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Sample records for modulating antioxidant status

  1. Nigella sativa fixed and essential oil improves antioxidant status through modulation of antioxidant enzymes and immunity.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Karim, Roselina; Ahmad, Nisar; Ahmad, Rabia Shabbir; Ahmad, Waqas

    2015-03-01

    The onset of 21st century witnessed the awareness among the masses regarding the diet-health linkages. The researchers attempted to explore traditional products/plants were in the domain of pharmacy and nutrition focussing on their health benefits. In the present research intervention, we investigate the role of Nigella sativa fixed oil (NSFO) and essential oil (NSEO) in improving antioxidant status and modulation of enzymes. The National Institute of Health (NIH) provided us 30 Sprague Dawley rats that were equally placed in three groups. The groups were fed on their respective diets (56 days) two experimental diets i.e. D2 (NSFO @ 4.0%) and D3 (NSEO @ 0.30%) and control. The indices pertaining to antioxidant status, antioxidant enzymes, and parameters pertaining to immunity were evaluated at 4 weeks interval. The experimental diets (NSFO@ 4.0% & NSEO@ 0.30%) modulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes i.e., catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), positively. Indices of antioxidant status like tocopherols and glutathione were in linear relationship with that of GPx, GR and GST (P<0.01). Myeloperoxidase activities were in negative correlation with GST (P<0.01) but positive correlation with some other parameters. In the nutshell, the fixed and essential oil of Nigella sativa are effective in improving the indices pertaining to antioxidant status, however, the immune boosting potential needs further clarification. However, authors are of the view that there is need to explore the molecular targets of Nigella sativa fixed and essential oils. Findings from such studies would be useful to validate this instant study for health promoting potential against diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders.

  2. Perinatal hypothyroidism modulates antioxidant defence status in the developing rat liver and heart.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmei; Dong, Yan; Su, Qing

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant defence status in perinatal hypothyroid rat liver and heart. We found that the proteincarbonyl content did not differ significantly between the three groups both in the pup liver and in the heart. The OH˙ level was significantly decreased in the hypothyroid heart but not in the liver compared with controls. A slight but not significant decrease in SOD activity was observed in both perinatal hypothyroid liver and heart. A significantly increased activity of CAT was observed in the liver but not in the heart of hypothyroid pups. The GPx activity was considerably increased compared with controls in the perinatal hypothyroid heart and was unaltered in the liver of hypothyroid pups. We also found that vitamin E levels in the liver decreased significantly in hypothyroidism and were unaltered in the heart of perinatal hypothyroid rats. The GSH content was elevated significantly in both hypothyroid liver and heart. The total antioxidant capacity was higher in the liver of the hypothyroid group but not in the hypothyroid heart. Thyroxine replacement could not repair the above changes to normal. In conclusion, perinatal hypothyroidism modulates the oxidative stress status of the perinatal liver and heart.

  3. Effect of purple sweet potato leaf consumption on the modulation of the antioxidative status in basketball players during training.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Hsin; Chen, Chiao-Ming; Hu, Shene-Pin; Kan, Nai-Wen; Chiu, Chun-Chieh; Liu, Jen-Fang

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of purple sweet potato leaves (PSPLs) consumption on antioxidative status and its modulation of that status in basketball players during training period. Fifteen elite basketball players were enrolled in this study. The seven-week study consisted of a run-in (week 1), PSPLs diet (daily consumption of 200 g PSPLs) (weeks 2, 3), washout (weeks 4, 5), and control diet (low polyphenol, with the amount of carotenoids adjusted to the same level as that of PSPLs) (weeks 6, 7). Blood and urine samples were taken for biochemical analysis. Compared with the control group, the results showed that PSPLs consumption led to a significant increase of plasma polyphenol concentration and vitamin E and C levels. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) lag time was significantly longer in the PSPLs group. A significant decrease of urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was noted; however, there was no significant change in plasma glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant status (TAS) and malondialdehyde + 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal level after consuming the PSPLs diet. In conclusion, consumption of PSPLs diet for 2 weeks may reduce lipid and DNA oxidation that can modulate the antioxidative status of basketball players during training period.

  4. 6-Benzylaminopurine alleviates chilling injury of postharvest cucumber fruit through modulating antioxidant system and energy status.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingxia; Yang, Huqing

    2013-06-01

    6-Benzylaminopurine (6-BA) has a close relationship with the stress resistance of plants. Little research has been carried out on the effects of 6-BA on the cold resistance of postharvest fruits and vegetables. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of 6-BA on chilling injury (CI), antioxidant system and energy status in cucumber during storage. The results showed that 6-BA at 50 mmol L(-1) was most effective to restrain CI in cucumber fruit. Fruits treated with 50 mmol L(-1) 6-BA maintained higher levels of chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, this treatment reduced the increases in membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation, delayed the increases in both rate of O2•- production and H2O2 content and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) under chilling stress. The treatment also increased the content of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and resulted in a higher level of energy charge. These results indicated that 6-BA alleviated CI in cucumber fruit through improving antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant capacity and maintaining higher levels of ATP content and energy charge. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Coordination between antioxidant defences might be partially modulated by magnesium status.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Cristina Paula; Matias, Catarina Nunes; Bicho, Manuel; Santa-Clara, Helena; Laires, Maria José

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the redox balance in competitive adult swimmers against recreational practitioners, controlling for Mg intake. Fifteen, competitive swimmers and 16 recreational practitioners, all male and aged 18-25years, were recruited into the study. Oxidative and muscle damage markers, and antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidants were evaluated by photometry (except for thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS), which was assessed by fluorimetry). Controlling for the level of exercise, inverse correlations were observed for uric acid and glutathione reductase (GR) or susceptibility of red blood cells to peroxidation (RBCPx); plasma adrenaline oxidase activity (AdOx) and carotenoids; TBARS and GR or Vit E; and direct correlations were observed between AdOx and creatine kinase (CK) or TBARS; CK and superoxide dismutase activity; GR and RBCPx. Controlling for Mg intake in addition to exercise level revealed new inverse correlations: between carotenoids and TBARS or lactate, and new direct correlations between lactate and AdOx or TBARS; cortisol and AdOx, CK, lactate dehydrogenase, or methemoglobin reductase. The associations between uric acid and RBCPx; AdOx and CK or TBARS; and GR and RBCPx lost their significance. All others remained significant. These outcomes suggest that the coordination between antioxidant defences may be partially modulated by Mg, which may be the result of its ability to stabilize cell membranes and oxidation targets, such as adrenaline.

  6. Modulation of radiation-induced alteration in the antioxidant status of mice by naringin.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Reddy, Tiyyagura Koti

    2005-07-01

    The alteration in the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation was investigated in Swiss albino mice treated with 2 mg/kg b.wt. naringin, a citrus flavoglycoside, before exposure to 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 Gy gamma radiation. Lipid peroxidation, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined in the liver and small intestine of mice treated or not with naringin at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h post-irradiation. Whole-body irradiation of mice caused a dose-dependent elevation in the lipid peroxidation while a dose-dependent depletion was observed for glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in both liver as well as small intestine. Treatment of mice with 2 mg/kg b. wt. naringin inhibited the radiation-induced elevation in the lipid peroxidation as well as depletion of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver and small intestine. Radiation-induced lipid peroxidation increased with time, which was greatest at 2 h post-irradiation and declined thereafter in the liver and small intestine. Similarly, a maximum decline in the glutathione glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase was observed at 1 h, while catalase showed a maximum decline at 2 h post-irradiation. Our study demonstrates that naringin protects mouse liver and intestine against the radiation-induced damage by elevating the antioxidant status and reducing the lipid peroxidation.

  7. Threonine modulates immune response, antioxidant status and gene expressions of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant-immune-cytokine-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Habte-Tsion, Habte-Michael; Ren, Mingchun; Liu, Bo; Ge, Xianping; Xie, Jun; Chen, Ruli

    2016-04-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of graded dietary threonine (Thr) levels (0.58-2.58%) on the hematological parameters, immune response, antioxidant status and hepatopancreatic gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant-immune-cytokine-related signaling molecules in juvenile blunt snout bream. For this purpose, 3 tanks were randomly arranged and assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were fed with their respective diet to apparent satiation 4 times daily. The results indicated that white blood cell, red blood cell and haemoglobin significantly responded to graded dietary Thr levels, while hematocrit didn't. Complement components (C3 and C4), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), immunoglobulin M (IgM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) increased with increasing dietary Thr levels up to 1.58-2.08% and thereafter tended to decrease. Dietary Thr regulated the gene expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CAT, GPx1, glutathione S-transferase mu (GST), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA1), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B (ALDOB); while the gene expression of peroxiredoxin II (PrxII) was not significantly modified by graded Thr levels. These genes are involved in different functions including antioxidant, immune, and defense responses, energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Therefore, this study could provide a new molecular tool for studies in fish immunonutrition and shed light on the regulatory mechanisms that dietary Thr improved the antioxidant and immune capacities of fish.

  8. Differential modulation of cellular antioxidant status in zebrafish liver and kidney exposed to low dose arsenic trioxide.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Shuvasree; Mukherjee, Sandip; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish were exposed to a nonlethal dose (1/350LC50; 50µg/L) of As2O3 and sampled at 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of treatment. The oxidative stress response was assessed in terms of time-dependent histopathological changes, lipid peroxidation, GSH status, activities of detoxification enzymes and expression of antioxidant genes in liver and kidney. As2O3 treatment enhanced lipid peroxidation except at day 90 in liver and day 30 in kidney. Glutathione depleted significantly in the liver except on day 30; whereas in kidney, it increased initially but thereafter depleted significantly. The liver GST activity was high until day 30, low on day 60 and high on day 90. On the other hand, activity of GST in kidney remained high throughout the exposure. GR activity in liver decreased initially but augmented from 30 days onwards whereas in kidney it remained high until 30 days of exposure. Significant increase in GPx and CAT activities in liver and kidney confirmed oxidative stress in zebrafish which correlated with mRNA expression of antioxidant genes. Upregulation in mRNA level of Cu-Zn Sod in liver and kidney was prominent. Gpx1 upregulation was more conspicuous in kidney as compared to liver while the pattern of Cat expression was almost similar in both the organs. Among the mitochondrial genes, expression of Cox1 was significantly high only after 90 days in liver, while in kidney it enhanced at 7, 30 and 60 days of arsenic exposure. Ucp2 was upregulated in liver after 15 days of exposure but significantly downregulated at day 90; in kidney it remained unchanged at other time points except at day 90. An overall increased expression of Bcl2 further confirmed As2O3 induced oxidative stress in zebrafish liver and kidney. The pattern of mRNA expression of Nrf2 was not uniform and was in accordance to its downstream antioxidant genes. Present findings elucidate that low dose of As2O3 exposure induces a time dependent differential modulation of antioxidant status in liver and

  9. Modulation of Melanogenesis and Antioxidant Status of Melanocytes in Response to Phototoxic Action of Doxycycline.

    PubMed

    Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa; Beberok, Artur; Delijewski, Marcin; Otręba, Michał; Wrześniok, Dorota

    2015-11-01

    Doxycycline is a commonly used tetracycline antibiotic showing the broad spectrum of antibacterial action. However, the use of this antibiotic is often connected with the risk of phototoxic reactions that lead to various skin disorders. One of the factors influencing the photosensitivity reactions is the melanin content in melanocytes. In this study, the impact of doxycycline and UVA irradiation on cell viability, melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in cultured normal human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn-DP) was examined. The exposure of cells to doxycycline and UVA radiation resulted in concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability and induced melanin biosynthesis. Significant changes were stated in cellular antioxidant enzymes activity: SOD, CAT and GPx, which indicates alterations of antioxidant defense system. The results obtained in vitro may explain the mechanisms of phototoxic reactions that occur in normal human epidermal melanocytes in vivo after exposure of skin to doxycycline and UVA radiation.

  10. Redox Modulations, Antioxidants, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Fraunberger, Erik A; Scola, Gustavo; Laliberté, Victoria L M; Duong, Angela; Andreazza, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Although antioxidants, redox modulations, and neuropsychiatric disorders have been widely studied for many years, the field would benefit from an integrative and corroborative review. Our primary objective is to delineate the biological significance of compounds that modulate our redox status (i.e., reactive species and antioxidants) as well as outline their current role in brain health and the impact of redox modulations on the severity of illnesses. Therefore, this review will not enter into the debate regarding the perceived medical legitimacy of antioxidants but rather seek to clarify their abilities and limitations. With this in mind, antioxidants may be interpreted as natural products with significant pharmacological actions in the body. A renewed understanding of these often overlooked compounds will allow us to critically appraise the current literature and provide an informed, novel perspective on an important healthcare issue. In this review, we will introduce the complex topics of redox modulations and their role in the development of select neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. Redox Modulations, Antioxidants, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fraunberger, Erik A.; Scola, Gustavo; Laliberté, Victoria L. M.; Duong, Angela; Andreazza, Ana C.

    2016-01-01

    Although antioxidants, redox modulations, and neuropsychiatric disorders have been widely studied for many years, the field would benefit from an integrative and corroborative review. Our primary objective is to delineate the biological significance of compounds that modulate our redox status (i.e., reactive species and antioxidants) as well as outline their current role in brain health and the impact of redox modulations on the severity of illnesses. Therefore, this review will not enter into the debate regarding the perceived medical legitimacy of antioxidants but rather seek to clarify their abilities and limitations. With this in mind, antioxidants may be interpreted as natural products with significant pharmacological actions in the body. A renewed understanding of these often overlooked compounds will allow us to critically appraise the current literature and provide an informed, novel perspective on an important healthcare issue. In this review, we will introduce the complex topics of redox modulations and their role in the development of select neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26640614

  12. Antioxidant fortified margarine increases the antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    van het Hof, K H; Tijburg, L B; de Boer, H S; Wiseman, S A; Weststrate, J A

    1998-04-01

    To assess the effect of supplementation with an antioxidant fortified margarine on the body's antioxidant status and on parameters of oxidative damage to lipids. Single blind, placebo controlled trial, two treatment groups balanced for sex, age and Quetelet Index. Unilever Research Laboratorium, The Netherlands. Thirty-one healthy adult volunteers accomplished the study. Volunteers were recruited among inhabitants of the surrounding area of the research laboratory. Volunteers consumed during the four weeks either 15 g/d of an antioxidant fortified margarine (providing 121 mg vitamin C, 31 mg vitamin E, 2.7 mg alpha-carotene and 5.3 mg beta-carotene) or an ordinary margarine. Fasting blood samples were taken before and at the end of the study. Consumption of the antioxidant fortified margarine significantly increased the levels of the supplied antioxidants in plasma and LDL as compared to the changes found after consumption of the control margarine, with the largest increases found in LDL levels of alpha-carotene (15.5-fold increase, 95% CI: 8.4-27.8-fold) and beta-carotene (4.3-fold increase, 95% CI: 2.2-7.9-fold). This increased antioxidant status in the antioxidant fortified margarine group resulted in a significantly increased total antioxidant activity of LDL and resistance of LDL to oxidation (lag time and rate of oxidation) as compared to baseline but not in comparison to the changes found in the control group. Consumption of moderate doses of vitamin E, vitamin C, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, supplied in a full-fat margarine and consumed as part of a normal diet, effectively increases the blood levels of these antioxidants.

  13. Phenolic Acids (Gallic and Tannic Acids) Modulate Antioxidant Status and Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Akomolafe, Seun F; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Anadozie, Scholarstical O

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) or CDDP), used in the treatment of many solid-tissue cancers, has its chief side-effect in nephrotoxicity. Hence, this study sought to investigate and compare the protective effect of gallic acid (GA) and tannic acid (TA) against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The rats were given a prophylactic treatment of GA and TA orally at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight for 7 consecutive days before the administration of a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cisplatin (CP) at 7.5 mg/kg bwt. The protective effects of both GA and TA on CP induced nephrotoxicity were investigated by assaying renal function, oxidative stress biomarkers, and histopathological examination of kidney architecture. A single dose of cisplatin (7.5 mg/kg bwt) injected i.p. caused a significant increase in some biomarkers of renal function (creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels), with a marked elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) content accompanied by a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content (103.27%) of kidney tissue as compared to control group. Furthermore, a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in kidney antioxidant enzymes (SOD, catalase, GPx, and GST) activity was observed. However, pretreatment with oral administration of tannic acid and gallic acid at a dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 7 days prior to cisplatin administration reduced histological renal damage and suppressed the generation of ROS, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress in kidney tissues. These results indicate that both gallic and tannic acids could serve as a preventive strategy against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity.

  14. Age-related changes in the brain antioxidant status: modulation by dietary supplementation of Decalepis hamiltonii and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Ravikiran, Tekupalli; Sowbhagya, Ramachandregowda; Anupama, Sindhghatta Kariyappa; Anand, Santosh; Bhagyalakshmi, Dundaiah

    2016-08-01

    The synergistic effects of physical exercise and diet have profound benefits on brain function. The present study was aimed to determine the effects of exercise and Decalepis hamiltonii (Dh) on age-related responses on the antioxidant status in discrete regions of rat brain. Male Wistar albino rats of 4 and 18 months old were orally supplemented with Dh extract and swim trained at 3 % intensity for 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for a period of 30 days. Supplementation of 100 mg Dh aqueous extract/kg body weight and its combination with exercise significantly elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities irrespective of age. Age-related and region-specific changes were observed in superoxide levels, and protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde contents, and were found to be decreased in both trained and supplemented groups. Levels of total thiols, protein, and nonprotein thiols decreased with age and significantly increased in the SW-T(+100 mg) groups. Our results demonstrated that the interactive effects of two treatments enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the risk of protein and lipid oxidation in the rat brain.

  15. Anti-depressant and anxiolytic potential of Acacia hydaspica R. Parker aerial parts extract: Modulation of brain antioxidant enzyme status.

    PubMed

    Afsar, Tayyaba; Razak, Suhail; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Almajwal, Ali

    2017-04-24

    Oxidative stress may link to psychiatric disorders, and is being regarded as a plausible mechanism that can affect the regulation of these illnesses. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidepressant and anxiolytic potential of A. hydaspica R. parkers. Brain oxidative stress enzyme levels were analyzed to correlate depression and stress with brain antioxidant status. Antidepressant and anxiolytic effect of methanol extract of A. hydaspica and its derived soluble fractions [n-hexane (AHH), ethyl-acetate (AHE), chloroform (AHC), n-butanol (AHB) and remaining aqueous fraction (AHA)] was investigated by using three behavioral models; the Forced swimming test, Tail suspension test and Elevated plus-maze test (EPM). Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) was employed to induce stress in rats. AHM and AHE (200 mg/kg, p.o), fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, i.p) and diazepam (DZM) (1 mg/kg, p.o) were administered during the 7 day stress exposure period, and rats were assessed for antidepressant and anxiolytic behavioral despair paradigms. Antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers were measured in brain tissue of depressed rats. Phytochemical analysis was done by GCMS experimentation. AHM and AHE (acute dose) significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced the immobility time and ameliorated climbing behavior as compared to the control in FST and TST, and similar to fluoxetine. AHM and AHE showed significant (p < 0.0001) anxiolytic potential in EPM, and comparable to DZM (1 mg/kg b.w., i.p). Significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme levels and increase in MDA, H2O2 and NO level were observed in stressed rats. AHM and AHE (for 7 days/CMS) significantly improved behavior in FST, TST and EPMT. Treatment also improved antioxidant enzyme level and controlled the oxidative stress markers in brain tissues. GCMS analysis indicated the presence of 10 different chemical constituents in A. hydaspica. The present study revealed that A. hydaspica exerts an antidepressant and

  16. Antioxidant status in vegetarians versus omnivores.

    PubMed

    Rauma, A L; Mykkänen, H

    2000-02-01

    Every day, vegetarians consume many carbohydrate-rich plant foods such as fruits and vegetables, cereals, pulses, and nuts. As a consequence, their diet contains more antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene) and copper than that of omnivores. Intake of zinc is generally comparable to that by omnivores. However, the bioavailability of zinc in vegetarian diets is generally lower than that of omnivores. Dietary intake of selenium is variable in both groups and depends on the selenium content of the soil. Measurements of antioxidant body levels in vegetarians show that a vegetarian diet maintains higher antioxidant vitamin status (vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene) but variable antioxidant trace element status as compared with an omnivorous diet. To evaluate the antioxidative potential of a vegetarian diet versus an omnivorous diet, more studies are needed in which the total antioxidant capacity is determined rather than the status of a single antioxidant nutrient.

  17. Nutritional Status as the Key Modulator of Antioxidant Responses Induced by High Environmental Ammonia and Salinity Stress in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    PubMed Central

    Zinta, Gaurav; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Asard, Han; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    Salinity fluctuation is one of the main factors affecting the overall fitness of marine fish. In addition, water borne ammonia may occur simultaneously with salinity stress. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may encounter food deprivation. The physiological and ion-osmo regulatory adaptive capacities to cope with all these stressors alone or in combination are extensively addressed in fish. To date, studies revealing the modulation of antioxidant potential as compensatory response to multiple stressors are rather lacking. Therefore, the present work evaluated the individual and combined effects of salinity challenge, ammonia toxicity and nutritional status on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in a marine teleost, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were acclimated to normal seawater (32 ppt), to brackish water (20 ppt and 10 ppt) and to hypo-saline water (2.5 ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20 mg/L representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Results show that in response to decreasing salinities, oxidative stress indices such as xanthine oxidase activity, levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) increased in the hepatic tissue of fasted fish but remained unaffected in fed fish. HEA exposure at normal salinity (32 ppt) and at reduced salinities (20 ppt and 10 ppt) increased ammonia accumulation significantly (84 h–180 h) in both feeding regimes which was associated with an increment of H2O2 and MDA contents. Unlike in fasted fish, H2O2 and MDA levels in fed fish were restored to control levels (84 h–180 h); with a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and

  18. Nutritional Status as the Key Modulator of Antioxidant Responses Induced by High Environmental Ammonia and Salinity Stress in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Dasan, Antony Franklin; Rasoloniriana, Rindra; Asard, Han; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    Salinity fluctuation is one of the main factors affecting the overall fitness of marine fish. In addition, water borne ammonia may occur simultaneously with salinity stress. Additionally, under such stressful circumstances, fish may encounter food deprivation. The physiological and ion-osmo regulatory adaptive capacities to cope with all these stressors alone or in combination are extensively addressed in fish. To date, studies revealing the modulation of antioxidant potential as compensatory response to multiple stressors are rather lacking. Therefore, the present work evaluated the individual and combined effects of salinity challenge, ammonia toxicity and nutritional status on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in a marine teleost, European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were acclimated to normal seawater (32 ppt), to brackish water (20 ppt and 10 ppt) and to hypo-saline water (2.5 ppt). Following acclimation to different salinities for two weeks, fish were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 20 mg/L representing 50% of 96h LC50 value for ammonia) for 12 h, 48 h, 84 h and 180 h, and were either fed (2% body weight) or fasted (unfed for 7 days prior to HEA exposure). Results show that in response to decreasing salinities, oxidative stress indices such as xanthine oxidase activity, levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) increased in the hepatic tissue of fasted fish but remained unaffected in fed fish. HEA exposure at normal salinity (32 ppt) and at reduced salinities (20 ppt and 10 ppt) increased ammonia accumulation significantly (84 h-180 h) in both feeding regimes which was associated with an increment of H2O2 and MDA contents. Unlike in fasted fish, H2O2 and MDA levels in fed fish were restored to control levels (84 h-180 h); with a concomitant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), components of the glutathione redox cycle (reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and

  19. Non-enzymatic antioxidant status and modulation of lipid peroxidation in the muscles of Labeo rohita by sub lethal exposure of CuSO4.

    PubMed

    Jena, S D; Behera, M; Dandapat, J; Mohanty, N

    2009-06-01

    Xenobiotics-mediated environmental stress is an important determining factor in the maintenance of fish health as fishes are frequently exposed to such components. Increasing evidences indicate that acute and chronic xenobiotic exposure modulates ROS production, suppresses immune response and increase the incidence of fish diseases. In the present context an attempt has been made to study the in vivo effect of different concentrations of CuSO(4) (0.5, 1.00 or 2.00 ppm) on lipid peroxidation (an index of oxidative stress) and non enzymatic antioxidant status (glutathione and Ascorbic acid), in the muscle of a widely consumed freshwater fish Labeo rohita. From the out come of this study it is concluded that comparatively low dose of copper (0.5 ppm) induce mild oxidative stress in the experimental fish with concomitant elevation of GSH and AsA content of the muscle. However, high concentration of CuSO(4) (2.00 ppm) in the ambient water leads to severe oxidative stress manifested in the form of LPX and morphoanatomical alteration.

  20. Galangin, a dietary flavonol inhibits tumor initiation during experimental pulmonary tumorigenesis by modulating xenobiotic enzymes and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Devadoss, Dinesh; Ramar, Manikandan; Chinnasamy, Arulvasu

    2014-02-05

    The aim of present study was to elucidate anti-initiating efficacy of galangin against benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)-induced lung carcinogenesis in male Swiss albino mice. Therefore, the activities of xenobiotic metabolic enzymes such as phase I and II were examined in lung as well as liver tissues (to compare the effects between target and non-target organs). Besides, the activities/levels of tissue marker enzymes, antioxidants, lipid peroxidation (LPO), cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expressions and histological observation of lungs were also analyzed. B(a)P (50 mg/kg body weight) was administered to male Swiss albino mice (20-25 g) to experimentally induce lung cancer. B(a)P-induced animals showed increased activity of phase I (Cytochrome P450, Cytochrome b5, NADPH Cytochrome P450 redcutase and NADH Cytochrome b5 reductase) drug metabolic enzymes, LPO levels, tissue marker enzymes and decreased activity of phase II metabolic enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase, DT-diaphorase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase) as well as antioxidant levels. Histological examination of lungs revealed severe alveolar and bronchiolar damages in B(a)P-induced mice. Immunohistochemical and western blot analysis of CYP1A1 increased significantly in lung tissues of B(a)P-induced animals. Treatment with galangin (20 mg/kg body weight) efficiently counteracted all the above anomalies and restored cellular homeostasis. Our results demonstrate that galangin can modify xenobiotic enzymes in murine model of pulmonary tumorigenesis.

  1. Estrogens as Antioxidant Modulators in Human Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, A.; Raimondo, S.; Persano, M.; Di Segni, C.; Cammarano, M.; Gadotti, G.; Silvestrini, A.; Pontecorvi, A.; Meucci, E.

    2013-01-01

    Among treatments proposed for idiopathic male infertility, antiestrogens, like tamoxifen, play a possible role. On the other hand, oxidative stress is a mechanism well recognized for deleterious effects on spermatozoa function. After reviewing the literature on the effects of estrogens in modulation of antioxidant systems, in both sexes, and in different in vivo and in vitro models, we suggest, also on the basis of personal data, that a tamoxifen treatment could be active via an increase in seminal antioxidants. PMID:24363671

  2. Oral supplementation with troxerutin (trihydroxyethylrutin), modulates lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vinothkumar, R; Vinoth Kumar, R; Karthikkumar, V; Viswanathan, P; Kabalimoorthy, J; Nalini, N

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the chemopreventive potential of troxerutin on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced rat colon carcinogenesis by evaluating the antioxidant and lipid peroxidation (LPO) status. Rats were randomly divided into six groups. Group I rats served as control. Group II rats received troxerutin (50 mg/kgb.w., p.o.) for 16 weeks. Groups III-VI rats received subcutaneous injections of DMH (20 mg/kgb.w., s.c.) once a week, for the first 4 weeks. In addition to DMH, groups IV-VI rats received troxerutin at the doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kgb.w., respectively. In DMH treated rats, our results showed decreased activities of antioxidants and increased levels of LPO in the liver. Moreover, LPO and antioxidants in the colon were found to be significantly diminished in DMH the treated rats. Furthermore, enhanced activity of colonic vitamin C and vitamin E levels were observed in DMH alone treated rats (group III), which was significantly reversed on troxerutin supplementation. Troxerutin at the dose of 25 mg/kgb.w. had shown profound beneficial effects by exhibiting near normal biochemical profile and well-preserved colon histology as compared to the other two tested doses (12.5 and 50 mg/kgb.w.). These findings suggest that troxerutin could serve as a novel agent for colon cancer chemoprevention.

  3. [Selenium and antioxidant status in various diseases].

    PubMed

    Winnefeld, K; Schirrmeister, W; Thiele, R; Sperschneider, H; Klinger, G

    1995-01-15

    All healthy mammalian organisms are characterized by an equilibrium between the occurrence of highly reactive oxygen species and their destruction by anti-oxidants. Numerous diseases go hand in hand with a disturbance of the homoeostatis. In order to avoid or minimize the destructive effect of the oxidant stress on biological structures, therapies utilizing drugs with anti-oxidant effects are increasingly being applied. Preconditions for these therapies are a characterisation and a follow-up of the anti-oxidant status in the diseased organism. In the course of the present study selenium, glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde were determined in patients with various clinical pictures (terminal renal insufficiency, septic shock, high-risk gravidieties, arterioscleroisis, pulmonary carcinoma, acute myocardial infarction, test patients taking the contraceptive pill). Patients with terminal renal insufficiency and those suffering from septic shock syndromes clearly show a selenium decrease in serum and whole blood as well as a drop in the GSH-Px-activity, and increased malondialdehyde concentrations in the serum. Both are a reflection of an increased lipid peroxidation. First results of a selenium therapy are available for patients with therminal renal insufficiency and post-traumatically induced renal failure. The interpretation of the findings in the categories "high-risk gravidity" and "women on the contraceptive pill", which show a normal GSH-Px-activity and significantly increased malondialdehyde concentrations, seems problematic. The organism counteracts an increased lipid peroxidation with a normal plasma-GSH-Px-activity, clearly a sign of a still normal anti-oxidant potential.

  4. Mallotus roxburghianus modulates antioxidant responses in pancreas of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, V K; Chenkual, L; Gurusubramanian, G

    2016-03-01

    Mallotus roxburghianus has long been used by Mizo tribal people for the treatment of diabetes. Scientific validation at known doses may provide information about its safety and efficacy. Methanolic leaf extract of M. roxburghianus (MRME 100 and 400mg/kg) was tested in comparison with normal and alloxan diabetic rats for 28 days p.o. in terms of body and pancreatic weight, blood glucose level, antioxidant enzymes, expression of visfatin and PCNA, histopathology and histomorphometric measurements of pancreas. The results were evaluated statistically using ANOVA, correlation and regression and Principal component analysis (PCO). MRME (100 and 400mg/kg) treatment significantly (p<0.0001) decreased the body weight, blood glucose level, improved the mass and size of pancreas, elevated the levels of antioxidant enzymes and up regulate the expression of visfatin and PCNA. PCO analysis was good to fitness and prediction distinguishes the therapeutic effects of M. roxburghianus from the alloxan induced diabetic rats. MRME has significant role in protecting animals from alloxan-induced diabetic oxidative stress in pancreas and exhibited promising antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activities along with significant reversal of disturbed antioxidant status and lipid peroxidative damage. Pancreatic architecture and physiology under diabetic oxidative stress have been significantly modulated by MRME and validated as a drug candidate for antidiabetic treatment. M. roxburghianus treatment restores the antioxidant enzyme system and rejuvenates the islets mass in alloxanized rat by accelerating visfatin and PCNA expression in pancreatic tissue.

  5. Spray-dried plasma promotes growth, modulates the activity of antioxidant defenses, and enhances the immune status of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, E; Skalli, A; Campbell, J; Solovyev, M M; Rodríguez, C; Dias, J; Polo, J

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial animal byproduct meals, including nonruminant blood meal and blood products, represent the largest and largely untapped safe source of animal protein available within the international market for the aquafeed industry. Spray-dried blood and spray-dried plasma (SDP) proteins have long been recognized as high-quality feed ingredients for farmed animals. In this study, we evaluated the inclusion of SDP from porcine blood (SDPP) in growing diets for gilthead sea bream. Three isonitrogenous (CP = 51.2%) and isolipidic (fat = 12.4%) diets manufactured by cold extrusion (0.8 to 1.5 mm pellet size) were prepared by substituting high-quality fish meal with 0, 3, and 6% SDPP. The diets were tested for a period of 60 d at 22°C with 4 replicates each (400-L cylindroconical tanks, 150 fish per tank, and initial density = 0.5 kg/m(3)). The SDPP inclusion in diets for gilthead sea bream fingerlings were evaluated in terms of growth performance, feed utilization, histological organization of the intestinal mucosa, activity of oxidative stress enzymes (catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in the intestine, and nonspecific serum immune parameters (lysozyme and bactericidal activity). Results from this study indicated that dietary SDPP promoted fish growth in terms of BW and length; fish fed 3% SDPP were 10.5% heavier (P < 0.05) than those fed the control diet. Spray-dried plasma from porcine blood modulated the activity of the antioxidative defenses in the intestine (P < 0.05) and increased the density of goblet cells in the intestine (P < 0.05) and benefited the host by providing an effective immune barrier against gut pathogenic microbiota. The nonspecific serum immune response in fish fed diets with SDPP was greater (P < 0.05) than in fish fed the control diet. These results indicated that the inclusion of SDPP in gilthead sea bream feed could be beneficial for the fish by enhancing intestinal and serum innate immune

  6. Maternal plasma total antioxidant status in preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Cinkaya, Aysegül; Keskin, Hüseyin Levent; Buyukkagnici, Umran; Gungor, Tayfun; Keskin, Esra Aktepe; Avsar, Ayse Filiz; Bilge, Umit

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in preterm labor. Twenty-five cases diagnosed with preterm labor were included in the study group, whereas 25 women with uncomplicated pregnancies at similar stages of pregnancy were included in the control group. Total antioxidant status was measured in maternal plasma using a Hitachi 911 auto analyzer and a total antioxidant status kit (Randox Laboratories, UK) in mmol/L. Mean serum antioxidant status were lower in patients (1.002 ± 0.177 mmol/L) than in controls (1.258 ± 0.147 mmol/L) (P < 0.001). Women with preterm labor have decreased total antioxidant status compared with uncomplicated pregnancies in similar gestational weeks. Future work should clarify whether decreased total antioxidant status precedes preterm labor in a prospective cohort study. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2010 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Serum Biomarkers of (Anti)Oxidant Status for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Eugène; Ruskovska, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we disclose a selection of serum/plasma biomarkers of (anti)oxidant status related to nutrition, which can be used for measurements in large-scale epidemiological studies. From personal experience, we have come to the following proposal of a set of biomarkers for nutritional intake, (anti)oxidant status, and redox status. We have selected the individual antioxidant vitamins E and A, and the carotenoids which can be measured in large series by HPLC. In addition, vitamin C was selected, which can be measured by an auto-analyzer or HPLC. As a biomarker for oxidative stress, the ROM assay (reactive oxygen metabolites) was selected; for the redox status, the total thiol assay; and for the total antioxidant status the BAP assay (biological antioxidant potential). All of these biomarkers can be measured in large quantities by an auto-analyzer. Critical points in biomarker validation with respect to blood sampling, storage conditions, and measurements are discussed. With the selected biomarkers, a good set is presented for use in the risk assessment between nutrition and (chronic) diseases in large-scale epidemiological studies. Examples of the successful application of these biomarkers in large international studies are presented. PMID:26580612

  8. Serum Biomarkers of (Anti)Oxidant Status for Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Eugène; Ruskovska, Tatjana

    2015-11-16

    In this review, we disclose a selection of serum/plasma biomarkers of (anti)oxidant status related to nutrition, which can be used for measurements in large-scale epidemiological studies. From personal experience, we have come to the following proposal of a set of biomarkers for nutritional intake, (anti)oxidant status, and redox status. We have selected the individual antioxidant vitamins E and A, and the carotenoids which can be measured in large series by HPLC. In addition, vitamin C was selected, which can be measured by an auto-analyzer or HPLC. As a biomarker for oxidative stress, the ROM assay (reactive oxygen metabolites) was selected; for the redox status, the total thiol assay; and for the total antioxidant status the BAP assay (biological antioxidant potential). All of these biomarkers can be measured in large quantities by an auto-analyzer. Critical points in biomarker validation with respect to blood sampling, storage conditions, and measurements are discussed. With the selected biomarkers, a good set is presented for use in the risk assessment between nutrition and (chronic) diseases in large-scale epidemiological studies. Examples of the successful application of these biomarkers in large international studies are presented.

  9. Peculiarities of the antioxidant status of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Nadolnik, L I; Valentyukevich, O I

    2007-10-01

    The intensity of lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant system in the thyroid gland were compared with those in the liver, kidney, heart, and frontal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres in euthyroid male Wistar rats. The thyroid gland was characterized by low activity of first-line antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, considerable concentration of reduced glutathione, and high activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Our results suggest that the system of glutathione metabolism determines antioxidant status of the thyroid gland.

  10. Dietary total antioxidant capacity is associated with diet and plasma antioxidant status in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-10-01

    Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC), based on the cumulative antioxidant activities of all the antioxidants present in food, has been shown to be inversely associated with risks of chronic diseases. However, dietary TAC has not been validated for its relevance in a healthy young population or for reliability and predictability for antioxidant status. Our study aimed to validate TAC as a tool in assessing antioxidant intake and to investigate whether dietary TAC predicts plasma antioxidant status in a healthy young population. Sixty healthy, nonsmoking college students at the University of Connecticut ages 18 to 25 years were recruited. Thirty-day food records and two 12-hour fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. After adjustment for total energy intake, TAC from diet and supplement was positively correlated with intakes of carotenoids (P<0.01), beta carotene (P<0.05), β-cryptoxanthin (P<0.05), flavonoids (P<0.0001), isoflavones (P<0.01), flavan-3-ols (P<0.01), flavones (P<0.05), and flavonols (P<0.0001). Dietary TAC was an independent predictor of plasma TAC determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (P<0.01) and by ferric-reducing ability of plasma (P<0.0001), plasma glutathione peroxidase (P<0.01), red blood cell glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05), α-tocopherol (P<0.05), and lutein (P<0.05). Results were similar for TAC from diet sources only. The findings suggest that dietary TAC is a good predictor of dietary and plasma antioxidant status in this sample of young adult men and women. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice on antioxidant/pro-oxidant status in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kardum, Nevena; Konić-Ristić, Aleksandra; Savikin, Katarina; Spasić, Slavica; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Ivanišević, Jasmina; Miljković, Milica

    2014-08-01

    Berry fruits are a rich source of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins: well-known potent anti-oxidant phytochemicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate beneficial effects of long-term consumption of polyphenol-rich organic chokeberry juice on different markers of antioxidant/pro-oxidant status in healthy female volunteers. Twenty-nine women, aged 25-49, were included in the study. Serological markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence, blood pressure, routine biochemical, and anthropometric parameters were analyzed at baseline and after twelve weeks of regular chokeberry juice consumption. Significant decrease in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances level (TBARS; P<.001) and pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB; P<.05), as well as increase in paroxonase-1 activity toward diazoxon (P<.01) were found. Total oxidative status and sulphydryl groups levels were not significantly influenced by the intervention. Anthropometric, biochemical parameters, and blood pressure values were within the referent values for all subjects and were not influenced by the chokeberry juice consumption. However, we found positive correlation between age, body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percent, blood pressure, and analyzed marker of lipid peroxidation, which was influenced by the consumption. In conclusion, the fine modulation of several antioxidant/pro-oxidant status biomarkers observed in healthy subjects indicates putative prophylactic effects of polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice and supports its importance as part of an optimal diet.

  12. Antioxidant status in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Houshang; Houshang, Nemati; Khodarahmi, Reza; Reza, Khodarahmi; Sadeghi, Masoud; Masoud, Sadeghi; Ebrahimi, Ali; Ali, Ebrahimi; Rezaei, Mansour; Mansour, Rezaei; Vaisi-Raygani, Asad

    2014-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with an unknown aetiology that has been associated with abnormal plasma lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. There are controversial results in the previous studies investigating oxidant/antioxidant systems in psoriasis.The aim of this work was to evaluate the plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total bilirubin (T. Bili), direct bilirubin (D. Bili), uric acid (UA), apolipoproteins (ApoA1 and ApoB), Lp(a) and activities of paraxonase 1 (PON1) in 100 patients with psoriasis and 100 controls, and to look for a correlation between these parameters in psoriasis.PON1, bilirubin and UA were measured spectrophotometrically, MDA by the high-performance liquid chromatography method, apolipoproteins and Lp(a) by immunoprecipitation assays, and lipid and other biochemical parameters were determined by routine laboratory methods.In patients with psoriasis, there was a significant decrease in PON1, SOD and CAT activities (P < 0.05) and an increase in MDA levels (P < 0.01). Also, the levels of bilirubin (total and direct) and UA were decreased in patients with psoriasis but were not significant (P > 0.05).These results suggest that psoriasis was in a state of oxidative stress and that the protective effects of high-density lipoprotein against atherosclerosis may be dependent on PON1 activity. Moreover, there is a negative correlation between antioxidant with Lp(a), apoB and MDA levels, suggesting that subjects with higher levels of Lp(a) and apoB and lower levels of antioxidant are more exposed to oxidative damage. These findings may explain in part the reported increase in cardiovascular mortality in psoriasis.

  13. Total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, and paraoxonase activity in acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Köksal, Hande; Kurban, Sevil; Doğru, Osman

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of oxidative stress including total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, and paraoxonase activity in patients with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Seventy-three patients who underwent surgery with a preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis (Group I) were included into the study. The control group (Group II) consisted of thirty otherwise healthy subjects. After histopathologic examination, the patients were categorized as follows: 1) Acute focal appendicitis, 2) Acute advanced appendicitis including acute suppurative, phlegmonous and gangrenous appendicitis, 3) Acute perforated appendicitis, 4) Sub-acute appendicitis, and 5) Negative exploration. Blood samples for paraoxonase activities, and total oxidant and antioxidant status levels were obtained preoperatively. Total oxidant and antioxidant status of the patients in the acute appendicitis group were higher than those of the control group. When paraoxonase activities of Group I was compared with Group II, no significant difference was determined. Both total oxidant and antioxidant status levels of acute perforated appendicitis were higher than those of both acute focal appendicitis and acute advanced appendicitis. The increase in the oxidative status (total oxidant and antioxidant status) was related with the progression of inflammation to the perforation in acute appendicitis.

  14. Glutamine and antioxidants: status of their use in critical illness.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2015-03-01

    Many studies in critically ill patients have addressed enteral or parenteral supplementation of glutamine and antioxidants to counteract assumed deficiencies and induce immune-modulating effects to reduce infections and improve outcome. Older studies showed marked reductions in mortality, infectious morbidity and length of stay. Recent studies no longer show beneficial effects and in contrast even demonstrated increased mortality. This opiniating review focuses on the latest information and the consequences for the use of glutamine and antioxidants in critically ill patients. Positive effects in systematic reviews and meta-analyses are based on results from older, smaller and mainly single-centre studies. New information has challenged the conditional deficiency hypothesis concerning glutamine in critically ill patients. The recent REDOXS and MetaPlus trials studying the effects of glutamine, selenium and other antioxidants have shown no benefits and increased mortality. Given that the first dictum in medicine is to do no harm, we cannot be confident that immune-modulating nutrient supplementation with glutamine and antioxidants is effective and well tolerated for critically ill patients. Until more data are available, it is probably better not to routinely administer glutamine and antioxidants in nonphysiological doses to mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.

  15. Influence of habitual diet on antioxidant status: a study in a population of vegetarians and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Haldar, S; Rowland, I R; Barnett, Y A; Bradbury, I; Robson, P J; Powell, J; Fletcher, J

    2007-08-01

    Antioxidant status can be used as a biomarker to assess chronic disease risk and diet can modulate antioxidant defence. To examine effects of vegetarian diet and variations in the habitual intakes of foods and nutrients on blood antioxidants. Thirty-one vegetarians (including six vegans) and 58 omnivores, non-smokers, in Northern Ireland. A diet history method was used to assess habitual diet. Antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, uric acid, zinc- and ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were measured in fasting plasma and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and level of reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured in erythrocytes. Vegetarians had approximately 15% higher levels of plasma carotenoids compared with omnivores, including lutein (P< or =0.05), alpha-cryptoxanthin P< or =0.05), lycopene (NS), alpha-carotene (NS) and beta-carotene (NS). The levels/activities of all other antioxidants measured were similar between vegetarians and omnivores. Total intake of fruits, vegetables and fruit juices was positively associated with plasma levels of several carotenoids and vitamin C. Intake of vegetables was positively associated with plasma lutein, alpha-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, whereas intake of fruits was positively associated with plasma beta-cryptoxanthin. Intake of tea and wine was positively associated with FRAP value, whereas intake of herbal tea associated positively with plasma vitamin C. Intakes of meat and fish were positively associated with plasma uric acid and FRAP value. The overall antioxidant status was similar between vegetarians and omnivores. Good correlations were found between intakes of carotenoids and their respective status in blood.

  16. Antioxidant status in MgO nanoparticle-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Kiranmai, G; Reddy, A Rama Narsimha

    2013-11-01

    In this present study, antioxidant status was evaluated in rat serum following exposure to magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles. The lungs of rats were intratracheally instilled with (single dose) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) + 1% of Tween 80 (solvent control) or MgO or carbonyl iron (negative control) or quartz particles (positive control) at a dose of 1 and 5 mg/kg of body weight. The blood samples were collected at 1, 7, and 30 days of postinstillation of nanoparticles after their exposure, and different parameters were estimated to assess the oxidative stress induced by the instillation of MgO. Exposure of rats to MgO produced a significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent reduction in blood total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity levels than PBS + 1% Tween 80 control group. This reduction in the antioxidant capacity in MgO nanoparticle-exposed rats indicates the reduction in antioxidant defense mechanisms due to the instillation of MgO. These results indicate that exposure to MgO nanoparticles induces oxidative stress by reducing the total antioxidant capacity in rats. The findings suggest possible occupational health hazard in chronic exposures.

  17. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes

    PubMed Central

    Ondei, Luciana de Souza; Estevão, Isabeth da Fonseca; Rocha, Marina Ibelli Pereira; Percário, Sandro; Souza, Dorotéia Rossi Silva; Pinhel, Marcela Augusta de Souza; Bonini-Domingos, Claudia Regina

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have evaluated the oxidant and antioxidant status of thalassemia patients but most focused mainly on the severe and intermediate states of the disease. Moreover, the oxidative status has not been evaluated for the different beta-thalassemia mutations. Objective To evaluate lipid peroxidation and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity in relation to serum iron and ferritin in beta thalassemia resulting from two different mutations (CD39 and IVS-I-110) compared to individuals without beta-thalassemia. Methods One hundred and thirty subjects were studied, including 49 who were heterozygous for beta-thalassemia and 81 controls. Blood samples were subjected to screening tests for hemoglobin. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm mutations for beta-thalassemia, an analysis of thiobarbituric acid reactive species was used to determine lipid peroxidation, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity evaluations were performed. The heterozygous beta-thalassemia group was also evaluated for serum iron and ferritin status. Results Thiobarbituric acid reactive species (486.24 ± 119.64 ng/mL) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values (2.23 ± 0.11 mM/L) were higher in beta-thalassemia heterozygotes compared to controls (260.86 ± 92.40 ng/mL and 2.12 ± 0.10 mM/L, respectively; p-value < 0.01). Increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species values were observed in subjects with the CD39 mutation compared with those with the IVS-I-110 mutation (529.94 ± 115.60 ng/mL and 453.39 ± 121.10 ng/mL, respectively; p-value = 0.04). However, average Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values were similar for both mutations (2.20 ± 0.08 mM/L and 2.23 ± 0.12 mM/L, respectively; p-value = 0.39). There was no influence of serum iron and ferritin levels on thiobarbituric acid reactive species and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values. Conclusion This study shows an increase of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in

  18. Development Status of The ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    The ILC Marx Modulator is under development as a lower cost alternative to the 'Baseline Conceptual Design' (BCD) klystron modulator. Construction of a prototype Marx is complete and testing is underway at SLAC. The Marx employs solid state elements, IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the modules. The prototype is based on a stack of sixteen modules, each initially charged to {approx}11 kV, which are arranged in a Marx topology. Initially, eleven modules combine to produce the 120 kV output pulse. The remaining modules are switched in after appropriate delays to compensate for the voltage droop that results from the discharge of the energy storage capacitors. Additional elements will further regulate the output voltage to {+-}0.5%. The Marx presents several advantages over the conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at these parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. This paper outlines the current developmental status of the prototype Marx. It presents a detailed electrical and mechanical description of the modulator and operational test results. It will discuss electrical efficiency measurements, fault testing, and output voltage regulation.

  19. Development Status of the ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2008-06-16

    The ILC Marx Modulator is under development as a lower cost alternative to the 'Baseline Conceptual Design' (BCD) klystron modulator. Construction of a prototype Marx is complete and testing is underway at SLAC. The Marx employs solid state elements, IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the modules. The prototype is based on a stack of sixteen modules, each initially charged to {approx}11 kV, which are arranged in a Marx topology. Initially, eleven modules combine to produce the 120 kV output pulse. The remaining modules are switched in after appropriate delays to compensate for the voltage droop that results from the discharge of the energy storage capacitors. Additional elements will further regulate the output voltage to {+-} 0.5%. The Marx presents several advantages over the conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at these parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. This paper outlines the current developmental status of the prototype Marx. It presents a detailed electrical and mechanical description of the modulator and operational test results. It will discuss electrical efficiency measurements, fault testing, and output voltage regulation.

  20. Status of Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The current status of the JEM activities are presented in graphic form. The JEM spacecraft configuration is presented. The JEM configuration consist of the Pressurized Module, the Exposed Facility, the Experiment Logistics Module which consist of a pressurized section and an exposed section; and the Remote Manipulator System. The master schedule of the space station is given. Also the development tests of the structure and mechanism, the electrical power system, the data management system, the thermal control system, the environment control system, the experiment support system, and the remote manipulator system are listed.

  1. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid/linoleic acid ratios modulate intestinal immunity, tight junctions, anti-oxidant status and mRNA levels of NF-κB p65, MLCK and Nrf2 in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yun-Yun; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid/linoleic acid (ALA/LNA) ratios on the immune response, tight junctions, antioxidant status and immune-related signaling molecules mRNA levels in the intestine of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1260 juvenile grass carp with an average initial weight of 8.78 ± 0.03 g were fed diets with different ALA/LNA ratios (0.01, 0.34, 0.68, 1.03, 1.41, 1.76 and 2.15) for 60 days. Results indicated that ALA/LNA ratio of 1.03 significantly increased acid phosphatase, lysozyme activities and complement C3 contents, promoted interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β1 and κB inhibitor α mRNA abundance, whereas suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor α and interferon γ2) and signal molecules (IκB kinase β, IκB kinase γ and nuclear factor κB p65) mRNA levels in the intestine (P < 0.05), suggesting that optimal dietary ALA/LNA ratio improved intestinal immune response of juvenile fish. Additionally, ALA/LNA ratio of 1.03 significantly promoted Claudin-3, Claudin-b, Claudin-c, Occludin and ZO-1 gene transcription, whereas reduced Claudin-15a and myosin light-chain kinase mRNA levels in the intestine, suggesting that appropriate dietary ALA/LNA ratio strengthened tight junctions in the intestine of juvenile fish. Meanwhile, ALA/LNA ratio of 1.03 noticeably elevated glutathione contents, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities and mRNA levels, as well as signaling molecule nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 gene transcriptional abundance in the intestine, suggesting that proper ratio of dietary ALA/LNA ameliorate the intestinal antioxidant status of juvenile fish. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of the complement C3 content in the distal intestine and malondialdehyde content in the whole intestine, optimal ALA

  2. Antioxidant status in hyperthyroid cats before and after radioiodine treatment.

    PubMed

    Branter, E; Drescher, N; Padilla, M; Trepanier, L A

    2012-01-01

    Reversible antioxidant depletion is found in hyperthyroid humans, and antioxidant depletion increases the risk of methimazole toxicosis in rats. To determine whether abnormalities in concentrations of blood antioxidants or urinary isoprostanes were present in hyperthyroid cats, and were reversible after radioiodine treatment. To determine whether or not antioxidant abnormalities were associated with idiosyncratic methimazole toxicosis. Hyperthyroid cats presented for radioiodine treatment (n = 44) and healthy mature adult control cats (n = 37). Prospective, controlled, observational study. Red blood cell glutathione (GSH), plasma ascorbate (AA), plasma free retinol (vitamin A), α-tocopherol (vitamin E), and urinary free 8-isoprostanes in hyperthyroid cats were compared to healthy cats and to hyperthyroid cats 2 months after treatment. Blood antioxidants were not significantly different in hyperthyroid cats (mean GSH 1.6 ± 0.3 mM; AA 12.8 ± 4.9 μM, and vitamin E, 25 ± 14 μg/mL) compared to controls (GSH 1.4 ± 0.4 mM; AA 15.0 ± 6.6 μM, and vitamin E, 25 ± 17 μg/mL). Urinary isoprostanes were increased in hyperthyroid cats (292 ± 211 pg/mg creatinine) compared to controls (169 ± 82 pg/mg; P = .006), particularly in hyperthyroid cats with a USG < 1.035. Plasma free vitamin A was higher in hyperthyroid cats (0.54 ± 0.28 μg/mL versus 0.38 ± 0.21 in controls; P = .007). Both abnormalities normalized after radioiodine treatment. No association was found between oxidative status and prior idiosyncratic methimazole toxicosis. Increased urinary isoprostane could reflect reversible renal oxidative stress induced by hyperthyroidism, and this requires additional evaluation. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. ILC Marx Modulator Development Program Status

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, C.; Beukers, T.; Larsen, R.; Macken, K.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2009-03-04

    Development of a first generation prototype (P1) Marx-topology klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider is nearing completion at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is envisioned as a smaller, lower cost, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, 'Baseline Conceptual Design'. The Marx presents several advantages over conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at ILC parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. The P1-Marx employs all solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the cells. A general overview of the modulator design and the program status are presented.

  4. Ferulic acid in the treatment of post-diabetes testicular damage: relevance to the down regulation of apoptosis correlates with antioxidant status via modulation of TGF-β1, IL-1β and Akt signalling.

    PubMed

    Roy, Souvik; Metya, Satyajit Kumar; Rahaman, Noorjaman; Sannigrahi, Santanu; Ahmed, Faiqa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of ferulic acid at different doses (50 mg kg(-1) alternative day and 50 mg kg(-1) daily) on the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced post-diabetes rat testicular damage. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50 mg/kg). Rats treated with ferulic acid were given once a day orally for 10 weeks, starting 3 days after STZ injection. Testis tissue and blood samples were collected for investigating biochemical analysis, antioxidant status, sperm parameters, and histopathological, immunohistochemical and apoptotic studies. Treatment with ferulic acid to diabetic rats significantly improved the body weight, testis weight, serum insulin level, serum testosterone level and sperm parameters (viability, motility and count). Histopathological study also revealed that ferulic acid-treated diabetic rats showed an improved histological appearance. Our data indicated that significant reduction in the activity of apoptosis by using terminal deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labelling and reduced expression of transforming growth factor-β1 and interleukin-1β in the testis tissue of ferulic acid-treated diabetic rats. Conversely, it was also revealed that ferulic acid-treated diabetic rats markedly enhanced the serine/threonine protein kinase protein expression in the testis tissue. Our result suggests that ferulic acid inhibits testicular damage in diabetic rats by declining oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Oxidant-antioxidant status and pulmonary function in welding workers.

    PubMed

    Fidan, Fatma; Unlü, Mehmet; Köken, Tülay; Tetik, Levent; Akgün, Sema; Demirel, Reha; Serteser, Mustafa

    2005-07-01

    Welding is a process during which fumes, gases, electromagnetic radiation and noise are emitted as by-products. Metal oxide particles are particularly hazardous components of welding fumes. Welding has been found to be associated with respiratory symptoms and our objective in the present study was to study the effects of welding on pulmonary function and serum oxidant-antioxidant status. Fifty-one welding workers and 31 control subjects were recruited. Face to face interviews were conducted using the respiratory illness questionnaire adapted from the American Thoracic Society with the addition of demographic characteristics, work history and working conditions. Additionally physical examinations and spirometric measurements were performed at workplaces. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls, protein sulfhydryls (SH) and erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured to evaluate oxidant-antioxidant status in 34 welding workers and in 20 control subjects. No statistically significant differences were observed in age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), smoking status and annual working durations between welding workers and controls. Coughing, sputting and wheezing were significantly higher in welding workers (p<0.05). When adjusted for age, BMI and smoking status in logistic regression, welding work showed a significant risk for chronic bronchitis (OR: 4.78, 95%CI: 1.30-17.54). Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity (FVC) and four parameters of forced expiratory flow (FEF: FEF(25), FEF(50), FEF(75), FEF(25-75)) levels measured in the welding workers were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05). Serum TBARS and protein carbonyl levels were higher in welding workers than those in controls (p<0.001, p<0.05, respectively). On the other hand, total protein SH groups and GSH levels were significantly lower in welders than those in controls (p<0.05, p<0.001, respectively

  6. Status epilepticus: Using antioxidant agents as alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; González-Trujano, María Eva; Sampieri, Aristides Iii; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Granados-Rojas, Leticia; Floriano-Sánchez, Esaú; Coballase-Urrutía, Elvia; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí

    2016-10-01

    The epileptic state, or status epilepticus (SE), is the most serious situation manifested by individuals with epilepsy, and SE events can lead to neuronal damage. An understanding of the molecular, biochemical and physiopathological mechanisms involved in this type of neurological disease will enable the identification of specific central targets, through which novel agents may act and be useful as SE therapies. Currently, studies have focused on the association between oxidative stress and SE, the most severe epileptic condition. A number of these studies have suggested the use of antioxidant compounds as alternative therapies or adjuvant treatments for the epileptic state.

  7. Status epilepticus: Using antioxidant agents as alternative therapies

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; González-Trujano, María Eva; Sampieri, Aristides Iii; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Granados-Rojas, Leticia; Floriano-Sánchez, Esaú; Coballase-Urrutía, Elvia; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí

    2016-01-01

    The epileptic state, or status epilepticus (SE), is the most serious situation manifested by individuals with epilepsy, and SE events can lead to neuronal damage. An understanding of the molecular, biochemical and physiopathological mechanisms involved in this type of neurological disease will enable the identification of specific central targets, through which novel agents may act and be useful as SE therapies. Currently, studies have focused on the association between oxidative stress and SE, the most severe epileptic condition. A number of these studies have suggested the use of antioxidant compounds as alternative therapies or adjuvant treatments for the epileptic state. PMID:27698680

  8. Reactive oxygen species and synthetic antioxidants as angiogenesis modulators: Clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M; Hevelke, Agata; Skopiński, Piotr; Bałan, Barbara; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Rokicki, Dariusz; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Białoszewska, Agata

    2016-04-01

    Angiogenesis is important for normal functioning of organism and its disturbances are observed in many diseases, called angiogenesis-related states. Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) play an important role in physiology, but high level of cellular ROSs is cytotoxic and mutagenic for the cells, i.e. it can lead to oxidative stress. In this review we discuss close relationship between ROSs and angiogenesis process. Substances counteracting free radicals or their action and oxidative stress are known as antioxidants. We postulate that antioxidants, by affecting angiogenesis, may modulate therapy results in the case of angiogenesis-related disease. Herein, we present some antioxidant preparations of synthetic (N-acetylcysteine, curcumin and its analogs, Probucol, oleane tripertenoid, EGCG synthetic analogs) and nature-identical (vitamin E and C) origin. Then, we analyze their angiogenic properties and their multidirectional molecular effect on angiogenesis. Most preparations reduce neovascularization and diminish the level of proangiogenic molecules, downregulating signaling pathways related to angiogenesis. Moreover, we discuss studies concerning anticancer properties of presented synthetic antioxidants and their application in several angiogenesis-related diseases. We conclude that therapy in angiogenesis-related diseases should be planned with consideration of the angiogenic status of the patient.

  9. The Oxidant and Antioxidant Status in Pityriasis Rosea

    PubMed Central

    Emre, Selma; Akoglu, Gulsen; Metin, Ahmet; Demirseren, Duriye Deniz; Isikoglu, Semra; Oztekin, Aynure; Erel, Ozcan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pityriasis rosea (PR) is usually an asymptomatic and self-limiting papulosquamous skin disease with acute onset. The etiology has not been clarified yet. Recently, increased oxidative stress was found to play a role in etiopathogenesis of multiple cutaneous diseases with T cell-mediated immune response. However, there are no studies demonstrating the oxidative stress status in PR. Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the status of oxidative stress (OS) and paraoxonase (PON) 1/arylesterase enzyme activities in PR. Materials and Methods: Study included 51 patients with active PR lesions, and 45 healthy volunteers. Serum levels of total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and PON1/arylesterase (ARES) activity were determined and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated in all patients and controls. Results: TAS levels and ARES activities in the patient group were significantly lower than the control group. On the other hand, TOS and OSI levels were significantly higher in patients compared with controls. There was no significant correlation between the duration of disease and TAS, TOS, OSI levels, and ARES activities. Conclusion: A systemic oxidative stress exists in PR, which suggests that OS may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of disease. PMID:26955119

  10. Nutritional and antioxidant status by skin types among female adults

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyun Sook; Choi, Sung Im

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to analyze the relationship among sebum · hydration content of the skin and nutritional intake, serum antioxidant minerals and antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxide concentration in 50 female subjects in their 20s. The skin type was divided into Dry Skin, Mixed Skin, and Oily Skin, and the dry skin group was 14%, the mixed skin group was 56%, and the oily skin group was 30% of all subjects. The average age of the subjects was 20.54 ± 1.43 years and BMI was 20.66. The average sebum content in each group was in the order of T-zone>forehead>chin>cheek. In case of the T-zone, a significant difference between the dry skin group and the oily skin group was observed, suggesting that the area is most sensitive to sebum content by skin type. Significant differences were not observed in energy and nutrient intakes by skin type. Serum concentrations of antioxidant minerals such as copper, manganese, zinc and selenium were not significantly different among the groups, but the dry skin group tended to be higher than the oily skin group. Serum catalase was significantly higher in the oily skin group (P < 0.05), and MDA was significantly higher in the mixed skin group (P < 0.05). The hydration of the cheek and serum zinc showed a negative correlation, and the sebum content of the cheek and GPx showed a significant negative correlation. The hydration of the forehead and serum copper showed a significant negative correlation, and the hydration of the forehead and GPx showed a significant positive correlation. The hydration of the chin and serum SOD showed a significant positive correlation. With these results, it is considered that the basic condition of nutritional status can affect the skin health. PMID:20607067

  11. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in fetal circulation in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Braekke, Kristin; Harsem, Nina K; Staff, Anne C

    2006-11-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with oxidative stress in maternal circulation. The purpose of this study was to explore oxidative stress and antioxidants in the fetal circulation in preeclampsia. Women with preeclampsia (n = 19) or uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 33) delivered by cesarean section were included. Blood was sampled separately from the umbilical vein and artery. 8-Iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (8-isoprostane), a stable product of lipid peroxidation, is a reliable marker of oxidative stress. Concentration of total 8-isoprostane in cord plasma was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antioxidant status was evaluated measuring ferric reducing ability of plasma and vitamin E. There was no difference between preeclampsia and control groups regarding median plasma concentration of 8-isoprostane in umbilical vein (955 versus 780 pg/mL, p = 0.41) or in umbilical artery (233 versus 276 pg/mL, p = 0.65). Concentration of 8-isoprostane was much higher in plasma from the umbilical vein than artery, suggesting placenta as the source of 8-isoprostane. Median ferric reducing ability of plasma concentration was higher in preeclampsia than in controls, both in the umbilical vein and artery. Median vitamin E concentration in the umbilical vein was higher in preeclampsia, but no difference was found in the umbilical artery. In conclusion, no evidence of increased oxidative stress, evaluated by 8-isoprostane concentration, was found in fetal circulation in preeclampsia.

  12. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in patients with complicated urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ceban, E; Banov, P; Galescu, A; Botnari, V

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, intense efforts have been made to clarify the pathogenesis of urolithiasis, which affects more than 10% of the population of developed countries. Currently, a number of studies have assumed a key role in the pathogenesis of oxalate urolithiasis, which is the most common one that belongs to the active forms of oxygen generated in the kidney, as a result of the activation of free radical oxidation that occurs in the interaction of calcium oxalate crystals with renal tubular epithelial cells. In the current work, oxidant and antioxidant status were assessed in the blood of patients with complicated urolithiasis pre - and post surgery. The surgical treatment of complicated urolithiasis leads a decrease of the oxidative stress and an increase in the potential of antiradical and antiperoxidative protection. PMID:27974930

  13. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in patients with complicated urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    E, Ceban; P, Banov; A, Galescu; V, Botnari

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, intense efforts have been made to clarify the pathogenesis of urolithiasis, which affects more than 10% of the population of developed countries. Currently, a number of studies have assumed a key role in the pathogenesis of oxalate urolithiasis, which is the most common one that belongs to the active forms of oxygen generated in the kidney, as a result of the activation of free radical oxidation that occurs in the interaction of calcium oxalate crystals with renal tubular epithelial cells. In the current work, oxidant and antioxidant status were assessed in the blood of patients with complicated urolithiasis pre - and post surgery. The surgical treatment of complicated urolithiasis leads a decrease of the oxidative stress and an increase in the potential of antiradical and antiperoxidative protection.

  14. ILC MARX MODULATOR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM STATUS

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, Craig; Benwell, Andrew; Beukers, Tony; Kemp, Mark; Larsen, Raymond; MacNair, David; Nguyen, Minh; Olsen, Jeff; Tang, Tao; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    A Marx-topology klystron modulator is under development for the International Linear Collider (ILC) project. It is envisioned as a lower cost, smaller footprint, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, baseline design. The application requires 120 kV (+/-0.5%), 140 A, 1.6 ms pulses at a rate of 5 Hz. The Marx constructs the high voltage pulse by combining, in series, a number of lower voltage cells. The Marx employs solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and disolation of the cells. Active compensation of the output is used to achieve the voltage regulation while minimizing the stored energy. The developmental testing of a first generation prototype, P1, has been completed. This modulator has been integrated into a test stand with a 10 MW L-band klystron, where each is undergoing life testing. Development of a second generation prototype, P2, is underway. The P2 is based on the P1 topology but incorporates an alternative cell configuration to increase redundancy and improve availability. Status updates for both prototypes are presented.

  15. Collapse of skin antioxidant status during the subacute period of cutaneous radiation syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Benderitter, Marc; Isoir, Muriel; Buard, Valérie; Durand, Valérie; Linard, Christine; Vozenin-Brotons, Marie Catherine; Steffanazi, Jean; Carsin, Hervé; Gourmelon, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This case report describes a patient suffering from accidental cutaneous radiation syndrome. Clinical symptoms were characterized by the presence of moist epidermal denudation over approximately 8% of the body surface without signs of necrosis 88 days after radiation exposure. The skin transcriptional profile was obtained and provides a comprehensive overview of the changes in gene expression associated with skin wound healing after irradiation. In particular, our data show a specific set of genes, i.e. SOD1, GPX1, TDX1, TDX2 and HSP60, implicated in the redox control of normal skin repair after radiation exposure, whereas HOX1 and HOX2 were involved in the pathological skin repair. A reduction in the antioxidant capacity of the irradiated tissue concomitant with a progressive establishment of an uncontrolled inflammatory response was noted. Our data corroborate the hypothesis that ROS modulation is a key element of the healing response after cutaneous exposure to radiation and that the collapse of skin antioxidant status interferes directly with wound healing in skin after radiation exposure. Thus a better understanding of the molecular events through which oxidative stress modulates the healing response could result in a more rational therapeutic approach to the pathological process induced after exposure of skin to radiation.

