yu; Liao, Sha; Tao, Guan-Yang; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zeng, Shaoqun; Li, Yi-Xue; Luo, Qingming

    2006-01-01

    To better understand the dynamic regulation of optimality in metabolic networks under perturbed conditions, we reconstruct the energetic-metabolic network in mammalian myocardia using dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA). Additionally, we modified the optimal objective from the maximization of ATP production to the minimal fluctuation of the profile of metabolite concentration under ischemic conditions, extending the hypothesis of original minimization of metabolic adjustment to create a composite modeling approach called M-DFBA. The simulation results are more consistent with experimental data than are those of the DFBA model, particularly the retentive predominant contribution of fatty acid to oxidative ATP synthesis, the exact mechanism of which has not been elucidated and seems to be unpredictable by the DFBA model. These results suggest that the systemic states of metabolic networks do not always remain optimal, but may become suboptimal when a transient perturbation occurs. This finding supports the relevance of our hypothesis and could contribute to the further exploration of the underlying mechanism of dynamic regulation in metabolic networks. PMID:16760902

  1. Myocardial metabolism, perfusion, wall motion and electrical activity in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Perloff, J.K.; Henze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The cardiomyopathy of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy originates in the posterobasal left ventricle and extends chiefly to the contiguous lateral wall. Ultrastructural abnormalities in these regions precede connective tissue replacement. We postulated that a metabolic fault coincided with or antedated the subcellular abnormality. Accordingly, regional left ventricular metabolism, perfusion and wall motion were studied using positron computed tomography and metabolic isotopes supplemented by thallium perfusion scans, equilibrium radionuclide angiography and M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography. To complete the assessment, electrocardiograms, vectorcardiograms, 24 hour taped electrocardiograms and chest x-rays were analyzed. Positron computed tomography utilizing F-18 2-fluoro 2-deoxyglucose (FDG) provided the first conclusive evidence supporting the hypothesis of a premorphologic regional metabolic fault. Thus, cardiac involvement in duchenne dystrophy emerges as a unique form of heart disease, genetically targeting specific regions of ventricular myocardium for initial metabolic and subcellular changes. Reported ultrastructural abnormalities of the impulse and conduction systems provide, at least in part, a basis for the clinically observed sinus node, intraatrial, internodal, AV nodal and infranodal disorders.

  2. Myocardial metabolism of fluorodeoxyglucose compared to cell membrane integrity for the potassium analogue rubidium-82 for assessing infarct size in man by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, K.L.; Yoshida, K.; Hess, M.J.; Haynie, M.; Mullani, N.; Smalling, R.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Potassium loss from damaged myocardial cells is linearly related to CPK enzyme loss reflecting extent of necrosis. The potassium analog, rubidium-82 (82Rb), is extracted after i.v. injection and retained in viable myocardium but is not trapped or washed out of necrotic regions. To compare myocardial cell metabolism with membrane dysfunction as indicators of necrosis/viability, 43 patients with evolving myocardial infarction and coronary arteriography had positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the potassium analog 82Rb. Percent of heart showing FDG defects and 82Rb washout on sequential images indicating failure to retain the potassium analogue were visually assessed and quantified by automated software. Infarct size based on rubidium kinetics correlated closely with size and location on FDG images (visual r = 0.93, automated r = 0.82), suggesting that loss of cell membrane integrity for trapping the potassium analog 82Rb parallels loss of intracellular glucose metabolism, both comparable quantitative markers of myocardial necrosis/viability.

  3. Myocardial mechanical dysfunction following endotoxemia: role of changes in energy substrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Soraya, Hamid; Masoud, Waleed G T; Gandhi, Manoj; Garjani, Alireza; Clanachan, Alexander S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular depression due to endotoxemia remains a major cause of mortality in intensive care patients. To determine whether drug-induced alterations in cardiac metabolism may be a viable strategy to reduce endotoxemia-mediated cardiac dysfunction, we assessed endotoxemia-induced changes in glucose and fatty acid metabolism under aerobic and post-ischemic conditions. Endotoxemia was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by lipopolysaccharide (Escherichia coli 0111:B4c, 4 mg/kg, i.p.) 6 h prior to heart removal for ex vivo assessment of left ventricular (LV) work and rates of glucose metabolism (glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, glycolysis and glucose oxidation) and palmitate oxidation. Under aerobic conditions, endotoxemic hearts had impaired LV function as judged by echocardiography in vivo (% ejection fraction, 66.0 ± 3.2 vs 78.0 ± 2.1, p < 0.05) or by LV work ex vivo (2.14 ± 0.16 vs 3.28 ± 0.16, Joules min(-1) g dry wt(-1), p < 0.05). However, rates of glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, glycolysis, and glucose oxidation were not altered. Palmitate oxidation was lower in endotoxemic hearts in proportion to the decreased workload, thus metabolic efficiency was unaffected. In hearts reperfused following global ischemia, untreated hearts had impaired recovery of LV work (52.3 ± 9.4 %) whereas endotoxemic hearts had significantly higher recovery (105.6 ± 11.3 %, p < 0.05). During reperfusion, fatty acid oxidation, acetyl CoA production and metabolic efficiency were similar in both groups. As impaired cardiac function appeared unrelated to depression of energy substrate oxidation, it is unlikely that drug-induced acceleration of fatty acid oxidation will improve mechanical function. The beneficial repartitioning of glucose metabolism in reperfused endotoxemic hearts may contribute to the cardioprotected phenotype.

  4. The Tumor Microenvironment Modulates Choline and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Noriko; Wildes, Flonné; Takagi, Tomoyo; Glunde, Kristine; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2016-01-01

    An increase of cellular phosphocholine (PC) and total choline (tCho)-containing compounds as well as alterations in lipids have been consistently observed in cancer cells and tissue. These metabolic changes are closely related to malignant transformation, invasion, and metastasis. The study of cancer cells in culture plays an important role in understanding mechanisms leading to altered choline (Cho) and lipid metabolism in cancer, as it provides a carefully controlled environment. However, a solid tumor is a complex system with a unique tumor microenvironment frequently containing hypoxic and acidic regions and areas of nutrient deprivation and necrosis. Cancer cell–stromal cell interactions and the extracellular matrix may also alter Cho and lipid metabolism. Human tumor xenograft models in mice are useful to mimic the growth of human cancers and provide insights into the influence of in vivo conditions on metabolism. Here, we have compared metabolites, obtained with high resolution 1H MRS of extracts from human breast and prostate cancer cells in a 2-dimensional (2D) monolayer culture and from solid tumor xenografts derived from these cells, as well as the protein expression of enzymes that regulate Cho and lipid metabolism. Our data demonstrate significant differences in Cho and lipid metabolism and protein expression patterns between human breast and prostate cancer cells in culture and in tumors derived from these cells. These data highlight the influence of the tumor microenvironment on Cho and lipid metabolism. PMID:28066718

  5. Metabolic mechanisms in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ashrafian, Houman; Frenneaux, Michael P; Opie, Lionel H

    2007-07-24

    Although neurohumoral antagonism has successfully reduced heart failure morbidity and mortality, the residual disability and death rate remains unacceptably high. Though abnormalities of myocardial metabolism are associated with heart failure, recent data suggest that heart failure may itself promote metabolic changes such as insulin resistance, in part through neurohumoral activation. A detrimental self-perpetuating cycle (heart failure --> altered metabolism --> heart failure) that promotes the progression of heart failure may thus be postulated. Accordingly, we review the cellular mechanisms and pathophysiology of altered metabolism and insulin resistance in heart failure. It is hypothesized that the ensuing detrimental myocardial energetic perturbations result from neurohumoral activation, increased adverse free fatty acid metabolism, decreased protective glucose metabolism, and in some cases insulin resistance. The result is depletion of myocardial ATP, phosphocreatine, and creatine kinase with decreased efficiency of mechanical work. On the basis of the mechanisms outlined, appropriate therapies to mitigate aberrant metabolism include intense neurohumoral antagonism, limitation of diuretics, correction of hypokalemia, exercise, and diet. We also discuss more novel mechanistic-based therapies to ameliorate metabolism and insulin resistance in heart failure. For example, metabolic modulators may optimize myocardial substrate utilization to improve cardiac function and exercise performance beyond standard care. The ultimate success of metabolic-based therapy will be manifest by its capacity further to lessen the residual mortality in heart failure.

  6. Expanding Metabolic Engineering Algorithms Using Feasible Space and Shadow Price Constraint Modules

    PubMed Central

    Tervo, Christopher J.; Reed, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    While numerous computational methods have been developed that use genome-scale models to propose mutants for the purpose of metabolic engineering, they generally compare mutants based on a single criteria (e.g., production rate at a mutant’s maximum growth rate). As such, these approaches remain limited in their ability to include multiple complex engineering constraints. To address this shortcoming, we have developed feasible space and shadow price constraint (FaceCon and ShadowCon) modules that can be added to existing mixed integer linear adaptive evolution metabolic engineering algorithms, such as OptKnock and OptORF. These modules allow strain designs to be identified amongst a set of multiple metabolic engineering algorithm solutions that are capable of high chemical production while also satisfying additional design criteria. We describe the various module implementations and their potential applications to the field of metabolic engineering. We then incorporated these modules into the OptORF metabolic engineering algorithm. Using an Escherichia coli genome-scale model (iJO1366), we generated different strain designs for the anaerobic production of ethanol from glucose, thus demonstrating the tractability and potential utility of these modules in metabolic engineering algorithms. PMID:25478320

  7. Sodium permeability and myocardial resistance to cell swelling during metabolic blockade.

    PubMed

    Pine, M B; Kahne, D; Jaski, B; Apstein, C S; Thorp, K; Abelmann, W H

    1980-07-01

    The role of cell membrane permeability to sodium in cell volume regulation during inhibition of the sodium-potassium exchange pump with ouabain and during total metabolic blockade was evaluated in sections of guinea pig renal cortex, ventricle, and atrium incubated in Krebs-Henseleit solution. In all tissues, 2 and 3 h of ouabain and metabolic blockade resulted in similar marked losses of potassium and parallel continuous reductions in resting membrane potentials. Only metabolic blockade of renal cortex increased cell water, chloride, and total monovalent cations (potassium plus sodium) significantly. Compared to ouabain, metabolic blockade markedly increased the rate of cellular washout of 24Na+ from renal cortex (t 1/2 reduced by 47%), which was significantly greater than reductions in t 1/2 from ventricle (16%) and atrium (15%). Thus, inhibition of sodium-potassium exchange pump activity was not sufficient to produce cell swelling unless associated with marked increases in cell membrane permeability to sodium, in which case sodium influx exceeded potassium loss and substantial increases in monovalent cations, chloride, and water occurred.

  8. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of transient changes of canine myocardial metabolism in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Heineman, F W; Balaban, R S

    1990-01-01

    The time course of the relative myocardial phosphocreatine and adenosine triphosphate contents (PCr/ATP) during step changes in heart rate in vivo was studied in 14 dogs using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to determine if transient changes in the high energy phosphates occur with changes in cardiac work. Coronary sinus blood flow (CF), oxygen consumption (MVO2), and NMR data were simultaneously measured during brief (approximately 3 min), paced increases in heart rate in these open chest animals. 31P spectra were collected with a time resolution of 15-16 s (PCr signal to noise 22-41:1). Paced tachycardia associated with increased CF and MVO2 had no significant transient or sustained effect on PCr/ATP. Higher heart rates, associated with decreased CF and blood pressure, caused rapid decreases of PCr/ATP that were reversible upon return to control rates. These data indicate that there are no transient changes in 31P metabolites (on a 15-16-s time base) during step changes in cardiac work associated with increased CF. This lack of change demonstrates that ATP hydrolysis and production are closely matched and that the feedback mechanism linking these processes occurs rapidly with no detectable transient change in the phosphate metabolites. In contrast, when the CF response to tachycardia is insufficient PCr is quickly depleted. This latter result suggests that the PCr/ATP ratio may be a sensitive, rapidly responding indicator of coronary supply/demand mismatching in vivo. Images PMID:2312728

  9. Septal and anterior reverse mismatch of myocardial perfusion and metabolism in patients with coronary artery disease and left bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Guang; Fang, Wei; Yang, Min-Fu; Tian, Yue-Qin; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Shen, Rui; Sun, Xiao-Xin; Guo, Feng; Wang, Dao-Yu; He, Zuo-Xiang

    2015-05-01

    The effects of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on left ventricular myocardial metabolism have not been well investigated. This study evaluated these effects in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).Sixty-five CAD patients with complete LBBB (mean age, 61.8 ± 9.7 years) and 65 without LBBB (mean age, 59.9 ± 8.4 years) underwent single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and contrast coronary angiography. The relationship between myocardial perfusion and metabolism and reverse mismatch score, and that between QRS length and reverse mismatch score and wall motion score were evaluated.The incidence of left ventricular septum and anterior wall reverse mismatching between the two groups was significantly different (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). The incidences of normal myocardial perfusion and metabolism in the left ventricular lateral and inferior walls were also significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The incidence of septal reverse mismatching in patients with mild to moderate perfusion was significantly higher among those with LBBB than among those without LBBB (P < 0.001). In CAD patients with LBBB, septal reverse mismatching was significantly more common among those with mild to moderate perfusion than among those with severe perfusion defects (P = 0.002). The correlation between the septal reverse mismatch score and QRS length was significant (P = 0.026).In patients with CAD and LBBB, septal and anterior reverse mismatching of myocardial perfusion and metabolism was frequently present; the septal reverse mismatch score negatively correlated with the QRS interval.

  10. Transmural differences in myocardial function and metabolism during direct left ventricular to coronary artery sourcing.

    PubMed

    de Zeeuw, Sandra; Borst, Cornelius; Verlaan, Cees W J; Gründeman, Paul F

    2005-07-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that in the absence of collateral circulation, a left ventricle-coronary artery (LV-CA) bypass will maintain normal LV wall function and metabolism transmurally, both at rest and during stress, when the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) is acutely occluded proximally. In 18 anesthetized pigs (74 +/- 7 kg, mean +/- standard deviation), a covered stent was placed transmurally in the lateral wall of the beating LV and connected to the proximal LAD via an arterial graft. Subepicardial and subendocardial segmental shortening as well as interstitial lactate and glucose concentrations were measured regionally by sonomicrometry and microdialysis, respectively. When the LAD was occluded proximally, direct left ventricular sourcing decreased the net LAD flow to 64 +/- 25% of the native flow (n = 18, all animals). In the subepicardium, systolic shortening (SS) decreased to 87 +/- 18% of baseline (p = 0.124), with the appearance of minor postsystolic shortening (PSS), and minor changes in interstitial lactate and glucose levels. In the subendocardium, in contrast, SS decreased to 54 +/- 20% (p = 0.001). Marked PSS concurred with a sixfold increase in lactate (p = 0.008), and a 65 +/- 31% decrease in glucose (p = 0.003), indicating subendocardial anaerobic metabolism. Stress induced by infusion of dobutamine increased lactate and decreased glucose concentration in the subepicardium to subendocardial levels, indicating transmural anaerobic metabolism. In the anesthetized pig, direct sourcing by a LV-CA bypass distal to an acute coronary occlusion resulted in a 36% decrease in net forward coronary flow, subendocardial anaerobic metabolism, and loss of subendocardial contractile function at rest. These adverse effects extended into the subepicardium when the heart was stressed.

  11. Combined MSC and GLP-1 Therapy Modulates Collagen Remodeling and Apoptosis following Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Wright, Elizabeth J; Hodson, Nigel W; Sherratt, Michael J; Kassem, Moustapha; Lewis, Andrew L; Wallrapp, Christine; Malik, Nadim; Holt, Cathy M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are being tested as treatment strategies for myocardial infarction (MI); however, their mechanisms in the heart are not fully understood. Methods. We examined the effects of MSCs, either native, or engineered to secrete a GLP-1 fusion protein (MSCs ± GLP-1), on human cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vitro. The effect on cardiac remodeling when encapsulated in alginate beads (CellBeads-MSC and CellBeads-MSC + GLP-1) was also evaluated in a pig MI model, whereby pigs were treated with Empty Beads, CellBeads-MSC, or CellBeads-MSC + GLP-1 and sacrificed at one or four weeks following MI. Results. MSC + GLP-1 conditioned media demonstrated antiapoptotic effects on ischaemic human cardiomyocytes in vitro. In vivo, qRT-PCR revealed large changes in the expression of several genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, which were altered following MSC ± GLP treatment. After four weeks, infarcted areas were imaged using atomic force microscopy, demonstrating significant alterations between groups in the structure of collagen fibrils and resulting scar. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that MSCs ± GLP-1 exhibit modulatory effects on healing post-MI, affecting both apoptosis and collagen scar formation. These data support the premise that both MSCs and GLP-1 could be beneficial in MI treatment.

  12. Combined MSC and GLP-1 Therapy Modulates Collagen Remodeling and Apoptosis following Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Elizabeth J.; Hodson, Nigel W.; Sherratt, Michael J.; Lewis, Andrew L.; Wallrapp, Christine; Malik, Nadim

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are being tested as treatment strategies for myocardial infarction (MI); however, their mechanisms in the heart are not fully understood. Methods. We examined the effects of MSCs, either native, or engineered to secrete a GLP-1 fusion protein (MSCs ± GLP-1), on human cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vitro. The effect on cardiac remodeling when encapsulated in alginate beads (CellBeads-MSC and CellBeads-MSC + GLP-1) was also evaluated in a pig MI model, whereby pigs were treated with Empty Beads, CellBeads-MSC, or CellBeads-MSC + GLP-1 and sacrificed at one or four weeks following MI. Results. MSC + GLP-1 conditioned media demonstrated antiapoptotic effects on ischaemic human cardiomyocytes in vitro. In vivo, qRT-PCR revealed large changes in the expression of several genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, which were altered following MSC ± GLP treatment. After four weeks, infarcted areas were imaged using atomic force microscopy, demonstrating significant alterations between groups in the structure of collagen fibrils and resulting scar. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that MSCs ± GLP-1 exhibit modulatory effects on healing post-MI, affecting both apoptosis and collagen scar formation. These data support the premise that both MSCs and GLP-1 could be beneficial in MI treatment. PMID:28003833

  13. Bone marrow transplantation modulates tissue macrophage phenotype and enhances cardiac recovery after subsequent acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Protti, Andrea; Mongue-Din, Heloise; Mylonas, Katie J; Sirker, Alexander; Sag, Can Martin; Swim, Megan M; Maier, Lars; Sawyer, Greta; Dong, Xuebin; Botnar, Rene; Salisbury, Jon; Gray, Gillian A; Shah, Ajay M

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is commonly used in experimental studies to investigate the contribution of BM-derived circulating cells to different disease processes. During studies investigating the cardiac response to acute myocardial infarction (MI) induced by permanent coronary ligation in mice that had previously undergone BMT, we found that BMT itself affects the remodelling response. Compared to matched naive mice, animals that had previously undergone BMT developed significantly less post-MI adverse remodelling, infarct thinning and contractile dysfunction as assessed by serial magnetic resonance imaging. Cardiac rupture in male mice was prevented. Histological analysis showed that the infarcts of mice that had undergone BMT had a significantly higher number of inflammatory cells, surviving cardiomyocytes and neovessels than control mice, as well as evidence of significant haemosiderin deposition. Flow cytometric and histological analyses demonstrated a higher number of alternatively activated (M2) macrophages in myocardium of the BMT group compared to control animals even before MI, and this increased further in the infarcts of the BMT mice after MI. The process of BMT itself substantially alters tissue macrophage phenotype and the subsequent response to acute MI. An increase in alternatively activated macrophages in this setting appears to enhance cardiac recovery after MI. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Serotonin modulation of cerebral glucose metabolism: sex and age effects.

    PubMed

    Munro, Cynthia A; Workman, Clifford I; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David; Smith, Gwenn S

    2012-11-01

    The serotonin system is implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders whose clinical presentation and response to treatment differ between males and females, as well as with aging. However, human neurobiological studies are limited. Sex differences in the cerebral metabolic response to an increase in serotonin concentrations were measured, as well as the effect of aging, in men compared to women. Thirty-three normal healthy individuals (14 men/19 women, age range 20-79 years) underwent two resting positron emission tomography studies with the radiotracer [18F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]-FDG) after placebo and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram) infusions on two separate days. Results indicated that women demonstrated widespread areas of increased cortical glucose metabolism with fewer areas of decrease in metabolism in response to citalopram. Men, in contrast, demonstrated several regions of decreased cortical metabolism, but no regions of increased metabolism. Age was associated with greater increases in women and greater decreases in men in most brain regions. These results support prior studies indicating that serotonin function differs in men and women across the lifespan. Future studies aimed at characterizing the influences of age and sex on the serotonin system in patients with psychiatric disorders are needed to elucidate the relationship between sex and age differences in brain chemistry and associated differences in symptom presentation and treatment response. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. SEROTONIN MODULATION OF CEREBRAL GLUCOSE METABOLISM: SEX AND AGE EFFECTS

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Cynthia A.; Workman, Clifford; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David; Smith, Gwenn S.

    2012-01-01

    The serotonin system is implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders whose clinical presentation and response to treatment differ between males and females, as well as with aging. However, human neurobiological studies are limited. Sex differences in the cerebral metabolic response to an increase in serotonin concentrations were measured, as well as the effect of aging, in men compared to women. Thirty-three normal healthy individuals (14 men/19 women, age range 20–79 years) underwent two resting positron emission tomography (PET) studies with the radiotracer [18F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]-FDG) after placebo and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram) infusions on two separate days. Results indicated that women demonstrated widespread areas of increased cortical glucose metabolism with fewer areas of decrease in metabolism in response to citalopram. Men, in contrast, demonstrated several regions of decreased cortical metabolism, but no regions of increased metabolism. Age was associated with greater increases in women and greater decreases in men in most brain regions. These results support prior studies indicating that serotonin function differs in men and women across the lifespan. Future studies aimed at characterizing the influences of age and sex on the serotonin system in patients with psychiatric disorders are needed to elucidate the relationship between sex and age differences in brain chemistry and associated differences in symptom presentation and treatment response. PMID:22836227

  16. Salacia oblonga root improves cardiac lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: Modulation of cardiac PPAR-{alpha}-mediated transcription of fatty acid metabolic genes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Tom H.-W.; Yang Qinglin; Harada, Masaki; Uberai, Jasna; Radford, Jane; Li, George Q.; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D.; Li Yuhao . E-mail: yuhao@pharm.usyd.edu.au

    2006-01-15

    Excess cardiac triglyceride accumulation in diabetes and obesity induces lipotoxicity, which predisposes the myocytes to death. On the other hand, increased cardiac fatty acid (FA) oxidation plays a role in the development of myocardial dysfunction in diabetes. PPAR-{alpha} plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of lipid metabolism. We have previously demonstrated that the extract from Salacia oblonga root (SOE), an Ayurvedic anti-diabetic and anti-obesity medicine, improves hyperlipidemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats (a genetic model of type 2 diabetes and obesity) and possesses PPAR-{alpha} activating properties. Here we demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SOE reduces cardiac triglyceride and FA contents and decreases the Oil red O-stained area in the myocardium of ZDF rats, which parallels the effects on plasma triglyceride and FA levels. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed cardiac overexpression of both FA transporter protein-1 mRNA and protein in ZDF rats, suggesting inhibition of increased cardiac FA uptake as the basis for decreased cardiac FA levels. Additionally, the treatment also inhibited overexpression in ZDF rat heart of PPAR-{alpha} mRNA and protein and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, acyl-CoA oxidase and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase mRNAs and restored the downregulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA. These results suggest that SOE inhibits cardiac FA oxidation in ZDF rats. Thus, our findings suggest that improvement by SOE of excess cardiac lipid accumulation and increased cardiac FA oxidation in diabetes and obesity occurs by reduction of cardiac FA uptake, thereby modulating cardiac PPAR-{alpha}-mediated FA metabolic gene transcription.

  17. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on metabolically active hormones in patients post-myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jeetesh V; Lee, Kaeng W; Tomson, Joseph; Dubb, Kiran; Hughes, Elizabeth A; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2007-01-31

    Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation is used as a therapeutic secondary prevention strategy among post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients. The effects of omega-3 PUFA on markers of energy homeostasis among post-MI patients are unclear. We investigated the effects of Omacor (a pharmaceutical capsule formulation of highly refined, concentrated omega-3 PUFA; Solvay Healthcare, Southampton, UK; 1 g/day) in addition to usual care (cardiovascular therapy) in a pilot randomised study of 35 post-MI men. Following randomisation to Omacor (n=16), or 'usual care' controls (n=19), fasting levels of insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides, glucose and adipocytokines (adiponectin, leptin and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha), as indices of markers of energy homeostasis, were measured at baseline and after 3-month treatment. There were no baseline differences in age, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting triglycerides, plasma glucose, NEFA and adipocytokines between the two treatment arms (P=0.07). There were no significant changes in metabolically active hormones within groups after 3-month treatment. Across arms, the direction of baseline to follow-up changes in insulin levels were significantly different (P= 0.03), with a mean increase with Omacor (+3.39 mU/ml) and a decrease among controls (-17.6 mU/ml), without associated deteriorating changes in triglycerides, NEFA or plasma glucose. This pilot study suggests that Omacor had little effect on glycaemic control among male post-MI patients. However, Omacor was associated with raised insulin levels, compared to usual care; thus, a metabolic basis for the cardioprotective action of Omacor, outside of its lipid lowering effects, merits further investigation.

  18. Development of an HPLC method for determination of metabolic compounds in myocardial tissue.

    PubMed

    Volonté, M G; Yuln, G; Quiroga, P; Consolini, A E

    2004-05-28

    The determination of adenine nucleotides and creatine compounds has great importance in the characterization of ischemic myocardial injury and post-ischemic recovery. It was developed by an HPLC method for the quantification of creatine (Cr), creatine phosphate (CrP), hypoxanthine (HX), AMP, adenosine (Ad), ADP and ATP in isolated perfused rat hearts. The chromatographic conditions were: RP 18 column; mobile phase composed by KH(2)PO(4) (215 mM), tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate (2.3mM), acetonitrile (4%) and KOH (1M 0.4%); flow rate 1 ml min(-1); temperature 25 degrees C; injection volume 20 microl; detection at 220 nm and height peak (HP) as the integration parameter. The method was validated by means of linearity and sensitivity evaluations, using calibration curves done with five concentration levels of each compound. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were also determined. The system precision was calculated as the coefficient of variation for five injections for each compound tested. The purity of the peaks was established using enzymatic peak shift analysis with hexokinase and creatine kinase and also comparing HP at various wavelengths. Frozen hearts were homogenized with a mechanical homogenizer for 3 min at 0 degrees C added with 5 ml of 0.4N HCLO(4). After precipitation with 0.8 ml of 2M KOH the extract was shaked for 2 min and later centrifuged at 0 degrees C for 10 min. The supernatant was kept on ice, filtrated and injected into the HPLC system. The results show that the method for the determination of Cr, CrP, HX, AMP, Ad, ADP and ATP by HPLC here described has good linearity, LOQ, precision, specificity and is simple and rapid to perform.

  19. Dimethyl fumarate modulates antioxidant and lipid metabolism in oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Taraboletti, Alexandra; Shriver, Leah P

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to pathology associated with inflammatory brain disorders and therapies that upregulate antioxidant pathways may be neuroprotective in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Dimethyl fumarate, a small molecule therapeutic for multiple sclerosis, activates cellular antioxidant signaling pathways and may promote myelin preservation. However, it is still unclear what mechanisms may underlie this neuroprotection and whether dimethyl fumarate affects oligodendrocyte responses to oxidative stress. Here, we examine metabolic alterations in oligodendrocytes treated with dimethyl fumarate by using a global metabolomic platform that employs both hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and shotgun lipidomics. Prolonged treatment of oligodendrocytes with dimethyl fumarate induces changes in citric acid cycle intermediates, glutathione, and lipids, indicating that this compound can directly impact oligodendrocyte metabolism. These metabolic alterations are also associated with protection from oxidant challenge. This study provides insight into the mechanisms by which dimethyl fumarate could preserve myelin integrity in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  20. Size matters: plasticity in metabolic scaling shows body-size may modulate responses to climate change.

    PubMed

    Carey, Nicholas; Sigwart, Julia D

    2014-08-01

    Variability in metabolic scaling in animals, the relationship between metabolic rate ( R: ) and body mass ( M: ), has been a source of debate and controversy for decades. R: is proportional to MB: , the precise value of B: much debated, but historically considered equal in all organisms. Recent metabolic theory, however, predicts B: to vary among species with ecology and metabolic level, and may also vary within species under different abiotic conditions. Under climate change, most species will experience increased temperatures, and marine organisms will experience the additional stressor of decreased seawater pH ('ocean acidification'). Responses to these environmental changes are modulated by myriad species-specific factors. Body-size is a fundamental biological parameter, but its modulating role is relatively unexplored. Here, we show that changes to metabolic scaling reveal asymmetric responses to stressors across body-size ranges; B: is systematically decreased under increasing temperature in three grazing molluscs, indicating smaller individuals were more responsive to warming. Larger individuals were, however, more responsive to reduced seawater pH in low temperatures. These alterations to the allometry of metabolism highlight abiotic control of metabolic scaling, and indicate that responses to climate warming and ocean acidification may be modulated by body-size. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Size matters: plasticity in metabolic scaling shows body-size may modulate responses to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Nicholas; Sigwart, Julia D.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in metabolic scaling in animals, the relationship between metabolic rate (R) and body mass (M), has been a source of debate and controversy for decades. R is proportional to Mb, the precise value of b much debated, but historically considered equal in all organisms. Recent metabolic theory, however, predicts b to vary among species with ecology and metabolic level, and may also vary within species under different abiotic conditions. Under climate change, most species will experience increased temperatures, and marine organisms will experience the additional stressor of decreased seawater pH (‘ocean acidification’). Responses to these environmental changes are modulated by myriad species-specific factors. Body-size is a fundamental biological parameter, but its modulating role is relatively unexplored. Here, we show that changes to metabolic scaling reveal asymmetric responses to stressors across body-size ranges; b is systematically decreased under increasing temperature in three grazing molluscs, indicating smaller individuals were more responsive to warming. Larger individuals were, however, more responsive to reduced seawater pH in low temperatures. These alterations to the allometry of metabolism highlight abiotic control of metabolic scaling, and indicate that responses to climate warming and ocean acidification may be modulated by body-size. PMID:25122741

  2. PPARs and their metabolic modulation: new mechanisms for transcriptional regulation?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Ziouzenkova, O; Brown, J; Devchand, P; Francis, S; Kadakia, M; Kanda, T; Orasanu, G; Sharlach, M; Zandbergen, F; Plutzky, J

    2007-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as ligand-activated nuclear receptors involved in the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism, energy balance, inflammation, and atherosclerosis are at the intersection of key pathways involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Synthetic PPAR agonists like fibrates (PPAR-alpha) and thiazolidinediones (PPAR-gamma) are in therapeutic use to treat dyslipidaemia and diabetes. Despite strong encouraging in vitro, animal model, and human surrogate marker studies with these agents, recent prospective clinical cardiovascular trials have yielded mixed results, perhaps explained by concomitant drug use, study design, or a lack of efficacy of these agents on cardiovascular disease (independent of their current metabolic indications). The use of PPAR agents has also been limited by untoward effects. An alternative strategy to PPAR therapeutics is better understanding PPAR biology, the nature of natural PPAR agonists, and how these molecules are generated. Such insight might also provide valuable information about pathways that protect against the metabolic problems for which PPAR agents are currently indicated. This approach underscores the important distinction between the effects of synthetic PPAR agonists and the unequivocal biologic role of PPARs as key transcriptional regulators of metabolic and inflammatory pathways relevant to diabetes and atherosclerosis.

  3. Tumor microenvironment derived exosomes pleiotropically modulate cancer cell metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cellular component of tumor microenvironment in most solid cancers. Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, and much of the published literature has focused on neoplastic cell-autonomous processes for these adaptations. We demonstrate tha...

  4. Dopamine Modulates Metabolic Rate and Temperature Sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Taro; Tomita, Jun; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Homeothermal animals, such as mammals, maintain their body temperature by heat generation and heat dissipation, while poikilothermal animals, such as insects, accomplish it by relocating to an environment of their favored temperature. Catecholamines are known to regulate thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mammals, but their roles in other animals are poorly understood. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used as a model system for the genetic studies of temperature preference behavior. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity of some temperature sensitive behaviors are regulated by dopamine in Drosophila. Temperature-sensitive molecules like dTrpA1 and shits induce temperature-dependent behavioral changes, and the temperature at which the changes are induced were lowered in the dopamine transporter-defective mutant, fumin. The mutant also displays a preference for lower temperatures. This thermophobic phenotype was rescued by the genetic recovery of the dopamine transporter in dopamine neurons. Flies fed with a dopamine biosynthesis inhibitor (3-iodo-L-tyrosine), which diminishes dopamine signaling, exhibited preference for a higher temperature. Furthermore, we found that the metabolic rate is up-regulated in the fumin mutant. Taken together, dopamine has functions in the temperature sensitivity of behavioral changes and metabolic rate regulation in Drosophila, as well as its previously reported functions in arousal/sleep regulation. PMID:22347491

  5. Dopamine modulates metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Taro; Tomita, Jun; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Homeothermal animals, such as mammals, maintain their body temperature by heat generation and heat dissipation, while poikilothermal animals, such as insects, accomplish it by relocating to an environment of their favored temperature. Catecholamines are known to regulate thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mammals, but their roles in other animals are poorly understood. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used as a model system for the genetic studies of temperature preference behavior. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity of some temperature sensitive behaviors are regulated by dopamine in Drosophila. Temperature-sensitive molecules like dTrpA1 and shi(ts) induce temperature-dependent behavioral changes, and the temperature at which the changes are induced were lowered in the dopamine transporter-defective mutant, fumin. The mutant also displays a preference for lower temperatures. This thermophobic phenotype was rescued by the genetic recovery of the dopamine transporter in dopamine neurons. Flies fed with a dopamine biosynthesis inhibitor (3-iodo-L-tyrosine), which diminishes dopamine signaling, exhibited preference for a higher temperature. Furthermore, we found that the metabolic rate is up-regulated in the fumin mutant. Taken together, dopamine has functions in the temperature sensitivity of behavioral changes and metabolic rate regulation in Drosophila, as well as its previously reported functions in arousal/sleep regulation.

