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Sample records for modulation infrared reflection

  1. Origin of Infrared Light Modulation in Reflectance-Mode Photoplethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Sidorov, Igor S.; Romashko, Roman V.; Koval, Vasily T.; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2016-01-01

    We recently pointed out the important role of dermis deformation by pulsating arterial pressure in the formation of a photoplethysmographic signal at green light. The aim of this study was to explore the role of this novel finding in near-infrared (NIR) light. A light-emitting diode (LED)-based imaging photoplethysmography (IPPG) system was used to detect spatial distribution of blood pulsations under frame-to-frame switching green and NIR illumination in the palms of 34 healthy individuals. We observed a significant increase of light-intensity modulation at the heartbeat frequency for both illuminating wavelengths after a palm was contacted with a glass plate. Strong positive correlation between data measured at green and NIR light was found, suggesting that the same signal was read independently from the depth of penetration. Analysis of the data shows that an essential part of remitted NIR light is modulated in time as a result of elastic deformations of dermis caused by variable blood pressure in the arteries. Our observations suggest that in contrast with the classical model, photoplethysmographic waveform originates from the modulation of the density of capillaries caused by the variable pressure applied to the skin from large blood vessels. Particularly, beat-to-beat transmural pressure in arteries compresses/decompresses the dermis and deforms its connective-tissue components, thus affecting the distance between the capillaries, which results in the modulation of absorption and scattering coefficients of both green and NIR light. These findings are important for the correct interpretation of this widely used medical technique, which may have novel applications in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of aging and skin diseases. PMID:27768753

  2. Titanium-silicon oxide film structures for polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Iain E.; Zorn, Stefan; Richter, Gunther; Srot, Vesna; Kelsch, Marion; van Aken, Peter A.; Skoda, Maximilian; Gerlach, Alexander; Spatz, Joachim P.; Schreiber, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We present a titanium-silicon oxide film structure that permits polarization modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy on silicon oxide surfaces. The structure consists of a ~6 nm sputtered silicon oxide film on a ~200 nm sputtered titanium film. Characterization using conventional and scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray reflectometry is presented. We demonstrate the use of this structure to investigate a selectively protein-resistant self-assembled monolayer (SAM) consisting of silane-anchored, biotin-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG-associated IR bands were observed. Measurements of protein-characteristic band intensities showed that this SAM adsorbed streptavidin whereas it repelled bovine serum albumin, as had been expected from its structure. PMID:20418963

  3. Understanding the collapse mechanism in Langmuir monolayers through polarization modulation-infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Goto, Thiago Eichi; Caseli, Luciano

    2013-07-23

    The collapse of films at the air-water interface is related to a type of 2D-to-3D transition that occurs when a Langmuir monolayer is compressed beyond its stability limit. Studies on this issue are extremely important because defects in ultrathin solid films can be better understood if the molecular mechanisms related to collapse processes are elucidated. This paper explores how the changes of vibration of specific groups of lipid molecules, as revealed by polarization modulation-infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), are affected by the monolayer collapse. Different mechanisms of collapse were studied, for those lipids that undergo constant-area collapse (such as stearic acid) and for those that undergo constant-pressure collapse (such as DPPC, DPPG, and DODAB). Lipid charges also affect the mechanism of collapse, as demonstrated for two oppositely charged lipids.

  4. Adsorption on carbon nanotubes studied using polarization-modulated infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, V M

    2005-05-26

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), deposited onto an Al substrate from a liquid suspension, have been cleaned by annealing in ultrahigh vacuum. The effects of exposing the sample in situ to atomic H (or D) and/or to dimethyl methylphosphonate [DMMP, (CH(3)O)(2)(CH(3))P=O] were then studied using polarization-modulated infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. Atomic H reacts preferentially near strained or defective regions in the nanotube wall to produce a spectrum consistent with alkane-like species (>CH(2) and -CH(3)). Only a small fraction of the >C=C< sites in the nanotube wall react with H, and there is no clear evidence for monohydride >C(H)-C(H)< species. For DMMP, data were obtained under steady-state conditions in reagent pressures in excess of half the room-temperature vapor pressure. Adsorption occurs via the P=O group with a coverage that depends on the ambient pressure. Varying the DMMP coverage by changing the pressure causes changes in the spectrum that can be related to the strength of the DMMP/SWNT interaction. Preadsorbed H is seen to have little or no effect on the subsequent adsorption of DMMP. For DMMP, the molecular features are superimposed on a broad, smoothly varying background that can be related to adsorption-induced changes in the Drude parameters characterizing the SWNT free-carrier density and scattering lifetime.

  5. Structure of collagen adsorbed on a model implant surface resolved by polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Izabella; Habecker, Florian; Ahlers, Michael; Klüner, Thorsten

    2015-03-01

    The polarization modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectra of collagen adsorbed on a titania surface and quantum chemical calculations are used to describe components of the amide I mode to the protein structure at a sub-molecular level. In this study, imino acid rich and poor fragments, representing the entire collagen molecule, are taken into account. The amide I mode of the collagen triple helix is composed of three absorption bands which involve: (i) (∼1690 cm-1) the Cdbnd O stretching modes at unhydrated groups, (ii) (1655-1673 cm-1) the Cdbnd O stretching at carbonyl groups at imino acids and glycine forming intramolecular hydrogen bonds with H atoms at both NH2 and, unusual for proteins, CH2 groups at glycine at a neighbouring chain and (iii) (∼1640 cm-1) the Cdbnd O stretching at carbonyl groups forming hydrogen bonds between two, often charged, amino acids as well as hydrogen bonds to water along the entire helix. The IR spectrum of films prepared from diluted solutions (c < 50 μg ml-1) corresponds to solution spectra indicating that native collagen molecules interact with water adsorbed on the titania surface. In films prepared from solutions (c ⩾ 50 μg ml-1) collagen multilayers are formed. The amide I mode is blue-shifted by 18 cm-1, indicating that intramolecular hydrogen bonds at imino acid rich fragments are weakened. Simultaneous red-shift of the amide A mode implies that the strength of hydrogen bonds at the imino acid poor fragments increases. Theoretically predicted distortion of the collagen structure upon adsorption on the titania surface is experimentally confirmed.

  6. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  7. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, Ian J.; Wendt, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

  8. Modulated infrared radiant source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, W. F.; Edwards, S. F.; Vann, D. S.; McCormick, R. F.

    1981-06-01

    A modulated, infrared radiant energy source was developed to calibrate an airborne nadir-viewing pressure modulated radiometer to be used to detect from Earth orbit trace gases in the troposphere. The technique used an 8 cm long, 0.005 cm diameter platinum-iridium wire as an isothermal, thin line radiant energy source maintained at 1200 K. A + or - 20 K signal, oscillating at controllable frequencies from dc to 20 Hz, was superimposed on it. This periodic variation of the line source energy was used to verify the pressure modulated radiometer's capability to distinguish between the signal variations caused by the Earth's background surface and the signal from the atmospheric gases of interest.

  9. Modulated infrared radiant source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. F.; Edwards, S. F.; Vann, D. S.; Mccormick, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A modulated, infrared radiant energy source was developed to calibrate an airborne nadir-viewing pressure modulated radiometer to be used to detect from Earth orbit trace gases in the troposphere. The technique used an 8 cm long, 0.005 cm diameter platinum-iridium wire as an isothermal, thin line radiant energy source maintained at 1200 K. A + or - 20 K signal, oscillating at controllable frequencies from dc to 20 Hz, was superimposed on it. This periodic variation of the line source energy was used to verify the pressure modulated radiometer's capability to distinguish between the signal variations caused by the Earth's background surface and the signal from the atmospheric gases of interest.

  10. An experimental set-up to apply polarization modulation to infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy for improved in situ studies of atmospheric corrosion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesinger, R.; Schade, U.; Kleber, Ch.; Schreiner, M.

    2014-06-15

    A new set-up for improved monitoring of atmospheric corrosion processes in situ and in real-time is presented. To characterize chemical structures of thin films on metal surfaces surface sensitive analytical techniques are required. One possible technique is Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS) which has become an established method to investigate surface corrosion films of thicknesses less than 200 nm. However, there are limitations related to the sensitivity of these measurements, in case of investigating ultrathin films or absorption bands of interest, surface species are superimposed by atmospheric background absorption, which changes during in situ measurements in ambient atmospheres. These difficulties of in situ surface reflection measurements can be eliminated by availing the polarization selectivity of adsorbed surface species. At grazing angles of incidence the absorption of p-polarized infrared radiation by thin surface films on metals is enhanced, while the absorption of s-polarized light by this film is nearly zero. This different behavior of the polarization properties leads to strong selection rules at the surface and can therefore be used to identify molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Polarization Modulation (PM) of the infrared (IR) light takes advantage of this disparity of polarization on sample surfaces and in combination with IRRAS yielding a very sensitive and surface-selective method for obtaining IR spectra of ultra-thin films on metal surfaces. An already existing in situ IRRAS/Quartz Crystal Microbalance weathering cell was combined with PM and evaluated according to its applicability to study in situ atmospheric corrosion processes. First real-time measurements on silver samples exposed to different atmospheres were performed showing the advantage of PM-IRRAS compared to conventional IRRAS for such investigations.

  11. An experimental set-up to apply polarization modulation to infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy for improved in situ studies of atmospheric corrosion processes.

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, R; Schade, U; Kleber, Ch; Schreiner, M

    2014-06-01

    A new set-up for improved monitoring of atmospheric corrosion processes in situ and in real-time is presented. To characterize chemical structures of thin films on metal surfaces surface sensitive analytical techniques are required. One possible technique is Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS) which has become an established method to investigate surface corrosion films of thicknesses less than 200 nm. However, there are limitations related to the sensitivity of these measurements, in case of investigating ultrathin films or absorption bands of interest, surface species are superimposed by atmospheric background absorption, which changes during in situ measurements in ambient atmospheres. These difficulties of in situ surface reflection measurements can be eliminated by availing the polarization selectivity of adsorbed surface species. At grazing angles of incidence the absorption of p-polarized infrared radiation by thin surface films on metals is enhanced, while the absorption of s-polarized light by this film is nearly zero. This different behavior of the polarization properties leads to strong selection rules at the surface and can therefore be used to identify molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Polarization Modulation (PM) of the infrared (IR) light takes advantage of this disparity of polarization on sample surfaces and in combination with IRRAS yielding a very sensitive and surface-selective method for obtaining IR spectra of ultra-thin films on metal surfaces. An already existing in situ IRRAS/Quartz Crystal Microbalance weathering cell was combined with PM and evaluated according to its applicability to study in situ atmospheric corrosion processes. First real-time measurements on silver samples exposed to different atmospheres were performed showing the advantage of PM-IRRAS compared to conventional IRRAS for such investigations.

  12. An experimental set-up to apply polarization modulation to infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy for improved in situ studies of atmospheric corrosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesinger, R.; Schade, U.; Kleber, Ch.; Schreiner, M.

    2014-06-01

    A new set-up for improved monitoring of atmospheric corrosion processes in situ and in real-time is presented. To characterize chemical structures of thin films on metal surfaces surface sensitive analytical techniques are required. One possible technique is Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS) which has become an established method to investigate surface corrosion films of thicknesses less than 200 nm. However, there are limitations related to the sensitivity of these measurements, in case of investigating ultrathin films or absorption bands of interest, surface species are superimposed by atmospheric background absorption, which changes during in situ measurements in ambient atmospheres. These difficulties of in situ surface reflection measurements can be eliminated by availing the polarization selectivity of adsorbed surface species. At grazing angles of incidence the absorption of p-polarized infrared radiation by thin surface films on metals is enhanced, while the absorption of s-polarized light by this film is nearly zero. This different behavior of the polarization properties leads to strong selection rules at the surface and can therefore be used to identify molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Polarization Modulation (PM) of the infrared (IR) light takes advantage of this disparity of polarization on sample surfaces and in combination with IRRAS yielding a very sensitive and surface-selective method for obtaining IR spectra of ultra-thin films on metal surfaces. An already existing in situ IRRAS/Quartz Crystal Microbalance weathering cell was combined with PM and evaluated according to its applicability to study in situ atmospheric corrosion processes. First real-time measurements on silver samples exposed to different atmospheres were performed showing the advantage of PM-IRRAS compared to conventional IRRAS for such investigations.

  13. Development of attenuated total reflection based compression modulation step-scan Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and its applications to rheo-spectral characterizations of polymer films.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Yuji; Nakano, Tatsuhiko; Miyauchi, Hiroshi; Nishikida, Koichi; Jiang, Eric Y

    2004-08-01

    Dynamic compression modulation attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopic methods have been developed in this paper for characterizing polymer films. To obtain dynamic compression polarized ATR spectra, internal reflection element (IRE) secure assemblies made of tungsten carbide with very high hardness (Knoop hardness of > 1000 kgf/mm(2)) have been designed. These assemblies are mounted on the Harrick Seagull ATR attachment and measured by step-scan FT-IR spectroscopy. The effect of static compression, air gaps, and refractive index changes were examined. Experimental and simulated results showed that the effect of air gaps between the sample and IRE and refractive index changes of the sample and IRE are negligible at values larger than a static torque of 40 cN m and good signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and reproducible data can be obtained. Uniaxially and biaxially drawn poly(ethylene terephthalate) films were measured by the presented method. Both bipolar and unipolar bands were observed in the dynamic in-phase ATR spectra, which can be associated with their micro-structural environmental changes. This technique shows promise in evaluating various polymer film materials, including biaxially oriented films, multilayer coated film surfaces, and molecular interactions between polymer-polymer and polymer-additives at the film surface.

  14. Advanced infrared laser modulator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheo, P. K.; Wagner, R.; Gilden, M.

    1984-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to develop an electrooptic waveguide modulator for generating continuous tunable sideband power from an infrared CO2 laser. Parameters included were the waveguide configurations, microstrip dimensions device impedance, and effective dielectric constants. An optimum infrared laser modulator was established and was fabricated. This modulator represents the state-of-the-art integrated optical device, which has a three-dimensional topology to accommodate three lambda/4 step transformers for microwave impedance matching at both the input and output terminals. A flat frequency response of the device over 20 HGz or = 3 dB) was achieved. Maximum single sideband to carrier power greater than 1.2% for 20 W microwave input power at optical carrier wavelength of 10.6 microns was obtained.

  15. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Gerouki, A.; Liu, T.Y.; Goldner, M.A.; Haas, T.E.

    2000-07-25

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 mum.

  16. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Haas, Terry E.

    2000-01-01

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

  17. Breeds and muscle types modulate performance of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict the fatty acid composition of bovine meat.

    PubMed

    Mourot, B P; Gruffat, D; Durand, D; Chesneau, G; Mairesse, G; Andueza, D

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy feasibility for predicting beef fatty acid (FA) composition. Experimental scheme included four breeds (Angus, Blond d'Aquitaine, Charolais, Limousin) and three muscles, Longissimus thoracis (LT), Rectus abdominis (RA), Semitendinosus (ST). The results showed that 1) increasing FA content variability with several breeds increased calibration model reliability (R(2)CV>0.86) for the major individual and groups of FA unless polyunsaturated FAs, 2) Longissimus thoracis FAs were better predicted than RA FAs while no ST FAs were correctly predicted (R(2)CV<0.71). This difference could be explained by FA content, FA variability or specific muscle physico-chemical characteristics.

  18. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  19. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  20. Identification coding schemes for modulated reflectance systems

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Don M.; Briles, Scott D.; Neagley, Daniel L.; Platts, David; Clark, David D.

    2006-08-22

    An identifying coding apparatus employing modulated reflectance technology involving a base station emitting a RF signal, with a tag, located remotely from the base station, and containing at least one antenna and predetermined other passive circuit components, receiving the RF signal and reflecting back to the base station a modulated signal indicative of characteristics related to the tag.

  1. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOEpatents

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  2. Dispersion effects on infrared spectra in attenuated total reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belali, Rabah; Vigoureux, Jean-Marie; Morvan, Joseph

    1995-12-01

    A potential problem with the attenuated total reflection that is used to measure infrared spectra is described. The problem is the possibility that the anomalous dispersion associated with an infrared absorption band may cause the experimental configuration to move from the attenuated total reflection regime to the specular reflection regime, with consequent distortion of the apparent absorption bands and consequent error in the interpretation of the bands if the problem is not recognized. Key infrared spectra, attenuated total reflection, specular reflection, polyethylene terephtalate. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America

  3. Temperature-dependent modulated reflectance of InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nedzinskas, R. Čechavičius, B.; Rimkus, A.; Pozingytė, E.; Kavaliauskas, J.; Valušis, G.; Li, L. H.; Linfield, E. H.

    2015-04-14

    We present a photoreflectance (PR) study of multi-layer InAs quantum dot (QD) photodetector structures, incorporating InGaAs overgrown layers and positioned asymmetrically within GaAs/AlAs quantum wells (QWs). The influence of the back-surface reflections on the QD PR spectra is explained and a temperature-dependent photomodulation mechanism is discussed. The optical interband transitions originating from the QD/QW ground- and excited-states are revealed and their temperature behaviour in the range of 3–300 K is established. In particular, we estimated the activation energy (∼320 meV) of exciton thermal escape from QD to QW bound-states at high temperatures. Furthermore, from the obtained Varshni parameters, a strain-driven partial decomposition of the InGaAs cap layer is determined.

  4. Infrared-Bolometer Arrays with Reflective Backshorts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Abrahams, John; Allen, Christine A.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated circuits that incorporate square arrays of superconducting-transition- edge bolometers with optically reflective backshorts are being developed for use in image sensors in the spectral range from far infrared to millimeter wavelengths. To maximize the optical efficiency (and, thus, sensitivity) of such a sensor at a specific wavelength, resonant optical structures are created by placing the backshorts at a quarter wavelength behind the bolometer plane. The bolometer and backshort arrays are fabricated separately, then integrated to form a single unit denoted a backshort-under-grid (BUG) bolometer array. In a subsequent fabrication step, the BUG bolometer array is connected, by use of single-sided indium bump bonding, to a readout device that comprises mostly a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer circuit. The resulting sensor unit comprising the BUG bolometer array and the readout device is operated at a temperature below 1 K. The concept of increasing optical efficiency by use of backshorts at a quarter wavelength behind the bolometers is not new. Instead, the novelty of the present development lies mainly in several features of the design of the BUG bolometer array and the fabrication sequence used to implement the design. Prior to joining with the backshort array, the bolometer array comprises, more specifically, a square grid of free-standing molybdenum/gold superconducting-transition-edge bolometer elements on a 1.4- m-thick top layer of silicon that is part of a silicon support frame made from a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The backshort array is fabricated separately as a frame structure that includes support beams and contains a correspond - ing grid of optically reflective patches on a single-crystal silicon substrate. The process used to fabricate the bolometer array includes standard patterning and etching steps that result in the formation of deep notches in the silicon support frame. These notches are designed to

  5. Spectral infrared hemispherical reflectance measurements for LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Bobby E.; Cromwell, Brian K.; Pender, Charles W.; Shepherd, Seth D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes infrared hemispherical reflectance measurements (2-15 microns) that were made on 58 chromic acid anodized tray clamps retrieved from the LDEF spacecraft. These clamps were used for maintaining the experiments in place and were located at various locations about the spacecraft. Changes in reflectance of the tray clamps at these locations were compared with atomic oxygen fluxes at the same locations. A decrease in absorption band depth was seen for the surfaces exposed to space indicating that there was some surface layer erosion. In all of the surfaces measured, little evidence of contamination was observed and none of the samples showed evidence of the brown nicotine stain that was so prominent in other experiments. Total emissivity values were calculated for both exposed and unexposed tray clamp surfaces. Only small differences, usually less than 1 percent, were observed. The spectral reflectances were measured using a hemi-ellipsoidal mirror reflectometer matched with an interferometer spectrometer. The rapid scanning capability of the interferometer allowed the reflectance measurements to be made in a timely fashion. The ellipsoidal mirror has its two foci separated by 2 inches and located on the major axis. A blackbody source was located at one focus while the tray clamp samples were located at the conjugate focus. The blackbody radiation was modulated and then focused by the ellipsoid onto the tray clamps. Radiation reflected from the tray clamp was sampled by the interferometer by viewing through a hole in the ellipsoid. A gold mirror (reflectance approximately 98 percent) was used as the reference surface.

  6. Potential Modulation on Total Internal Reflection Ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Niu, Yu; Viana, A S; Correia, Jorge P; Jin, Gang

    2016-03-15

    Electrochemical-total internal reflection ellipsometry (EC-TIRE) has been proposed as a technique to observe the redox reactions on the electrode surface due to its high phase sensitivity to the electrolyte/electrode interface. In this paper, we mainly focus on the influence of the potential modulation on the TIRE response. The analysis suggests that both dielectric constant variation of gold and the electric double layer transformation would modulate the reflection polarization of the surface. For a nonfaradaic process, the signal of TIRE would be proportional to the potential modulation. To testify the analysis, linear sweep voltammetry and open circuit measurement have been performed. The results strongly support the system analysis. PMID:26889871

  7. Light distribution modulated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pin-Yuan; Chien, Chun-Yu; Sheu, Chia-Rong; Chen, Yu-Wen; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-06-01

    Typically, a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) system employing a continuous wave light source would need to acquire diffuse reflectances measured at multiple source-detector separations for determining the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of turbid samples. This results in a multi-fiber probe structure and an indefinite probing depth. Here we present a novel DRS method that can utilize a few diffuse reflectances measured at one source-detector separation for recovering the optical properties of samples. The core of innovation is a liquid crystal (LC) cell whose scattering property can be modulated by the bias voltage. By placing the LC cell between the light source and the sample, the spatial distribution of light in the sample can be varied as the scattering property of the LC cell modulated by the bias voltage, and this would induce intensity variation of the collected diffuse reflectance. From a series of Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements, we found that this new light distribution modulated DRS (LDM DRS) system was capable of accurately recover the absorption and scattering coefficients of turbid samples and its probing depth only varied by less than 3% over the full bias voltage variation range. Our results suggest that this LDM DRS platform could be developed to various low-cost, efficient, and compact systems for in-vivo superficial tissue investigation. PMID:27375931

  8. Light distribution modulated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pin-Yuan; Chien, Chun-Yu; Sheu, Chia-Rong; Chen, Yu-Wen; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Typically, a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) system employing a continuous wave light source would need to acquire diffuse reflectances measured at multiple source-detector separations for determining the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of turbid samples. This results in a multi-fiber probe structure and an indefinite probing depth. Here we present a novel DRS method that can utilize a few diffuse reflectances measured at one source-detector separation for recovering the optical properties of samples. The core of innovation is a liquid crystal (LC) cell whose scattering property can be modulated by the bias voltage. By placing the LC cell between the light source and the sample, the spatial distribution of light in the sample can be varied as the scattering property of the LC cell modulated by the bias voltage, and this would induce intensity variation of the collected diffuse reflectance. From a series of Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements, we found that this new light distribution modulated DRS (LDM DRS) system was capable of accurately recover the absorption and scattering coefficients of turbid samples and its probing depth only varied by less than 3% over the full bias voltage variation range. Our results suggest that this LDM DRS platform could be developed to various low-cost, efficient, and compact systems for in-vivo superficial tissue investigation. PMID:27375931

  9. Space photovoltaic modules based on reflective optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V. M.; Larionov, V. R.; Rumyantsev, V. D.; Shvarts, M. Z.

    1995-01-01

    The conceptual design and experimental results for two types of space application concentrator photovoltaic modules, employing reflective optical elements, are presented. The first type is based on the use of compound parabolic concentrators, the second type is based on the use of line-focus parabolic troughs. Lightweight concentrators are formed with nickel foil coated silver with a diamond-like carbon layer protection. Secondary optical elements, including lenses and cones, are introduced for a better matching of concentrators and solar cells. Both types of modules are characterized by concentration ratios in the range 20x to 30x, depending on the chosen range of misorientation angles. The estimated specific parameters of these modules operating with single junction AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells are 240 W/sq m and 3 kg/sq m.

  10. Infrared studies of dust grains in infrared reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Werner, Michael W.

    1989-01-01

    IR reflection nebulae, regions of dust which are illuminated by nearby embedded sources, were observed in several regions of ongoing star formation. Near IR observation and theoretical modelling of the scattered light form IR reflection nebulae can provide information about the dust grain properties in star forming regions. IR reflection nebulae were modelled as plane parallel slabs assuming isotropically scattering grains. For the grain scattering properties, graphite and silicate grains were used with a power law grain size distribution. Among the free parameters of the model are the stellar luminosity and effective temperature, the optical depth of the nebula, and the extinction by foreground material. The typical results from this model are presented and discussed.

  11. Atmospheric modulation transfer function in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskila, Kobi; Towito, Shay; Shmuel, Elad; Levi, Ran; Kopeika, Natan; Krapels, Keith; Driggers, Ronald G.; Vollmerhausen, Richard H.; Halford, Carl E.

    2004-01-01

    In high-resolution ultranarrow field-of-view thermal imagers, image quality over relatively long path lengths is typically limited by atmospheric degradation, especially atmospheric blur. We report our results and analyses of infrared images from two sites, Fort A. P. Hill and Aberdeen Proving Ground. The images are influenced by the various atmospheric phenomena: scattering, absorption, and turbulence. A series of experiments with high-resolution equipment in both the 3-5- and 8-13-μm regions at the two locations indicate that, as in the visible, image quality is limited much more by atmosphere than by the instrumentation for ranges even of the order of only a few kilometers. For paths close to the ground, turbulence is more dominant, whereas for paths involving higher average elevation, aerosol modulation transfer function (MTF) is dominant. As wavelength increases, turbulence MTF also increases, thus permitting aerosol MTF to become more dominant. A critical role in aerosol MTF in the thermal infrared is attributed to absorption, which noticeably decreases atmospheric transmission much more than in the visible, thereby reducing high-spatial-frequency aerosol MTF. These measurements indicate that atmospheric MTF should be a basic component in imaging system design and analysis even in the infrared, especially as higher-resolution hardware becomes available.

  12. Atmospheric modulation transfer function in the infrared.

    PubMed

    Buskila, Kobi; Towito, Shay; Shmuel, Elad; Levi, Ran; Kopeika, Natan; Krapels, Keith; Driggers, Ronald G; Vollmerhausen, Richard H; Halford, Carl E

    2004-01-10

    In high-resolution ultranarrow field-of-view thermal imagers, image quality over relatively long path lengths is typically limited by atmospheric degradation, especially atmospheric blur. We report our results and analyses of infrared images from two sites, Fort A. P. Hill and Aberdeen Proving Ground. The images are influenced by the various atmospheric phenomena: scattering, absorption, and turbulence. A series of experiments with high-resolution equipment in both the 3-5- and 8-13-microm regions at the two locations indicate that, as in the visible, image quality is limited much more by atmosphere than by the instrumentation for ranges even of the order of only a few kilometers. For paths close to the ground, turbulence is more dominant, whereas for paths involving higher average elevation, aerosol modulation transfer function (MTF) is dominant. As wavelength increases, turbulence MTF also increases, thus permitting aerosol MTF to become more dominant. A critical role in aerosol MTF in the thermal infrared is attributed to absorption, which noticeably decreases atmospheric transmission much more than in the visible, thereby reducing high-spatial-frequency aerosol MTF. These measurements indicate that atmospheric MTF should be a basic component in imaging system design and analysis even in the infrared, especially as higher-resolution hardware becomes available.

  13. Forensic applications of microscopical infrared internal reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungol, Mary W.; Bartick, Edward G.; Reffner, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Applications of microscopical infrared internal reflection spectroscopy in forensic science are discussed. Internal reflection spectra of single fibers, hairs, paint chips, vehicle rubber bumpers, photocopy toners, carbon copies, writing ink on paper, lipstick on tissue, black electrical tape, and other types of forensic evidence have been obtained. The technique is convenient, non-destructive, and may permit smeared materials to be analyzed in situ.

  14. Red and near-infrared spectral reflectance of snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, H. W.; Munis, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance of snow in the range of 0.60 to 2.50 microns wavelengths was studied in a cold laboratory using natural snow and simulated preparations of snow. A white barium sulfate powder was used as the standard for comparison. The high reflectance (usually nearly 100%) of fresh natural snow in visible wavelengths declines rapidly at wavelengths longer than the visible, as the spectral absorption coefficients of ice increase. Aging snow becomes only somewhat less reflective than fresh snow in the visible region and usually retains a reflectance greater than 80%. In the near infrared, aging snow tends to become considerably less reflective than fresh snow.

  15. Infrared reflectance of high altitude clouds.

    PubMed

    Hovis, W A; Blaine, L R; Forman, M L

    1970-03-01

    The spectral reflectance characteristics of cirrostratus, cirrus clouds, and a jet contrail, in the 0.68-2.4-micro spectral interval, are of interest for remote sensing of cloud types from orbiting satellites. Measurements made with a down-looking spectrometer from a high altitude aircraft show differences between the signatures of naturally formed ice clouds, a fresh jet contrail, and a snow covered surface.

  16. Capabilities and Limitations of Infrared Reflectance Microspectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, R. L.; Pieters, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Technological improvements in IR microspectroscopy have made it an increasingly appealing tool for planetary mineralogy. Microspectroscopy presents the prospect of examining small samples nondestructively and acquiring spectra that can be related to remote sensing observations. However, complications are introduced as a target beam size is reduced, and it is critical that limitations are understood. We present the results of a series of well constrained spectroscopic measurements, linking microspectroscopic data to traditionally collected reflectance spectra and petrologic information for the same rock.

  17. The near-infrared continuum emission of visual reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellgren, K.

    1984-01-01

    In the past, reflection nebulae have provided an astrophysical laboratory well suited for the study of the reflection properties of interstellar dust grains at visual and ultraviolet wavelengths. The present investigation is concerned with observations which were begun with the objective to extend to near-infrared wavelengths the study of grains in reflection. Observations of three classical visual reflection nebulae were conducted in the wavelength range from 1.25 to 2.2 microns, taking into account NGC 7023, 2023, and 2068. All three nebulae were found to have similar near-infrared colors, despite widely different colors of their illuminating stars. The brightness level shown by two of the nebulae at 2.2 microns was too high to be easily accounted for on the basis of reflected light. Attention is given to a wide variety of possible emission mechanisms.

  18. Infrared reflection nebulae in Orion Molecular Cloud 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne; Werner, M. W.; Capps, R.; Lester, D.

    1986-01-01

    New observations of Orion Molecular Cloud 2 have been made from 1 to 100 microns using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. An extensive program of polarimetry, photometry, and spectrophotometry has shown that the extended emission regions associated with two of the previously known near-infrared sources, IRS 1 and IRS 4, are infrared reflection nebulae, and that the compact sources IRS 1 and IRS 4 are the main luminosity sources in the cloud. The constraints from the far-infrared observations and an analysis of the scattered light from the IRS 1 nebula show that OMC-2/IRS 1 can be characterized by L of 500 solar luminosities or less and T of roughly 1000 K. The near-infrared albedo of the grains in the IRS 1 nebula is greater than 0.08.

  19. Infrared reflection nebulae in Orion molecular cloud 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Y.; Werner, M. W.; Capps, R.; Lester, D.

    1986-01-01

    New obervations of Orion Molecular Cloud-2 have been made from 1-100 microns using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. An extensive program of polarimetry, photometry and spectrophotometry has shown that the extended emission regions associated with two of the previously known near infrared sources, IRS1 and IRS4, are infrared reflection nebulae, and that the compact sources IRS1 and IRS4 are the main luminosity sources in the cloud. The constraints from the far infrared observations and an analysis of the scattered light from the IRS1 nebula show that OMC-2/IRS1 can be characterized by L less than or equal to 500 Solar luminosities and T approx. 1000 K. The near infrared (1-5) micron albedo of the grains in the IRS1 nebula is greater than 0.08.

  20. Infrared spectra of lunar soil analogs. [spectral reflectance of minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronson, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The infrared spectra of analogs of lunar soils were investigated to further the development of methodology for interpretation of remotely measured infrared spectra of the lunar surface. The optical constants of dunite, bytownite, augite, ilmenite, and a mare glass analog were obtained. The infrared emittance spectra of powdered minerals were measured and compared with spectra calculated by the reflectance theory using a catalog of optical constants. The results indicate that the predictions of the theory closely simulate the experimental measurements if the optical constants are properly derived.

  1. Mid-Infrared Reflectance Imaging of Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edlridge, Jeffrey I.; Martin, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus for mid-infrared reflectance imaging has been developed as means of inspecting for subsurface damage in thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs). The apparatus is designed, more specifically, for imaging the progression of buried delamination cracks in plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings on turbine-engine components. Progression of TBC delamination occurs by the formation of buried cracks that grow and then link together to produce eventual TBC spallation. The mid-infrared reflectance imaging system described here makes it possible to see delamination progression that is invisible to the unaided eye, and therefore give sufficiently advanced warning before delamination progression adversely affects engine performance and safety. The apparatus (see figure) includes a commercial mid-infrared camera that contains a liquid-nitrogen-cooled focal plane indium antimonide photodetector array, and imaging is restricted by a narrow bandpass centered at wavelength of 4 microns. This narrow wavelength range centered at 4 microns was chosen because (1) it enables avoidance of interfering absorptions by atmospheric OH and CO2 at 3 and 4.25 microns, respectively; and (2) the coating material exhibits maximum transparency in this wavelength range. Delamination contrast is produced in the midinfrared reflectance images because the introduction of cracks into the TBC creates an internal TBC/air-gap interface with a high diffuse reflectivity of 0.81, resulting in substantially higher reflectance of mid-infrared radiation in regions that contain buried delamination cracks. The camera is positioned a short distance (.12 cm) from the specimen. The mid-infrared illumination is generated by a 50-watt silicon carbide source positioned to the side of the mid-infrared camera, and the illumination is collimated and reflected onto the specimen by a 6.35-cm-diameter off-axis paraboloidal mirror. Because the collected images are of a steady-state reflected intensity (in

  2. Extended near-infrared emission from visual reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellgren, K.; Werner, M. W.; Dinerstein, H. L.

    1983-01-01

    Extended near infrared (2 to 5 microns) emission was observed from three visual reflection nebulae, NGC 7023, 2023, and 2068. The emission from each nebula consists of a smooth continuum, which can be described by a greybody with a color temperature of 1000 K, and emission features at 3.3 and 3.4 microns. The continuum emission cannot be explained by free-free emission, reflected light, or field stars, or by thermal emission from grains, with commonly accepted ratios of infrared to ultraviolet emissivities, which are in equilibrium with the stellar radiation field. A possible explanation is thermal emission from grains with extremely low ratios of infrared to ultraviolet emissivities, or from grains with a temperature determined by mechanisms other than equilibrium radiative heating. Another possibility is continuum fluorescence. Previously announced in STAR N83-25629

  3. Extended near infrared emission from visual reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellgren, K.; Werner, M. W.; Dinerstein, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    Extended near infrared (2 to 5 microns) emission was observed from three visual reflection nebulae, NGC 7023, 2023, and 2068. The emission from each nebula consists of a smooth continuum, which can be described by a greybody with a color temperature of 1000 K, and emission features at 3.3 and 3.4 microns. The continuum emission cannot be explained by free-free emission, reflected light, or field stars, or by thermal emission from grains, with commonly accepted ratios of infrared to ultraviolet emissivities, which are in equilibrium with the stellar radiation field. A possible explanation is thermal emission from grains with extremely low ratios of infrared to ultraviolet emissivities, or from grains with a temperature determined by mechanisms other than equilibrium radiative heating. Another possibility is continuum fluorescence.

  4. Improved Spatial Resolution For Reflection Mode Infrared Spectromicroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C.; May, T. E.; Lerch, Philippe

    2009-08-13

    Standard commercial infrared microscopes operating in reflection mode use a mirror to direct the reflected light from the sample to the detector. This mirror blocks about half of the incident light, however, and thus degrades the spatial resolution by reducing the numerical aperture of the objective. Here, we replace the mirror with a 50% beamsplitter to allow full illumination of the objective and retain a way to direct the reflected light to the detector. The improved spatial resolution is demonstrated using a microscope coupled to a synchrotron source.

  5. [Identification of pearl powder using microscopic infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Hu, Chao; Yan, Yan; Yang, Hai-Feng; Li, Jun-Fang; Bai, Hua; Xi, Guang-Cheng; Liao, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Pearl is a precious ornament and traditional Chinese medicine, which application history in China is more than 2000 years. It is well known that the chemical ingredients of shell and pearl are very similar, which all of them including calcium carbonate and various amino acids. Generally, shell powders also can be used as medicine; however, its medicinal value is much lower than that of pearl powders. Due to the feature similarity between pearl powders and shell powders, the distinguishment of them by detecting chemical composition and morphology is very difficult. It should be noted that shell powders have been often posing as pearl powders in markets, which seriously infringes the interests of consumers. Identification of pearl powder was investigated by microscopic infrared reflectance spectroscopy, and pearl powder as well as shell powder was calcined at different temperatures for different time before infrared reflectance spectroscopy analysis. The experimental results indicated that when calcined at 400 °C for 30 minutes under atmospheric pressure, aragonite in pearl powder partly transformed into calcite, while aragonite in shell powder completely transformed into calcite. At the same time, the difference in phase transition between the pearl powders 'and shell powders can be easily detected by using the microscopic infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Therefore, based on the difference in their phase transition process, infrared reflectance spectroscopy can be used to identify phase transformation differences between pearl powder and shell powder. It's more meaningfully that the proposed infrared reflectance spec- troscopy method was also investigated for the applicability to other common counterfeits, such as oyster shell powders and abalone shell powders, and the results show that the method can be a simple, efficiently and accurately method for identification of pearl powder. PMID:25532338

  6. Studies of dust grain properties in infrared reflection nebulae.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Y J; Tielens, A G; Werner, M W

    1990-01-20

    We have developed a model for reflection nebulae around luminous infrared sources embedded in dense dust clouds. The aim of this study is to determine the sizes of the scattering grains. In our analysis, we have adopted an MRN-like power-law size distribution (Mathis, Rumpl, and Nordsieck) of graphite and silicate grains, but other current dust models would give results which were substantially the same. In the optically thin limit, the intensity of the scattered light is proportional to the dust column density, while in the optically thick limit, it reflects the grain albedo. The results show that the shape of the infrared spectrum is the result of a combination of the scattering properties of the dust, the spectrum of the illuminating source, and foreground extinction, while geometry plays a minor role. Comparison of our model results with infrared observations of the reflection nebula surrounding OMC-2/IRS 1 shows that either a grain size distribution like that found in the diffuse interstellar medium, or one consisting of larger grains, can explain the observed shape of the spectrum. However, the absolute intensity level of the scattered light, as well as the observed polarization, requires large grains (approximately 5000 angstroms). By adding water ice mantles to the silicate and graphite cores, we have modeled the 3.08 micrometers ice band feature, which has been observed in the spectra of several infrared reflection nebulae. We show that this ice band arises naturally in optically thick reflection nebulae containing ice-coated grains. We show that the shape of the ice band is diagnostic of the presence of large grains, as previously suggested by Knacke and McCorkle. Comparison with observations of the BN/KL reflection nebula in the OMC-1 cloud shows that large ice grains (approximately 5000 angstroms) contribute substantially to the scattered light. PMID:11538693

  7. Studies of dust grain properties in infrared reflection nebulae.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Y J; Tielens, A G; Werner, M W

    1990-01-20

    We have developed a model for reflection nebulae around luminous infrared sources embedded in dense dust clouds. The aim of this study is to determine the sizes of the scattering grains. In our analysis, we have adopted an MRN-like power-law size distribution (Mathis, Rumpl, and Nordsieck) of graphite and silicate grains, but other current dust models would give results which were substantially the same. In the optically thin limit, the intensity of the scattered light is proportional to the dust column density, while in the optically thick limit, it reflects the grain albedo. The results show that the shape of the infrared spectrum is the result of a combination of the scattering properties of the dust, the spectrum of the illuminating source, and foreground extinction, while geometry plays a minor role. Comparison of our model results with infrared observations of the reflection nebula surrounding OMC-2/IRS 1 shows that either a grain size distribution like that found in the diffuse interstellar medium, or one consisting of larger grains, can explain the observed shape of the spectrum. However, the absolute intensity level of the scattered light, as well as the observed polarization, requires large grains (approximately 5000 angstroms). By adding water ice mantles to the silicate and graphite cores, we have modeled the 3.08 micrometers ice band feature, which has been observed in the spectra of several infrared reflection nebulae. We show that this ice band arises naturally in optically thick reflection nebulae containing ice-coated grains. We show that the shape of the ice band is diagnostic of the presence of large grains, as previously suggested by Knacke and McCorkle. Comparison with observations of the BN/KL reflection nebula in the OMC-1 cloud shows that large ice grains (approximately 5000 angstroms) contribute substantially to the scattered light.

  8. Infrared reflectance spectra: effects of particle size, provenance and preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yin-Fong; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Forland, Brenda M.; Szecsody, J. E.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-10-01

    We have recently developed methods for making more accurate infrared total and diffuse directional - hemispherical reflectance measurements using an integrating sphere. We have found that reflectance spectra of solids, especially powders, are influenced by a number of factors including the sample preparation method, the particle size and morphology, as well as the sample origin. On a quantitative basis we have investigated some of these parameters and the effects they have on reflectance spectra, particularly in the longwave infrared. In the IR the spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: In general, upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from strong surface scattering, i.e. rays that are reflected from the surface without bulk penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signals reflected from solids usually encompass all such effects, but with strong dependencies on particle size and preparation. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 - 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to observe the effects on the spectral features: Bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions between 5 and 500 microns. The median particle size is demonstrated to have large effects on the reflectance spectra. For certain minerals we also observe significant spectral change depending on the geologic origin of the sample. All three such effects (particle size, preparation and provenance) result in substantial change in the reflectance spectra for solid materials; successful identification algorithms will require sufficient flexibility to account for these parameters.

  9. Infrared reflectance spectra: Effects of particle size, provenance and preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yin-Fong; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Forland, Brenda M.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-09-22

    We have recently developed methods for making more accurate infrared total and diffuse directional - hemispherical reflectance measurements using an integrating sphere. We have found that reflectance spectra of solids, especially powders, are influenced by a number of factors including the sample preparation method, the particle size and morphology, as well as the sample origin. On a quantitative basis we have investigated some of these parameters and the effects they have on reflectance spectra, particularly in the longwave infrared. In the IR the spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: In general, upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from strong surface scattering, i.e. rays that are reflected from the surface without bulk penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signals reflected from solids usually encompass all such effects, but with strong dependencies on particle size and preparation. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to observe the effects on the spectral features: Bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions between 5 and 500 microns. The median particle size is demonstrated to have large effects on the reflectance spectra. For certain minerals we also observe significant spectral change depending on the geologic origin of the sample. All three such effects (particle size, preparation and provenance) result in substantial change in the reflectance spectra for solid materials; successful identification algorithms will require sufficient flexibility to account for these parameters.

  10. The Influence of Particle Size on Infrared Reflectance Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2014-06-13

    Reflectance spectra of solids are influenced by the absorption coefficient as well as the particle size and morphology. In the infrared, spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: in general, the upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from surface scattering, which are rays that have reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks result from either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated into the sample or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signal reflected from solids usually encompasses all these effects which include dependencies on particle size, morphology and sample density. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size of the sample. The bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and then sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions: 0-45, 45-90, 90-180, 180-250, 250-500, and >500 microns. The directional-hemispherical spectra were recorded using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere to measure the reflectance for all of the particle-size fractions. We have studied both organic and inorganic materials, but this paper focuses on inorganic salts, NaNO3 in particular. Our studies clearly show that particle size has an enormous influence on the measured reflectance spectra for bulk materials and that successful identification requires sufficient representative reflectance data so as to include the particle size(s) of interest. Origins of the effects are discussed.

  11. Spectral infrared hemispherical reflectance measurements for LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, B. K.; Shepherd, S. D.; Pender, C. W.; Wood, B. E.

    1993-01-01

    Infrared hemispherical reflectance measurements that were made on 58 chromic acid anodized tray clamps from LDEF are described. The measurements were made using a hemiellipsoidal mirror reflectometer with interferometer for wavelengths between 2-15 microns. The tray clamps investigated were from locations about the entire spacecraft and provided the opportunity for comparing the effects of atomic oxygen at each location. Results indicate there was essentially no dependence on atomic oxygen fluence for the surfaces studied, but there did appear to be a slight dependence on solar radiation exposure. The reflectances of the front sides of the tray clamps consistently were slightly higher than for the protected rear tray clamp surfaces.

  12. Terahertz and mid-infrared reflectance of epitaxial graphene

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Cristiane N.; Joucken, Frédéric; De Sousa Meneses, Domingos; Echegut, Patrick; Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Louette, Pierre; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has emerged as a promising material for infrared (IR) photodetectors and plasmonics. In this context, wafer scale epitaxial graphene on SiC is of great interest in a variety of applications in optics and nanoelectronics. Here we present IR reflectance spectroscopy of graphene grown epitaxially on the C-face of 6H-SiC over a broad optical range, from terahertz (THz) to mid-infrared (MIR). Contrary to the transmittance, reflectance measurements are not hampered by the transmission window of the substrate, and in particular by the SiC Reststrahlen band in the MIR. This allows us to present IR reflectance data exhibiting a continuous evolution from the regime of intraband to interband charge carrier transitions. A consistent and simultaneous analysis of the contributions from both transitions to the optical response yields precise information on the carrier dynamics and the number of layers. The properties of the graphene layers derived from IR reflection spectroscopy are corroborated by other techniques (micro-Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, transport measurements). Moreover, we also present MIR microscopy mapping, showing that spatially-resolved information can be gathered, giving indications on the sample homogeneity. Our work paves the way for a still scarcely explored field of epitaxial graphene-based THz and MIR optical devices. PMID:27102827

  13. Terahertz and mid-infrared reflectance of epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Cristiane N.; Joucken, Frédéric; de Sousa Meneses, Domingos; Echegut, Patrick; Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Louette, Pierre; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    Graphene has emerged as a promising material for infrared (IR) photodetectors and plasmonics. In this context, wafer scale epitaxial graphene on SiC is of great interest in a variety of applications in optics and nanoelectronics. Here we present IR reflectance spectroscopy of graphene grown epitaxially on the C-face of 6H-SiC over a broad optical range, from terahertz (THz) to mid-infrared (MIR). Contrary to the transmittance, reflectance measurements are not hampered by the transmission window of the substrate, and in particular by the SiC Reststrahlen band in the MIR. This allows us to present IR reflectance data exhibiting a continuous evolution from the regime of intraband to interband charge carrier transitions. A consistent and simultaneous analysis of the contributions from both transitions to the optical response yields precise information on the carrier dynamics and the number of layers. The properties of the graphene layers derived from IR reflection spectroscopy are corroborated by other techniques (micro-Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, transport measurements). Moreover, we also present MIR microscopy mapping, showing that spatially-resolved information can be gathered, giving indications on the sample homogeneity. Our work paves the way for a still scarcely explored field of epitaxial graphene-based THz and MIR optical devices.

  14. Visible and near infrared reflectances measured from laboratory ice clouds.

    PubMed

    Barkey, Brian; Liou, K N

    2008-05-01

    We present laboratory results of the 0.68 microm visible (VIS) and 1.617 microm near infrared (NIR) reflectances typically used for inferring optical depth and ice crystal size from satellite radiometers, from ice clouds generated in a temperature controlled column cloud chamber. Two types of ice crystals were produced in this experiment: small columns and dendrites with mean maximum dimensions of about 17 and 35 microm. Within experimental uncertainty, the measured reflectances from ice clouds at both wavelengths agree reasonably well with the theoretical results computed from the plane-parallel adding-doubling method for radiative transfer using the measured ice particle morphology. We demonstrate that laboratory scattering and reflectance data for thin ice clouds with optical depths less than 0.4 can be used for validation of the thin cirrus optical depth and ice crystal size that have been routinely retrieved from the satellite VIS-NIR two channel pair.

  15. Visible and near infrared reflectances measured from laboratory ice clouds.

    PubMed

    Barkey, Brian; Liou, K N

    2008-05-01

    We present laboratory results of the 0.68 microm visible (VIS) and 1.617 microm near infrared (NIR) reflectances typically used for inferring optical depth and ice crystal size from satellite radiometers, from ice clouds generated in a temperature controlled column cloud chamber. Two types of ice crystals were produced in this experiment: small columns and dendrites with mean maximum dimensions of about 17 and 35 microm. Within experimental uncertainty, the measured reflectances from ice clouds at both wavelengths agree reasonably well with the theoretical results computed from the plane-parallel adding-doubling method for radiative transfer using the measured ice particle morphology. We demonstrate that laboratory scattering and reflectance data for thin ice clouds with optical depths less than 0.4 can be used for validation of the thin cirrus optical depth and ice crystal size that have been routinely retrieved from the satellite VIS-NIR two channel pair. PMID:18449323

  16. Improved Spatial Resolution for Reflection Mode Infrared Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.; May, T.E.; Lerch, Philippe

    2009-10-09

    Standard commercial infrared microscopes operating in reflection mode use a mirror to direct the reflected light from the sample to the detector. This mirror blocks about half of the incident light, however, and thus degrades the spatial resolution by reducing the umerical aperture of the objective. Here, we replace the mirror with a 50% beamsplitter to allow full illumination of the objective and retain a way to direct the reflected light to the detector. The improved spatial resolution is demonstrated using two different microscopes apable of diffraction-limited resolution: the first microscope is coupled to a synchrotron source and utilizes a single point detector, whereas the second microscope has a standard blackbody source and uses a focal planetarray (FPA) detector.

  17. Reflected infrared spectrum of a massive protostar in Orion.

    PubMed

    Morino, J I; Yamashita, T; Hasegawa, T; Nakano, T

    1998-05-28

    The infrared source IRc2 in the star-forming region Orion-KL is generally believed to contain a massive and very young star. Its nature and evolutionary status, however, are difficult to determine because it is hidden from direct view by a dense disklike envelope of gas and dust. Here we report observations of infrared radiation (at a wavelength of about 2 microm) that has escaped the surrounding dust in the polar direction, perpendicular to the plane of the disk, and then been reflected towards us by dust farther away from the star. The reflected spectrum contains absorption lines of neutral metallic atoms and carbon monoxide, which we interpret as indicating a source temperature of about 4,500 K. But, given the luminosity of the source, its radius must be at least 300 solar radii-too large to be attained with the modest gas-accretion rates in existing theories of massive-star formation. Whether the infrared radiation is coming from the protostar itself or the self-luminous accretion disk around it, the accretion rate must be around (5-15) x 10(-3) solar masses per year, at least two orders of magnitude greater than is commonly assumed in models of star formation.

  18. Infrared Observations of Temperature Modulations on the Hudson River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, S.; Anderson, S. P.; Zappa, C. J.; Smith, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The thermal boundary layer at the surface of a river is constantly disrupted and renewed by physical processes associated with convection, turbulence, wind stress, heat flux, and other environmental factors. These disruptions cause temperature modulations in the surface layer which can be measured with an infrared (IR) sensor. Over the course of two ten-day periods in August and November of 2010, we imaged the Hudson River from atop a nearby cliff using a large-format, mid-wave IR sensor. Time series imagery was collected for 5 to 10 minute periods, every 30 minutes for the entirety of each experiment. In the field of view, several in situ instruments were mounted to a steel piling driven into the river bed. Above and below the water surface, an array of instruments were installed to measure heat flux, wind speed, air and water temperature, current velocity, humidity, radiance, and conductivity. In this analysis, we investigate the relationship between the temperature modulations present in the IR imagery, which are associated with coherent features advecting with the mean flow, and the environmental parameters measured from our in situ instruments. The IR imagery from these experiments show a diverse range of temperature modulation patterns, on scales of 20cm to several tens of meters, often masked by the presence of surface waves. At low grazing angles, the IR images of the water surface are comprised of a combination of emitted radiance from temperature modulations on the surface and reflected radiance from the sky above. To separate out the emitted signal from the reflected signal, we employ a Fourier space filtering technique to exclude the variance in the imagery due to the surface waves. We find the remaining emitted signal to be correlated with wind speed and the air-water temperature difference, and weakly or uncorrelated with stratification and mean current speed. We report on both the signal processing technique used to extract the emitted signal from

  19. Study of laser reflection of infrared cameras with germanium optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Patrio; Shih, Ishiang; Shi, S.; Laou, Philips

    2003-09-01

    Infrared cameras are widely used in today's battlefield for surveillance purpose. Because of retroreflection, an incident laser beam entering the camera optics results in a beam reflecting back to the direction of the laser source. An IR detector positioned close to the laser source can then detect the reflected beam. This effect can reveal the location of the cameras and thus increases the risk of covert operations. In the present work, the characteristics of the retroreflection is studied. It is found that the reflection intensity is high when the incident beam enters through the middle part of the lenses while it is low and the beam is diverged when entering through the outer part of the lenses. The reflection is symmetric when the incident beam is normal to the lenses while asymmetric when it is incident with an angle to the lenses. In order to study the potential effects on retroreflection of modified camera optics, IR low index slides (ZnSe and KCl with refractive indices of 2.49 and 1.54, respectively) with different thicknesses (2mm, 4mm and 6mm) are placed in the optical system. The result shows that the focal point of the lenses is changed by the addition of the slide but the optical paths of the reflection remain unchanged. The relationship between the different slides and beam intensity is also studied.

  20. Design and realization of a contact-less interaction system based on infrared reflection photoelectric detection array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Lei, Bing; Feng, Ying

    2015-10-01

    Due to the good performance of high sensitivity, quick response and low cost, infrared reflection detection technology is widely used in various fields. In this work, we present a novel contact-less interaction system which is based on infrared reflection detection technology. The system is mainly composed of a Micro Controller Unit (MCU), upper computer and photoelectric detection module. The MCU is utilized to control the photoelectric detection module and to make sure that the sensing unit is lighted one by one in a given order. When the interactive object appears upon the infrared reflection photoelectric detection array, its position information will be ensured and sent to the upper computer through MCU. In this system, every sensing unit is lighted for 1ms, and the detection array includes 8×8 units. It means that the photoelectric detection array will scan 15.6 times per-second. The experimental research results indicate that the factors affecting the detection range including the working current of transmitting diode, modulation frequency, and the reflectivity of the interactive object. When the working current is 10mA, and the modulation frequency is 80 KHz, the system has a detection range of 20 cm. Moreover, efficient modulation and demodulation of optical signal is quite necessary to remove the influence of surrounding light.

  1. Infrared focal plane detector modules for space applications at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Dominique; Hanna, Stefan; Thöt, Richard; Gassmann, Kai-Uwe; Haiml, Markus; Weber, Andreas; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Ziegler, Johann; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Fick, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    In the framework of this paper, AIM presents the actual status of some of its currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments for space applications covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) to the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and very-long-wavelength infrared (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP will be elaborated. Additionally dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC will be addressed.

  2. Photo-induced reflectivity in the mid and far infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Haar, P.; Harrington, K.J.; Schwettman, H.A.

    1995-12-31

    Interest in switching FEL beams has motivated studies of photo-induced reflectivity in the mid and far infrared. We are particularly interested in Ge{sup 4}, GaAs, and Si{sup 5}, materials that can be pumped with a visible or near-IR conventional laser and which together cover the wavelengths from 3-100{mu}m. We have made quantitative measurements to determine the induced reflectivity, carrier lifetime, and transient absorption of these materials at several wavelengths across this range using a variety of pump laser wavelengths and pulse lengths. These measurements allow us to determine the feasibility of single pulse selection and cavity dumping with our FELs at high repetition rates.

  3. Far-infrared emissivity measurements of reflective surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, J.; Lange, A. E.; Bock, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    An instrument developed to measure the emissivity of reflective surfaces by comparing the thermal emission of a test sample to that of a reference surface is reported. The instrument can accurately measure the emissivity of mirrors made from lightweight thermally insulating materials such as glass and metallized carbon fiber reinforced plastics. Far infrared measurements at a wavelength of 165 micrometers are reported. The instrument has an absolute accuracy of Delta epsilon = 9 x 10(exp -4) and can reproducibly measure an emissivity of as small as 2 x 10(exp -4) between flat reflective surfaces. The instrument was used to measure mirror samples for balloon-borne and spaceborne experiments. An emissivity of (6.05 +/- 1.24) x 10(exp -3) was measured for gold evaporated on glass, and (6.75 +/- 1.17) x 10(exp -3) for aluminum evaporated on glass.

  4. Combined use of visible, reflected infrared, and thermal infrared images for mapping Hawaiian lava flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Michael; Abbott, Elsa; Kahle, Anne

    1991-01-01

    The weathering of Hawaiian basalts is accompanied by chemical and physical changes of the surfaces. These changes have been mapped using remote sensing data from the visible and reflected infrared and thermal infrared wavelength regions. They are related to the physical breakdown of surface chill coats, the development and erosion of silica coatings, the oxidation of mafic minerals, and the development of vegetation cover. These effects show systematic behavior with age and can be mapped using the image data and related to relative ages of pahoehoe and aa flows. The thermal data are sensitive to silica rind development and fine structure of the scene; the reflectance data show the degree of oxidation and differentiate vegetation from aa and cinders. Together, data from the two wavelength regions show more than either separately. The combined data potentially provide a powerful tool for mapping basalt flows in arid to semiarid volcanic environments.

  5. Infrared Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lascours, Jean; Albe, Virginie

    2001-01-01

    Describes a series of simple and nontraditional experiments that enable students to discover the properties of infrared radiation by studying the propagation, reflection, diffusion, and refraction of infrared. The experiments rely on two modules, an infrared transmitter and an infrared receiver. (SAH)

  6. Narrowband Mid-infrared reflectance filters using guided mode resonance

    PubMed Central

    Kodali, Anil K.; Schulmerich, Matthew; Ip, Jason; Yen, Gary; Cunningham, Brian T.; Bhargava, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to develop mid-infrared (IR) spectrometers for applications in which the absorbance of only a few vibrational mode (optical) frequencies needs to be recorded; unfortunately, there are limited alternatives for the same. The key requirement is the development of a means to access discretely a small set of spectral positions from the wideband thermal sources commonly used for spectroscopy. We present here the theory, design and practical realization of a new class of filters in the mid-infrared (IR) spectral regions based on using guided mode resonances (GMR) for narrowband optical reflection. A simple, periodic surface-relief configuration is chosen to enable both a spectral response and facile fabrication. A theoretical model based on rigorous coupled wave analysis is developed, incorporating anomalous dispersion of filter materials in the mid-IR spectral region. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, a set of four filters for a spectral region around the C-H stretching mode (2600–3000 cm−1) are fabricated and responses compared to theory. The reflectance spectra were well-predicted by the developed theory and results were found to be sensitive to the angle of incidence and dispersion characteristics of the material. In summary, the work reported here forms the basis for a rational design of filters that can prove useful for IR absorption spectroscopy. PMID:20527738

  7. Testing the spectrum of infrared emission reflected by several surfaces with a FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuanyu; Hu, Rui; Pang, Minhui; Bai, Haitao; Dong, Wenjie

    2014-09-01

    A set of sectional FTIR is applied to study the reflecting characteristics of several surfaces to infrared emission. The standard infrared source is separated from the host of the FTIR and set in a right-angled triangle with the reflecting plate and the entrance to make the reflecting infrared emission can easily pass into the detector through the route. The reflecting infrared emission from the FTIR source is measured by the FTIR detector. The reflecting plate includes metal plate, mirror, wood block and so on. A high intensity standard infrared source cooled by air is accepted and the testing background is atmosphere. The infrared emission reflected by the plate from the standard source is tested one by one. By the experiment, mirror has a good performance to reflect infrared emission, which is much better than unpainted iron plate or painted wood block. Certainly, unpainted iron plate has stronger capacity to reflect infrared emission than painted wood block, etc. As a result, the smoother the surface is, the stronger the reflecting performance is. The reflecting performance of painted surface to infrared emission is poorer than unpainted one. The various painted surfaces have not a visible difference upon their reflecting performance to infrared emission although they are made from different materials.

  8. Reflections on Designing a Biology/Humanities Interdisciplinary Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, David; Battey, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the reflections of a recent workshop on biology and the humanities subject areas to consider the potential for designing a first year interdisciplinary module that brings together teachers and learners in the Biosciences with their counterparts in English and History. It considers three building blocks of module design: aims and…

  9. Inter-reflection Compensation of Immersive Projection Display by Spatio-Temporal Screen Reflectance Modulation.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shoichi; Iwai, Daisuke; Sato, Kosuke

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel inter-reflection compensation technique for immersive projection displays wherein we spatially modulate the reflectance pattern on the screen to improve the compensation performance of conventional methods. As the luminance of light reflected on a projection surface is mathematically represented as the multiplication of the illuminance of incident light and the surface reflectance, we can reduce undesirable intensity elevation because of inter-reflections by decreasing surface reflectance. Based on this principle, we improve conventional inter-reflection compensation techniques by applying reflectance pattern modulation. We realize spatial reflectance modulation of a projection screen by painting it with a photochromic compound, which changes its color (i.e., the reflectance of the screen) when ultraviolet (UV) light is applied and by controlling UV irradiation with a UV LED array placed behind the screen. The main contribution of this paper is a computational model to optimize a reflectance pattern for the accurate reproduction of a target appearance by decreasing the intensity elevation caused by inter-reflection while maintaining the maximum intensity of the target appearance. Through simulation and physical experiments, we demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed model and confirm its advantage over conventional methods. PMID:26780805

  10. Analysis of silage composition by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, James B., III; Blosser, Timothy H.; Colenbrander, V. F.

    1991-02-01

    Two studies were performed to investigate the feasibility of using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) with undried silages. In the first study silages were analyzed for major components (e. g. dry matter crude protein and other forms of nitrogen fiber and in vitro digestible dry matter) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA). NIRS was found to operate satisfactorily except for some forms of nitrogen and SCFA. In study two various methods of grinding spectral regions and sample presentation were examined. Undried Wiley ground samples in a rectangular cell gave the best overall results for non-dry ice undried grinds with wavelengths between 1100 and 2498 nm. Silages scanned after drying however produced the best results. Intact samples did not perform as well as ground samples and wavelengths below 1100 nm were of little use. 2 .

  11. Thermal infrared reflectance and emission spectroscopy of quartzofeldspathic glasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrnes, J.M.; Ramsey, M.S.; King, P.L.; Lee, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation seeks to better understand the thermal infrared (TIR) spectral characteristics of naturally-occurring amorphous materials through laboratory synthesis and analysis of glasses. Because spectra of glass phases differ markedly from their mineral counterparts, examination of glasses is important to accurately determine the composition of amorphous surface materials using remote sensing datasets. Quantitatively characterizing TIR (5-25 ??m) spectral changes that accompany structural changes between glasses and mineral crystals provides the means to understand natural glasses on Earth and Mars. A suite of glasses with compositions analogous to common terrestrial volcanic glasses was created and analyzed using TIR reflectance and emission techniques. Documented spectral characteristics provide a basis for comparison with TIR spectra of other amorphous materials (glasses, clays, etc.). Our results provide the means to better detect and characterize glasses associated with terrestrial volcanoes, as well as contribute toward understanding the nature of amorphous silicates detected on Mars. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Aerosol collection and analysis using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Alan C.; Wong, Diane M.; Meyer, Gerald J.; Roelant, Geoffrey J.; Williams, Barry R.; Miles, Ronald W., Jr.; Manning, Christopher J.

    2004-08-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is routinely employed for the identification of organic molecules and, more recently, for the classification of biological materials. We have developed a sample collection method that facilitates infrared analysis of airborne particulates using a diffuse reflectance (DR) technique. Efforts are underway to extend the method to include simultaneous analysis of vapor phase organics by using adsorbent substrates compatible with the DR technique. This series of laboratory results provides proof-of-principle for both the sample collection and data collection processes. Signal processing of the DR spectra is shown to provide rapid qualitative identification of representative aerosol materials, including particulate matter commonly found in the environment. We compare the results for such materials as bacterial spores, pollens and molds, clays and dusts, smoke and soot. Background correction analysis is shown to be useful for differentiation and identification of these constituents. Issues relating to complex mixtures of environmental samples under highly variable conditions are considered. Instrumentation development and materials research are now underway with the aim of constructing a compact sampling system for near real-time monitoring of aerosol and organic pollutants. A miniature, tilt-compensated Fourier transform spectrometer will provide spectroscopic interrogation. A series of advanced digital signal processing methods are also under development to enhance the sensor package. The approach will be useful for industrial applications, chemical and biological agent detection, and environmental monitoring for chemical vapors, hazardous air pollutants, and allergens.