  16. [Analysis of antioxidant status and actual diet of students].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L I; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Osipova, E V; Dolgikh, M I; Semenova, N V

    2015-01-01

    The study of the features of the antioxidant status and dietary intake of students is highly relevant, since this population cohort is the future labor potential of society. 40 female students (mean age--22.4 +/- 0.6 years) living in hostel dormitories (n=20) and rented apartments (n=20) were surveyed. To assess the nutrition the method of questioning within 5 days, including weekends has been used. Personal energy consumption per diem has been calculated by table-keeping method. It was found that, retinol blood serum content (measured spectrofluorimetrically) in students living in dormitories was 1.45 fold lower than that in students living in rented apartments (1.28 +/- 0.66 vs. 1.86 +/- 0.17 mmol/l, p<0.001). When analyzing the changes of the integral parameter of antioxidant defense system (the total antioxidant activity assessed using as a model system a suspension of egg yolks lipoprotein) a decrease of this parameter with respect to standards for the majority of the surveyed women (65% of students living in dorms and 80% of students living in rented apartments) has been noted. The energy value of the daily ration for girls in both groups (1375 +/- 626 kcal--in a dormitory and 1731 +/- 547 kcal--in a rented apartment) was lower than energy expenditure (1789 +/- 202 and 1808 +/- 234 kcal/day, respectively), with higher energy value in students living in rented apartments (p<0.001). Carbohydrates prevailed in the diet of students living in dormitories (417 +/- 207 g/day vs. 289 +/- 131 g/day in female students living in rented apartments, p<0.0001) while in the diet of the students living in rented apartments fats (110.5 +/- 55.7 g/day, compared with that of the students living in the hostel--66.1 +/- 50.8 g/day, p<0.0001) and proteins (99.1 +/- 47.9 vs. 81.6 +/- 42.7 g/day, p<0.001) prevailed. Thus, the high-risk group with regard to adaptive capacity and unbalanced diet are students living in dormitories, with a crucial role played by low material support.

  17. Watercress supplementation in diet reduces lymphocyte DNA damage and alters blood antioxidant status in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Gill, Chris I R; Haldar, Sumanto; Boyd, Lindsay A; Bennett, Richard; Whiteford, Joy; Butler, Michelle; Pearson, Jenny R; Bradbury, Ian; Rowland, Ian R

    2007-02-01

    Cruciferous vegetable (CV) consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several cancers in epidemiologic studies. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of watercress (a CV) supplementation on biomarkers related to cancer risk in healthy adults. A single-blind, randomized, crossover study was conducted in 30 men and 30 women (30 smokers and 30 nonsmokers) with a mean age of 33 y (range: 19-55 y). The subjects were fed 85 g raw watercress daily for 8 wk in addition to their habitual diet. The effect of supplementation was measured on a range of endpoints, including DNA damage in lymphocytes (with the comet assay), activity of detoxifying enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) in erythrocytes, plasma antioxidants (retinol, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, lutein, and beta-carotene), plasma total antioxidant status with the use of the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay, and plasma lipid profile. Watercress supplementation (active compared with control phase) was associated with reductions in basal DNA damage (by 17%; P = 0.03), in basal plus oxidative purine DNA damage (by 23.9%; P = 0.002), and in basal DNA damage in response to ex vivo hydrogen peroxide challenge (by 9.4%; P = 0.07). Beneficial changes seen after watercress intervention were greater and more significant in smokers than in nonsmokers. Plasma lutein and beta-carotene increased significantly by 100% and 33% (P < 0.001), respectively, after watercress supplementation. The results support the theory that consumption of watercress can be linked to a reduced risk of cancer via decreased damage to DNA and possible modulation of antioxidant status by increasing carotenoid concentrations.

  18. Serum total oxidant and antioxidant status in earthquake survivors with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Pinar Guzel; Kaplan, İbrahim; Uysal, Cem; Bulut, Mahmut; Atli, Abdullah; Bez, Yasin; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Ozdemir, Osman

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although there are some studies on oxidative stress and PTSD, there is no report available on the serum total oxidant and antioxidant status in earthquake survivors with PTSD. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the serum total oxidant and antioxidant status in earthquake survivors with chronic PTSD. The study group included 45 earthquake survivors with PTSD and 40 earthquake survivors without PTSD. The oxidative status was determined using the total antioxidant status and total oxidant status (TOS) measurements and by calculating the oxidative stress index (OSI). There were no statistically significant differences in the total antioxidant status, TOS, or OSI when comparing individuals with and without PTSD (all, p>0.05). There were no correlations between Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores and oxidant and antioxidant stress markers (all, p>0.05). Our results suggest that the total oxidant and antioxidant status may not affect earthquake survivors with PTSD. This is the first study to evaluate the oxidative status in earthquake survivors with PTSD. Further studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

  19. Oxidant and antioxidant status in neonatal proven and clinical sepsis according to selenium status.

    PubMed

    Asci, Ali; Surmeli-Onay, Ozge; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Yigit, Sule; Yurdakok, Murat; Kocer-Gumusel, Belma

    2015-12-01

    Selenium is a trace element required for the functioning of the immune system. Neonatal sepsis is a serious condition leading to morbidity and mortality in neonates worldwide. The purpose of this study was to measure selenium and plasma selenoprotein P (SePP), selenoenzyme activity, and alterations in oxidant/antioxidant status with immune biomarkers in neonates with clinical (n = 27) and proven neonatal sepsis (n = 25). Erythrocyte selenium and SePP; plasma lipid peroxidation (LP), protein oxidation and total antioxidant capacity and erythrocyte total glutathione (GSH) concentration; erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), catalase (CAT) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured spectrophotometrically/spectrofluorometrically. Plasma interleukin 2 and 6 were also measured. Erythrocyte selenium and SePP were markedly lower both in the clinical and proven sepsis groups versus control. Erythrocyte GPx activity was higher only in the clinical sepsis group. TrxR activity was markedly lower in proven sepsis. SOD activity and GSH were markedly higher both in clinical sepsis and in proven sepsis. CAT activity was significantly higher both in clinical sepsis and in proven sepsis. LP and protein oxidation were significantly higher in both of the sepsis groups. Both selenium-dependent and selenium-independent blood redox systems were altered in sepsis, suggesting that sepsis causes an imbalance between cellular antioxidant and oxidant states. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. The effect of wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) consumption on postprandial serum antioxidant status in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kay, Colin D; Holub, Bruce J

    2002-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the consumption of wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium), a concentrated source of non-nutritive antioxidant phytochemicals, would enhance postprandial serum antioxidant status in healthy human subjects. A single-blinded crossover study was performed in a group of eight middle-aged male subjects (38-54 years). Subjects consumed a high-fat meal and a control supplement followed 1 week later by the same high-fat meal supplemented with 100.0 g freeze-dried wild blueberry powder. Upon brachial vein catheterization, fasting and postprandial serum samples were taken sequentially and analysed for lipids and glucose and for serum antioxidant status. Serum antioxidant status was determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay and the total antioxidant status (TAS) assay. The wild-blueberry treatment was associated with a significant treatment effect as determined by the ORAC assay (water-soluble fraction ORAC(perchloric acid (PCA)), P=0.04). Significant increases in serum antioxidant status above the controls were observed at 1 h (ORAC(PCA) (8.5 % greater), P=0.02; TAS (4.5 % greater), P=0.05), and 4 h (ORAC(total) (15.0 % greater), P=0.009; ORAC(acetone) (16.0 % greater), P=0.007) post-consumption of the high-fat meal. In conclusion, the consumption of wild blueberries, a food source with high in vitro antioxidant properties, is associated with a diet-induced increase in ex vivo serum antioxidant status. It has been suggested that increasing the antioxidant status of serum may result in the reduced risk of many chronic degenerative diseases.

  1. Alterations in Lipid Metabolism and Antioxidant Status in Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Panchal, Falguni H; Ray, Somshukla; Munshi, Renuka P; Bhalerao, Supriya S; Nayak, Chitra S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP), a T-cell-mediated inflammatory disorder, wherein inflammation produces lipid metabolism disturbances, is linked to increase in cardiovascular (CV) risk with dyslipidemia. Increased reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides have also been implicated in its pathogenesis. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the status on lipid disturbances, oxidative stress, and inflammation in LP patients. Materials and Methods: The study was initiated after obtaining Institutional Ethics Committee permission and written informed consent from participants. The study included 125 patients (74 LP patients and 51 age and sex-matched controls) visiting the outpatient clinic in the dermatology department of our hospital. Variables analyzed included lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and catalase (CAT) activity. Results: Analysis of lipid parameters revealed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) along with decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in LP patients as compared to their respective controls. LP patients also presented with a significantly higher atherogenic index that is, (TC/HDL-C) and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios than the controls. A significant increase in CRP levels was observed among the LP patients. There was a statistically significant increase in the serum levels of the lipid peroxidation product, MDA and a statistically significant decrease in CAT activity in LP patients as compared to their respective controls. A statistically significant positive correlation (r = 0.96) was observed between serum MDA levels and duration of LP whereas a significantly negative correlation (r = −0.76) was seen between CAT activity and LP duration. Conclusion: Chronic inflammation in patients with LP may explain the association with dyslipidemia and CV risk. Our findings also suggest that an increase in oxidative

  2. Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) mycelium enhanced antioxidant status in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Mhd Omar, Nor Adila; Abdullah, Sumaiyah; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Aim Lentinus squarrosulus is an edible wild mushroom commonly found in Asia. This species has several interesting features such as rapid mycelial growth, and hence has the potential to be used as food, functional food, and nutraceuticals. Our previous study shows that L. squarrosulus contains potent antioxidant compounds in vitro. This study aims to investigate the in vivo bioavailability of L. squarrosulus mycelium extract and its antioxidant effect on biomarkers of antioxidant defense and oxidative stress. Methods Water extract of mycelial biomass of L. squarrosulus was analyzed for in vivo antioxidant effects, including cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), xanthine oxidase (XO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and lipid hydroperoxides (LHPs) at 0 and 28 days. GPx and XO were also analyzed in liver homogenates. Normal Sprague Dawley rats were treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg of extract for 28 days. Results The serum CUPRAC level increased after treatment with both concentrations, indicating that there was sufficient bioavailability of the extract which contributed to the total antioxidant capacity. GPx activity in both serum and liver was increased and this correlated with LHP level after treatment with 250 mg/kg of extract, but XO activity was significantly decreased after treatment with 500 mg/kg of the extract. Lack of difference between AOPP levels implied that there were no significant changes in oxidative damage of protein after treatment. Conclusion This study clearly showed that L. squarrosulus mycelium antioxidant extract contains absorbable antioxidants that enter the circulating plasma and cause a significant acute increase in plasma antioxidant capacity. Thus, the water extract of L. squarrosulus mycelium, which can be obtained abundantly by liquid fermentation, may serve as an antioxidant ingredient in functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:26604694

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Nutritional Status in Anorexia Nervosa: Effects of Weight Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944

  4. Antioxidant activity and nutritional status in anorexia nervosa: effects of weight recovery.

    PubMed

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-03-30

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60 μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system.

  5. Improvement of serum antioxidant status in humans after the acute intake of apple juices.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Francilene G K; Di Pietro, Patricia F; da Silva, Edson L; Borges, Graciele S C; Nunes, Eduardo C; Fett, Roseane

    2012-03-01

    It is hypothesized that apples of 2 Brazilian cultivars with different content of sugars and antioxidant compounds promote similar effects on the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in human serum after acute intake. Nine healthy women ingested 300 mL of Golden Delicious or Catarina apple juice (AJ) or water, and blood samples were collected before and 1 hour after intake. After intake of both AJ, a similar and significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity and ascorbic and uric acid levels and a significant decrease in serum lipid peroxidation was observed. The increase in serum antioxidant capacity after consumption of both AJ was correlated directly with the uric acid levels and inversely with serum lipid peroxidation. In summary, the acute intake of AJ of 2 cultivars promoted a similar effect on the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in human blood serum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the Brazilian population's intake of antioxidant nutrients and their relation with the nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Tureck, Camila; Locateli, Gelvani; Corrêa, Vanesa Gesser; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica

    2017-01-01

    The study of dietary antioxidants has gained prominence owing to the elucidation of the deleterious effects of oxidative stress to the human body. Objective: To evaluate the Brazilian population's intake of antioxidant nutrients and their association with the nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was carried out including secondary data on food consumption of 33,459 individuals from both sexes, aged 10 years or older, from all Brazilian regions based on microdata of the "2008-2009 Household Budget Survey, Brazilian Dairy Survey." The content of vitamins E, A, and C; zinc; manganese; copper; and selenium from 188 food items, divided into 12 groups, according to the habitual consumption form was analyzed. The means of antioxidant nutrient intake according to the nutritional status were compared using Bonferroni's t-test. Higher percentages of insufficient intake of vitamins than antioxidant minerals were seen. A significant difference in the intake of vitamin E as to the nutritional status was noticed, wherein the intake in overweight individuals was lower than in those with proper weight. Participants with low weight presented lower intake of almost all antioxidant minerals, except for copper, in which the intake of participants with low weight was equal to those with normal weight. High percentages of insufficient intake of antioxidant nutrients were observed in the studied population, especially vitamins. It was also found that the intake of antioxidant nutrients varied based on nutritional status, gender, and life stage.

  7. The capacity of antioxidant protection during modulated ageing of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cotyledons. 1. The antioxidant enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Procházková, D; Wilhelmová, N

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are known to increase in plant senescence. We investigated the participation of antioxidative enzymes in initiation of cotyledon senescence. Senescence of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cotyledons was modulated by UV C irradiation and by the decapitation of plant apices. Senescence was accompanied by a decrease of protein content and by a decrease of photochemical efficiency. A drop in activity of antioxidative enzymes preceded the onset of senescence in control plants. In cotyledons with prolonged life span, the decrease of antioxidant activities and the markers of senescence onset appeared at a similar age as in controls. Thus we presumed that the period from senescence initiation to cotyledon abscission was extended. On the other hand, in UV C irradiated plants we did not observe actual senescence initiation, and antioxidant enzymes although elevated, did not effectively play their role. The decrease of antioxidant enzymes activity and the markers of senescence appeared at a similar age both in control and in decapitated (D) plants, so we can presume that we prolonged mainly the period from senescence onset to cotyledon abscission in D plants. In UV C irradiated plants the antioxidative enzymes were probably destroyed before the process of senescence could begin.

  8. Plasma antioxidant status and motor features in de novo Chinese Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongsheng; Tong, Qing; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Siming; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Shu; Xu, Qinrong; Li, Daqian; Zhou, Xiaobin; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Kezhong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore plasma antioxidant status in de novo Chinese Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and investigate its relationship with specific motor features of PD. Sixty-four de novo Chinese PD patients and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Each motor feature of PD patients was assessed by unified Parkinson's disease rating scale. Plasma antioxidant status, including plasma level of glutathione (GSH) and plasma activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationship between the plasma antioxidant status and motor features of PD was evaluated by Spearman's coefficient. Plasma GSH level and plasma activities of GSH-Px, CAT and SOD of PD patients were lower than those of healthy controls. Moreover, the declining activity of plasma CAT was related with the increasing mean postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD) score and growing age. In contrast, the severity of tremor was positively correlated with plasma SOD activity. Our study demonstrates that the plasma antioxidant status is impaired in de novo Chinese PD patients. The complex relationship between the plasma antioxidant status and different motor features indicates that the antioxidant mechanisms underlying tremor and PIGD of PD may be different.

  9. Association of blood antioxidants status with visual and auditory sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Shiraseb, Farideh; Siassi, Fereydoun; Sotoudeh, Gity; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rostami, Reza; Sadeghi-Firoozabadi, Vahid; Narmaki, Elham

    2015-01-01

    A low antioxidants status has been shown to result in oxidative stress and cognitive impairment. Because antioxidants can protect the nervous system, it is expected that a better blood antioxidant status might be related to sustained attention. However, the relationship between the blood antioxidant status and visual and auditory sustained attention has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of fruits and vegetables intake and the blood antioxidant status with visual and auditory sustained attention in women. This cross-sectional study was performed on 400 healthy women (20-50 years) who attended the sports clubs of Tehran Municipality. Sustained attention was evaluated based on the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test using the Integrated Visual and Auditory (IVA) software. The 24-hour food recall questionnaire was used for estimating fruits and vegetables intake. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured in 90 participants. After adjusting for energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), years of education and physical activity, higher reported fruits, and vegetables intake was associated with better visual and auditory sustained attention (P < 0.001). A high intake of some subgroups of fruits and vegetables (i.e. berries, cruciferous vegetables, green leafy vegetables, and other vegetables) was also associated with better sustained attention (P < 0.02). Serum TAC, and erythrocyte SOD and GPx activities increased with the increase in the tertiles of visual and auditory sustained attention after adjusting for age, years of education, physical activity, energy, BMI, and caffeine intake (P < 0.05). Improved visual and auditory sustained attention is associated with a better blood antioxidant status. Therefore, improvement of the antioxidant status through an appropriate dietary intake can possibly enhance

  10. Frequency Modulated Translocational Oscillations of Nrf2 Mediate the Antioxidant Response Element Cytoprotective Transcriptional Response

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Mingzhan; Momiji, Hiroshi; Rabbani, Naila; Barker, Guy; Bretschneider, Till; Shmygol, Anatoly; Rand, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Stress responsive signaling coordinated by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) provides an adaptive response for protection of cells against toxic insults, oxidative stress and metabolic dysfunction. Nrf2 regulates a battery of protective genes by binding to regulatory antioxidant response elements (AREs). The aim of this study was to examine how Nrf2 signals cell stress status and regulates transcription to maintain homeostasis. Results: In live cell microscopy we observed that Nrf2 undergoes autonomous translocational frequency-modulated oscillations between cytoplasm and nucleus. Oscillations occurred in quiescence and when cells were stimulated at physiological levels of activators, they decrease in period and amplitude and then evoke a cytoprotective transcriptional response. We propose a mechanism whereby oscillations are produced by negative feedback involving successive de-phosphorylation and phosphorylation steps. Nrf2 was inactivated in the nucleus and reactivated on return to the cytoplasm. Increased frequency of Nrf2 on return to the cytoplasm with increased reactivation or refresh-rate under stress conditions activated the transcriptional response mediating cytoprotective effects. The serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PGAM5, member of the Nrf2 interactome, was a key regulatory component. Innovation: We found that Nrf2 is activated in cells without change in total cellular Nrf2 protein concentration. Regulation of ARE-linked protective gene transcription occurs rather through translocational oscillations of Nrf2. We discovered cytoplasmic refresh rate of Nrf2 is important in maintaining and regulating the transcriptional response and links stress challenge to increased cytoplasmic surveillance. We found silencing and inhibition of PGAM5 provides potent activation of Nrf2. Conclusion: Frequency modulated translocational oscillations of Nrf2 mediate the ARE-linked cytoprotective transcriptional response. Antioxid. Redox

  11. Effect of free or protein-associated soy isoflavones on the antioxidant status in rats.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Ana Cl; Lajolo, Franco M; Genovese, Maria I

    2011-03-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic ingestion of free and protein-associated soy isoflavones on the antioxidant status in male Wistar rats. Free isoflavone (iso), protein-associated soy isoflavone (iso + prot) and soy protein (prot) extracts were administered for 30 days by gavage to the rats at a dosage of 1 mg aglycone isoflavones per 200 g body weight, adjusted daily, and the prot group was given the same concentration of soy protein received by the iso + prot group. Antioxidant capacity of plasma, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in plasma, erythrocytes and tissues and gene expression levels in liver and kidney were evaluated. Chronic ingestion of free but not of protein-associated soy isoflavones nor of solely soy protein increased plasma antioxidant capacity and GPx activity in erythrocytes. Soy protein increased CAT activity and gene expression in liver. SOD activity in erythrocytes was increased by all treatments. The overall results confirm that dietary soy isoflavones have a positive effect on antioxidant status, enhancing antioxidant capacity of plasma and antioxidant enzymes in various tissues, but the effects are dependent on the form of administration and on a complex mechanism of antioxidant status balance on the organism. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. What are the antioxidant status predictors' factors among male chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients?

    PubMed

    Pirabbasi, Elham; Najafiyan, Mahin; Cheraghi, Maria; Shahar, Suzana; Abdul Manaf, Zahara; Rajab, Norfadilah; Abdul Manap, Roslina

    2012-11-04

    Imbalance between antioxidant and oxidative stress is a major risk factor for pathogenesis of some chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to determine antioxidant and oxidative stress status, and also theirs association with respiratory function of male COPD patients to find the antioxidant predictors' factors. A total of 149 subjects were involved in a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted at two medical centers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results of the study showed that plasma vitamin C was low in most of the subjects (86.6%). Total antioxidant capacity was the lowest in COPD stage IV compare to other stages (p < 0.05). Level of plasma vitamin A (p= 0.012) and vitamin C (p= 0.007) were low in malnourished subjects. The predictors for total antioxidant capacity were forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted and intake of ?-carotene (R2= 0.104, p= 0.002). Number of cigarette (pack/ year) and smoking index (number/ year) were not associated with total antioxidant capacity of this COPD population. Plasma oxidative stress as assessed plasma lipid peroxidation (LPO) was only positively correlated with plasma glutathione (p= 0.002). It might be a need to evaluate antioxidant status especially in older COPD patients to treat antioxidant deficiency which is leading to prevent COPD progression.

  13. Antioxidant modulation of nevirapine induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Popoola, Temidayo; Rotimi, Kunle; Ikumawoyi, Victor; Okunowo, Wahab

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS related mortality has been dramatically reduced by the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, ART presents with associated adverse effects. One of such adverse effects is hepatotoxicity observed with nevirapine (NVP) containing ART. Since previous studies showed that NVP hepatotoxicity may be due to oxidative stress via generation of oxidative radicals, this study sought to evaluate the protective effects of antioxidants in alleviating NVP induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were divided into 6 groups with 8 animals per group and received doses of the antioxidants jobelyn (10.7 mg/kg/day), vitamin C (8 mg/kg/day), vitamin E (5 mg/kg/day) and/or NVP (6 mg/kg/day) for 60 days. The animals were sacrificed on day 61 by cervical dislocation, blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological examination. The liver of the sacrificed animals was weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. There was a statistically significant (p<0.05) elevation in MDA level observed in the NVP group as compared with control. The results further showed non-significant decreases in the levels of MDA in the NVP plus antioxidant groups, except vitamin C, when compared with the NVP alone group. Vitamin E and Vitamin E plus C treated groups showed significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of SOD, CAT and GSH. The results also showed statistically significantly (p<0.05) lower levels of ALT and AST in the antioxidant treated groups There was an observed significantly (p<0.05) higher level of TP and urea in the antioxidant treated rats. A significantly (p<0.05) higher white blood cell count was observed in the antioxidant groups. Histopathological assessment of the liver extracted from the rats showed no visible pathology across the groups. Observations from this study suggest a potentially positive modulatory effect of antioxidants and may be indicative for the inclusion of antioxidants in nevirapine containing ART. PMID:27486354

  14. Antioxidant modulation of nevirapine induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Popoola, Temidayo; Rotimi, Kunle; Ikumawoyi, Victor; Okunowo, Wahab

    2015-03-01

    HIV/AIDS related mortality has been dramatically reduced by the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, ART presents with associated adverse effects. One of such adverse effects is hepatotoxicity observed with nevirapine (NVP) containing ART. Since previous studies showed that NVP hepatotoxicity may be due to oxidative stress via generation of oxidative radicals, this study sought to evaluate the protective effects of antioxidants in alleviating NVP induced hepatotoxicity. Rats were divided into 6 groups with 8 animals per group and received doses of the antioxidants jobelyn (10.7 mg/kg/day), vitamin C (8 mg/kg/day), vitamin E (5 mg/kg/day) and/or NVP (6 mg/kg/day) for 60 days. The animals were sacrificed on day 61 by cervical dislocation, blood samples were collected for biochemical and hematological examination. The liver of the sacrificed animals was weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. There was a statistically significant (p<0.05) elevation in MDA level observed in the NVP group as compared with control. The results further showed non-significant decreases in the levels of MDA in the NVP plus antioxidant groups, except vitamin C, when compared with the NVP alone group. Vitamin E and Vitamin E plus C treated groups showed significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of SOD, CAT and GSH. The results also showed statistically significantly (p<0.05) lower levels of ALT and AST in the antioxidant treated groups There was an observed significantly (p<0.05) higher level of TP and urea in the antioxidant treated rats. A significantly (p<0.05) higher white blood cell count was observed in the antioxidant groups. Histopathological assessment of the liver extracted from the rats showed no visible pathology across the groups. Observations from this study suggest a potentially positive modulatory effect of antioxidants and may be indicative for the inclusion of antioxidants in nevirapine containing ART.

  15. Oxidative/Antioxidative status in obese and sport trained children: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Matusik, Pawel; Prokopowicz, Zofia; Norek, Berenika; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Chudek, Jerzy; Malecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare oxidative/antioxidative status in obese and sport trained children and to correlate obtained redox markers with anthropometrical measurements, body composition parameters, and adipokines levels. 78 (44 males) obese (SG) and 80 (40 males) normal weight sport trained (CG) children matched for age and Tanner stage were recruited for the study. Body composition parameters and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Oxidative/antioxidative status was evaluated in plasma by total oxidative status (PerOX), oxidized-LDL cholesterol (oxLDL), total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOx), and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx). Leptin and adiponectin levels and adiponectin/leptin ratio (A/L) were also investigated. OxLDL was higher in SG versus CG (P < 0.05), but ImAnOx and GPx were reduced in SG versus CG (P < 0.01). Redox markers correlated significantly with BMI Z-score, WHR, WHtR, body composition parameters, leptin (in boys only), and A/L ratio (in boys only) in SG and in a whole studied population. PerOX significantly correlated with BMR in the CG. Antioxidative/oxidative status in obese children is significantly impaired and related adipose tissue excess and its hormonal activity. Oxidative status assessed by PerOx is also high in sport trained children but antioxidative defense is significantly more efficient with no overproduction of oxidized LDL.

  16. Oxidative and antioxidant status in plasma of runners: effect of oral supplementation with natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Claudia; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Sorrenti, Valeria; Vanella, Angelo; Grasso, Salvatore; Barcellona, Maria Luisa; Galvano, Fabio; Vanella, Luca; Renis, Marcella

    2009-02-01

    Aerobic exercise increases free radical production as a consequence of enhanced oxygen consumption. If free radical formation exceeds antioxidant capacity, lipids, proteins, and DNA may be oxidized. Oxidative stress is widely recognized as a factor in many degenerative human diseases. The role of dietary antioxidants in protection against disease is a topic of continuing interest. In fact, there is epidemiological evidence correlating a higher intake of nutrients possessing antioxidant abilities with a lower incidence of various human diseases. This study was directed at investigating whether changes in plasma antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers occur in voluntary wheel runners, before and after oral supplementation with lycopene and isoflavones. For this purpose, plasma antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers were assessed in long distance runners at the end of a 60-minute run. Comparisons were made between runners before and after 60 days of supplementation with lycopene and isoflavones. DNA damage in blood cells of the same samples was also evaluated by comet assay. This investigation shows that oral supplementation with lycopene and soy-derived isoflavones significantly reduced lipid peroxidation and enhanced plasma nonproteic antioxidant defense.

  17. Initial and post-treatment total oxidant-antioxidant status and oxidative stress index in male patients with manic episode.

    PubMed

    Kalelioglu, Tevfik; Genc, Abdullah; Karamustafalioglu, Nesrin; Tasdemir, Akif; Can Gungor, Ferda; Cansiz, Alparslan; Incir, Said; Cem Ilnem, M; Emul, Murat

    2014-08-15

    We investigated serum total oxidative and anti-oxidative status in manic patients. Group1 was formed as ECT+antipsychotic, group2 was antipsychotic and healthy volunteers as group3. The anti-oxidative status was significantly lower in group1 than group3. No significant change was found between pre and post-treatment oxidative and anti-oxidative status, whereas significantly increased oxidative stress index has been found in group2. Total anti-oxidative status in manic states seems to be inadequate which remains to be maintained after the treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effect of alpha-tocopherol and synthetic antioxidants on morpho-functional status of gonadotropic cells from the adenohypophysis of albino rats].

    PubMed

    Kozak, M V; Teplyĭ, D L

    2003-01-01

    Morphometric indices of gonadotropic cells obtained from adenohypophysis of white rats, both males and females, were investigated after treatment with alpha-tocopherol and synthetic antioxidants. The former stimulated the functional status of gonadotropic cells revealed in a proportional increase in both nuclear and cytoplasmic volumes. After the treatment with a synthetic antioxidant dibunolum, the volume of the cytoplasm increased in gonadotropic cells of rats of different sexes. After the treatment with a water-soluble antioxidant emoxipinum, the volume of the cytoplasm in gonadotropic cells increased only in males. The outcomes allow to consider alpha-tocopherol, in contrast to from synthetic antioxidants, as one of the modulators of the functional state of gonadotropic cells obtained from adenohypophysis.

  19. Analyses of antioxidant status and nucleotide alterations in genes encoding antioxidant enzymes in patients with benign and malignant thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Nur Siti Fatimah; Mat Junit, Sarni; Leong, Ng Khoon; Razali, Nurhanani; Jayapalan, Jaime Jacqueline; Abdul Aziz, Azlina

    2017-01-01

    nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MNG and PTC patients and their genotypic and allelic frequencies were calculated. Analyses of the relationship between serum enzyme activities and the total SNPs identified in both groups revealed no correlation. Different forms of thyroid disorders influence the levels of antioxidant status in the serum and RBC of these patients, implying varying capability of preventing oxidative stress. A more comprehensive study with a larger target population should be done in order to further evaluate the relationships between antioxidant enzymes gene polymorphisms and thyroid disorders, as well as strengthening the minor evidences provided in literatures.

  20. Antioxidant status and biomarkers of oxidative stress in canine lymphoma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background – Oxidative stress might play a role in carcinogenesis, as well as impacting morbidity and mortality of veterinary cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antioxidant concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress in dogs with newly-diagnosed lymphoma prior to treatm...

  1. Antioxidant status and hormonal profile reflected by experimental feeding of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, Magdy A; Moselhy, Said S

    2016-04-01

    Excessive production of free radicals can result in tissue damage, which mainly involves generation of hydroxyl radical and other oxidants. Such free radical-induced cell damage appears to play a major role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Probiotics have been used therapeutically to modulate immunity, improve digestive processes, lower cholesterol, treat rheumatoid arthritis, and prevent cancer. The proposed research was designed to evaluate the changes in oxidative and antioxidative profile in addition to metabolic-related hormones of living animal model, which may generally affect the health status. Two groups of rabbits (10 animals each) were allocated in hygienic cages of controlled animal house. Control group received standard diet, and the other group received the same diet containing one probiotic for 30 days. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in leukocytes, blood glucose, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were estimated in different tissues. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total proteins were also determined in different tissues. Certain hormones related to metabolism and growth were also evaluated. Leukocytic LDH activity was significantly increased along with nonsignificant increase of blood glucose in probiotics-fed animals. Results showed significant decreases in the levels of triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone but showed significant elevations in thyroxine, insulin, growth hormone, and testosterone levels in animals fed with probiotics. Total proteins content was highly significantly elevated in liver, kidneys, and muscles of probiotic-administered animals. Microsomal GSH level was significantly decreased only in skeletal muscles of probiotic-treated animals. MDA was significantly lowered in animal tissues fed with probiotics. GSH-Px activity was elevated in hepatic and muscular microsomes of probiotic-supplemented animals while it was nonsignificantly increased in renal

  2. Sodium nitroprusside-mediated alleviation of iron deficiency and modulation of antioxidant responses in maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Praveen; Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Parma Nand

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to alleviate Fe-deficiency effects, possibly by enhancing the functional Fe status of plants. This study examines changes in tissue Fe status and oxidative metabolism in Fe-deficient maize (Zea mays L.) plants enriched with NO using sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a source. Methodology Measurements included changes in concentrations of H2O2, non-protein thiols, levels of lipid peroxidation and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and of the Fe-requiring antioxidant haem enzymes catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidases. Internal NO in Fe-deficient maize plants was manipulated with SNP and the NO scavenger, methylene blue (MB). A key control was treatment with sodium ferrocyanide (SF), a non-NO-supplying analogue of SNP. Principal results SNP but not SF caused re-greening of leaves in Fe-deficient maize plants over 10–20 days, increased in vivo NO content, raised chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, promoted growth in dry weight, increased the activities of H2O2-scavenging haem enzymes and enhanced lipid peroxidation, while decreasing SOD activity and H2O2 concentrations. The NO scavenger, MB, blocked the effects of the SNP. Although SNP and SF each donated Fe and increased active Fe, only SNP increased leaf chlorophyll. Conclusions NO plays a role in Fe nutrition, independently of its effect on total or active Fe status. The most probable mechanism of NO involvement is to increase the intracellular availability of Fe by means of modulating redox. This is likely to be achieved by enhancing the chemical reduction of foliar Fe(III) to Fe(II). PMID:22476060

  3. Effect of the co-occurring components from olive oil and thyme extracts on the antioxidant status and its bioavailability in an acute ingestion in rats.

    PubMed

    Rubió, Laura; Serra, Aida; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to examine whether bioactives in thyme could enhance the antioxidant capacity of phenolics in virgin olive oil and their bioavailability in Wistar rats. After acute oral administration of extracts from olive cake (OE), thyme (TE) or their combination (OTE), blood samples were collected from 0 to 360 min. Plasma antioxidant status was analyzed by DPPH and FRAP in plasma and by SOD, CAT and GPx activities in erythrocytes. Plasma pharmacokinetics of the main metabolites of bioactives in olive oil and thyme were characterized. Plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity was significantly modulated by OE, TE, and OTE in a time-, assay, and extract-dependent manner. OE, TE, and OTE all significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and catalase (CAT) activity was increased. Pharmacokinetic results showed that plasma concentration (Cmax) of the main olive phenolic metabolites in rats fed with OTE were similar to those of OE. These results indicate that an enhanced bioavailability of olive phenolic compounds could occur in the presence of thyme, although any synergistic effect was observed in the antioxidant status when both phenolic extracts were administered. Antioxidant protection by phenolics from olive and thyme against oxidative stress occurs primarily through a direct antioxidant effect and may be related to the phenolic plasmatic metabolites.

  4. Oxidant and antioxidant status of cadmium administered rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toplan, S.; Ozcelik, D.; Dariyerli, N.; Akyolcu, M. C.

    2003-05-01

    Cadmium is one of the industrial elements that lead environmental pollution. Biological half-life of cadmium is relatively longer, so its clearance from tissue is considerably long. In present study, oxidant stress and antioxidant defense mechanism due to exposure to cadmium in rats wanted to be investigated. For such a purpose adult female wistar albino rats were divided into two as control and experimental groups. During experimental period while both group animals were fed by standard fodder, cadmium added (20 μg Cd/ml as cadmium sulfate) drinking water was given to experimental group for four weeks. At the end of four weeks blood samples were drawn from animals under ether anesthesia. As a Last product of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) level, superoxide dismutas (SOD) activity which is sign of antioxidant defense enzyme activity and glutathione levels (GSH) were measured. Increase in lipid peroxidation has been observed by increased MDA levels in experimental group (p<0.001). SOD enzyme activity was also found to be significantly lower in experimental group (p<0.001). Glutathione level of experimental group found to be decreased according to control group values (p<0.01). As a result of present study it may be concluded that cadmium may lead to increase in lipid peroxidation. On the other hand SOD activity and glutathione levels may also be decreased by effect of cadmium in erythrocytes. So the resultant would be the disturbed antioxidant mechanism

  5. Free radicals and antioxidants status in neonates with congenital malformation

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Bedabrata; Gongopadhyay, Ajay Narayan; Rani, Anjali; Gavel, Roshni; Mishra, Surendra Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies using animal models have shown that oxidative stress during pregnancy may play an important role in causing birth defects. Congenital anomalies affect an estimated 270,000 newborns who die during the first 28 days of life every year from different birth defects. Hence, at present many research works are going on to reduce the infant mortality from congenital anomaly.[1] Objective: The objective was to measure the oxidant and antioxidant level in the serum of newborn babies with the congenital anomaly and compare these levels with age and sex matched normal neonates. This is to identify any role of oxidative stress in the causation of congenital anomaly. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included 159 participants: 106 newborns with the congenital anomaly and 53 healthy newborns. The markers of oxidative stress like serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level, protein carbonyl (PC) level, and the activity of antioxidants such as Vitamin C, glutathione were measured in both cases (neonates with congenital anomaly) and controls (normal healthy neonates). These parameters were statistically compared. Results: MDA levels and PC levels were significantly higher (P < 0.0001), and Vitamin C and reduced glutathione levels were significantly lower (P < 0.0001), in newborns with congenital malformation than in healthy newborns. Conclusions: Increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation might play an important role in the pathogenesis of congenital anomaly. Impairment of the free radical/antioxidant balance is leading to increased free radical damage in neonates with congenital malformation. PMID:26628809

  6. Is antioxidant plasma status in humans a consequence of the antioxidant food content influence?

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, L; Di Pierro, D; Bigioni, M; Sodi, V; Galvano, F; Cianci, R; La Fauci, L; De Lorenzo, A

    2007-01-01

    A constantly growing part of consumers considers the organic foods healthier than the conventional foods. However, so far few nutritional intervention studies in humans are available on the comparison of organic and conventional food products. The aim of the present work was to compare the total antioxidant activity of organic versus conventional fruits (apples, pears, red oranges, lemons, strawberries and bananas), vegetables (lettuces, tomatoes, onions, garlics, carrots, beans, potatoes, celeries, peas, courgettes and zucchinies), red wine and milk. The oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) procedure was used to determine both the antioxidant activity of food from organic or conventional origin, and the human plasma antioxidant capacity. Ten Caucasian Italian men, aged 30-65 years, were recruited. The subjects were healthy, according to the clinical examination and the disease history, none smoked or took any drug. Anthropometric parameters of all the participants were measured. The ORAC values of most part of organic foods, i.e. fruits, vegetables as well as red wine and milk were significantly (p < 0.005) higher than those of the conventional homologues. Three organic foods, i.e. pears (-25%) (p < 0.01), lettuces (-20%) (p < 0.01), and tomatoes salsas (-4%) showed ORAC values lower than the conventional homologues. After the consumption of 14 days Mediterranean organic diet a significant (p < 0.005) increase (21%) of the human plasma total antioxidant capacity was observed. Our results clearly show that the organic food products have an higher total antioxidant activity and bioactivity than the conventional foods. The results could be used in public health campaign to increase the consumption of products able to provide a significant health protection and prevention of chronic diseases.

  7. Rat colonic lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status: the effects of dietary luteolin on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine challenge.

    PubMed

    Manju, Vaiyapuri; Balasubramaniyan, Vairappan; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2005-01-01

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. A number of recent articles demonstrate the importance of natural products as cancer chemopreventive agents. In this study, we evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of luteolin, a flavonoid, on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status, which are used as biomarkers in DMH-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis. Rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of DMH at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 15 weeks. Luteolin (0.2 mg/kg body weight/everyday p.o.) was given to the DMH-treated rats at the initiation and post-initiation stages of carcinogenesis. The animals were killed after 30 weeks. After a total experimental period of 32 weeks (including 2 weeks of acclimatization), tumor incidence was 100% in DMH-treated rats. In those DMH-treated rats that had received luteolin during the initiation or post-initiation stages of colon carcinogenesis, the incidence of cancer and the colon tumor size was significantly reduced as compared to that for DMH-treated rats not receiving luteolin. In the presence of DMH, relative to the results for the control rats, there were decreased levels of lipid peroxidation, as denoted by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes and lipid hydroperoxides, decreased activities of the enzymic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and elevated levels of glutathione and the glutathione-dependent enzymes reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR), and of the non-enzymic antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E. Our study shows that intragastric administration of luteolin inhibits colon carcinogenesis, not only by modulating lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status, but also by preventing DMH-induced histopathological changes. Our results thus indicate that luteolin could act as a potent

  8. Long-term stability of parameters of antioxidant status in human serum.

    PubMed

    Jansen, E H J M; Beekhof, P K; Cremers, J W J M; Viezeliene, D; Muzakova, V; Skalicky, J

    2013-07-01

    The antioxidant status of serum or plasma can be determined using several commercially available assays. Here, four different assays, total antioxidant status (TAS), its second-generation assay (TAS2), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), and enzymatic assay using horseradish peroxidase (EAOC), were applied on human serum samples to test the temperature stability of antioxidants, upon storage of serum for 12 months. The two or three most commonly used temperatures for storage, that is, - 20, - 70 (or - 80), and - 196°C, were selected. The general conclusion is that all assays were stable at the temperatures tested. In addition, there were almost no statistically significant differences between the samples stored at different temperatures. Only the rank order of the EAOC assay was not very good in samples stored at - 20°C. Also three components contributing to the total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin, showed no statistically significant differences between the temperatures. Therefore, storage at - 20°C is sufficient to maintain a proper assay outcome of most of the total antioxidant assays, although storage at - 70/80°C is to be preferred for longer storage times.

  9. Antioxidant Status and Immune Activity of Glycyrrhizin in Allergic Rhinitis Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Lan; Zhou, Ai-Guo; Zhang, Li; Chen, Wei-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered as a major risk factor that contributes to increased lipid peroxidation and declined antioxidants in some degenerative diseases. Glycyrrhizin is widely used to cure allergic diseases due to its medicinal properties. In the present study, we evaluated the role of glycyrrhizin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in the blood and nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis (AR) mice. Mice were divided into six groups: normal control mice, model control (MC) mice, three glycyrrhizin-treated mice groups and lycopene-treated mice. Sensitization-associated increase in lipid peroxidation was observed in the blood and nasal mucosa of MC mice. Activities of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and levels of glutathione (GSH) were found to be significantly decreased in the blood and nasal mucosa in MC mice when compared to normal control mice. However, normalized lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defenses were reported in the glycyrrhizin-treated and lycopene-treated mice. Moreover, glycyrrhizin treatment still enhanced IFN-γ and reduced IL-4 levels in glycyrrhizin-treated mice. These findings demonstrated that glycyrrhizin treatment enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the incidence of free radical-induced lipid peroxidation and improved immunity activities in the blood and nasal mucosa of AR mice. PMID:21541033

  10. Change in blood antioxidant status of horses moved from a stable following diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Delguste, Catherine; de Moffarts, Brieuc; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Art, Tatiana; Pincemail, Joël; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Amory, Hélène; Lekeux, Pierre

    2007-11-01

    The antioxidant status of 10 horses living in stable 1 where 2 cases of equine motor neuron disease had previously been diagnosed was assessed before and 9 weeks after moving to another stable. Duration of residence in stable 1, subsequent moving, or both, significantly affected several parameters of the antioxidant status.

  11. Dimethyl fumarate modulates antioxidant and lipid metabolism in oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Taraboletti, Alexandra; Shriver, Leah P

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to pathology associated with inflammatory brain disorders and therapies that upregulate antioxidant pathways may be neuroprotective in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Dimethyl fumarate, a small molecule therapeutic for multiple sclerosis, activates cellular antioxidant signaling pathways and may promote myelin preservation. However, it is still unclear what mechanisms may underlie this neuroprotection and whether dimethyl fumarate affects oligodendrocyte responses to oxidative stress. Here, we examine metabolic alterations in oligodendrocytes treated with dimethyl fumarate by using a global metabolomic platform that employs both hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and shotgun lipidomics. Prolonged treatment of oligodendrocytes with dimethyl fumarate induces changes in citric acid cycle intermediates, glutathione, and lipids, indicating that this compound can directly impact oligodendrocyte metabolism. These metabolic alterations are also associated with protection from oxidant challenge. This study provides insight into the mechanisms by which dimethyl fumarate could preserve myelin integrity in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  12. Modulation of vascular endothelial cell function by palm oil antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Abeywardena, M Y; Head, R J; Gapor, A

    1997-03-01

    Several cardiovascular risk factors including, hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension, lead to diseased blood vessels due to endothelial cell dysfunction. Recent studies also indicate that such alterations in blood vessel function may involve free radical related mechanism(s). Therefore, in the present study, two different preparations of palm oils with variable antioxidant profiles, as well as a purified antioxidant fraction extracted from unprocessed palm oil (tocotrienol-rich-factor; TRF), were tested for their ability to influence blood vessel dysfunction in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Adult SHRs were fed a synthetic diet supplemented (5% w/w) with either physically refined palm oil (PO), golden palm cooking oil (Nutrolein; GPO) or olive oil (OO; control diet). Antioxidant rich diet (TRF diet) was prepared by supplementing the OO diet with 0.2% (w/w) TRF. After 12 weeks of pre-feeding, segments of thoracic aorta were used to evaluate vascular function. Compared to the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats, aortic rings from the SHR showed impaired endothelium dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) which was restored by dietary TRF (p<0.05, ANOVA and Tukey's test). In addition, the paradoxical increase in tension in control hypertensive vessels observed at higher doses of ACh was prevented by TRF and also by the PO and GPO diets. Although the development of thromboxane-like constrictor response, after the inhibition of nitric oxide in hypertensive vessels, was unaffected by test diets, both TRF and GPO feeding prevented the amplification of this unwanted constriction by a threshold dose (7.2x10-10 M) of noradrenaline. Results suggest a modulatory role for minor constituents of edible oils and are in agreement with the recently reported benefits of natural antioxidants against cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Serum total antioxidant capacity status of HTLV-1 infected patients.

    PubMed

    Shomali, S; Avval, F Zahedi; Boostani, R; Jarahi, L; Youssefi, M

    2015-06-01

    Many aspects of the pathogenesis of Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) still need further elucidations. Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress occurs during infection with the other retrovirus, human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). Similar results have been observed in some other chronic viral infections including hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV). In order to reveal possible oxidative stress in HTLV-1-infected patients, we evaluated serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as an indicator of oxidative stress in these patients. Forty-four HTLV-1-seropositive individuals were included in this study, consisting of 12 symptomatic and 32 asymptomatic (carrier) cases. Controls consisted of 36 apparently healthy, HTLV-1-, HIV- and hepatitis-seronegative individuals. All symptomatic patients had HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Serum TAC levels in patients and healthy individuals were measured using a quantitative TAC assay. The antioxidant capacity in HTLV-1-seropositive cases was significantly reduced compared to control group (P = 0.001). In addition, TAC was lower in patients with more than 5 years history of HAM/TSP compared to those with ≤5 years duration of the myelopathy (P = 0.03). Our results show a depletion of TAC during HTLV-1 infection, which intensifies along with the disease progress. This finding indicates a role of the oxidative stress in pathogenesis of HTLV-1. These results may prompt further research to evaluate any possible therapeutic effect of antioxidant dietary supplements for HTLV-1 infected individuals.

  14. Antioxidant capacity of phytochemicals and their potential effects on oxidative status in animals — A review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M. T.; Lin, W. C.; Yu, B.; Lee, T. T.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress suppresses animal health, performance, and production, subsequently impacting economic feasibility; hence, maintaining and improving oxidative status especially through natural nutrition strategy are essential for normal physiological process in animals. Phytochemicals are naturally occurring antioxidants that could be considered as one of the most promising materials used in animal diets in various forms. In this review, their antioxidant effects on animals are discussed as reflected by improved apparent performance, productivity, and the internal physiological changes. Moreover, the antioxidant actions toward animals further describe a molecular basis to elucidate their underlying mechanisms targeting signal transduction pathways, especially through the antioxidant response element/nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 transcription system. PMID:27660026

  15. Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf.) modulates antioxidant activity and human T-cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf.) also known as Jujube, is a deciduous shrub which belongs to Rhamnaceae family. This plant is used in Algerian traditional medicine for its anti-diabetic, sedative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic activities. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of different vitamins (vitamin A, C and E) and fatty acids in root, stem, leaves, fruit pulp and seed of Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf.) and assessed the effects of their aqueous extracts on antioxidant status and human T-cell proliferation. Methods Aqueous filtrates from different parts, i.e, root, leaf, stem, fruit pulp and seed, of Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf.) were prepared. Vitamin C levels were determined by precipitating with 10% trichloroacetic acid and vitamin A and E were assessed by HPLC. Lipid composition of these extracts was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated by using anti-radical resistance kit [Kit Radicaux Libres (KRL@; Kirial International SA, Couternon, France)]. T-cell blastogenesis was assessed by the incorporation of 3H-thymidine. IL-2 gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR. Results Our results show that fruit pulp contained higher vitamin A and C contents than other parts of the plant. Furthermore, the fruit pulp was the richest source of linoleic acid (18:2n-6), a precursor of n-6 fatty acids. Fruit seeds possessed higher vitamin C levels than leaves, roots and stem. The leaves were the richest source of vitamin E and linolenic acid (18:3n-3), a precursor of n-3 fatty acids. The antioxidant capacity of the different extracts, measured by KRL@ test, was as follows: pulp < seed

  16. Status of trace elements and antioxidants in premenopausal and postmenopausal phase of life: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ansar, Sabah; Alhefdhi, Tayef; Aleem, Ansari M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the extent of free radical damage in the form of oxidative stress, the antioxidant status and correlate with trace element levels in postmenopausal females as compared to premenopausal females. Participants between the ages of 30-60 years were recruited for the study and status of antioxidant enzymes and trace metals level was determined. The serum Calcium (Ca) levels after menopause was higher than that of the premenopausal group (P<0.001). The changes in copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) between the groups were not significant (p>0.05). In postmenopausal women, antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) significantly decreased (P<0.001) in postmenopausal women showing oxidative stress in the cells. Concentrations of vitamin-C pointed out a significant decrease (P<0.05) in postmenopausal women when compared with premenopausal women.

  17. Status of trace elements and antioxidants in premenopausal and postmenopausal phase of life: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ansar, Sabah; Alhefdhi, Tayef; Aleem, Ansari M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the extent of free radical damage in the form of oxidative stress, the antioxidant status and correlate with trace element levels in postmenopausal females as compared to premenopausal females. Participants between the ages of 30-60 years were recruited for the study and status of antioxidant enzymes and trace metals level was determined. The serum Calcium (Ca) levels after menopause was higher than that of the premenopausal group (P<0.001). The changes in copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) between the groups were not significant (p>0.05). In postmenopausal women, antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) significantly decreased (P<0.001) in postmenopausal women showing oxidative stress in the cells. Concentrations of vitamin-C pointed out a significant decrease (P<0.05) in postmenopausal women when compared with premenopausal women. In conclusion. PMID:26770597

  18. Effect of streptomycin on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Wrześniok, Dorota; Beberok, Artur; Otręba, Michał; Buszman, Ewa

    2013-11-01

    Streptomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic with an antituberculosis activity commonly used in clinical practice due to its good antimicrobial characteristics. A well-known undesirable side effect of this drug is ototoxicity, which may be caused by overproduction of reactive oxygen species and loss of melanocytes in the inner ear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of streptomycin on melanogenesis and antioxidant defense system in cultured normal human melanocytes (HEMa-LP). Streptomycin induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 was determined to be ~5.0 mM. It has been shown that streptomycin causes inhibition of tyrosinase activity and reduces melanin content in human melanocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant changes in the activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were also stated. The results obtained in vitro may explain a potential role of melanocytes and melanin in the causative mechanisms of aminoglycosides ototoxic effects in vivo.

  19. Effect of zinc supplementation on the antioxidant, copper, and iron status of physically active adolescents.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Karla de Jesus Fernandes; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; de Oliveira, Astrogildo Vianna; da Silveira, Carmen Lucia Porto; Koury, Josely Correa

    2009-04-01

    Puberty associated with intense physical activity results in oxidation stress. Zinc supplementation may benefit antioxidant capacity although it may also affect iron and copper status. This study evaluated the effect of zinc supplementation on antioxidant, zinc and copper status of physically active male football players (13 years +/- 0.4 years), divided in two groups and studied during 12 weeks: Zn-supplemented (Zn-SUP, 22 mg Zn d(-1) as zinc gluconate, n = 21) and placebo (PLA, n = 26). At baseline, there was no significant difference in biochemical indices between the two groups. After treatment, plasma zinc and erythrocyte iron increased in both groups (p < 0.001); urinary zinc increased (p < 0.001) only in Zn-SUP, and erythrocyte zinc decreased (p = 0.002) only in PLA. Plasma iron and copper decreased (p = 0.01 and p = 0.015, respectively) only in Zn-SUP. Plasma ferric-reducing ability and plasma conjugated dienes increased, and erythrocyte osmotic fragility decrease in both groups, although the latter two were significantly lower in Zn-SUP compared to PLA (p < 0.01). In conclusion, our study indicates that the use of 22 mg d(-1) of supplemental zinc during 12 week in adolescent athletes did not affect growth, improved markers of antioxidant status but reduced plasma iron and copper. Therefore, it appears that the use of zinc supplementation by healthy adolescent athletes benefits their antioxidant capacity but impairs copper and iron nutritional status. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Differential modulation of apoptosis and necrosis by antioxidants in immunosuppressed human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Mauricio; Rugeles, María Teresa; Gil, Diana Patricia; Patiño, Pablo

    2002-04-15

    In the present study, we explored whether mitogenic stimulation of dexamethasone (DXM)- and cyclosporine A (CsA)-immunosuppressed peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBML) induced apoptosis or necrosis and their relation with the production of reactive oxygen intermediates. Our results indicate that both phenomena can occur in these cells and that antioxidants such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and ascorbic acid (AA) can modulate them. However, DXM-induced apoptosis was only partially inhibited by NAC and AA, suggesting that DXM-treated PBMC had an additional apoptotic pathway independent of ROIs. Furthermore, we observed that the inhibition of apoptosis by antioxidants correlated with an increased cell proliferation, suggesting that the immunomodulation of both DXM and CsA may be related to induction of apoptosis. The ability to differentially modulate apoptosis and necrosis by antioxidants opens new possibilities in the management of immunosuppressive therapy, since the inhibition of necrosis may avoid inflammation and the tissue damage associated with immunosuppressors.

  1. Effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose induced metabolic stress on testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status in golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus: Role of photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-12-01

    The driving force underlying the evolution of reproductive seasonality is the marked seasonal fluctuation in energy availability. It is well established that photoperiod regulates testicular steroidogenesis through modulation of circulatory and local melatonin levels and MT1R expression in golden hamster. However, photoperiodic variation in energy availability and its impact on testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status has never been investigated for any seasonal breeder. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to elucidate the role of photoperiod in modulation of metabolic stress induced variation in steroidogenesis and antioxidant status in testes. We experimentally reduced energy availability via administration of 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a synthetic glucose analog, in critical- (CP), long- (LD) and short-day (SD) exposed golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus and examined testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant status. Administration of 2-DG decreased testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant enzyme activity in CP and LD experienced hamsters as compared to CP- and LD-control groups. Moreover, a decrease in the plasma- and local-melatonin level and MT1R expression in testes with a simultaneous increase in plasma corticosterone level was noted following 2-DG administration in CP and LD exposed hamsters. In contrast, no significant effect of 2-DG administration was observed on the parameters investigated under SD condition. Therefore, it can be suggested that the reduction in energy availability under CP and LD condition suppressed testicular steroidogenesis and increased oxidative damage in testis whereas SD induced melatonin might have buffered the 2-DG induced suppression of testicular steroidogenesis and maintained testicular antioxidant status.

  2. Procyanidins as antioxidants and tumor cell growth modulators.

    PubMed

    Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição; de Freitas, Victor; Mateus, Nuno

    2006-03-22

    Five procyanidin fractions with different structural complexities were obtained after fractionation of a grape seed extract. The procyanidin fraction's abilities to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by 2,2'-azobis-2-methyl-propanimidamide dihydrochloride in a liposomal membrane system were examined. The antioxidant capacities of all fractions were evaluated through monitoring oxygen consumption and by measuring the formation of conjugated dienes. All tested fractions provided protection of membranes against peroxyl radicals by increasing the induction time of oxidation. This effect increased up to fraction II but decreased with the increase of the structural complexity of further procyanidin fractions, possibly due to steric hindrance effects exhibited by the more complex fractions. In addition, the antiradical properties and the reducing power of these fractions were determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing/antioxidant power methods, respectively. Moreover, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide reduction and DNA synthesis were measured in Michigan Cancer Foundation 7 (MCF-7), a human breast cancer cell line, treated with catechin or procyanidin fractions in order to evaluate the effect of these compounds on cell viability and proliferation. The results obtained showed that at 30 microg/mL, fractions I and II decreased cell viability and proliferation, which was not observed with 60 microg/mL of the same fractions. Catechin was also able to decrease cell viability and proliferation at 30 and 60 microg/mL. It is interesting to notice that the procyanidin fractions that exhibited higher antioxidant activity were the same to affect cell viability and proliferation.

  3. Evaluation of total antioxidant status, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index in patients with alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Motor, Sedat; Ozturk, Sahin; Ozcan, Oguzhan; Gurpinar, Ahmet Burak; Can, Yesim; Yuksel, Rana; Yenin, Julide Zehra; Seraslan, Gamze; Ozturk, O Hasan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate total oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in serum samples from patients with Alopesia Areata (AA) in our laboratory conditions. In this study, 46 subjects with AA (26 females, 20 males) and the control subjects of 36 (20 females, 16 males) age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers from our hospital staffs were enrolled (the mean age was 23.7 ± 11.0 years). Blood samples were obtained following an overnight fasting state, and were collected on ice at 4°C. The serum samples were separated from the cells by centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 15 min and were stored at -80°C and used for the analysis of the Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) and Total Oxidant Status (TOS). Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) and Total Oxidant Status (TOS), Oxidative Stress Index (OSI) (TOS/TAS) levels of AA patients were 1.4777 ± 0.1986; 9.7490 ± 6.0445; 0.6593 ± 0.4069 respectively. TAS; TOS; OSİ (TOS/TAS) levels of controls were 1.4028 ± 0.1687; 9.4627 ± 4.2781; 0.6875 ± 0.3232 respectively. TAS, TOS and OSİ levels showed no significant difference between the control and AA group (p > 0.05). Future studies about AA pathogenesis should be based not only on oxidant/antioxidant balance but also on several other factors. Because it was observed that the disease showed recurrence in different situations. Since the selection criteria of patients is affected from disease severity and environmental and genetical factors, multicentric studies with better sampled patient population and higher patient number is required.

  4. Evaluation of total antioxidant status, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index in patients with alopecia areata

    PubMed Central

    Motor, Sedat; Ozturk, Sahin; Ozcan, Oguzhan; Gurpinar, Ahmet Burak; Can, Yesim; Yuksel, Rana; Yenin, Julide Zehra; Seraslan, Gamze; Ozturk, O Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we aimed to evaluate total oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in serum samples from patients with Alopesia Areata (AA) in our laboratory conditions. Methods: In this study, 46 subjects with AA (26 females, 20 males) and the control subjects of 36 (20 females, 16 males) age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers from our hospital staffs were enrolled (the mean age was 23.7 ± 11.0 years). Blood samples were obtained following an overnight fasting state, and were collected on ice at 4°C. The serum samples were separated from the cells by centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 15 min and were stored at -80°C and used for the analysis of the Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) and Total Oxidant Status (TOS). Results: Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) and Total Oxidant Status (TOS), Oxidative Stress Index (OSI) (TOS/TAS) levels of AA patients were 1.4777 ± 0.1986; 9.7490 ± 6.0445; 0.6593 ± 0.4069 respectively. TAS; TOS; OSİ (TOS/TAS) levels of controls were 1.4028 ± 0.1687; 9.4627 ± 4.2781; 0.6875 ± 0.3232 respectively. TAS, TOS and OSİ levels showed no significant difference between the control and AA group (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Future studies about AA pathogenesis should be based not only on oxidant/antioxidant balance but also on several other factors. Because it was observed that the disease showed recurrence in different situations. Since the selection criteria of patients is affected from disease severity and environmental and genetical factors, multicentric studies with better sampled patient population and higher patient number is required. PMID:24955187

  5. Impaired Antioxidant Status and Reduced Energy Metabolism in Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essa, M. M.; Braidy, N.; Waly, M. I.; Al-Farsi, Y. M.; Al-Sharbati, M.; Subash, S.; Amanat, A.; Al-Shaffaee, M. A.; Guillemin, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress induced mechanisms are believed to be associated with the pathophysiology of autism. In this study, we recruited 19 Omani autistic children with age-matched controls to analyze their plasma and serum redox status and the levels of ATP, NAD[superscript +] and NADH using well established…

  6. Impaired Antioxidant Status and Reduced Energy Metabolism in Autistic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essa, M. M.; Braidy, N.; Waly, M. I.; Al-Farsi, Y. M.; Al-Sharbati, M.; Subash, S.; Amanat, A.; Al-Shaffaee, M. A.; Guillemin, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress induced mechanisms are believed to be associated with the pathophysiology of autism. In this study, we recruited 19 Omani autistic children with age-matched controls to analyze their plasma and serum redox status and the levels of ATP, NAD[superscript +] and NADH using well established…

  7. Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Atig, Fatma; Raffa, Monia; Ali, Habib Ben; Abdelhamid, Kerkeni; Saad, Ali; Ajina, Mounir

    2012-01-01

    Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40), asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35). Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the levels of glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome. PMID:22211112

  8. Asparagus root regulates cholesterol metabolism and improves antioxidant status in hypercholesteremic rats.

    PubMed

    Visavadiya, Nishant P; Narasimhacharya, A V R L

    2009-06-01

    Hyperlipidemia/hypercholesteremia are major risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Root of Asparagus racemosus (AR) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine in India and is known for its steroidal saponin content. This study was designed to investigate the hypocholesteremic and antioxidant potential of AR root in both normo- and hypercholesteremic animals. Normal and hypercholesteremic male albino rats were administered with root powder of AR (5 and 10 g% dose levels) along with normal and hypercholesteremic diets, respectively, for a duration of 4 weeks. Plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, fecal sterol, bile acid excretion and hepatic antioxidant activity were assessed. Inclusion of AR root powder in diet, resulted in a dose-dependant reduction in plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, increased fecal excretion of cholesterol, neutral sterol and bile acid along with increases in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity and bile acid content in hypercholesteremic rats. Further, AR root also improved the hepatic antioxidant status (catalase, SOD and ascorbic acid levels). No significant changes in lipid and antioxidant profiles occurred in the normocholesteremic rats administered with AR root powder. AR root appeared to be useful as a dietary supplement that offers a protection against hyperlipidemia/hypercholesteremia in hypercholesteremic animals. The results of the present study indicate that the potent therapeutic phyto-components present in AR root i.e. phytosterols, saponins, polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid, could be responsible for increased bile acid production, elimination of excess cholesterol and elevation of hepatic antioxidant status in hypercholesteremic conditions.

  9. Intake of antioxidants and their status in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Sahni, N; Gupta, K L; Rana, S V; Prasad, R; Bhalla, A K

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the intake and status of antioxidants in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Randomized control trial. Hospital outpatient department. One hundred eighty-five subjects (145 predialysis CKD patients and 40 apparently healthy controls) were enrolled for this study. The patients were divided into moderate and severe renal failure groups based on their creatinine and glomerular filtration rates. All patients completed a food frequency questionnaire, 24-hour dietary recall form, and anthropometric measurements and underwent biochemical and antioxidant lab tests. Dietary intake, anthropometry, biochemical measures of blood and antioxidant enzymes as well as oxidative stress. Overall, the diet was significantly lower in antioxidant-rich food intake in all the CKD patients as compared with controls. The oxidative stress measured in blood was found to be in consonance with the intake from diet. Micronutrients play a major role in the antioxidant status of the patients and must be monitored, as deficiency of these might elevate the oxidative stress of the body, especially in the chronic diseases. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Group membership and social status modulate joint actions.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Antonio; Paolini, Daniele; Pagliaro, Stefano; Migliorati, Daniele; Wolff, Annemarie; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Costantini, Marcello

    2015-08-01

    The ability to form shared task representations is considered a keystone of social cognition. It remains, however, contentious if, and to what extent, social categorization impacts on shared representations. In the present study, we address the possibility of the modulation of action co-representation by social categorization, such as group membership and social status, as indexed by the social Simon effect. Italian participants were requested to perform a social Simon task, along with either an Italian (high-status in-group) or an Albanian (low-status out-group) participant. Results show that Italian participants co-represented the action of their partner when paired with a high-status in-group participant. Conversely, this effect was absent when they performed the task with a low-status out-group participant. Furthermore, the Albanian participants co-represented the action of their partner when paired with an Italian participant. These results suggest that group membership modulates action co-representation through the varying of the groups' relative status. The impact of this issue is boundless given the increasing multicultural nature of our society. Indeed, if multiculturalism fails, modern society does likewise.

  11. Total oxidant/antioxidant status in sera of patients with thyroid cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Feng, Jia-Fu; Zeng, Ping; Yang, Yun-Hong; Luo, Jun; Yang, Yu-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to be involved in the pathophysiology of all cancers. In order to evaluate the total oxidant/antioxidant status in patients with thyroid cancer and to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress parameters and serum thyroid profiles among thyroid cancer patients and various controls, we determined oxidative status including total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) and calculation of oxidative stress index (OSI) in sera in 82 thyroid cancer patients, 56 benign thyroid disease patients, and 50 healthy controls. It was found that serum TAS levels were significantly lower in patients with thyroid cancer than in controls (P<0.001), while serum TOS levels and OSI values were significantly higher (both P<0.001) in the cancer patients. No significant correlations were observed between various oxidative stress markers and thyroid profiles in either the thyroid cancer patients or the controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that OSI was the best indicator for distinguishing cancer patients from benign thyroid diseased or healthy controls, followed by TOS and TAS. Risk estimate statistics also indicated that TOS and/or OSI were good risk factors to discriminate patients with thyroid cancer from two controls. These findings suggested that oxidants are increased and antioxidants are decreased in patients with thyroid cancer. OSI may be a more useful oxidative stress biomarker than TAS and TOS for monitoring the clinical status of thyroid cancer patients. PMID:22002574

  12. Significance of Serum Total Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rong; Feng, Jiafu; Yang, Yuwei; Dai, Chunmei; Lu, Anyang; Li, Jie; Liao, Yao; Xiang, Miao; Huang, Qingmei; Wang, Dong; Du, Xiao-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in a variety of diseases. Prospective studies investigating the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers and the status and development of colorectal cancer (CRC) are scarce; previous studies have failed to establish a relationship between the serum total oxidant/antioxidant status and CRC. Therefore, we compared the total serum oxidant/antioxidant levels of CRC patients and healthy subjects, and analyzed their clinical significance in the CRC. Fasting blood samples from 132 CRC patients and 64 healthy subjects were collected. Oxidative stress parameters, including total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS), were measured, and the oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. The TOS and OSI levels increased significantly (P<0.001) and the TAS level significantly decreased (P<0.001) in the CRC group compared to those in the healthy control group. Oxidative stress parameters differed significantly depending on the patient's smoking and drinking status (P<0.05). The preoperative and postoperative levels of TOS, TAS, and OSI did not differ significantly between primary sites (colon/rectum) and clinical stages (P>0.05).However, the levels of TOS, TAS, and OSI were significantly different between patients with no metastasis and those with metastases to two organs (P<0.05) Finally, the parameters are affected by smoking and drinking, and subsequent research should be conducted excluding the relevant influencing factors.