  6. Modulation of Myocardial Mitochondrial Mechanisms during Severe Polymicrobial Sepsis in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Mani; Golden, Honey B.; Mullapudi, Srinivas; Dowhan, William; Dostal, David E.; Sharma, Avadhesh C.

    2011-01-01

    Background We tested the hypothesis that 5-Hydroxydecanoic acid (5HD), a putative mitoKATP channel blocker, will reverse sepsis-induced cardiodynamic and adult rat ventricular myocyte (ARVM) contractile dysfunction, restore mitochondrial membrane permeability alterations and improve survival. Methodology/Principal Findings Male Sprague-Dawley rats (350–400 g) were made septic using 400 mg/kg cecal inoculum, ip. Sham animals received 5% dextrose water, ip. The Voltage Dependent Anion Channels (VDAC1), Bax and cytochrome C levels were determined in isolated single ARVMs obtained from sham and septic rat heart. Mitochondria and cytosolic fractions were isolated from ARVMs treated with norepinephrine (NE, 10 µmoles) in the presence/absence of 5HD (100 µmoles). A continuous infusion of 5HD using an Alzet pump reversed sepsis-induced mortality when administered at the time of induction of sepsis (−40%) and at 6 hr post-sepsis (−20%). Electrocardiography revealed that 5HD reversed sepsis-induced decrease in the average ejection fraction, Simpsons+m Mode (53.5±2.5 in sepsis and 69.2±1.2 at 24 hr in sepsis+5HD vs. 79.9±1.5 basal group) and cardiac output (63.3±1.2 mL/min sepsis and 79.3±3.9 mL/min at 24 hr in sepsis+5HD vs. 85.8±1.5 mL/min basal group). The treatment of ARVMs with 5HD also reversed sepsis-induced depressed contractility in both the vehicle and NE-treated groups. Sepsis produced a significant downregulation of VDAC1, and upregulation of Bax levels, along with mitochondrial membrane potential collapse in ARVMs. Pretreatment of septic ARVMs with 5HD blocked a NE-induced decrease in the VDAC1 and release of cytochrome C. Conclusion The data suggest that Bax activation is an upstream event that may precede the opening of the mitoKATP channels in sepsis. We concluded that mitoKATP channel inhibition via decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced release of cytochrome C provided protection against sepsis-induced ARVM and myocardial

  7. [Quantitative analysis of myocardial glucose metabolism by using dynamic FDG-PET acquisition].

    PubMed

    Sciumbata, Martina; Critello, Salvatore; Galea, Domenico

    2012-11-01

    In today's diagnostic imaging the heart with Pet 18F - FDG finds its highest expression in' identify the extent, severity, and the possibility of recovery of dysfunctional myocardium. Aim of this study was to extract some parameters "unique" as the regional metabolic rate, the speed of fractional irreversible binding of the tracer to the receptor sites in order to obtain a quantization of a possible damage of the tissue under examination. We used a dedicated software, the PMOD, implemented with compartmental models and graphical analysis methods in order to obtain absolute and repeatable results. In our results these parameters can give a qualitative data integration and definition to which, as is known, do not allow the identification of objective criteria to identify a possible ischemic damage and, most important, a possible recovery of dysfunctional myocardium.

  8. Positron emission tomography demonstrates that coronary sinus retroperfusion can restore regional myocardial perfusion and preserve metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    O'Byrne, G.T.; Nienaber, C.A.; Miyazaki, A.; Araujo, L.; Fishbein, M.C.; Corday, E.; Schelbert, H.R. )

    1991-07-01

    Positron emission tomography was used to image blood flow and metabolic tracers in risk zone myocardium after left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion during synchronized coronary venous retroperfusion. Six control and seven intervention open chest dogs had occlusion of the mid left anterior descending coronary artery. Synchronized retroperfusion commenced 25 min later. Flow tracers (rubidium-82 and nitrogen-13 ammonia) were injected retrogradely. Three hours after coronary occlusion, fluorine-18 (F-18) deoxyglucose uptake in the control and treatment groups was compared. At 200 min of occlusion, infarct size was assessed. Retrograde flow tracer uptake was observed in the risk zone in the seven intervention dogs. Fluorine-18 deoxyglucose uptake in the risk zone was increased in five of the six intervention dogs but was reduced in five of the six control dogs. The risk zone to normal zone F-18 deoxyglucose count ratio was higher in the intervention than the control group (1.13 {plus minus} 0.39 vs. 0.59 {plus minus} 0.51; p less than 0.05). The endocardial subsegment risk zone to normal zone F-18 deoxyglucose count ratio was also significantly higher in the intervention group. Percent infarction in the risk zone was 70% lower in the group treated with synchronized retroperfusion than in the control group (18.4 {plus minus} 22.6% vs. 61.2 {plus minus} 25.4%; p less than 0.02). Thus, positron emission tomography revealed that retroperfusion could deliver oxygenated blood and maintain metabolism in risk zone myocardium. Infarct size was limited to 30% of that of control. In acute closure of the left anterior descending coronary artery, synchronized retroperfusion might be considered for maintaining viability of the jeopardized myocardium if the artery cannot be reopened rapidly.

  9. Metabolic syndrome: pathophysiology, management, and modulation by natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Rochlani, Yogita; Pothineni, Naga Venkata; Kovelamudi, Swathi; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that include hypertension, central obesity, insulin resistance, and atherogenic dyslipidemia, and is strongly associated with an increased risk for developing diabetes and atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The pathogenesis of MetS involves both genetic and acquired factors that contribute to the final pathway of inflammation that leads to CVD. MetS has gained significant importance recently due to the exponential increase in obesity worldwide. Early diagnosis is important in order to employ lifestyle and risk factor modification. Here, we review the epidemiology and pathogenesis of MetS, the role of inflammation in MetS, and summarize existing natural therapies for MetS.

  10. Ovarian Lipid Metabolism Modulates Circulating Lipids in Premenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jeffrey T; Addis, Ilana B; Hennebold, Jon D; Bogan, Randy L

    2017-09-01

    The premenopausal circulating lipid profile may be linked to the hormonal profile and ovarian lipid metabolism. Assess how estradiol, progesterone, and ovarian lipid metabolism contributes to the premenopausal lipid profile; and evaluate the acute effects of a common hormonal oral contraceptive (OC) on circulating lipids. Experimental crossover with repeated measures. Academic hospitals. Eight healthy, regularly menstruating women. Participants underwent periodic serum sampling during a normal menstrual cycle; a standard 21-day, monophasic combined hormonal OC cycle (30 µg of ethinyl estradiol and 150 µg of levonorgestrel per day); menopause simulated by leuprolide acetate (22.5-mg depot); and an artificial menstrual cycle achieved via transdermal estradiol (50 to 300 µg/d) and vaginal micronized progesterone (100 to 300 mg/d). Primary outcomes included evaluation of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio. To estimate the effect of estradiol, progesterone, and ovarian lipid metabolism, all specimens except those from the OC cycle were analyzed. Subgroup analysis was conducted on the follicular and luteal phases. In a separate analysis, the effect of the OC was evaluated relative to the normal menstrual cycle. Estradiol was significantly associated with increased levels of HDL cholesterol throughout the menstrual cycle and in the follicular phase. Ovarian effects were associated with reduced lipid levels, especially during the luteal phase. The OC was associated with an increased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and triglycerides. Previously unappreciated factors including ovarian lipid metabolism may contribute to the premenopausal lipid profile.

  11. The WWOX Gene Modulates HDL and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Iatan, Iulia; Choi, Hong Y.; Ruel, Isabelle; Linga Reddy, M.V. Prasad; Kil, Hyunsuk; Lee, Jaeho; Abu Odeh, Mohammad; Salah, Zaidoun; Abu-Remaileh, Muhannad; Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Nikkola, Elina; Civelek, Mete; Awan, Zuhier; Croce, Carlo M.; Aqeilan, Rami I.; Pajukanta, Päivi; Aldaz, C. Marcelo; Genest, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background Low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) constitutes a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. Recent studies from our group reported a genetic association between the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene and HDL-C levels. Here, through next-generation resequencing, in vivo functional studies and gene microarray analyses, we investigated the role of WWOX in HDL and lipid metabolism. Methods and Results Using next-generation resequencing of the WWOX region, we first identified 8 variants significantly associated and perfectly segregating with the low-HDL trait in two multi-generational French Canadian dyslipidemic families. To understand in vivo functions of WWOX, we used liver-specific Wwoxhep−/− and total Wwox−/− mice models, where we found decreased ApoA-I and ABCA1 levels in hepatic tissues. Analyses of lipoprotein profiles in Wwox−/−, but not Wwox hep−/− littermates, also showed marked reductions in serum HDL-C concentrations, concordant with the low-HDL findings observed in families. We next obtained evidence of a gender-specific effect in female Wwoxhep−/− mice, where an increase in plasma triglycerides and altered lipid metabolic pathways by microarray analyses were observed. We further identified a significant reduction in ApoA-I and LPL, and upregulation in Fas, Angptl4 and Lipg, suggesting that the effects of Wwox involve multiple pathways, including cholesterol homeostasis, ApoA-I/ABCA1 pathway, and fatty acid biosynthesis/triglyceride metabolism. Conclusions Our data indicate that WWOX disruption alters HDL and lipoprotein metabolism through several mechanisms and may account for the low-HDL phenotype observed in families expressing the WWOX variants. These findings thus describe a novel gene involved in cellular lipid homeostasis, which effects may impact atherosclerotic disease development. PMID:24871327

  12. Modulation of carcinogen-metabolizing cytochromes P450 by phytochemicals in humans.

    PubMed

    Baer-Dubowska, Wanda; Szaefer, Hanna

    2013-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) families 1 - 3, besides oxidizing environmental and dietary chemicals, leading to their elimination, catalyze the bioactivation of exogenous as well as endogenous carcinogens. Phytochemicals, particularly those which are active food components, were shown to be able to affect specific CYP expression and/or activity in animal models and in human in vitro systems. Human intervention studies involving healthy volunteers were also performed. This review describes human CYP modulation by naturally occurring phytochemicals which can not only affect carcinogen metabolism in humans, but also change the drug response. The authors present an overview of carcinogens metabolizing human CYP modulation in different model systems as well as studies on human dietary intervention. Furthermore, the authors provide examples of the phytochemicals that affect CYP expression and activity. CYP, which are involved in carcinogen activation, can metabolize a range of substrates and inducing CYP by one substrate may also increase the metabolism of another. The ultimate proof of the efficacy of CYP modulation strategy for chemoprevention may be provided by clinical trials involving risk populations, which are difficult to perform. The new human-like models are highly desired for the study of modulation of carcinogen-metabolizing CYP.

  13. Tumor microenvironment derived exosomes pleiotropically modulate cancer cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyun; Yang, Lifeng; Baddour, Joelle; Achreja, Abhinav; Bernard, Vincent; Moss, Tyler; Marini, Juan C; Tudawe, Thavisha; Seviour, Elena G; San Lucas, F Anthony; Alvarez, Hector; Gupta, Sonal; Maiti, Sourindra N; Cooper, Laurence; Peehl, Donna; Ram, Prahlad T; Maitra, Anirban; Nagrath, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cellular component of tumor microenvironment in most solid cancers. Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, and much of the published literature has focused on neoplastic cell-autonomous processes for these adaptations. We demonstrate that exosomes secreted by patient-derived CAFs can strikingly reprogram the metabolic machinery following their uptake by cancer cells. We find that CAF-derived exosomes (CDEs) inhibit mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, thereby increasing glycolysis and glutamine-dependent reductive carboxylation in cancer cells. Through 13C-labeled isotope labeling experiments we elucidate that exosomes supply amino acids to nutrient-deprived cancer cells in a mechanism similar to macropinocytosis, albeit without the previously described dependence on oncogenic-Kras signaling. Using intra-exosomal metabolomics, we provide compelling evidence that CDEs contain intact metabolites, including amino acids, lipids, and TCA-cycle intermediates that are avidly utilized by cancer cells for central carbon metabolism and promoting tumor growth under nutrient deprivation or nutrient stressed conditions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10250.001 PMID:26920219

  14. Abrogation of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 attenuates acute myocardial ischemia-induced renal dysfunction by modulating systemic and local inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingjun; Wang, Xianwei; Wang, Wenze; Muniyappa, Harish; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Hu, Changping; Das, Kumuda; Mehta, Jawahar L.

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that acute myocardial infarction affects renal function. To study the mechanism, we used mice following permanent ligation of their left coronary artery that results in extensive myocardial infarction. Soon after ligation, there was a marked rise in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and malondialdehyde (thiobarbituric acid-positive evidence of lipid peroxidation). Renal function had significantly declined by the third day in association with mild fibrosis, and swelling of glomeruli and tubules. There was a significant increase in the expression of the lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), interelukin-1β, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in the kidney. Renal function showed some recovery by Day 21; however, there was progressive fibrosis of the kidneys. LOX-1 knockout mice had significantly diminished increases in systemic and renal pro-inflammatory cytokines, malondialdehyde, structural alterations, and decline in renal function than the wild-type mice following ligation of the left coronary artery. Cardiac function and survival rates were also significantly better in the LOX-1 knockout mice than in the wild-type mice. Hence, severe myocardial ischemia results in renal dysfunction and histological abnormalities suggestive of acute renal injury. Thus, LOX-1 is a key modulator among multiple mechanisms underlying renal dysfunction following extensive myocardial infarction. PMID:22673889

  15. Myocardial Gene Transfer: Routes and Devices for Regulation of Transgene Expression by Modulation of Cellular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Michael G.; Bridges, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Heart diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in Western society. Gene therapy approaches are becoming promising therapeutic modalities to improve underlying molecular processes affecting failing cardiomyocytes. Numerous cardiac clinical gene therapy trials have yet to demonstrate strong positive results and advantages over current pharmacotherapy. The success of gene therapy depends largely on the creation of a reliable and efficient delivery method. The establishment of such a system is determined by its ability to overcome the existing biological barriers, including cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking as well as modulation of cellular permeability. In this article, we describe a variety of physical and mechanical methods, based on the transient disruption of the cell membrane, which are applied in nonviral gene transfer. In addition, we focus on the use of different physiological techniques and devices and pharmacological agents to enhance endothelial permeability. Development of these methods will undoubtedly help solve major problems facing gene therapy. PMID:23427834

  16. Myocardial metabolism of free fatty acids. Studies with 14C-labeled substrates in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Wisneski, J A; Gertz, E W; Neese, R A; Mayr, M

    1987-01-01

    Free fatty acids are considered to be the major energy source for the myocardium. To investigate the metabolic fate of this substrate in humans, 24 subjects underwent coronary sinus and arterial catheterization. 13 subjects were healthy volunteers and 11 subjects had symptoms of ischemic heart disease. [1-14C]oleate or [1-14C]palmitate bound to albumin was infused at a constant rate of 25 microCi/h. Oxidation was determined by measuring the 14CO2 production. The data demonstrated that a high percentage (84 +/- 17%) of the palmitate and oleate extracted by the myocardium underwent rapid oxidation. A highly significant correlation was present between the arterial level and the amount oxidized (r = 0.82, P less than 0.001 for palmitate; r = 0.77, P less than 0.001 for oleate). The isotope extraction ratio was greater than the chemical extraction ratio. This difference of 6 +/- 2 nmol/ml of blood in the young normal subjects was significantly less than the 12 +/- 4 nmol/ml observed in the ischemic heart disease patients (P less than 0.001). PMID:3805273

  17. Phosphorylation at connexin43 serine-368 is necessary for myocardial conduction during metabolic stress

    PubMed Central

    Nassal, Michelle MJ; Werdich, Andreas A.; Wan, Xiaoping; Hoshi, Malcolm; Deschênes, Isabelle; Rosenbaum, David S.; Donahue, J. Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) phosphorylation alters gap junction localization and function. In particular, phosphorylation at serine-368 (S368) has been suggested to alter gap junctional conductance, but previous reports have shown inconsistent results for both timing and functional effects of S368 phosphorylation. The objective of this study was to determine the functional effects of isolated S368 phosphorylation. We evaluated wild type Cx43 (AdCx43) and mutations simulating permanent phosphorylation (Ad368E) or preventing phosphorylation (Ad368A) at S368. Function was assessed by optical mapping of electrical conduction in patterned cultures of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, under baseline and metabolic stress (MS) conditions. Baseline conduction velocity (CV) was similar for all groups. In the AdCx43 and Ad368E groups, MS moderately decreased CV. Ad368A caused complete conduction block during MS. Triton-X solubility assessment showed no change in Cx43 location during conduction impairment. Western blot analysis showed that Cx43-S368 phosphorylation was present at baseline, and that it decreased during MS. Our data indicate that phosphorylation at S368 does not affect CV under baseline conditions, and that preventing S368 phosphorylation makes Cx43 hypersensitive to MS. These results show the critical role of S368 phosphorylation during stress conditions. PMID:26459193

  18. Phosphorylation at Connexin43 Serine-368 Is Necessary for Myocardial Conduction During Metabolic Stress.

    PubMed

    Nassal, Michelle M J; Werdich, Andreas A; Wan, Xiaoping; Hoshi, Malcolm; Deschênes, Isabelle; Rosenbaum, David S; Donahue, J Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) phosphorylation alters gap junction localization and function. In particular, phosphorylation at serine-368 (S368) has been suggested to alter gap junctional conductance, but previous reports have shown inconsistent results for both timing and functional effects of S368 phosphorylation. The objective of this study was to determine the functional effects of isolated S368 phosphorylation. We evaluated wild-type Cx43 (AdCx43) and mutations simulating permanent phosphorylation (Ad368E) or preventing phosphorylation (Ad368A) at S368. Function was assessed by optical mapping of electrical conduction in patterned cultures of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, under baseline and metabolic stress (MS) conditions. Baseline conduction velocity (CV) was similar for all groups. In the AdCx43 and Ad368E groups, MS moderately decreased CV. Ad368A caused complete conduction block during MS. Triton-X solubility assessment showed no change in Cx43 location during conduction impairment. Western blot analysis showed that Cx43-S368 phosphorylation was present at baseline, and that it decreased during MS. Our data indicate that phosphorylation at S368 does not affect CV under baseline conditions, and that preventing S368 phosphorylation makes Cx43 hypersensitive to MS. These results show the critical role of S368 phosphorylation during stress conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A worm of one's own: how helminths modulate host adipose tissue function and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Guigas, Bruno; Molofsky, Ari B

    2015-09-01

    Parasitic helminths have coexisted with human beings throughout time. Success in eradicating helminths has limited helminth-induced morbidity and mortality but is also correlated with increasing rates of 'western' diseases, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in mice describe how type 2 immune cells, traditionally associated with helminth infection, maintain adipose tissue homeostasis and promote adipose tissue beiging, protecting against obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Here, we review these studies and discuss how helminths and helminth-derived molecules may modulate these physiologic pathways to improve metabolic functions in specific tissues, such as adipose and liver, as well as at the whole-organism level.

  20. Ceramides as modulators of cellular and whole-body metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bikman, Benjamin T; Summers, Scott A

    2011-11-01

    Nearly all stress stimuli (e.g., inflammatory cytokines, glucocorticoids, chemotherapeutics, etc.) induce sphingolipid synthesis, leading to the accumulation of ceramides and ceramide metabolites. While the role of these lipids in the regulation of cell growth and death has been studied extensively, recent studies suggest that a primary consequence of ceramide accumulation is an alteration in metabolism. In both cell-autonomous systems and complex organisms, ceramides modify intracellular signaling pathways to slow anabolism, ensuring that catabolism ensues. These ceramide actions have important implications for diseases associated with obesity, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  1. Effects of substitution of Cx43 by Cx32 on myocardial energy metabolism, tolerance to ischaemia and preconditioning protection

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Sinovas, Antonio; Sánchez, Jose A; González-Loyola, Alejandra; Barba, Ignasi; Morente, Miriam; Aguilar, Rio; Agulló, Esperanza; Miró-Casas, Elisatet; Esquerda, Neus; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; García-Dorado, David

    2010-01-01

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) plays an important role in cardioprotective signalling by mechanisms at least in part independent of gap junctional communication. To investigate whether this role is related to specific properties of this connexin isoform, we used a knock-in mouse model in which the coding region of Cx43 is replaced by that of Cx32. Homozygous Cx43KI32 mice showed reduced cell-to-cell Lucifer Yellow transfer (P < 0.01), but QRS duration and left ventricular fractional shortening (echocardiography) were similar to those in wild-type animals. NMR spectroscopy detected reduced ATP and increased lactate content in myocardium from homozygous Cx43KI32 animals (P < 0.05). Despite this, isolated homozygous Cx43KI32 hearts showed smaller infarcts after ischaemia–reperfusion (40 min/60 min) as compared to hearts from heterozygous and wild-type animals (13 and 31% reduction, respectively, P < 0.05). Cardiac myocytes isolated from Cx43KI32 mouse hearts also showed a reduced rate of cell death after simulated ischaemia–reperfusion. In a separate series of experiments, both ischaemic (4 cycles of 3.5 min of ischaemia and 5 min of reperfusion) and pharmacological (50 μmol l−1 diazoxide, 10 min) preconditioning reduced infarct size in hearts from wild-type mice (by 24.84 and 26.63%, respectively, P < 0.05), but only ischaemic preconditioning was effective in hearts from heterozygous animals and both preconditioning strategies failed to protect Cx43KI32 homozygous hearts. These results demonstrate that Cx43 has an important and previously unknown modulatory effect in myocardial energy metabolism and tolerance to ischaemia, and plays a critical role in preconditioning protection, by mechanisms that are specific for this connexin isoform. PMID:20156849

  2. Aging Impairs Myocardial Fatty Acid and Ketone Oxidation and Modifies Cardiac Functional and Metabolic Responses to Insulin in Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hyyti, Outi M.; Ledee, Dolena; Ning, Xue-Han; Ge, Ming; Portman, Michael A.

    2010-07-02

    Aging presumably initiates shifts in substrate oxidation mediated in part by changes in insulin sensitivity. Similar shifts occur with cardiac hypertrophy and may contribute to contractile dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that aging modifies substrate utilization and alters insulin sensitivity in mouse heart when provided multiple substrates. In vivo cardiac function was measured with microtipped pressure transducers in the left ventricle from control (4–6 mo) and aged (22–24 mo) mice. Cardiac function was also measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate and anaplerotic fractional contributions to the citric acid cycle (CAC) by using perfusate containing 13C-labeled free fatty acids (FFA), acetoacetate, lactate, and unlabeled glucose. Stroke volume and cardiac output were diminished in aged mice in vivo, but pressure development was preserved. Systolic and diastolic functions were maintained in aged isolated hearts. Insulin prompted an increase in systolic function in aged hearts, resulting in an increase in cardiac efficiency. FFA and ketone flux were present but were markedly impaired in aged hearts. These changes in myocardial substrate utilization corresponded to alterations in circulating lipids, thyroid hormone, and reductions in protein expression for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)4. Insulin further suppressed FFA oxidation in the aged. Insulin stimulation of anaplerosis in control hearts was absent in the aged. The aged heart shows metabolic plasticity by accessing multiple substrates to maintain function. However, fatty acid oxidation capacity is limited. Impaired insulin-stimulated anaplerosis may contribute to elevated cardiac efficiency, but may also limit response to acute stress through depletion of CAC intermediates.

  3. Leishmania infantum Modulates Host Macrophage Mitochondrial Metabolism by Hijacking the SIRT1-AMPK Axis

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Diana; Rodrigues, Vasco; Abengozar, Maria; Rivas, Luis; Rial, Eduardo; Laforge, Mireille; Li, Xiaoling; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Estaquier, Jérôme; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela; Silvestre, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic manipulation of host cells by intracellular pathogens is currently recognized to play an important role in the pathology of infection. Nevertheless, little information is available regarding mitochondrial energy metabolism in Leishmania infected macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that during L. infantum infection, macrophages switch from an early glycolytic metabolism to an oxidative phosphorylation, and this metabolic deviation requires SIRT1 and LKB1/AMPK. SIRT1 or LBK1 deficient macrophages infected with L. infantum failed to activate AMPK and up-regulate its targets such as Slc2a4 and Ppargc1a, which are essential for parasite growth. As a result, impairment of metabolic switch caused by SIRT1 or AMPK deficiency reduces parasite load in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our work demonstrates the importance of SIRT1 and AMPK energetic sensors for parasite intracellular survival and proliferation, highlighting the modulation of these proteins as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:25738568

  4. Leishmania infantum modulates host macrophage mitochondrial metabolism by hijacking the SIRT1-AMPK axis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Diana; Rodrigues, Vasco; Abengozar, Maria; Rivas, Luis; Rial, Eduardo; Laforge, Mireille; Li, Xiaoling; Foretz, Marc; Viollet, Benoit; Estaquier, Jérôme; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela; Silvestre, Ricardo

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic manipulation of host cells by intracellular pathogens is currently recognized to play an important role in the pathology of infection. Nevertheless, little information is available regarding mitochondrial energy metabolism in Leishmania infected macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that during L. infantum infection, macrophages switch from an early glycolytic metabolism to an oxidative phosphorylation, and this metabolic deviation requires SIRT1 and LKB1/AMPK. SIRT1 or LBK1 deficient macrophages infected with L. infantum failed to activate AMPK and up-regulate its targets such as Slc2a4 and Ppargc1a, which are essential for parasite growth. As a result, impairment of metabolic switch caused by SIRT1 or AMPK deficiency reduces parasite load in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our work demonstrates the importance of SIRT1 and AMPK energetic sensors for parasite intracellular survival and proliferation, highlighting the modulation of these proteins as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  5. Modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism by bovine alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study were to identify the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites produced by cultured bovine alveolar macrophages (AM), to investigate the effects of various stimuli on the production of those metabolites, and to study the effect of interferons and lipopolysaccharide on AA metabolism by AM. Initial studies were conducted to ascertain which AA metabolites are produced by bovine alveolar macrophages. Cultured macrophages were labeled with tritiated arachidonic acid and stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187. The radiolabeled AA metabolites released were identified using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The production of LTB{sub 4}, TXB{sub 2}, and PGF{sub 2{alpha}} by AM stimulated with A23187 or opsonized zymosan (OPZ) was measured using radioimmunoassay. Finally, the effects of recombinant bovine interferon alpha{sub 1}-1 (IFN-{alpha}{sub 1}-1), recombinant bovine interferon gamma (IFN-{gamma}), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from Escherichia coli 0111:B4 on the AA metabolism of bovine AM were investigated. These studies indicate that appropriately stimulated bovine AM are the source of a number of AA metabolites. Furthermore, the production of these metabolites may be dramatically altered by exposure of the AM to IFNs or LPS. Such exposure could occur in vivo during gram negative bacterial pneumonias following viral infections. Because AA metabolites are intimately involved in the inflammatory process, it is possible that AM may contribute to the development of pulmonary inflammation in certain situations.

  6. The gut microbiota modulates host amino acid and glutathione metabolism in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mardinoglu, Adil; Shoaie, Saeed; Bergentall, Mattias; Ghaffari, Pouyan; Zhang, Cheng; Larsson, Erik; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been proposed as an environmental factor that promotes the progression of metabolic diseases. Here, we investigated how the gut microbiota modulates the global metabolic differences in duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, liver, and two white adipose tissue depots obtained from conventionally raised (CONV-R) and germ-free (GF) mice using gene expression data and tissue-specific genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs). We created a generic mouse metabolic reaction (MMR) GEM, reconstructed 28 tissue-specific GEMs based on proteomics data, and manually curated GEMs for small intestine, colon, liver, and adipose tissues. We used these functional models to determine the global metabolic differences between CONV-R and GF mice. Based on gene expression data, we found that the gut microbiota affects the host amino acid (AA) metabolism, which leads to modifications in glutathione metabolism. To validate our predictions, we measured the level of AAs and N-acetylated AAs in the hepatic portal vein of CONV-R and GF mice. Finally, we simulated the metabolic differences between the small intestine of the CONV-R and GF mice accounting for the content of the diet and relative gene expression differences. Our analyses revealed that the gut microbiota influences host amino acid and glutathione metabolism in mice. PMID:26475342

  7. The reliability and prognosis of in-hospital diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in the setting of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Suzanne V; Lipska, Kasia J; Li, Yan; Goyal, Abhinav; Maddox, Thomas M; McGuire, Darren K; Spertus, John A; Kosiborod, Mikhail

    2013-08-20

    This study sought to examine the reliability and prognostic importance of an in-hospital diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Because the factors that comprise MetS are believed to be altered in the setting of AMI, the diagnosis of MetS during AMI hospitalization and its prognostic significance have not been studied. We assessed patients within a multicenter registry for metabolic factors at baseline and 1 month post-AMI and followed them for mortality and rehospitalizations. The accuracy of an inpatient diagnosis of MetS was calculated using a 1-month follow-up as the gold standard. Patients were categorized based on MetS diagnosis at baseline and 1 month, and the combined endpoint of death or rehospitalization over 12 months was compared between groups. Of the 1,129 patients hospitalized for AMI, diagnostic criteria for MetS were met by 69% during AMI hospitalization and 63% at 1 month. Inpatient MetS diagnosis had a sensitivity and specificity for outpatient diagnosis of 87% and 61%, respectively, and was associated with an 11 times increased odds of an outpatient diagnosis (C-index 0.74). Compared with patients without MetS during hospitalization and follow-up, patients classified as MetS during AMI but not follow-up had worse outcomes, whereas those classified MetS at follow-up had the worst outcomes (rates for combined endpoint 27% vs. 37% vs. 38%; log-rank p = 0.01). In a large cohort of patients with AMI, the diagnosis of MetS is common and can be made with reasonable accuracy during AMI. MetS is associated with poor outcomes, regardless of whether the diagnosis is confirmed during subsequent outpatient visit, and identifies a high-risk cohort of patients that may benefit from more aggressive risk factor modification. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. FXR activation improves myocardial fatty acid metabolism in a rodent model of obesity-driven cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Mencarelli, A; Cipriani, S; Renga, B; D'Amore, C; Palladino, G; Distrutti, E; Baldelli, F; Fiorucci, S

    2013-02-01

    Obesity-driven lipotoxicity is a risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) is a bile acids sensor and member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Activation of FXR lowers plasma triacylglycerols and glucose levels through a mechanism that involves both the repression of key regulatory genes in the liver and the modulation of insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. In the present study we have investigated whether administering obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, a genetic model of obesity associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, with an FXR ligand protects against lipid-induced cardiomyopathy. FXR is expressed in neonatal cardiomyocytes and the treatment with FXR agonists, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and GW4064, increased the mRNA expression of FXR and its canonical target gene, the small heterodimer partner (SHP), as well as proliferator-activated receptor alpha PPARα, acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK-4). Feeding obese fa/fa rats with CDCA, 12 weeks, reduced hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidaemia. The histological-pathological analysis of hearts demonstrated that treatment with the FXR ligand reduced lipid heart content decreased the rate of apoptosis, fibrosis scores and restored heart insulin signalling. Chronic CDCA administration, in the heart, induced PPARα and PPARα-regulated genes involved in β-oxidation. FXR agonism exerts beneficial effects in a genetic model of lipid-induced cardiomyopathy. The striking benefit of this therapy on cardiac function in this model warrants an effort to determine whether a counterpart of this activity translates in human settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Standardized Chinese Formula Xin-Ke-Shu inhibits the myocardium Ca2+ overloading and metabolic alternations in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue-Tao; Zhou, Chao; Jia, Hong-Mei; Chang, Xing; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Xin-Ke-Shu (XKS) is a traditional Chinese patent medicine used for treatment of coronary heart diseases in China. However, its mechanism of action is still unclear. In this paper, the mediation of XKS on the isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) rat were evaluated based on a tissue-targeted metabonomics in vitro/vivo. The result indicated that twelve metabolic pathways were involved in the therapeutic effect of XKS in vivo, where seven pathways were associated with the Ca2+ overloading mechanism. In agreement with regulation on metabolic variations, XKS markedly reversed the over-expressions of three involved proteins including phospholipase A2 IIA (PLA2 IIA), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) and Pro-Caspase-3. The metabolic regulations of XKS on H9c2 cell also partially confirmed its metabolic effect. These metabolic characteristics in vitro/vivo and western blotting analysis suggested that XKS protected from MI metabolic perturbation major via inhibition of Ca2+ overloading mechanism. Furthermore, 11 active ingredients of XKS exerted steady affinity with the three proteins through the molecular docking study. Our findings indicate that the metabonomics in vitro/vivo combined with western blotting analysis offers the opportunity to gain insight into the comprehensive efficacy of TCMs on the whole metabolic network. PMID:27457884

  10. The MAO A genotype does not modulate resting brain metabolism in adults

    PubMed Central

    Alia-Klein, Nelly; Kriplani, Aarti; Pradhan, Kith; Ma, Jim Yeming; Logan, Jean; Williams, Benjamin; Craig, Ian W.; Telang, Frank; Tomasi, Dardo; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2008-01-01

    Variation in the monoamine-oxidase-A gene has been associated with volumetric changes in corticolimbic regions with differences in their response to relevant emotional tasks. Here we show no changes in baseline regional brain metabolism as a function of genotype indicating that, unchallenged, corticolimbic activity is not modulated by the MAOA genotype. PMID:18706791

  11. Can Cholesterol Metabolism Modulation Affect Brain Function and Behavior?

    PubMed

    Cartocci, Veronica; Servadio, Michela; Trezza, Viviana; Pallottini, Valentina

    2017-02-01

    Cholesterol is an important component for cell physiology. It regulates the fluidity of cell membranes and determines the physical and biochemical properties of proteins. In the central nervous system, cholesterol controls synapse formation and function and supports the saltatory conduction of action potential. In recent years, the role of cholesterol in the brain has caught the attention of several research groups since a breakdown of cholesterol metabolism has been associated with different neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, and interestingly also with psychiatric conditions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the connection between cholesterol dysregulation and various neurologic and psychiatric disorders based on clinical and preclinical studies. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 281-286, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Modulation of Gut Microbiota in the Management of Metabolic Disorders: The Prospects and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Ab Wahab, Mohd S.