  13. Charge modulation infrared spectroscopy of rubrene single-crystal field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, R.; Yada, H.; Makino, M.; Matsui, Y.; Miwa, K.; Uemura, T.; Takeya, J.; Okamoto, H.

    2013-03-01

    Polarized absorption spectra of hole carriers in rubrene single crystal field-effect transistors were measured in the infrared region (725-8000 cm-1) by charge modulation spectroscopy. The absorptions, including the superimposed oscillatory components due to multiple reflections within thin crystals, monotonically increased with decreasing frequency. The spectra and their polarization dependences were well reproduced by the analysis based on the Drude model, in which the absorptions due to holes in rubrene and electrons in the gate electrodes (silicon), and multiple reflections were fully considered. The results support the band transport of hole carriers in rubrene.

  14. Electronic modulation of infrared radiation in graphene plasmonic resonators.

    PubMed

    Brar, Victor W; Sherrott, Michelle C; Jang, Min Seok; Kim, Seyoon; Kim, Laura; Choi, Mansoo; Sweatlock, Luke A; Atwater, Harry A

    2015-05-07

    All matter at finite temperatures emits electromagnetic radiation due to the thermally induced motion of particles and quasiparticles. Dynamic control of this radiation could enable the design of novel infrared sources; however, the spectral characteristics of the radiated power are dictated by the electromagnetic energy density and emissivity, which are ordinarily fixed properties of the material and temperature. Here we experimentally demonstrate tunable electronic control of blackbody emission from graphene plasmonic resonators on a silicon nitride substrate. It is shown that the graphene resonators produce antenna-coupled blackbody radiation, which manifests as narrow spectral emission peaks in the mid-infrared. By continuously varying the nanoresonator carrier density, the frequency and intensity of these spectral features can be modulated via an electrostatic gate. This work opens the door for future devices that may control blackbody radiation at timescales beyond the limits of conventional thermo-optic modulation.

  15. Electronic modulation of infrared radiation in graphene plasmonic resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brar, Victor W.; Sherrott, Michelle C.; Jang, Min Seok; Kim, Seyoon; Kim, Laura; Choi, Mansoo; Sweatlock, Luke A.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2015-05-01

    All matter at finite temperatures emits electromagnetic radiation due to the thermally induced motion of particles and quasiparticles. Dynamic control of this radiation could enable the design of novel infrared sources; however, the spectral characteristics of the radiated power are dictated by the electromagnetic energy density and emissivity, which are ordinarily fixed properties of the material and temperature. Here we experimentally demonstrate tunable electronic control of blackbody emission from graphene plasmonic resonators on a silicon nitride substrate. It is shown that the graphene resonators produce antenna-coupled blackbody radiation, which manifests as narrow spectral emission peaks in the mid-infrared. By continuously varying the nanoresonator carrier density, the frequency and intensity of these spectral features can be modulated via an electrostatic gate. This work opens the door for future devices that may control blackbody radiation at timescales beyond the limits of conventional thermo-optic modulation.

  16. Electronic modulation of infrared radiation in graphene plasmonic resonators.

    PubMed

    Brar, Victor W; Sherrott, Michelle C; Jang, Min Seok; Kim, Seyoon; Kim, Laura; Choi, Mansoo; Sweatlock, Luke A; Atwater, Harry A

    2015-01-01

    All matter at finite temperatures emits electromagnetic radiation due to the thermally induced motion of particles and quasiparticles. Dynamic control of this radiation could enable the design of novel infrared sources; however, the spectral characteristics of the radiated power are dictated by the electromagnetic energy density and emissivity, which are ordinarily fixed properties of the material and temperature. Here we experimentally demonstrate tunable electronic control of blackbody emission from graphene plasmonic resonators on a silicon nitride substrate. It is shown that the graphene resonators produce antenna-coupled blackbody radiation, which manifests as narrow spectral emission peaks in the mid-infrared. By continuously varying the nanoresonator carrier density, the frequency and intensity of these spectral features can be modulated via an electrostatic gate. This work opens the door for future devices that may control blackbody radiation at timescales beyond the limits of conventional thermo-optic modulation. PMID:25948173

  17. Angle-dependent infrared reflectance measurements in support of VIIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Simon G.; Iglesias, Enrique J.; Hanssen, Leonard M.

    2008-08-01

    We have developed a goniometric reflectometer using a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer source for polarized reflectance measurements from 1 μm to 20 μm wavelength at angles of incidence from 10° to 80°, with an incident beam geometry of approximately f/25. Measurements are performed in either absolute mode, or relative to a reference mirror that has been calibrated at near-normal incidence using an integrating sphere-based reflectometer. Uncertainties in the 0.2 % to 0.5 % range are achieved using a photoconductive 77 K InSb detector from 1 μm to 5 μm and a 12 K Si:As BIB detector from 2 μm to 20 μm. The performance of the system has been tested using dielectric materials such as Si as well as high-quality Au mirrors. We describe measurements of SiOx-coated Ag mirrors to assess their performance for such applications as the half-angle mirror (HAM) in the VIIRS optical scanning system. Various coatings are analyzed to help assess the effect of p-polarized absorption bands at angles of incidence from 10° to 65° and wavelengths between 3 μm and 13 μm.

  18. Determination of plant silicon content with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Smis, Adriaan; Ancin Murguzur, Francisco Javier; Struyf, Eric; Soininen, Eeva M.; Herranz Jusdado, Juan G.; Meire, Patrick; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2014-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is one of the most common elements in the earth bedrock, and its continental cycle is strongly biologically controlled. Yet, research on the biogeochemical cycle of Si in ecosystems is hampered by the time and cost associated with the currently used chemical analysis methods. Here, we assessed the suitability of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) for measuring Si content in plant tissues. NIR spectra depend on the characteristics of the present bonds between H and N, C and O, which can be calibrated against concentrations of various compounds. Because Si in plants always occurs as hydrated condensates of orthosilicic acid (Si(OH)4), linked to organic biomolecules, we hypothesized that NIRS is suitable for measuring Si content in plants across a range of plant species. We based our testing on 442 samples of 29 plant species belonging to a range of growth forms. We calibrated the NIRS method against a well-established plant Si analysis method by using partial least-squares regression. Si concentrations ranged from detection limit (0.24 ppmSi) to 7.8% Si on dry weight and were well predicted by NIRS. The model fit with validation data was good across all plant species (n = 141, R2 = 0.90, RMSEP = 0.24), but improved when only graminoids were modeled (n = 66, R2 = 0.95, RMSEP = 0.10). A species specific model for the grass Deschampsia cespitosa showed even slightly better results than the model for all graminoids (n = 16, R2 = 0.93, RMSEP = 0.015). We show for the first time that NIRS is applicable for determining plant Si concentration across a range of plant species and growth forms, and represents a time- and cost-effective alternative to the chemical Si analysis methods. As NIRS can be applied concurrently to a range of plant organic constituents, it opens up unprecedented research possibilities for studying interrelations between Si and other plant compounds in vegetation, and for addressing the role of Si in ecosystems across a range of Si

  19. Femtosecond measurements of near-infrared pulse induced mid-infrared transmission modulation of quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hong; Liu, Sheng; Lalanne, Elaine; Guo, Dingkai; Chen, Xing; Choa, Fow-Sen; Wang, Xiaojun; Johnson, Anthony M.

    2014-05-26

    We temporally resolved the ultrafast mid-infrared transmission modulation of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using a near-infrared pump/mid-infrared probe technique at room temperature. Two different femtosecond wavelength pumps were used with photon energy above and below the quantum well (QW) bandgap. The shorter wavelength pump modulates the mid-infrared probe transmission through interband transition assisted mechanisms, resulting in a high transmission modulation depth and several nanoseconds recovery lifetime. In contrast, pumping with a photon energy below the QW bandgap induces a smaller transmission modulation depth but much faster (several picoseconds) recovery lifetime, attributed to intersubband transition assisted mechanisms. The latter ultrafast modulation (>60 GHz) could provide a potential way to realize fast QCL based free space optical communication.

  20. Reversible modulated mid-infrared absorption of Ag/TiO{sub 2} by photoinduced interfacial charge transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S. C. E-mail: ghli@issp.ac.cn; Li, L.; Pan, S. S.; Luo, Y. Y.; Zhang, Y. X.; Li, G. H. E-mail: ghli@issp.ac.cn

    2014-10-06

    An enhanced mid-infrared absorption in Ag nanoparticles-decorated TiO{sub 2} microflowers was reported. It was found that the mid-infrared absorption of the Ag/TiO{sub 2} complex depends strongly on the content and size of Ag nanoparticles, the higher the Ag nanoparticles content, the stronger the infrared absorption. The average reflectivity in the entire mid-infrared region of the microflowers drops from 57.6% to 10.5% after Ag nanoparticles decoration. Reversible modulated mid-infrared absorption properties were found in the Ag/TiO{sub 2} complexes upon alternative illumination of visible and UV light due to the photoinduced interfacial electron transfer between TiO{sub 2} semiconductor and Ag nanoparticles.

  1. Near infrared reflection spectra of artificial cumulus clouds.

    PubMed

    Plummer, W T

    1969-10-01

    Reflection spectra are presented for artificial cumulus clouds with a progression of droplet sizes, including sizes common in natural clouds, over the wavelength range from 1.0 micro to 2.4 micro. A correction is made for gaseous absorption. The spectra show reflectivity minima at 1.16 micro, 1.41 micro, and 1.92micro which deepen as the droplets become larger and are in good agreement with reflection spectra of terrestrial clouds.

  2. [Fast determination of induction period of motor gasoline using Fourier transform attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Fei; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Song, Chun-Feng; Xie, Jin-Chun; Li, Xiao-Yu; Yan, De-Lin

    2014-11-01

    A new method is proposed for the fast determination of the induction period of gasoline using Fourier transform attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). A dedicated analysis system with the function of spectral measurement, data processing, display and storage was designed and integrated using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer module and chemometric software. The sample presentation accessory designed which has advantages of constant optical path, convenient sample injection and cleaning is composed of a nine times reflection attenuated total reflectance (ATR) crystal of zinc selenide (ZnSe) coated with a diamond film and a stainless steel lid with sealing device. The influence of spectral scanning number and repeated sample loading times on the spectral signal-to-noise ratio was studied. The optimum spectral scanning number is 15 times and the optimum sample loading number is 4 times. Sixty four different gasoline samples were collected from the Beijing-Tianjin area and the induction period values were determined as reference data by standard method GB/T 8018-87. The infrared spectra of these samples were collected in the operating condition mentioned above using the dedicated fast analysis system. Spectra were pretreated using mean centering and 1st derivative to reduce the influence of spectral noise and baseline shift A PLS calibration model for the induction period was established by correlating the known induction period values of the samples with their spectra. The correlation coefficient (R2), standard error of calibration (SEC) and standard error of prediction (SEP) of the model are 0.897, 68.3 and 91.9 minutes, respectively. The relative deviation of the model for gasoline induction period prediction is less than 5%, which meets the requirements of repeatability tolerance in GB method. The new method is simple and fast. It takes no more than 3 minutes to detect one sample. Therefore, the method is feasible for implementing

  3. Characterization and Application of a Grazing Angle Objective for Quantitative Infrared Reflection Microspectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, Stephen V.

    1995-01-01

    A grazing angle objective on an infrared microspectrometer is studied for quantitative spectroscopy by considering the angular dependence of the incident intensity within the objective's angular aperture. The assumption that there is no angular dependence is tested by comparing the experimental reflectance of Si and KBr surfaces with the reflectance calculated by integrating the Fresnel reflection coefficient over the angular aperture under this assumption. Good agreement was found, indicating that the specular reflectance of surfaces can straight-forwardly be quantitatively integrated over the angular aperture without considering non-uniform incident intensity. This quantitative approach is applied to the thickness determination of dipcoated Krytox on gold. The infrared optical constants of both materials are known, allowing the integration to be carried out. The thickness obtained is in fair agreement with the value determined by ellipsometry in the visible. Therefore, this paper illustrates a method for more quantitative use of a grazing angle objective for infrared reflectance microspectroscopy.

  4. Tree Canopy Characterization for EO-1 Reflective and Thermal Infrared Validation Studies: Rochester, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The tree canopy characterization presented herein provided ground and tree canopy data for different types of tree canopies in support of EO-1 reflective and thermal infrared validation studies. These characterization efforts during August and September of 2001 included stem and trunk location surveys, tree structure geometry measurements, meteorology, and leaf area index (LAI) measurements. Measurements were also collected on thermal and reflective spectral properties of leaves, tree bark, leaf litter, soil, and grass. The data presented in this report were used to generate synthetic reflective and thermal infrared scenes and images that were used for the EO-1 Validation Program. The data also were used to evaluate whether the EO-1 ALI reflective channels can be combined with the Landsat-7 ETM+ thermal infrared channel to estimate canopy temperature, and also test the effects of separating the thermal and reflective measurements in time resulting from satellite formation flying.

  5. [Application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat chemical compositions: a review].

    PubMed

    Tao, Lin-Li; Yang, Xiu-Juan; Deng, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Xi

    2013-11-01

    In contrast to conventional methods for the determination of meat chemical composition, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy enables rapid, simple, secure and simultaneous assessment of numerous meat properties. The present review focuses on the use of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat chemical compositions. The potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict crude protein, intramuscular fat, fatty acid, moisture, ash, myoglobin and collagen of beef, pork, chicken and lamb is reviewed. This paper discusses existing questions and reasons in the current research. According to the published results, although published results vary considerably, they suggest that near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy shows a great potential to replace the expensive and time-consuming chemical analysis of meat composition. In particular, under commercial conditions where simultaneous measurements of different chemical components are required, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy is expected to be the method of choice. The majority of studies selected feature-related wavelengths using principal components regression, developed the calibration model using partial least squares and modified partial least squares, and estimated the prediction accuracy by means of cross-validation using the same sample set previously used for the calibration. Meat fatty acid composition predicted by near-infrared spectroscopy and non-destructive prediction and visualization of chemical composition in meat using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging and multivariate regression are the hot studying field now. On the other hand, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy shows great difference for predicting different attributes of meat quality which are closely related to the selection of calibration sample set, preprocessing of near-infrared spectroscopy and modeling approach. Sample preparation also has an important effect on the reliability of NIR prediction; in particular

  6. Comments on a peak of AlxGa1-xN observed by infrared reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, G.; Engelbrecht, J. A. A.; Lee, M. E.; Wagener, M. C.; Henry, A.

    2016-05-01

    AlxGa1-xN epilayers, grown on c-plane oriented sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), were evaluated using FTIR infrared reflectance spectroscopy. A peak at ∼850 cm-1 in the reflectance spectra, not reported before, was observed. Possible origins for this peak are considered and discussed.

  7. Social exclusion modulates pre-reflective interpersonal body representation.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Ettore; Blomberg, Olle; Mandrigin, Alisa; Costantini, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Perception of affordance is enhanced not only when that object is located in one's own peripersonal space, as compared to when it is located within extrapersonal space, but also when the object is located in another person's peripersonal space [as measured by a spatial alignment effect (SAE)]. It has been suggested that this reflects the existence of an interpersonal body representation (IBR) that allows us to represent the perceptual states and action possibilities of others. Here, we address the question of whether IBR can be modulated by higher level/reflective social cognition, such as judgments about one's own social status. Participants responded with either the right or the left hand as soon as a go signal appeared. The go signal screen contained a task-irrelevant stimulus consisting of a 3D scene in which a mug with a left- or right-facing handle was positioned on a table. The mug was positioned either inside or outside the reaching space of the participants. In a third of the trials, the mug was positioned within the reaching space of an avatar seated at the table. Prior to this task we induced an experience of social ostracism in half of the participants by means of a standardized social exclusion condition. The results were that the SAE that normally occurs when the mug is in the avatar's reaching space is extinguished by the induced social exclusion. This indicates that judgments about one's own social status modulate the effect of IBR. PMID:23307152

  8. Optical diffuse reflectance accessory for measurements of skin tissue by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marbach, R.; Heise, H. M.

    1995-02-01

    An optimized accessory for measuring the diffuse reflectance spectra of human skin tissue in the near-infrared spectral range is presented. The device includes an on-axis ellipsoidal collecting mirror with efficient illumination optics for small sampling areas of bulky body specimens. The optical design is supported by the results of a Monte Carlo simulation study of the reflectance characteristics of skin tissue. Because the results evolved from efforts to measure blood glucose noninvasively, the main emphasis is placed on the long-wavelength near-infrared range where sufficient penetration depth for radiation into tissue is still available. The accessory is applied for in vivo diffuse reflectance measurements.

  9. Polarized infrared emissivity of one-dimensional Gaussian sea surfaces with surface reflections.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongkun; Pinel, Nicolas; Bourlier, Christophe

    2011-08-10

    Surface reflection is an important phenomenon that must be taken into account when studying sea surface infrared emissivity, especially at large observation angles. This paper models analytically the polarized infrared emissivity of one-dimensional sea surfaces with shadowing effect and one surface reflection, by assuming a Gaussian surface slope distribution. A Monte Carlo ray-tracing method is employed as a reference. It is shown that the present model agrees well with the reference method. The emissivity calculated by the present model is then compared with measurements. The comparisons show that agreements are greatly improved by taking one surface reflection into account. The Monte Carlo ray-tracing results of sea surface infrared emissivity with two and three reflections are also determined. Their contributions are shown to be negligible.

  10. Studies of dust grain properties in infrared reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Y. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Werner, M. W.

    1990-01-01

    A model has been developed for reflection nebulae around luminous IR sources embedded in dense dust clouds. The shape of the IR spectrum is shown to be the result of a combination of the scattering properties of the dust, the spectrum of the illuminating source, and foreground extinction, while geometry plays a minor role. Comparison of the model results with IR observations of the reflection nebula surrounding OMC-2/IRS 1 shows that either a grain size distribution like that found in the diffuse ISM, or consisting of larger grains, can explain the observed shape of the spectrum. However, the absolute intensity level of the scattered light, as well as the observed polarization, requires large grains. By adding water-ice mantles to the silicate and graphite cores, the 3.08 micron ice-band feature observed in the spectra of several IR reflection nebulae has been modeled. It is shown that this ice band arises naturally in optically thick reflection nebulae containing ice-coated grains.

  11. The spatial distribution of infrared radiation from visible reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luan, Ling; Werner, Michael W.; Dwek, Eli; Sellgren, Kris

    1989-01-01

    The emission at IRAS 12 and 25 micron bands of reflection nebulae is far in excess of that expected from the longer wavelength equilibrium thermal emission. The excess emission in the IRAS 12 micron band is a general phenomenon, seen in various components of interstellar medium such as IR cirrus clouds, H II regions, atomic and molecular clouds, and also normal spiral galaxies. This excess emission has been attributed to UV excited fluorescence in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules or to the effect of temperature fluctuations in very small grains. Results are presented of studies of IRAS data on reflection nebulae selected from the van den Bergh reflection nebulae sample. Detailed scans of flux ratio and color temperature across the nebulae were obtained in order to study the spatial distribution of IR emission. A model was used to predict the spatial distribution of IR emission from dust grains illuminated by a B type star. The model was also used to explore the excitation of the IRAS 12 micron band emission as a function of stellar temperature. The model predictions are in good agreement with the analysis of reflection nebulae, illuminated by stars with stellar temperature ranging from 21,000 down to 3,000 K.

  12. Measurement of leaf relative water content by infrared reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Rock, Barrett N.; Nobel, Park S.

    1987-01-01

    From basic considerations and Beer's law, a leaf water content index incorporating reflectances of wavelengths from 0.76 to 0.90 microns and from 1.55 to 1.75 microns was developed that relates leaf reflectance to leaf relative water content. For the leaf succulent, Agave deserti, the leaf water content index was not significantly different from the relative water content for either individual leaves or an entire plant. Also, the relative water contents of intact plants of Encelia farinosa and Hilaria rigida in the field were estimated by the leaf water content index; variations in the proportion of living to dead leaf area could cause large errors in the estimate of relative water content. Thus, the leaf water content index may be able to estimate average relative water content of canopies when TM4 and TM5 are measured at a known relative water content and fraction of dead leaf material.

  13. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-Transform spectra of selected organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, S.H.; Caton, J.E.

    1982-05-01

    Diffuse reflectance infrared spectra of a variety of different organic compounds have been determined. Profiles of the spectra along with the location and relative intensity of the principal bands have been included for each compound studied. In addition both diffuse reflectance and transmittance infrared spectra were obtained for the same samples, and the spectral results were compared. Although some minor variations are observed between a diffuse reflectance spectrum and the corresponding transmittance spectrum, the diffuse reflectance is quite useful and may be a superior technique for the study of many samples because it possesses an inherently higher signal-to-noise response, requires less sample preparation and allows a very wide range of samples (solids, liquids of low volatility, neat sample, or sample diluted in a reflecting medium) to be studied under very similar conditions.

  14. Investigation of Latent Traces Using Infrared Reflectance Hyperspectral Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Till; Wenzel, Susanne; Roscher, Ribana; Stachniss, Cyrill

    2016-06-01

    The detection of traces is a main task of forensics. Hyperspectral imaging is a potential method from which we expect to capture more fluorescence effects than with common forensic light sources. This paper shows that the use of hyperspectral imaging is suited for the analysis of latent traces and extends the classical concept to the conservation of the crime scene for retrospective laboratory analysis. We examine specimen of blood, semen and saliva traces in several dilution steps, prepared on cardboard substrate. As our key result we successfully make latent traces visible up to dilution factor of 1:8000. We can attribute most of the detectability to interference of electromagnetic light with the water content of the traces in the shortwave infrared region of the spectrum. In a classification task we use several dimensionality reduction methods (PCA and LDA) in combination with a Maximum Likelihood classifier, assuming normally distributed data. Further, we use Random Forest as a competitive approach. The classifiers retrieve the exact positions of labelled trace preparation up to highest dilution and determine posterior probabilities. By modelling the classification task with a Markov Random Field we are able to integrate prior information about the spatial relation of neighboured pixel labels.

  15. Infrared reflectivity studies of quasi-two dimensional molybdenum oxides Mo 4O 11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyot, H.; Al Khoury, E.; Marcus, J.; Schlenker, C.; Banville, M.; Jandl, S.

    1991-07-01

    Infrared reflectivity of the quasi-two dimensional oxides η-Mo 4O 11, has been investigated on single crystals, using polarized light, in the range of 300 - 4000 cm -1, at room temperature and in the charge density wave (CDW) state. At 300 K, the anisotropy of the reflectivity emphasizes the anisotropy of the conduction electron gas, with a metallic behavior within the (100) plane and a semiconducting behavior in the [100] direction. In this direction, the IR reflectivity is fitted with the phonon oscillators. At low temperature, the decrease of the IR reflectivity is consistent with the loss of carriers, induced by the CDW gap opening.

  16. Infrared reflection spectra in contactless nondestructive measurements of the electron density and mobility in indium phosphide

    SciTech Connect

    Il'in, M.A.; Karasev, P.Yu.; Denisova, N.A.; Rezvov, A.V.; Tyurina, S.V.

    1988-07-01

    On the basis of numerical calculations and experimental studies we analyze the possibilities of measuring the electrophysical parameters of indium phosphide by means of infrared reflection spectra at wavelengths ranging from 5 to 200 /mu/m. We demonstrate that contactless nondestructive measurements of the electron density in the range 10/sup 16/-10/sup 20/ cm/sup /minus/3/ can be made with a relative error not exceeding 15%, and of mobility with a relative error not exceeding 25%. A nomogram method is presented for rapid conversion of data form infrared reflection spectra into the parameters being measured.

  17. [Application of near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to the detection and identification of transgenic corn].

    PubMed

    Rui, Yu-kui; Luo, Yun-bo; Huang, Kun-lun; Wang, Wei-min; Zhang, Lu-da

    2005-10-01

    With the rapid development of the GMO, more and more GMO food has been pouring into the market. Much attention has been paid to GMO labeling under the controversy of GMO safety. Transgenic corns and their parents were scanned by continuous wave of near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy range of 12000-4000 cm(-1); the resolution was 4 cm(-1); scanning was carried out for 64 times; BP algorithm was applied for data processing. The GMO food was easily resolved. Near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is unpolluted and inexpensive compared with PCR and ELISA, so it is a very promising detection method for GMO food.

  18. Catheter based mid-infrared reflectance and reflectance generated absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2013-10-29

    A method of characterizing conditions in a tissue, by (a) providing a catheter that has a light source that emits light in selected wavenumbers within the range of mid-IR spectrum; (b) directing the light from the catheter to an area of tissue at a location inside a blood vessel of a subject; (c) collecting light reflected from the location and generating a reflectance spectra; and (d) comparing the reflectance spectra to a reference spectra of normal tissue, whereby a location having an increased number of absorbance peaks at said selected wavenumbers indicates a tissue inside the blood vessel containing a physiological marker for atherosclerosis.

  19. Differences in visible and near-infrared light reflectance between orange fruit and leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Berumen, A.

    1975-01-01

    The objective was to find the best time during the season (April 26, 1972 to January 8, 1973) to distinguish orange fruit from leaves by spectrophotometrically determining at 10-day intervals when the difference in visible (550- and 650-nm wavelengths) and near-infrared (850-nm wavelength) light reflectance between fruit and nearby leaves was largest. December 5 to January 8 was the best time to distinguish fruit from leaves. During this period the fruit's color was rapidly changing from green to yellow, and the difference in visible light reflectance between fruit and leaves was largest. The difference in near-infrared reflectance between leaves and fruit remained essentially constant during ripening when the difference in visible light reflectance between leaves and fruit was largest.

  20. Near Infrared 45°/0° Reflectance Factor of Pressed Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Powder

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Maria E.; Barnes, P. Yvonne

    1999-01-01

    Pressed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) powder is commonly used as a reflectance standard for bidirectional and hemispherical geometries. The wavelength dependence of the reflectance factor of PTFE is presented for the near-infrared spectral region (800 nm to 1600 nm) for the 45°/0° geometry, as well as in the visible spectral region (380 nm to 800 nm) for comparison with previously published results.

  1. Thermal Infrared Reflective Metal Oxide Sol-Gel Coatings for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Brandon Demar

    Recent trends in composite research include the development of structural materials with multiple functionalities. In new studies, novel materials are being designed, developed, modified, and implemented into composite designs. Typically, an increase in functionality requires additional material phases within one system. The presence of excessive phases can result in deterioration of individual or overall properties. True multi-functional materials must maintain all properties at or above the minimum operating limit. In this project, samples of antimony and cobalt-doped tin oxide (ATO(Co2O 3)) sol-gel solutions are used to coat carbon fibers and are heat treated at a temperature range of 200 - 500 °C. Results from this research are used to model the implementation of sol-gel coatings into carbon fiber reinforced multifunctional composite systems. This research presents a novel thermo-responsive sol-gel/ (dopant) combination and evaluation of the actuating responses (reflectivity and surface heat dissipation) due to various heat treatment temperatures. While ATO is a well-known transparent conductive material, the implementation of ATO on carbon fibers for infrared thermal reflectivity has not been examined. These coatings serve as actuators capable of reflecting thermal infrared radiation in the near infrared wavelengths of 0.7-1.2 μm. By altering the level of Co2O3 and heat treatment temperatures, optimal optical properties are obtained. While scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used for imaging, electron diffraction spectroscopy (EDS) is used to verify the compounds present in the coatings. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was performed to analyze the chemical bonds and reflectivity in the infrared spectra after the heat treatments. Total reflection and angle-dependent reflectivity measurements were performed on the coatings in the wavelengths of 0.7-2 μm. Laser induced damage threshold testing was done to investigate the dielectric breakdown

  2. Low-resolution mid-infrared reflection analysis for discernment of contaminants in seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contaminants often decrease cotton quality, which subsequently decrease cotton profitability. In this research, a low-resolution mid-infrared reflection instrument was designed and constructed by using only four different wavelengths to accomplish good separation of cotton samples from 14 contaminan...

  3. Electrically tunable selective reflection of light from ultraviolet to visible and infrared by heliconical cholesterics.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jie; Li, Yannian; Li, Quan; Paterson, Daniel A; Storey, John M D; Imrie, Corrie T; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2015-05-20

    Electrical tuning of selective reflection of light is achieved in a very broad spectral range from ultraviolet to visible and infrared by an oblique helicoidal state of a cholesteric liquid crystal in a wide temperature range (including room temperature). The phenomenon offers potential applications in tunable smart windows, lasers, optical filters and limiters, as well as in displays. PMID:25821155

  4. Enhanced spatial near-infrared modulation of graphene-loaded perfect absorbers using plasmonic nanoslits.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yijun; Zhu, Jinfeng; Liu, Qing Huo; Lin, Timothy; Zhou, Jianyang; Ye, Longfang; Cai, Zhiping

    2015-12-14

    Modulating spatial near-infrared light for ultra-compact electro-optic devices is a critical issue in optical communication and imaging applications. To date, spatial near-infrared modulators based on graphene have been reported, but they showed limited modulation effects due to the relatively weak light-graphene interaction. In combination with graphene and metallic nanoslits, we design a kind of ultrathin near-infrared perfect absorber with enhanced spatial modulation effects and independence on a wide range of incident angles. The modulated spectral shift of central wavelength is up to 258.2 nm in the near-infrared range, which is more promising in applications than state-of-the-art devices. The modulation enhancement is attributed to the plasmonic nanoslit mode, in which the optical electric field is highly concentrated in the deep subwavelength scale and the light-graphene interaction is significantly strengthened. The physical insight is deeply revealed by a combination of equivalent circuit and electromagnetic field analysis. The design principles are not only crucial for spatial near-infrared modulators, but also provide a key guide for developing active near-infrared patch nanoantennas based on graphene.

  5. Study of jamming of the frequency modulation infrared seekers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Fang; Guo, Jin; Shao, Jun-feng; Wang, Ting-feng

    2013-09-01

    The threat of the IR guidance missile is a direct consequence of extensive proliferation of the airborne IR countermeasure. The aim of a countermeasure system is to inject false information into a sensor system to create confusion. Many optical seekers have a single detector that is used to sense the position of its victim in its field of view. A seeker has a spinning reticle in the focal plane of the optical system that collects energy from the thermal scene and focuses it on to the detector. In this paper, the principle of the conical-scan FM reticle is analyzed. Then the effect that different amplitude or frequency modulated mid-infrared laser pulse acts on the reticle system is simulated. When the ratio of jamming energy to target radiation (repression) gradually increases, the azimuth error and the misalignment angle error become larger. The results show that simply increasing the intensity of the jamming light achieves little, but it increases the received signal strength of the FM reticle system ,so that the target will be more easily exposed. A slow variation of amplitude will warp the azimuth information received by the seeker, but the target can't be completely out of the missile tracking. If the repression and the jamming frequency change at the same time, the jamming effects can be more obvious. When the jamming signal's angular frequency is twice as large as the carrier frequency of the reticle system, the seeker will can't receive an accurate signal and the jamming can be achieved. The jamming mechanism of the conical-scan FM IR seeker is described and it is helpful to the airborne IR countermeasure system.

  6. The Development of Reflective Undergraduate Students: Assessing the Educational Benefits of Reflective Learning Logs in Entrepreneurship Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheng, Yeoh Khar; Sethela, June

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze written reflections on learning log of among the third and final year students undertaking an entrepreneurship module. Data was collected in the form of written reflection taken from the learning log of 140 students from 3 classes. At the end of the collection only 136 students' responses were managed to…

  7. Development of low-temperature transistor modules to improve the MSFC mid-infrared array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesco, C. M.; Decher, R.; Peters, P.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the low-temperature transistor modules designed for use with the MSFC mid-infrared array. The modules were developed in the Space Science Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center with Center Director's Discretionary Funds. The transistors (JFETs), which operate at a temperature of 77 K, are epoxied to a copper surface attached to a Teflon substrate. The module substrate insulates the JFETs from the 1.5K detector work surfaces and provides a convenient mounting structure for additional components such as solder pins. These modules have maintained their structural integrity during repeated temperature cycling, and they have to be convenient during maintenance and servicing of the infrared array.

  8. Durable silver mirror with ultra-violet thru far infra-red reflection

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Jesse D.

    2010-11-23

    A durable highly reflective silver mirror characterized by high reflectance in a broad spectral range of about 300 nm in the UV to the far infrared (.about.10000 nm), as well as exceptional environmental durability. A high absorptivity metal underlayer is used which prevents the formation of a galvanic cell with a silver layer while increasing the reflectance of the silver layer. Environmentally durable overcoat layers are provided to enhance mechanical and chemical durability and protect the silver layer from corrosion and tarnishing, for use in a wide variety of surroundings or climates, including harsh or extreme environments.

  9. Infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy of hyperfine layers on surfaces of semiconductors and dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruzinov, S. N.; Tolstoy, V. P.

    1988-02-01

    Infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy of film son surfaces of transparent or weakly absorbing semiconductor and dielectric substrates is analyzed theoretically, the purpose being to establish the conditions for maximum sensitivity of this method. The absorption factor, namely the relative change of the reflection coefficient upon formation of a film on the substrate surface, is selected as the sensitivity criterion. The analysis is based on exact relations, one for a homogeneous isotopic absorbing film between substrate and ambient medium with plane-parallel boundaries and one for a reflecting layer with the possibility of multiple reflections taken into account. Calculations have been programmed on a computer for up to 60 nm thick SiO2 films on various substrates and infrared radiation within the 8 to 11 gmm waveband. The results indicate that the dependence of the absorption factor on the radiation wavelength and on the film thickness is different with the radiation s-polarized than with the radiation p-polarized. Calculations have also yielded the dispersion of optical constants characterizing a SiO2 film. According to these results, infrared spectroscopy is most sensitive to films on substrates with a small refractive index and when done with p-polarized radiation incident at exactly or approximately the Brewster angle for a determination of their presence and their composition respectively, also when no multiple reflections occur.

  10. Modeling thermal infrared (2-14 micrometer) reflectance spectra of frost and snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wald, Andrew E.

    1994-01-01

    Existing theories of radiative transfer in close-packed media assume that each particle scatters independently of its neighbors. For opaque particles, such as are common in the thermal infrared, this assumption is not valid, and these radiative transfer theories will not be accurate. A new method is proposed, called 'diffraction subtraction', which modifies the scattering cross section of close-packed large, opaque spheres to account for the effect of close packing on the diffraction cross section of a scattering particle. This method predicts the thermal infrared reflectance of coarse (greater than 50 micrometers radius), disaggregated granular snow. However, such coarse snow is typically old and metamorphosed, with adjacent grains welded together. The reflectance of such a welded block can be described as partly Fresnel in nature and cannot be predicted using Mie inputs to radiative transfer theory. Owing to the high absorption coefficient of ice in the thermal infrared, a rough surface reflectance model can be used to calculate reflectance from such a block. For very small (less than 50 micrometers), disaggregated particles, it is incorrect in principle to treat diffraction independently of reflection and refraction, and the theory fails. However, for particles larger than 50 micrometers, independent scattering is a valid assumption, and standard radiative transfer theory works.

  11. Long-wave infrared surface reflectance spectra retrieved from Telops Hyper-Cam imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler-Golden, S. M.; Conforti, P.; Gagnon, M.; Tremblay, P.; Chamberland, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Processing long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral imagery to surface emissivity or reflectance units via atmospheric compensation and temperature-emissivity separation (TES) affords the opportunity to remotely classify and identify solid materials with minimal interference from atmospheric effects. This paper describes an automated atmospheric compensation and TES method, called FLAASH®-IR (Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypecubes-- Infrared), and its application to ground-to-ground imagery taken with the Telops Inc. Hyper-Cam interferometric hyperspectral imager. The results demonstrate that clean, quantitative surface spectra can be obtained, even with highly reflective (low emissivity) objects such as bare metal and in the presence of some illumination from the surroundings. In particular, the atmospheric compensation process suppresses the spectral features due to atmospheric water vapor and ozone, which are especially prominent in reflected sky radiance.

  12. [The research progress in determining lignocellulosic content by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology].

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; An, Dong; Xia, Tian; Huang, Yan-Hua; Li, Hong-Chao; Zhang, Yun-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology, as a new analytic method, can be used to determine the content of lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose which is faster, effective, easier to operate, and more accurate than the traditional wet chemical methods. Nowadays it has been widely used in measuring the composition of lignocelluloses in woody plant and herbaceous plant. The domestic and foreign research progress in determining the lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose content in woody plant ( wood and bamboo used as papermaking raw materials and wood served as potential biomass energy) and herbaceous plant (forage grass and energy grass) by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology is comprehensively summarized and the advances in method studies of measuring the composition of lignocelluloses by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology are summed up in three aspects, sample preparation, spectral data pretreatment and wavelength selection methods, and chemometric analysis respectively. Four outlooks are proposed combining the development statues of wood, forage grass and energy grass industry. First of all, the authors need to establish more feasible and applicable models for a variety of uses which can be used for more species from different areas, periods and anatomical parts. Secondly, comprehensive near infrared reflectance spectroscopy data base of grass products quality index needs to be improved to realize on-line quality and process control in grassproducts industry, which can guarantee the quality of the grass product. Thirdly, the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy quality index model of energy plant need to be built which can not only contribute to breed screening, but also improve the development of biomass industry. Besides, modeling approaches are required to be explored and perfected any further. Finally, the authors need to try our best to boost the advancement in the determination method of lignin, cellulose and hemi

  13. Evaluation of thermal stability of indinavir sulphate using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parul; Premkumar, L; Mehrotra, Ranjana; Kandpal, H C; Bakhshi, A K

    2008-06-01

    Indinavir sulphate is a potent and specific protease inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is used for the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). At elevated temperature the drug which otherwise remains crystalline undergoes a phase transition to an amorphous phase to form degradation products. In the present study, thermal stability of indinavir sulphate is evaluated using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Infrared spectra of the drug before and after the exposure to thermal radiation at different temperatures were acquired in the diffuse reflectance mode using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were used as complimentary techniques to adequately implement and assist the interpretation of the infrared spectroscopy results. The DRIFT spectra reveal that the drug remains stable up to 100 degrees C, degrades slightly at 125 degrees C and undergoes complete degradation at about 150 degrees C to produce degradation products. The degradation products can easily be characterized using the infrared spectra.

  14. Potential of remote visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance measurements for mapping thermal maturity variations

    SciTech Connect

    Rowan, L.C.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Jones, O.D. )

    1989-09-01

    The visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral reflectance of rocks containing organic matter is related to thermal maturity because thermal alteration liberates hydrogen and forms highly absorbing carbon-rich polycondensed structures. To evaluate the usefulness of remote spectral reflectance measurements for mapping thermal maturity differences, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images of the Eureka, Nevada, area were processed to produce a digital classification image maps that shows maturity in well-exposed, sparsely vegetated areas consisting of Chainman Shale. The relationship between spectral reflectance in TM bands and band ratios and maturity was confirmed through analysis of laboratory VNIR spectral reflectance and mean vitrinite reflectance (R{sub m}) measurements of 20 samples.

  15. Effects of Sample Preparation on the Infrared Reflectance Spectra of Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Myers, Tanya L.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Forland, Brenda M.

    2015-05-22

    While reflectance spectroscopy is a useful tool in identifying molecular compounds, laboratory measurement of solid (particularly powder) samples often is confounded by sample preparation methods. For example, both the packing density and surface roughness can have an effect on the quantitative reflectance spectra of powdered samples. Recent efforts in our group have focused on developing standard methods for measuring reflectance spectra that accounts for sample preparation, as well as other factors such as particle size and provenance. In this work, the effect of preparation method on sample reflectivity was investigated by measuring the directional-hemispherical spectra of samples that were hand-packed as well as pressed into pellets using an integrating sphere attached to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The results show that the methods used to prepare the sample have a substantial effect on the measured reflectance spectra, as do other factors such as particle size.

  16. Electro-optic study of PZT ferroelectric ceramics using modulation of reflected light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniazkov, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    Electro-optic coefficients of variations in the refractive index of PZT and PLZT ceramic materials induced by ac electric field are estimated using modulation of reflected light. The electro-optic coefficients of PLZT ceramics measured with the aid of conventional birefringence using the phase shift of transmitted radiation and the proposed method of birefringence using the modulation of reflected light are compared.

  17. Characterization of Material Degradation in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooney, Adam T.; Flattum-Riemers, Richard Y.; Scott, Benjamin J.

    2011-06-01

    Ceramic matrix composite materials for thermal protection systems are required to maintain operational performance in extreme thermal and mechanical environments. In-service inspection of materials capable of assessing the degree and extent of damage and degradation will be required to ensure the safety and readiness of future air vehicles. Infrared reflectance spectroscopy is an established material characterization technique capable of extracting information regarding the chemical composition of substances. The viability of this technique as a potentially powerful nondestructive evaluation method capable of monitoring degradation in thermal protection system materials subjected to extreme mechanical and thermal environments is analyzed. Several oxide-based and non-oxide-based ceramic matrix composite materials were stressed to failure in a high temperature environment and subsequently measured using infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Spectral signatures at locations along the length of the samples were compared resulting in distinct and monotonic reflectance peak changes while approaching the fracture point. The chemical significance of the observed signatures and the feasibility of infrared reflectance nondestructive evaluation techniques are discussed.

  18. Broadband infrared electro-optic modulator having a buried microstrip network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheo, Peter K. (Inventor); Gilden, Meyer (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A microwave infrared modulator having a novel three dimensional structure is presented. The modulator includes a waveguide and metal base with a dielectric wafer buried therebetween. The buried wafer allows for conventional microstrip structures to be employed with larger microstrip electrode dimensions than would otherwise be possible.

  19. Structural design considerations for a line-focus reflective module using inexpensive composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, L. M.

    1982-08-01

    The structural design aspects of a parabolic trough reflective module is addressed. The reflective module is a lightweight, low flexural rigidity design that is rotated about the focal line. The modules and support frame are designed to rotate with a cable drive system in a cross row manner. Analysis indicates that the structural and optical aspects of the reflector frame concept are adequate, with dramatic savings in weight and costs for the structure.

  20. Cryo-Transmittance and -Reflectance of Filters and Beamsplitters for the SIRTF Infrared Array Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Kenneth P.; Quijada, Manuel A.a

    2000-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) uses two dichroic beamsplitters, four bandpass filters, and four detector arrays to acquire images in four channels at wavelengths between 3 and 10 micron. Accurate knowledge of the pass bands is necessary because, in order to meet the science objectives, IRAC is required to do 2% relative photometry in each band relative to the other bands. We report the in-band and out-of-band polarized transmittance and reflectance of these optical elements measured near the instrument operating temperature of 1.4 K. Details of the experimental apparatus, which include a continuous flow liquid helium optical cryostat and a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer are discussed.

  1. [Rapid determination of fatty acids in soybean oils by transmission reflection-near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Song, Tao; Zhang, Feng-ping; Liu, Yao-min; Wu, Zong-wen; Suo, You-rui

    2012-08-01

    In the present research, a novel method was established for determination of five fatty acids in soybean oil by transmission reflection-near infrared spectroscopy. The optimum conditions of mathematics model of five components (C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) were studied, including the sample set selection, chemical value analysis, the detection methods and condition. Chemical value was analyzed by gas chromatography. One hundred fifty eight samples were selected, 138 for modeling set, 10 for testing set and 10 for unknown sample set. All samples were placed in sample pools and scanned by transmission reflection-near infrared spectrum after sonicleaning for 10 minute. The 1100-2500 nm spectral region was analyzed. The acquisition interval was 2 nm. Modified partial least square method was chosen for calibration mode creating. Result demonstrated that the 1-VR of five fatty acids between the reference value of the modeling sample set and the near infrared spectrum predictive value were 0.8839, 0.5830, 0.9001, 0.9776 and 0.9596, respectively. And the SECV of five fatty acids between the reference value of the modeling sample set and the near infrared spectrum predictive value were 0.42, 0.29, 0.83, 0.46 and 0.21, respectively. The standard error of the calibration (SECV) of five fatty acids between the reference value of testing sample set and the near infrared spectrum predictive value were 0.891, 0.790, 0.900, 0.976 and 0.942, respectively. It was proved that the near infrared spectrum predictive value was linear with chemical value and the mathematical model established for fatty acids of soybean oil was feasible. For validation, 10 unknown samples were selected for analysis by near infrared spectrum. The result demonstrated that the relative standard deviation between predict value and chemical value was less than 5.50%. That was to say that transmission reflection-near infrared spectroscopy had a good veracity in analysis of fatty acids of soybean oil.

  2. [Tri-Level Infrared Spectroscopic Identification of Hot Melting Reflective Road Marking Paint].

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Ma, Fang; Sun, Su-qin

    2015-12-01

    In order to detect the road marking paint from the trace evidence in traffic accident scene, and to differentiate their brands, we use Tri-level infrared spectroscopic identification, which employs the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy(SD-IR), two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy(2D-IR) to identify three different domestic brands of hot melting reflective road marking paints and their raw materials in formula we Selected. The experimental results show that three labels coatings in ATR and FTIR spectrograms are very similar in shape, only have different absorption peak wave numbers, they have wide and strong absorption peaks near 1435 cm⁻¹, and strong absorption peak near 879, 2955, 2919, 2870 cm⁻¹. After enlarging the partial areas of spectrograms and comparing them with each kind of raw material of formula spectrograms, we can distinguish them. In the region 700-970 and 1370-1 660 cm⁻¹ the spectrograms mainly reflect the different relative content of heavy calcium carbonate of three brands of the paints, and that of polyethylene wax (PE wax), ethylene vinyl acetate resin (EVA), dioctyl phthalate (DOP) in the region 2800-2960 cm⁻¹. The SD-IR not only verify the result of the FTIR analysis, but also further expand the microcosmic differences and reflect the different relative content of quartz sand in the 512-799 cm-1 region. Within the scope of the 1351 to 1525 cm⁻¹, 2D-IR have more significant differences in positions and numbers of automatically peaks. Therefore, the Tri-level infrared spectroscopic identification is a fast and effective method to distinguish the hot melting road marking paints with a gradually improvement in apparent resolution.

  3. [Tri-Level Infrared Spectroscopic Identification of Hot Melting Reflective Road Marking Paint].

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Ma, Fang; Sun, Su-qin

    2015-12-01

    In order to detect the road marking paint from the trace evidence in traffic accident scene, and to differentiate their brands, we use Tri-level infrared spectroscopic identification, which employs the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy(SD-IR), two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy(2D-IR) to identify three different domestic brands of hot melting reflective road marking paints and their raw materials in formula we Selected. The experimental results show that three labels coatings in ATR and FTIR spectrograms are very similar in shape, only have different absorption peak wave numbers, they have wide and strong absorption peaks near 1435 cm⁻¹, and strong absorption peak near 879, 2955, 2919, 2870 cm⁻¹. After enlarging the partial areas of spectrograms and comparing them with each kind of raw material of formula spectrograms, we can distinguish them. In the region 700-970 and 1370-1 660 cm⁻¹ the spectrograms mainly reflect the different relative content of heavy calcium carbonate of three brands of the paints, and that of polyethylene wax (PE wax), ethylene vinyl acetate resin (EVA), dioctyl phthalate (DOP) in the region 2800-2960 cm⁻¹. The SD-IR not only verify the result of the FTIR analysis, but also further expand the microcosmic differences and reflect the different relative content of quartz sand in the 512-799 cm-1 region. Within the scope of the 1351 to 1525 cm⁻¹, 2D-IR have more significant differences in positions and numbers of automatically peaks. Therefore, the Tri-level infrared spectroscopic identification is a fast and effective method to distinguish the hot melting road marking paints with a gradually improvement in apparent resolution. PMID:26964206

  4. Surface roughness and gloss study of prints: application of specular reflection at near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silfsten, P.; Dutta, R.; Pääkkönen, P.; Tåg, C.-M.; Gane, P. A. C.; Peiponen, K.-E.

    2012-12-01

    Absolute reflectance data were measured with a spectrophotometer in the visible and near infrared (NIR) spectral range. The specular reflectance data in the NIR were used for the assessment of the surface roughness of magenta, yellow, cyan and black prints on paper. In addition, surface roughness data obtained from the prints with a mechanical diamond stylus, an optical profiling system and the spectrophotometer are compared with each other. The surface roughness obtained with the aid of the spectrophotometer data suggests a smoother surface than when measured with the diamond stylus and the optical profiling system. The gloss of the prints can be obtained from the absolute specular reflectance spectra in the spectral region of visible light. It is shown that specular reflection data at a fixed wavelength in the NIR are useful also in the interpretation of gloss in the visible spectral range, but using an unconventional grazing angle of incidence.

  5. [Detection of erucic acid and glucosinolate in intact rapeseed by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Riu, Yu-kui; Huang, Kun-lun; Wang, Wei-min; Guo, Jing; Jin, Yin-hua; Luo, Yun-bo

    2006-12-01

    With the rapid development of transgenic food, more and more transgenic food has been pouring into the market, raising great concern about transgenic food' s edible safety. To analyze the content of erucic acid and glucosinolate in transgenic rapeseed and its parents, all the seeds were scanned intact by continuous wave of near infrared diffuse reflectance spectrometry ranging from 12 000 to 4 000 cm(-1) with a resolution of 4 cm(-1) and 64 times of scanning. Bruker OPUS software package was applied for quantification, while the results were compared with the standard methods. The results showed that the method of NIRS was very precise, which proved that infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be applied to detect the toxins in transgenic food. On the other hand, the results also showed that the content of erucic acid in transgenic rapeseeds is 0. 5-1. 0 times

  6. Modeling the attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum of apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufort, Julie; Ségalen, Loïc; Gervais, Christel; Brouder, Christian; Balan, Etienne

    2016-06-01

    Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectra were measured on a synthetic and a natural fluorapatite sample. A modeling approach based on the computation of the Fresnel reflection coefficient between the ATR crystal and the powder sample was used to analyze the line shape of the spectra. The dielectric properties of the samples were related to those of pure fluorapatite using an effective medium approach, based on Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman models. The Bruggeman effective medium model leads to a very good agreement with the experimental data recorded on the synthetic fluorapatite sample. The poorer agreement observed on the natural sample suggests a more significant heterogeneity of the sample at a characteristic length scale larger than the mid-infrared characteristic wavelength, i.e., about 10 micrometers. The results demonstrate the prominent role of macroscopic electrostatic effects over fine details of the microscopic structure in determining the line shape of strong ATR bands.

  7. Modeling the attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum of apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufort, Julie; Ségalen, Loïc; Gervais, Christel; Brouder, Christian; Balan, Etienne

    2016-10-01

    Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectra were measured on a synthetic and a natural fluorapatite sample. A modeling approach based on the computation of the Fresnel reflection coefficient between the ATR crystal and the powder sample was used to analyze the line shape of the spectra. The dielectric properties of the samples were related to those of pure fluorapatite using an effective medium approach, based on Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman models. The Bruggeman effective medium model leads to a very good agreement with the experimental data recorded on the synthetic fluorapatite sample. The poorer agreement observed on the natural sample suggests a more significant heterogeneity of the sample at a characteristic length scale larger than the mid-infrared characteristic wavelength, i.e., about 10 micrometers. The results demonstrate the prominent role of macroscopic electrostatic effects over fine details of the microscopic structure in determining the line shape of strong ATR bands.

  8. Near-infrared reflectance spectra-applications to problems in asteroid-meteorite relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, Lucy A.; Chamberlin, Alan; Vilas, Faith

    1991-01-01

    Near-infrared spectral reflectance data were collected at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) at Mauna Kea Observatories in 1985 and 1986 for the purpose of searching the region near the 3:1 Kirkwood gap for asteroids with the spectral signatures of ordinary chondrite parent bodies. Twelve reflectance spectra are observed. The presence of ordinary chondrite parent bodies among this specific set of observed asteroids is not obvious, though the sample is biased towards the larger asteroids in the region due to limitations imposed by detector sensitivity. The data set, which was acquired with the same instrumentation used for the 52-color asteroid survey (Bell et al., 1987), also presents some additional findings. The range of spectral characteristics that exist among asteroids of the same taxonomic type is noted. Conclusions based on the findings are discussed.

  9. Prepreg cure monitoring using diffuse reflectance-FTIR. [Fourier Transform Infrared Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. R.; Chang, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    An in situ diffuse reflectance-Fourier transform infrared technique was developed to determine infrared spectra of graphite fiber prepregs as they were being cured. A bismaleimide, an epoxy, and addition polyimide matrix resin prepregs were studied. An experimental polyimide adhesive was also examined. Samples were positioned on a small heater at the focal point of diffuse reflectance optics and programmed at 15 F/min while FTIR spectra were being scanned, averaged, and stored. An analysis of the resulting spectra provided basic insights into changes in matrix resin molecular structure which accompanied reactions such as imidization and crosslinking. An endo-exothermal isomerization involving reactive end-caps was confirmed for the addition polyimide prepregs. The results of this study contribute to a fundamental understanding of the processing of composites and adhesives. Such understanding will promote the development of more efficient cure cycles.

  10. Measuring near infrared spectral reflectance changes from water stressed conifer stands with AIS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, George; Running, Steven W.

    1987-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-2 (AIS-2) data was acquired over two paired conifer stands for the purpose of detecting differences in spectral reflectance between stressed and natural canopies. Water stress was induced in a stand of Norway spruce and white pine by severing the sapwood near the ground. Water stress during the AIS flights was evaluated through shoot water potential and relative water content measurements. Preliminary analysis with raw AIS-2 data using SPAM indicates that there were small, inconsistent differences in absolute spectral reflectance in the near infrared 0.97 to 1.3 micron between the stressed and natural canopies.

  11. Influence of Si doping on the infrared reflectance characteristics of GaN grown on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Y. T.; Feng, Z. C.; Chua, S. J.; Li, M. F.; Akutsu, N.; Matsumoto, K.

    1999-11-01

    Si-doped GaN films grown on sapphire are investigated by infrared reflectance. A damping behavior of the interference fringes is observed, and interpreted to be due to the presence of an interface layer between the film and the substrate. A theoretical calculation using a two-layer model to take into account the interface layer resulted in this damping in agreement with the experiment. The damping behavior and an improvement of interface properties by Si incorporation are demonstrated.

  12. High reflected cubic cavity as long path absorption cell for infrared gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    One direct and efficient method to improve the sensitivity of infrared gas sensors is to increase the optical path length of gas cells according to Beer-Lambert Law. In this paper, cubic shaped cavities with high reflected inner coating as novel long path absorption cells for infrared gas sensing were developed. The effective optical path length (EOPL) for a single cubic cavity and tandem cubic cavities were investigated based on Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) measuring oxygen P11 line at 763 nm. The law of EOPL of a diffuse cubic cavity in relation with the reflectivity of the coating, the port fraction and side length of the cavity was obtained. Experimental results manifested an increase of EOPL for tandem diffuse cubic cavities as the decrease of port fraction of the connecting aperture f', and the EOPL equaled to the sum of that of two single cubic cavities at f'<0.01. The EOPL spectra at infrared wavelength range for different inner coatings including high diffuse coatings and high reflected metallic thin film coatings were deduced.

  13. Multipitched Diffraction Gratings for Surface Plasmon Resonance-Enhanced Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Petefish, Joseph W; Hillier, Andrew C

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the application of metal-coated diffraction gratings possessing multiple simultaneous pitch values for surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy. SEIRA increases the magnitude of vibrational signals in infrared measurements by one of several mechanisms, most frequently involving the enhanced electric field associated with surface plasmon resonance (SPR). While the majority of SEIRA applications to date have employed nanoparticle-based plasmonic systems, recent advances have shown how various metals and structures lead to similar signal enhancement. Recently, diffraction grating couplers have been demonstrated as a highly tunable platform for SEIRA. Indeed, gratings are an experimentally advantageous platform due to the inherently tunable nature of surface plasmon excitation at these surfaces since both the grating pitch and incident angle can be used to modify the spectral location of the plasmon resonance. In this work, we use laser interference lithography (LIL) to fabricate gratings possessing multiple pitch values by subjecting photoresist-coated glass slides to repetitive exposures at varying orientations. After metal coating, these gratings produced multiple, simultaneous plasmon peaks associated with the multipitched surface, as identified by infrared reflectance measurements. These plasmon peaks could then be coupled to vibrational modes in thin films to provide localized enhancement of infrared signals. We demonstrate the flexibility and tunability of this platform for signal enhancement. It is anticipated that, with further refinement, this approach might be used as a general platform for broadband enhancement of infrared spectroscopy. PMID:26458177

  14. Multipitched Diffraction Gratings for Surface Plasmon Resonance-Enhanced Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Petefish, Joseph W; Hillier, Andrew C

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the application of metal-coated diffraction gratings possessing multiple simultaneous pitch values for surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy. SEIRA increases the magnitude of vibrational signals in infrared measurements by one of several mechanisms, most frequently involving the enhanced electric field associated with surface plasmon resonance (SPR). While the majority of SEIRA applications to date have employed nanoparticle-based plasmonic systems, recent advances have shown how various metals and structures lead to similar signal enhancement. Recently, diffraction grating couplers have been demonstrated as a highly tunable platform for SEIRA. Indeed, gratings are an experimentally advantageous platform due to the inherently tunable nature of surface plasmon excitation at these surfaces since both the grating pitch and incident angle can be used to modify the spectral location of the plasmon resonance. In this work, we use laser interference lithography (LIL) to fabricate gratings possessing multiple pitch values by subjecting photoresist-coated glass slides to repetitive exposures at varying orientations. After metal coating, these gratings produced multiple, simultaneous plasmon peaks associated with the multipitched surface, as identified by infrared reflectance measurements. These plasmon peaks could then be coupled to vibrational modes in thin films to provide localized enhancement of infrared signals. We demonstrate the flexibility and tunability of this platform for signal enhancement. It is anticipated that, with further refinement, this approach might be used as a general platform for broadband enhancement of infrared spectroscopy.

  15. The infrared imaging spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: reflective ruled diffraction grating performance testing and discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Elliot; Chen, Shaojie; Wright, Shelley A.; Moore, Anna M.; Larkin, James E.; Simard, Luc; Marie, Jerome; Mieda, Etsuko; Gordon, Jacob

    2014-07-01

    We present the efficiency of near-infrared reflective ruled diffraction gratings designed for the InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). IRIS is a first light, integral field spectrograph and imager for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and narrow field infrared adaptive optics system (NFIRAOS). IRIS will operate across the near-infrared encompassing the ZYJHK bands (~0.84 - 2.4μm) with multiple spectral resolutions. We present our experimental setup and analysis of the efficiency of selected reflective diffraction gratings. These measurements are used as a comparison sample against selected candidate Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings (see Chen et al., this conference). We investigate the efficiencies of five ruled gratings designed for IRIS from two separate vendors. Three of the gratings accept a bandpass of 1.19-1.37μm (J band) with ideal spectral resolutions of R=4000 and R=8000, groove densities of 249 and 516 lines/mm, and blaze angles of 9.86° and 20.54° respectively. The other two gratings accept a bandpass of 1.51-1.82μm (H Band) with an ideal spectral resolution of R=4000, groove density of 141 lines/mm, and blaze angle of 9.86°. The fraction of flux in each diffraction mode was compared to both a pure reflection mirror as well as the sum of the flux measured in all observable modes. We measure the efficiencies off blaze angle for all gratings and the efficiencies between the polarization transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) states. The peak reflective efficiencies are 98.90 +/- 3.36% (TM) and 84.99 +/- 2.74% (TM) for the H-band R=4000 and J-band R=4000 respectively. The peak reflective efficiency for the J-band R=8000 grating is 78.78 +/- 2.54% (TE). We find that these ruled gratings do not exhibit a wide dependency on incident angle within +/-3°. Our best-manufactured gratings were found to exhibit a dependency on the polarization state of the incident beam with a ~10-20% deviation, consistent with the theoretical efficiency

  16. Noninvasive blood glucose sensing on human body with near-infrared reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhen-hao; Hao, Chang-ning; Zhang, Lin-lin; Huang, Yan-chao; Shi, Yi-qin; Jiang, Geng-ru; Duan, Jun-li

    2011-08-01

    The non-invasive blood glucose sensing method has shown its high impact on the clinic application. This can make the measurement on the clinically relevant concentrations of glucose be free from the pain of patient. The transmission spectrum study indicates that the dependence of glucose concentration on the absorbance is in linear manner for the glucose concentration in the region of 30mg/dL to 4.5×104mg/dL. By the near infrared reflection spectroscopy of fiber spectrometer, the reflection band between 1.2μm and 1.35μm can be used to correlated with the glucose concentration in the range of 30 to 300 mg/dL. This reflection band is finally used to measure the glucose concentration effect in non-invasive manner, which gives the statistical significance of P value 0.02. Our experiment result shows that it is possible to get the glucose concentration by the near infrared reflection spectrum measurement on the human forefinger. This non-invasive blood glucose sensing method may useful in clinic after more experiment for different people.

  17. Detection of Cracks on Tomatoes Using a Hyperspectral Near-Infrared Reflectance Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hoonsoo; Kim, Moon S.; Jeong, Danhee; Delwiche, Stephen R.; Chao, Kuanglin; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hyperspectral near-infrared (NIR) reflectance imaging techniques for detecting cuticle cracks on tomatoes. A hyperspectral NIR reflectance imaging system that analyzed the spectral region of 1000–1700 nm was used to obtain hyperspectral reflectance images of 224 tomatoes: 112 with and 112 without cracks along the stem-scar region. The hyperspectral images were subjected to partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to classify and detect cracks on the tomatoes. Two morphological features, roundness (R) and minimum-maximum distance (D), were calculated from the PLS-DA images to quantify the shape of the stem scar. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and a support vector machine (SVM) were then used to classify R and D. The results revealed 94.6% and 96.4% accuracy for classifications made using LDA and SVM, respectively, for tomatoes with and without crack defects. These data suggest that the hyperspectral near-infrared reflectance imaging system, in addition to traditional NIR spectroscopy-based methods, could potentially be used to detect crack defects on tomatoes and perform quality assessments. PMID:25310472

  18. Infrared reflectance of AlN-GaN short period superlattice films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMillan, M. F.; Devaty, R. P.; Choyke, W. J.; Khan, M. Asif; Kuznia, J.

    1996-08-01

    The room-temperature infrared reflectance of AlN-GaN short period superlattice films has been measured. These superlattice films were deposited by switched atomic layer metalorganic chemical vapor deposition onto GaN or AlN buffer layers deposited on basal plane sapphire substrates. The measured reflectance spectra are compared to calculated spectra using an effective medium theory to model the dielectric function of the superlattice. The optical properties of the individual materials making up the samples are modeled with Lorentz oscillators using only bulk input parameters. The effects of film and substrate anisotropy and off-normal incidence are included in the calculation. Using this modeling technique, it is possible to obtain thickness estimates for the superlattice film and the buffer layer. The complicated structures seen in the reststrahl region reflectance of these films are also analyzed by comparison to the calculated spectra.

  19. [The evaluation of hydrocarbon potential generation for source rocks by near-infrared diffuse reflection spectra].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Jia; Xu, Xiao-Xuan; Song, Ning; Wu, Zhong-Chen; Zhou, Xiang; Chen, Jin; Cao, Xue-Wei; Wang, Bin

    2011-04-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) diffuse reflection spectra were compared and evaluated for hydrocarbon potential generation of source rocks. Near-infrared diffuse reflectance often exhibits significant differences in the spectra due to the non-homogeneous distribution of the particles, so the signal-to-noise ratio of NIR is much lower than MIR It is too difficult to get accurate results by NIR without using a strong spectral preprocessing method to remove systematic noise such as base-line variation and multiplicative scatter effects. In the present paper, orthogonal signal correction (OSC) and an improved algorithm of it, i.e. direct orthogonal signal correction (DOSC), are used as different methods to preprocess both the NIR and MIR spectra of the hydrocarbon source rocks. Another algorithm, wavelet multi-scale direct orthogonal signal correction (WMDOSC), which is a combination of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and DOSC, is also used as a preprocessing method. Then, the calibration model of hydrocarbon source rocks before and after pretreatment was established by interval partial least square (iPLS). The experimental results show that WMDOSC is more successfully applied to preprocess the NIR spectra data of the hydrocarbon source rocks than other two algorithms, and NIR performed as good as MIR in the analysis of hydrocarbon potential generation of source rocks with WMDOSC-iPLS pretreatment calibration model.