  13. Significance of Serum Total Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuwei; Dai, Chunmei; Lu, Anyang; Li, Jie; Liao, Yao; Xiang, Miao; Huang, Qingmei; Wang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in a variety of diseases. Prospective studies investigating the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers and the status and development of colorectal cancer (CRC) are scarce; previous studies have failed to establish a relationship between the serum total oxidant/antioxidant status and CRC. Therefore, we compared the total serum oxidant/antioxidant levels of CRC patients and healthy subjects, and analyzed their clinical significance in the CRC. Fasting blood samples from 132 CRC patients and 64 healthy subjects were collected. Oxidative stress parameters, including total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS), were measured, and the oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. The TOS and OSI levels increased significantly (P<0.001) and the TAS level significantly decreased (P<0.001) in the CRC group compared to those in the healthy control group. Oxidative stress parameters differed significantly depending on the patient’s smoking and drinking status (P<0.05). The preoperative and postoperative levels of TOS, TAS, and OSI did not differ significantly between primary sites (colon/rectum) and clinical stages (P>0.05).However, the levels of TOS, TAS, and OSI were significantly different between patients with no metastasis and those with metastases to two organs (P<0.05) Finally, the parameters are affected by smoking and drinking, and subsequent research should be conducted excluding the relevant influencing factors. PMID:28103261

  14. Antioxidants

    MedlinePlus

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  15. Role of hydrotherapy in the amelioration of oxidant-antioxidant status in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Mateen, Somaiya; Moin, Shagufta; Khan, Abdul Q; Zafar, Atif; Fatima, Naureen; Shahzad, Sumayya

    2017-06-14

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathophysiology of RA. Moderate intensity exercises have been reported to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrotherapy on oxidant-antioxidant status in RA patients. Forty RA patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in this study. RA patients were subdivided into two groups: the first group (n = 20) received treatment with conventional RA drugs, while the second group (n = 20) received hydrotherapy along with the conventional drugs for a period of 12 weeks. Disease Activity Score of 28 joints (DAS-28), ROS level, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of treatment. RA patients showed a significant change in the oxidative stress biomarkers (ROS, P < 0.01; ferric reducing antioxidant potential, P < 0.001; malondialdehyde, P < 0.01; protein carbonyl, P < 0.001; tail length, P < 0.05) and decrease in the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD], P < 0.01; glutathione peroxidase [GPx], P < 0.001). Conventional drug treatment has not produced any significant change in these parameters. However, cotreatment of drugs with hydrotherapy has decreased protein, lipid and DNA oxidation by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx). Our results indicate that hydrotherapy along with drugs has reduced the severity of disease (DAS-28) by ameliorating the oxidant-antioxidant status in RA patients. Thus, in addition to conventional drugs, RA patients should be advised to have hydrotherapy (moderate intensity exercise) in their treatment regimen. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Fish protein improves the total antioxidant status of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Boukortt, Farida Ouda; Girard, Aurélie; Prost, Josiane L; Ait-Yahia, Dalila; Bouchenak, Malika; Belleville, Jacques

    2004-11-01

    We measured the effects of fish protein (FP) on blood pressure, glycemia and antioxidant status in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes (STZ). Two groups of 12 rats each were fed 20% casein (C) or FP for 2 months. The total antioxidant status of blood and organs (liver, kidney and heart) was measured by the KRL test. Antioxidant enzyme activities (G-Px, G-Red, and SOD) and antioxidant substances (GSH, NO) were determined in organs, and vitamin C in plasma. FP lowered blood pressure in SH rats, but not in SH-STZ. Blood and plasma antioxidant status increased 35% and 9%, respectively, with FP in SH-STZ compared to SH rats; when compared to C, these values were more enhanced. SOD activity values were elevated with FP in SH-STZ rats, compared to the C diet, regardless of organ. Higher kidney NO and heart GSH values were noted in SH-STZ rats than SH. In SH rats fed FP, the GSH value was 2.26 times higher in liver, and NO was 3 times higher in heart. Higher NO was noted in kidney (1.84 times) and heart (1.91 times), GSH in heart (1.79 times), and vitamin C in plasma (+46%) in SH-STZ rats with FP than with C. Fish protein has a beneficial effect on blood pressure in SH rats but not in SH-STZ, and plays an important role in antioxidative defense. This protein may be useful in future treatments of such diseases as diabetes and hypertension.

  17. Effect of short-term cryostimulation on antioxidative status and its clinical applications in humans.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elżbieta; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Saluk, Joanna; Majsterek, Ireneusz

    2012-05-01

    Whole body cryostimulation (WBCT) is becoming popular in medicine and sport as an adjuvant form of treatment since late 1970s. Only a few works concerning antioxidant protection after WBCT have been published. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a ten 3-min-long exposures (one exposure per day) to cryogenic temperature (-130 °C) on the level of total antioxidant status (TAS), activity of selected antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and main non-enzymatic antioxidant-uric acid (UA) in WBCT study group (man n = 24; female n = 22) and non-WBCT control subjects (man n = 22; female n = 26). Moreover, we evaluated the lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances products. Their blood samples were collected twice at an interval of 10 days in both study group and control subjects. The activity of antioxidant enzyme and lipid peroxidation was assayed in erythrocytes, while the concentration of uric acid was measured in plasma. After completing a total of ten WBCT sessions a significant increase (p < 0.001) of TAS and UA levels in plasma (p < 0.001) in comparison to non-WBCT was observed. Our data showed that there was statistically significant increase of the activities of SOD in erythrocytes obtained from WBCT study group compared to non-WBCT controls after 10 days of treatment (p < 0.001). It was concluded that expositions to extremely low temperatures use in cryostimulation improve the antioxidant capacity of organism.

  18. The antioxidant status and concentrations of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chi-Hua; Yang, Nae-Cherng; Lee, Bor-Jen; Lin, Jui-Yuan; Hsia, Simon; Lin, Ping-Ting

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E and the antioxidant status in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). Subjects with MS (n = 72) were included according to the criteria for MS. The non-MS group (n = 105) was comprised of healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values. The plasma coenzyme Q10, vitamin E concentrations, lipid profiles, and antioxidant enzymes levels (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase) were measured. The subjects with MS had significantly higher concentrations of plasma coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E than those in the non-MS group, but these differences were not significant after being normalized for triglyceride level. The levels of antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group. The subjects with the higher antioxidant enzymes activities had significant reductions in the risk of MS (P < 0.01) after being adjusted for coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E. In conclusion, the subjects with MS might be under higher oxidative stress resulting in low levels of antioxidant enzyme activities. A higher level of antioxidant enzymes activities was significantly associated with a reduction in the risk of MS independent of the levels of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E.

  19. Piper species protect cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Akinfiresoye, Luli; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert; Vinson, Joe A

    2012-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies points to the use of antioxidants as an effective measure to reduce the progression of oxidative stress related disorders. The present study evaluate the effect of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) for the protection of cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters were classified into eight groups: a normal control, atherogenic control and six other experimental groups (fed atherogenic diet supplemented with different doses of P. nigrum, P. guineense and P. umbellatum (1 and 0.25 g/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding period the heart, liver and kidney from each group were analyzed for lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. Atherogenic diet induced a significant (P<0.001) increase in the lipid profile across the board and equally significantly altered the antioxidant enzyme activities. Supplementation with Piper species significantly inhibited the alteration effect of atherogenic diet on the lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. The Piper extracts may possess an antioxidant protective role against atherogenic diet induced oxidative stress in cardiac, hepatic and renal tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social status modulates the neural response to unfairness

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jie; Blue, Philip R.; Yu, Hongbo; Gong, Xiaoliang; Xiang, Yang; Jiang, Changjun

    2016-01-01

    In human society, which is organized by social hierarchies, resources are usually allocated unequally and based on social status. In this study, we analyze how being endowed with different social statuses in a math competition affects the perception of fairness during asset allocation in a subsequent Ultimatum Game (UG). Behavioral data showed that when participants were in high status, they were more likely to reject unfair UG offers than in low status. This effect of social status correlated with activity in the right anterior insula (rAI) and with the functional connectivity between the rAI and a region in the anterior middle cingulate cortex, indicating that these two brain regions are crucial for integrating contextual factors and social norms during fairness perception. Additionally, there was an interaction between social status and UG offer fairness in the amygdala and thalamus, implicating the role of these regions in the modulation of social status on fairness perception. These results demonstrate the effect of social status on fairness perception and the potential neural underpinnings for this effect. PMID:26141925

  1. Targeting tissue oxidative damage by means of cell signaling modulators: the antioxidant concept revisited.

    PubMed

    Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Sottero, Barbara; Poli, Giuseppe

    2010-11-01

    The complex system of molecular communications underlying cell biochemistry and function includes numerous components, kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors, that have been conclusively proven to be sensitive to cellular and tissue redox changes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), whose constitutive generation in cells and tissues is amplified under pro-oxidant conditions, are now unanimously recognized to be important triggers and modulators of cell signaling, and consequently of cell behavior. This review considers the major signaling pathways that mediate gene regulation in response to ROS, and analyzes their modulation by the most important non-enzymatic molecules having an antioxidant effect. Because of the primary role played by ROS-mediated signaling and gene expression in pathophysiology, the so-called "antioxidant compounds" may significantly interfere with cell signal transduction, not simply by quenching ROS generation and propagation but also by intercepting reactive species at the level of critical signaling pathways. Notably, a third mechanism of action has recently emerged that is independent of antioxidant properties, i.e. direct chemical interaction of the "antioxidant" with signaling enzymes and transcription factors. However, severe inhibition of ROS production might interfere with certain physiological cellular and organ functions, and would thus eventually be detrimental rather than beneficial. To address the need for appropriate administration of non-enzymatic antioxidants, the most advanced technologies for their targeted delivery are analyzed and reported.

  2. Determining oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with genital warts.

    PubMed

    Cokluk, Erdem; Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Balahoroglu, Ragip; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Huyut, Zubeyir

    2015-09-01

    Warts are abnormal skin growths caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infections within the skin of patients. Genital warts usually appear in the perianal and perigenital regions. Asymptomatic warts may be activated after years and may damage natural immunity. The inflammation that occurs during this process may lead to an imbalance between the prooxidant and the antioxidant systems. The aim of this study was to investigate erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, serum paraoxonase enzyme levels, and oxidative stress levels in patients with genital warts. In total, 32 patients with genital warts and 35 healthy subjects were included in this study. Erythrocyte GSH-Px activity, serum catalase activity, and paraoxonase enzyme, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. Erythrocyte GSH-Px activity, serum MDA levels, and catalase activity were significantly higher in patients with genital warts than in controls (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, and P < 0.05, respectively). However, serum paraoxonase enzyme levels were not significantly different between groups (P > 0.05). Serum triglyceride levels were significantly lower in patients with genital warts than in controls (P < 0.01). However, there were no statistically significant differences between groups with respect to total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (all P > 0.05). Our data suggest that oxidative stress is increased in genital warts. Increased oxidative stress levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of genital warts, and prolonged HPV infection due to chronic inflammation could also affect oxidative stress.

  3. Antioxidant status in neonatal jaundice before and after phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Dahiya, Kiran; Tiwari, A D; Shankar, Vijay; Kharb, Simmi; Dhankhar, Rakesh

    2006-03-01

    Phototherapy has been related to increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. In the present study, thirty full term jaundiced neonates with appropriate weight were analyzed before and after completion of phototherapy for malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total thiols, vitamin C and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in hemolysate and albumin levels in plasma. These parameters were analyzed in cord blood samples of 20 healthy neonates as control. It was observed that levels of MDA were elevated significantly (p<0.001) in patients as compared to controls and that the levels increased significantly after phototherapy (p<0.001). Levels of SOD were also found to be increased significantly as compared to controls and the levels rose after phototherapy (p<0.001). On the other hand, the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as GSH, total thiols and vitamin C were significantly low (p<0.001) as compared to controls and the levels decreased significantly after phototherapy (p<0.001). The plasma albumin levels also were found to be decreased significantly after phototherapy (p<0.01). Therefore, phototherapy increases oxidative stress and should be used with care.

  4. Phytochemical Antioxidants Modulate Mammalian Cellular Epigenome: Implications in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Malireddy, Smitha; Kotha, Sainath R.; Secor, Jordan D.; Gurney, Travis O.; Abbott, Jamie L.; Maulik, Gautam; Maddipati, Krishna R.

    2012-01-01

    In living systems, the mechanisms of inheritance involving gene expression are operated by (i) the traditional model of genetics where the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) transcription and messenger ribonucleic acid stability are influenced by the DNA sequences and any aberrations in the primary DNA sequences and (ii) the epigenetic (above genetics) model in which the gene expression is regulated by mechanisms other than the changes in DNA sequences. The widely studied epigenetic alterations include DNA methylation, covalent modification of chromatin structure, state of histone acetylation, and involvement of microribonucleic acids. Significance: Currently, the role of cellular epigenome in health and disease is rapidly emerging. Several factors are known to modulate the epigenome-regulated gene expression that is crucial in several pathophysiological states and diseases in animals and humans. Phytochemicals have occupied prominent roles in human diet and nutrition as protective antioxidants in prevention/protection against several disorders and diseases in humans. Recent Advances: However, it is beginning to surface that the phytochemical phenolic antioxidants such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and nonflavonoid phenols function as potent modulators of the mammalian epigenome-regulated gene expression through regulation of DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and histone deacetylation in experimental models. Critical Issues and Future Directions: The antioxidant or pro-oxidant actions and their involvement in the epigenome regulation by the phytochemical phenolic antioxidants should be at least established in the cellular models under normal and pathophysiological states. The current review discusses the mechanisms of modulation of the mammalian cellular epigenome by the phytochemical phenolic antioxidants with implications in human diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 327–339. PMID:22404530

  5. L-Theanine healed NSAID-induced gastric ulcer by modulating pro/antioxidant balance in gastric ulcer margin.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sirshendu; Chatterjee, Ananya; Roy, Surmi; Bera, Biswajit; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K

    2014-10-01

    L-Theanine is a unique non-protein-forming amino acid present in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]. In the present work, we evaluated the healing effect of L-theanine on NSAID (indomethacin)-induced gastric ulcer. Histology of the stomach tissues revealed maximum ulceration on the third day after indomethacin administration (18 mg/kg, single dose p.o.) which was accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation; protein carbonylation; Th1 cytokine synthesis, and depletion of thiol, mucin, prostaglandin (PG) E, Th2 cytokine synthesis; and total antioxidant status in mice. L-Theanine healed gastric ulcer at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. but aggravated the ulcerated condition at a higher dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. At 10 mg/kg b.w., L-theanine significantly alleviated the adverse oxidative effect of indomethacin through enhanced synthesis of PGE2 by modulation of cyclo-oxygenase-1 and 2 [COX-1 and COX-2] expression, Th1/Th2 cytokine balance, and restoration of cellular antioxidant status at the gastric ulcer margin. The present study revealed for the first time the dose-dependent biphasic effect of a natural neuroprotective agent, L-theanine, on gastric ulcer disease.

  6. Elevated blood plasma antioxidant status is favourable for achieving IVF/ICSI pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Velthut, Agne; Zilmer, Mihkel; Zilmer, Kersti; Kaart, Tanel; Karro, Helle; Salumets, Andres

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the roles of intrafollicular and systemic oxidative stress and antioxidant response in ovarian stimulation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. For this purpose, 102 ICSI patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation were enrolled and samples were collected on the day of follicle puncture. Total peroxide (TPX) concentrations and total antioxidant response (TAR) were measured in follicular fluid and blood plasma, and an oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated based on these two parameters. Urinary concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2a (F2IsoP) were measured. Elevated intrafollicular oxidative stress was positively correlated with ovarian stimulation outcome: less FSH per retrieved oocyte was used, more oocytes were collected and higher serum oestradiol concentrations were measured in patients with higher follicular OSI. However, high urinary F2IsoP related to lower embryo quality and F2IsoP was also elevated in smoking patients. Patients with endometriosis had lower follicular antioxidant status. Most importantly, higher systemic blood TAR was significantly favourable for achieving clinical pregnancy (P=0.03). In conclusion, the findings suggest clear associations between oxidative stress, antioxidant status and several aspects of ovarian stimulation and IVF/ICSI outcome, including pregnancy rate. Several oxygen-dependent biochemical reactions produce reactive oxygen species as by-products that may eventually lead to oxidative stress, which is detrimental to cells and tissues. Total antioxidant status, on the other hand, comprises several agents that balance the excess of these reactive oxygen species and reduce potential damage to the body. The aim of the current work was to study this balance in 102 patients participating in an ICSI programme and to examine the degree to which total peroxide content and antioxidant status influence infertility and pregnancy outcome. During the study, several tests

  7. Redox modulation of mitochondriogenesis in exercise. Does antioxidant supplementation blunt the benefits of exercise training?

    PubMed

    Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Cabo, Helena; Ferrando, Beatriz; Viña, Jose

    2015-09-01

    Physical exercise increases the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in muscle, liver, and other organs. This is unlikely due to increased mitochondrial production but rather to extramitochondrial sources such as NADPH oxidase or xanthine oxidase. We have reported a xanthine oxidase-mediated increase in ROS production in many experimental models from isolated cells to humans. Originally, ROS were considered as detrimental and thus as a likely cause of cell damage associated with exhaustion. In the past decade, evidence showing that ROS act as signals has been gathered and thus the idea that antioxidant supplementation in exercise is always recommendable has proved incorrect. In fact, we proposed that exercise itself can be considered as an antioxidant because training increases the expression of classical antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and, in general, lowering the endogenous antioxidant enzymes by administration of antioxidant supplements may not be a good strategy when training. Antioxidant enzymes are not the only ones to be activated by training. Mitochondriogenesis is an important process activated in exercise. Many redox-sensitive enzymes are involved in this process. Important signaling molecules like MAP kinases, NF-κB, PGC-1α, p53, heat shock factor, and others modulate muscle adaptation to exercise. Interventions aimed at modifying the production of ROS in exercise must be performed with care as they may be detrimental in that they may lower useful adaptations to exercise.

  8. Impact of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR on growth and antioxidant status of Vicia faba L. under copper stress.

    PubMed

    Fatnassi, Imen Challougui; Chiboub, Manel; Saadani, Omar; Jebara, Moez; Jebara, Salwa Harzalli

    2015-04-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) may help reduce the toxicity of heavy metals in plants in polluted environments. In this work, the effects of dual inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR strains on the growth of Vicia faba grown under copper stress were assessed during hydroponic culture. Growth parameters, copper (Cu) accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. Copper concentrations above 1mM damaged plant growth, but co-inoculation reduced its harmful effect. Co-inoculation of plants treated with 1mM Cu and 2mM Cu increased the dry weights as compared with Cu-treated and uninoculated plants. However, it decreased copper uptake up to 80% in the roots of 1-mM-Cu-treated plants as compared to non-inoculated control. Copper tolerance in Vicia faba is linked to the activity of antioxidant systems that are modulated by metal concentrations: both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were higher in the presence of Cu; a lower Cu dose of 0.5mM stimulated ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and/or peroxidase (POX) activities in shoots and roots; however in nodules CAT appeared to be the main peroxidase in H2O2 scavenging. The 1mM Cu treatment enhanced SOD, CAT and APX activities in roots and only SOD and POX were activated in shoots. All enzyme activities were inhibited by inoculation of 2mM Cu. The effect of inoculation with copper-accumulating PGPRs and the status of the antioxidant enzyme system were linked to changes in the copper tolerance status of Vicia faba. Our results suggested that Vicia faba inoculation with Rhizobium and PGPR Enterobacter clocae and Pseudomonas sp. could help to alleviate copper stress under hydroponic conditions. This result should be tested under field conditions for soil fertilization and phytostabilisation purposes.

  9. The effect of red wine consumption on hormonal reproductive parameters and total antioxidant status in young adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Michał; Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Stachoń, Małgorzata; Kołota, Aleksandra; Wolińska-Witort, Ewa; Malik, Agnieszka; Hallmann, Ewelina; Rusaczonek, Anna; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Very little is known about the effects of red wine consumption on male reproductive functions. Here we report the effect of regular drinking of different types of red wine on hormonal reproductive parameters and total antioxidant status in young adult male rats. Dry red wine (D-RW) exerted higher antioxidant activity and was characterized by higher concentration of phenolic compounds compared to semi-dry (SD-RW), sweet (S-RW) and semi-sweet (SS-RW) wines. No differences in total antioxidant status of rat plasma after six weeks of drinking of the wines were detected. Increased plasma follicle-stimulating hormone levels in S-RW versus control and D-RW (5.26 vs. 3.06 and 3.21 ng mL(-1)) groups were found. The plasma testosterone concentration was lower in D-RW compared to control, SD-RW, S-RW and SS-RW groups (0.25 vs. 1.12, 1.09, 1.54 and 1.25 ng mL(-1)). Higher plasma 17β-estradiol level in S-RW versus SD-RW and SS-RW (10.94 vs. 7.18 and 6.72 pg mL(-1)) group was stated. The prolactin level was higher in plasma of S-RW versus D-RW and SS-RW (17.35 vs. 9.74 and 8.59 ng mL(-1)) rats. The effects of red wine drinking on the hormonal regulation of the male reproductive system depend on the type and the dose of red wine. Chemical compounds naturally occurring in red wines (i.e. phenolics) may modulate the effects of ethyl alcohol, but also directly affect the male reproduction.

  10. Is the oxidant/antioxidant status altered in CADASIL patients?

    PubMed

    Campolo, Jonica; De Maria, Renata; Mariotti, Caterina; Tomasello, Chiara; Parolini, Marina; Frontali, Marina; Inzitari, Domenico; Valenti, Raffaella; Federico, Antonio; Taroni, Franco; Parodi, Oberdan

    2013-01-01

    The altered aggregation of proteins in non-native conformation is associated with endoplasmic reticulum derangements, mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare hereditary systemic vasculopathy, caused by NOTCH3 mutations within the receptor extracellular domain, that lead to abnormal accumulation of the mutated protein in the vascular wall. NOTCH3 misfolding could cause free radicals increase also in CADASIL. Aim of the study was to verify whether CADASIL patients have increased oxidative stress compared to unrelated healthy controls. We enrolled 15 CADASIL patients and 16 gender- and age-matched healthy controls with comparable cardiovascular risk factor. Blood and plasma reduced and total aminothiols (homocysteine, cysteine, glutathione, cysteinylglycine) were measured by HPLC and plasma 3-nitrotyrosine by ELISA. Only plasma reduced cysteine (Pr-Cys) and blood reduced glutathione (Br-GSH) concentrations differed between groups: in CADASIL patients Br-GSH levels were higher (p = 0.019) and Pr-Cys lower (p = 0.010) than in controls. No correlation was found between Br-GSH and Pr-Cys either in CADASIL patients (rho 0.25, P = 0.36) or in controls (rho -0.15, P = 0.44). Conversely, 3-nitrotyrosine values were similar in CADASIL and healthy subjects (p = 0.82). The high levels of antioxidant molecules and low levels of oxidant mediators found in our CADASIL population might either be expression of an effective protective action against free radical formation at an early stage of clinical symptoms or they could suggest that oxidative stress is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of CADASIL.

  11. Evaluation of oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Güney, Tekin; Alişik, Murat; Akinci, Sema; Neşelioğlu, Salim; Dilek, Imdat; Erel, Ozcan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the theory that oxidative stress might have an important mediating effect on the deleterious results of vitamin B12 metabolism deficiency seen throughout the body. Forty patients with vitamin B12 deficiency and 40 healthy controls were included in the study. Venous blood samples were collected from all participants to evaluate serum vitamin B12, homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, total antioxidant status (TAS), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels in the pre- and posttreatment periods. There were no significant differences in TAS, TOS, or oxidative stress index (OSI) levels between the pretreatment patient and control groups, and there were no significant differences in TAS or TOS levels between the posttreatment and control groups. In addition, there were no significant differences between the pre- and posttreatment TAS, TOS, and OSI levels of the patients. These findings are remarkable in that cyanocobalamin treatment had no direct effect on oxidant and antioxidant status in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. The fact that there were no differences in oxidant and antioxidant status between the patients and the controls might suggest that oxidative stress does not play a role in the systemic negative effects of vitamin B12 deficiency.

  12. Serum antioxidant levels and nutritional status in early and advanced stage lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Klarod, Kultida; Hongsprabhas, Pranithi; Khampitak, Tueanjit; Wirasorn, Kosin; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Tangrassameeprasert, Roongpet; Daduang, Jureerut; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Boonsiri, Patcharee

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition frequently occurs in lung cancer patients. We aimed to determine nutritional status and antioxidant and mineral levels in Thai patients with lung cancer. A prospective study with matched case-control was conducted. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and subjective global assessment (SGA). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status was used to assess the performance. The serum antioxidant and mineral levels were determined. Forty-nine patients with a mean age of 58.8 (range, 35-82) who were first diagnosed with lung cancer were enrolled. They were compared with 60 healthy controls, and levels of retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, selenium, and zinc were lower (P < 0.05). However, peroxidase activity was higher (P = 0.002) in patients. Selenium levels were higher in early stage compared to advanced stage patients (P = 0.041). Overweight patients had higher selenium levels (0.04 mg/L) than normal BMI patients (β = 0.04, P = 0.035). Patients with SGA class C had lower selenium levels (0.03 mg/L) than those with class A (β = -0.03, P = 0.035). The poorer ECOG performance patients had significantly lower β-carotene (β = -0.192, P = 0.003) and selenium (β = -0.031, P = 0.011) levels compared with those with good ECOG performance status. Significantly lower levels of antioxidants and selenium were found in lung cancer patients compared to healthy controls. Levels of some antioxidants and minerals differed among categories of BMI, SGA categories, or ECOG performance status. These findings may be helpful for further studies, such as the effect of nutritional supplementation on clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in HEMn-LP melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Delijewski, Marcin; Beberok, Artur; Otręba, Michał; Wrześniok, Dorota; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2014-10-01

    Nicotine is a natural ingredient of tobacco plants and is responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. Nowadays nicotine is also commonly used as a form of smoking cessation therapy. It is suggested that nicotine may be accumulated in human tissues containing melanin. This may in turn affect biochemical processes in human cells producing melanin. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in cultured normal human melanocytes HEMn-LP. Nicotine induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC50 was determined to be 7.43 mM. Nicotine inhibited a melanization process in human light pigmented melanocytes and caused alterations of antioxidant defense system. Significant changes in cellular antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and in hydrogen peroxide content were stated. The obtained results may explain a potential influence of nicotine on biochemical processes in melanocytes in vivo during long term exposition to nicotine.

  14. Association Between Antioxidant Intake/Status and Obesity: a Systematic Review of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Banafshe; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-02-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has doubled in recent decades. Compelling evidences indicated that obesity was associated with lower concentrations of specific antioxidants which may play a role in the development of obesity-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease. The present review aimed to synthesize the evidence from studies on the association between obesity and antioxidant micronutrients in a systematic manner. Data bases including MEDLINE, Science Direct, and Cochrane were searched from inception to October 2015. Thirty-one articles were reviewed using the MOOSE checklist. Lower concentrations of antioxidants have been reported in obese individuals among age groups worldwide. Circulatory levels of carotenoids, vitamins E and C, as well as zinc, magnesium, and selenium were inversely correlated with obesity and body fat mass. However, studies demonstrated inconsistencies in findings. Lower status of carotenoids, vitamins E and C, zinc, magnesium, and selenium appears to be associated with adiposity. Intervention studies may be needed to establish the causality of these associations.

  15. Selenium and Antioxidant Status in Dairy Cows at Different Stages of Lactation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Xiao, Min

    2016-05-01

    Thirty-five multiparous Holstein cows averaging 550 ± 50 kg of body weight and in 2 to 4 parity were divided into three groups according to lactation stage (group A: nine cows from 4 to 1 weeks prepartum; group B: 11 cows from 1 to 30 days postpartum; group C: 15 cows from 30 to 100 days postpartum). Selenium concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS) in serum were determined to evaluate selenium and antioxidant status in dairy cows at different stages of lactation. The results showed that mean serum selenium concentration, MDA level, and GSH-Px activity of cows in early lactation increased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared with cows in the dry period and peak lactation. Conversely, serum TrxR activity and TAS declined during this period (P < 0.05). The increase of serum MDA level during early lactation indicate that the reactive oxygen species, including lipid hydroperoxides, increase in this period, thus placing the cows at a greater risk of oxidative stress. The significant decrease in TrxR activity that is accompanied with a decrease in TAS during early lactation suggests that dairy cows have low antioxidant defense in this period and TrxR may be an important antioxidant defense mechanism in transition dairy cows.

  16. Zinc and copper biochemical indices of antioxidant status in elite athletes of different modalities.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; de Olilveria, Astrogildo V; Portella, Emílson S; de Olilveria, Cyntia F; Lopes, Gustavo C; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare zinc and copper biochemical indices of antioxidant status and their relationship in elite athletes of different modalities: aerobic with high-impact (triathletes, n = 10 and long-distance runners, n = 12), anaerobic with high-impact (short-distance runners, n = 9), and anaerobic with low-impact (short-distance swimmers, n = 13). The influence of recent dietary intake and body composition was also evaluated. A venous blood sample was drawn 16-20 hr after competition for the following measurements: packed-cell volume and hemoglobin in blood; copper and zinc in plasma and erythrocytes; ceruloplasmin in plasma; superoxide dismutase activity and metal-lothionein in erythrocytes; and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Zinc and copper intakes were not different in the athlete groups and did not affect the biochemical indices measured. Athletes of the long-distance high-impact aerobic modalities had higher indices of antioxidant protection (erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein) than those of the short-distance low-impact modalities, suggesting that there is adaptation of the antioxidant capacity to the specific training. Significant correlations were observed in all athletes between erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein consistent with the importance of an adequate zinc status in the response of antioxidant mechanisms to intense exercise.

  17. Thymoquinone Attenuates Brain Injury via an Anti-oxidative Pathway in a Status Epilepticus Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yi-ye; Li, Bing; Huang, Yong-mei; Luo, Qiong; Xie, Yang-mei; Chen, Ying-hui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aim Status epilepticus (SE) results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to seizure-induced brain injury. It is well known that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in status epilepticus (SE). Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive monomer extracted from black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed oil that has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antioxidant activity in various diseases. This study evaluated the protective effects of TQ on brain injury in a lithium-pilocarpine rat model of SE and investigated the underlying mechanism related to antioxidative pathway. Methods Electroencephalogram and Racine scale were used to value seizure severity. Passive-avoidance test was used to determine learning and memory function. Moreover, anti-oxidative activity of TQ was observed using Western blot and super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity assay. Results Latency to SE increased in the TQ-pretreated group compared with rats in the model group, while the total power was significantly lower. Seizure severity measured on the Racine scale was significantly lower in the TQ group compared with the model group. Results of behavioral experiments suggest that TQ may also have a protective effect on learning and memory function. Investigation of the protective mechanism of TQ showed that TQ-pretreatment significantly increased the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 proteins and SOD in the hippocampus. Conclusion These findings showed that TQ attenuated brain injury induced by SE via an anti-oxidative pathway. PMID:28400978

  18. Antioxidant status and biomarkers of oxidative stress in dogs with lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Winter, J L; Barber, L G; Freeman, L; Griessmayr, P C; Milbury, P E; Blumberg, J B

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress might play a role in carcinogenesis, as well as impacting morbidity and mortality of veterinary cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antioxidant concentrations and biomarkers of oxidative stress in dogs with newly diagnosed lymphoma before treatment and once in remission, with comparison with healthy controls. Dogs with lymphoma have increased oxidant and reduced antioxidant concentrations compared with healthy controls, and that these abnormalities normalize once remission is achieved. Seventeen dogs with lymphoma and 10 healthy controls. Prospective, observational study. Measures of oxidative stress [malondialdehyde and total isoprostanes (isoP)] and antioxidants [alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx)] were assessed in dogs with newly diagnosed lymphoma before treatment compared with healthy control dogs. The same parameters were measured in the dogs with lymphoma on week 7 of the chemotherapy protocol when all dogs were in remission. At baseline, dogs with lymphoma had significantly lower alpha-tocopherol (P <.001) and gamma-tocopherol (P= .003) but higher GSHPx (P= .05), ORAC (P= .001), and isoP (P < .001) compared with healthy controls. In the dogs with lymphoma, alpha-tocopherol concentrations were higher (P= .005) and ascorbic acid were lower (P= .04) after treatment. Results suggest that dogs with lymphoma have alterations in oxidant and antioxidant concentrations and that the status of some of these biomarkers normalize after remission. Further studies are warranted to determine whether antioxidant interventions to correct these are beneficial in the treatment of canine lymphoma.

  19. Effect of sterol esters on lipid composition and antioxidant status of erythrocyte membrane of hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Avery; Ghosh, Mahua

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major cause of coronary heart disease. Erythrocyte membrane is affected during hypercholesterolemia. The effect of EPA-DHA rich sterol ester and ALA rich sterol ester on erythrocyte membrane composition, osmotic fragility in normal and hypercholesterolemic rats and changes in antioxidant status of erythrocyte membrane were studied. Erythrocyte membrane composition, osmotic fragility of the membrane and antioxidant enzyme activities was analyzed. Osmotic fragility data suggested that the erythrocyte membrane of hypercholesterolemia was relatively more fragile than that of the normal rats' membrane which could be reversed with the addition of sterol esters in the diet. The increased plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic rats could also be lowered by the sterol ester administration. There was also marked changes in the antioxidant enzyme activities of the erythrocyte membrane. Antioxidant enzyme levels decreased in the membrane of the hypercholesterolemic subjects were increased with the treatment of the sterol esters. The antioxidative activity of ALA rich sterol ester was better in comparison to EPA-DHA rich sterol ester. In conclusion, rat erythrocytes appear to be deformed and became more fragile in cholesterol rich blood. This deformity and fragility was partially reversed by sterol esters by virtue of their ability to lower the extent of hypercholesterolemia.

  20. Space station freedom photovoltaic power module design status

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, A.P.; Hoberecht, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Electric power generation for Space Station Freedom will be provided by four photovoltaic (PV) power modules using silicon solar cells during Phase 1 operation. Each PV power module requires two solar arrays with 32,800 solar cells generating 18.75 kW of dc power for a total of 75 kW. A portion of this power will be stored in nickel-hydrogen batteries for use during eclipse, and the balance will be processed and converted to 20 kHz ac power for distribution to end users through the power management and distribution system. The design incorporates an optimized thermal control system, pointing and tracking provision with the application of gimbals, and the use of orbital replacement units (ORU's) to achieve modularization. Design status of the PV power module, as derived from major trade studies, is discussed at hardware levels ranging from component to system. Details of the design are presented where appropriate.

  1. Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, Amador P.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Electric power generation for Space Station Freedom will be provided by four photovoltaic (PV) power modules using silicon solar cells during Phase 1 operation. Each PV power module requires two solar arrays with 32,800 solar cells generating 18.75 kW of dc power for a total of 75 kW. A portion of this power will be stored in nickel-hydrogen batteries for use during eclipse, and the balance will be processed and converted to 20 kHz ac power for distribution to end users through the power management and distribution system. The design incorporates an optimized thermal control system, pointing and tracking provision with the application of gimbals, and the use of orbital replacement units (ORU's) to achieve modularization. Design status of the PV power module, as derived from major trade studies, is discussed at hardware levels ranging from component to system. Details of the design are presented where appropriate.

  2. Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jimenez, Amador P.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    Electric power generation for the Space Station Freedom will be provided by four photovoltaic (PV) power modules using silicon solar cells during phase I operation. Each PV power module requires two solar arrays with 32,800 solar cells generating 18.75 kW of dc power for a total of 75 kW. A portion of this power will be stored in nickel-hydrogen batteries for use during eclipse, and the balance will be processed and converted to 20 kHz ac power for distribution to end users through the power management and distribution system. The design incorporates an optimized thermal control system, pointing and tracking provision with the application of gimbals, and the use of orbital replacement units to achieve modularization. The design status of the PV power module, as derived from major trade studies, is discussed at hardware levels ranging from component to system. Details of the design are presented where appropriate.

  3. Blood redox status is associated with the likelihood of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease irrespectively of diet's total antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Georgoulis, Michael; Fragopoulou, Elisabeth; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Margariti, Aikaterini; Boulamatsi, Olga; Detopoulou, Paraskeui; Tiniakos, Dina; Zafiropoulou, Rodessa; Papatheodoridis, George

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that oxidative stress is implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis, whereas the dietary intake of antioxidants has been reported to be low in patients with the disease. We hypothesized that blood redox status measurements would be associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease presence and severity, and that diet's total antioxidant capacity could moderate the aforementioned association. The study sample consisted of 73 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, of which 58 were matched by age, sex, and body mass index with 58 controls. Diet's total antioxidant capacity was estimated through the ferric-reducing antioxidant power, the total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity scores, whereas blood redox status was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels, the enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase, and serum resistance to oxidation. Diet's total antioxidant capacity scores and glutathione peroxidase activity were not significantly associated with the disease presence or severity. Both thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and serum resistance to oxidation were significantly associated with the likelihood of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (odds ratios [ORs], 7.769 [P= .007] and 0.936 [P= .033], respectively), independently of abdominal fat level, degree of insulin resistance, blood lipid levels, markers of subclinical inflammation, and diet's total antioxidant capacity, but not with the disease histologic severity or stage. Our results support the association between blood redox status and the likelihood of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease regardless of diet's total antioxidant capacity.

  4. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity in sparkling wines: modulation by the ageing on lees.

    PubMed

    Stefenon, C A; Bonesi, C De M; Marzarotto, V; Barnabé, D; Spinelli, F R; Webber, V; Vanderlinde, R

    2014-02-15

    Sparkling wines (SW) have a special biological ageing on lees that is performed using two distinct methods: in the bottle (Champenoise) or in isobaric tanks (Charmat method). The objective of this study was to compare the levels of phenolic compounds, β-Glucosidase and antioxidant activity during the ageing on lees, in samples of SW produced at industrial scale by both methods. The β-Glucosidase activity has been constant over time, showing a close relationship with all the polyphenols studied (resveratrol, piceid, tyrosol, gallic, caffeic and ferulic acids), which were affected by the sur lie time. With these cross-reactions, the biological properties of the SW were also modulated. The results showed that the long period of ageing decreased the antioxidant potential in all samples. This work demonstrates that the sur lie is more important than the production method itself, due to its ability to modulate the necessary changes to achieve the specific objective.

  5. Effect of exposure to ceramic fibres and cigarette smoke on antioxidant status of the lung.

    PubMed

    Kováciková, Zuzana; Hurbánková, Marta; Cerná, Silvia; Tátrai, Erzsébet; Beno, Milan; Wimmerová, Sona

    2006-12-01

    The programmes of asbestos replacement brought the need to use other fibres for insulation or reinforcement of material. The aim of the presented study was to follow the effect of refractory ceramic fibres (RCF3) alone or in combination with cigarette smoke (CS) on antioxidant status of the lung in experiment on animals. As free radicals are supposed to play a role in pathogenesis of lung diseases and the toxicity of particles has been associated with production of reactive oxygen species, the antioxidant status may serve as marker of lung injury. Our hypothesis was that the effect of combined exposure to RCF3 and CS will be additive or synergic. Scheme of experiment: Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups per 6 animals: control, intratracheal exposure to 4 mg of RCF3, inhalatory exposure to mainstream of cigarette smoke from 8 standard research 1R1 cigarettes per day, and both intratracheal exposure to RCF3 and inhalatory to CS. The exposure lasted 6 months, the inhalatory exposure was performed 5 times per week. After finishing the exposure bronchoalveolar lavage of lungs was performed and ascorbic acid, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase were determined in lung tissue and cell free fraction of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The results showed that the most sensitive indicator of changes in antioxidant status was glutathione, which was changed in all groups both in BALF and lung tissue homogenate.

  6. Positive Relationship between Total Antioxidant Status and Chemokines Observed in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanli; Browne, Richard W.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Deng, Furong; Tian, Lili; Mu, Lina

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Human evidence is limited regarding the interaction between oxidative stress biomarkers and chemokines, especially in a population of adults without overt clinical disease. The current study aims to examine the possible relationships of antioxidant and lipid peroxidation markers with several chemokines in adults. Methods. We assessed cross-sectional associations of total antioxidant status (TAS) and two lipid peroxidation markers malondialdehyde (MDA) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with a suite of serum chemokines, including CXCL-1 (GRO-α), CXCL-8 (IL-8), CXCL-10 (IP-10), CCL-2 (MCP-1), CCL-5 (RANTES), CCL-8 (MCP-2), CCL-11 (Eotaxin-1), and CCL-17 (TARC), among 104 Chinese adults without serious preexisting clinical conditions in Beijing before 2008 Olympics. Results. TAS showed significantly positive correlations with MCP-1 (r = 0.15751, P = 0.0014), MCP-2 (r = 0.3721, P = 0.0001), Eotaxin-1 (r = 0.39598, P < 0.0001), and TARC (r = 0.27149, P = 0.0053). The positive correlations remained unchanged after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol drinking status. No associations were found between any of the chemokines measured in this study and MDA or TBARS. Similar patterns were observed when the analyses were limited to nonsmokers. Conclusion. Total antioxidant status is positively associated with several chemokines in this adult population. PMID:25254081

  7. Evaluation of oxidant and antioxidant status in living donor renal allograft transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Sharma, Ujjawal; Sharma, Ashish; Kenwar, Deepesh B; Singh, Sarbpreet; Prasad, Rajendra; Minz, Mukut

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the oxidant and antioxidant status in living donor renal allograft transplant recipients. Ninety-two renal transplant recipients with mean age of 34.75 ± 11.22 years were included in the present study. Venous samples of the recipients were drawn: before the transplant (baseline), 5 min after reperfusion, and 2 weeks after transplant. Samples were processed for the measurement of markers of oxidant and antioxidant status viz. malondialdehyde, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, and total antioxidant system. The mean baseline levels of reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, and total antioxidant system were 1.61 ± 0.84 mg/g hemoglobin, 3.64 ± 1.49 mg/dL, and 1.42 ± 0.14 mmol/L which decreased at 5 min after reperfusion to 1.32 ± 0.72 (p = 0.010), 2.96 ± 1.25 (p = 0.002), and 1.36 ± 0.12 (p = 0.042), respectively. The malondialdehyde levels increased from a baseline value of 3.11 ± 1.02 µmol/mL to 3.32 ± 1.09 at 5 min after reperfusion (p = 0.344) and 4.01 ± 1.21 (p = 0.000) at 2 weeks. Glutathione peroxidase level decreased from 68.59 ± 32.79 units/g hemoglobin (baseline) to 63.65 ± 32.92 at 5 min after reperfusion (p = 0.530) and increased significantly at 2 weeks to 86.38 ± 37.18 (p = 0.00). There was no significant change in the catalase level. In living donor renal transplantation, oxidative stress starts after reperfusion and is reflected by fall in antioxidant factors and enzymes in the early period. Over the next 2 weeks, there is increased oxidative stress and simultaneous strengthening of antioxidant system which is implied by increase in malondialdehyde and improvement in the markers of antioxidant status.

  8. Dietary Supplementation with Virgin Coconut Oil Improves Lipid Profile and Hepatic Antioxidant Status and Has Potential Benefits on Cardiovascular Risk Indices in Normal Rats.

    PubMed

    Famurewa, Ademola C; Ekeleme-Egedigwe, Chima A; Nwali, Sophia C; Agbo, Ngozi N; Obi, Joy N; Ezechukwu, Goodness C

    2017-08-17

    Research findings that suggest beneficial health effects of dietary supplementation with virgin coconut oil (VCO) are limited in the published literature. This study investigated the in vivo effects of a 5-week VCO-supplemented diet on lipid profile, hepatic antioxidant status, hepatorenal function, and cardiovascular risk indices in normal rats. Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1 control and 2 treatment groups (10% and 15% VCO-supplemented diets) for 5 weeks. Serum and homogenate samples were used to analyze lipid profile, hepatorenal function markers, hepatic activities of antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde level. Lipid profile of animals fed VCO diets showed significant reduction in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level increased significantly (p < .05) compared to control; and there were beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk indices. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, remarkably reduced and activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-were markedly increased in VCO diet-fed rats. The VCO diet significantly modulated creatinine, sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), chloride (Cl(-)), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) compared to control. The findings suggest a beneficial effect of VCO on lipid profile, renal status, hepatic antioxidant defense system, and cardiovascular risk indices in rats.

  9. Influence of l-carnosine on pro-antioxidant status in elite kayakers and canoeists.

    PubMed

    Slowinska-Lisowska, Malgorzata; Zembron-Lacny, A; Rynkiewicz, M; Rynkiewicz, T; Kopec, W

    2014-12-01

    Carnosine is a dipeptide formed from the amino acids β-alanine and histidine and found in large amounts in the brain and muscle, especially fast twitch muscle. Carnosine has an antioxidant role and accounts for about 10% of the muscle's ability to buffer the H+ ions produced by high intensity exercise. Due to the interesting role of carnosine, the aim of the study was observe the effects of carnosine intake on pro-antioxidant status in highly trained athletes exposed to intense exercise.Fourteen male athletes from the Polish national kayak and canoe teams participated in placebo-controlled and cross-over study. The athletes were supplemented with 4 g/d carnosine for 14 days. Blood samples were collected before and 30 min, 24 h and 48 h after 2000 m exercise trial. In blood, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), markers of RO/NS activity 8-isoprostanes and 3-nitrotyrosine, total (GSHt) and oxidised glutathione (GSSG), antioxidant status (APO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined. There were not observed statistically significant differences in exercise-induced changes in H2O2 and NO concentrations and SOD activity after carnosine intake. However, carnosine prevented an increase in 8-isoprostanes, 3-nitrotyrosine and GSSG concentrations as well as elevated redox status (GSHt-2GSSG)/GSSG at post-exercise period.Although, oral supplementation with 4 g carnosine did not affect RO/NS generation, it significantly attenuated exercise-induced glutathione loss, reduced oxidation/nitration markers concentration and SOD activity. These results suggest that carnosine could provide antioxidative protection for highly trained athletes.

  10. Hesperidin a citrus bioflavonoid modulates hepatic biotransformation enzymes and enhances intrinsic antioxidants in experimental breast cancer rats challenged with 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Natarajan; Balasubramanian, Maruthaiveeran Periyasamy

    2012-01-01

    DMBA is a major class of potent genotoxic chemical carcinogen present in the environment and it may increase breast cancer risk. Flavonoids have been shown to have interesting biological activities in many experimental investigations. Hesperidin is one of the citrus flavonoid shown to be active against various oxidative stress mediated diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial impact of a natural citrus flavonoglycoside hesperidin against 7, 12-Dimethylbenz [a] anthracene challenged experimental breast carcinogenesis with reference to drug metabolizing enzymes and intrinsic antioxidant status. The female Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered with single dose of 7, 12-DMBA to induce breast cancer and were treated with hesperidin [30mg/kg/body weight] for a consecutive 45 days. The results revealed that there was a significant reduction in the status of antioxidants levels and also significant alterations in the drug metabolizing enzymes were found in genotoxin DMBA exposed animals. Interestingly these, altered levels were significantly revered back to near normal in hesperidin administered animals via enhancing the intrinsic antioxidant levels and induction in Phase II enzymes and modulation in Phase I enzyme levels. Thus the antigenotoxic activity of hesperidin may be due to the modulatory effect in biotransformation enzymes and excellent antioxidant potentials which paving a way to consider hesperidin against the genotoxin involved oxidative stress mediated diseases.

  11. [Influence of vegetarian diet on serum values of homocysteine and total antioxidant status in children].

    PubMed

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-09-01

    The vegetarian diet may play a preventive role in the development of chronic diseases such as coronary heart and cardiovascular disease. However increase of homocysteine (Hcy) concentration in peoples avoiding animal products may contribute to an increased atherosclerotic risk in these subjects. Recent evidence has suggested that role of hyperhomocysteinemia in atherogenesis is associated with process of autooxidation, which can promote the production of hydroxyl radicals, resulting in oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein and endothelium injury. The oxidant-antioxidant imbalance depends not only on the amount of enhanced free oxygen species but also insufficiency of antioxidant defence system. Total antioxidant status (TAS) expresses capacity for scavenging of free radicals minimizes oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to asses concentrations of homocysteine and total antioxidant status in serum of children on vegetarian and omnivorous diet. We also studied levels of vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) particular components of TAS. The study included 35 children, aged 5-16 who had been referred to Institute of Mother and Child for dietary consultation. From those, 17 were lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 18 omnivores. Dietary constituents were analyzed using the nutritional programme Dietetyk2 and completed with supplementation data. Concentration of homocysteine was estimated in serum with fluorescence polarization immunoassay and TAS by colorimetric method. Levels of vitamin A and E were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean concentration of homocysteine was similar in both studied groups (vegetarians: 6.13 +/- 1.01 micromol/l vs. omnivores: 5.45 +/- 0.98 micromol/l). In vegetarian children serum level of TAS was significantly lower (1.21 +/- 0.06 mmol/I) as compared to those in non-vegetarian ones (1.30 +/- 0.05 mmol/l, p < 0.0001), but remained within the physiological range (1.16-1.40 mmol/l). The

  12. Fermented goat milk improves antioxidant status and protects from oxidative damage to biomolecules during anemia recovery.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, María Jm; Boesch, Christine; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2017-03-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world, and it is accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is altered during IDA. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of fermented goat and cow milks on enzymatic antioxidant activities and gene expression, and their role in protecting from oxidative damage during anemia recovery. After feeding the fermented milks-based diets (cow or goat), a significant elevation of some antioxidant endogenous enzymes was found, together with an increase in total antioxidant status (TAS), and a decrease in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was recorded in animals consuming fermented goat milk-based diet. In contrast, DNA strand breaks, hydroperoxides, 15-F2t-isoprostanes and protein carbonyl groups were lower in some tissues in animals fed fermented goat milk-based diet, revealing an improvement in both systemic and cellular antioxidant activity of plasma and tissues due to fermented goat milk consumption. Fermented goat milk consumption induces a protective increase in TAS together with lower oxidative damage biomarkers, revealing that the milk protects main cell bioconstituents (lipids, protein, DNA, prostaglandins) from evoked oxidative damage during anemia recovery. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Influence of heavy metal stress on antioxidant status and DNA damage in Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals have the potential to interact and induce several stress responses in the plants; thus, effects of heavy metal stress on DNA damages and total antioxidants level in Urtica dioica leaves and stems were investigated. The samples are sampled from areas with different metal exposition. Metal content was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay was used, and genomic DNA isolation from frozen plant samples was performed to obtain DNA fingerprints of investigated plant. It was found that heavy metal contents in stems generally changed synchronously with those in leaves of the plant, and extraneous metals led to imbalance of mineral nutrient elements. DNA damages were investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and the results demonstrated that the samples exposed to metals yielded a large number of new fragments (total 12) in comparison with the control sample. This study showed that DNA stability is highly affected by metal pollution which was identified by RAPD markers. Results suggested that heavy metal stress influences antioxidant status and also induces DNA damages in U. dioica which may help to understand the mechanisms of metals genotoxicity.

  14. Influence of Heavy Metal Stress on Antioxidant Status and DNA Damage in Urtica dioica

    PubMed Central

    Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals have the potential to interact and induce several stress responses in the plants; thus, effects of heavy metal stress on DNA damages and total antioxidants level in Urtica dioica leaves and stems were investigated. The samples are sampled from areas with different metal exposition. Metal content was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay was used, and genomic DNA isolation from frozen plant samples was performed to obtain DNA fingerprints of investigated plant. It was found that heavy metal contents in stems generally changed synchronously with those in leaves of the plant, and extraneous metals led to imbalance of mineral nutrient elements. DNA damages were investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and the results demonstrated that the samples exposed to metals yielded a large number of new fragments (total 12) in comparison with the control sample. This study showed that DNA stability is highly affected by metal pollution which was identified by RAPD markers. Results suggested that heavy metal stress influences antioxidant status and also induces DNA damages in U. dioica which may help to understand the mechanisms of metals genotoxicity. PMID:23862140

  15. Relationship between fermented papaya preparation supplementation, erythrocyte integrity and antioxidant status in pre-diabetics.

    PubMed

    Somanah, Jhoti; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Philippe; Bahorun, Theeshan; Aruoma, Okezie I

    2014-03-01

    Erythrocytes and their membranes are favorable models to study the relationship between diabetes and susceptibility of erythrocytes to oxidative stress damage. The recommendation for the use of fermented papaya preparation (FPP) as a functional food for dietary management of type 2 diabetes was evaluated by assessing its effect on the human antioxidant status and erythrocyte integrity on a multi-ethnical pre-diabetic population. The in vivo effect of FPP was compared with its in vitro free radical scavenging potentials. FPP exhibited potent in vitro free radical scavenging activities thought to be attributed to residual phenolic or flavonoid compounds. Low doses of FPP significantly reduced the susceptibility of human erythrocytes to undergo free radical-induced hemolysis. The intake of 6g FPP/day for a period of 14weeks was observed to significantly reduce the rate of hemolysis and accumulation of protein carbonyls in the blood plasma of pre-diabetics. That FPP consumption on a daily basis can strengthen the antioxidant defense system in vivo was clearly demonstrated by the marked increase of total antioxidant status in the FPP-supplemented pre-diabetics. That FPP maintains the integrity of erythrocytes could benefit the strategies to improve the quality of future blood products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant Status in Elite Three-Day Event Horses during Competition

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Carey A.; Burk, Amy O.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if competition intensity would have an effect on antioxidant status in horses before and during a three-day event. Body weight, body condition score, and blood was sampled from CCI2* (n = 19) and CCI3* (n = 23) horses before the start of dressage, 20 to 30 min following cross-country, and 18–24 h after cross-county. Data were analyzed using a PROC MIXED in SAS. There were no differences between CCI2* and CCI3* horses during competition for plasma cortisol, lactate, α-tocopherol, retinol, or erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. After cross-country, CCI3* horses had higher serum creatine kinase (P = 0.003) and aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.0001) than the CCI2* horses. Plasma β-carotene was higher in the CCI2* horses compared to the CCI3* horses (P = 0.0001). Total erythrocyte glutathione was also higher in the CCI2* horses versus CCI3* horses (P < 0.0001). These results are the first report of antioxidant status of horses competing in this level of a three-day event. The changes in antioxidant and muscle enzymes observed between divisions are likely due to the increased anaerobic and musculoskeletal demand on the upper level horses and the fitness required to compete at that level. PMID:22792415

  17. Effect of selenium on connexin expression, angiogenesis, and antioxidant status in diabetic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Surabhi; Mishra, Manish; Kumar, Hemant; Tripathi, Kamlakar; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Pandey, Haushila Prasad; Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-12-01

    This study was done to analyze the effect of selenium on antioxidant status and expression of different connexins in diabetic wound healing. The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxide, and connexins were analyzed in wound tissues taken from diabetic and non-diabetic mice before and after sodium selenite administration. The mRNA transcript levels of Cx 26, 30.3, 31, 31.1, and 43 were significantly elevated in diabetic wounds as compared to the non-diabetic wounds. After selenium administration, the expression of connexins along with serum glucose decreases more significantly in diabetic wounds as compared to non-diabetic wounds. In diabetic wounds, the low levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and extracellular superoxide dismutase were restored to normal level following selenium administration. The lipid peroxidation decreased significantly in diabetic mice post-selenium administration. The histopathological analysis revealed that administration of selenium improves angiogenesis at the wound site. The results of this study demonstrate that selenium, acting as an essential component of the antioxidant system, normalizes the antioxidant status, and as an insulin mimetic compound, downregulates connexin expressions and induces angiogenesis. Together, these effects of selenium accelerate wound healing in diabetic conditions.

  18. Dietary intakes and antioxidant status in mind-body exercising pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Palasuwan, A; Margaritis, I; Soogarun, S; Rousseau, A-S

    2011-08-01

    The decline in antioxidant defenses due to both estrogen loss and frequent adoption of poor dietary choices exposes postmenopausal women to cardiovascular diseases. Adequate nutrition and physical exercise are two factors of health promotion. This study investigated whether regular practice of mind-body exercise (yoga and/or tai chi) alters dietary intake and antioxidant status and balances the menopause-related increases in lipid peroxidation and cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in an urban community in Bangkok (Thailand) between May and August 2007. Premenopausal (Pre M; 39±8 yrs; n=56) and postmenopausal (Post M; 54±5 yrs; n=39) women who had been practicing yoga (Y) and/or tai chi (TC) more than 3 hours/week for a year, or who had no regular physical activity practice (sedentary, S). All participants completed food frequency questionnaires and 4-day food and activity records. Blood was collected on day 5. Factorial ANOVA tests were performed according to menopause status, exercise, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) groups. Post M had higher (p = 0.01) dietary fiber intake compared with Pre M. Yoga practitioners had lower BMI (p = 0.004) and lower fat intake (p = 0.02) compared with their S and TC counterparts. Plasma total antioxidant status was significantly and independently lower and higher in Y and Post M groups, respectively. However, no difference was shown after adjusting for BMI. Regardless of menopause status and HRT, the activity of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase - an aerobic training-responsive enzyme - was higher (p < 0.001) in TC practitioners compared with other groups. No effects were shown on erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity, plasma lipid peroxidation (TBARS) or total homocysteine concentrations. Yoga and tai chi exercises can be used as components of a strategy to promote healthy lifestyles (balanced diet and moderate intensity exercise) in vulnerable populations, such as menopausal women

  19. Antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes status of rats fed on n-3 PUFA rich Garden cress (Lepidium Sativum L) seed oil and its blended oils.

    PubMed

    Umesha, Shankar Shetty; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2015-04-01

    Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L) seed oil (GCO) is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA, 33.6 %) and the oil has a fairly balanced SFA, MUFA and PUFA ratio. In this study we have investigated the effect of GCO and its blends with n-6 PUFA rich edible vegetable oils sunflower oil (SFO), rice bran oil (RBO) and sesame oil (SESO) on antioxidant status of oils and antioxidative enzymes in Wistar rats. Physical blending of GCO with n-6 PUFA rich vegetable oils (SFO, RBO and SESO) increased content of natural antioxidants such as tocopherols, oryzanol and lignans, decreased the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and improved the radical scavenging activity of blended oils. Dietary feeding of GCO and its blended oils for 60 days, increased the tocopherols levels (12.2-21.6 %) and activity of antioxidant enzymes namely catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), but did not affect the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in liver compared to native oil fed rats. Thus, blending of GCO with other vegetable oil decreased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (>2.0) and dietary feeding of GCO blended oils increased the antioxidant status and activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and GPx) in experimental rats.

  20. Red wine consumption increases antioxidant status and decreases oxidative stress in the circulation of both young and old humans

    PubMed Central

    Micallef, Michelle; Lexis, Louise; Lewandowski, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Background Red wine contains a naturally rich source of antioxidants, which may protect the body from oxidative stress, a determinant of age-related disease. The current study set out to determine the in vivo effects of moderate red wine consumption on antioxidant status and oxidative stress in the circulation. Methods 20 young (18–30 yrs) and 20 older (≥ 50 yrs) volunteers were recruited. Each age group was randomly divided into treatment subjects who consumed 400 mL/day of red wine for two weeks, or control subjects who abstained from alcohol for two weeks, after which they crossed over into the other group. Blood samples were collected before and after red wine consumption and were used for analysis of whole blood glutathione (GSH), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum total antioxidant status. Results Results from this study show consumption of red wine induced significant increases in plasma total antioxidant status (P < 0.03), and significant decreases in plasma MDA (P < 0.001) and GSH (P < 0.004) in young and old subjects. The results show that the consumption of 400 mL/day of red wine for two weeks, significantly increases antioxidant status and decreases oxidative stress in the circulation Conclusion It may be implied from this data that red wine provides general oxidative protection and to lipid systems in circulation via the increase in antioxidant status. PMID:17888186

  1. Insights into temperature modulation of the Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus grandis antioxidant and lignification subproteomes.

    PubMed

    de Santana Costa, Marília Gabriela; Mazzafera, Paulo; Balbuena, Tiago Santana

    2017-05-01

    Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus are among the most widely cultivated trees, differing in lignin composition and plantation areas, as E. grandis is mostly cultivated in tropical regions while E. globulus is preferred in temperate areas. As temperature is a key modulator in plant metabolism, a large-scale proteome analysis was carried out to investigate changes in the antioxidant system and the lignification metabolism in plantlets grown at different temperatures. Our strategy allowed the identification of 3111 stem proteins. A total of 103 antioxidant proteins were detected in the stems of both species. Hierarchical clustering revealed that alterations in the antioxidant proteins are more prominent when Eucalyptus seedlings were exposed to high temperature and that the superoxide isoforms coded by the gene Eucgr.B03930 are the most abundant antioxidant enzymes induced by thermal stimulus. Regarding the lignin biosynthesis, our proteomics approach resulted in the identification of 13 of the 17 core proteins involved in this metabolism, corroborating with gene predictions and the proposed lignin toolbox. Quantitative analyses revealed significant differences in 8 protein isoforms, including the ferulate 5-hydroxylase isoform F5H1, a key enzyme in catalyzing the synthesis of sinapyl alcohol, and the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase isoform CAD2, the last enzyme in monolignol biosynthesis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005743.

  2. Wheat bran feruloyl oligosaccharides modulate the phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes via Nrf2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yingli; Sun, Baoguo

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant activities of wheat bran feruloyl oligosaccharides (FOs) were determined in rats by determining the activities and mRNA expression levels of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rat organs. FOs was given by gavage at doses of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 mmol/kg body weight every day for 15 days. Compared with the control group, the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px in FOs treatment groups significantly (P<0.05) increased in heart, liver, and kidney. All the FOs treatment also significantly (P<0.05) increased the glutathione (GSH) contents in heart (28-58%), liver (32-71%), and kidney (31-73%) compared with the control. FOs up regulated the mRNA expression levels of SOD, CAT, and HO-1 in organs. Moreover, the immunoblot analysis revealed increased nuclear factor-E2-related factor (Nrf2) protein expression levels in organs and there were positive correlations between the mRNA expression of phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes and the expressions of Nrf2 protein, which demonstrated FOs treatment could modulate the detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes via Nrf2 signaling. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Mitochondrial Dysfunction during Brain Aging: Role of Oxidative Stress and Modulation by Antioxidant Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Sasanka; Munshi, Soumyabrata; Banerjee, Kalpita; Thakurta, Ishita Guha; Sinha, Maitrayee; Bagh, Maria Bindu

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are two interdependent and reinforcing damage mechanisms that play a central role in brain aging. Oxidative stress initiated and propagated by active oxyradicals and various other free radicals in the presence of catalytic metal ions not only can damage the phospholipid, protein and DNA molecules within the cell but can also modulate cell signalling pathways and gene expression pattern and all these processes may be of critical importance in the aging of brain. The present article describes the mechanism of formation of reactive oxyradicals within mitochondria and then explains how these can initiate mitochondrial biogenesis program and activate various transcriptional factors in the cytosol to boost up the antioxidative capacity of the mitochondria and the cell. However, a high level of oxidative stress finally inflicts critical damage to the oxidative phosphorylation machinery and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The latter part of the article is a catalogue showing the accumulating evidence in favour of oxidative inactivation of mitochondrial functions in aged brain and the detailed reports of various studies with antioxidant supplementation claiming variable success in preventing the age-related brain mitochondrial decay and cognitive decline. The antioxidant supplementation approach may be of potential help in the management of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease. The newly developed mitochondria-targeted antioxidants have brought a new direction to experimental studies related to oxidative damage and they may provide potential drugs in near future for a variety of diseases or degenerative conditions including brain aging and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22396876

  4. Antioxidant, Immunomodulating, and Microbial-Modulating Activities of the Sustainable and Ecofriendly Spirulina.

    PubMed

    Finamore, Alberto; Palmery, Maura; Bensehaila, Sarra; Peluso, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    The highly nutritional and ecofriendly Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive properties. Spirulina contains functional compounds, such as phenolics, phycocyanins, and polysaccharides, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects. Studies conducted on Spirulina suggest that it is safe in healthy subjects, but attitude to eating probably affects the acceptability of Spirulina containing foods. Although the antioxidant effect of Spirulina is confirmed by the intervention studies, the concerted modulation of antioxidant and inflammatory responses, suggested by in vitro and animal studies, requires more confirmation in humans. Spirulina supplements seem to affect more effectively the innate immunity, promoting the activity of natural killer cells. The effects on cytokines and on lymphocytes' proliferation depend on age, gender, and body weight differences. In this context, ageing and obesity are both associated with chronic low grade inflammation, immune impairment, and intestinal dysbiosis. Microbial-modulating activities have been reported in vitro, suggesting that the association of Spirulina and probiotics could represent a new strategy to improve the growth of beneficial intestinal microbiota. Although Spirulina might represent a functional food with potential beneficial effects on human health, the human interventions used only supplements. Therefore, the effect of food containing Spirulina should be evaluated in the future.

  5. Antioxidant, Immunomodulating, and Microbial-Modulating Activities of the Sustainable and Ecofriendly Spirulina

    PubMed Central

    Finamore, Alberto; Bensehaila, Sarra

    2017-01-01

    The highly nutritional and ecofriendly Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive properties. Spirulina contains functional compounds, such as phenolics, phycocyanins, and polysaccharides, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects. Studies conducted on Spirulina suggest that it is safe in healthy subjects, but attitude to eating probably affects the acceptability of Spirulina containing foods. Although the antioxidant effect of Spirulina is confirmed by the intervention studies, the concerted modulation of antioxidant and inflammatory responses, suggested by in vitro and animal studies, requires more confirmation in humans. Spirulina supplements seem to affect more effectively the innate immunity, promoting the activity of natural killer cells. The effects on cytokines and on lymphocytes' proliferation depend on age, gender, and body weight differences. In this context, ageing and obesity are both associated with chronic low grade inflammation, immune impairment, and intestinal dysbiosis. Microbial-modulating activities have been reported in vitro, suggesting that the association of Spirulina and probiotics could represent a new strategy to improve the growth of beneficial intestinal microbiota. Although Spirulina might represent a functional food with potential beneficial effects on human health, the human interventions used only supplements. Therefore, the effect of food containing Spirulina should be evaluated in the future. PMID:28182098

  6. [Effects of mexidol on the antioxidative status of patients suffering from coronary heart disease with dislipidemia].

    PubMed

    Belaia, O L; Baĭder, L M; Kuropteva, Z V; Fomina, I G

    2005-01-01

    The subjects of the study were 36 patients suffering from coronary heart disease with exertional angina and postinfarction cardiosclerosis with dislipidemia. The patients were administered mexidol (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-oxipyridin succinate), a domestically produced antioxidative agent, for 1 month in a dose of 325 mg/day together with conventional cardial therapy. The result was good and included clinical improvements and improvements in biochemical serum parameters: cholesterol level decreased by 10%, the level of low density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased by 25%, high density cholesterol level elevated by 15%. The intensity of lipid peroxidation lowered, which was manifested by decrease of the level of diene conjugates and TBA-reactive products by 27% and 42%, respectively. The patients' antioxidative status increased.

  7. Antioxidant status of turkey breast meat and blood after feeding a diet enriched with histidine.

    PubMed

    Kopec, W; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Jamroz, D; Biazik, E; Pudlo, A; Hikawczuk, T; Skiba, T; Korzeniowska, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1) spray dried blood cells rich in histidine and 2) pure histidine added to feed on the antioxidant status and concentration of carnosine related components in the blood and breast meat of female turkeys. The experiment was performed on 168 Big7 turkey females randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments: control; control with the addition of 0.18% L-histidine (His); and control with the addition of spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Birds were raised for 103 d on a floor with sawdust litter, with drinking water and feed ad libitum. The antioxidant status of blood plasma and breast muscle was analyzed by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and by 2,2-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging ability. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was analyzed in the blood and breast meat, with the content of carnosine and anserine quantified by HPLC. Proximate analysis as well as amino acid profiling were carried out for the feed and breast muscles. Growth performance parameters also were calculated. Histidine supplementation of the turkey diet resulted in increased DPPH radical scavenging capacity in the breast muscles and blood, but did not result in higher histidine dipeptide concentrations. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet with SDBC. In the plasma, the SDBC addition increased both SOD and GPx activity, and decreased GPx activity in the erythrocytes. Feeding turkeys with an SDBC containing diet increased BW and the content of isoleucine and valine in breast muscles.