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays a number of important roles including digestion, metabolism, extraction of nutrients, synthesis of vitamins, prevention against pathogen colonization, and modulation of the immune system. Alterations or changes in composition and biodiversity of the gut microbiota have been associated with many gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer. Recent evidence suggests that altered composition and diversity of gut microbiota may play a role in the increased prevalence of metabolic diseases. This review article has two main objectives. First, it underscores approaches (such as probiotics, prebiotics, antimicrobial agents, bariatric surgery, and weight loss strategies) and their prospects in modulating the gut microbiota in the management of metabolic diseases. Second, it highlights some of the current challenges and discusses areas of future research as it relates to the gut microbiota and metabolic diseases. The prospect of modulating the gut microbiota seems promising. However, considering that research investigating the role of gut microbiota in metabolic diseases is still in its infancy, more rigorous and well-designed in vitro, animal and clinical studies are needed. PMID:24608927

  13. AMBIENT: Active Modules for Bipartite Networks - using high-throughput transcriptomic data to dissect metabolic response

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the continued proliferation of high-throughput biological experiments, there is a pressing need for tools to integrate the data produced in ways that produce biologically meaningful conclusions. Many microarray studies have analysed transcriptomic data from a pathway perspective, for instance by testing for KEGG pathway enrichment in sets of upregulated genes. However, the increasing availability of species-specific metabolic models provides the opportunity to analyse these data in a more objective, system-wide manner. Results Here we introduce ambient (Active Modules for Bipartite Networks), a simulated annealing approach to the discovery of metabolic subnetworks (modules) that are significantly affected by a given genetic or environmental change. The metabolic modules returned by ambient are connected parts of the bipartite network that change coherently between conditions, providing a more detailed view of metabolic changes than standard approaches based on pathway enrichment. Conclusions ambient is an effective and flexible tool for the analysis of high-throughput data in a metabolic context. The same approach can be applied to any system in which reactions (or metabolites) can be assigned a score based on some biological observation, without the limitation of predefined pathways. A Python implementation of ambient is available at http://www.theosysbio.bio.ic.ac.uk/ambient. PMID:23531303

  14. Pharmacological Modulators of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Tae Woo; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the principal organelle responsible for correct protein folding, a step in protein synthesis that is critical for the functional conformation of proteins. ER stress is a primary feature of secretory cells and is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases, such as certain neurodegenerative and cardiometabolic disorders. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a defense mechanism to attenuate ER stress and maintain the homeostasis of the organism. Two major degradation systems, including the proteasome and autophagy, are involved in this defense system. If ER stress overwhelms the capacity of the cell’s defense mechanisms, apoptotic death may result. This review is focused on the various pharmacological modulators that can protect cells from damage induced by ER stress. The possible mechanisms for cytoprotection are also discussed. PMID:26840310

  15. Insulin Stimulates S100B Secretion and These Proteins Antagonistically Modulate Brain Glucose Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wartchow, Krista Minéia; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; de Souza, Daniela F; Biasibetti, Regina; Bobermin, Larissa D; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Brain metabolism is highly dependent on glucose, which is derived from the blood circulation and metabolized by the astrocytes and other neural cells via several pathways. Glucose uptake in the brain does not involve insulin-dependent glucose transporters; however, this hormone affects the glucose influx to the brain. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid levels of S100B (an astrocyte-derived protein) have been associated with alterations in glucose metabolism; however, there is no evidence whether insulin modulates glucose metabolism and S100B secretion. Herein, we investigated the effect of S100B on glucose metabolism, measuring D-(3)H-glucose incorporation in two preparations, C6 glioma cells and acute hippocampal slices, and we also investigated the effect of insulin on S100B secretion. Our results showed that: (a) S100B at physiological levels decreases glucose uptake, through the multiligand receptor RAGE and mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK signaling, and (b) insulin stimulated S100B secretion via PI3K signaling. Our findings indicate the existence of insulin-S100B modulation of glucose utilization in the brain tissue, and may improve our understanding of glucose metabolism in several conditions such as ketosis, streptozotocin-induced dementia and pharmacological exposure to antipsychotics, situations that lead to changes in insulin signaling and extracellular levels of S100B.

  16. Eicosapentaenoic acid in cancer improves body composition and modulates metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Giulia; Almeida, Ana; Ravasco, Paula

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this review article is to present the most recent intervention studies with EPA on nutritional outcomes in cancer patients, e.g. nutritional status, weight & lean body mass. For this purpose a PubMed(®) and MedLine(®) search of the published literature up to and including January 2014 that contained the keywords: cancer, sarcopenia, EPA, ω-3 fatty acids, weight, intervention trial, muscle mass was conducted. The collected data was summarized and written in text format and in tables that contained: study design, patient' population, sample size, statistical significance and results of the intervention. The paper will cover malignancy, body composition, intervention with EPA, physiological mechanisms of action of EPA, effect of EPA on weight and body composition, future research. In cancer patients deterioration of muscle mass can be present regardless of body weight or Body Mass Index (BMI). Thus, sarcopenia in cancer patients with excessive fat mass (FM), entitled sarcopenic obesity, has gained greater relevance in clinical practice; it can negatively influence patients' functional status, tolerance to treatments & disease prognosis. The search for an effective nutritional intervention that improves body composition (preservation of muscle mass and muscle quality) is of utmost importance for clinicians and patients. The improvement of muscle quality is an even more recent area of interest because it has probable implications in patients' prognosis. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been identified as a promising nutrient with the wide clinical benefits. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain EPA potential benefits on body composition: inhibition of catabolic stimuli by modulating pro-inflammatory cytokines production and enhancing insulin sensitivity that induces protein synthesis; also, EPA may attenuate deterioration of nutritional status resulting from antineoplastic therapies by improving calorie and protein intake as well. Indeed

  17. PRMT5 modulates the metabolic response to fasting signals.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Wei; Niessen, Sherry; Goebel, Naomi; Yates, John R; Guccione, Ernesto; Montminy, Marc

    2013-05-28

    Under fasting conditions, increases in circulating glucagon maintain glucose balance by promoting hepatic gluconeogenesis. Triggering of the cAMP pathway stimulates gluconeogenic gene expression through the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of the cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein and via the dephosphorylation of the latent cytoplasmic CREB regulated transcriptional coactivator 2 (CRTC2). CREB and CRTC2 activities are increased in insulin resistance, in which they promote hyperglycemia because of constitutive induction of the gluconeogenic program. The extent to which CREB and CRTC2 are coordinately up-regulated in response to glucagon, however, remains unclear. Here we show that, following its activation, CRTC2 enhances CREB phosphorylation through an association with the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). In turn, PRMT5 was found to stimulate CREB phosphorylation via increases in histone H3 Arg2 methylation that enhanced chromatin accessibility at gluconeogenic promoters. Because depletion of PRMT5 lowers hepatic glucose production and gluconeogenic gene expression, these results demonstrate how a chromatin-modifying enzyme regulates a metabolic program through epigenetic changes that impact the phosphorylation of a transcription factor in response to hormonal stimuli.

  18. Modulation of collagen metabolism by the nucleolar protein fibrillarin.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, F; Garnotel, R; Georges, N; Gillery, P

    2001-11-15

    Metabolic functions of fibroblasts are tightly regulated by the extracellular environment. When cultivated in tridimensional collagen lattices, fibroblasts exhibit a lowered activity of protein synthesis, especially concerning extracellular matrix proteins. We have previously shown that extracellular collagen impaired the processing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in nucleoli by generating changes in the expression of nucleolar proteins and a premature degradation of neosynthesized rRNA. In this study, we have investigated whether inhibiting the synthesis of fibrillarin, a major nucleolar protein with decreased expression in collagen lattices, could mimic the effects of extracellular matrix. Monolayer-cultured fibroblasts were transfected with anti-fibrillarin antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, which significantly decreased fibrillarin content. Downregulation of fibrillarin expression inhibited procollagen secretion into the extracellular medium, without altering total collagen production. No changes of pro1(I)collagen mRNA expression or proline hydroxylation were found. A concomitant intracellular retention of collagen and its chaperone protein HSP47 was found, but no effect on the production of other extracellular matrix macromolecules or remodelling enzymes was observed. These data show that collagen processing depends on unknown mechanisms, involving proteins primarily located in the nucleolar compartment with other demonstrated functions, and suggest specific links between nucleolar machinery and extracellular matrix.

  19. Wheat ROP proteins modulate defense response through lignin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing-Hu; Zhu, Hai-Hao; Han, Jia-Qi

    2017-09-01

    ROP is a subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins that uniquely exist in plants. It acts as versatile molecular switches that regulate various developmental processes. Some ROP proteins are also reported to affect defense responses, although their exact mechanism is not fully understood. Herein, ROP members in wheat were mined; the functions of three wheat ROP proteins were studied. RT-PCR results showed that the expression of TaRac1 was rapidly and strongly induced after leaf rust infection. TaRac1 interacted with TaCCR in yeast-hybridization assay. The overexpression of TaRac1 in tobacco promoted CCR and CAD gene expression, increased the total lignin content and sinapyl lignin proportion, and then enhanced resistance to tobacco black shank and bacterial wilt diseases. In contrast, TaRac3 and TaRac4 did not show to interact with TaCCR. Furthermore, the overexpression of TaRac3 and TaRac4 did not increase lignin gene expression and lignin accumulation either. Unlike TaRac1, the overexpression of TaRac3 increased susceptibility to both black shank and bacterial wilt pathogens, while overexpression of TaRac4 showed no effect on disease resistance but promoted the root growth in tobacco seedling. These data collectively suggest that TaRac1 in Group II is mainly involved in regulating lignin metabolism which, in turn, responsible for the observed roles in pathogen resistance. TaRac3 and TaRac4 have the minor roles in defense response but may act on regulation in plant developmental processes. These results shed light on the complexity and diverse function of ROP in plant defense pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathology of acute ischemic myocardium. Special references to (I) evaluation of morphological methods for detection of early myocardial infarcts, and (II) lipid metabolism in infarcted myocardium.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, I

    1977-09-01

    Morphological changes of early myocardial infarction within 24 hours after the onset of the acute attack were described together with a review of the literatures. For the practical purpose in detecting very early infarcts, enzymatic histochemistry is the most reliable method. Other methods previously reported such as wavy pattern of the muscle fibers and fuchsinophilia are still controvertial. Lipid metabolism in the infarcted myocardium of dogs was studied both morphologically and biochemically. Up to 3 hours, after the coronary ligation, the tissue lipids accumulated in the necrotic areas with a rise of triglyceride, but later than 6 hours the lipids decreased and were lost from the necrotic tissue, while the surrounding living cells were accumulated with neutral lipids. Serum free fatty acids were elevated in the coronary sinus blood in 6 hours after the ligation. Linolic acids were contained in high proportion in both coronary venous blood after 6 hours, and normal myocardial phospholipid. These results may lead to another possible factor in addition to catecholamine activity to elevate serum FFA in acute myocardial infarction that fatty acids may be released partly from tissue phospholipid and once ever accumulated triglyceride.

  1. Transcriptional Changes Associated with Long-Term Left Ventricle Volume Overload in Rats: Impact on Enzymes Related to Myocardial Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Elise; Drolet, Marie-Claude; Walsh-Wilkinson, Elisabeth; Dhahri, Wahiba; Lachance, Dominic; Gascon, Suzanne; Sarrhini, Otman; Rousseau, Jacques A.; Lecomte, Roger; Couet, Jacques; Arsenault, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Patients with left ventricle (LV) volume overload (VO) remain in a compensated state for many years although severe dilation is present. The myocardial capacity to fulfill its energetic demand may delay decompensation. We performed a gene expression profile, a model of chronic VO in rat LV with severe aortic valve regurgitation (AR) for 9 months, and focused on the study of genes associated with myocardial energetics. Methods. LV gene expression profile was performed in rats after 9 months of AR and compared to sham-operated controls. LV glucose and fatty acid (FA) uptake was also evaluated in vivo by positron emission tomography in 8-week AR rats treated or not with fenofibrate, an activator of FA oxidation (FAO). Results. Many LV genes associated with mitochondrial function and metabolism were downregulated in AR rats. FA β-oxidation capacity was significantly impaired as early as two weeks after AR. Treatment with fenofibrate, a PPARα agonist, normalized both FA and glucose uptake while reducing LV dilation caused by AR. Conclusion. Myocardial energy substrate preference is affected early in the evolution of LV-VO cardiomyopathy. Maintaining a relatively normal FA utilization in the myocardium could translate into less glucose uptake and possibly lesser LV remodeling. PMID:26583150

  2. Involvement of Proteasome and Macrophages M2 in the Protection Afforded by Telmisartan against the Acute Myocardial Infarction in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Di Filippo, C.; Rossi, C.; Ferraro, B.; Maisto, R.; De Angelis, A.; Ferraraccio, F.; Rotondo, A.; D'Amico, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the involvement of proteasome and macrophages M2 in the protection afforded by telmisartan against the acute myocardial infarction in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats with metabolic syndrome. ZDF rats were treated for three weeks with telmisartan at doses of 7 and 12 mg/kg/day. After treatment, rats were subjected to a 25 min occlusion of the left descending coronary artery followed by 2 h reperfusion (I/R). At the end of the I/R period, biochemical, immunohistochemical, and echocardiographic evaluations were done. Telmisartan treatment (7 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg) reduced the myocardial infarct size, the expression of proteasome subunits 20S and 26S, and the protein ubiquitin within the heart. The compound has led to an increased M2 macrophage phenotype within the cardiac specimens and a modification of the cardiac cytokine and chemokine profile. This was functionally translated in improved cardiac performance as evidenced by echography after 2 h reperfusion. 7 mg/kg/day telmisartan was sufficient to improve the left ventricular ejection fraction LVEF of the rat heart recorded after I/R (e.g., vehicle 38 ± 2.2%; telmisartan 54 ± 2.7%) and was sufficient to improve the diastolic function and the myocardial performance index up to values of 0.6 ± 0.01 measured after I/R. PMID:25110402

  3. Ecology Drives the Distribution of Specialized Tyrosine Metabolism Modules in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Greene, George H.; McGary, Kriston L.; Rokas, Antonis; Slot, Jason C.

    2014-01-01

    Gene clusters encoding accessory or environmentally specialized metabolic pathways likely play a significant role in the evolution of fungal genomes. Two such gene clusters encoding enzymes associated with the tyrosine metabolism pathway (KEGG #00350) have been identified in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. The l-tyrosine degradation (TD) gene cluster encodes a functional module that facilitates breakdown of the phenolic amino acid, l-tyrosine through a homogentisate intermediate, but is also involved in the production of pyomelanin, a fungal pathogenicity factor. The gentisate catabolism (GC) gene cluster encodes a functional module likely involved in phenolic compound degradation, which may enable metabolism of biphenolic stilbenes in multiple lineages. Our investigation of the evolution of the TD and GC gene clusters in 214 fungal genomes revealed spotty distributions partially shaped by gene cluster loss and horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Specifically, a TD gene cluster shows evidence of HGT between the extremophilic, melanized fungi Exophiala dermatitidis and Baudoinia compniacensis, and a GC gene cluster shows evidence of HGT between Sordariomycete and Dothideomycete grass pathogens. These results suggest that the distribution of specialized tyrosine metabolism modules is influenced by both the ecology and phylogeny of fungal species. PMID:24391152

  4. The role of extracellular modulators of canonical Wnt signaling in bone metabolism and diseases.

    PubMed

    Boudin, Eveline; Fijalkowski, Igor; Piters, Elke; Van Hul, Wim

    2013-10-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is a key pathway in various processes, including bone metabolism. In this review, current knowledge of all extracellular modulators of the canonical Wnt signaling in bone metabolism is summarized and discussed. The PubMed database was searched using the following keywords: canonical Wnt signaling, β-catenin bone metabolism, BMD, osteoblast, osteoporosis, Wnt, LRPs, Frizzleds, sFRPs, sclerostin or SOST, dickkopfs, Wif1, R-spondins, glypicans, SOST-dc1 and kremen, all separately as well as in different combinations. Canonical Wnt signaling is considered to be one of the major pathways regulating bone formation. Consequently, a large number of studies were performed to elucidate the role of numerous proteins in canonical Wnt signaling and bone metabolism. These studies led to the identification of novel modulators of the pathway like the R-spondin and glypican protein families. Furthermore novel insights are gained in the regulatory role of the different Wnt proteins. Finally, due to its function in bone formation, the pathway is an interesting target for the development of therapeutics for osteoporosis and other bone diseases. In this review, we discuss the promising results of the Wnt modulators sclerostin, Dkk1 and sFRP1 as targets for osteoporosis treatment. The increasing number of studies into the exact function of all proteins in the canonical Wnt pathway in general and in bone metabolism already led to novel insights in the regulation of the canonical Wnt pathway. In this review we covered the current knowledge of all extracellular modulators of canonical Wnt signaling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Light quality modulates metabolic synchronization over the diel phases of crassulacean acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ceusters, Johan; Borland, Anne M.; Taybi, Tahar; Frans, Mario; Godts, Christof; De Proft, Maurice P.

    2014-01-01

    Temporal compartmentation of carboxylation processes is a defining feature of crassulacean acid metabolism and involves circadian control of key metabolic and transport steps that regulate the supply and demand for carbon over a 24h cycle. Recent insights on the molecular workings of the circadian clock and its connection with environmental inputs raise new questions on the importance of light quality and, by analogy, certain photoreceptors for synchronizing the metabolic components of CAM. The present work tested the hypothesis that optimal coupling of stomatal conductance, net CO2 uptake, and the reciprocal turnover of carbohydrates and organic acids over the diel CAM cycle requires both blue and red light input signals. Contrasting monochromatic wavelengths of blue, green, and red light (i.e. 475, 530, 630nm) with low fluence rates (10 μmol m–2 s–1) were administered for 16 hours each diel cycle for a total treatment time of 48 hours to the obligate CAM bromeliad, Aechmea ‘Maya’. Of the light treatments imposed, low-fluence blue light was a key determinant in regulating stomatal responses, organic acid mobilization from the vacuole, and daytime decarboxylation. However, the reciprocal relationship between starch and organic acid turnover that is typical for CAM was uncoupled under low-fluence blue light. Under low-fluence red or green light, the diel turnover of storage carbohydrates was orchestrated in line with the requirements of CAM, but a consistent delay in acid consumption at dawn compared with plants under white or low-fluence blue light was noted. Consistent with the acknowledged influences of both red and blue light as input signals for the circadian clock, the data stress the importance of both red and blue-light signalling pathways for synchronizing the metabolic and physiological components of CAM over the day/night cycle. PMID:24803500

  6. Experimental study on trace chemical contaminant generation rates of human metabolism in spacecraft crew module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihua, Guo; Xinxing, He; Guoxin, Xu; Xin, Qi

    2012-12-01

    Trace chemical contaminants generated by human metabolism is a major source of contamination in spacecraft crew module. In this research, types and generation rates of pollutants from human metabolism were determined in the Chinese diets. Expired air, skin gas, and sweat of 20 subjects were analyzed at different exercise states in a simulated module. The exercise states were designed according to the basic activities in the orbit of astronauts. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of contaminants generated by human metabolic were performed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, gas chromatography and UV spectrophotometer. Sixteen chemical compounds from metabolic sources were found. With the increase in physical load, the concentrations of chemical compounds from human skin and expired air correspondingly increased. The species and the offgassing rates of pollutants from human metabolism are different among the Chinese, Americans and the Russians due to differences in ethnicity and dietary customs. This research provides data to aid in the design, development and operation of China's long duration space mission.

  7. Red wine polyphenols modulate fecal microbiota and reduce markers of the metabolic syndrome in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Sánchez-Alcoholado, Lidia; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Cardona, Fernando; Tinahones, Francisco; Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the possible prebiotic effect of a moderate intake of red wine polyphenols on the modulation of the gut microbiota composition and the improvement in the risk factors for the metabolic syndrome in obese patients. Ten metabolic syndrome patients and ten healthy subjects were included in a randomized, crossover, controlled intervention study. After a washout period, the subjects consumed red wine and de-alcoholized red wine over a 30 day period for each. The dominant bacterial composition did not differ significantly between the study groups after the two red wine intake periods. In the metabolic syndrome patients, red wine polyphenols significantly increased the number of fecal bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus (intestinal barrier protectors) and butyrate-producing bacteria (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia) at the expense of less desirable groups of bacteria such as LPS producers (Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae). The changes in gut microbiota in these patients could be responsible for the improvement in the metabolic syndrome markers. Modulation of the gut microbiota by using red wine could be an effective strategy for managing metabolic diseases associated with obesity.

  8. Protective role of 5-azacytidine on myocardial infarction is associated with modulation of macrophage phenotype and inhibition of fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Sook; Kang, Wan Seok; Kwon, Jin Sook; Hong, Moon Hwa; Jeong, Hye-yun; Jeong, Hae Chang; Jeong, Myung Ho; Ahn, Youngkeun

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether a shift in macrophage phenotype could be therapeutic for myocardial infarction (MI). The mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was stimulated with peptidoglycan (PGN), with or without 5-azacytidine (5AZ) treatment. MI was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in rats, and the rats were divided into two groups; a saline-injection group and a 5AZ-injection group (2.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection). LV function was evaluated and immunohistochemical analyses were performed 2 weeks after MI. Cardiac fibrosis was induced by angiotensin II (AngII) infusion with or without 5AZ (5 mg/kg/day) in mice. Nitric oxide was produced by PGN, which was reduced by 77.87% after 5AZ treatment. Both induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and iNOS promoter activity by PGN were inhibited by 5AZ. Ejection fraction (59.00 ± 8.03% versus 42.52 ± 2.58%), contractility (LV dP/dt-max, 8299.76 ± 411.56 mmHg versus 6610.36 ± 282.37 mmHg) and relaxation indices (LV dP/dt-min, −4661.37 ± 210.73 mmHg versus −4219.50 ± 162.98 mmHg) were improved after 5AZ administration. Cardiac fibrosis in the MI+5AZ was 8.14 ± 1.00%, compared with 14.93 ± 2.98% in the MI group (P < 0.05). Arginase-1(+)CD68(+) macrophages with anti-inflammatory phenotype were predominant in the infarct border zone of the MI+5AZ group, in comparison with the MI group. AngII-induced cardiac fibrosis was also attenuated after 5AZ administration. In cardiac fibroblasts, pro-fibrotic mediators and cell proliferation were increased by AngII, and these increases were attenuated after 5AZ treatment. 5AZ exerts its cardiac protective role through modulation of macrophages and cardiac fibroblasts. PMID:24571348

  9. Improved myocardial lactate extraction after propranolol in coronary artery disease: effected by peripheral glutamate and free fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, T T; Bagger, J P; Thomassen, A

    1986-01-01

    Ten patients with chronic effort angina and coronary artery disease (luminal diameter reduction greater than 75%) were stressed by atrial pacing (140 beats/minutes) before and 15 minutes after intravenous propranolol (mean dose 7.4 mg). Myocardial substrate exchange of oxygen, blood lactate, plasma free fatty acids, citrate, glucose, glutamate, and alanine as well as coronary sinus blood flow were measured. Coronary sinus blood flow, oxygen consumption, and systemic haemodynamics did not change after propranolol. Propranolol did not influence arterial lactate concentration, and it reduced the arterial concentration of free fatty acid by 37% and increased that of glutamate by 21%. During pacing myocardial lactate extraction increased in all 10 patients; in two lactate release was converted to lactate uptake. Propranolol reduced free fatty acid uptake and increased glutamate uptake during pacing. For both substances the changes in aortocoronary sinus differences or in uptake or both correlated positively with the changes in their delivery to the heart from extracardial sources (arterial concentrations/loads). In the unstressed state before pacing, aortocoronary sinus lactate differences correlated inversely with free fatty acid differences and positively with those of glutamate. During pacing the relation between lactate and glutamate differences remained positive while the inverse correlation between lactate and free fatty acid differences was lost. Myocardial citrate release was halved during pacing and recovery. Propranolol did not influence alanine or glucose exchanges. An improved myocardial lactate extraction after propranolol administration may be secondary to decreased free fatty acid uptake or increased glutamate uptake or both. In the unstressed state both mechanisms may be of importance. During pacing induced ischaemia, increased glutamate uptake is more likely than reduced free fatty acid uptake to be the mechanism responsible for the improvement in

  10. Nitroso-Redox Balance and Modulation of Basal Myocardial Function: An Update from the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Research (SIRC).

    PubMed

    Tocchetti, Carlo G; Molinaro, Marilisa; Angelone, Tommaso; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Madonna, Rosalinda; Mangiacapra, Fabio; Moccia, Francesco; Penna, Claudia; Sartiani, Laura; Quaini, Federico; Pagliaro, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are produced endogenously by cardiomyocytes and are fundamental signaling molecules that regulate cellular function. Production of ROS and RNS is finely tuned to maintain proper myocardial function, but is altered in many pathophysiological conditions, therefore contributing to worsening myocardial dysfunction and ultimately heart failure. Indeed, an excess of ROS and RNS is central in many pathways leading to cardiac hypertrophy and failure, and the correct regulation of the nitroso-redox balance is fundamental for the function of the main components of the EC-coupling machinery. Broad antioxidant therapies have been proposed to improve myocardial function, but these therapies blunt even physiological ROS and RNS signaling, bringing limited, if any, beneficial effect. On the other hand, more targeted interventions on specific sources or pathways may produce promising results.

  11. Integrated pathway modules using time-course metabolic profiles and EST data from Milnesium tardigradum.

    PubMed

    Beisser, Daniela; Grohme, Markus A; Kopka, Joachim; Frohme, Marcus; Schill, Ralph O; Hengherr, Steffen; Dandekar, Thomas; Klau, Gunnar W; Dittrich, Marcus; Müller, Tobias

    2012-06-19

    Tardigrades are multicellular organisms, resistant to extreme environmental changes such as heat, drought, radiation and freezing. They outlast these conditions in an inactive form (tun) to escape damage to cellular structures and cell death. Tardigrades are apparently able to prevent or repair such damage and are therefore a crucial model organism for stress tolerance. Cultures of the tardigrade Milnesium tardigradum were dehydrated by removing the surrounding water to induce tun formation. During this process and the subsequent rehydration, metabolites were measured in a time series by GC-MS. Additionally expressed sequence tags are available, especially libraries generated from the active and inactive state. The aim of this integrated analysis is to trace changes in tardigrade metabolism and identify pathways responsible for their extreme resistance against physical stress. In this study we propose a novel integrative approach for the analysis of metabolic networks to identify modules of joint shifts on the transcriptomic and metabolic levels. We derive a tardigrade-specific metabolic network represented as an undirected graph with 3,658 nodes (metabolites) and 4,378 edges (reactions). Time course metabolite profiles are used to score the network nodes showing a significant change over time. The edges are scored according to information on enzymes from the EST data. Using this combined information, we identify a key subnetwork (functional module) of concerted changes in metabolic pathways, specific for de- and rehydration. The module is enriched in reactions showing significant changes in metabolite levels and enzyme abundance during the transition. It resembles the cessation of a measurable metabolism (e.g. glycolysis and amino acid anabolism) during the tun formation, the production of storage metabolites and bioprotectants, such as DNA stabilizers, and the generation of amino acids and cellular components from monosaccharides as carbon and energy source

  12. Integrated pathway modules using time-course metabolic profiles and EST data from Milnesium tardigradum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tardigrades are multicellular organisms, resistant to extreme environmental changes such as heat, drought, radiation and freezing. They outlast these conditions in an inactive form (tun) to escape damage to cellular structures and cell death. Tardigrades are apparently able to prevent or repair such damage and are therefore a crucial model organism for stress tolerance. Cultures of the tardigrade Milnesium tardigradum were dehydrated by removing the surrounding water to induce tun formation. During this process and the subsequent rehydration, metabolites were measured in a time series by GC-MS. Additionally expressed sequence tags are available, especially libraries generated from the active and inactive state. The aim of this integrated analysis is to trace changes in tardigrade metabolism and identify pathways responsible for their extreme resistance against physical stress. Results In this study we propose a novel integrative approach for the analysis of metabolic networks to identify modules of joint shifts on the transcriptomic and metabolic levels. We derive a tardigrade-specific metabolic network represented as an undirected graph with 3,658 nodes (metabolites) and 4,378 edges (reactions). Time course metabolite profiles are used to score the network nodes showing a significant change over time. The edges are scored according to information on enzymes from the EST data. Using this combined information, we identify a key subnetwork (functional module) of concerted changes in metabolic pathways, specific for de- and rehydration. The module is enriched in reactions showing significant changes in metabolite levels and enzyme abundance during the transition. It resembles the cessation of a measurable metabolism (e.g. glycolysis and amino acid anabolism) during the tun formation, the production of storage metabolites and bioprotectants, such as DNA stabilizers, and the generation of amino acids and cellular components from monosaccharides as carbon and

  13. Sulfur and adenine metabolisms are linked, and both modulate sulfite resistance in wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Agustín; Jiménez-Martí, Elena; Orozco, Helena; Matallana, Emilia; Del Olmo, Marcellí

    2006-08-09

    Sulfite treatment is the most common way to prevent grape must spoilage in winemaking because the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is particularly resistant to this chemical. In this paper we report that sulfite resistance depends on sulfur and adenine metabolism. The amount of adenine and methionine in a chemically defined growth medium modulates sulfite resistance of wine yeasts. Mutations in the adenine biosynthetic pathway or the presence of adenine in a synthetic minimal culture medium increase sulfite resistance. The presence of methionine has the opposite effect, inducing a higher sensitivity to SO(2). The concentration of methionine, adenine, and sulfite in a synthetic grape must influences the progress of fermentation and at the transcriptional level the expression of genes involved in sulfur (MET16), adenine (ADE4), and acetaldehyde (ALD6) metabolism. Sulfite alters the pattern of expression of all these genes. This fact indicates that the response to this stress is complex and involves several metabolic pathways.

  14. Modulation of Ethanol-Metabolizing Enzymes by Developmental Lead Exposure: Effects in Voluntary Ethanol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Virgolini, Miriam B.; Mattalloni, Mara S.; Albrecht, Paula A.; Deza-Ponzio, Romina; Cancela, Liliana M.

    2017-01-01

    This review article provides evidence of the impact of the environmental contaminant lead (Pb) on the pattern of the motivational effects of ethanol (EtOH). To find a mechanism that explains this interaction, the focus of this review article is on central EtOH metabolism and the participating enzymes, as key factors in the modulation of brain acetaldehyde (ACD) accumulation and resulting effect on EtOH intake. Catalase (CAT) seems a good candidate for the shared mechanism between Pb and EtOH due to both its antioxidant and its brain EtOH-metabolizing properties. CAT overactivation was reported to increase EtOH consumption, while CAT blockade reduced it, and both scenarios were modified by Pb exposure, probably as the result of elevated brain and blood CAT activity. Likewise, the motivational effects of EtOH were enhanced when brain ACD metabolism was prevented by ALDH2 inhibition, even in the Pb animals that evidenced reduced brain ALDH2 activity after chronic EtOH intake. Overall, these results suggest that brain EtOH metabolizing enzymes are modulated by Pb exposure with resultant central ACD accumulation and a prevalence of the reinforcing effects of the metabolite in brain against the aversive peripheral ACD accumulation. They also support the idea that early exposure to an environmental contaminant, even at low doses, predisposes at a later age to differential reactivity to challenging events, increasing, in this case, vulnerability to acquiring addictive behaviors, including excessive EtOH intake. PMID:28588461

  15. Wine lees modulate lipid metabolism and induce fatty acid remodelling in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Caro, M; Sansone, A; Amezaga, J; Navarro, V; Ferreri, C; Tueros, I

    2017-03-21

    This study investigates the ability of a polyphenolic extract obtained from a wine lees by-product to modulate zebrafish lipid metabolism. Lees from a Spanish winery were collected and the polyphenolic extract was chemically characterised in terms of antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and the individual main phenolic compounds. The effects of the extract on lipid metabolism were evaluated using a zebrafish animal model. Lees are rich in polyphenols (42.33 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry matter) with high antioxidant capacity (56.04 mg Trolox equivalent per g dry matter), rutin and quercetin being their main identified polyphenols. The biological effects of lees extract included (i) a reduction in zebrafish embryos' fat reserve (40%), (ii) changes in the expression of lipid metabolism key genes, (iii) remodelling of the fatty acid content in phospholipid and triglyceride fractions of zebrafish embryos and (iv) reduction in the trans fatty acid content. On the whole, wine lees polyphenolic extract was effective at modulating zebrafish lipid metabolism evidencing remodelling effects and antioxidant properties that can be further developed for food innovation.

  16. Effects of extracellular modulation through hypoxia on the glucose metabolism of human breast cancer stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yustisia, I.; Jusman, S. W. A.; Wanandi, S. I.

    2017-08-01

    Cancer stem cells have been reported to maintain stemness under certain extracellular changes. This study aimed to analyze the effect of extracellular O2 level modulation on the glucose metabolism of human CD24-/CD44+ breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). The primary BCSCs (CD24-/CD44+ cells) were cultured under hypoxia (1% O2) for 0.5, 4, 6, 24 and 48 hours. After each incubation period, HIF1α, GLUT1 and CA9 expressions, as well as glucose metabolism status, including glucose consumption, lactate production, O2 consumption and extracellular pH (pHe) were analyzed using qRT-PCR, colorimetry, fluorometry, and enzymatic reactions, respectively. Hypoxia caused an increase in HIF1α mRNA expressions and protein levels and shifted the metabolic states to anaerobic glycolysis, as demonstrated by increased glucose consumption and lactate production, as well as decreased O2 consumption and pHe. Furthermore, we demonstrated that GLUT1 and CA9 mRNA expressions simultaneously increased, in line with HIF1α expression. In conclusion, modulation of the extracellular environment of human BCSCs through hypoxia shifedt the metabolic state of BCSCs to anaerobic glycolysis, which might be associated with GLUT1 and CA9 expressions regulated by HIFlα transcription factor.

  17. Sequential changes of energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol in rats: a long-term and integrative study.