  20. Assessment of diffuse transmission and reflection modes in near-infrared quantification, part 2: DIFFuse reflection information depth.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Muhanned; Probst, Leila; Betz, Gabriele

    2011-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy offers tremendous advantages for pharmaceutical manufacturing as a fast and nondestructive method of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Content uniformity (end-product analytics) and process analytics are two important applications of the method. Diffuse reflection (DR) information depth (vertical sampling span) assessment is of equal importance in content prediction applications and to understand the effect of inhomogeneities in the sample. Three experiments were conducted: (a) 0.5 to 10.0 mm incremental thickness MCC tablets with constant porosity, (b) MCC/phenylbutazone (PBZ) double-layered (DL) tablets (PBZ layer 0%-100% in 0.5 mm steps), and (c) Comparison of placebo and 30% caffeine tablet cores with incremental film coating (film thickness of 0-0.35 mm). Incremental thickness and cluster analysis of DL tablets showed that DR information depth was <0.5 mm, whereas the data fitting from incremental coating showed that signal drop reached 50% at 0.05 to 0.07 mm, depending on the wavenumber and 90% signal drop (10% information content) can be seen between 0.20 and 0.25 mm without extrapolation. These results mean that DR mode for pharmaceutical tablets obtains spectral information from the very surface, and radiation is barely reflected back from beyond thin-film coatings, making it less useful than diffuse transmission mode for core content analysis, especially for thick-coated, multilayer, multicore, or highly inhomogeneous tablets.

  1. High temperature far-infrared dynamics of orthorhombic NdMnO3: emissivity and reflectivity.

    PubMed

    Massa, Néstor E; del Campo, Leire; Meneses, Domingos De Sousa; Echegut, Patrick; Martínez-Lope, María Jesús; Alonso, José Antonio

    2013-06-12

    We report on near normal far- and mid-infrared emission and reflectivity of NdMnO3 perovskite from room temperature to sample decomposition above 1800 K. At 300 K the number of infrared active phonons is in close agreement with the 25 calculated for the orthorhombic D(2h)(16)-Pbnm (Z = 4) space group. Their number gradually decreases as we approach the temperature of orbital disorder at ~1023 K where the orthorhombic O' lower temperature cooperative phase coexists with the cubic orthorhombic O. At above ~1200 K, the three infrared active phonons coincide with that expected for cubic Pm-3m (Z = 1) in the high temperature insulating regime. Heating samples in dry air triggers double exchange conductivity by Mn(3+) and Mn(4+) ions and a small polaron mid-infrared band. Fits to the optical conductivity single out the octahedral antisymmetric and symmetric vibrational modes as the main phonons in the electron-phonon interactions at 875 K. For 1745 K, it is enough to consider the symmetric stretching internal mode. An overdamped defect induced Drude component is clearly outlined at the highest temperatures. We conclude that rare earth manganite eg electrons are prone to spin, charge, orbital, and lattice couplings in an intrinsic orbital distorted perovskite lattice, favoring embryonic low energy collective excitations.

  2. Multi-scale reflection modulator-based optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Rohit

    This dissertation describes the design, analysis, and experimental validation of micro- and macro-optical components for implementing optical interconnects at multiple scales for varied applications. Three distance scales are explored: millimeter, centimeter, and meter-scales. At the millimeter-scale, we propose the use of optical interconnects at the intra-chip level. With the rapid scaling down of CMOS critical dimensions in accordance to Moore's law, the bandwidth requirements of global interconnects in microprocessors has exceeded the capabilities of metal links. These are the wires that connect the most remote parts of the chip and are disproportionately problematic in terms of chip area and power consumption. Consequently, in the mid-2000s, we saw a shift in the chip architecture: a move towards multicore designs. However, this only delays the inevitable communication bottleneck between cores. To satisfy this bandwidth, we propose to replace the global metal interconnects with optical interconnects. We propose to use the hybrid integration of silicon with GaAs/AlAs-based multiple quantum well devices as optical modulators and photodetectors along with polymeric waveguides to transport the light. We use grayscale lithography to fabricate curved facets into the waveguides to couple light into the modulators and photodetectors. Next, at the chip-to-chip level in high-performance multiprocessor computing systems, communication distances vary from a few centimeters to tens of centimeters. An optical design for coupling light from off-chip lasers to on-chip surface-normal modulators is proposed in order to implement chip-to-chip free-space optical interconnects. The method uses a dual-prism module constructed from prisms made of two different glasses. The various alignment tolerances of the proposed system are investigated and found to be well within pick-and-place accuracies. For the off-chip lasers, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) are proposed

  3. Electron tunneling infrared sensor module with integrated control circuitry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyadzhyan-Sevak, Vardkes V. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    In an integrated electron tunneling sensor, an automatic tunneling control circuit varies a high voltage bias applied to the sensor deflection electrode in response to changes in sensor output to maintain the proper gap between the sensor tip and membrane. The control circuit ensures stable tunneling activity in the presence of large signals and other disturbances to the sensor. Output signals from the module may be derived from the amplified sensor output. The integrated sensor module is particularly well adapted for use in blood glucose measurement and monitoring system.

  4. Mars - Near-infrared spectral reflectance of surface regions and compositional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, T. B.; Clark, R. N.; Singer, R. B.

    1982-04-01

    Both morphological and compositional information are needed to define and characterize surface geologic units on Mars. A description is presented of new, near-infrared spectra (0.65 to 2.50 micrometers) for 11 regions on the Martian surface observed in 1978. The high photometric quality of these data combined with increased near-infrared spectral coverage provide new information about the spectral behavior and, therefore, the composition and physical nature of Martian surface materials. The spectral reflectances were obtained with the aid of a 2.2-m telescope located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. A cooled (to 77 K) circular variable filter spectrometer with an InSb detector was used to measure alternatively Mars and the standard star Beta Geminorum. Attention is given to general spectral characteristics, the dark region composition, spectral evidence for water, and the 2.3 micrometer absorption.

  5. Rheo-attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy: a new tool to study biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Boulet-Audet, Maxime; Vollrath, Fritz; Holland, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Whilst rheology is the reference technique to study the mechanical properties of unspun silk, we know little of the structure and the dynamics that generate them. By coupling infrared spectroscopy and shearing forces to study silk fibroin conversion, we are introducing a novel tool to address this gap in our knowledge. Here the silk conversion process has been studied dynamically using polarized attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy whilst applying shear, thus revealing silk protein conformation and molecular orientation in situ. Our results show that the silk conversion process starts with a pre-alignment of the proteins followed by a rapid growth of the β-sheet formation and then a subsequent deceleration of the growth. We propose that this tool will provide further insight into not only silk but any biopolymer solution, opening a new window into biological materials.

  6. [Applications of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technique (NIRS) to soil attributes research].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-De; Xiong, Song-Sheng; Liu, De-Li

    2014-10-01

    Soil is a much complicated substance, because animals, plants and microbes live together, organic and inorganic exist together. So soil contains a large amount of information. The traditional method in laboratory is a time-consuming effort. But the technology of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used in many areas, owing to its rapidness, high efficiency, no pollution and low cost, NIRS has become the most important method to detect the composition of soil. This paper mainly introduce some traditional methods in laboratory, the basic processes of soil detection by NIRS, some algorithms for data preprocessing and modeling. Besides, the present paper illustrates the latest research progress and the development of portable near infrared instruments of the soil. According to this paper, the authors also hope to promote the application conditions of NIRS in the grassland ecology research in China, and accelerate the modernization of research measures in this area.

  7. Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy: An Innovative Strategy for Analyzing Mineral Components in Energy Relevant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christian Menno; Pejcic, Bobby; Esteban, Lionel; Piane, Claudio Delle; Raven, Mark; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The direct qualitative and quantitative determination of mineral components in shale rocks is a problem that has not been satisfactorily resolved to date. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) is a non-destructive method frequently used in mineral identification, yet challenging due to the similarity of spectral features resulting from quartz, clay, and feldspar minerals. This study reports on a significant improvement of this methodology by combining infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (IR-ATR) with partial least squares (PLS) regression techniques for classifying and quantifying various mineral components present in a number of different shale rocks. The developed multivariate classification model was calibrated using pure component mixtures of the most common shale minerals (i.e., kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, calcite, and quartz). Using this model, the IR spectra of 11 real-world shale samples were analyzed and evaluated. Finally, the performance of the developed IR-ATR method was compared with results obtained via X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. PMID:25358261

  8. Determination of in vivo skin moisture level by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saknite, Inga; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy has a potential for noninvasive determination of skin moisture level due to high water absorption. In this study, diffuse reflectance spectra of in vivo skin were acquired in the spectral range of 900 nm to 1700 nm by using near-infrared spectrometer, optical fiber and halogen bulb light source. Absorption changes after applying skin moisturizers were analyzed over time at different body sites. Results show difference in absorption when comparing dry and normal skin. Comparison of absorption changes over time after applying moisturizer at different body sites is analyzed and discussed. Some patterns of how skin reacts to different skin moisturizers are shown, although no clear pattern can be seen due to signal noise.

  9. Self-assembled flower-like antimony trioxide microstructures with high infrared reflectance performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Shengsong; Yang, Xiaokun; Shao, Qian; Liu, Qingyun; Wang, Tiejun; Wang, Lingyun; Wang, Xiaojie

    2013-04-15

    A simple hydrothermal process was adopted to self-assembly prepare high infrared reflective antimony trioxide with three-dimensional flower-like microstructures. The morphologies of antimony trioxide microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) respectively. It is also found that experimental parameters, such as NaOH concentration, surfactant concentration and volume ratio of ethanol–water played crucial roles in controlling the morphologies of Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures. A possible growth mechanism of flower-like Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructure was proposed based on the experimental data. UV–vis–NIR spectra verified that the near infrared reflectivity of the obtained flower-like microstructures could averagely achieve as 92% with maximum reflectivity of 98%, obviously higher than that of other different morphologies of antimony trioxide microstructures. It is expected that the flower-like Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures have some applications in optical materials and heat insulation coatings. - Graphical abstract: Flower-like Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures that composed of nanosheets with thickness of ca. 100 nm exhibit high reflectivity under UV–vis–NIR spectra. Highlights: ► Uniform flower-like microstructures were synthesized via simple hydrothermal reaction. ► The flower-like Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructures exhibited higher reflectivity than other morphologies under the UV–vis–NIR light. ► Influencing parameters on the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} morphologies have been discussed in detail. ► Possible mechanism leading to flower-like microstructures was proposed.

  10. Measuring Snow Grain Size with the Near-Infrared Emitting Reflectance Dome (NERD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A. M.; Flanner, M.

    2014-12-01

    Because of its high visible albedo, snow plays a large role in Earth's surface energy balance. This role is a subject of intense study, but due to the wide range of snow albedo, variations in the characteristics of snow grains can introduce radiative feedbacks in a snow pack. Snow grain size, for example, is one property which directly affects a snow pack's absorption spectrum. Previous studies model and observe this spectrum, but potential feedbacks induced by these variations are largely unknown. Here, we implement a simple and inexpensive technique to measure snow grain size in an instrument we call the Near-infrared Emitting Reflectance Dome (NERD). A small black styrene dome (~17cm diameter), fitted with two narrowband light-emitting diodes (LEDs) centered around 1300nm and 1550nm and three near-infrared reverse-biased photodiodes, is placed over the snow surface enabling a multi-spectral measurement of the hemispheric directional reflectance factor (HDRF). We illuminate the snow at each wavelength, measure directional reflectance, and infer grain size from the difference in HDRFs measured on the same snow crystals at fixed viewing angles. We validate measurements from the NERD using two different reflectance standards, materials designed to be near perfect Lambertian reflectors, having known, constant reflectances (~99% and ~55%) across a wide range of wavelengths. Using a 3D Monte Carlo model simulating photon pathways through a pack of spherical snow grains, we calculate the difference in HDRFs at 1300nm and 1550nm to predict the calibration curve for a wide range of grain sizes. This theoretically derived curve gives a relationship between effective radius and the difference in HDRFs and allows us to approximate grain sizes using the NERD in just a few seconds. Further calibration requires knowledge of truth values attainable using a previously validated instrument or measurements from an inter-comparison workshop.

  11. The cuticle modulates ultraviolet reflectance of avian eggshells

    PubMed Central

    Fecheyr-Lippens, Daphne C.; Igic, Branislav; D'Alba, Liliana; Hanley, Daniel; Verdes, Aida; Holford, Mande; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I. N.; Grim, Tomas; Hauber, Mark E.; Shawkey, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian eggshells are variedly coloured, yet only two pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX, are known to contribute to the dramatic diversity of their colours. By contrast, the contributions of structural or other chemical components of the eggshell are poorly understood. For example, unpigmented eggshells, which appear white to the human eye, vary in their ultraviolet (UV) reflectance, which may be detectable by birds. We investigated the proximate mechanisms for the variation in UV-reflectance of unpigmented bird eggshells using spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and experimental manipulations. We specifically tested how UV-reflectance is affected by the eggshell cuticle, the outermost layer of most avian eggshells. The chemical dissolution of the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, increased UV-reflectance for only eggshells that contained a cuticle. Our findings demonstrate that the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, absorb UV-light, probably because they contain higher levels of organic components and other chemicals, such as calcium phosphates, compared to the predominantly calcite-based eggshell matrix. These data highlight the need to examine factors other than the known pigments in studies of avian eggshell colour. PMID:25964661

  12. The cuticle modulates ultraviolet reflectance of avian eggshells.

    PubMed

    Fecheyr-Lippens, Daphne C; Igic, Branislav; D'Alba, Liliana; Hanley, Daniel; Verdes, Aida; Holford, Mande; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Grim, Tomas; Hauber, Mark E; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2015-05-11

    Avian eggshells are variedly coloured, yet only two pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX, are known to contribute to the dramatic diversity of their colours. By contrast, the contributions of structural or other chemical components of the eggshell are poorly understood. For example, unpigmented eggshells, which appear white to the human eye, vary in their ultraviolet (UV) reflectance, which may be detectable by birds. We investigated the proximate mechanisms for the variation in UV-reflectance of unpigmented bird eggshells using spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and experimental manipulations. We specifically tested how UV-reflectance is affected by the eggshell cuticle, the outermost layer of most avian eggshells. The chemical dissolution of the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, increased UV-reflectance for only eggshells that contained a cuticle. Our findings demonstrate that the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, absorb UV-light, probably because they contain higher levels of organic components and other chemicals, such as calcium phosphates, compared to the predominantly calcite-based eggshell matrix. These data highlight the need to examine factors other than the known pigments in studies of avian eggshell colour.

  13. The cuticle modulates ultraviolet reflectance of avian eggshells.

    PubMed

    Fecheyr-Lippens, Daphne C; Igic, Branislav; D'Alba, Liliana; Hanley, Daniel; Verdes, Aida; Holford, Mande; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Grim, Tomas; Hauber, Mark E; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Avian eggshells are variedly coloured, yet only two pigments, biliverdin and protoporphyrin IX, are known to contribute to the dramatic diversity of their colours. By contrast, the contributions of structural or other chemical components of the eggshell are poorly understood. For example, unpigmented eggshells, which appear white to the human eye, vary in their ultraviolet (UV) reflectance, which may be detectable by birds. We investigated the proximate mechanisms for the variation in UV-reflectance of unpigmented bird eggshells using spectrophotometry, electron microscopy, chemical analyses, and experimental manipulations. We specifically tested how UV-reflectance is affected by the eggshell cuticle, the outermost layer of most avian eggshells. The chemical dissolution of the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, increased UV-reflectance for only eggshells that contained a cuticle. Our findings demonstrate that the outer eggshell layers, including the cuticle, absorb UV-light, probably because they contain higher levels of organic components and other chemicals, such as calcium phosphates, compared to the predominantly calcite-based eggshell matrix. These data highlight the need to examine factors other than the known pigments in studies of avian eggshell colour. PMID:25964661

  14. Infrared reflectance spectra (2. 2-15. mu. m) of plagioclase feldspars

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, D.B. ); Salisbury, J.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Laboratory results show that (1) the Christiansen frequency (CF) feature in mid-infrared reflectance spectra of powders can be used to accurately distinguish plagioclase composition, and (2) the wavelength position of the CF is not affected by vitrification of the plagioclase. Although the CF position does not distinguish glass from crystalline forms of plagioclase, other features (combination-tone, overtone, restrahlen bands) in the mid-IR spectra of plagioclase can be used for that purpose. These results have important implications for application of thermal emission spectroscopy to mapping the surface composition of regolith-covered planetary bodies like the Moon, Mars, and asteroids.

  15. Surface-enhanced infrared absorption of nucleic acids on gold substrate in FTIR reflectance mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovbeshko, G. I.; Chegel, Vladimir I.; Gridina, Nina Y.; Repnytska, O. P.; Sekirin, I. V.; Shirshov, Yuri M.

    2001-06-01

    Data on surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) of nucleic acids deposited on the metal surface have been obtained in the experiment in FTIR reflectance mode. As metal surface, we used Au of 200 - 500 Angstrom thickness on quartz substrate. Roughness of Au was not greater than 50 Angstrom. In our experimental conditions, the enhancement factor of SEIRA was about 3 - 7. We obtained different enhancement factors for different vibrations of nuclei acids. Application of this method to the tumour brain nucleic acid gave a possibility to reveal some structural peculiarities of their sugar-phosphate backbone.

  16. [Sugar characterization of mini-watermelon and rapid sugar determination by near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Yuan, Hong-fu; Song, Chun-feng; Xie, Jin-chun; Li, Xiao-yu; Feng, Le-ping

    2012-08-01

    In the present paper, the distribution of sugar level within the mini-watermelon was studied, a new sugar characterization method of mini-watermelon using average sugar level, the highest sugar level and the lowest sugar level index is proposed. Feasibility of nondestructive determination of mini-watermenlon sugar level using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy information was investigated by an experiment. PLS models for measuring the 3 sugar levels were established. The results obtained by near infrared spectroscopy agreed with that of the new method established above.

  17. Atomic Scale Flatness of Chemically Cleaned Silicon Surfaces Studied by Infrared Attenuated-Total-Reflection Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawara, Kenichi; Yasaka, Tatsuhiro; Miyazaki, Seiichi; Hirose, Masataka

    1992-07-01

    Hydrogen-terminated Si(111) and Si(100) surfaces obtained by aqueous HF or pH-modified (pH{=}5.3) buffered-HF (BHF) treatments have been characterized by a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) attenuated-total-reflection (ATR) technique. The BHF treatment provides better surface flatness than the HF treatment. Pure water rinse is effective for improving the Si(111) surface flatness, while this is not the case for Si(100) because the pure water acts as an alkaline etchant and promotes the formation of (111) microfacets or microdefects on the (100) surface.

  18. Soil moisture estimation using reflected solar and emitted thermal infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, R. D.; Cihlar, J.; Estes, J. E.; Heilman, J. L.; Kahle, A.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Millard, J.; Price, J. C.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    Classical methods of measuring soil moisture such as gravimetric sampling and the use of neutron moisture probes are useful for cases where a point measurement is sufficient to approximate the water content of a small surrounding area. However, there is an increasing need for rapid and repetitive estimations of soil moisture over large areas. Remote sensing techniques potentially have the capability of meeting this need. The use of reflected-solar and emitted thermal-infrared radiation, measured remotely, to estimate soil moisture is examined.

  19. Preliminary Method for Direct Quantification of Colistin Methanesulfonate by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Niece, Krista L.

    2015-01-01

    Colistin use has increased in response to the advent of infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. It is administered parenterally as an inactive prodrug, colistin methanesulfonate (CMS). Various formulations of CMS and labeling conventions can lead to confusion about colistin dosing, and questions remain about the pharmacokinetics of CMS. Since CMS does not have strong UV absorbance, current methods employ a laborious process of chemical conversion to colistin followed by precolumn derivatization to detect formed colistin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Here, we report a method for direct quantification of colistin methanesulfonate by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FTIR). PMID:26124160

  20. Infrared reflection and Raman scattering on Ba 1-xRb xBiO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, A.; Iyo, A.; Oiji, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Tokumoto, M.; Uwe, H.; Sakudo, T.

    1991-12-01

    Measurements of infrared (IR) reflectivity and Raman scattering have been performed on Ba 1-xRb xBiO 3. The oscillator strength of the Bi-Bi stretching mode decreases with increasing Rb concentration, while the frequency change is small. The phonons detected by the Raman scattering experiment have the same frequencies as the LO phonons, although the system has the center of symmetry in the average structure. It is suggested that the coherence length of the charge density wave shorter than the incident laser wavelength 5145Å gets shorter with increasing the Rb concentration.

  1. Thickness Dependence of Infrared Reflection Absorption in Vacuum-Deposited Thin Film of Polyvinylidene Fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Kunisuke; Terashima, Hidenobu; Kikuma, Kazuhiro

    1990-06-01

    Reflection absorption intensities for p-polarized infrared rays are shown as a function of thickness (d) of vacuum-deposited films of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which were deposited on Ag-covered mica substrates held at 25°C. Each absorption due to α-type polycrystalline film at 1412, 1215, 1185, 1150, 1070, 875 and 615 cm-1 increases linearly with increasing d. Some structural relaxation during the growth of PVDF film is discussed for interpretation of the result that absorption at 1215, 1185 and 875 cm-1 is not observed and the peak height at 882 cm-1 is seen clearly for films at d<15 nm.

  2. Preliminary method for direct quantification of colistin methanesulfonate by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Niece, Krista L; Akers, Kevin S

    2015-09-01

    Colistin use has increased in response to the advent of infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms. It is administered parenterally as an inactive prodrug, colistin methanesulfonate (CMS). Various formulations of CMS and labeling conventions can lead to confusion about colistin dosing, and questions remain about the pharmacokinetics of CMS. Since CMS does not have strong UV absorbance, current methods employ a laborious process of chemical conversion to colistin followed by precolumn derivatization to detect formed colistin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Here, we report a method for direct quantification of colistin methanesulfonate by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FTIR).

  3. Gap-modulation infrared spectroscopy of high transition temperature superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Little, William A.; Collman, James P.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional methods of determining the coupling factor α2(ω)F(ω) for the newly discovered high transition temperature (Tc) cuprate superconductors by using tunneling and infrared measurements have thus far failed to show the cause of the very high Tc of these compounds. This is due in part to difficulties in sample preparation for tunneling studies and to difficulties in obtaining good data at relatively high tunneling voltages. Also, in IR (infrared) measurements, small differences in absorptivity between the normal and superconducting state can be masked by changes in the phonon occupation at high and low temperatures. Here we propose a technique for determing the coupling constant, which should be less dependent on the surface quality of the sample than with tunneling and should allow measurements at higher energies with greater precision than do tunneling or simple IR observations. This should make possible a definitive determination of any possible exciton contribution to this coupling term, which would appear at energies well above the range where conventional IR or tunneling measurements are effective. PMID:16593950

  4. Imaging the Material Properties of Bone Specimens Using Reflection-Based Infrared Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Acerbo A. S.; Carr, G.L.; Judex, S.; Miller, L.M.

    2012-03-13

    Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) is a widely used method for mapping the material properties of bone and other mineralized tissues, including mineralization, crystallinity, carbonate substitution, and collagen cross-linking. This technique is traditionally performed in a transmission-based geometry, which requires the preparation of plastic-embedded thin sections, limiting its functionality. Here, we theoretically and empirically demonstrate the development of reflection-based FTIRM as an alternative to the widely adopted transmission-based FTIRM, which reduces specimen preparation time and broadens the range of specimens that can be imaged. In this study, mature mouse femurs were plastic-embedded and longitudinal sections were cut at a thickness of 4 {micro}m for transmission-based FTIRM measurements. The remaining bone blocks were polished for specular reflectance-based FTIRM measurements on regions immediately adjacent to the transmission sections. Kramers-Kronig analysis of the reflectance data yielded the dielectric response from which the absorption coefficients were directly determined. The reflectance-derived absorbance was validated empirically using the transmission spectra from the thin sections. The spectral assignments for mineralization, carbonate substitution, and collagen cross-linking were indistinguishable in transmission and reflection geometries, while the stoichiometric/nonstoichiometric apatite crystallinity parameter shifted from 1032/1021 cm{sup -1} in transmission-based to 1035/1025 cm{sup -1} in reflection-based data. This theoretical demonstration and empirical validation of reflection-based FTIRM eliminates the need for thin sections of bone and more readily facilitates direct correlations with other methods such as nanoindentation and quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBSE) from the same specimen. It provides a unique framework for correlating bone's material and mechanical properties.

  5. Imaging the Material Properties of Bone Specimens using Reflection-Based Infrared Microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Acerbo, Alvin S.; Carr, G. Lawrence; Judex, Stefan; Miller, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Fourier Transform InfraRed Microspectroscopy (FTIRM) is a widely used method for mapping the material properties of bone and other mineralized tissues, including mineralization, crystallinity, carbonate substitution, and collagen cross-linking. This technique is traditionally performed in a transmission-based geometry, which requires the preparation of plastic-embedded thin sections, limiting its functionality. Here, we theoretically and empirically demonstrate the development of reflection-based FTIRM as an alternative to the widely adopted transmission-based FTIRM, which reduces specimen preparation time and broadens the range of specimens that can be imaged. In this study, mature mouse femurs were plastic-embedded and longitudinal sections were cut at a thickness of 4 μm for transmission-based FTIRM measurements. The remaining bone blocks were polished for specular reflectance-based FTIRM measurements on regions immediately adjacent to the transmission sections. Kramers-Kronig analysis of the reflectance data yielded the dielectric response from which the absorption coefficients were directly determined. The reflectance-derived absorbance was validated empirically using the transmission spectra from the thin sections. The spectral assignments for mineralization, carbonate substitution, and collagen cross-linking were indistinguishable in transmission and reflection geometries, while the stoichiometric/non-stoichiometric apatite crystallinity parameter shifted from 1032 / 1021 cm−1 in transmission-based to 1035 / 1025 cm−1 in reflection-based data. This theoretical demonstration and empirical validation of reflection-based FTIRM eliminates the need for thin sections of bone and more readily facilitates direct correlations with other methods such nanoindentation and quantitative backscatter electron imaging (qBSE) from the same specimen. It provides a unique framework for correlating bone’s material and mechanical properties. PMID:22455306

  6. Fully reflective deep ultraviolet to near infrared spectrometer and entrance optics for resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, B.; Bäckström, J.; Budelmann, D.; Maeser, R.; Rübhausen, M.; Klein, M. V.; Schoeffel, E.; Mihill, A.; Yoon, S.

    2005-07-01

    We present the design and performance of a new triple-grating deep ultraviolet to near-infrared spectrometer. The system is fully achromatic due to the use of reflective optics. The minimization of image aberrations by using on- and off- axis parabolic mirrors as well as elliptical mirrors yields a strong stray light rejection with high resolution over a wavelength range between 165 and 1000nm. The Raman signal is collected with a reflective entrance objective with a numerical aperture of 0.5, featuring a Cassegrain-type design. Resonance Raman studies on semiconductors and on correlated compounds, such as LaMnO3, highlight the performance of this instrument, and show diverse resonance effects between 1.96 and 5.4eV.

  7. Modelling of sensory and instrumental texture parameters in processed cheese by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, Carmen; Downey, Gerard; O'Callaghan, Donal; Howard, Vincent; Delahunty, Conor; Sheehan, Elizabeth; Everard, Colm; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2006-02-01

    This study investigated the application of near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy to the measurement of texture (sensory and instrumental) in experimental processed cheese samples. Spectra (750 to 2498 nm) of cheeses were recorded after 2 and 4 weeks storage at 4 degrees C. Trained assessors evaluated 9 sensory properties, a texture profile analyser (TPA) was used to record 5 instrumental parameters and cheese 'meltability' was measured by computer vision. Predictive models for sensory and instrumental texture parameters were developed using partial least squares regression on raw or pre-treated spectral data. Sensory attributes and instrumental texture measurements were modelled with sufficient accuracy to recommend the use of NIR reflectance spectroscopy for routine quality assessment of processed cheese. PMID:16433962

  8. Sediment mineralogy based on visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrard, R.D.; Vanden Berg, M.D.; ,

    2006-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared spectroscopy (VNIS) can be used to measure reflectance spectra (wavelength 350-2500 nm) for sediment cores and samples. A local ground-truth calibration of spectral features to mineral percentages is calculated by measuring reflectance spectra for a suite of samples of known mineralogy. This approach has been tested on powders, core plugs and split cores, and we conclude that it works well on all three, unless pore water is present. Initial VNIS studies have concentrated on determination of relative proportions of carbonate, opal, smectite and illite in equatorial Pacific sediments. Shipboard VNIS-based determination of these four components was demonstrated on Ocean Drilling Program Leg 199. ?? The Geological Society of London 2006.

  9. Pluto-Charon: Infrared Reflectance from 3.6 to 8.0 Micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Emery, Joshua P.; Stansberry, John A.; VanCleve, Jeffrey E.

    2004-01-01

    We have measured the spectral reflectance of the Pluto-Charon pair at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 micrometers with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) (G. G. Fazzio et al. Ap.J.Supp. 154, 10-17, 2004) on the Spitzer Space Telescope (STS), at eight different longitudes that cover a full rotation of the planet. STS does not have sufficient resolution to separate the light from the planet and the satellite. The image of the Pluto-Charon pair is clearly visible at each of the four wavelengths. We will discuss the spectral reflectance in terms of models that include the known components of Pluto and Charon s surfaces, and evidence for diurnal variations.

  10. Bidirectional reflectance distribution function of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite solar-shield material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbs, J. E.; Nofziger, M. J.; Bartell, F. O.; Wolfe, W. L.; Brooks, L. D.

    1982-09-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) telescope has an outer shield on it which is used to reduce the amount of thermal radiation that enters the telescope. The shield forms the first part of the baffle structure which reduces the photon incidence on the focal plane. It was, therefore, necessary to model this structure for scattering, and a required input for such modeling is the scattering characteristic of this surface. Attention is given to the measurement of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), the reflected radiance divided by the incident irradiance at 10.6 micrometers, 118 micrometers, and at several angles of incidence. Visual observation of the gold sample shows that there are striations which line up in a single direction. The data were, therefore, taken with the sample oriented in each of two directions.

  11. An Overview of Ultraviolet Through Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopic Observations of Mercury During the First MESSENGER Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izenberg, N. R.; McClintock, W. E.; Holsclaw, G. M.; Robinson, M. S.; Blewett, D. T.; Domingue, D. L.; Head, J. W.; Jensen, E. A.; Kochte, M. C.; Lankton, M. R.; Murchie, S. L.; Sprague, A. L.; Vilas, F.; Solomon, S. C.

    2008-05-01

    During the first MESSENGER flyby of Mercury on January 14, 2008, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) measured reflectance spectra from Mercury's surface over the wavelength range 220-1450 nm. These are the first high-spatial-resolution (<10 km) spectra at any wavelength and the first reported ultraviolet (UV, wavelength < 360 nm) observations of the surface. MASCS observed the sunlit surface for approximately 14 minutes after closest approach, acquiring over 650 spectra with the Visible and Infrared Spectrograph (VIRS) detectors of MASCS sensitive to wavelengths of 350-1450 nm. MASCS also obtained just under four grating scans in the middle ultraviolet (220-320 nm) using MASCS's Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) component. Most of the near-equatorial ground track of the observation covered terrain in the previously unseen hemisphere of Mercury but also crossed into the hemisphere viewed by Mariner 10 south of Mozart crater and in Tir Planitia. Ground-based observations of Mercury reveal a surface with a red, nearly featureless spectrum in the visible and near-infrared (wavelengths greater than ~ 500 nm) that has been interpreted as evidence for a largely iron-poor feldspathic composition. Initial analyses of VIRS spectra also show strongly red-sloped, near featureless spectra, appearing to support contentions of low iron abundance in surface materials. However, interpretation of Mercury's spectral reflectance is complicated by our lack of knowledge about the effects on its surface materials of space weathering, which both suppresses the strength of spectral absorption features and reddens the spectrum. Brightness variations and absorption bands in ultraviolet reflectance may help determine both the nature and extent of processes that modify observed reflectance at longer wavelengths. MASCS surface observation data demonstrate spectral variations across the Mercury surface that can be related to previous telescopic

  12. Infrared Studies of the Reflective Properties of Solar Cells and the HS376 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, James; Reyes, Jacqueline; Cowardin, Heather; Anz-Meador, Phillip; Buckalew, Brent; Lederer, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, a selection of HS-376 buses were observed photometrically with the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) to explore relationships between time-on-orbit and Near Infrared (NIR) color. These buses were chosen because of their relatively simple shape, for the abundance of similar observable targets, and their surface material being primarily covered by solar cells. While the HS-376 spacecraft were all very similar in design, differences in the specific solar cells used in the construction of each model proved to be an unconstrained variable that could affect the observed reflective properties. In 2016, samples of the solar cells used on various models of HS-376 spacecraft were obtained from Boeing and were analyzed in the Optical Measurements Center at the Johnson Space Center using a visible-near infrared field spectrometer. The laboratory-based spectra are convolved to match the photometric bands previously obtained using UKIRT and compared with the on-orbit photometry. The results and future work are discussed here.

  13. Dynamics and control of flexible spinning solar sails under reflectivity modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Junshan; Gong, Shengping; Ma, Pengbin; Li, Junfeng

    2015-10-01

    Electrochromic devices have been used for the attitude control of a spinning solar sail in a deep space mission by modulating the reflectivity of the sail membrane. As a flexible spinning solar sail has no rigid structure to support its membrane, the distributed load due to solar radiation will lead to the deformation of the sail membrane, and the control torque generated by reflectivity modulation can introduce oscillatory motion to the membrane. By contrast, the deformation and oscillatory motion of the sail membrane have an impact on the performance of the reflectivity control. This paper investigates the dynamics and control of flexible spinning solar sails under reflectivity modulation. The static deformation of a spinning sail membrane subjected to solar radiation pressure in an equilibrium state is analyzed. The von Karman theory is used to obtain the displacements and the stress distribution in the equilibrium states. A simplified analytical first-order mode is chosen to model the membrane oscillation. The coupled membrane oscillation-attitude-orbit dynamics are considered for a GeoSail formation flying mission. The relative attitude and orbit control of flexible spinning solar sails under reflectivity modulation are numerically tested. The simulations indicate that the membrane deformation and oscillation have a lower impact on the control of the reflectivity modulated sails than the increase of the spinning rate.

  14. Combination of infrared thermography and reflectance spectroscopy for precise classification of hair follicle stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianru; Guan, Yue; Liu, Caihua; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Hair follicles enjoy continual cycle of anagen, catagen and telogen all life. They not only provide a unique opportunity to study the physiological mechanism of organ regeneration, but also benefit to guide the treatment of organ repair in regenerative medicine. Usually, the histological examination as a gold standard has been applied to determine the stage of hair follicle cycle, but noninvasive classification of hair cycle in vivo remains unsolved. In this study, the thermal infrared imager was applied to measure the temperature change of mouse dorsal skin with hair follicle cycle, and the change of diffuse reflectance was monitored by the optical fiber spectrometer. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stages. The results indicated that the skin temperature increased at the beginning of anagen. After having stayed a high value for several days, the temperature began to decrease. At the same time, the skin diffuse reflectance decreased until the end of this period. Then the temperature increased gradually after slightly decreased when the hair follicle entered into catagen stage, and the diffuse reflectance increased at this time. In telogen, both the temperature and the diffuse reflectance went back to a steady state all the time. Sub-stages of hair follicle cycle could be distinguished based on the joint curves. This study provided a new method to noninvasively recognize the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  15. Infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a characterization probe for polymer surfaces and interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riou, Sophie Annick

    1998-12-01

    Only recently has external reflectance infrared spectroscopy been used to acquire structural information at the molecular level at air-liquid interfaces, and particularly to characterize in situ molecular chains adsorbed at the air-water interface. This technique has been applied for the determination of chain orientation, chain conformation and packing density of small molecules such as phospholipids, fatty acids and fatty alcohols on the surface of water, and more recently of macromolecular systems. Vibrational spectroscopy, a nondestructive technique, is especially successful in the determination of the conformational order or disorder of alkyl chains (e.g. trans/gauche ratio) as well as in the evaluation of coil, helical or extended conformations in poly(amino acids). In this thesis work, the construction of a microcomputer controlled Langmuir trough optically coupled to a FT-IR instrument has allowed the direct investigation of molecular films spread at air-liquid interfaces. Order-disorder transitions and relaxation behaviors in vinyl comb-like polymeric Langmuir films have been examined using simultaneously external reflection infrared spectroscopy and surface tensiometry. The structures of several poly(amino acid) films have also been studied as a function of surface packing density at the air-water interface.

  16. Hemispherical reflectance and emittance properties of carbon nanotubes coatings at infrared wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quijada, Manuel A.; Hagopian, John G.; Getty, Stephanie; Kinzer, Raymond E., Jr.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2011-10-01

    Recent visible wavelength observations of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) coatings have revealed that they represent the blackest materials known in nature with a Total Hemispherical Reflectance (THR) of less than 0.25%. This makes them exceptionally good as absorbers, with the potential to provide order-ofmagnitude improvement in stray-light suppression over current black surface treatments when used in an optical system. Here we extend the characterization of this class of materials into the infrared spectral region to further evaluate their potential for use on instrument baffles for stray-light suppression and to manage spacecraft thermal properties through radiant heat transfer process. These characterizations will include the wavelength-dependent Total Hemispherical Reflectance (THR) properties in the mid- and far-infrared spectral regions (2-110 μm). Determination of the temperature-dependent emittance will be investigated in the temperature range of 40 to 300 K. These results will be compared with other more conventional black coatings such as Acktar Fractal Black or Z306 coatings among others.

  17. Reflective and photoacoustic infrared spectroscopic techniques in assessment of binding media in paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łojewski, Tomasz; Bagniuk, Jacek; Kołodziej, Andrzej; Łojewska, Joanna

    2011-11-01

    This study proposes a method to estimate the lipid content in binding media in paintings that can be used at any laboratory equipped with an infrared spectrometer. The lipid content estimator, termed greasiness index (GI), is defined as a ratio of lipid ν(C=O) and protein amide I bands at 1743 and 1635 cm-1, respectively. Three Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) sampling techniques were evaluated for GI determination: reflective attenuated total reflection—ATR, specular reflection microscopy— μSR and photoacoustic—PAS. A set of model painting samples containing three tempera binding media (casein, egg, egg + oil), seven pigments and one varnish type were used in the study. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the resulting data. A good reproducibility of GI was obtained by ATR and PAS but not with μSR. The discriminative power of the technique is higher for unvarnished samples, but, generally, the GI estimator can be used for the categorisation of binding media in large populations of painting samples analysed with the same FTIR technique (sampling technique, detection, etc.).

  18. Classification of the waxy condition of durum wheat by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy using wavelets and a genetic algorithm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been applied to the problem of differentiating four genotypes of durum wheat: ‘waxy’, wx-A1 null, wx-B1 null and wild type. The test data consisted of 95 NIR reflectance spectra of wheat samples obtained from a USDA-ARS wheat breeding program. A two...

  19. Hygrothermal degradation of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane films studied by neutron and X-ray reflectivity and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Tallant, David Robert; Garcia, Manuel Joseph; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Kent, Michael Stuart; Yim, Hyun

    2005-05-01

    Thin films of organosilanes have great technological importance in the areas of adhesion promotion, durability, and corrosion resistance. However, it is well-known that water can degrade organosilane films, particularly at elevated temperatures. In this work, X-ray and neutron reflectivity (XR and NR) were combined with attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to study the chemical and structural changes within thin films of (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPS) after exposure for various periods of time to air saturated with either D{sub 2}O or H{sub 2}O at 80 C. For NR and XR, ultrathin ({approx}100 {angstrom}) films were prepared by spin-coating. Both D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O provide neutron scattering contrast with GPS. Variations in the neutron scattering length density (SLD) profiles (a function of mass density and atomic composition) with conditioning time were measured after drying the samples out and also swelled with H{sub 2}O or D{sub 2}O vapor at room temperature. For samples that were dried out prior to measurement, little or no change was observed for H{sub 2}O conditioning up to 3.5 days, but large changes were observed after 30 days of conditioning. The range of conditioning time for this structural change was narrowed to between 4 and 10 days with XR. The SLD profiles indicated that the top portion of the GPS film was transformed into a thick low-density layer after conditioning, but the bottom portion showed little structural change. A previous NR study of as-prepared GPS films involving swelling with deuterated nitrobenzene showed that the central portion of the film has much lower cross-link density than the region nearest the substrate. The present data show that the central portion also swells to a much greater extent with water and hydrolyzes more rapidly. The chemical degradation mechanism was identified by IR as hydrolysis of siloxane bonds. For ATR-IR, GPS films were prepared by dip-coating, which resulted in a greater

  20. Improved near-infrared ocean reflectance correction algorithm for satellite ocean color data processing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lide; Wang, Menghua

    2014-09-01

    A new approach for the near-infrared (NIR) ocean reflectance correction in atmospheric correction for satellite ocean color data processing in coastal and inland waters is proposed, which combines the advantages of the three existing NIR ocean reflectance correction algorithms, i.e., Bailey et al. (2010) [Opt. Express18, 7521 (2010)Appl. Opt.39, 897 (2000)Opt. Express20, 741 (2012)], and is named BMW. The normalized water-leaving radiance spectra nLw(λ) obtained from this new NIR-based atmospheric correction approach are evaluated against those obtained from the shortwave infrared (SWIR)-based atmospheric correction algorithm, as well as those from some existing NIR atmospheric correction algorithms based on several case studies. The scenes selected for case studies are obtained from two different satellite ocean color sensors, i.e., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the satellite Aqua and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP), with an emphasis on several turbid water regions in the world. The new approach has shown to produce nLw(λ) spectra most consistent with the SWIR results among all NIR algorithms. Furthermore, validations against the in situ measurements also show that in less turbid water regions the new approach produces reasonable and similar results comparable to the current operational algorithm. In addition, by combining the new NIR atmospheric correction with the SWIR-based approach, the new NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction can produce further improved ocean color products. The new NIR atmospheric correction can be implemented in a global operational satellite ocean color data processing system.

  1. Improved near-infrared ocean reflectance correction algorithm for satellite ocean color data processing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lide; Wang, Menghua

    2014-09-01

    A new approach for the near-infrared (NIR) ocean reflectance correction in atmospheric correction for satellite ocean color data processing in coastal and inland waters is proposed, which combines the advantages of the three existing NIR ocean reflectance correction algorithms, i.e., Bailey et al. (2010) [Opt. Express18, 7521 (2010)Appl. Opt.39, 897 (2000)Opt. Express20, 741 (2012)], and is named BMW. The normalized water-leaving radiance spectra nLw(λ) obtained from this new NIR-based atmospheric correction approach are evaluated against those obtained from the shortwave infrared (SWIR)-based atmospheric correction algorithm, as well as those from some existing NIR atmospheric correction algorithms based on several case studies. The scenes selected for case studies are obtained from two different satellite ocean color sensors, i.e., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the satellite Aqua and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP), with an emphasis on several turbid water regions in the world. The new approach has shown to produce nLw(λ) spectra most consistent with the SWIR results among all NIR algorithms. Furthermore, validations against the in situ measurements also show that in less turbid water regions the new approach produces reasonable and similar results comparable to the current operational algorithm. In addition, by combining the new NIR atmospheric correction with the SWIR-based approach, the new NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction can produce further improved ocean color products. The new NIR atmospheric correction can be implemented in a global operational satellite ocean color data processing system. PMID:25321543

  2. Assessment of Drowsiness Based on Ocular Parameters Detected by Infrared Reflectance Oculography

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Clare; Chang, Anne-Marie; Sullivan, Jason P.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Numerous ocular parameters have been proposed as reliable physiological markers of drowsiness. A device that measures many of these parameters and then combines them into a single metric (the Johns Drowsiness Scale [JDS]) is being used commercially to assess drowsiness in professional drivers. Here, we examine how these parameters reflect changes in drowsiness, and how they relate to objective and subjective indices of the drowsy state in a controlled laboratory setting. Design: A within subject prospective study. Participants: 29 healthy adults (18 males; mean age 23.3 ± 4.6 years; range 18-34 years) Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Over the course of a 30-h extended wake vigil under constant routine (CR) conditions, participants were monitored using infrared reflectance oculography (Optalert) and completed bi-hourly neurobehavioral tests, including the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT). Ocular-defined increases in drowsiness were evident with extended time awake and during the biological night for all ocular parameters; JDS being the most sensitive marker of drowsiness induced by sleep regulatory processes (p < 0.0001). In addition, the associations between JDS in the preceding 10-min period and subsequent PVT lapses and KSS were stronger (AUC 0.74/0.80, respectively) than any other ocular metric, such that PVT lapses, mean response time (RT), and KSS increased in a dose-response manner as a function of prior JDS score (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Ocular parameters captured by infrared reflectance oculography detected fluctuations in drowsiness due to time awake and during the biological night. The JDS outcome was the strongest predictor of drowsiness among those tested, and showed a clear association to objective and subjective measures of drowsiness. Our findings indicate this real-time objective drowsiness monitoring system is an effective tool for monitoring changes in alertness and

  3. Mineralogical and spectroscopic investigation of enstatite chondrites by X-ray diffraction and infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izawa, M. R.; King, P. L.; Flemming, R. L.; Peterson, R. C.; McCausland, P. J.

    2009-05-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy of well-characterized meteorites provides an important means of linking meteorites to potential parent objects; an important objective in meteoritics research. There is a lack of such sample- correlated spectroscopic and mineralogical data sets in the literature to date. In an effort to improve this situation, the bulk mineralogy and infrared reflectance spectra of 13 enstatite chondrite meteorite finds, spanning the full range of textural alteration grades in both EL and EH classes have been investigated, including eleven recovered from the Antarctic and one from Northwest Africa. Rietveld refinement of high- resolution powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) data was used to identify the major mineral phases and quantify their modal abundances. The mineralogy and modes agree well with those of well-documented enstatite chondrites. Terrestrial weathering products such as Fe-oxyhydroxides, gypsum, and carbonates also occur in most of the meteorites from Antarctica. The mineral abundances determined via Rietveld refinement have been used to calculate model grain densities for each meteorite (i.e. density of the solid phases). Bulk magnetic susceptibility measurements combined with modal mineralogy reveal that as terrestrial weathering increases, both grain density and bulk susceptibility decrease. Sample-correlated thermal infrared (400-4500 cm-1, 2-25 μm) biconical (Diffuse) Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy data were collected for each meteorite to facilitate comparison with remote sensing data. The meteorite spectra are dominated by features corresponding to enstatite. Terrestrial weathering manifests itself as a broad, asymmetric H2O band centered near ~3400 cm-1, analogous to the "3 μm water of hydration feature" recognized in asteroid spectra, particularly from the enigmatic W-type asteroids. Additional sharp features superimposed on this band, as well as the sharpness of an asymmetric feature related to bound molecular

  4. Bio-inspired, subwavelength surface structures to control reflectivity, transmission, and scattering in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora Gonzalez, Federico

    Controlling the reflection of visible and infrared (IR) light at interfaces is extremely important to increase the power efficiency and performance of optics, electro-optical and (thermo)photovoltaic systems. The eye of the moth has evolved subwavelength protuberances that increase light transmission into the eye tissue and prevent reflection. The subwavelength protuberances effectively grade the refractive index from that of air (n=1) to that of the tissue (n=1.4), making the interface gradual, suppressing reflection. In theory, the moth-eye (ME) structures can be implemented with any material platform to achieve an antireflectance effect by scaling the pitch and size of protuberances for the wavelength range of interest. In this work, a bio-inspired, scalable and substrate-independent surface modification protocol was developed to realize broadband antireflective structures based on the moth-eye principle. Quasi-ordered ME arrays were fabricated in IR relevant materials using a colloidal lithography method to achieve highly efficient, omni-directional transmission of mid and far infrared (IR) radiation. The effect of structure height and aspect ratio on transmittance and scattering is explored, with discussion on experimental techniques and effective medium theory (EMT). The highest aspect ratio structures (AR = 9.4) achieved peak single-side transmittance of 98%, with >85% transmission for lambda = 7--30 microns. A detailed photon balance constructed by transmission, forward scattering, specular reflection and diffuse reflection measurements to quantify optical losses due to near-field effects will be discussed. In addition, angle-dependent transmission measurements showed that moth-eye structures provide superior antireflective properties compared to unstructured interfaces over a wide angular range (0--60° incidence). Finally, subwavelength ME structures are incorporated on a Si substrate to enhance the absorption of near infrared (NIR) light in PtSi films to

  5. Nondestructive inspection of organic films on sandblasted metals using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, G.L.; Cox, R.L.; Barber, T.E.; Neu, J.T.

    1996-07-08

    Diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy is a very useful tool for the determination of surface contamination and characterization of films in manufacturing applications. Spectral data from the surfaces of a host of practical materials may be obtained with sufficient insensitivity to characterize relatively thick films, such as paint, and the potential exists to detect very thin films, such as trace oil contamination on metals. The SOC 400 Surface Inspection Machine/InfraRed (SIMIR) has been developed as a nondestructive inspection tool to exploit this potential in practical situations. This SIMIR is a complete and ruggidized Fourier transform infrared spectrometer with a very efficient and robust barrel ellipse diffuse reflectance optical collection system and operating software system. The SIMIR weighs less than 8 Kg, occupies less than 14 L volume, and may be manipulated into any orientation during operation. The surface to be inspected is placed at the focal point of the SIMIR by manipulating the SIMIR or the surface. The SIMIR may or may not contact the surface being inspected. For flat or convex items, there are no size limits to items being inspected. For concave surfaces, the SIMIR geometry limits the surface to those having a radius of curvature greater than 0.2 m. For highly reflective metal surfaces, the SIMIR has a noise level approaching 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} absorbance units, which is sufficient for detecting nanometer thick organic film residues on metals. The use of this nondestructive inspection tool is demonstrated by the spatial mapping of organic stains on sand blasted metals in which organic stains such as silicone oils, mineral oils, and triglycerides are identified both qualitatively and quantitatively over the surface of the metal specimen.

  6. Temperature dependence of far-infrared difference reflectivity of YBa2Cu3O7-y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, H.; Bauer, G.; Vogl, G.; Strasser, G.; Gornik, E.

    1989-04-01

    Far-infrared difference reflectivity spectra (50-450 cm-1) below, across and above the transition temperature on polycrystalline single-phase YBa2Cu3O7-y samples were measured. The data are compared with model fits using the explicit temperature dependence of the Mattis-Bardeen conductivity, an effective-medium approach and temperature-dependent phonon oscillator parameters and alternatively a plasma model. For the plasma model we alternatively use a generalized Drude-like expression with a frequency-dependent damping after Thomas et al. [Phys. Rev. B 36, 846 (1987)] or the original model with Orenstein et al. [Phys. Rev. B 36, 729 (1987)] and Sherwin, Richards, and Zettl [Phys. Rev. B 37, 1587 (1988)] with a Drude contribution plus a mid-infrared oscillator, but with constant carrier relaxation rates. The models explain the difference reflectivity data (precision <0.2%) with a fitting accuracy of 1-2 % (Mattis-Bardeen model) or 2-3 % (plasma model) over the full temperature range. In order to investigate their applicability, reflectivity, and conductivity data of a highly oriented YBa2Cu3O7-y sample, as recently published by Bonn et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2249 (1987)], were also fitted with both models. Because of the frequency dependence of the free-carrier damping rates, it was important to fulfill the Kramers-Kronig relations between the real and the imaginary part of the dynamic conductivity in the calculations. For both models the characteristic dependences of the conductivity on frequency and temperature are given. Whereas, naturally, the Mattis-Bardeen model yields a gaplike depression of the conductivity for frequencies below an assumed gap, the plasma model results in somewhat smoother dependences of Re(σ(ω)) and Im(σ(ω)) in the frequency region of interest.

  7. Instrument Reflections and Scene Amplitude Modulation in a Polychromatic Microwave Quadrature Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Chris C.; Jones, Jonathan E.; Chavers, Greg

    2003-01-01

    A polychromatic microwave quadrature interferometer has been characterized using several laboratory plasmas. Reflections between the transmitter and the receiver have been observed, and the effects of including reflection terms in the data reduction equation have been examined. An error analysis which includes the reflections, modulation of the scene beam amplitude by the plasma, and simultaneous measurements at two frequencies has been applied to the empirical database, and the results are summarized. For reflection amplitudes around 1096, the reflection terms were found to reduce the calculated error bars for electron density measurements by about a factor of 2. The impact of amplitude modulation is also quantified. In the complete analysis, the mean error bar for high- density measurements is 7.596, and the mean phase shift error for low-density measurements is 1.2". .

  8. A system for simultaneous near-infrared reflectance and transillumination imaging of occlusal carious lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Clinicians need technologies to improve the diagnosis of questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC's) and determine if decay has penetrated to the underlying dentin. Assessing lesion depth from near-infrared (NIR) images holds great potential due to the high transparency of enamel and stain to NIR light at λ=1300-1700-nm, which allows direct visualization and quantified measurements of enamel demineralization. Unfortunately, NIR reflectance measurements alone are limited in utility for approximating occlusal lesion depth >200-μm due to light attenuation from the lesion body. Previous studies sought to combine NIR reflectance and transillumination measurements taken at λ=1300-nm in order to estimate QOC depth and severity. The objective of this study was to quantify the change in lesion contrast and size measured from multispectral NIR reflectance and transillumination images of natural occlusal carious lesions with increasing lesion depth and severity in order to determine the optimal multimodal wavelength combinations for estimating QOC depth. Extracted teeth with varying amounts of natural occlusal decay were measured using a multispectral-multimodal NIR imaging system at prominent wavelengths within the λ=1300-1700-nm spectral region. Image analysis software was used to calculate lesion contrast and area values between sound and carious enamel regions.

  9. Identification of cattle, llama and horse meat by near infrared reflectance or transflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mamani-Linares, L W; Gallo, C; Alomar, D

    2012-02-01

    Visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VIS-NIRS) was used to discriminate meat and meat juices from three livestock species. In a first trial, samples of Longissimus lumborum muscle, corresponding to beef (31) llamas (21) and horses (27), were homogenised and their spectra collected in reflectance (NIRSystems 6500 scanning monochromator, in the range of 400-2500 nm). In the second trial, samples of meat juice (same muscle) from the same species (20 beef, 19 llama and 19 horse) were scanned in folded transmission (transflectance). Discriminating models (PLS regression) were developed against "dummy" variables, testing different mathematical treatments of the spectra. Best models indentified the species of almost all samples by their meat (reflectance) or meat juice (transflectance) spectra. A few (three of beef and one of llama, for meat samples; one of beef and one of horse, for juice samples) were classified as uncertain. It is concluded that NIRS is an effective tool to recognise meat and meat juice from beef, llama and horses.

  10. Low-temperature and low atmospheric pressure infrared reflectance spectroscopy of Mars soil analog materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1995-01-01

    Infrared reflectance spectra of carefully selected Mars soil analog materials have been measured under low atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Chemically altered montmorillonites containing ferrihydrite and hydrated ferric sulfate complexes are examined, as well as synthetic ferrihydrite and a palagonitic soil from Haleakala, Maui. Reflectance spectra of these analog materials exhibit subtle visible to near-infrared features, which are indicative of nanophase ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides and are similar to features observed in the spectra of the bright regions of Mars. Infrared reflectance spectra of these analogs include hydration features due to structural OH, bound H2O, and adsorbed H2O. The spectral character of these hydration features is highly dependent on the sample environment and on the nature of the H2O/OH in the analogs. The behavior of the hydration features near 1.9 micron, 2.2 micron, 2.7 micron, 3 micron, and 6 microns are reported here in spectra measured under a Marslike atmospheric environment. In spectra of these analogs measured under dry Earth atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micron band depth is 8-17%; this band is much stronger under moist conditions. Under Marslike atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micron feature is broad and barely discernible (1-3% band depth) in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil samples. In comparable spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite the 1.9-micron feature is also broad, but stronger (6% band depth). In the low atmospheric pressure and temperature spectra of the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite this feature is sharper than the other analogs and relatively stronger (6% band depth). Although the intensity of the 3-micron band is weaker in spectra of each of the analogs when measured under Marslike conditions, the 3-micron band remains a dominant feature and is especially broad in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil. The structural OH features observed in these materials

  11. Low-temperature and low atmospheric pressure infrared reflectance spectroscopy of Mars soil analog materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1995-01-01

    Infrared reflectance spectra of carefully selected Mars soil analog materials have been measured under low atmospheric pressures and temperatures. Chemically altered montmorillonites containing ferrihydrite and hydrated ferric sulfate complexes are examined, as well as synthetic ferrihydrate and a palagonitic soil from Haleakala, Maui. Reflectance spectra of these analog materials exhibit subtle visible to near-infrared features, which are indicative of nanophase ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides and are similar to features observed in the spectra of the bright regions of Mars. Infrared reflectance spectra of these analogs include hydration features due to structural OH, bound H2O and adsorbed H2O. The spectal character of these hydration features is highly dependent on the sample environment and on the nature of the H2O/OH in the analogs. The behavior of the hydration features near 1.9 micrometers, 2.2 micrometers, 2.7 micrometers, 3 micrometers, and 6 micrometers are reported here in spetra measured under Marslike atmospheric environment. In spectra of these analogs measured under dry Earth atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micrometer band depth is 8-17%; this band is much stonger under moist conditions. Under Marslike atmospheric conditions the 1.9-micrometer feature is broad and barely discernible (1-3% band depth) in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil samples. In comparable spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonite the 1.9-micrometer feature is also broad, but stronger (6% band depth). In the low atmospheric pressure and temperature spectra of the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite this feature is sharper than the other analogs and relatively stronger (6% band depth). Although the intensity of the 3- micrometer band is weaker in spectra of each of the analogs when measured under Marslike conditions, the 3-micromter band remains a dominant feature and is especially broad in spectra of the ferrihydrite and palagonitic soil. The structural

  12. Modulated surface nanostructures for enhanced light trapping and reduced surface reflection of crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayagaki, Takeshi; Hoshi, Yusuke; Hirai, Yuji; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Usami, Noritaka

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrated the fabrication of modulated surface nanostructures as a new surface texture design for thin wafer solar cells. Using a combination of conventional alkali etching and colloidal lithography, we fabricated surface textures with micrometer and nanometre scales on a Si substrate. These modulated surface nanostructures exhibit reduced surface reflection in a broad spectral range, compared with conventional micrometer textures. We investigated optical absorption using a rigorous coupled wave analysis simulation, which revealed a significant reduction in surface reflection over a broad spectral range and efficient light trapping (comparable to that of conventional micrometer-scale textures) for the modulated nanostructures. We found that the modulated surface nanostructures have a high potential of improving the performance of thin wafer crystalline Si solar cells.

  13. Multiple perturbation two-dimensional correlation analysis of cellulose by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Morita, Shin-Ich; Awa, Kimie; Okada, Mariko; Noda, Isao; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2009-05-01

    An extension of the two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis scheme for multi-dimensional perturbation is described. A simple computational form is provided to construct synchronous correlation and disrelation maps for the analysis of microscopic imaging data based on two independent perturbation variables. Sets of time-dependent attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectra of water and cellulose mixtures were collected during the evaporation of water from finely ground cellulose. The system exhibits complex behaviors in response to two independent perturbations, i.e., evaporation time and grinding time. Multiple perturbation 2D analysis reveals a specific difference in the rate of evaporation of water molecules when accompanied by crystallinity changes of cellulose. It identifies subtle differences in the volatility of water, which is related to the crystalline structure of cellulose. PMID:19470205

  14. Infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy: principles and applications to lipid-protein interaction in Langmuir films.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Richard; Mao, Guangru; Flach, Carol R

    2010-04-01

    Infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) of lipid/protein monolayer films in situ at the air/water interface provides unique molecular structure and orientation information from the film constituents. The technique is thus well suited for studies of lipid/protein interaction in a physiologically relevant environment. Initially, the nature of the IRRAS experiment is described and the molecular structure information that may be obtained is recapitulated. Subsequently, several types of applications, including the determination of lipid chain conformation and tilt as well as elucidation of protein secondary structure are reviewed. The current article attempts to provide the reader with an understanding of the current capabilities of IRRAS instrumentation and the type of results that have been achieved to date from IRRAS studies of lipids, proteins, and lipid/protein films of progressively increasing complexity. Finally, possible extensions of the technology are briefly considered. PMID:20004639

  15. Detection of whitening agents in illegal cosmetics using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Bothy, J L; Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-09-01

    Cosmetic products containing illegal whitening agents are still found on the European market. They represent a considerable risk to public health, since they are often characterised by severe side effects when used chronically. The detection of such products at customs is not always simple, due to misleading packaging and the existence of products containing only legal components. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. The use of attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics, was evaluated for that purpose. It was found that the combination of ATR-IR with the simple chemometric technique k-nearest neighbours gave good results. A model was obtained in which a minimum of illegal samples was categorised as legal. The correctly classified illegal samples could be attributed to the illegal components present.

  16. Detection of whitening agents in illegal cosmetics using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Bothy, J L; Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-09-01

    Cosmetic products containing illegal whitening agents are still found on the European market. They represent a considerable risk to public health, since they are often characterised by severe side effects when used chronically. The detection of such products at customs is not always simple, due to misleading packaging and the existence of products containing only legal components. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. The use of attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics, was evaluated for that purpose. It was found that the combination of ATR-IR with the simple chemometric technique k-nearest neighbours gave good results. A model was obtained in which a minimum of illegal samples was categorised as legal. The correctly classified illegal samples could be attributed to the illegal components present. PMID:24927403

  17. Estimation of blood alcohol concentration by horizontal attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kakali; Sharma, Shiba P; Lahiri, Sujit C

    2010-06-01

    Numerous methods like distillation followed by iodometric titrations, gas chromatograph (GC)-flame ionization detector, gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometer, GC-Headspace, Breath analyzer, and biosensors including alcohol dehydrogenase (enzymatic) have been used to determine blood alcohol concentration (BAC). In the present study, horizontal attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy had been used to determine BAC in whole blood. The asymmetric stretching frequency of C-C-O group of ethanol in water (1,045 cm(-1)) had been used to calculate BAC using Beer's Law. A seven-point calibration curve of ethanol was drawn in the concentration range 24-790 mg dL(-1). The curve showed good linearity over the concentration range used (r(2)=0.999, standard deviation=0.0023). The method is accurate, reproducible, rapid, simple, and nondestructive in nature. PMID:20541351

  18. Fast determination of total ginsenosides content in ginseng powder by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-cai; Chen, Xing-dan; Lu, Yong-jun; Cao, Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was used to develop a fast determination method for total ginsenosides in Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) powder. The spectra were analyzed with multiplicative signal correction (MSC) correlation method. The best correlative spectra region with the total ginsenosides content was 1660 nm~1880 nm and 2230nm~2380 nm. The NIR calibration models of ginsenosides were built with multiple linear regression (MLR), principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) regression respectively. The results showed that the calibration model built with PLS combined with MSC and the optimal spectrum region was the best one. The correlation coefficient and the root mean square error of correction validation (RMSEC) of the best calibration model were 0.98 and 0.15% respectively. The optimal spectrum region for calibration was 1204nm~2014nm. The result suggested that using NIR to rapidly determinate the total ginsenosides content in ginseng powder were feasible.

  19. Pectin functionalised by fatty acids: Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopic characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamnev, Alexander A.; Calce, Enrica; Tarantilis, Petros A.; Tugarova, Anna V.; De Luca, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Chemically modified pectin derivatives obtained by partial esterification of its hydroxyl moieties with fatty acids (FA; oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids), as well as the initial apple peel pectin were comparatively characterised using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Characteristic changes observed in DRIFT spectra in going from pectin to its FA esters are related to the corresponding chemical modifications. Comparing the DRIFT spectra with some reported data on FTIR spectra of the same materials measured in KBr or NaCl matrices has revealed noticeable shifts of several polar functional groups both in pectin and in its FA-esterified products induced by the halide salts. The results obtained have implications for careful structural analyses of biopolymers with hydrophilic functional groups by means of different FTIR spectroscopic methodologies.