  8. Antioxidant status in a group of institutionalised elderly people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Ortega, Rosa M; Andrés, Pedro; Aparicio, Aránzazu; González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Navia, Beatriz; Perea, José M; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Paula

    2016-05-28

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important and prevalent diseases suffered by the elderly. Evidence exists that its onset and severity might be conditioned by antioxidant status. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between antioxidant status and COPD in institutionalised elderly people. In all, 183 elderly people aged >65 years (twenty-one had COPD and 160 healthy controls) were studied. The subjects' diets were investigated via the use of precise individual weighing for 7 d. Body weight, height, and biceps and triceps skinfold thickness were measured, and body fat (kg) and BMI (kg/m2) were calculated. Serum retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C levels were determined. Subjects with COPD ate less fruits than healthy controls (117 (sd 52) v. 192 (sd 161) g/d), their coverage of the recommended intake of vitamin C was smaller (150 (sd 45) v. 191 (sd 88) %; note that both exceeded 100 %) and their diets had a lower antioxidant capacity (6558 (sd 2381) v. 9328 (sd 5367) mmol trolox equivalent/d). Those with COPD had lower serum vitamin C and α-tocopherol concentrations than healthy controls (32·4 (sd 15·3) v. 41·5 (sd 14·8) µmol/l and 12·1 (sd 3·2) v. 13·9 (sd 2·8) µmol/l, respectively). In addition, subjects with α-tocopherol <14·1µmol/l (50th percentile) were at 6·43 times greater risk of having COPD than those subjects with ≥14·1µmol/l (OR 6·43; 95 % CI 1·17, 35·24; P<0·05), taking sex, age, use of tobacco, body fat and vitamin E intake as covariables. Subjects with COPD had diets of poorer antioxidant quality, especially with respect to vitamins C and E, compared with healthy controls.

  9. The influence of season on oxidant-antioxidant status in trained and sedentary subjects.

    PubMed

    Balog, T; Sobocanec, S; Sverko, V; Krolo, I; Rocić, B; Marotti, M; Marotti, T

    2006-02-23

    The association between oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases is a widely accepted fact today. Generally, men have a higher risk of cardiovascular incidents and mortality from acute myocardial infarction and strokes. We have examined sport-associated circannual rhythms of oxidant and antioxidant processes by measuring plasma LPO, erythrocyte SOD, CAT, Gpx activity and plasma hormonal status in both sedentary and long-term trained men and women. We have shown seasonal variations in both oxidant and antioxidant status in all examined groups. The largest difference was observed in the oxidant status between sedentary men and women during autumn and winter, which is considered a period of high coronary risk for men. Sport decreased LPO in trained men in autumn, while the same effect in trained women was shifted towards summer. These data state that regular, long-term physical exercise training induces adaptive responses that confer protection against oxidative stress, as well as the beneficial effect of exercise with regard to season, particularly in men during a period of high coronary risk (autumn and winter, respectively) and in women during summer.

  10. Association between biomarker-quantified antioxidant status during pregnancy and infancy and allergic disease during early childhood: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Patelarou, Evridiki; Giourgouli, Gianna; Lykeridou, Aikaterini; Vrioni, Evagelia; Fotos, Nikolaos; Siamaga, Eleni; Vivilaki, Victoria; Brokalaki, Hero

    2011-11-01

    Recent findings suggest a significant association between the antioxidant status of pregnant women and of their children during the first years of life and the development of allergic disease during childhood. The aim of this review was to identify all studies that estimated the effect of intake of antioxidants in pregnant women and their children on the development of allergic disease during early childhood. A systematic review was conducted of epidemiological studies featuring original peer-reviewed data on the association between dietary antioxidant status and allergic disease during childhood. A systematic search was performed following the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Guidelines. A comprehensive search of the literature yielded 225 studies, 18 of which were selected for the extraction of results and were related to antioxidant status and allergic disease. The systematic review included five prospective cohort studies, four cross-sectional studies, and nine case-control studies. Eight studies reported an important association between antioxidant status and asthma onset during childhood. Similarly, wheezing and eczema were studied as an outcome in six and in five studies, respectively. Recent observational studies suggest that a higher intake of antioxidant vitamins, zinc, and selenium during pregnancy and childhood reduces the likelihood of childhood asthma, wheezing, and eczema. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  11. Effects of Labisia pumila var alata extracts on the lipid profile, serum antioxidant status and abdominal aorta of high-cholesterol diet rats.

    PubMed

    Dianita, Roza; Jantan, Ibrahim; Jalil, Juriyati; Amran, Athirah Zawani

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies on Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva) have showed that it could inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and provide protection on myocardial infarction in rats. We hypothesized that LPva extracts can modulate the lipid profiles and serum antioxidant status of hypercholesterolemic rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of aqueous and 80% ethanol extracts of LPva on atherogenic and serum antioxidant parameters as well as changes in abdominal aorta of high-cholesterol diet rats. The major components of the extracts, gallic acid, flavonoids and alkyl resorcinols were analyzed by using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. The rats were induced to hypercholesterolemic status with daily intake of 2% cholesterol for a duration of 8 weeks. Three different doses (100, 200 and 400mg/kg) of the extracts were administered daily on the 4th week onwards. The rats were then sacrificed and the blood was collected via abdominal aorta and serum was separated by centrifugation for biochemical analysis. Part of the aorta tissues were excised immediately for histopathological examination. The serum of LPva treated rats showed significant reduction in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and the abdominal aorta showed a significant decrease of atheroma lesions in treated rats. Serum lipid profiles of treated rats showed a decrease in total cholesterol, total triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels as compared to control group. The atherogenic indices in treated rats were significantly improved along with an increasing level of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The extracts also exhibited significant increase of antioxidant enzymes and decrease of MDA as a product of lipid peroxidation. LPva extracts can reduce the risk of dyslipidemia by improving the serum lipid profiles and modulating serum antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  12. Dietary Supplementation of Phoenix dactylifera Seeds Enhances Performance, Immune Response, and Antioxidant Status in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    El-Far, Ali H.; Ahmed, Hamada A.

    2016-01-01

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) seeds were utilized in some traditional medical remedies and have been investigated for their possible health benefits. This proposed study wanted to assess the effect of date palm seeds (DPS) dietary supplementation in comparison to mannan-oligosaccharides (Bio-Mos®) and β-glucan over antioxidant and immunity events that have effect on growth and carcass performances of broilers. An aggregate of 180, one-day-old, chicks were raised in the wire-floored cages and allotted into control, Bio-Mos (0.1%  Bio-Mos), β-glucan (0.1%  β-glucan), DPS2 (2% date crushed seeds), DPS4 (4% date crushed seeds), and DPS6 (6% date crushed seeds) groups. Broilers in DPS2 and DPS4 groups showed significant variations (P < 0.05) in relative growth rate (RGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and efficiency of energy utilization in comparison to control group. Moreover, all DPS fed groups showed significant increases (P < 0.05) in serum reduced glutathione (GSH) values. Meanwhile, both serum interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in DPS2. Consequently, obtained data revealed a substantial enhancement of performance, immunity, and antioxidant status by DPS supplementation in broiler that might be related to the antioxidant and immune-stimulant constituents of P. dactylifera seeds. PMID:28127417

  13. Antioxidant vitamin status in high exposure to oxidative stress in competitive athletes.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Hininger, Isabelle; Palazzetti, Stéphane; Faure, Henri; Roussel, Anne-Marie; Margaritis, Irène

    2004-09-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study in 118 well-trained athletes to investigate 'high exposure' to sub-deficient antioxidant status, and consequently to oxidative damage, in relation to estimated daily energy expenditure (EE) and dietary antioxidant intake. Subjects completed 7 d food and activity records. Blood samples were obtained on day 8. Of the athletes 81, 60 and 43% had intakes of vitamins E, C and beta-carotene below two-thirds of the French RDA respectively, which is adjusted for EE (FRDAa). The deficit in vitamin E intake was positively correlated with EE (r 0.51, P<0.0001). All the athletes had normal plasma vitamins E and C and 14% had marginal plasma beta-carotene. Plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) did not increase with increased EE. As evidenced by ANOVA, EE-induced vitamin C intakes increased and consequently led to increased plasma ascorbic acid concentrations. In male athletes, plasma total carotenoids were negatively correlated with plasma TBARS concentrations (r -0.31, P<0.006). The relationship between vitamin C intakes and plasma concentrations was logarithmic (r 0.59, P< 0.0001). To summarize, it is not clear whether vitamin E requirements are overestimated with reference to EE in the FRDAa. Daily requirements for vitamin C do not exceed 200 mg. Our present results could be interpreted as meaning that carotenoids play a protective role as exogenous antioxidants. Carotenoid intakes in athletes must be considered carefully.

  14. Antioxidant status in oral subchronic toxicity of fipronil and fluoride co-exposure in buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Gill, Kamalpreet Kaur; Dumka, Vinod Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The effects of fipronil and fluoride co-exposure were investigated on antioxidant status of buffalo calves. A total of 24 healthy male buffalo calves divided into 4 groups were treated for 98 consecutive days. Group I, receiving no treatment, served as the control. Animals of groups II and III were orally administered with fipronil at the dosage of 0.5 mg/kg/day and sodium fluoride (NaF) at the dosage of 6.67 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 98 days. Group IV was coadministered with fipronil and NaF at the same dosages as groups II and III. Administration of fipronil alone produced significant elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decrease in the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). However, it did not produce any significant effect on the activities of enzymatic antioxidants including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). NaF exposure led to enhanced oxidative stress as shown by significant increase in the LPO and SOD activities while GPx and CAT activities and GSH levels were significantly decreased. Co-exposure to fipronil and NaF showed additive effects on LPO, GPx activity, and GSH levels. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Effect of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in HEMn-LP melanocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Delijewski, Marcin; Beberok, Artur; Otręba, Michał; Wrześniok, Dorota; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2014-10-15

    Nicotine is a natural ingredient of tobacco plants and is responsible for the addictive properties of tobacco. Nowadays nicotine is also commonly used as a form of smoking cessation therapy. It is suggested that nicotine may be accumulated in human tissues containing melanin. This may in turn affect biochemical processes in human cells producing melanin. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of nicotine on melanogenesis and antioxidant status in cultured normal human melanocytes HEMn-LP. Nicotine induced concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. The value of EC{sub 50} was determined to be 7.43 mM. Nicotine inhibited a melanization process in human light pigmented melanocytes and caused alterations of antioxidant defense system. Significant changes in cellular antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and in hydrogen peroxide content were stated. The obtained results may explain a potential influence of nicotine on biochemical processes in melanocytes in vivo during long term exposition to nicotine. - Graphical abstract: Nicotine inhibits melanogenesis and induces oxidative stress in HEMn-LP melanocytes. - Highlights: • Nicotine induces concentration-dependent loss in melanocytes viability. • Nicotine in non-cytotoxic concentrations inhibits melanogenesis. • Nicotine in higher concentrations induces oxidative stress.

  16. Sperm maturation in dogs: sperm profile and enzymatic antioxidant status in ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Angrimani, D S R; Lucio, C F; Veiga, G A L; Silva, L C G; Regazzi, F M; Nichi, M; Vannucchi, C I

    2014-09-01

    Spermatozoa become more susceptible to the attack of reactive oxygen species during maturation. To avoid oxidative damage, the epididymis must provide the necessary antioxidant protection. The aim of this study was to compare the canine sperm profile and the enzymatic antioxidant status of the ejaculated fractions and samples collected from the different segments of the epididymis (caput, corpus and cauda). Five adult dogs were used, and after 1-3 weeks, subsequently to bilateral orchiectomy and epididymal storage, sperm samples were collected from the different segments of the epididymis. Samples were evaluated for conventional microscopy and computer-assisted motility analysis: sperm plasma membrane permeability and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Samples collected from the caput and corpus showed lower values for most of the motility variables evaluated, indicating different levels of immaturity. Catalase activity was observed only in ejaculated samples. Conversely, GPx activity was higher in the cauda epididymidis. Correlations were found between SOD and GPx and SOD and sperm motility in the epididymal cauda and corpus, highlighting the importance of the enzymes for the protection of spermatozoa during the transit along the epididymis.

  17. Evaluation of oxidant-antioxidant status in overweight and morbidly obese Saudi children

    PubMed Central

    Albuali, Waleed H

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the antioxidant enzymes and oxidative products in overweight and obese Saudi children before the onset of metabolic complications. METHODS: The study was carried out on 231 Saudi children. They were classified into three groups: uncomplicated overweight, uncomplicated morbid obesity, and the matched age group as control. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, the concentrations of reduced GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA) oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) were measured in the blood of these groups. RESULTS: Overweight and obese children had a significantly higher body mass index, while obese children only had a significantly higher waist-to-hip ratio compared to that of the control group. The enzyme activities under study were significantly elevated in the overweight group, although they were significantly reduced among obese children. The concentration of GSH was reduced in both the overweight and obese groups. The mean values of ox-LDL, MDA and AOPP were non-significantly increased in overweight children, while they were significantly elevated in obese children compared to that of normal weight children. A significant disturbance of oxidant-antioxidant status was observed in severely morbid children. CONCLUSION: The increase of oxidative stress in obese children is associated with the increase in AOPPs and MDA which reflects an imbalance between reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant defense. PMID:25254179

  18. Serum oxidizability and antioxidant status in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Aurrekoetxea, Igor; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio; del Agua, Ainhoa Ruiz; Navarro, Rosaura; Hernández, M Luisa; Matorras, Roberto; Prieto, Begoña; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the serum oxidizability and antioxidant status in women undergoing an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle and to assess the possible relationship of the oxidizability indexes with the pregnancy rate. Prospective, longitudinal study. Public university and public university hospital. Systematically recruited cohort of 125 women undergoing either IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Serum samples were collected before the beginning of the use of gonadotropins (basal) and the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (final) during an IVF cycle. The Cu2+-induced serum oxidation in terms of the oxidation rate in the lag (Vlag) and propagation (Vmax) phases and the time at which the oxidation rate is maximal (tmax), and measurements of serum total antioxidant activity (TAA), tocopherol, hydrophilic antioxidants, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide. Albumin, urate, bilirubin, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol, TAA, and tmax statistically significantly decreased after the IVF cycle. Conception cycles were associated with a serum more prone to oxidation compared with nonconception cycles. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the difference (final-basal) of the oxidation index Vlag (OR 1.394) and the body mass index (OR 0.785) were independent predictors of pregnancy. Treatment with IVF induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is reflected in a serum less protected against oxidation. The results also suggest a role for ROS in the occurrence of conception in IVF. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Potentilla fulgens on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Saio, Valrielyn; Syiem, Donkupar; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Potentilla fulgens (Rosaceae) root traditionally used as a folk remedy by local health practitioners of Khasi Hills, Meghalaya was investigated for its effects on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Significant increase in levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and decrease in activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were observed under diabetic condition. Intraperitoneal administration of methanol extract of P. fulgens roots at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight to male swiss albino diabetic mice for 14 days caused significant reduction in the elevated TBARS level, while increasing the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in diabetic mice. Maximum reduction in TBARS level was observed in liver tissue (75%, p<0.001). Kidney exhibited the highest elevation in the activity for catalase (68%, p<0.001) and superoxide dismutase (29%, p<0.001) while maximum increase in glutathione peroxidase activity was seen in brain (50%, p<0.001). The effects of P. fulgens was compared against known antioxidant, vitamin C. Results indicate that Potentilla fulgens methanolic root extract can reduce free radical mediated oxidative stress in experimental diabetes mellitus. PMID:24826032

  20. Relation between antioxidant status and postpartum anestrous condition in Murrah buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mayukh; Gupta, Meenakshi; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Sunil; Balhara, A. K.; Singh, Inderjeet

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Objective of the present study was to investigate the relation between antioxidant status and postpartum anestrous (PPA) condition in Murrah buffalo. Materials and Methods: Jugular blood samples were collected from two different groups of Murrah buffaloes each group consisting of 20 animals. Group I was of PPA and Group II were of cyclic buffaloes. The animals selected were examined for confirmation for cyclic and acyclic condition (>120 days) after calving by routine transrectal ultrasonography. Heard record was also used for cross confirmation. Results: The analysis of antioxidants in plasma and hemolysates revealed that the levels of vitamin E, β-carotene and reduced glutathione in plasma and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in hemolysate were significantly higher in cyclic animals than PPA animals. The levels of vitamin C, SOD and glutathione peroxidase in plasma did not show any significant difference among the two groups studied. The low antioxidant level in affected animals may predispose them toward PPA condition. Conclusion: Stress imposed by pregnancy and lactation affected the reproductive performance in PPA animals which might be inherently more susceptible to these stressors than those who were normal cyclic as all the animals were maintained under similar feeding and management practices. PMID:27047011

  1. Relation between antioxidant status and postpartum anestrous condition in Murrah buffalo.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Mayukh; Gupta, Meenakshi; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Sunil; Balhara, A K; Singh, Inderjeet

    2015-10-01

    Objective of the present study was to investigate the relation between antioxidant status and postpartum anestrous (PPA) condition in Murrah buffalo. Jugular blood samples were collected from two different groups of Murrah buffaloes each group consisting of 20 animals. Group I was of PPA and Group II were of cyclic buffaloes. The animals selected were examined for confirmation for cyclic and acyclic condition (>120 days) after calving by routine transrectal ultrasonography. Heard record was also used for cross confirmation. The analysis of antioxidants in plasma and hemolysates revealed that the levels of vitamin E, β-carotene and reduced glutathione in plasma and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in hemolysate were significantly higher in cyclic animals than PPA animals. The levels of vitamin C, SOD and glutathione peroxidase in plasma did not show any significant difference among the two groups studied. The low antioxidant level in affected animals may predispose them toward PPA condition. Stress imposed by pregnancy and lactation affected the reproductive performance in PPA animals which might be inherently more susceptible to these stressors than those who were normal cyclic as all the animals were maintained under similar feeding and management practices.

  2. Behavior of the total antioxidant status in a group of subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hopps, Eugenia; Canino, Baldassare; Montana, Maria; Lo Presti, Rosalia; Averna, Maurizio R; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine the total antioxidant status (TAS) in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) subdivided according to the presence or not of diabetes mellitus. We enrolled 106 subjects (45 women, 61 men) with MS subsequently subdivided in diabetics (14 women, 29 men) and nondiabetics (31 women, 29 men). TAS was obtained using an Assay kit which relies on the ability of plasma antioxidant substances to inhibit the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid) to the radical ABTS·+. In the group of MS subjects a significant decrease in TAS (p<0.05) in comparison with normal controls was evident. This difference was present between normal subjects and nondiabetic subjects with MS (p<0.001) but not between normal and diabetic subjects with MS. Examining the linear regression among TAS, age, anthropometric profile, blood pressure values and glycometabolic pattern, conflicting data were found. Although we know that TAS includes several enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants, we retain that the difference observed in the two subgroups of subjects with MS must be looked in particular into two pathophysiological aspects regarding bilirubin and uric acid. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxidant and enzymatic antioxidant status (gene expression and activity) in the brain of chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Nasiri, Leila; Mohebbi, Abdonnaser; Bahadoran, Shahab

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain (hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain) in chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension, the measurements of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, antioxidant capacity, enzymatic activity, and gene expression (for catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutases) were done. There were high lipid peroxidation/protein oxidation and low antioxidant capacity in the hindbrain of cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens compared to control ( P < 0.05). In the hypertensive chickens, superoxide dismutase activity was decreased (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain), while catalase activity was increased (forebrain and midbrain) ( P < 0.05). Glutathione peroxidase activity did not change. Relative gene expression of catalase and superoxide dismutases (1 and 2) was downregulated, while glutathione peroxidase was upregulated in the brain of the cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens. Probably, these situations in the oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain especially hindbrain may change its function at cardiovascular center and sympathetic nervous system to exacerbate pulmonary hypertension.

  4. Status of high efficiency module design and fabrication. [of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Spitzer, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    The status of an ongoing DOE program to develop an AM1 photoelectric module with 15 percent conversion efficiency at normal heating temperatures, is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the efforts of a private company to develop a high efficiency module which also has high durability in normal operating conditions. The main design options considered are: high efficiency modules; large area modules; and optimized module fabrication techniques. The design of an automatic system for encapsulating module stacks is described.

  5. Status of high efficiency module design and fabrication. [of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Spitzer, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    The status of an ongoing DOE program to develop an AM1 photoelectric module with 15 percent conversion efficiency at normal heating temperatures, is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the efforts of a private company to develop a high efficiency module which also has high durability in normal operating conditions. The main design options considered are: high efficiency modules; large area modules; and optimized module fabrication techniques. The design of an automatic system for encapsulating module stacks is described.

  6. Alterations in antioxidant and oxidant status of children after on-pump surgery for cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart diseases.

    PubMed

    Altin, Firat H; Yildirim, Hayriye A; Tanidir, Ibrahim C; Yildiz, Okan; Kahraman, Meliha Z; Ozturk, Erkut; Celebi, Sinem B; Kyaruzi, Mugisha; Bakir, İhsan

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative stress refers to an imbalance between reactive oxidative species and antioxidants. In this case-controlled, prospective, observational study, we investigated the total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, oxidative stress index, and albumin and C-reactive protein levels of children with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart diseases who had undergone on-pump cardiac surgery. The study groups consisted of 60 patients with congenital heart disease, who were operated under cardiopulmonary bypass, and a control group of 30 healthy individuals. The patients were classified into two groups. Among them, one was a patient group that consisted of 30 patients with acyanotic congenital heart disease and the other group consisted of 30 patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease. In the patient groups, blood samples were collected before surgery and at one and 24 hours following surgery. In control groups, blood samples were collected once during hospital admission. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups in terms of baseline total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, and oxidative stress index values. Regarding the postoperative first-hour and 24-hour total oxidant status and total antioxidant status levels as well as oxidative stress index values, there were no significant differences between the groups, except for an increase in total antioxidant status levels (p=0.002) 24 hours after surgery in cyanotic patients. There was no difference between oxidative stress status of cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease patients and healthy individuals. Oxidative stress status of cyanotic and acyanotic patients does not change after cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass.

  7. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplements on oxidative and antioxidative status of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hanschke, N; Kankofer, M; Ruda, L; Höltershinken, M; Meyer, U; Frank, J; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-10-01

    Dairy cows develop frequently negative energy balance around parturition and in early lactation, resulting in excessive mobilization of body fat and subsequently in increased risk of ketosis and other diseases. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements are used in dairy cows mainly for their depressing effect on milk fat content, but are also proposed to have antioxidative properties. As negative energy balance is associated with oxidative stress, which is also assumed to contribute to disease development, the present study was conducted to examine effects of CLA on oxidative and antioxidative status of lactating dairy cows. German Holstein cows (primiparous n=13, multiparous n=32) were divided into 3 dietary treatment groups receiving 100g/d of control fat supplement, containing 87% stearic acid (CON; n=14), 50g/d of control fat supplement and 50g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 50; n=15), or 100g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 100; n=16). The CLA supplement was lipid-encapsulated and contained 12% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA each. Supplementation took place between d1 and 182 postpartum; d 182 until 252 postpartum served as a depletion period. Blood was sampled at d -21, 1, 21, 70, 105, 140, 182, 224, and 252 relative to calving. The antioxidative status was determined using the ferric-reducing ability of plasma, α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol-to-cholesterol mass ratio, and retinol. For determination of oxidative status concentrations of hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), N'-formylkynurenine, and bityrosine were measured. Mixed models of fixed and random effects with repeated measures were used to evaluate period 1 (d -21 to 140) and 2 (d182-252) separately. Cows showed increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation during the periparturient period in terms of increased serum concentrations of hydroperoxides and TBARS, which decreased throughout lactation. During period 1, the supplemented cows had lower TBARS

  8. Trace minerals status and antioxidant enzymes activities in calves with dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Qudah, Khaled M; Gharaibeh, Ahmad A; Al-Shyyab, Maysa'a M

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of trace minerals Zn, Cu, and Se, the effect of dermatophytosis on the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, the status of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, and the relationship between the mentioned trace minerals and antioxidant defense system in calves with dermatophytosis. A total of 21 Holstein calves with clinically established diagnosis of dermatophytosis and an equal number of healthy ones were included in this study. Results showed that 81% of mycotic isolates were Trichophyton verrucosum, while 19% were Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The level of Zn, Cu, Se, and glutathione (GSH) and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly (P antioxidant enzyme activities might be secondary to changes in their cofactor concentrations.

  9. Naturally occurring polyphenolic antioxidants modulate IgE-mediated mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Gong, J; Liu, F; Mohammed, U

    2000-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to modulate activities of a host of kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors. Rutin and chlorogenic acid (CGA) are the major polyphenolic antioxidants present in the small molecular fraction of smokeless tobacco leaf extracts, as ascertained by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. Levels of intracellular ROS in resting versus antigen-immunoglobulin E (IgE)-challenged murine mast cells were measured at 510 nm by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) using carboxy-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH-DA). Enhanced ROS production was observed in IgE-sensitized mast cells following antigenic challenge. Rutin and CGA reduced ROS levels in antigen-IgE-activated mast cells. Concomitantly, they also profoundly inhibited histamine release by these activated mast cells. In contrast, rutin and CGA augmented the inducible cytokine messages, i.e. interleukin (IL)-10, IL-13, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in IgE-sensitized mast cells following antigen challenge. This study indicates that tobacco polyphenolic antioxidants that quench intracellular ROS, differentially affect two effector functions of antigen-IgE-activated mast cells. This model system may be employed to determine the molecular target of polyphenols. The potential role of these polyphenolic antioxidants on IgE-mediated allergy in vivo depends on a balance of their differential effects on mast cell activation.

  10. Salt-induced modulation in growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant system in two varieties of Brassica juncea

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Arif Shafi; Ahmad, Aqil; Hayat, Shamsul; Fariduddin, Qazi

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine salt-induced modulation in growth, photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant system in two cultivars of Brassica juncea Czern and Coss varieties (Varuna and RH-30). The surface sterilized seeds of these varieties were sown in the soil amended with different levels (2.8, 4.2 or 5.6 dsm−1) of sodium chloride under a simple randomized block design. The salt treatment significantly decreased growth, net photosynthetic rate and its related attributes, chlorophyll fluorescence, SPAD value of chlorophyll, leaf carbonic anhydrase activity and leaf water potential, whereas electrolyte leakage, proline content, and activity of catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymes increased in both the varieties at 30 d stage of growth. The variety Varuna was found more resistant than RH-30 to the salt stress and possessed higher values for growth, photosynthetic attributes and antioxidant enzymes. Out of the graded concentrations (2.8, 4.2 or 5.6 dsm−1) of sodium chloride, 2.8 sm−1 was least toxic and 5.6 dsm−1 was most harmful. The variation in the responses of these two varieties to salt stress is attributed to their differential photosynthetic traits, SPAD chlorophyll value and antioxidant capacity, which can be used as potential markers for screening mustard plants for salt tolerance. PMID:23961235

  11. Green Tea and Bone Marrow Transplantation: From Antioxidant Activity to Enzymatic and Multidrug-resistance Modulation.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Palmery, Maura; Vitalone, Annabella

    2016-10-25

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main flavonoid of green tea (GT), could play an active role in the prevention of oxidative-stress-related diseases, such as hematologic malignancies. Some effects of EGCG are not imputable to antioxidant activity, but involve modulation of antioxidant enzymes and uric acid (UA) levels. The latter is the major factor responsible of the plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC). However, hyperuricemia is a frequent clinical feature caused by tumor lysis syndrome or cyclosporine side effects, both before and after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Besides this, food-drug interactions could be associated with GT consumption and could have clinical implications. The molecular mechanisms involved in the redox and drug metabolizing/transporting pathways were discussed, with particular reference to the potential role of GT and EGCG in BMT. Moreover, on reviewing data on NEAC, isoprostanes, uric acid, and various enzymes from human studies on GT, its extract, or EGCG, an increase in NEAC, without effect on isoprostanes, and contrasting results on UA and enzymes were observed. Currently, few and contrasting available evidences suggest caution for GT consumption in BMT patients and more studies are needed to better understand the potential impact of EGCG on oxidative stress and metabolizing/transporting systems.

  12. Consumption of Argan Oil Improves Anti-Oxidant and Lipid Status in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Eljaoudi, Rachid; Elkabbaj, Driss; Bahadi, Abdelali; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Benyahia, Mohammed; Errasfa, Mourad

    2015-10-01

    Virgin Argan oil (VAO) is of interest in oxidative stress and lipid profile because of its fat composition and antioxidant compounds. We investigated the effect of VAO consumption on lipid profile and antioxidant status in hemodialysis patients after a 4-week period of consumption. In a crossover, controlled trial, 37 patients (18 men, 19 women) with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis, were randomly assigned to a 4-week VAO diet. Fasting plasma lipids, vitamin E and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) were analyzed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined before and after hemodialysis session. There was no significant change in serum total cholesterol and ox-LDL. However, VAO consumption decreased the levels of triglyceride (p = 0.03), total cholesterol (p = 0.02) and low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.03) and increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein (p = 0.01). Plasma vitamin E contents significantly increased from baseline only in VAO-group (p < 0.001). Hemodialysis session increased MDA levels, but the increase in VAO group was less than in control group. VAO consumption improved lipid profile and oxidative stress status in hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The importance of the oxidative status of dairy cattle in the periparturient period: revisiting antioxidant supplementation.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows are especially vulnerable to health disorders during the transition period, when they shift from late pregnancy to the onset of lactation. Diseases at this stage affect not only the animals' well-being, but also cause a major economic impact in dairy farms, because apart from treatment costs, affected cows will not reach their peak milk-producing capacity. The overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress, which has been identified as an underlying factor of dysfunctional inflammatory responses. Supplementation with vitamins and trace elements attempts to minimize the harmful consequences of excessive ROS production, thereby trying to improve animals' health status and to reduce disease incidence. However, results regarding the effects of supplementing antioxidants on dairy cows' health and performance have been inconsistent, because in most cases, the antioxidant potential of the animals was not assessed beforehand and the nutritional strategy planned accordingly. Therefore, reviewing the physiological and harmful effects of ROS production, along with the different options available for assessing the redox balance in dairy cattle and some of the key findings of different supplementation trials, could bring one step forward the on-farm application of determinations of oxidative status for establishing nutritional strategies early enough in the dry period that could improve transition cow health.

  14. Moderate Weight Loss Decreases Oxidative Stress and Increases Antioxidant Status in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Del Ben, Maria; Angelico, Francesco; Cangemi, Roberto; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Carnevale, Roberto; Augelletti, Teresa; Baratta, Francesco; Polimeni, Licia; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background. Oxidative stress is enhanced in metabolic syndrome (MetS) and believed to contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis. Weight loss is associated with lowered oxidative stress. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional study in 92 consecutive patients with metabolic syndrome and 80 without. A dietary intervention with moderately low-calorie diet (600 calories/day negative energy balance) was carried out in 53 of metabolic syndrome patients. Oxidative stress, assessed by sNOX2-dp and urinary 8-iso-PGF2α, and antioxidant status, assessed by serum levels of vitamin E and adiponectin, were measured before and after 6 months. Results. Serum vitamin E/cholesterol ratio was significantly lower in metabolic syndrome compared to controls (P < 0.001) and decreased by increasing the number of metabolic syndrome components (P < 0.001). After six months, 23 and 30 patients showed >5% (group A) or <5% (group B) weight loss, respectively. Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α (−39.0%), serum sNOX2-dp (−22.2%), adiponectin (+125%), and vitamin E/cholesterol ratio (+129.8%) significantly changed only in A group. Changes in body weight and in serum adiponectin were independent predictors of vitamin E/cholesterol ratio variation. Conclusion. Our findings show that in metabolic syndrome moderate weight loss is associated with multiple health benefits including not only oxidative stress reduction but also enhancement of antioxidant status. PMID:24533215

  15. Effect of thyme essential oil and selenium on intestine integrity and antioxidant status of broilers.

    PubMed

    Placha, I; Takacova, J; Ryzner, M; Cobanova, K; Laukova, A; Strompfova, V; Venglovska, K; Faix, S

    2014-02-01

    1. This study evaluated the duodenal wall integrity, antioxidant status as well as some immunological parameters of broiler chickens supplemented with 0.5 g Thymus vulgaris essential oil (EO)/kg diet and 0.4 mg Se/kg DM (dry matter) derived from sodium selenite. 2. A total of 192 one-d-old randomly divided chickens of both sexes (Ross 308 hybrid broilers) were divided into 4 treatment groups of 48 birds each. 3. The first group was fed on a nutritionally balanced basal diet (BD). The other three groups received BD supplemented with 0.5 g/kg thyme oil, or 0.4 mg Se/kg DM, or both feed additives together. 4. The results for the evaluated feed additives were (1) thyme oil - decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in duodenal mucosa and kidney, increased immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentration in duodenal mucosa, stimulated phagocytic activity in blood, improved intestinal barrier integrity (2) selenium - increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in blood and liver as well as thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity in duodenal mucosa, liver and in the kidney, (3) EO with selenium - increased thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity in duodenal mucosa. 5. These results demonstrated that thyme oil alone showed more effective potential to improve intestinal barrier integrity and antioxidant status as well as evoking an immune response in chickens, than if diets were supplemented with both thyme oil and selenium.

  16. Long-term consumption of aspartame and brain antioxidant defense status.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, M; Sauganth Paul, M V; Varghese, Mathews V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of long-term intake of aspartame, a widely used artificial sweetener, on antioxidant defense status in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-175 g were randomly divided into three groups as follows: The first group was given aspartame at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.); the second group was given aspartame at dose of 1,000 mg/kg b.w., respectively, in a total volume of 3 mL of water; and the control rats received 3 mL of distilled water. Oral intubations were done in the morning, daily for 180 days. The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly reduced in the brain of rats that had received the dose of 1,000 mg/kg b.w. of aspartame, whereas only a significant reduction in GSH concentration was observed in the 500-mg/kg b.w. aspartame-treated group. Histopathological examination revealed mild vascular congestion in the 1,000 mg/kg b.w. group of aspartame-treated rats. The results of this experiment indicate that long-term consumption of aspartame leads to an imbalance in the antioxidant/pro-oxidant status in the brain, mainly through the mechanism involving the glutathione-dependent system.

  17. Effect of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training on Autonomic Functions and its Correlation with the Antioxidant Status.

    PubMed

    Gupt, Anju Madan; Kumar, Mukesh; Sharma, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Rajesh; Gupt, Anadi

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic exercise is a proven measure to enhance the cardio-respiratory efficiency. This improvement isprimarily due to improvement in autonomic function where in there is increase in the parasympathetic function and decrease in sympathetic function. Exercise also affects many metabolic activities in our body and may be one of the factors which reduce the oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to see the effect of moderate aerobic exercise training on autonomic function and its correlation with antioxidant status. 30 healthy volunteers in the age group of 18-22 years were screened. Autonomic function tests included activity (tone) and reactivity parameters. Antioxidant status was assessed by the level of malondialdehyde in plasma. We observed a significant change in SBP, DBP, LF nu, HF nu, delta value of DBP in CPT and MDA. Our findings are consistent with earlier findings that short duration physical training is known to reduce blood pressure and that there is a relationship between HF (in HRV) and training response Physical exercise also provides a favorable change in the biochemical parameters such as MDA.

  18. Effects of electromagnetic field produced by mobile phones on the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats.

    PubMed

    Elhag, M A; Nabil, Ghada M; Attia, Atef M M

    2007-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of EMR produced by GSM Mobile Phones (MP) on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rats. Rats were divided into three groups: (1) controls, (2) rats exposed to a fractionated dose of EMR (15 min day(-1) for four days) (EMR-F) and (3) rats exposed to an acute dose of EMR (EMR-A). A net drop in the plasma concentration of vitamin C (-47 and -59.8%) was observed in EMR-F and EMR-A groups, respectively, when compared to controls. While, a significant decrease in the levels of lypophilic antioxidant vitamins: vitamin E (-33 and -65.8%), vitamin A (-44.4 and -46.8%) was observed in EMR-F and EMR-A groups, respectively, when compared to controls. A net drop in plasma level of reduced glutathione (GSH) (-19.8 and -35.3%) was observed in EMR-F and EMR-A groups, respectively. EMR exposure of rats produced a significant decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, with the values of these activities for EMR-A group is significantly lower than those of EMR-F. These results indicate that the effects of acute doses of EMR produced by mobile phones on the rat's antioxidant status is significantly higher than those of fractionated doses of the same type of radiation. On the basis of present results, it can be concluded that exposure to acute doses of EMR produced by mobile phones is more hazardous than that produced by fractionated doses of the same type of radiation.

  19. Oxidation of serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and antioxidant status in young and elderly humans.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukiko K; Read, Marsha H; Elias, Jeffrey W; Omaye, Stanley T

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of atherosclerosis increases with age, as do various indices of free-radical mediated damage, e.g., lipid peroxidation. Because lipid peroxidation plays a prominent role in lipoprotein oxidation, likely a prelude to atherosclerosis, we compared the susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation in young (19-30 years) and elderly (59-86 years) groups. Although we found no significant differences in serum malondialdehyde (MDA) or oxidized LDL antibodies (OLAB) between young and elderly lipoproteins, MDA was directly related to OLAB regardless of age (r = 0.322, p = 0.005) and there was a trend for lower OLAB levels (30.5%, p = 0.079) in the elderly compared to the young population. Overall, serum antioxidant status was either similar or greater in the elderly group compared to the young group, likely reflecting antioxidant supplementation by the elderly group. OLAB was inversely related to Vitamin C (r = -0.310, p = 0.008) and Vitamin E intake (r = -0.277, p = 0.018) from foods and supplements. Serum levels of Vitamin C and Vitamin E were significantly higher (18.5%, p = 0.021 and 58.1 %, p < 0.001, respectively) in the elderly group compared to the young group and the ratio of Vitamin E to Vitamin C was significantly higher (30.4%, p = 0.042) in the serum of the elderly group. Oxidation of serum LDL and antioxidant status were not affected by age; however, the ratio of serum Vitamin E to Vitamin C was higher in the elderly group which may affect Vitamin E recycling.

  20. Antioxidant vitamin status (A, E, C, and beta-carotene) in European adolescents - the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Breidenassel, Christina; Valtueña, Jara; González-Gross, Marcela; Benser, Jasmin; Spinneker, Andre; Moreno, Luis A; de Henauw, Stefaan; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Denes; Maiani, Guiseppe; Stehle, Peter

    2011-07-01

    An adequate nutritional status of antioxidant vitamins (vitamins A, C, E) and b-carotene is essential especially during childhood and adolescence, because of their important roles in cell growth and development. Currently, there are no physiological reference values for blood concentration of these vitamins and b-carotene in apparently healthy European adolescents. The aim of the current study was to obtain reliable and comparable data of antioxidant vitamins and b-carotene in a cross-sectional study, within HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence), which was conducted in a representative sample of adolescents from ten European cities. From a subsample of 1,054 adolescents (males= 501) of the HELENA Cross Sectional Study with an age range of 12.5 to 17.49 years, fasting blood samples were taken and analyzed for vitamins A, E, C, and b-carotene status. As specific reference values for adolescents are missing, percentile distribution by age and sex is given. Mean concentrations were the following: Retinol: 356.4 ± 107.9 cm/mL; alpha-tocopherol: 9.9 ± 2.1 microg/mL; vitamin C: 10.3 ± 3.3 mg/L; and b-carotene: 245.6 ± 169.6 cm/mL. Females showed higher alpha-tocopherol and vitamin C values compared with males and 17-year-old boys had higher retinol levels than the same-aged girls (p = 0.018). Retinol serum concentrations increased significantly according to age in both gender, but girls had also significantly increasing b-carotene levels by age. For the first time, concentrations of antioxidant vitamins and pro-vitamin beta-carotene have been obtained in a representative sample of apparently healthy European adolescents. These data can contribute to the establishment of reference ranges in adolescents.

  1. Investigation of the Plasma Nitrite Levels and Oxidant–Antioxidant Status in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    BOZKURT, Hakan; NEYAL, Abdurrahman; GEYİK, Sırma; TAYSI, Seyithan; ANARAT, Rüksan; BULUT, Mesut; NEYAL, Ayşe Münife

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders. In the present study, we assessed the nitrite level, which is an indirect indicator of nitric oxide (NO), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI), which may be associated with endotel dysfunction. We investigated the difference between the groups and the relationship among the severity of comorbid conditions. Methods This study was conducted in 39 OSA patients confirmed by polysomnography and 40 healthy subjects (controls). The OSA group consisted of 10 women and 29 men and the control group consisted of 20 women and 20 men. Polysomnographic revealed mild OSA in two, moderate in 7 and severe in 30 cases. We measured plasma TAS, TOS and nitrite levels from venous blood. The OSI value was obtained by dividing the TOS and TAS values. Values were compared with the control group and between patient groups. Results A high body mass index (BMI), cardiovasculer diseases (CVD) and the use of medication for co-morbid diseases were more prevalent in the OSA group (p=.001, p=.029 and p=.006, respectively). The median plasma TOS level and OSI in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OUA) group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p=.001 and p=.001, respectively). The plasma median nitrite level and TAS did not show any significant difference between the OSA and the control groups. None of the parameters revealed a significant difference between severe and moderate OSA cases. Conclusion Our findings in the present study revealed that the oxidant–antioxidant balance shifted toward the oxidant side in OSA cases; however, the NO level did not change. These findings together may point out that some molecules other than NO may have a role in the pathophysiology of endothelial dysfunction and also in the disturbed oxidant–antioxidant balance in OSA.

  2. Investigation of the Plasma Nitrite Levels and Oxidant-Antioxidant Status in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Hakan; Neyal, Abdurrahman; Geyik, Sırma; Taysi, Seyithan; Anarat, Rüksan; Bulut, Mesut; Neyal, Ayşe Münife

    2015-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders. In the present study, we assessed the nitrite level, which is an indirect indicator of nitric oxide (NO), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress index (OSI), which may be associated with endotel dysfunction. We investigated the difference between the groups and the relationship among the severity of comorbid conditions. This study was conducted in 39 OSA patients confirmed by polysomnography and 40 healthy subjects (controls). The OSA group consisted of 10 women and 29 men and the control group consisted of 20 women and 20 men. Polysomnographic revealed mild OSA in two, moderate in 7 and severe in 30 cases. We measured plasma TAS, TOS and nitrite levels from venous blood. The OSI value was obtained by dividing the TOS and TAS values. Values were compared with the control group and between patient groups. A high body mass index (BMI), cardiovasculer diseases (CVD) and the use of medication for co-morbid diseases were more prevalent in the OSA group (p=.001, p=.029 and p=.006, respectively). The median plasma TOS level and OSI in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OUA) group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p=.001 and p=.001, respectively). The plasma median nitrite level and TAS did not show any significant difference between the OSA and the control groups. None of the parameters revealed a significant difference between severe and moderate OSA cases. Our findings in the present study revealed that the oxidant-antioxidant balance shifted toward the oxidant side in OSA cases; however, the NO level did not change. These findings together may point out that some molecules other than NO may have a role in the pathophysiology of endothelial dysfunction and also in the disturbed oxidant-antioxidant balance in OSA.

  3. Red blood cell antioxidant and iron status in alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Fiorelli, Gemino; De Feo, T M; Duca, L; Tavazzi, D; Nava, I; Fargion, S; Cappellini, M D

    2002-03-01

    Iron overload has been reported in alcoholic liver cirrhosis but it remains to be established whether iron is involved in inducing oxidative damage to erythrocytes in alcoholic cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to assess oxidative damage and red cell indicators of antioxidant defences in alcoholics with mild-to-severe liver cirrhosis, taking into account the iron status. Twenty-nine patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (AC) and 27 with nonalcoholic cirrhosis (NAC) were studied. Serum lipid peroxides (LPO) were assayed by a colourimetric method. Serum-free malonyldialdehyde (MDA) was assayed by selected ion monitoring in positive chemical ionization; serum 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal (4-HNE) was determined by a colorimetric method. Reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), adenine and pyridine cofactors were assayed in whole blood extracts by HPLC. Hexose-monophosphate shunt (HMPS), glycolytic pathway (EMP) and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined by standard methods. Iron status was evaluated by standard clinical chemistry and by histological grading of liver iron. Nontransferrin-bound iron (NTBI) was measured in serum by HPLC. GSH progressively decreased with increasing severity of liver involvement in AC and NAC. MDA, 4-HNE and NTBI were significantly higher in AC serum. Stimulation of red cell HMPS and reducing potential, in terms of NADPH production, were more pronounced in AC. These results suggest that NTBI is more important than the decrease of antioxidant defences in inducing lipid peroxidation. NTBI may play a catalytic role in free radical reactions in the presence of cellular reductants such as NADPH.

  4. Coffee modulates transcription factor Nrf2 and highly increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Silvio J V; Ishimoto, Emília Y; Torres, Elizabeth A F S

    2014-01-08

    This study investigated the effect of a 28 day administration of coffee brew on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in rats. After this period of 2.0 mL/day dosages of this beverage, the activities of hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase increased 74.8, 59.4, and 135.2%, respectively, whereas the cytosolic level of Nrf2 increased 131.3%. At the same time, the total antioxidant capacity of the hepatic tissue increased 25.1%, improving the defensive status against oxidative stress. At the end of the experiment, the levels of biomarkers alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase remained equal to the control group, and no changes were observed in the hepatic histoarchiteture of the animals, suggesting that the liver tissue was not impaired by the exposure to coffee. The changes in enzyme activities and antioxidant capacity were statistically significant (p < 0.05), indicating that coffee could be considered an important alternative against oxidative stress and its correlated degenerative diseases.

  5. The impact of match-play tennis in a hot environment on indirect markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status

    PubMed Central

    Knez, Wade L; Périard, JP

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant status in response to playing tennis in HOT (∼36°C and 35% relative humidity (RH)) and COOL (∼22°C and 70% RH) conditions. Methods 10 male tennis players undertook two matches for an effective playing time (ie, ball in play) of 20 min, corresponding to ∼122 and ∼107 min of total play in HOT and COOL conditions, respectively. Core body temperature, body mass and indirect markers of oxidative stress (diacrons reactive oxygen metabolic test) and antioxidant status (biological antioxidant potential test) were assessed immediately prematch, midmatch and postmatch, and 24 and 48 h into recovery. Results Regardless of the condition, oxidative stress remained similar throughout play and into recovery. Likewise, match-play tennis in the COOL had no impact on antioxidant status. However, antioxidants status increased significantly in the HOT compared with COOL environment (p<0.05). Body mass losses (∼0.5 kg) were similar between conditions. Rectal temperature increased during both matches (p<0.05), but with a greater magnitude in the HOT (39.3±0.5°C) versus COOL (38.7±0.2°C) environment (p<0.05). Conclusions Match-play tennis in the heat does not exacerbate the development of oxidative stress, but significantly increases antioxidant status. These data suggest that the heat stress observed in the HOT environment may provide a necessary signal for the upregulation of antioxidant defence, dampening cellular damage. PMID:24668382

  6. Modulation of keratinocyte expression of antioxidants by 4-hydroxynonenal, a lipid peroxidation end product

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Ruijin; Heck, Diane E.; Mishin, Vladimir; Black, Adrienne T.; Shakarjian, Michael P.; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2014-03-01

    4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is a lipid peroxidation end product generated in response to oxidative stress in the skin. Keratinocytes contain an array of antioxidant enzymes which protect against oxidative stress. In these studies, we characterized 4-HNE-induced changes in antioxidant expression in mouse keratinocytes. Treatment of primary mouse keratinocytes and PAM 212 keratinocytes with 4-HNE increased mRNA expression for heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), catalase, NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1-2, GSTA3 and GSTA4. In both cell types, HO-1 was the most sensitive, increasing 86–98 fold within 6 h. Further characterization of the effects of 4-HNE on HO-1 demonstrated concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression which were maximum after 6 h with 30 μM. 4-HNE stimulated keratinocyte Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as PI3 kinase. Inhibition of these enzymes suppressed 4-HNE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. 4-HNE also activated Nrf2 by inducing its translocation to the nucleus. 4-HNE was markedly less effective in inducing HO-1 mRNA and protein in keratinocytes from Nrf2 −/− mice, when compared to wild type mice, indicating that Nrf2 also regulates 4-HNE-induced signaling. Western blot analysis of caveolar membrane fractions isolated by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that 4-HNE-induced HO-1 is localized in keratinocyte caveolae. Treatment of the cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which disrupts caveolar structure, suppressed 4-HNE-induced HO-1. These findings indicate that 4-HNE modulates expression of antioxidant enzymes in keratinocytes, and that this can occur by different mechanisms. Changes in expression of keratinocyte antioxidants may be important in protecting the skin from oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Lipid peroxidation generates 4-hydroxynonenal, a reactive aldehyde. • 4-HNE induces antioxidant proteins in mouse keratinocytes. • Induction of

  7. Effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium on growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Samuel, K G; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Qi, G H

    2015-03-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a putative essential nutrient and redox modulator in microorganisms, cell and animal models, has been recognized as a growth promoter in rodents. Growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status were evaluated on broiler chickens fed different levels of PQQ disodium (PQQ.Na2). A total of 784 day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly allotted into seven dietary groups: negative control group (NC) fed a basal diet without virginiamycin (VIR) or PQQ.Na2; a positive control group (PC) fed a diet with 15 mg of VIR/kg diet; and PQQ.Na2 groups fed with 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40 or 0.80 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet. Each treatment contained eight replicates with 14 birds each. The feeding trial lasted for 6 weeks. The results showed that chicks fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet significantly improved growth performance comparable to those in PC group, and the feed efficiency enhancement effects of dietary PQQ.Na2 was more apparent in grower phase. Dietary addition of PQQ.Na2 had the potential to stimulate immune organs development, and low level dietary addition (<0.1 mg/kg) increased plasma lysozyme level. Broilers fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet gained more carcasses at day 42, and had lower lipid peroxide malondialdehyde content and higher total antioxidant power in plasma. The results indicated that dietary PQQ.Na2 (0.2 mg/kg diet) had the potential to act as a growth promoter comparable to antibiotic in broiler chicks.

  8. Dietary iron intake and breast cancer risk: modulation by an antioxidant supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Partula, Valentin; Latino-Martel, Paule; Srour, Bernard; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Fassier, Philippine; Guéraud, Françoise; Pierre, Fabrice H.; Touvier, Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results suggested that iron-induced lipid peroxidation may explain the direct associations observed between red/processed meat intakes and colorectal and breast cancer risk. However, epidemiological evidence is lacking. Thus, we investigated the association between dietary iron intake and breast cancer risk, and its potential modulation by an antioxidant supplementation and lipid intake. This prospective study included 4646 women from the SU.VI.MAX trial (daily low-dose antioxidants vs. placebo). 188 incident breast cancers were diagnosed (median follow-up=12.6y). Dietary iron intake was assessed using repeated 24h dietary records. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were computed. Dietary iron intake was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (HRT3vs.T1=1.67 (1.02-2.71), P-trend=0.04). This association was observed in the placebo group (HRT3vs.T1=2.80 (1.42-5.54), P-trend=0.003), but not in the antioxidant-supplemented group (P-trend=0.7, P-interaction=0.1). Besides, in the placebo group, the increased breast cancer risk associated with dietary iron intake was more specifically observed in women with higher lipid intake (P-trend=0.046). These findings suggest that dietary iron intake may be associated with an increased breast cancer risk, especially in women who did not received antioxidants during the trial and who consumed more lipids. This supports the experimental results suggesting that breast cancer risk may be increased by iron-induced lipid peroxidation. PMID:27738321

  9. Modulation of keratinocyte expression of antioxidants by 4-hydroxynonenal, a lipid peroxidation end product.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ruijin; Heck, Diane E; Mishin, Vladimir; Black, Adrienne T; Shakarjian, Michael P; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2014-03-01

    4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is a lipid peroxidation end product generated in response to oxidative stress in the skin. Keratinocytes contain an array of antioxidant enzymes which protect against oxidative stress. In these studies, we characterized 4-HNE-induced changes in antioxidant expression in mouse keratinocytes. Treatment of primary mouse keratinocytes and PAM 212 keratinocytes with 4-HNE increased mRNA expression for heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), catalase, NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1-2, GSTA3 and GSTA4. In both cell types, HO-1 was the most sensitive, increasing 86-98 fold within 6h. Further characterization of the effects of 4-HNE on HO-1 demonstrated concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression which were maximum after 6h with 30 μM. 4-HNE stimulated keratinocyte Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as PI3 kinase. Inhibition of these enzymes suppressed 4-HNE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. 4-HNE also activated Nrf2 by inducing its translocation to the nucleus. 4-HNE was markedly less effective in inducing HO-1 mRNA and protein in keratinocytes from Nrf2-/- mice, when compared to wild type mice, indicating that Nrf2 also regulates 4-HNE-induced signaling. Western blot analysis of caveolar membrane fractions isolated by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that 4-HNE-induced HO-1 is localized in keratinocyte caveolae. Treatment of the cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which disrupts caveolar structure, suppressed 4-HNE-induced HO-1. These findings indicate that 4-HNE modulates expression of antioxidant enzymes in keratinocytes, and that this can occur by different mechanisms. Changes in expression of keratinocyte antioxidants may be important in protecting the skin from oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidant and signal modulation properties of plant polyphenols in controlling vascular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kostyuk, Vladimir A; Potapovich, Alla I; Suhan, Tatyana O; de Luca, Chiara; Korkina, Liudmila G

    2011-05-11

    Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) play a critical role in the initiation of atherosclerosis through activation of inflammatory signaling. In the present work we investigated the role of antioxidant and signal modulation properties of plant polyphenols in controlling vascular inflammation. Significant decrease in intracellular NO level and superoxide overproduction was found in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) treated with oxLDL, but not with LDL. The redox imbalance was prevented by the addition of quercetin or resveratrol. Expression analysis of 14 genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation revealed oxLDL-mediated up-regulation of genes specifically involved in leukocyte recruitment and adhesion. This up-regulation could be partially avoided by the addition of verbascoside or resveratrol, while treatment with quercetin resulted in a further increase in the expression of these genes. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated HUVEC were also used for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory potency of plant polyphenols. Significant differences between HUVEC treaded with oxLDL and LPS were found in both the expression pattern of inflammation-related genes and the effects of plant polyphenols on cellular responses. The present data indicate that plant polyphenols may affect vascular inflammation not only as antioxidants but also as modulators of inflammatory redox signaling pathways.

  11. Dimerization Controls Marburg Virus VP24-dependent Modulation of Host Antioxidative Stress Responses

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Britney; Li, Jing; Adhikari, Jagat; Edwards, Megan R.; Zhang, Hao; Schwarz, Toni; Leung, Daisy W.; Basler, Christopher F.; Gross, Michael L.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.

    2016-08-04

    Marburg virus (MARV), a member of the Filoviridae family that also includes Ebola virus (EBOV), causes lethal hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates that have exceeded 50% in some outbreaks. Within an infected cell, there are numerous host-viral interactions that contribute to the outcome of infection. Recent studies identified MARV protein 24 (mVP24) as a modulator of the host antioxidative responses, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Using a combination of biochemical and mass spectrometry studies, we show that mVP24 is a dimer in solution that directly binds to the Kelch domain of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) to regulate nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). This interaction between Keap1 and mVP24 occurs through the Kelch interaction loop (K-Loop) of mVP24 leading to upregulation of antioxidant response element transcription, which is distinct from other Kelch binders that regulate Nrf2 activity. N-terminal truncations disrupt mVP24 dimerization, allowing monomeric mVP24 to bind Kelch with higher affinity and stimulate higher antioxidative stress response element (ARE) reporter activity. Mass spectrometry-based mapping of the interface revealed overlapping binding sites on Kelch for mVP24 and the Nrf2 proteins. Substitution of conserved cysteines, C209 and C210, to alanine in the mVP24 K-Loop abrogates Kelch binding and ARE activation. Our studies identify a shift in the monomer-dimer equilibrium of MARV VP24, driven by its interaction with Keap1 Kelch domain, as a critical determinant that modulates host responses to pathogenic Marburg viral infections.

  12. Dimerization Controls Marburg Virus VP24-dependent Modulation of Host Antioxidative Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Britney; Li, Jing; Adhikari, Jagat; Edwards, Megan R; Zhang, Hao; Schwarz, Toni; Leung, Daisy W; Basler, Christopher F; Gross, Michael L; Amarasinghe, Gaya K

    2016-08-28

    Marburg virus (MARV), a member of the Filoviridae family that also includes Ebola virus (EBOV), causes lethal hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates that have exceeded 50% in some outbreaks. Within an infected cell, there are numerous host-viral interactions that contribute to the outcome of infection. Recent studies identified MARV protein 24 (mVP24) as a modulator of the host antioxidative responses, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Using a combination of biochemical and mass spectrometry studies, we show that mVP24 is a dimer in solution that directly binds to the Kelch domain of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) to regulate nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). This interaction between Keap1 and mVP24 occurs through the Kelch interaction loop (K-Loop) of mVP24 leading to upregulation of antioxidant response element transcription, which is distinct from other Kelch binders that regulate Nrf2 activity. N-terminal truncations disrupt mVP24 dimerization, allowing monomeric mVP24 to bind Kelch with higher affinity and stimulate higher antioxidative stress response element (ARE) reporter activity. Mass spectrometry-based mapping of the interface revealed overlapping binding sites on Kelch for mVP24 and the Nrf2 proteins. Substitution of conserved cysteines, C209 and C210, to alanine in the mVP24 K-Loop abrogates Kelch binding and ARE activation. Our studies identify a shift in the monomer-dimer equilibrium of MARV VP24, driven by its interaction with Keap1 Kelch domain, as a critical determinant that modulates host responses to pathogenic Marburg viral infections.

  13. [The effect of exogenous antioxidants on the antioxidant status of erythrocytes and hepcidin content in blood of patients with disorders of iron metabolism regulation].

    PubMed

    Shcherbinina, S P; Levina, A A; Lisovskaia, I L; Ataullakhanov, F I

    2013-01-01

    In many diseases associated with impairments in iron metabolism, erythrocytes exhibit an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress induced in vitro. In this study, we have examined the antioxidant status of erythrocytes from healthy donors and from 12 patients with disorders of iron homeostasis by measuring the extent of t-BHP-induced hemolysis in vitro. The extent of hemolysis observed with patient erythrocytes was significantly higher than that observed in experiment with normal cells. After therapeutic infusions of the antioxidants mexidol or emoxypin, oxidative hemolysis in patients was restored to normal values and blood hepcidin content increased significantly. A significant correlation was observed between hepcidin concentration after treatment and t-BHP-induced hemolysis before treatment. These data suggest that antioxidants may exert a favorable effect under pathological conditions associated with iron overload disease.

  14. Human protein status modulates brain reward responses to food cues.

    PubMed

    Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Smeets, Paul Am; van den Heuvel, Emmy; Boesveldt, Sanne; Finlayson, Graham; de Graaf, Cees

    2014-07-01

    Protein is indispensable in the human diet, and its intake appears tightly regulated. The role of sensory attributes of foods in protein intake regulation is far from clear. We investigated the effect of human protein status on neural responses to different food cues with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The food cues varied by taste category (sweet compared with savory) and protein content (low compared with high). In addition, food preferences and intakes were measured. We used a randomized crossover design whereby 23 healthy women [mean ± SD age: 22 ± 2 y; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.5 ± 1.8] followed two 16-d fully controlled dietary interventions involving consumption of either a low-protein diet (0.6 g protein · kg body weight(-1) · d(-1), ~7% of energy derived from protein, approximately half the normal protein intake) or a high-protein diet (2.2 g protein · kg body weight(-1) · d(-1), ~25% of energy, approximately twice the normal intake). On the last day of the interventions, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to odor and visual food cues were measured by using fMRI. The 2 interventions were followed by a 1-d ad libitum phase, during which a large array of food items was available and preference and intake were measured. When exposed to food cues (relative to the control condition), the BOLD response was higher in reward-related areas (orbitofrontal cortex, striatum) in a low-protein state than in a high-protein state. Specifically, BOLD was higher in the inferior orbitofrontal cortex in response to savory food cues. In contrast, the protein content of the food cues did not modulate the BOLD response. A low protein state also increased preferences for savory food cues and increased protein intake in the ad libitum phase as compared with a high-protein state. Protein status modulates brain responses in reward regions to savory food cues. These novel findings suggest that dietary protein status

  15. Growth modulation of human cells in vitro by mild oxidative stress and 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Lovaković, Tomislava; Poljak-Blazi, Marija; Duburs, Gunars; Cipak, Ana; Cindrić, Marina; Vigante, Brigita; Bisenieks, Egils; Jaganjac, Morana; Mrakovcić, Lidija; Dedić, Azra; Zarković, Neven

    2011-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation products are not only cytotoxic but may also modulate signal transduction in cells. Accordingly, antioxidants may be considered as modifiers of cellular redox signaling. Therefore, the effects of two novel synthetic antioxidants, analogues of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives, cerebrocrast and Z41-74 were analysed in vitro on human osteosarcoma cell line HOS, the growth of which can be modulated by lipid peroxidation. The cells were pretreated with either cerebrocrast or Z41-74 and afterwards exposed to mild, copper induced lipid peroxidation or to 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), the end product of lipid peroxidation. The results obtained have shown that both antioxidants exert growth modulating effects interfering with the lipid peroxidation. Namely, cells treated with antioxidants showed increased metabolic rate and cell growth, thereby attenuating the effects of lipid peroxidation. Such biomodulating effects of cerebrocrast and Z41-74 resembled growth modulating effects of HNE, suggesting that the antioxidants could eventually promote cellular adaptation to oxidative stress interacting with redox signaling and hydroxynonenal HNE-signal transduction pathways. This may be of particular relevance for better understanding the beneficial role of hydroxynonenal HNE in cell growth control. Therefore, cerebrocrast and Z41-74 could be convenient to study further oxidative homeostasis involving lipid peroxidation.

  16. Grape extract improves antioxidant status and physical performance in elite male athletes

    PubMed Central

    Lafay, Sophie; Jan, Caroline; Nardon, Karine; Lemaire, Benoit; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Houvenaeghel, Marc; Juhel, Christine; Cara, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Excessive physical exercise overproduces reactive oxygen species. Even if elite sportsmen increase their antioxidant status by regular physical training, during the competition period, this improvement is not sufficient to limit free radical production which could be detrimental to the body. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, and crossover study on 20 elite sportsmen (handball = 10, basketball = 5, sprint = 4, and volleyball = 1) during the competition period was to determine if the consumption of a grape extract (GE; Vitis vinifera L.) was able to improve the parameters related to (i) anti-oxidative status and oxidative stress and (ii) physical performance. Specific biomarkers of antioxidant capacity, oxidative stress, skeletal cell muscle damage, and other general biomarkers were determined in plasma and urine before (D0) and after one month (D30) of placebo or GE supplementation (400mg·d-1). Effort tests were conducted using the Optojump® system, which allows determining the total physical performance (EnRJ45), explosive power (RJ110), and fatigue (RJL5). The plasma ORAC value was not modified in the placebo group; however, GE increased the ORAC value compared to the placebo at D30 (14 966+/-335 vs 14 242+/-339 dµmol Teq·L-1; p < 0.05). The plasma FRAP value was significantly reduced in the placebo group, but not in the GE group. Therefore, GE limited the reduction of FRAP compared to the placebo at D30 (1 053.7+/-31.5 vs 993.7+/-26.7 µmol Teq·L-1; p < 0.05). Urinary isoprostane values were increased in the placebo group, but were not modified in the GE group. Consequently, GE limited the production of isoprostanes compared to the placebo at D30 (1.24+/-0.12 vs 1.26+/-0.13 ng·mg-1 creatinine; p < 0.05). GE administration, compared to the placebo at D30, reduced the plasmatic creatine phosphokinase concentration (CPK, 695.7+/-177.0 vs 480.0+/-81.1 IU·L-1, p = 0.1) and increased hemoglobin levels (Hb, 14.5+/-0.2 vs 14.8+/-0.2 vs

  17. Low plasma antioxidant status in patients with epilepsy and the role of antiepileptic drugs on oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Bindu; Ramalingam, Krishnan; Kumar, Rajendiran Vinoth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in various disorders including epilepsy. We studied the antioxidant status in patients with epilepsy and aimed at determining whether there was any difference in the antioxidant levels between patients and controls, patients who are not on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and on treatment, between individual AEDs and patients on monotherapy and polytherapy. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant levels like catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), vitamin E, glutathione (GSH), thiol group (SH), uric acid, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were compared between 100 patients with epilepsy and equal number of controls. Twenty-five patients who were not on AEDs were compared with patients on AEDs and the control group. Patients were divided into monotherapy and polytherapy group and antioxidant status was compared between the two groups and between individual drugs. Results: Catalase, SH, vitamin E, and TAC were significantly low in patients with epilepsy than those in the control group (P < 0.001). GSH and uric acid did not show any difference; GPx in patients was significantly higher than those in the control group There were no differences in the antioxidant levels between the treated and the untreated groups; however, it was lower in untreated patients than controls (P < 0.001), suggesting that AEDs do not modify the oxidative stress. Patients on Valproate (VPA) showed higher catalase and GPx levels. Catalase was higher in the monotherapy than polytherapy group (P < 0.04). Conclusion: Our study found significantly low levels of antioxidant in patients as compared to controls. AED did not influence the antioxidant status suggesting that seizures induce oxidative stress. PMID:25506160

  18. Association of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status with metabolic syndrome in Iranian healthy elderly women.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiari, Afsaneh; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimolla; Omidvar, Shabnam; Nasiri Amiri, Fatemeh

    2017-10-01

    The interconnection between aging and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their effect on oxidative stress (OxS) status lacks adequate information. Additionally, the age-related changes of antioxidant defenses and OxS in senior women with MetS in comparison to healthy senior women are not yet established. We analyzed the correlation between oxidative defense status and OxS with MetS components. Through further examination of MetS and aging, we aimed to determine their independent effects on OxS and oxidative defense status. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural area of Babol, Iran. A total of 75 women of ≥60 years of age with MetS along with 89 women with similar conditions without the MetS, serving as the control group, were studied. Blood glucose, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression, ANOVA and independent t-tests. MDA and TAC levels independently showed a significant correlation with triglyceride (TG), waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). As suggested by the standardized B (0.810, -0.783, P<0.001; -0.052, P<0.001, 0.047, P<0.01), TG followed by HDL-C were the most strongly correlated factors with MDA and TAC. Furthermore, MetS and age were independent risk factors for antioxidant activity reduction and OxS. However, MetS had a much higher predictive power than age (standardized B 0.573 for MetS and 0.376 for age, P<0.001). Aging and MetS, both lead to OxS, but the impact of MetS on this disorder was far greater than the effect of age. However, their cumulative effects can lead to a worsening of the situation. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of MetS, especially in the elderly can prevent any adverse impact of MetS.

  19. The effect of acute pre-exercise dark chocolate consumption on plasma antioxidant status, oxidative stress and immunoendocrine responses to prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    Davison, Glen; Callister, Robin; Williamson, Gary; Cooper, Karen A; Gleeson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Acute antioxidant supplementation may modulate oxidative stress and some immune perturbations that typically occur following prolonged exercise. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of acutely consuming dark chocolate (high polyphenol content) on plasma antioxidant capacity, markers of oxidative stress and immunoendocrine responses to prolonged exercise. Fourteen healthy men cycled for 2.5 h at ~60% maximal oxygen uptake 2 h after consuming 100 g dark chocolate (DC), an isomacronutrient control bar (CC) or neither (BL) in a randomised-counterbalanced design. DC enhanced pre-exercise antioxidant status (P = 0.003) and reduced by trend (P = 0.088) 1 h post-exercise plasma free [F₂-isoprostane] compared with CC (also, [F₂-isoprostane] increased post-exercise in CC and BL but not DC trials). Plasma insulin concentration was significantly higher pre-exercise (P = 0.012) and 1 h post-exercise (P = 0.026) in the DC compared with the CC trial. There was a better maintenance of plasma glucose concentration on the DC trial (2-way ANOVA trial × time interaction P = 0.001), which decreased post-exercise in all trials but was significantly higher 1 h post-exercise (P = 0.039) in the DC trial. There were no between trial differences in the temporal responses (trial × time interactions all P > 0.05) of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress hormones, plasma interleukin-6, the magnitude of leukocytosis and neutrophilia and changes in neutrophil function. Acute DC consumption may affect insulin, glucose, antioxidant status and oxidative stress responses, but has minimal effects on immunoendocrine responses, to prolonged exercise.