    PubMed

    Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Hernández-Muñoz, R; López-Barrera, F; Yañez, L; Vidrio, S; Suárez, J; Cota-Garza, M D; Aranda-Fraustro, A; Cruz, D

    1997-12-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is the second cause of mortality in most countries, therefore, it is important to know the evolution and sequence of the physiological and biochemical changes involved in this pathology. This study attempts to integrate these changes and to correlate them in a long-term model (96 h) of isoproterenol-induced myocardial cell damage in the rat. We achieved an infarct-like damage in the apex region of the left ventricle, occurring 12-24 h after isoproterenol administration. The lesion was defined by histological criteria, continuous telemetric ECG recordings, and the increase in serum marker enzymes, specific for myocardial damage. A distinction is made among preinfarction, infarction, and postinfarction. Three minutes after drug administration, there was a 60% increase in heart rate and a lowering of blood pressure, resulting possibly in a functional ischemia. Ultrastructural changes and mitochondrial swelling were evident from the first hour of treatment, but functional alterations in isolated mitochondria, such as decreases in oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, ATP synthesis, and membrane potential, were noticed only 6 h after drug administration and lasted until 72 h later. Mitochondrial proteins decreased after 3 h of treatment, reaching almost a 50% diminution, which was maintained during the whole study. An energy imbalance, reflected by a decrease in energy charge and in the creatine phosphate/creatine ratio, was observed after 30 min of treatment; however, ATP and total adenine nucleotides diminished clearly only after 3 h of treatment. All these alterations reached a maximum at the onset of infarction and were accompanied by damage to the myocardial function, drastically decreasing left ventricular pressure and shortening the atrioventricular interval. During postinfarction, a partial recovery of energy charge, creatine phosphate/creatine ratio, membrane potential, and myocardial function occurred, but not of mitochondrial

  18. Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4 Modulate Autonomic Control of Heart Rate and Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Eitan; Griffioen, Kathleen J.; Sarah, Rothman; Wan, Ruiqian; Cong, Wei-Na; De Cabo, Rafael; Montalvo, Alejandro Martin; Levette, Andrew; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen; Arumugam, Thiruma Valavan; Mattson, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are innate immune receptors typically activated by microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) during infection or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) as a result of tissue injury. Recent findings suggest that TLR2 and TLR4 signaling play important roles in developmental and adult neuroplasticity, and in learning and memory. In addition, activation of TLR2 and TLR4 worsens ischemic injury to the heart and brain in animal models of myocardial infarction and stroke. TLR activation is also implicated in thermoregulation and fever in response to infection. However, it is not known whether TLRs participate in the regulation of the sympathetic and/or parasympathetic components of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Here we provide evidence that TLR2 and TLR4 influence autonomic regulation of heart rate (HR) body temperature and energy metabolism in mice. We show that mice lacking TLR2 or TLR4 exhibit reduced basal HR, which results from an increase of parasympathetic tone. In addition, thermoregulatory responses to stress are altered in TLR2−/− and TLR4−/− mice, and brown fat-dependent thermoregulation is altered in TLR4−/− mice. Moreover, TLR2−/− and TLR4−/− mice consume less food and exhibit a greater mass compared to wild type mice. Collectively, our findings suggest important roles for TLR2 and TLR4 in the ANS regulation of cardiovascular function, thermoregulation, and energy metabolism. PMID:24145051

  19. Adipose tissue branched chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism modulates circulating BCAA levels.

    PubMed

    Herman, Mark A; She, Pengxiang; Peroni, Odile D; Lynch, Christopher J; Kahn, Barbara B

    2010-04-09

    Whereas the role of adipose tissue in glucose and lipid homeostasis is widely recognized, its role in systemic protein and amino acid metabolism is less well-appreciated. In vitro and ex vivo experiments suggest that adipose tissue can metabolize substantial amounts of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). However, the role of adipose tissue in regulating BCAA metabolism in vivo is controversial. Interest in the contribution of adipose tissue to BCAA metabolism has been renewed with recent observations demonstrating down-regulation of BCAA oxidation enzymes in adipose tissue in obese and insulin-resistant humans. Using gene set enrichment analysis, we observe alterations in adipose-tissue BCAA enzyme expression caused by adipose-selective genetic alterations in the GLUT4 glucose-transporter expression. We show that the rate of adipose tissue BCAA oxidation per mg of tissue from normal mice is higher than in skeletal muscle. In mice overexpressing GLUT4 specifically in adipose tissue, we observe coordinate down-regulation of BCAA metabolizing enzymes selectively in adipose tissue. This decreases BCAA oxidation rates in adipose tissue, but not in muscle, in association with increased circulating BCAA levels. To confirm the capacity of adipose tissue to modulate circulating BCAA levels in vivo, we demonstrate that transplantation of normal adipose tissue into mice that are globally defective in peripheral BCAA metabolism reduces circulating BCAA levels by 30% (fasting)-50% (fed state). These results demonstrate for the first time the capacity of adipose tissue to catabolize circulating BCAAs in vivo and that coordinate regulation of adipose-tissue BCAA enzymes may modulate circulating BCAA levels.

  20. Modules of co-regulated metabolites in turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizome suggest the existence of biosynthetic modules in plant specialized metabolism.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhengzhi; Ma, Xiaoqiang; Gang, David R

    2009-01-01

    Turmeric is an excellent example of a plant that produces large numbers of metabolites from diverse metabolic pathways or networks. It is hypothesized that these metabolic pathways or networks contain biosynthetic modules, which lead to the formation of metabolite modules-groups of metabolites whose production is co-regulated and biosynthetically linked. To test whether such co-regulated metabolite modules do exist in this plant, metabolic profiling analysis was performed on turmeric rhizome samples that were collected from 16 different growth and development treatments, which had significant impacts on the levels of 249 volatile and non-volatile metabolites that were detected. Importantly, one of the many co-regulated metabolite modules that were indeed readily detected in this analysis contained the three major curcuminoids, whereas many other structurally related diarylheptanoids belonged to separate metabolite modules, as did groups of terpenoids. The existence of these co-regulated metabolite modules supported the hypothesis that the 3-methoxyl groups on the aromatic rings of the curcuminoids are formed before the formation of the heptanoid backbone during the biosynthesis of curcumin and also suggested the involvement of multiple polyketide synthases with different substrate selectivities in the formation of the array of diarylheptanoids detected in turmeric. Similar conclusions about terpenoid biosynthesis could also be made. Thus, discovery and analysis of metabolite modules can be a powerful predictive tool in efforts to understand metabolism in plants.

  1. Repurposing Resveratrol and Fluconazole To Modulate Human Cytochrome P450-Mediated Arachidonic Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbeni, Ahmed A; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2016-04-04

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) to several biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). Repurposing clinically-approved drugs could provide safe and readily available means to control EETs and HETEs levels in humans. Our aim was to determine how to significantly and selectively modulate P450-AA metabolism in humans by clinically-approved drugs. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine the formation of 15 AA metabolites by human recombinant P450 enzymes, as well as human liver and kidney microsomes. CYP2C19 showed the highest EET-forming activity, while CYP1B1 and CYP2C8 showed the highest midchain HETE-forming activities. CYP1A1 and CYP4 showed the highest subterminal- and 20-HETE-forming activity, respectively. Resveratrol and fluconazole produced the most selective and significant modulation of hepatic P450-AA metabolism, comparable to investigational agents. Monte Carlo simulations showed that 90% of human population would experience a decrease by 6-22%, 16-39%, and 16-35% in 16-, 18-, and 20-HETE formation, respectively, after 2.5 g daily of resveratrol, and by 22-31% and 14-23% in 8,9- and 14,15-EET formation after 50 mg of fluconazole. In conclusion, clinically-approved drugs can provide selective and effective means to modulate P450-AA metabolism, comparable to investigational drugs. Resveratrol and fluconazole are good candidates to be repurposed as new P450-based treatments.

  2. BAP1 inhibits the ER stress gene regulatory network and modulates metabolic stress response

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fangyan; Lee, Hyemin; Zhang, Yilei; Zhuang, Li; Yao, Hui; Xi, Yuanxin; Xiao, Zhen-Dong; You, M. James; Li, Wei; Su, Xiaoping; Gan, Boyi

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is classically linked to metabolic homeostasis via the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR), which is instructed by multiple transcriptional regulatory cascades. BRCA1 associated protein 1 (BAP1) is a tumor suppressor with de-ubiquitinating enzyme activity and has been implicated in chromatin regulation of gene expression. Here we show that BAP1 inhibits cell death induced by unresolved metabolic stress. This prosurvival role of BAP1 depends on its de-ubiquitinating activity and correlates with its ability to dampen the metabolic stress-induced UPR transcriptional network. BAP1 inhibits glucose deprivation-induced reactive oxygen species and ATP depletion, two cellular events contributing to the ER stress-induced cell death. In line with this, Bap1 KO mice are more sensitive to tunicamycin-induced renal damage. Mechanically, we show that BAP1 represses metabolic stress-induced UPR and cell death through activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and reveal that BAP1 binds to ATF3 and CHOP promoters and inhibits their transcription. Taken together, our results establish a previously unappreciated role of BAP1 in modulating the cellular adaptability to metabolic stress and uncover a pivotal function of BAP1 in the regulation of the ER stress gene-regulatory network. Our study may also provide new conceptual framework for further understanding BAP1 function in cancer. PMID:28275095

  3. BAP1 inhibits the ER stress gene regulatory network and modulates metabolic stress response.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fangyan; Lee, Hyemin; Zhang, Yilei; Zhuang, Li; Yao, Hui; Xi, Yuanxin; Xiao, Zhen-Dong; You, M James; Li, Wei; Su, Xiaoping; Gan, Boyi

    2017-03-21

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is classically linked to metabolic homeostasis via the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR), which is instructed by multiple transcriptional regulatory cascades. BRCA1 associated protein 1 (BAP1) is a tumor suppressor with de-ubiquitinating enzyme activity and has been implicated in chromatin regulation of gene expression. Here we show that BAP1 inhibits cell death induced by unresolved metabolic stress. This prosurvival role of BAP1 depends on its de-ubiquitinating activity and correlates with its ability to dampen the metabolic stress-induced UPR transcriptional network. BAP1 inhibits glucose deprivation-induced reactive oxygen species and ATP depletion, two cellular events contributing to the ER stress-induced cell death. In line with this, Bap1 KO mice are more sensitive to tunicamycin-induced renal damage. Mechanically, we show that BAP1 represses metabolic stress-induced UPR and cell death through activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and reveal that BAP1 binds to ATF3 and CHOP promoters and inhibits their transcription. Taken together, our results establish a previously unappreciated role of BAP1 in modulating the cellular adaptability to metabolic stress and uncover a pivotal function of BAP1 in the regulation of the ER stress gene-regulatory network. Our study may also provide new conceptual framework for further understanding BAP1 function in cancer.

  4. Light Modulates Metabolic Pathways and Other Novel Physiological Traits in the Human Pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Müller, Gabriela L; Tuttobene, Marisel; Altilio, Matías; Martínez Amezaga, Maitena; Nguyen, Meaghan; Cribb, Pamela; Cybulski, Larisa E; Ramírez, María Soledad; Altabe, Silvia; Mussi, María Alejandra

    2017-05-15

    Light sensing in chemotrophic bacteria has been relatively recently ascertained. In the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii, light modulates motility, biofilm formation, and virulence through the blue-light-sensing-using flavin (BLUF) photoreceptor BlsA. In addition, light can induce a reduction in susceptibility to certain antibiotics, such as minocycline and tigecycline, in a photoreceptor-independent manner. In this work, we identified new traits whose expression levels are modulated by light in this pathogen, which comprise not only important determinants related to pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance but also metabolic pathways, which represents a novel concept for chemotrophic bacteria. Indeed, the phenylacetic acid catabolic pathway and trehalose biosynthesis were modulated by light, responses that completely depend on BlsA. We further show that tolerance to some antibiotics and modulation of antioxidant enzyme levels are also influenced by light, likely contributing to bacterial persistence in adverse environments. Also, we present evidence indicating that surfactant production is modulated by light. Finally, the expression of whole pathways and gene clusters, such as genes involved in lipid metabolism and genes encoding components of the type VI secretion system, as well as efflux pumps related to antibiotic resistance, was differentially induced by light. Overall, our results indicate that light modulates global features of the A. baumannii lifestyle.IMPORTANCE The discovery that nonphototrophic bacteria respond to light constituted a novel concept in microbiology. In this context, we demonstrated that light could modulate aspects related to bacterial virulence, persistence, and resistance to antibiotics in the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii In this work, we present the novel finding that light directly regulates metabolism in this chemotrophic bacterium. Insights into the mechanism show the involvement of the photoreceptor BlsA. In

  5. TMEFF2 AND SARDH COOPERATE TO MODULATE ONE CARBON METABOLISM AND INVASION OF PROSTATE CANCER CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Green, Thomas; Chen, Xiaofei; Ryan, Stephen; Asch, Adam S.; Ruiz-Echevarría, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The transmembrane protein with epidermal growth factor and two follistatin motifs, TMEFF2, has been implicated in prostate cancer but its role in this disease is unclear. We recently demonstrated that the tumor suppressor role of TMEFF2 correlates, in part, with its ability to interact with sarcosine dehydrogenase (SARDH) and modulate sarcosine level. TMEFF2 overexpression inhibits sarcosine-induced invasion. Here, we further characterize the functional interaction between TMEFF2 and SARDH and their link with one-carbon (1-C) metabolism and invasion. METHODS RNA interference was used to study the effect of SARDH and/or TMEFF2 knockdown (KD) in invasion, evaluated using Boyden chambers. The dependence of invasion on 1-C metabolism was determined by examining sensitivity to methotrexate. Real-time PCR and western blot of subcellular fractions were used to study the effect of SARDH KD or TMEFF2 KD on expression of enzymes involved in one carbon (1-C) metabolism and on TMEFF2 expression and localization. Protein interactions were analyzed by mass-spectrometry. Cell viability and proliferation were measured by cell counting and MTT analysis. RESULTS While knocking down SARDH affects TMEFF2 subcellular localization, this effect is not responsible for the increased invasion observed in SARDH KD cells. Importantly, SARDH and/or TMEFF2 KD promote increased cellular invasion, sensitize the cell to methotrexate, render the cell resistant to invasion induced by sarcosine, a metabolite from the folate-mediated 1-C metabolism pathway, and affect the expression level of enzymes involved in that pathway. CONCLUSIONS Our findings define a role for TMEFF2 and the folate-mediated 1-C metabolism pathway in modulating cellular invasion. PMID:23824605

  6. [Relationship between ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial fatty acid metabolism in patients with coronary heart disease: evaluation using iodine-123 beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid].

    PubMed

    Mori, H; Sakamoto, T; Ueda, Y; Yano, K

    1999-08-01

    The effect of metabolic abnormalities of myocardial fatty acids on ventricular arrhythmias was evaluated by myocardial imaging with iodine-123 beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) in 27 patients with coronary heart disease. The disturbance of myocardial blood flow was also evaluated using thallium-201 (Tl). The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the character of the premature ventricular contractions: Group A: number of contractions > or = 120 per day and/or consecutive contractions (n = 9, mean age 63.7 yr), and Group B, number of contractions < 120 per day and no consecutive contractions (n = 18, mean age 64.2 yr). Left ventricular ejection fraction was measured by left ventriculography, and significant coronary artery stenosis was defined as stenosis of 75% or greater. Cardiac scintigraphy was performed using single photon emission computed tomography with BMIPP at rest in 27 patients and in the early phase (early Tl) and delayed phase of Tl (delayed Tl) in 20 patients. BMIPP and Tl uptakes were scored as 0: absent, 1: moderately reduced, 2: mildly reduced and 3: normal in 7 segments of the left ventricular wall and then the total scores were calculated in each patient. Ejection fraction significantly correlated with the scores of BMIPP, and early and delayed Tl(p < 0.001, respectively), although the ejection fraction in Group A was significantly less than in Group B (51.2 +/- 16.7% vs 68.2 +/- 14.4%, p < 0.02). The BMIPP scores in Group A were significantly less than those in Group B (14.2 +/- 4.3 vs 17.2 +/- 3.1, p < 0.05), but the early and delayed Tl scores in Group A were not significantly different compared with those in Group B. The BMIPP scores showed no significant differences between the patients with and without significant coronary artery stenosis, but the early and delayed Tl scores in the patients with stenosis were significantly less than those in patients without stenosis (early Tl: 19.8 +/- 2.6 vs 16.8 +/- 2.8, p < 0

  7. Modules of co-regulated metabolites in turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizome suggest the existence of biosynthetic modules in plant specialized metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhengzhi; Gang, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Turmeric is an excellent example of a plant that produces large numbers of metabolites from diverse metabolic pathways or networks. It is hypothesized that these metabolic pathways or networks contain biosynthetic modules, which lead to the formation of metabolite modules—groups of metabolites whose production is co-regulated and biosynthetically linked. To test whether such co-regulated metabolite modules do exist in this plant, metabolic profiling analysis was performed on turmeric rhizome samples that were collected from 16 different growth and development treatments, which had significant impacts on the levels of 249 volatile and non-volatile metabolites that were detected. Importantly, one of the many co-regulated metabolite modules that were indeed readily detected in this analysis contained the three major curcuminoids, whereas many other structurally related diarylheptanoids belonged to separate metabolite modules, as did groups of terpenoids. The existence of these co-regulated metabolite modules supported the hypothesis that the 3-methoxyl groups on the aromatic rings of the curcuminoids are formed before the formation of the heptanoid backbone during the biosynthesis of curcumin and also suggested the involvement of multiple polyketide synthases with different substrate selectivities in the formation of the array of diarylheptanoids detected in turmeric. Similar conclusions about terpenoid biosynthesis could also be made. Thus, discovery and analysis of metabolite modules can be a powerful predictive tool in efforts to understand metabolism in plants. PMID:19073964

  8. Nur77 modulates hepatic lipid metabolism through suppression of SREBP1c activity

    SciTech Connect

    Pols, Thijs W.H.; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Vos, Mariska; Levels, Johannes H.M.; Quax, Paul H.A.; Meijers, Joost C.M.; Pannekoek, Hans; Groen, Albert K.; Vries, Carlie J.M. de

    2008-02-22

    NR4A nuclear receptors are induced in the liver upon fasting and regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis. Here, we studied the role of nuclear receptor Nur77 (NR4A1) in hepatic lipid metabolism. We generated mice expressing hepatic Nur77 using adenoviral vectors, and demonstrate that these mice exhibit a modulation of the plasma lipid profile and a reduction in hepatic triglyceride. Expression analysis of >25 key genes involved in lipid metabolism revealed that Nur77 inhibits SREBP1c expression. This results in decreased SREBP1c activity as is illustrated by reduced expression of its target genes stearoyl-coA desaturase-1, mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, fatty acid synthase and the LDL receptor, and provides a mechanism for the physiological changes observed in response to Nur77. Expression of LXR target genes Abcg5 and Abcg8 is reduced by Nur77, and may suggest involvement of LXR in the inhibitory action of Nur77 on SREBP1c expression. Taken together, our study demonstrates that Nur77 modulates hepatic lipid metabolism through suppression of SREBP1c activity.

  9. Modulation of the arginase pathway in the context of microbial pathogenesis: a metabolic enzyme moonlighting as an immune modulator.

    PubMed

    Das, Priyanka; Lahiri, Amit; Lahiri, Ayan; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2010-06-17

    Arginine is a crucial amino acid that serves to modulate the cellular immune response during infection. Arginine is also a common substrate for both inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and arginase. The generation of nitric oxide from arginine is responsible for efficient immune response and cytotoxicity of host cells to kill the invading pathogens. On the other hand, the conversion of arginine to ornithine and urea via the arginase pathway can support the growth of bacterial and parasitic pathogens. The competition between iNOS and arginase for arginine can thus contribute to the outcome of several parasitic and bacterial infections. There are two isoforms of vertebrate arginase, both of which catalyze the conversion of arginine to ornithine and urea, but they differ with regard to tissue distribution and subcellular localization. In the case of infection with Mycobacterium, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Helicobacter, Schistosoma, and Salmonella spp., arginase isoforms have been shown to modulate the pathology of infection by various means. Despite the existence of a considerable body of evidence about mammalian arginine metabolism and its role in immunology, the critical choice to divert the host arginine pool by pathogenic organisms as a survival strategy is still a mystery in infection biology.

  10. Alterations in myocardial metabolism and function at rest in stable angina pectoris: relations with the amount of exercise-induced thallium-201 perfusion defect

    SciTech Connect

    De Kock, M.; Melin, J.A.; Pouleur, H.; Rousseau, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    The relation between the amount of exercise-induced ischemia and alterations in left ventricular (LV) function and metabolism at rest was studied in 18 coronary patients with stable angina pectoris. An ischemic defect area score was computed from quantitative exercise thallium-201 (Tl-201) scintigraphy; this estimation of the amount of ischemic myocardium was used to classify the patients in group I (n = 8; score less than 15%, mean 6.7 +/- 2.5%) and II (n = 10; score greater than 15%; mean 27.2 +/- 8.9%). Hemodynamics and metabolism were studied in basal state. No patient had anginal pain during the study, and the extent of angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) was comparable in the two groups. Heart rate, aortic pressure, coronary blood flow, and myocardial oxygen uptake were also similar in both groups. However, ejection fraction was reduced in group II (51 +/- 13 vs 63 +/- 5%; p less than 0.01) and LV relaxation was impaired as shown by the increase in time-constant of isovolumic pressure fall (55 +/- 16 vs 44 +/- 6 ms in group I; p less than 0.05); the LV end-diastolic pressure was also increased in group II (19 +/- 8 vs 10 +/- 4 mmHg in group l; p less than 0.05). Furthermore, in group II, myocardial lactate uptake was reduced (4 +/- 19 vs 30 +/- 29 mumole/min in group I; p less than 0.01) and the productions of alanine and glutamine were augmented (-7.5 +/- 4.4 vs -4.6 +/- 1.6 mumole/min in group I; p less than 0.05).

  11. Relation of left ventricular perfusion and wall motion with metabolic activity in persistent defects on thallium-201 tomography in healed myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, N.; Yonekura, Y.; Yamashita, K.; Senda, M.; Saji, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Fudo, T.; Kambara, H.; Kawai, C.; Ban, T.

    1988-08-01

    Myocardial viability in persistent thallium (TI)-201 defect is a controversial subject. To assess metabolic activity in segments with persistent defect, stress TI-201 tomography and positron emission tomography using nitrogen-13 ammonia and fluorine-18 2-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) were performed in 28 patients with healed myocardial infarction. The segments with TI-201 perfusion defect in electrocardiogram-determined infarcted areas were selected for assessment. Stress perfusion defect was detected in 61 segments by TI-201 tomography. Twenty-two patients (36%) showed transient defects with redistribution (group 1) and 39 showed persistent defects (group 2). Increase in FDG uptake was observed in 95% in group 1. Among group 2 patients, 15 segments (38%) showed an increase in FDG uptake (group 2A) while the remaining 24 (62%) did not have an increased uptake (group 2B). The decrease in nitrogen-13 ammonia perfusion was more severe in group 2B (-23 +/- 7%) than in group 2A (-13 +/- 9%) (p less than 0.005) and group 1 (-10 +/- 4%) (p less than 0.001). In addition, wall motion scores tended to be lower in group 2B (0.21 +/- 0.71), compared with group 2A (0.67 +/- 0.70) (p = 0.05) and group 1 (0.77 +/- 0.60) (p less than 0.01). These data indicate that metabolic viability was observed in approximately 40% of the segments with persistent TI-201 defect. Preservation of regional perfusion and wall motion in these areas was similar to that in areas with transient TI-201 defect.

  12. Infarcted Myocardium-Primed Dendritic Cells Improve Remodeling and Cardiac Function After Myocardial Infarction by Modulating the Regulatory T Cell and Macrophage Polarization.

    PubMed

    Choo, Eun Ho; Lee, Jun-Ho; Park, Eun-Hye; Park, Hyo Eun; Jung, Nam-Chul; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Koh, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Eunmin; Seung, Ki-Bae; Park, Cheongsoo; Hong, Kwan-Soo; Kang, Kwonyoon; Song, Jie-Young; Seo, Han Geuk; Lim, Dae-Seog; Chang, Kiyuk

    2017-04-11

    Inflammatory responses play a critical role in left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDCs) can modulate immune responses, inducing regulatory T cells in a number of inflammatory diseases. We generated tDCs by treating bone marrow-derived dendritic cells with tumor necrosis factor-α and cardiac lysate from MI mice. We injected MI mice, induced by a ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in C57BL/6 mice, twice with tDCs within 24 hours and at 7 days after the ligation. In vivo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and ex vivo histology confirmed the beneficial effect on postinfarct left ventricular remodeling in MI mice treated with tDCs. Subcutaneously administered infarct lysate-primed tDCs near the inguinal lymph node migrated to the regional lymph node and induced infarct tissue-specific regulatory T-cell populations in the inguinal and mediastinal lymph nodes, spleen, and infarcted myocardium, indicating that a local injection of tDCs induces a systemic activation of MI-specific regulatory T cells. These events elicited an inflammatory-to-reparative macrophage shift. The altered immune environment in the infarcted heart resulted in a better wound remodeling, preserved left ventricular systolic function after myocardial tissue damage, and improved survival. This study showed that tDC therapy in a preclinical model of MI was potentially translatable into an antiremodeling therapy for ischemic tissue repair. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Carbon monoxide and mitochondria—modulation of cell metabolism, redox response and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Ana S.; Figueiredo-Pereira, Cláudia; Vieira, Helena L. A.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gasotransmitter, which is associated with cytoprotection and cellular homeostasis in several distinct cell types and tissues. CO mainly targets mitochondria because: (i) mitochondrial heme-proteins are the main potential candidates for CO to bind, (ii) many CO's biological actions are dependent on mitochondrial ROS signaling and (iii) heme is generated in the mitochondrial compartment. Mitochondria are the key cell energy factory, producing ATP through oxidative phosphorylation and regulating cell metabolism. These organelles are also implicated in many cell signaling pathways and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Finally, mitochondria contain several factors activating programmed cell death pathways, which are released from the mitochondrial inter-membrane space upon mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Therefore, disclosing CO mode of action at mitochondria opens avenues for deeper understanding CO's biological properties. Herein, it is discussed how CO affects the three main aspects of mitochondrial modulation of cell function: metabolism, redox response and cell death. PMID:25709582

  14. Clofazimine modulates the expression of lipid metabolism proteins in Mycobacterium leprae-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Degang, Yang; Akama, Takeshi; Hara, Takeshi; Tanigawa, Kazunari; Ishido, Yuko; Gidoh, Masaichi; Makino, Masahiko; Ishii, Norihisa; Suzuki, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) lives and replicates within macrophages in a foamy, lipid-laden phagosome. The lipids provide essential nutrition for the mycobacteria, and M. leprae infection modulates expression of important host proteins related to lipid metabolism. Thus, M. leprae infection increases the expression of adipophilin/adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) and decreases hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), facilitating the accumulation and maintenance of lipid-rich environments suitable for the intracellular survival of M. leprae. HSL levels are not detectable in skin smear specimens taken from leprosy patients, but re-appear shortly after multidrug therapy (MDT). This study examined the effect of MDT components on host lipid metabolism in vitro, and the outcome of rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine treatment on ADRP and HSL expression in THP-1 cells. Clofazimine attenuated the mRNA and protein levels of ADRP in M. leprae-infected cells, while those of HSL were increased. Rifampicin and dapsone did not show any significant effects on ADRP and HSL expression levels. A transient increase of interferon (IFN)-β and IFN-γ mRNA was also observed in cells infected with M. leprae and treated with clofazimine. Lipid droplets accumulated by M. leprae-infection were significantly decreased 48 h after clofazimine treatment. Such effects were not evident in cells without M. leprae infection. In clinical samples, ADRP expression was decreased and HSL expression was increased after treatment. These results suggest that clofazimine modulates lipid metabolism in M. leprae-infected macrophages by modulating the expression of ADRP and HSL. It also induces IFN production in M. leprae-infected cells. The resultant decrease in lipid accumulation, increase in lipolysis, and activation of innate immunity may be some of the key actions of clofazimine.

  15. Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis: Modulator of Host Metabolism and Appetite.

    PubMed

    van de Wouw, Marcel; Schellekens, Harriët; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-03-29

    The gut harbors an enormous diversity of microbes that are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in health and disease. A growing body of evidence supports the role of this microbiota in influencing host appetite and food intake. Individual species within the gut microbiota are under selective pressure arising from nutrients available and other bacterial species present. Each bacterial species within the gut aims to increase its own fitness, habitat, and survival via specific fermentation of dietary nutrients and secretion of metabolites, many of which can influence host appetite and eating behavior by directly affecting nutrient sensing and appetite and satiety-regulating systems. These include microbiota-produced neuroactives and short-chain fatty acids. In addition, the gut microbiota is able to manipulate intestinal barrier function, interact with bile acid metabolism, modulate the immune system, and influence host antigen production, thus indirectly affecting eating behavior. A growing body of evidence indicates that there is a crucial role for the microbiota in regulating different aspects of eating-related behavior, as well as behavioral comorbidities of eating and metabolic disorders. The importance of intestinal microbiota composition has now been shown in obesity, anorexia nervosa, and forms of severe acute malnutrition. Understanding the mechanisms in which the gut microbiota can influence host appetite and metabolism will provide a better understanding of conditions wherein appetite is dysregulated, such as obesity and other metabolic or eating disorders, leading to novel biotherapeutic strategies.

  16. Insulin Is a Key Modulator of Fetoplacental Endothelium Metabolic Disturbances in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sobrevia, Luis; Salsoso, Rocío; Fuenzalida, Bárbara; Barros, Eric; Toledo, Lilian; Silva, Luis; Pizarro, Carolina; Subiabre, Mario; Villalobos, Roberto; Araos, Joaquín; Toledo, Fernando; González, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Farías, Marcelo; Chiarello, Delia I.; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a disease of the mother that associates with altered fetoplacental vascular function. GDM-associated maternal hyperglycaemia result in fetal hyperglycaemia, a condition that leads to fetal hyperinsulinemia and altered L-arginine transport and synthesis of nitric oxide, i.e., endothelial dysfunction. These alterations in the fetoplacental endothelial function are present in women with GDM that were under diet or insulin therapy. Since these women and their newborn show normal glycaemia at term, other factors or conditions could be altered and/or not resolved by restoring normal level of circulating D-glucose. GDM associates with metabolic disturbances, such as abnormal handling of the locally released vasodilator adenosine, and biosynthesis and metabolism of cholesterol lipoproteins, or metabolic diseases resulting in endoplasmic reticulum stress and altered angiogenesis. Insulin acts as a potent modulator of all these phenomena under normal conditions as reported in primary cultures of cells obtained from the human placenta; however, GDM and the role of insulin regarding these alterations in this disease are poorly understood. This review focuses on the potential link between insulin and endoplasmic reticulum stress, hypercholesterolemia, and angiogenesis in GDM in the human fetoplacental vasculature. Based in reports in primary culture placental endothelium we propose that insulin is a factor restoring endothelial function in GDM by reversing ERS, hypercholesterolaemia and angiogenesis to a physiological state involving insulin activation of insulin receptor isoforms and adenosine receptors and metabolism in the human placenta from GDM pregnancies. PMID:27065887

  17. Modulation of metabolic brain networks after subthalamic gene therapy for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Feigin, Andrew; Kaplitt, Michael G; Tang, Chengke; Lin, Tanya; Mattis, Paul; Dhawan, Vijay; During, Matthew J; Eidelberg, David

    2007-12-04

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by elevated expression of an abnormal metabolic brain network that is reduced by clinically effective treatment. We used fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to determine the basis for motor improvement in 12 PD patients receiving unilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) infusion of an adenoassociated virus vector expressing glutamic acid decarboxylase (AAV-GAD). After gene therapy, we observed significant reductions in thalamic metabolism on the operated side as well as concurrent metabolic increases in ipsilateral motor and premotor cortical regions. Abnormal elevations in the activity of metabolic networks associated with motor and cognitive functioning in PD patients were evident at baseline. The activity of the motor-related network declined after surgery and persisted at 1 year. These network changes correlated with improved clinical disability ratings. By contrast, the activity of the cognition-related network did not change after gene transfer. This suggests that modulation of abnormal network activity underlies the clinical outcome observed after unilateral STN AAV-GAD gene therapy. Network biomarkers may be used as physiological assays in early-phase trials of experimental therapies for PD and other neurodegenerative disease.

  18. Dietary, Metabolic, and Potentially Environmental Modulation of the Lysine Acetylation Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Go-Woon; Gocevski, Goran; Wu, Chao-Jung; Yang, Xiang-Jiao

    2010-01-01

    Healthy lifestyles and environment produce a good state of health. A number of scientific studies support the notion that external stimuli regulate an individual's epigenomic profile. Epigenetic changes play a key role in defining gene expression patterns under both normal and pathological conditions. As a major posttranslational modification, lysine (K) acetylation has received much attention, owing largely to its significant effects on chromatin dynamics and other cellular processes across species. Lysine acetyltransferases and deacetylases, two opposing families of enzymes governing K-acetylation, have been intimately linked to cancer and other diseases. These enzymes have been pursued by vigorous efforts for therapeutic development in the past 15 years or so. Interestingly, certain dietary components have been found to modulate acetylation levels in vivo. Here we review dietary, metabolic, and environmental modulators of the K-acetylation machinery and discuss how they may be of potential value in the context of disease prevention. PMID:20976254

  19. Effect of SO/sub 2/ on light modulation of plant metabolism. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    This progress report briefly notes conclusions of work done on SO/sub 2/ effect on light modulation of plant metabolism. Conclusions include: effect of light activation on kinetic parameters of fructosebisphosphatase - for this enzyme K/sub m/ decreases and V/sub max/ increases as a result of light activation; and the effect of sulfite and arsenite on light activation in 2 Pisum cultivars - the differences in sensitivity to SO/sub 2/ is directly reflected in differences in a thylakoid bound factor (LEM) to SO/sub 2/.