  20. Reflection-Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy of Thin Films Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Craig, Ian M.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-02-04

    We present experimental demonstrations using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) to perform Reflection-Absorption InfraRed Spectroscopy (RAIRS) of thin layers and residues on surfaces. The ECQCL compliance voltage was used to measure fluctuations in the ECQCL output power and improve the performance of the RAIRS measurements. Absorption spectra from self-assembled monolayers of a fluorinated alkane thiol and a thiol carboxylic acid were measured and compared with FTIR measurements. RAIRS spectra of the explosive compounds PETN, RDX, and tetryl deposited on gold substrates were also measured. Rapid measurement times and low noise were demonstrated, with < 1E-3 absorbance noise for a 10 second measurement time.

  1. Discrimination of nylon polymers using attenuated total reflection mid-infrared spectra and multivariate statistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Enlow, Elizabeth M; Kennedy, Jennifer L; Nieuwland, Alexander A; Hendrix, James E; Morgan, Stephen L

    2005-08-01

    Nylons are an important class of synthetic polymers, from an industrial, as well as forensic, perspective. A spectroscopic method, such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, is necessary to determine the nylon subclasses (e. g., nylon 6 or nylon 6,6). Library searching using absolute difference and absolute derivative difference algorithms gives inconsistent results for identifying nylon subclasses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of peak ratio analysis and multivariate statistics for the identification of nylon subclasses using attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectral data. Many nylon subclasses could not be distinguished by the peak ratio of the N-H vibrational stretch to the sp(3) C-H(2) vibrational stretch intensities. Linear discriminant analysis, however, provided a graphical visualization of differences between nylon subclasses and was able to correctly classify a set of 270 spectra from eight different subclasses with 98.5% cross-validated accuracy.

  2. Depth profile characterization technique for electron density in GaN films by infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamijoh, Takaaki; Ma, Bei; Morita, Ken; Ishitani, Yoshihiro

    2016-05-01

    Infrared reflectance spectroscopy is a noncontact measurement method for carrier density and mobility. In this article, the model determination procedure of layer-type nonuniform electron distribution is investigated, since the spectrum fitting hitherto has been conducted on the basis of a multilayer model defined in advance. A simplified case of a high-electron-density GaN layer embedded in a GaN matrix is mainly studied. The following procedure is found to be applicable. The first step is the determination of the high-density layer position in the vicinity of the surface, in the middle region, or in the vicinity of the interface. This is followed by the specification of the sheet electron density and the layer thickness of the high-density region. It is found that this procedure is also applicable to the characterization of two-dimensional electron gases in the vicinity of AlGaN/GaN heterointerfaces.

  3. Fan-shaped gold nanoantennas above reflective substrates for surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA).

    PubMed

    Brown, Lisa V; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Ke; Zheng, Bob Y; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2015-02-11

    Here, we report a new nanoantenna for surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) detection, consisting of a fan-shaped Au structure positioned at a well-specified distance above a reflective plane with an intervening silica spacer layer. We examine how to optimize both the antenna dimensions and the spacer layer for optimal SEIRA enhancement of the C-H stretching mode. This tunable 3D geometry yields a theoretical SEIRA enhancement factor of 10(5), corresponding to the experimental detection of 20-200 zeptomoles of octadecanethiol, using a standard commercial FTIR spectrometer. Experimental studies illustrate the sensitivity of the observed SEIRA signal to the gap dimensions. The optimized antenna structure exhibits an order of magnitude greater SEIRA sensitivity than previous record-setting designs.

  4. [Testing of germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-nian; Jiang, Dan; Liu, Ying-ying; Ding, Wei-min; Ding, Qi-shuo; Zha, Liang-yu

    2014-06-01

    Germination rate of rice seeds was measured according to technical stipulation of germination testing for agricultural crop seeds at present. There existed many faults for this technical stipulation such as long experimental period, more costing and higher professional requirement. A rapid and non-invasive method was put forward to measure the germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Two varieties of hybrid rice seeds were aged artificially at temperature 45 degrees C and humidity 100% condition for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds with different aging time were acquired individually by near-infrared spectra analyzer. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds were randomly divided into calibration set (168 samples) and prediction set (112 samples). Gormination rate of rice seed with different aging time was tested. Regression model was established by using partial least squares (PLS). The effect of the different spectral bands on the accuracy of models was analyzed and the effect of the different spectral preprocessing methods on the accuracy of models was also compared. Optimal model was achieved under the whole bands and by using standardization and orthogonal signal correction (OSC) preprocessing algorithms with CM2000 software for spectral data of 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds, the coefficient of determination of the calibration set (Rc) and that of the prediction set (Rp) were 0.965 and 0.931 individually, standard error of calibration set (SEC) and that of prediction set (SEP) were 1.929 and 2.899 respectively. Relative error between tested value and predicted value for prediction set of rice seeds is below 4.2%. The experimental results show that it is feasible that rice germination rate is detected rapidly and nondestructively by using the near-infrared spectroscopy analysis technology. PMID:25358159

  5. Diffuse reflectance near infrared-chemometric methods development and validation of amoxicillin capsule formulations

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ahmed Nawaz; Khar, Roop Krishen; Ajayakumar, P. V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of present study was to establish near infrared-chemometric methods that could be effectively used for quality profiling through identification and quantification of amoxicillin (AMOX) in formulated capsule which were similar to commercial products. In order to evaluate a large number of market products easily and quickly, these methods were modeled. Materials and Methods: Thermo Scientific Antaris II near infrared analyzer with TQ Analyst Chemometric Software were used for the development and validation of the identification and quantification models. Several AMOX formulations were composed with four excipients microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, croscarmellose sodium and colloidal silicon dioxide. Development includes quadratic mixture formulation design, near infrared spectrum acquisition, spectral pretreatment and outlier detection. According to prescribed guidelines by International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) and European Medicine Agency (EMA) developed methods were validated in terms of specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, and robustness. Results: On diffuse reflectance mode, an identification model based on discriminant analysis was successfully processed with 76 formulations; and same samples were also used for quantitative analysis using partial least square algorithm with four latent variables and 0.9937 correlation of coefficient followed by 2.17% root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC), 2.38% root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), 2.43% root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV). Conclusion: Proposed model established a good relationship between the spectral information and AMOX identity as well as content. Resulted values show the performance of the proposed models which offers alternate choice for AMOX capsule evaluation, relative to that of well-established high-performance liquid chromatography method. Ultimately three commercial products were successfully evaluated using developed

  6. [Testing of germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-nian; Jiang, Dan; Liu, Ying-ying; Ding, Wei-min; Ding, Qi-shuo; Zha, Liang-yu

    2014-06-01

    Germination rate of rice seeds was measured according to technical stipulation of germination testing for agricultural crop seeds at present. There existed many faults for this technical stipulation such as long experimental period, more costing and higher professional requirement. A rapid and non-invasive method was put forward to measure the germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Two varieties of hybrid rice seeds were aged artificially at temperature 45 degrees C and humidity 100% condition for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds with different aging time were acquired individually by near-infrared spectra analyzer. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds were randomly divided into calibration set (168 samples) and prediction set (112 samples). Gormination rate of rice seed with different aging time was tested. Regression model was established by using partial least squares (PLS). The effect of the different spectral bands on the accuracy of models was analyzed and the effect of the different spectral preprocessing methods on the accuracy of models was also compared. Optimal model was achieved under the whole bands and by using standardization and orthogonal signal correction (OSC) preprocessing algorithms with CM2000 software for spectral data of 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds, the coefficient of determination of the calibration set (Rc) and that of the prediction set (Rp) were 0.965 and 0.931 individually, standard error of calibration set (SEC) and that of prediction set (SEP) were 1.929 and 2.899 respectively. Relative error between tested value and predicted value for prediction set of rice seeds is below 4.2%. The experimental results show that it is feasible that rice germination rate is detected rapidly and nondestructively by using the near-infrared spectroscopy analysis technology.

  7. Development of an ultra-compact mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Soo; Lee, Tae-Ro; Yoon, Gilwon

    2014-07-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy has been an important tool widely used for qualitative analysis in various fields. However, portable or personal use is size and cost prohibitive for either Fourier transform infrared or attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectrophotometers. In this study, we developed an ultra-compact ATR spectrophotometer whose frequency band was 5.5-11.0 μm. We used miniature components, such as a light source fabricated by semiconductor technology, a linear variable filter, and a pyro-electric array detector. There were no moving parts. Optimal design based on two light sources, a zippered configuration of the array detector and ATR optics could produce absorption spectra that might be used for qualitative analysis. A microprocessor synchronized the pulsed light sources and detector, and all the signals were processed digitally. The size was 13.5×8.5×3.5 cm3 and the weight was 300 grams. Due to its low cost, our spectrophotometer can replace many online monitoring devices. Another application could be for a u-healthcare system installed in the bathroom or attached to a smartphone for monitoring substances in body fluids.

  8. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of carboxylic acids adsorbed onto mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubicki, J. D.; Schroeter, L. M.; Itoh, M. J.; Nguyen, B. N.; Apitz, S. E.

    1999-09-01

    A suite of naturally-occurring carboxylic acids (acetic, oxalic, citric, benzoic, salicylic and phthalic) and their corresponding sodium salts were adsorbed onto a set of common mineral substrates (quartz, albite, illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) in batch slurry experiments. Solution pH's of approximately 3 and 6 were used to examine the effects of pH on sorption mechanisms. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to obtain vibrational frequencies of the organic ligands on the mineral surfaces and in solution. UV/visible spectroscopy on supernatant solutions was also employed to confirm that adsorption from solution had taken place for benzoic, salicylic and phthalic acids. Molecular orbital calculations were used to model possible surface complexes and interpret the experimental spectra. In general, the tectosilicates, quartz and albite feldspar, did not chemisorb (i.e., strong, inner-sphere adsorption) the carboxylate anions in sufficient amounts to produce infrared spectra of the organics after rinsing in distilled water. The clays (illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) each exhibited similar ATR FTIR spectra. However, the illite sample used in this study reacted to form strong surface and aqueous complexes with salicylic acid before being treated to remove free Fe-hydroxides. Chemisorption of carboxylic acids onto clays is shown to be limited without the presence of Fe-hydroxides within the clay matrix.

  9. Quantitative diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform spectrometric studies of cementitious blends

    SciTech Connect

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.

    1989-07-01

    The effective immobilization of low-level radioactive liquid wastes in the form of grout depends on the quality of the dry cementitious blends used in the grout formulation. Variation in the mix ratios of the components of the blend can cause detrimental effects on the processing behavior of the grout slurry and the final properties of the cured grout. Thus the blends require thorough chemical characterization and monitoring by strict quality control protocols. In an earlier work at our laboratories, Fourier transform infrared- transmission method has been successfully applied in the analysis of blends of cement, fly ash, and clays. However, this method involved time-consuming sample preparation resulting in slow turnaround for repetitive sampling. A practical approach to quality control required a fast and simple method for the analysis of the blends. This paper describes a diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectrometric procedure for the routine examination of neat blends consisting of cement, fly ash, clays and/or blast furnace slags. (1 ref., 10 figs., 4 tabs.)

  10. Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared grating couplers with low-reflectivity inverse taper excitation.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Nedeljkovic, Milos; Benedikovic, Daniel; Penadés, Jordi Soler; Littlejohns, Callum G; Khokhar, Ali Z; Pérez-Galacho, Diego; Vivien, Laurent; Cheben, Pavel; Mashanovich, Goran Z

    2016-09-15

    A broad transparency range of its constituent materials and compatibility with standard fabrication processes make germanium-on-silicon (Ge-on-Si) an excellent platform for the realization of mid-infrared photonic circuits. However, the comparatively large Ge waveguide thickness and its moderate refractive index contrast with the Si substrate hinder the implementation of efficient fiber-chip grating couplers. We report for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a single-etch Ge-on-Si grating coupler with an inversely tapered access stage, operating at a 3.8 μm wavelength. Optimized grating excitation yields a coupling efficiency of -11  dB (7.9%), the highest value reported for a mid-infrared Ge-on-Si grating coupler, with reflectivity below -15  dB (3.2%). The large periodicity of our higher-order grating design substantially relaxes the fabrication constraints. We also demonstrate that a focusing geometry allows a 10-fold reduction in inverse taper length, from 500 to 50 μm. PMID:27628388

  11. Recent progress in noninvasive diabetes screening by diffuse reflectance near-infrared skin spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heise, H. M.; Haiber, S.; Licht, M.; Ihrig, D. F.; Moll, C.; Stuecker, M.

    2006-02-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy exhibits a tremendous potential for clinical chemistry and tissue pathology. Owing to its penetration depth into human skin, near infrared radiation can probe chemical and structural information non-invasively. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus increase nonenzymatic glycation with the effect of glucose molecules bonding chemically to proteins. In addition, glycation accumulates on tissue proteins with the clearest evidence found in extracellular skin collagen, affecting also covalent crosslinking between adjacent protein strands, which reduces their flexibility, elasticity, and functionality. Non-enzymatically glycated proteins in human skin and following chemical and structural skin changes were our spectroscopic target. We carried out measurements on 109 subjects using two different NIR-spectrometers equipped with diffuse reflection accessories. Spectra of different skin regions (finger and hand/forearm skin) were recorded for comparison with clinical blood analysis data and further patient information allowing classification into diabetics and non-diabetics. Multivariate analysis techniques for supervised classification such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied using broad spectral interval data or a number of optimally selected wavelengths. Based on fingertip skin spectra recorded by fiber-optics, it was possible to classify diabetics and non-diabetics with a maximum accuracy of 87.8 % using leave-5-out cross-validation (sensitivity of 87.5. %, specificity of 88.2 %). With the results of this study, it can be concluded that ageing and glycation at elevated levels cannot always be separated from each other.

  12. Analysis of visible and near infrared spectral reflectance for assessing metals in soil.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Paresh H; Müller, Ingo; Van der Meer, Freek D; de Smeth, Boudewijn

    2015-10-01

    Visible and near infrared reflectance (VNIR; 350-2500 nm) spectroscopy has greatly been used in soils, especially for studying variability in spectrally active soil components (e.g., organic carbon, clays, and Fe/Al oxides) based on their diagnostic spectral features. In recent years, this technique has also been applied to assess soil metallic ions. In this research, the feasibility of VNIR spectroscopy for determination of soil metals was investigated with two soil data sets: (i) artificially metal-spiked and (ii) in situ metal-contaminated soils. Results showed that reflectance spectra of neither metal-spiked soils with Cd, As, and Pb even at their higher concentrations of 20, 900, and 1200 mg kg(-1), respectively, nor in situ metal-contaminated soils (with concentrations of 30 mg Cd, 3019 mg As, and 5725 mg Pb kg(-1) soil) showed any recognized absorption peaks that correspond to soil metal concentrations. We observed variations in reflectance intensity for in situ metal-contaminated soils only, showing higher reflectance across the entire spectrum for strongly and lower for less metal-contaminated soils. A significant correlation was found between surface soil metals' concentrations and continuum removed spectra, while soil metals were also found significantly associated with soil organic matter and total Fe. A partial least square regression with cross-validation approach produced an acceptable prediction of metals (R (2) = 0.58-0.94) for both soil data sets, metal-spiked and in situ metal-contaminated soils. However, high values of root mean square error ruled out practical application of the achieved prediction models. PMID:27614958

  13. Diffuse Reflectance Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Identification of Surface Contamination on Sandblasted Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Louis G.; Barber, Tye E.; Neu, John T.; Nerren, Billy H.

    1997-01-01

    The SOC 400 Surface Inspection Machine/Infrared (SIMIR) is a small, ruggedized Fourier transform infrared spectrometer having dedicated diffuse reflectance optics. The SOC 400 was designed for the purpose of detecting (qualitatively and quantitatively) oil stains on the inside surface of solid rocket motor casings in the as-sandblasted and cleaned condition at levels approaching 1 mg. sq ft. The performance of this instrument is described using spectral mapping techniques.

  14. Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy as a tool for the identification of surface contamination on sandblasted metals

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, G.L.; Barber, T.E.; Neu, J.T.; Nerren, B.H.

    1996-07-30

    The SOC 400 Surface Inspection Machine/Infrared (SIMIR) is a small, ruggedized Fourier transform infrared spectrometer having dedicated diffuse reflectance optics. The SOC 400 was designed for the purpose of detecting (qualitatively and quantitatively) oil stains on the inside surface of solid rocket motor casings in the as-sandblasted and cleaned condition at levels approaching 1 mg ft{sup {minus}2}. The performance of this instrument is described using spectral mapping techniques.

  15. A near-infrared methane detection system using a 1.654 μm wavelength-modulated diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yang; Liu, Hui-fang; Sui, Yue; Li, Bin; Ye, Wei-lin; Zheng, Chuan-tao; Wang, Yi-ding

    2016-03-01

    By adopting a distributed feedback laser (DFBL) centered at 1.654 μm, a near-infrared (NIR) methane (CH4) detection system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) is experimentally demonstrated. A laser temperature control as well as wavelength modulation module is developed to control the laser's operation temperature. The laser's temperature fluctuation can be limited within the range of -0.02—0.02 °C, and the laser's emitting wavelength varies linearly with the temperature and injection current. An open reflective gas sensing probe is realized to double the absorption optical path length from 0.2 m to 0.4 m. Within the detection range of 0—0.01, gas detection experiments were conducted to derive the relation between harmonic amplitude and gas concentration. Based on the Allan deviation at an integral time of 1 s, the limit of detection ( LoD) is decided to be 2.952×10-5 with a path length of 0.4 m, indicating a minimum detectable column density of ~1.2×10-5 m. Compared with our previously reported NIR CH4 detection system, this system exhibits some improvement in both optical and electrical structures, including the analogue temperature controller with less software consumption, simple and reliable open reflective sensing probe.

  16. Chemical morphology of Areca nut characterized directly by Fourier transform near-infrared and mid-infrared microspectroscopic imaging in reflection modes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Bo; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun

    2016-12-01

    Fourier transform near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) imaging techniques are essential tools to characterize the chemical morphology of plant. The transmission imaging mode is mostly used to obtain easy-to-interpret spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio. However, the native chemical compositions and physical structures of plant samples may be altered when they are microtomed for the transmission tests. For the direct characterization of thick plant samples, the combination of the reflection NIR imaging and the attenuated total reflection (ATR) MIR imaging is proposed in this research. First, the reflection NIR imaging method can explore the whole sample quickly to find out typical regions in small sizes. Next, each small typical region can be measured by the ATR-MIR imaging method to reveal the molecular structures and spatial distributions of compounds of interest. As an example, the chemical morphology of Areca nut section is characterized directly by the above approach.

  17. Design of spatio-temporally modulated static infrared imaging Fourier transform spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Wang, WenCong; Liang, JingQiu; Liang, ZhongZhu; Lü, JinGuang; Qin, YuXin; Tian, Chao; Wang, WeiBiao

    2014-08-15

    A novel static medium wave infrared (MWIR) imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (IFTS) is conceptually proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In this system, the moving mirror in traditional temporally modulated IFTS is replaced by multi-step micro-mirrors to realize the static design. Compared with the traditional spatially modulated IFTS, they have no slit system and are superior with larger luminous flux and higher energy efficiency. The use of the multi-step micro-mirrors can also make the system compact and light.

  18. Characterization of a high efficiency, ultrashort pulse shaper incorporating a reflective 4096-element spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Jeffrey J.; Planchon, Thomas A.; Amir, Wafa; Durfee, Charles G.; Squier, Jeff A.

    2007-10-01

    We demonstrate pulse shaping via arbitrary phase modulation with a reflective, 1 × 4096 element, liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). The unique construction of this device provides a very high efficiency when the device is used for phase modulation only in a prism based pulse shaper, namely 85%. We also present a single shot characterization of the SLM in the spatial domain and a single shot characterization of the pulse shaper in the spectral domain. These characterization methods provide a detailed picture of how the SLM modifies the spectral phase of an ultrashort pulse.

  19. Characterization of a High Efficiency, Ultrashort Pulse Shaper Incorporating a Reflective 4096-Element Spatial Light Modulator

    PubMed Central

    Field, Jeffrey J.; Planchon, Thomas A.; Amir, Wafa; Durfee, Charles G.; Squier, Jeff A.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate pulse shaping via arbitrary phase modulation with a reflective, 1×4096 element, liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). The unique construction of this device provides a very high efficiency when the device is used for phase modulation only in a prism based pulse shaper, namely 85%. We also present a single shot characterization of the SLM in the spatial domain and a single shot characterization of the pulse shaper in the spectral domain. These characterization methods provide a detailed picture of how the SLM modifies the spectral phase of an ultrashort pulse. PMID:19562096

  20. Characterization of a High Efficiency, Ultrashort Pulse Shaper Incorporating a Reflective 4096-Element Spatial Light Modulator.

    PubMed

    Field, Jeffrey J; Planchon, Thomas A; Amir, Wafa; Durfee, Charles G; Squier, Jeff A

    2007-10-15

    We demonstrate pulse shaping via arbitrary phase modulation with a reflective, 1×4096 element, liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). The unique construction of this device provides a very high efficiency when the device is used for phase modulation only in a prism based pulse shaper, namely 85%. We also present a single shot characterization of the SLM in the spatial domain and a single shot characterization of the pulse shaper in the spectral domain. These characterization methods provide a detailed picture of how the SLM modifies the spectral phase of an ultrashort pulse.

  1. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  2. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  3. Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) for Far-infrared through Millimeter Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) for Far-infrared through Millimeter Astronomy. The two science goals are to use polarized emission from the partially-aligned dust that provides a probe of the role of magnetic fields in star formation and to use the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation CMB to test theories of the very early universe and provide a probe of fundamental physics.

  4. Exploiting total internal reflection geometry for efficient optical modulation of terahertz light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xudong; Parrott, Edward P. J.; Ung, Benjamin S.-Y.; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2016-10-01

    Efficient methods to modulate terahertz (THz) light are essential for realizing rapid THz imaging and communication applications. Here we report a novel THz modulator which utilizes the evanescent wave in a total internal reflection setup coupled with a conductive interface to enhance the attenuation efficiency of THz light. This approach makes it possible to achieve close to 100% modulation with a small interface conductivity of 12 mS. The frequency dependence of this technique is linked to the optical properties of the materials: a material with close to frequency independent conductivity that is also controllable will result in an achromatic modulation response, and the device performance can be optimized further by tuning the internal reflection angle. In this work, we focus on applying the technique in the terahertz frequency range. Using an LED array with a pump intensity of 475 mW/cm2 to produce carriers in a silicon wafer, we have achieved a modulation depth of up to 99.9% in a broad frequency range of 0.1 THz-0.8 THz. The required pumping power for the generation of the required free carriers is low because the sheet conductivity needed is far less than required for traditional transmission techniques. Consequently, the device can be modulated by an LED making it a very practical, low cost, and scalable solution for THz modulation.

  5. The calibration stand for thermal camera module with infrared focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnowski, Tomasz; Bieszczad, Grzegorz; Madura, Henryk; Kastek, Mariusz; Firmanty, Krzysztof

    2010-04-01

    In areas like military systems, surveillance systems, or industrial process control, more and more often there is a need to operate in limited visibility conditions or even in complete darkness. In such conditions vision systems can benefit by using thermal vision cameras. In thermal imaging an infrared radiation detector arrays are used. Contemporary infrared detector arrays suffers from technological imprecision which causes that the response to uniform radiation results in nonuniform image with superimposed fixed pattern noise (FPN). In order to compensate this noise there is a need to evaluate detectors characteristics like responsivity and offset of every detector in array. Some of the detectors in cooled detector arrays can be also defective. Signal from defective pixels has to be in such system replaced. In order to replace defective pixels, there is a need to detect them. Identification of so-called blinking pixels needs long time measurement, which in designed calibration stand is also possible. The paper presents the design of infrared detector array measurement stand allowing measurement of mentioned parameters. Measurement stand was also used to evaluate temporal noise of infrared detection modules. In article there is a description of optical system design and parameters of used reference blackbodies. To capture images from camera modules a specially designed digital image interface was used. Measurement control and calculations were made in specially written IRDiag software. Stand was used to measure parameters for cameras based on cooled focal plane arrays from Sofradir. Results of two-point nonuniformity correction are also presented.

  6. Analysis of the DNA Fourier transform-infrared microspectroscopic signature using an all-reflecting objective.

    PubMed

    Mello, Maria Luiza S; Vidal, Benedicto C

    2014-06-01

    The Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) signature of dry samples of DNA and DNA-polypeptide complexes, as studied by IR microspectroscopy using a diamond attenuated total reflection (ATR) objective, has revealed important discriminatory characteristics relative to the PO2(-) vibrational stretchings. However, DNA IR marks that provide information on the sample's richness in hydrogen bonds have not been resolved in the spectral profiles obtained with this objective. Here we investigated the performance of an "all reflecting objective" (ARO) for analysis of the FT-IR signal of hydrogen bonds in DNA samples differing in base richness types (salmon testis vs calf thymus). The results obtained using the ARO indicate prominent band peaks at the spectral region representative of the vibration of nitrogenous base hydrogen bonds and of NH and NH2 groups. The band areas at this spectral region differ in agreement with the DNA base richness type when using the ARO. A peak assigned to adenine was more evident in the AT-rich salmon DNA using either the ARO or the ATR objective. It is concluded that, for the discrimination of DNA IR hydrogen bond vibrations associated with varying base type proportions, the use of an ARO is recommended.

  7. Rapid estimation of nutritional elements on citrus leaves by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Galvez-Sola, Luis; García-Sánchez, Francisco; Pérez-Pérez, Juan G.; Gimeno, Vicente; Navarro, Josefa M.; Moral, Raul; Martínez-Nicolás, Juan J.; Nieves, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Sufficient nutrient application is one of the most important factors in producing quality citrus fruits. One of the main guides in planning citrus fertilizer programs is by directly monitoring the plant nutrient content. However, this requires analysis of a large number of leaf samples using expensive and time-consuming chemical techniques. Over the last 5 years, it has been demonstrated that it is possible to quantitatively estimate certain nutritional elements in citrus leaves by using the spectral reflectance values, obtained by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). This technique is rapid, non-destructive, cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Therefore, the estimation of macro and micronutrients in citrus leaves by this method would be beneficial in identifying the mineral status of the trees. However, to be used effectively NIRS must be evaluated against the standard techniques across different cultivars. In this study, NIRS spectral analysis, and subsequent nutrient estimations for N, K, Ca, Mg, B, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn concentration, were performed using 217 leaf samples from different citrus trees species. Partial least square regression and different pre-processing signal treatments were used to generate the best estimation against the current best practice techniques. It was verified a high proficiency in the estimation of N (Rv = 0.99) and Ca (Rv = 0.98) as well as achieving acceptable estimation for K, Mg, Fe, and Zn. However, no successful calibrations were obtained for the estimation of B, Cu, and Mn. PMID:26257767

  8. Characterization of historic silk by polarized attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for informed conservation.

    PubMed

    Garside, Paul; Lahlil, Sophia; Wyeth, Paul

    2005-10-01

    When assessing historic textiles and considering appropriate conservation, display, and storage strategies, characterizing the physical condition of the textiles is essential. Our work has concentrated on developing nondestructive or micro-destructive methodologies that will permit this. Previously, we have demonstrated a correlation between the physical deterioration of unweighted and "pink" tin (IV) chloride weighted silk and certain measurable spectroscopic and chromatographic signatures, derived from polarized Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy (Pol-ATR) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) microsampling analyses. The application of the Pol-ATR technique to aged silk characterization has now been extended to include a more comprehensive range of weighting methods and aging regimes. This was intended to replicate the full spectrum of states of deterioration observed in silk textiles, from pristine to heavily degraded. Breaking strength was employed as a measure of the physical integrity of the fibers, and, as expected, decreased with aging. An orientational crystallinity parameter, reflecting the microstructural ordering of the fibroin polymer within the fibers, was derived from the Pol-ATR spectra. A good correlation was observed between the breaking strength of the variety of fibers and this parameter. This suggests that the physical state of historic silk fabrics might be adequately characterized for conservation purposes by such indirect micromethodology.

  9. Improved depth resolution in near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using obliquely oriented fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilwind, Rachel Estelle; 't Hooft, Gert; Uzunbajakava, Natallia E.

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate a significant improvement of depth selectivity when using obliquely oriented fibers for near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. This is confirmed by diffuse reflectance measurements of a two-layer tissue-mimicking phantom across the spectral range from 1000 to 1940 nm. The experimental proof is supported by Monte Carlo simulations. The results reveal up to fourfold reduction in the mean optical penetration depth, twofold reduction in its variation, and a decrease in the number of scattering events when a single fiber is oriented at an angle of 60 deg. The effect of reducing the mean optical penetration depth is enhanced by orienting both fibers inwardly. Using outwardly oriented fibers enables more selective probing of deeper layers, while reducing the contribution from surface layers. We further demonstrate that the effect of an inward oblique arrangement can be approximated to a decrease in fiber-to-fiber separation in the case of a perpendicular fiber arrangement. This approximation is valid in the weak- or absorption-free regime. Our results assert the advantages of using obliquely oriented fibers when attempting to specifically address superficial tissue layers, for example, for skin cancer detection, or in noninvasive glucose monitoring. Such flexibility could be further advantageous in a range of minimally invasive applications, including catheter-based interventions.

  10. Synchrotron Infrared Reflectance Microspectroscopy Study of Film Formation and Breakdown on Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.; Melendres, C

    2010-01-01

    This work demonstrates the utility of synchrotron infrared reflectance microspectroscopy in the far- and mid-IR for the determination of the composition of electrogenerated surface films formed during the general and localized corrosion of copper in alkaline and bicarbonate solutions. Back-reflection geometry has been employed to identify the anodic film formed on copper in 0.1 M NaOH solution at 0.3 V (versus a Ag/AgCl reference) to be mainly CuO. In 0.01 M NaHCO{sub 3} solution general corrosion occurs with passive film formation below 0.2 V. The surface film at 0.2 V consisted mainly of bicarbonate, copper carbonate dihydroxide or malachite [CuCO{sub 3} {center_dot} Cu(OH){sub 2}], Cu(OH){sub 2} and possibly some CuO. At higher potentials the passive film breaks down and localized corrosion occurs leading to the formation of pits. The composition of the surface films inside the pits formed at 0.6 V was found to be essentially the same as that outside but the relative amount of Cu(OH){sub 2} appears to be higher.

  11. Application of representative layer theory to near-infrared reflectance spectra of powdered samples.

    PubMed

    Cairós, Carlos; Coello, Jordi; Maspoch, Santiago

    2008-12-01

    The diffuse reflectance near-infrared (NIR) spectrum of a powdered sample includes the contribution of specular and diffuse reflectance, which is a function of absorbance and scattering. The fraction of light scattered depends in a complex manner on the physical properties of the sample such as particle size, refraction index, etc. Several theories to study the dependence of NIR spectra on the particle size have been proposed. The best known is the Kubelka-Munk model, an approach based on continuous mathematics. Recently Dahm and Dahm put forward an alternative method, the representative layer theory (RLT), which uses discontinuous mathematics as a basis. This approach can be used to identify and disentangle the scattering and absorbance signals as well as their dependence on the particle size. The scattering and absorption coefficient of NaCl (a nonabsorbing material) and of potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHP (a strong absorber), have been estimated through the application of the representative layer theory, working on a particle size range from 63 to 450 microm. In both samples, the absorption coefficient of the sample (K) remains constant and practically independent of the particle size, while the scattering coefficient of the sample (S) decreases when the particle diameter increases, becoming stable around a diameter of 250 microm. PMID:19094396

  12. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    techniques such as attenuated total reflectance [6]. The two final papers deal with what seem to be wholly different scientific fields [7, 8]. One paper describes SOFIA, an aeroplane-based astronomical observatory covering the whole IR range [7], while the other represents a small review of the quite new topic of terahertz physics at the upper end of the IR spectral range, from around 30 µm to 3 mm wavelength, and its many applications in science and industry [8]. Although artificially separated, all these fields use similar kinds of detectors, similar kinds of IR sources and similar technologies, while the instruments use the same physical principles. We are convinced that the field of infrared physics will develop over the next decade in the same dynamic way as during the last, and this special issue may serve as starting point for regular submissions on the topic. At any rate, it shines a light on this fascinating and many-faceted subject, which started more than 200 years ago. References [1] Mangold K, Shaw J A and Vollmer M 2013 The physics of near-infrared photography Eur. J. Phys. 34 S51-71 [2] Vollmer M and Möllmann K-P 2013 Characterization of IR cameras in student labs Eur. J. Phys. 34 S73-90 [3] Ibarra-Castanedo C, Tarpani J R and Maldague X P V 2013 Nondestructive testing with thermography Eur. J. Phys. 34 S91-109 [4] Shaw J A and Nugent P W 2013 Physics principles in radiometric infrared imaging of clouds in the atmosphere Eur. J. Phys. 34 S111-21 [5] Möllmann K-P and Vollmer M 2013 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in physics laboratory courses Eur. J. Phys. 34 S123-37 [6] Heise H M, Fritzsche J, Tkatsch H, Waag F, Karch K, Henze K, Delbeck S and Budde J 2013 Recent advances in mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy with applications for research and teaching, focusing on petrochemistry and biotechnology relevant products Eur. J. Phys. 34 S139-59 [7] Krabbe A, Mehlert D, Röser H-P and Scorza C 2013 SOFIA, an airborne observatory for infrared astronomy

  13. Baseline Correction of Diffuse Reflection Near-Infrared Spectra Using Searching Region Standard Normal Variate (SRSNV).

    PubMed

    Genkawa, Takuma; Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Kato, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Murayama, Kodai; Komiyama, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2015-12-01

    An alternative baseline correction method for diffuse reflection near-infrared (NIR) spectra, searching region standard normal variate (SRSNV), was proposed. Standard normal variate (SNV) is an effective pretreatment method for baseline correction of diffuse reflection NIR spectra of powder and granular samples; however, its baseline correction performance depends on the NIR region used for SNV calculation. To search for an optimal NIR region for baseline correction using SNV, SRSNV employs moving window partial least squares regression (MWPLSR), and an optimal NIR region is identified based on the root mean square error (RMSE) of cross-validation of the partial least squares regression (PLSR) models with the first latent variable (LV). The performance of SRSNV was evaluated using diffuse reflection NIR spectra of mixture samples consisting of wheat flour and granular glucose (0-100% glucose at 5% intervals). From the obtained NIR spectra of the mixture in the 10 000-4000 cm(-1) region at 4 cm intervals (1501 spectral channels), a series of spectral windows consisting of 80 spectral channels was constructed, and then SNV spectra were calculated for each spectral window. Using these SNV spectra, a series of PLSR models with the first LV for glucose concentration was built. A plot of RMSE versus the spectral window position obtained using the PLSR models revealed that the 8680–8364 cm(-1) region was optimal for baseline correction using SNV. In the SNV spectra calculated using the 8680–8364 cm(-1) region (SRSNV spectra), a remarkable relative intensity change between a band due to wheat flour at 8500 cm(-1) and that due to glucose at 8364 cm(-1) was observed owing to successful baseline correction using SNV. A PLSR model with the first LV based on the SRSNV spectra yielded a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.999 and an RMSE of 0.70%, while a PLSR model with three LVs based on SNV spectra calculated in the full spectral region gave an R2 of 0.995 and an RMSE of

  14. Reflections on Supporting a Visually Impaired Student Complete a Biological Psychology Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Cross, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    While there are a number of technologies that have been used, with varying levels of success, to support visually impaired students, the purpose of this article is to reflect upon the authors' experiences of supporting a visually impaired student through a nine-month level two undergraduate biological psychology module. The authors developed a…

  15. Electrophoretic Deposition for Cholesteric Liquid-Crystalline Devices with Memory and Modulation of Reflection Colors.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Shoichi; Itoh, Yoshimitsu; Yaguchi, Yuya; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Araoka, Fumito; Takezoe, Hideo; Aida, Takuzo

    2016-06-01

    The first design strategy that allows both memorization and modulation of the liquid-crystalline reflection color is reported. Electrophoretic deposition of a tailored ionic chiral dopant is key to realizing this unprecedented function, which may pave the way for the development of full-color e-paper that can operate without the need of color filters. PMID:27027423

  16. Reflected wavefronts modulation with acoustic metasurface based on double-split hollow sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Changlin; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Chen, Huaijun; Zhai, Shilong; Shen, Fangliang

    2015-08-01

    Metasurfaces with sub-wavelength thickness and planar profile have exhibited abnormal manipulation to waves that could not be realized by traditional materials. Here, we present an acoustic metasurface (AMS) model composed of double-split hollow sphere (DSHS) resonator arrays with the functionality of modulating reflected wavefronts at will. By tailoring the split-hole diameter of DSHS, the AMS can be designed to cover 2 π phase shifts with a step of π/4. The acoustic waves perpendicularly and obliquely incident on the AMS can be reflected at any angle, including anomalous reflection and negative reflection. These anomalous manipulations of the reflected wave are simulated to fulfill the generalized Snell's law by projecting suitable phase gradient. Such AMS provides another path to acoustic applications such as acoustic imaging, cloaking, beam steering devices.

  17. Self-reflection modulates the outcome evaluation process: Evidence from an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangru; Gu, Ruolei; Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Yuejia

    2015-12-01

    Recent research demonstrated structural overlap between reward and self processing, but the functional relationship that explains how self processing influences reward processing remains unclear. The present study used an experimentally constrained reflection task to investigate whether individuals' outcome evaluations in a gambling task are modulated by task-unrelated self- and other-reflection processes. The self- and other-reflection task contained descriptions of the self or others, and brain event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while 16 normal adults performed a gambling task. The ERP analysis focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN) component. We found that the difference wave of FRN increased in the self-reflection condition compared with the other-reflection condition. The present findings provide direct evidence that self processing can influence reward processing.

  18. The Infrared Reflection Nebula Around the Protostellar System in S140

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harker, D.; Bregman, J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Temi, P.; Rank, D.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the protostellar system in S140 at 2.2, 3.1 and 3.45 microns using a 128x128 InSb array at the Lick Observatory 3m telescope. Besides the protostellar sources, the data reveal a bright infrared reflection nebula. We have developed a simple model of this region and derived the physical conditions. IRSI is surrounded by a dense dusty disk viewed almost edge-on. Photons leaking out through the poles illuminate almost directly north and south the inner edge of a surrounding shell of molecular gas, Analysis of the observed colors and intensities of the NIR light, using Mie scattering theory, reveal that the dust grains in the molecular cloud are somewhat larger than in the general diffuse interstellar medium. Moreover, the incident light has a "cool" color temperature, approximately equals 800K, and likely originates from a dust photosphere close to the protostar. Finally, we find little H2O ice associated with the dusty disk around IRSI. Most of the 3.1 micron ice extinction arises instead from cool intervening molecular cloud material. We have compared our infrared dust observations with millimeter and radio observations of molecular gas associated with this region. The large scale structure observable in the molecular gas is indicative of the interaction between the protostellar wind and the surrounding molecular cloud rather than the geometry of the protostellar disk. We conclude that S140 is a young blister formed by this outflow on the side of a molecular cloud and viewed edge-on.

  19. Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yu; Shankar, Raji; Kats, Mikhail A; Song, Yi; Kong, Jing; Loncar, Marko; Capasso, Federico

    2014-11-12

    Dynamically reconfigurable metasurfaces open up unprecedented opportunities in applications such as high capacity communications, dynamic beam shaping, hyperspectral imaging, and adaptive optics. The realization of high performance metasurface-based devices remains a great challenge due to very limited tuning ranges and modulation depths. Here we show that a widely tunable metasurface composed of optical antennas on graphene can be incorporated into a subwavelength-thick optical cavity to create an electrically tunable perfect absorber. By switching the absorber in and out of the critical coupling condition via the gate voltage applied on graphene, a modulation depth of up to 100% can be achieved. In particular, we demonstrated ultrathin (thickness < λ0/10) high speed (up to 20 GHz) optical modulators over a broad wavelength range (5-7 μm). The operating wavelength can be scaled from the near-infrared to the terahertz by simply tailoring the metasurface and cavity dimensions. PMID:25310847

  20. Mid-infrared bi-directional reflectance spectroscopy of impact melt glasses and tektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morlok, Andreas; Stojic, Aleksandra; Weber, Iris; Hiesinger, Harald; Zanetti, Michael; Helbert, Joern

    2016-11-01

    We have analyzed 14 impact melt glass samples, covering the compositional range from highly felsic to mafic/basaltic, as part of our effort to provide mid-infrared spectra (7-14 μm) for MERTIS (Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer), an instrument onboard of the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission. Since Mercury was exposed to many impacts in its history, and impact glasses are also common on other bodies, powders of tektites (Irghizite, Libyan Desert Glass, Moldavite, Muong Nong, Thailandite) and impact glasses (from the Dellen, El'gygytgyn, Lonar, Mien, Mistastin, and Popigai impact structures) were analyzed in four size fractions of (0-25, 25-63, 93-125 and 125-250 μm) from 2.5 to 19 μm in bi-directional reflectance. The characteristic Christiansen Feature (CF) is identified between 7.3 μm (Libyan Desert Glass) and 8.2 μm (Dellen). Most samples show mid-infrared spectra typical of highly amorphous material, dominated by a strong Reststrahlen Band (RB) between 8.9 μm (Libyan Desert Glass) and 10.3 μm (Dellen). Even substantial amounts of mineral fragments hardly affect this general band shape. Comparisons of the SiO2 content representing the felsic/mafic composition of the samples with the CF shows felsic/intermediate glass and tektites forming a big group, and comparatively mafic samples a second one. An additional sign of a highly amorphous state is the lack of features at wavelengths longer than ∼15 μm. The tektites and two impact glasses, Irghizite and El'gygytgyn respectively, have much weaker water features than most of the other impact glasses. For the application in remote sensing, spectral features have to be correlated with compositional characteristics of the materials. The dominating RB in the 7-14 μm range correlates well with the SiO2 content, the Christiansen Feature shows similar dependencies. To distinguish between glass and crystalline phases of the same chemical composition, a comparison between CF the SCFM index (SiO2/(SiO2

  1. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  2. All-optical modulation in Mid-Wavelength Infrared using porous Si membranes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Jin; Zakar, Ammar; Zerova, Vera L; Chekulaev, Dimitri; Canham, Leigh T; Kaplan, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the possibility of all-optical modulation of self-standing porous Silicon (pSi) membrane in the Mid-Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) range using femtosecond pump-probe techniques. To study optical modulation, we used pulses of an 800 nm, 60 femtosecond for pump and a MWIR tunable probe in the spectral range between 3.5 and 4.4 μm. We show that pSi possesses a natural transparency window centred around 4 μm. Yet, about 55% of modulation contrast can be achieved by means of optical excitation at the pump power of 60 mW (4.8 mJ/cm(2)). Our analysis shows that the main mechanism of the modulation is interaction of the MWIR signal with the free charge carrier excited by the pump. The time-resolved measurements showed a sub-picosecond rise time and a recovery time of about 66 ps, which suggests a modulation speed performance of ~15 GHz. This optical modulation of pSi membrane in MWIR can be applied to a variety of applications such as thermal imaging and free space communications. PMID:27440224

  3. All-optical modulation in Mid-Wavelength Infrared using porous Si membranes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Jin; Zakar, Ammar; Zerova, Vera L; Chekulaev, Dimitri; Canham, Leigh T; Kaplan, Andre

    2016-07-21

    We demonstrate for the first time the possibility of all-optical modulation of self-standing porous Silicon (pSi) membrane in the Mid-Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) range using femtosecond pump-probe techniques. To study optical modulation, we used pulses of an 800 nm, 60 femtosecond for pump and a MWIR tunable probe in the spectral range between 3.5 and 4.4 μm. We show that pSi possesses a natural transparency window centred around 4 μm. Yet, about 55% of modulation contrast can be achieved by means of optical excitation at the pump power of 60 mW (4.8 mJ/cm(2)). Our analysis shows that the main mechanism of the modulation is interaction of the MWIR signal with the free charge carrier excited by the pump. The time-resolved measurements showed a sub-picosecond rise time and a recovery time of about 66 ps, which suggests a modulation speed performance of ~15 GHz. This optical modulation of pSi membrane in MWIR can be applied to a variety of applications such as thermal imaging and free space communications.

  4. All-optical modulation in Mid-Wavelength Infrared using porous Si membranes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Jin; Zakar, Ammar; Zerova, Vera L.; Chekulaev, Dimitri; Canham, Leigh T.; Kaplan, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the possibility of all-optical modulation of self-standing porous Silicon (pSi) membrane in the Mid-Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) range using femtosecond pump-probe techniques. To study optical modulation, we used pulses of an 800 nm, 60 femtosecond for pump and a MWIR tunable probe in the spectral range between 3.5 and 4.4 μm. We show that pSi possesses a natural transparency window centred around 4 μm. Yet, about 55% of modulation contrast can be achieved by means of optical excitation at the pump power of 60 mW (4.8 mJ/cm2). Our analysis shows that the main mechanism of the modulation is interaction of the MWIR signal with the free charge carrier excited by the pump. The time-resolved measurements showed a sub-picosecond rise time and a recovery time of about 66 ps, which suggests a modulation speed performance of ~15 GHz. This optical modulation of pSi membrane in MWIR can be applied to a variety of applications such as thermal imaging and free space communications. PMID:27440224

  5. Detection and characterisation of delamination in PV modules by active infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, A.; Sastry, O. S.; Gupta, R.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a fast and efficient method for the detection and characterisation of delamination in photovoltaic (PV) modules by using active infrared thermography approach. A discrete part of PV module was irradiated by step heating and its thermal image sequence was used to detect and analyse delamination. Different types of heating source for thermal excitation for this application have been studied. An electro-thermal model was developed to simulate the active thermography approach for the characterisation of delamination in PV module by equivalent resistance-capacitance (RC) network using a circuit simulator. This simulation approach was used to estimate the extent of delamination in the module and to determine the optimum parameters for the characterisation of delamination. Different applications based on front and backsides of heating the module were also proposed in this paper. The proposed method has the potential to be employed for the quality check of PV modules during inline production as well as for the predictive maintenance of outdoor PV plants.

  6. All-optical modulation in Mid-Wavelength Infrared using porous Si membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung Jin; Zakar, Ammar; Zerova, Vera L.; Chekulaev, Dimitri; Canham, Leigh T.; Kaplan, Andre

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the possibility of all-optical modulation of self-standing porous Silicon (pSi) membrane in the Mid-Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) range using femtosecond pump-probe techniques. To study optical modulation, we used pulses of an 800 nm, 60 femtosecond for pump and a MWIR tunable probe in the spectral range between 3.5 and 4.4 μm. We show that pSi possesses a natural transparency window centred around 4 μm. Yet, about 55% of modulation contrast can be achieved by means of optical excitation at the pump power of 60 mW (4.8 mJ/cm2). Our analysis shows that the main mechanism of the modulation is interaction of the MWIR signal with the free charge carrier excited by the pump. The time-resolved measurements showed a sub-picosecond rise time and a recovery time of about 66 ps, which suggests a modulation speed performance of ~15 GHz. This optical modulation of pSi membrane in MWIR can be applied to a variety of applications such as thermal imaging and free space communications.

  7. Enhanced single seed trait predictions in soybean (Glycine max) and robust calibration model transfer with near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single seed near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy predicts soybean (Glycine max) seed quality traits of moisture, oil, and protein. We tested the accuracy of transferring calibrations between different single seed NIR analyzers of the same design by collecting NIR spectra and analytical trait...

  8. Secondary cell wall development in cotton fibers as examined with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers harvested at 18, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 days after flowering were examined using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. The selected harvesting points coincide with secondary cell wall (SCW) development in the fibers. Progressive but moderat...

  9. Double-modulation reflection-type terahertz ellipsometer for measuring the thickness of a thin paint coating.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Tetsuo; Uemura, Hiroaki; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Takeshi

    2014-08-25

    We constructed a double-modulation, reflection-type terahertz (THz) ellipsometer for precise measurement of the thickness of a paint film which is coated on a metal surface and which is not transparent to visible or mid-infrared light. The double-modulation technique enabled us to directly obtain two ellipsometric parameters, Δ(ω) and Ψ(ω), as a function of angular frequency, ω, with a single measurement while reducing flicker noise due to a pump laser. The bias voltage of a photoconductive antenna (PCA) used as a THz pulse emitter was modulated at 100 kHz, and a first lock-in amplifier (LA1) was connected to the output of an electro-optic (EO) signal-sampling unit. In addition, a wire-grid polarizer (WGP) was rotated at 100 Hz to conduct polarization modulation with a frequency of 200 Hz. The output signal from LA1 was fed into a second lock-in amplifier (LA2) that worked in synchronization with the rotating WGP (RWGP). By operating LA2 in a quadrature phase-detection mode, we were able to obtain in-phase and out-of-phase signals simultaneously, from which the two ellipsometric parameters for an isotropic sample could be derived at the same time while cancelling common-mode noise. The lower detection limit of the thickness measurement and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of a black paint film coated on an aluminum substrate were 4.3 µm and 1.4%, respectively. The possibility of determining all elements of the Jones matrix for an anisotropic material is also discussed.

  10. Diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopic identification of dispersant/particle bonding mechanisms in functional inks.

    PubMed

    Deiner, L Jay; Farjami, Elaheh

    2015-05-08

    In additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, material is deposited drop by drop, to create micron to macroscale layers. A typical inkjet ink is a colloidal dispersion containing approximately ten components including solvent, the nano to micron scale particles which will comprise the printed layer, polymeric dispersants to stabilize the particles, and polymers to tune layer strength, surface tension and viscosity. To rationally and efficiently formulate such an ink, it is crucial to know how the components interact. Specifically, which polymers bond to the particle surfaces and how are they attached? Answering this question requires an experimental procedure that discriminates between polymer adsorbed on the particles and free polymer. Further, the method must provide details about how the functional groups of the polymer interact with the particle. In this protocol, we show how to employ centrifugation to separate particles with adsorbed polymer from the rest of the ink, prepare the separated samples for spectroscopic measurement, and use Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for accurate determination of dispersant/particle bonding mechanisms. A significant advantage of this methodology is that it provides high level mechanistic detail using only simple, commonly available laboratory equipment. This makes crucial data available to almost any formulation laboratory. The method is most useful for inks composed of metal, ceramic, and metal oxide particles in the range of 100 nm or greater. Because of the density and particle size of these inks, they are readily separable with centrifugation. Further, the spectroscopic signatures of such particles are easy to distinguish from absorbed polymer. The primary limitation of this technique is that the spectroscopy is performed ex-situ on the separated and dried particles as opposed to the particles in dispersion. However, results from attenuated total reflectance spectra of the wet separated

  11. [DWT-iPLS applied in the infrared diffuse reflection spectrum of hydrocarbon source rocks].

    PubMed

    Song, Ning; Xu, Xiao-xuan; Wu, Zhong-chen; Zhang, Cun-zhou; Wang, Bin

    2008-08-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is useful to monitor the quality of products on-line, or to quality multivariate properties simultaneously. The IR spectrometer satisfies the requirements of users who want to have quantitative product information in real-time because the instrument provides the information promptly and easily. However, Samples that are measured using diffuse reflectance often exhibit significant differences in the spectra due to the non-homogeneous distribution of the particles. In fact, multiple spectral measurements of the same sample can look completely different. In many cases, the scattering can be an overpowering contributor to the spectrum, sometimes accounting for most of the variance in the data. Although the degree of scattering is dependent on the wavelength of the light that is used and the particle size and refractive index of the sample, the scattering is not uniform throughout the spectrum. Typically, this appears as a baseline shift, tilt and sometimes curvature, where the degree of influence is more pronounced at the longer-wavelength end of the spectrum. The diffuse reflection spectrum is unsatisfactory and the calibration may provide unsatisfactory prediction results. So we must use some methods to remove the effects of the scattering for multivariate calibration of IR spectral signals. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is a good method to remove the effects of the scattering for multivariate calibration of IR spectral signals. By using DWT on individual signals as a preprocessing method in regression modeling on IR spectra, good compression is achieved with almost no loss of information, the low-frequency varying background and the high-frequency noise be removed simultaneously. In this report, we use the iPLS method to establish the calibration models of hydrocarbon source rocks. iPLS is a new regression method and the authors can get better results by using DTW- iPLS.

  12. Diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopic identification of dispersant/particle bonding mechanisms in functional inks.

    PubMed

    Deiner, L Jay; Farjami, Elaheh

    2015-01-01

    In additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, material is deposited drop by drop, to create micron to macroscale layers. A typical inkjet ink is a colloidal dispersion containing approximately ten components including solvent, the nano to micron scale particles which will comprise the printed layer, polymeric dispersants to stabilize the particles, and polymers to tune layer strength, surface tension and viscosity. To rationally and efficiently formulate such an ink, it is crucial to know how the components interact. Specifically, which polymers bond to the particle surfaces and how are they attached? Answering this question requires an experimental procedure that discriminates between polymer adsorbed on the particles and free polymer. Further, the method must provide details about how the functional groups of the polymer interact with the particle. In this protocol, we show how to employ centrifugation to separate particles with adsorbed polymer from the rest of the ink, prepare the separated samples for spectroscopic measurement, and use Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for accurate determination of dispersant/particle bonding mechanisms. A significant advantage of this methodology is that it provides high level mechanistic detail using only simple, commonly available laboratory equipment. This makes crucial data available to almost any formulation laboratory. The method is most useful for inks composed of metal, ceramic, and metal oxide particles in the range of 100 nm or greater. Because of the density and particle size of these inks, they are readily separable with centrifugation. Further, the spectroscopic signatures of such particles are easy to distinguish from absorbed polymer. The primary limitation of this technique is that the spectroscopy is performed ex-situ on the separated and dried particles as opposed to the particles in dispersion. However, results from attenuated total reflectance spectra of the wet separated

  13. Comparison of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy on fat to authenticate dietary history of lambs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Andueza, D; de Oliveira, L; Zawadzki, F; Prache, S

    2015-11-01

    Since consumers are showing increased interest in the origin and method of production of their food, it is important to be able to authenticate dietary history of animals by rapid and robust methods used in the ruminant products. Promising breakthroughs have been made in the use of spectroscopic methods on fat to discriminate pasture-fed and concentrate-fed lambs. However, questions remained on their discriminatory ability in more complex feeding conditions, such as concentrate-finishing after pasture-feeding. We compared the ability of visible reflectance spectroscopy (Vis RS, wavelength range: 400 to 700 nm) with that of visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis-NIR RS, wavelength range: 400 to 2500 nm) to differentiate between carcasses of lambs reared with three feeding regimes, using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) as a classification method. The sample set comprised perirenal fat of Romane male lambs fattened at pasture (P, n = 69), stall-fattened indoors on commercial concentrate and straw (S, n = 55) and finished indoors with concentrate and straw for 28 days after pasture-feeding (PS, n = 65). The overall correct classification rate was better for Vis-NIR RS than for Vis RS (99.0% v. 95.1%, P < 0.05). Vis-NIR RS allowed a correct classification rate of 98.6%, 100.0% and 98.5% for P, S and PS lambs, respectively, whereas Vis RS allowed a correct classification rate of 98.6%, 94.5% and 92.3% for P, S and PS lambs, respectively. This study suggests the likely implication of molecules absorbing light in the non-visible part of the Vis-NIR spectra (possibly fatty acids), together with carotenoid and haem pigments, in the discrimination of the three feeding regimes.

  14. Total reflection infrared spectroscopy of water-ice and frozen aqueous NaCl solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Rachel L.; Searles, Keith; Willard, Jesse A.; Michelsen, Rebecca R. H.

    2013-12-28

    Liquid-like and liquid water at and near the surface of water-ice and frozen aqueous sodium chloride films were observed using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The concentration of NaCl ranged from 0.0001 to 0.01 M and the temperature varied from the melting point of water down to 256 K. The amount of liquid brine at the interface of the frozen films with the germanium ATR crystal increased with salt concentration and temperature. Experimental spectra are compared to reflection spectra calculated for a simplified morphology of a uniform liquid layer between the germanium crystal and the frozen film. This morphology allows for the amount of liquid observed in an experimental spectrum to be converted to the thickness of a homogenous layer with an equivalent amount of liquid. These equivalent thickness ranges from a nanometer for water-ice at 260 K to 170 nm for 0.01 M NaCl close to the melting point. The amounts of brine observed are over an order of magnitude less than the total liquid predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic models, implying that the vast majority of the liquid fraction of frozen solutions may be found in internal inclusions, grain boundaries, and the like. Thus, the amount of liquid and the solutes dissolved in them that are available to react with atmospheric gases on the surfaces of snow and ice are not well described by thermodynamic equilibrium models which assume the liquid phase is located entirely at the surface.

  15. Analysis of total oil and fatty acids composition by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy in edible nuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandala, Chari V.; Sundaram, Jaya

    2014-10-01

    Near Infrared (NIR) Reflectance spectroscopy has established itself as an important tool in quantifying water and oil present in various food materials. It is rapid and nondestructive, easier to use, and does not require processing the samples with corrosive chemicals that would render them non-edible. Earlier, the samples had to be ground into powder form before making any measurements. With the development of new soft ware packages, NIR techniques could now be used in the analysis of intact grain and nuts. While most of the commercial instruments presently available work well with small grain size materials such as wheat and corn, the method present here is suitable for large kernel size products such as shelled or in-shell peanuts. Absorbance spectra were collected from 400 nm to 2500 nm using a NIR instrument. Average values of total oil contents (TOC) of peanut samples were determined by standard extraction methods, and fatty acids were determined using gas chromatography. Partial least square (PLS) analysis was performed on the calibration set of absorption spectra, and models were developed for prediction of total oil and fatty acids. The best model was selected based on the coefficient of determination (R2), Standard error of prediction (SEP) and residual percent deviation (RPD) values. Peanut samples analyzed showed RPD values greater than 5.0 for both absorbance and reflectance models and thus could be used for quality control and analysis. Ability to rapidly and nondestructively measure the TOC, and analyze the fatty acid composition, will be immensely useful in peanut varietal improvement as well as in the grading process of grain and nuts.

  16. [Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy for Degradation Profile of High Density Polyethylene after Weathering Aging].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-jun; Yan, Hua; Bao, He-bin; Wang, Xue-mei; Hu, Zhi-de; Yang, Jian-jian

    2015-06-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE) was widely used as rotational packaging case in the material reserve field. The chemical changes of HDPE, exposed to particular climatic conditions of tropic marine atmosphere for one year-long in Wanning Hainan, were elucidated by the attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The structural changes were studied qualitatively, mainly from the polymeric chain breaking, branching and oxidation to distinguish the degradation profile. The variations of crystallinity & carbonyl index were also studied quantitatively according to the characteristic peaks intensity & area ratio. Finally, the relationships between structural changes and mechanical properties were investigated. The results showed that the polymeric chain breaking & branching play a leading role before 3 months in the aging progress. Then oxidation phenomena gradually takes place during 3-6 months. The chain branching & oxidation were predominant factors after 6 months. Nine months later, the oxidation was saturated gradually. Furthermore, the aging process is positively correlated to the temperature and irradiation. After 12 months aging, the carbonyl index increased by 112 times and crystallinity was 10% higher than before. The tensile/bending modulus deceased faster than tensile/bending strength of HDPE. The linear degree of tensile modulus and carbonyl index was 0.97. The degree of linearity of tensile strength and crystallinity calculated by feature bands (720-730 cm(-1)) was 0.96. It showed that the mechanical properties of HDPE can be speculated from the structural changes by ATR-FTIR. PMID:26601359

  17. Characterization of early stage cartilage degradation using diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. P.; Jayadev, C.; Glyn-Jones, S.; Carr, A. J.; Murray, D. W.; Price, A. J.; Gill, H. S.

    2011-04-01

    Interest in localized and early stage treatment technologies for joint conditions such as osteoarthritis is growing rapidly. It has therefore become important to develop objective measures capable of characterizing the earliest (non-visible) changes associated with degeneration to aid treatment procedures. In addition to assessing tissue before treatment, it is further important to develop an effective, non-destructive means of monitoring post-treatment tissue healing, and of providing the high-quality data needed for trials of developing treatment methods. To investigate its ability to detect the early stages of degeneration in cartilage-on-bone, diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy was applied to normal and osteoarthritic joints. A discriminating function was developed to relate absorbance peaks of interest and track degradation around focal osteoarthritic defects. The function could distinguish between normal and degraded tissue (100% separation of normal tissue from that within 25 mm of a defect) and between different stages of osteoarthritic progression (p < 0.05). This technique allows simple, practical and non-destructive assessment of component-level properties over the full depth of the tissue. It has the potential to increase our understanding of the underlying etiologic and pathogenic processes in early stage degeneration, to assist classification and the development of new treatment methods.

  18. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy method to differentiate between normal and cancerous breast cells.

    PubMed

    Lane, Randy; See, Seong S

    2012-09-01

    Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is used to find the structural differences between cancerous breast cells (MCF-7 line) and normal breast cells (MCF-12F line). Gold nanoparticles were prepared and the hydrodynamic diameter of the gold nanoparticles found to be 38.45 nm. The Gold nanoparticles were exposed to both MCF-7 and MCF-12F cells from lower to higher concentrations. Spectroscopic studies founds nanoparticles were within the cells, and increasing the nanoparticles concentration inside the cells also resulted in sharper IR peaks as a result of localized surface Plasmon resonance. Asymmetric and symmetric stretching and bending vibrations between phosphate, COO-, CH2 groups were found to give negative shifts in wavenumbers and a decrease in peak intensities when going from noncancerous to cancerous cells. Cellular proteins produced peak assignments at the 1542 and 1644 cm(-1) wavenumbers which were attributed to the amide I and amide II bands of the polypeptide bond of proteins. Significant changes were found in the peak intensities between the cell lines in the spectrum range from 2854-2956 cm(-1). Results show that the concentration range of gold nanoparticles used in this research showed no significant changes in cell viability in either cell line. Therefore, we believe ATR-FTIR and gold nanotechnology can be at the forefront of cancer diagnosis for some time to come.

  19. Detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Cauwenbergh, T; Bothy, J L; Custers, D; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-11-01

    Sibutramine is one of the most occurring adulterants encountered in dietary supplements with slimming as indication. These adulterated dietary supplements often contain a herbal matrix. When customs intercept these kind of supplements it is almost impossible to discriminate between the legal products and the adulterated ones, due to misleading packaging. Therefore in most cases these products are confiscated and send to laboratories for analysis. This results inherently in the confiscation of legal, non-adulterated products. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. Attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy was evaluated for the detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements. Data interpretation was performed using different basic chemometric techniques. It was found that the use of ATR-IR combined with the k-Nearest Neighbours (k-NN) was able to detect all adulterated dietary supplements in an external test set and this with a minimum of false positive results. This means that a small amount of legal products will still be confiscated and analyzed in a laboratory to be found negative, but no adulterated samples will pass the initial ATR-IR screening.