  20. Age-dependent effects of esculetin on mood-related behavior and cognition from stressed mice are associated with restoring brain antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Martín-Aragón, Sagrario; Villar, Ángel; Benedí, Juana

    2016-02-04

    Dietary antioxidants might exert an important role in the aging process by relieving oxidative damage, a likely cause of age-associated brain dysfunctions. This study aims to investigate the influence of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin), a naturally occurring antioxidant in the diet, on mood-related behaviors and cognitive function and its relation with age and brain oxidative damage. Behavioral tests were employed in 11-, 17- and 22-month-old male C57BL/6J mice upon an oral 35day-esculetin treatment (25mg/kg). Activity of antioxidant enzymes, GSH and GSSG levels, GSH/GSSG ratio, and mitochondrial function were analyzed in brain cortex at the end of treatment in order to assess the oxidative status related to mouse behavior. Esculetin treatment attenuated the increased immobility time and enhanced the diminished climbing time in the forced swim task elicited by acute restraint stress (ARS) in the 11- and 17-month-old mice versus their counterpart controls. Furthermore, ARS caused an impairment of contextual memory in the step-through passive avoidance both in mature adult and aged mice which was partially reversed by esculetin only in the 11-month-old mice. Esculetin was effective to prevent the ARS-induced oxidative stress mostly in mature adult mice by restoring antioxidant enzyme activities, augmenting the GSH/GSSG ratio and increasing cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in cortex. Modulation of the mood-related behavior and cognitive function upon esculetin treatment in a mouse model of ARS depends on age and is partly due to the enhancement of redox status and levels of COX activity in cortex. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Oxidant-antioxidant status in Egyptian children with sickle cell anemia: a single center based study.

    PubMed

    El-Ghamrawy, Mona Kamal; Hanna, Wagdi Maurice; Abdel-Salam, Amina; El-Sonbaty, Marwa M; Youness, Eman R; Adel, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    the present study was conducted to investigate the oxidant-antioxidant status in Egyptian children with sickle cell anemia. the serum levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAO), paraoxonase (PON), vitamin E, nitrite, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in 40 steady state children with homozygous sickle cell anemia (24 males and 16 females) and 20 apparently healthy age- and gender-matched controls. mean serum TAO, PON, vitamin E, and nitrite levels were significantly lower in the group with sickle cell anemia, whereas mean serum MDA was significantly higher in these children compared to controls. No significant differences in mean levels of TAO, PON, nitrite, vitamin E, and MDA were found in sickle cell anemia patients receiving hydroxyurea when compared with those not receiving hydroxyurea. A significant negative correlation between serum nitrite and the occurrence of vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) was observed (r=-0.3, p=0.04). PON level was found to be positively correlated with patients' weight and BMI (r=-0.4, p=0.01; r=-0.7, p<0.001, respectively), but not with frequency of VOC. The area under the curve of serum nitrite in predicting occurrence of VOC was 0.782, versus 0.701 for PON, and 0.650 for TAO (p=0.006). Serum MDA was not correlated with nitrite, PON, TAO, or vitamin E levels. No significant correlations were detected between serum nitrite and hemoglobin or antioxidant enzymes. children with sickle cell anemia have chronic oxidative stress that may result in increased VOC, and decreased serum nitrite may be associated with increases in VOC frequency. A novel finding in this study is the decrease in PON level in these patients, which is an interesting subject for further research. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of biochemical and antioxidative status in patients suffering from dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Arif; Khan, Khalid Mahmud; Qureshi, Muhammad Saeed; Shabbir, Beenish; Zahid, Sara; Asif, Muhammad; Manan, Abdul; Rashid, Sana; Khan, Saima Rubab; Arsalan, Hafiz Muhammad; Alam, Rabail; Arooj, Mahwish; Qazi, Mahmood Husain; Chaudhary, Adeel Gulzar Ahmed; Abuzenadah, Adel Mohammed; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed Hussain; Karim, Sajjad

    2015-06-01

    A multi-centred study was designed to collect dengue epidemiologic data from government and registered private hospitals/clinics and maintained archive of frozen specimens in bio-bank to be used for future dengue epidemic control program, and assess the epidemiology of dengue fever (DF) by evaluating biochemical and oxidative status of patients. ELISA IgM antibodies test was done to confirm DF. From August 2010 to December 2011, 101 confirmed blood samples of DF patients referred to pathology lab of Jinnah Hospital Lahore were subjected to the epidemiologic assessment by evaluating the biochemical and physiological indices and alterations of circulating antioxidants. Clinical features of DF patients and effect of fever on blood components and serum proteins of liver were recorded. The hospital stay in DF, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) showed significant difference. Significant increases in serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) (P=0.000), aspartate amino transferase (AST) (P=0.000), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (P=0.000), malondialdehyde (MDA) along with significant decreases in total protein (TP) (P=0.000), reduced glutathione (GSH) (P=0.000), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) (P=0.000), and sialic acid contents (P=0.016) were observed. A positive correlation existed between bound sialic acid levels, liver enzymes and circulating antioxidants (r=0.656, P=0.016). In the present study, alterations of circulating antioxidants in DF suggest that DF might be a metabolic response to an acute, self-limiting tropical viral infection, and a consequence of the viral inflammatory process.

  3. Status of antioxidant and homocysteine-lowering vitamins related to cardiovascular diseases in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kooshki, Akram; Yazdi, Mitra Eftekhari; Moghaddam, Manidgeh Yousefi; Akbarzadeh, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Oxidative stress and hyperhomocysteinemia may contribute to an increased risk of CVD. Therefore, we assessed the status of antioxidant and homocysteine-lowering vitamins related to cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients at Vasei hospital in Sabzevar. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 75 hemodialysis patients by using census method at Vasei Hospital in Sabzevar (Iran) in 2014. After measuring height and body weight, food intake was assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire for at least two days (a non-dialysis and dialysis day), and food frequency was recorded with Nutritionist IV software. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16, using descriptive statistical tests, one sample t-test and independent samples t-test and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results This study was carried out on 75 patients. Mean age and BMI of patients were 49.95±17.22 years and 20.04±3.38 kg/m2, respectively. Intake of all vitamins with the exception of vitamin B12 in hemodialysis patients studied, were less than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) (p<0.05). Conclusion According to the survey, consumption of antioxidants and B-vitamins related to cardiovascular disease was less than RDA in hemodialysis patients. PMID:28894552

  4. Status of antioxidant and homocysteine-lowering vitamins related to cardiovascular diseases in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kooshki, Akram; Yazdi, Mitra Eftekhari; Moghaddam, Manidgeh Yousefi; Akbarzadeh, Roya

    2017-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Oxidative stress and hyperhomocysteinemia may contribute to an increased risk of CVD. Therefore, we assessed the status of antioxidant and homocysteine-lowering vitamins related to cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients at Vasei hospital in Sabzevar. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 75 hemodialysis patients by using census method at Vasei Hospital in Sabzevar (Iran) in 2014. After measuring height and body weight, food intake was assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire for at least two days (a non-dialysis and dialysis day), and food frequency was recorded with Nutritionist IV software. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16, using descriptive statistical tests, one sample t-test and independent samples t-test and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. This study was carried out on 75 patients. Mean age and BMI of patients were 49.95±17.22 years and 20.04±3.38 kg/m(2), respectively. Intake of all vitamins with the exception of vitamin B12 in hemodialysis patients studied, were less than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) (p<0.05). According to the survey, consumption of antioxidants and B-vitamins related to cardiovascular disease was less than RDA in hemodialysis patients.

  5. Effects of Transportation on Antioxidant Status in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Pan, Xueying; Lu, Liang; Zeng, Xiancheng; Chang, Yan; Hua, Xiuguo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of transportation on oxidative stress in cynomolgus monkeys, we measured serum levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl (PC) and the activities of total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase in cynomolgus macaques before transportation (day 0), on the day of arrival (day 1), and on days 7, 14, and 21 after transportation. Compared with that on day 0, TAOC and catalase activities on days 1, 7, and 14 after transportation were significantly decreased, reached their nadirs on day 7, and increased thereafter to reach their pretransportation levels by day 21 after transportation. Compared with day 0 levels, mean SOD activity and GSH concentration were decreased significantly on day 1; they thereafter increased to reach their pretransportation measures by day 7 after transportation. In contrast, PC and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum and the activity of GSH-Px were increased on day 1 compared with day 0 and thereafter decreased to reach their pretransportation levels by day 14 after transportation. In summary, GSH, TAOC, catalase, and SOD levels decreased and malondialdehyde, PC, and GSH-Px concentrations increased in cynomolgus macaques after transportation. These results suggest that transportation might imbalance oxidant and antioxidant levels to create excess oxidative stress in cynomolgus macaques. Therefore, cynomolgus macaques should have at least 21 d to recover after transportation and regain their healthy status.

  6. Curcuma aromatica Water Extract Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastritis via Enhancement of Antioxidant Status

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Jin, Seong Eun; Ha, Hyekyung

    2015-01-01

    Curcuma aromatica is an herbal medicine and traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases in Asia. We investigated the effects of C. aromatica water extract (CAW) in the stomach of rats with ethanol-induced gastritis. Gastritis was induced in rats by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol. The CAW groups were given 250 or 500 mg of extract/kg 2 h before administration of ethanol, respectively. To determine the antioxidant effects of CAW, we determined the level of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), the activities of catalase, degree of inflammation, and mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced ethanol-induced inflammation and loss of epithelial cells and increased the mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced the increase in lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced gastritis (250 and 500 mg/kg, p < 0.01, resp.) and increased mucosal GSH content (500 mg/kg, p < 0.01) and the activity of catalase (250 and 500 mg/kg, p < 0.01, resp.). CAW increased the production of prostaglandin E2. These findings suggest that CAW protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury by increasing antioxidant status. We suggest that CAW could be developed for the treatment of gastritis induced by alcohol. PMID:26483844

  7. Effects of lutein supplementation on biological antioxidant status in preterm infants: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Costa, Simonetta; Giannantonio, Carmen; Romagnoli, Costantino; Vento, Giovanni; Gervasoni, Jacopo; Persichilli, Silvia; Zuppi, Cecilia; Cota, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that lutein, compared to the placebo, would enhance the total antioxidant status (TAS) in the preterm infants. Infants with gestational age (GA) ≤34 weeks were randomly assigned to receive a daily dose of lutein and zeaxanthin (0.5 mg + 0.02 mg/kg/d) or placebo from the 7th day of life until 40th week of postmenstrual age or until discharge. Seventy-seven preterm infants were randomized (38 in the Lutein group and 39 in the Placebo group) with mean GA of 30.4 (±2.3) weeks and the mean birth weight of 1415 (±457) grams. The TAS did not result statistically different between the two groups during all the study period, but a significant linear correlation was evidenced between plasma lutein concentration and TAS (r = 0.14, p = 0.012) and between plasma zeaxanthin concentration and TAS (r = 0.13, p = 0.02). Supplementation of preterm infants with orally lutein was ineffective in enhancing biological antioxidant capacity. Further studies need to better understand the bioavailability of lutein in the neonatal period in order to identify any best form of supplementation. UMIN000007041.

  8. Salivary oxidant/ antioxidant status and hematological parameters in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Babaee, Neda; Hosseinkazemi, Hamed; Pouramir, Mahdi; Khakbaz Baboli, Oveis; Salehi, Maede; Khadir, Fatemeh; Bijani, Ali; Mehryari, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common inflammatory ulcerative condition of oral cavity. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of the salivary Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and blood parameter in RAS versus healthy controls. Methods: This case-control study consisted of 28 patients with RAS and 28 age and sex -matched control without RAS. Cell blood count was assessed by sysmex system, serum iron and total iron binding capacity was measured by standard laboratory kit and for ferritin ELISA kit was utilized. Salivary TAC and MDA level determined using FRAP and TBARS method respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Version 21, chi-square test was used to compare proportions, and student’s t-test and Mann Whitney U-test were used for the comparison of quantitative variables Results: Salivary MDA level was significantly higher (p<0.001) and TAC level was significantly lower (p<0.042) in RAS as compared with the control group. Also, serum ferritin level was significantly higher in RAS patients (p<0.008). Conclusion: These findings indicate the alteration of oxidant/antioxidant status was observed in recurrent aphthous stomatitis, may be also associated with changing several hematinic parameters in this study. The finding maybe helpful to clarify the etiologies of RAS and possibely to improve the management or preventive options. PMID:26958327

  9. Antioxidant status of pair-fed labrador retrievers is affected by diet restriction and aging.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Howard D; Lawler, Dennis F; Kealy, Richard D

    2006-07-01

    Twenty-four sibling pairs of 8-wk-old Labrador Retrievers were assigned to an experiment to determine the effects of diet restriction (75% of control-fed pair mate) on the quality and span of canine life and to identify biological markers of aging in dogs. The antioxidant status of these dogs was monitored by annual assays for serum retinol (RT), retinyl palmitate (RP), total vitamin A (VA), vitamin E (VE), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and ceruloplasmin (Cp), plasma ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), and total peroxyl-radical trapping activity (TRAP), and whole-blood glutathione peroxidase (Gpx). Data in this report are for the 6-y period of the experiment when the dogs were between 5 and 10 y of age. Diet restriction reduced RT, VE, Cu, and Cp. Aging was associated with decreased RP, VA, VE, Se, and Cu and with increased RT, Cp, and Gpx. Female dogs had lower RP, VA, Cu, and Cp than male dogs. Litter effects were observed for VE, Cu, UA, and Gpx. Treatment effects on serum RT and Cu suggest that these variables are not as regulated homeostatically by hepatic storage as in most other species. Although the antioxidant profiles did not elucidate how diet restriction contributes to longevity, they have the potential to enhance our understanding of canine clinical nutrition and to have practical applications in formulating canine diets.

  10. Effect of computer radiation on weight and oxidant-antioxidant status of mice.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xuexian; Gu, Qijun; Ye, Dongdong; Wang, Yang; Zou, Xu; He, Lianping; Jin, Yuelong; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-10-20

    To explore the effects of computer radiation on weight and oxidant-antioxidant status of mice, and further to confirm that whether vitamin C has protective effects on computer radiation. Sixty Male adult ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups. each group give different treatment as follows: group A was control, group B given vitamin C intake, group C given 8 h/day computer radiation exposure, group D given vitamin C intake and 8 h/day computer radiation group E given 16 h/day computer radiation exposure, group F given vitamin C intake plus exposure to 16 h/day computer radiation. After seven weeks, mice was executed to collect the blood samples, for detecting total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and alkaline phosphatases (ALP)content in serum or liver tissue were determined by ELISA. No difference was found for the change of weight among six groups at different week. In the group C, D and F, the liver tissue T-AOC level were higher than the group A. In the group B, C and E, the serum ALP level were lower than the group A (P<0.05). The study indicate that computer radiation may have an adverse effect on T-AOC and ALP level of mice, and vitamin C have protective effect against computer radiation. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant status of erythrocytes and their response to oxidative challenge in humans with argemone oil poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Challagundla K.; Khanna, Subhash K.; Das, Mukul

    2008-08-01

    Oxidative damage of biomolecules and antioxidant status in erythrocytes of humans from an outbreak of argemone oil (AO) poisoning in Kannauj (India) and AO intoxicated experimental animals was investigated. Erythrocytes of the dropsy patients and AO treated rats were found to be more susceptible to 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) induced peroxidative stress. Significant decrease in RBC glutathione (GSH) levels (46, 63%) with concomitant enhancement in oxidized glutathione (172, 154%) levels was noticed in patients and AO intoxicated animals. Further, depletion of glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (42-52%) was observed in dropsy patients. Oxidation of erythrocyte membrane lipids and proteins was increased (120-144%) in patients and AO treated animals (112-137%) along with 8-OHdG levels in whole blood (180%) of dropsy patients. A significant reduction in {alpha}-tocopherol content (68%) was noticed in erythrocytes of dropsy patients and hepatic, plasma and RBCs of AO treated rats (59-70%) thereby indicating the diminished antioxidant potential to scavenge free radicals or the limited transport of {alpha}-tocopherol from liver to RBCs leading to enhanced oxidation of lipids and proteins in erythrocytes. These studies implicate an important role of erythrocyte degradation in production of anemia and breathlessness in epidemic dropsy.

  12. Oxidants and anti-oxidants status in acne vulgaris patients with varying severity.

    PubMed

    Al-Shobaili, Hani A

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disorder with a multifactorial pathogenesis. Oxidative status has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several skin diseases, including acne. This study was aimed to investigate the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in acne vulgaris patients with varying severities. The study involved 156 patients with acne and 46 healthy human controls. Based on clinical examination, patients were grouped into 3 subgroups as follows: mild, moderate, and severe acne. Oxidative stress was examined by measuring plasma levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Plasma levels of MDA in acne patients were significantly higher as compared with that of the controls, whereas activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT were lower. Moreover, TAC was also low in acne patients as compared with that of the controls. Higher MDA levels in the severe acne subgroup as compared with that of the mild and moderate subgroups were also observed. Furthermore, in the severe acne subgroup, a significant negative correlation was observed between MDA and CAT levels. The data suggests that oxidative stress plays a key role in acne progress and may be employed as a biomarker index to assess the disease's activity and to monitor its treatment.

  13. Effects of Transportation on Antioxidant Status in Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xueying; Lu, Liang; Zeng, Xiancheng; Chang, Yan; Hua, Xiuguo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of transportation on oxidative stress in cynomolgus monkeys, we measured serum levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl (PC) and the activities of total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase in cynomolgus macaques before transportation (day 0), on the day of arrival (day 1), and on days 7, 14, and 21 after transportation. Compared with that on day 0, TAOC and catalase activities on days 1, 7, and 14 after transportation were significantly decreased, reached their nadirs on day 7, and increased thereafter to reach their pretransportation levels by day 21 after transportation. Compared with day 0 levels, mean SOD activity and GSH concentration were decreased significantly on day 1; they thereafter increased to reach their pretransportation measures by day 7 after transportation. In contrast, PC and malondialdehyde concentrations in serum and the activity of GSH-Px were increased on day 1 compared with day 0 and thereafter decreased to reach their pretransportation levels by day 14 after transportation. In summary, GSH, TAOC, catalase, and SOD levels decreased and malondialdehyde, PC, and GSH-Px concentrations increased in cynomolgus macaques after transportation. These results suggest that transportation might imbalance oxidant and antioxidant levels to create excess oxidative stress in cynomolgus macaques. Therefore, cynomolgus macaques should have at least 21 d to recover after transportation and regain their healthy status. PMID:27657707

  14. Effect of long term intake of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in liver.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, M; Paul, M V Sauganth; Varghese, Mathews V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2011-06-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of long term intake of aspartame, the artificial sweetener, on liver antioxidant system and hepatocellular injury in animal model. Eighteen adult male Wistar rats, weighing 150-175 g, were randomly divided into three groups as follows: first group was given aspartame dissolved in water in a dose of 500 mg/kg b.wt.; the second group was given a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.wt.; and controls were given water freely. Rats that had received aspartame (1000 mg/kg b.wt.) in the drinking water for 180 days showed a significant increase in activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT). The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly reduced in the liver of rats that had received aspartame (1000 mg/kg b.wt.). Glutathione was significantly decreased in both the experimental groups. Histopathological examination revealed leukocyte infiltration in aspartame-treated rats (1000 mg/kg b.wt.). It can be concluded from these observations that long term consumption of aspartame leads to hepatocellular injury and alterations in liver antioxidant status mainly through glutathione dependent system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of beta-carotene on antioxidant status in rats with chronic alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Teng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Lin, Tien-Jen; Chen, Jiun-Rong; Shieh, Ming-Jer; Peng, Hsiang-Chi; Yang, Suh-Ching; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2009-08-01

    This study examined the effects of beta-carotene on antioxidant status in rats with chronic alcohol consumption. At the beginning of experiment (week 0), according to both the plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, rats (n = 24) were divided into 3 groups and fed with a standard diet (group C), a diet containing ethanol (group E), or a diet containing ethanol and beta-carotene (group E+B). After 10 weeks, plasma AST and ALT, fat accumulation in the liver, antioxidant enzyme activities in erythrocytes and the liver, malondialdehyde (MDA), and alpha-tocopherol and retinol in plasma and hepatic samples were analyzed. The chronic alcohol diet significantly increased AST and ALT levels in plasma, and these changes were prevented by supplementing the diet with beta-carotene. Glutathione (GSH) in erythrocytes and in the liver was significantly elevated in rats fed with a diet containing beta-carotene. The results indicate that beta-carotene supplementation can prevent ethanol-induced liver damage and increase GSH concentrations in erythrocytes and the liver. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant status and oxidative stress in sheep naturally infected with Babesia ovis.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Tavassoli, Mosa; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram

    2012-04-30

    The present study aimed to assess antioxidant status and oxidative stress in sheep naturally infected with Babesia ovis. Red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), piroplasm parasitemia percentage, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) activities and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined in 52 sheep naturally infected with B. ovis as well as same number of healthy sheep in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran. Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears revealed B. ovis infection. The parasitological diagnosis was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis by amplifying a partial small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) gene sequence of B. ovis of 52 diseased sheep, 18 (34.61%), 11 (21.15%), 16 (30.76%) and 7 (13.48%) had <1%, 1-2%, 2-3% and >3% parasitemia, respectively. Compared to controls, the activities of erythrocyte GSH-Px, SOD, TAC and CAT showed a significant decrease, whereas the concentration of MDA in erythrocytes of infected sheep increased significantly. Parasitemia rate was positively correlated with MDA and negatively correlated with PCV, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and TAC. Also, MDA was negatively correlated with PCV, SOD, catalase, GSH-Px and TAC. The study demonstrated that B. ovis plays an important role in the occurrence of oxidative damage to RBCs and anemia in ovine babesiosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of high walnut and cashew nut diets on the antioxidant status of subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lisa; Stonehouse, Welma; Loots, Du Toit; Mukuddem-Petersen, Janine; van der Westhuizen, Francois H; Hanekom, Susanna M; Jerling, Johann C

    2007-04-01

    Nut consumption is associated with a protective effect against coronary heart disease, partly due to its high antioxidant content. It is hypothesized that the inclusion of nuts in the diet will improve the antioxidant status of subjects with metabolic syndrome who may be vulnerable to impaired antioxidant status. The effects of high cashew nut and high walnut diets on the antioxidant status of subjects with metabolic syndrome are investigated. Sixty-four volunteers (29 male and 35 female, 45 +/- 10y) with metabolic syndrome (diagnosed by using the ATP III criteria) received a prudent control diet, prepared in the metabolic kitchen of the North-West University, Potchefstroom campus (NWU-PC) for a period of 3 weeks (run-in). The participants were grouped according to gender and age and randomized into three groups, receiving either the walnut, cashew nut or the control diets for 8 weeks, while maintaining a stable body weight. Nuts provided 20% of daily energy intake. Fasting blood samples were taken after the run-in period (baseline) and at the end of the intervention period and analyzed for various antioxidant capacity markers. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of the walnut and cashew nut diets were significantly higher than the control diet. Despite this, the walnut and cashew nut diets had no significant effects on serum ORAC, reduced (GSH), oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, GSH:GSSG or diacron reactive metabolites (dRom) (total oxidant status) levels compared to the control group. However, all three groups showed significant improvements in antioxidant status from baseline to end (GSSG and dRom levels decreased; GSG:GSSG ratio and ORAC levels increased). This may be due to a general increased antioxidant intake from the prudent diet compared to the habitual diets. Although the inclusion of walnuts and cashew nuts into a prudent diet resulted in an increased antioxidant capacity (ORAC) of the nut diets, compared to the control diet, it did not improve the

  18. New insight into the effects of lead modulation on antioxidant defense mechanism and trace element concentration in rat bone.

    PubMed

    Payal, Bhardwaj; Kaur, Harkiran Preet; Rai, Durg Vijay

    2009-03-01

    Risks of heavy metals-induced severe bone disorders generate interest to their toxicity. The present study was undertaken to monitor the biochemical and antioxidant status of bone of 30 and 80 days old male Wistar rats exposed to 5 week lead treatment. At the end of study, the rats were sacrificed, their long bone i.e. femur were excised, cleaned of soft tissue, minced and homogenized. Nucleic acid content, alkaline phosphatase, lipid peroxidation, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase were determined in bone. In both groups of treated animals lead treatment increased the production of malondialdehyde, while reducing activities of catalase, glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase, indicating that it causes oxidative stress. Parallely with these effects lead significantly reduced the nucleic acid content and the activity of alkaline phosphatase, considered as biomarkers of osteoblast's function, conditions and development of bones. Moreover the concentrations of copper, zinc, iron and sodium were reduced in the excised bones. The present study indicates that the lead induced bone toxicity and its deteriorated development is the consequence of a primary oxidative stress. Our results may be helpful in understanding the modulation of biochemical parameters under lead toxicity.

  19. Oxidative stress and non-enzymatic antioxidative status in dogs with visceral Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Bildik, A; Kargin, F; Seyrek, K; Pasa, S; Ozensoy, S

    2004-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a potentially fatal chronic protozoan disease in human, canine and rodent species. The infection by Leishmania is endemic in the Mediterranean Sea region, Africa, Asia and South America. Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CanVL) is a systemic disease caused by Leishmania infantum and Leishmania chagasi from the Leishmania donovani complex group. The blood glutathione (GSH), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), ascorbic acid (AA), beta-carotene, retinol and ceruloplasmin levels of dogs with CanVL were investigated to establish the status of the antioxidant defense mechanism in the infected animals. Dogs diagnosed as CanVL with amastigotes in lymph node smear examination and/or antibody titers > or = 128 were used as subjects, while those with no serological response against leishmaniasis were used as healthy controls. The glutathione and retinol amounts were decreased although not significantly (p > 0.05), but the MDA levels were significantly higher in dogs with VL, suggesting increased lipid peroxidation.

  20. [Glutathione redox system, immune status, antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides in hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Tapbergenov, S O; Sovetov, B S; Bekbosynova, R B; Bolysbekova, S M

    2015-01-01

    The immune status, components of the glutathione redox system, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides have been investigated in animals with experimental hypothyroidism. On day 8 after an increase in the number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, T-helpers and T-suppressors as well as increased number of B-lymphocytes was found in blood of thyroidectomized rats. This was accompanied by decreased activity of adenosine deaminase (AD), AMP-deaminase (AMPD), and 5'-nucleotidase (5'N) in blood, but the ratio of enzyme activity AD/AMPD increased. These changes in the activity of enzymes, involved in purine catabolism can be regarded as increased functional relationships between T and B lymphocytes in hypothyroidism. The functional changes of immune system cells were accompanied by increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and the ratio GH/GPx. Thyroidectomized rats had increased amounts of total, oxidized (GSSG) and reduced glutathione (GSH), but the ratio GSH/GSSG decerased as compared with control animals. In the liver, hypothyroidism resulted in activation of SOD, GPx, decreased activity of GR and decreased ratio GR/GPx. At the same time, the levels of total, oxidized, and reduced glutathione increased, but the ratio GSH/GSSG as well as activities of enzymes involved in purine nucleotide metabolism ratio (and their ratio 5'N/AD + AMPD) decreased. All these data suggest a functional relationship of the glutathione redox system not only with antioxidant enzymes, but also activity of enzymes involved purine nucleotide metabolism and immune status.

  1. Sesame ingestion affects sex hormones, antioxidant status, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Huey; Kang, Yu-Ping; Wang, Nai-Hung; Jou, Hei-Jen; Wang, Tzong-An

    2006-05-01

    Sesame ingestion has been shown to improve blood lipids in humans and antioxidative ability in animals. Sesamin, a sesame lignan, was recently reported to be converted by intestinal microflora to enterolactone, a compound with estrogenic activity and also an enterometabolite of flaxseed lignans, which are known to be phytoestrogens. Whether sesame can be a source of phytoestrogens is unknown. This study was designed to investigate the effect of sesame ingestion on blood sex hormones, lipids, tocopherol, and ex vivo LDL oxidation in postmenopausal women. Twenty-six healthy subjects attended, and 24 completed, this randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Half of them consumed 50 g sesame seed powder daily for 5 wk, followed by a 3-wk washout period, then a 5-wk 50-g rice powder placebo period. The other half received the 2 supplements in reverse order. After sesame treatment, plasma total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, the ratio of LDL-C to HDL-C, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in oxidized LDL, and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate decreased significantly by 5, 10, 6, 23, and 18%, respectively. The ratio of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol to TC increased significantly by 18 and 73%, respectively. All of these variables differed significantly between the 2 treatments. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (n = 8) increased significantly by 15 and 72%, respectively, after sesame treatment, and these concentrations tended to differ (P = 0.065 and P = 0.090, respectively) from those after the placebo treatment. These results suggest that sesame ingestion benefits postmenopausal women by improving blood lipids, antioxidant status, and possibly sex hormone status.

  2. Aqueous garlic extract and its phytochemical profile; special reference to antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Rasul Suleria, Hafiz Ansar; Sadiq Butt, Masood; Muhammad Anjum, Faqir; Saeed, Farhan; Batool, Rizwana; Nisar Ahmad, Atif

    2012-06-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L) has distinct nutritional profile with special reference to its bioactive components and is used in different diet-based therapies to cure various lifestyle-related disorders. For this purpose, characterization and extraction of garlic were carried out followed by antioxidant assays. Different solvents (50% aqueous ethanol, 50% aqueous methanol and water) at different time intervals (4, 5 and 6 h) at 60°C were used to optimize aqueous extraction efficiency of garlic. Among the solvents, water extract resulted in better extraction yield (31.85 ± 2.09 g/25 g) at 5 h. The antioxidant potential of all these solvents was estimated through in vitro studies. In this context, it was observed that higher amount of total phenolic contents was present in aqueous methanol 71.87 ± 1.69% at 45 min. Antiradical (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay) and antioxidant activity showed that the maximum value was 73.80 ± 3.69 and 83.83 ± 0.16%, respectively, in methanolic extract at 45 min while glucose diffusion and ferric reducing antioxidant power were 97.00 ± 0.20 and 32.66 ± 0.72% at p < 0.05, respectively. Aqueous garlic extract was selected as the best treatment on the basis of percentage yield and safety modulation in human body absorption. Aqueous garlic extract was subjected to pH, acidity, total soluble solids (TSS) and colour. It was observed that the pH of aqueous garlic extract decreased with the passage of time while acidity increased. It was also concluded that storage affected the value of TSS and colour significantly. L* values for colour on 0 day were 34.18 ± 0.08, whereas those on 28th day were 38.84 ± 0.03. It was predicted that 28 days storage resulted in significant increase in L* value, while a* value decreased from 4.31 ± 0.01 to 0.32 ± 0.01 at the end of storage study.

  3. Effect of Dietary n − 3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Macrosomic Offspring of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guermouche, B.; Soulimane-Mokhtari, N. A.; Bouanane, S.; Merzouk, H.; Merzouk, S.; Narce, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the effect of dietary n − 3 PUFA on oxidant/antioxidant status, in vitro very low and low density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL), and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition in macrosomic pups of diabetic mothers. We hypothesized that n − 3 PUFA would improve oxidative stress in macrosomia. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats fed with the ISIO diet (control) or with the EPAX diet (enriched in n − 3 PUFAs), by streptozotocin. The macrosomic pups were killed at birth (day 0) and at adulthood (day 90). Lipid parameters and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition were investigated. The oxidant/antioxidant status was determined by measuring plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), hydroperoxides, carbonyl proteins, and VLDL-LDL oxidation. Macrosomic rats of ISIO fed diabetic mothers showed an increase in plasma and VLDL-LDL-triglycerides and VLDL-LDL-cholesterol levels and altered VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition. Plasma ORAC was low with high hydroperoxide and carbonyl protein levels. The in vitro oxidizability of VLDL-LDL was enhanced in these macrosomic rats. The EPAX diet corrected lipid parameters and improved oxidant/antioxidant status but increased VLDL-LDL susceptibility to oxidation. Macrosomia is associated with lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress. n − 3 PUFA exerts favorable effects on lipid metabolism and on the oxidant/antioxidant status of macrosomic rats. However, there are no evident effects on VLDL-LDL oxidation. PMID:24987679

  4. Dimethyl fumarate modulation of immune and antioxidant responses: application to HIV therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Alexander J.; Kolson, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    The persistence of chronic immune activation and oxidative stress in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected, antiretroviral drug-treated individuals are major obstacles to fully preventing HIV disease progression. The immune modulator and antioxidant dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is effective in treating immune-mediated diseases and it also has potential applications to limiting HIV disease progression. Among the relevant effects of DMF and its active metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) are induction of a Th1 → Th2 lymphocyte shift, inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling, inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation, inhibition of dendritic cell maturation, suppression of lymphocyte and endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression, and induction of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response element (ARE) and effector genes. Associated with these effects are reduced lymphocyte and monocyte infiltration into psoriatic skin lesions in humans and immune-mediated demyelinating brain lesions in rodents, which confirms potent systemic and central nervous system (CNS) effects. In addition, DMF and MMF limit HIV infection in macrophages in vitro, albeit by unknown mechanisms. Finally, DMF and MMF also suppress neurotoxin production from HIV-infected macrophages, which drives CNS neurodegeneration. Thus, DMF might protect against systemic and CNS complications in HIV infection through its effective suppression of immune activation, oxidative stress, HIV replication, and macrophage-associated neuronal injury. PMID:23971529

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhi-Jing; Hu, Kang-Di; Song, Chang-Bing; Ma, Run-Hui; Li, Zhi-Rong; Zheng, Ji-Lian; Fu, Liu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide anion (O2 ∙−) in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX) in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation. PMID:27594971

  6. Modulation of the antioxidant system in Citrus under waterlogging and subsequent drainage.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Zahed; López-Climent, María F; Arbona, Vicent; Pérez-Clemente, Rosa M; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2009-09-01

    Soil flooding induces an impairment of the photosynthetic system that often leads to an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant tissues. Moreover, flooding release by drainage can cause a sudden oxygen burst that exacerbates oxidative damage. To examine the influence of different anoxic and post-anoxic periods on citrus physiology, citrumelo CPB4475, a moderate flood-tolerant genotype, was subjected to three different periods of soil flooding followed by drainage. Plant performance in terms of visible damage, photosynthetic activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide accumulation was examined together with the plant antioxidant response. The results indicated that coordinated antioxidant activity, involving increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT) (EC 1.11.1.6), together with a modulation of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, allowed plants to cope with flooding-induced oxidative stress up to a certain point. Elevated ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (EC 1.11.1.11) activity or discrete increases in AsA or glutathione concentrations seemed inefficient in maintaining low levels of oxidative damage. Waterlogging stress release by soil drainage did not improve plant performance but, on the contrary, enhanced oxidative stress and even accelerated plant injury. This appears to be the result of sudden oxygen burst soon after release of water.

  7. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhi-Jing; Hu, Kang-Di; Song, Chang-Bing; Ma, Run-Hui; Li, Zhi-Rong; Zheng, Ji-Lian; Fu, Liu-Hui; Wei, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide anion (O2 (∙-)) in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX) in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation.

  8. Tocopherol Succinate: Modulation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Oncogene Expression, and Hematopoietic Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Vijay K.; Parekh, Vaishali I.; Brown, Darren S.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Mog, Steven R.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: A class of naturally occurring isoforms of tocopherol (tocols) was shown to have varying degrees of protection when administered before radiation exposure. We recently demonstrated that {alpha}-tocopherol succinate (TS) is a potential radiation prophylactic agent. Our objective in this study was to further investigate the mechanism of action of TS in mice exposed to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the effects of TS on expression of antioxidant enzymes and oncogenes by quantitative RT-PCR in bone marrow cells of {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated mice. Further, we tested the ability of TS to rescue and repopulate hematopoietic stem cells by analyzing bone marrow cellularity and spleen colony forming unit in spleen of TS-injected and irradiated mice. Results: Our results demonstrate that TS modulated the expression of antioxidant enzymes and inhibited expression of oncogenes in irradiated mice at different time points. TS also increased colony forming unit-spleen numbers and bone marrow cellularity in irradiated mice. Conclusions: Results provide additional support for the observed radioprotective efficacy of TS and insight into mechanisms.

  9. Reactive oxygen species mediates homocysteine-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in human endothelial cells: Modulation by antioxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-de-Arce, Karen; Foncea, Rocio . E-mail: rfoncea@med.puc.cl; Leighton, Federico

    2005-12-16

    It has been proposed that homocysteine (Hcy)-induces endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A previous report has shown that Hcy promotes mitochondrial damage. Considering that oxidative stress can affect mitochondrial biogenesis, we hypothesized that Hcy-induced ROS in endothelial cells may lead to increased mitochondrial biogenesis. We found that Hcy-induced ROS (1.85-fold), leading to a NF-{kappa}B activation and increase the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine. Furthermore, expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis factors, nuclear respiratory factor-1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, was significantly elevated in Hcy-treated cells. These changes were accompanied by increase in mitochondrial mass and higher mRNA and protein expression of the subunit III of cytochrome c oxidase. These effects were significantly prevented by pretreatment with the antioxidants, catechin and trolox. Taken together, our results suggest that ROS is an important mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis induced by Hcy, and that modulation of oxidative stress by antioxidants may protect against the adverse vascular effects of Hcy.

  10. Antioxidant Defenses of Francisella tularensis Modulate Macrophage Function and Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Rabadi, Seham M; Sanchez, Belkys C; Varanat, Mrudula; Ma, Zhuo; Catlett, Sally V; Melendez, Juan Andres; Malik, Meenakshi; Bakshi, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-03-04

    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of a fatal human disease known as tularemia, has been used in the bioweapon programs of several countries in the past, and now it is considered a potential bioterror agent. Extreme infectivity and virulence of F. tularensis is due to its ability to evade immune detection and to suppress the host's innate immune responses. However, Francisella-encoded factors and mechanisms responsible for causing immune suppression are not completely understood. Macrophages and neutrophils generate reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species as a defense mechanism for the clearance of phagocytosed microorganisms. ROS serve a dual role; at high concentrations they act as microbicidal effector molecules that destroy intracellular pathogens, and at low concentrations they serve as secondary signaling messengers that regulate the expression of various inflammatory mediators. We hypothesized that the antioxidant defenses of F. tularensis maintain redox homeostasis in infected macrophages to prevent activation of redox-sensitive signaling components that ultimately result in suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and macrophage microbicidal activity. We demonstrate that antioxidant enzymes of F. tularensis prevent the activation of redox-sensitive MAPK signaling components, NF-κB signaling, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the accumulation of ROS in infected macrophages. We also report that F. tularensis inhibits ROS-dependent autophagy to promote its intramacrophage survival. Collectively, this study reveals novel pathogenic mechanisms adopted by F. tularensis to modulate macrophage innate immune functions to create an environment permissive for its intracellular survival and growth.

  11. The natural antioxidants, pomegranate extract and soy isoflavones, favourably modulate canine endothelial cell function.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Waldenberger, Ferdinand Rudolf; Freudenthaler, Angelika; Ginouvès-Guerdoux, Amandine; McGahie, David; Gatto, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, preceded by vascular endothelial dysfunction, is a prominent cause of death in dogs. L-carnitine and taurine, well known for their antioxidative capacity, beneficially affect cardiovascular disease as well as certain dog cardiomyopathies. It is well established that vascular endothelial dysfunction precedes cardiovascular disease and that "vasoprotective factors" (NO and antioxidants) prevent apoptosis, whereas "risk factors" such as oxidized LDL, hyperglycemia, and free fatty acids trigger it in cultured human vascular endothelial cells. Whereas human vascular cell in vitro models are widely established and used for the characterisation of potential vasoprotective substances, such models are not available for canine endothelial cells. In the present study we therefore developed an in vitro model, which allows the testing of the effects of different substances on proliferation and apoptosis in canine aortic endothelial cells. This model was used to test L-carnitine, taurine, pomegranate extract, and Soy Isoflavones in comparison to reference substances (glutathione and pioglitazone) previously shown to modulate human endothelial cell function. L-carnitine and taurine neither exhibited antiproliferative nor antiapoptotic activities in the context of this study. However extracts from pomegranate and soy isoflavones dramatically reduced proliferation and apoptosis in a dose dependent fashion, being in line with a vasoprotective activity in dogs.

  12. The Natural Antioxidants, Pomegranate Extract and Soy Isoflavones, Favourably Modulate Canine Endothelial Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M.; Waldenberger, Ferdinand Rudolf; Freudenthaler, Angelika; Ginouvès-Guerdoux, Amandine; McGahie, David; Gatto, Hugues

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease, preceded by vascular endothelial dysfunction, is a prominent cause of death in dogs. L-carnitine and taurine, well known for their antioxidative capacity, beneficially affect cardiovascular disease as well as certain dog cardiomyopathies. It is well established that vascular endothelial dysfunction precedes cardiovascular disease and that “vasoprotective factors” (NO and antioxidants) prevent apoptosis, whereas “risk factors” such as oxidized LDL, hyperglycemia, and free fatty acids trigger it in cultured human vascular endothelial cells. Whereas human vascular cell in vitro models are widely established and used for the characterisation of potential vasoprotective substances, such models are not available for canine endothelial cells. In the present study we therefore developed an in vitro model, which allows the testing of the effects of different substances on proliferation and apoptosis in canine aortic endothelial cells. This model was used to test L-carnitine, taurine, pomegranate extract, and Soy Isoflavones in comparison to reference substances (glutathione and pioglitazone) previously shown to modulate human endothelial cell function. L-carnitine and taurine neither exhibited antiproliferative nor antiapoptotic activities in the context of this study. However extracts from pomegranate and soy isoflavones dramatically reduced proliferation and apoptosis in a dose dependent fashion, being in line with a vasoprotective activity in dogs. PMID:23762588

  13. Salicylic acid promotes seed germination under high salinity by modulating antioxidant activity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Park, Chung-Mo

    2010-10-01

    • Findings regarding the role of salicylic acid (SA) in seed germination are somewhat variable, depending on the plant genotypes and experimental conditions used, and thus the molecular mechanisms underlying SA regulation of germination are still unclear. Here, we report that physiological concentrations of SA promote germination under high salinity by modulating antioxidant activity in Arabidopsis. • Germination of SA induction deficient 2 (sid2) seeds was hypersensitive to high salinity. While the inhibitory effect of high salinity was exaggerated in the presence of higher concentrations of SA (> 100 μM), it was significantly reduced in the presence of lower concentrations of SA (< 50 μM). Under high salinity, the endogenous contents of H(2) O(2) were elevated in wild-type and sid2 seeds but reduced to original concentrations after treatment with 1 μM SA. • Germination of NahG transgenic plants was influenced to a lesser degree by high salinity (NahG is a bacterial gene encoding salicylate hydroxylase that converts salicylic acid to catechol). We found that catechol, an SA degradation product accumulated in the transgenic plants, acts as an antioxidant that compromises the inhibitory effects of high salinity. • Our observations indicate that, although SA is not essential for germination under normal growth conditions, it plays a promotive role in seed germination under high salinity by reducing oxidative damage.

  14. Arsenic induced modulation of antioxidative defense system and brassinosteroids in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Mukesh Kumar; Poonam; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2015-05-01

    Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) L. plants were exposed to different concentrations (0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3mM) of arsenic (V) and harvested after 30 and 60 days of sowing for the analysis of growth parameters, metal uptake, brassinosteroids (BRs) synthesis and oxidative stress markers. As (V) significantly hampered the growth of B. juncea plants and triggered the modulations of various stress markers like proteins, antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, POD, APX, GR, MDHAR and DHAR) and MDA content. Furthermore, As (V) induced the synthesis of 4 BRs, castasterone, teasterone, 24-epibrassinolide, and typhasterol, which were isolated and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study further highlig5895hted the significant uptake of arsenic ions by mustard plants.

  15. Modulation of Fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis by Nitric Oxide and Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Dooley, Audrey; Bruckdorfer, K. Richard; Abraham, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma: SSc) is a multisystem, connective tissue disease of unknown aetiology characterized by vascular dysfunction, autoimmunity, and enhanced fibroblast activity resulting in fibrosis of the skin, heart, and lungs, and ultimately internal organ failure, and death. One of the most important and early modulators of disease activity is thought to be oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that the free radical nitric oxide (NO), a key mediator of oxidative stress, can profoundly influence the early microvasculopathy, and possibly the ensuing fibrogenic response. Animal models and human studies have also identified dietary antioxidants, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), to function as a protective system against oxidative stress and fibrosis. Hence, targeting EGCG may prove a possible candidate for therapeutic treatment aimed at reducing both oxidant stress and the fibrotic effects associated with SSc. PMID:22111028

  16. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in Bipolar Disorder in terms of Total Oxidant Status, Total Antioxidant Status, and Oxidative Stress Index

    PubMed Central

    CİNGİ YİRÜN, Merve; ÜNAL, Kübranur; ALTUNSOY ŞEN, Neslihan; YİRÜN, Onur; AYDEMİR, Çiğdem; GÖKA, Erol

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bipolar disorder is one of the most debilitating psychiatric disorders characterized by disruptive episodes of mania/hypomania and depression. Considering the complex role of biological and environmental factors in the etiology of affective disorders, recent studies have focused on oxidative stress, which may damage nerve cell components and take part in pathophysiology. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the data about oxidative stress in bipolar disorder by detecting the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels of manic episode (ME) and euthymic (EU) patients and by comparing these results with those of healthy controls (HCs). Methods The study population consisted of 28 EU outpatients meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for bipolar disorder I and 23 inpatients who were currently hospitalized in a psychiatry ward with the diagnosis of the bipolar disorder ME according to the DSM-5 criteria. Forty-three healthy subjects were included in the study as the control group (HC). Serum TAS, TOS, and OSI levels of all the participants were determined. Results Statistical analysis of serum TAS, TOS, and OSI levels did not show any significant differences between the ME patients, EU patients, and HCs. Comparison between the bipolar disorder patients (ME+EU) and HC also did not reveal any statistically significant difference between these two groups in terms of serum TAS, TOS, and OSI levels. Conclusion To date, studies on oxidative stress in bipolar disorder have led to controversial results. In the present study, no statistically significant difference was detected between the oxidative parameters of bipolar disorder patients and HCs. In order to comprehensively evaluate oxidative stress in bipolar disorder, further studies are needed. PMID:28373794

  17. The correlation of the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and paraoxonase activity (PON1) with smoking.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Raziye; Kutlu, Ruhusen; Civi, Selma; Tasyurek, Erkan

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and paraoxonase activity (PON1) in smokers and nonsmokers. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 100 smokers and 100 nonsmokers. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), TAS, TOS and PON1 levels of the participants were determined in the blood samples. TAS and TOS were determined by using the automated measurement method. Paraoxon was used as a substrate for measuring PON1 activity. A statistically significant difference could not be found between smokers and nonsmokers in terms of mean FBG, LDL-c, HDL-c, TC, TG, TAS, TOS, PON1, oxidative stress index (OSI) and body mass index (BMI). Mean TAS and TOS levels were higher in men than women (p=0.001). As age (p=0.022) and age to start smoking (p=0.023) increased, TOS level decreased. As the age to start smoking (p=0.001) increased, TAS level decreased whereas as BMI (p=0.001) increased, TAS level also increased. A statistically significant relationship could not be established between age, age to start smoking, duration and amount of smoking, dependence score and BMI and PON1 (p>0.05). In our study, although no significant correlation could be established between smokers and nonsmokers in terms of mean TAS, TOS and PON1, it is a fact that TAS, TOS and PON1 in the organism are affected by many factors and therefore there is a need for more extensive studies in this regard. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in Bipolar Disorder in terms of Total Oxidant Status, Total Antioxidant Status, and Oxidative Stress Index.

    PubMed

    Cingi Yirün, Merve; Ünal, Kübranur; Altunsoy Şen, Neslihan; Yirün, Onur; Aydemir, Çiğdem; Göka, Erol

    2016-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is one of the most debilitating psychiatric disorders characterized by disruptive episodes of mania/hypomania and depression. Considering the complex role of biological and environmental factors in the etiology of affective disorders, recent studies have focused on oxidative stress, which may damage nerve cell components and take part in pathophysiology. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the data about oxidative stress in bipolar disorder by detecting the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels of manic episode (ME) and euthymic (EU) patients and by comparing these results with those of healthy controls (HCs). The study population consisted of 28 EU outpatients meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for bipolar disorder I and 23 inpatients who were currently hospitalized in a psychiatry ward with the diagnosis of the bipolar disorder ME according to the DSM-5 criteria. Forty-three healthy subjects were included in the study as the control group (HC). Serum TAS, TOS, and OSI levels of all the participants were determined. Statistical analysis of serum TAS, TOS, and OSI levels did not show any significant differences between the ME patients, EU patients, and HCs. Comparison between the bipolar disorder patients (ME+EU) and HC also did not reveal any statistically significant difference between these two groups in terms of serum TAS, TOS, and OSI levels. To date, studies on oxidative stress in bipolar disorder have led to controversial results. In the present study, no statistically significant difference was detected between the oxidative parameters of bipolar disorder patients and HCs. In order to comprehensively evaluate oxidative stress in bipolar disorder, further studies are needed.

  19. Strawberry (cv. Romina) Methanolic Extract and Anthocyanin-Enriched Fraction Improve Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Y; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Afrin, Sadia; Cianciosi, Danila; González-Paramás, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Mezzetti, Bruno; Quiles, José L; Battino, Maurizio; Giampieri, Francesca; Bompadre, Stefano

    2017-05-28

    Dyslipidemia and oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) are recognized as critical factors in the development of atherosclerosis. Healthy dietary patterns, with abundant fruit and vegetable consumption, may prevent the onset of these risk factors due to the presence of phytochemical compounds. Strawberries are known for their high content of polyphenols; among them, flavonoids are the major constituents, and it is presumed that they are responsible for the biological activity of the fruit. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies that actually evaluate the effects of different fractions isolated from strawberries. In order to assess the effects of two different strawberry extracts (whole methanolic extract/anthocyanin-enriched fraction) on the lipid profile and antioxidant status in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells, the triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol content, lipid peroxidation, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and antioxidant enzymes' activity on cell lysates were determined. Results demonstrated that both strawberry extracts not only improved the lipid metabolism by decreasing triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol contents, but also improved the redox state of HepG2 cells by modulating thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production, antioxidant enzyme activity and ROS generation. The observed effects were more pronounced for the anthocyanin-enriched fraction.

  20. Strawberry (cv. Romina) Methanolic Extract and Anthocyanin-Enriched Fraction Improve Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Y.; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Afrin, Sadia; Cianciosi, Danila; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Mezzetti, Bruno; Quiles, José L.; Battino, Maurizio; Giampieri, Francesca; Bompadre, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Dyslipidemia and oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL) are recognized as critical factors in the development of atherosclerosis. Healthy dietary patterns, with abundant fruit and vegetable consumption, may prevent the onset of these risk factors due to the presence of phytochemical compounds. Strawberries are known for their high content of polyphenols; among them, flavonoids are the major constituents, and it is presumed that they are responsible for the biological activity of the fruit. Nevertheless, there are only a few studies that actually evaluate the effects of different fractions isolated from strawberries. In order to assess the effects of two different strawberry extracts (whole methanolic extract/anthocyanin-enriched fraction) on the lipid profile and antioxidant status in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells, the triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol content, lipid peroxidation, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and antioxidant enzymes’ activity on cell lysates were determined. Results demonstrated that both strawberry extracts not only improved the lipid metabolism by decreasing triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol contents, but also improved the redox state of HepG2 cells by modulating thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production, antioxidant enzyme activity and ROS generation. The observed effects were more pronounced for the anthocyanin-enriched fraction. PMID:28555032

  1. Pharmacological, antioxidant, genotoxic studies and modulation of rat splenocyte functions by Cyperus rotundus extracts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyperus rotundus Linn. (Cyperaceae) is a Tunisian medicinal plant used in folkloric (traditional) medicine to treat stomach disorders and inflammatory diseases. The present study explored the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and genotoxic activities of extracts from the aerial parts of C. rotundus. The antioxidant capacity and the modulation of splenocyte functions by these extracts were also investigated in mice. The phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. Methods Aqueous, ethyl acetate, methanol and TOF-enriched extracts (300, 150, and 50 μg/ml) were evaluated for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. 4, 2, and 1 mg/ml of each extract were tested to investigate their effect on lipid peroxidation. The genotoxic study was monitored by measuring the structural chromosome aberrations of mice treated with 300 mg/kg of extract. The proliferation of lymphocytes in the absence and presence of mitogens was assessed at a concentration range 1–1000 μg/ml. Results The tested extracts were able to decrease the mouse ear oedema induced by xylene. Furthermore, it was shown that the same extracts reduced the number of abdominal contractions caused by acetic acid in mice, revealing the peripheral analgesic activity of these extracts. It is worth noting that mice treated with doses up to 300 mg/kg b.w. of Cyperus rotundus extracts did not exhibit any toxicity. The tested extracts significantly enhance lymphocyte proliferation at 1 mg/ml. Conclusions It appears that C. rotundus extracts contain potent components such as flavonoids that may potentially be useful for modulating the immune cell functions, provoking analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. PMID:23388107

  2. Dawn of antioxidants and immune modulators to stop HIV-progression and boost the immune system in HIV/AIDS patients: An updated comprehensive and critical review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S

    2015-06-01

    In the last two decades, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the retrovirus responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Providing the optimum management of HIV/AIDS is a major challenge in the 21st century. Since, HIV-infected persons have an extended lifespan due to the development of effective antiretroviral therapies, malnutrition is becoming central factors of long-term survivors. The nutrition status of AIDS patients has a significant influence on the maintenance and optimal effectiveness of the immune system. Micronutrient therapy in combination with allopathic treatments can extend and improve the quality and quantity of life in individuals infected with HIV/AIDS. HIV infection is thought to lead to augmented oxidative stress which may in turn lead to faster development of HIV disease. Hence, antioxidants might have a significant role in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. An additional approach to treating HIV infection is fortifying the immune response of infected people. Immune modulators help to activate and boost the normal immune function. The present review first describes the boon of antioxidants (especially Vitamin A) and immune modulators (cytolin, resveratrol, murabutide, setarud, tucaresol, AVR118, Immunitin (HE2000), reticulose, and interleukin-7) in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Then, providing a comparatively succinct outline on updated patents study on antioxidants and immune modulators to treat HIV/AIDS will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in vagina microenvironment of patients with several common vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Guo, H Y; Hu, X M; Han, D D; Wang, Z P; Meng, L

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to play an important role in many diseases, including vaginitis. To evaluate oxidative biomarkers in the secretion of cervix samples of vaginitis, this study will illustrate the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in vaginal microenvironment. A total of 257 patients with vaginitis, including candida vaginitis, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomonas vaginitis were involved in this study. Cervico-vaginal fluid was collected from these patients before and after treatment, and the malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and vitamin C levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results revealed that the MDA and H2O2 levels were increased in the vaginitis patients, while there was no significant difference in MDA level among different kinds of vaginitis before treatment. The CAT and vitamin C levels in vaginitis were decreased before treatment. Moreover, the data also showed that the MDA and H2O2 levels were decreased, while the CAT, SOD, and vitamin C levels were increased after received treatment, respectively, and there was no significant difference between controls and vaginitis. This study indicated that oxidative stress played an important role in vaginitis.

  4. Bioavailability study of a polyphenol-enriched extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa in rats and associated antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Herranz-López, María; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Joven, Jorge; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Micol, Vicente

    2012-10-01

    The aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa have been commonly used in folk medicine. Nevertheless, the compounds or metabolites responsible for its healthy effects have not yet been identified. The major metabolites present in rat plasma after acute ingestion of a polyphenol-enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa extract were characterized and quantified in order to study their bioavailability. The antioxidant status of the plasma samples was also measured through several complementary antioxidant techniques. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) was used for the bioavailability study. The antioxidant status was measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma method, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay, and superoxide dismutase activity assay. Seventeen polyphenols and metabolites have been detected and quantified. Eleven of these compounds were metabolites. Although phenolic acids were found in plasma without any modification in their structures, most flavonols were found as quercetin or kaempferol glucuronide conjugates. Flavonol glucuronide conjugates, which show longer half-life elimination values, are proposed to contribute to the observed lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity in the cellular membranes. By contrast, phenolic acids appear to exert their antioxidant activity through ferric ion reduction and superoxide scavenging at shorter times. We propose that flavonol-conjugated forms (quercetin and kaempferol) may be the compounds responsible for the observed antioxidant effects and contribute to the healthy effects of H. sabdariffa polyphenolic extract.

  5. Wet and dry extraction of coconut oil: impact on lipid metabolic and antioxidant status in cholesterol coadministered rats.

    PubMed

    Nevin, K Govindan; Rajamohan, Thankappan

    2009-08-01

    Because coconut oil extracted by wet process (virgin coconut oil, VCO) is gaining popularity among consumers, this study was conducted to evaluate VCO compared with coconut oil extracted by dry process (copra oil, CO) for their influence on lipid parameters, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant status in rats coadministered with cholesterol. VCO, CO, and cholesterol were fed in a semi-synthetic diet to 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats for 45 days. After the experimental period, lipid and lipid peroxide levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were observed. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of the polyphenolic fraction from VCO and CO were also analyzed. The results showed that lipid and lipid peroxide levels were lower in VCO-fed animals than in animals fed either CO or cholesterol alone. Antioxidant enzyme activities in VCO-fed animals were comparable with those in control animals. Although the fatty acid profiles of both oils were similar, a significantly higher level of unsaponifiable components was observed in VCO. Polyphenols from VCO also showed significant radical-scavenging activity compared with those from CO. This study clearly indicates the potential benefits of VCO over CO in maintaining lipid metabolism and antioxidant status. These effects may be attributed in part to the presence of biologically active minor unsaponifiable components.

  6. Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2008-12-01

    Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.

  7. Antioxidant status and oxidative stress at rest and in response to acute exercise in judokas and sedentary men.

    PubMed

    El Abed, Kaïs; Rebai, Haitham; Bloomer, Richard J; Trabelsi, Khaled; Masmoudi, Liwa; Zbidi, Abdelkarim; Sahnoun, Zouhaier; Hakim, Ahmed; Tabka, Zouhaier

    2011-09-01

    It is well recognized that acute strenuous exercise is accompanied by an increase in free-radical production and subsequent oxidative stress, in addition to changes in blood antioxidant status. Chronic exercise provides protection against exercise-induced oxidative stress by upregulating endogenous antioxidant defense systems. Little is known regarding the protective effect afforded by judo exercise. Therefore, we determined antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers at rest and in response to acute exercise in 10 competitive judokas and 10 sedentary subjects after mixed exercise (anaerobic followed by aerobic). The subjects performed a Wingate test, followed by 30 minutes of aerobic exercise performed at 60% of maximal aerobic power. Blood samples were taken, by an intravenous catheter, at rest (R), immediately after the physical exercise (P0), and at 5 (P5), 10 (P10), and 20 (P20) minutes postexercise. The measured parameters included the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, in addition to α-tocopherol, and total antioxidant status. Malondialdehyde was measured as a representation of lipid peroxidation. At rest, the judokas had higher values for all antioxidant and oxidative stress markers as compared to the sedentary subjects (p < 0.05). Plasma concentrations of all parameters except for α-tocopherol increased significantly above resting values for both the judokas and sedentary subjects (p < 0.05) and remained elevated at 20 minutes postexercise. A significant postexercise decrease was observed for α-tocopherol (p < 0.05) at P20 for judokas and at P5 for sedentary subjects. These data indicate that competitive judo athletes have higher endogenous antioxidant protection compared to sedentary subjects. However, both groups of subjects experience an increase in exercise-induced oxidative stress that is not different.

  8. Evaluation of Salivary and Serum Antioxidant and Oxidative Stress Statuses in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Jamshidi, Zohreh; Kebriaei, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Local bacteria stimulate polymorphonuclear neutrophils to release reactive oxygen species in periodontitis. Increased levels of oxidative stress play a significant role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate total salivary and serum antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and methods: Fifty-five healthy subjects and 55 patients with chronic periodontitis, with an age range of 30–50 years, were evaluated. After clinical examination and case selection, unstimulated whole saliva was collected in the morning. Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein. Total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde levels were evaluated by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with t-test, using Stata.11 software program. Results: The periodontitis group exhibited lower salivary (0.16) and serum (0.36) total antioxidant capacity (P = 0.11) compared to the control group. Mean salivary malondialdehyde levels in the case and control groups were 0.80 ± 0.09 and 0.42 ± 0.08, respectively. The results showed significantly higher levels of salivary and serum malondialdehyde in the periodontitis group. Gender did not have any effect on antioxidant and oxidative stress levels. Conclusion: This study indicated increased levels of salivary and serum oxidative stresses in patients with chronic periodontitis. Total antioxidant capacity was mildly lower in the saliva and serum of these patients. Higher malondialdehyde levels with no changes in antioxidant status can result in systemic and local complications in these patients. PMID:28408887

  9. Supplementing with vitamin C the diet of honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica) parasitized with Varroa destructor: effects on antioxidative status.

    PubMed

    Farjan, Marek; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Żółtowska, Krystyna

    2014-05-01

    We studied a total of eight developmental stages of capped brood and newly emerged workers of Apis mellifera carnica colonies naturally parasitized with Varroa destructor. During winter and early spring four colonies were fed syrup containing 1.8 mg vitamin C kg(-1) (ascorbic acid group; group AA) while four colonies were fed syrup without the vitamin C (control group C). Selected elements of the antioxidative system were analysed including total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione content and antioxidative enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase). Body weight, protein content and indices of infestation were also determined. The prevalence (8.11%) and intensity (1·15 parasite per bee) of the infestation were lower in group AA compared with group C (11.3% and 1.21, respectively). Changes in the indicators of antioxidative stress were evidence for the strengthening of the antioxidative system in the brood by administration of vitamin C. In freshly emerged worker bees of group AA, despite the infestation, protein content, TAS, and the activity of all antioxidative enzymes had significantly higher values in relation to group C.

  10. Addition of exogenous enzymes to diets containing grape pomace: Effects on intestinal utilization of catechins and antioxidant status of chickens.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Rebolé, A; Arija, I; Romero, C; Alvarez, I; Rey, A; Brenes, A

    2017-06-01

    Grape pomace (GP) is a rich source of polyphenols with antioxidant capacity. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of GP phenolic compounds included at 5 and 10%, and the addition (individually or combined) of hydrolyzing enzymes (carbohydrase enzyme complex and tannase at 500ppm) on intestinal utilization of catechins and antioxidant status in broiler chickens. A diet supplemented with 200ppm of α-tocopheryl acetate was also used. Our findings demonstrate the capacity of chickens to digest the monomeric (catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, and epicatechin-O-gallate) and dimeric (procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2) catechins present in grape pomace. The addition of enzymes (mainly tannase) hydrolyzed the polymeric structures into smaller catechins, but also promoted a lower digestibility of the monomeric and dimeric catechins suggesting that polymeric structures might favour the intestinal utilization of these catechins. The intestinal accumulation of phenolic compounds generated with tannase and with 10% GP reversed the antimicrobial effect against Clostridium perfringens observed with 5% of GP. Grape pomace improved the antioxidant status of the bird, increasing the α-tocopherol and reducing the iron content on plasma, not affecting the plasma gluthatione. Enzymes modified the intestinal utilization of catechins but not additional protective effect was detected on any of the parameters analyzed to evaluate the antioxidant status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidant status of serum, muscle, intestine and hepatopancreas for fish fed graded levels of biotin.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Zhao, Shu; Chen, Gangfu; Jiang, Weidan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Hu, Kai; Li, Shuhong; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

    2014-04-01

    Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and antioxidant activities of muscle, intestine, hepatopancreas and serum in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) were investigated after feeding graded levels of biotin (0.010, 0.028, 0.054, 0.151, 0.330, 1.540 and 2.680 mg kg(-1) diet) for 63 days. Both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl content in all studied tissues and serum were the lowest in fish fed diets containing 0.151-0.330 mg biotin kg(-1) diet and then increased in fish fed the diet with 2.680 mg biotin kg(-1) diet (P < 0.05). Similarly, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase activities in serum significantly decreased with biotin levels up to 0.151 mg kg(-1) diet (P < 0.05). Conversely, capacities of anti-hydroxyl radical (AHR) and anti-superoxide anion (ASA) in the detected tissues and serum significantly improved with biotin levels up to 0.054-1.540 mg kg(-1) diet and then decreased in 2.680 mg biotin kg(-1) diet group for muscle and intestinal AHR as well as hepatopancreas ASA (P < 0.05). Activities of superoxide dismutase in all studied tissues and serum significantly elevated with biotin levels up to 0.330 mg kg(-1) diet and then decreased when fish fed the diet with 2.680 mg biotin kg(-1) diet, except intestine (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase and total thiol content in all studied tissues and serum showed the upward trend with biotin supplementations (P < 0.05). These results indicated that biotin improved antioxidant status and depressed lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in all studied tissues and serum.

  12. Oxidative stress evoked damages on rat sperm and attenuated antioxidant status on consumption of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Ashok, I; Poornima, P S; Wankhar, D; Ravindran, R; Sheeladevi, R

    2017-07-01

    Although several studies on toxic effect of aspartame metabolite have been studied, controversial reports over the use of aspartame owing to the fact that it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism exist. This present study is proposed to investigate whether aspartame (40 mg kg(-1) b.wt) administration for 90 days could induce oxidative stress and alter antioxidant status of epididymal sperm in Wistar strain male albino rats. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the effects of aspartame. Oral intubations of FDA approved 40 mg kg(-1) b.wt aspartame were given daily for 90 days to Wistar strain male albino rats and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. Sperm count, viability, morphology, morphometry and motility were assessed. A significant decrease in sperm function of aspartame treated animals was observed when compared with the control and MTX control. The free radical generation were observed in epididymal sperm by assessing the scavenging enzymes, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Result suggest that there was a significant increase glutathione-s-transferase (GST), with a significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), catalase activity (CAT) and glutathione reductase concentration. The increase in free radicals generation could have ultimately caused the lipid peroxidation mediated damages on the testis. Aspartame treated animals also revealed the reduced space in seminiferous tubules, which resulted in reduced Leydig cells when compared with control in histopathology. These findings demonstrate that aspartame metabolites could be a contributing factor for development of oxidative stress in the epididymal sperm.

  13. A metabolomic study in oats (Avena sativa) highlights a drought tolerance mechanism based upon salicylate signalling pathways and the modulation of carbon, antioxidant and photo-oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Heald, Jim; Kingston-Smith, Alison; Winters, Ana; Rubiales, Diego; Sanz, Mariluz; Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena

    2015-07-01

    Although a wealth of information is available on the induction of one or several drought-related responses in different species, little is known of how their timing, modulation and crucially integration influence drought tolerance. Based upon metabolomic changes in oat (Avena sativa L.), we have defined key processes involved in drought tolerance. During a time course of increasing water deficit, metabolites from leaf samples were profiled using direct infusion-electrospray mass spectroscopy (DI-ESI-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ESI-MS/MS and analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The involvement of metabolite pathways was confirmed through targeted assays of key metabolites and physiological experiments. We demonstrate an early accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) influencing stomatal opening, photorespiration and antioxidant defences before any change in the relative water content. These changes are likely to maintain plant water status, with any photoinhibitory effect being counteracted by an efficient antioxidant capacity, thereby representing an integrated mechanism of drought tolerance in oats. We also discuss these changes in relation to those engaged at later points, consequence of the different water status in susceptible and resistant genotypes.