  20. Dual isotope simultaneous imaging to evaluate the effects of intracoronary bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on perfusion and metabolism in canines with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hao, Linjun; Hao, Jin; Fang, Wei; Han, Chunlei; Zhang, Kaixiu; Wang, Xuemei

    2015-07-01

    Stem cell therapy on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been performed for over a decade. In the present study, cardiac perfusion, metabolism and function in dogs with AMI treated by intracoronary injection of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were evaluated by dual isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) of single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT). Dogs (n=12, 20-30 kg) were randomly assigned to two groups: A graft study (n=6) and control group (n=6). Bone marrow mesenchymal aspirate was collected 3 weeks before surgical procedure. Stem cells were induced by 5-azacytidine for differentiation into myocytes. The dog AMI model was produced by blocking the blood stream at 1/3 of the distinct left anterior descending coronary artery for 90 min. For dogs in the grafting group, MSCs were transplanted by intracoronary injection, and for the control group, 0.9% NaCl was injected instead. At 1 and 10 weeks after MSCs were grafted, respectively, SPECT DISA was performed for each dog in the two groups with (99m)Tc-SPECT MIBI (925 MBq) and (18)F-FDG (222 MBq) for evaluation of myocardial perfusion and metabolism. After the dogs were sacrificed, heart tissue was stained by myocyte-specific antibodies for newborn vessels, troponin T and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Following induction by 5-azacytidine, the morphological features with colony formation, microfilament, as well as atrial granules and positive stainings of α-actinin, myosin and troponin I demonstrated strongly that the MSCs differentiated into myocytes. The number of viable myocardial segments was 10 in the grafting group, which was significantly greater compared with the control group. The ejection fraction of the infarcted left ventricle (LVEF,%) increased from 53.80±9.58 to 70.00±7.52 (change, 16.20±2.93) at 1 and 10 weeks after MSCs engraftment, whilst in the control group, LVEF was 50.50±8.02 and 56.50±7.24 (change, 5.50±2.69), respectively. The LVEF difference was

  1. Modulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in aortic smooth muscle cells by allylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, L.R.; Murphy, S.K.; Ramos, K. )

    1990-08-01

    Aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) modulate from a contractile to a proliferative phenotype upon subchronic exposure to allylamine. The present studies were designed to determine if this phenotypic modulation is associated with alterations in the metabolism of membrane phosphoinositides. 32P incorporation into phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), and phosphatidic acid (PA) was lower by 31, 35, and 22%, respectively, in SMC from allylamine-treated animals relative to controls. In contrast, incorporation of (3H)myoinositol into inositol phosphates did not differ in allylamine cells relative to control cells. Exposure to dibutyryl (db) cAMP (0.2 mM) and theophylline (0.1 mM) reduced 32P incorporation into PIP and PIP2 in SMC from both experimental groups. Under these conditions, a decrease in (3H)myoinositol incorporation into inositol 1-phosphate was only observed in allylamine cells. The effects of db cAMP and theophylline in allylamine and control SMC correlated with a marked decrease in cellular proliferation. These results suggest that alterations in phosphoinositide synthesis and/or degradation contribute to the enhanced proliferation of SMC induced by allylamine. To further examine this concept, the effects of agents which modulate protein kinase C (PKC) activity were evaluated. Sphingosine (125-500 ng/ml), a PKC inhibitor, decreased SMC proliferation in allylamine, but not control cells. 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (1-100 ng/ml), a PKC agonist, stimulated proliferation in control cells, but inhibited proliferation in cells from allylamine-treated animals. We conclude that allylamine-induced phenotypic modulation of SMC is associated with alterations in phosphoinositide metabolism.

  2. Attenuation of myocardial fibrosis with curcumin is mediated by modulating expression of angiotensin II AT1/AT2 receptors and ACE2 in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xue-Fen; Zhang, Li-Hui; Bai, Feng; Wang, Ning-Ping; Garner, Ron E; McKallip, Robert J; Zhao, Zhi-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is known to improve cardiac function by balancing degradation and synthesis of collagens after myocardial infarction. This study tested the hypothesis that inhibition of myocardial fibrosis by curcumin is associated with modulating expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to Ang II infusion (500 ng/kg/min) using osmotic minipumps for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, and curcumin (150 mg/kg/day) was fed by gastric gavage during Ang II infusion. Compared to the animals with Ang II infusion, curcumin significantly decreased the mean arterial blood pressure during the course of the observation. The protein level of the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor was reduced, and the Ang II type 2 (AT2) receptor was up-regulated, evidenced by an increased ratio of the AT2 receptor over the AT1 receptor in the curcumin group (1.2±0.02%) vs in the Ang II group (0.7±0.03%, P<0.05). These changes were coincident with less locally expressed AT1 receptor and enhanced AT2 receptor in the intracardiac vessels and intermyocardium. Along with these modulations, curcumin significantly decreased the populations of macrophages and alpha smooth muscle actin-expressing myofibroblasts, which were accompanied by reduced expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 and phosphorylated-Smad2/3. Collagen I synthesis was inhibited, and tissue fibrosis was attenuated, as demonstrated by less extensive collagen-rich fibrosis. Furthermore, curcumin increased protein level of ACE2 and enhanced its expression in the intermyocardium relative to the Ang II group. These results suggest that curcumin could be considered as an add-on therapeutic agent in the treatment of fibrosis-derived heart failure patient who is intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy. PMID:26648693

  3. Human Placenta-Derived Multipotent Cells (hPDMCs) Modulate Cardiac Injury: From Bench to Small and Large Animal Myocardial Ischemia Studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Hung; Peng, Kai-Yen; Chiu, Yu-Wei; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Wang, Yao-Horng; Shun, Chia-Tung; Huang, Shih-Yun; Lin, Yi-Shuan; de Vries, Antoine A F; Pijnappels, Daniël A; Lee, Nan-Ting; Yen, B Linju; Yen, Men-Luh

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death globally, and stem cell therapy remains one of the most promising strategies for regeneration or repair of the damaged heart. We report that human placenta-derived multipotent cells (hPDMCs) can modulate cardiac injury in small and large animal models of myocardial ischemia (MI) and elucidate the mechanisms involved. We found that hPDMCs can undergo in vitro cardiomyogenic differentiation when cocultured with mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes. Moreover, hPDMCs exert strong proangiogenic responses in vitro toward human endothelial cells mediated by secretion of hepatocyte growth factor, growth-regulated oncogene-α, and interleukin-8. To test the in vivo relevance of these results, small and large animal models of acute MI were induced in mice and minipigs, respectively, by permanent left anterior descending (LAD) artery ligation, followed by hPDMC or culture medium-only implantation with follow-up for up to 8 weeks. Transplantation of hPDMCs into mouse heart post-acute MI induction improved left ventricular function, with significantly enhanced vascularity in the cell-treated group. Furthermore, in minipigs post-acute MI induction, hPDMC transplantation significantly improved myocardial contractility compared to the control group (p = 0.016) at 8 weeks postinjury. In addition, tissue analysis confirmed that hPDMC transplantation induced increased vascularity, cardiomyogenic differentiation, and antiapoptotic effects. Our findings offer evidence that hPDMCs can modulate cardiac injury in both small and large animal models, possibly through proangiogenesis, cardiomyogenesis, and suppression of cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Our study offers mechanistic insights and preclinical evidence on using hPDMCs as a therapeutic strategy to treat severe cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Myocardial Ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... pectoris: Chest pain caused by myocardial ischemia. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 1, 2015. Deedwania PC. Silent myocardial ischemia: Epidemiology and pathogenesis. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 1, 2015. Mann DL, ...

  5. Fenretinide metabolism in humans and mice: utilizing pharmacological modulation of its metabolic pathway to increase systemic exposure.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jason P; Hwang, Kyunghwa; Singh, Hardeep; Wang, Dong; Reynolds, C Patrick; Curley, Robert W; Williams, Simon C; Maurer, Barry J; Kang, Min H

    2011-07-01

    High plasma levels of fenretinide [N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR)] were associated with improved outcome in a phase II clinical trial. Low bioavailability of 4-HPR has been limiting its therapeutic applications. This study characterized metabolism of 4-HPR in humans and mice, and to explore the effects of ketoconazole, an inhibitor of CYP3A4, as a modulator to increase 4-HPR plasma levels in mice and to increase the low bioavailability of 4-HPR. 4-HPR metabolites were identified by mass spectrometric analysis and levels of 4-HPR and its metabolites [N-(4-methoxyphenyl)retinamide (4-MPR) and 4-oxo-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-oxo-4-HPR)] were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Kinetic analysis of enzyme activities and the effects of enzyme inhibitors were performed in pooled human and pooled mouse liver microsomes, and in human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 isoenzyme microsomes. In vivo metabolism of 4-HPR was inhibited in mice. Six 4-HPR metabolites were identified in the plasma of patients and mice. 4-HPR was oxidized to 4-oxo-4-HPR, at least in part via human CYP3A4. The CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole significantly reduced 4-oxo-4-HPR formation in both human and mouse liver microsomes. In two strains of mice, co-administration of ketoconazole with 4-HPR in vivo significantly increased 4-HPR plasma concentrations by > twofold over 4-HPR alone and also increased 4-oxo-4-HPR levels. Mice may serve as an in vivo model of human 4-HPR pharmacokinetics. In vivo data suggest that the co-administration of ketoconazole at normal clinical doses with 4-HPR may increase systemic exposure to 4-HPR in humans. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Assessment of the effects of dobutamine on myocardial blood flow and oxidative metabolism in normal human subjects using nitrogen-13 ammonia and carbon-11 acetate.

    PubMed

    Krivokapich, J; Huang, S C; Schelbert, H R

    1993-06-01

    The dual purposes of this study with positron emission tomography were to measure the effects of dobutamine on myocardial blood flow and oxidative metabolism, and to compare carbon-11 (C-11) acetate versus nitrogen-13 (N-13) ammonia in quantitating flow in normal subjects. Flow was quantitated with N-13 ammonia at rest and at peak dobutamine infusion (40 micrograms/kg/min) in 21 subjects. In 11 subjects, oxidative metabolism was also estimated at rest and peak dobutamine infusion using the clearance rate of C-11 acetate, k mono (min-1). A 2-compartment kinetic model was applied to the early phase of the C-11 acetate data to estimate flow. The rest and peak dobutamine rate-pressure products were 7,318 +/- 1,102 and 19,937 +/- 3,964 beats/min/mm Hg, respectively, and correlated well (r = 0.77) with rest and peak dobutamine flows of 0.77 +/- 0.14 and 2.25 ml/min/g determined using N-13 ammonia as a flow tracer. Rest and dobutamine flows estimated with C-11 acetate were highly correlated with those determined with N-13 ammonia (r = 0.92). k mono increased from 0.05 +/- 0.01 to 0.18 +/- 0.02 min-1, and correlated highly with the increase in flows (r = 0.91) and rate-pressure products (r = 0.94). Thus, the increase in cardiac demand associated with dobutamine is highly correlated with an increase in supply and oxidative metabolism. C-11 acetate is a unique tracer that can be used to image both flow and metabolism simultaneously.

  7. Organochloride pesticides modulated gut microbiota and influenced bile acid metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Shao, Wentao; Zhang, Chunlan; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Qihan; Liu, Hui; Sun, Haidong; Jiang, Zhaoyan; Gu, Aihua

    2017-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) can persistently accumulate in body and threaten human health. Bile acids and intestinal microbial metabolism have emerged as important signaling molecules in the host. However, knowledge on which intestinal microbiota and bile acids are modified by OCPs remains unclear. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p, p'-DDE) and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) for 8 weeks. The relative abundance and composition of various bacterial species were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bile acid composition was analyzed by metabolomic analysis using UPLC-MS. The expression of genes involved in hepatic and enteric bile acids metabolism was measured by real-time PCR. Expression of genes in bile acids synthesis and transportation were measured in HepG2 cells incubated with p, p'-DDE and β-HCH. Our findings showed OCPs changed relative abundance and composition of intestinal microbiota, especially in enhanced Lactobacillus with bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity. OCPs affected bile acid composition, enhanced hydrophobicity, decreased expression of genes on bile acid reabsorption in the terminal ileum and compensatory increased expression of genes on synthesis of bile acids in the liver. We demonstrated that chronic exposure of OCPs could impair intestinal microbiota; as a result, hepatic and enteric bile acid profiles and metabolism were influenced. The findings in this study draw our attention to the hazards of chronic OCPs exposure in modulating bile acid metabolism that might cause metabolic disorders and their potential to cause related diseases in human. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 3,3'-diindolylmethane modulates estrogen metabolism in patients with thyroid proliferative disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rajoria, Shilpi; Suriano, Robert; Parmar, Perminder Singh; Wilson, Yushan Lisa; Megwalu, Uchechukwu; Moscatello, Augustine; Bradlow, H Leon; Sepkovic, Daniel W; Geliebter, Jan; Schantz, Stimson P; Tiwari, Raj K

    2011-03-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is four to five times higher in women than in men, suggesting a role for estrogen (E₂) in the pathogenesis of thyroid proliferative disease (TPD) that comprises cancer and goiter. The objective of this study was to investigate the antiestrogenic activity of 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), a bioactive compound derived from cruciferous vegetables, in patients with TPD. In this limited phase I clinical trial study, patients found to have TPD were administered 300 mg of DIM per day for 14 days. Patients subsequently underwent a total or partial thyroidectomy, and tissue, urine, and serum samples were collected. Pre- and post-DIM serum and urine samples were analyzed for DIM levels as well as estrogen metabolites. DIM levels were also determined in thyroid tissue samples. DIM was detectable in thyroid tissue, serum, and urine of patients after 14 days of supplementation. Urine analyses revealed that DIM modulated estrogen metabolism in patients with TPD. There was an increase in the ratio of 2-hydroxyestrones (C-2) to 16α-hydroxyestrone (C-16), consistent with antiestrogenic activity that results in more of C-2 product compared with C-16. Our data suggest that DIM enhances estrogen metabolism in TPD patients and can potentially serve as an antiestrogenic dietary supplement to help reduce the risk of developing TPD. The fact that DIM is detected in thyroid tissue implicates that it can manifest its antiestrogenic activity in situ to modulate TPD.

  9. Tumor suppressor WWOX regulates glucose metabolism via HIF1α modulation

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Remaileh, M; Aqeilan, R I

    2014-01-01

    The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) encodes a tumor suppressor that is frequently lost in many cancer types. Wwox-deficient mice develop normally but succumb to a lethal hypoglycemia early in life. Here, we identify WWOX as a tumor suppressor with emerging role in regulation of aerobic glycolysis. WWOX controls glycolytic genes' expression through hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1α (HIF1α) regulation. Specifically, WWOX, via its first WW domain, physically interacts with HIF1α and modulates its levels and transactivation function. Consistent with this notion, Wwox-deficient cells exhibited increased HIF1α levels and activity and displayed increased glucose uptake. Remarkably, WWOX deficiency is associated with enhanced glycolysis and diminished mitochondrial respiration, conditions resembling the ‘Warburg effect'. Furthermore, Wwox-deficient cells are more tumorigenic and display increased levels of GLUT1 in vivo. Finally, WWOX expression is inversely correlated with GLUT1 levels in breast cancer samples highlighting WWOX as a modulator of cancer metabolism. Our studies uncover an unforeseen role for the tumor-suppressor WWOX in cancer metabolism. PMID:25012504

  10. Tumor suppressor WWOX regulates glucose metabolism via HIF1α modulation.

    PubMed

    Abu-Remaileh, M; Aqeilan, R I

    2014-11-01

    The WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) encodes a tumor suppressor that is frequently lost in many cancer types. Wwox-deficient mice develop normally but succumb to a lethal hypoglycemia early in life. Here, we identify WWOX as a tumor suppressor with emerging role in regulation of aerobic glycolysis. WWOX controls glycolytic genes' expression through hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1α (HIF1α) regulation. Specifically, WWOX, via its first WW domain, physically interacts with HIF1α and modulates its levels and transactivation function. Consistent with this notion, Wwox-deficient cells exhibited increased HIF1α levels and activity and displayed increased glucose uptake. Remarkably, WWOX deficiency is associated with enhanced glycolysis and diminished mitochondrial respiration, conditions resembling the 'Warburg effect'. Furthermore, Wwox-deficient cells are more tumorigenic and display increased levels of GLUT1 in vivo. Finally, WWOX expression is inversely correlated with GLUT1 levels in breast cancer samples highlighting WWOX as a modulator of cancer metabolism. Our studies uncover an unforeseen role for the tumor-suppressor WWOX in cancer metabolism.

  11. Neuronal and astrocytic interactions modulate brain endothelial properties during metabolic stresses of in vitro cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neurovascular and gliovascular interactions significantly affect endothelial phenotype. Physiologically, brain endothelium attains several of its properties by its intimate association with neurons and astrocytes. However, during cerebrovascular pathologies such as cerebral ischemia, the uncoupling of neurovascular and gliovascular units can result in several phenotypical changes in brain endothelium. The role of neurovascular and gliovascular uncoupling in modulating brain endothelial properties during cerebral ischemia is not clear. Specifically, the roles of metabolic stresses involved in cerebral ischemia, including aglycemia, hypoxia and combined aglycemia and hypoxia (oxygen glucose deprivation and re-oxygenation, OGDR) in modulating neurovascular and gliovascular interactions are not known. The complex intimate interactions in neurovascular and gliovascular units are highly difficult to recapitulate in vitro. However, in the present study, we used a 3D co-culture model of brain endothelium with neurons and astrocytes in vitro reflecting an intimate neurovascular and gliovascular interactions in vivo. While the cellular signaling interactions in neurovascular and gliovascular units in vivo are much more complex than the 3D co-culture models in vitro, we were still able to observe several important phenotypical changes in brain endothelial properties by metabolically stressed neurons and astrocytes including changes in barrier, lymphocyte adhesive properties, endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression and in vitro angiogenic potential. PMID:24438487

  12. Modulation of (-)-epicatechin metabolism by coadministration with other polyphenols in Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Bridge, Belén; Lévèques, Antoine; Li, Hequn; Bertschy, Emmanuelle; Patin, Amaury; Actis-Goretta, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Widely consumed beverages such as red wine, tea, and cocoa-derived products are a great source of flavanols. Epidemiologic and interventional studies suggest that cocoa flavanols such as (-)-epicatechin may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The interaction of (-)-epicatechin with food components including other polyphenols could modify its absorption, metabolism, and finally its bioactivity. In the present study we investigate (-)-epicatechin absorption and metabolism when coexposed with other polyphenols in the intestinal absorptive Caco-2 cell model. Depending on the type of polyphenols coadministered, the total amount of 3'-O-methyl-epicatechin and 3'-O-sulfate-epicatechin conjugates found both in apical and basal compartments ranged from 19 to 801 nM and from 6 to 432 nM, respectively. The coincubation of (-)-epicatechin with flavanols, chlorogenic acid, and umbelliferone resulted in similar amounts of 3'-O-methyl-epicatechin effluxed into the apical compartment relative to control. Coincubation with isorhamnetin, kaempferol, diosmetin, nevadensin, chrysin, equol, genistein, and hesperitin promoted the transport of 3'-O-methyl-epicatechin toward the basolateral side and decreased the apical efflux. Quercetin and luteolin considerably inhibited the appearance of this (-)-epicatechin conjugate both in the apical and basolateral compartments. In conclusion, we could demonstrate that the efflux of (-)-epicatechin conjugates to the apical or basal compartments of Caco-2 cells is modulated by certain classes of polyphenols and their amount. Ingesting (-)-epicatechin with specific polyphenols could be a strategy to increase the bioavailability of (-)-epicatechin and to modulate its metabolic profile. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Epistatic interactions between loci of one-carbon metabolism modulate susceptibility to breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Pavani, Addepalli; Digumarti, Raghunadha Rao; Gottumukkala, Suryanarayana Raju; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2011-11-01

    In view of growing body of evidence substantiating the role of aberrations in one-carbon metabolism in the pathophysiology of breast cancer and lack of studies on gene-gene interactions, we investigated the role of dietary micronutrients and eight functional polymorphisms of one-carbon metabolism in modulating the breast cancer risk in 244 case-control pairs of Indian women and explored possible gene-gene interactions using Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis (MDR). Dietary micronutrient status was assessed using the validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Genotyping was done for glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) C1561T, reduced folate carrier (RFC)1 G80A, cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase (cSHMT) C1420T, thymidylate synthase (TYMS) 5'-UTR tandem repeat, TYMS 3'-UTR ins6/del6, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR) A2756G, methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms by using the PCR-RFLP/AFLP methods. Low dietary folate intake (P < 0.001), RFC1 G80A (OR: 1.38, 95% CI 1.06-1.81) and MTHFR C677T (OR: 1.74 (1.11-2.73) were independently associated with the breast cancer risk whereas cSHMT C1420T conferred protection (OR: 0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.94). MDR analysis demonstrated a significant tri-variate interaction among RFC1 80, MTHFR 677 and TYMS 5'-UTR loci (P (trend) < 0.02) with high-risk genotype combination showing inflated risk for breast cancer (OR 4.65, 95% CI 1.77-12.24). To conclude, dietary as well as genetic factors were found to influence susceptibility to breast cancer. Further, the current study highlighted the importance of multi-loci analyses over the single-locus analysis towards establishing the epistatic interactions between loci of one-carbon metabolism modulate susceptibility to the breast cancer.

  14. The phytoestrogen genistein modulates lysosomal metabolism and transcription factor EB (TFEB) activation.

    PubMed

    Moskot, Marta; Montefusco, Sandro; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Mozolewski, Paweł; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Di Bernardo, Diego; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Medina, Diego L; Ballabio, Andrea; Gabig-Cimińska, Magdalena

    2014-06-13

    Genistein (5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) has been previously proposed as a potential drug for use in substrate reduction therapy for mucopolysaccharidoses, a group of inherited metabolic diseases caused by mutations leading to inefficient degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in lysosomes. It was demonstrated that this isoflavone can cross the blood-brain barrier, making it an especially desirable potential drug for the treatment of neurological symptoms present in most lysosomal storage diseases. So far, no comprehensive genomic analyses have been performed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect elicited by genistein. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify the genistein-modulated gene network regulating GAG biosynthesis and degradation, taking into consideration the entire lysosomal metabolism. Our analyses identified over 60 genes with known roles in lysosomal biogenesis and/or function whose expression was enhanced by genistein. Moreover, 19 genes whose products are involved in both GAG synthesis and degradation pathways were found to be remarkably differentially regulated by genistein treatment. We found a regulatory network linking genistein-mediated control of transcription factor EB (TFEB) gene expression, TFEB nuclear translocation, and activation of TFEB-dependent lysosome biogenesis to lysosomal metabolism. Our data indicate that the molecular mechanism of genistein action involves not only impairment of GAG synthesis but more importantly lysosomal enhancement via TFEB. These findings contribute to explaining the beneficial effects of genistein in lysosomal storage diseases as well as envisage new therapeutic approaches to treat these devastating diseases.

  15. Liver Med23 ablation improves glucose and lipid metabolism through modulating FOXO1 activity

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yajing; Rosso, Leonardo Gómez; Huang, Ping; Wang, Zhichao; Xu, Yichi; Yao, Xiao; Bao, Menghan; Yan, Jun; Song, Haiyun; Wang, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Mediator complex is a molecular hub integrating signaling, transcription factors, and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) machinery. Mediator MED23 is involved in adipogenesis and smooth muscle cell differentiation, suggesting its role in energy homeostasis. Here, through the generation and analysis of a liver-specific Med23-knockout mouse, we found that liver Med23 deletion improved glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as insulin responsiveness, and prevented diet-induced obesity. Remarkably, acute hepatic Med23 knockdown in db/db mice significantly improved the lipid profile and glucose tolerance. Mechanistically, MED23 participates in gluconeogenesis and cholesterol synthesis through modulating the transcriptional activity of FOXO1, a key metabolic transcription factor. Indeed, hepatic Med23 deletion impaired the Mediator and RNAPII recruitment and attenuated the expression of FOXO1 target genes. Moreover, this functional interaction between FOXO1 and MED23 is evolutionarily conserved, as the in vivo activities of dFOXO in larval fat body and in adult wing can be partially blocked by Med23 knockdown in Drosophila. Collectively, our data revealed Mediator MED23 as a novel regulator for energy homeostasis, suggesting potential therapeutic strategies against metabolic diseases. PMID:25223702

  16. Purinergic signaling modulates human visceral adipose inflammatory responses: implications in metabolically unhealthy obesity.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, J; Ferraro, A; Lerner, M; Serrano, J R; Dueck, A; Fainboim, L; Arruvito, L

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is accompanied by chronic inflammation of VAT, which promotes metabolic changes, and purinergic signaling has a key role in a wide range of inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we addressed whether fat inflammation could be differentially modulated by this signaling pathway in the MUO and in individuals who remain MHO. Our results show that the necrotized VAT of both groups released greater levels of ATP compared with lean donors. Interestingly, MUO tissue SVCs showed up-regulation and engagement of the purinergic P2X7R. The extracellular ATP concentration is regulated by an enzymatic process, in which CD39 converts ATP and ADP into AMP, and CD73 converts AMP into adenosine. In VAT, the CD73 ectoenzyme was widely distributed in immune and nonimmune cells, whereas CD39 expression was restricted to immune CD45PAN(+) SVCs. Although the MUO group expressed the highest levels of both ectoenzymes, no difference in ATP hydrolysis capacity was found between the groups. As expected, MUO exhibited the highest NLRP3 inflammasome expression and IL-1β production. MUO SVCs also displayed up-regulation of the A2AR, allowing extracellular adenosine to increase IL-1β local secretion. Additionally, we demonstrate that metabolic parameters and BMI are positively correlated with purinergic components in VAT. These findings indicate that purinergic signaling is a novel mechanism involved in the chronic inflammation of VAT underlying the metabolic changes in obesity. Finally, our study reveals a proinflammatory role for adenosine in sustaining IL-1β production in this tissue.

  17. Mito-DCA: a mitochondria targeted molecular scaffold for efficacious delivery of metabolic modulator dichloroacetate.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Rakesh K; Marrache, Sean; Harn, Donald A; Dhar, Shanta

    2014-05-16

    Tumor growth is fueled by the use of glycolysis, which normal cells use only in the scarcity of oxygen. Glycolysis makes tumor cells resistant to normal death processes. Targeting this unique tumor metabolism can provide an alternative strategy to selectively destroy the tumor, leaving normal tissue unharmed. The orphan drug dichloroacetate (DCA) is a mitochondrial kinase inhibitor that has the ability to show such characteristics. However, its molecular form shows poor uptake and bioavailability and limited ability to reach its target mitochondria. Here, we describe a targeted molecular scaffold for construction of a multiple DCA loaded compound, Mito-DCA, with three orders of magnitude enhanced potency and cancer cell specificity compared to DCA. Incorporation of a lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation through a biodegradable linker in Mito-DCA allowed for mitochondria targeting. Mito-DCA did not show any significant metabolic effects toward normal cells but tumor cells with dysfunctional mitochondria were affected by Mito-DCA, which caused a switch from glycolysis to glucose oxidation and subsequent cell death via apoptosis. Effective delivery of DCA to the mitochondria resulted in significant reduction in lactate levels and played important roles in modulating dendritic cell (DC) phenotype evidenced by secretion of interleukin-12 from DCs upon activation with tumor antigens from Mito-DCA treated cancer cells. Targeting mitochondrial metabolic inhibitors to the mitochondria could lead to induction of an efficient antitumor immune response, thus introducing the concept of combining glycolysis inhibition with immune system to destroy tumor.

  18. Salmonella Modulates Metabolism During Growth under Conditions that Induce Expression of Virulence Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Mo; Schmidt, Brian; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Jones, Marcus B.; Deatherage, Brooke L.; Brewer, Heather M.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; McDermott, Jason E.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Peterson, Scott N.; Ansong, Charles; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Metz, Thomas O.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-04-05

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a facultative pathogen that uses complex mechanisms to invade and proliferate within mammalian host cells. To investigate possible contributions of metabolic processes in S. Typhimurium grown under conditions known to induce expression of virulence genes, we used a metabolomics-driven systems biology approach coupled with genome scale modeling. First, we identified distinct metabolite profiles associated with bacteria grown in either rich or virulence-inducing media and report the most comprehensive coverage of the S. Typhimurium metabolome to date. Second, we applied an omics-informed genome scale modeling analysis of the functional consequences of adaptive alterations in S. Typhimurium metabolism during growth under our conditions. Excitingly, we observed possible sequestration of metabolites recently suggested to have immune modulating roles. Modeling efforts highlighted a decreased cellular capability to both produce and utilize intracellular amino acids during stationary phase culture in virulence conditions, despite significant abundance increases for these molecules as observed by our metabolomics measurements. Model-guided analysis suggested that alterations in metabolism prioritized other activities necessary for pathogenesis instead, such as lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis.

  19. Dolomite supplementation improves bone metabolism through modulation of calcium-regulating hormone secretion in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Nagasawa, Sakae; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Yagasaki, Hiroshi; Ito, Michio

    2005-01-01

    Dolomite, a mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg (CO3)2), is used as a food supplement that supplies calcium and magnesium. However, the effect of magnesium supplementation on bone metabolism in patients with osteoporosis is a matter of controversy. We examined the effects of daily supplementation with dolomite on calcium metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Dolomite was administered daily to OVX rats for 9 weeks. The same amount of magnesium chloride as that supplied by the dolomite was given to OVX rats as a positive control. Histological examination revealed that ovariectomy decreased trabecular bone and increased adipose tissues in the femoral metaphysis. Dolomite or magnesium supplementation failed to improve these bone histological features. Calcium content in the femora was decreased in OVX rats. Neither calcium nor magnesium content in the femora in OVX rats was significantly increased by dolomite or magnesium administration. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was significantly increased in OVX rats, and was not affected by the magnesium supplementation. Serum concentrations of magnesium were increased, and those of calcium were decreased, in OVX rats supplemented with dolomite or magnesium. However, there was a tendency toward decreased parathyroid hormone secretion and increased calcitonin secretion in OVX rats supplemented with dolomite or magnesium. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and osteocalcin levels were significantly increased in the supplemented OVX rats. These results suggest that increased magnesium intake improves calcium metabolism in favor of increasing bone formation, through the modulation of calcium-regulating hormone secretion.

  20. Myocardial imaging and metabolic studies with (/sup 17 -123/I)iodoheptadecanoic acid in patients with idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeck, A.; Freundlieb, C.; Vyska, K.; Loesse, B.; Erbel, R.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    In twenty patients with primary congestive cardiomyopathy (COCM) the patterns of accumulation and washout of the fatty acid analogue (/sup 17 -123/I)iodoheptadecanoic acid (I-123 HA) were studied. In contrast to patients with ischemic heart disease, where reduced I-123 HA accumulation was correlated with stenosis of the main coronary arteries, thus usually involving larger wall segments, the patients with COCM concentrated I-123 HA heterogeneously in small spotty segments throughout the entire left-ventricular myocardium. The regional washout half-times varied between 15.1 and 116.2 min. It seems that in patients with severe COCM the elimination half-times are more prolonged than in early stages of the disease. There was no correlation between the regional uptake and the elimination half-times. Sequential myocardial imaging with I-123 HA appears useful for noninvasively diagnosis of COCM.

  1. Mitochondrial functions modulate neuroendocrine, metabolic, inflammatory, and transcriptional responses to acute psychological stress

    PubMed Central

    Picard, Martin; McManus, Meagan J.; Gray, Jason D.; Nasca, Carla; Moffat, Cynthia; Kopinski, Piotr K.; Seifert, Erin L.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of psychological stress triggers neuroendocrine, inflammatory, metabolic, and transcriptional perturbations that ultimately predispose to disease. However, the subcellular determinants of this integrated, multisystemic stress response have not been defined. Central to stress adaptation is cellular energetics, involving mitochondrial energy production and oxidative stress. We therefore hypothesized that abnormal mitochondrial functions would differentially modulate the organism’s multisystemic response to psychological stress. By mutating or deleting mitochondrial genes encoded in the mtDNA [NADH dehydrogenase 6 (ND6) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)] or nuclear DNA [adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT)], we selectively impaired mitochondrial respiratory chain function, energy exchange, and mitochondrial redox balance in mice. The resulting impact on physiological reactivity and recovery from restraint stress were then characterized. We show that mitochondrial dysfunctions altered the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal–medullary activation and catecholamine levels, the inflammatory cytokine IL-6, circulating metabolites, and hippocampal gene expression responses to stress. Each mitochondrial defect generated a distinct whole-body stress-response signature. These results demonstrate the role of mitochondrial energetics and redox balance as modulators of key pathophysiological perturbations previously linked to disease. This work establishes mitochondria as stress-response modulators, with implications for understanding the mechanisms of stress pathophysiology and mitochondrial diseases. PMID:26627253

  2. Pharmacokinetic characterization of amrubicin cardiac safety in an ex vivo human myocardial strip model. II. Amrubicin shows metabolic advantages over doxorubicin and epirubicin.