  20. Application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat and meat products quality: A review.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; Roehe, R; Lavín, P; Batten, G; Andrés, S

    2009-10-01

    Over the past three decades, near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy has been proved to be one of the most efficient and advanced tools for the estimation of quality attributes in meat and meat products. This review focuses on the use of NIR spectroscopy to predict different meat properties, considering the literature published mainly in the last decade. Firstly, the potential of NIR to predict chemical composition (crude protein, intramuscular fat, moisture/dry matter, ash, gross energy, myoglobin and collagen), technological parameters (pH value; L*, a*, b* colour values; water holding capacity; Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force) and sensory attributes (colour, shape, marbling, odour, flavour, juiciness, tenderness or firmness) are reviewed. Secondly, the usefulness of NIR for classification into meat quality grades is presented and thirdly its potential application in the industry is shown. The review indicates that NIR showed high potential to predict chemical meat properties and to categorize meat into quality classes. In contrast, NIR showed limited ability for estimating technological and sensory attributes, which may be mainly due to the heterogeneity of the meat samples and their preparation, the low precision of the reference methods and the subjectivity of assessors in taste panels. Hence, future work to standardize sample preparation and increase the accuracy of reference methods is recommended to improve NIR ability to predict those technological and sensory characteristics. In conclusion, the review shows that NIR has a considerable potential to predict simultaneously numerous meat quality criteria. PMID:20416766

  1. Phase transitions of amorphous solid acetone in confined geometry investigated by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunghwan; Kang, Hani; Kim, Jun Soo; Kang, Heon

    2014-11-26

    We investigated the phase transformations of amorphous solid acetone under confined geometry by preparing acetone films trapped in amorphous solid water (ASW) or CCl4. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) were used to monitor the phase changes of the acetone sample with increasing temperature. An acetone film trapped in ASW shows an abrupt change in the RAIRS features of the acetone vibrational bands during heating from 80 to 100 K, which indicates the transformation of amorphous solid acetone to a molecularly aligned crystalline phase. Further heating of the sample to 140 K produces an isotropic solid phase, and eventually a fluid phase near 157 K, at which the acetone sample is probably trapped in a pressurized, superheated condition inside the ASW matrix. Inside a CCl4 matrix, amorphous solid acetone crystallizes into a different, isotropic structure at ca. 90 K. We propose that the molecularly aligned crystalline phase formed in ASW is created by heterogeneous nucleation at the acetone-water interface, with resultant crystal growth, whereas the isotropic crystalline phase in CCl4 is formed by homogeneous crystal growth starting from the bulk region of the acetone sample.

  2. Attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared analysis of fly ash geopolymer gel aging.

    PubMed

    Rees, Catherine A; Provis, John L; Lukey, Grant C; van Deventer, Jannie S J

    2007-07-17

    Structural changes in fly ash geopolymers activated with different sodium hydroxide and silicate concentrations are investigated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy over a period of 200 days. A strong correlation is found between the concentration of silicate monomer in the activating solution and the position of the main Si-O-T stretching band in the FTIR spectrum, which gives an indication of the relative changes in the gel Si/Al ratio. The FTIR spectra of geopolymer samples with activating solution concentrations of up to 1.2 M SiO2 indicate that an Al-rich gel forms before the final gel composition is reached. The time required for the system to reach a steady gel composition depends on the silicate activating solution concentration and speciation. Geopolymers activated with solutions containing predominantly high-order silicate species rapidly reach a steady gel composition without first forming an Al-rich gel. A minimum silicate monomer concentration of approximately 0.6 M is required to shift the geopolymer synthesis mechanism from hydroxide activation to silicate activation. Silicate speciation in the activating solutions also affects zeolite formation and geopolymer microstructures, with a more homogeneous microstructure and less zeolite formation observed at a higher SiO2 content.

  3. [Discriminant Analysis of Lavender Essential Oil by Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Wang, Qing; Tong, Hong; Liao, Xiang; Zhang, Zheng-fang

    2016-03-01

    This work aimed to use attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to identify the lavender essential oil by establishing a Lavender variety and quality analysis model. So, 96 samples were tested. For all samples, the raw spectra were pretreated as second derivative, and to determine the 1 750-900 cm(-1) wavelengths for pattern recognition analysis on the basis of the variance calculation. The results showed that principal component analysis (PCA) can basically discriminate lavender oil cultivar and the first three principal components mainly represent the ester, alcohol and terpenoid substances. When the orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was established, the 68 samples were used for the calibration set. Determination coefficients of OPLS-DA regression curve were 0.959 2, 0.976 4, and 0.958 8 respectively for three varieties of lavender essential oil. Three varieties of essential oil's the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in validation set were 0.142 9, 0.127 3, and 0.124 9, respectively. The discriminant rate of calibration set and the prediction rate of validation set had reached 100%. The model has the very good recognition capability to detect the variety and quality of lavender essential oil. The result indicated that a model which provides a quick, intuitive and feasible method had been built to discriminate lavender oils. PMID:27400512

  4. [Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy analytic model established for the IVDMD of Cichorium intybus L].

    PubMed

    Hu, Chao; Bai, Shi-qie; Zhang, Yu; Yan, Jia-jun; You, Ming-hong; Li, Da-xu; Bai, Ling; Zhang Jin

    2014-08-01

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a new type of forage grasses of high yield and quality with a great value of popularization and utilization. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) is one of the important indicators of the nutritional value of forage evaluation. For the study of establishment of Chicory IVDMD NIRS quantitative analysis model, seventy-two species with different genotypes, different growth stages of 204 chicory samples of aboveground material were collected, and by Fourier transform near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, through the use of different regression algorithms, can comparing different spectral ranges and spectral pretreatment methods, eight chicory IVDMD NIRS calibration models were established, and the best calibration model parameters were chosen. Its calibration coefficient of determination (Ri) and external validation coefficient of determination (Rval2) were 0.95317 and 0.90455, calibration standard deviation (RMSEC) and predictive standard deviation (RMSEP) was 1.977 99% and 2.008 82%, and the correlation coefficient (r) between predicted values and chemical values was 0.95108. The results show that using NIRS to determine chicory IVDMD is feasible, and provided a rapid analysis method for the determination IVDMD of chicory. PMID:25508718

  5. Rapid analysis of diesel fuel properties by near infrared reflectance spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Fei; Wu, Qiongshui; Zeng, Libo

    2015-10-01

    In this study, based on near infrared reflectance spectra (NIRS) of 441 samples from four diesel groups (-10# diesel, -20# diesel, -35# diesel, and inferior diesel), three spectral analysis models were established by using partial least square (PLS) regression for the six diesel properties (i.e., boiling point, cetane number, density, freezing temperature, total aromatics, and viscosity) respectively. In model 1, all the samples were processed as a whole; in model 2 and model 3, samples were firstly classified into four groups by least square support vector machine (LS-SVM), and then partial least square regression models were applied to each group and each property. The main difference between model 2 and model 3 was that the latter used the direct orthogonal signal correction (DOSC), which helped to get rid of the non-relevant variation in the spectra. Comparing these three models, two results could be concluded: (1) models for grouped samples had higher precision and smaller prediction error; (2) models with DOSC after LS-SVM classification yielded a considerable error reduction compared to models without DOSC.

  6. Quantifying amyloid fibrils in protein mixtures via infrared attenuated-total-reflection spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Bohr, Wilhelm; Otto, Markus; Danzer, Karin M; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2015-05-01

    Amyloid aggregation of proteins is usually associated with amyloid diseases. A distinct feature of protein aggregation is the increase of crossed β-sheet structures. Infrared attenuated-total-reflectance (IR-ATR) spectroscopy is a sensitive optical technique that has the potential to provide secondary structure characteristics of proteins even in complex biological samples. In this study we report the analysis of secondary structures of proteins, using the amide I band for the detection and quantification of amyloid fibrils in protein mixtures by use of IR-ATR techniques, at comparatively low sample concentrations. From the experimental results, an analytical model of the relationship between the IR spectra of protein mixtures and the individual mixture components was established using spectral-deconvolution procedures and curve-fitting methods. On the basis of this model, four ratios were shown to provide direct information on amyloid aggregated fibrils via the increase of crossed β-sheet structures in protein-mixture samples. In conclusion, this study confirms the utility of IR spectroscopy for analyzing protein mixtures and for identifying amyloid fibril information within such complex multi-component samples.

  7. [Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy for Degradation Profile of High Density Polyethylene after Weathering Aging].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-jun; Yan, Hua; Bao, He-bin; Wang, Xue-mei; Hu, Zhi-de; Yang, Jian-jian

    2015-06-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE) was widely used as rotational packaging case in the material reserve field. The chemical changes of HDPE, exposed to particular climatic conditions of tropic marine atmosphere for one year-long in Wanning Hainan, were elucidated by the attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The structural changes were studied qualitatively, mainly from the polymeric chain breaking, branching and oxidation to distinguish the degradation profile. The variations of crystallinity & carbonyl index were also studied quantitatively according to the characteristic peaks intensity & area ratio. Finally, the relationships between structural changes and mechanical properties were investigated. The results showed that the polymeric chain breaking & branching play a leading role before 3 months in the aging progress. Then oxidation phenomena gradually takes place during 3-6 months. The chain branching & oxidation were predominant factors after 6 months. Nine months later, the oxidation was saturated gradually. Furthermore, the aging process is positively correlated to the temperature and irradiation. After 12 months aging, the carbonyl index increased by 112 times and crystallinity was 10% higher than before. The tensile/bending modulus deceased faster than tensile/bending strength of HDPE. The linear degree of tensile modulus and carbonyl index was 0.97. The degree of linearity of tensile strength and crystallinity calculated by feature bands (720-730 cm(-1)) was 0.96. It showed that the mechanical properties of HDPE can be speculated from the structural changes by ATR-FTIR.

  8. Detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Deconinck, E; Cauwenbergh, T; Bothy, J L; Custers, D; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-11-01

    Sibutramine is one of the most occurring adulterants encountered in dietary supplements with slimming as indication. These adulterated dietary supplements often contain a herbal matrix. When customs intercept these kind of supplements it is almost impossible to discriminate between the legal products and the adulterated ones, due to misleading packaging. Therefore in most cases these products are confiscated and send to laboratories for analysis. This results inherently in the confiscation of legal, non-adulterated products. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. Attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy was evaluated for the detection of sibutramine in adulterated dietary supplements. Data interpretation was performed using different basic chemometric techniques. It was found that the use of ATR-IR combined with the k-Nearest Neighbours (k-NN) was able to detect all adulterated dietary supplements in an external test set and this with a minimum of false positive results. This means that a small amount of legal products will still be confiscated and analyzed in a laboratory to be found negative, but no adulterated samples will pass the initial ATR-IR screening. PMID:25173110

  9. Attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine-cholesterol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bach, D; Miller, I R

    2001-10-01

    Mixtures of cholesterol with dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine or deuterated dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine were investigated by polarized and non polarized attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. From polarized spectra the dichroic ratios of various vibrations as a function of cholesterol were calculated. Dichroic ratios of methylene vibration (CH(2)) 2934 cm(-1) of cholesterol decreases with increase of cholesterol concentration leveling off in the region where cholesterol phase separation takes place. The orientation of deuterated methylene (CD(2)) symmetric and asymmetric bands of the deuterated dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine is influenced little by cholesterol. In the polar region of dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine no effect of cholesterol on the dichroic ratios of carbonyl (C==O) and asymmetric phosphate (PO(2)(-)) vibrations were detected. For nonpolarized spectra the broad bands in the polar region of the phospholipid were deconvoluted. The carbonyl band (C==O) in pure dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine is composed of five bands; in the presence of increasing concentrations of cholesterol conformational change of these vibrations takes place evolving into one predominant band. Similar conformational change takes place in the presence of 75 molecules water/molecule DMPS. For the asymmetric phosphate band very small shifts due to interaction with cholesterol were detected.

  10. Measurement of evapotranspiration with combined reflective and thermal infrared radiance observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hope, Allen S.

    1993-01-01

    The broad goal of the research summarized in this report was 'To facilitate the evaluation of regional evapotranspiration (ET) through the combined use of solar reflective and thermal infrared radiance observations.' The specific objectives stated by Goward and Hope (1986) were to: (1) investigate the nature of the relationship between surface temperature (T(sub S)) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and develop an understanding of this relationship in terms of energy exchange processes, particularly latent flux heat (LE); (2) develop procedures to estimate large area LE using combined T(sub S) and NDVI observations obtained from AVHRR data; and (3) determine whether measurements derived from satellite observations relate directly to measurements made at the surface or from aircraft platforms. Both empirical and modeling studies were used to develop an understanding of the T(sub S)-NDVI relationship. Most of the modeling was based on the Tergra model as originally proposed by Goward. This model, and modified versions developed in this project, simulates the flows of water and energy in the soil-plant-atmosphere system using meteorological, soil and vegetation inputs. Model outputs are the diurnal course of soil moisture, T(sub S), LE and the other individual components of the surface energy balance.

  11. Rapid Assessment of Mineral Concentration in Meadow Grasses by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Alastair; Nielsen, Anne Lisbeth; Møller, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) method for rapid determination of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in diverse meadow grasses was developed with a view towards utilizing this material for biogas production and organic fertilizer. NIRS spectra between 12,000 cm−1 and 4,000 cm−1 were used. When validated on samples from different years to those used for the calibration set, the NIRS prediction of nitrogen was considered moderately useful with R2 = 0.77, ratio of standard error of prediction to reference data range (RER) of 9.32 and ratio of standard error of prediction to standard deviation of reference data (RPD) of 2.33. Prediction of potassium was less accurate, with R2 = 0.77, RER of 6.56 and RPD of 1.45, whilst prediction of phosphorous was not considered accurate enough to be of any practical use. This work is of interest from the point of view of both the removal of excess nutrients from formerly intensively farmed areas and also for assessing the plant biomass suitability for conversion into carbon neutral energy through biogas production. PMID:22163878

  12. Forensic Hair Differentiation Using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Manheim, Jeremy; Doty, Kyle C; McLaughlin, Gregory; Lednev, Igor K

    2016-07-01

    Hair and fibers are common forms of trace evidence found at crime scenes. The current methodology of microscopic examination of potential hair evidence is absent of statistical measures of performance, and examiner results for identification can be subjective. Here, attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to analyze synthetic fibers and natural hairs of human, cat, and dog origin. Chemometric analysis was used to differentiate hair spectra from the three different species, and to predict unknown hairs to their proper species class, with a high degree of certainty. A species-specific partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) model was constructed to discriminate human hair from cat and dog hairs. This model was successful in distinguishing between the three classes and, more importantly, all human samples were correctly predicted as human. An external validation resulted in zero false positive and false negative assignments for the human class. From a forensic perspective, this technique would be complementary to microscopic hair examination, and in no way replace it. As such, this methodology is able to provide a statistical measure of confidence to the identification of a sample of human, cat, and dog hair, which was called for in the 2009 National Academy of Sciences report. More importantly, this approach is non-destructive, rapid, can provide reliable results, and requires no sample preparation, making it of ample importance to the field of forensic science. PMID:27412186

  13. Quantitative orientation measurements in thin lipid films by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Picard, F; Buffeteau, T; Desbat, B; Auger, M; Pézolet, M

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative orientation measurements by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy require the accurate knowledge of the dichroic ratio and of the mean-square electric fields along the three axes of the ATR crystal. In this paper, polarized ATR spectra of single supported bilayers of the phospholipid dimyristoylphosphatidic acid covered by either air or water have been recorded and the dichroic ratio of the bands due to the methylene stretching vibrations has been calculated. The mean-square electric field amplitudes were calculated using three formalisms, namely the Harrick thin film approximation, the two-phase approximation, and the thickness- and absorption-dependent one. The results show that for dry bilayers, the acyl chain tilt angle varies with the formalism used, while no significant variations are observed for the hydrated bilayers. To test the validity of the different formalisms, s- and p-polarized ATR spectra of a 40-A lipid layer were simulated for different acyl chain tilt angles. The results show that the thickness- and absorption-dependent formalism using the mean values of the electric fields over the film thickness gives the most accurate values of acyl chain tilt angle in dry lipid films. However, for lipid monolayers or bilayers, the tilt angle can be determined with an acceptable accuracy using the Harrick thin film approximation. Finally, this study shows clearly that the uncertainty on the determination of the tilt angle comes mostly from the experimental error on the dichroic ratio and from the knowledge of the refractive index. PMID:9876167

  14. Detection of canine skin and subcutaneous tumors by visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cugmas, Blaž; Plavec, Tanja; Bregar, Maksimilijan; Naglič, Peter; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan; Bürmen, Miran

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is the main cause of canine morbidity and mortality. The existing evaluation of tumors requires an experienced veterinarian and usually includes invasive procedures (e.g., fine-needle aspiration) that can be unpleasant for the dog and the owner. We investigate visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) as a noninvasive optical technique for evaluation and detection of canine skin and subcutaneous tumors ex vivo and in vivo. The optical properties of tumors and skin were calculated in a spectrally constrained manner, using a lookup table-based inverse model. The obtained optical properties were analyzed and compared among different tumor groups. The calculated parameters of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were subsequently used for detection of malignant skin and subcutaneous tumors. The detection sensitivity and specificity of malignant tumors ex vivo were 90.0% and 73.5%, respectively, while corresponding detection sensitivity and specificity of malignant tumors in vivo were 88.4% and 54.6%, respectively. The obtained results show that the DRS is a promising noninvasive optical technique for detection and classification of malignant and benign canine skin and subcutaneous tumors. The method should be further investigated on tumors with common origin.

  15. Crop/weed discrimination using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; He, Yong

    2006-09-01

    The traditional uniform herbicide application often results in an over chemical residues on soil, crop plants and agriculture produce, which have imperiled the environment and food security. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) offers a promising means for weed detection and site-specific herbicide application. In laboratory, a total of 90 samples (30 for each species) of the detached leaves of two weeds, i.e., threeseeded mercury (Acalypha australis L.) and fourleafed duckweed (Marsilea quadrfolia L.), and one crop soybean (Glycine max) was investigated for NIRS on 325- 1075 nm using a field spectroradiometer. 20 absorbance samples of each species after pretreatment were exported and the lacked Y variables were assigned independent values for partial least squares (PLS) analysis. During the combined principle component analysis (PCA) on 400-1000 nm, the PC1 and PC2 could together explain over 91% of the total variance and detect the three plant species with 98.3% accuracy. The full-cross validation results of PLS, i.e., standard error of prediction (SEP) 0.247, correlation coefficient (r) 0.954 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) 0.245, indicated an optimum model for weed identification. By predicting the remaining 10 samples of each species in the PLS model, the results with deviation presented a 100% crop/weed detection rate. Thus, it could be concluded that PLS was an available alternative of for qualitative weed discrimination on NTRS.

  16. Application of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to predict meat and meat products quality: A review.

    PubMed

    Prieto, N; Roehe, R; Lavín, P; Batten, G; Andrés, S

    2009-10-01

    Over the past three decades, near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy has been proved to be one of the most efficient and advanced tools for the estimation of quality attributes in meat and meat products. This review focuses on the use of NIR spectroscopy to predict different meat properties, considering the literature published mainly in the last decade. Firstly, the potential of NIR to predict chemical composition (crude protein, intramuscular fat, moisture/dry matter, ash, gross energy, myoglobin and collagen), technological parameters (pH value; L*, a*, b* colour values; water holding capacity; Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force) and sensory attributes (colour, shape, marbling, odour, flavour, juiciness, tenderness or firmness) are reviewed. Secondly, the usefulness of NIR for classification into meat quality grades is presented and thirdly its potential application in the industry is shown. The review indicates that NIR showed high potential to predict chemical meat properties and to categorize meat into quality classes. In contrast, NIR showed limited ability for estimating technological and sensory attributes, which may be mainly due to the heterogeneity of the meat samples and their preparation, the low precision of the reference methods and the subjectivity of assessors in taste panels. Hence, future work to standardize sample preparation and increase the accuracy of reference methods is recommended to improve NIR ability to predict those technological and sensory characteristics. In conclusion, the review shows that NIR has a considerable potential to predict simultaneously numerous meat quality criteria.

  17. Simultaneous diffuse reflectance infrared determination of clavulanic acid and amoxicillin using multivariate calibration techniques.

    PubMed

    Müller, Aline Lima Hermes; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; Ferrão, Marco Flores; da Silva, Fabiana Ernestina Barcellos; Müller, Edson Irineu; Flores, Erico Marlon de Moraes

    2012-06-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of clavulanic acid (CA) and amoxicillin (AMO) in commercial tablets was developed using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and multivariate calibration. Twenty-five samples (10 commercial and 15 synthetic) were used as a calibration set and 15 samples (10 commercial and 5 synthetic) were used for a prediction set. Calibration models were developed using partial least squares (PLS), interval PLS (iPLS), and synergy interval PLS (siPLS) algorithms. The best algorithm for CA determination was siPLS model with spectra divided in 30 intervals and combinations of 2 intervals. This model showed a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 5.1 mg g(-1). For AMO determination, the best siPLS model was obtained with spectra divided in 10 intervals and combinations of 4 intervals. This model showed a RMSEP of 22.3 mg g(-1). The proposed method was considered as a suitable for the simultaneous determination of CA and AMO in commercial pharmaceuticals products.

  18. Far infrared reflectance of sintered nickel manganite samples for negative temperature coefficient thermistors

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolic, M.V. . E-mail: maria@mi.sanu.ac.yu; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.; Aleksic, O.S.; Zorba, T.T.; Savic, S.M.; Lukovic, D.T.

    2007-08-07

    Single phase complex spinel (Mn, Ni, Co, Fe){sub 3}O{sub 4} samples were sintered at 1050, 1200 and 1300 deg. C for 30 min and at 1200 deg. C for 120 min. Morphological changes of the obtained samples with the sintering temperature and time were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Room temperature far infrared reflectivity spectra for all samples were measured in the frequency range between 50 and 1200 cm{sup -1}. The obtained spectra for all samples showed the presence of the same oscillators, but their intensities increased with the sintering temperature and time in correlation with the increase in sample density and microstructure changes during sintering. The measured spectra were numerically analyzed using the Kramers-Kroenig method and the four-parameter model of coupled oscillators. Optical modes were calculated for six observed ionic oscillators belonging to the spinel structure of (Mn, Ni, Co, Fe){sub 3}O{sub 4} of which four were strong and two were weak.

  19. Characterization of NPP Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Reflective Solar Bands Dual Gain Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Shihyan; McIntire, Jeff; Oudari, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) contains six dual gain bands in the reflective solar spectrum. The dual gain bands are designed to switch gain mode at pre-defined thresholds to achieve high resolution at low radiances while maintaining the required dynamic range for science. During pre-launch testing, an anomaly in the electronic response before transitioning from high to low gain was discovered and characterized. On-orbit, the anomaly was confirmed using MODIS data collected during Simultaneous Nadir Overpasses (SNOs). The analysis of the Earth scene data shows that dual gain anomaly can be determined at the orbital basis. To characterize the dual gain anomaly, the anomaly region and electronic offsets were tracked per week during the first 8 month of VIIRS operation. The temporal analysis shows the anomaly region can drift 20 DN and is impacted by detectors DC Restore. The estimated anomaly flagging regions cover 2.5 % of the high gain dynamic range and are consistent with prelaunch and on-orbit LUT. The prelaunch results had a smaller anomaly range (30-50 DN) and are likely the results of more stable electronics from the shorter data collection time. Finally, this study suggests future calibration efforts to focus on the anomaly's impact on science products and possible correction method to reduce uncertainties.

  20. Non-invasive identification of metal-oxalate complexes on polychrome artwork surfaces by reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Monico, Letizia; Rosi, Francesca; Miliani, Costanza; Daveri, Alessia; Brunetti, Brunetto G

    2013-12-01

    In this work a reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy study of twelve metal-oxalate complexes, of interest in art conservation science as alteration compounds, was performed. Spectra of the reference materials highlighted the presence of derivative-like and/or inverted features for the fundamental vibrational modes as result of the main contribution from the surface component of the reflected light. In order to provide insights in the interpretation of theses spectral distortions, reflection spectra were compared with conventional transmission ones. The Kramers-Kronig (KK) algorithm, employed to correct for the surface reflection distortions, worked properly only for the derivative-like bands. Therefore, to pay attention to the use of this algorithm when interpreting the reflection spectra is recommended. The outcome of this investigation was exploited to discriminate among different oxalates on thirteen polychrome artworks analyzed in situ by reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy. The visualization of the νs(CO) modes (1400-1200 cm(-1)) and low wavenumber bands (below 900 cm(-1)) in the raw reflection profiles allowed Ca, Cu and Zn oxalates to be identified. Further information about the speciation of different hydration forms of calcium oxalates were obtained by using the KK transform. The work proves reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy to be a reliable and sensitive spectro-analytical method for identifying and mapping different metal-oxalate alteration compounds on the surface of artworks, thus providing conservation scientists with a non-invasive tool to obtain information on the state of conservation and causes of alteration of artworks.

  1. Optical designs of compact multichannel and all-reflective system for infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Châteauneuf, François; Proulx, Christian

    2011-06-01

    In space infrared (IR) optics, to achieve better observation of ground target, a common aperture all-reflective telescope, working at fast focal-ratio with multi-channel to cover different waveband and wide field-of-view (FOV), is a most wanted optical system. The remarkable imaging properties of the fast focal-ratio, flat-field, anastigmatic, rotationally symmetric Schwarzschild telescope have been well recognized historically, but suffer strong central obscuration and limited FOV in the conventional axis-symmetric design. Our solution is to use an eccentric system evolved from the Schwarzschild axially symmetric system, adding a tertiary off-axis mirror, to optimize the off-axis performance with the appropriate system parameters and specs, as required by most space IR optical systems. The optical design system consists of three powered mirrors, in which the primary (M1) is convex and secondary (M2) is either convex or concave, with a tertiary (M3) always in concave shape respectively. Both secondary and tertiary mirrors have their size larger than that of the primary. The entrance pupil of the system is projected behind M1. Dichroic filters can be used after the tertiary mirror to achieve separation of multi-spectral channels. In the designs the mirrors with optimized aspherical shapes, which are all in even-asphere warped up to 10th asphericities, are used for achieving the final image quality. The final corrected wavefront in the system can result in the good optical performance with an encircled energy of better than 80% per pixel for all channels, working at F/1.66 to correct a wide FOV up to 27.70 (H) x 48.70 (V). The design is scalable for different image scales, as usually required for different optical systems targeting different applications. The broad spectral range from mid-wave infrared (MWIR) up to Far IR can be fully covered by this design. Multiple focalplane- arrays (FPAs) can be used with respect to different spectral channels in the optical

  2. Design and fabrication of step mirrors used in space-modulated Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying; Liang, Jingqiu; Liang, Zhongzhu

    2013-01-14

    A model of miniaturized space-modulated Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) is given. The two step mirrors as the key components are designed and a lithography-electroplating technique used to fabricate the small step mirror is proposed. We analyze the effect of the experiment results resulted from fabricating technics on the recovery spectrum in theory, and demonstrate that the lithography-electroplating technique is an effective method to fabricate the step mirror, which make miniaturized FTIR realized. We believe that the performances of FTIR can be better realized by optimizing experimental conditions to make this fabricating method more attractive.

  3. Broad spectral domain fluorescence wavelength modulation of visible and near-infrared emissive polymersomes.

    PubMed

    Ghoroghchian, P Peter; Frail, Paul R; Susumu, Kimihiro; Park, Tae-Hong; Wu, Sophia P; Uyeda, H Tetsuo; Hammer, Daniel A; Therien, Michael J

    2005-11-01

    Incorporation of an extended family of multi[(porphinato)zinc(II)] (PZn)-based supermolecular fluorophores into the lamellar membranes of polymersomes (50 nm to 50 mum diameter polymer vesicles) gives rise to electrooptically diverse nano-to-micron (meso) scale soft materials. Studies that examine homogeneous suspensions of 100 nm diameter emissive polymersomes demonstrate fluorescence energy modulation over a broad spectral domain of the visible and near-infrared (600-900 nm). These polymersomal structures highlight that the nature of intermembranous polymer-to-fluorophore contacts depends on the position and identity of the porphyrins' phenyl ring substituents. Emissive polymersomes are shown to possess reduced spectral heterogeneity with respect to the established optical signatures of these PZn-based supermolecular fluorophores in solution; additionally, selection of fluorophore ancillary substituents predictably controls the nature of polymer-emitter noncovalent interactions to provide an important additional mechanism to further modulate the fluorescence band maxima of these meso-scale emissive vesicles.

  4. [Study on a new urine analysis core module based on semi-reflection mirror].

    PubMed

    Chen, Longcong; Liu, Gaiqin; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Ruiying; Jiang, Qifeng; Gao, Bin; Xiong, Xingliang

    2014-12-01

    A new urine analysis core module based on high performance 32-bit microprocessor and high precision color sensor was presented. A novel optical structure and a specific circuit were applied to improve measurement precision and temperature was used to compensate for results in this core module. The information of urine test peice, such as all original data and color RGB value, reflectivity, semi-quantitative level, etc. can be output. The results showed that the measuring precision was about 95% or above with ideal stability and reliability using this presented core module, which can be conveniently applied in various urine analyzers, and can greatly decrease the cost of urine analyzers in development and production.

  5. Predicting ambient aerosol Thermal Optical Reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2014-11-01

    Organic carbon (OC) can constitute 50% or more of the mass of atmospheric particulate matter. Typically, the organic carbon concentration is measured using thermal methods such as Thermal-Optical Reflectance (TOR) from quartz fiber filters. Here, methods are presented whereby Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters are used to accurately predict TOR OC. Transmittance FT-IR analysis is rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive to the PTFE filters. To develop and test the method, FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites sampled during 2011. Partial least squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to artifact-corrected TOR OC. The FTIR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets by sampling site and date which leads to precise and accurate OC predictions by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of determination (R2; 0.96), low bias (0.02 μg m-3, all μg m-3 values based on the nominal IMPROVE sample volume of 32.8 m-3), low error (0.08 μg m-3) and low normalized error (11%). These performance metrics can be achieved with various degrees of spectral pretreatment (e.g., including or excluding substrate contributions to the absorbances) and are comparable in precision and accuracy to collocated TOR measurements. FT-IR spectra are also divided into calibration and test sets by OC mass and by OM / OC which reflects the organic composition of the particulate matter and is obtained from organic functional group composition; this division also leads to precise and accurate OC predictions. Low OC concentrations have higher bias and normalized error due to TOR analytical errors and artifact correction errors, not due to the range of OC mass of the samples in the calibration set. However, samples with low OC mass can be used to predict samples with high OC mass indicating that the

  6. Prediction of Soil Salinity Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy with Nonnegative Matrix Factorization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongyan; Zhao, Gengxing; Sun, Li; Wang, Ruiyan; Liu, Yaqiu

    2016-09-01

    As a key, yet difficult, issue currently in the quantitative remote sensing analysis of soil, the accurate and stable monitoring of soil salinity content (SSC) in situ should be studied and improved. The purpose of this study is to explore the method of fusing spectra outdoors with spectra indoors and improve the estimation precision of SSC based on near-infrared (NIR) reflectance hyper-spectra. First, samples of saline soil from the Yellow River delta of China were collected and analyzed. We measured three groups of sample spectra using a spectrometer: (1) situ-spectra, measured at sampling points in situ; (2) out-spectra, measured outdoors on air-dried samples; and, (3) lab-spectra, measured in a dark laboratory with the above air-dried samples. Second, four algorithms (multiplicative update, alternating least-squares, sparse affine non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), and gradient projection algorithms) of NMF were used to fuse the situ-spectra or out-spectra with the lab-spectra for the calibration of SSC. Finally, estimation models of SSC were built using the multiple linear regression method based on the first derivatives of the un-fused and fused spectra. The results indicate that using the NMF method to fuse the situ-spectra or out-spectra with the lab-spectra can heighten the correlation between SSC and the outdoor spectra in most wavelength ranges and improve the accuracy of the prediction model. The gradient projection algorithm shows the best performance with fewer variables and highest accuracy of the SSC model based on the NIR spectra. PMID:27566255

  7. [Attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of dried shark fin products].

    PubMed

    Han, Wan-qing; Luo, Hai-ying; Xian, Yan-ping; Luo, Dong-hui; Mu, Torng-na; Guo, Xin-dong

    2015-02-01

    Sixty-four pieces of shark fin dried products (including real, fake and artificial shark fin products) and real products coated with gelatin were rapidly and nondestructively analyzed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The characteristic of IR spectrograms among the above four kinds of samples were systematically studied and comparied, the results showed that the spectrograms of the same kind of samples were repeatable, and different kinds of shark fin products presented significant differences in the spectrograms, which mainly manifested as the specific absorption peaks of amido bonds in protein (1650, 1544 cm(-1)) and skeletal vibration in polysaccharide (1050 cm(-1)). The spectrograms of real shark fins were characterized by the strong absorption peaks of protein characteristic amide I and II absorbent (1650, 1544 cm(-1)) and relatively weak C--O--C vibration absorbent (1050 cm(-1)) owing to the high content of protein and relatively low level of polysaccharide. For fake shark fin products that were molded form by mixing together with the offcut of shark, collagen and other substances, the introduction of non-protein materials leaded to the weaker amido bonds absorbent than real products along with a 30 cm(-1) blue shift of amide I absorbent. Opposite to the real sample, the relatively strong absorption peak of polysaccharide (approximately 1047 cm(-1)) and barely existed amide absorbent were the key features of the spectrogram of artificial samples, which was synthersized by polysaccharide like sodium alginate. Real samples coated with gelatin, the peak strength of protein and polysaccharide were decreased simultaneously when the data collection was taken at the surface of sample, while the spectrogram presented no significant difference to real samples when the data was collected in the section. The results above indicated that by analyzing the characteristic of IR spectrograms and the value range of Apro

  8. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for the fast identification of PVC-based films.

    PubMed

    Laasonen, M; Rantanen, J; Harmia-Pulkkinen, T; Michiels, E; Hiltunen, R; Räsänen, M; Vuorela, H

    2001-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was used to develop a non-destructive and rapid qualitative method for the analysis of plastic films used by the pharmaceutical industry for blistering. Three types of films were investigated: 250 microm PVC [poly(vinyl chloride)] films, 250 microm PVC films coated with 40 g m(-2) of PVDC [poly(vinylidene dichloride)] and 250 microm PVC films coated with 5 g m(-2) of TE (Thermoelast) and 90 g m(-2) of PVDC. Three analyses were carried out using different pre-treatment options and a PLS (partial least squares) algorithm. Each analysis was aimed at identifying one type of film and rejecting all types of false sample (different thickness, colour or layer). True and false samples from four plastics manufacturers were included in the calibration sets in order to obtain robust methods that were suitable regardless of the supplier. Specificity was demonstrated by testing validation sets against the methods. The tests showed 0% of type I (false negative identification) and 1% of type II errors (false positive identification) for the PVC method, 13 and 3%, respectively, for the PVC-PVDC method and no error for the PVC-TE-PVDC method. Type II errors, mostly due to the slight sensitivity of the methods to film thickness, are easily corrected by simple thickness measurements. This study demonstrates that NIR spectroscopy is an excellent tool for the identification of PVC-based films. The three methods can be used by the pharmaceutical industry or plastics manufacturers for the quality control of films used in blister packaging.

  9. Tethered bilayer lipid membranes studied by simultaneous attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Erbe, Andreas; Bushby, Richard J.; Evans, Stephen D.; Jeuken, Lars J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of tethered lipid bilayer membranes (tBLMs) from unilamelar vesicles of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EggPC) on mixed self–assembled monolayers (SAMs) from varying ratios of 6-mercaptohexanol and EO3Cholesteryl on gold has been monitored by simultaneous attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR–FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The influence of the lipid orientation (and hence the anisotropy) of lipids on a gold film on the dichroic ratio was studied by simulations of spectra with a matrix method for anisotropic layers. It is shown that for certain tilt angles of the dielectric tensor of the adsorbed anisotropic layer dispersive and negative absorption bands are possible. The experimental data indicates that the structure of the assemblies obtained varies with varying SAM composition. On SAMs with a high content of EO3Cholesteryl, tBLMs with reduced fluidity are formed. For SAMs with high content of 6-mercaptohexanol, the results are consistent with the adsorption of flattened vesicles, while spherical vesicles have been found in a small range of surface compositions. The kinetics of the adsorption process is consistent with the assumption of spherical vesicles as long–living intermediates for surfaces of high 6-mercaptohexanol content. No long–living spherical vesicles have been detected for surfaces with large fraction of EO3Cholesteryl tethers. The observed differences between the surfaces suggest that for the formation of tBLMs (unlike supported BLMs) no critical surface coverage of vesicles is needed prior to lipid bilayer formation. PMID:17388505

  10. Prediction of Soil Salinity Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy with Nonnegative Matrix Factorization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongyan; Zhao, Gengxing; Sun, Li; Wang, Ruiyan; Liu, Yaqiu

    2016-09-01

    As a key, yet difficult, issue currently in the quantitative remote sensing analysis of soil, the accurate and stable monitoring of soil salinity content (SSC) in situ should be studied and improved. The purpose of this study is to explore the method of fusing spectra outdoors with spectra indoors and improve the estimation precision of SSC based on near-infrared (NIR) reflectance hyper-spectra. First, samples of saline soil from the Yellow River delta of China were collected and analyzed. We measured three groups of sample spectra using a spectrometer: (1) situ-spectra, measured at sampling points in situ; (2) out-spectra, measured outdoors on air-dried samples; and, (3) lab-spectra, measured in a dark laboratory with the above air-dried samples. Second, four algorithms (multiplicative update, alternating least-squares, sparse affine non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), and gradient projection algorithms) of NMF were used to fuse the situ-spectra or out-spectra with the lab-spectra for the calibration of SSC. Finally, estimation models of SSC were built using the multiple linear regression method based on the first derivatives of the un-fused and fused spectra. The results indicate that using the NMF method to fuse the situ-spectra or out-spectra with the lab-spectra can heighten the correlation between SSC and the outdoor spectra in most wavelength ranges and improve the accuracy of the prediction model. The gradient projection algorithm shows the best performance with fewer variables and highest accuracy of the SSC model based on the NIR spectra.

  11. The potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the estimation of agroindustrial compost quality.

    PubMed

    Galvez-Sola, L; Moral, R; Perez-Murcia, M D; Perez-Espinosa, A; Bustamante, M A; Martinez-Sabater, E; Paredes, C

    2010-02-15

    Composting is an environmentally friendly alternative for the recycling of organic wastes and its use is increasing in recent years. An exhaustive monitoring of the composting process and of the final compost characteristics is necessary to certify that the values of compost characteristics are within the limits established by the legislation in order to obtain a safe and marketable product. The analysis of these parameters on each composting batch in the commercial composting plant is time-consuming and expensive. So, their estimation in the composting facilities based on the use of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) could be an interesting approach in order to monitor compost quality. In this study, more than 300 samples from 20 different composting procedures were used to calibrate and validate the NIRS estimation of compost properties (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total organic matter (TOM), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and C/N ratio, macronutrient contents (N, P, K) and potentially pollutant element concentrations (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn)). The composts used were elaborated using different organic wastes from agroindustrial activities (GS: grape stalk; EGM: exhausted grape marc; GM: grape marc; V: vinasse; CJW: citrus juice waste; Alpeorujo: olive-oil waste; AS: almond skin; EP: exhausted peat; TSW: tomato soup waste; SMS: spent mushroom substrate) co-composted with manures (CM: cattle manure; PM: poultry manure) or urban wastes (SS: sewage sludge) The estimation results showed that the NIRS technique needs to be fitted to each element and property, using specific spectrum transformations, in order to achieve an acceptable accuracy in the prediction. However, excellent prediction results were obtained for TOM and TOC, successful calibrations for pH, EC, Fe and Mn, and moderately successful estimations for TN, C/N ratio, P, K, Cu and Zn. PMID:20061002

  12. Evaluation of various polyethylene as potential dosimeters by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halperin, Fred; Collins, Greta; DiCicco, Michael; Logar, John

    2014-12-01

    Various types of polyethylene (PE) have been evaluated in the past for use as a potential dosimeter, chiefly via the formation of an unsaturated transvinylene (TV) double-bond resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. The utilization of attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in characterizing TV formation in irradiated PE for a potential dosimeter has yet to be fully developed. In this initial investigation, various PE films/sheets were exposed to ionizing radiation in a high-energy 5 megaelectron volt (MeV) electron beam accelerator in the 10-500 kilogray (kGy) dose range, followed by ATR-FTIR analysis of TV peak formation at the 965 cm-1 wavenumber. There was an upward trend in TV formation for low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheets as a function of absorbed dose in the 10-50 kGy dose range, however, the TV response could not be equated to a specific absorbed dose. LDPE film displayed a downward trend from 50 kGy to 250 kGy and then scattering up to 500 kGy; HDPE sheets demonstrated an upward trend in TV formation up to 500 kGy. For ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sheets irradiated up to 150 kGy, TV response was equivalent to non-irradiated UHMWPE, and a minimal upward trend was observed for 200 kGy to 500 kGy. The scatter of the data for the irradiated PE films/sheets is such that the TV response could not be equated to a specific absorbed dose. A better correlation of the post-irradiation TV response to absorbed dose may be attained through a better understanding of variables.

  13. Reflectivity, transmission, and photoinduced infrared spectra of NdNiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Massa, N.E.; Alonso, J.A.; Martinez-Lope, M.J.; Rasines, I.

    1997-07-01

    We report temperature-dependent infrared spectra of NdNiO{sub 3} prepared by synthesis under high oxygen pressure. Its room-temperature reflectivity is characteristic of a metal oxide with a Drude tail asymptotically extending to higher frequencies. The sharp metal-insulator transition is detected at about 200 K as phonons become unscreened. While their activity is in the frequency range for a distorted perovskite, the strength of involving the Nd ion against the NiO{sub 6} octahedra at 183cm{sup {minus}1} is remarkable. This and all phonon groups show strong antiresonances near the longitudinal optical frequencies and these are unusually close to absorptions seen in transmission measurements. We interpret this as evidence of strong electron-phonon interactions with carrier localization in a temperature-dependent regime. Low-temperature photoinduced spectra, excited with argon laser lines, support this picture by showing weak absorptions at about those frequencies as well as a relatively very strong photoinduced band at 810cm{sup {minus}1} and one very broad and weak peak at {approximately}2300cm{sup {minus}1} and tail up to 4000cm{sup {minus}1}. They are assigned to electronic transitions involving localized defects. Our measurements suggest that the metal-insulator phase transition in NdNiO{sub 3} is triggered by electron localization in a polaronic environment. We conclude that a suitable order parameter for perovskites with a metal-insulator phase transition may be identified in the coupling between those electrons and local spins {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Modeling near-infrared reflectance spectra of clay and sulfate mixtures and implications for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, K. M.; Milliken, R. E.

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution mapping by visible and near-infrared orbital spectrometers has revealed a diversity of hydrated mineral deposits on the surface of Mars. Quantitative analysis of mineral abundances within these deposits has the potential to distinguish depositional and diagenetic processes. Such analysis can also provide important constraints on the nature of putative global and local-scale mineralogical transitions on Mars. However, the ability of models to extract quantitative mineral abundances from spectra of mixtures relevant to sedimentary rocks remains largely untested. This is particularly true for clay and sulfate minerals, which often occur as fine-grained components of terrestrial sedimentary rocks and are known to occur in a number of sedimentary deposits on Mars. This study examines the spectral properties of a suite of mixtures containing the Mg-sulfate epsomite mixed with varying proportions of smectitic clay (saponite, nontronite, and montmorrilonite). The goal of this work is to test the ability of checkerboard (linear) and intimate (non-linear) mixing models to obtain accurate estimates of mineral abundances under ideal and controlled laboratory conditions. The results of this work suggest that: (1) spectra of clay-sulfate mixtures can be reproduced by checkerboard and intimate mixing models to within 2% absolute reflectance or single scattering albedo, (2) clay and epsomite abundance can be modeled to within 5 wt.% when particle diameter is optimized, and (3) the lower threshold for modeling clay in spectra of clay-epsomite mixtures is approximately 10 wt.%, below which the models often fail to recognize the presence of clay.

  15. Quantification of bovine immunoglobulin G using transmission and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Elsohaby, Ibrahim; McClure, J Trenton; Riley, Christopher B; Shaw, R Anthony; Keefe, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated and compared the performance of transmission and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared (IR) spectroscopic methods (in combination with quantification algorithms previously developed using partial least squares regression) for the rapid measurement of bovine serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration, and detection of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) in dairy calves. Serum samples (n = 200) were collected from Holstein calves 1-11 days of age. Serum IgG concentrations were measured by the reference method of radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay, transmission IR (TIR) and ATR-IR spectroscopy-based assays. The mean IgG concentration measured by RID was 17.22 g/L (SD ±9.60). The mean IgG concentrations predicted by TIR and ATR-IR spectroscopy methods were 15.60 g/L (SD ±8.15) and 15.94 g/L (SD ±8.66), respectively. RID IgG concentrations were positively correlated with IgG levels predicted by TIR (r = 0.94) and ATR-IR (r = 0.92). The correlation between 2 IR spectroscopic methods was 0.94. Using an IgG concentration <10 g/L as the cut-point for FTPI cases, the overall agreement between TIR and ATR-IR methods was 94%, with a corresponding kappa value of 0.84. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for identifying FTPI by TIR were 0.87, 0.97, 0.91, 0.95, and 0.94, respectively. Corresponding values for ATR-IR were 0.87, 0.95, 0.86, 0.95, and 0.93, respectively. Both TIR and ATR-IR spectroscopic approaches can be used for rapid quantification of IgG level in neonatal bovine serum and for diagnosis of FTPI in dairy calves.

  16. In situ nondestructive identification of natural dyes in ancient textiles by reflection fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Eleonora; Bruni, Silvia; Sali, Diego; Guglielmi, Vittoria; Belloni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Silk embroideries and cotton grounds of ancient Caucasian (Kaitag) textiles were analyzed in situ by a portable Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer equipped with a reflection module. Differently colored areas were analyzed for the purpose of identifying the dyes fixed on the fibers. The spectra so obtained were elaborated by calculating the corresponding second derivative, and a library search was then performed using a database including the second derivative spectra of a large range of historical dyes and the corresponding undyed fibers. The results presented here suggest that this technique, combined with the library search method, has a good capability of recognizing natural dyes on both types of ancient textile fibers, in an entirely non-destructive way.

  17. In situ nondestructive identification of natural dyes in ancient textiles by reflection fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Eleonora; Bruni, Silvia; Sali, Diego; Guglielmi, Vittoria; Belloni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Silk embroideries and cotton grounds of ancient Caucasian (Kaitag) textiles were analyzed in situ by a portable Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer equipped with a reflection module. Differently colored areas were analyzed for the purpose of identifying the dyes fixed on the fibers. The spectra so obtained were elaborated by calculating the corresponding second derivative, and a library search was then performed using a database including the second derivative spectra of a large range of historical dyes and the corresponding undyed fibers. The results presented here suggest that this technique, combined with the library search method, has a good capability of recognizing natural dyes on both types of ancient textile fibers, in an entirely non-destructive way. PMID:25587824

  18. Near-infrared Light Responsive Synthetic c-di-GMP Module for Optogenetic Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Enormous potential of cell-based therapeutics is hindered by the lack of effective means to control genetically engineered cells in mammalian tissues. Here, we describe a synthetic module for remote photocontrol of engineered cells that can be adapted for such applications. The module involves photoactivated synthesis of cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), a stable small molecule that is not produced by higher eukaryotes and therefore is suitable for orthogonal regulation. The key component of the photocontrol module is an engineered bacteriophytochrome diguanylate cyclase, which synthesizes c-di-GMP from GTP in a light-dependent manner. Bacteriophytochromes are particularly attractive photoreceptors because they respond to light in the near-infrared window of the spectrum, where absorption by mammalian tissues is minimal, and also because their chromophore, biliverdin IXα, is naturally available in mammalian cells. The second component of the photocontrol module, a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, maintains near-zero background levels of c-di-GMP in the absence of light, which enhances the photodynamic range of c-di-GMP concentrations. In the E. coli model used in this study, the intracellular c-di-GMP levels could be upregulated by light by >50-fold. Various c-di-GMP-responsive proteins and riboswitches identified in bacteria can be linked downstream of the c-di-GMP-mediated photocontrol module for orthogonal regulation of biological activities in mammals as well as in other organisms lacking c-di-GMP signaling. Here, we linked the photocontrol module to a gene expression output via a c-di-GMP-responsive transcription factor and achieved a 40-fold photoactivation of gene expression. PMID:24926804

  19. Near-infrared light responsive synthetic c-di-GMP module for optogenetic applications.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Min-Hyung; Gomelsky, Mark

    2014-11-21

    Enormous potential of cell-based therapeutics is hindered by the lack of effective means to control genetically engineered cells in mammalian tissues. Here, we describe a synthetic module for remote photocontrol of engineered cells that can be adapted for such applications. The module involves photoactivated synthesis of cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), a stable small molecule that is not produced by higher eukaryotes and therefore is suitable for orthogonal regulation. The key component of the photocontrol module is an engineered bacteriophytochrome diguanylate cyclase, which synthesizes c-di-GMP from GTP in a light-dependent manner. Bacteriophytochromes are particularly attractive photoreceptors because they respond to light in the near-infrared window of the spectrum, where absorption by mammalian tissues is minimal, and also because their chromophore, biliverdin IXα, is naturally available in mammalian cells. The second component of the photocontrol module, a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, maintains near-zero background levels of c-di-GMP in the absence of light, which enhances the photodynamic range of c-di-GMP concentrations. In the E. coli model used in this study, the intracellular c-di-GMP levels could be upregulated by light by >50-fold. Various c-di-GMP-responsive proteins and riboswitches identified in bacteria can be linked downstream of the c-di-GMP-mediated photocontrol module for orthogonal regulation of biological activities in mammals as well as in other organisms lacking c-di-GMP signaling. Here, we linked the photocontrol module to a gene expression output via a c-di-GMP-responsive transcription factor and achieved a 40-fold photoactivation of gene expression.

  20. Transparent conductive and near-infrared reflective Ga-doped ZnO/Cu bilayer films grown at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, J. G.; Bie, X.; Wang, Y. P.; Gong, L.; Ye, Z. Z.

    2011-05-15

    Bilayer films consisting of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) and Cu layers were grown at room temperature by magnetron sputtering. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of GZO/Cu bilayer films were investigated in detail. The crystallinity and transparent-conductive properties of the films were correlated with the Cu layer thickness. The GZO/Cu bilayer film with the Cu layer thickness of 7.8 nm exhibited a low resistivity of 7.6x10{sup -5} {Omega} cm and an average visible transmittance of 74%. The reflectance was up to 65% in the near-infrared region for this film. The transparent conductive and near-infrared reflective GZO/Cu bilayer films could be readily deposited at room temperature. The GZO/Cu bilayer films were thermally stable when annealed at temperatures as high as 500 deg. C.

  1. [Study on determining the content of all kinds of composition in the natural rock by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Hua; Wu, Wei; He, Yan; Yao, Jin-Zhu; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Deng, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The infrared reflectance spectroscopy from the sample simulating natural-rock prepared by kaolin, muscovite and montmorillonite mixed-powders was obtained by a spectrometer. Spectral data preprocessing was done using SNV. Random forest mathematical modeling was used for predicting the components of rock samples. The smallest root mean square error of the predicted three types of rock composition were 0.088 0, 0.095 6 and 0.121 2 respectively. The predictive studies showed that the application of near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to determining the content of the natural rocks and minerals of various rock composition is feasible. The study provides a theoretical basis for the rapid detection of the rock composition in the future.

  2. Applicability of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform handheld spectrometer to perform in situ analyses on Cultural Heritage materials.

    PubMed

    Arrizabalaga, Iker; Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Aramendia, Julene; Arana, Gorka; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-08-14

    This work studies the applicability of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform handheld device to perform in situ analyses on Cultural Heritage assets. This portable diffuse reflectance spectrometer has been used to characterise and diagnose the conservation state of (a) building materials of the Guevara Palace (15th century, Segura, Basque Country, Spain) and (b) different 19th century wallpapers manufactured by the Santa Isabel factory (Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country, Spain) and by the well known Dufour and Leroy manufacturers (Paris, France), all of them belonging to the Torre de los Varona Castle (Villanañe, Basque Country, Spain). In all cases, in situ measurements were carried out and also a few samples were collected and measured in the laboratory by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRIFT) in order to validate the information obtained by the handheld instrument. In the analyses performed in situ, distortions in the diffuse reflectance spectra can be observed due to the presence of specular reflection, showing the inverted bands caused by the Reststrahlen effect, in particular on those IR bands with the highest absorption coefficients. This paper concludes that the results obtained in situ by a diffuse reflectance handheld device are comparable to those obtained with laboratory diffuse reflectance spectroscopy equipment and proposes a few guidelines to acquire good spectra in the field, minimising the influence caused by the specular reflection.

  3. Near-infrared reflectance spectra of mixtures of kaolin-group minerals: use in clay mineral studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Vergo, N.

    1988-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra for mixtures of ordered kaolinite and ordered dickite have been found to simulate the spectral response of disordered kaolinite. The amount of octahedral vacancy disorder in nine disordered kaolinite samples was estimated by comparing the same spectra to the spectra of reference mixtures. The resulting estimates are consistent with previously published estimates of vacancy disorder for similar kaolin minerals that were modeled from calculated X-ray diffraction patterns. -from Authors

  4. Geographical differentiation of dried lentil seed (Lens culinaris) samples using diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Kouvoutsakis, G; Mitsi, C; Tarantilis, P A; Polissiou, M G; Pappas, C S

    2014-02-15

    Diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and discriminant analysis were used for the geographical differentiation of dried lentil seed (Lens culinaris) samples. Specifically, 18 Greek samples and nine samples imported from other countries were distinguished using the 2250-1720 and 1275-955 cm⁻¹ spectral regions. The differentiation is complete. The combination of DRIFTS and discriminant analysis enables simple, rapid, cheap and accurate differentiation of commercial lentil seeds in terms of geographical origin.

  5. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence attachment module modified for analysis in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Kregsamer, P.; Meirer, F.; Jokubonis, C.; Markowicz, A.; Wegrzynek, D.; Chinea-Cano, E.

    2008-12-01

    Based on the design of the low cost Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence attachment module available since 1986 from Atominstitut (WOBRAUSCHEK-module) which can be attached to existing X-ray equipment, a new version was developed which allows the analysis of samples in vacuum. This design was in particular possible as the Peltier cooled light weight Silicon Drift Detector is following all adjustment procedures for total reflection as angle rotation and linear motion. The detector is mounted through a vacuum feed and O-ring tightening to the small vacuum chamber. The standard 30 mm round quartz, Si-wafer or Plexiglas reflectors are used to carry the samples. The reflectors are placed on the reference plane with the dried sample down looking facing in about 0.5 mm distance the up looking detector window. The reflectors are resting on 3 steel balls defining precisely the reference plane for the adjustment procedure. As the rotation axis of the module is in the plane of the reflector surface, angle dependent experiments can be made to distinguish between film and particulate type contamination of samples. Operating with a Mo anode at 50 kV and 40 mA with a closely attached multilayer monochromator and using a 10 mm 2 KETEK silicon drift detector with 8 μm Be window, a sensitivity of 70 cps/ng for Rb was measured and detection limits of 2 pg were obtained.

  6. Infrared external reflection spectroscopic studies of phase transitions in Langmuir monolayers of stearyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buontempo, Joseph T.; Rice, Stuart A.

    1993-11-01

    There is a steadily growing body of evidence that much of the information available concerning the properties of Langmuir monolayers concerns systems which are not in a state of equilibrium. What are now known to be unrelaxed monolayers of stearyl alcohol exhibit a high surface pressure phase transition whose signature in the isotherm changes from a ``kink'' (0-8 °C), to a small nearly flat region (8-15 °C), and finally to another kink (at higher temperatures). We have carried out external reflection infrared spectroscopic studies of relaxed monolayers of stearyl alcohol along a representative isotherm from each of the mentioned temperature regions. The results of our studies indicate that in each region the surfactant hydrocarbon chain becomes more ordered (i.e., has fewer gauche conformations) as the surface pressure is increased. We find that (i) at 5 °C, throughout the surface pressure range where the change in intramolecular chain order occurs, the collective tilt of the hydrocarbon chains remains nearly constant. For this isotherm the kink signals the point at which the hydrocarbon chains have achieved a very high degree of intramolecular order, perhaps the all-trans limit. (ii) In the 11 °C monolayer, in the phase often referred to as ``superfluid'', the intramolecular disorder in the hydrocarbon chains is measurably greater than in the equivalent phases in the higher and lower temperature regions. We also show that in the relaxed monolayer the nearly flat portion of the isotherm observed in the unrelaxed monolayer is almost totally absent, leaving only a kink very similar to those observed at higher and lower temperatures. (iii) At 25 °C, although the hydrocarbon chains in the relaxed monolayer attain a relatively high degree of intramolecular order, the high surface pressure phase transition is not observed. Instead, the surface pressure levels off at a value below that at which the transition is expected, and below the equilibrium spreading pressure

  7. Analysis of reflection, transmission and absorption of frequency selective surfaces in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puscasu, Irina

    Frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs) are commonly used as dichroic filters in the microwave portion of the spectrum. These filters are typically configured as periodic arrays of metallic patches supported by a dielectric substrate, or as an array of apertures on a metallic sheet. To first order, the current-wave resonance of the individual patches or apertures determines the spectral behavior of the structure. The resonant dimension of the structures is on the order of a wavelength of the incident radiation. Using the high- resolution capabilities of direct-write electron-beam lithography (DEBL), the functionality of an FSS can be extended toward shorter wavelengths-into the infrared (IR), and even to visible wavelengths. Design of FSSs at these short wavelengths presents new problems-the usual assumption of perfect metal conductivity is not valid in the IR. In our method-of- moments model, we use a frequency-dependent complex conductivity to characterize the metallic structure, which allows prediction of the location, magnitude, and spectral width of the resonance. We compare the measured behavior of our IR FSSs to the theoretical predictions and find good agreement over a wide range of structure sizes and materials. Treating the loss mechanism in this way allows us to predict resonant effects not only for reflection and transmission, but for absorption as well. Kirchoff's Law, which states that absorption and emissivity are equal on a spectral basis, provides a means to develop IR FSSs for which the spectral emissivity can be enhanced over a desired range of wavelengths. This characteristic has potential application in development of new sources for IR spectroscopy, and in IR-signature management. Fabrication of IR FSSs by DEBL allows fine control over the dimensions of the metallic elements, but the direct write process is slow and hence too expensive for practical development of large-area IR FSSs. We investigated precision imprint embossing as a candidate

  8. Detecting and distinguishing metamorphic gradients of Unequilibrated (Type 3) Ordinary Chondrites using Infrared Reflectance Spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, M.; Smith, H. D.; Sears, D. W. G.

    2014-09-01

    We measure the IR reflectance spectra of fallen UOC to determine if Type 3 meteorites can be identified and classified using IR reflectance spectra and clinopyroxene abundance. Spectra was obtained from RELAB and taken on samples from SI and NHM.

  9. A Mid-Infrared Emission and Reflectance Library of Meteorites and Fine Particulate Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterloo, M. M.; Hamilton, V. E.

    2011-12-01

    We have acquired middle infrared (MIR) emission and reflectance spectra of fine particulate minerals and solid and fine particulate meteorite samples under ambient conditions. This dataset is intended to help expand our ability to interpret the MIR spectra of asteroids, possible extinct comets, and other rocky bodies, which contain a record of processes that are key to understanding the formation of our solar system 4.6 G.y. ago. Non-destructive MIR spectra of all samples in this study were collected in the spectroscopy laboratory at Southwest Research Institute [Hamilton and Lucey, 2005, LPSC XXXVI]. We measured the MIR spectra of fine particulate meteorite samples with the objective of providing the planetary community a dataset that can be used for qualitative comparison to asteroid spectra. The current library [Salisbury et al., 1991, Icarus] that is used for comparison to asteroid emissivity spectra represents particle size fractions of < 75 μm. However, several studies have demonstrated that this may be too large a size fraction to be analogous to low inertia asteroid regoliths [e.g., Barucci et al. 2002, Icarus; Emery et al. 2006, Icarus]. Therefore, our MIR spectral library includes a series of meteorite powders having smaller size fractions that may be more analogous to the regoliths of large, low inertia asteroids and will be beneficial for qualitative comparisons. The Smithsonian Institute's analyzed Meteorite Powered Collections (USNM 7073) provided particulate meteorite samples. At this time we have focused on chondritic and a few achondrite samples with particle size fractions < 25 μm. The samples chosen represent many of the samples that were originally measured by Salisbury et al. [1991, Icarus], providing continuity with the existing larger particle size spectral dataset. Furthermore, this work is the first to obtain spectral data of meteorites at wavelengths greater than 13.5 μm, which contain diagnostic features in silicates, carbonates, and

  10. Predicting ambient aerosol thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2015-03-01

    Organic carbon (OC) can constitute 50% or more of the mass of atmospheric particulate matter. Typically, organic carbon is measured from a quartz fiber filter that has been exposed to a volume of ambient air and analyzed using thermal methods such as thermal-optical reflectance (TOR). Here, methods are presented that show the feasibility of using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters to accurately predict TOR OC. This work marks an initial step in proposing a method that can reduce the operating costs of large air quality monitoring networks with an inexpensive, non-destructive analysis technique using routinely collected PTFE filter samples which, in addition to OC concentrations, can concurrently provide information regarding the composition of organic aerosol. This feasibility study suggests that the minimum detection limit and errors (or uncertainty) of FT-IR predictions are on par with TOR OC such that evaluation of long-term trends and epidemiological studies would not be significantly impacted. To develop and test the method, FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011. Partial least-squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to TOR OC. The FTIR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets by sampling site and date. The calibration produces precise and accurate TOR OC predictions of the test set samples by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of variation (R2; 0.96), low bias (0.02 μg m-3, the nominal IMPROVE sample volume is 32.8 m3), low error (0.08 μg m-3) and low normalized error (11%). These performance metrics can be achieved with various degrees of spectral pretreatment (e.g., including or excluding substrate contributions to the absorbances) and are comparable in precision to collocated TOR measurements. FT-IR spectra are also

  11. Electromagnetic radiation energy arrangement. [coatings for solar energy absorption and infrared reflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipkis, R. R.; Vehrencamp, J. E. (Inventor)

    1965-01-01

    A solar energy collector and infrared energy reflector is described which comprises a vacuum deposited layer of aluminum of approximately 200 to 400 Angstroms thick on one side of a substrate. An adherent layer of titanium with a thickness of between 800 and 1000 Angstroms is vacuum deposited on the aluminum substrate and is substantially opaque to solar energy and substantially transparent to infrared energy.

  12. Visible and near-infrared (0.4-2.5 μm) reflectance spectra of playa evaporite minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, James K.

    1991-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared (VNIR; 0.4–2.4 μm) reflectance spectra were recorded for 35 saline minerals that represent the wide range of mineral and brine chemical compositions found in playa evaporite settings. The spectra show that many of the saline minerals exhibit diagnostic near-infrared absorption bands, chiefly attributable to vibrations of hydrogen-bonded structural water molecules. VNIR reflectance spectra can be used to detect minor hydrate phases present in mixtures dominated by anhydrous halite or thenardite, and therefore will be useful in combination with X ray diffraction data for characterizing natural saline mineral assemblages. In addition, VNIR reflectance spectra are sensitive to differences in sample hydration state and should facilitate in situ studies of minerals that occur as fragile, transitory dehydration products in natural salt crusts. The use of spectral reflectance measurements in playa studies should aid in mapping evaporite mineral distributions and may provide insight into the geochemical and hydrological controls on playa mineral and brine development.

  13. Effect of leaf variables on visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared reflectance of excised leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R.; Labovitz, M. L.; Ludwig, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    Effects of an imposed (excised) leaf orientation, differing species and differing venation patterns on reflectance measurements in the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper (TM) channels TM3 (0.63 to 0.69 microns), TM4 (0.76 to 0.90 microns), and TM5 (1.55 to 1.75 microns) were investigated. Orientation of leaves (random vs. systematic placement) was found to affect measurements in the TM4 channel, but not the TM3 and TM5 measurements. Venation caused no significant changes for any band. Azimuth of incident radiation was not a significant main effect, but in conjunction with changes in orientation, angle did have a significant effect on reflectance values in TM3, TM4 and TM5. Specific differences were highly significant (P f or = 0.006) in all but one borderline (P F or = 0.0222) case for TM5. For spectral examination of excised leaves, the sampling arrangement of the leaves should as closely approximate in situ positioning as possible (with respect to remote sensing instrumentation). This dictates a random rather than aligned arrangement.

  14. Analytical modeling and structural response of a stretched-membrane reflective module

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, L.M.; Sallis, D.V.

    1984-06-01

    The optical and structural load deformation response behavior of a uniform pressure-loaded stretched-membrane reflective module subject to nonaxisymmetric support constraints is studied in this report. To aid in the understanding of this behavior, an idealized analytical model is developed and implemented and predictions are compared with predictions based on the detailed structural analysis code NASTRAN. Single structural membrane reflector modules are studied in this analysis. In particular, the interaction of the frame-membrane combination and variations in membrane pressure loading and tension are studied in detail. Variations in the resulting lateral shear load on the frame, frame lateral support, and frame twist as a function of distance between the supports are described as are the resulting optical effects. Results indicate the need to consider the coupled deformation problem as the lateral frame deformations are amplified by increasing the membrane tension. The importance of accurately considering the effects of different membrane attachment approaches is also demonstrated.