  14. Effects of grape seed extract as a natural antioxidant on growth performance, carcass characteristics and antioxidant status of rabbits during heat stress.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Fawzia A; Mahrose, Khalid M; Basyony, Mohammed M

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of dietary supplementation of grape seed extract (GSE) on growth performance, carcass traits and antioxidant status of rabbits under heat stress conditions (temperature humidity index 87.5-93.5). Weaned male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits about 6 weeks old (n = 144, mean body weight 705 g) were randomly allotted to four dietary groups. The Control group was fed a basal diet without GSE; the experimental groups received the basal diet with 100, 200 and 300 mg GSE/kg (Groups 100 GSE, 200 GSE and 300 GSE, respectively). The experimental period lasted for 8 weeks. Compared with other groups, rabbits of Group 300 GSE had the best body weight gain and feed conversion ratio and the lowest mortality. Dietary GSE improved carcass weight, percentage of hot carcass, intestine and edible giblets, while total non-edible parts were reduced (p ≤ 0.05) in comparison with the Control group. In Groups 200 GSE and 300 GSE, plasma total protein, albumin and globulin were increased (p ≤ 0.05). In contrast, all supplementation levels of GSE reduced (p ≤ 0.05) the plasma concentrations of total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins. Antioxidant enzymes of rabbits (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase) and total antioxidant capacity in blood were increased (p ≤ 0.05) by adding dietary GSE. However, malondialdehyde was reduced (p ≤ 0.001) with increasing GSE levels. Generally, grape seeds can be considered as rich source of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The results of the study revealed that all tested levels of GSE were useful as a natural protection against heat stress to maintain performance, carcass traits and antioxidant status and could reduce the negative effects of heat stress in rabbits.

  15. Non-enzymatic antioxidant status and biochemical parameters in the consumers of Pan Masala containing tobacco.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Raj; Nepal, Ashwini Kumar; Lal Das, Binod Kumar; Gelal, Basanta; Lamsal, Madhab

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco consumption is one of the leading causes of oral submucous fibrosis, oral cancer and even premature death. The present study was designed to compare the biochemical parameters and non- enzymatic antioxidant status and the lipid peroxidation products in pan masala tobacco users as compared with age-matched non-user controls. Pan masala and tobacco users of age 33.2±9.94 years and age-matched controls (31.2±4.73 years) were enrolled for the study. Plasma levels of vitamin E, vitamin C, albumin, bilirubin, uric acid, glucose, urea, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) were measured by standard methods. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated as a measure of lipid peroxidation. In the pan masala tobacco users, as compared to the controls, the level of vitamin C (68.5±5.9 vs 97.9±9.03 μmol/L, p≤0.05) vitamin E (18.4±5.3 vs 97.9±9.03 μmol/L, p≤0.001), albumin (37.5±7.01 vs 44.3±9.99 g/L, p≤0.001), and malondialdehyde (10.8±1.29 vs 1.72±1.15 nmol/ml, p≤0.001 ) were found to be significantly altered. Malondialdehyde was significantly correlated with vitamin E (r=1.00, p<0.001) and vitamin C (r =1.00, p<0.001) in pan masala tobacco users. Serum levels of AST (31.0±16.77 IU) and ALT (36.7±31.3 IU) in the pan masala tobacco users were significantly raised as compared to the controls (AST, 25.2±9.51 IU, p=0.038; ALT, 26.2±17.9 IU, p=0.038). These findings suggest that pan masala tobacco users are in a state of oxidative stress promoting cellular damage. Non-enzymatic antioxidants are depleted in pan masala tobacco users with subsequent alteration in the biochemical parameters. Supplementation of antioxidants may prevent oxidative damage in pan masala tobacco users.

  16. Improvement of antioxidant status after Brazil nut intake in hypertensive and dyslipidemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Huguenin, Grazielle V B; Oliveira, Glaucia M M; Moreira, Annie S B; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Pinheiro-Mulder, Alessandra R; Teodoro, Anderson J; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-05-29

    To investigate the effect of partially defatted Granulated Brazil nut (GBN) on biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status of hypertensive and dyslipidemic patients on nutrition and drug approaches. Ninety one hypertensive and dyslipidemic subjects of both genders (51.6 % men), mean age 62.1 ± 9.3 years, performed a randomized crossover trial, double-blind, placebo controlled. Subjects received a diet and partially defatted GBN 13 g per day (≈227.5 μg/day of selenium) or placebo for twelve weeks with four-week washout interval. Anthropometric, laboratory and clinic characteristics were investigated at baseline. Plasma selenium (Se), plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx3) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), 8-epi PGF2α and oxidized LDL were evaluated at the beginning and in the end of each intervention. GBN intake significantly increased plasma Se from 87.0 ± 16.8 to 180.6 ± 67.1 μg/L, increased GPx3 activity in 24,8% (from 112.66 ± 40.09 to 128.32 ± 38.31 nmol/min/mL, p < 0,05), and reduced 3.25% of oxidized-LDL levels (from 66.31 ± 23.59 to 60.68 ± 20.88 U/L, p < 0.05). An inverse association between GPx3 and oxidized LDL levels was observed after supplementation with GBN by simple model (β -0.232, p = 0.032) and after adjustment for gender, age, diabetes and BMI (β -0.298, p = 0.008). There wasn't association between GPx3 and 8-epi PGF2α (β -0.209, p = 0.052) by simple model. The partially defatted GBN intake has a potential benefit to increase plasma selenium, increase enzymatic antioxidant activity of GPx3 and to reduction oxidation in LDL in hypertensive and dyslipidemic patients. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01990391; November 20, 2013.

  17. Diphenyl diselenide modulates gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum of female hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Roseni Mundstock Dias, Glaecir; Medeiros Golombieski, Ronaldo; de Lima Portella, Rafael; Pires do Amaral, Guilherme; Antunes Soares, Félix; Teixeira da Rocha, João Batista; Wayne Nogueira, Cristina; Vargas Barbosa, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Cellular antioxidant signaling can be altered either by thyroid disturbances or by selenium status. To investigate whether or not dietary diphenyl diselenide can modify the expression of genes of antioxidant enzymes and endpoint markers of oxidative stress under hypothyroid conditions. Female rats were rendered hypothyroid by continuous exposure to methimazole (MTZ; 20 mg/100 ml in the drinking water) for 3 months. Concomitantly, MTZ-treated rats were either fed or not with a diet containing diphenyl diselenide (5 ppm). mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant/oxidant status were determined in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Hypothyroidism caused a marked upregulation in mRNA expression of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD-1, SOD-3), glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1, GPx-4) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR-1) in brain structures. SOD-2 was increased in the cortex and striatum, while TrxR-2 increased in the cerebral cortex. The increase in mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes was positively correlated with the Nrf-2 transcription in the cortex and hippocampus. Hypothyroidism caused oxidative stress, namely an increase in lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species levels in the hippocampus and striatum, and a decrease in nonprotein thiols in the cerebral cortex. Diphenyl diselenide was effective in reducing brain oxidative stress and normalizing most of the changes observed in gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. The present work corroborates and extends that hypothyroidism disrupts antioxidant enzyme gene expression and causes oxidative stress in the brain. Furthermore, diphenyl diselenide may be considered a promising molecule to counteract these effects in a hypothyroidism state. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Molecular effects of chemotherapeutic drugs and their modulation by antioxidants in the testis.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Kilarkaje; Al-Bader, Maie; Mousa, Alyaa; Khan, Khalid M

    2012-01-15

    Cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens are preferred in the treatment of a variety of cancers. The present study investigated early cumulative molecular effects of therapeutic dose-levels of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) in the testis and their modulation by an antioxidant cocktail (AO). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (N=7/group [G]) were treated with BEP as follows: G1 - control; G2 - AO (α-tocopherol [100 mg/kg], l-ascorbic acid [50 mg/kg], Zn [40 mg/l] and Se [100 μg/l]); G3 - B, 1.5 mg/kg on day 2; E, 15 mg/kg and P, 3 mg/kg for 4 days, and G4 - similar to G3 but also treated with AO for 4 days. In G3, the testis weight, sperm count and motility, and activities of enzymatic antioxidants decreased and lipid peroxidation increased compared to that in G1 (P<0.05). Seminiferous epithelial sloughing and degeneration were observed. In G3, mRNA levels of p53, Bcl-2 and Bax were unaltered but protein expression of p53 and Bax was up-regulated and that of Bcl-2 was down-regulated (P<0.05). These changes led to an increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) positive germ cells indicating cell death (P<0.05). The AO recovered the BEP-induced molecular alterations to control levels. The mechanism of BEP-induced early testicular damage involves the initiation of oxidative stress, up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins and induction of cell death. Further, the induced testicular structural changes are negligible and less than those observed in single drug exposure studies reported in literature. The AO significantly ameliorates the BEP-induced pathogenesis of testicular damage suggesting its potential therapeutic uses.

  19. Design of the interface of edible nanoemulsions to modulate the bioaccessibility of neuroprotective antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Plaza-Oliver, M; Baranda, J Fernández Sainz de; Rodríguez Robledo, V; Castro-Vázquez, L; Gonzalez-Fuentes, J; Marcos, P; Lozano, M V; Santander-Ortega, M J; Arroyo-Jimenez, M M

    2015-07-25

    Most frequently the use of bioactive molecules for the supplementation of food and beverages is hampered by stability limitations or inadequate intestinal absorption. This work evaluates in vitro the role that the interface of the nanoemulsion has on the physicochemical properties, the stability behavior and the enzymatic degradation after oral intake. For that purpose three soybean oil (SB) formulations were studied. These formulations were based on the emulsifier lecithin but modified with two non-ionic surfactants Pluronic(®) F68 (PF68) or Pluronic(®) F127 (PF127) yielding (i) SB-NE (only lecithin on the interface), (ii) SB-NE PF68 (lecithin plus PF68) and 9 (iii) SB-NE PF127 (lecithin plus PF127). All the formulations tested were low polydispersed and showed a size of about 200 nm and ζ-potential of -50 mV. The in vitro colloidal stability assay showed that lecithin itself was able to promote that formulations reach unaltered to the small intestine and facilitate the absorption of the antioxidant payload on a tunable fashion there (with in vitro bioaccessibility values from around 40% up to a 70%). PF68 was able to sterically stabilize the formulation against the aggregation induced by the pH and electrolytes of the simulated gastrointestinal track; however, this surfactant was easily displaced by the lipases of the simulated intestinal milieu being unable to modulate the digestion pattern of the oil droplets in the small intestine. Finally, PF127 displayed a strong steric potential that dramatically reduced the interaction of the oil droplets with lipases in vitro, which will compromise the capacity of the formulation to improve the bioaccessibility of the loaded antioxidant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitamin D deficiency, oxidative stress and antioxidant status: only weak association seen in the absence of advanced age, obesity or pre-existing disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Erica W; Siu, Parco M; Pang, Marco Y; Woo, Jean; Collins, Andrew R; Benzie, Iris F F

    2017-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency (plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)70 % of participants were vitamin D deficient. No significant correlations and no biomarker differences across 25(OH)D quartiles or groups were seen except for total antioxidant status. A weak direct association (r 0·252, P<0·05) was observed between 25(OH)D and FRAP, and those in the lowest 25(OH)D quartile and group had significantly lower FRAP values. Results did not reveal a clear link between vitamin D status and oxidative stress biomarkers in the absence of advanced age, obesity and disease, though some evidence of depleted antioxidant status in those with vitamin D deficiency was seen. Poor antioxidant status may pre-date increased oxidative stress. Study of effects of correction of deficiency on antioxidant status and oxidative stress in vitamin D-deficient but otherwise healthy subjects is needed.

  1. Status of the SLAC SNOOP diagnostic module for FASTBUS

    SciTech Connect

    Walz, H.V.; Gustavson, D.B.

    1983-03-01

    A SNOOP Diagnostic Module for FASTBUS is under development at SLAC. The SNOOP Module resides on a FASTBUS crate segment and provides diagnostic monitoring and testing capability. It consists of a high-speed ECL front-end to monitor and single-step segment operations, a simple master interface, and a control processor with two serial communication ports. Module features and specifications are summrized, and prototype hardware is shown.

  2. Lipoic acid mitigates oxidative stress and recovers metabolic distortions in salt-stressed wheat seedlings by modulating ion homeostasis, the osmo-regulator level and antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Gorcek, Zeynep; Erdal, Serkan

    2015-11-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most detrimental environmental factors affecting the growth of plants and limiting their agricultural productivity. This study investigated whether exogenous lipoic acid (LA) pretreatment plays a role in promoting salt tolerance in wheat seedlings. The seedlings were treated with LA (1.75 mmol L(-1)) and salt (100 mmol L(-1) NaCl) separately and a combination of them. Salt stress significantly reduced relative water content, leaf surface area, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase expression, and chlorophyll content but increased the content of osmo-regulator protein, carbohydrates and proline. In addition, salinity led to an imbalance in the inorganic composition of wheat leaves. While it elevated Na(+) content compared to control, Ca content and K(+)/Na(+) ratio were reduced. Under saline conditions, despite increases in antioxidant enzyme activity and levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbate and glutathione), the content of reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide) and malondialdehyde were higher than in control seedlings. LA significantly promoted osmo-regulator level and antioxidant enzyme activities compared to stressed seedlings alone. Also, it both increased levels of ascorbate and glutathione and regenerated their oxidised forms, thus contributing to maintaining cellular redox status. Similarly, LA prevented excessive accumulation of Na(+) and promoted K(+)/Na(+) ratio and Ca content. Reactive oxygen species content was significantly reduced, and the inhibitions in the above parameters markedly recovered. LA reduced salinity-induced oxidative damage and thus contributed to the growth and development of plants in saline soils by modulating ion homeostasis between plant and soil as well as in osmo-regulator content and antioxidant system. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Analysis of plasma lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes status in patients of oral leukoplakia: A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Shrivastava, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Imbalances between the oxidant-antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including oral cancer. Mostly, all oral cancer lesions are preceded by a stage of premalignancy. The present study aims to evaluate lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in the venous blood of patients with different clinicopathologic stages of leukoplakia. Materials and Methods: A case control study was designed with the inclusion of 20 new cases of histopathologically proven leukoplakia of various clinical stages along with an equal number of positive and negative control individuals. The concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, were estimated in plasma using spectrophotometric methods. The data are expressed as mean ± SD. The statistical comparisons between and within the study groups were performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc analysis. Karl Pearson correlation was performed for the biochemical parameters within the group and between the groups. For statistically significant correlations, simple linear regression was performed. Results: Significant enhanced lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001) with a decrease in antioxidants (P < 0.001) was observed in the venous blood of leukoplakia patients compared with positive as well as negative controls. Accordingly, significant (P < 0.001) pattern of progression in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels was observed at various clinical stages among patients of both control groups. Among enzymes, glutathione showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction along the stages on comparison with two control groups. Conclusion: Enhanced lipid peroxidation and compromised antioxidant defense in plasma indicate the development of oxidative stress. Among the antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione and glutathione Pperoxidase

  4. Relationship between hepcidin and oxidant/antioxidant status in calves with suspected neonatal septicemia

    PubMed Central

    Erkilic, E. E.; Erdogan, H. M.; Ogun, M.; Kirmizigul, A. H.; Gokce, E.; Kuru, M.; Kukurt, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study has been conducted for the purpose of determining serum hepcidin, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and Fe levels in calves with suspected neonatal septicemia before and after treatment and the clinical significance of hepcidin in calves with suspected neonatal septicemia. Materials and Methods: The study material consisted of 15 calves of different ages and sexes brought to the Training, Research and Application Center at the Kafkas University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine with suspected neonatal septicemia. 8.5 mL of blood was drawn from the jugular vein of each animal into coagulant tubes before and after treatment for one-off biochemical analyses and centrifuged. After this, the serum was separated. Hepcidin, TAS, TOS, and Fe levels in the serum were measured. Results: While pre-treatment hepcidin levels were 58.42±3.46 ng/mL, post-treatment levels were 46.87±2.98 ng/mL (p<0.05). Pre-treatment Fe levels were 60.13±7.27 µg/dl, while post-treatment levels were 83.1±8.09 µg/dl (p<0.05). The changes in the TAS and TOS levels were also found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: In light of the fact that hepcidin plays a role function in the regulation of Fe as well as the fact that Fe is a significant nutritional source for many microorganisms, it was concluded that hepcidin may play a significant role in nutritional immunity and the pathogenesis of diseases. PMID:27956775

  5. Serum homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status in vegetarian children.

    PubMed

    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Klemarczyk, W; Chełchowska, M; Gajewska, J; Laskowska-Klita, T

    2006-01-01

    The results of several studies point to the positive role of vegetarian diets in reducing the risk of diabetes, some cancers and cardiovascular diseases. However, exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the cobalamin status and cause an elevation of the plasma homocysteine level. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian diets on serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status (TAS) in children. The study included 32 vegetarians (including 5 vegans), age 2-10 years. Dietary constituents were analyzed using a local nutritional programme. Serum homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 were determined with fluorescence and chemiluminescence immunoassays. The concentration of TAS was measured by a colorimetric method. Average daily energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates in the diets of the studied children were just above or similar to the recommended amounts. It could be shown that vegetarian diets contain high concentrations of folate. In vegan diets it even exceeds the recommended dietary allowance. Mean daily intake of vitamin B12 in the studied diets was adequate but in vegans was below the recommended range. The serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and TAS in vegetarian children remained within the physiological range. The presented data indicate that vegetarian children, contrary to adults, have enough vitamin B12 in their diet (excluding vegans) and normal serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12. Therefore, in order to prevent deficiencies in the future, close monitoring of vegetarian children (especially on a vegan diet) is important to make sure that they receive adequate quantities of nutrients needed for healthy growth.

  6. A preliminary study on the effects of star fruit consumption on antioxidant and lipid status in elderly Thai individuals

    PubMed Central

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Yankai, Araya; Pinkaew, Decha; Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Laskin, James J; Bloomer, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this preliminary study were to evaluate the antioxidant and lipid status before and after star fruit juice consumption in healthy elderly subjects, and the vitamins in star fruit extracts. Methods A preliminary designated protocol was performed in 27 elderly individuals with a mean (±SD) age of 69.5±5.3 years, by planning a 2-week control period before 4 weeks of consumption of star fruit twice daily. Oxidative stress parameters such as total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, malondialdehyde, protein hydroperoxide, multivitamins such as l-ascorbic acid (Vit C), retinoic acid (Vit A), and tocopherol (Vit E), and the lipid profile parameters such as cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were analyzed. Moreover, Vit C, Vit A, and Vit E levels were evaluated in the star fruit extracts during the 4-week period. Results In the 2-week control period, all parameters showed no statistically significant difference; after 4 weeks of consumption, significant improvement in the antioxidant status was observed with increased total antioxidant capacity and reduced malondialdehyde and protein hydroperoxide levels, as well as significantly increased levels of Vit C and Vit A, when compared to the two-time evaluation during the baseline periods. However, glutathione and Vit E showed no statistical difference. In addition, the HDL-C level was higher and the LDL-C level was significantly lower when compared to both baseline periods. But the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol showed no difference. Vit C and Vit A were identified in small quantities in the star fruit extract. Conclusion This preliminary study suggested that consumption of star fruit juice twice daily for 1 month improved the elderly people’s antioxidant status and vitamins, as well as improved the lipoproteins related to Vit C and Vit A in the star fruit extract. PMID:27621606

  7. A preliminary study on the effects of star fruit consumption on antioxidant and lipid status in elderly Thai individuals.

    PubMed

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Yankai, Araya; Pinkaew, Decha; Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Laskin, James J; Bloomer, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this preliminary study were to evaluate the antioxidant and lipid status before and after star fruit juice consumption in healthy elderly subjects, and the vitamins in star fruit extracts. A preliminary designated protocol was performed in 27 elderly individuals with a mean (±SD) age of 69.5±5.3 years, by planning a 2-week control period before 4 weeks of consumption of star fruit twice daily. Oxidative stress parameters such as total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, malondialdehyde, protein hydroperoxide, multivitamins such as l-ascorbic acid (Vit C), retinoic acid (Vit A), and tocopherol (Vit E), and the lipid profile parameters such as cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were analyzed. Moreover, Vit C, Vit A, and Vit E levels were evaluated in the star fruit extracts during the 4-week period. In the 2-week control period, all parameters showed no statistically significant difference; after 4 weeks of consumption, significant improvement in the antioxidant status was observed with increased total antioxidant capacity and reduced malondialdehyde and protein hydroperoxide levels, as well as significantly increased levels of Vit C and Vit A, when compared to the two-time evaluation during the baseline periods. However, glutathione and Vit E showed no statistical difference. In addition, the HDL-C level was higher and the LDL-C level was significantly lower when compared to both baseline periods. But the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol showed no difference. Vit C and Vit A were identified in small quantities in the star fruit extract. This preliminary study suggested that consumption of star fruit juice twice daily for 1 month improved the elderly people's antioxidant status and vitamins, as well as improved the lipoproteins related to Vit C and Vit A in the star fruit extract.

  8. Serum prolidase activity, oxidant and antioxidant status in nonulcer dyspepsia and healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Shweta; Verma, Akhilesh Kumar; Rungta, Sumit; Mitra, Rahul; Srivastava, Ragini; Kumar, Narender

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is associated with increased oxidative stress and serum prolidase activity (SPA) in many diseases. We aimed to observe SPA and oxidative stress in nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) infected with and without H. pylori among eastern Indians. 106 patients with H. pylori positive NUD, 82 patients with H. pylori negative NUD, and 50 healthy individuals were selected. SPA, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured with the use of spectrophotometer and an automated measurement method. SPA, TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were significantly higher in patients with H. pylori positive than H. pylori negative NUD and healthy individuals (all P < 0.0001), whereas TAOC was significantly lower (P < 0.0001). Nonsignificant, increased SPA (P value = 0.6083) and decreased TAOC (P value = 0.1186) were observed in patients with H. pylori negative NUD than healthy individuals, while increased TOS and OSI were significant (P < 0.0001). Weak, nonsignificant correlations were observed between serum prolidase activity and TAOC, TOS, and OSI in H. pylori positive cases. Thus, increased SPA along with increased oxidative stress was observed, which seem to be closely associated with H. pylori infection. SPA and oxidative stress seem to be used as biomarkers for H. pylori infection in NUD.

  9. Plasma total antioxidant status in horses after 8-hours of road transportation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-hour road transport on plasma total antioxidant status (PTAS) and general clinical appearance in horses. Findings The study was conducted on a group of 60 horses of different breeds aged from 4 to 10 years. Venous blood was collected and a clinical examination was performed immediately before loading horses onto trailers for an 8 hour transport (I), immediately after unloading them from the trailer (II), and after a subsequent 24 hour stall rest (III). The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was used to determine PTAS. The transportation significantly increased respiratory and heart rates. The average PTAS increased during the three subsequent samplings: I: 170 ± 77 (μmol/l) II: 204 ± 70 (μmol/l) III: 221 ± 74 (μmol/l). Conclusion Long-distance transport increased the PTAS horses, as well as respiratory and heart rates. PMID:23945316

  10. Effect of drought and rewatering on the cellular status and antioxidant response of Medicago truncatula plants

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, Panagiota; Antoniou, Chrystalla

    2011-01-01

    Effects of water stress on plants have been well-documented. However, the combined responses to drought and rewatering and their underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. The present study attempts to describe spatiotemporal alterations in the physiology and cellular status of Medicago truncatula tissues that result from and subsequently follow a period of moderate water deficit. Physiological processes and cellular damage levels were monitored in roots and leaves by determining lipid peroxidation levels, as well as nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide content, further supported by stomatal conductance and chlorophyll fluorescence measurements in leaves. During water stress, cells in both organs displayed increased damage levels and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species content, while leaves showed reduced stomatal conductance. Furthermore, both tissues demonstrated increased proline content. Upon rewatering, plants recovered displaying readings similar to pre-stress control conditions. Furthermore, molecular analysis of antioxidant gene expression by quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed differential spatiotemporal regulation in a number of genes examined (including catalase, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase, copper/zinc and iron superoxide dismutase and alternative oxidase). Overall, M. truncatula plants demonstrated increased sensitivity to drought-induced oxidative damage; however, this was reversed following rewatering indicating a great elasticity in the plant's capacity to cope with free oxygen and nitrogen radicals. PMID:21330785

  11. The Effects of Lithium Administration on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Rats: Biochemical and Histomorphological Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Toplan, Selmin; Ozdemir, Semra; Tanriverdi, Gamze; Akyolcu, M Can; Ozcelik, Dervis; Darıyerli, Nuran

    2016-02-01

    Present study was planned to determine possible dose-dependent effects of lithium (Li) on oxidant-antioxidant status and histomorphological changes in liver and kidney tissues. For this purpose, twenty-four Wistar male rats were equally divided into three groups: the rats in group I served as controls, drinking tap water without lithium. Groups II and III received 0.1 and 0.2 % lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) through their drinking water, respectively, for 30 days. At the end of the experimental period, lithium concentrations, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured in considered tissues. Histomorphological study was also performed on liver and kidney tissues. Compared to controls, MDA was significantly higher but GSH level lower in groups II and III. SOD activity was higher in group III, but no difference was determined in group II in liver tissue. In kidney tissue, there was no difference determined in MDA and GSH levels between control and experimental groups but SOD activity in groups II and III was significantly higher. In histologic sections of both experimental liver and kidney tissues, specific degenerations were observed. The results of the present study show that treatment with lithium carbonate may result in liver and kidney tissue abnormalities and oxidative damage.

  12. Prooxidative effects of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in erythrocytes of rats.

    PubMed

    Prokic, Marko D; Paunovic, Milica G; Matic, Milos M; Djordjevic, Natasa Z; Ognjanovic, Branka I; Stajn, Andras S; Saicic, Zorica S

    2014-12-01

    Since aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, ASP) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners, the aim of the present study was to investigate its effects on serum glucose and lipid levels as well as its effects on oxidative/antioxidative status in erythrocytes of rats. The experiment included two groups of animals: the control group was administered with water only, while the experimental group was orally administered with ASP (40 mg/kg b.w.) daily, for a period of six weeks. When compared with the control group, the group administrated with ASP indicated higher values of serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. Significantly increased concentrations of superoxide anion (O2 .-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (?N??-) and lipid peroxides (LPO) were recorded in the erythrocytes of ASP treated group in comparison to the control group. In the course of chronic ASP administration, the following was observed: the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of catalase (CAT) increased. Thus, these findings suggest that long-term consumption of ASP leads to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as well as to oxidative stress in erythrocytes.

  13. Serum oxidant and antioxidant status of patients with chronic tension-type headache: possible effects of medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Gökçe Çokal, Burcu; Aytaç, Bilal; Durak, Zahide Esra; Güneş, Hafize Nalan; Öztürk, Bahadır; Keskin Güler, Selda; Durak, İlker; Yoldaş, Tahir Kurtuluş

    2015-10-01

    Tension-type headache (TTH) is one of the most common and costly primary types of headache in clinical practice, with an unknown etiology. This study assessed to investigate oxidative and antioxidative status in patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH), and to evaluate possible effect of medical treatment. The study included 41 CTTH patients and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects without headache as controls. The CTTH group comprised 20 patients receiving treatment and 21 untreated patients. We evaluated oxidant/antioxidant status by measuring serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and activities of antioxidant enzymes, namely glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT). Comparison of oxidative parameters in the patient and control groups revealed significantly lower CAT activities and higher MDA level and GSH-Px activities in the patient group. In the CTTH group, serum CAT activities were found to be significantly decreased in patient groups, while serum MDA levels and GSH-Px activities were found to be higher in the untreated CTTH patients. These findings suggest that oxidative stress is increased in the patients with CTTH, and medical treatment abolishes the stress in part. It has been concluded that antioxidant support might be helpful for the patients with CTTH to prevent oxidant stress and peroxidation damages further.

  14. Altered Antioxidant-Oxidant Status in the Aqueous Humor and Peripheral Blood of Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Fernández de la Cámara, Cristina; Salom, David; Sequedo, Ma Dolores; Hervás, David; Marín-Lambíes, Cristina; Aller, Elena; Jaijo, Teresa; Díaz-LLopis, Manuel; Millán, José María; Rodrigo, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa is a common form of hereditary retinal degeneration constituting the largest Mendelian genetic cause of blindness in the developed world. It has been widely suggested that oxidative stress possibly contributes to its pathogenesis. We measured the levels of total antioxidant capacity, free nitrotyrosine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) activity, protein, metabolites of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway, heme oxygenase-I and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in aqueous humor or/and peripheral blood from fifty-six patients with retinitis pigmentosa and sixty subjects without systemic or ocular oxidative stress-related disease. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that retinitis pigmentosa alters ocular antioxidant defence machinery and the redox status in blood. Patients with retinitis pigmentosa present low total antioxidant capacity including reduced SOD3 activity and protein concentration in aqueous humor. Patients also show reduced SOD3 activity, increased TBARS formation and upregulation of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway in peripheral blood. Together these findings confirmed the hypothesis that patients with retinitis pigmentosa present reduced ocular antioxidant status. Moreover, these patients show changes in some oxidative-nitrosative markers in the peripheral blood. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between these peripheral markers and retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:24069283

  15. Altered antioxidant-oxidant status in the aqueous humor and peripheral blood of patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández de la Cámara, Cristina; Salom, David; Sequedo, Ma Dolores; Hervás, David; Marín-Lambíes, Cristina; Aller, Elena; Jaijo, Teresa; Díaz-Llopis, Manuel; Millán, José María; Rodrigo, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa is a common form of hereditary retinal degeneration constituting the largest Mendelian genetic cause of blindness in the developed world. It has been widely suggested that oxidative stress possibly contributes to its pathogenesis. We measured the levels of total antioxidant capacity, free nitrotyrosine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) activity, protein, metabolites of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway, heme oxygenase-I and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in aqueous humor or/and peripheral blood from fifty-six patients with retinitis pigmentosa and sixty subjects without systemic or ocular oxidative stress-related disease. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that retinitis pigmentosa alters ocular antioxidant defence machinery and the redox status in blood. Patients with retinitis pigmentosa present low total antioxidant capacity including reduced SOD3 activity and protein concentration in aqueous humor. Patients also show reduced SOD3 activity, increased TBARS formation and upregulation of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway in peripheral blood. Together these findings confirmed the hypothesis that patients with retinitis pigmentosa present reduced ocular antioxidant status. Moreover, these patients show changes in some oxidative-nitrosative markers in the peripheral blood. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between these peripheral markers and retinitis pigmentosa.

  16. Influence of Piper betle on hepatic marker enzymes and tissue antioxidant status in ethanol-treated Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, R; Prakasam, A; Ramesh, B; Pugalendi, K V

    2002-01-01

    Piper betle L. is a commonly used masticatory in Asia. This study was carried out to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of P. betle, using ethanol intoxication as a model of hepatotoxic and oxidative damage. Ethanol-treated rats exhibited elevation of hepatic marker enzymes and disturbances in antioxidant defense when compared with normal rats. Oral administration of P. betle extract (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days significantly (P <.05) decreased aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and lipid hydroperoxides in ethanol treated rats. The extract also improved the tissue antioxidant status by increasing the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E) and the activities of free radical-detoxifying enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in liver and kidney of ethanol-treated rats. The highest dose of P. betle extract (300 mg/kg body weight) was most effective. The results were comparable with the known hepatoprotective drug, silymarin. These results indicate that P. betle could afford a significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect.

  17. Fatty acid status and antioxidant defense system in mothers and their newborns after salmon intake during late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rodriguez, Cruz E; Olza, Josune; Mesa, Maria D; Aguilera, Concepcion M; Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Vlachava, Maria; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Diaper, Norma D; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Gil, Angel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the maternal and newborn status of erythrocyte fatty acids and the antioxidant defense system after the intake of two portions of salmon per week during late pregnancy. Pregnant women (N = 123) were randomly assigned to continue their habitual diet, which was low in oily fish (control group, n = 61) or to consume two 150-g salmon portions per week (salmon group, n = 62) beginning at 20 wk of gestation and lasting until delivery. Fatty acids, selenium, and glutathione concentrations and antioxidant defense enzyme activities were measured in maternal erythrocytes at 20, 34, and 38 wk of pregnancy, and in cord erythrocytes collected at birth. Plasma concentrations of antioxidant molecules were measured. Compared with the control group, consuming salmon had little effect on erythrocyte fatty acids in either mothers or newborns. Components of the antioxidant defense system did not differ between groups. Glutathione peroxidase activity and the concentrations of tocopherols, retinol, and coenzyme Q10 were significantly lower in cord blood compared with maternal blood at week 38 in both groups. Maternal and newborn erythrocyte fatty acids are not strongly affected by the intake of two portions of salmon per week during the second half of pregnancy, although erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid might be increased in newborns. Maternal and newborn antioxidant defense systems are not impaired by intake of salmon from 20 wk gestation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sestrins: novel antioxidant and AMPK-modulating functions regulated by exercise?

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian

    2013-08-01

    Oxidative stress results from damage to tissues caused by free radicals and is increased by exercise. Peroxiredoxins (PRXs) maintain the cellular reducing environment by scavenging intracellular hydrogen peroxide. It has been recently noted that physical exercise has a positive effect on the PRX system, exerting a protective effect against oxidative stress-induced damage. However, other compounds, such as sestrins (SESNs), a stress-inducible protein family with antioxidant properties, should also be considered in the function of PRXs. SESNs are clearly involved in the regeneration process of PRXs and therefore may also be modulated by physical exercise. In addition, SESNs are clearly involved in TOR, AMPK, p53, FoxO, and PRXs signaling pathways. The aforementioned pathways are implicated in aging processes by inducing an increased resistance to subsequent stress, thus delaying age-related changes, such as sarcopenia and frailty, and consequently promoting longevity. Likewise, exercise also modulates these pathways. In fact, exercise is one of the most important recommended strategies to prevent sarcopenia and frailty, increase longevity, and improve health in the elderly. Loss of SESNs can cause several chronic pathologies, such as fat accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, cardiac arrhythmia, and/or muscle degeneration. Accordingly, physical inactivity leads to accumulation of visceral fat and consequently the activation of a network of inflammatory pathways, which promote development of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and tumor growth. To date, the SESNs-exercise relationship has not been explored. However, this emerging family of stress proteins may be part of the redox-based adaptive response to exercise.

  19. Nutritional strategies to modulate inflammation and oxidative stress pathways via activation of the master antioxidant switch Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Ludmila F M F; Pedruzzi, Liliana M; Stenvinkel, Peter; Stockler-Pinto, Milena B; Daleprane, Julio B; Leite, Maurilo; Mafra, Denise

    2013-08-01

    The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays an important role in cellular protection against cancer, renal, pulmonary, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases where oxidative stress and inflammation are common conditions. The Nrf2 regulates the expression of detoxifying enzymes by recognizing the human Antioxidant Response Element (ARE) binding site and it can regulate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory cellular responses, playing an important protective role on the development of the diseases. Studies designed to investigate how effective Nrf2 activators or modulators are need to be initiated. Several recent studies have shown that nutritional compounds can modulate the activation of Nrf2-Keap1 system. This review aims to discuss some of the key nutritional compounds that promote the activation of Nrf2, which may have impact on the human health.

  20. NREL PV Module Reliability and Performance R&D Status and Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the status and accomplishments during Fiscal Year (FY)2004 of the Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability and Performance R&D Subtask, which is part of the PV Module Reliability R&D Project (a joint NREL-Sandia project).

  1. Effect of Turmeric and Carrot Seed Extracts on Serum Liver Biomarkers and Hepatic Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Total Antioxidant Status in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei-Moghadam, Adel; Mohajeri, Daryoush; Rafiei, Behnam; Dizaji, Rana; Azhdari, Asghar; Yeganehzad, Mahdi; Shahidi, Maryamossadat; Mazani, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pathogenic role of free radicals are well known in various metabolic diseases. They originate from internal and external sources of body. Essential roles of antioxidant defense system for cellular redox regulation and free radical scavenging activity were described in this study. Many in vitro investigations have shown that turmeric (TE) and carrot seed extract (CSE) exhibits to possess antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potentials of ethanolic TE and CSE based on in vivo experiment in the rats. Methods Animals were assigned to six groups: the 1st and 2nd groups were control groups and 2nd group received 0.2 ml dimethyl sulphoxide as vehicle treated group; other four experimental groups received different doses of TE (100, 200 mg/kg b.w.) and CSE (200, 400 mg/kg b.w.) by gavages, respectively for a period of one month. The indicators of oxidative stress, lipids peroxidation, markers of hepatocyte injury and biliary function markers were measured. Results The levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were significantly stimulated in the hepatic tissue of treatment groups. The malondialdehyde contents of liver tissue were significantly reduced in the groups fed with TE and CSE. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, in treated groups were found to be significantly decreased, whereas albumin and total protein increased as compared to the control groups (P<0.05). Conclusion this study showed that the regular intake of TE and CSE through the diet can improve antioxidant status and inhibit peroxidation activity in the liver tissue so that using these extracts may protect tissue oxidative stress. PMID:23678453

  2. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and metabolic modulators as pharmacological interventions to slow ageing.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Jan; Fong, Sheng; Chen, Ce-Belle; Yoong, Sialee; Pastorin, Giorgia; Schaffer, Sebastian; Cheah, Irwin; Halliwell, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Populations in many nations today are rapidly ageing. This unprecedented demographic change represents one of the main challenges of our time. A defining property of the ageing process is a marked increase in the risk of mortality and morbidity with age. The incidence of cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases increases non-linearly, sometimes exponentially with age. One of the most important tasks in biogerontology is to develop interventions leading to an increase in healthy lifespan (health span), and a better understanding of basic mechanisms underlying the ageing process itself may lead to interventions able to delay or prevent many or even all age-dependent conditions. One of the putative basic mechanisms of ageing is age-dependent mitochondrial deterioration, closely associated with damage mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Given the central role that mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction play not only in ageing but also in apoptosis, cancer, neurodegeneration and other age-related diseases there is great interest in approaches to protect mitochondria from ROS-mediated damage. In this review, we explore strategies of targeting mitochondria to reduce mitochondrial oxidative damage with the aim of preventing or delaying age-dependent decline in mitochondrial function and some of the resulting pathologies. We discuss mitochondria-targeted and -localized antioxidants (e.g.: MitoQ, SkQ, ergothioneine), mitochondrial metabolic modulators (e.g. dichloroacetic acid), and uncouplers (e.g.: uncoupling proteins, dinitrophenol) as well as some alternative future approaches for targeting compounds to the mitochondria, including advances from nanotechnology.

  3. Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% açai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver. PMID:22128218

  4. Exogenous glutathione improves high root-zone temperature tolerance by modulating photosynthesis, antioxidant and osmolytes systems in cucumber seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaotao; Jiang, Yuping; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Yu, Jizhu; Hui, Dafeng; Huang, Danfeng

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the physiological responses of plants to high root-zone temperature (HT, 35 °C) stress mitigated by exogenous glutathione (GSH), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were exposed to HT with or without GSH treatment for 4 days and following with 4 days of recovery. Plant physiological variables, growth, and gene expression related to antioxidant enzymes and Calvin cycle were quantified. The results showed that HT significantly decreased GSH content, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and related gene expression, shoot height, stem diameter, as well as dry weight. The exogenous GSH treatment clearly lessened the HT stress by increasing the above variables. Meanwhile, HT significantly increased soluble protein content, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) content as well as O2•− production rate, the gene expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes. The GSH treatment remarkably improved soluble protein content, proline content, antioxidant enzymes activities, and antioxidant enzymes related gene expression, and reduced the MDA content and O2•− production rate compared to no GSH treatment in the HT condition. Our results suggest that exogenous GSH enhances cucumber seedling tolerance of HT stress by modulating the photosynthesis, antioxidant and osmolytes systems to improve physiological adaptation. PMID:27752105

  5. Chemoprotective potentials of homoisoflavonoids and chalcones of Dracaena cinnabari: modulations of drug-metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Machala, M; Kubínová, R; Horavová, P; Suchý, V

    2001-03-01

    A series of homoisoflavonoids and chalcones, isolated from the endemic tropical plant Dracaena cinnabari Balf. (Agavaceae), were tested for their potential to inhibit cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) enzymes and Fe-enhanced in vitro peroxidation of microsomal lipids in C57B1/6 mouse liver. The effects of the polyphenolic compounds were compared with those of prototypal flavonoid modulators of CYP1A and the well-known antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene. 2-Hydroxychalcone and partly 4,6-dihydroxychalcone were found to be strong inhibitors of CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in vitro comparable to the effects of quercetin and chrysin. The first screening of flavonoids and chalcones of Dracaena cinnabari for antioxidant activity was done in an in vitro microsomal peroxidation assay. While chalcones were shown to be poor antioxidants, 7,8-methylenedioxy-3(4-hydroxybenzyl) chromane, as one of the tested homoisoflavonoids, exhibited a strong antioxidant activity comparable to that of the strongest flavonol antioxidant, quercetin.

  6. Social status modulates neural activity in the mentalizing network.

    PubMed

    Muscatell, Keely A; Morelli, Sylvia A; Falk, Emily B; Way, Baldwin M; Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Galinsky, Adam D; Lieberman, Matthew D; Dapretto, Mirella; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2012-04-15

    The current research explored the neural mechanisms linking social status to perceptions of the social world. Two fMRI studies provide converging evidence that individuals lower in social status are more likely to engage neural circuitry often involved in 'mentalizing' or thinking about others' thoughts and feelings. Study 1 found that college students' perception of their social status in the university community was related to neural activity in the mentalizing network (e.g., DMPFC, MPFC, precuneus/PCC) while encoding social information, with lower social status predicting greater neural activity in this network. Study 2 demonstrated that socioeconomic status, an objective indicator of global standing, predicted adolescents' neural activity during the processing of threatening faces, with individuals lower in social status displaying greater activity in the DMPFC, previously associated with mentalizing, and the amygdala, previously associated with emotion/salience processing. These studies demonstrate that social status is fundamentally and neurocognitively linked to how people process and navigate their social worlds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of polymannuronate on performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, cecal microflora, and volatile fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenhui; Li, Defa; Wang, Jianhong; Wu, Hui; Xia, Xuan; Bi, Wanghua; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Liying

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of purified polymannuronate (PM) obtained from marine brown algae on the performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, and cecal fermentation profile of broiler chickens. In a 42 d experiment, 540 (average BW 43.77±1.29 g) 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 18 chicks and fed a corn and soybean meal (SBM)-based diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg polymannuronate. Adding polymannuronate to the broiler chickens' diets resulted in a significantly increased ADG and improved feed conversion compared with the control treatment. From d 1 to 42, the ADG of broilers fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg of polymannuronate was increased by 2.58, 4.33, 4.20, and 3.47%, respectively. Furthermore, parameters related to immune status, antioxidant capacity, and composition of the cecal microflora in broiler chickens fed the polymannuronate-containing diets were altered compared with broiler chickens fed a diet without polymannuronate. Supplementation with polymannuronate significantly increased the concentrations of lactic acid and acetic acid in the cecum compared with the control group. The results indicate that polymannuronate has the potential to improve broiler chicken immune status, antioxidant capacity, and performance.

  8. Unbalanced Oxidant-Antioxidant Status: A Potential Therapeutic Target for Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion in Very Old Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Unbalanced oxidant and antioxidant status played an important role in myocardial infarction. The present study was a clinical trial combined preclinically with targeted agent against cardiovascular injuries and ischemia in vivo model. We tried to confirm the association of unbalanced oxidant and antioxidant status with coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) in 399 very old patients (80~89 years) and investigated the potential therapeutic value of purified polysaccharide from endothelium corneum gigeriae galli (PECGGp). We analyzed levels of circulating superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3), nitric oxide (NO), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in very old patients with coronary CTO. Levels of SOD3, NO, eNOS, and MDA in the cardiac tissue were measured in myocardial infarction rats. Levels of SOD3, eNOS, and NO were lowered (p < 0.001) and levels of MDA were increased (p < 0.001). PECGGp treatment increased levels of SOD3, eNOS, and NO (p < 0.01) in cardiac tissue, while decreasing levels of MDA (p < 0.01). PECGGp may suppress unbalanced oxidant and antioxidant status in infarcted myocardium by inhibiting levels of MDA and elevating NO, eNOS, and SOD3 levels. PECGGp could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent for coronary CTO in very old patients. PMID:28044093

  9. Schisandrin B enhances cerebral mitochondrial antioxidant status and structural integrity, and protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Chiu, Po Yee; Ko, Kam Ming

    2008-07-01

    Schisandrin B (Sch B), a dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, has been shown to enhance mitochondrial antioxidant status in liver, heart and brain tissues in rodents. Whether or not long-term Sch B treatment can protect against oxidative stress-induced cerebral damage remains unclear. In the present study, the effect of long-term Sch B treatment (1-30 mg/kg/dx15) on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was examined in rats. Sch B treatment protected against I/R-induced cerebral damage, as evidenced by the significant increase in the percentage of 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC)-stained tissues in representative brain slices, when compared with the Sch B-untreated and I/R control. The cerebroprotection was associated with an enhancement in cerebral mitochondrial antioxidant status, as assessed by the level/activity of reduced glutathione, alpha-tocopherol and Mn-superoxide dismutase, as well as the improvement/preservation of mitochondrial structural integrity, as assessed by the extents of malondialdehyde production, Ca(2+) loading and cytochrome c release, as well as the sensitivity to Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition, in control and I/R-challenged rats. In conclusion, long-term Sch B treatment could enhance cerebral mitochondrial antioxidant status as well as improve mitochondrial structural integrity, thereby protecting against I/R injury.

  10. Status Update on the Second-Generation ILC Marx Modulator Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Mark A.; Benwell, Andrew; Burkhart, Craig; Larsen, Ray; MacNair, David; Nguyen, Minh; Olsen, Jeff; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    This paper is a status update of the SLAC P2 Marx. This Marx-topology klystron modulator is a second-generation modulator which builds upon experience gained from the SLAC P1 Marx. There are several fundamental differences between these modulators including the correction scheme, bus voltages, and the control system architecture. These differences, along with preliminary experimental results and the schedule for further development, are detailed in this paper.

  11. Grape seed procyanidins prevent oxidative injury by modulating the expression of antioxidant enzyme systems.

    PubMed

    Puiggros, Francesc; Llópiz, Niurka; Ardévol, Anna; Bladé, Cinta; Arola, Lluís; Salvadó, M Josepa

    2005-07-27

    In the present paper, we report the effect of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) on antioxidant enzyme systems (AOEs). Gene expression was tested using the hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 by exposing it to several GSPE doses between 0 and 100 mg/L for 24 h. We evaluated mRNA expression and enzyme activity levels using real time RT-PCR and spectrophotometry. The results suggested a transcriptional GSPE regulation of glutathione related enzymes caused by an increase both in mRNA and in enzyme activity levels overall at 15 mg/L. We also assessed the GSPE effect on AOEs in cells submitted to oxidative stress. Under oxidative conditions (1 mM H(2)O(2), 1 h), we found a decrease in GSH content and an increase in MDA, and we suggested a posttranslational regulation of GPx/GR mRNAs and a transcriptional enhancement of GST mRNA. The GSPE pretreatment (15 mg/L, 23 h) before HepG2 submission to H(2)O(2) (1 mM, 1 h) showed an increase of the mRNA of GPx/GR with respect to the H(2)O(2) group, whereas the GSH content was similar to the control group. However, the GPx/GR enzyme activities were not increased. We hypothesize that GSPE probably improves the cellular redox status via glutathione synthesis pathways instead of regulation of the GPx and/or GR activities protecting against oxidative damage.

  12. Effects of triploidy induction on antioxidant defense status in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during early development.

    PubMed

    Taghipoor, Kaveh; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Salati, Amir Parviz; Pasha-Zanoosi, Hossein; Babaheydari, Samad Bahrami

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the antioxidant status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during the early stages of development (fertilized egg, eyed egg, alevin and fry) as an effect of triploidy induction. Eggs and milt were taken from eight females and six males. After insemination, the eggs were incubated at 10°C for 10min. Half of the fertilized eggs were then subjected to heat-shock for 10min submerged in a 28°C water bath to induce triploidy. The remainder were incubated normally and used as diploid controls. Three batches of eggs were randomly selected from each group (control and heat-shocked) and were incubated at 10-11°C under the same environmental conditions in hatchery troughs until the fry stage. Triplicate samples of fertilized eggs from each experimental group were randomly selected 1.5h post-fertilization and at the eyed egg stage of development (18 days post-fertilization, dpf). At 27 dpf, triplicate samples of alevins were chosen from each group. Based on ploidy determination experiment performed on both groups, nine diploid and nine triploid fry (76 dpf) were also selected. The triploidy induction success rate was 87.1%. Vitamin C was in lesser concentrations in fertilized eggs and eyed eggs of the heat-shock treatment group as compared with eggs of the diploid group. Alevins of the heat-shock treatment group had a lower superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than alevins of the diploid group. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) level was greater in fertilized eggs and alevins of the heat-shock treatment group as compared to diploids. Catalse (CAT) activity was greater in fertilized eggs, alevins and fry of the heat-shock treatment group than those of the diploid group. Malondialdehyde (MDA), as an index of lipid peroxidation, was in greater concentration in fertilized eggs of the group that was heat-shocked, but it was lesser in alevins and fry of the group in which the eggs were heat-shocked as compared to diploid counterparts

  13. Dietary antioxidants at supranutritional doses improve oxidative status and reduce the negative effects of heat stress in sheep.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S S; Celi, P; Leury, B J; Clarke, I J; Dunshea, F R

    2014-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of heat (thermal) stress and dietary antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative and physiological status of sheep. Twenty-four Merino × Poll Dorset crossbred ewes were housed in 1 of 2 climatic chambers (thermoneutral or heat stress) and offered either a control (10 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 0.24 mg Se/kg DM) or high antioxidant (100 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 1.20 mg Se/kg DM) diet. The sheep were exposed to 2 thermal (temperature) treatments (thermoneutral [TN]: 18-21°C and 26-30% relative humidity; and heat stress [HS]: 28-40°C and 40-50% relative humidity) for 2 wk in a single reversal design. After 1 wk of dietary treatment, animals in 1 chamber were subjected to HS for 1 wk, with the temperature being increased to 40°C between 0900 and 1700 h and then maintained at 28°C overnight. Those sheep in the TN group were maintained at 18 to 21°C. Physiological parameters were recorded 4 times a day (0900, 1300, 1700, and 2100 h) and blood samples were collected on d 1 and 7 of heat treatment. Plasma samples and red blood cell lysates were assayed for oxidative stress biomarkers. The thermal treatments were then reversed and the above measures repeated. All measured physiological parameters were elevated (P < 0.001) by thermal treatment. Respiration rate was lower during HS in sheep supplemented with antioxidants as indicated by a diet × temperature × time interaction (P = 0.010). There was 13% decline (P = 0.014) in feed intake of the unsupplemented animals during HS whereas the same was maintained in sheep supplemented with high doses of antioxidants. Plasma reactive oxygen metabolites concentrations were reduced (114 vs. 85 units/dL; P < 0.005) while biological antioxidant potential tended to be increased (3,688 vs. 3,985 μmol/L; P = 0.070) in heat stressed sheep supplemented with antioxidants. The oxidative stress index was 30% lower (P < 0.001) in supplemented sheep (2.16 ± 0.06 arbitrary units

  14. Effects of a long-term vegetarian diet on biomarkers of antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Szeto, Y T; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Benzie, Iris F F

    2004-10-01

    We compared plasma biomarkers of antioxidant status, oxidative stress, inflammation, and risk for coronary heart disease in long-term vegetarians and age- and sex-matched omnivores. Thirty vegetarians (mean age +/- standard deviation: 44.2 +/- 9.0 y) were recruited. The subjects had been vegetarian for 5 to 55 y (21.8 +/- 12.2 y). The control group comprised 30 adults selected by age-stratified sampling from a community health project (mean age: 44.0 +/- 9.2 y). Fasting plasma total antioxidant status (ferric-reducing antioxidant power), ascorbic acid (AA), alpha-tocopherol (total and lipid standardized), malondialdehyde, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, uric acid (UA), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured. Plasma AA was significantly higher in the vegetarians than in the omnivores (90.5 +/- 21.0 and 61.8 +/- 17.0 microM; P < 0.001). The vegetarians had lower concentrations of triacylglycerol, UA, and hsCRP. Plasma total and lipid-standardized alpha-tocopherol concentrations were also lower in the vegetarians: 22.0 +/- 5.9 and 27.0 +/- 7.9 microM versus 3.76 +/- 0.57 and 4.23 +/- 0.58 microM per millimoles per liter of total cholesterol plus triacylglycerol, respectively. There was a significant inverse correlation between AA and UA (r = -0.343, P < 0.01; n = 60) and between AA and hsCRP (r = -0.306, P < 0.05; n = 55). Plasma ferric-reducing antioxidant power and malondialdehyde did not differ significantly between groups; however, the contribution of AA to the total antioxidant capacity of plasma was approximately 50% greater in the vegetarians. A long-term vegetarian diet is associated with markedly higher fasting plasma AA concentrations and lower concentrations of TAG, UA, and hsCRP. Long-term vegetarians have a better antioxidant status and coronary heart disease risk profile than do apparently healthy omnivores. Plasma AA may act a useful marker of overall health status.

  15. Effects of high performance inulin supplementation on glycemic control and antioxidant status in women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Dehghan, Parvin; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar; Asghari Jafar-Abadi, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of high performance inulin supplementation on blood glycemic control and antioxidant status in women with type 2 diabetes. In a randomized, triple-blind controlled trial, 49 females (fiber intake <30 g/day, 25antioxidant status were determined at baseline and at the end of the study. At the end of the study period, there were significant decreases in fasting plasma glucose (8.47%), glycosylated hemoglobin (10.43%), and malondialdehyde (37.21%) levels and significant increases in total antioxidant capacity (18.82%) and superoxide dismutase activity (4.36%) in the inulin group when compared to the maltodextrin group (P<0.05). Changes in fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and catalase activity were not significant in the inulin group when compared with the maltodextrin group. Glutathione peroxidase activity remained unchanged in both groups. Inulin supplementation may improve some glycemic and antioxidant indices and decrease malondialdehyde levels in women with type 2 diabetes. Further investigations are needed in order to confirm the positive effects that inulin may have on the glycemic and antioxidant indices of patients with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Effects of High Performance Inulin Supplementation on Glycemic Control and Antioxidant Status in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar; Asghari Jafar-abadi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of high performance inulin supplementation on blood glycemic control and antioxidant status in women with type 2 diabetes. Methods In a randomized, triple-blind controlled trial, 49 females (fiber intake <30 g/day, 25antioxidant status were determined at baseline and at the end of the study. Results At the end of the study period, there were significant decreases in fasting plasma glucose (8.47%), glycosylated hemoglobin (10.43%), and malondialdehyde (37.21%) levels and significant increases in total antioxidant capacity (18.82%) and superoxide dismutase activity (4.36%) in the inulin group when compared to the maltodextrin group (P<0.05). Changes in fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and catalase activity were not significant in the inulin group when compared with the maltodextrin group. Glutathione peroxidase activity remained unchanged in both groups. Conclusion Inulin supplementation may improve some glycemic and antioxidant indices and decrease malondialdehyde levels in women with type 2 diabetes. Further investigations are needed in order to confirm the positive effects that inulin may have on the glycemic and antioxidant indices of patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23641355

  17. Prenatal exposure to residential air pollution and infant mental development: modulation by antioxidants and detoxification factors.

    PubMed

    Guxens, Mònica; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Mendez, Michelle A; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution effects on children's neurodevelopment have recently been suggested to occur most likely through the oxidative stress pathway. We aimed to assess whether prenatal exposure to residential air pollution is associated with impaired infant mental development, and whether antioxidant/detoxification factors modulate this association. In the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA; Environment and Childhood) Project, 2,644 pregnant women were recruited during their first trimester. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene were measured with passive samplers covering the study areas. Land use regression models were developed for each pollutant to predict average outdoor air pollution levels for the entire pregnancy at each residential address. Maternal diet was obtained at first trimester through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Around 14 months, infant mental development was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Among the 1,889 children included in the analysis, mean exposure during pregnancy was 29.0 μg/m3 for NO2 and 1.5 μg/m3 for benzene. Exposure to NO2 and benzene showed an inverse association with mental development, although not statistically significant, after adjusting for potential confounders [β (95% confidence interval) = -0.95 (-3.90, 1.89) and -1.57 (-3.69, 0.56), respectively, for a doubling of each compound]. Stronger inverse associations were estimated for both pollutants among infants whose mothers reported low intakes of fruits/vegetables during pregnancy [-4.13 (-7.06, -1.21) and -4.37 (-6.89, -1.86) for NO2 and benzene, respectively], with little evidence of associations in the high-intake group (interaction p-values of 0.073 and 0.047). Inverse associations were also stronger in non-breast-fed infants and infants with low maternal vitamin D, but effect estimates and interactions were not significant. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to residential air pollutants may adversely affect infant mental

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Residential Air Pollution and Infant Mental Development: Modulation by Antioxidants and Detoxification Factors

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Mendez, Michelle A.; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Air pollution effects on children’s neurodevelopment have recently been suggested to occur most likely through the oxidative stress pathway. Objective: We aimed to assess whether prenatal exposure to residential air pollution is associated with impaired infant mental development, and whether antioxidant/detoxification factors modulate this association. Methods: In the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA; Environment and Childhood) Project, 2,644 pregnant women were recruited during their first trimester. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene were measured with passive samplers covering the study areas. Land use regression models were developed for each pollutant to predict average outdoor air pollution levels for the entire pregnancy at each residential address. Maternal diet was obtained at first trimester through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Around 14 months, infant mental development was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Results: Among the 1,889 children included in the analysis, mean exposure during pregnancy was 29.0 μg/m3 for NO2 and 1.5 μg/m3 for benzene. Exposure to NO2 and benzene showed an inverse association with mental development, although not statistically significant, after adjusting for potential confounders [β (95% confidence interval) = –0.95 (–3.90, 1.89) and –1.57 (–3.69, 0.56), respectively, for a doubling of each compound]. Stronger inverse associations were estimated for both pollutants among infants whose mothers reported low intakes of fruits/vegetables during pregnancy [–4.13 (–7.06, –1.21) and –4.37 (–6.89, –1.86) for NO2 and benzene, respectively], with little evidence of associations in the high-intake group (interaction p-values of 0.073 and 0.047). Inverse associations were also stronger in non-breast-fed infants and infants with low maternal vitamin D, but effect estimates and interactions were not significant. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that prenatal

  19. Blood antioxidant status in road cyclists during progressive (VO2max) and constant cyclist intensity test (MLSS).

    PubMed

    Michalczyk, M; Poprzęcki, S; Czuba, M; Zydek, G; Jagsz, S; Sadowska-Krępa, E; Zając, A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two different cycling intensities on the blood antioxidant status in seven road cyclists male (M) (age 25.6±4.9 years; height 1.8±0.0 m; body mass 72.4±3.4 kg, and VO2max 66.8±8.9 mL*kg-1*min-1) and six road cyclists females (F) (age 26.5±2.5 years; height 1.67 ±0.01 m; body mass 56.5±5.3 kg; and VO2max 57.2±4.1 mL*kg-1*min-1). The experiment was carried out with two tests: a progressive test (VO2max) (TP), and a 30-minute submaximal steady state test (TMLSS). The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and creatine kinase, and the concentration of uric acid, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA), blood lactate as well as total antioxidant potential, were assayed. Exercise significantly differentiated the activity and level of antioxidants. In both tests, after exercise a significant increase of CAT (P≤0.05) and CK (P≤0.05) activity was observed, as well as MDA (P≤0.05) level. It was demonstrated that neither the type of test (TP, TMLSS) nor the sex of the subjects exerted significant influence upon the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the level of low molecular weight antioxidants. Due to the workload in road cycling, where an average race or stage lasts a few hours, the 30-minute test was probably too weak a stimulus for the organism to disturb the pro- and antioxidative homeostasis.

  20. Opposing effects of oxidative challenge and carotenoids on antioxidant status and condition-dependent sexual signalling

    PubMed Central

    Tomášek, Oldřich; Gabrielová, Barbora; Kačer, Petr; Maršík, Petr; Svobodová, Jana; Syslová, Kamila; Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Several recent hypotheses consider oxidative stress to be a primary constraint ensuring honesty of condition-dependent carotenoid-based signalling. The key testable difference between these hypotheses is the assumed importance of carotenoids for redox homeostasis, with carotenoids being either antioxidant, pro-oxidant or unimportant. We tested the role of carotenoids in redox balance and sexual signalling by exposing adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to oxidative challenge (diquat dibromide) and manipulating carotenoid intake. As the current controversy over the importance of carotenoids as antioxidants could stem from the hydrophilic basis of commonly-used antioxidant assays, we used the novel measure of in vivo lipophilic antioxidant capacity. Oxidative challenge reduced beak pigmentation but elicited an increase in antioxidant capacity suggesting resource reallocation from signalling to redox homeostasis. Carotenoids counteracted the effect of oxidative challenge on lipophilic (but not hydrophilic) antioxidant capacity, thereby supporting carotenoid antioxidant function in vivo. This is inconsistent with hypotheses proposing that signalling honesty is maintained through either ROS-induced carotenoid degradation or the pro-oxidant effect of high levels of carotenoid-cleavage products acting as a physiological handicap. Our data further suggest that assessment of lipophilic antioxidant capacity is necessary to fully understand the role of redox processes in ecology and evolution. PMID:27000655

  1. Antioxidant Status in the Serum of Persons with Intellectual Disability and Hypothyroidism: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmeli, Eli; Bachar, Assad; Barchad, Shemuel; Morad, Mohammed; Merrick, Joav

    2008-01-01

    Hypothyroidism (HPO) in humans is widely believed to impair health. The biochemical factors mediating decline in health, however, are poorly elucidated. Pathological consequences of HPO point to a high potential for antioxidant imbalance. The objectives of this study were to investigate the major antioxidants in persons with intellectual…

  2. Antioxidant Status in the Serum of Persons with Intellectual Disability and Hypothyroidism: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmeli, Eli; Bachar, Assad; Barchad, Shemuel; Morad, Mohammed; Merrick, Joav

    2008-01-01

    Hypothyroidism (HPO) in humans is widely believed to impair health. The biochemical factors mediating decline in health, however, are poorly elucidated. Pathological consequences of HPO point to a high potential for antioxidant imbalance. The objectives of this study were to investigate the major antioxidants in persons with intellectual…

  3. Opposing effects of oxidative challenge and carotenoids on antioxidant status and condition-dependent sexual signalling.

    PubMed

    Tomášek, Oldřich; Gabrielová, Barbora; Kačer, Petr; Maršík, Petr; Svobodová, Jana; Syslová, Kamila; Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2016-03-22

    Several recent hypotheses consider oxidative stress to be a primary constraint ensuring honesty of condition-dependent carotenoid-based signalling. The key testable difference between these hypotheses is the assumed importance of carotenoids for redox homeostasis, with carotenoids being either antioxidant, pro-oxidant or unimportant. We tested the role of carotenoids in redox balance and sexual signalling by exposing adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to oxidative challenge (diquat dibromide) and manipulating carotenoid intake. As the current controversy over the importance of carotenoids as antioxidants could stem from the hydrophilic basis of commonly-used antioxidant assays, we used the novel measure of in vivo lipophilic antioxidant capacity. Oxidative challenge reduced beak pigmentation but elicited an increase in antioxidant capacity suggesting resource reallocation from signalling to redox homeostasis. Carotenoids counteracted the effect of oxidative challenge on lipophilic (but not hydrophilic) antioxidant capacity, thereby supporting carotenoid antioxidant function in vivo. This is inconsistent with hypotheses proposing that signalling honesty is maintained through either ROS-induced carotenoid degradation or the pro-oxidant effect of high levels of carotenoid-cleavage products acting as a physiological handicap. Our data further suggest that assessment of lipophilic antioxidant capacity is necessary to fully understand the role of redox processes in ecology and evolution.

  4. Biochemical effects of lead exposure on oxidative stress and antioxidant status of battery manufacturing workers of Western Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Ghanwat, Ganesh Haribhau; Patil, Arun Jalindar; Patil, Jyotsna A; Kshirsagar, Mandakini S; Sontakke, Ajit; Ayachit, Ram Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Lead induces oxidative stress and alters the antioxidant status of population exposed to high lead levels, i.e. battery manufacturing workers. The aim of this study was to know the current scenario of blood lead (PbB) levels and their effect on the oxidative stress parameter, i.e. serum lipid peroxide (LP), and antioxidant parameters, such as red blood cell (RBC)-superoxide dismutase (SOD), RBC-catalase (CAT), plasma ceruloplasmin (CP), and serum nitrite, of battery manufacturing workers. Forty-three battery manufacturing workers from Western Maharashtra, India, with ages between 19 and 42 years, were selected as study group and compared with 38 age-matched, healthy male subjects (control group). From both group subjects, 10 mL of blood sample was drawn by puncturing the antecubital vein, and PbB, serum LP, RBC-SOD, RBC-CAT, plasma CP, and serum nitrite were estimated using standard methods. The PbB levels of the battery manufacturing workers were significantly higher (p<0.001, 1050%) as compared with the control subjects. The serum LP levels were significantly increased (p<0.001, 96.86%); all antioxidant status parameters such as RBC-SOD (p<0.001, -26.32%), RBC-CAT (p<0.001, -51.57%), and plasma CP (p<0.001, -35.13%) were significantly decreased; and serum nitrite levels (p<0.001, 154%) were significantly increased in the battery manufacturing workers as compared with the control subjects. Despite modern techniques used to reduce lead exposure in battery manufacturing workers, PbB levels remain high, inducing oxidative stress and altering the antioxidant status of battery manufacturing workers.

  5. Vitamin E-coated polysulfone membrane improved red blood cell antioxidant status in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Jaussent, Isabelle; Chalabi, Lotfi; Bories, Pierre; Dion, Jean-Jacques; Henri, Patrick; Delage, Martine; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Badiou, Stéphanie; Canaud, Bernard; Morena, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress has emerged as a strong pathogenic cofactor implicated in the development of long-term complications in hemodialysis (HD) patients, such as anemia, and as a major component of the malnutrition inflammation complex syndrome. This prospective multicenter study aimed at evaluating the short-term effects of the new vitamin E (vitE)-coated polysulfone (PS) membrane (VitabranE) on biocompatibility performances and anemia in HD patients. After a 3-month washout period with a high-flux synthetic dialyzer, 43 HD patients were switched to a vitE-PS dialyzer. Sampling was performed at baseline (corresponding to the end of the washout period) and after 1, 2 and 3 months of treatment. Oxidative stress status, as well as inflammatory parameters, was investigated at the end of each study period. Hemoglobin levels and administered doses of recombinant human erythropoietin or epoetin (EPO) were available in each center. The use of vitE-coated membranes for 3 months was not associated with any change in inflammatory parameters. By contrast, vitE-PS dialyzer resulted in a progressive increase in red blood cell (RBC) vitE concentration and in RBC superoxide dismutase activity. A concomitant progressive significant decrease in advanced oxidation protein product concentration at 2 months was observed, suggesting a preventive effect on oxidative stress. Finally, a significant decrease of the erythropoietin resistance index was obtained after 3 months of treatment. Use of the vitE-PS membrane during a short period improves erythrocyte antioxidant defense mechanisms and seems to lead to a reduction in EPO requirements in HD patients.