    PubMed

    Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Menna, Pierantonio; Gonzalez Paz, Odalys; Surapaneni, Sekhar; Aukerman, Sharon L; Chello, Massimo; Covino, Elvio; Sung, Victoria; Minotti, Giorgio

    2012-05-01

    Anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity correlates with cardiac anthracycline accumulation and bioactivation to secondary alcohol metabolites or reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O₂·⁻) and hydrogen peroxide H₂O₂). We reported that in an ex vivo human myocardial strip model, 3 or 10 μM amrubicin [(7S,9S)-9-acetyl-9-amino-7-[(2-deoxy-β-D-erythro-pentopyranosyl)oxy]-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,11-dihydroxy-5,12-napthacenedione hydrochloride] accumulated to a lower level compared with equimolar doxorubicin or epirubicin (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 341:464-473, 2012). We have characterized how amrubicin converted to ROS or secondary alcohol metabolite in comparison with doxorubicin (that formed both toxic species) or epirubicin (that lacked ROS formation and showed an impaired conversion to alcohol metabolite). Amrubicin and doxorubicin partitioned to mitochondria and caused similar elevations of H₂O₂, but the mechanisms of H₂O₂ formation were different. Amrubicin produced H₂O₂ by enzymatic reduction-oxidation of its quinone moiety, whereas doxorubicin acted by inducing mitochondrial uncoupling. Moreover, mitochondrial aconitase assays showed that 3 μM amrubicin caused an O₂·⁻-dependent reversible inactivation, whereas doxorubicin always caused an irreversible inactivation. Low concentrations of amrubicin therefore proved similar to epirubicin in sparing mitochondrial aconitase from irreversible inactivation. The soluble fraction of human myocardial strips converted doxorubicin and epirubicin to secondary alcohol metabolites that irreversibly inactivated cytoplasmic aconitase; in contrast, strips exposed to amrubicin failed to generate its secondary alcohol metabolite, amrubicinol, and only occasionally exhibited an irreversible inactivation of cytoplasmic aconitase. This was caused by competing pathways that favored formation and complete or near-to-complete elimination of 9-deaminoamrubicinol. These results characterize amrubicin

  3. IAPP modulates cellular autophagy, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix metabolism in human intervertebral disc cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xinghuo; Song, Yu; Liu, Wei; Wang, Kun; Gao, Yong; Li, Shuai; Duan, Zhenfeng; Shao, Zengwu; Yang, Shuhua; Yang, Cao

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenic process of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is characterized by imbalance in the extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism. Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells have important roles in maintaining the proper structure and tissue homeostasis of disc ECM. These cells need adequate supply of glucose and oxygen. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) exerts its biological effects by regulating glucose metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of IAPP in degenerated IVD tissue, and IAPP modulation of ECM metabolism in human NP cells, especially the crosstalk mechanism between apoptosis and autophagy in these cells. We found that the expression of IAPP and Calcr-RAMP decreased considerably during IDD progression, along with the decrease in the expression of AG, BG, and Col2A1. Induction of IAPP in NP cells by transfection with pLV-IAPP enhanced the synthesis of aggrecan and Col2A1 and attenuated the expression of pro-inflammatory factors, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-1. Upregulation of IAPP also affected the expression of the catabolic markers—matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 3, 9 and 13 and ADAMTS 4 and 5. Downregulation of IAPP by siRNA inhibited the expression of anabolic genes but increased the expression of catabolic genes and inflammatory factors. The expressions of autophagic and apoptotic markers in NP cells transfected with pLV-IAPP were upregulated, including BECLIN1, ATG5, ATG7, LC3 II/I and Bcl-2, while significantly increase in the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 in NP cells transfected with pLV-siIAPP. Mechanistically, PI3K/AKT-mTOR and p38/JNK MAPK signal pathways were involved. We propose that IAPP might play a pivotal role in the development of IDD, by regulating ECM metabolism and controlling the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy in NP, thus potentially offering a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of IDD. PMID:28149534

  4. Disposition and metabolism of LY2452473, a selective androgen receptor modulator, in humans.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ping; Rehmel, Jessica Fayer; Cassidy, Kenneth; Hadden, Chad; Campanale, Kristina; Patel, Nita; Johnson, Jason

    2012-12-01

    The disposition and metabolism of isopropyl N-[(2S)-7-cyano-4-(2-pyridylmethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]indol-2-yl]carbamate (LY2452473; a selective androgen receptor modulator) in humans was characterized after a single 15-mg (100 μCi) oral dose of [¹⁴C]LY2452473 to six healthy male subjects. LY2452473 was absorbed rapidly (time to reach maximum plasma concentration for both LY2452473 and total radioactivity was 2-3 h) and cleared slowly (plasma terminal t(½) of 27 h for LY2452473 and 51 h for the total radioactivity). LY2452473 and metabolites S5 (acetylamine) and S12 (hydroxylation on the cyclopentene) were major circulating entities in plasma, accounting for approximately 42, 21, and 35% of the total radioactivity exposure, respectively, as calculated from relative area under the concentration versus time curves from zero to 48 h derived from the plasma radiochromatograms. The radioactive dose was almost completely recovered after 312 h with 47.9% of the dose eliminated in urine and 46.6% in feces. Minimal LY2452473 was detected in excreta, indicating that metabolic clearance was the main route of elimination. Multiple metabolic pathways were observed with no single metabolic pathway accounting for more than 30% of the dose in excreta. Metabolite S10 (a diol across the cyclopenta-indole linkage) was the largest excretory metabolite (approximately 14% of the dose). S10 displayed interesting chemical and chromatographic properties, undergoing conversion to the corresponding epoxide under acidic conditions and conversion back to the diol under neutral conditions. An in vitro phenotyping approach indicated that CYP3A4 was the largest contributor to LY2452473 depletion.

  5. Chronic melatonin consumption prevents obesity-related metabolic abnormalities and protects the heart against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in a prediabetic model of diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Nduhirabandi, Frederic; Du Toit, Eugene F; Blackhurst, Dee; Marais, David; Lochner, Amanda

    2011-03-01

    Obesity, a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease, is associated with increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status. Melatonin, a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant, has powerful cardioprotective effects in lean animals but its efficacy in obesity is unknown. We investigated the effects of chronic melatonin administration on the development of the metabolic syndrome as well as ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male Wistar rats received a control diet, a control diet with melatonin, a high-calorie diet, or a high-calorie diet with melatonin (DM). Melatonin (4 mg/kg/day) was administered in the drinking water. After 16 wk, biometric and blood metabolic parameters were measured. Hearts were perfused ex vivo for the evaluation of myocardial function, infarct size (IFS) and biochemical changes [activation of PKB/Akt, ERK, p38 MAPK, AMPK, and glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 expression). The high-calorie diet caused increases in body weight (BW), visceral adiposity, serum insulin and triglycerides (TRIG), with no change in glucose levels. Melatonin treatment reduced the BW gain, visceral adiposity, blood TRIG, serum insulin, homeostatic model assessment index and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the DIO group. Melatonin reduced IFS in DIO and control groups and increased percentage recovery of functional performance of DIO hearts. During reperfusion, hearts from melatonin-treated rats had increased activation of PKB/Akt, ERK42/44 and reduced p38 MAPK activation. Chronic melatonin treatment prevented the metabolic abnormalities induced by DIO and protected the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury. These beneficial effects were associated with activation of the reperfusion injury salvage kinases pathway.

  6. The Wnt modulator sFRP2 enhances mesenchymal stem cell engraftment, granulation tissue formation and myocardial repair

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro, Maria P.; Pagni, Matthew; Vincent, Alicia; Atkinson, James; Hill, Michael F.; Cates, Justin; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Rottman, Jeffrey; Lee, Ethan; Young, Pampee P.

    2008-01-01

    Cell-based therapies, using multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for organ regeneration, are being pursued for cardiac disease, orthopedic injuries and biomaterial fabrication. The molecular pathways that regulate MSC-mediated regeneration or enhance their therapeutic efficacy are, however, poorly understood. We compared MSCs isolated from MRL/MpJ mice, known to demonstrate enhanced regenerative capacity, to those from C57BL/6 (WT) mice. Compared with WT-MSCs, MRL-MSCs demonstrated increased proliferation, in vivo engraftment, experimental granulation tissue reconstitution, and tissue vascularity in a murine model of repair stimulation. The MRL-MSCs also reduced infarct size and improved function in a murine myocardial infarct model compared with WT-MSCs. Genomic and functional analysis indicated a downregulation of the canonical Wnt pathway in MRL-MSCs characterized by significant up-regulation of specific secreted frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs). Specific knockdown of sFRP2 by shRNA in MRL-MSCs decreased their proliferation and their engraftment in and the vascular density of MRL-MSC-generated experimental granulation tissue. These results led us to generate WT-MSCs overexpressing sFRP2 (sFRP2-MSCs) by retroviral transduction. sFRP2-MSCs maintained their ability for multilineage differentiation in vitro and, when implanted in vivo, recapitulated the MRL phenotype. Peri-infarct intramyocardial injection of sFRP2-MSCs resulted in enhanced engraftment, vascular density, reduced infarct size, and increased cardiac function after myocardial injury in mice. These findings implicate sFRP2 as a key molecule for the biogenesis of a superior regenerative phenotype in MSCs. PMID:19017790

  7. Altering Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Nutritional Status Modulates Mitochondrial, Lipid, and Energy Metabolism in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bauerly, Kathryn; Harris, Calliandra; Chowanadisai, Winyoo; Graham, James; Havel, Peter J.; Tchaparian, Eskouhie; Satre, Mike; Karliner, Joel S.; Rucker, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    We have reported that pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) improves reproduction, neonatal development, and mitochondrial function in animals by mechanisms that involve mitochondrial related cell signaling pathways. To extend these observations, the influence of PQQ on energy and lipid relationships and apparent protection against ischemia reperfusion injury are described herein. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a nutritionally complete diet with PQQ added at either 0 (PQQ−) or 2 mg PQQ/Kg diet (PQQ+). Measurements included: 1) serum glucose and insulin, 2) total energy expenditure per metabolic body size (Wt3/4), 3) respiratory quotients (in the fed and fasted states), 4) changes in plasma lipids, 5) the relative mitochondrial amount in liver and heart, and 6) indices related to cardiac ischemia. For the latter, rats (PQQ− or PQQ+) were subjected to left anterior descending occlusions followed by 2 h of reperfusion to determine PQQ's influence on infarct size and myocardial tissue levels of malondialdehyde, an indicator of lipid peroxidation. Although no striking differences in serum glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid levels were observed, energy expenditure was lower in PQQ− vs. PQQ+ rats and energy expenditure (fed state) was correlated with the hepatic mitochondrial content. Elevations in plasma di- and triacylglyceride and β-hydroxybutryic acid concentrations were also observed in PQQ− rats vs. PQQ+ rats. Moreover, PQQ administration (i.p. at 4.5 mg/kg BW for 3 days) resulted in a greater than 2-fold decrease in plasma triglycerides during a 6-hour fast than saline administration in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Cardiac injury resulting from ischemia/reperfusion was more pronounced in PQQ− rats than in PQQ+ rats. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PQQ deficiency impacts a number of parameters related to normal mitochondrial function. PMID:21814553

  8. A20 modulates lipid metabolism and energy production to promote liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Damrauer, Scott M; Studer, Peter; da Silva, Cleide G; Longo, Christopher R; Ramsey, Haley E; Csizmadia, Eva; Shrikhande, Gautam V; Scali, Salvatore T; Libermann, Towia A; Bhasin, Manoj K; Ferran, Christiane

    2011-03-17

    Liver regeneration is clinically of major importance in the setting of liver injury, resection or transplantation. We have demonstrated that the NF-κB inhibitory protein A20 significantly improves recovery of liver function and mass following extended liver resection (LR) in mice. In this study, we explored the Systems Biology modulated by A20 following extended LR in mice. We performed transcriptional profiling using Affymetrix-Mouse 430.2 arrays on liver mRNA retrieved from recombinant adenovirus A20 (rAd.A20) and rAd.βgalactosidase treated livers, before and 24 hours after 78% LR. A20 overexpression impacted 1595 genes that were enriched for biological processes related to inflammatory and immune responses, cellular proliferation, energy production, oxidoreductase activity, and lipid and fatty acid metabolism. These pathways were modulated by A20 in a manner that favored decreased inflammation, heightened proliferation, and optimized metabolic control and energy production. Promoter analysis identified several transcriptional factors that implemented the effects of A20, including NF-κB, CEBPA, OCT-1, OCT-4 and EGR1. Interactive scale-free network analysis captured the key genes that delivered the specific functions of A20. Most of these genes were affected at basal level and after resection. We validated a number of A20's target genes by real-time PCR, including p21, the mitochondrial solute carriers SLC25a10 and SLC25a13, and the fatty acid metabolism regulator, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha. This resulted in greater energy production in A20-expressing livers following LR, as demonstrated by increased enzymatic activity of cytochrome c oxidase, or mitochondrial complex IV. This Systems Biology-based analysis unravels novel mechanisms supporting the pro-regenerative function of A20 in the liver, by optimizing energy production through improved lipid/fatty acid metabolism, and down-regulated inflammation. These findings support pursuit of A

  9. Building a better infarct: Modulation of collagen cross-linking to increase infarct stiffness and reduce left ventricular dilation post-myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Voorhees, Andrew P; DeLeon-Pennell, Kristine Y; Ma, Yonggang; Halade, Ganesh V; Yabluchanskiy, Andriy; Iyer, Rugmani Padmanabhan; Flynn, Elizabeth; Cates, Courtney A; Lindsey, Merry L; Han, Hai-Chao

    2015-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) deletion attenuates collagen accumulation and dilation of the left ventricle (LV) post-myocardial infarction (MI); however the biomechanical mechanisms underlying the improved outcome are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms whereby MMP-9 deletion alters collagen network composition and assembly in the LV post-MI to modulate the mechanical properties of myocardial scar tissue. Adult C57BL/6J wild-type (WT; n=88) and MMP-9 null (MMP-9(-/-); n=92) mice of both sexes underwent permanent coronary artery ligation and were compared to day 0 controls (n=42). At day 7 post-MI, WT LVs displayed a 3-fold increase in end-diastolic volume, while MMP-9(-/-) showed only a 2-fold increase (p<0.05). Biaxial mechanical testing revealed that MMP-9(-/-) infarcts were stiffer than WT infarcts, as indicated by a 1.3-fold reduction in predicted in vivo circumferential stretch (p<0.05). Paradoxically, MMP-9(-/-) infarcts had a 1.8-fold reduction in collagen deposition (p<0.05). This apparent contradiction was explained by a 3.1-fold increase in lysyl oxidase (p<0.05) in MMP-9(-/-) infarcts, indicating that MMP-9 deletion increased collagen cross-linking activity. Furthermore, MMP-9 deletion led to a 3.0-fold increase in bone morphogenetic protein-1, the metalloproteinase that cleaves pro-collagen and pro-lysyl oxidase (p<0.05) and reduced fibronectin fragmentation by 49% (p<0.05) to enhance lysyl oxidase activity. We conclude that MMP-9 deletion increases infarct stiffness and prevents LV dilation by reducing collagen degradation and facilitating collagen assembly and cross-linking through preservation of the fibronectin network and activation of lysyl oxidase.

  10. Orally Administered Berberine Modulates Hepatic Lipid Metabolism by Altering Microbial Bile Acid Metabolism and the Intestinal FXR Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Runbin; Yang, Na; Kong, Bo; Cao, Bei; Feng, Dong; Yu, Xiaoyi; Ge, Chun; Huang, Jingqiu; Shen, Jianliang; Wang, Pei; Feng, Siqi; Fei, Fei; Guo, Jiahua; He, Jun; Aa, Nan; Chen, Qiang; Pan, Yang; Schumacher, Justin D; Yang, Chung S; Guo, Grace L; Aa, Jiye; Wang, Guangji

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that the lipid-lowering effect of berberine (BBR) involves actions on the low-density lipoprotein receptor and the AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. However, the implication of these mechanisms is unclear because of the low bioavailability of BBR. Because the main action site of BBR is the gut and intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, we hypothesized that the effects of BBR on intestinal FXR signaling pathway might account for its pharmacological effectiveness. Using wild type (WT) and intestine-specific FXR knockout (FXR(int-/-)) mice, we found that BBR prevented the development of high-fat-diet-induced obesity and ameliorated triglyceride accumulation in livers of WT, but not FXR(int-/-) mice. BBR increased conjugated bile acids in serum and their excretion in feces. Furthermore, BBR inhibited bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in gut microbiota, and significantly increased the levels of tauro-conjugated bile acids, especially tauro-cholic acid(TCA), in the intestine. Both BBR and TCA treatment activated the intestinal FXR pathway and reduced the expression of fatty-acid translocase Cd36 in the liver. These results indicate that BBR may exert its lipid-lowering effect primarily in the gut by modulating the turnover of bile acids and subsequently the ileal FXR signaling pathway. In summary, we provide the first evidence to suggest a new mechanism of BBR action in the intestine that involves, sequentially, inhibiting BSH, elevating TCA, and activating FXR, which lead to the suppression of hepatic expression of Cd36 that results in reduced uptake of long-chain fatty acids in the liver.

  11. Maternal hypoxia decreases capillary supply and increases metabolic inefficiency leading to divergence in myocardial oxygen supply and demand.

    PubMed

    Hauton, David; Al-Shammari, Abdullah; Gaffney, Eamonn A; Egginton, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Maternal hypoxia is associated with a decrease in left ventricular capillary density while cardiac performance is preserved, implying a mismatch between metabolism and diffusive exchange. We hypothesised this requires a switch in substrate metabolism to maximise efficiency of ATP production from limited oxygen availability. Rat pups from pregnant females exposed to hypoxia (FIO2=0.12) at days 10-20 of pregnancy were grown to adulthood and working hearts perfused ex vivo. 14C-labelled glucose and 3H-palmitate were provided as substrates and metabolism quantified from recovery of 14CO2 and 3H2O, respectively. Hearts of male offspring subjected to Maternal Hypoxia showed a 20% decrease in cardiac output (P<0.05), despite recording a 2-fold increase in glucose oxidation (P<0.01) and 2.5-fold increase (P<0.01) in palmitate oxidation. Addition of insulin to Maternal Hypoxic hearts, further increased glucose oxidation (P<0.01) and suppressed palmitate oxidation (P<0.05), suggesting preservation in insulin signalling in the heart. In vitro enzyme activity measurements showed that Maternal Hypoxia increased both total and the active component of cardiac pyruvate dehydrogenase (both P<0.01), although pyruvate dehydrogenase sensitivity to insulin was lost (NS), while citrate synthase activity declined by 30% (P<0.001) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was unchanged by Maternal Hypoxia, indicating realignment of the metabolic machinery to optimise oxygen utilisation. Capillary density was quantified and oxygen diffusion characteristics examined, with calculated capillary domain area increased by 30% (P<0.001). Calculated metabolic efficiency decreased 4-fold (P<0.01) for Maternal Hypoxia hearts. Paradoxically, the decline in citrate synthase activity and increased metabolism suggest that the scope of individual mitochondria had declined, rendering the myocardium potentially more sensitive to metabolic stress. However, decreasing citrate synthase may be essential to preserve

  12. Modulating Composition and Metabolic Activity of the Gut Microbiota in IBD Patients.

    PubMed

    Matijašić, Mario; Meštrović, Tomislav; Perić, Mihaela; Čipčić Paljetak, Hana; Panek, Marina; Vranešić Bender, Darija; Ljubas Kelečić, Dina; Krznarić, Željko; Verbanac, Donatella

    2016-04-19

    The healthy intestine represents a remarkable interface where sterile host tissues come in contact with gut microbiota, in a balanced state of homeostasis. The imbalance of gut homeostasis is associated with the onset of many severe pathological conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic gastrointestinal disorder increasing in incidence and severely influencing affected individuals. Despite the recent development of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics, the current scientific knowledge of specific triggers and diagnostic markers to improve interventional approaches in IBD is still scarce. In this review we present and discuss currently available and emerging therapeutic options in modulating composition and metabolic activity of gut microbiota in patients affected by IBD. Therapeutic approaches at the microbiota level, such as dietary interventions alone or with probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics, administration of antibiotics, performing fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and the use of nematodes, all represent a promising opportunities towards establishing and maintaining of well-being as well as improving underlying IBD symptoms.

  13. Effect of Salvianolic Acid b and Paeonol on Blood Lipid Metabolism and Hemorrheology in Myocardial Ischemia Rabbits Induced by Pituitruin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qian; Wang, Siwang; Xie, Yanhua; Wang, Jianbo; Li, Hua; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Liu, Wenbo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic effect of salvianolic acid b and paeonol on coronary disease. The ischemia myocardial animal model is induced by administering pituitrin (20 μg·kg−1) intravenously via the abdominal vein. A combination of salvianolic acid b and paeonol (CSAP) (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg BW) was administrated to experimental rabbits. Biochemical indices were evaluated during six weeks of intervention. We found that the compound of salvianolic acid b and paeonol (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg BW) can markedly and dose-dependently reduce fibrinogen and malonaldehyde levels, increase the HDL level, improve blood viscosity and plasma viscosity in rabbits. In addition, the medicine can still reduce the ratio of NO/ET and the contents of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrates that compound of salvianolic acid b and paeonol (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg BW) can improve the blood hemorrheology, decrease oxidative injury and repair the function of blood vessel endothelium, and subsequently prevent the development of Coronary disease. PMID:21152295

  14. Pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and metabolism of a novel selective androgen receptor modulator designed for prostate cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Wu, Zengru; Wu, Di; Darby, Michael V; Hong, Seoung Soo; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the presence and extent of disease plays a major role in clinical management of prostate cancer, as it provides meaningful information as to which therapy to choose and who might benefit from this therapy. The wide expression of androgen receptor (AR) in primary and metastatic prostate tumors offers a cellular target for receptor-mediated imaging of prostate cancer. In our previous study, a non-steroidal AR ligand, S-26 [S-3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-cyano-3-iodophenyl)-propionamide] showed promising in vitro pharmacological properties as an AR-mediated imaging agent, with high AR binding affinity and AR specificity. The overall goal of this study was to characterize the in vivo metabolic and biodistribution profile of S-26 in rats. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of S-26 in rat plasma showed that clearance (CL), volume of distribution (Vd(ss)), and half-life (T(1/2)) of S-26 were 0.30 + or - 0.07 l/h/kg, 1.44 + or - 0.33 l/kg, and 4 h, respectively, after intravenous (i.v.) administration. Dose proportionality (1, 10 and 30 mg/kg) studies suggested that the pharmacokinetics of S-26 are dose-independent. The plasma concentrations of all 3 doses were further simultaneously fitted with a two-compartmental model and the results were similar to those obtained from non-compartmental analysis. Biodistribution studies using (125)I-labeled S-26 indicated that it did not specifically target AR-rich tissue (e.g. prostate). A substantial amount of radioactivity recovered from thyroid gland indicated the release of free iodine. In metabolism studies, unchanged S-26 and its metabolites were detected in rat urine and fecal samples. Oxidation, de-iodination, hydrolysis, and sulfate conjugation were the major metabolic pathways of S-26 in rats, with de-iodination representing a unique metabolic pathway of S-26 among other selective androgen receptor modulators. In conclusion, the extensive plasma clearance and de-iodination of S-26 likely

  15. Neuronal Control of Metabolism through Nutrient-Dependent Modulation of Tracheal Branching

    PubMed Central

    Linneweber, Gerit A.; Jacobson, Jake; Busch, Karl Emanuel; Hudry, Bruno; Christov, Christo P.; Dormann, Dirk; Yuan, Michaela; Otani, Tomoki; Knust, Elisabeth; de Bono, Mario; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Summary During adaptive angiogenesis, a key process in the etiology and treatment of cancer and obesity, the vasculature changes to meet the metabolic needs of its target tissues. Although the cues governing vascular remodeling are not fully understood, target-derived signals are generally believed to underlie this process. Here, we identify an alternative mechanism by characterizing the previously unrecognized nutrient-dependent plasticity of the Drosophila tracheal system: a network of oxygen-delivering tubules developmentally akin to mammalian blood vessels. We find that this plasticity, particularly prominent in the intestine, drives—rather than responds to—metabolic change. Mechanistically, it is regulated by distinct populations of nutrient- and oxygen-responsive neurons that, through delivery of both local and systemic insulin- and VIP-like neuropeptides, sculpt the growth of specific tracheal subsets. Thus, we describe a novel mechanism by which nutritional cues modulate neuronal activity to give rise to organ-specific, long-lasting changes in vascular architecture. PMID:24439370

  16. Low Concentrations of Nitric Oxide Modulate Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Metabolism and Antibiotic Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Raymond N.; Morgan, Samantha; Brito-Mutunayagam, Sanjita; Skipp, Paul; Feelisch, Martin; Hayes, Stephen M.; Hellier, William; Clarke, Stuart C.; Stoodley, Paul; Burgess, Andrea; Ismail-Koch, Hasnaa; Salib, Rami J.; Webb, Jeremy S.; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the key pathogens responsible for otitis media (OM), the most common infection in children and the largest cause of childhood antibiotic prescription. Novel therapeutic strategies that reduce the overall antibiotic consumption due to OM are required because, although widespread pneumococcal conjugate immunization has controlled invasive pneumococcal disease, overall OM incidence has not decreased. Biofilm formation represents an important phenotype contributing to the antibiotic tolerance and persistence of S. pneumoniae in chronic or recurrent OM. We investigated the treatment of pneumococcal biofilms with nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous signaling molecule and therapeutic agent that has been demonstrated to trigger biofilm dispersal in other bacterial species. We hypothesized that addition of low concentrations of NO to pneumococcal biofilms would improve antibiotic efficacy and that higher concentrations exert direct antibacterial effects. Unlike in many other bacterial species, low concentrations of NO did not result in S. pneumoniae biofilm dispersal. Instead, treatment of both in vitro biofilms and ex vivo adenoid tissue samples (a reservoir for S. pneumoniae biofilms) with low concentrations of NO enhanced pneumococcal killing when combined with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, an antibiotic commonly used to treat chronic OM. Quantitative proteomic analysis using iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) identified 13 proteins that were differentially expressed following low-concentration NO treatment, 85% of which function in metabolism or translation. Treatment with low-concentration NO, therefore, appears to modulate pneumococcal metabolism and may represent a novel therapeutic approach to reduce antibiotic tolerance in pneumococcal biofilms. PMID:26856845

  17. Low Concentrations of Nitric Oxide Modulate Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Metabolism and Antibiotic Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Allan, Raymond N; Morgan, Samantha; Brito-Mutunayagam, Sanjita; Skipp, Paul; Feelisch, Martin; Hayes, Stephen M; Hellier, William; Clarke, Stuart C; Stoodley, Paul; Burgess, Andrea; Ismail-Koch, Hasnaa; Salib, Rami J; Webb, Jeremy S; Faust, Saul N; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniaeis one of the key pathogens responsible for otitis media (OM), the most common infection in children and the largest cause of childhood antibiotic prescription. Novel therapeutic strategies that reduce the overall antibiotic consumption due to OM are required because, although widespread pneumococcal conjugate immunization has controlled invasive pneumococcal disease, overall OM incidence has not decreased. Biofilm formation represents an important phenotype contributing to the antibiotic tolerance and persistence ofS. pneumoniaein chronic or recurrent OM. We investigated the treatment of pneumococcal biofilms with nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous signaling molecule and therapeutic agent that has been demonstrated to trigger biofilm dispersal in other bacterial species. We hypothesized that addition of low concentrations of NO to pneumococcal biofilms would improve antibiotic efficacy and that higher concentrations exert direct antibacterial effects. Unlike in many other bacterial species, low concentrations of NO did not result inS. pneumoniaebiofilm dispersal. Instead, treatment of bothin vitrobiofilms andex vivoadenoid tissue samples (a reservoir forS. pneumoniaebiofilms) with low concentrations of NO enhanced pneumococcal killing when combined with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, an antibiotic commonly used to treat chronic OM. Quantitative proteomic analysis using iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) identified 13 proteins that were differentially expressed following low-concentration NO treatment, 85% of which function in metabolism or translation. Treatment with low-concentration NO, therefore, appears to modulate pneumococcal metabolism and may represent a novel therapeutic approach to reduce antibiotic tolerance in pneumococcal biofilms.

  18. APL-1, the Alzheimer's Amyloid precursor protein in Caenorhabditis elegans, modulates multiple metabolic pathways throughout development.

    PubMed

    Ewald, Collin Y; Raps, Daniel A; Li, Chris

    2012-06-01

    Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene or in genes that process APP are correlated with familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). The biological function of APP remains unclear. APP is a transmembrane protein that can be sequentially cleaved by different secretases to yield multiple fragments, which can potentially act as signaling molecules. Caenorhabditis elegans encodes one APP-related protein, APL-1, which is essential for viability. Here, we show that APL-1 signaling is dependent on the activity of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 and the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12 and influences metabolic pathways such as developmental progression, body size, and egg-laying rate. Furthermore, apl-1(yn5) mutants, which produce high levels of the extracellular APL-1 fragment, show an incompletely penetrant temperature-sensitive embryonic lethality. In a genetic screen to isolate mutants in which the apl-1(yn5) lethality rate is modified, we identified a suppressor mutation in MOA-1/R155.2, a receptor-protein tyrosine phosphatase, and an enhancer mutation in MOA-2/B0495.6, a protein involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Knockdown of apl-1 in an apl-1(yn5) background caused lethality and molting defects at all larval stages, suggesting that apl-1 is required for each transitional molt. We suggest that signaling of the released APL-1 fragment modulates multiple metabolic states and that APL-1 is required throughout development.

  19. Fasting and Feeding Signals Control the Oscillatory Expression of Angptl8 to Modulate Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Fabin; Wu, Rong; Wang, Pengfei; Wu, Yuting; Azam, Md. Shofiul; Xu, Qian; Chen, Yaqiong; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence implies a key role of angiopoietin-like protein 8 (Angptl8) in the metabolic transition between fasting and feeding, whereas much less is known about the mechanism of its own expression. Here we show that hepatic Angptl8 is rhythmically expressed, which involving the liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulation during feeding and fasting periods, respectively. In addition, Angptl8 mRNA is very unstable, which contributes to the nature of its daily rhythmicity by rapidly responding to fasting/feeding transition. To explore its pathological function in dexamethasone (DEX)-induced fatty liver, we reversed its suppression by glucocorticoids through adenoviral delivery of Angptl8 gene in mouse liver. Surprisingly, hepatic overexpression of Angptl8 dramatically elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels in DEX-treated mice, suggesting a metabolic interaction between Angptl8 and glucocorticoid signaling. Moreover, intracellular hepatic Angptl8 is implicated in the regulation of lipid homeostasis by the experiments with ectopic expression of a nonsecreted Angptl8 mutant (Δ25-Angptl8). Altogether, our data demonstrate the molecular mechanism of the diurnal rhythm of Angptl8 expression regulated by glucocorticoid signaling and LXRα pathway, and provide new evidence to understand the role of Angptl8 in maintaining plasma TG homeostasis. PMID:27845381

  20. Sneaker Male Squid Produce Long-lived Spermatozoa by Modulating Their Energy Metabolism *

    PubMed Central

    Hirohashi, Noritaka; Tamura-Nakano, Miwa; Nakaya, Fumio; Iida, Tomohiro; Iwata, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Spermatozoa released by males should remain viable until fertilization. Hence, sperm longevity is governed by intrinsic and environmental factors in accordance with the male mating strategy. However, whether intraspecific variation of insemination modes can impact sperm longevity remains to be elucidated. In the squid Heterololigo bleekeri, male dimorphism (consort and sneaker) is linked to two discontinuous insemination modes that differ in place and time. Notably, only sneaker male spermatozoa inseminated long before egg spawning can be stored in the seminal receptacle. We found that sneaker spermatozoa exhibited greater persistence in fertilization competence and flagellar motility than consort ones because of a larger amount of flagellar glycogen. Sneaker spermatozoa also showed higher capacities in glucose uptake and lactate efflux. Lactic acidosis was considered to stabilize CO2-triggered self-clustering of sneaker spermatozoa, thus establishing hypoxia-induced metabolic changes and sperm survival. These results, together with comparative omics analyses, suggest that postcopulatory reproductive contexts define sperm longevity by modulating the inherent energy levels and metabolic pathways. PMID:27385589

  1. Low level light in combination with metabolic modulators for effective therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Tingting; Zhang, Qi; Hamblin, Michael R.; Wu, Mei X.

    2015-03-01

    Vascular damage occurs frequently at the injured brain causing hypoxia and is associated with poor outcomes in the clinics. We found high levels of glycolysis, reduced ATP generation, and increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis in neurons under hypoxia. Strikingly, these adverse events were reversed significantly by noninvasive exposure of injured brain to low-level light (LLL). LLL illumination sustained the mitochondrial membrane potential, constrained cytochrome C leakage in hypoxic cells, and protected them from apoptosis, underscoring a unique property of LLL. The effect of LLL was further bolstered by combination with metabolic substrates such as pyruvate or lactate both in vivo and in vitro. The combinational treatment retained memory and learning activities of injured mice to a normal level, whereas those treated with LLL or pyruvate alone, or sham light displayed partial or severe deficiency in these cognitive functions. In accordance with well-protected learning and memory function, the hippocampal region primarily responsible for learning and memory was completely protected by a combination of LLL and pyruvate, in marked contrast to the severe loss of hippocampal tissue due to secondary damage in control mice. These data clearly suggest that energy metabolic modulators can additively or synergistically enhance the therapeutic effect of LLL in energy-producing insufficient tissues like injured brain. Keywords:

  2. Modification of tumour cell metabolism modulates sensitivity to Chk1 inhibitor-induced DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Chk1 kinase inhibitors are currently under clinical investigation as potentiators of cytotoxic chemotherapy and demonstrate potent activity in combination with anti-metabolite drugs that increase replication stress through the inhibition of nucleotide or deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis. Inhibiting other metabolic pathways critical for the supply of building blocks necessary to support DNA replication may lead to increased DNA damage and synergy with an inhibitor of Chk1. A screen of small molecule metabolism modulators identified combinatorial activity between a Chk1 inhibitor and chloroquine or the LDHA/LDHB inhibitor GSK 2837808A. Compounds, such as 2-deoxyglucose or 6-aminonicotinamide, that reduced the fraction of cells undergoing active replication rendered tumour cells more resistant to Chk1 inhibitor-induced DNA damage. Withdrawal of glucose or glutamine induced G1 and G2/M arrest without increasing DNA damage and reduced Chk1 expression and activation through autophosphorylation. This suggests the expression and activation of Chk1 kinase is associated with cells undergoing active DNA replication. Glutamine starvation rendered tumour cells more resistant to Chk1 inhibitor-induced DNA damage and reversal of the glutamine starvation restored the sensitivity of tumour cells to Chk1 inhibitor-induced DNA damage. Chk1 inhibitors may be a potentially useful therapeutic treatment for patients whose tumours contain a high fraction of replicating cells. PMID:28106079

  3. How to Feed the Mammalian Gut Microbiota: Bacterial and Metabolic Modulation by Dietary Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, Chiara; Statello, Rosario; Carnevali, Luca; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Milani, Christian; Mangifesta, Marta; Duranti, Sabrina; Lugli, Gabriele A.; Jimenez, Beatriz; Lodge, Samantha; Viappiani, Alice; Alessandri, Giulia; Dall’Asta, Margerita; Del Rio, Daniele; Sgoifo, Andrea; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco; Turroni, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota of mammals is greatly influenced by diet. Therefore, evaluation of different food ingredients that may promote changes in the gut microbiota composition is an attractive approach to treat microbiota disturbances. In this study, three dietary fibers, such as inulin (I, 10%), resistant starch (RS, 10%), and citrus pectin (3%), were employed as supplements to normal chow diet of adult male rats for 2 weeks. Fecal microbiota composition and corresponding metabolite profiles were assessed before and after prebiotics supplementation. A general increase in the Bacteroidetes phylum was detected with a concurrent reduction in Firmicutes, in particular for I and RS experiments, while additional changes in the microbiota composition were evident at lower taxonomic levels for all the three substrates. Such modifications in the microbiota composition were correlated with changes in metabolic profiles of animals, in particular changes in acetate and succinate levels. This study represents a first attempt to modulate selectively the abundance and/or metabolic activity of various members of the gut microbiota by means of dietary fiber.

  4. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Characterization of Metabolically Stable Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Marhefka, Craig A.; Gao, Wenqing; Chung, Kiwon; Kim, Juhyun; He, Yali; Yin, Donghua; Bohl, Casey; Dalton, James T.; Miller, Duane D.