  15. Total internal reflection-based module for fluorescence and absorbance detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschooten, Tom; Ottevaere, Heidi; Vervaeke, Michael; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo

    2014-07-01

    We present a miniaturized polymer-based micro-optical detection unit for ultraviolet and visible laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and absorbance (ABS) analysis with an interaction length of 3 mm. We use nonsequential optical ray tracing simulations to model the system and to optimize its performance with respect to optical efficiency and system complexity. The design features a compact optical system combining total internal reflection (TIR) mirrors and refractive optics. The detection module is prototyped with deep proton writing in 2-mm-thick polymethylmethacrylate and quantitatively characterized using a three-dimensional coordinate measurement machine. We demonstrate the proof-of-concept of this TIR mirror-based module for coumarin 480 obtaining limits of detection of 50 pM and 500 nM for LIF and ABS, respectively.

  16. Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy of planetary analog materials. Experimental facility at Laboratoire de Planetologie de Grenoble.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerol, A.; Brissaud, O.; Schmitt, B.; Quirico, E.; Doute, S.

    2007-08-01

    We have developed an original experimental facility designed to measure the bidirectional reflectance spectra of planetary analog materials. These measurements are helpful to interpret the observations of the spectrometers on board space probes in orbit around various Solar System bodies. The central part of the facility is the LPG spectrogonio- radiometer (Brissaud et al., 2004). This instrument provides measurements of samples BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) with high photometric and spectrometric accuracy in the spectral range of visible and near-infrared (0.3 - 4.8 microns). Measurements can be made at any value of incidence and emergence angle up to 80°. Azimuth angle is allowed to vary between 0 and 180°. The instrument was recently installed in a cold room allowing ambient temperatures as low as -20°C. This makes possible the measurements on different kinds of water ice samples (slab ice, frost, snow...) and mixtures of minerals and water ice with unprecedented accuracy. We also have designed and built a simulation chamber to measure spectra of samples (water ice and/or minerals) under an atmosphere with perfectly controlled temperature, pressure and composition. The main objective of this last improvement is the study of water exchange between planetary regolith analogs and atmosphere (adsorption/ desorption, condensation/sublimation). Experimental results will mainly apply to Martian water cycle and hydrated mineralogy. This simulation chamber also provides an efficient way to obtain bidirectional reflectance spectra of dry materials (removal of adsorbed water) with implications for planetary bodies without atmospheric or surface water (Titan, asteroids...). The reflectance spectroscopy facility is part of a large panel of instruments and techniques available at Laboratoire de Planetologie de Grenoble that provide complementary measurements on the same samples: infrared transmission spectroscopy of thin ice films, thick liquid and

  17. Macroscopic Fourier transform infrared scanning in reflection mode (MA-rFTIR), a new tool for chemical imaging of cultural heritage artefacts in the mid-infrared range.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Stijn; Alfeld, Matthias; Vanmeert, Frederik; De Nolf, Wout; Janssens, Koen

    2014-05-21

    In this paper we demonstrate that by means of scanning reflection FTIR spectroscopy, it is possible to record highly specific distribution maps of organic and inorganic compounds from flat, macroscopic objects with cultural heritage value in a non-invasive manner. Our previous work involved the recording of macroscopic distributions of chemical elements or crystal phases from painted works of art based on respectively macroscopic X-ray fluorescence or X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The use of infrared radiation instead of X-rays has the advantage that more specific information about the nature and distribution of the chemical compounds present can be gathered. This higher imaging specificity represents a clear advantage for the characterization of painting and artist materials. It allows the distribution of metallo-organic compounds to be visualized and permits distinguishing between pigmented materials containing the same key metal. The prototype instrument allows the recording of hyperspectral datacubes by scanning the surface of the artefact in a contactless and sequential single-point measuring mode, while recording the spectrum of reflected infrared radiation. After the acquisition, spectral line intensities of individual bands and chemical distribution maps can be extracted from the datacube to identify the compounds present and/or to highlight their spatial distribution. Not only is information gained on the surface of the investigated artefacts, but also images of overpainted paint layers and, if present, the underdrawing may be revealed in this manner. A current major limitation is the long scanning times required to record these maps.

  18. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism.

    PubMed

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm(-1) that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%.

  19. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism

    PubMed Central

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm−1 that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%. PMID:26977373

  20. Blood glucose measurement in vivo using hollow-fiber based, mid-infrared ATR probe with multi-reflection prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    An attenuated-total-reflection (ATR), mid-infrared spectroscopy system that consists of hollow optical fibers, a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism, and a conventional FT-IR spectrometer has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Owing to the low transmission loss and high flexibility of the hollow-optical fiber, the system can measure any sites of the human body where blood capillaries are close to the surface of mucosa, such as inner lips. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. The results of in-vivo measurement of human inner lips showed the feasibility of the proposed system, and the measurement errors were within 20%.

  1. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism.

    PubMed

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm(-1) that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%. PMID:26977373

  2. Enhanced 10 Gb/s operations of directly modulated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers without electronic equalization.

    PubMed

    Presi, M; Chiuchiarelli, A; Corsini, R; Choudury, P; Bottoni, F; Giorgi, L; Ciaramella, E

    2012-12-10

    We report enhanced 10 Gb/s operation of directly modulated bandwidth-limited reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers. By using a single suitable arrayed waveguide grating we achieve simultaneously WDM demultiplexing and optical equalization. Compared to previous approaches, the proposed system results significantly more tolerant to seeding wavelength drifts. This removes the need for wavelength lockers, additional electronic equalization or complex digital signal processing. Uniform C-band operations are obtained experimentally with < 2 dB power penalty within a wavelength drift of 10 GHz (which doubles the ITU-T standard recommendations).

  3. Kramers-Krönig analysis of modulated reflectance data investigation of errors.

    PubMed

    Balzarotti, A; Colavita, E; Gentile, S; Rosei, R

    1975-10-01

    The errors introduced in Deltaepsilon(2) spectra by Kramers-Krönig analysis of modulated reflectivity data are investigated using an analytical model. It is found that the energy position of singularities is always reproduced with good accuracy even if the experimental spectrum of DeltaR/R is cut barely above the last structure of interest. This procedure is instead completely insufficient when a quantitative line shape analysis is required. In such cases data up to very high energy are required for a meaningful analysis. Errors due to other sources, like baseline shifts or inaccurate static optical constants, are also investigated.

  4. Reflectance and preparation of front-surface mirrors for use at various angles of incidence from the ultraviolet to the far infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, G.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for measuring the reflectance of front-surface mirrors at various wavelengths and angles of incidence are discussed, and techniques for preparing reflecting films with maximum reflectance and durability are described. Data are presented on the UV, visible, and infrared reflectance of the most frequently used mirror coatings: Al, Ag, Au, and Rh. Single-layer and multilayer dielectric overcoatings are applied to increase durability and normal-incidence reflectance; the effect of these coatings on reflectance at higher angles of incidence is discussed. It is shown that, in the infrared from 8 to 12 microns, Al and Ag, overcoated with thin layers of silicon oxides or Al2O3, have almost the same high reflectance as the unprotected metal at close to normal incidence, but greatly decreased reflectance at angles larger than 40 deg. Since only the parallel component is responsible for the infrared reflectance decrease, such film combinations are suitable for producing highly efficient reflection polarizers for the infrared radiation. The determination of water absorption in dielectric overcoatings and its effect on the mirror reflectance at 3 microns (where water has the highest extinction coefficient) is discussed.

  5. Strength of mineral absorption features in the transmitted component of near-infrared reflected light - First results from RELAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, C. M.

    1983-11-01

    Bidirectional reflectance measurements are the only type of reflectance data available to the remote observer. For compositional interpretations, data are desired not only for identification of possible mineral components but also for modal abundance. The latter requires detailed information about the strength of absorption features. Using a new laboratory facility, the RELAB, laboratory data in the near infrared are presented that document effects of particle size, mineral mixtures, and viewing geometry for selected materials with well-developed absorption bands. The commonly observed increase in reflectance with decrease in particle size is also observed for absorption bands as well as a related decrease in absorption strength. For small particles in parts of the spectrum of maximum reflectance, however, a minor decrease in reflectance with a decrese in particle size is sometimes observed. Small particles dominate the observed characteristics of particulate surfaces, which contain a range of particle sizes. The mean optical path length (transmission through particles) of reflected radiation measured for a variety of particle sizes has an apparent upper limit of about 2 mm for particles of less than 250 microns. The typical number of particles involved in the optical path is less than 50.

  6. Panoramic infrared-imaging spectroradiometer model with reverse phase-modulated beam broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, A H

    1997-03-20

    The optical design of a passive remote sensor, a panoramic spectroradiometer (PANSPEC), and its computer-simulated image performance are presented. PANSPEC monitors the surrounding infrared environment for chemical clouds, detecting a presence once absorption or emission spectra characteristic of the chemical species are resolved. PANSPEC broadcasts chemical presence and cloud heading when equipped with a laser transmitter that projects a polarized laser beam source with phase encryption back through the optical system into object space. Various merit functions were programmed and accessed during computer optimization runs for shaping and positioning of the instrument's semishell entrance window, collector, collimator, interferometer, and imager. The result is a balanced near-diffraction-limited circular image, 6.3 mm across with 10-line pairs/mm spatial resolution at 50% modulation, and an f/2.3 working speed.

  7. Imaging cortical absorption, scattering, and hemodynamic response during ischemic stroke using spatially modulated near-infrared illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abookasis, David; Lay, Christopher C.; Mathews, Marlon S.; Linskey, Mark E.; Frostig, Ron D.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2009-03-01

    We describe a technique that uses spatially modulated near-infrared (NIR) illumination to detect and map changes in both optical properties (absorption and reduced scattering parameters) and tissue composition (oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin, and oxygen saturation) during acute ischemic injury in the rat barrel cortex. Cerebral ischemia is induced using an open vascular occlusion technique of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Diffuse reflected NIR light (680 to 980 nm) from the left parietal somatosensory cortex is detected by a CCD camera before and after MCA occlusion. Monte Carlo simulations are used to analyze the spatial frequency dependence of the reflected light to predict spatiotemporal changes in the distribution of tissue absorption and scattering properties in the brain. Experimental results from seven rats show a 17+/-4.7% increase in tissue concentration of deoxyhemoglobin and a 45+/-3.1, 23+/-5.4, and 21+/-2.2% decrease in oxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin concentration and cerebral tissue oxygen saturation levels, respectively, 45 min following induction of cerebral ischemia. An ischemic index (Iisch=ctHHb/ctO2Hb) reveals an average of more then twofold contrast after MCAo. The wavelength-dependence of the reduced scattering (i.e., scatter power) decreased by 35+/-10.3% after MCA occlusion. Compared to conventional CCD-based intrinsic signal optical imaging (ISOI), the use of structured illumination and model-based analysis allows for generation of separate maps of light absorption and scattering properties as well as tissue hemoglobin concentration. This potentially provides a powerful approach for quantitative monitoring and imaging of neurophysiology and metabolism with high spatiotemporal resolution.

  8. Iron variation within a granitic pluton as determined by near-infrared reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    One-hundred fifty-one previously chemically analyzed samples of tonalite from the Lakeview Mountains pluton, southern California batholith, were analyzed for their iron content using near-infrared spectrophotometry. Compared to the earlier analyses of the same sample set by X-ray fluorescence spectrography, the infrared data have higher analytical variance but clearly define patterns of compositional zonation in the pluton which are closely similar to those patterns obtained from X-ray data; petrogenetic interpretations for the pluton would be the same from either data set. Infrared spectral data can be obtained directly in the field with relatively simple instruments and field measurements can be made to average local heterogeneities that often mask significant plutonic variations.

  9. Predicting ambient aerosol Thermal Optical Reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: elemental carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2015-06-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) is an important constituent of atmospheric particulate matter because it absorbs solar radiation influencing climate and visibility and it adversely affects human health. The EC measured by thermal methods such as Thermal-Optical Reflectance (TOR) is operationally defined as the carbon that volatilizes from quartz filter samples at elevated temperatures in the presence of oxygen. Here, methods are presented to accurately predict TOR EC using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from atmospheric particulate matter collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters. This method is similar to the procedure tested and developed for OC in prior work (Dillner and Takahama, 2015). Transmittance FT-IR analysis is rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive to the PTFE filter samples which are routinely collected for mass and elemental analysis in monitoring networks. FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 filter samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011. Partial least squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to collocated TOR EC measurements. The FTIR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets. Two calibrations are developed, one which is developed from uniform distribution of samples across the EC mass range (Uniform EC) and one developed from a~uniform distribution of low EC mass samples (EC < 2.4 μg, Low Uniform EC). A hybrid approach which applies the low EC calibration to low EC samples and the Uniform EC calibration to all other samples is used to produces predictions for low EC samples that have mean error on par with parallel TOR EC samples in the same mass range and an estimate of the minimum detection limit (MDL) that is on par with TOR EC MDL. For all samples, this hybrid approach leads to precise and accurate TOR EC predictions by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of variation (R2; 0.96), no

  10. Predicting ambient aerosol thermal-optical reflectance measurements from infrared spectra: elemental carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2015-10-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) is an important constituent of atmospheric particulate matter because it absorbs solar radiation influencing climate and visibility and it adversely affects human health. The EC measured by thermal methods such as thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) is operationally defined as the carbon that volatilizes from quartz filter samples at elevated temperatures in the presence of oxygen. Here, methods are presented to accurately predict TOR EC using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from atmospheric particulate matter collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters. This method is similar to the procedure developed for OC in prior work (Dillner and Takahama, 2015). Transmittance FT-IR analysis is rapid, inexpensive and nondestructive to the PTFE filter samples which are routinely collected for mass and elemental analysis in monitoring networks. FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 filter samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011. Partial least squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to collocated TOR EC measurements. The FT-IR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets. Two calibrations are developed: one developed from uniform distribution of samples across the EC mass range (Uniform EC) and one developed from a uniform distribution of Low EC mass samples (EC < 2.4 μg, Low Uniform EC). A hybrid approach which applies the Low EC calibration to Low EC samples and the Uniform EC calibration to all other samples is used to produce predictions for Low EC samples that have mean error on par with parallel TOR EC samples in the same mass range and an estimate of the minimum detection limit (MDL) that is on par with TOR EC MDL. For all samples, this hybrid approach leads to precise and accurate TOR EC predictions by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of determination (R2; 0.96), no bias (0.00 μg m-3, a

  11. Historical perspective and modern applications of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

    PubMed

    Blum, Marc-Michael; John, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy has a long history as an important spectroscopic method in chemical and pharmaceutical analysis. Instrumentation for infrared (IR) spectroscopy was revolutionized by the introduction of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometers. In addition, easier sampling combined with better sample-to-sample reproducibility and user-to-user spectral variation became available with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) probes and their application for in situ IR spectroscopy. These innovations allow many new applications in chemical and pharmaceutical analysis, such as the use of IR spectroscopy in Process Analytical Chemistry (PAC), the quantitation of drugs in complex matrix formulations, the analysis of protein binding and function and in combination with IR microscopy to the emergence of IR imaging technologies. The use of ATR-FTIR instruments in forensics and first response to 'white powder' incidents is also discussed. A short overview is given in this perspective article with the aim to renew and intensify interest in IR spectroscopy.

  12. Headspace-liquid phase microextraction for attenuated total reflection infrared determination of volatile organic compounds at trace levels.

    PubMed

    Gonzálvez, Ana; Garrigues, Salvador; Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2010-04-01

    A combination of headspace (HS) sampling and liquid phase microextraction (LPME) has been successfully developed to solve sensitivity problems in attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The HS sampling facilitates the selective extraction of the target volatile analytes from the sample matrix, while the liquid phase microextraction allows their preconcentration prior to infrared analysis. The direct determination of extracted analytes in the acceptor solvent provides high preconcentration factors of the order of 200 with a reduced consumption of organic solvents and a minimum generation of wastes, being thus the developed methodology a green alternative method. The qualitative and quantitative capability of the proposed approach has been evaluated on the basis of two different examples: (i) screening of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) compounds in soil samples and (ii) quantitative determination of toluene in cosmetic nail products.

  13. Chemometric analysis of attenuated total reflectance infrared spectra of Proteus mirabilis strains with defined structures of LPS.

    PubMed

    Zarnowiec, Paulina; Mizera, Andrzej; Chrapek, Magdalena; Urbaniak, Mariusz; Kaca, Wieslaw

    2016-07-01

    Proteus spp. strains are some of the most important pathogens associated with complicated urinary tract infections and bacteremia affecting patients with immunodeficiency and long-term urinary catheterization. For epidemiological purposes, various molecular typing methods have been developed for this pathogen. However, these methods are labor intensive and time consuming. We evaluated a new method of differentiation between strains. A collection of Proteus spp. strains was analyzed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region. ATR FT-IR spectroscopy used in conjunction with a diamond ATR accessory directly produced the biochemical profile of the surface chemistry of bacteria. We conclude that a combination of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy and mathematical modeling provides a fast and reliable alternative for discrimination between Proteus isolates, contributing to epidemiological research. PMID:27189426

  14. Optimum combinations of visible and near-infrared reflectances for estimating the fraction of photosynthetically available radiation absorbed by plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podaire, Alain; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves; Frouin, R.; Asrar, Ghassem

    1991-01-01

    A useful parameter to estimate terrestrial primary productivity, that can be sensed from space, is the daily averaged fraction of Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) absorbed by plants. To evaluate this parameter, investigators have relied on the fact that the relative amount of radiation reflected by a vegetated surface in the visible and near infrared depends on the fraction of the surface covered by the vegetation and therefore, correlates with absorbed PAR. They have used vegetation indices, namely normalized difference and simple ratio, to derive absorbed PAR. The problem with normalized difference and simple ratio is first, they are non linear functions of radiance or reflectance and therefore, cannot be readily applied to heterogeneous targets, second, they are used in generally nonlinear relationships, which make time integrals of the indices not proportional to primary productivity, and third, the relationships depend strongly on the type of canopy and background. To remove these limitations, linear combinations of visible and near infrared reflectances at optimum (one or two) viewing zenith angles are proposed.

  15. Low temperature hydrogen plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of copper studied using in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chaukulkar, Rohan P.; Rai, Vikrant R.; Agarwal, Sumit; Thissen, Nick F. W.

    2014-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an ideal technique to deposit ultrathin, conformal, and continuous metal thin films. However, compared to the ALD of binary materials such as metal oxides and metal nitrides, the surface reaction mechanisms during metal ALD are not well understood. In this study, the authors have designed and implemented an in situ reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (IRAS) setup to study the surface reactions during the ALD of Cu on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using Cu hexafluoroacetylacetonate [Cu(hfac){sub 2}] and a remote H{sub 2} plasma. Our infrared data show that complete ligand-exchange reactions occur at a substrate temperature of 80 °C in the absence of surface hydroxyl groups. Based on infrared data and previous studies, the authors propose that Cu(hfac){sub 2} dissociatively chemisorbs on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface, where the Al-O-Al bridge acts as the surface reactive site, leading to surface O-Cu-hfac and O-Al-hfac species. Surface saturation during the Cu(hfac){sub 2} half-cycle occurs through blocking of the available chemisorption sites. In the next half-reaction cycle, H radicals from an H{sub 2} plasma completely remove these surface hfac ligands. Through this study, the authors have demonstrated the capability of in situ IRAS as a tool to study surface reactions during ALD of metals. While transmission and internal reflection infrared spectroscopy are limited to the first few ALD cycles, IRAS can be used to probe all stages of metal ALD starting from initial nucleation to the formation of a continuous film.

  16. Identification of crops in Central Arkansas using visual and infrared spectral reflectance signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The spectral reflectance signatures of principle crops of central Arkansas were calibrated. Data were collected by conducting ground based reflectance signatures at well controlled test sites. Data collected were primarily for soybeans, therefore, additional measurements are essential to the acquisition of significant results.

  17. Use of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy to Predict Intake and Digestibility in Bulls and Steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal samples were collected from 282 growing Angus bulls over 4 yr to predict DMI of corn-silage-based diet. Contemporaneous digestion trials were conducted with the same diet in 12 steers for 3 yr and 12 bulls in 1 yr. Near-infrared spectra (n = 735 for growing bulls, n= = 240 for digestion trials...

  18. Nanocomposites for high-speed optical modulators and plasmonic thermal mid-infrared emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Veysi

    Demand for high-speed optical modulators and narrow-bandwidth infrared thermal emitters for numerous applications continues to rise and new optical devices are needed to deal with massive data flows, processing powers, and fabrication costs. Conventional techniques are usually hindered by material limitations or electronic interconnects and advances in organic nanocomposite materials and their integration into photonic integrated circuits (PICs) have been acknowledged as a promising alternative to single crystal techniques. The work presented in this thesis uses plasmonic and magneto-optic effects towards the development of novel optical devices for harnessing light and generating high bandwidth signals (>40GHz) at room and cryogenic temperatures (4.2°K). Several publications have resulted from these efforts and are listed at the end of the abstract. In our first published research we developed a narrow-bandwidth mid-infrared thermal emitter using an Ag/dielectric/Ag thin film structure arranged in hexagonal planar lattice structures. PECVD produced nanoamorphous carbon (NAC) is used as a dielectric layer. Spectrally tunable (>2 mum) and narrow bandwidth (<0.5 mum) emission peaks in the range of 4-7 mum were demonstrated by decreasing the resistivity of NAC from 1012 and 109 O.cm with an MoSi2 dopant and increasing the emitter lattice constant from 4 to 7 mum. This technique offers excellent flexibility for developing cost-effective mid-IR sources as compared to costly fiber and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). Next, the effect of temperature on the Verdet constant for cobalt-ferrite polymer nanocomposites was measured for a series of temperatures ranging from 40 to 200°K with a Faraday rotation polarimeter. No visual change was observed in the films during thermal cycling, and ˜4x improvement was achieved at 40°K. The results are promising and further analysis is merited at 4.2°K to assess the performance of this material for cryogenic magneto-optic modulators

  19. An investigation of the desorption of hydrogen from lithium oxide using temperature programmed desorption and diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kopasz, J.P.; Johnson, C.E.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.

    1994-09-01

    The addition of hydrogen to the purge stream has been shown to enhance tritium release from ceramic breeder materials. In an attempt to determine the mechanism for this enhancement the authors have investigated the adsorption and desorption of hydrogen and water from lithium oxide (a leading candidate for the breeder material) by temperature programmed desorption and diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy. The results from these studies indicate that several different types of hydroxide groups are formed on the lithium oxide surface. They also suggest that under certain conditions hydride species form on the surface. The role of these species in tritium release from lithium oxide is discussed.

  20. Use of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to identify microbial metabolic products on carbonate mineral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bullen, Heather A; Oehrle, Stuart A; Bennett, Ariel F; Taylor, Nicholas M; Barton, Hazel A

    2008-07-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to detect microbial metabolic products on carbonate mineral surfaces. By creating an ATR-FTIR spectral database for specific organic acids using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy we were able to distinguish metabolic acids on calcite surfaces following Escherichia coli growth. The production of these acids by E. coli was verified using high-performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection. The development of this technique has allowed us to identify microbial metabolic products on carbonate surfaces in nutrient-limited cave environments.

  1. Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLSUndulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Stupakov, G.; Tu, J.J.; /City Coll., N.Y.

    2006-06-27

    Reflectivity measurements in the far infrared, performed on aluminum and copper samples, are presented and analyzed. Over a frequency range of interest for the LCLS bunch, the data is fit to the free-electron model, and to one including the anomalous skin effect. The models fit well, yielding parameters dc conductivity and relaxation times that are within 30-40% of expected values. We show that the induced energy in the LCLS undulator region is relatively insensitive to variations on this order, and thus we can have confidence that the wake effect will be close to what is expected.

  2. Use of Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy To Identify Microbial Metabolic Products on Carbonate Mineral Surfaces▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bullen, Heather A.; Oehrle, Stuart A.; Bennett, Ariel F.; Taylor, Nicholas M.; Barton, Hazel A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to detect microbial metabolic products on carbonate mineral surfaces. By creating an ATR-FTIR spectral database for specific organic acids using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy we were able to distinguish metabolic acids on calcite surfaces following Escherichia coli growth. The production of these acids by E. coli was verified using high-performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection. The development of this technique has allowed us to identify microbial metabolic products on carbonate surfaces in nutrient-limited cave environments. PMID:18502924

  3. The Effect of Grain Size and Phosphorous-doping of Polycrystalline 3C-SiC on Infrared Reflectance Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    I. J. van Rooyen; J. A. A. Engelbrecht; A. Henry; E. Janzen; J. H. Neethling; P. M. van Rooyen

    2012-03-01

    The effect of P-doping and grain size of polycrystalline 3C-SiC on the infrared reflectance spectra is reported. The relationship between grain size and full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggest that the behaviour of the 3C-SiC with the highest phosphorous doping level (of 1.2 x 10{sup 19} at. cm{sup -3}) is different from those with lower doping levels (< 6.6 x 10{sup 18} at. cm{sup -3}). It is also further demonstrated that the plasma resonance frequency (w{sub p}) is not influenced by the grain size.

  4. Resin characterization in cured graphite fiber reinforced composites using diffuse reflectance-FTIR. [Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. R.; Stein, B. A.; Chang, A. C.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using diffuse reflectance in combination with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to obtain information on cured graphite fiber reinforced polymeric matrix resin composites was investigated. Several graphite/epoxy, polysulfone, and polyimide composites exposed to thermal or radiation environments were examined. An experimental polyimide-sulfone adhesive tape was also studied during processing. In each case, significant changes in resin molecular structure was observed due to environmental exposure. These changes in molecular structure were correlated with previously observed changes in material properties providing new insights into material behavior.

  5. Effects of various diffuser plates on illumination uniformity for reflective LED module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Li; Liao, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Han-Ting; Peng, Wei-Jei; Kuo, Hui-Jean; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Tang, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Tsung-Xian

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the illumination uniformity study on the reading area for a well-designed reflective LED lighting module by placing diffuser plate with optical simulation technique. The investigation for the performance of intensity and uniformity was performed and discussed by changing various curvatures of diffuser plate with and without microstructures to reflect and spread light. Due to the development of microstructures on diffuser plate, the light intensity distribution was uniformed on the reading area. In addition, the diffusion and spreading effect from a curved surface with microstructures was better than that without curvature or microstructures. The illumination uniformity was strongly influenced by the shape of microstructure on reflective diffuser plate. The optimal design with cylinder-shape microstructure on the lampshade had better performance in this study; the illumination uniformity was increased from 17 % to 69 % and the enhancement was 75 %. A well-designed diffuser plate model was fabricated by CNC machine and the deviations between experimental and simulated illumination results for maximum intensity and uniformity were 7.4 % and 8.7 %, respectively.

  6. Usefulness of near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics to discriminate fishmeal batches made with different fish species.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Daniel; Chree, A; Scaife, J R; Murray, Ian

    2005-06-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was used to identify and authenticate fishmeal batches made with different fish species. Samples from a commercial fishmeal factory (n = 60) were scanned in the NIR region (1100-2500 nm) in a monochromator instrument in reflectance. Principal component analysis (PCA), dummy partial least-squares regression (DPLS), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based on PCA scores were used to identify the origin of fishmeal produced using different fish species. Cross-validation was used as validation method when classification models were developed. DPLS correctly classified 80 and 82% of the fishmeal samples. LDA calibration models correctly classified >80% of fishmeal samples according to fish species The results demonstrated the usefulness of NIR spectra combined with chemometrics as an objective and rapid method for the authentication and identification of fish species used to manufacture the fishmeal.

  7. Membrane molecule reorientation in an electric field recorded by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Le Saux, A; Ruysschaert, J M; Goormaghtigh, E

    2001-01-01

    Electric fields play an important role in the physiological function of macromolecules. Much is known about the role that electric fields play in biological systems, but membrane molecule structure and orientation induced by electric fields remain essentially unknown. In this paper, we present a polarized attenuated total reflection (ATR) experiment we designed to study the effect of electric fields on membrane molecule structure and orientation by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Two germanium crystals used as the internal reflection element for ATR-FTIR experiments were coated with a thin layer of polystyrene as insulator and used as electrodes to apply an electric field on an oriented stack of membranes made of dioleylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and melittin. This experimental set up allowed us for the first time to show fully reversible orientational changes in the lipid headgroups specifically induced by the electric potential difference.

  8. Membrane molecule reorientation in an electric field recorded by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Le Saux, A; Ruysschaert, J M; Goormaghtigh, E

    2001-01-01

    Electric fields play an important role in the physiological function of macromolecules. Much is known about the role that electric fields play in biological systems, but membrane molecule structure and orientation induced by electric fields remain essentially unknown. In this paper, we present a polarized attenuated total reflection (ATR) experiment we designed to study the effect of electric fields on membrane molecule structure and orientation by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Two germanium crystals used as the internal reflection element for ATR-FTIR experiments were coated with a thin layer of polystyrene as insulator and used as electrodes to apply an electric field on an oriented stack of membranes made of dioleylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and melittin. This experimental set up allowed us for the first time to show fully reversible orientational changes in the lipid headgroups specifically induced by the electric potential difference. PMID:11159405

  9. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS): Inflight radiometric calibration and the determination of surface reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.; Vane, G.; Green, R. O.; Alley, R. E.; Carere, V.; Gabell, A.; Bruegge, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    The inflight radiometric performance of AVIRIS is presented together with a comparison of methods of recovering surface spectral reflectance from the data. Performance is evaluated by comparing radiance predicted from AVIRIS with radiance generated from the LOWIRAN 6 atmospheric model and measured surface reflectance. Comparisons show apparent agreement to within a few percent between 1800 and 2450 nm. Between 600 and 1800 nm the response of AVIRIS is systematically low by as much as 70 percent, and between 400 and 600 nm it is higher than expected. These problems are traced to thermal distortions of the instrument, and to detachment during flight of optical fibers connecting foreoptics to two of four spectrometers in the instrument. Of three methods studied, an empirical one involving calibration curves constructed from field reflectance measurements returns accurate predictions of the surface reflectance independent of the actual radiometric significance of the flight data.

  10. Polarization of the reflectivity of paints and other rough surfaces in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, Uri P.; Feiner, Yoram

    1995-04-01

    In this study the IR reflectivity of painted and rough surfaces was investigated, and an attempt was made to represent the surfaces by a complex refractive index. A CO2 laser was used as a collimated source in the thermal IR region, and the polarization properties of reflected radiation were measured. The samples chosen were flat surfaces of sandblasted aluminum, concrete, painted metal, and asphalt. Values of the bidirectional reflectance function were obtained in the two orthogonal states of polarization, based on sulfur as the Lambertian standard. Many samples, such as painted metals, showed specular behavior and could be characterized by Fresnel equations. For some of these surfaces optical constants were calculated from the reflectivity measurements. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated and measured values of the percent of polarization for these surfaces.

  11. Polarization of the reflectivity of paints and other rough surfaces in the infrared.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, U P; Feiner, Y

    1995-04-01

    In this study the IR reflectivity of painted and rough surfaces was investigated, and an attempt was made to represent the surfaces by a complex refractive index. A CO(2) laser was used as a collimated source in the thermal IR region, and the polarization properties of reflected radiation were measured. The samples chosen were flat surfaces of sandblasted aluminum, concrete, painted metal, and asphalt. Values of the bidirectional reflectance function were obtained in the two orthogonal states of polarization, based on sulfur as the Lambertian standard. Many samples, such as painted metals, showed specular behavior and could be characterized by Fresnel equations. For some of these surfaces optical constants were calculated from the reflectivity measurements. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated and measured values of the percent of polarization for these surfaces.

  12. Polarization of the reflectivity of paints and other rough surfaces in the infrared.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, U P; Feiner, Y

    1995-04-01

    In this study the IR reflectivity of painted and rough surfaces was investigated, and an attempt was made to represent the surfaces by a complex refractive index. A CO(2) laser was used as a collimated source in the thermal IR region, and the polarization properties of reflected radiation were measured. The samples chosen were flat surfaces of sandblasted aluminum, concrete, painted metal, and asphalt. Values of the bidirectional reflectance function were obtained in the two orthogonal states of polarization, based on sulfur as the Lambertian standard. Many samples, such as painted metals, showed specular behavior and could be characterized by Fresnel equations. For some of these surfaces optical constants were calculated from the reflectivity measurements. Good agreement was obtained between the calculated and measured values of the percent of polarization for these surfaces. PMID:21037709

  13. Attenuated total reflection surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy of carboxyl terminated self-assembled monolayers on gold.

    PubMed

    Goutev, Nikolay; Futamata, Masayuki

    2003-05-01

    A new recipe for surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) active island Au films with improved adhesion in aqueous solution, low resistivity, and enhancement of the infrared (IR) absorption of about 300 was developed. The Au films prepared were utilized in studies of the ionization of self-assembled monolayers of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid in Na2SO4 aqueous solutions by attenuated total reflection surface-enhanced infrared absorption (ATR-SEIRA) spectroscopy. It was found that the carboxyl end groups of the self-assembled monolayer turn into carboxylate anions on going from anodic to cathodic potentials or from acidic to alkaline pH. The water molecules close to the self-assembled monolayer in acidic solutions or at anodic potentials are preferentially aligned with their dipole moments parallel to the interface. This type of alignment can be ascribed to the dipole-dipole interaction between the carboxyl groups and the water molecules. On the other hand, in alkaline solutions or at cathodic potentials the structure of water close to the self-assembled monolayer is essentially bulk-like, with randomly oriented water molecules. This observation suggests that in alkaline solutions or at cathodic potentials the charge of the carboxylate anions is almost completely compensated for by strongly adsorbed counter cations. As a result, the electric field close to the surface of the ionized self-assembled monolayer is weak and has little influence on the orientation and hydrogen bonding of the water molecules.

  14. Attenuated Total Reflection Mid-Infrared (ATR-MIR) Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for the Identification and Classification of Commercial Tannins.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Arianna; Parpinello, Giuseppina P; Olejar, Kenneth J; Kilmartin, Paul A; Versari, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to characterize 40 commercial tannins, including condensed and hydrolyzable chemical classes, provided as powder extracts from suppliers. Spectral data were processed to detect typical molecular vibrations of tannins bearing different chemical groups and of varying botanical origin (univariate qualitative analysis). The mid-infrared region between 4000 and 520 cm(-1) was analyzed, with a particular emphasis on the vibrational modes in the fingerprint region (1800-520 cm(-1)), which provide detailed information about skeletal structures and specific substituents. The region 1800-1500 cm(-1) contained signals due to hydrolyzable structures, while bands due to condensed tannins appeared at 1300-900 cm(-1) and exhibited specific hydroxylation patterns useful to elucidate the structure of the flavonoid monomeric units. The spectra were investigated further using principal component analysis for discriminative purposes, to enhance the ability of infrared spectroscopy in the classification and quality control of commercial dried extracts and to enhance their industrial exploitation.

  15. Label-free near-infrared reflectance microscopy as a complimentary tool for two-photon fluorescence brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Costantini, Irene; Margoni, Emilia; Iannello, Giulio; Bria, Alessandro; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco S

    2015-11-01

    In vivo two-photon imaging combined with targeted fluorescent indicators is currently extensively used for attaining critical insights into brain functionality and structural plasticity. Additional information might be gained from back-scattered photons from the near-infrared (NIR) laser without introducing any exogenous labelling. Here, we describe a complimentary and versatile approach that, by collecting the reflected NIR light, provides structural details on axons and blood vessels in the brain, both in fixed samples and in live animals under a cranial window. Indeed, by combining NIR reflectance and two-photon imaging of a slice of hippocampus from a Thy1-GFPm mouse, we show the presence of randomly oriented axons intermingled with sparsely fluorescent neuronal processes. The back-scattered photons guide the contextualization of the fluorescence structure within brain atlas thanks to the recognition of characteristic hippocampal structures. Interestingly, NIR reflectance microscopy allowed the label-free detection of axonal elongations over the superficial layers of mouse cortex under a cranial window in vivo. Finally, blood flow can be measured in live preparations, thus validating label free NIR reflectance as a tool for monitoring hemodynamic fluctuations. The prospective versatility of this label-free technique complimentary to two-photon fluorescence microscopy is demonstrated in a mouse model of photothrombotic stroke in which the axonal degeneration and blood flow remodeling can be investigated.

  16. Label-free near-infrared reflectance microscopy as a complimentary tool for two-photon fluorescence brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mascaro, Anna Letizia Allegra; Costantini, Irene; Margoni, Emilia; Iannello, Giulio; Bria, Alessandro; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-01-01

    In vivo two-photon imaging combined with targeted fluorescent indicators is currently extensively used for attaining critical insights into brain functionality and structural plasticity. Additional information might be gained from back-scattered photons from the near-infrared (NIR) laser without introducing any exogenous labelling. Here, we describe a complimentary and versatile approach that, by collecting the reflected NIR light, provides structural details on axons and blood vessels in the brain, both in fixed samples and in live animals under a cranial window. Indeed, by combining NIR reflectance and two-photon imaging of a slice of hippocampus from a Thy1-GFPm mouse, we show the presence of randomly oriented axons intermingled with sparsely fluorescent neuronal processes. The back-scattered photons guide the contextualization of the fluorescence structure within brain atlas thanks to the recognition of characteristic hippocampal structures. Interestingly, NIR reflectance microscopy allowed the label-free detection of axonal elongations over the superficial layers of mouse cortex under a cranial window in vivo. Finally, blood flow can be measured in live preparations, thus validating label free NIR reflectance as a tool for monitoring hemodynamic fluctuations. The prospective versatility of this label-free technique complimentary to two-photon fluorescence microscopy is demonstrated in a mouse model of photothrombotic stroke in which the axonal degeneration and blood flow remodeling can be investigated. PMID:26601011

  17. Determination of copper and zinc pollutants in Ludwigia prostrata Roxb using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS).

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Aiguo; Jiang, Lixia; Liu, Yande; Jiang, Lihong; Hao, Yong; He, Bingbing

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility of using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to determine the concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in Ludwigia prostrata Roxb plants was investigated. Ludwigia prostrata Roxb plants were grown over a full growth cycle under controlled laboratory conditions in soils contaminated with heavy metals. The Cu and Zn concentrations in 72 L. prostrata Roxb samples were analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and NIRS spectra were collected in the 1099-2500 nm range. Five mathematical treatments of the spectral data were compared prior to developing the calibration models (n = 48) using partial least squares regression methods. The two calibration models for Cu and Zn concentrations were evaluated according to the correlation coefficient of cross-validation (R(cv)) and root mean squares error of cross-validation. The highest R(cv) and the lowest RMSECV were obtained for Cu (0.9 and 7.24 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (0.94 and 19.17 mg kg(-1)), respectively. The results showed that near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used for the rapid determination of Cu and Zn in leaves of L. prostrata Roxb plants.

  18. Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography in reflection mode with ring-shaped light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Song, Kwang Hyun; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-03-01

    We have succeeded in implementing ring-shaped light illumination ultrasound-modulated optical tomography (UOT) in reflection mode. The system used intense acoustic bursts and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera-based speckle contrast detection method. In addition, the implementation allows placing the tissue sample below (not within) an acoustic coupling water tank and scanning the tissue without moving the sample. Thus, the UOT system is more clinically applicable than previous transmission-mode systems. Furthermore, we have successfully imaged an ex vivo methylene-blue-dyed sentinel lymph node (SLN) embedded at a depth of 13 mm in chicken breast tissue. This UOT system offers several advantages: noninvasiveness, nonionizing radiation, portability, cost effectiveness, and the possibility of combination with ultrasound pulse-echo imaging and photoacoustic imaging. One potential application of the UOT system is mapping SLNs in axillary staging for breast cancer patients.

  19. To See the World in a Grain of Sand: Recognizing the Origin of Sand Specimens by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy and Multivariate Exploratory Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzolo, Alessandra De Lorenzi

    2011-01-01

    The diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectra of sand samples exhibit features reflecting their composition. Basic multivariate analysis (MVA) can be used to effectively sort subsets of homogeneous specimens collected from nearby locations, as well as pointing out similarities in composition among sands of different origins.…

  20. Kramers-Kronig analysis of infrared reflection spectra with perpendicular polarization.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Masui, A; Ishida, H

    1994-09-20

    The application of Kramers-Kronig analysis for reflection spectra from a single interface with perpendicular (s) polarization has been studied theoretically with regard to a phase correction term. The errors in phase shift and complex refractive index obtained by the use of Kramers-Kronig analysis have been examined for such techniques as external, internal, and total internal reflection spectroscopies by the use of spectral simulation and the complex refractive index based on dispersion theory. The advantages and disadvantages of the various measurement techniques used to obtain the complex refractive index of a sample material have been compared. It is concluded that the external reflection technique can be used until the sample thickness becomes too thin to provide the edge shape necessary to avoid the detection of reflection from the back surface. The total internal reflection technique should be used only for a thin-film sample because knowledge of the refractive index at some frequency is required and bcause this technique may yield larger errors than the other techniques in the complex refractive index obtained by the use of Kramers-Kronig analysis.

  1. A novel, direct, reagent-free method for the detection of beeswax adulteration by single-reflection attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maia, Miguel; Barros, Ana I R N A; Nunes, Fernando M

    2013-03-30

    In this work, a novel, direct, reagent-free method for the detection of beeswax adulteration by paraffin, microcrystalline wax, tallow and stearic acid using single-reflection attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy was developed. The use of the absorbance ratios of [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] allows a minimum of 5% paraffin/microcrystalline wax and tallow adulteration and 0.5% stearic acid adulteration of beeswax to be detected. The upper and lower critical limits for beeswax authenticity were established from the analysis of virgin beeswax and were validated by independent analysis of real sheet and comb beeswax samples using high-temperature gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection. In addition to its simplicity with respect to sample handling, the amount of sample and the time needed are far less than those required in previously described methods, which are based on chemical analysis and chromatographic techniques. These advantages result in time and cost savings, an increase in the number of samples that can be analyzed, and, most importantly, the detection of the main beeswax adulterants using a single method.

  2. Identification of the photoluminescence response in the frequency domain modulated infrared radiometry signal of ZnTe:Cr bulk crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, M.; Strzałkowski, K.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we investigated the photoluminescence response in the frequency domain modulated infrared radiometry signal observed of ZnTe:Cr bulk crystal. In mid-infrared range, three characteristic phenomena are observed in ZnTe:Cr crystal: absorption and emission of IR photons (2-3 μm) and the free carrier absorption. This implies that the modulated infrared radiometry signal yields information about the effective infrared absorption coefficient (photothermal response) as well about the recombination lifetime of carriers related with the infrared photoluminescence emission. In this paper, the frequency equivalence of the two-term independent exponential photoluminescence decay model in order to explain the measured frequency characteristics is proposed. The measured recombination lifetimes (2.3 μs for two exponential decay model and 1.5 μs for one exponential decay model) are in good agreement with the values given by other authors (about 2.5-3.0 μs). Moreover, we found that the photothermal response is uncorrelated with the photoluminescence one, in contrast, to the photocarrier response.

  3. Correlations between shape and near infrared reflective properties of nano/micro-yttria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Lv, Hongbin; Wang, Zhengjun; Wang, Feijiu; Luo, Hui; Yu, Xibin

    2011-04-01

    Yttria nanorods, nanoflakes and microshperes have been prepared via solvothermal and homogeneous precipitation methods followed by further calcining treatment, without any catalysts, templates, or substrates, in which yttrium nitrate was used as the yttrium source, sodium hydroxide and urea as the precipitators. The results show that the reflectivity of nano-yttria has significant correlations with its nanostructures. In contrast, Y2O3 microshperes possess about 90% reflectivity in the NIR region, which can be applied in energy saving and military camouflage etc. PMID:21776745

  4. Direct observation of surface plasmons in YBCO by attenuated total reflection of light in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmsley, D. G.; Smyth, C. C.; Sellai, A.; McCafferty, P. G.; Dawson, P.; Morrow, T.; Graham, W. G.

    1994-02-01

    Surface plasmons have been observed directly in YBCO films in an Otto-geometry attenuated total reflection measurement at a wavelength of 3.392 μm. The laser deposited films are c-axis oriented on an MgO substrate. This observation confirms theoretical deductions from complex dielectric function data. Measured data have been fitted to a theoretical model and are compared with the optical constants determined by Bozovic [1]. The investigations have been extended to films with other orientations to investigate whether material anisotropy is reflected in the results and non-metallic behaviour is found.

  5. Infrared phase-conjugate reflection by hot electron-induced optical nonlinearity in n-Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poroshin, V. N.; Vasetskii, V. M.

    We have studied backward-degenerate four-wave mixing at CO2 laser wavelengths in n-type Ge having a free electron density of N=5×1016 cm-3. The phase conjugation due to the redistribution of free electrons between the equivalent valleys was observed. The effect occurs only when the electric field E of the light wave is aligned nonsymmetrically relative to the long axes of the valleys in the crystal, and is related to carrier heating by the infrared radiation.

  6. Application of the transition semiconductor semimetal in modulated nanostructures for communication as infrared optoelectronic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Abidi, A.; Nafidi, A.; Chaib, H.; El Kaaouachi, A.; Braigue, M.; Morghi, R.; EL Yakoubi, E. Y.; d'Astuto, M.

    2010-02-01

    We report here electronic properties of a two-dimensional modulated superlattice nanostructure. Our sample, grown by MBE, had a period d= d1+ d2 (90 layers) of d1=5.6 nm (HgTe)/ d2=3 nm (CdTe). Calculations of the specters of energy E( d2), E( k z) and E( kp), respectively, in the direction of growth and in plane of the superlattice; were performed in the envelope function formalism. The energy E ( d2, Γ, 4.2 K,), shown that for each d1/ d2, when d2 increase the gap Eg decrease to zero at the transition semiconductor to semimetal conductivity behavior and become negative accusing a semimetallic conduction. At 4.2 K, the sample exhibits p type conductivity with a Hall mobility of 8200 cm 2/Vs. This allowed us to observe the Shubnikov-de Haas effect with p=1.80×10 12 cm -2. Using the calculated effective mass (mHH*=0,297m0) of the degenerated heavy holes gas, the Fermi energy (2D) was EF=14 meV in agreement with 12 meV of thermoelectric power α. In intrinsic regime, α∼ T-3/2 and RHT3/2 indicates a gap Eg= E1- HH1=190 meV in agreement with calculated Eg ( Γ, 300 K)=178 meV. The formalism used here predicts that this sample is a narrow gap, two-dimensional modulated nanostructure and medium-infrared detector.

  7. Comparative study of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in transmission, attenuated total reflection, and total reflection modes for the analysis of plastics in the cultural heritage field.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Marcello; Bartolozzi, Giovanni; Cucci, Costanza; Galeotti, Monica; Marchiafava, Veronica; Pizzo, Benedetto

    2014-01-01

    This study was completed within the framework of two research projects dealing with the conservation of contemporary artworks. The first is the Seventh Framework Project (FP7) of the European Union, Preservation of Plastic ARTefacts in Museum Collections (POPART), spanning years 2008-2012, and the second is the Italian project funded by the Tuscan Region, Preventive Conservation of Contemporary Art (Conservazione Preventiva dell'Arte Contemporanea (COPAC)), spanning 2011-2013. Both of these programs pointed out the great importance of having noninvasive and portable analytical techniques that can be used to investigate and characterize modern and contemporary artworks, especially those consisting of synthetic polymers. Indeed, despite the extensive presence of plastics in museum collections, there is still a lack of analytical tools for identifying, characterizing, and setting up adequate conservation strategies for these materials. In this work, the potentials of in situ and noninvasive Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, implemented by means of portable devices that operate in reflection mode, are investigated with a view to applying the results in large-scale surveys of plastic objects in museums. To this end, an essential prerequisite are the reliability of spectral data acquired in situ and the availability of spectral databases acquired from reference materials. A collection of polymeric samples, which are available commercially as ResinKit, was analyzed to create a reference spectral archive. All the spectra were recorded using three FT-IR configurations: transmission (trans), attenuated total reflection (ATR), and total reflection (TR). A comparative evaluation of the data acquired using the three instrumental configurations is presented, together with an evaluation of the similarity percentages and a discussion of the critical cases.

  8. High-performance modulation-doped AlGaAs/InGaAs thermopiles for uncooled infrared FPA application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, M.; Abe, Y.; Kogushi, N.; Ang, K. S.; Hofstetter, R.; Wang, H.; Ng, G. I.

    2013-07-01

    Novel thermopile based on modulation doped AlGaAs/InGaAs heterostructures is proposed and developed for the first time, for uncooled infrared FPA (Focal Plane Array) image sensor application. The high responsivity with the high speed response time are designed to be 4900 V/W with 110 μs under the 2 μm design rule. Based on integrated HEMT-MEMS technology, the 32 × 32 matrix FPA is fabricated to demonstrate its enhanced performances by black body measurement. The technology presented here demonstrates the potential of this approach for low-cost uncooled infrared FPA image sensor application.

  9. Ultraviolet-pumped infrared fluorescent molecular hydrogen emission in reflection nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellgren, K.

    1986-01-01

    Strong molecular hydrogen emission at 2.41 microns has been observed in three out of six reflection nebulae surveyed. A spectrum of one nebula, Parsamyan 18, shows several H2 lines whose intensity ratios have values agreeing with those predicted if the excitation is due to UV-pumped fluoresence and disagreeing with those predicted for shock and X-ray excitations.

  10. Reflection-type single long-pulse solar simulator for high-efficiency crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules.

    PubMed

    Hu, Binxin; Li, Buyin; Zhao, Rixin; Yang, Tiechen

    2011-06-01

    Photovoltaic module measurements are predominantly taken by using pulsed solar simulators. However, significant errors can be generated when the existing simulators are applied to current high-efficiency crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. This paper presents the design and implementation of a novel solar simulator featuring reflection-type light source and single long-pulse flash. The analysis and experimental study of the capacitance effect and the technical details of the simulator including reflection-type lamp house, xenon flash lamp power supply, and source-measure unit are introduced. The results show that the complete system achieves Class AAA performance in accordance with the international standard. The proposed simulator outperforms other similar products on the market and has been adopted by some well-known photovoltaic module manufacturers. The practical application demonstrates that this high-performance and cost-effective simulator is quite suitable for photovoltaic module production line.

  11. Characterization of 2.3 μm GaInAsSb-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures using photo-modulated reflectance

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, G. M. T.; Hosea, T. J. C.; Fox, N. E.; Hild, K.; Ikyo, A. B.; Marko, I. P.; Sweeney, S. J.; Bachmann, A.; Arafin, S.; Amann, M.-C.

    2014-01-07

    We report angle dependent and temperature dependent (9 K–300 K) photo-modulated reflectance (PR) studies on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structures, designed for 2.3 μm mid-infrared gas sensing applications. Changing the temperature allows us to tune the energies of the quantum well (QW) transitions relative to the VCSEL cavity mode (CM) energy. These studies show that this VCSEL structure has a QW-CM offset of 21 meV at room temperature. Consequently the QW ground-state transition comes into resonance with the CM at 220 ± 2 K. The results from these PR studies are closely compared with those obtained in a separate study of actual operating devices and show how the PR technique may be useful for device optimisation without the necessity of having first to process the wafers into working devices.

  12. Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave Lidar Measurements of Surface Reflectance and Implications for CO2 Column Measurements: Results from 2013 ASCENDS Airborne Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehrir, A. R.; Browell, E. V.; Harrison, F. W.; Dobler, J. T.; Lin, B.; Ismail, S.; Kooi, S. A.; Obland, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Improved knowledge of the Earth's surface reflectance in the 1.57-micron spectral band is of particular importance for accurate Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) measurements and modeling of IPDA CO2 column measurements as required by the Active Sensing of CO2 Emission of Nights Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) Decadal Survey space mission. The Earth's surface albedo in the near-infrared portion of the spectrum is extremely low for snow and ice and for water under high wind conditions, and this can lead to degraded signal to noise ratios of surface reflectances and of IPDA CO2 column retrievals, requiring increased integration periods. This paper discusses the magnitude and variability of the surface reflectance and corresponding column CO2 measurements over snow measured using an intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS), namely the Exelis Multi-function Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), during the winter 2013 ASCENDS airborne campaign. This LAS system is currently being evaluated by NASA Langley as the ASCENDS space mission prototype system. The surface reflectance measurements over snow and ice as well as over water collected during the 2013 winter DC-8 flight campaign were calibrated using surface reflectance data obtained over well-established satellite radiometric calibration sites such as Railroad Valley, Nevada and over other homogeneous desert sites in California and Arizona that have been used for similar calibrations on past ASCENDS airborne campaigns. Two separate flights targeting differences in surface reflectances between fresh and aged snow were conducted over the U.S. Central Plains and Colorado Rockies, respectively. From these measurements, the nominal surface reflectance of fresh snow (less than 1-2 days old; ~ 0.01/sr at 1.57 microns) was found to be approximately half that of aged snow (3-4 days old; ~ 0.02/sr) which is believed to be a result of increased absorption due to the snow water content. The

  13. Development of a realistic photonic modeling for the evaluation of infrared reflections in the metallic environment of ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeunier, M.-H.; Travere, J.-M.

    2010-10-15

    In nuclear fusion experiments, the plasma facing components are exposed to high heat fluxes and infrared (IR) imaging diagnostics are routinely used for surveying their surface temperature for preventing damages. However the future use of metallic components in the ITER tokamak adds complications in temperature estimation. Indeed, low and variable emissivity of the observed surface and the multiple reflections of the light coming from hot regions will have to be understood and then taken into account. In this paper, a realistic photonic modeling based on Monte Carlo ray-tracing codes is used to predict the global response of the complete IR survey system. This also includes the complex vessel geometry and the thermal and optical surface properties using the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function that models the photon-material interactions. The first results of this simulation applied to a reference torus are presented and are used as a benchmark to investigate the validity of the global model. Finally the most critical key model parameters in the reflected signals are identified and their contribution is discussed.

  14. Measurement of sugar content of watermelon using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in comparison with dielectric property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xuemei; Bao, Yidan

    2006-09-01

    The sugar content of watermelon is important to its taste thus influences the market. It's difficult to know whether the melon is sweet or not for consumers. We tried to develop a convenient meter to determine the sugar of watermelon. The first objective of this paper was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a near-infrared reflectance spectrometer (NIRS) to investigate the relationship between sugar content of watermelon and absorption spectra. The NIRS reflectance of nondestructive watermelon was measured with a Visible/NIR spectrophotometer in 325-1075nm range. The sugar content of watermelon was obtained with a handhold sugar content meter. The second objective was to measure the watermelon's dielectric property, such as dielectric resistance, capacitance, quality factor and dielectric loss. A digital electric bridge instrument was used to get the dielectric property. The experimental results show that they were related to watermelon's sugar content. A comparison between the two methods was made in the paper. The model derived from NIRS reflection is useful for class identification of Zaochun Hongyu watermelon though it's not quite accurate in sweetness prediction (the max. deviation is 0.7). Electric property bears little relation to sugar content of watermelon at this experiment and it couldn't be used as non-destructive inspection method.

  15. Development of a realistic photonic modeling for the evaluation of infrared reflections in the metallic environment of ITER.

    PubMed

    Aumeunier, M-H; Travere, J-M

    2010-10-01

    In nuclear fusion experiments, the plasma facing components are exposed to high heat fluxes and infrared (IR) imaging diagnostics are routinely used for surveying their surface temperature for preventing damages. However the future use of metallic components in the ITER tokamak adds complications in temperature estimation. Indeed, low and variable emissivity of the observed surface and the multiple reflections of the light coming from hot regions will have to be understood and then taken into account. In this paper, a realistic photonic modeling based on Monte Carlo ray-tracing codes is used to predict the global response of the complete IR survey system. This also includes the complex vessel geometry and the thermal and optical surface properties using the bidirectional reflectivity distribution function that models the photon-material interactions. The first results of this simulation applied to a reference torus are presented and are used as a benchmark to investigate the validity of the global model. Finally the most critical key model parameters in the reflected signals are identified and their contribution is discussed.

  16. Toward a UV-visible-near-infrared hyperspectral imaging platform for fast multiplex reflection spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianping; Chan, Robert K Y

    2010-10-15

    A reflection hyperspectral imaging system covering a 350-1000nm spectral range is realized by a UV-visible-near-IR Fourier transform imaging spectrometer. The system has a simple design and good spectral and spatial resolving performance. Accurate and fast microspectroscopic measurement results on novel colloidal crystal beads demonstrate the system has practical potential for high-throughput molecular multiplex assays. PMID:20967056

  17. Detection limits for blood on four fabric types using infrared diffuse reflection spectroscopy in mid- and near-infrared spectral windows.

    PubMed

    DeJong, Stephanie A; Lu, Zhenyu; Cassidy, Brianna M; O'Brien, Wayne L; Morgan, Stephen L; Myrick, Michael L

    2015-09-01

    Detection limits (DL) for blood on four fabric types were estimated for calibrations derived using partial least squares regression applied to infrared (IR) diffuse reflection spectra. Samples were prepared by dip-coating acrylic, cotton, nylon, and polyester fabrics from solutions of diluted rat blood. While DLs often appear in terms of dilution factor in the forensic community, mass percentage, coverage (mass per unit area), or film thickness are often more relevant when comparing experimental methods. These alternate DL units are related to one another and presented here. The best IR diffuse reflection DLs for blood on acrylic and cotton fabrics were in the mid-IR spectral window corresponding to the protein Amide I/II absorption bands. These DLs were dilution by a factor of 2300 (0.019% w/w blood solids) for acrylic and a factor of 610 (0.055% w/w blood solids) for cotton. The best DL for blood on polyester was found in the mid-IR spectral window corresponding to the protein Amide A absorption band at dilution by a factor of 900 (0.034% w/w blood solids). Because of the similarity between the IR spectra of blood solids and nylon fabrics, no satisfactory IR DLs were determined for the calibration of blood on nylon. We compare our values to DLs reported for blood detection using the standard luminol method. The most commonly reported luminol DLs are of the order of 1000-fold dilution, which we estimate are a factor of 2-7 lower than our reported IR DLs on a coverage basis.

  18. Infrared image construction with computer-generated reflection holograms. [using carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angus, J. C.; Coffield, F. E.; Edwards, R. V.; Mann, J. A., Jr.; Rugh, R. W.; Gallagher, N. C.

    1977-01-01

    Computer-generated reflection holograms hold substantial promise as a means of carrying out complex machining, marking, scribing, welding, soldering, heat treating, and similar processing operations simultaneously and without moving the work piece or laser beam. In the study described, a photographically reduced transparency of a 64 x 64 element Lohmann hologram was used to make a mask which, in turn, was used (with conventional photoresist techniques) to produce a holographic reflector. Images from a commercial CO2 laser (150W TEM(00)) and the holographic reflector are illustrated and discussed.

  19. Prediction of leaf chemistry by the use of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, Don H.; Peterson, David L.; Matson, Pamela A.; Aber, John D.

    1988-01-01

    The chemical content of dry, ground leaf material sampled from deciduous and conifer tree species from sites in Alaska, Wisconsin, and California was estimated using visible and shortwave IR spectroscopy. Seven chemical components - sugar, starch, protein, cellulose, total chlorophyll, lignin, and total nitrogen - were analyzed by wet chemical methods and their concentrations regressed against log 1/rho and first and second differences of log 1/rho (where rho is measured reflectance) at wavelengths selected by stepwise regression. Predictions of chemical concentrations based on cross validation suggest that this technique may be useful for extracting vegetation canopy biochemical information by remote sensing.

  20. Characterization of the hydration state of pharmaceuticals by variable-temperature diffuse-reflectance infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasacz, Frank M.; Strand, Scott W.; Bugay, David E.; Morris, Kenneth R.

    1992-03-01

    The characterization of hydrates is exceedingly important for pharmaceuticals since the state of hydration of a drug can effect its solubility, dissolution rate, bioavailability, chemical stability, and the physical stability of subsequent dosage forms. In addition, the United States Food and Drug Administration concerns about the above issue make complete characterization of hydrates a necessary part of investigative new drug filings. A Collector TM Diffuse Reflectance accessory fitted with a controlled Environmental Chamber was used to study drug formulations under varying temperature and humidity conditions.

  1. Effects of mercury on visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra of mustard spinach plants (Brassica rapa P.).

    PubMed

    Dunagan, Sarah C; Gilmore, Martha S; Varekamp, Johan C

    2007-07-01

    Mustard spinach plants were grown in mercury-spiked and contaminated soils collected in the field under controlled laboratory conditions over a full growth cycle to test if vegetation grown in these soils has discernible characteristics in visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectra. Foliar Hg concentrations (0.174-3.993ppm) of the Mustard spinach plants were positively correlated with Hg concentration of soils and varied throughout the growing season. Equations relating foliar Hg concentration to spectral reflectance, its first derivative, and selected vegetation indices were generated using stepwise multiple linear regression. Significant correlations are found for limited wavelengths for specific treatments and dates. Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and Red Edge Position (REP) values of plants in Hg-spiked and field-contaminated soils are significantly lower relative to control plants during the early and middle portions of the growth cycle which may be related to lower chlorophyll abundance or functioning in Hg-contaminated plants.

  2. Use of attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to measure collagen degradation in historical parchments.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Lee; Wess, Tim

    2008-10-01

    Developing a noninvasive method to assess the degraded state of historical parchments is essential to providing the best possible care for these documents. The conformational changes observed when collagen molecules, the primary constituent of parchment, unfold have been analyzed using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy and the nanoscopic structural changes have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The relationship between the results obtained from these techniques was studied using principal component analysis, where correlation was found. The extent of gelatinization of historical parchments has been assessed using ATR-FT-IR and XRD and the frequency shifts observed as collagen degrades into gelatin have been reported. These results indicate that collagen degradation can be measured noninvasively in parchment and demonstrate the utility of ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy as a method to investigate historical documents.

  3. Application of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for determination of cefixime in oral pharmaceutical formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandhro, Aftab A.; Laghari, Abdul Hafeez; Mahesar, Sarfaraz A.; Saleem, Rubina; Nelofar, Aisha; Khan, Salman Tariq; Sherazi, S. T. H.

    2013-11-01

    A quick and reliable analytical method for the quantitative assessment of cefixime in orally administered pharmaceutical formulations is developed by using diamond cell attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy as an easy procedure for quality control laboratories. The standards for calibration were prepared in aqueous medium ranging from 350 to 6000 mg/kg. The calibration model was developed based on partial least square (PLS) using finger print region of FT-IR spectrum in the range from 1485 to 887 cm-1. Excellent coefficient of determination (R2) was achieved as high as 0.99976 with root mean square error of 44.8 for calibration. The application of diamond cell (smart accessory) ATR FT-IR proves a reliable determination of cefixime in pharmaceutical formulations to assess the quality of the final product.

  4. Application of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for determination of cefixime in oral pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Kandhro, Aftab A; Laghari, Abdul Hafeez; Mahesar, Sarfaraz A; Saleem, Rubina; Nelofar, Aisha; Khan, Salman Tariq; Sherazi, S T H

    2013-11-01

    A quick and reliable analytical method for the quantitative assessment of cefixime in orally administered pharmaceutical formulations is developed by using diamond cell attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy as an easy procedure for quality control laboratories. The standards for calibration were prepared in aqueous medium ranging from 350 to 6000mg/kg. The calibration model was developed based on partial least square (PLS) using finger print region of FT-IR spectrum in the range from 1485 to 887cm(-1). Excellent coefficient of determination (R(2)) was achieved as high as 0.99976 with root mean square error of 44.8 for calibration. The application of diamond cell (smart accessory) ATR FT-IR proves a reliable determination of cefixime in pharmaceutical formulations to assess the quality of the final product.