  6. Induced lipid peroxidation in ram sperm: semen profile, DNA fragmentation and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Thais Rose dos Santos; de Castro, Letícia Signori; Delgado, Juliana de Carvalho; de Assis, Patrícia Monken; Siqueira, Adriano Felipe Perez; Mendes, Camilla Mota; Goissis, Marcelo Demarchi; Muiño-Blanco, Teresa; Cebrián-Pérez, José Álvaro; Nichi, Marcílio; Visintin, José Antonio; D'Ávila Assumpção, Mayra Elena Ortiz

    2016-04-01

    Action of reactive oxygen species, protamination failures and apoptosis are considered the most important etiologies of sperm DNA fragmentation. This study evaluated the effects of induced lipid peroxidation susceptibility on native semen profile and identified the mechanisms involved in sperm DNA fragmentation and testicular antioxidant defense on Santa Ines ram sperm samples. Semen was collected from 12 adult rams (Ovis aries) performed weekly over a 9-week period. Sperm analysis (motility, mass motility, abnormalities, membrane and acrosome status, mitochondrial potential, DNA fragmentation, lipid peroxidation and intracellular free radicals production); protamine deficiency; PRM1, TNP1 and TNP2 gene expression; and determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase activity and immunodetection in seminal plasma were performed. Samples were distributed into four groups according to the sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation after induction with ascorbate and ferrous sulfate (low, medium, high and very high). The results were analyzed by GLM test and post hoc least significant difference. We observed an increase in native GPx activity and CAT immunodetection in groups with high susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. We also found an increase in total sperm defects, acrosome and membrane damages in the group with the highest susceptibility to induced lipid peroxidation. Additionally, the low mitochondrial membrane potential, susceptible to chromatin fragmentation and the PRM1 mRNA were increased in the group showing higher susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Ram sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation may compromise sperm quality and interfere with the oxidative homeostasis by oxidative stress, which may be the main cause of chromatin damage in ram sperm. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  7. Evaluation of total oxidative status and total antioxidant capacity in patients with endemic fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Varol, Ercan; Icli, Atilla; Aksoy, Fatih; Bas, Hasan Aydin; Sutcu, Recep; Ersoy, Ismail Hakki; Varol, Simge; Ozaydin, Mehmet

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the plasma total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in patients with endemic fluorosis. A total of 79 (35 males and 44 females; mean age 44.0 ± 11.9 years) patients with endemic fluorosis and 55 (23 males and 32 females; mean age 48.3 ± 8.5 years) age-, sex- and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in this study. The urine fluoride levels and plasma TOS and TAC levels were measured. The urine fluoride levels of fluorosis patients were significantly higher than control subjects as expected (1.91 ± 0.15 vs. 0.49 ± 0.13 mg/L, respectively; p < 0.001). TOS was significantly higher in fluorosis group than in control group (17.55 ± 3.82 vs. 15.06 ± 4.31 μmol H(2)O(2) Eq/L, respectively; p = 0.001). TAC was significantly lower in fluorosis group than in control group (1.60 ± 0.36 vs. 1.82 ± 0.51 mmol Trolox Eq/L, respectively; p = 0.004). Oxidative stress index (OSI) was significantly higher in fluorosis group than in control group (11.5 ± 3.8 vs. 8.8 ± 3.7, respectively; p < 0.001). Correlation analysis in all the groups indicated that TAC was negatively correlated with urine fluoride (r = -0.25, p = 0.003), TOS was positively correlated with urine fluoride (r = 0.34, p < 0.001) and OSI was positively correlated with urine fluoride (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). The results of our study demonstrate that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the endemic fluorosis.

  8. Antioxidant status and selected biochemical parameters of porcine ovarian granulosa cells exposed to lead in vitro.

    PubMed

    Capcarová, Marcela; Kolesárová, Adriana; Lukác, Norbert; Sirotkin, Alexander; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS) and release of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total lipids, totals proteins, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides by porcine ovarian granulosa cells cultured in vitro after lead acetate administration. The parameters were analyzed using semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer Microlab 300, microprocessor-controlled analyzer EasyLite and spectrophotometer Genesys 10. Cells were cultured with lead acetate trihydrate [Pb(CH(3)COO)(2).3H(2)O] as follows: group Max (5 mg Pb(CH(3)COO)(2).3H(2)O/10 mL), group A (2.5 mg/10 mL), group B (0.83 mg/10 mL), group C (0.625 mg/10 mL), group D (0.455 mg/10 mL) and the control group without lead exposure for 18 hrs. The highest TAS was estimated in the control group without lead treatment in comparison with other groups (MAX, A, B, C, D). Statistical analyses showed significantly lower value (P < 0.05) in group B. The activity of SOD was the lowest in the control group in comparison to those exposed to in vitro lead culture. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) of calcium content in group MAX in comparison with control group was determined. Release of phosphorus by ovarian granulosa cells was significantly lower (P < 0.05; 0.01; 0.001) in all the treated groups in comparison with control group. Lead was found to stimulate the release of magnesium and potassium by granulosa cells, but the increase remained statistically insignificant. The highest concentration of glucose was noted in control group, but the differences were not significant either. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were detected in concentration of other studied parameters among observed groups, too.

  9. Lactulose increases equol production and improves liver antioxidant status in barrows treated with Daidzein.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weijiang; Hou, Yanjun; Yao, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Equol, one of the intestinal microflora metabolites of daidzein, has gained much attention for having greater bioactivity than its precursor (daidzein and daidzin) and seeming to be promoted by hydrogen gas. The effects of lactulose on the equol-producing capacity and liver antioxidant status of barrows treated with daidzein were investigated in this study. Male castrated piglets (barrows) of Landrace × Duroc, aged 40 days, were randomly divided into the following three groups: control group (C, n = 12, fed an isoflavones-free basic diet), daidzein group (D, n = 12, fed an isoflavones-free basic diet with 50 mg/kg of daidzein supplementation) and daidzein+lactulose group (D+L, n = 12, fed an isoflavones-free basic diet with 1% of lactulose and 50 mg/kg of daidzein supplementation). After 20 days, the profile of short-chain fatty acids in the colon digesta showed that lactulose significantly increased the fermented capacity in the gastrointestinal tract of the barrows. First-void urinary equol concentrations were significantly higher in the D+L group than in the D group (3.13 ± 0.93 compared to 2.11 ± 0.82 μg/ml, respectively). Furthermore, fecal equol levels were also significantly higher in the D+L group than in the D group (12.00 ± 2.68 compared to 10.00 ± 2.26 μg/g, respectively). The population of bacteroidetes and the percentage of bacteroidetes to bacteria in feces were higher in the D+L group than in the D group. The DGGE profiles results indicate that lactulose might shift the pathways of hydrogen utilization, and changing the profiles of SRB in feces. Moreover, the D+L group had weak enhancement of T-SOD and CuZn-SOD activities in the livers of barrows treated with daidzein.

  10. Lactulose Increases Equol Production and Improves Liver Antioxidant Status in Barrows Treated with Daidzein

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weijiang; Hou, Yanjun; Yao, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Equol, one of the intestinal microflora metabolites of daidzein, has gained much attention for having greater bioactivity than its precursor (daidzein and daidzin) and seeming to be promoted by hydrogen gas. The effects of lactulose on the equol-producing capacity and liver antioxidant status of barrows treated with daidzein were investigated in this study. Male castrated piglets (barrows) of Landrace×Duroc, aged 40 days, were randomly divided into the following three groups: control group (C, n = 12, fed an isoflavones-free basic diet), daidzein group (D, n = 12, fed an isoflavones-free basic diet with 50 mg/kg of daidzein supplementation) and daidzein+lactulose group (D+L, n = 12, fed an isoflavones-free basic diet with 1% of lactulose and 50 mg/kg of daidzein supplementation). After 20 days, the profile of short-chain fatty acids in the colon digesta showed that lactulose significantly increased the fermented capacity in the gastrointestinal tract of the barrows. First-void urinary equol concentrations were significantly higher in the D+L group than in the D group (3.13±0.93 compared to 2.11±0.82 μg/ml, respectively). Furthermore, fecal equol levels were also significantly higher in the D+L group than in the D group (12.00±2.68 compared to 10.00±2.26 μg/g, respectively). The population of bacteroidetes and the percentage of bacteroidetes to bacteria in feces were higher in the D+L group than in the D group. The DGGE profiles results indicate that lactulose might shift the pathways of hydrogen utilization, and changing the profiles of SRB in feces. Moreover, the D+L group had weak enhancement of T-SOD and CuZn-SOD activities in the livers of barrows treated with daidzein. PMID:24667812

  11. Comparative study on Allium schoenoprasum cultivated plant and Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Stajner, D; Popović, B M; Calić-Dragosavac, D; Malenčić, D; Zdravković-Korać, S

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to examine Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant and scavenging activity and to make a comparison between Allium schoenoprasum cultivated plant and Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs antioxidant activity. This study reports the results on the root, stalk and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase), reduced glutathione quantity, flavonoids and soluble protein contents and quantities of malonyldialdehyde and ·OH radical. In Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture organs the total antioxidant capacity was determined by the FRAP method and scavenger activity by the DPPH method. The present results indicated that the crude extract of Allium schoenoprasum tissue culture exhibited antioxidant and scavenging abilities in all investigated plant parts, especially in the roots. According to our results, the tissue culture plants exhibited the highest activities in the roots in contrast to the cultivated plants where highest activities were observed in the leaves.

  12. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  13. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian-Bo; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  14. α-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase and Glutamate Dehydrogenase Work in Tandem To Modulate the Antioxidant α-Ketoglutarate during Oxidative Stress in Pseudomonas fluorescens▿

    PubMed Central

    Mailloux, Ryan J.; Singh, Ranji; Brewer, Guy; Auger, Christopher; Lemire, Joseph; Appanna, Vasu D.

    2009-01-01

    α-Ketoglutarate (KG) is a crucial metabolite in all living organisms, as it participates in a variety of biochemical processes. We have previously shown that this keto acid is an antioxidant and plays a key role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In an effort to further confirm this intriguing phenomenon, Pseudomonas fluorescens was exposed to menadione-containing media, with various amino acids as the sources of nitrogen. Here, we demonstrate that KG dehydrogenase (KGDH) and NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) work in tandem to modulate KG homeostasis. While KGDH was sharply decreased in cells challenged with menadione, GDH was markedly increased in cultures containing arginine (Arg), glutamate (Glu), and proline (Pro). When ammonium (NH4) was utilized as the nitrogen source, both KGDH and GDH levels were diminished. These enzymatic profiles were reversed when control cells were incubated in menadione media. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and high-performance liquid chromatography studies revealed how KG was utilized to eliminate ROS with the concomitant formation of succinate. The accumulation of KG in the menadione-treated cells was dependent on the redox status of the lipoic acid residue in KGDH. Indeed, the treatment of cellular extracts from the menadione-exposed cells with dithiothreitol, a reducing agent, partially restored the activity of KGDH. Taken together, these data reveal that KG is pivotal to the antioxidative defense strategy of P. fluorescens and also point to the ROS-sensing role for KGDH. PMID:19376872

  15. Adherence to cancer prevention recommendations and antioxidant and inflammatory status in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yukiko; Beckford, Fanchon; Cooney, Robert V; Franke, Adrian A; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2015-07-14

    For cancer prevention, the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) emphasise recommendations to improve individual behaviour, including avoidance of tobacco products, maintaining a lean body mass, participating in physical activity, consuming a plant-based diet, and minimising the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as sodas, red and processed meats and alcohol. In the present study of 275 healthy premenopausal women, we explored the association of adherence scores with levels of three biomarkers of antioxidant and inflammation status: serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum γ-tocopherol and urinary F2-isoprostane. The statistical analysis applied linear regression across categories of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations. Overall, seventy-two women were classified as low ( ≤ 4), 150 as moderate (5-6), and fifty-three as high adherers ( ≥ 7). The unadjusted means for CRP were 2.7, 2.0 and 1.7 mg/l for low, moderate and high adherers (P trend= 0.03); this association was strengthened after adjustment for confounders (P trend= 0.006). The respective values for serum γ-tocopherol were 1.97, 1.63 and 1.45 μg/ml (P trend= 0.02 before and P trend= 0.03 after adjustment). Only for urinary F2-isoprostane, the lower values in high adherers (16.0, 14.5, and 13.3 ng/ml) did not reach statistical significance (P trend= 0.18). In an analysis by BMI, overweight and obese women had higher biomarker levels than normal weight women; the trend was significant for CRP (P trend< 0.001) and γ-tocopherol (P trend= 0.003) but not for F2-isoprostane (P trend= 0.14). These findings suggest that both adherence to the WCRF/AICR guidelines and normal BMI status are associated with lower levels of biomarkers that indicate oxidative stress and inflammation.

  16. Effects of anthocyanin-rich purple potato flakes on antioxidant status in F344 rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Matsumoto, Asami; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Sekikawa, Mitsuo; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2007-11-01

    We examined the antioxidant effects of polyphenol/anthocyanin-rich potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Shadow-Queen) flakes in male rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The rats were served either a high-cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol plus 0.125% sodium cholate) diet, or a high-cholesterol diet containing a mixture of 243 g alpha-maize starch/kg supplemented with one of the following (per kg diet): 300 g medium purple potato (Shadow-Queen), 300 g white potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Toyoshiro) or 300 g dark purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cv. Ayamurasaki) flakes for 28 d. We analysed thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels in the serum and liver, and antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver. At this dosage, TBARS levels in the serum and liver of the Shadow-Queen and Ayamurasaki groups were significantly lower than those in the control and Toyoshiro groups. The serum urate levels in all the flake groups were significantly lower than that in the control group. The hepatic glutathione levels in the Shadow-Queen and Ayamurasaki groups were significantly higher than in the control and Toyoshiro groups. The activities of hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase in the Shadow-Queen and Ayamurasaki groups were significantly greater than those in the control group. These results show that modulation of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative status in the serum and liver by the purple potato flake diet (Shadow-Queen) containing polyphenols/anthocyanins may play an important role in the protection against adverse effects related to oxidative damage in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

  17. Effect of hemodialysis on total antioxidant status of chronic renal failure patients in government hospitals in Lagos Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajala, M O; Ogunro, P S; Odun, Alli

    2011-01-01

    Renal failure is accompanied by oxidative stress, which is caused by enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant defense. To assess the effect of hemodialysis (by cellulose membrane dialyzer) on plasma total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation of patients in chronic renal failure before and after dialysis. The finding would serve as guide to administration or otherwise of supplementary therapeutic antioxidant before or after hemodialysis. Also, it will assist in the choice of antioxidant impregnated over the conventional non-impregnated dialyzer membrane. Twenty-five patients (14 men and 11 women, aged 24-75 years; median 61) with end-stage renal failure who were undergoing hemodialysis for the first time were recruited. Plasma level of potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, total antioxidant status (TAS), and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were measured, before and after hemodialysis. The mean ± SD of plasma level of TAS (1.10 ± 0.3 mmol/L trolox Eq) for males and (1.09 ± 0.2 mmol/L trolox Eq) for females postdialysis were significantly reduced ( P < 0.05) in comparison with (1.72 ± 0.4 mmol/L trolox Eq) for males and (1.83 ± 0.7 mmol/L trolox Eq) for females predialysis, respectively. However, the mean ± SD plasma level of MDA (6.03 ± 0.4 nmol/ml) for males and (6.71 ± 0.7 nmol/ml) for females were significantly increased postdialysis ( P < 0.01) compared to predialysis (3.98 ± 0.8 nmol/ml) for males and (4.05 ± 0.9 nmol/ml) for females, respectively. Based on the outcome of this study, it is suggested that antioxidant-impregnated dialysis membranes and/or exogenous supplementary antioxidant would be beneficial to patients with chronic renal failure. Removal of reactive oxygen species could improve the health and general quality of life of uremic patients.

  18. Extract of green tea leaves partially attenuates streptozotocin-induced changes in antioxidant status and gastrointestinal functioning in rats.

    PubMed

    Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Jurgoński, Adam; Brzuzan, Łucja; Godycka-Kłos, Irena; Zary-Sikorska, Ewa

    2008-05-01

    Rats with severe streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were subjected to dietary green tea extract supplementation at 2 doses (0.01% and 0.2%; GTL and GTH groups, respectively) to evaluate their effects on antioxidant, gastrointestinal, and renal parameters of experimental animals. The lower dietary supplementation reflects daily consumption of 3 cups of green tea for an average adult weighing 70 kg. Supplementation of a diet with green tea extract had no influence on elevated food intake, body weight loss, increased glucose concentration, or declined antioxidant capacity of water-soluble substances in plasma in the diabetic rats. In cases of intestinal maltase activity, attenuation of liver and kidney hypertrophy, triacylglycerol concentration, and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the serum, both dietary treatments normalized metabolic disorders caused by STZ injection to a similar extent. Unlike the GTL group, the GTH treatment significantly ameliorated development of diabetes-induced abnormal values for small intestinal saccharase and lactase activities, renal microalbuminuria, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content in kidney tissue, as well as total antioxidant status in the serum of rats. The GTH group was also characterized by higher antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble substances in plasma and superoxide dismutase activity in the serum. Although the higher dose of green tea extract did not completely protect against STZ-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in experimental rats, this study suggests that green tea extract ingested at high amounts may prove to be a useful therapeutic option in the reversal of diabetic dysfunction.

  19. Energy drinks and their component modulate attention, memory, and antioxidant defences in rats.

    PubMed

    Valle, M T Costa; Couto-Pereira, N S; Lampert, C; Arcego, D M; Toniazzo, A P; Limberger, R P; Dallegrave, E; Dalmaz, C; Arbo, M D; Leal, M B

    2017-08-12

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the subchronic consumption of energy drinks and their constituents (caffeine and taurine) in male Wistar rats using behavioural and oxidative measures. Energy drinks (ED 5, 7.5, and 10 mL/kg) or their constituents, caffeine (3.2 mg/kg) and taurine (40 mg/kg), either separately or in combination, were administered orally to animals for 28 days. Attention was measured though the ox-maze apparatus and the object recognition memory test. Following behavioural analyses, markers of oxidative stress, including SOD, CAT, GPx, thiol content, and free radicals, were measured in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. The latency time to find the first reward was lower in animals that received caffeine, taurine, or a combination of both (P = 0.003; ANOVA/Bonferroni). In addition, these animals took less time to complete the ox-maze task (P = 0.0001; ANOVA/Bonferroni), and had better short-term memory (P < 0.01, Kruskal-Wallis). The ED 10 group showed improvement in the attention task, but did not differ on other measures. In addition, there was an imbalance in enzymatic markers of oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, and the striatum. In the group that received both caffeine and taurine, there was a significant increase in the production of free radicals in the prefrontal cortex and in the hippocampus (P < 0.0001; ANOVA/Bonferroni). Exposure to a combination of caffeine and taurine improved memory and attention, and led to an imbalance in the antioxidant defence system. These results differed from those of the group that was exposed to the energy drink. This might be related to other components contained in the energy drink, such as vitamins and minerals, which may have altered the ability of caffeine and taurine to modulate memory and attention.

  20. Winter-swimming as a building-up body resistance factor inducing adaptive changes in the oxidant/antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Lubkowska, Anna; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Bryczkowska, Iwona; Stańczyk-Dunaj, Małgorzata; Sałata, Daria; Budkowska, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our research was to examine whether winter-swimming for five consecutive months results in adaptational changes improving tolerance to stress induced by exposure to cryogenic temperatures during whole-body cryostimulation (WBC). The research involved 15 healthy men, with normal bodyweight, who had never been subjected to either WBC or cold water immersion. During the experiment, the participants were twice subjected to WBC (3 min/- 130°C), namely before the winter-swimming season and after the season. Blood was taken seven times: In the morning before each cryostimulation, 30 min after each cryostimulation and the next morning. Additionally, control blood was collected in the middle of the winter season, in February. Our analysis concerned changes in hematological parameters as well as in reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione, total oxidant status, total antioxidant status and in components of the antioxidant system: Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and 8-Isoprostanes as a sensitive indicator of oxidative stress. We found significant changes in hemoglobin concentration, the number of red blood cells, the hematocrit index and mean corpuscular volume of red blood cell and the percentage of monocytes and granulocytes after the winter swimming season. The response to cryogenic temperatures was milder after five months of winter-swimming. The obtained results may indicate positive adaptive changes in the antioxidant system of healthy winter-swimmers. These changes seem to increase the readiness of the human body to stress factors.

  1. Blood biochemistry, thyroid hormones, and oxidant/antioxidant status of guinea pigs challenged with sodium arsenite or arsenic trioxide.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, Ranjan Kumar; Garg, Anil Kumar; Dass, Ram Sharan; Behera, Suvendu Kumar

    2014-08-01

    The present experiment aimed to compare the two most commonly used compounds of arsenic (sodium arsenite and arsenic trioxide) for their effect on blood metabolites, thyroid hormones, and oxidant/antioxidant status in guinea pigs. Twenty-one adult guinea pigs were randomly divided into three equal groups. Animals in group T1 (control) were fed a basal diet, whereas 50 ppm arsenic was added in the basal diet either as sodium arsenite (T2) or arsenic trioxide (T3) and fed for 11 weeks. Serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities were significantly increased along with a decrease in blood hemoglobin level in both the arsenic-administered groups. The level of erythrocytic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione reductase) was decreased and lipid peroxidation was elevated upon arsenic exposure. Serum thyroid hormone levels were reduced and arsenic levels in tissues increased in both the arsenic-exposed groups, irrespective of the arsenic compound. Thus, sodium arsenite and arsenic trioxide exerted similar adverse effects on blood metabolic profile, antioxidant status, and thyroid hormones in guinea pigs.

  2. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in children born small for gestational age: evidence of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Franco, Maria C P; Kawamoto, Elisa M; Gorjão, Renata; Rastelli, Viviani M F; Curi, Rui; Scavone, Cristoforo; Sawaya, Ana Lydia; Fortes, Zuleica Bruno; Sesso, Ricardo

    2007-08-01

    Children born small for gestational age are known to be at increased risk for adult diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Oxidative stress is a common feature of these pathogenic conditions and can be the key link between size at birth and increased morbidity later in life. The purpose of this study was to analyze the parameters of lipoperoxidation and changes in antioxidant defense system as well as assess their relationship to birth weight. Concentrations of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances and F2-isoprostanes, total antioxidant status, and the activity of both superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in 65 children (33 boys, 32 girls; ages 8-13 y). Thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances and F2-isoprostane levels were significantly elevated in children born small for gestational age. Nevertheless, superoxide dismutase activity was significantly elevated in these children and the levels of both glutathione peroxidase activity and total antioxidant status were unchanged. Moreover, we found that systolic blood pressure was positively associated with thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances levels in race- and gender-adjusted models but not in a multivariable regression model. In conclusion, the current study revealed that there is evidence of oxidative stress in children born small for gestational age as supported by increased lipid peroxidation.

  3. Selenium enrichment and anti-oxidant status in baker's yeast, saccharomyces cerevisiae at different sodium selenite concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kaur, T; Bansal, M P

    2006-01-01

    The use of selenized yeast as enriched selenium supplements in human nutrition has become a topic of increasing interest over the last decade. The present study was designed with the aim to achieve a balance between selenium (Se) incorporation and optimal growth of yeast cells along with effect of Se enrichment on antioxidant defense status of yeast cells. Since oxidative stress has been known to play a role in the life span of all types of cells, so in the present studies anti-oxidant defense status was evaluated in the Se- enriched baker's yeast cell culture model. Upon Se supplementation as sodium selenite at various concentrations in the growth medium, a continuous increase in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and Se content was observed. In case of reduced glutathione (GSH) decreasing trend were observed with increasing Se concentrations. An increasing trend in total glutathione as well as glutathione-s-transferase activity was observed at increasing Se concentrations. Thus, Se supplementation significantly enhanced GSH-Px levels along with alterations in other anti-oxidant enzymes, suggesting the role of Se in the enzyme defense system of yeast against oxidative damage. Further, as Se exerts growth inhibitory effect on cells, the growth inhibition study was carried out and decrease in biomass was observed with increasing concentrations of Se. Due to nutritional benefits, Se-enriched yeast may be considered a safe source of Se supplementation.

  4. Effect of thyme oil on small intestine integrity and antioxidant status, phagocytic activity and gastrointestinal microbiota in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Placha, Iveta; Chrastinova, Lubica; Laukova, Andrea; Cobanova, Klaudia; Takacova, Jana; Strompfova, Viola; Chrenkova, Maria; Formelova, Zuzana; Faix, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The effects of 0.5 g thyme oil per kg dry matter (DM) of diet on duodenal tissue integrity, antioxidant status, phagocytic activity and selected microbiota in the caecum and faeces of rabbits were studied. Twenty-four rabbits were divided into two groups and were fed a commercial granulated diet for growing rabbits (CD) with access to water ad libitum. The first group was fed the CD, while to the CD of the second group thyme oil was added. Intestinal integrity was tested by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Thyme oil significantly increased the value of total antioxidant status (TAS) in the blood plasma and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the liver, and it decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the duodenal tissue. Thyme oil resulted in strengthened intestinal integrity, as the essential oil supplementation significantly increased TEER values in the experiment. The faecal microbiota of rabbits was almost completely balanced in both groups, and only a slight decrease was found in the microbial population at day 42 of the trial. In both groups, the bacterial counts were generally lower in the caecum than in the faecal samples. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 0.5 g/kg DM thyme oil may improve intestinal integrity, and it may have an antioxidant effect. A tendency was also found for thyme oil to stimulate the abundance of some microbes beneficial in the rabbit gut.

  5. Chemistry and biology of reactive species with special reference to the antioxidative defence status in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, Sigurd

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious metabolic disease. Dysfunction and subsequent loss of the β-cells in the islets of Langerhans through apoptosis ultimately cause a life-threatening insulin deficiency. The underlying reason for the particular vulnerability of the β-cells is an extraordinary sensitivity to the toxicity of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) due to its low antioxidative defense status. This review considers the different aspects of the chemistry and biology of the biologically most important reactive species and their chemico-biological interactions in the β-cell toxicity of proinflammatory cytokines in type 1 diabetes and of lipotoxicity in type 2 diabetes development. The weak antioxidative defense equipment in the different subcellular organelles makes the β-cells particularly vulnerable and prone to mitochondrial, peroxisomal and ER stress. Looking upon the enzyme deficiencies which are responsible for the low antioxidative defense status of the pancreatic β-cells it is the lack of enzymatic capacity for H2O2 inactivation at all major subcellular sites. Diabetes is the most prevalent metabolic disorder with a steadily increasing incidence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes worldwide. The weak protection of the pancreatic β-cells against oxidative stress is a major reason for their particular vulnerability. Thus, careful protection of the β-cells is required for prevention of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antioxidant status, metabolic profile and immune response of lambs supplemented with tannin rich Ficus infectoria leaf meal.

    PubMed

    Dey, Avijit; Dutta, Narayan; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Kusumakar

    2015-02-01

    To study the effect of supplementation of tanniferous tree leaves Ficus infectoria on antioxidant status and immune response, twenty four lambs were randomly divided into four groups of six each in a completely randomized design and fed either a conventional supplement (CON) or experimental supplements (FILM-I, FILM-II and FILM-III) containing 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% condensed tannins (CT), respectively by replacement of wheat bran of supplement CON with Ficus infectoria leaf meal (FILM). Blood biochemical profile was monitored in all lambs at 0, 45, 90, 135, 180 days of feeding. Although haemato-biochemical parameters remained similar, there was significant (p < 0.05) improvement in catalase activity, total thiol and protein thiol groups with reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in lambs fed FILM diet irrespective of levels. However, intracellular status of reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase activity was improved (p < 0.05) only in FILM-II and FILM-III supplemented lambs. The cell-mediated immune response was significantly (p < 0.05) improved in all the lambs fed FILM supplemented diets. Improved antioxidant status and immunity in FILM supplemented lambs increased voluntary feed intake irrespective of level. However, the average daily gain for a period of 180 d showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase by the supplementation of FILM-II diet containing 1.5% CT. The present study reveals that the supplementation of Ficus infectoria leaf meal up to 21.2% in the concentrate mixture could improve the antioxidant status and immunity in lambs. However, as feed efficiency was reduced at higher levels due to presence of CT, 15.9% supplementation containing 1.5% condensed tannins in concentrate mixture is suggested to improve the health and production performance of lambs.

  7. Evaluation of oxidant and antioxidant status in term neonates: a plausible protective role of bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Shekeeb Shahab, M; Kumar, Praveen; Sharma, Neeraj; Narang, Anil; Prasad, Rajendra

    2008-10-01

    In vitro studies have shown unequivocally that bilirubin is an antioxidant. We hypothesized that bilirubin serves a physiological role of an antioxidant in vivo. To investigate the probable protective role of bilirubin in vivo, term babies with clinical jaundice were grouped into four categories-serum total bilirubin (STB) <160 mg/l, 160-200 mg/l, >200 mg/l, and kernicterus. Serum bilirubin, serum albumin, plasma glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), lipid peroxidation in blood cells, and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in whole blood were investigated. We also measured superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in hemolysate and total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC). Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower in babies with STB <200 mg/l compared to controls. TAC had a positive and MDA had a negative correlation with STB till 200 mg/l. However, TAC had a negative and MDA had a positive correlation with bilirubin >200 mg/l and in babies with bilirubin encephalopathy. Elevated levels of MDA, SOD, and catalase and significantly decreased levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were observed in STB >200 mg/l group. Antioxidant enzymes were also significantly inhibited in bilirubin encephalopathy babies. Post phototherapy, MDA production and antioxidant levels were significantly increased whilst total antioxidant capacity and reduced glutathione were significantly decreased compared to pre-phototherapy values. Exchange transfusion resulted in reduced oxidative stress in subjects with encephalopathy, whereas no significant difference was observed in other babies with STB >200 mg/l. Taken together, the present study propounds that bilirubin acts as a physiological antioxidant till 200 mg/l concentration in full-term normal neonates. It is conjectured that beyond 200 mg/l, it can no longer be considered physiologic. However, the cause of pathological jaundice needs to be identified and treated. The present data documents

  8. Iron (FeII) Chelation, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power, and Immune Modulating Potential of Arisaema jacquemontii (Himalayan Cobra Lily)

    PubMed Central

    Sudan, Rasleen; Bhagat, Madhulika; Singh, Jasvinder; Koul, Anupurna

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the antioxidant and immunomodulatory potential of ethnomedicinally valuable species, namely, Arisaema jacquemontii of north-western Himalayan region. The tubers, leaves, and fruits of this plant were subjected to extraction using different solvents. In vitro antioxidant studies were performed in terms of chelation power on ferrous ions and FRAP assay. The crude methanol extract of leaves was found to harbour better chelating capacity (58% at 100 μg/mL) and reducing power (FRAP value 1085.4 ± 0.11 μMFe3+/g dry wt.) than all the other extracts. The crude methanol extract was thus further partitioned with solvents to yield five fractions. Antioxidant study of fractions suggested that the methanol fraction possessed significant chelation capacity (49.7% at 100 μg/mL) and reducing power with FRAP value of 1435.4 μM/g dry wt. The fractions were also studied for immune modulating potential where it was observed that hexane fraction had significant suppressive effect on mitogen induced T-cell and B-cell proliferation and remarkable stimulating effect on humoral response by 141% and on DTH response by 168% in immune suppressed mice as compared to the controls. Therefore, it can be concluded that A. jacquemontii leaves hold considerable antioxidant and immunomodulating potential and they can be explored further for the identification of their chemical composition for a better understanding of their biological activities. PMID:24895548

  9. Effects of different levels of dietary selenium on the proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells and antioxidant status in testis of roosters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Zhao, Hui; Ren, Youshe; Yao, Xiaolei; Song, Ruigao; Yue, Wenbin

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the different levels of dietary Se (from sodium selenite) on the proliferation of SSCs (spermatogonial stem cells) in testis of roosters. Also, the antioxidant status and Se content in blood plasma and testis were evaluated. A total of eighty 12-week-old Hy-Line Variety white roosters at an averaged body weight of 1.38 ± 0.2 kg were selected and randomly divided into four experimental groups. They were fed with the basal diet (0.044 mgSe/kg DM) supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mgSe/kg DM (from sodium selenite). After the feeding experiment, blood and testis samples were collected for analysis of the antioxidant status and Se concentration. The testis samples were also used to examine the Thy-1 and β1-integrin mRNA expression by RT-PCR and detect the population of SSCs by immunofluorescence analysis. The results show that Se concentration in blood and testis of the animals was progressively increased with the increasing Se level in diet. The highest GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase) activity and lowest MDA content in blood and testis was obtained in the treatment of 0.5mg/kg. RT-PCR analysis showed that mRNA expression of SSCs markers were significantly lower in the control and 1.0mg/kg groups when compared with that in the treatment of 0.5mg/kg. A similar trend was observed in the population of SSCs analyzed by immunofluorescence assay. These data suggest that dietary Se can influence the population of SSCs of roosters during spermatogenesis and that oxidative stress can modulate SSCs behavior through regulating some key factors during spermatogenesis.

  10. Antioxidant status and levels of different vitamins determined by high performance liquid chromatography in diabetic subjects with multiple complications.

    PubMed

    Merzouk, S; Hichami, A; Madani, S; Merzouk, H; Berrouiguet, A Y; Prost, J; Moutairou, K; Chabane-Sari, N; Khan, N A

    2003-03-01

    Plasma vitamin A, C and E levels and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities were investigated in type I and type II diabetic subjects with and without complications, i.e., hypertension, coronary artery disease and renal failure. Reverse phase HPLC was used to quantify vitamin A and E levels. We observed that the vitamin C levels were not significantly different between control and diabetic subjects. However, vitamin A and E levels were significantly lower in type I and type II diabetic subjects compared to controls. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly lower in type II, but not in type I, diabetic patients compared to controls. Interestingly, glutathione reductase and peroxidase activities were diminished in type I, but not in type II, diabetic subjects as compared to controls. Catalase activity was lower in both types of diabetic patients in comparison with their respective controls. Altogether these results suggest that diabetes mellitus may be associated with altered antioxidant status regardless to various complications.

  11. Association of serum total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status with pain perception in patients with myofacial pain dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Etoz, Osman A; Ataoglu, Hanife; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Herken, Emine Nur; Bayazit, Yildirim Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to find out the association of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) with generalized pressure pain thresholds (PPT) of patients with myofacial pain dysfunction (MPD). PPT scores of patients with MPD (n = 37) and healthy individuals (n = 43) were measured on the hypothenar region of the hand using a mechanical algometer. Serum samples were collected and TAC and TOS were measured by novel methods. The TAC of patients was significantly lower than that of the control subjects. The difference between the TOS measurements of patients and control subjects was not significant. The PPT scores of the patients were significantly lower than that of control subjects. There may be an association between serum antioxidant capacity and MPD. Low serum TAC might also be related with pain perception.

  12. Impact of antiseptics on radical metabolism, antioxidant status and genotoxic stress in blood cells: povidone-iodine versus octenidine dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Jürss, Alice; Zarembach, Beate; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2004-08-01

    No sufficient data are available of the of antiseptics' influence on human blood cells. Effects of two antiseptics, povidone-iodine (PVD-I) versus octenidine dihydrochloride (OD), were tested on antioxidant status, radical formation, antioxidant defence enzymes and genotoxic stress in blood cells, in vitro. Human blood was taken by venipuncture, enriched with PVD-I or OD (0.0001-20% final concentration) and incubated at 37 degrees C between 30 and 120 min. alpha-Tocopherol was assessed in erythrocytes and granulocytes. Superoxide-dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were determined in erythrocytes, the total anti-oxidative capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in their ghosts. In granulocytes status of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide anions and MDA was observed. Genotoxic stress was determined by counting sister chromatide exchanges (SCE) in lymphocytes after enrichment within 0.05-0.4% of antiseptics. Based on all biomarker tested, concentrations up to 0.05% incubated for 30 min did not affect cell metabolism. 1% and 10% PVD-I reduced the activity of SOD (-40%), GSH (-62%) and the content of alpha-tocopherol more than OD (p<0.05). No significant differences between the antiseptics were observed for TAC and MDA. H(2)O(2) and superoxide anions were significantly reduced after the 10% addition for both substances independent on the exposure. Without having changes in lipid oxidation, the reduction of antioxidative defence mechanisms must be due to the oxidation caused by the antiseptics, mainly PVD-I. An increased SCE rate was neither observed with PVD-I nor with OD within an enrichment with 0.05-0.4%. Higher concentrations (1% and more) could not be tested on SCE formation because they caused cell bursts. The results presented indicate that concentrations up to 0.05% incubated for 30 min are safe for exposing blood cells of healthy subjects.

  13. Palm oil and ground nut oil supplementation effects on blood glucose and antioxidant status in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Adewale, Olabiyi Folorunso; Isaac, OlatunjiOlusola; Tunmise, Makinwa Temitope; Omoniyi, OguntibejuOluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two common cooking oils (palm oil, PO) and (groundnut oil, GO) supplementation on the antioxidant status and diabetic indices in Alloxan (100mg/kg) induced diabetic Wistar rats. A total of forty-eight Wistar rats of both sexes were used for this study. They were divided into four groups of 12 animals each as: control, diabetic non-supplemented, diabetic supplemented with PO (200mg/kg/day) and diabetic supplemented with GO (200mg/kg/day) rats. Blood glucose, plasma vitamin E, SOD, Total Protein and Albumin levels were measured using standard laboratory procedures. After three weeks of supplementation there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood glucose of supplemented groups compared with the diabetic non-supplemented group. Plasma Vitamins C and E, SOD, and Albumin levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the supplemented groups when compared with the diabetic non-supplemented group. However, the plasma levels of these parameters were found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in the GO supplemented rats compared with the PO supplemented group. The plasma vitamin C levels in the diabetic groups were lower than in other groups while increased levels in the plasma total protein were not significant. There was no significant difference in the measured parameters in reference to the gender of the animals. It was concluded from this study that GO exhibited superior antioxidant activities and that the supplementation of red palm oil and ground nut oil as a source of antioxidant was beneficial in diabetic state as it reduced blood glucose and enhance antioxidant status.

  14. Serum antioxidant enzymes activities and oxidative stress levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke: influence on neurological status and outcome.

    PubMed

    Milanlioglu, Aysel; Aslan, Mehmet; Ozkol, Halil; Çilingir, Vedat; Nuri Aydın, Mehmet; Karadas, Sevdegül

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress is well believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke. Reports on antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with stroke are conflicting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate serum antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative stress levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke within 1st, 5th, and 21st day after stroke onset and also the relationship between these results and the clinical status of patients. The current study comprised 45 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 30 healthy controls. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase activities were measured spectrophotometrically. Serum MDA levels were significantly higher in acute ischemic stroke patients within 24 h after stroke onset than controls (p < 0.05), whereas serum catalase activity was significantly lower (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in GSH-Px and SOD activities. Serum catalase and SOD activities were significantly lower in fifth day than those of controls (both, p < 0.05) but GSH-Px activity and MDA levels did not change (p > 0.05). Serum SOD activity was significantly lower in 21st day compared to SOD activity of controls (p < 0.05) but MDA levels, GSH-Px, and CAT activities did not change significantly. Our study demonstrated that acute ischemic stroke patients have increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant enzymes activities. These findings indicated that an imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant status might play a role in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke.

  15. Short-term high-intensity interval exercise training attenuates oxidative stress responses and improves antioxidant status in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Bogdanis, G C; Stavrinou, P; Fatouros, I G; Philippou, A; Chatzinikolaou, A; Draganidis, D; Ermidis, G; Maridaki, M

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the changes in oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant status indices caused by a 3-week high-intensity interval training (HIT) regimen. Eight physically active males performed three HIT sessions/week over 3 weeks. Each session included four to six 30-s bouts of high-intensity cycling separated by 4 min of recovery. Before training, acute exercise elevated protein carbonyls (PC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and creatine kinase (CK), which peaked 24h post-exercise (252 ± 30%, 135 ± 17%, 10 ± 2%, 85 ± 14% and 36 ± 13%, above baseline, respectively; p<0.01), while catalase activity (CAT) peaked 30 min post-exercise (56 ± 18% above baseline; p<0.01). Training attenuated the exercise-induced increase in oxidative stress markers (PC by 13.3 ± 3.7%; TBARS by 7.2 ± 2.7%, p<0.01) and CK activity, despite the fact that total work done was 10.9 ± 3.6% greater in the post- compared with the pre-training exercise test. Training also induced a marked elevation of antioxidant status indices (TAC by 38.4 ± 7.2%; CAT by 26.2 ± 10.1%; GPX by 3.0 ± 0.6%, p<0.01). Short-term HIT attenuates oxidative stress and up-regulates antioxidant activity after only nine training sessions totaling 22 min of high intensity exercise, further supporting its positive effect not only on physical conditioning but also on health promotion.

  16. Influence of green tea on erythrocytes antioxidant status of different age rats intoxicated with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Wojciech, Łuczaj; Ewa, Zapora; Elzbieta, Skrzydlewska

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of green tea on the erythrocyte antioxidant system of ethanol-intoxicated rats, as well as its efficacy in the prevention of lipid peroxidation. Rats (2, 12 and 24 months old) were fed on a control or an ethanol Lieber-DeCarli diet with and without green tea (7 g/L) for 5 weeks. Examination included the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the level of both non-enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation marker in rat erythrocytes. It was shown that ageing was accompanied by changes in the antioxidant enzymes activity - increase in the SOD and CAT activity and decrease in GSSG-R and GSH-Px activity, as well as in the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants - GSH, vitamin A and vitamin E. The increase in the level of lipid peroxidation marker - MDA - was also observed. Green tea consumption partially prevented lipid peroxidation process, especially in erythrocytes of 2- and 12-month-old rats. It was proved that ethanol administration caused a statistically significant decrease in the activity/level of the examined antioxidants in all age groups (the most significant in the case of 24-month-old rats) of rats, as well as an increase in the MDA level. However, ingestion of green tea by ethanol-intoxicated rats partially prevented the decrease in activity/level of all examined antioxidant parameters, as well as protected lipids against peroxidation in all age groups of rats. Obtained results confirm the beneficial effect of green tea on erythrocyte antioxidant abilities.

  17. Does green tea consumption improve the salivary antioxidant status of smokers?

    PubMed

    Azimi, Somayyeh; Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Daraei, Azam

    2017-06-01

    
Considering the higher rate of oral cancer, and reduction in salivary antioxidants in smokers as indicated in previous studies, antioxidant- containing nutrients such as green tea, seem to be beneficial in counteracting against oxidative stress in this group. This study assessed the salivary total antioxidant alteration in smokers compared to nonsmokers, after short-tem (7days) and long-term (3 weeks), green tea drinking. In this experimental study, 20 volunteer moderate-to-heavy male smokers, and 20 matched healthy non-smokers were selected to participate, according to the inclusion criteria. Participants were instructed to drink two cups of green tea per day, by dissolving 2g of green tea in 150ml of hot water for each cup. After saliva collection, antioxidant capacity of saliva was measured at baseline, after 7days, and after 21days. Statistical evaluation was done by SPSS 21, using paired samplet tests, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. 
 At day zero nonsmokers had a higher antioxidant capacity than smokers (686.6±62.22 vs. 338.8±59.9) mM/50μl, P<0.001. There was also a significant difference between two groups in salivary total antioxidant capacity after one week and three weeks of green tea consumption (P<0.001). However, there was an upward trend in both smokers and non-smokers over the study period (after tea drinking). In addition, a significant difference was found in total antioxidant capacity alteration in smokers compared to non-smokers from baseline to day 21. Results support the effectiveness of green tea consumption in salivary antioxidants enhancement in smokers, in both the short- and long term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in diabetic and hypertensive women during labor.

    PubMed

    Al-Shebly, Mashael M; Mansour, Mahmoud A

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is associated with a greater incidence of fetal abnormality. Animal studies suggested that increased free-radical production and antioxidant depletion may contribute to this risk. The objective of this work was to evaluate oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in hypertensive, diabetics, and healthy control women during labor. Simultaneous determination of antioxidant enzymes activities, namely glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSH-red), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant, and lipid peroxides measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels, were carried out in maternal plasma during labor. Plasma GSH-Px activity was found to be significantly increased as it doubled in hypertensive, and diabetic women when compared with healthy control women (P < 0.05). In contrast, plasma SOD activity was significantly decreased in both groups when compared to the control group (P < 0.05). No significant differences were detected in GSH-Red activity between diabetic, hypertensive and control groups. Alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities were accompanied by a significant increase in the levels of plasma lipid peroxides in hypertensive and diabetic women during labor. Plasma levels of total antioxidants were significantly increased in diabetic women as compared with the control group. Based on our results, it may be concluded that enhanced generation of oxidative stress causes alteration of antioxidant capacity in diabetic and hypertensive women during labor. Alterations in antioxidant and prooxidant components may result in various complications including peroxidation of vital body molecules which may be regarded as an increased risk factor for pregnant women as well as the fetus.

  19. Supplementing oregano essential oil to boar diet with strengthened fish oil: Effects on semen antioxidant status and semen quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Duan, R J; Zhou, Y F; Wei, H K; Peng, J; Li, J L

    2017-02-22

    Previous research has shown benefits of dietary fish oil supplementation on semen quality of boars. However, little is known about how antioxidant protects lipid peroxidation on spermatozoa from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) addition. This study evaluated the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) supplementation on semen antioxidant status and semen quality in boars fed a diet enriched with fish oil. Thirty-four mature boars of proven fertility, received daily 2.5 kg basal diet top-dressed with 45 g soybean oil and 15 g fish oil to meet the n-3 PUFA requirement of spermatozoa, randomly allocated to one of four groups supplemented with 100 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) (control), or 250 or 500 or 750 mg OEO kg(-1) for 16 weeks. Semen was collected at weeks 0, 8, 12 and 16 for measurements of sperm production, motion characteristics, sperm α-tocopherol content, antioxidant enzyme activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG), lipoperoxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and seminal total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Sperm production and motion characteristics were similar (p > .05) among groups throughout the experimental week 16, but increased (p < .01) with experimental week. Although higher α-tocopherol content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were in OEO group spermatozoa, feeding diet with 500 mg/kg OEO resulted in elevation in seminal TAC, decrease in sperm ROS, MDA and 8-OHdG than control group (p < .05). Overall, these results support the view that oregano essential oil has a positive effect on antioxidant capacity in boar when used fish oil.

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant status, oxidative stress and serum trace mineral levels associated with Babesia ovis parasitemia in sheep.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Tavassoli, Mousa; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Malekinejad, Hassan; Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Arjmand, Jafar; Golabi, Mostafa; Hajipour, Naser

    2014-09-15

    Ovine babesiosis is a fatal disease characterized by severe progressive hemolytic anemia. In order to clarify the causal mechanisms implicated in anemia, this study was aimed to assess the antioxidant status and erythrocyte oxidative stress in sheep suffering from ovine babesiosis. Babesia infection was confirmed both with Giemsa's staining blood smears and semi-nested PCR amplified region of 18S rRNA gene. Thirty-eight Iranian sheep, naturally infected with Babesia spp., were considered as the infected group and divided into four subgroups according to parasitemia rates (<1%, 1-2%, 2-3% and >3%), and the same number non-infected animals were selected as the control group. Blood samples were taken and hematological parameters, activities of antioxidant enzymes including erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), median corpuscular fragility (MCF), and serum concentrations of some trace minerals (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and selenium) were measured. In addition, as an index of lipid peroxidation, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured. The results revealed a significant decrease (P<0.01) in RBC count, packed cell volume (PCV) and Hb concentration as well as the activities of erythrocyte GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, G6PD, TAC, MCF and serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn and Se in the infected sheep. In contrast, significantly increased (P<0.01) levels of MDA and erythrocyte osmotic fragility as well as serum concentration of iron were recorded in the infected animals. Overall, the observed remarkable decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activities, median corpuscular fragility and substantial elevated levels of lipid peroxidation associated with the notable increase in parasitemia indicate high exposure of RBCs to oxidative damage in Babesia infected sheep. These results indicate that the disturbed antioxidant defense mechanisms in ovine

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis modulates antioxidant response in salt-stressed Trigonella foenum-graecum plants.

    PubMed

    Evelin, Heikham; Kapoor, Rupam

    2014-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of Glomus intraradices colonization on the activity of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (PX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR)] and the accumulation of nonenzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, glutathione, and carotenoids) in roots and leaves of fenugreek plants subjected to varying degrees of salinity (0, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) at two time intervals (1 and 14 days after saline treatment, DAT). The antioxidative capacity was correlated with oxidative damage in the same tissue. Under salt stress, lipid peroxidation and H2O2 concentration increased with increasing severity and duration of salt stress (DoS). However, the extent of oxidative damage in mycorrhizal plants was less compared to nonmycorrhizal plants. The study reveals that mycorrhiza-mediated attenuation of oxidative stress in fenugreek plants is due to enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes and higher concentrations of antioxidant molecules. However, the significant effect of G. intraradices colonization on individual antioxidant molecules and enzymes varied with plant tissue, salinity level, and DoS. The significant effect of G. intraradices colonization on antioxidative enzymes was more evident at 1DAT in both leaves and roots, while the concentrations of antioxidant molecules were significantly influenced at 14DAT. It is proposed that AM symbiosis can improve antioxidative defense systems of plants through higher SOD activity in M plants, facilitating rapid dismutation of O2 (-) to H2O2, and subsequent prevention of H2O2 build-up by higher activities of CAT, APX, and PX. The potential of G. intraradices to ameliorate oxidative stress generated in fenugreek plants by salinity was more evident at higher intensities of salt stress.

  2. Plasma and Dietary Antioxidant Status as Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Review of Human Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Chun, Ock K.; Song, Won O.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that many antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols have protective effects in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD), a chronic disease that is mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation. This review focuses on evidence from prospective cohort studies and clinical trials in regard to the associations between plasma/dietary antioxidants and cardiovascular events. Long-term, large-scale, population-based cohort studies have found that higher levels of serum albumin, bilirubin, glutathione, vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids were associated with a lower risk of CVD. Evidence from the cohort studies in regard to dietary antioxidants also supported the protective effects of dietary vitamin E, vitamin C, carotenoids, and polyphenols on CVD risk. However, results from large randomized controlled trials did not support long-term use of single antioxidant supplements for CVD prevention due to their null or even adverse effects on major cardiovascular events or cancer. Diet quality indexes that consider overall diet quality rather than single nutrients have been drawing increasing attention. Cohort studies and intervention studies that focused on diet patterns such as high total antioxidant capacity have documented protective effects on CVD risk. This review provides a perspective for future studies that investigate antioxidant intake and risk of CVD. PMID:23912327

  3. Antioxidants as a Preventive Treatment for Epileptic Process: A Review of the Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Martinc, Boštjan; Grabnar, Iztok; Vovk, Tomaž

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is known as one of the most frequent neurological diseases, characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Oxidative stress is believed to directly participate in pathways leading to neurodegeneration, which serves as the most important propagating factor, leading to the epileptic condition and cognitive decline. Moreover, there is also a growing body of evidence showing the disturbance of antioxidant system balance and consequently increased production of reactive species in patients with epilepsy. A meta-analysis, conducted in the present review confirms an association between epilepsy and increased lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, it was also shown that some of the antiepileptic drugs could potentially be responsible for additionally increased lipid peroxidation. Therefore, it is reasonable to propose that during the epileptic process neuroprotective treatment with antioxidants could lead to less sever structural damages, reduced epileptogenesis and milder cognitive deterioration. To evaluate this hypothesis studies investigating the neuroprotective therapeutic potential of various antioxidants in cells, animal seizure models and patients with epilepsy have been reviewed. Numerous beneficial effects of antioxidants on oxidative stress markers and in some cases also neuroprotective effects were observed in animal seizure models. However, despite these encouraging results, till now only a few antioxidants have been further applied to patients with epilepsy as an add-on therapy. Based on the several positive findings in animal models, a strong need for more carefully planned, randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled clinical trials for the evaluation of antioxidants efficacy in patients with epilepsy is warranted. PMID:25977679

  4. Repletion of antioxidant status by EGCG and retardation of oxidative damage induced macromolecular anomalies in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Senthil Kumaran, Vadivel; Arulmathi, Karpagavinayagam; Srividhya, Ravichandran; Kalaiselvi, Periandavan

    2008-03-01

    Ageing is defined as the loss of ability to maintain cellular homeostasis of an organism associated with the free radical-elicited oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the key component of green tea catechins on attenuating the age associated oxidative perturbances by assessing the redox status in mitotic (liver) and post-mitotic (skeletal muscle) tissues of young and aged rats. From the results, we observed an increase in the marker for oxidative damage such as lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content in aged rats, when compared to young rats. This was accompanied with decreased levels of both enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants and redox index. On supplementation with EGCG (100 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for 30 days), the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content were significantly decreased in aged rats, possibly by enhancing the GSH redox status, and both enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants status. In conclusion, this study supports the beneficial effect of EGCG in alleviating oxidative disturbances in ageing and retard the age associated derangements in both mitotic and post-mitotic tissues.

  5. Renal antioxidant enzymes and glutathione redox status in leptin-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Lowicka, Ewelina; Wojtak, Andrzej

    2008-12-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that leptin increases blood pressure (BP) in the rats through two oxidative stress-dependent mechanisms: stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) by H(2)O(2) and scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) by superoxide (O(2-.)). Herein, we examined if renal glutathione system and antioxidant enzymes determine the mechanism of prohypertensive effect of leptin. Leptin administered at 0.5 mg/kg/day for 4 or 8 days increased BP and renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and reduced fractional sodium excretion; these effects were prevented by NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. Superoxide scavenger, tempol, abolished the effect of leptin on BP and renal Na(+) pump in rats receiving leptin for 8 days, whereas ERK inhibitor, PD98059, was effective in animals treated with leptin for 4 days. Leptin administered for 4 days decreased glutathione (GSH) and increased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in the kidney. In animals receiving leptin for 8 days GSH returned to normal level, which was accompanied by up-regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), a rate-limiting enzyme of the GSH biosynthetic pathway. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was increased in rats receiving leptin for 8 days. Cotreatment with gamma-GCS inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), accelerated, whereas GSH precursor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), attenuated leptin-induced changes in gamma-GCS, SOD, and GPx. In addition, coadministration of BSO changed the mechanism of BP elevation from H(2)O(2)-ERK to (O(2-.))-NO dependent in animals receiving leptin for 4 days, whereas NAC had the opposite effect in rats treated with leptin for 8 days. These results suggest that initial change in GSH redox status induces decrease in SOD/GPx ratio, which results in greater amount of (O)2-.)) versus H(2)O(2) in later phase of leptin treatment, thus shifting the mechanism of BP elevation from H(2)O(2)-ERK to (O(2

  6. Specific antioxidant compounds differentially modulate cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin and cisplatin: in vitro and in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Panchuk, Rostyslav; Skorokhyd, Nadia; Chumak, Vira; Lehka, Lilya; Omelyanchik, Sofya; Gurinovich, Valery; Moiseenok, Andrey; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Stoika, Rostyslav

    2014-01-01

    Aim To use the antioxidant compounds (sodium selenite, selenomethionine, D-pantethine) for modulation of cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin and cisplatin toward wild type and drug-resistant mutants of several human tumor cells. Similar treatments were applied in vivo toward adult male Wistar rats. Methods Human tumor cells of different lines (HCT-116, Jurkat and HL-60) with various mechanisms of drug-resistance were treated with doxorubicin or cisplatin, alone or in combination with sodium selenite, selenomethionine, or D-pantethine. Cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and production of O2- radicals were measured. Activity of redox potential modulating enzymes was measured in the liver and blood plasma of adult male Wistar rats subjected to similar treatments. Results All antioxidants used in physiologically harmless concentration inhibited cytotoxic action of doxorubicin toward tumor cells sensitive to chemotherapy treatment by 15%-30%, and slightly enhanced cytotoxic effect of this medicine toward drug-resistant malignant cells. At the same time, there was no significant effect of these antioxidants on cisplatin action. Such effects were accompanied by a complete inhibition of production of superoxide radicals induced by doxorubicin. The results of in vivo study in adult male Wistar rats were in agreement with the results of in vitro study of human tumor cells. Conclusion Protective effect of specific antioxidant agents during cytotoxic action of doxorubicin was demonstrated in vitro in drug-sensitive human tumor cells and in adult male Wistar rats, while there was no protective effect in drug-resistant sub-lines of these tumor cells during action of doxorubicin and cisplatin. PMID:24891279

  7. Changes in serum lipids and antioxidant status in west Algerian patients with essential hypertension treated with acebutolol compared to healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Krouf, Djamil; Bouchenak, Malika; Mohammedi, Bachir; Cherrad, Allaoua; Belleville, Jacques L; Prost, Josiane L

    2003-08-01

    Hypertension is a major health problem in both developed and developing countries. It is hypothesized that high blood pressure is associated with loss of balance between peroxidation and antioxidant factors. 40 patients with essential hypertension were studied to ascertain the effects of a selective b1-blocker (acebutolol, 400 mg/day) on serum lipids, antioxidant status, antioxidant enzyme activity in red blood cells (RBC), and membrane fatty acids composition. Each subject was screened by physical examination, ECG, echocardiography, and laboratory tests. The period of observation was 24 weeks, and the data were tested by 2-way ANOVA followed by Bartlett's least significant difference test. At 12 weeks, serum triacylglycerol was more elevated (+26%). At 24 weeks, apolipoprotein A-1 levels remained more elevated (+41%) in hypertensive subjects compared to controls. In hypertensive patients, total antioxidant status and total plasma antioxidant capability were lower at 12 weeks than controls, and increased after 24 weeks of treatment. At 12 weeks, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities in erythrocytes remained lower in hypertensive subjects compared to controls (-32%, -40% and -24%, respectively). At 24 weeks, these values were increased compared to those obtained at 12 weeks (+26%, +36% and +37%, respectively). At 12 and 24-weeks, total n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were decreased by 26%, 18% and 29%, 25%, respectively. These findings demonstrate the beneficial influence of a beta1-blocker (acebutolol) at 24 weeks by its action on serum lipids, antioxidant status and RBC antioxidant enzyme activities.

  8. Dietary Zinc Oxide Modulates Antioxidant Capacity, Small Intestine Development, and Jejunal Gene Expression in Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cui; Lv, Hang; Chen, Zhuang; Wang, Li; Wu, Xiuju; Chen, Zhongjian; Zhang, Weina; Liang, Rui; Jiang, Zongyong

    2017-02-01

    RNA expression of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), but increased the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), in the jejunum mucosa of piglets, when compared to those in the control (P < 0.05). In summary, supplemental ZnO was effective on the prevention of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in weaned piglets and showed comparative growth-promoting effect on in-feed antibiotics, probably by the mechanism of improvement of the antioxidant capacity, restoration of intestinal barrier function and development, and modulation of immune functions.

  9. Modulation of antioxidant defense by Alpinia galanga and Curcuma aromatica extracts correlates with their inhibition of UVA-induced melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Panich, Uraiwan; Kongtaphan, Kamolratana; Onkoksoong, Tassanee; Jaemsak, Kannika; Phadungrakwittaya, Rattana; Thaworn, Athiwat; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Wongkajornsilp, Adisak

    2010-04-01

    Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is suggested to contribute to melanogenesis through promoting cellular oxidative stress and impairing antioxidant defenses. An overproduction of melanin can be associated with melanoma skin cancer and hyperpigmentation. Therefore, developing effective antimelanogenic agents is of importance. Alpinia galanga (AG) and Curcuma aromatica (CA) are traditional medicinal plants widely used for skin problems. Hence, this study investigated the antimelanogenic effects of AG and CA extracts (3.8-30 microg/ml) by assessing tyrosinase activity, tyrosinase mRNA levels, and melanin content in human melanoma cells (G361) exposed to UVA. The roles in protecting against melanogenesis were examined by evaluating their inhibitory effects on UVA-induced cellular oxidative stress and modulation of antioxidant defenses including antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and intracellular glutathione (GSH). In addition, possible active compounds accountable for biological activities of the extracts were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometric analysis. Our study demonstrated that UVA (8 J/cm(2)) induced both tyrosinase activity and mRNA levels and UVA (16 J/cm(2))-mediated melanin production were suppressed by the AG or CA extracts at noncytotoxic concentrations. Both extracts were able to protect against UVA-induced cellular oxidant formation and depletion of CAT and GPx activities and GSH content in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, TLC-densitometric analysis detected the presence of eugenol and curcuminoids in AG and CA, respectively. This is the first report representing promising findings on AG and CA extract-derived antityrosinase properties correlated with their antioxidant potential. Inhibiting cellular oxidative stress and improving antioxidant defenses might be the mechanisms by which the extracts yield the protective effects on UVA-dependent melanogenesis.

  10. Prevention of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation: Novel and Safe Strategy Based on the Modulation of the Antioxidant System

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia following cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. The pathogenesis of postoperative AF is multifactorial. Oxidative stress, caused by the unavoidable ischemia–reperfusion event occurring in this setting, is a major contributory factor. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-derived effects could result in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, or DNA oxidation of cardiac tissue, thus leading to functional and structural myocardial remodeling. The vulnerability of myocardial tissue to the oxidative challenge is also dependent on the activity of the antioxidant system. High ROS levels, overwhelming this system, should result in deleterious cellular effects, such as the induction of necrosis, apoptosis, or autophagy. Nevertheless, tissue exposure to low to moderate ROS levels could trigger a survival response with a trend to reinforce the antioxidant defense system. Administration of n−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), known to involve a moderate ROS production, is consistent with a diminished vulnerability to the development of postoperative AF. Accordingly, supplementation of n−3 PUFA successfully reduced the incidence of postoperative AF after coronary bypass grafting. This response is due to an up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, as shown in experimental models. In turn, non-enzymatic antioxidant reinforcement through vitamin C administration prior to cardiac surgery has also reduced the postoperative AF incidence. Therefore, it should be expected that a mixed therapy result in an improvement of the cardioprotective effect by modulating both components of the antioxidant system. We present novel available evidence supporting the hypothesis of an effective prevention of postoperative AF including a two-step therapeutic strategy: n−3 PUFA followed by vitamin C supplementation to patients scheduled for cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. The present study should

  11. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium improves growth, survival, antioxidant and immune status of meagre, Argyrosomus regius, juveniles.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Abdallah Tag-Eldein; Goda, Ashraf Abdelsamee; Omar, Eglal Ali; Khalil, Hala Saber; Esteban, Maria Ángeles

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative stress is considered one of the main obstacles to immune competence and high mortality rate of marine fish larvae due to the high dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and accelerated metabolic rate. This study was carried out to assess the effect of different dietary selenium (Se) yeast on growth, antioxidant status, hematological changes, and cellular and humoral immune parameters in meagre (Argyrosomus regius). Juvenile specimens (3.20 ± 0.17 g) were randomly assigned to four experimental groups, a control group fed a basal diet and another three groups fed Se-supplemented diets at doses of 1, 2 and 3 mg Se-yeast kg(-1) diet for 63 days and the final analyzed selenium concentrations were 0.77, 1.51, 2.97 and 3.98 mg Se kg(-1) diet, respectively. The results indicated that growth performance, feed conversion ratio and survival were significantly improved with 2.97 and 3.98 mg Se-yeast kg(-1) compared to the control group. The catalase, superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant status were significantly increased, and thiobarbituric reactive substances in liver homogenate were significantly decreased with increasing Se supplementation respect to the control fish in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, hematological and innate immune parameters (immunoglobulin, lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, ACH50 and respiratory burst activity) were also significantly higher in fish fed the Se-yeast supplemented diets compared to the control group. The results demonstrated that the supplementation of 3.98 mg Se-yeast kg(-1) diet improves growth performance, antioxidant balance and innate immune status of meagre juveniles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Boron influences immune and antioxidant responses by modulating hepatic superoxide dismutase activity under calcium deficit abiotic stress in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Bhasker, T Vijay; Gowda, N K S; Mondal, S; Krishnamoorthy, P; Pal, D T; Mor, A; Bhat, S Karthik; Pattanaik, A K

    2016-07-01

    The influence of Boron (B) supplementation on immune and antioxidant status of rats with or without abiotic stress induced by dietary calcium (Ca) restriction was studied in a feeding trial of 90 days. Wistar strain rats (3-4 wk age, n=84) were divided into 7 dietary groups (4 replicates of 3 each) viz., normal-calcium (100%) basal diet alone (NC, control) or supplemented with B at 5 (NCB-5), 10 (NCB-10), 20 (NCB-20) and 40ppm (NCB-40) levels; low-calcium (50%) basal diet alone (LC) or supplemented with 40ppm B (LCB-40). After 75 days of experimental feeding, rats were challenged with intraperitoneal injection of sheep RBCs to assess their humoral immunity. At the end of the trial, cell-mediated immunity was assessed as foot pad reaction to sheep RBCs injected into the hind leg paws. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed to collect blood for estimation of minerals and total antioxidant activity, and liver for superoxide dismutase gene expression analysis. Supplementation of graded levels of B (5, 10, 20 and 40ppm) as borax in NC diets significantly increased (P<0.01) the footpad thickness and serum total antioxidant activity, hepatic expression levels of both Cu-Zn SOD (SOD1) and Mn-SOD (SOD2) mRNAs. The erythrocytic SOD activity and humoral response did not differ significantly among the dietary groups. In Ca restricted groups, humoral immune response was significantly decreased (P<0.01) compared to control but increased (P<0.05) with 40ppm B supplementation. Serum levels of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) remained similar among the dietary groups, while the manganese (Mn) content was significantly decreased (P<0.01) with increased levels of dietary B. In conclusion, B supplementation increased the hepatic mRNA expression levels of both SOD isoenzymes, thereby improving the immune and antioxidant status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of an adaptor protein that facilitates Nrf2-Keap1 complex formation and modulates antioxidant response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxue; Hou, Yongfan; Liu, Chunchun; Li, Yinlong; Guo, Weiwei; Wu, Jiu-Lin; Xu, Daqian; You, Xue; Pan, Yi; Chen, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Nrf2 plays a key role in the protection of the body against environmental stress via inducible expression of detoxification and antioxidant enzymes. Keap1 functions as a sensor for oxidative and electrophilic stresses and promotes Nrf2 degradation via its E3 ligase activity. Modulation of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway has been extensively explored as a strategy to combat against drug toxicity and stress-induced diseases. Here we report a new player that modulates the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. PAQR3, a membrane protein specifically localized in the Golgi apparatus, negatively regulates the expression of an array of Nrf2 target genes and alters cellular level of reactive oxygen species. PAQR3 tethers Nrf2 and Keap1, but not small MAF proteins to the Golgi apparatus. PAQR3 interacts with both Nrf2 and Keap1 and facilitates the interaction of Nrf2 with Keap1. PAQR3 promotes ubiquitination and degradation of Nrf2. Disruption of PAQR3 interaction with Nrf2 and Keap1 by a synthetic peptide reduces Nrf2 ubiquitination and elevates expression of Nrf2 target genes. At the animal level, deletion of PAQR3 increases Nrf2 protein level and the expression of Nrf2 target genes. In conclusion, our study pinpoints that PAQR3 functions as an adaptor protein to promote Nrf2-Keap1 complex formation, thereby modulating the Nrf2-Keap2 pathway and playing an important role in controlling antioxidant response of the cell.

  14. Temporal dynamics underlying the modulation of social status on social attention.

    PubMed

    Dalmaso, Mario; Galfano, Giovanni; Coricelli, Carol; Castelli, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Fixating someone suddenly moving the eyes is known to trigger a corresponding shift of attention in the observer. This phenomenon, known as gaze-cueing effect, can be modulated as a function of the social status of the individual depicted in the cueing face. Here, in two experiments, we investigated the temporal dynamics underlying this modulation. To this end, a gaze-cueing paradigm was implemented in which centrally-placed faces depicting high- and low-status individuals suddenly shifted the eyes towards a location either spatially congruent or incongruent with that occupied by a subsequent target stimulus. Social status was manipulated by presenting fictive Curriculum Vitae before the experimental phase. In Experiment 1, in which two temporal intervals (50 ms vs. 900 ms) occurred between the direct-gaze face and the averted-gaze face onsets, a stronger gaze-cueing effect in response to high-status faces than low-status faces was observed, irrespective of the time participants were allowed for extracting social information. In Experiment 2, in which two temporal intervals (200 ms vs. 1000 ms) occurred between the averted-gaze face and target onset, a stronger gaze cueing for high-status faces was observed at the shorter interval only. Taken together, these results suggest that information regarding social status is extracted from faces rapidly (Experiment 1), and that the tendency to selectively attend to the locations gazed by high-status individuals may decay with time (Experiment 2).