    2007-01-01

    A series of nonsteroidal ligands were synthesized as second-generation agonists for the androgen receptor (AR). These ligands were designed to eliminate metabolic sites identified in one of our first-generation AR agonists, which was inactive in vivo due to its rapid metabolism to inactive constituents. The binding affinity of these compounds was evaluated using AR isolated from rat ventral prostate. These second-generation compounds bound the AR in a high affinity and stereoselective manner, with Ki values ranging from about 4 to 130 nM. The ability of these ligands to stimulate AR-mediated transcriptional activation was examined in cells transfected with the human AR and a hormone-dependent luciferase reporter gene. Although some compounds were unable to stimulate AR-mediated transcription, several demonstrated activity similar to that of dihydrotestosterone (DHT, an endogenous steroidal ligand for the AR). We also evaluated the in vivo pharmacologic activity of selected compounds in castrated male rats. Three compounds were identified as selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), exhibiting significant anabolic activity while having only moderate to minimal androgenic activity in vivo. PMID:14761201

  5. Diacylglycerol kinase ε deficiency preserves glucose tolerance and modulates lipid metabolism in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Mannerås-Holm, Louise; Schönke, Milena; Brozinick, Joseph T; Vetterli, Laurène; Bui, Hai-Hoang; Sanders, Philip; Nascimento, Emmani B M; Björnholm, Marie; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-05-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) catalyze the phosphorylation and conversion of diacylglycerol (DAG) into phosphatidic acid. DGK isozymes have unique primary structures, expression patterns, subcellular localizations, regulatory mechanisms, and DAG preferences. DGKε has a hydrophobic segment that promotes its attachment to membranes and shows substrate specificity for DAG with an arachidonoyl acyl chain in the sn-2 position of the substrate. We determined the role of DGKε in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis in relation to diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity using DGKε-KO and wild-type mice. Lipidomic analysis revealed elevated unsaturated and saturated DAG species in skeletal muscle of DGKε KO mice, which was paradoxically associated with increased glucose tolerance. Although skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was unaltered, whole-body respiratory exchange ratio was reduced, and abundance of mitochondrial markers was increased, indicating a greater reliance on fat oxidation and intracellular lipid metabolism in DGKε KO mice. Thus, the increased intracellular lipids in skeletal muscle from DGKε KO mice may undergo rapid turnover because of increased mitochondrial function and lipid oxidation, rather than storage, which in turn may preserve insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, DGKε plays a role in glucose and energy homeostasis by modulating lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Modulation of Central Carbon Metabolism by Acetylation of Isocitrate Lyase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Jing; Wang, Yihong; Yu, Heguo; Qian, Xiaoyan; Wang, Honghai; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Xuelian

    2017-01-01

    Several enzymes involved in central carbon metabolism such as isocitrate lyase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase are key determinants of pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). In this study, we found that lysine acetylation plays an important role in the modulation of central carbon metabolism in M. tb. Mutant of M. tb defective in sirtuin deacetylase exhibited improved growth in fatty acid-containing media. Global analysis of lysine acetylome of M. tb identified three acetylated lysine residues (K322, K331, and K392) of isocitrate lyase (ICL1). Using a genetically encoding system, we demonstrated that acetylation of K392 increased the enzyme activity of ICL1, whereas acetylation of K322 decreased its activity. Antibodies that specifically recognized acetyllysine at 392 and 322 of ICL1 were used to monitor the levels of ICL1 acetylation in M. tb cultures. The physiological significance of ICL1 acetylation was demonstrated by the observation that M. tb altered the levels of acetylated K392 in response to changes of carbon sources, and that acetylation of K392 affected the abundance of ICL1 protein. Our study has uncovered another regulatory mechanism of ICL1. PMID:28322251

  7. Gut microbiota-based translational biomarkers to prevent metabolic syndrome via nutritional modulation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shuiming; Zhao, Liping

    2014-02-01

    In the face of the global epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its strong association with the increasing rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, it is critical to detect MetS at an early stage in the clinical setting to implement preventive intervention long before the complications arise. Lipopolysaccharide, the cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria produced from diet-disrupted gut microbiota, has been shown to induce metabolic endotoxemia, chronic low-grade inflammation, and ultimately insulin resistance. Therefore, ameliorating the inflammation and insulin resistance underlying MetS by gut microbiota-targeted, dietary intervention has gained increasing attention. In this review, we propose using dynamic monitoring of a set of translational biomarkers related with the etiological role of gut microbiota, including lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), for early detection and prevention of MetS via nutritional modulation. LBP initiates the recognition and monomerization of lipopolysaccharide and amplifies host immune responses, linking the gut-derived antigen load and inflammation indicated by the plasma levels of CRP. Fasting plasma insulin and HOMA-IR are measured to evaluate insulin sensitivity that is damaged by pro-inflammatory cytokines. The dynamic monitoring of these biomarkers in high-risk populations may provide translational methods for the quantitative and dynamic evaluation of dysbiosis-induced insulin resistance and the effectiveness of dietary treatment for MetS.

  8. Low-level light in combination with metabolic modulators for effective therapy of injured brain

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Tingting; Zhang, Qi; Hamblin, Michael R; Wu, Mei X

    2015-01-01

    Vascular damage occurs frequently at the injured brain causing hypoxia and is associated with poor outcomes in the clinics. We found high levels of glycolysis, reduced adenosine triphosphate generation, and increased formation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in neurons under hypoxia. Strikingly, these adverse events were reversed significantly by noninvasive exposure of injured brain to low-level light (LLL). Low-level light illumination sustained the mitochondrial membrane potential, constrained cytochrome c leakage in hypoxic cells, and protected them from apoptosis, underscoring a unique property of LLL. The effect of LLL was further bolstered by combination with metabolic substrates such as pyruvate or lactate both in vivo and in vitro. The combinational treatment retained memory and learning activities of injured mice to a normal level, whereas other treatment displayed partial or severe deficiency in these cognitive functions. In accordance with well-protected learning and memory function, the hippocampal region primarily responsible for learning and memory was completely protected by combination treatment, in marked contrast to the severe loss of hippocampal tissue because of secondary damage in control mice. These data clearly suggest that energy metabolic modulators can additively or synergistically enhance the therapeutic effect of LLL in energy-producing insufficient tissue–like injured brain. PMID:25966949

  9. Modulation of Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Permeabilization and Apoptosis by Ceramide Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rego, António; Costa, Margarida; Chaves, Susana Rodrigues; Matmati, Nabil; Pereira, Helena; Sousa, Maria João; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Costa, Vítor; Côrte-Real, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes a mitochondrial-dependent programmed cell death in response to different stimuli, such as acetic acid, with features similar to those of mammalian apoptosis. However, the upstream signaling events in this process, including those leading to mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, are still poorly characterized. Changes in sphingolipid metabolism have been linked to modulation of apoptosis in both yeast and mammalian cells, and ceramides have been detected in mitochondria upon apoptotic stimuli. In this study, we aimed to characterize the contribution of enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism to apoptotic cell death induced by acetic acid. We show that isc1Δ and lag1Δ mutants, lacking inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C and ceramide synthase, respectively, exhibited a higher resistance to acetic acid that was associated with lower levels of some phytoceramide species. Consistently, these mutant cells displayed lower levels of ROS production and reduced mitochondrial alterations, such as mitochondrial fragmentation and degradation, and decreased translocation of cytochrome c into the cytosol in response to acetic acid. These results suggest that ceramide production contributes to cell death induced by acetic acid, especially through hydrolysis of complex sphingolipids catalyzed by Isc1p and de novo synthesis catalyzed by Lag1p, and provide the first in vivo indication of its involvement in mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in yeast. PMID:23226203

  10. Brassinosteroid Regulates Cell Elongation by Modulating Gibberellin Metabolism in Rice[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Dapu; Gao, Shaopei; Liu, Linchuan; Yin, Yanhai; Jin, Yun; Qian, Qian; Chu, Chengcai

    2014-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two predominant hormones regulating plant cell elongation. A defect in either of these leads to reduced plant growth and dwarfism. However, their relationship remains unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Here, we demonstrated that BR regulates cell elongation by modulating GA metabolism in rice. Under physiological conditions, BR promotes GA accumulation by regulating the expression of GA metabolic genes to stimulate cell elongation. BR greatly induces the expression of D18/GA3ox-2, one of the GA biosynthetic genes, leading to increased GA1 levels, the bioactive GA in rice seedlings. Consequently, both d18 and loss-of-function GA-signaling mutants have decreased BR sensitivity. When excessive active BR is applied, the hormone mostly induces GA inactivation through upregulation of the GA inactivation gene GA2ox-3 and also represses BR biosynthesis, resulting in decreased hormone levels and growth inhibition. As a feedback mechanism, GA extensively inhibits BR biosynthesis and the BR response. GA treatment decreases the enlarged leaf angles in plants with enhanced BR biosynthesis or signaling. Our results revealed a previously unknown mechanism underlying BR and GA crosstalk depending on tissues and hormone levels, which greatly advances our understanding of hormone actions in crop plants and appears much different from that in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25371548

  11. How to Feed the Mammalian Gut Microbiota: Bacterial and Metabolic Modulation by Dietary Fibers.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Chiara; Statello, Rosario; Carnevali, Luca; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Milani, Christian; Mangifesta, Marta; Duranti, Sabrina; Lugli, Gabriele A; Jimenez, Beatriz; Lodge, Samantha; Viappiani, Alice; Alessandri, Giulia; Dall'Asta, Margerita; Del Rio, Daniele; Sgoifo, Andrea; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco; Turroni, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    The composition of the gut microbiota of mammals is greatly influenced by diet. Therefore, evaluation of different food ingredients that may promote changes in the gut microbiota composition is an attractive approach to treat microbiota disturbances. In this study, three dietary fibers, such as inulin (I, 10%), resistant starch (RS, 10%), and citrus pectin (3%), were employed as supplements to normal chow diet of adult male rats for 2 weeks. Fecal microbiota composition and corresponding metabolite profiles were assessed before and after prebiotics supplementation. A general increase in the Bacteroidetes phylum was detected with a concurrent reduction in Firmicutes, in particular for I and RS experiments, while additional changes in the microbiota composition were evident at lower taxonomic levels for all the three substrates. Such modifications in the microbiota composition were correlated with changes in metabolic profiles of animals, in particular changes in acetate and succinate levels. This study represents a first attempt to modulate selectively the abundance and/or metabolic activity of various members of the gut microbiota by means of dietary fiber.

  12. Improvement of skeletal muscle performance in ageing by the metabolic modulator Trimetazidine.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Elisabetta; Pin, Fabrizio; Gorini, Stefania; Pontecorvo, Laura; Ferri, Alberto; Mollace, Vincenzo; Costelli, Paola; Rosano, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    The loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and the associated reduced muscle strength are key limiting factors for elderly people's quality of life. Improving muscle performance does not necessarily correlate with increasing muscle mass. In fact, particularly in the elderly, the main explanation for muscle weakness is a reduction of muscle quality rather than a loss of muscle mass, and the main goal to be achieved is to increase muscle strength. The effectiveness of Trimetazidine (TMZ) in preventing muscle functional impairment during ageing was assessed in our laboratory. Aged mice received TMZ or vehicle for 12 consecutive days. Muscle function was evaluated at the end of the treatment by a grip test as well as by an inverted screen test at 0, 5, 7 and 12 days of TMZ treatment. After sacrifice, muscles were stored for myofiber cross-sectional area assessment and myosin heavy chain expression evaluation by western blotting. Chronic TMZ treatment does not affect the mass of both gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles, while it significantly increases muscle strength. Indeed, both latency to fall and grip force are markedly enhanced in TMZ-treated versus untreated mice. In addition, TMZ administration results in higher expression of slow myosin heavy chain isoform and increased number of small-sized myofibers. We report here some data showing that the modulation of skeletal muscle metabolism by TMZ increases muscle strength in aged mice. Reprogramming metabolism might therefore be a strategy worth to be further investigated in view of improving muscle performance in the elderly.

  13. Metabolic and trophic interactions modulate methane production by Arctic peat microbiota in response to warming

    PubMed Central

    Tveit, Alexander Tøsdal; Urich, Tim; Frenzel, Peter; Svenning, Mette Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Arctic permafrost soils store large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) that could be released into the atmosphere as methane (CH4) in a future warmer climate. How warming affects the complex microbial network decomposing SOC is not understood. We studied CH4 production of Arctic peat soil microbiota in anoxic microcosms over a temperature gradient from 1 to 30 °C, combining metatranscriptomic, metagenomic, and targeted metabolic profiling. The CH4 production rate at 4 °C was 25% of that at 25 °C and increased rapidly with temperature, driven by fast adaptations of microbial community structure, metabolic network of SOC decomposition, and trophic interactions. Below 7 °C, syntrophic propionate oxidation was the rate-limiting step for CH4 production; above this threshold temperature, polysaccharide hydrolysis became rate limiting. This change was associated with a shift within the functional guild for syntrophic propionate oxidation, with Firmicutes being replaced by Bacteroidetes. Correspondingly, there was a shift from the formate- and H2-using Methanobacteriales to Methanomicrobiales and from the acetotrophic Methanosarcinaceae to Methanosaetaceae. Methanogenesis from methylamines, probably stemming from degradation of bacterial cells, became more important with increasing temperature and corresponded with an increased relative abundance of predatory protists of the phylum Cercozoa. We concluded that Arctic peat microbiota responds rapidly to increased temperatures by modulating metabolic and trophic interactions so that CH4 is always highly produced: The microbial community adapts through taxonomic shifts, and cascade effects of substrate availability cause replacement of functional guilds and functional changes within taxa. PMID:25918393

  14. Metabolic and trophic interactions modulate methane production by Arctic peat microbiota in response to warming.

    PubMed

    Tveit, Alexander Tøsdal; Urich, Tim; Frenzel, Peter; Svenning, Mette Marianne

    2015-05-12

    Arctic permafrost soils store large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) that could be released into the atmosphere as methane (CH4) in a future warmer climate. How warming affects the complex microbial network decomposing SOC is not understood. We studied CH4 production of Arctic peat soil microbiota in anoxic microcosms over a temperature gradient from 1 to 30 °C, combining metatranscriptomic, metagenomic, and targeted metabolic profiling. The CH4 production rate at 4 °C was 25% of that at 25 °C and increased rapidly with temperature, driven by fast adaptations of microbial community structure, metabolic network of SOC decomposition, and trophic interactions. Below 7 °C, syntrophic propionate oxidation was the rate-limiting step for CH4 production; above this threshold temperature, polysaccharide hydrolysis became rate limiting. This change was associated with a shift within the functional guild for syntrophic propionate oxidation, with Firmicutes being replaced by Bacteroidetes. Correspondingly, there was a shift from the formate- and H2-using Methanobacteriales to Methanomicrobiales and from the acetotrophic Methanosarcinaceae to Methanosaetaceae. Methanogenesis from methylamines, probably stemming from degradation of bacterial cells, became more important with increasing temperature and corresponded with an increased relative abundance of predatory protists of the phylum Cercozoa. We concluded that Arctic peat microbiota responds rapidly to increased temperatures by modulating metabolic and trophic interactions so that CH4 is always highly produced: The microbial community adapts through taxonomic shifts, and cascade effects of substrate availability cause replacement of functional guilds and functional changes within taxa.

  15. Serum complexes of insulin-like growth factor-1 modulate skeletal integrity and carbohydrate metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yakar, Shoshana; Rosen, Clifford J.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Sun, Hui; Mejia, Wilson; Kawashima, Yuki; Wu, Yingjie; Emerton, Kelly; Williams, Valerie; Jepsen, Karl; Schaffler, Mitchell B.; Majeska, Robert J.; Gavrilova, Oksana; Gutierrez, Mariana; Hwang, David; Pennisi, Patricia; Frystyk, Jan; Boisclair, Yves; Pintar, John; Jasper, Héctor; Domene, Horacio; Cohen, Pinchas; Clemmons, David; LeRoith, Derek

    2009-01-01

    Serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -1 is secreted mainly by the liver and circulates bound to IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), either as binary complexes or ternary complexes with IGFBP-3 or IGFBP-5 and an acid-labile subunit (ALS). The purpose of this study was to genetically dissect the role of IGF-1 circulatory complexes in somatic growth, skeletal integrity, and metabolism. Phenotypic comparisons of controls and four mouse lines with genetic IGF-1 deficits—liver-specific IGF-1 deficiency (LID), ALS knockout (ALSKO), IGFBP-3 (BP3) knockout, and a triply deficient LID/ALSKO/BP3 line—produced several novel findings. 1) All deficient strains had decreased serum IGF-1 levels, but this neither predicted growth potential or skeletal integrity nor defined growth hormone secretion or metabolic abnormalities. 2) IGF-1 deficiency affected development of both cortical and trabecular bone differently, effects apparently dependent on the presence of different circulating IGF-1 complexes. 3) IGFBP-3 deficiency resulted in increased linear growth. In summary, each IGF-1 complex constituent appears to play a distinct role in determining skeletal phenotype, with different effects on cortical and trabecular bone compartments.—Yakar, S., Rosen, C. J., Bouxsein, M. L., Sun, H., Mejia, W., Kawashima, Y., Wu, Y., Emerton, K., Williams, V., Jepsen, K., Schaffler, M. B., Majeska, R. J., Gavrilova, O., Gutierrez, M., Hwang, D., Pennisi, P., Frystyk, J., Boisclair, Y., Pintar, J., Jasper, H., Domene, H., Cohen, P., Clemmons, D., LeRoith, D. Serum complexes of insulin-like growth factor-1 modulate skeletal integrity and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:18952711

  16. Selective and Efficient Elimination of Vibrio cholerae with a Chemical Modulator that Targets Glucose Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Kim, Hwa Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Go, Junhyeok; Hwang, Wontae; Kim, Hyoung Rae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of pandemic cholera. Previous studies have shown that the survival of the seventh pandemic El Tor biotype V. cholerae strain N16961 requires production of acetoin in a glucose-rich environment. The production of acetoin, a neutral fermentation end-product, allows V. cholerae to metabolize glucose without a pH drop, which is mediated by the production of organic acid. This finding suggests that inhibition of acetoin fermentation can result in V. cholerae elimination by causing a pH imbalance under glucose-rich conditions. Here, we developed a simple high-throughput screening method and identified an inducer of medium acidification (iMAC). Of 8364 compounds screened, we identified one chemical, 5-(4-chloro-2-nitrobenzoyl)-6-hydroxy-1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, that successfully killed glucose-metabolizing N16961 by inducing acidic stress. When N16961 was grown with abundant glucose in the presence of iMAC, acetoin production was completely suppressed and concomitant accumulation of lactate and acetate was observed. Using a beta-galactosidase activity assay with a single-copy palsD::lacZ reporter fusion, we show that that iMAC likely inhibits acetoin production at the transcriptional level. Thin-layer chromatography revealed that iMAC causes a significantly reduced accumulation of intracellular (p)ppGpp, a bacterial stringent response alarmone known to positively regulate acetoin production. In vivo bacterial colonization and fluid accumulation were also markedly decreased after iMAC treatment. Finally, we demonstrate iMAC-induced bacterial killing for 22 different V. cholerae strains belonging to diverse serotypes. Together, our results suggest that iMAC, acting as a metabolic modulator, has strong potential as a novel antibacterial agent for treatment against cholera.

  17. Siderophore Biosynthesis Governs the Virulence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli by Coordinately Modulating the Differential Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiao; Guan, Tianbing; He, Yan; Lv, Haitao

    2016-04-01

    Urinary tract infections impose substantial health burdens on women worldwide. Urinary tract infections often incur a high risk of recurrence and antibiotic resistance, and uropathogenic E. coli accounts for approximately 80% of clinically acquired cases. The diagnosis of, treatment of, and drug development for urinary tract infections remain substantial challenges due to the complex pathogenesis of this condition. The clinically isolated UPEC 83972 strain was found to produce four siderophores: yersiniabactin, aerobactin, salmochelin, and enterobactin. The biosyntheses of some of these siderophores implies that the virulence of UPEC is mediated via the targeting of primary metabolism. However, the differential modulatory roles of siderophore biosyntheses on the differential metabolomes of UPEC and non-UPEC strains remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate how the differential metabolomes can be used to distinguish UPEC from non-UPEC strains and to determine the associated regulatory roles of siderophore biosynthesis. Our results are the first to demonstrate that the identified differential metabolomes strongly differentiated UPEC from non-UPEC strains. Furthermore, we performed metabolome assays of mutants with different patterns of siderophore deletions; the data revealed that the mutations of all four siderophores exerted a stronger modulatory role on the differential metabolomes of the UPEC and non-UPEC strains relative to the mutation of any single siderophore and that this modulatory role primarily involved amino acid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation in the carbon fixation pathway, and purine and pyrimidine metabolism. Surprisingly, the modulatory roles were strongly dependent on the type and number of mutated siderophores. Taken together, these results demonstrated that siderophore biosynthesis coordinately modulated the differential metabolomes and thus may indicate novel targets for virulence-based diagnosis

  18. Modulation of thiamine metabolism in Zea mays seedlings under conditions of abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Rapala-Kozik, Maria; Kowalska, Ewa; Ostrowska, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    The responses of plants to abiotic stress involve the up-regulation of numerous metabolic pathways, including several major routes that engage thiamine diphosphate (TDP)-dependent enzymes. This suggests that the metabolism of thiamine (vitamin B1) and its phosphate esters in plants may be modulated under various stress conditions. In the present study, Zea mays seedlings were used as a model system to analyse for any relation between the plant response to abiotic stress and the properties of thiamine biosynthesis and activation. Conditions of drought, high salt, and oxidative stress were induced by polyethylene glycol, sodium chloride, and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The expected increases in the abscisic acid levels and in the activities of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were found under each stress condition. The total thiamine compound content in the maize seedling leaves increased under each stress condition applied, with the strongest effects on these levels observed under the oxidative stress treatment. This increase was also found to be associated with changes in the relative distribution of free thiamine, thiamine monophosphate (TMP), and TDP. Surprisingly, the activity of the thiamine synthesizing enzyme, TMP synthase, responded poorly to abiotic stress, in contrast to the significant enhancement found for the activities of the TDP synthesizing enzyme, thiamine pyrophosphokinase, and a number of the TDP/TMP phosphatases. Finally, a moderate increase in the activity of transketolase, one of the major TDP-dependent enzymes, was detectable under conditions of salt and oxidative stress. These findings suggest a role of thiamine metabolism in the plant response to environmental stress.

  19. Resveratrol Modulates Drug and Carcinogen Metabolizing Enzymes in a Healthy Volunteer Study

    PubMed Central

    Chow, H-H. Sherry; Garland, Linda; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Vining, Donna R.; Chew, Wade M.; Miller, Jessica A.; Perloff, Marjorie; Crowell, James A.; Alberts, David

    2010-01-01

    Resveratrol has been shown to exhibit cancer preventive activities in preclinical studies. We conducted a clinical study to determine the effect of pharmacological doses of resveratrol on drug and carcinogen metabolizing enzymes. Forty-two healthy volunteers underwent baseline assessment of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and Phase II detoxification enzymes. CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2C9, and 3A4 enzyme activities were measured by the metabolism of caffeine, dextromethorphan, losartan, and buspirone, respectively. Blood lymphocyte glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and GST-π level and serum total and direct bilirubin, a surrogate for UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 1A1 activity, were measured to assess Phase II enzymes. After the baseline evaluation, study participants took 1 gm of resveratrol once daily for 4 wks. Enzyme assessment was repeated upon intervention completion. Resveratrol intervention was found to inhibit the phenotypic indices of CYP3A4, 2D6, and 2C9, and to induce the phenotypic index of 1A2. Overall, GST and UGT1A1 activities were minimally affected by the intervention, although an induction of GST-π level and UGT1A1 activity was observed in individuals with low baseline enzyme level/activity. We conclude that resveratrol can modulate enzyme systems involved in carcinogen activation and detoxification, which may be one mechanism by which resveratrol inhibits carcinogenesis. However, pharmacological doses of resveratrol could potentially lead to increased adverse drug reactions or altered drug efficacy due to inhibition or induction of certain CYPs. Further clinical development of resveratrol for cancer prevention should consider evaluation of lower doses of resveratrol to minimize adverse metabolic drug interactions. PMID:20716633

  20. Genistein reduced insulin resistance index through modulating lipid metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Joo Sun; Koh, In-Uk; Song, Jihyun

    2012-11-01

    Postmenopausal women are at higher risk for obesity and insulin resistance due to the decline of estrogen, but genistein, a phytoestrogen, may reduce the risks of these diet-related diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that supplemental genistein has beneficial effects on insulin resistance in an ovariectomized rat model by modulating lipid metabolism. Three weeks after a sham surgery (sham) or an ovariectomy (OVX), ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a diet containing 0 (OVX group) or 0.1% genistein for 4 weeks. The sham rats were fed a high-fat diet containing 0% genistein and served as the control group (sham group). The ovariectomized rats showed increases in body weight and insulin resistance index, but genistein reduced insulin resistance index and the activity of hepatic fatty acid synthetase. Genistein was also associated with increased activity of succinate dehydrogenase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase and the rate of β-oxidation in the fat tissue of rats. The ovariectomized rats given genistein had smaller-sized adipocytes. Using gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of microarray data, we found that a number of gene sets of fatty acid metabolism, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress were differentially expressed by OVX and reversed by genistein. This systemic approach of GSEA enables the identification of such consensus between the gene expression changes and phenotypic changes caused by OVX and genistein supplementation. Genistein treatment could help reduce insulin resistance through the amelioration of OVX-induced metabolic dysfunction, and the GSEA approach may be useful in proposing putative targets related to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Selective and Efficient Elimination of Vibrio cholerae with a Chemical Modulator that Targets Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young Taek; Kim, Hwa Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Go, Junhyeok; Hwang, Wontae; Kim, Hyoung Rae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of pandemic cholera. Previous studies have shown that the survival of the seventh pandemic El Tor biotype V. cholerae strain N16961 requires production of acetoin in a glucose-rich environment. The production of acetoin, a neutral fermentation end-product, allows V. cholerae to metabolize glucose without a pH drop, which is mediated by the production of organic acid. This finding suggests that inhibition of acetoin fermentation can result in V. cholerae elimination by causing a pH imbalance under glucose-rich conditions. Here, we developed a simple high-throughput screening method and identified an inducer of medium acidification (iMAC). Of 8364 compounds screened, we identified one chemical, 5-(4-chloro-2-nitrobenzoyl)-6-hydroxy-1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, that successfully killed glucose-metabolizing N16961 by inducing acidic stress. When N16961 was grown with abundant glucose in the presence of iMAC, acetoin production was completely suppressed and concomitant accumulation of lactate and acetate was observed. Using a beta-galactosidase activity assay with a single-copy palsD::lacZ reporter fusion, we show that that iMAC likely inhibits acetoin production at the transcriptional level. Thin-layer chromatography revealed that iMAC causes a significantly reduced accumulation of intracellular (p)ppGpp, a bacterial stringent response alarmone known to positively regulate acetoin production. In vivo bacterial colonization and fluid accumulation were also markedly decreased after iMAC treatment. Finally, we demonstrate iMAC-induced bacterial killing for 22 different V. cholerae strains belonging to diverse serotypes. Together, our results suggest that iMAC, acting as a metabolic modulator, has strong potential as a novel antibacterial agent for treatment against cholera. PMID:27900286

  2. Postconditioning attenuates coronary perivascular and interstitial fibrosis through modulating angiotensin II receptors and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhang-Feng; Wang, Ning-Ping; Harmouche, Suzanna; Philip, Tiji; Pang, Xue-Fen; Bai, Feng; Zhao, Zhi-Qing

    2017-05-01

    Postconditioning (Postcon) is known to reduce infarct size. This study tested the hypothesis that Postcon attenuates the perivascular and interstitial fibrosis after myocardial infarction through modulating angiotensin II-activated fibrotic cascade. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 45-min coronary occlusion followed by 1 and 6 wk of reperfusion. Postcon was applied at the onset of reperfusion with four cycles of 10/10-s reperfusion-ischemia at the onset of reperfusion. Preconditioning (Precon) with two cycles of 5/5-min ischemia-reperfusion was applied before coronary occlusion. Postcon reduced angiotensin-converting enzyme protein and expression in the perivascular area and intermyocardium, coincident with the less-expressed angiotensin II receptor, type 1, enhanced angiotensin II receptor, type 2, and angiotensin converting enzyme 2. Postcon lowered the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and inhibited the populations of interstitial macrophages (60 ± 12 versus 84 ± 9.5 number per high-powered field [HPF] in control, P < 0.05). Along with these modulations, Postcon also downregulated transforming growth factor β1 protein and inhibited proliferation of α-smooth muscle actin expressing myofibroblasts (41 ± 11 versus 79 ± 8.2 number per HPF in control, P < 0.05), consistent with downregulated phospho-Smad2 and phospho-Smad3. Furthermore, the synthesis of collagen I and III was attenuated, and the perivascular-interstitial fibrosis was inhibited by Postcon as demonstrated by reduced perivascular fibrosis ratio (0.6 ± 0.6 versus 1.6 ± 0.5 per HPF in control, P < 0.05) and smaller collagen-rich area (16 ± 4.7 versus 34 ± 9.2% per HPF in control, P < 0.05). Precon conferred a comparable level of protection as Postcon did in all parameters measured, suggesting protection trigged by this endogenous stimulation can be achieved when it was applied either before ischemia or after reperfusion. These results suggest that Postcon

  3. MAPKAPK-2 modulates p38-MAPK localization and small heat shock protein phosphorylation but does not mediate the injury associated with p38-MAPK activation during myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gorog, Diana A.; Jabr, Rita I; Tanno, Masaya; Sarafraz, Negin; Clark, James E.; Fisher, Simon G.; Cao, Xou Bin; Bellahcene, Mohamed; Dighe, Kushal; Kabir, Alamgir M. N.; Quinlan, Roy A.; Kato, Kanefusa; Gaestel, Matthias; Marber, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    MAPKAPK-2 (MK2) is a protein kinase activated downstream of p38-MAPK which phosphorylates the small heat shock proteins HSP27 and αB crystallin and modulates p38-MAPK cellular distribution. p38-MAPK activation is thought to contribute to myocardial ischemic injury; therefore, we investigated MK2 effects on ischemic injury and p38 cellular localization using MK2-deficient mice (KO). Immunoblotting of extracts from Langendorff-perfused hearts subjected to aerobic perfusion or global ischemia or reperfusion showed that the total and phosphorylated p38 levels were significantly lower in MK2−/− compared to MK2+/+ hearts at baseline, but the ratio of phosphorylated/total p38 was similar. These results were confirmed by cellular fractionation and immunoblotting for both cytosolic and nuclear compartments. Furthermore, HSP27 and αB crsytallin phosphorylation were reduced to baseline in MK2−/− hearts. On semiquantitative immunofluorescence laser confocal microscopy of hearts during aerobic perfusion, the mean total p38 fluorescence was significantly higher in the nuclear compared to extranuclear (cytoplasmic, sarcomeric, and sarcolemmal compartments) in MK2+/+ hearts. However, although the increase in phosphorylated p38 fluorescence intensity in all compartments following ischemia in MK2+/+ hearts was lost in MK2−/− hearts, it was basally elevated in nuclei of MK2−/− hearts and was similar to that seen during ischemia in MK2+/+ hearts. Despite these differences, similar infarct volumes were recorded in wild-type MK2+/+ and MK2−/− hearts, which were decreased by the p38 inhibitor SB203580 (1 μM) in both genotypes. In conclusion, p38 MAPK-induced myocardial ischemic injury is not modulated by MK2. However, the absence of MK2 perturbs the cellular distribution of p38. The preserved nuclear distribution of active p38 MAPK in MK2−/− hearts and the conserved response to SB203580 suggests that activation of p38 MAPK may contribute to injury

  4. GLYCOENGINEERING OF ESTERASE ACTIVITY THROUGH METABOLIC FLUX-BASED MODULATION OF SIALIC ACID.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Mohit; Tan, Elaine; Labonte, Jason W; Shah, Shivam; Saeui, Christopher T; Liu, Lingshu; Bhattacharya, Rahul; Bovonratwet, Patawut; Gray, Jeffrey J; Yarema, Kevin

    2017-02-20

    This report describes the metabolic glycoengineering (MGE) of intracellular esterase activity in human colon cancer (LS174T) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In silico analysis of the carboxylesterases CES1 and CES2 suggested that these enzymes are modified with sialylated N-glycans, which are proposed to stabilize the active multimeric forms of these enzymes. This premise was supported by treating cells with butanolylated ManNAc to increase sialylation, which in turn increased esterase activity. By contrast, hexosamine analogs not targeted to sialic acid biosynthesis (e.g., butanoylated GlcNAc or GalNAc) had minimal impact. Measurement of mRNA and protein confirmed that esterase activity was controlled through glycosylation and not through transcription or translation. Azide-modified ManNAc analogs widely used in MGE also enhanced esterase activity and provided a way to enrich targeted "glycoengineered" proteins (such as CES2), thereby providing unambiguous evidence that the compounds were converted to sialosides and installed into the glycan structures of esterases as intended. Overall, this study provides a pioneering example of the modulation of intracellular enzyme activity through MGE, which expands the value of this technology from its current status as a labeling strategy and modulator of cell surface biological events.

  5. Comparative studies of high performance swimming in sharks II. Metabolic biochemistry of locomotor and myocardial muscle in endothermic and ectothermic sharks.

    PubMed

    Bernal, D; Smith, D; Lopez, G; Weitz, D; Grimminger, T; Dickson, K; Graham, J B

    2003-08-01

    Metabolic enzyme activities in red (RM) and white (WM) myotomal muscle and in the heart ventricle (HV) were compared in two lamnid sharks (shortfin mako and salmon shark), the common thresher shark and several other actively swimming shark species. The metabolic enzymes measured were citrate synthase (CS), an index of aerobic capacity, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), an index of anaerobic capacity. WM creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity, an index of rapid ATP production during burst swimming, was also quantified. Enzyme activities in RM, WM and HV were similar in the two lamnid species. Interspecific comparisons of enzyme activities at a common reference temperature (20 degrees C) show no significant differences in RM CS activity but higher CS activity in the WM and HV of the lamnid sharks compared with the other species. For the other enzymes, activities in lamnids overlapped with those of other shark species. Comparison of the HV spongy and compact myocardial layers in mako, salmon and thresher sharks reveals a significantly greater spongy CS activity in all three species but no differences in LDH activity. Adjustment of enzyme activities to in vivo RM and WM temperatures in the endothermic lamnids elevates CS and LDH in both tissues relative to the ectothermic sharks. Thus, through its enhancement of both RM and WM enzyme activity, endothermy may be an important determinant of energy supply for sustained and burst swimming in the lamnids. Although lamnid WM is differentially warmed as a result of RM endothermy, regional differences in WM CS and LDH activities and thermal sensitivities (Q(10) values) were not found. The general pattern of the endothermic myotomal and ectothermic HV muscle metabolic enzyme activities in the endothermic lamnids relative to other active, ectothermic sharks parallels the general pattern demonstrated for the endothermic tunas relative to their ectothermic sister species. However, the activities of all enzymes measured are lower in

  6. Prevalence, detection, and management of the metabolic syndrome in patients with acute myocardial infarction: role of an obesity-centric definition.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sandhir B; Fahrtash, Farzan; Malaiapan, Yuvaraj; Meredith, Ian T; Cameron, James

    2010-07-27

    Background. We sought to determine and compare the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) utilizing the new International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition with the older National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) definition. We also examined the clinical utility of MS in this context. Methods. A total of 107 consecutive patients with AMI were prospectively evaluated for MS. Fasting lipids obtained at admission and fasting glucose at discharge were used. A postdischarge folder audit verified rates of discharge coding and implementation of specific management strategies for MS. Results. Baseline patient characteristics included: mean age 59 +/- 13 years; males 80%; diabetes 19%; mean BMI 29.7 +/- 8.4 kg/m(2). MS prevalence was 54% by the IDF definition and 49% by the NCEP definition, with good agreement between definitions: kappa = 0.664, P < .001. Factors predictive of MS after multivariate analysis included: hypertension, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and serum HDL (all P < .05). Despite the high prevalence, MS was recognized at discharge in only 1 patient, and referral for exercise and/or weight-loss programs was undertaken in 5 patients. Conclusion. There is a high prevalence of MS utilizing contemporary definitions in patients with AMI: 54% by the IDF definition and 49% by NCEP criteria. Despite the high prevalence, MS was under-recognized and under-treated in this population.