  5. 2D attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy reveals ultrafast vibrational dynamics of organic monolayers at metal-liquid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraack, Jan Philip; Lotti, Davide; Hamm, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We present two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of organic monolayers immobilized on thin metallic films at the solid liquid interface. The experiments are acquired under Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) conditions which allow a surface-sensitive measurement of spectral diffusion, sample inhomogeneity, and vibrational relaxation of the monolayers. Terminal azide functional groups are used as local probes of the environment and structural dynamics of the samples. Specifically, we investigate the influence of different alkyl chain-lengths on the ultrafast dynamics of the monolayer, revealing a smaller initial inhomogeneity and faster spectral diffusion with increasing chain-length. Furthermore, by varying the environment (i.e., in different solvents or as bare sample), we conclude that the most significant contribution to spectral diffusion stems from intra- and intermolecular dynamics within the monolayer. The obtained results demonstrate that 2D ATR IR spectroscopy is a versatile tool for measuring interfacial dynamics of adsorbed molecules.

  6. Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy on Operating Surface Acoustic Wave Chemical Sensors During Exposure to Gas-Phase Analytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hierlemann, A.; Hill, M.; Ricco, A.J.; Staton, A.W.; Thomas, R.C.

    1999-01-11

    We have developed instrumentation to enable the combination of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor measurements with direct, in-situ molecular spectroscopic measurements to understand the response of the SAW sensors with respect to the interfacial chemistry of surface-confined sensing films interacting with gas-phase analytes. Specifically, the instrumentation and software was developed to perform in-situ Fourier-transform infrared external-reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR-ERS) on operating SAW devices during dosing of their chemically modified surfaces with analytes. By probing the surface with IR spectroscopy during gas exposure, it is possible to understand in unprecedented detail the interaction processes between the sorptive SAW coatings and the gaseous analyte molecules. In this report, we provide details of this measurement system, and also demonstrate the utility of these combined measurements by characterizing the SAW and FTIR-ERS responses of organic thin-film sensor coatings interacting with gas-phase analytes.

  7. Differentiation of Body Fluid Stains on Fabrics Using External Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Félix; de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles Fernández; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Body fluids are evidence of great forensic interest due to the DNA extracted from them, which allows genetic identification of people. This study focuses on the discrimination among semen, vaginal fluid, and urine stains (main fluids in sexual crimes) placed on different colored cotton fabrics by external reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with chemometrics. Semen-vaginal fluid mixtures and potential false positive substances commonly found in daily life such as soaps, milk, juices, and lotions were also studied. Results demonstrated that the IR spectral signature obtained for each body fluid allowed its identification and the correct classification of unknown stains by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Interestingly, results proved that these IR spectra did not show any bands due to the color of the fabric and no substance of those present in daily life which were analyzed, provided a false positive. PMID:26896150

  8. 2D attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy reveals ultrafast vibrational dynamics of organic monolayers at metal-liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Kraack, Jan Philip; Lotti, Davide; Hamm, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We present two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of organic monolayers immobilized on thin metallic films at the solid liquid interface. The experiments are acquired under Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) conditions which allow a surface-sensitive measurement of spectral diffusion, sample inhomogeneity, and vibrational relaxation of the monolayers. Terminal azide functional groups are used as local probes of the environment and structural dynamics of the samples. Specifically, we investigate the influence of different alkyl chain-lengths on the ultrafast dynamics of the monolayer, revealing a smaller initial inhomogeneity and faster spectral diffusion with increasing chain-length. Furthermore, by varying the environment (i.e., in different solvents or as bare sample), we conclude that the most significant contribution to spectral diffusion stems from intra- and intermolecular dynamics within the monolayer. The obtained results demonstrate that 2D ATR IR spectroscopy is a versatile tool for measuring interfacial dynamics of adsorbed molecules.

  9. New diagnostic method for monitoring plasma reactor walls: Multiple total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared surface probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Anna R.; Ullal, Saurabh J.; Braly, Linda B.; Edelberg, Erik A.; Vahedi, Vahid; Aydil, Eray S.

    2001-08-01

    Films and adsorbates that deposit on reactor walls during plasma etching and deposition affect the discharge properties such as the charged particle and reactive radical concentrations. A systematic study of this plasma-wall interaction is made difficult by a lack of diagnostic methods that enable one to monitor the chemical nature of the reactor wall surface. A new diagnostic technique based on multiple total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared (MTIR-FTIR) spectroscopy was developed to monitor films and adsorbates on plasma etching and deposition reactor walls with monolayer sensitivity. Applications of this MTIR-FTIR probe are demonstrated. Specifically, we use this probe to (i) detect etch products and films that deposit on the reactor walls during Cl2 plasma etching of Si, (ii) determine the efficacy of a SF6 plasma to clean films deposited on reactor walls during Cl2/O2 etching of Si, and (iii) monitor wafer-to-wafer etching reproducibility.

  10. [Detection of total nitrogen and organic matter in rhizosphere of transgenic cotton by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Rui, Yu-kui; Huang, Kun-lun; Tian, Hui-qin; Guo, Jing; Luo, Yun-bo

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid development of the transgenic biotechnology, more and more transgenic plants have been poured into the market, and scientists have paid much attention to transgenic plants' ecological safety. To analysize the content of organic matter and total nitrogen in rhizosphere of transgenic cottons and their parents, the dried soil were scanned by continuous wave of near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy ranging from 12,000 to 4 000 cm(-1) with a resolution of 4 cm(-1) and scanning for 64 times. Bruker OPUS software was applied for quantification. This method was compared with the standard methods. The results showed that the precision of NIRS was very similar to the standard methods. On the other hand, the results also showed that the contents of organic matter and total nitrogen in rhizosphere soil of transgenic cottons were significantly higher than those of their parents, which could arise from the foreign toxin secretion of root.

  11. Exploration of attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration to measure immunoglobulin G in human sera.

    PubMed

    Hou, Siyuan; Riley, Christopher B; Mitchell, Cynthia A; Shaw, R Anthony; Bryanton, Janet; Bigsby, Kathryn; McClure, J Trenton

    2015-09-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is crucial for the protection of the host from invasive pathogens. Due to its importance for human health, tools that enable the monitoring of IgG levels are highly desired. Consequently there is a need for methods to determine the IgG concentration that are simple, rapid, and inexpensive. This work explored the potential of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy as a method to determine IgG concentrations in human serum samples. Venous blood samples were collected from adults and children, and from the umbilical cord of newborns. The serum was harvested and tested using ATR infrared spectroscopy. Partial least squares (PLS) regression provided the basis to develop the new analytical methods. Three PLS calibrations were determined: one for the combined set of the venous and umbilical cord serum samples, the second for only the umbilical cord samples, and the third for only the venous samples. The number of PLS factors was chosen by critical evaluation of Monte Carlo-based cross validation results. The predictive performance for each PLS calibration was evaluated using the Pearson correlation coefficient, scatter plot and Bland-Altman plot, and percent deviations for independent prediction sets. The repeatability was evaluated by standard deviation and relative standard deviation. The results showed that ATR infrared spectroscopy is potentially a simple, quick, and inexpensive method to measure IgG concentrations in human serum samples. The results also showed that it is possible to build a united calibration curve for the umbilical cord and the venous samples.

  12. Combining land surface temperature and shortwave infrared reflectance for early detection of mountain pine beetle infestations in western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprintsin, Michael; Chen, Jing M.; Czurylowicz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreak, which began in 1999, continues to be the leading cause of pine tree mortality in British Columbia. Information regarding the location and spatial extent of the current attack is required for mitigating practices and forest inventory updates. This information is available from spaceborne observations. Unfortunately, the monitoring of the mountain pine beetle outbreak using remote sensing is usually limited to the visible stage at which the expansion of the attack beyond its initial hosts is unpreventable. The disruption of the sap flow caused by a blue-staining fungi carried by the beetles leads to: 1. a decrease in the amount of liquid water stored in the canopy, 2. an increase in canopy temperature, and 3. an increase in shortwave infrared reflectance shortly after the infestation. As such, the potential for early beetle detection utilizing thermal remote sensing is possible. Here we present a first attempt to detect a mountain pine beetle attack at its earliest stage (green attack stage when the foliage remains visibly green after the attack) using the temperature condition index (TCI) derived from Landsat ETM+ imagery over an affected area in British Columbia. The lack of detailed ground survey data of actual green attack areas limits the accuracy of this research. Regardless, our results show that TCI has the ability to differentiate between affected and unaffected areas in the green attack stage, and thus it provides information on the possible epicenters of the attack and on the spatial extent of the outbreak at later stages (red attack and gray attack). Furthermore, we also developed a moisture condition index (MCI) using both shortwave infrared and thermal infrared measurements. The MCI index is shown to be more effective than TCI in detecting the green attack stage and provides a more accurate picture of beetle spread patterns.

  13. Deep Imaging Observations of the Lupus 3 Cloud: Dark Cloud Revealed as Infrared Reflection Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagata, Tetsuya; Sato, Shuji; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nagashima, Chie; Kato, Daisuke; Kurita, Mikio; Kawai, Toshihide; Tamura, Motohide; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Sugitani, Koji

    2003-03-01

    We carried out deep imaging observations of the Lupus 3 dark cloud in near-infrared J, H, and Ks bands. An area of ~8'×8' was observed, which corresponds to a projected area of ~0.4×0.4 pc at the distance of the cloud, ~150 pc. Lupus 3 showed itself as a near-infrared nebula that has a surface brightness higher than the adjacent sky at all the three wavelengths. In a JHKs color composite image (blue, green, and red are assigned to J, H, and Ks, respectively), three dark red cores are surrounded by a blue halo. The surface brightness was measured with 5 σ limiting magnitudes of J=21.6, H=21.3, and Ks=20.6 mag arcsec-2. The appearance of the nebula depends on the wavelength. In the J band, dark cores are surrounded by a brighter halo, while in the Ks band, the dark cores of the J band are bright except for the central part of two of the cores. The appearance in the H band is intermediate between those of the J and Ks bands, having dark cores surrounded by local maxima of the surface brightness and decreased surface brightness farther out. The surface brightness is J=20.6, H=19.8, and Ks=19.4 mag arcsec-2 at the maximum in each band. Photometry of the point sources was done with 10 σ limiting magnitudes of J=20.1, H=18.8, and Ks=17.7. We constructed an extinction map of the background stars, using the H-K color of 1974 sources and the standard reddening law of Rieke & Lebofsky. The maximum value for the extinction is AV=47 mag. There are three local maxima of the extinction with AV>~30 mag, which we consider to be dense cores. Their positions agree with the cores identified with the surface brightness appearance. The surface brightness and its relationship with the extinction are understood in terms of scattering of starlight by dust. The values of the maximum surface brightness can be explained by scattering of starlight by dust in the cloud if we adopt a model of grain size distribution by Weingartner & Draine.

  14. Direct determination of rosmarinic acid in Lamiaceae herbs using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Saltas, Dimitrios; Pappas, Christos S; Daferera, Dimitra; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2013-04-01

    For the determination of rosmarinic acid (RA) directly in pulverized plant material, a method is developed using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) without any physicochemical pretreatment of samples. The RA content of 11 samples of eight different Lamiaceae herbs, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), varied between 86 ± 1 mg/g (in lemon balm) and 12.0 ± 0.8 mg/g (in hyssop) of dried plant material. The 11 samples and 50 other additional samples, which were prepared by mixing initial samples with KBr, were measured using DRIFTS. The second derivative of the spectral region 1344-806 cm(-1) was used and the corresponding data were analyzed using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The correlation between infrared spectral analysis and HPLC measurements shows that the DRIFTS method is sufficiently accurate, simple, and rapid. The RA content of the 11 Lamiaceae samples determined by DRIFTS ranged from 81 ± 4 mg/g (in lemon balm) to 12 ± 3 mg/g (in hyssop) of dried plant material. PMID:23496773

  15. Detection and identification of explosive particles in fingerprints using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mou, Yongyan; Rabalais, J Wayne

    2009-07-01

    The application of attenuated total reflection (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy for detection of explosive particles in fingerprints is described. The combined functions of ATR-FTIR spectromicroscopy are visual searching of particles in fingerprints and measuring the FTIR spectra of the particles. These functions make it possible to directly identify whether a suspect has handled explosives from the fingerprints alone. Particles in explosive contaminated fingerprints are either ingredients of the explosives, finger residues, or other foreign materials. These cannot normally be discriminated by their morphology alone. ATR-FTIR spectra can provide both particle morphology and composition. Fingerprints analyzed by ATR-FTIR can be used for further analysis and identification because of its non-destructive character. Fingerprints contaminated with three different types of explosives, or potential explosives, have been analyzed herein. An infrared spectral library was searched in order to identify the explosive residues. The acquired spectra are compared to those of finger residue alone, in order to differentiate such residue from explosive residue.

  16. Fan-shaped gold nanoantennas above reflective substrates for surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao; Brown, Lisa V.; Zhao, Ke; Zheng, Bob Y.; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J.

    2015-08-01

    Surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) has been gaining substantial attention by using plasmonic nanoantennas to amplify near-field intensities so that it can extend IR spectroscopy to zeptomolar quantities and ultimately to the sigle-molecule level. Here we report a new nanoantenna for SEIRA detection, consisting of a fan-shaped Au structure positioned at a well-specified distance above a reflective plane with an intervening silica spacer layer. This antenna can be easily tuned to overlap vibrational modes within a broad spectral range from the near-IR into terahertz regimes. Our finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations reveal a maximum SEIRA enhancement factor of 105 in the antenna junction area, which is corresponding to the experimental detection of 20-200 zeptomoles of octadecanethiol, using a standard commercial FTIR spectrometer. Our optimized antenna exhibits an order of magnitude greater SEIRA sensitivity than previous record-setting designs, which opens new opportunities for using infrared spectroscopy to analyze exceptionally small quantities of molecules.

  17. Application of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mineralogical study of a landslide area, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udvardi, Beatrix; Kovács, István János; Kónya, Péter; Földvári, Mária; Füri, Judit; Budai, Ferenc; Falus, György; Fancsik, Tamás; Szabó, Csaba; Szalai, Zoltán; Mihály, Judith

    2014-11-01

    This study demonstrates that the unpolarized attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FTIR) is a practical and quick tool to distinguish different types of sediments in landslide-affected areas, and potentially other types of physical environments too. Identification and quantification of minerals by ATR FTIR is implemented on a set of powdered natural sediments from a loess landslide (Kulcs, Hungary). A protocol including sample preparation, analytical conditions and evaluation of sediment ATR spectra is outlined in order to identify and estimate major minerals in sediments. The comparison of the defined FTIR parameters against qualitative and quantitative results of X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis was used to validate the use of ATR FTIR spectroscopy for the considered sediments. The infrared band areas and their ratios (water/carbonates; silicates/carbonates; kaolinite) appear to be the most sensitive parameters to identify strongly weathered sediments such as paleosols and red clays which most likely facilitate sliding and could form sliding zones. The effect of grain size and orientation of anisotropic minerals on the wave number and intensity of some major absorption bands is also discussed.

  18. Identification of fungal phytopathogens using Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection spectroscopy and advanced statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Ahmad; Lapidot, Itshak; Pomerantz, Ami; Tsror, Leah; Shufan, Elad; Moreh, Raymond; Mordechai, Shaul; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    The early diagnosis of phytopathogens is of a great importance; it could save large economical losses due to crops damaged by fungal diseases, and prevent unnecessary soil fumigation or the use of fungicides and bactericides and thus prevent considerable environmental pollution. In this study, 18 isolates of three different fungi genera were investigated; six isolates of Colletotrichum coccodes, six isolates of Verticillium dahliae and six isolates of Fusarium oxysporum. Our main goal was to differentiate these fungi samples on the level of isolates, based on their infrared absorption spectra obtained using the Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) sampling technique. Advanced statistical and mathematical methods: principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and k-means were applied to the spectra after manipulation. Our results showed significant spectral differences between the various fungi genera examined. The use of k-means enabled classification between the genera with a 94.5% accuracy, whereas the use of PCA [3 principal components (PCs)] and LDA has achieved a 99.7% success rate. However, on the level of isolates, the best differentiation results were obtained using PCA (9 PCs) and LDA for the lower wavenumber region (800-1775 cm-1), with identification success rates of 87%, 85.5%, and 94.5% for Colletotrichum, Fusarium, and Verticillium strains, respectively.

  19. Numerical and experimental analysis of high frequency acoustic microscopy and infrared reflectance system for early detection of melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Apostolidis, Georgios; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2016-03-01

    Melanoma is a very malicious type of cancer as it metastasizes early and hence its late diagnosis leads to death. Consequently, early diagnosis of melanoma and its removal is considered the most effective way of treatment. We present a design of a high frequency acoustic microscopy and infrared reflectance system for the early detection of melanoma. Specifically, the identification of morphological changes related to carcinogenesis is required. In this work, we simulate of the propagation of the ultrasonic waves of the order of 100 MHz as well as of electromagnetic waves of the order of 100 THz in melanoma structures targeting to the estimation and optimization of the basic characteristics of the systems. The simulation results of the acoustic microscopy subsystem aim to provide information such as the geometry of the transducer, the center frequency of operation, the focal length where the power transmittance is optimum and the spot size in focal length. As far as the infrared is concerned the optimal frequency range and the spot illumination size of the external probe is provided. This information is next used to assemble a properly designed system which is applied to melanoma phantoms as well as real skin lesions. Finally, the measurement data are visualized to reveal the information of the experimented structures, proving noteworthy accuracy.

  20. Direct determination of rosmarinic acid in Lamiaceae herbs using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Saltas, Dimitrios; Pappas, Christos S; Daferera, Dimitra; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2013-04-01

    For the determination of rosmarinic acid (RA) directly in pulverized plant material, a method is developed using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) without any physicochemical pretreatment of samples. The RA content of 11 samples of eight different Lamiaceae herbs, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), varied between 86 ± 1 mg/g (in lemon balm) and 12.0 ± 0.8 mg/g (in hyssop) of dried plant material. The 11 samples and 50 other additional samples, which were prepared by mixing initial samples with KBr, were measured using DRIFTS. The second derivative of the spectral region 1344-806 cm(-1) was used and the corresponding data were analyzed using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The correlation between infrared spectral analysis and HPLC measurements shows that the DRIFTS method is sufficiently accurate, simple, and rapid. The RA content of the 11 Lamiaceae samples determined by DRIFTS ranged from 81 ± 4 mg/g (in lemon balm) to 12 ± 3 mg/g (in hyssop) of dried plant material.

  1. Rapid Quantification of Methamphetamine: Using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and Chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Juanita; Ayoko, Godwin; Collett, Simon; Golding, Gary

    2013-01-01

    In Australia and increasingly worldwide, methamphetamine is one of the most commonly seized drugs analysed by forensic chemists. The current well-established GC/MS methods used to identify and quantify methamphetamine are lengthy, expensive processes, but often rapid analysis is requested by undercover police leading to an interest in developing this new analytical technique. Ninety six illicit drug seizures containing methamphetamine (0.1%–78.6%) were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with an Attenuated Total Reflectance attachment and Chemometrics. Two Partial Least Squares models were developed, one using the principal Infrared Spectroscopy peaks of methamphetamine and the other a Hierarchical Partial Least Squares model. Both of these models were refined to choose the variables that were most closely associated with the methamphetamine % vector. Both of the models were excellent, with the principal peaks in the Partial Least Squares model having Root Mean Square Error of Prediction 3.8, R2 0.9779 and lower limit of quantification 7% methamphetamine. The Hierarchical Partial Least Squares model had lower limit of quantification 0.3% methamphetamine, Root Mean Square Error of Prediction 5.2 and R2 0.9637. Such models offer rapid and effective methods for screening illicit drug samples to determine the percentage of methamphetamine they contain. PMID:23936058

  2. Simultaneous infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance measurements for in situ studies of the metal/atmosphere interface

    SciTech Connect

    Aastrup, T.; Leygraf, C.

    1997-09-01

    A new experimental setup for in situ studies of the metal/atmosphere interface has been developed based on simultaneous infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements of a metal surface. It consists of an in situ chamber in which the metal can be exposed to a well-controlled atmosphere. Four external devices are connected to the in situ chamber; a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer with external optical compartments, a QCM sensor probe with a frequency counter, a corrosive air generator, and a corrosive air analyzing system. In order to demonstrate the capability of the IRAS/QCM setup, copper was exposed to purified air at 80% relative humidity and 25 C. Under these exposure conditions, the interface between copper and air consists of cuprous oxide and water physisorbed on the oxide. The kinetics of the cuprous oxide formation could be followed in situ with both techniques. The combined IRAS/QCM results show excellent agreement with previous combined IRAS and cathodic reduction measurements and with optical calculations of the IRAS response. Under these conditions, the detection limit in terms of an equivalent Cu{sub 2}O film thickness is 10 {angstrom} for IRAS in situ analysis and 2 {angstrom} for QCM in situ analysis, respectively.

  3. Validation of MODIS-derived bidirectional reflectivity retrieval algorithm in mid-infrared channel with field measurements.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bo-Hui; Wu, Hua-; Li, Zhao-Liang; Nerry, Françoise

    2012-07-30

    This work addressed the validation of the MODIS-derived bidirectional reflectivity retrieval algorithm in mid-infrared (MIR) channel, proposed by Tang and Li [Int. J. Remote Sens. 29, 4907 (2008)], with ground-measured data, which were collected from a field campaign that took place in June 2004 at the ONERA (Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales) center of Fauga-Mauzac, on the PIRRENE (Programme Interdisciplinaire de Recherche sur la Radiométrie en Environnement Extérieur) experiment site [Opt. Express 15, 12464 (2007)]. The leaving-surface spectral radiances measured by a BOMEM (MR250 Series) Fourier transform interferometer were used to calculate the ground brightness temperatures with the combination of the inversion of the Planck function and the spectral response functions of MODIS channels 22 and 23, and then to estimate the ground brightness temperature without the contribution of the solar direct beam and the bidirectional reflectivity by using Tang and Li's proposed algorithm. On the other hand, the simultaneously measured atmospheric profiles were used to obtain the atmospheric parameters and then to calculate the ground brightness temperature without the contribution of the solar direct beam, based on the atmospheric radiative transfer equation in the MIR region. Comparison of those two kinds of brightness temperature obtained by two different methods indicated that the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the brightness temperatures estimated respectively using Tang and Li's algorithm and the atmospheric radiative transfer equation is 1.94 K. In addition, comparison of the hemispherical-directional reflectances derived by Tang and Li's algorithm with those obtained from the field measurements showed that the RMSE is 0.011, which indicates that Tang and Li's algorithm is feasible to retrieve the bidirectional reflectivity in MIR channel from MODIS data.

  4. Dehydration of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to the trihydrate under ambient conditions as observed via dynamic infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Mausolf, Edward J.; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; McNamara, Bruce K.

    2015-05-01

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle, but is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] (UNH) and the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3] (UNT) forms. Their stabilities depend on both relative humidity and temperature. Both phases have previously been studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy, but the data were limited by both instrumental resolution and the ability to prepare the samples as pellets without desiccating it. We report time-resolved infrared (IR) measurements using an integrating sphere that allow us to observe the transformation from the hexahydrate to the trihydrate simply by flowing dry nitrogen gas over the sample. Hexahydrate samples were prepared and confirmed via known XRD patterns, then measured in reflectance mode. The hexahydrate has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm-1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample dehydrates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a blue edge shoulder but ultimately resulting in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm-1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT since UNT has two non-equivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a morphological and structural change that has the lustrous lime green crystals changing to the dull greenish yellow of the trihydrate. Crystal structures and phase transformation were confirmed theoretically using DFT calculations and experimentally via microscopy methods. Both methods showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, as opposed to a single crystallographic site in the hexahydrate.

  5. Assessment of remineralized dentin lesions with thermal and near-infrared reflectance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Accurate detection and measurement of the highly mineralized surface layer that forms on caries lesions is important for the diagnosis of lesion activity. Previous studies have demonstrated that optical imaging methods can be used to measure the degree of remineralization on enamel lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine if thermal and near-IR reflectance imaging could be used to assess the remineralization process in simulated dentin lesions. Artificial bovine (n=15) dentin lesions were prepared by immersion in a demineralization solution for 24 hours and they were subsequently placed in an acidic remineralization solution for up to 12 days. The samples were dehydrated using an air spray for 30 seconds and imaged using thermal and InGaAs cameras. The area enclosed by the time-temperature curve, ΔQ, from thermal imaging decreased significantly with longer periods of remineralization. However, near-IR reflectance intensity differences, ΔI, before and after dehydration failed to show any significant relationship with the degree of remineralization. This study shows that thermal imaging can be used for the assessment of the remineralization of dentin lesions. PMID:27006522

  6. Selective removal of demineralization using near infrared cross polarization reflectance and a carbon dioxide laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Lasers can ablate/remove tissue in a non-contact mode of operation and a pulsed laser beam does not interfere with the ability to image the tooth surface, therefore lasers are ideally suited for integration with imaging devices for image-guided ablation. Laser energy can be rapidly and efficiently delivered to tooth surfaces using a digitally controlled laser beam scanning system for precise and selective laser ablation with minimal loss of healthy tissues. Under the appropriate irradiation conditions such laser energy can induce beneficial chemical and morphological changes in the walls of the drilled cavity that can increase resistance to further dental decay and produce surfaces with enhanced adhesive properties to restorative materials. Previous studies have shown that images acquired using near-IR transillumination, optical coherence tomography and fluorescence can be used to guide the laser for selective removal of demineralized enamel. Recent studies have shown that NIR reflectance measurements at 1470-nm can be used to obtain images of enamel demineralization with very high contrast. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that image guided ablation of occlusal lesions can be successfully carried out using a NIR reflectance imaging system coupled with a carbon dioxide laser operating at 9.3-μm with high pulse repetition rates.

  7. Assessment of remineralized dentin lesions with thermal and near-infrared reflectance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Accurate detection and measurement of the highly mineralized surface layer that forms on caries lesions is important for the diagnosis of lesion activity. Previous studies have demonstrated that optical imaging methods can be used to measure the degree of remineralization on enamel lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine if thermal and near-IR reflectance imaging could be used to assess the remineralization process in simulated dentin lesions. Artificial bovine (n=15) dentin lesions were prepared by immersion in a demineralization solution for 24 hours and they were subsequently placed in an acidic remineralization solution for up to 12 days. The samples were dehydrated using an air spray for 30 seconds and imaged using thermal and InGaAs cameras. The area enclosed by the time-temperature curve, ΔQ, from thermal imaging decreased significantly with longer periods of remineralization. However, near-IR reflectance intensity differences, ΔI, before and after dehydration failed to show any significant relationship with the degree of remineralization. This study shows that thermal imaging can be used for the assessment of the remineralization of dentin lesions.

  8. The infrared optical constants of sulfuric acid at 250 K. [spectral reflectance measurement of aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkley, L. W.; Williams, D.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for measurements of the IR spectral reflectance at near-normal incidence of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid with acid concentrations of 75% and 95.6% by weight. Kramers-Kronig analyses of the reflectance data are employed to obtain values of the optical constants n(nu) and k(nu) in the spectral range from 400 to 6000 cm to the -1 power. The optical constants of these solutions at 250 K and 300 K are compared. It is found that in spectral regions remote from strong absorption bands, the values of the n(nu) indices obtained at 250 K agree with the values given by Lorentz-Lorenz correction of the same indices at 300 K. All absorption bands observed at 300 K are found to be present at 250 K with slight shifts in frequency and with significant differences in the k(nu) indices at the band maxima. Based on these results, it is concluded that the clouds of Venus probably consist of droplets of aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid with acid concentrations of about 75% by weight.

  9. Detection of changes in leaf water content using near- and middle-infrared reflectances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Rock, Barrett N.

    1989-01-01

    A method to detect plant water stress by remote sensing is proposed using indices of near-IR and mid-IR wavelengths. The ability of the Leaf Water Content Index (LWCI) to determine leaf relative water content (RWC) is tested on species with different leaf morphologies. The way in which the Misture Stress Index (MSI) varies with RWC is studied. On test with several species, it is found that LWCI is equal to RWC, although the reflectances at 1.6 microns for two different RWC must be known to accurately predict unknown RWC. A linear correlation is found between MSI and RWC with each species having a different regression equation. Also, MSI is correlated with log sub 10 Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT) with data for all species falling on the same regression line. It is found that the minimum significant change of RWC that could be detected by appying the linear regression equation of MSI to EWT is 52 percent. Because the natural RWC variation from water stress is about 20 percent for most species, it is concluded that the near-IR and mid-IR reflectances cannot be used to remotely sense water stress.

  10. [Rapid quantitative analysis of hydrocarbon composition of furfural extract oils using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Hu, Ai-Qin; Liu, Wei; Song, Chun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Yu; Song, Yi-Chang; He, Qi-Jun; Liu, Sha; Xu, Xiao-Xuan

    2014-07-01

    A set of rapid analysis system for hydrocarbon composition of heavy oils was designed using attenuated total reflection FTIR spectrometer and chemometrics to determine the hydrocarbon composition of furfural extract oils. Sixty two extract oil samples were collected and their saturates and aromatics content data were determined according to the standard NB/SH/T0509-2010, then the total contents of resins plus asphaltenes were calculated by the subtraction method in the percentage of weight. Based on the partial least squares (PLS), calibration models for saturates, aromatics, and resin+asphaltene contents were established using attenuated total reflection FTIR spectroscopy, with their SEC, 1.43%, 0.91% and 1.61%, SEP, 1.56%, 1.24% and 1.81%, respectively, meeting the accuracy and repeatability required for the standard. Compared to the present standard method, the efficiency of hydrocarbon composition analysis for furfural extract oils is significantly improved by the new method which is rapid and simple. The system could also be used for other heavy oil analysis, with excellent extension and application foreground.

  11. The Advantages of an Attenuated Total Internal Reflection Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging Approach for Kidney Biopsy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gulley-Stahl, Heather J.; Bledsoe, Sharon B.; Evan, Andrew P.; Sommer, André J.

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of an ATR-FTIR imaging approach for kidney biopsy analysis are described. Biopsy sections collected from kidney stone formers are analyzed at the initial stages of stone development to provide insights into stone growth and formation. The majority of tissue analysis currently conducted with IR microspectroscopy is performed with a transflection method. The research presented in this manuscript demonstrates that ATR overcomes many of the disadvantages of transflection or transmission measurements for tissue analysis including an elimination of spectral artifacts. When kidney biopsies with small mineral inclusions are analyzed with a transflection approach, specular reflection, and the Christiansen effect (anomalous dispersion) can occur leading to spectral artifacts. Another effect specific to the analysis of mineral inclusions present in kidney biopsies is known as the reststrahlen effect where the inclusions become strong reflectors near an absorption band. ATR eliminates these effects by immersing the sample in a high index medium. Additionally, the focused beam size for ATR is decreased by a factor of four when a germanium internal reflection element is used, allowing the acquisition of spectra from small mineral inclusions several micrometers in diameter. If quantitative analysis of small mineral inclusions is ultimately desired, ATR provides the photometrically accurate spectra necessary for quantification. PMID:20132593

  12. Characterizing and Authenticating Montilla-Moriles PDO Vinegars Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) Technology

    PubMed Central

    De la Haba, María-José; Arias, Mar; Ramírez, Pilar; López, María-Isabel; Sánchez, María-Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for characterizing Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) “Vinagres de Montilla-Moriles” wine vinegars and for classifying them as a function of the manufacturing process used. Three spectrophotometers were evaluated for this purpose: two monochromator instruments (Foss NIRSystems 6500 SY-I and Foss NIRSystems 6500 SY-II; spectral range 400–2,500 nm in both cases) and a diode-array instrument (Corona 45 VIS/NIR; spectral range 380–1,700 nm). A total of 70 samples were used to predict major chemical quality parameters (total acidity, fixed acidity, volatile acidity, pH, dry extract, ash, acetoin, methanol, total polyphenols, color (tonality and intensity), and alcohol content), and to construct models for the classification of vinegars as a function of the manufacturing method used. The results obtained indicate that this non-invasive technology can be used successfully by the vinegar industry and by PDO regulators for the routine analysis of vinegars in order to authenticate them and to detect potential fraud. Slightly better results were achieved with the two monochromator instruments. The findings also highlight the potential of these NIR instruments for predicting the manufacturing process used, this being of particular value for the industrial authentication of traditional wine vinegars. PMID:24561402

  13. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for predicting amino acids content in intact processed animal proteins.

    PubMed

    De la Haba, Maria José; Garrido-Varo, Ana; Guerrero-Ginel, José Emilio; Pérez-Marín, Dolores C

    2006-10-01

    Near-infrared calibrations were developed for the instantaneous prediction of amino acids composition of processed animal proteins (PAPs). Two sample presentation modes were compared (ground vs intact) for demonstrating the viability of the analysis in the intact form, avoiding the need for milling. Modified partial least-squares (MPLS) equations for the prediction of amino acids in PAPs were developed using the same set of samples (N = 92 PAPs) analyzed in ground and intact form and in three cups differing in the optical window size. The standard error for cross validation (SECV) and the coefficient of determination (1-VR) values yielded with the calibrations developed using the samples analyzed in the intact form showed similar or even better accuracy than those obtained with finely ground samples. The excellent predictive ability (1-VR > 0.90; CV < 3.0%) obtained for the prediction of amino acids in intact processed animal proteins opens an enormous expectative for the on-line implementation of NIRS technology in the processing and marketing of these important protein feed ingredients, alleviating the costs and time associated with the routine quality controls.

  14. Characterizing and authenticating Montilla-Moriles PDO vinegars using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology.

    PubMed

    De la Haba, María-José; Arias, Mar; Ramírez, Pilar; López, María-Isabel; Sánchez, María-Teresa

    2014-02-20

    This study assessed the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for characterizing Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) "Vinagres de Montilla-Moriles" wine vinegars and for classifying them as a function of the manufacturing process used. Three spectrophotometers were evaluated for this purpose: two monochromator instruments (Foss NIRSystems 6500 SY-I and Foss NIRSystems 6500 SY-II; spectral range 400-2,500 nm in both cases) and a diode-array instrument (Corona 45 VIS/NIR; spectral range 380-1,700 nm). A total of 70 samples were used to predict major chemical quality parameters (total acidity, fixed acidity, volatile acidity, pH, dry extract, ash, acetoin, methanol, total polyphenols, color (tonality and intensity), and alcohol content), and to construct models for the classification of vinegars as a function of the manufacturing method used. The results obtained indicate that this non-invasive technology can be used successfully by the vinegar industry and by PDO regulators for the routine analysis of vinegars in order to authenticate them and to detect potential fraud. Slightly better results were achieved with the two monochromator instruments. The findings also highlight the potential of these NIR instruments for predicting the manufacturing process used, this being of particular value for the industrial authentication of traditional wine vinegars.

  15. Hyperspectral near-infrared reflectance imaging for detection of defect tomatoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoonsoo; Kim, Moon S.; Jeong, Danhee; Chao, Kuanglin; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Delwiche, Stephen R.

    2011-06-01

    Cuticle cracks on tomatoes are potential sites of pathogenic infection that may cause deleterious consequences both to consumer health and to fresh and fresh-cut produce markets. The feasibility of hyperspectral near-infrared imaging technique in the spectral range of 1000 nm to 1700 nm was investigated for detecting defects on tomatoes. Spectral information obtained from the regions of interest on both defect areas and sound areas were analyzed to determine some an optimal waveband ratio that could be used for further image processing to discriminate defect areas from the sound tomato surfaces. Unsupervised multivariate analysis method, such as principal component analysis, was also explored to improve detection accuracy. Threshold values for the optimized features were determined using linear discriminant analysis. Results showed that tomatoes with defects could be differentiated from the sound ones, with an overall accuracy of 94.4%. The spectral wavebands and image processing algorithms determined in this study could be used for multispectral inspection of defects tomatoes.

  16. Pulsed infrared radiation excites cultured neonatal spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons by modulating mitochondrial calcium cycling.

    PubMed

    Lumbreras, Vicente; Bas, Esperanza; Gupta, Chhavi; Rajguru, Suhrud M

    2014-09-15

    Cochlear implants are currently the most effective solution for profound sensorineural hearing loss, and vestibular prostheses are under development to treat bilateral vestibulopathies. Electrical current spread in these neuroprostheses limits channel independence and, in some cases, may impair their performance. In comparison, optical stimuli that are spatially confined may result in a significant functional improvement. Pulsed infrared radiation (IR) has previously been shown to elicit responses in neurons. This study analyzes the response of neonatal rat spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons in vitro to IR (wavelength = 1,863 nm) using Ca(2+) imaging. Both types of neurons responded consistently with robust intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) transients that matched the low-frequency IR pulses applied (4 ms, 0.25-1 pps). Radiant exposures of ∼637 mJ/cm(2) resulted in continual neuronal activation. Temperature or [Ca(2+)] variations in the media did not alter the IR-evoked transients, ruling out extracellular Ca(2+) involvement or primary mediation by thermal effects on the plasma membrane. While blockage of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) plasma membrane channels did not alter the IR-evoked response, blocking of mitochondrial Ca(2+) cycling with CGP-37157 or ruthenium red reversibly inhibited the IR-evoked [Ca(2+)]i transients. Additionally, the magnitude of the IR-evoked transients was dependent on ryanodine and cyclopiazonic acid-dependent Ca(2+) release. These results suggest that IR modulation of intracellular calcium cycling contributes to stimulation of spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons. As a whole, the results suggest selective excitation of neurons in the IR beam path and the potential of IR stimulation in future auditory and vestibular prostheses.

  17. Remote modulation of neural activities via near-infrared triggered release of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Luo, Rongcong; Lin, Xudong; Jadhav, Amol D; Zhang, Zicong; Yan, Li; Chan, Chung-Yuan; Chen, Xianfeng; He, Jufang; Chen, Chia-Hung; Shi, Peng

    2015-10-01

    The capability to remotely control the release of biomolecules provides an unique opportunity to monitor and regulate neural signaling, which spans extraordinary spatial and temporal scales. While various strategies, including local perfusion, molecular "uncaging", or photosensitive polymeric materials, have been applied to achieve controlled releasing of neuro-active substances, it is still challenging to adopt these technologies in many experimental contexts that require a straightforward but versatile loading-releasing mechanism. Here, we develop a synthetic strategy for remotely controllable releasing of neuro-modulating molecules. This platform is based on microscale composite hydrogels that incorporate polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles as photo-thermal transducers and is triggered by near-infrared-light (NIR) irradiation. Specifically, we first demonstrate the utility of our technology by recapitulating the "turning assay" and "collapse assay", which involve localized treatment of chemotactic factors (e.g. Netrin or Semaphorin 3A) to subcellular neural elements and have been extensively used in studying axonal pathfinding. On a network scale, the photo-sensitive microgels are also validated for light-controlled releasing of neurotransmitters (e.g. glutamate). A single NIR-triggered release is sufficient to change the dynamics of a cultured hippocampal neuron network. Taking the advantage of NIR's capability to penetrate deep into live tissue, this technology is further shown to work similarly well in vivo, which is evidenced by synchronized spiking activity in response to NIR-triggered delivery of glutamate in rat auditory cortex, demonstrating remote control of brain activity without any genetic modifications. Notably, our nano-composite microgels are capable of delivering various molecules, ranging from small chemicals to large proteins, without involving any crosslinking chemistry. Such great versatility and ease-of-use will likely make our optically

  18. Pulsed infrared radiation excites cultured neonatal spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons by modulating mitochondrial calcium cycling

    PubMed Central

    Lumbreras, Vicente; Bas, Esperanza; Gupta, Chhavi

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants are currently the most effective solution for profound sensorineural hearing loss, and vestibular prostheses are under development to treat bilateral vestibulopathies. Electrical current spread in these neuroprostheses limits channel independence and, in some cases, may impair their performance. In comparison, optical stimuli that are spatially confined may result in a significant functional improvement. Pulsed infrared radiation (IR) has previously been shown to elicit responses in neurons. This study analyzes the response of neonatal rat spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons in vitro to IR (wavelength = 1,863 nm) using Ca2+ imaging. Both types of neurons responded consistently with robust intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) transients that matched the low-frequency IR pulses applied (4 ms, 0.25–1 pps). Radiant exposures of ∼637 mJ/cm2 resulted in continual neuronal activation. Temperature or [Ca2+] variations in the media did not alter the IR-evoked transients, ruling out extracellular Ca2+ involvement or primary mediation by thermal effects on the plasma membrane. While blockage of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ plasma membrane channels did not alter the IR-evoked response, blocking of mitochondrial Ca2+ cycling with CGP-37157 or ruthenium red reversibly inhibited the IR-evoked [Ca2+]i transients. Additionally, the magnitude of the IR-evoked transients was dependent on ryanodine and cyclopiazonic acid-dependent Ca2+ release. These results suggest that IR modulation of intracellular calcium cycling contributes to stimulation of spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons. As a whole, the results suggest selective excitation of neurons in the IR beam path and the potential of IR stimulation in future auditory and vestibular prostheses. PMID:24920028

  19. Diffuse near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy during heatstroke in a mouse model: pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abookasis, David; Zafrir, Elad; Nesher, Elimelech; Pinhasov, Albert; Sternklar, Shmuel; Mathews, Marlon S.

    2012-10-01

    Heatstroke, a form of hyperthermia, is a life-threatening condition characterized by an elevated core body temperature that rises above 40°C (104°F) and central nervous system dysfunction that results in delirium, convulsions, or coma. Without emergency treatment, the victim lapses into a coma and death soon follows. The study presented was conducted with a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) setup to assess the effects of brain dysfunction that occurred during heatstroke in mice model (n=6). It was hypothesized that DRS can be utilized in small animal studies to monitor change in internal brain tissue temperature during heatstroke injury since it induces a sequence of pathologic changes that change the tissue composition and structure. Heatstroke was induced by exposure of the mice body under general anesthesia, to a high ambient temperature. A type of DRS in which the brain tissue was illuminated through the intact scalp with a broadband light source and diffuse reflected spectra was employed, taking in the spectral region between 650 and 1000 nm and acquired at an angle of 90 deg at a position on the scalp ˜12 mm from the illumination site. The temperature at the onset of the experiment was ˜34°C (rectal temperature) with increasing intervals of 1°C until mouse death. The increase in temperature caused optical scattering signal changes consistent with a structural alteration of brain tissue, ultimately resulting in death. We have found that the peak absorbance intensity and its second derivative at specific wavelengths correlate well with temperature with an exponential dependence. Based on these findings, in order to estimate the influence of temperature on the internal brain tissue a reflectance-temperature index was established and was seen to correlate as well with measured temperature. Overall, results indicate variations in neural tissue properties during heatstroke and the feasibility to monitor and assess internal temperature variations using

  20. Can Teaching Be Evaluated through Reflection on Student Performance in Continuous Assessment? A Case Study of Practical Engineering Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNabola, Aonghus; O'Farrell, Ciara

    2015-01-01

    Research and practice is presented on the use of student assessments as part of reflective practice to evaluate teaching. Case studies are presented in the delivery of Engineering modules across a number of years at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Both student performance in continuous assessment and student feedback on assessments…

  1. Simultaneous probing of bulk liquid phase and catalytic gas-liquid-solid interface under working conditions using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Meemken, Fabian; Müller, Philipp; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Baiker, Alfons

    2014-08-15

    Design and performance of a reactor set-up for attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy suitable for simultaneous reaction monitoring of bulk liquid and catalytic solid-liquid-gas interfaces under working conditions are presented. As advancement of in situ spectroscopy an operando methodology for gas-liquid-solid reaction monitoring was developed that simultaneously combines catalytic activity and molecular level detection at the catalytically active site of the same sample. Semi-batch reactor conditions are achieved with the analytical set-up by implementing the ATR-IR flow-through cell in a recycle reactor system and integrating a specifically designed gas feeding system coupled with a bubble trap. By the use of only one spectrometer the design of the new ATR-IR reactor cell allows for simultaneous detection of the bulk liquid and the catalytic interface during the working reaction. Holding two internal reflection elements (IRE) the sample compartments of the horizontally movable cell are consecutively flushed with reaction solution and pneumatically actuated, rapid switching of the cell (<1 s) enables to quasi simultaneously follow the heterogeneously catalysed reaction at the catalytic interface on a catalyst-coated IRE and in the bulk liquid on a blank IRE. For a complex heterogeneous reaction, the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone on chirally modified Pt catalyst the elucidation of catalytic activity/enantioselectivity coupled with simultaneous monitoring of the catalytic solid-liquid-gas interface is shown. Both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity are strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. The opportunity to gain improved understanding by coupling measurements of catalytic performance and spectroscopic detection is presented. In addition, the applicability of modulation excitation spectroscopy and phase-sensitive detection are demonstrated.

  2. Infrared spectroscopy of Comet Kohoutek. [and reflection studies of frost spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, U.

    1975-01-01

    Interferometry observations from 90-in. and 61-in. telescopes tracking the Comet Kohoutek are summarized. Laboratory reflection studies of ices potentially useful for future cometary work were conducted. The frosts studied included: H2O, CO2 NH3, H2S, CH4, NH4HS, and ammonia polysulfide. The frost spectra show remarkable changes with the temperatures, particularly in the case of hydrogen sulfide. Additional analysis found the variation in the H2S ice spectrum to be due to a phase change from a low temperature tetragonal unit cube to a higher temperature face-centered cubic structure. The spectra data indicate that if frost spectra are required for comparison with observed cometary or planetary absorption, the temperature of the frost must be matched.

  3. The effects of atmospheric pressure on infrared reflectance spectra of Martian analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Pieters, Carle M.; Pratt, Stephen F.; Patterson, William

    1993-01-01

    The use of terrestrial samples as analogs of Mars soils are complicated by the Martian atmosphere. Spectral features due to the Martian atmosphere can be removed from telescopic spectra of Mars and ISM spectra of Mars, but this does not account for any spectral differences resulting from atmospheric pressure or any interactions between the atmosphere and the surface. We are examining the effects of atmospheric pressure on reflectance spectra of powdered samples in the laboratory. Contrary to a previous experiment with granite, no significant changes in albedo or the Christiansen feature were observed from 1 bar pressure down to a pressure of 8 micrometers Hg. However, reducing the atmospheric pressure does have a pronounced affect on the hydration features, even for samples retained in a dry environment for years.

  4. Measurements of thermal infrared spectral reflectance of frost, snow, and ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, John W.; D'Aria, Dana M.; Wald, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Because much of Earth's surface is covered by frost, snow, and ice, the spectral emissivities of these materials are a significant input to radiation balance calculations in global atmospheric circulation and climate change models. Until now, however, spectral emissivities of frost and snow have been calculated from the optical constants of ice. We have measured directional hemispherical reflectance spectra of frost, snow, and ice from which emissivities can be predicted using Kirchhoff's law (e = 1-R). These measured spectra show that contrary to conclusions about the emissivity of snow drawn from previously calculated spectra, snow emissivity departs significantly from blackbody behavior in the 8-14 micrometer region of the spectrum; snow emissivity decreases with both increasing particle size and increasing density due to packing or grain welding; while snow emissivity increases due to the presence of meltwater.

  5. Iron oxide bands in the visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra of primitive asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarvis, Kandy S.; Vilas, Faith; Gaffey, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    High resolution reflectance spectra of primitive asteroids (C, P, and D class and associated subclasses) have commonly revealed an absorption feature centered at 0.7 microns attributed to an Fe(2+)-Fe(3+) charge transfer transition in iron oxides and/or oxidized iron in phyllosilicates. A smaller feature identified at 0.43 microns has been attributed to an Fe(3+) spin-forbidden transition in iron oxides. In the spectra of the two main-belt primitive asteroids 368 Haidea (D) and 877 Walkure (F), weak absorption features which were centered near the location of 0.60-0.65 microns and 0.80-0.90 microns prompted a search for features at these wavelengths and an attempt to identify their origin(s). The CCD reflectance spectra obtained between 1982-1992 were reviewed for similar absorption features located near these wavelengths. The spectra of asteroids in which these absorption features have been identified are shown. These spectra are plotted in order of increasing heliocentric distance. No division of the asteroids by class has been attempted here (although the absence of these features in the anhydrous S-class asteroids, many of which have presumably undergone full heating and differentiation should be noted). For this study, each spectrum was treated as a continuum with discrete absorption features superimposed on it. For each object, a linear least squares fit to the data points defined a simple linear continuum. The linear continuum was then divided into each spectrum, thus removing the sloped continuum and permitting the intercomparison of residual spectral features.

  6. [Study on Paddy Soil Chronosequences Based on Visiblc-Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectra].

    PubMed

    Wu, Deng-wei; Zhang, Gan-lin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate spectral characteristics of different soil compositions, eight soil profiles from two paddy soil chronosequences developed on red clays and red sandstones respectively were collected in Jiangxi Province. A total of 37 soil samples were taken from each soil horizons of the profiles. The paddy soil chronosequences were chosen mainly because all soil profiles have the same land management and thus parent materials and rice cultivation time would be two major soil formative factors. This makes it possible to study spectral response characteristics of soil organic matter (SOM) and parent material characteristics. We measured diffuse reflectance spectra data of soil samples using the Cary 5000 spectrophotometer at 350-2500 nm spectral range. Spectral response characteristics of SOM and inorganic minerals in paddy soils were analyzed according to different soil horizons, soil forming times and parent materials. Experiment results showed that for soil samples from a single parent material, overall reflectance presented by PC_1 score can be calibrated for soil organic matter (SOM) content with high precision (R(RC)² = 0.91, R(RS)² = 0.79), even though the SOM content was low (not more than 20 g · kg⁻¹). The absorption strength (AS) at 1400, 1900 and 2200 nm was mainly affected by the minerals inherited from parent materials. And the more the sample was near to bottom of a soil profile, the higher the AS value. Samples with the same mineral components had the similar AS ratio among these three wavelength locations. The differences in parent materials can significantly affect spectral curve shape and spectral absorption strength. To make the calibration more interpretative, parent material factors should be considered. PMID:26964213

  7. Early detection of melanoma with the combined use of acoustic microscopy, infrared reflectance and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiannis, Georgios T.; Grivas, Ioannis; Tsingotjidou, Anastasia; Apostolidis, Georgios K.; Grigoriadou, Ifigeneia; Dori, I.; Poulatsidou, Kyriaki-Nefeli; Doumas, Argyrios; Wesarg, Stefan; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2015-03-01

    Malignant melanoma is a form of skin cancer, with increasing incidence worldwide. Early diagnosis is crucial for the prognosis and treatment of the disease. The objective of this study is to develop a novel animal model of melanoma and apply a combination of the non-invasive imaging techniques acoustic microscopy, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies, for the detection of developing tumors. Acoustic microscopy provides information about the 3D structure of the tumor, whereas, both spectroscopic modalities give qualitative insight of biochemical changes during melanoma development. In order to efficiently set up the final devices, propagation of ultrasonic and electromagnetic waves in normal skin and melanoma simulated structures was performed. Synthetic and grape-extracted melanin (simulated tumors), endermally injected, were scanned and compared to normal skin. For both cases acoustic microscopy with central operating frequencies of 110MHz and 175MHz were used, resulting to the tomographic imaging of the simulated tumor, while with the spectroscopic modalities IR and Raman differences among spectra of normal and melanin- injected sites were identified in skin depth. Subsequently, growth of actual tumors in an animal melanoma model, with the use of human malignant melanoma cells was achieved. Acoustic microscopy and IR and Raman spectroscopies were also applied. The development of tumors at different time points was displayed using acoustic microscopy. Moreover, the changes of the IR and Raman spectra were studied between the melanoma tumors and adjacent healthy skin. The most significant changes between healthy skin and the melanoma area were observed in the range of 900-1800cm-1 and 350-2000cm-1, respectively.

  8. Potential of near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging for screening of farm feed contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenbo; Paliwal, Jitendra

    2005-09-01

    With the outbreak of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) (commonly known as mad cow disease) in 1987 in the United Kingdom and a recent case discovered in Alberta, more and more emphasis is placed on food and farm feed quality and safety issues internationally. The disease is believed to be spread through farm feed contamination by animal byproducts in the form of meat-and-bone-meal (MBM). The paper reviewed the available techniques necessary to the enforcement of legislation concerning the feed safety issues. The standard microscopy method, although highly sensitive, is laborious and costly. A method to routinely screen farm feed contamination certainly helps to reduce the complexity of safety inspection. A hyperspectral imaging system working in the near-infrared wavelength region of 1100-1600 nm was used to study the possibility of detection of ground broiler feed contamination by ground pork. Hyperspectral images of raw broiler feed, ground broiler feed, ground pork, and contaminated feed samples were acquired. Raw broiler feed samples were found to possess comparatively large spectral variations due to light scattering effect. Ground feed adulterated with 1%, 3%, 5%, and 10% of ground pork was tested to identify feed contamination. Discriminant analysis using Mahalanobis distance showed that the model trained using pure ground feed samples and pure ground pork samples resulted in 100% false negative errors for all test replicates of contaminated samples. A discriminant model trained with pure ground feed samples and 10% contamination level samples resulted in 12.5% false positive error and 0% false negative error.

  9. Rapid detection of kernel rots and mycotoxins in maize by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Berardo, Nicola; Pisacane, Vincenza; Battilani, Paola; Scandolara, Andrea; Pietri, Amedeo; Marocco, Adriano

    2005-10-19

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a practical spectroscopic procedure for the detection of organic compounds in matter. It is particularly useful because of its nondestructiveness, accuracy, rapid response, and easy operation. This work assesses the applicability of NIR for the rapid identification of micotoxigenic fungi and their toxic metabolites produced in naturally and artificially contaminated products. Two hundred and eighty maize samples were collected both from naturally contaminated maize crops grown in 16 areas in north-central Italy and from ears artificially inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides. All samples were analyzed for fungi infection, ergosterol, and fumonisin B1 content. The results obtained indicated that NIR could accurately predict the incidence of kernels infected by fungi, and by F. verticillioides in particular, as well as the quantity of ergosterol and fumonisin B1 in the meal. The statistics of the calibration and of the cross-validation for mold infection and for ergosterol and fumonisin B1 contents were significant. The best predictive ability for the percentage of global fungal infection and F. verticillioides was obtained using a calibration model utilizing maize kernels (r2 = 0.75 and SECV = 7.43) and maize meals (r2 = 0.79 and SECV = 10.95), respectively. This predictive performance was confirmed by the scatter plot of measured F. verticillioides infection versus NIR-predicted values in maize kernel samples (r2 = 0.80). The NIR methodology can be applied for monitoring mold contamination in postharvest maize, in particular F. verticilliodes and fumonisin presence, to distinguish contaminated lots from clean ones, and to avoid cross-contamination with other material during storage and may become a powerful tool for monitoring the safety of the food supply.

  10. Reduction of reflection losses of PV-modules by structured surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Scheydecker, A.; Goetzberger, A.; Wittwer, V. )

    1994-08-01

    Structuring the transparent cover of solar cell modules reduces reflection losses, particularly at large angles of incidence. Relevant aspects are good transmission efficiency independent of wavelength and a low sensitivity to pollution. The macroscopic, linearly grooved structure proposed in this article shows good performance only in combination with a textured cell because large angles are likely to occur inside the structured cover. A classification is made with the concept of annual averaged transmission efficiency for the climatic zone of Freiburg. Calculations and measurements for different combinations of smooth and structured covers and solar cells are presented. From the calculated 97.8% entering the structured glass cover, a measured 93.2% can be coupled into a pyramidal textured monocrystalline solar cell. This is an absolute improvement of 17% compared to a smooth, uncoated solar cell with a smooth glass cover. Outdoor measurements showed that a textured solar cell with a structured cover has between 5 and 10% higher values of short-circuit current than a textured cell with a smooth cover.

  11. Near-opposition martian limb-darkening: Quantification and implication for visible-near-infrared bidirectional reflectance studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grenier, Muriel; Pinet, Patrick C.

    1995-06-01

    A nearly global coverage of the martian eastern hemisphere, acquired under small phase angles and varying observational geometries conditions, has been produced from 1988 opposition by spectral (0.5-1 μm) imaging data obtained at the Pic du Midi Observatory in France. From this data set, the methodology presented here permits a systematic analysis of martian photometric behavior at a regional scale of 100-300 km in the visible and near-infrared. The quantification of limb-darkening as a function of wavelength and surface albedo gives access in martian regional properties as a function of wavelength and surface albedo and results in the production of visible and near-infrared geometric albedo maps. A linear relation between the limb darkening parameter k and geometric albedo exists in the near infrared. Based on laboratory studies, it suggests a spectral response of particulate type for the martian soil. Conversely, in the visible, the value of k parameter is 0.6 independent of albedo and is consistent with a single scattering photometric behavior in the surface layer. However, the observed change in the martian photometry from single to multiple scattering may be partially due to a large contribution of atmospheric scattering above 0.7 μm. In the absence of a multitemporal dataset analysis, it must be emphasized that the present results are a priori only pertinent to the atmospheric and surface conditions existing on Mars at the time of observation. However, this analysis may contribute to characterize some physical properties, such as surface roughness. In the near-infrared, for bright terrains, k tends to 0.8 and agrees with the presence of very fine particulate materials. Photometry of dark areas is more irregular (0.48 < k < 0.64) and might result from surface roughness heterogeneities. However, a few dark areas reveal that k anomalous values in the range 0.7-0.8 may be caused by the presence of a coating of very fine materials or duricrust. Finally, we

  12. Optically controlled reflection modulator using GaAs-AlGaAs n-i-p-i/multiple-quantum-well structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, K.-K.; Simes, R. J.; Coldren, L. A.; Gossard, A. C.; Maserjian, J.

    1989-01-01

    An optically controlled reflection modulator has been demonstrated that consists of a combination of a GaAs-AlGaAs n-i-p-i doping structure with a multiple-quantum-well structures on top of a distributed Bragg reflector, all grown by MBE. A modulation of approximately 60 percent is obtained on the test structure, corresponding to a differential change of absorption coefficient in the quantum wells of approximately 7500/cm. Changes in reflectance can be observed with a control beam power as low as 1.5 microW. This device structure has the potential of being developed as an optically addressed spatial light modulator for optical information processing.

  13. Non-destructive evaluation of degradation in EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings by infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flattum, Richard Y.; Cooney, Adam T.

    2013-01-01

    At room temperature and atmospheric conditions infrared reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed for the detection of the phase transformation and residual stress within thermal barrier coatings (TBC). The TBC's samples initially consisted of the porous ceramic topcoat deposited by electron beam plasma vapor deposition, a bond coat and a superalloy substrate. Reflectance spectroscopy scans were performed from 7497 cm-1 to 68 cm-1 to analysis the fingerprint region as well as the chemical bonding region. These regions should indicate if a detectable change within the TBC response is a result of thermal degradation of the microstructure and the changes in yttrium dispersion throughout the yttrium stabilized zirconium. The thermal degradation was induced by thermal cycling the samples to 1100° C and then cooling them in an atmospheric environment. X-ray diffraction was also used to detect the phase composition within the TBC samples and see if either would clearly identify failure prior to actual spallation. The eventual measurability and quantify-ability of the phase changes within the TBC's may be used as an effective non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that would allow personnel in the field to know when servicing of the turbine blade was necessary.

  14. Analysis of captan on nitrile glove surfaces using a portable attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Phalen, R N; Que Hee, Shane S

    2005-06-01

    This study developed a method to produce uniform captan surface films on a disposable nitrile glove for quantitation with a portable attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometer. A permeation test was performed using aqueous captan formulation. Uniform captan surface films were produced using solvent casting with 2-propanol and a 25 mm filter holder connected to a vacuum manifold to control solvent evaporation. The coefficient of variation of the reflectance at 1735 +/- 5 cm(-1) was minimized by selection of the optimum solvent volume, airflow rate, and evaporation time. At room temperature, the lower to upper quantifiable limits were 0.31-20.7 microg/cm2 (r = 0.9967; p < or = 0.05) for the outer glove surface and 0.55-17.5 microg/cm2 (r = 0.9409; p < or = 0.05) for the inner surface. Relative humidity and temperature did not affect the uncoated gloves at the wavelength of captan analysis. Glove screening using ATR-FTIR was necessary as a control for between-glove variation. Captan permeation, after 8 hours exposure to an aqueous concentration of 217 mg/mL of Captan 50-WP, was detected at 0.8 +/- 0.3 microg/cm2 on the inner glove surface. ATR-FTIR can detect captan permeation and can determine the protectiveness of this glove in the field.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of optical glucose sensing in red cell concentrations using near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Maruo, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Alice W.; Shimogaki, Kazushige; Ogawa, Hideto; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood products is one of the most frequent infectious complications of transfusion. Since glucose levels in blood supplies decrease as bacteria proliferate, it should be possible to detect the presence of bacterial contamination by measuring the glucose concentrations in the blood components. Hence this study is aimed to serve as a preliminary study for the nondestructive measurement of glucose level in transfusion blood. The glucose concentrations in red blood cell (RBC) samples were predicted using near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy in the 1350 to 1850 nm wavelength region. Furthermore, the effects of donor, hematocrit level, and temperature variations among the RBC samples were observed. Results showed that the prediction performance of a dataset which contained samples that differed in all three parameters had a standard error of 29.3 mg/dL. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) preprocessing method was also found to be effective in minimizing the variations in scattering patterns created by various sample properties. The results suggest that the diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy may provide another avenue for the detection of bacterial contamination in red cell concentrations (RCC) products.

  16. Rapid Erosion Modeling in a Western Kenya Watershed using Visible Near Infrared Reflectance, Classification Tree Analysis and 137Cesium

    PubMed Central

    deGraffenried, Jeff B.; Shepherd, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    Human induced soil erosion has severe economic and environmental impacts throughout the world. It is more severe in the tropics than elsewhere and results in diminished food production and security. Kenya has limited arable land and 30 percent of the country experiences severe to very severe human induced soil degradation. The purpose of this research was to test visible near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VNIR) as a tool for rapid assessment and benchmarking of soil condition and erosion severity class. The study was conducted in the Saiwa River watershed in the northern Rift Valley Province of western Kenya, a tropical highland area. Soil 137Cs concentration was measured to validate spectrally derived erosion classes and establish the background levels for difference land use types. Results indicate VNIR could be used to accurately evaluate a large and diverse soil data set and predict soil erosion characteristics. Soil condition was spectrally assessed and modeled. Analysis of mean raw spectra indicated significant reflectance differences between soil erosion classes. The largest differences occurred between 1,350 and 1,950 nm with the largest separation occurring at 1,920 nm. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis indicated that the spectral model had practical predictive success (72%) with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) of 0.74. The change in 137Cs concentrations supported the premise that VNIR is an effective tool for rapid screening of soil erosion condition. PMID:27397933

  17. Non-destructive evaluation of degradation in EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings by infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Flattum, Richard Y.; Cooney, Adam T.