  15. Curcumin attenuates CFA induced thermal hyperalgesia by modulation of antioxidant enzymes and down regulation of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajeet Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2015-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species are signaling mediators of nociceptive pathways. Exogenous administrations of antioxidants show anti-hyperalgesic effect. However, very little is known about the role of endogenous antioxidant defense system in pain pathology. Curcumin is a dietary antioxidant which shows ameliorative effect on thermal hypersensitivity, however detailed study is lacking. Present study was aimed to analyze the changes in oxidative stress, modulation of antioxidant enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines in complete Freund's adjuvant induced inflammatory hyperalgesia and the effect of curcumin on antioxidant defense system and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Anti-hyperalgesic activity of curcumin was evidenced after 6 h of treatment. Oxidative stress was evidenced in paw skin and spinal cord of hyperalgesic rats by high level of lipid peroxidation. A decrease in activity of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and an increase in level of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in paw skin was observed as compared to normal rats. However, activity of antioxidant enzymes was enhanced in spinal cord. The changes were brought towards normal level after curcumin treatment. The results suggest that modulation of antioxidant defense system is early event in initiation of inflammatory hyperalgesia which might lead to initiation of other signaling pathways mediated by lipid peroxide, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Decrease in oxidative stress and down regulation of these cytokines by curcumin is suggested to be involved in its anti-hyperalgesic effect.

  16. Development status of AEOLDOS - A deorbit module for small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, Patrick; McRobb, Malcolm; Lützkendorf, Paul; Milligan, Ross; Feeney, Andrew; Clark, Craig

    2014-07-01

    A prototype CubeSat module to deploy a gossamer aerobrake, using strain stored in tape-springs, at end-of-life is described. A novel hub geometry to reduce bending shock at end-of-deployment while simultaneously permitting radial, as opposed to tangential, deployment is proposed. The rpm of the hub is measured under various deployment conditions to verify that the system offers highly-repeatable performance, while high-speed photography is used to characterise the behaviour of the tape-spring during unspooling and contrast it to the behaviour of a traditional tangential-deployment system. Secondly the folding pattern of the membrane, which takes advantage of the symmetrical deployment offered by the petal hub, is developed and the unfolding mechanism is verified by numerical and experimental analysis. Finally, the release of the stored strain is considered and a novel burn-though device is designed and prototyped to meet this requirement.

  17. Effect of thioridazine on antioxidant status of HEMn-DP melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Otręba, Michał; Beberok, Artur; Wrześniok, Dorota; Rok, Jakub; Buszman, Ewa

    2015-10-01

    Thioridazine as an antipsychotic agent was extensively used to treat various psychotic disorders, e.g. schizophrenia. However, the therapy with this drug can induce serious side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms or ocular and skin disorders, which mechanisms are still not fully established. To gain inside the molecular mechanisms underlying thioridazine toxicity, we examined the effect of this drug on cell viability, antioxidant defence system as well as melanogenesis in normal human melanocytes. It was demonstrated that thioridazine induces concentration-dependent loss in cell viability. The value of EC50 was calculated to be 2.24 μM. To study the effect of thioridazine on antioxidant defence system in melanocytes, the level of hydrogen peroxide and the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were determined. The drug in concentrations of 0.1, 0.25, 1.0 and 2.5 μM caused changes in cellular antioxidant defence system indicating the induction of oxidative stress. It was also shown that the analysed neuroleptic in concentrations of 1.0 and 2.5 μM significantly inhibited melanogenesis. The observed changes in cell viability, antioxidant defence system and melanization in normal human melanocytes after thioridazine treatment may explain an important role of reactive oxygen species as well as melanin in mechanisms involved in this drug side effects directed on pigmented tissues.

  18. The influence of endurance exercise on the antioxidative status of human skin.

    PubMed

    Vierck, H B; Darvin, M E; Lademann, J; Reisshauer, A; Baack, A; Sterry, W; Patzelt, A

    2012-09-01

    Oxidative stress is supposed to be responsible for a diversity of diseases. For protection purposes, the human organism exhibits a line-up of antioxidant substances functioning as radical catchers. As a result of neutralization of free radicals, antioxidants are destroyed. Therefore, the degradation of the antioxidants can be utilized as an indirect parameter for the measurement of free radical formation. As physical exercise may also induce oxidative stress, the aim of the present study was to determine the antioxidant substances, and more precisely, the carotenoid concentration in the skin of male volunteers during different sportive exposures (cycling and running with two different exercise intensities) with resonance Raman spectroscopic measurements. The results revealed that moderate and high intensity cycling and running decrease the carotenoid concentration of the skin, whereas both sport disciplines and both exercise intensities revealed similar results. It can be concluded that above a certain threshold, physical exercise leads to oxidative stress also in the skin associated with the decrease in the antioxidant concentration. This gives rise to the impairment of the first defence line of the skin and means an increase in the risk of sun exposure-induced damage, e.g., when exercise training is performed outside. Nevertheless, it has to be emphasized that sport in general applied at moderate loads has predominantly positive effects on the health of humans especially concerning cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  19. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status response of handball athletes: implications for sport training monitoring.

    PubMed

    Marin, Douglas Popp; Bolin, Anaysa Paola; Campoio, Thais Regina; Guerra, Beatriz Alves; Otton, Rosemari

    2013-10-01

    The chronic exposure to regular exercise training seems to improve antioxidant defense systems. However, the intense physical training imposed on elite athletes may lead to overtraining associated with oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different training loads and competition on oxidative stress, biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzymatic defense in handball athletes during 6-months of monitoring. Ten male elite handball athletes were recruited to the study. Blood samples were collected four times every six weeks throughout the season. During most intense periods of training and competitions there were significant changes in plasma indices of oxidative stress (increased TBARS and decreased thiols). Conversely, chronic adaptations to exercise training demonstrated a significant protective effect against oxidative stress in erythrocyte (decrease in TBARs and carbonyl group levels). Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly increased, suggesting a training-induced antioxidant adaptation. Biomarkers of skeletal muscle damage were significantly increased during high-intensity training period (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase). No significant changes were observed in plasma IL-6, TNF-α and uric acid, whereas a significant reduction was found in the IL-1β concentration and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. Oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers can change throughout the season in competitive athletes, reflecting the physical stress and muscle damage that occurs as the result of competitive handball training. In addition, these biochemical measurements can be applied in the physiological follow-up of athletes. © 2013.

  20. Effect of Nigella sativa fixed and essential oils on antioxidant status, hepatic enzymes, and immunity in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigella sativa fixed (NSFO) and essential (NSEO) oils have been used to treat diabetes mellitus and its complications. Present study was undertaken to explore and validate these folkloric uses. Methods Sprague dawley rats having streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus were used to assess the role of NSFO and NSEO in the management of diabetes complications. Parameters investigated were antioxidant potential, oxidative stress, and the immunity by in vivo experiments. Results The results indicated that STZ decreased the glutathione contents (25.72%), while NSFO and NSEO increased the trait significantly (P < 0.05). Experimental diets increased the tocopherol contents (P < 0.01) and enhanced the expression of hepatic enzymes (P < 0.01). Correlation matrix further indicated that antioxidant potential is positively associated (P < 0.05) responsible for the modulation of hepatic enzymes and the decrease of the nitric oxide production thus controlling the diabetes complications. Conclusions Overall, results of present study supported the traditional use of N. sativa and its derived products as a treatment for hyperglycemia and allied abnormalities. Moreover, N. sativa fixed and essential oils significantly ameliorate free radicals and improve antioxidant capacity thus reducing the risk of diabetic complications. PMID:24939518

  1. Examination of lung toxicity, oxidant/antioxidant status and effect of erdosteine in rats kept in coal mine ambience.

    PubMed

    Armutcu, Ferah; Gun, Banu Dogan; Altin, Remzi; Gurel, Ahmet

    2007-09-01

    Occupational exposure to coal dust causes pneumoconiosis and other diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coal dust-induced lung toxicity. In this experimental study, we investigated the oxidant/antioxidant status, nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyproline (HP) levels in lungs and blood of rats exposed to coal dust in mine ambience. In addition, we also investigated the attenuating effects of erdosteine. At the end of the experiment processes, tissue levels of HP, malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO, as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, xanthine oxidase (XO), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) were evaluated in the lung tissues, plasma samples or erythrocytes of rats. Exposure to coal dust resulted in a significant increase in the oxidant parameters (MDA, NO levels, and XO activity) and HP levels, as compared to the controls. A decrease in activities of antioxidant enzymes, and an increase in MPO activity were found in the study group, compared to the controls. Increased NO levels of lung were found in the study groups, that were significantly reduced by erdosteine. Our studies provide evidence that supports the hypothesis for ROS mediated coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Erdosteine may be beneficial in the coal dust-induced lung toxicity via antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective effect of Withania somnifera root powder on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Jeyanthi, Thangavel; Subramanian, Perumal

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the protective effect of Withania somnifera root powder (used in ayurvedic medicine in India) on gentamicin (GEN) induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The root powder was administered orally to rats for 14 days before GEN treatment and thereafter with GEN for 8 days. Nephrotoxicity was manifested in GEN-treated rats as significant increases in urea, creatinine, uric acid, non protein nitrogen, urinary protein, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, followed by a significant reduction in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione in liver and kidney tissues, histopathologically confirmed by tubular necrosis. W. somnifera treatment altered the antioxidant status and significantly reversed the levels as seen microscopically. The results show that the root powder of W. somnifera with the presence of natural antioxidants, bioflavanoids, and other bioactive compounds scavenged the free radicals generated by GEN and ameliorated the severity of GEN-induced nephrotoxicity by enhancing the antioxidant system and protecting the cellular integrity of kidney and liver tissues.

  3. Comparative Studies of Salivary and Blood Sialic Acid, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidative Status in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC)

    PubMed Central

    Rasool, Mahmood; Khan, Saima Rubab; Malik, Arif; Khan, Khalid Mahmood; Zahid, Sara; Manan, Abdul; Qazi, Mahmood Husain; Naseer, Muhammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered to be a serious life threatening issue for almost two decades. The objective of this study was to evaluate the over production of lipid peroxidation (LPO) byproducts and disturbances in antioxidant defense system in the pathogenesis of oral cancer. Methods : Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in OSCC patients were estimated and compared the sensitivity and specificity of circulating biomarkers (MDA, Sialic acid, Catalase, SOD, GSH and Neuraminidase) with β-2 microglobulin (β-2MG) at different thresholds in blood and saliva using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve design. R esults : Our results showed that the levels of MDA and Sialic acid were significantly increased in plasma of OSCC patients as compared to healthy subjects whereas antioxidant level was significantly decreased. Conclusion : ROC analysis indicated that MDA in saliva is a better diagnostic tool as compared to MDA in blood and β-2MG in blood is better diagnostic marker as compared to β-2MG level in saliva. PMID:24948960

  4. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract increases plasma antioxidant status associated with reduced plasma malondialdehyde concentration without hypoglycemia in fasting healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Khannongpho, Teerawat; Siriwatanapaiboon, Marent; Sirikwanpong, Sukrit; Dahlan, Winai; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2016-12-29

    To investigate the effect of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) on plasma glucose concentration and antioxidant status in healthy volunteers. A randomized crossover design was used in this study. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either 200 mL of warm water (10 cases) or 200 mL of MOLE (500 mg dried extract, 10 cases). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min for measuring fasting plasma glucose (FPG), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). FPG concentration was not signifificantly different between warm water and MOLE. The consumption of MOLE acutely improved both FRAP and TEAC, with increases after 30 min of 30 μmol/L FeSO4 equivalents and 0.18 μmol/L Trolox equivalents, respectively. The change in MDA level from baseline was signifificantly lowered after the ingestion of MOLE at 30, 60, and 90 min. In addition, FRAP level was negatively correlated with plasma MDA level after an intake of MOLE. MOLE increased plasma antioxidant capacity without hypoglycemia in human. The consumption of MOLE may reduce the risk factors associated with chronic degenerative diseases.

  5. Dietary dehydrated lemon peel improves the immune but not the antioxidant status of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    García Beltrán, José María; Espinosa, Cristóbal; Guardiola, Francisco A; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2017-05-01

    Lemon (Citrus limon) is the third most important species of citrus in the world, while Spain is the major producer in Europe. Numerous beneficial effects of lemon are known, which explains their use in traditional medicine. The paper describes the effect of dietary dehydrated lemon peel (a sub-product of the lemon industry) on the growth, immune and antioxidant status of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) over a period of 30 days. Fish fed diets enriched with dehydrated lemon peel (1.5% and 3%) for 15 days showed improved growth and both humoral (seric immunoglobulin M) and cellular (peroxidase activity and phagocytic ability of head kidney leucocytes) immunity, as well as the expression of some immune-related genes (nkefa, il1β, igth and csfr1). However, decreases growth promotion was observed after thirty days of trial. Neither the anti-oxidant enzymes activity nor the expression of several anti-oxidants and anti-stress genes in liver was improved by the diet. The possible inclusion of dehydrated lemon peel in fish diets for its immunostimulant effects is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Piper betle on hepatic marker enzymes and tissue antioxidant status in D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Pushpavalli, Ganesan; Veeramani, Chinnadurai; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2008-01-01

    D-galactosamine is a well-established hepatotoxicant that induces a diffuse type of liver injury closely resembling human viral hepatitis. D-galactosamine by its property of generating free radicals causes severe damage to the membrane and affects almost all organs of the human body. The leaves of Piper betle L., a commonly used masticatory in Asian countries, possess several biological properties. Our aim is to investigate the in vivo antioxidant potential of P. betle leaf-extract against oxidative stress induced by D-galactosamine intoxication in male albino Wistar rats. Toxicity was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine, 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 21 days. Rats were treated with P. betle extract (200 mg/kg BW) via intragastric intubations. We assessed the activities of liver marker enzymes (aspartate amino-transferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) and levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione. The extract significantly improved the status of antioxidants and decreased TBARS, hydroperoxides, and liver marker enzymes when compared with the D-galactosamine treated group, demonstrating its hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties.

  7. Dietary supplementation of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil during the lifetime of the rat: its effects on the antioxidant status in liver, kidney and heart tissues.

    PubMed

    Youdim, K A; Deans, S G

    1999-09-08

    This study aimed not only to identify age-related changes in certain antioxidant systems, but to assess whether dietary supplementation of thyme oil could address the unfavourable antioxidant-pro-oxidant balance that occurs with age. The present study has shown that there were significant declines in the superoxide dismutase activities in the liver and heart of old rats, although kidney showed no decline. Liver glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity was found to have increased significantly in old rats, while a significant decrease was observed in kidney. Heart GSHPX activity was not found to differ significantly between young and old rats. There were also significant declines in the total antioxidant status in each tissue examined. A general feature of these various antioxidant parameters measured was that their activities remained higher in rats whose diets were supplemented with thyme oil, suggesting that they retained a more favourable antioxidant capacity during their life span.

  8. Status Report on NEAMS System Analysis Module Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, R.; Fanning, T. H.; Sumner, T.; Yu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Under the Reactor Product Line (RPL) of DOE-NE’s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program, an advanced SFR System Analysis Module (SAM) is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The goal of the SAM development is to provide fast-running, improved-fidelity, whole-plant transient analyses capabilities. SAM utilizes an object-oriented application framework MOOSE), and its underlying meshing and finite-element library libMesh, as well as linear and non-linear solvers PETSc, to leverage modern advanced software environments and numerical methods. It also incorporates advances in physical and empirical models and seeks closure models based on information from high-fidelity simulations and experiments. This report provides an update on the SAM development, and summarizes the activities performed in FY15 and the first quarter of FY16. The tasks include: (1) implement the support of 2nd-order finite elements in SAM components for improved accuracy and computational efficiency; (2) improve the conjugate heat transfer modeling and develop pseudo 3-D full-core reactor heat transfer capabilities; (3) perform verification and validation tests as well as demonstration simulations; (4) develop the coupling requirements for SAS4A/SASSYS-1 and SAM integration.

  9. Temporal horizon: modulation by smoking status and gender

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bryan A.; Landes, Reid D.; Yi, Richard; Bickel, Warren K.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, delay discounting has been argued to be conceptually consistent with the notion of temporal horizon (Bickel et al., 2008). Temporal horizon refers to the temporal distance over which behavioral events or objects can influence behavior. Here we examine the results on two putative measures of temporal horizon, future time perspective (FTP) and delay discounting, collected over three separate studies (n = 227), to determine the influence of smoking and gender on temporal horizon. By comparing the results on these temporal horizon measures we address our population of interest: women who smoke. One of the measures of FTP indicates that smoking women have a shorter temporal horizon than their nonsmoking counterparts. Additionally, the story completion measures of FTP are positively correlated with delay discounting. In contrast, results of delay discounting measures showed no difference between smoking women and nonsmoking women, while results of delay discounting measures indicated smoking men have a shorter temporal horizon than non-smoking men. Additionally, the results of the FTP story completion measure indicated that lower third income earners had a shortened temporal horizon compared to upper third income earners. A possible explanation for these results is explored, and the implications of the modulation of temporal horizon by gender and smoking are discussed. PMID:19446407

  10. Modulation of antioxidant defense system after long term arsenic exposure in Zantedeschia aethiopica and Anemopsis californica.

    PubMed

    Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Zurita, Florentina; Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; Solis-Sánchez, Brenda; Wence-Chávez, Laura; Rodríguez-Sahagún, Araceli; Castellanos-Hernández, Osvaldo A; Vázquez-Armenta, Gabriela; Siller-López, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Zantedeschia aethiopica (calla lily) and Anemopsis californica (yerba mansa) are plant species capable of accumulating arsenic (As) and therefore proposed as phytoremediation for removal of As from drinking water. The effects of a continuous 6 month As exposure (34±11 μg/L) from local contaminated groundwater on the antioxidant response of Z. aethiopica and A. californica were evaluated in leaves and stems of the plants bimonthly in a subsurface flow constructed wetland. As increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase where higher levels were observed in Z. aethiopica than A. californica. No significant differences were detected on lipid peroxidation levels or antioxidant capacity evaluated by ORAC and DPPH assays or total phenol contents in any part of the plant, although in general the leaves of both plants showed the best antioxidant defense against the metal. In conclusion, Z. aethiopica and A. californica were able to cope to As through induction of a more sensitive enzymatic antioxidant response mechanism.

  11. Vitamin E and selenium administration as a modulator of antioxidant defense system: biochemical assessment and modification.

    PubMed

    Noaman, Eman; Zahran, Ahmed M; Kamal, Azza M; Omran, Manar F

    2002-04-01

    Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are associated with radiation-induced cytotoxicity. Because of the serious damaging potential of ROS, cells depend on the elaboration of the antioxidant defense system (AODS), both enzymatic and nonenzymatic oxidant defense mechanisms. The deficiency in important components of the endogenous AODS leads to the accumulation of oxidative stress inducing oxidative damage. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase are key intracellular antioxidants in the metabolism of ROS. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of these antioxidant enzymes in radioresistance during the evaluation of the compensatory role of some exogenous micronutrients against oxidative stress Animals were categorized into eight groups, receiving vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and/or selenium (Se) with or without whole-body gamma-irradiation (6.5 Gy). The results indicate that antioxidant pretreatments before irradiation may have some beneficial effects against irradiation-induced injury. The results also indicate that selenium and vitamin E act alone and in an additive fashion as radioprotecting agents. The results further suggest that selenium confers protection in part by inducing or activating cellular free-radical scavenging systems and by enhancing peroxide breakdown, whereas vitamin E appears to confer its protection by an alternate complementary mechanism.

  12. A 21 day Daniel Fast improves selected biomarkers of antioxidant status and oxidative stress in men and women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dietary modification via both caloric and nutrient restriction is associated with multiple health benefits, some of which are related to an improvement in antioxidant status and a decrease in the production of reactive oxygen species. The Daniel Fast is based on the Biblical book of Daniel, is commonly partaken for 21 days, and involves food intake in accordance with a stringent vegan diet. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a 21 day Daniel Fast on biomarkers of antioxidant status and oxidative stress. Methods 43 subjects (13 men; 30 women; 35 ± 1 yrs; range: 20-62 yrs) completed a 21 day Daniel Fast following the guidelines provided by investigators. Subjects reported to the lab in a 12 hour post-absorptive state both pre fast (day 1) and post fast (day 22). At each visit, blood was collected for determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitrate/nitrite (NOx), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC). Subjects recorded dietary intake during the 7 day period immediately prior to the fast and during the final 7 days of the fast. Results A decrease was noted in MDA (0.66 ± 0.0.03 vs. 0.56 ± 0.02 μmol L-1; p = 0.004), while H2O2 demonstrated a trend for lowering (4.42 ± 0.32 vs. 3.78 ± 0.21 μmol L-1; p = 0.074). Both NOx (18.79 ± 1.92 vs. 26.97 ± 2.40 μmol L-1; p = 0.003) and TEAC (0.47 ± 0.01 vs. 0.51 ± 0.01 mmol L-1; p = 0.001) increased from pre to post fast, while ORAC was unchanged (5243 ± 103 vs. 5249 ± 183 μmol L-1 TE; p = 0.974). As expected, multiple differences in dietary intake were noted (p < 0.05), including a reduction in total calorie intake (2185 ± 94 vs. 1722 ± 85). Conclusion Modification of dietary intake in accordance with the Daniel Fast is associated with an improvement in selected biomarkers of antioxidant status and oxidative stress, including metabolites of nitric oxide (i.e., NOx). PMID:21414232

  13. Heterogeneous Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS modulates immuno-inflammatory response, antioxidant defense and cytoskeletal dynamics in human gingival fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Herath, Thanuja D. K.; Darveau, Richard P.; Seneviratne, Chaminda J.; Wang, Cun-Yu; Wang, Yu; Jin, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal (gum) disease is a highly prevalent infection and inflammation accounting for the majority of tooth loss in adult population worldwide. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone periodontal pathogen and its lipopolysaccharide (PgLPS) acts as a major virulence attribute to the disease. Herein, we deciphered the overall host response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to two featured isoforms of tetra-acylated PgLPS1435/1449 and penta-acylated PgLPS1690 with reference to E. coli LPS through quantitative proteomics. This study unraveled differentially expressed novel biomarkers of immuno-inflammatory response, antioxidant defense and cytoskeletal dynamics in HGFs. PgLPS1690 greatly upregulated inflammatory proteins (e.g. cyclophilin, inducible nitric oxide synthase, annexins, galectin, cathepsins and heat shock proteins), whereas the anti-inflammatory proteins (e.g. Annexin A2 and Annexin A6) were significantly upregulated by PgLPS1435/1449. Interestingly, the antioxidants proteins such as mitochondrial manganese-containing superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin 5 were only upregulated by PgLPS1690. The cytoskeletal rearrangement-related proteins like myosin were differentially regulated by these PgLPS isoforms. The present study gives new insight into the biological properties of P. gingivalis LPS lipid A moiety that could critically modulate immuno-inflammatory response, antioxidant defense and cytoskeletal dynamics in HGFs, and thereby enhances our understanding of periodontal pathogenesis. PMID:27538450

  14. Anti-oxidant modulation in response to gamma radiation induced oxidative stress in developing seedlings of Psoralea corylifolia L.

    PubMed

    Jan, Sumira; Parween, Talat; Siddiqi, T O; Mahmooduzzafar

    2012-11-01

    The seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L., an important medicinal herb in Indian and Chinese Pharmacopeia were exposed to gamma rays (2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy) from Co(60) source at dose rate of 1.65 kGy h(-1). Enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidant responses were verified according to the developmental stages and gamma dose applied. Plants grown from seeds exposed to higher gamma doses exhibit higher activity of the antioxidants such as [Ascorbate peroxidase (APX, 1.11.1.1), superoxide dismutase (SOD, 1.15.1.1), glutathione reductase (GR, 1.6.4.2) and MDA content till flowering and declined thereafter. In contrast, CAT (1.11.1.6) activity declined in dose and age dependent manner. The correlation of gamma dose applied and oxidative stress was inferred from the increased enzymes activities and depression in total glutathione pool in seedlings developed from irradiated seeds. Nevertheless, the maintenance of high anti-oxidant capacity, psoralen accumulation seems to be an important strategy during acclimation of P. corylifolia to gamma radiation stress. Pronounced accumulation of psoralen following 15 and 20 kGy at post-flowering stage where oxidative stress is triggered modulates lipid peroxidation and proline accumulation. Further, in psoralen producing plants an increase in psoralen content can be used as a biomarker which specifies plant is under stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptional Profiles of Drought-Related Genes in Modulating Metabolic Processes and Antioxidant Defenses in Lolium multiflorum

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ling; Zhang, Xinquan; Wang, Jianping; Ma, Xiao; Zhou, Meiliang; Huang, LinKai; Nie, Gang; Wang, Pengxi; Yang, Zhongfu; Li, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental stress that limits growth and development of cool-season annual grasses. Drought transcriptional profiles of resistant and susceptible lines were studied to understand the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.). A total of 4718 genes exhibited significantly differential expression in two L. multiflorum lines. Additionally, up-regulated genes associated with drought response in the resistant lines were compared with susceptible lines. Gene ontology enrichment and pathway analyses revealed that genes partially encoding drought-responsive proteins as key regulators were significantly involved in carbon metabolism, lipid metabolism, and signal transduction. Comparable gene expression was used to identify the genes that contribute to the high drought tolerance in resistant lines of annual ryegrass. Moreover, we proposed the hypothesis that short-term drought have a beneficial effect on oxidation stress, which may be ascribed to a direct effect on the drought tolerance of annual ryegrass. Evidence suggests that some of the genes encoding antioxidants (HPTs, GGT, AP, 6-PGD, and G6PDH) function as antioxidant in lipid metabolism and signal transduction pathways, which have indispensable and promoting roles in drought resistance. This study provides the first transcriptome data on the induction of drought-related gene expression in annual ryegrass, especially via modulation of metabolic homeostasis, signal transduction, and antioxidant defenses to improve drought tolerance response to short-term drought stress. PMID:27200005

  16. Antioxidant intakes and smoking status: data from the continuing survey of food intakes by individuals 1994-1996.

    PubMed

    Ma, J; Hampl, J S; Betts, N M

    2000-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for several chronic oxidative diseases that can be ameliorated by antioxidants. This study identified the typical dietary intakes and the major food group contributors of the antioxidants beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E by smoking status. The 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) provided the current sample (n = 6749), who were categorized as non- (n = 3231), former (n = 1684), and current (n = 1834) smokers. In the CSFII, individuals' food intakes were estimated with two 24-h dietary recalls. Data were analyzed by using a chi-square test with a simultaneous Fisher's z test, analysis of variance with Scheffe's test, multivariate analysis of covariance, and analysis of covariance with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. The sample consisted of 3707 men and 3042 women. Current smokers tended to be younger with less education and lower incomes than nonsmokers and former smokers. The average body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of current smokers was 25.8, the lowest of the 3 groups. Current smokers had the lowest dietary antioxidant intake. Fatty foods such as luncheon meats, condiments and salad dressings, and ground beef contributed more to the antioxidant intakes of current smokers than to those of the other 2 groups, whereas fruit and vegetables contributed less. Current smokers consumed the fewest numbers of servings of all nutrient-bearing groups in the food guide pyramid, except the meat group. Future interventions should target the clustering of cigarette smoking and other unhealthy lifestyle habits, eg, an imprudent diet.

  17. Effects of Vitrectomy and Lensectomy on Older Rhesus Macaques: Oxygen Distribution, Antioxidant Status, and Aqueous Humor Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Siegfried, Carla J; Shui, Ying-Bo; Tian, Baohe; Nork, T Michael; Heatley, Gregg A; Kaufman, Paul L

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of vitrectomy (PPV) and lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation (PE/IOL) on molecular oxygen (pO2) distribution, aqueous humor antioxidant-oxidant balance, aqueous humor dynamics, and histopathologic changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the older macaque monkey. Six rhesus monkeys underwent PPV followed by PE/IOL. pO2, outflow facility, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were measured. Aqueous and vitreous humor specimens were analyzed for antioxidant status and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative damage. TM specimens were obtained for immunohistochemical and quantitative PCR analysis. pO2 at baseline revealed steep gradients in the anterior chamber and low levels in the posterior chamber (PC) and around the lens. Following PPV and PE/IOL, pO2 significantly increased in the PC, around the IOL, and angle. IOP increased following both surgical interventions, with no change in outflow facility. Histopathologic analysis did not show changes in TM cell quantification, but there was an increase in 8-OHdG. Quantitative PCR did not reveal significant differences in glaucoma-related gene expression. Aqueous and vitreous humor analysis revealed decreased ascorbate and total reactive antioxidant potential and increased 8-OHdG in the aqueous humor only in the surgical eyes. Oxygen distribution in the older rhesus monkey is similar to humans at baseline and following surgical interventions. Our findings of histopathologic changes of TM oxidative damage and alterations in the oxidant-antioxidant balance suggest a potential correlation of increased oxygen exposure with oxidative stress/damage and the development of open angle glaucoma.

  18. Modulation of Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities by Certain Antiepileptic Drugs (Valproic Acid, Oxcarbazepine, and Topiramate): Evidence in Humans and Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Romero-Toledo, Arantxa; Sampieri, Aristides III; Ortega-Cuellar, Daniel; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Floriano-Sánchez, Esaú; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that at least 100 million people worldwide will suffer from epilepsy at some point in their lives. This neurological disorder induces brain death due to the excessive liberation of glutamate, which activates the postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, which in turn cause the reuptake of intracellular calcium (excitotoxicity). This excitotoxicity elicits a series of events leading to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several studies in experimental models and in humans have demonstrated that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) exhibit antioxidant effects by modulating the activity of various enzymes associated with this type of stress. Considering the above-mentioned data, we aimed to compile evidence elucidating how AEDs such as valproic acid (VPA), oxcarbazepine (OXC), and topiramate (TPM) modulate oxidative stress. PMID:24454986

  19. Modulation of antioxidant enzymatic activities by certain antiepileptic drugs (valproic acid, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate): evidence in humans and experimental models.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Romero-Toledo, Arantxa; Sampieri, Aristides; Ortega-Cuellar, Daniel; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Floriano-Sánchez, Esaú; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that at least 100 million people worldwide will suffer from epilepsy at some point in their lives. This neurological disorder induces brain death due to the excessive liberation of glutamate, which activates the postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, which in turn cause the reuptake of intracellular calcium (excitotoxicity). This excitotoxicity elicits a series of events leading to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several studies in experimental models and in humans have demonstrated that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) exhibit antioxidant effects by modulating the activity of various enzymes associated with this type of stress. Considering the above-mentioned data, we aimed to compile evidence elucidating how AEDs such as valproic acid (VPA), oxcarbazepine (OXC), and topiramate (TPM) modulate oxidative stress.

  20. Effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Md; Hossain, Md Faruk; Tanu, Arifur Rahman; Shekhar, Hossain Uddin

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is intimately associated with many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Study objectives include a comparison of the oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile between COPD patients and controls and evaluation of the effect of spirulina intervention on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and lipid profile of COPD patients. 30 patients with COPD and 20 controls with no respiratory problems were selected. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria were served as the basis of COPD diagnosis. The serum content of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxide, glutathione (GSH), vitamin C, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was measured. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) was also measured. Two different doses, (500 × 2) mg and (500 × 4) mg spirulina, were given to two groups, each of which comprises 15 COPD patients. All targeted blood parameters have significant difference (P = 0.000) between COPD patients and controls except triglyceride (TG). Spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 2) mg dose has significantly reduced serum content of MDA, lipid hydroperoxide, and cholesterol (P = 0.000) while increasing GSH, Vit C level (P = 0.000), and the activity of SOD (P = 0.000) and GST (P = 0.038). At the same time, spirulina intake for 30 and 60 days at (500 × 4) mg dose has favorable significant effect (P = 0.000) on all targeted blood parameters except for HDL (P = 0.163).

  1. Effects of chestnut tannins on the meat quality, welfare, and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huawei; Li, Ke; Mingbin, Lv; Zhao, Jinshan; Xiong, Benhai

    2016-06-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on the meat quality, welfare and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs. Lambs in one group were raised at 20°C and fed a basal diet (N), and three other groups (32°C) were fed a basal diet with 0 (CT0), 5 (CT5), and 10 g (CT10) of CT/kg. Addition of CT increased the b* and L* values of meat and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the serum and liver of heat-stressed lambs. The malondialdehyde concentration in meat, serum, and liver of heat-stressed lambs was decreased by dietary CT supplementation. Lambs in the CT0 group had higher cortisol, T3, and T4 levels, creatine kinase activity, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and a lower lymphocyte count than that in the N and CT10 groups. In conclusion, the addition of CT improved meat quality, certain stress parameters, and the antioxidant status of heat-stressed lambs.

  2. Importance of diet of dam and colostrum to the biological antioxidant status and parenteral iron tolerance of the pig.

    PubMed

    Loudenslager, M J; Ku, P K; Whetter, P A; Ullrey, D E; Whitehair, C K; Stowe, H D; Miller, E R

    1986-12-01

    Fifteen second-parity sows were used to determine the importance of vitamin E (E) and selenium (Se) supplementation of the sow's diet and colostrum consumption by the neonatal pig on tolerance to parenteral iron. Selenium (.1 ppm) and E (50 IU/kg) supplementation of the diet of the sow increased plasma tocopherol and Se concentrations, but did not increase plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. Colostrum had greater concentrations of E (primarily alpha-tocopherol) and Se than milk. Plasma biological antioxidant status (tocopherol level and GSH-Px activity) of pigs at birth was very low, but by 2 d of age had increased, especially in alpha-tocopherol (nearly a 20-fold increase). Liveability and body weight gain of pigs were not affected by the pre-colostrum iron injection (200 mg Fe as gleptoferron); however, plasma tocopherol concentrations of Fe-injected pigs were lower and plasma Se concentration and GSH-Px activities were higher at 2 d of age than values of pigs not receiving parenteral Fe. Supplementation of the dam's diet with E and Se maintained high tocopherol and Se levels in her colostrum and milk and a high biological antioxidant status in her pigs throughout the nursing period.

  3. Influence of mannan oligosaccharide, Ligustrum lucidum and Schisandra chinensis on parameters of antioxidative and immunological status of broilers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Deying; Li, Qundao; Du, Juan; Liu, Yuqin; Liu, Shengwang; Shan, Anshan

    2006-12-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate effects of dietary supplementation with Ligustrum lucidum (LL, 10 g/kg), Schisandra chinensis (SC, 10 g/kg), LL (10 g/kg) + mannan oligosaccharides (MOS, 50 mg/kg), or SC (10 g/kg) + MOS (50 mg/kg) on growth performance and parameters of antioxidative and immunological status of broilers. The results showed that feeding LL, SC, LL + MOS, or SC + MOS had no significant effect on growth performance of broilers relative to the control. However, compared to the control, LL, SC, LL + MOS, or SC + MOS significantly decreased malondialdehyde concentration in serum, thigh, and heart of broilers. In addition, glutathione reductase activity of heart and sera of the birds were significantly elevated by supplementation LL, SC, LK + MOS, or SC + MOS. Furthermore, LL, SC, LL + MOS, or SC + MOS significantly improved antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus and lymphocyte proliferation of broilers (p < 0.05). Whereas, no cooperating effect between LL (or SC) and MOS on antioxidant status and immunity of broilers were found.

  4. Schisandrin B Enhances Renal Mitochondrial Antioxidant Status, Functional and Structural Integrity, and Protects against Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2008-04-01

    Schisandrin B (Sch B), a dibenzocyclooctadiene derivative isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, has been shown to protect against oxidative damage in liver, heart and brain tissues in rodents. In the present study, the effect of long-term Sch B treatment (1-10 mg/kg/d x 15) on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity was examined in rats. Sch B treatment protected against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity, as evidenced by significant decreases in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. The nephroprotection was associated with the enhancement in renal mitochondrial antioxidant status, as assessed by the level/activity of reduced glutathione, alpha-tocopherol and Mn-superoxide dismutase, as well as the improvement/preservation of mitochondrial functional and structural integrity, as assessed by the extents of ATP generation capacity, malondialdehyde production, Ca2+ loading and cytochrome c release, as well as the sensitivity to Ca2+-induced permeability transition, in control and gentamicin-intoxicated rats. In conclusion, long-term Sch B treatment could enhance renal mitochondrial antioxidant status as well as improve mitochondrial functional and structural integrity, thereby protecting against gentamicin nephrotoxicity.

  5. Fermented goat milk consumption improves melatonin levels and influences positively the antioxidant status during nutritional ferropenic anemia recovery.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, M José M; Nestares, Teresa; Ochoa, Julio J; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the influence of fermented goat or cow milk on melatonin levels and antioxidant status and during anemia recovery. Eighty male Wistar rats were placed on a pre-experimental period of 40 days and randomly divided into two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet (45 mg kg(-1)) and the Fe-deficient group receiving low-Fe diet (5 mg kg(-1)). Then, the rats were fed with fermented goat or cow milk-based diets with a normal-Fe content or Fe-overload (450 mg kg(-1)) for 30 days. After 30 days of feeding the fermented milks, the total antioxidant status (TAS) was higher in both groups of animals fed fermented goat milk with the normal-Fe content. Plasma and urine 8-OHdG were lower in control and anemic rats fed fermented goat milk. Melatonin and corticosterone increased in the anemic groups during Fe replenishment with both fermented milks. Urine isoprostanes were lower in both groups fed fermented goat milk. Lipid and protein oxidative damage were higher in all tissues with fermented cow milk. During anemia instauration, an increase in melatonin was observed, a fact that would improve the energy metabolism and impaired inflammatory signaling, however, during anemia recovery, fermented goat milk had positive effects on melatonin and TAS, even in the case of Fe-overload, limiting the evoked oxidative damage.

  6. Effects of roasting on the antioxidant status and phenolic profiles of commercial Turkish hazelnut varieties (Corylus avellana L.).

    PubMed

    Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Uzman, Süheyla

    2012-02-08

    The effect of roasting on the antioxidant status and phenolic profiles of seven commercial Turkish hazelnut varieties (namely, Çakıldak, Foşa, Karafındık, Mincane, Palaz, Sivri, and Tombul) was assessed. Samples were examined for their total phenolics, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values, condensed tannins, and phenolic acids (free and bound forms). Significant losses (p < 0.05) in total phenolics (~66.3%), ORAC values (~41.6%), condensed tannins (~75.2), and phenolic acids (~42.7) were noted when the hazelnuts were roasted. Some variations both between and within natural and roasted hazelnuts were observed (p < 0.05). Phenolic acids were mainly found in the bound form. Gallic, protocatechuic, p-coumaric, and ferulic + sinapic acids were present in all hazelnut varieties, albeit to different extents, and the first two were dominant. Mincane, in roasted form, had the highest total phenolics, ORAC values, condensed tannins, and phenolic acids. This was due to the presence of some skin in roasted Mincane. No skin was left in all other varieties upon roasting. The present work suggests that roasting results in a significant loss in the antioxidant status and phenolic profiles because of the removal of the skin, which is a rich source of phenolics. It is highly recommended to consume natural hazelnut instead of the roasted counterpart to take advantage of all of the functional benefits of this nut.

  7. Environmental exposure to lead induces oxidative stress and modulates the function of the antioxidant defense system and the immune system in the semen of males with normal semen profile

    SciTech Connect

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Dobrakowski, Michał; Czuba, Zenon P.; Horak, Stanisław; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the associations between environmental exposure to lead and a repertoire of cytokines in seminal plasma of males with normal semen profile according to the WHO criteria. Based on the median lead concentration in seminal plasma, 65 samples were divided into two groups: low (LE) and high exposure to lead (HE). Differences in semen volume and the pH, count, motility and morphology of sperm cells were not observed between the examined groups. The total oxidant status value and the level of protein sulfhydryl groups as well as the activities of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly higher in the HE group, whereas the total antioxidant capacity value and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were depressed. IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the HE group compared with the LE group. Environmental exposure to lead is sufficient to induce oxidative stress in seminal plasma and to modulate antioxidant defense system. - Highlights: • Lead induces oxidative stress in seminal plasma in human. • Lead modulates antioxidant defense system in seminal plasma in human. • Lead does not change a Th1/Th2 imbalance in seminal plasma in human.

  8. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status of pregnant rural women in north-west Nigeria: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ugwa, Emmanuel; Gwarzo, Mohammed; Ashimi, Adewale

    2015-03-01

    This research was undertaken to determine the oxidative stress and antioxidant status of pregnant northern Nigerian women. Prospective cohort study. The study was done at General Hospital, Dawakin Kudu LGA, Kano. Kano has a population of 9.2 million and predominantly Muslims. Two hundred consecutive women presenting for antenatal care and 100 apparently normal controls. Ethical approval was obtained. Socio-demographic and clinical information were obtained via interviewer-administered questionnaires from 200 consecutive pregnant women who presented for antenatal care. Serum levels of vitamins A, C, E and malondialdehyde were determined. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 statistical software. Descriptive statistics was used. Means were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Associations between trimesters and oxidative stress/antioxidant status were tested using chi-square test and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean serum vitamin A, E and C levels were 13.39 ± 9.44 µg/dl, 0.35 ± 0.51 mg/dl and 5.99 ± 3.95 µ/dl respectively (below normal limits). The prevalence of vitamins A, C and E deficiency were 65.5%, 79.5% and 51% respectively. The mean serum levels of malondialdehyde was 4.04 ± 0.91 nmol/l (pregnant) and 1.84 ± 0.40 nmol/l (non-pregnant) (p = 0.001). There was strong negative correlation between serum levels of malondialdehyde and vitamins A, C and E. Vitamins A, C, E deficiency and oxidative stress is a problem among Northern Nigeria pregnant women, therefore the value of antioxidant vitamin supplementation should be explored.

  9. Serum biochemical, blood gas and antioxidant status in search and rescue dogs before and after simulated fieldwork.

    PubMed

    Spoo, J W; Zoran, D L; Downey, R L; Bischoff, K; Wakshlag, J J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the physiological and antioxidant status before and after a 4 h search and rescue field exercise, with handlers, under warm-weather conditions performing activities compared to a control group of similarly trained dogs at rest. Serum chemistry demonstrated a decrease in serum sodium (Na) and potassium (K) in both exercising and control groups, however only Na was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after exercise and hematocrits (HCTs) remained unchanged. The exercise group demonstrated significantly decreased serum phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) compared to pre-exercise values, as did the control group (P < 0.025). There was also a significant increase in creatinine kinase concentrations in the exercise groups (P < 0.025). Serum non-esterified fatty acids were increased only in the exercise group after exercise, suggesting fat mobilization to produce energy. The mean total serum antioxidant potential in searching dogs was no different from the pre- and post-exercise values in the control dogs. Serum vitamin E concentrations did not differ between the two groups, with a decreasing trend in both groups. There was a modest decrease in serum uric acid in the control group, while there was a significant rise after exercise in the searching group (P < 0.01). Multiple changes in serum chemistry, HCTs and blood gases were documented in this study, and were similar to those observed after other endurance activities. The lack of hemoconcentration in this field search exercise suggested that even in extreme environmental conditions (heat and humidity), dogs with access to water do not experience significant dehydration or diminished antioxidant status. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The Effect of Seasonal Thermal Stress on Lipid Mobilisation, Antioxidant Status and Reproductive Performance in Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Turk, R; Podpečan, O; Mrkun, J; Flegar-Meštrić, Z; Perkov, S; Zrimšek, P

    2015-08-01

    Heat stress is a major factor contributing to low fertility of dairy cows with a great economic impact in dairy industry. Heat-stressed dairy cows usually have reduced nutrient intake, resulting in a higher degree of negative energy balance (NEB). The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal thermal effect on lipid metabolism, antioxidant activity and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Thirty-two healthy dairy heifers were included in the study. According to the ambient temperature, animals were divided into two groups: winter (N = 14) and summer season (N = 18). Metabolic parameters, paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and total antioxidant status (TAS) were monitored at the time of insemination (basal values) and from 1 week before until 8 weeks after calving. Number of services per conception and calving-to-conception (CC) interval were calculated from the farm recording data. Serum triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations were significantly increased after calving in summer compared to winter, indicating higher degree of NEB in cows during summer. PON1 activity was significantly decreased after calving in both summer and winter group. TAS concentration was significantly lower in summer than that in winter. A significantly higher number of services were needed for conception in summer compared to winter, and CC interval was significantly longer in summer than that in winter as well. Additionally, reproductive performance significantly correlated with the severity of NEB, suggesting that lipid mobilization and lower antioxidant status contributed to poor reproduction ability in dairy cows during hot months.

  11. Antioxidant status and sex hormones in women with complex endometrial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pejić, S; Todorović, A; Stojiljković, V; Pavlović, I; Gavrilović, L; Popović, N; Pajović, S B

    2016-09-30

    Endometrial tissue is under a strong influence of sex hormones. These hormones are considered as developmental factors of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer. We examined the influence of gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormone) and sex hormones (estradiol, progesterone) on oxidant/antioxidant parameters in blood and endometrial tissue of women with complex endometrial hyperplasia. In blood, superoxide dismutase activity was significantly higher in luteal phase and postmenopause compared to the follicular phase. A significant phase-related difference of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity was recorded in the endometrium. Both enzymes had lower activity in luteal phase and postmenopause compared to the follicular phase. The linear regression analysis of individual hormonal variables against antioxidant parameters showed negative correlation between glutathione peroxidase activity and gonadotropin concentrations in the endometrium. The regression of hyperplastic to normal endometrium is the purpose of conservative treatment based on administration of progestogens or gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues. Our findings indicate that gonadotropins influence the antioxidant enzymes activity in women with complex endometrial hyperplasia, which may affect disease development. Further studies are needed to clarify the molecular basis of hormone action on antioxidant system that may potentially initiate a development of treatments based on redox-dependent mechanism.

  12. Biofortified Carrot Intake Enhances Liver Antioxidant Capacity and Vitamin A Status in Mongolian Gerbils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biofortification efforts have increased concentrations of bioactive compounds in carrots. Vitamin A bioefficacy and antioxidant potential of four biofortified carrot varieties [purple/orange (PO), purple/orange/red (POR), orange/red (OR) and orange (O)] were measured in Mongolian gerbils (n = 73). ...

  13. Influence of Helicteres isora administration for diabetes mellitus: Its effect on erythrocyte membrane and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G; Banu, Sharmila; Murugesan, A G

    2009-08-01

    In this study the effect of Helicteres isora L. on erythrocyte membrane bound enzymes and antioxidants activity in plasma and erythrocytes of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic model was investigated. The aqueous bark extract of H. isora was administered orally for 30 days to control and STZ induced diabetic rats. The effect of bark extract on glucose, insulin, haemoglobin, glycosylated haemoglobin, TBARS, hydroperoxide, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxide (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), vitamins C and E, reduced glutathione (GSH) and membrane bound enzymes were studied. The levels of glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, TBARS, hydroperoxide, and vitamin E were increased significantly whereas the level of insulin, haemoglobin, as well as antioxidants, membrane bound total ATPase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase were decreased significantly in STZ diabetic rats. Administration of bark extract to diabetic rats showed a decrease in the levels of glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, lipid peroxidation markers and vitamin E. In addition the levels of insulin, haemoglobin, enzymatic antioxidants, vitamin C, and GSH and the activities of membrane bound enzymes also were increased in H. isora treated diabetic rats. The present study indicates that the H. isora possesses a significant favourable effect on erythrocyte membrane bound enzymes and antioxidants defense system in addition to its antidiabetic effect.

  14. Silymarin protects PBMC against B(a)P induced toxicity by replenishing redox status and modulating glutathione metabolizing enzymes-An in vitro study

    SciTech Connect

    Kiruthiga, P.V.; Pandian, S. Karutha; Devi, K. Pandima

    2010-09-01

    PAHs are a ubiquitous class of environmental contaminants that have a large number of hazardous consequences on human health. An important prototype of PAHs, B(a)P, is notable for being the first chemical carcinogen to be discovered and the one classified by EPA as a probable human carcinogen. It undergoes metabolic activation to QD, which generate ROS by redox cycling system in the body and oxidatively damage the macromolecules. Hence, a variety of antioxidants have been tested as possible protectors against B(a)P toxicity. Silymarin is one such compound, which has high human acceptance, used clinically and consumed as dietary supplement around the world for its strong anti-oxidant efficacy. Silymarin was employed as an alternative approach for treating B(a)P induced damage and oxidative stress in PBMC, with an emphasis to provide the molecular basis for the effect of silymarin against B(a)P induced toxicity. PBMC cells exposed to either benzopyrene (1 {mu}M) or silymarin (2.4 mg/ml) or both was monitored for toxicity by assessing LPO, PO, redox status (GSH/GSSG ratio), glutathione metabolizing enzymes GR and GPx and antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD. This study also investigated the protective effect of silymarin against B(a)P induced biochemical alteration at the molecular level by FT-IR spectroscopy. Our findings were quite striking that silymarin possesses substantial protective effect against B(a)P induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes by restoring redox status, modulating glutathione metabolizing enzymes, hindering the formation of protein oxidation products, inhibiting LPO and further reducing ROS mediated damages by changing the level of antioxidant enzymes. The results suggest that silymarin exhibits multiple protections and it should be considered as a potential protective agent for environmental contaminant induced immunotoxicity.

  15. Release-Modulated Antioxidant Activity of a Composite Curcumin-Chitosan Polymer.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Martin G; Soucy, Patricia A; Chauhan, Rajat; Raju, Mandapati V Ramakrishnam; Patel, Dhruvina N; Nunn, Betty M; Keynton, Megan A; Ehringer, William D; Nantz, Michael H; Keynton, Robert S; Gobin, Andrea S

    2016-04-11

    Curcumin is known to have immense therapeutic potential but is hindered by poor solubility and rapid degradation in solution. To overcome these shortcomings, curcumin has been conjugated to chitosan through a pendant glutaric anhydride linker using amide bond coupling chemistry. The hybrid polymer has been characterized by UV-visible, fluorescence, and infrared spectroscopies as well as zeta potential measurements and SEM imaging. The conjugation reactivity was confirmed through gel permeation chromatography and quantification of unconjugated curcumin. An analogous reaction of curcumin with glucosamine, a small molecule analogue for chitosan, was performed and the purified product characterized by mass spectrometry, UV-visible, fluorescence, and infrared spectroscopies. Conjugation of curcumin to chitosan has greatly improved curcumin aqueous solubility and stability, with no significant curcumin degradation detected after one month in solution. The absorbance and fluorescence properties of curcumin are minimally perturbed (λmax shifts of 2 and 5 nm, respectively) by the conjugation reaction. This conjugation strategy required use of one out of two curcumin phenols (one of the main antioxidant functional groups) for covalent linkage to chitosan, thus temporarily attenuating its antioxidant capacity. Hydrolysis-based release of curcumin from the polymer, however, is accompanied by full restoration of curcumin's antioxidant potential. Antioxidant assays show that curcumin radical scavenging potential is reduced by 40% after conjugation, but that full antioxidant potential is restored upon hydrolytic release from chitosan. Release studies show that curcumin is released over 19 days from the polymer and maintains a concentration of 0.23 ± 0.12 μM curcumin/mg polymer/mL solution based on 1% curcumin loading on the polymer. Release studies in the presence of carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme with known phenolic esterase activity, show no significant difference from

  16. Heterogeneous Role of the Glutathione Antioxidant System in Modulating the Response of ESFT to Fenretinide in Normoxia and Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Magwere, Tapiwanashe; Burchill, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is implicated in drug resistance mechanisms of several cancers and is a key regulator of cell death pathways within cells. We studied Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT) cell lines and three mechanistically distinct anticancer agents (fenretinide, doxorubicin, and vincristine) to investigate whether the GSH antioxidant system is involved in the reduced sensitivity to these chemotherapeutic agents in hypoxia. Cell viability and death were assessed by the trypan blue exclusion assay and annexin V-PI staining, respectively. Hypoxia significantly decreased the sensitivity of all ESFT cell lines to fenretinide-induced death, whereas the effect of doxorubicin or vincristine was marginal and cell-line-specific. The response of the GSH antioxidant system in ESFT cell lines to hypoxia was variable and also cell-line-specific, although the level of GSH appeared to be most dependent on de novo biosynthesis rather than recycling. RNAi-mediated knockdown of key GSH regulatory enzymes γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase or glutathione disulfide reductase partially reversed the hypoxia-induced resistance to fenretinide, and increasing GSH levels using N-acetylcysteine augmented the hypoxia-induced resistance in a cell line-specific manner. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that the role of the GSH antioxidant system in modulating the sensitivity of ESFT cells to fenretinide is heterogeneous depending on environment and cell type. This is likely to limit the value of targeting GSH as a therapeutic strategy to overcome hypoxia-induced drug resistance in ESFT. Whether targeting the GSH antioxidant system in conjunction with other therapeutics may benefit some patients with ESFT remains to be seen. PMID:22174837

  17. Heterogeneous role of the glutathione antioxidant system in modulating the response of ESFT to fenretinide in normoxia and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Magwere, Tapiwanashe; Burchill, Susan A

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is implicated in drug resistance mechanisms of several cancers and is a key regulator of cell death pathways within cells. We studied Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT) cell lines and three mechanistically distinct anticancer agents (fenretinide, doxorubicin, and vincristine) to investigate whether the GSH antioxidant system is involved in the reduced sensitivity to these chemotherapeutic agents in hypoxia. Cell viability and death were assessed by the trypan blue exclusion assay and annexin V-PI staining, respectively. Hypoxia significantly decreased the sensitivity of all ESFT cell lines to fenretinide-induced death, whereas the effect of doxorubicin or vincristine was marginal and cell-line-specific. The response of the GSH antioxidant system in ESFT cell lines to hypoxia was variable and also cell-line-specific, although the level of GSH appeared to be most dependent on de novo biosynthesis rather than recycling. RNAi-mediated knockdown of key GSH regulatory enzymes γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase or glutathione disulfide reductase partially reversed the hypoxia-induced resistance to fenretinide, and increasing GSH levels using N-acetylcysteine augmented the hypoxia-induced resistance in a cell line-specific manner. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that the role of the GSH antioxidant system in modulating the sensitivity of ESFT cells to fenretinide is heterogeneous depending on environment and cell type. This is likely to limit the value of targeting GSH as a therapeutic strategy to overcome hypoxia-induced drug resistance in ESFT. Whether targeting the GSH antioxidant system in conjunction with other therapeutics may benefit some patients with ESFT remains to be seen.

  18. Modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis function by social status in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Jennifer D; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Vijayan, Mathilakath M; Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2012-04-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) form stable dominance hierarchies when confined in pairs. These hierarchies are driven by aggressive competition over limited resources and result in one fish becoming dominant over the other. An important indicator of low social status is sustained elevation of circulating cortisol levels as a result of chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. In the present study it was hypothesized that social status modulates the expression of key proteins involved in the functioning of the HPI axis. Cortisol treatment and fasting were used to assess whether these characteristics seen in subordinate fish also affected HPI axis function. Social status modulated plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, cortisol synthesis, and liver glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. Plasma ACTH levels were lower by approximately 2-fold in subordinate and cortisol-treated fish, consistent with a negative feedback role for cortisol in modulating HPI axis function. Although cortisol-treated fish exhibited differences in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP) mRNA relative abundances in the preoptic area and telencephalon, respectively, no effect of social status on CRF or CRF-BP was detected. Head kidney melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) mRNA relative levels were unaffected by social status, while mRNA relative abundances of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme were elevated in dominant fish. Liver GR2 mRNA and total GR protein levels in subordinate fish were lower than control values by approximately 2-fold. In conclusion, social status modulated the functioning of the HPI axis in rainbow trout. Our results suggest altered cortisol dynamics and reduced target tissue response to this steroid in subordinate fish, while the higher transcript levels for steroid biosynthesis in dominant fish leads us to propose an

  19. Antioxidant modulation of skin inflammation: preventing inflammatory progression by inhibiting neutrophil influx

    PubMed Central

    McGilvray, Ian D.; Rotstein, Ori D.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that antioxidants might affect local inflammation by impairing inflammatory cell influx. Design A laboratory study using a Swiss–Webster mouse model of local inflammation. Setting A university-affiliated hospital. Methods Intradermal injection of 30 μg of S. minnesota endotoxin (LPS) to Swiss–Webster mice initiates a local inflammatory reaction characterized by an early rise in vascular permeability and a later influx of neutrophils. Animals were pretreated intraperitoneally with either pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, 2 mmol/kg), which inhibits free radical generation, or dimethylthiourea (DMTU, 450 mg/kg), a free radical scavenger. Main outcome measures Histologic findings of tissue samples taken at sites of injection; local changes in tissue vascular permeability (PI) determined by iodine-125 albumin injection before sacrifice; neutrophil accumulation quantified by tissue myeloperoxidase levels; tissue levels of the endothelial adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 protein (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 protein (VCAM-1) assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, respectively. Results Neither antioxidant had a significant effect on the early increase in PI, but both decreased the late rise in PI and reduced neutrophil influx. Both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were upregulated in response to LPS; however, only the increase in VCAM-1 was attenuated by antioxidant pretreatment. Conclusion These data suggest that antioxidants disrupt the propagation phase of an inflammatory response, possibly by altering neutrophil migration. PMID:10223071

  20. Redox Control of Multidrug Resistance and Its Possible Modulation by Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Cort, Aysegul; Ozben, Tomris; Saso, Luciano; De Luca, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Clinical efficacy of anticancer chemotherapies is dramatically hampered by multidrug resistance (MDR) dependent on inherited traits, acquired defence against toxins, and adaptive mechanisms mounting in tumours. There is overwhelming evidence that molecular events leading to MDR are regulated by redox mechanisms. For example, chemotherapeutics which overrun the first obstacle of redox-regulated cellular uptake channels (MDR1, MDR2, and MDR3) induce a concerted action of phase I/II metabolic enzymes with a temporal redox-regulated axis. This results in rapid metabolic transformation and elimination of a toxin. This metabolic axis is tightly interconnected with the inducible Nrf2-linked pathway, a key switch-on mechanism for upregulation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and detoxifying systems. As a result, chemotherapeutics and cytotoxic by-products of their metabolism (ROS, hydroperoxides, and aldehydes) are inactivated and MDR occurs. On the other hand, tumour cells are capable of mounting an adaptive antioxidant response against ROS produced by chemotherapeutics and host immune cells. The multiple redox-dependent mechanisms involved in MDR prompted suggesting redox-active drugs (antioxidants and prooxidants) or inhibitors of inducible antioxidant defence as a novel approach to diminish MDR. Pitfalls and progress in this direction are discussed. PMID:26881027

  1. Modulation of antioxidant defense and immune response in zebra fish (Danio rerio) using dietary sodium propionate.

    PubMed

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Kavandi, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    The present study explores the effect of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response and expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in zebra fish (Danio rerio). Six hundred healthy zebra fish (0.42 ± 0.06 g) supplied, randomly stocked in 12 aquariums and fed on basal diets supplemented with different levels of sodium propionate [0 (control), 5, 10 and 20 g kg(-1)] for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, mucosal immune parameters (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz), antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT) as well as heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression were measured. The results revealed feeding on sodium propionate significantly up-regulated inflammatory response genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz) in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). However, antioxidant enzyme genes significantly down-regulated in the treated group compared with control (P < 0.05). Also, HSP70 gene expression was higher in the liver of fish fed the basal diet and deceased with elevation of sodium propionate levels in the diet. These results showed beneficial effects of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response as well as the antioxidant defense of zebra fish.

  2. Modulation of the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance, cytotoxicity and antiviral actions of grape seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Ignea, Codruţa; Dorobanţu, Cristina Mihaela; Mintoff, Christopher Paul; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Ladomery, Michael R; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Chedea, Veronica Sanda

    2013-12-15

    Grape seed extracts (GSEs) were investigated in yeast cells harbouring defects in their antioxidant system (regarding the cellular growth and growth recovery from H2O2 insult). GSEs antioxidant activity was detected in wild-type and mutant strains Δcta1, Δgsh1 and Δoye2glr1, while pro-oxidant activity in Δsod1 cells was seen. Assessment of proliferation of prostate cancer PC3 and HBV-replicating HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs has shown higher cytotoxicity of red grape seed extract (RW) than white grape seed extract (WW) subjective to dose and period of administration. No antiviral effect was detected by measuring the secreted virion particles in HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs. The GSEs play a dual antioxidant/pro-oxidant role in vivo according with the cellular antioxidant system deficiencies and exhibit cytotoxic properties in PC3 and HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines, but no antiviral action against HBV.

  3. Alterations of antioxidant status markers in dairy cows during lactation and in the dry period.

    PubMed

    Omidi, Arash; Fathi, Mohammad Hasan; Parker, Matthew O

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this Research Communication was to evaluate alterations in concentration of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of plasma, plasma total thiols as markers of oxidative protein damage and malondialdehyde (as a final product of lipid peroxidation) in samples obtained at different stages of the lactation cycle and dry period of dairy cows. We found that TAC was significantly lower in the primiparous cows compared to multiparous cows. This study clearly demonstrates a need for monitoring primiparous cows during the production cycle, especially when they are faced with severe metabolic conditions. Furthermore, TAC may be a sensitive, reliable and useful indicator for measurement of cumulative effects of antioxidants as an addition to metabolic profile tests, which are currently used to analyse dairy cattle health.

  4. Hypoglycemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre extracts on oxidative stress and antioxidant status in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Myung-Hwa; Lee, Min Sun; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Min, Kwan-Sik; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2012-03-14

    Diabetes mellitus, which is associated with oxidative damage, has a significant impact on health, quality of life, and life expectancy. An ethanol extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaf was examined in vitro and in vivo to investigate the role of antioxidants in diabetic rats. The extract exhibited strong antioxidant activity in the assays, including TBA (56%), SOD-like (92%), and ABTS (54%). Blood glucose levels in the diabetic rats fed G. sylvestre extract decreased to normal levels. The presence of the antihyperglycemic compounds gymnemagenin and gymnemic acids in G. sylvestre extract was detected by LC/MS analysis. Lipid peroxidation levels were decreased by 31.7% in serum, 9.9% in liver, and 9.1% in kidney in the diabetic rats fed the extract. Feeding G. sylvestre extract to the diabetic rats decreased the activity of glutathione peroxidase in cytosolic liver and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in serum to normal levels.

  5. Studies on antioxidant status in Mugil cephalus in response to heavy metal pollution at Ennore estuary.

    PubMed

    Padmini, E; Usha Rani, M; Vijaya Geetha, B

    2009-08-01

    Estuaries, the important component of natural environment are under pressure nowadays due to pollution from different sources like industries, agricultural fields etc. Ennore estuary one of the highly polluted estuary situated in Chennai, Tamilnadu, India, due to heavy industrialization surrounding this site poses serious threat to its inhabitants. The present paper focuses on studying the response of the fish Mugil cephalus with reference to its antioxidants during their exposure to metals like iron and chromium present in the industrial effluents that are discharged into the Ennore estuary. The results on comparison with unpolluted Kovalam estuary showed that fish from Ennore experiences severe oxidative stress with significant alteration being observed with antioxidant enzyme activities. Since these results were also found to vary with seasons, the determination of oxidative stress biomarkers in M. cephalus along with seasonal variations may serve as a convenient approach during pollution biomonitoring programme.

  6. Alteration of antioxidant defense status precedes humoral immune response abnormalities in macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Haddouche, Mustapha; Aribi, Mourad; Moulessehoul, Soraya; Smahi, Mohammed Chems-Eddine Ismet; Lammani, Mohammed; Benyoucef, Mohammed

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the anomalies affecting the antioxidant and humoral immune defenses could start at birth and to check whether the decrease in antioxidant defenses may precede the immune abnormalities in macrosomic newborns. Thirty macrosomic and 30 sex-matched control newborns were recruited for a retrospective case-control study at the Maghnia Maternity Hospital of Tlemcen Department (Algeria). The serum IgG levels were similar in both groups. However, plasma ORAC, albumin, vitamin E, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px levels were significantly decreased in macrosomic as compared to control newborns, yet no difference was observed after adjustment for weight. Additionally, serum concentrations of complement C3, MDA and XO were significantly higher in macrosomic as compared to controls before adjustment for weight. Moreover, macrosomia was significantly associated with high levels of complement C3 (OR=8, p=0.002); whereas no association with those of IgG was observed (OR<1, p>0.05). Furthermore, macrosomia was significantly associated with low levels of ORAC (OR=4.96, p=0.027), vitamin E (OR=4.5, p=0.018), SOD (OR=6.88, p=0.020) and CAT (OR=5.67, p=0.017), and with high levels of MDA (OR=10.29, p=0.005). Abnormalities of the humoral defense system in excessive weight could be preceded by alterations of the anti-oxidative defense and by inflammatory response and activation of innate immunity at birth. Additionally, excessive weight could be a potential factor contributing to decreased anti-oxidative capacity and increased oxidative stress.

  7. Alteration of antioxidant defense status precedes humoral immune response abnormalities in macrosomia

    PubMed Central

    Haddouche, Mustapha; Aribi, Mourad; Moulessehoul, Soraya; Smahi, Mohammed Chems-Eddine Ismet; Lammani, Mohammed; Benyoucef, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background This study aimed to investigate whether the anomalies affecting the antioxidant and humoral immune defenses could start at birth and to check whether the decrease in antioxidant defenses may precede the immune abnormalities in macrosomic newborns. Material/Methods Thirty macrosomic and 30 sex-matched control newborns were recruited for a retrospective case-control study at the Maghnia Maternity Hospital of Tlemcen Department (Algeria). Results The serum IgG levels were similar in both groups. However, plasma ORAC, albumin, vitamin E, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px levels were significantly decreased in macrosomic as compared to control newborns, yet no difference was observed after adjustment for weight. Additionally, serum concentrations of complement C3, MDA and XO were significantly higher in macrosomic as compared to controls before adjustment for weight. Moreover, macrosomia was significantly associated with high levels of complement C3 (OR=8, p=0.002); whereas no association with those of IgG was observed (OR<1, p>0.05). Furthermore, macrosomia was significantly associated with low levels of ORAC (OR=4.96, p=0.027), vitamin E (OR=4.5, p=0.018), SOD (OR=6.88, p=0.020) and CAT (OR=5.67, p=0.017), and with high levels of MDA (OR=10.29, p=0.005). Conclusions Abnormalities of the humoral defense system in excessive weight could be preceded by alterations of the anti-oxidative defense and by inflammatory response and activation of innate immunity at birth. Additionally, excessive weight could be a potential factor contributing to decreased anti-oxidative capacity and increased oxidative stress. PMID:22037745

  8. Lactobacillus intake for 60 days favors antioxidant status of human breast milk: an RCT.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Leila; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Khamnian, Zhila

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of lactobacillus supplementation on trends of breast milk antioxidant parameters. In an interventional study, 50 lactating women were randomly allocated to receive a daily supplement of lactobacillus (n=25) or a placebo (n=25) for 60 days. Daily dietary intake, anthropometric measures and breast milk antioxidant parameters were determined at the onset, and days 30 and 60 of the study. Repeated-measures ANOVA were performed to assess the change over time in the anthropometric and biochemical parameters between the two groups. The main effect of treatment was compared by using Bonferroni's procedure for CI adjustment. The significance level was set at p<0.05. There was a significant increase in breast milk total