  7. Assessment of myocardial metabolic rate of glucose by means of Bayesian ICA and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods in small animal PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berradja, Khadidja; Boughanmi, Nabil

    2016-09-01

    In dynamic cardiac PET FDG studies the assessment of myocardial metabolic rate of glucose (MMRG) requires the knowledge of the blood input function (IF). IF can be obtained by manual or automatic blood sampling and cross calibrated with PET. These procedures are cumbersome, invasive and generate uncertainties. The IF is contaminated by spillover of radioactivity from the adjacent myocardium and this could cause important error in the estimated MMRG. In this study, we show that the IF can be extracted from the images in a rat heart study with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) by means of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) based on Bayesian theory and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling method (BICA). Images of the heart from rats were acquired with the Sherbrooke small animal PET scanner. A region of interest (ROI) was drawn around the rat image and decomposed into blood and tissue using BICA. The Statistical study showed that there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) between MMRG obtained with IF extracted by BICA with respect to IF extracted from measured images corrupted with spillover.

  8. Modulating fatty acid oxidation in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Vincenzo; Stanley, William C.; Recchia, Fabio A.

    2011-01-01

    In the advanced stages of heart failure, many key enzymes involved in myocardial energy substrate metabolism display various degrees of down-regulation. The net effect of the altered metabolic phenotype consists of reduced cardiac fatty oxidation, increased glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and rigidity of the metabolic response to changes in workload. Is this metabolic shift an adaptive mechanism that protects the heart or a maladaptive process that accelerates structural and functional derangement? The question remains open; however, the metabolic remodelling of the failing heart has induced a number of investigators to test the hypothesis that pharmacological modulation of myocardial substrate utilization might prove therapeutically advantageous. The present review addresses the effects of indirect and direct modulators of fatty acid (FA) oxidation, which are the best pharmacological agents available to date for ‘metabolic therapy’ of failing hearts. Evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic strategies based on modulators of FA metabolism is mixed, pointing to the possibility that the molecular/biochemical alterations induced by these pharmacological agents are more complex than originally thought. Much remains to be understood; however, the beneficial effects of molecules such as perhexiline and trimetazidine in small clinical trials indicate that this promising therapeutic strategy is worthy of further pursuit. PMID:21289012

  9. Modulating fatty acid oxidation in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lionetti, Vincenzo; Stanley, William C; Recchia, Fabio A

    2011-05-01

    In the advanced stages of heart failure, many key enzymes involved in myocardial energy substrate metabolism display various degrees of down-regulation. The net effect of the altered metabolic phenotype consists of reduced cardiac fatty oxidation, increased glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and rigidity of the metabolic response to changes in workload. Is this metabolic shift an adaptive mechanism that protects the heart or a maladaptive process that accelerates structural and functional derangement? The question remains open; however, the metabolic remodelling of the failing heart has induced a number of investigators to test the hypothesis that pharmacological modulation of myocardial substrate utilization might prove therapeutically advantageous. The present review addresses the effects of indirect and direct modulators of fatty acid (FA) oxidation, which are the best pharmacological agents available to date for 'metabolic therapy' of failing hearts. Evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic strategies based on modulators of FA metabolism is mixed, pointing to the possibility that the molecular/biochemical alterations induced by these pharmacological agents are more complex than originally thought. Much remains to be understood; however, the beneficial effects of molecules such as perhexiline and trimetazidine in small clinical trials indicate that this promising therapeutic strategy is worthy of further pursuit.

  10. Parasitic nematode-induced modulation of body weight and associated metabolic dysfunction in mouse models of obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is associated with a chronic low grade inflammation characterized by high level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators implicated in disrupted metabolic homeostasis. Parasitic nematode infection induces a polarized Th2 cytokine response and has been shown to modulate immune-based pathol...

  11. Aging dysregulates D- and E-series resolvins to modulate cardiosplenic and cardiorenal network following myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Halade, Ganesh V.; Kain, Vasundhara; Black, Laurence M.; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Ingle, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Post-myocardial infarction (MI), overactive inflammation is the hallmark of aging, however, the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that excess influx of omega 6 fatty acids may impair resolution, thus impacting the cardiosplenic and cardiorenal network post-MI. Young and aging mice were fed on standard lab chow (LC) and excess fatty acid (safflower oil; SO)-enriched diet for 2 months and were then subjected to MI surgery. Despite similar infarct areas and left ventricle (LV) dysfunction post-MI, splenic mass spectrometry data revealed higher levels of arachidonic acid (AA) derived pro-inflammatory metabolites in young-SO, but minimal formation of docosanoids, D- and E- series resolvins in SO-fed aged mice. The aged mice receiving excess intake of fatty acids exhibit; 1) decreased lipoxygenases (5-,12-, and 15) in the infarcted LV; 2) lower levels of 14HDHA, RvD1, RvD5, protectin D1, 7(S)maresin1, 8-,11-,18-HEPE and RvE3 with high levels of tetranor-12-HETEs; 3) dual population of macrophages (CD11blow/F480high and CD11bhigh/F480high) with increased pro-inflammatory (CD11b+F4/80+Ly6Chi) phenotype and; 4) increased kidney injury marker NGAL with increased expression of TNF-ɑ and IL-1β indicating MI-induced non-resolving response compared with LC-group. Thus, excess fatty acid intake magnifies the post-MI chemokine signaling and inflames the cardiosplenic and cardiorenal network towards a non-resolving microenvironment in aging. PMID:27777380

  12. Doxorubicin Induces Inflammatory Modulation and Metabolic Dysregulation in Diabetic Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Supriya, Rashmi; Tam, Bjorn T.; Pei, Xiao M.; Lai, Christopher W.; Chan, Lawrence W.; Yung, Benjamin Y.; Siu, Parco M.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-cancer agent doxorubicin (DOX) has been demonstrated to worsen insulin signaling, engender muscle atrophy, trigger pro-inflammation, and induce a shift to anaerobic glycolytic metabolism in skeletal muscle. The myotoxicity of DOX in diabetic skeletal muscle remains largely unclear. This study examined the effects of DOX on insulin signaling, muscle atrophy, pro-/anti-inflammatory microenvironment, and glycolysis metabolic regulation in skeletal muscle of db/db diabetic and db/+ non-diabetic mice. Non-diabetic db/+ mice and diabetic db/db mice were randomly assigned to the following groups: db/+CON, db/+DOX, db/dbCON, and db/dbDOX. Mice in db/+DOX and db/dbDOX groups were intraperitoneally injected with DOX at a dose of 15 mg per kg body weight whereas mice in db/+CON and db/dbCON groups were injected with the same volume of saline instead of DOX. Gastrocnemius was immediately harvested, weighed, washed with cold phosphate buffered saline, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −80°C for later analysis. The effects of DOX on diabetic muscle were neither seen in insulin signaling markers (Glut4, pIRS1Ser636∕639, and pAktSer473) nor muscle atrophy markers (muscle mass, MuRF1 and MAFbx). However, DOX exposure resulted in enhancement of pro-inflammatory favoring microenvironment (as indicated by TNF-α, HIFα and pNFκBp65) accompanied by diminution of anti-inflammatory favoring microenvironment (as indicated by IL15, PGC1α and pAMPKβ1Ser108). Metabolism of diabetic muscle was shifted to anaerobic glycolysis after DOX exposure as demonstrated by our analyses of PDK4, LDH and pACCSer79. Our results demonstrated that there might be a link between inflammatory modulation and the dysregulation of aerobic glycolytic metabolism in DOX-injured diabetic skeletal muscle. These findings help to understand the pathogenesis of DOX-induced myotoxicity in diabetic muscle. PMID:27512375

  13. Enhanced inotropic state of the failing left ventricle by cardiac contractility modulation electrical signals is not associated with increased myocardial oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Butter, Christian; Wellnhofer, Ernst; Schlegl, Michael; Winbeck, Georgia; Fleck, Eckart; Sabbah, Hani N

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies in patients and in dogs with experimentally induced heart failure (HF) showed that electrical signals applied to the failing myocardium during the absolute refractory period improved left ventricular (LV) function. We examined the effects these same cardiac contractility modulating (CCM) electrical signals on myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO(2)) in both patients and dogs with chronic HF. Six dogs with microembolizations-induced HF and 9 HF patients underwent CCM leads and generator (OPTIMIZER II) implantation. After baseline measurements, CCM signals were delivered continuously for 2 hours in dogs and for 30 minutes in patients. MVO(2) was measured before and after CCM therapy. In dogs, CCM therapy increased LV ejection fraction at 2 hours (26 +/- 1 versus 31 +/- 2 %, P = .001) without increasing MVO(2) (257 +/- 41 versus 180 +/- 34 micromol/min). In patients, CCM therapy increased LV peak +dP/dt by 10.1 +/- 1.5 %. As with dogs, the increase in LV function after 30 minutes of CCM therapy was not associated with increased MVO(2) (13.6 +/- 9.7 versus 12.5 +/- 7.2 mL O(2)/min). The study results suggest that unlike cAMP-dependent positive inotropic drugs, the increase in LV function during CCM therapy is elicited without increasing MVO(2).

  14. The low density lipoprotein receptor modulates the effects of hypogonadism on diet-induced obesity and related metabolic perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Constantinou, Caterina; Mpatsoulis, Diogenis; Natsos, Anastasios; Petropoulou, Peristera-Ioanna; Zvintzou, Evangelia; Traish, Abdulmaged M.; Voshol, Peter J.; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Kypreos, Kyriakos E.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we investigated how LDL receptor deficiency (Ldlr−/−) modulates the effects of testosterone on obesity and related metabolic dysfunctions. Though sham-operated Ldlr−/− mice fed Western-type diet for 12 weeks became obese and showed disturbed plasma glucose metabolism and plasma cholesterol and TG profiles, castrated mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity and had improved glucose metabolism and reduced plasma TG levels, despite a further deterioration in their plasma cholesterol profile. The effect of hypogonadism on diet-induced weight gain of Ldlr−/− mice was independent of ApoE and Lrp1. Indirect calorimetry analysis indicated that hypogonadism in Ldlr−/− mice was associated with increased metabolic rate. Indeed, mitochondrial cytochrome c and uncoupling protein 1 expression were elevated, primarily in white adipose tissue, confirming increased mitochondrial metabolic activity due to thermogenesis. Testosterone replacement in castrated Ldlr−/− mice for a period of 8 weeks promoted diet-induced obesity, indicating a direct role of testosterone in the observed phenotype. Treatment of sham-operated Ldlr−/− mice with the aromatase inhibitor exemestane for 8 weeks showed that the obesity of castrated Ldlr−/− mice is independent of estrogens. Overall, our data reveal a novel role of Ldlr as functional modulator of metabolic alterations associated with hypogonadism. PMID:24837748

  15. Docosahexaenoic acid modulates the enterocyte Caco-2 cell expression of microRNAs involved in lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gil-Zamorano, Judit; Martin, Roberto; Daimiel, Lidia; Richardson, Kris; Giordano, Elena; Nicod, Nathalie; García-Carrasco, Belén; Soares, Sara M A; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Lasunción, Miguel A; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Ros, Emilio; Ordovás, Jose M; Visioli, Francesco; Dávalos, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Consumption of the long-chain ω-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and greater chemoprevention. However, the mechanisms underlying the biologic effects of DHA remain unknown. It is well known that microRNAs (miRNAs) are versatile regulators of gene expression. Therefore, we aimed to determine if the beneficial effects of DHA may be modulated in part through miRNAs. Loss of dicer 1 ribonuclease type III (DICER) in enterocyte Caco-2 cells supplemented with DHA suggested that several lipid metabolism genes are modulated by miRNAs. Analysis of miRNAs predicted to target these genes revealed several miRNA candidates that are differentially modulated by fatty acids. Among the miRNAs modulated by DHA were miR-192 and miR-30c. Overexpression of either miR-192 or miR-30c in enterocyte and hepatocyte cells suggested an effect on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, some of which were confirmed by endogenous inhibition of these miRNAs. Our results show in enterocytes that DHA exerts its biologic effect in part by regulating genes involved in lipid metabolism and cancer. Moreover, this response is mediated through miRNA activity. We validate novel targets of miR-30c and miR-192 related to lipid metabolism and cancer including nuclear receptor corepressor 2, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, DICER, caveolin 1, ATP-binding cassette subfamily G (white) member 4, retinoic acid receptor β, and others. We also present evidence that in enterocytes DHA modulates the expression of regulatory factor X6 through these miRNAs. Alteration of miRNA levels by dietary components in support of their pharmacologic modulation might be valuable in adjunct therapy for dyslipidemia and other related diseases.

  16. Cardiac vagal modulation of heart rate during prolonged submaximal exercise in animals with healed myocardial infarctions: effects of training.

    PubMed

    Kukielka, Monica; Seals, Douglas R; Billman, George E

    2006-04-01

    The present study investigated the effects of long-duration exercise on heart rate variability [as a marker of cardiac vagal tone (VT)]. Heart rate variability (time series analysis) was measured in mongrel dogs (n = 24) with healed myocardial infarctions during 1 h of submaximal exercise (treadmill running at 6.4 km/h at 10% grade). Long-duration exercise provoked a significant (ANOVA, all P < 0.01, means +/- SD) increase in heart rate (1st min, 165.3 +/- 15.6 vs. last min, 197.5 +/- 21.5 beats/min) and significant reductions in high frequency (0.24 to 1.04 Hz) power (VT: 1st min, 3.7 +/- 1.5 vs. last min, 1.0 +/- 0.9 ln ms(2)), R-R interval range (1st min, 107.9 +/- 38.3 vs. last min, 28.8 +/- 13.2 ms), and R-R interval SD (1st min, 24.3 +/- 7.7 vs. last min 6.3 +/- 1.7 ms). Because endurance exercise training can increase cardiac vagal regulation, the studies were repeated after either a 10-wk exercise training (n = 9) or a 10-wk sedentary period (n = 7). After training was completed, long-duration exercise elicited smaller increases in heart rate (pretraining: 1st min, 156.0 +/- 13.8 vs. last min, 189.6 +/- 21.9 beats/min; and posttraining: 1st min, 149.8 +/- 14.6 vs. last min, 172.7 +/- 8.8 beats/min) and smaller reductions in heart rate variability (e.g., VT, pretraining: 1st min, 4.2 +/- 1.7 vs. last min, 0.9 +/- 1.1 ln ms(2); and posttraining: 1st min, 4.8 +/- 1.1 vs. last min, 2.0 +/- 0.6 ln ms(2)). The response to long-duration exercise did not change in the sedentary animals. Thus the heart rate increase that accompanies long-duration exercise results, at least in part, from reductions in cardiac vagal regulation. Furthermore, exercise training attenuated these exercise-induced reductions in heart rate variability, suggesting maintenance of a higher cardiac vagal activity during exercise in the trained state.

  17. PFKFB3 modulates glycolytic metabolism and alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress in human osteoarthritis cartilage.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jining; Lu, Daigang; Guo, Hua; Miao, Wusheng; Wu, Ge; Zhou, Meifen

    2016-03-01

    Glycolytic disorder has been demonstrated to be a major cause of osteoarthritis (OA) and chondrocyte dysfunction. The present work aimed to investigate the expression and role of the glycolytic regulator 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) in OA cartilage. It was found that PFKFB3 expression was down-regulated in human OA cartilage tissues and in tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α- or interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated human chondrocytes. The glycolytic metabolism appeared as glucose utilization and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, and lactate production was stunted in OA cartilage. However, the impaired glycolytic process in OA cartilage was improved by PFKFB3 overexpression, which was confirmed in TNF-α- or IL-1β-treated chondrocytes. Furthermore, the expressions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated genes including PERK, ATF3, IRE1, phosphorylated eIF2α (p-eIF2α) and MMP13 were enhanced in OA cartilage explants, while they were decreased by AdPFKFB3 transfection. PFKFB3 also modulated the expressions of PERK, ATF3, IRE1, p-eIF2α and MMP13 in tunicamycin-exposed chondrocytes. Additionally, PFKFB3 improved the cell viability of OA cartilage explants and chondrocytes through the PI3K/Akt/C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) signalling pathway. The transfection of AdPFKFB3 also significantly reduced caspase 3 activation and promoted aggrecan and type II collagen expressions in OA cartilage explants and chondrocytes. In all, this study characterizes a novel role of PFKFB3 in glycolytic metabolism and ER stress of OA cartilage explants and chondrocytes. The study might provide a potential target for OA prevention or therapy.

  18. Obesity-related metabolic disorders mitigated by peptides designed to modulate adiponectin assembly.

    PubMed

    Hampe, Lutz; Xu, Cheng; Harris, Paul W R; Chen, Jie; Ming, Liu; Middleditch, Martin; Radjainia, Mazdak; Wang, Yu; Mitra, Alok K

    2017-09-25

    Adiponectin, an adipokine possessing profound insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties, is a potent biotherapeutic. The trimeric adiponectin subunit assembles into hexameric and functionally important higher-molecular-weight (HMW) forms, tightly controlled by the endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERp44). Obesity-induced ER stress leads to a reduction of the HMW form in serum, contributing to the development of insulin resistance and type2 diabetes. In this study, a panel of designed peptides, targeting ERp44-adiponectin interactions were tested for their effects on the circulating level of HMW adiponectin. Peptides derived from the ERp44 binding region of adiponectin and immunoglobulin IgM were synthesized with or without a cell-penetrating sequence. Cultures of 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with the peptides for assessing the assembly and secretion of HMW adiponectin. Mice under standard chow or high fat diet were subjected to acute or chronic treatment with the peptides to investigate the therapeutic effects on insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism. The designed peptides interfered with ERp44-adiponectin interactions and modulated adiponectin assembly and release from adipocytes. In particular, IgM-derived peptides facilitated the release of endogenous adiponectin (especially the HMW form) from adipose tissue, enhanced its circulating level and the ratio of HMW-to-total-adiponectin in obese mice. Long-term treatment of mice fed with high fat diet by IgM-derived peptides reduced the circulating lipid levels and improved insulin sensitivity. Targeting ERp44-adiponectin interactions with short peptides represents an effective strategy for the treatment of obesity-related metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary protein modulates circadian changes in core body temperature and metabolic rate in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Ippei; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Miki, Takanori; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Takeuchi, Yoshiki

    2008-02-01

    We assessed the contribution of dietary protein to circadian changes in core body temperature (Tb) and metabolic rate in freely moving rats. Daily changes in rat intraperitoneal temperature, locomotor activity (LMA), whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured before and during 4 days of consuming a 20% protein diet (20% P), a protein-free diet (0% P), or a pair-fed 20% P diet (20% P-R). Changes in Tb did not significantly differ between the 20% P and 20% P-R groups throughout the study. The Tb in the 0% P group remained elevated during the dark (D) phase throughout the study, but VO2, VCO2, and LMA increased late in the study when compared with the 20% P-R group almost in accordance with elevated Tb. By contrast, during the light (L) phase in the 0% P group, Tb became elevated early in the study and thereafter declined with a tendency to accompany significantly lower VO2 and VCO2 when compared with the 20% P group, but not the 20% P-R group. The respiratory quotient (RQ) in the 0% P group declined throughout the D phase and during the early L phase. By contrast, RQ in the 20% P-R group consistently decreased from the late D phase to the end of the L phase. Our findings suggest that dietary protein contributes to the maintenance of daily oscillations in Tb with modulating metabolic rates during the D phase. However, the underlying mechanisms of Tb control during the L phase remain obscure.

  20. Modulation of fructokinase activity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) results in substantial shifts in tuber metabolism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Howard V; Shepherd, Louise V T; Burrell, Michael M; Carrari, Fernando; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Leisse, Andrea; Hancock, Robert D; Taylor, Mark; Viola, Roberto; Ross, Heather; McRae, Diane; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-07-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs Desiree and Record) transformed with sense and antisense constructs of a cDNA encoding the potato fructokinase StFK1 exhibited altered transcription of this gene, altered amount of protein and altered enzyme activities. Measurement of the maximal catalytic activity of fructokinase revealed a 2-fold variation in leaf (from 90 to 180% of wild type activity) and either a 10- or 30-fold variation in tuber (from 10 or 30% to 300% in Record and Desiree, respectively) activity. The comparative effect of the antisense construct in leaf and tuber tissue suggests that this isoform is only a minor contributor to the total fructokinase activity in the leaf but the predominant isoform in the tuber. Antisense inhibition of the fructokinase resulted in a reduced tuber yield; however, its overexpression had no impact on this parameter. The modulation of fructokinase activity had few, consistent effects on carbohydrate levels, with the exception of a general increase in glucose content in the antisense lines, suggesting that this enzyme is not important for the control of starch synthesis. However, when metabolic fluxes were estimated, it became apparent that the transgenic lines display a marked shift in metabolism, with the rate of redistribution of radiolabel to sucrose markedly affected by the activity of fructokinase. These data suggest an important role for fructokinase, acting in concert with sucrose synthase, in maintaining a balance between sucrose synthesis and degradation by a mechanism independent of that controlled by the hexose phosphate-mediated activation of sucrose phosphate synthase.

  1. Improvement of skeletal muscle performance in ageing by the metabolic modulator Trimetazidine

    PubMed Central

    Pin, Fabrizio; Gorini, Stefania; Pontecorvo, Laura; Ferri, Alberto; Mollace, Vincenzo; Costelli, Paola; Rosano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and the associated reduced muscle strength are key limiting factors for elderly people's quality of life. Improving muscle performance does not necessarily correlate with increasing muscle mass. In fact, particularly in the elderly, the main explanation for muscle weakness is a reduction of muscle quality rather than a loss of muscle mass, and the main goal to be achieved is to increase muscle strength. The effectiveness of Trimetazidine (TMZ) in preventing muscle functional impairment during ageing was assessed in our laboratory. Methods Aged mice received TMZ or vehicle for 12 consecutive days. Muscle function was evaluated at the end of the treatment by a grip test as well as by an inverted screen test at 0, 5, 7 and 12 days of TMZ treatment. After sacrifice, muscles were stored for myofiber cross‐sectional area assessment and myosin heavy chain expression evaluation by western blotting. Results Chronic TMZ treatment does not affect the mass of both gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles, while it significantly increases muscle strength. Indeed, both latency to fall and grip force are markedly enhanced in TMZ‐treated versus untreated mice. In addition, TMZ administration results in higher expression of slow myosin heavy chain isoform and increased number of small‐sized myofibers. Conclusions We report here some data showing that the modulation of skeletal muscle metabolism by TMZ increases muscle strength in aged mice. Reprogramming metabolism might therefore be a strategy worth to be further investigated in view of improving muscle performance in the elderly. PMID:27239426

  2. Inulin and oligofructose modulate lipid metabolism in animals: review of biochemical events and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Delzenne, N M; Daubioul, C; Neyrinck, A; Lasa, M; Taper, H S

    2002-05-01

    Inulin and oligofructose, besides their effect on the gastro-intestinal tract, are also able to exert 'systemic' effect, namely by modifying the hepatic metabolism of lipids in several animal models. Feeding male Wistar rats on a carbohydrate-rich diet containing 10 % inulin or oligofructose significantly lowers serum triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid concentrations. A lower hepatic lipogenesis, through a coordinate reduction of the activity and mRNA of lipogenic enzymes is a key event in the reduction of very low-density lipoprotein-TAG secretion by oligofructose. Oligofructose is also able to counteract triglyceride metabolism disorder occurring through dietary manipulation in animals, and sometimes independently on lipogenesis modulation: oligofructose reduces post-prandial triglyceridemia by 50 % and avoids the increase in serum free cholesterol level occurring in rats fed a Western-type high fat diet. Oligofructose protects rats against liver TAG accumulation (steatosis) induced by fructose, or occurring in obese Zucker fa/fa rats. The protective effect of dietary inulin and oligofructose on steatosis in animals, would be interesting, if confirmed in humans, since steatosis is one of the most frequent liver disorders, occurring together with the plurimetabolic syndrome, in overweight people. The panel of putative mediators of the systemic effects of inulin and oligofructose consists in either modifications in glucose/insulin homeostasis, the end-products of their colonic fermentation (i.e. propionate) reaching the liver by the portal vein, incretins and/or the availability of other nutrients. The identification of the key mediators of the systemic effects of inulin and oligofructose is the key to identify target function(s) (or dysfunction(s)), and finally individuals who would take an advantage of increasing their dietary intake.

  3. Seasonal modulation of free radical metabolism in estivating land snails Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Vasconcelos, Gabriella R; Cardoso, Luciano A; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2005-02-01

    We investigated the regulation of free radical metabolism in Helix aspersa snails during a cycle of 20-day estivation and 24-h arousal in summer in comparison with estivation/arousal in winter-snails. In winter-snails (J. Exp. Biol. 206, 675-685, 2003), we had already observed an increase in the selenium-dependent glutathione-peroxidase (Se-GPX) activity in foot muscle and hepatopancreas and in the contents of hepatopancreas GSH-equivalents (GSH-eq=GSH+2 GSSG) during estivation compared with 24-h aroused snails. Summer-estivation prompted a 3.6-fold increase in Se-GPX activity in hepatopancreas, though not in foot muscle. Total-superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in hepatopancreas decreased (by 30-40%) during summer-estivation; however, no changes occurred in the activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the two organs. GSH-eq levels were increased (by 54%) in foot muscle during estivation, but were unchanged in hepatopancreas. In contrast with winter-snails, oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, carbonyl protein, and the GSSG/GSH-eq ratio) were unaltered during estivation/arousal in summer. These results demonstrate that seasonality modulates not only the absolute activities/levels of antioxidants (enzymes and GSH-eq) in H. aspersa, but also the regulatory process that controls the snail's antioxidant capacity during estivation/arousal. These results suggest that H. aspersa has an "internal clock" controlling the regulation of free radical metabolism in the different seasons.

  4. Dengue Virus NS1 Protein Modulates Cellular Energy Metabolism by Increasing Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Allonso, Diego; Andrade, Iamara S.; Conde, Jonas N.; Coelho, Diego R.; Rocha, Daniele C. P.; da Silva, Manuela L.; Ventura, Gustavo T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue is one of the main public health concerns worldwide. Recent estimates indicate that over 390 million people are infected annually with the dengue virus (DENV), resulting in thousands of deaths. Among the DENV nonstructural proteins, the NS1 protein is the only one whose function during replication is still unknown. NS1 is a 46- to 55-kDa glycoprotein commonly found as both a membrane-associated homodimer and a soluble hexameric barrel-shaped lipoprotein. Despite its role in the pathogenic process, NS1 is essential for proper RNA accumulation and virus production. In the present study, we identified that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) interacts with intracellular NS1. Molecular docking revealed that this interaction occurs through the hydrophobic protrusion of NS1 and the hydrophobic residues located at the opposite side of the catalytic site. Moreover, addition of purified recombinant NS1 enhanced the glycolytic activity of GAPDH in vitro. Interestingly, we observed that DENV infection promoted the relocalization of GAPDH to the perinuclear region, where NS1 is commonly found. Both DENV infection and expression of NS1 itself resulted in increased GAPDH activity. Our findings indicate that the NS1 protein acts to increase glycolytic flux and, consequently, energy production, which is consistent with the recent finding that DENV induces and requires glycolysis for proper replication. This is the first report to propose that NS1 is an important modulator of cellular energy metabolism. The data presented here provide new insights that may be useful for further drug design and the development of alternative antiviral therapies against DENV. IMPORTANCE Dengue represents a serious public health problem worldwide and is caused by infection with dengue virus (DENV). Estimates indicate that half of the global population is at risk of infection, with almost 400 million cases occurring per year. The NS1 glycoprotein is found in both the

  5. Dengue Virus NS1 Protein Modulates Cellular Energy Metabolism by Increasing Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity.

    PubMed

    Allonso, Diego; Andrade, Iamara S; Conde, Jonas N; Coelho, Diego R; Rocha, Daniele C P; da Silva, Manuela L; Ventura, Gustavo T; Silva, Emiliana M; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo

    2015-12-01

    Dengue is one of the main public health concerns worldwide. Recent estimates indicate that over 390 million people are infected annually with the dengue virus (DENV), resulting in thousands of deaths. Among the DENV nonstructural proteins, the NS1 protein is the only one whose function during replication is still unknown. NS1 is a 46- to 55-kDa glycoprotein commonly found as both a membrane-associated homodimer and a soluble hexameric barrel-shaped lipoprotein. Despite its role in the pathogenic process, NS1 is essential for proper RNA accumulation and virus production. In the present study, we identified that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) interacts with intracellular NS1. Molecular docking revealed that this interaction occurs through the hydrophobic protrusion of NS1 and the hydrophobic residues located at the opposite side of the catalytic site. Moreover, addition of purified recombinant NS1 enhanced the glycolytic activity of GAPDH in vitro. Interestingly, we observed that DENV infection promoted the relocalization of GAPDH to the perinuclear region, where NS1 is commonly found. Both DENV infection and expression of NS1 itself resulted in increased GAPDH activity. Our findings indicate that the NS1 protein acts to increase glycolytic flux and, consequently, energy production, which is consistent with the recent finding that DENV induces and requires glycolysis for proper replication. This is the first report to propose that NS1 is an important modulator of cellular energy metabolism. The data presented here provide new insights that may be useful for further drug design and the development of alternative antiviral therapies against DENV. Dengue represents a serious public health problem worldwide and is caused by infection with dengue virus (DENV). Estimates indicate that half of the global population is at risk of infection, with almost 400 million cases occurring per year. The NS1 glycoprotein is found in both the intracellular and the

  6. New vistas for treatment of obesity and diabetes? Endocannabinoid signalling and metabolism in the modulation of energy balance.

    PubMed

    Lipina, Christopher; Rastedt, Wiebke; Irving, Andrew J; Hundal, Harinder S

    2012-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that pathological overactivation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is associated with dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Indeed, this signalling system acting through cannabinoid receptors has been shown to function both centrally and peripherally to regulate feeding behaviour as well as energy expenditure and metabolism. Consequently, modulation of these receptors can promote significant alterations in body weight and associated metabolic profile. Importantly, blocking cannabinoid receptor type 1 function has been found to prevent obesity and metabolic dysfunction in various murine models and in humans. Here we provide a detailed account of the known physiological role of the ECS in energy balance, and explore how recent studies have delivered novel insights into the potential targeting of this system as a therapeutic means for treating obesity and related metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Metabolomics Study of Resina Draconis on Myocardial Ischemia Rats Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Combined with Pattern Recognition Methods and Metabolic Pathway Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Haiwei; Song, Yunlong; Dong, Xin; Liu, Aijun; Lou, Ziyang; Fan, Guorong; Chai, Yifeng

    2013-01-01

    Resina draconis (bright red resin isolated from Dracaena cochinchinensis, RD) has been clinically used for treatment of myocardial ischemia (MI) for many years. However, the mechanisms of its pharmacological action on MI are still poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize the plasma metabolic profiles of MI and investigate the mechanisms of RD on MI using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics combined with pattern recognition methods and metabolic pathway analysis. Twenty metabolite markers characterizing metabolic profile of MI were revealed, which were mainly involved in aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis, vascular smooth muscle contraction, sphingolipid metabolism, and so forth. After RD treatment, however, levels of seven MI metabolite markers, including phytosphingosine, sphinganine, acetylcarnitine, cGMP, cAMP, L-tyrosine, and L-valine, were turned over, indicating that RD is likely to alleviate MI through regulating the disturbed vascular smooth muscle contraction, sphingolipid metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, and BCAA metabolism. To our best knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study to investigate the mechanisms of RD for treating MI, from a metabolomics point of view. Our findings are very valuable to gain a better understanding of MI metabolic profiles and provide novel insights for exploring the mechanisms of RD on MI. PMID:23762136

  8. Metabolomics Study of Resina Draconis on Myocardial Ischemia Rats Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Combined with Pattern Recognition Methods and Metabolic Pathway Analysis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yunpeng; Gu, Haiwei; Song, Yunlong; Dong, Xin; Liu, Aijun; Lou, Ziyang; Fan, Guorong; Chai, Yifeng

    2013-01-01

    Resina draconis (bright red resin isolated from Dracaena cochinchinensis, RD) has been clinically used for treatment of myocardial ischemia (MI) for many years. However, the mechanisms of its pharmacological action on MI are still poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize the plasma metabolic profiles of MI and investigate the mechanisms of RD on MI using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics combined with pattern recognition methods and metabolic pathway analysis. Twenty metabolite markers characterizing metabolic profile of MI were revealed, which were mainly involved in aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis, vascular smooth muscle contraction, sphingolipid metabolism, and so forth. After RD treatment, however, levels of seven MI metabolite markers, including phytosphingosine, sphinganine, acetylcarnitine, cGMP, cAMP, L-tyrosine, and L-valine, were turned over, indicating that RD is likely to alleviate MI through regulating the disturbed vascular smooth muscle contraction, sphingolipid metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, and BCAA metabolism. To our best knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study to investigate the mechanisms of RD for treating MI, from a metabolomics point of view. Our findings are very valuable to gain a better understanding of MI metabolic profiles and provide novel insights for exploring the mechanisms of RD on MI.