    2013-01-25

    At room temperature and atmospheric conditions infrared reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed for the detection of the phase transformation and residual stress within thermal barrier coatings (TBC). The TBC's samples initially consisted of the porous ceramic topcoat deposited by electron beam plasma vapor deposition, a bond coat and a superalloy substrate. Reflectance spectroscopy scans were performed from 7497 cm{sup -1} to 68 cm{sup -1} to analysis the fingerprint region as well as the chemical bonding region. These regions should indicate if a detectable change within the TBC response is a result of thermal degradation of the microstructure and the changes in yttrium dispersion throughout the yttrium stabilized zirconium. The thermal degradation was induced by thermal cycling the samples to 1100 Degree-Sign C and then cooling them in an atmospheric environment. X-ray diffraction was also used to detect the phase composition within the TBC samples and see if either would clearly identify failure prior to actual spallation. The eventual measurability and quantify-ability of the phase changes within the TBC's may be used as an effective non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that would allow personnel in the field to know when servicing of the turbine blade was necessary.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of optical glucose sensing in red cell concentrations using near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Maruo, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Alice W; Shimogaki, Kazushige; Ogawa, Hideto; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood products is one of the most frequent infectious complications of transfusion. Since glucose levels in blood supplies decrease as bacteria proliferate, it should be possible to detect the presence of bacterial contamination by measuring the glucose concentrations in the blood components. Hence this study is aimed to serve as a preliminary study for the nondestructive measurement of glucose level in transfusion blood. The glucose concentrations in red blood cell (RBC) samples were predicted using near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy in the 1350 to 1850 nm wavelength region. Furthermore, the effects of donor, hematocrit level, and temperature variations among the RBC samples were observed. Results showed that the prediction performance of a dataset which contained samples that differed in all three parameters had a standard error of 29.3 mg/dL. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) preprocessing method was also found to be effective in minimizing the variations in scattering patterns created by various sample properties. The results suggest that the diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy may provide another avenue for the detection of bacterial contamination in red cell concentrations (RCC) products. PMID:22352670

  19. [Bare Soil Moisture Inversion Model Based on Visible-Shortwave Infrared Reflectance].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao-po; Sun, Yue-jun; Qin, Qi-ming; Ren, Hua-zhong; Gao, Zhong-ling; Wu, Ling; Meng, Qing-ye; Wang, Jin-liang; Wang, Jian-hua

    2015-08-01

    Soil is the loose solum of land surface that can support plants. It consists of minerals, organics, atmosphere, moisture, microbes, et al. Among its complex compositions, soil moisture varies greatly. Therefore, the fast and accurate inversion of soil moisture by using remote sensing is very crucial. In order to reduce the influence of soil type on the retrieval of soil moisture, this paper proposed a normalized spectral slope and absorption index named NSSAI to estimate soil moisture. The modeling of the new index contains several key steps: Firstly, soil samples with different moisture level were artificially prepared, and soil reflectance spectra was consequently measured using spectroradiometer produced by ASD Company. Secondly, the moisture absorption spectral feature located at shortwave wavelengths and the spectral slope of visible wavelengths were calculated after analyzing the regular spectral feature change patterns of different soil at different moisture conditions. Then advantages of the two features at reducing soil types' effects was synthesized to build the NSSAI. Thirdly, a linear relationship between NSSAI and soil moisture was established. The result showed that NSSAI worked better (correlation coefficient is 0.93) than most of other traditional methods in soil moisture extraction. It can weaken the influences caused by soil types at different moisture levels and improve the bare soil moisture inversion accuracy. PMID:26672277

  20. [Bare Soil Moisture Inversion Model Based on Visible-Shortwave Infrared Reflectance].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao-po; Sun, Yue-jun; Qin, Qi-ming; Ren, Hua-zhong; Gao, Zhong-ling; Wu, Ling; Meng, Qing-ye; Wang, Jin-liang; Wang, Jian-hua

    2015-08-01

    Soil is the loose solum of land surface that can support plants. It consists of minerals, organics, atmosphere, moisture, microbes, et al. Among its complex compositions, soil moisture varies greatly. Therefore, the fast and accurate inversion of soil moisture by using remote sensing is very crucial. In order to reduce the influence of soil type on the retrieval of soil moisture, this paper proposed a normalized spectral slope and absorption index named NSSAI to estimate soil moisture. The modeling of the new index contains several key steps: Firstly, soil samples with different moisture level were artificially prepared, and soil reflectance spectra was consequently measured using spectroradiometer produced by ASD Company. Secondly, the moisture absorption spectral feature located at shortwave wavelengths and the spectral slope of visible wavelengths were calculated after analyzing the regular spectral feature change patterns of different soil at different moisture conditions. Then advantages of the two features at reducing soil types' effects was synthesized to build the NSSAI. Thirdly, a linear relationship between NSSAI and soil moisture was established. The result showed that NSSAI worked better (correlation coefficient is 0.93) than most of other traditional methods in soil moisture extraction. It can weaken the influences caused by soil types at different moisture levels and improve the bare soil moisture inversion accuracy.

  1. Near infrared reflectance spectra: Applications to problems in asteroid-meteorite relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, Lucy A.; Chamberlin, Alan B.

    1992-01-01

    An observing program designed to search for evidence of ordinary chondrite parent bodies near the 3:1 Kirkwood Gap was carried out in 1985 and 1986. Studies by Wisdom (1985), Wetherill (1985), and subsequent work by Milani et al. (1989) indicate that the 3:1 Kirkwood gap is the most probable source region for the majority of ordinary chondrite meteorites. The diversity of the reflectance spectra among this small data set is surprising. Early work by Gaffey and McCord (1978) showed that the inner region of the main asteroid belt is dominated by high albedo objects with mafic silicate surfaces. One would expect to see mostly spectra with 1- and 2-micron absorption bands based on this earlier work. Only 5 (of 12) spectra have these expected features. The distribution of taxonomic types presented by Gradie and Tedesco (1982) is in most cases a useful simplification of the compositional structure of the asteroid belt. The range of spectral characteristics seen with higher resolution in the near-IR has not been previously reported and is not represented in the standard asteroid taxonomy. Near-IR spectra contain valuable mineralogical information which enhances knowledge of the composition and structure of asteroids.

  2. Prediction of Soil Organic Carbon at the European Scale by Visible and Near InfraRed Reflectance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Antoine; Nocita, Marco; Tóth, Gergely; Montanarella, Luca; van Wesemael, Bas

    2013-01-01

    Soil organic carbon is a key soil property related to soil fertility, aggregate stability and the exchange of CO2 with the atmosphere. Existing soil maps and inventories can rarely be used to monitor the state and evolution in soil organic carbon content due to their poor spatial resolution, lack of consistency and high updating costs. Visible and Near Infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is an alternative method to provide cheap and high-density soil data. However, there are still some uncertainties on its capacity to produce reliable predictions for areas characterized by large soil diversity. Using a large-scale EU soil survey of about 20,000 samples and covering 23 countries, we assessed the performance of reflectance spectroscopy for the prediction of soil organic carbon content. The best calibrations achieved a root mean square error ranging from 4 to 15 g C kg−1 for mineral soils and a root mean square error of 50 g C kg−1 for organic soil materials. Model errors are shown to be related to the levels of soil organic carbon and variations in other soil properties such as sand and clay content. Although errors are ∼5 times larger than the reproducibility error of the laboratory method, reflectance spectroscopy provides unbiased predictions of the soil organic carbon content. Such estimates could be used for assessing the mean soil organic carbon content of large geographical entities or countries. This study is a first step towards providing uniform continental-scale spectroscopic estimations of soil organic carbon, meeting an increasing demand for information on the state of the soil that can be used in biogeochemical models and the monitoring of soil degradation. PMID:23840459

  3. Mapping of egg yolk and animal skin glue paint binders in Early Renaissance paintings using near infrared reflectance imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Kathryn A; Lomax, Suzanne; Zeibel, Jason G; Miliani, Costanza; Ricciardi, Paola; Hoenigswald, Ann; Loew, Murray; Delaney, John K

    2013-09-01

    In situ chemical imaging techniques are being developed to provide information on the spatial distribution of artists' pigments used in polychrome works of art such as paintings. The new methods include reflectance imaging spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence mapping. Results from these new methods have extended the knowledge obtained from site-specific chemical analyses widely in use. While these mapping methods have aided in determining the distribution of pigments, there is a growing interest to develop methods capable of identifying and mapping organic paint binders as well. Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively used in the remote sensing field as well as in the chemical industry to detect organic compounds. NIR spectroscopy provides a rapid method to assay organics by utilizing vibrational overtones and combination bands of fundamental absorptions that occur in the mid-IR. Here we explore the utility of NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy to map organic binders in situ by examining a series of panel paintings known to have been painted using distemper (animal skin glue) and tempera (egg yolk) binders as determined by amino acid analysis of samples taken from multiple sites on the panels. In this report we demonstrate the success in identifying and mapping these binders by NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy in situ. Three of the four panel paintings from Cosimo Tura's The Annunciation with Saint Francis and Saint Louis of Toulouse (ca. 1475) are imaged using a highly sensitive, line-scanning hyperspectral imaging camera. The results show an animal skin glue binder was used for the blue skies and blue robe of the Virgin Mary, and egg yolk tempera was used for the red robes and brown landscape. The mapping results show evidence for the use of both egg yolk and animal skin glue in the faces of the figures. The strongest absorption associated with lipidic egg yolk features visually correlates with areas that appear to have white

  4. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for the control of sheep leather defatting.

    PubMed

    Cantero, R; Canals, T; Iturriaga, H

    2007-03-15

    The fat content is one of the variables to be controlled by the tanning industry with a view to obtaining leather for various commercial purposes. Ensuring the production of quality leather products frequently entails using some defatting treatment, particularly when the raw skin is rich in natural fat. The official method for determining fat in leather, IUC 4, is rather slow; also, it uses polluting reagents and involves powdering samples for Soxhlet extraction with low-polarity solvents. The combination of NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as implemented with a fibre-optic probe and multivariate calibration is probably the best choice for the direct determination of fat in leather and the monitoring of leather defatting. In this work, a method for the determination of fat in leather and the control of the defatting process in an expeditious manner and with no sample treatment was developed. Defatting tests were conducted on leather specimens from lambs of various breeds and origins in order to span as wide as possible a range of variability in their properties and natural fat content. The NIR spectra used to construct the calibration matrices were recorded directly on the leather samples prior to and after defatting. Fat contents were determined by partial least-squares regression (PLSR), using the values obtained with the official method as references. Notwithstanding the complex nature of leather, the calibration models used provided good external predictions: the largest overall relative error, obtained by using a single calibration matrix for natural and defatted specimens, was 10%. The proposed method is therefore an advantageous alternative to the official method.

  5. Metallic attenuated total reflection infrared hollow fibers for robust optical transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Chengbin; Guo, Hong; Hu, Zhigao; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Junhao; Liu, Aiyun; Shi, Yiwei

    2014-07-07

    A durable metallic attenuated total reflection (ATR) hollow fiber (bore size: 1.45 mm, wall thickness: 50 μm) was designed and fabricated based on a nickel capillary tube and hexagonal germanium dioxide (GeO{sub 2}). The anomalous dispersion of the hexagonal GeO{sub 2} layer grown inside a nickel tube achieves low-loss light transmission at two peak-power wavelengths for CO{sub 2} laser devices (10.2 and 10.6 μm). An 11–28 W, 10.2 or 10.6 μm CO{sub 2} laser power was steadily delivered via a fiber elastically bent from 0° to 90° (radius: 45 cm) for over 40 min (transmission loss: 0.22 to 4.2 dB/m). Theoretically fitting the measured temperatures showed that front-end clipping caused greater thermal loading than the distributed mode absorption. The maximum external temperature of a nickel ATR fiber is much lower than that of a silica glass ATR fiber owing to their different heat dissipation abilities. The HE{sub 11} mode purity of the output beam profiles decreased from 90.3% to 44.7% as the bending angle increased from 0° to 90°. Large core sizes and wall roughnesses (scattering loss 0.04 dB/m) contributed to mode mixing and excess losses that were above the value predicted by the classical Marcatili and Schmeltzer equation (0.024–0.037 dB/m).

  6. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging of pharmaceuticals in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Andrew V; Clarke, Graham S; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2016-03-01

    The poor aqueous solubility of many active pharmaceutical ingredients presents challenges for effective drug delivery. In this study, the combination of attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopic imaging with specifically designed polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices to study drug release from pharmaceutical formulations has been developed. First, the high-throughput analysis of the dissolution of micro-formulations studied under flowing conditions has been introduced using a model formulation of ibuprofen and polyethylene glycol. The behaviour and release of the drug was monitored in situ under different pH conditions. In contrast to the neutral solution, where both the drug and excipient dissolved at a similar rate, structural change from the molecularly dispersed to a crystalline form of ibuprofen was characterised in the obtained spectroscopic images and the corresponding ATR-FTIR spectra for the experiments carried out in the acidic medium. Further investigations into the behaviour of the drug after its release from formulations (i.e., dissolved drug) were also undertaken. Different solutions of sodium ibuprofen dissolved in a neutral medium were studied upon contact with acidic conditions. The phase transition from a dissolved species of sodium ibuprofen to the formation of solid crystalline ibuprofen was revealed in the microfluidic channels. This innovative approach could offer a promising platform for high-throughput analysis of a range of micro-formulations, which are of current interest due to the advent of 3D printed pharmaceutical and microparticulate delivery systems. Furthermore, the ability to study dissolved drug in solution under flowing conditions can be useful for the studies of the diffusion of drugs into tissues or live cells. PMID:27158293

  7. 980-nm infrared laser modulation of sodium channel kinetics in a neuron cell linearly mediated by photothermal effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinyu; Liu, Jia; Liang, Shanshan; Sun, Changsen

    2014-10-01

    Photothermal effect (PE) plays a major role in the near-infrared laser interaction with biological tissue. But, quite few interactions can be quantitatively depicted. Here, a two-step model is proposed to describe a 980-nm infrared laser interaction with neuron cell in vitro. First, the laser-induced temperature rises in the cell surrounding area were measured by using an open pipette method and also calculated by solving the heat conduction equation. Second, we recorded the modifications on sodium (Na) channel current in neuron cells directly by using a patch clamp to synchronize the 980-nm laser irradiation and obtained how the electrophysiological function of neuron cells respond to the temperature rise. Then, the activation time constants, τm, were extracted by fitting the sodium currents with the Hodgkin-Huxley model. The infrared laser modulation effect on sodium currents kinetics was examined by taking a ratio between the time constants with and without the laser irradiations. The analysis revealed that the averaged ratio at a specific laser exposure could be well related to the temperature properties of the Na channel protein. These results proved that the modulation of sodium current kinetics of a neuron cell in vitro by 980-nm laser with different-irradiation levels was linearly mediated corresponding to the laser-induced PE.

  8. Characterization of a water-dispersible metal protective coating with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, and ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Stamatis C; Douvas, Antonios M; Argyropoulos, Vassilike; Siatou, Amalia; Vlachopoulou, Marilena

    2012-05-01

    An ethylene-methacrylic acid copolymer, formulated by BASF as a waterborne suspension of its alkylammonium salt and used, among other applications, in art conservation as a temporary protective coating was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy aided by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and ellipsometry. The thermal conversion of thin copolymer films from the freshly applied state, where carboxylic acid and carboxylate ion functional groups co-exist, to a purely acidic working state was spectroscopically followed. Transmission mid-infrared data of the working state showed a 1 : 12 ratio of methacrylic acid towards ethylene units. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) in the same state was found at 45 °C. Copolymer films spin-coated on mechanically polished bronze and iron coupons were characterized with transflection infrared spectroscopy and compared to corresponding transmission mid-infrared spectra of copolymer films spin-coated on silicon wafers. In the case of bronze coupons, evidence for interaction of the carboxylate ion with the copper substrate was obtained. The chemical structure and the thermal behavior of the coating, as well as some implications on its protective capability towards iron and copper alloys, is discussed as this material has received considerable attention in the field of metal conservation and coatings.

  9. Detection of Organic Matter in Sediments with Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy: Effects of Mineralogy, Albedo and Hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, H. H.; Milliken, R.

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory, field-, and satellite-based visible-near infrared reflectance spectroscopy allows for rapid, remote, and non-destructive analysis of geologic materials to identify mineralogy as well as organic compounds. This type of analysis has potential to aid the search for organics on Mars as a means of first detection of reduced carbon, or to study organic matter nondestructively in valuable samples such as meteorites. In order to assess potential applications of this method we aim to answer fundamental questions about detection limits and quantification of organic matter using reflectance spectroscopy. Laboratory mixtures and natural samples are measured for total organic carbon (TOC in wt.%) with standard methods and reflectance spectroscopy. Absorption features due to C-H2 and C-H3 bonds are observed in the 3.3 to 3.5μm (3000 to 2850 cm-1) wavelength region. A strong H2O feature near 3μm, as well as carbonate-related absorptions near 3.4µm, are also found in this spectral region and can complicate detection of organic material, particularly at low TOC values. In natural samples without carbonate there appears to be a linear trend between TOC and the band depth of organic absorptions; samples that have low albedo, or strong 3μm water features deviate from this trend line. Spectra of samples with carbonate may be modeled with Gaussians to remove the influence of the carbonate features and better match the organic absorption trend. Early results indicate that quantification of organic matter in natural fine-grained samples using reflectance spectroscopy will need to take low-albedo components and water content into account. Detection limits may also depend on these properties; organic absorption features are clearly seen in the lowest TOC sample measured so far (0.08wt% or 800ppm), which is a relatively bright, carbonate-free, quartz- and clay-dominated outcrop sample. A series of laboratory experiments have been undertaken in which known amounts of organic

  10. Dehydration of Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate to Uranyl Nitrate Trihydrate under Ambient Conditions as Observed via Dynamic Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Mausolf, Edward J.; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; McNamara, Bruce K.

    2015-05-22

    the hexahydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] (UNH) and the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3] (UNT) forms. Their stabilities depend on both relative humidity and temperature. Both phases have previously been studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy, but the data were limited by both instrumental resolution and the ability to prepare the samples as pellets without desiccating them. We report time-resolved infrared (IR) measurements using an integrating sphere that allow us to observe the transformation from the hexahydrate to the trihydrate simply by flowing dry nitrogen gas over the sample. Hexahydrate samples were prepared and confirmed via known XRD patterns, then measured in reflectance mode. The hexahydrate has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm-1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample dehydrates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a blue edge shoulder but ultimately resulting in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm-1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT since UNT has two non-equivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a morphological and structural change that has the lustrous lime green crystals changing to the dull greenish yellow of the trihydrate. Crystal structures and phase transformation were confirmed theoretically using DFT calculations and experimentally via microscopy methods. Both methods showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, as opposed to a single crystallographic site in the hexahydrate.

  11. Laser damage resistant anti-reflection microstructures for mid-infrared metal-ion doped ZnSe gain media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Douglas S.; MacLeod, Bruce D.; Sabatino, Ernest; Mirov, Sergey B.; Martyshkin, Dmitri V.

    2012-11-01

    Power scaling of mid-infrared laser systems based on chromium and iron doped zinc selenide (ZnSe) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) crystals is being advanced through the integration of surface relief anti-reflection microstructures (ARMs) etched directly in the facets of the laser gain media. In this study, a new ARMs texture fabrication process is demonstrated for polycrystalline ZnSe and ZnS material that results in a significant increase in pulsed laser damage resistance combined with an average reflection loss of less than 0.5% over the wavelength range of 1.9-3.0μm. The process was utilized to fabricate ARMs in chromium-doped zinc selenide (Cr2+:ZnSe) materials supplied by IPG Photonics and standardized pulsed laser induced damage threshold (LiDT) measurements at a wavelength of 2.09μm were made using the commercial testing services of Spica Technologies. It was found that the pulsed LiDT of ARMs etched in ZnSe and Cr2+:ZnSe can match or even exceed the level of a well-polished surface, a survivability that is many times higher than an equivalent performance broad-band thin-film AR coating. The results also indicate that the ARMs plasma etch process may find use as a post-polish damage mitigation technique similar to the chemical immersion used to double the damage resistance of fused silica optics. ARMs etched in Cr2+:ZnSe were also evaluated by IPG Photonics for survivability under continuous wave (CW) laser operation at a pump laser wavelength of 1.94μm. Catastrophic damage occurred between power levels of 400-500 kilowatt per square centimeter for both as polished and ARMs textured samples indicating no reduction in CW damage resistance attributable to surface effects.

  12. Autofluorescence Imaging With Near-Infrared Excitation:Normalization by Reflectance to Reduce Signal From Choroidal Fluorophores

    PubMed Central

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Swider, Malgorzata; Jacobson, Samuel G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We previously developed reduced-illuminance autofluorescence imaging (RAFI) methods involving near-infrared (NIR) excitation to image melanin-based fluorophores and short-wavelength (SW) excitation to image lipofuscin-based flurophores. Here, we propose to normalize NIR-RAFI in order to increase the relative contribution of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fluorophores. Methods. Retinal imaging was performed with a standard protocol holding system parameters invariant in healthy subjects and in patients. Normalized NIR-RAFI was derived by dividing NIR-RAFI signal by NIR reflectance point-by-point after image registration. Results. Regions of RPE atrophy in Stargardt disease, AMD, retinitis pigmentosa, choroideremia, and Leber congenital amaurosis as defined by low signal on SW-RAFI could correspond to a wide range of signal on NIR-RAFI depending on the contribution from the choroidal component. Retinal pigment epithelium atrophy tended to always correspond to high signal on NIR reflectance. Normalizing NIR-RAFI reduced the choroidal component of the signal in regions of atrophy. Quantitative evaluation of RPE atrophy area showed no significant differences between SW-RAFI and normalized NIR-RAFI. Conclusions. Imaging of RPE atrophy using lipofuscin-based AF imaging has become the gold standard. However, this technique involves bright SW lights that are uncomfortable and may accelerate the rate of disease progression in vulnerable retinas. The NIR-RAFI method developed here is a melanin-based alternative that is not absorbed by opsins and bisretinoid moieties, and is comfortable to view. Further development of this method may result in a nonmydriatic and comfortable imaging method to quantify RPE atrophy extent and its expansion rate. PMID:26024124

  13. A Module for Assimilating Hyperspectral Infrared Retrieved Profiles into the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation System for Unique Forecasting Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Blankenship, Clay

    2015-01-01

    same error values as the rawinsonde observations when assimilated with GSI. Typically, satellitederived profile errors are larger and more difficult to quantify than traditional rawinsonde observations (especially in the boundary layer), so it is important to appropriately assign observation errors within GSI to eliminate potential spurious innovations and analysis increments that can sometimes arise when using retrieved profiles. The goal of this study is to describe modifications to the GSI source code to more appropriately assimilate hyperspectral infrared retrieved profiles and outline preliminary results that show the differences between a model simulation that assimilated the profiles as rawinsonde observations and one that assimilated the profiles in a module with the appropriate error values.

  14. Unpolarized emissivity with shadow and multiple reflections from random rough surfaces with the geometric optics approximation: application to Gaussian sea surfaces in the infrared band.

    PubMed

    Bourlier, Christophe

    2006-08-20

    The emissivity from a stationary random rough surface is derived by taking into account the multiple reflections and the shadowing effect. The model is applied to the ocean surface. The geometric optics approximation is assumed to be valid, which means that the rough surface is modeled as a collection of facets reflecting locally the light in the specular direction. In particular, the emissivity with zero, single, and double reflections are analytically calculated, and each contribution is studied numerically by considering a 1D sea surface observed in the near infrared band. The model is also compared with results computed from a Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. PMID:16892130

  15. Imaging Modulated Reflections from a Semi-Crystalline State of Profilin:Actin Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelace, J.; Bellamy, H.; Snell, E. H.; Borgstahl, G.

    2003-01-01

    Commensurate and incommensurate modulation in protein crystals remain terra incognita for crystallographers. While small molecule crystallographers have successfully wrestled with this type of structure, no modulated macromolecular structures have been determined to date. In this work, methods and strategies have been developed to collect and analyze data from modulated macromolecular crystals. Preliminary data using these methods are presented for a semi-crystalline state of profilin:actin.

  16. Phase-modulation measurements of photoinduced infrared absorptions from poly( p-phenylene) and poly(2,5-dioctyloxy- p-phenylenevinylene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Y.; Cha, Y.-H.; Noguchi, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Tasumi, M.

    2000-03-01

    Photoinduced infrared absorption spectra of poly( p-phenylene) and poly(2,5-dioctyloxy- p-phenylenevinylene) have been measured by the phase-modulation technique. The modulation-frequency dependencies of the intensity and the phase delay of the photoinduced infrared absorptions have been obtained. The observed modulation-frequency dependencies have been numerically simulated on the basis of a model consisting of a bimolecular recombination of the positive and negative polarons that are formed from a photogenerated polaron pair (interchain charge-transfer exciton). The rate constant of the bimolecular recombination process has been obtained.

  17. A high retardation-amplitude photoelastic modulator study for an ultra-high speed infrared spectroscopy remote sensing measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Wen, Tingdun; Li, Kewu; Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yaoli; Zhang, Minjuan; Chen, Youhua; Wang, Zhibin

    2016-10-01

    The currently allowable photoelastic modulator based Fourier transform spectrometer (PEM-FTS) retardation-amplitude is low, and spectral resolution is relatively poor. This paper presents a method for high retardation-amplitude whose PEM is based on microtrapezoidal photoelastic crystals and Herriott-PEM. The retardation-amplitude of the improved PEM is about 19 times larger than an ordinary PEM. The ultra-high speed infrared spectroscopy remote measurement prototype is designed based on high retardation-amplitude PEM. The best spectral resolution of the prototype is 4 cm-1, and the zero-crossing single sided interferogram scanning time is less than 5 µs.

  18. The use of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy in the prediction of the chemical composition of goose fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Molette, C; Berzaghi, P; Zotte, A D; Remignon, H; Babile, R

    2001-11-01

    The use of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) on a meat product is described in this report. The aim of the study was to develop calibration equations to predict the chemical composition of goose fatty liver (foie gras) with lipid contents greater than 40% of the fresh pate. Spectra of 52 foie gras samples were collected in the visible and NIR region (400 to 2,498 nm). Calibration equations were computed for DM, CP, lipids and fatty acids using modified partial least-squares regression. R2 values were high for the total lipid content (0.805) and DM (0.908) but were low for ash (0.151) and relatively low for protein content (0.255). For the major fatty acids, R2 ranged from 0.886 for palmitic acid to 0.988 for oleic acid. Oleic acid, the main fatty acid of the liver, and the stearic acid had higher R2 values than the less represented fatty acids. This study suggests that the NIRS technique can be used to predict lipid content and the fatty acid composition of goose fatty livers, but calibration must be built on a larger number of samples to generate accurate predictions.

  19. Enhanced Single Seed Trait Predictions in Soybean (Glycine max) and Robust Calibration Model Transfer with Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hacisalihoglu, Gokhan; Gustin, Jeffery L; Louisma, Jean; Armstrong, Paul; Peter, Gary F; Walker, Alejandro R; Settles, A Mark

    2016-02-10

    Single seed near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy predicts soybean (Glycine max) seed quality traits of moisture, oil, and protein. We tested the accuracy of transferring calibrations between different single seed NIR analyzers of the same design by collecting NIR spectra and analytical trait data for globally diverse soybean germplasm. X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) was used to collect seed density and shape traits to enhance the number of soybean traits that can be predicted from single seed NIR. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression gave accurate predictive models for oil, weight, volume, protein, and maximal cross-sectional area of the seed. PLS models for width, length, and density were not predictive. Although principal component analysis (PCA) of the NIR spectra showed that black seed coat color had significant signal, excluding black seeds from the calibrations did not impact model accuracies. Calibrations for oil and protein developed in this study as well as earlier calibrations for a separate NIR analyzer of the same design were used to test the ability to transfer PLS regressions between platforms. PLS models built from data collected on one NIR analyzer had minimal differences in accuracy when applied to spectra collected from a sister device. Model transfer was more robust when spectra were trimmed from 910 to 1679 nm to 955-1635 nm due to divergence of edge wavelengths between the two devices. The ability to transfer calibrations between similar single seed NIR spectrometers facilitates broader adoption of this high-throughput, nondestructive, seed phenotyping technology.

  20. Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Belau, Markus; Ninck, Markus; Hering, Gernot; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Contini, Davide; Torricelli, Alessandro; Gisler, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a method for noninvasively measuring muscle contraction in vivo, based on near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS). The method exploits the information about time-dependent shear motions within the contracting muscle that are contained in the temporal autocorrelation function g(1)(τ,t) of the multiply scattered light field measured as a function of lag time, τ, and time after stimulus, t. The analysis of g(1)(τ,t) measured on the human M. biceps brachii during repetitive electrical stimulation, using optical properties measured with time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, shows that the tissue dynamics giving rise to the speckle fluctuations can be described by a combination of diffusion and shearing. The evolution of the tissue Cauchy strain e(t) shows a strong correlation with the force, indicating that a significant part of the shear observed with DWS is due to muscle contraction. The evolution of the DWS decay time shows quantitative differences between the M. biceps brachii and the M. gastrocnemius, suggesting that DWS allows to discriminate contraction of fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers. PMID:21054123

  1. Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belau, Markus; Ninck, Markus; Hering, Gernot; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Contini, Davide; Torricelli, Alessandro; Gisler, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    We introduce a method for noninvasively measuring muscle contraction in vivo, based on near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS). The method exploits the information about time-dependent shear motions within the contracting muscle that are contained in the temporal autocorrelation function g(1)(τ,t) of the multiply scattered light field measured as a function of lag time, τ, and time after stimulus, t. The analysis of g(1)(τ,t) measured on the human M. biceps brachii during repetitive electrical stimulation, using optical properties measured with time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, shows that the tissue dynamics giving rise to the speckle fluctuations can be described by a combination of diffusion and shearing. The evolution of the tissue Cauchy strain e(t) shows a strong correlation with the force, indicating that a significant part of the shear observed with DWS is due to muscle contraction. The evolution of the DWS decay time shows quantitative differences between the M. biceps brachii and the M. gastrocnemius, suggesting that DWS allows to discriminate contraction of fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers.

  2. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a novel method to detect demyelination in rat sciatic nerve in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Senapati, Arun; Peng, Yuan Bo; Kashyap, Dheerendra; Liu, Hanli

    2005-04-01

    This study was done to use near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to bring out differences in the anatomical substructures in the rat spinal cord and further to differentiate scattering between demyelinated and normal sciatic nerves in rat models, thereby exploring a new methodology to localize MS (multiple Sclerosis) lesions in vivo for animal studies. The experimental setup consisted of a tungsten light source, CCD array spectrometer, and bifurcated optical fibers for light delivery and detection of back scattered light from tissue. The measurement system was calibrated with reflectance standard. The spinal cord of 14 rats was exposed by laminectomy, and the measurements were taken on 8 points at intervals of 1 mm on the right and left lumbar-sacral regions and the central blood vessel. For measurements on the sciatic nerve, the spinal nerves of 84 rats were ligated according to the Chung Model. Measurements were taken on five points on both the ligated and the control nerve side after 1, 4, 7 and 14 days. The reduced scattering coefficient, μs', was found to be higher in the lumbar-sacral regions (34.17 +/- 2.05 cm-1) than that near the central blood vessel (19.9 +/- 3.8 cm-1). Statistically, there was significant difference in scattering between the control side and the ligated side on postoperative days 4, 7, and 14. This study shows a promising diagnostic value in the future for monitoring of demyelinated CNS (central nervous system) diseases, like Multiple Sclerosis.

  3. Application of multibounce attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for determination of aspartame in soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Harpreet Kaur; Cho, Il Kyu; Shim, Jae Yong; Li, Qing X; Jun, Soojin

    2008-02-13

    Aspartame is a low-calorie sweetener commonly used in soft drinks; however, the maximum usage dose is limited by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance sampling accessory and partial least-squares regression (PLS) was used for rapid determination of aspartame in soft drinks. On the basis of spectral characterization, the highest R2 value, and lowest PRESS value, the spectral region between 1600 and 1900 cm(-1) was selected for quantitative estimation of aspartame. The potential of FTIR spectroscopy for aspartame quantification was examined and validated by the conventional HPLC method. Using the FTIR method, aspartame contents in four selected carbonated diet soft drinks were found to average from 0.43 to 0.50 mg/mL with prediction errors ranging from 2.4 to 5.7% when compared with HPLC measurements. The developed method also showed a high degree of accuracy because real samples were used for calibration, thus minimizing potential interference errors. The FTIR method developed can be suitably used for routine quality control analysis of aspartame in the beverage-manufacturing sector.

  4. Application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to the simultaneous prediction of alkaloids and phenolic substances in green tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Schulz, H; Engelhardt, U H; Wegent, A; Drews, H; Lapczynski, S

    1999-12-01

    A near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic (NIRS) method for the prediction of polyphenol and alkaloid compounds in the leaves of green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] was developed. Reference measurements of the individual catechins, gallic acid, caffeine, and theobromine were performed by reversed-phase HPLC. The total polyphenols were determined according to the colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Using the partial least-squares algorithm, very good calibration statistics were obtained for the prediction of gallic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, caffeine, and theobromine (R(2) > 0.85) with standard deviation/standard error of cross-validation (SD/SECV) ratio ranging from 2.00 to 6.27. Simultaneously, the dry matter content of the tea leaves can be analyzed very precisely (R(2) = 0.94; SD/SECV = 4.12). Furthermore, it is possible to discriminate tea leaves of different age by principal component analysis on the basis of the received NIR spectra. Prediction of the total polyphenol content is performed with a lower accuracy, which might be due to the lack of specificity in the colorimetric reference method. The study demonstrates that NIRS technology can be successfully applied as a rapid method not only for breeding and cultivation purposes but also to estimate the quality and taste of green tea and to control industrial processes, for example, decaffeination.

  5. Comparison of visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra of CM2 carbonaceous chondrites and primitive asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilas, F.; Hiroi, T.; Zolensky, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    Spectra of primitive asteroids (defined as C, P, and D classes and associated subclasses) were compared to the limited number of spectra of CM2 carbonaceous chondrites. An absorption feature located at 0.7 microns attributed to an Fe(+2) - Fe(+3) charge transfer absorption in iron oxides in phyllosilicates is apparent in some of the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite spectra and many of the asteroid spectra. Sawyer found a correlation between the area of the 0.7 micron feature and the mean semimajor axis of the asteroids. Spectra of a larger sample of carbonaceous chondrites, including 7 CM2 chondrites, covering a spectral interval of 0.30-2.5 microns were recently obtained using the Relab instrument at Brown University. These spectra were compared with spectrophotometric asteroid observations in a separate abstract. Those spectra of CM2 chondrites were isolated into the UV, visible and near-infrared spectral regions in order to compare them with high-quality narrowband reflectance spectra.

  6. Multivariate analysis of attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data to confirm the origin of honeys.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Siobhán; Downey, Gerard; O'Donnell, Colm

    2008-10-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and chemometrics were used to verify the origin of honey samples (n=150) from Europe and South America. Authentic honey samples were collected from five sources, namely unfiltered samples from Mexico in 2004, commercially filtered samples from Ireland and Argentina in 2004, commercially filtered samples from the Czech Republic in 2005 and 2006, and commercially filtered samples from Hungary in 2006. Samples were diluted with distilled water to a standard solids content (70 degrees Brix) and their spectra (2500-12 500 nm) recorded at room temperature using an FT-IR spectrometer equipped with a germanium attenuated total reflection (ATR) accessory. First- and second-derivative and standard normal variate (SNV) data pretreatments were applied to the recorded spectra, which were analyzed using partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis, factorial discriminant analysis (FDA), and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). In general, when an attenuated wavelength range (6800-11 500 nm) rather than the whole spectrum (2500-12 500 nm) was studied, higher correct classification rates were achieved. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was obtained for honeys by PLS discriminant analysis, while FDA techniques correctly classified 94.7% of honey samples. Correct classifications of up to 100% were achieved using SIMCA, but models describing some classes had very high false positive rates.

  7. In-situ observations of adsorption and film formation on metal electrodes by synchrotron far infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowmaker, G. A.; Hahn, F.; Leger, J. M.; Melendres, C. A.

    1999-05-17

    Adsorption and film formation are key processes associated with the passivation and inhibition of metallic corrosion. New experimental approaches are needed to advance our knowledge in these areas. We have developed the technique of Synchrotron Far Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (SFIRS) for in situ investigations of the structure and composition of surface films and adsorbed layers on metals. We demonstrate its application to the determination of the nature of surface films on copper in aqueous solutions and the adsorption of anions on gold. The anodic corrosion films on copper in alkaline solution were found to consist of Cu{sub 2}O in the passive region at about {minus}0.05 V vs SCE and CUO, together with CU(OH){sub 2}, at 0.30 V. We have also observed for the first time the adsorption of anions at monolayer coverage on the surface of a gold electrode in perchloric acid solution. Halides (Cl-, Br-), nitrate, sulfate, and phosphate have been studied. When two different anions are present in solution, the more strongly adsorbed species determines the corrosion behavior of the metal. This is illustrated in the competitive adsorption of bromide and phosphate on gold.

  8. Recognition of Banknote Fitness Based on a Fuzzy System Using Visible Light Reflection and Near-infrared Light Transmission Images.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seung Yong; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo

    2016-01-01

    Fitness classification is a technique to assess the quality of banknotes in order to determine whether they are usable. Banknote classification techniques are useful in preventing problems that arise from the circulation of substandard banknotes (such as recognition failures, or bill jams in automated teller machines (ATMs) or bank counting machines). By and large, fitness classification continues to be carried out by humans, and this can cause the problem of varying fitness classifications for the same bill by different evaluators, and requires a lot of time. To address these problems, this study proposes a fuzzy system-based method that can reduce the processing time needed for fitness classification, and can determine the fitness of banknotes through an objective, systematic method rather than subjective judgment. Our algorithm was an implementation to actual banknote counting machine. Based on the results of tests on 3856 banknotes in United States currency (USD), 3956 in Korean currency (KRW), and 2300 banknotes in Indian currency (INR) using visible light reflection (VR) and near-infrared light transmission (NIRT) imaging, the proposed method was found to yield higher accuracy than prevalent banknote fitness classification methods. Moreover, it was confirmed that the proposed algorithm can operate in real time, not only in a normal PC environment, but also in an embedded system environment of a banknote counting machine. PMID:27294940

  9. Recognition of Banknote Fitness Based on a Fuzzy System Using Visible Light Reflection and Near-infrared Light Transmission Images.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seung Yong; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo

    2016-06-11

    Fitness classification is a technique to assess the quality of banknotes in order to determine whether they are usable. Banknote classification techniques are useful in preventing problems that arise from the circulation of substandard banknotes (such as recognition failures, or bill jams in automated teller machines (ATMs) or bank counting machines). By and large, fitness classification continues to be carried out by humans, and this can cause the problem of varying fitness classifications for the same bill by different evaluators, and requires a lot of time. To address these problems, this study proposes a fuzzy system-based method that can reduce the processing time needed for fitness classification, and can determine the fitness of banknotes through an objective, systematic method rather than subjective judgment. Our algorithm was an implementation to actual banknote counting machine. Based on the results of tests on 3856 banknotes in United States currency (USD), 3956 in Korean currency (KRW), and 2300 banknotes in Indian currency (INR) using visible light reflection (VR) and near-infrared light transmission (NIRT) imaging, the proposed method was found to yield higher accuracy than prevalent banknote fitness classification methods. Moreover, it was confirmed that the proposed algorithm can operate in real time, not only in a normal PC environment, but also in an embedded system environment of a banknote counting machine.

  10. Determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of chocolate by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaxi; Pan, Zhi Jie; Liao, Wen; Li, Jiaqi; Gruget, Pierre; Kitts, David D; Lu, Xiaonan

    2016-07-01

    Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of chocolate, containing different amounts of cacao (35-100%), were determined using attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transformed-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy (4000-550cm(-1)). Antioxidant capacities were first characterized using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assays. Phenolic contents, including total phenol and procyanidins monomers, were quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD), respectively. Five partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were constructed and cross-validated using FT-IR spectra from 18 types of chocolate and corresponding reference values determined using DPPH, ORAC, Folin-Ciocalteu, and HPLC assays. The models were validated using seven unknown samples of chocolate. PLSR models showed good prediction capability for DPPH [R(2)-P (prediction)=0.88, RMSEP (root mean squares error of prediction)=12.62μmol Trolox/g DFW], ORAC (R(2)-P=0.90, RMSEP=37.92), Folin-Ciocalteu (R(2)-P=0.88, RMSEP=5.08), and (+)-catechin (R(2)-P=0.86, RMSEP=0.10), but lacked accuracy in the prediction of (-)-epicatechin (R(2)-P=0.72, RMSEP=0.57). ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for rapid prediction of antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and (+)-catechin in chocolate. PMID:26920292

  11. Application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to the simultaneous prediction of alkaloids and phenolic substances in green tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Schulz, H; Engelhardt, U H; Wegent, A; Drews, H; Lapczynski, S

    1999-12-01

    A near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic (NIRS) method for the prediction of polyphenol and alkaloid compounds in the leaves of green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] was developed. Reference measurements of the individual catechins, gallic acid, caffeine, and theobromine were performed by reversed-phase HPLC. The total polyphenols were determined according to the colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Using the partial least-squares algorithm, very good calibration statistics were obtained for the prediction of gallic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, caffeine, and theobromine (R(2) > 0.85) with standard deviation/standard error of cross-validation (SD/SECV) ratio ranging from 2.00 to 6.27. Simultaneously, the dry matter content of the tea leaves can be analyzed very precisely (R(2) = 0.94; SD/SECV = 4.12). Furthermore, it is possible to discriminate tea leaves of different age by principal component analysis on the basis of the received NIR spectra. Prediction of the total polyphenol content is performed with a lower accuracy, which might be due to the lack of specificity in the colorimetric reference method. The study demonstrates that NIRS technology can be successfully applied as a rapid method not only for breeding and cultivation purposes but also to estimate the quality and taste of green tea and to control industrial processes, for example, decaffeination. PMID:10606573

  12. Monitoring closed head injury induced changes in brain physiology with orthogonal diffuse near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abookasis, David; Shochat, Ariel; Mathews, Marlon S.

    2014-03-01

    We applied an orthogonal diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (o-DRS) to assess brain physiology following closed head injury (CHI). CHI was induced in anesthetized male mice by weight-drop device using ~50gram cylindrical metal falling from a height of 90 cm onto the intact scalp. A total of twenty-six mice were used in the experiments divided randomly into three groups as follows: Group 1 (n=11) consisted of injured mice monitored for 1 hour every 10 minutes. Group 2 (n=10) were the control mice not experience CHI. Group 3 (n=5) consisted of injured mice monitored every minute up to 20 minutes. Measurement of optical quantities of brain tissue (absorption and reduced scattering coefficients) in the near-infrared window from 650 to 1000 nm were carried out by employing different source-detector distances and locations to provide depth sensitivity. With respect to baseline, we found difference in brain hemodynamic properties following injury. In addition, o-DRS successfully evaluate the structural variations likely from evolving cerebral edema throughout exploring the scattering spectral shape.

  13. Left Prefrontal Activity Reflects the Ability of Vicarious Fear Learning: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingguo; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Fear could be acquired indirectly via social observation. However, it remains unclear which cortical substrate activities are involved in vicarious fear transmission. The present study was to examine empathy-related processes during fear learning by-proxy and to examine the activation of prefrontal cortex by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. We simultaneously measured participants' hemodynamic responses and skin conductance responses when they were exposed to a movie. In this movie, a demonstrator (i.e., another human being) was receiving a classical fear conditioning. A neutral colored square paired with shocks (CSshock) and another colored square paired with no shocks (CSno-shock) were randomly presented in front of the demonstrator. Results showed that increased concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin in left prefrontal cortex was observed when participants watched a demonstrator seeing CSshock compared with that exposed to CSno-shock. In addition, enhanced skin conductance responses showing a demonstrator's aversive experience during learning object-fear association were observed. The present study suggests that left prefrontal cortex, which may reflect speculation of others' mental state, is associated with social fear transmission. PMID:24307877

  14. Left prefrontal activity reflects the ability of vicarious fear learning: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Huang, Yujing; Wang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Fear could be acquired indirectly via social observation. However, it remains unclear which cortical substrate activities are involved in vicarious fear transmission. The present study was to examine empathy-related processes during fear learning by-proxy and to examine the activation of prefrontal cortex by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. We simultaneously measured participants' hemodynamic responses and skin conductance responses when they were exposed to a movie. In this movie, a demonstrator (i.e., another human being) was receiving a classical fear conditioning. A neutral colored square paired with shocks (CS(shock)) and another colored square paired with no shocks (CS(no-shock)) were randomly presented in front of the demonstrator. Results showed that increased concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin in left prefrontal cortex was observed when participants watched a demonstrator seeing CS(shock) compared with that exposed to CS(no-shock). In addition, enhanced skin conductance responses showing a demonstrator's aversive experience during learning object-fear association were observed. The present study suggests that left prefrontal cortex, which may reflect speculation of others' mental state, is associated with social fear transmission. PMID:24307877

  15. The application of Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect melamine adulteration of soya bean meal.

    PubMed

    Haughey, Simon A; Graham, Stewart F; Cancouët, Emmanuelle; Elliott, Christopher T

    2013-02-15

    Soya bean products are used widely in the animal feed industry as a protein based feed ingredient and have been found to be adulterated with melamine. This was highlighted in the Chinese scandal of 2008. Dehulled soya (GM and non-GM), soya hulls and toasted soya were contaminated with melamine and spectra were generated using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS). By applying chemometrics to the spectral data, excellent calibration models and prediction statistics were obtained. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) were found to be 0.89-0.99 depending on the mathematical algorithm used, the data pre-processing applied and the sample type used. The corresponding values for the root mean square error of calibration and prediction were found to be 0.081-0.276% and 0.134-0.368%, respectively, again depending on the chemometric treatment applied to the data and sample type. In addition, adopting a qualitative approach with the spectral data and applying PCA, it was possible to discriminate between the four samples types and also, by generation of Cooman's plots, possible to distinguish between adulterated and non-adulterated samples.

  16. In situ Studies of Soft- and Reactive Landing of Mass-Selected Ions Using Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qichi; Wang, Peng; Gassman, Paul L.; Laskin, Julia

    2009-09-01

    Grazing incidence infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) for in situ and in real time characterization of substrates modified by soft- and reactive landing (SL and RL) of complex ions was implemented on a mass-selected ion deposition instrument. Ions produced by electrospray ionization were mass-selected using a quadrupole mass filter and deposited onto inert and reactive self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces. Surface composition during and after ion deposition was monitored using IRRAS. Physisorption of a cyclic peptide, Garmicidin S (GS), was studied for 8 hrs during deposition and additional 12 hrs after the end of deposition. The integrated signal of the characteristic amide bands followed a linear increase during the deposition and stayed unchanged after the deposition was finished. Similar linear increase in IRRAS signal was obtained following reactive deposition of the protonated dodecanediamine onto SAMs of dithiobis (succinimidyl undecanoate) (NHS-SAM) and 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid fluoride (COF-SAM) on gold. IRRAS allowed us to monitor for the first time the formation of the amide bond between reactive SAM surfaces and the projectile molecule.

  17. Recognition of Banknote Fitness Based on a Fuzzy System Using Visible Light Reflection and Near-infrared Light Transmission Images

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seung Yong; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo

    2016-01-01

    Fitness classification is a technique to assess the quality of banknotes in order to determine whether they are usable. Banknote classification techniques are useful in preventing problems that arise from the circulation of substandard banknotes (such as recognition failures, or bill jams in automated teller machines (ATMs) or bank counting machines). By and large, fitness classification continues to be carried out by humans, and this can cause the problem of varying fitness classifications for the same bill by different evaluators, and requires a lot of time. To address these problems, this study proposes a fuzzy system-based method that can reduce the processing time needed for fitness classification, and can determine the fitness of banknotes through an objective, systematic method rather than subjective judgment. Our algorithm was an implementation to actual banknote counting machine. Based on the results of tests on 3856 banknotes in United States currency (USD), 3956 in Korean currency (KRW), and 2300 banknotes in Indian currency (INR) using visible light reflection (VR) and near-infrared light transmission (NIRT) imaging, the proposed method was found to yield higher accuracy than prevalent banknote fitness classification methods. Moreover, it was confirmed that the proposed algorithm can operate in real time, not only in a normal PC environment, but also in an embedded system environment of a banknote counting machine. PMID:27294940

  18. On-orbit calibration of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite reflective solar bands and its challenges using a solar diffuser.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junqiang; Wang, Menghua

    2015-08-20

    The reflective solar bands (RSBs) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership satellite are calibrated by a solar diffuser (SD) panel whose performance is itself monitored by an accompanying solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). In this comprehensive work we describe the SD-based calibration algorithm of the RSBs, analyze the calibration data, and derive the performance results-the RSB calibration coefficients or F-factors-for the current three and a half years of mission. The application of the newly derived product of the SD bidirectional reflectance factor and the vignetting function for the SD screen and the newly derived SD degradation, so-called H-factors, effectively minimizes the artificial seasonal patterns in the RSB calibration coefficients due to the errors of these ingredient inputs. The full illumination region, the "sweet spot," during calibration events for SD view is carefully examined and selected to ensure high data quality and to reduce noise owing to non-fully illuminated samples. A time-dependent relative spectral response (RSR), coming from the large out-of-band contribution and the VIIRS optical system wavelength-dependent degradation, is derived from an iterative approach and applied in the SD calibration for each RSB. The result shows that VIIRS RSBs degrade much faster at near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) wavelength ranges due to the faster degradation of the rotating telescope assembly against the remaining part of the system. The gains of the VIIRS RSBs have degraded 2.0% (410 nm, Band M1), 0.2% (443 nm, Band M2), -0.3% (486 nm, Band M3), 0.2% (551 nm, Band M4), 6.2% (640 nm, Band I1), 11.0% (671 nm, Band M5), 21.3% (745 nm, Band M6), 35.8% (862 nm, Band I2), and 35.8% (862 nm, Band M7), respectively, since launch and 24.8% (1238 nm, Band M8), 18.5% (1378 nm, Band M9), 11.5% (1610 nm, Band I3), 11.5% (1610, Band M10), and 4.0% (2250

  19. On-orbit calibration of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite reflective solar bands and its challenges using a solar diffuser.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junqiang; Wang, Menghua

    2015-08-20

    The reflective solar bands (RSBs) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership satellite are calibrated by a solar diffuser (SD) panel whose performance is itself monitored by an accompanying solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). In this comprehensive work we describe the SD-based calibration algorithm of the RSBs, analyze the calibration data, and derive the performance results-the RSB calibration coefficients or F-factors-for the current three and a half years of mission. The application of the newly derived product of the SD bidirectional reflectance factor and the vignetting function for the SD screen and the newly derived SD degradation, so-called H-factors, effectively minimizes the artificial seasonal patterns in the RSB calibration coefficients due to the errors of these ingredient inputs. The full illumination region, the "sweet spot," during calibration events for SD view is carefully examined and selected to ensure high data quality and to reduce noise owing to non-fully illuminated samples. A time-dependent relative spectral response (RSR), coming from the large out-of-band contribution and the VIIRS optical system wavelength-dependent degradation, is derived from an iterative approach and applied in the SD calibration for each RSB. The result shows that VIIRS RSBs degrade much faster at near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) wavelength ranges due to the faster degradation of the rotating telescope assembly against the remaining part of the system. The gains of the VIIRS RSBs have degraded 2.0% (410 nm, Band M1), 0.2% (443 nm, Band M2), -0.3% (486 nm, Band M3), 0.2% (551 nm, Band M4), 6.2% (640 nm, Band I1), 11.0% (671 nm, Band M5), 21.3% (745 nm, Band M6), 35.8% (862 nm, Band I2), and 35.8% (862 nm, Band M7), respectively, since launch and 24.8% (1238 nm, Band M8), 18.5% (1378 nm, Band M9), 11.5% (1610 nm, Band I3), 11.5% (1610, Band M10), and 4.0% (2250

  20. Time-Resolved Infrared Reflectance Studies of the Dehydration-Induced Transformation of Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate to the Trihydrate Form

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Mausolf, Edward J.; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; McNamara, Bruce K.

    2015-10-01

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy, but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparation and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm-1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm-1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. The phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with but one in the hexahydrate.

  1. Time-resolved infrared reflectance studies of the dehydration-induced transformation of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to the trihydrate form

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sweet, Lucas E.; Meier, David E.; Edward J. Mausolf; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F.; Buck, Edgar C.; Bruce K. McNamara

    2015-09-08

    Uranyl nitrate is a key species in the nuclear fuel cycle. However, this species is known to exist in different states of hydration, including the hexahydrate ([UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6] often called UNH), the trihydrate [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 or UNT], and in very dry environments the dihydrate form [UO2(NO3)2(H2O)2]. Their relative stabilities depend on both water vapor pressure and temperature. In the 1950s and 1960s, the different phases were studied by infrared transmission spectroscopy but were limited both by instrumental resolution and by the ability to prepare the samples for transmission. We have revisited this problem using time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy, which requires no sample preparationmore » and allows dynamic analysis while the sample is exposed to a flow of N2 gas. Samples of known hydration state were prepared and confirmed via X-ray diffraction patterns of known species. In reflectance mode the hexahydrate UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 has a distinct uranyl asymmetric stretch band at 949.0 cm–1 that shifts to shorter wavelengths and broadens as the sample desiccates and recrystallizes to the trihydrate, first as a shoulder growing in on the blue edge but ultimately results in a doublet band with reflectance peaks at 966 and 957 cm–1. The data are consistent with transformation from UNH to UNT as UNT has two inequivalent UO22+ sites. The dehydration of UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 to UO2(NO3)2(H2O)3 is both a structural and morphological change that has the lustrous lime green UO2(NO3)2(H2O)6 crystals changing to the matte greenish yellow of the trihydrate solid. As a result, the phase transformation and crystal structures were confirmed by density functional theory calculations and optical microscopy methods, both of which showed a transformation with two distinct sites for the uranyl cation in the trihydrate, with only one in the hexahydrate.« less

  2. The applicability of reflectance micro-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for the detection of synthetic microplastics in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jesse P; Ojeda, Jesús J; Romero-González, María E

    2012-02-01

    Synthetic microplastics (≤5-mm fragments) are globally distributed contaminants within coastal sediments that may transport organic pollutants and additives into food webs. Although micro-Fourier-transform infrared (micro-FT-IR) spectroscopy represents an ideal method for detecting microplastics in sediments, this technique lacks a standardized operating protocol. Herein, an optimized method for the micro-FT-IR analysis of microplastics in vacuum-filtered sediment retentates was developed. Reflectance micro-FT-IR analyses of polyethylene (PE) were compared with attenuated total reflectance FT-IR (ATR-FT-IR) measurements. Molecular mapping as a precursor to the imaging of microplastics was explored in the presence and absence of 150-μm PE fragments, added to sediment at concentrations of 10, 100, 500 and 1000ppm. Subsequently, polymer spectra were assessed across plastic-spiked sediments from fifteen offshore sites. While all spectra obtained of evenly shaped plastics were typical to PE, reflectance micro-FT-IR measurements of irregularly shaped materials must account for refractive error. Additionally, we provide the first evidence that mapping successfully detects microplastics without their visual selection for characterization, despite this technique relying on spectra from small and spatially separated locations. Flotation of microplastics from sediments only enabled a fragment recovery rate of 61 (±31 S.D.) %. However, mapping 3-mm(2) areas (within 47-mm filters) detected PE at spiking concentrations of 100ppm and above, displaying 69 (±12 S.D.) % of the fragments in these locations. Additionally, mapping detected a potential PE fragment in a non-spiked retentate. These data have important implications for research into the imaging of microplastics. Specifically, the sensitivity and spatial resolution of the present protocol may be improved by visualizing the entire filter with high-throughput detection techniques (e.g., focal plane array-based imaging

  3. Low-level infrared laser modulates muscle repair and chromosome stabilization genes in myoblasts.

    PubMed

    da Silva Neto Trajano, Larissa Alexsandra; Stumbo, Ana Carolina; da Silva, Camila Luna; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; Fonseca, Adenilson S

    2016-08-01

    Infrared laser therapy is used for skeletal muscle repair based on its biostimulative effect on satellite cells. However, shortening of telomere length limits regenerative potential in satellite cells, which occurs after each cell division cycle. Also, laser therapy could be more effective on non-physiologic tissues. This study evaluated low-level infrared laser exposure effects on mRNA expression from muscle injury repair and telomere stabilization genes in myoblasts in normal and stressful conditions. Laser fluences were those used in clinical protocols. C2C12 myoblast cultures were exposed to low-level infrared laser (10, 35, and 70 J/cm(2)) in standard or normal (10 %) and reduced (2 %) fetal bovine serum concentrations; total RNA was extracted for mRNA expression evaluation from muscle injury repair (MyoD and Pax7) and chromosome stabilization (TRF1 and TRF2) genes by real time quantitative polymerization chain reaction. Data show that low-level infrared laser increases the expression of MyoD and Pax7 in 10 J/cm(2) fluence, TRF1 expression in all fluences, and TRF2 expression in 70 J/cm(2) fluence in both 10 and 2 % fetal bovine serum. Low-level infrared laser increases mRNA expression from genes related to muscle repair and telomere stabilization in myoblasts in standard or normal and stressful conditions.

  4. Low-level infrared laser modulates muscle repair and chromosome stabilization genes in myoblasts.

    PubMed

    da Silva Neto Trajano, Larissa Alexsandra; Stumbo, Ana Carolina; da Silva, Camila Luna; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; Fonseca, Adenilson S

    2016-08-01

    Infrared laser therapy is used for skeletal muscle repair based on its biostimulative effect on satellite cells. However, shortening of telomere length limits regenerative potential in satellite cells, which occurs after each cell division cycle. Also, laser therapy could be more effective on non-physiologic tissues. This study evaluated low-level infrared laser exposure effects on mRNA expression from muscle injury repair and telomere stabilization genes in myoblasts in normal and stressful conditions. Laser fluences were those used in clinical protocols. C2C12 myoblast cultures were exposed to low-level infrared laser (10, 35, and 70 J/cm(2)) in standard or normal (10 %) and reduced (2 %) fetal bovine serum concentrations; total RNA was extracted for mRNA expression evaluation from muscle injury repair (MyoD and Pax7) and chromosome stabilization (TRF1 and TRF2) genes by real time quantitative polymerization chain reaction. Data show that low-level infrared laser increases the expression of MyoD and Pax7 in 10 J/cm(2) fluence, TRF1 expression in all fluences, and TRF2 expression in 70 J/cm(2) fluence in both 10 and 2 % fetal bovine serum. Low-level infrared laser increases mRNA expression from genes related to muscle repair and telomere stabilization in myoblasts in standard or normal and stressful conditions. PMID:27220530

  5. Active modulation of laser coded systems using near infrared video projection system based on digital micromirror device (DMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, Aly A.; Aly, Hussein A.; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.

    2016-02-01

    Near infrared (NIR) dynamic scene projection systems are used to perform hardware in-the-loop (HWIL) testing of a unit under test operating in the NIR band. The common and complex requirement of a class of these units is a dynamic scene that is spatio-temporal variant. In this paper we apply and investigate active external modulation of NIR laser in different ranges of temporal frequencies. We use digital micromirror devices (DMDs) integrated as the core of a NIR projection system to generate these dynamic scenes. We deploy the spatial pattern to the DMD controller to simultaneously yield the required amplitude by pulse width modulation (PWM) of the mirror elements as well as the spatio-temporal pattern. Desired modulation and coding of high stable, high power visible (Red laser at 640 nm) and NIR (Diode laser at 976 nm) using the combination of different optical masks based on DMD were achieved. These spatial versatile active coding strategies for both low and high frequencies in the range of kHz for irradiance of different targets were generated by our system and recorded using VIS-NIR fast cameras. The temporally-modulated laser pulse traces were measured using array of fast response photodetectors. Finally using a high resolution spectrometer, we evaluated the NIR dynamic scene projection system response in terms of preserving the wavelength and band spread of the NIR source after projection.

  6. Absorption and electrochromic modulation of near-infrared light: realized by tungsten suboxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guilian; Zhang, Shouhao; Guo, Chongshen; Liu, Shaoqin

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, needle-like tungsten suboxide W18O49 nanocrystals were fabricated as the optical active substance to realize the aim of optical control of near-infrared light. The W18O49 nanocrystals were selected in this regard due to their unique optical performance. As revealed by the powder absorption result, the needle-like W18O49 nanocrystals show strong and wide photoabsorption in the entire near infrared region of 780-2500 nm, from which thin films with the W18O49 nanocrystal coating thus benefits and can strongly shield off almost all near infrared irradiation, whereas transmitting the majority of visible light. To make it more tunable, the W18O49 nanocrystals were finally assembled onto an ITO glass via the layer-by-layer strategy for later electrochromic investigation. The nanostructured architectures of the W18O49 nanocrystal electrochromic films exhibit high contrast, faster switching response, higher coloration efficiencies (150 cm2 C-1 at 650 nm and 255 cm2 C-1 at 1300 nm), better long-term redox switching stability (reversibility of 98% after 500 cycles) and wide electrochromic spectrum coverage of both the visible and infrared regions.In the present study, needle-like tungsten suboxide W18O49 nanocrystals were fabricated as the optical active substance to realize the aim of optical control of near-infrared light. The W18O49 nanocrystals were selected in this regard due to their unique optical performance. As revealed by the powder absorption result, the needle-like W18O49 nanocrystals show strong and wide photoabsorption in the entire near infrared region of 780-2500 nm, from which thin films with the W18O49 nanocrystal coating thus benefits and can strongly shield off almost all near infrared irradiation, whereas transmitting the majority of visible light. To make it more tunable, the W18O49 nanocrystals were finally assembled onto an ITO glass via the layer-by-layer strategy for later electrochromic investigation. The nanostructured

  7. Doppler radar having phase modulation of both transmitted and reflected return signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, H. S.; Shores, P. W.; Rozas, P. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A microwave radar signal is generated for transmission through an antenna. Before transmission, the signal is phase modulated by 0 deg or 90 deg amounts during each alternate half-cycles of an intermediate frequency (IF) clock signal. After transmission and return, the signal is again phase modulated the same amounts during each alternate half-cycles. The return phase modulated signal is mixed with a leakage signal component of the microwave signal, leaving an IF Doppler. The IF Doppler signal may then be amplified, removing any requirement that direct current level signals be amplified and also removing the effect of detector noise from the Doppler signal.

  8. Absorption and electrochromic modulation of near-infrared light: realized by tungsten suboxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Guilian; Zhang, Shouhao; Guo, Chongshen; Liu, Shaoqin

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, needle-like tungsten suboxide W18O49 nanocrystals were fabricated as the optical active substance to realize the aim of optical control of near-infrared light. The W18O49 nanocrystals were selected in this regard due to their unique optical performance. As revealed by the powder absorption result, the needle-like W18O49 nanocrystals show strong and wide photoabsorption in the entire near infrared region of 780-2500 nm, from which thin films with the W18O49 nanocrystal coating thus benefits and can strongly shield off almost all near infrared irradiation, whereas transmitting the majority of visible light. To make it more tunable, the W18O49 nanocrystals were finally assembled onto an ITO glass via the layer-by-layer strategy for later electrochromic investigation. The nanostructured architectures of the W18O49 nanocrystal electrochromic films exhibit high contrast, faster switching response, higher coloration efficiencies (150 cm(2) C(-1) at 650 nm and 255 cm(2) C(-1) at 1300 nm), better long-term redox switching stability (reversibility of 98% after 500 cycles) and wide electrochromic spectrum coverage of both the visible and infrared regions. PMID:27119556

  9. Absorption and electrochromic modulation of near-infrared light: realized by tungsten suboxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Guilian; Zhang, Shouhao; Guo, Chongshen; Liu, Shaoqin

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, needle-like tungsten suboxide W18O49 nanocrystals were fabricated as the optical active substance to realize the aim of optical control of near-infrared light. The W18O49 nanocrystals were selected in this regard due to their unique optical performance. As revealed by the powder absorption result, the needle-like W18O49 nanocrystals show strong and wide photoabsorption in the entire near infrared region of 780-2500 nm, from which thin films with the W18O49 nanocrystal coating thus benefits and can strongly shield off almost all near infrared irradiation, whereas transmitting the majority of visible light. To make it more tunable, the W18O49 nanocrystals were finally assembled onto an ITO glass via the layer-by-layer strategy for later electrochromic investigation. The nanostructured architectures of the W18O49 nanocrystal electrochromic films exhibit high contrast, faster switching response, higher coloration efficiencies (150 cm(2) C(-1) at 650 nm and 255 cm(2) C(-1) at 1300 nm), better long-term redox switching stability (reversibility of 98% after 500 cycles) and wide electrochromic spectrum coverage of both the visible and infrared regions.

  10. Variability in surface infrared reflectance of thirteen nitrile rubber gloves at key wavelengths for analysis of captan.

    PubMed

    Phalen, R N; Que Hee, Shane S

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the surface variability of 13 powder-free, unlined, and unsupported nitrile rubber gloves using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectrophotometry at key wavelengths for analysis of captan contamination. The within-glove, within-lot, and between-lot variability was measured at 740, 1124, 1252, and 1735 cm(-1), the characteristic captan reflectance minima wavelengths. Three glove brands were assessed after conditioning overnight at relative humidity (RH) values ranging from 2 +/- 1 to 87 +/- 4% and temperatures ranging from -8.6 +/- 0.7 to 59.2 +/- 0.9 degrees C. For all gloves, 1735 cm(-1) provided the lowest background absorbance and greatest potential sensitivity for captan analysis on the outer glove surface: absorbances ranged from 0.0074 +/- 0.0005 (Microflex) to 0.0195 +/- 0.0024 (SafeSkin); average within-glove coefficients of variation (CV) ranged from 2.7% (Best, range 0.9-5.3%) to 10% (SafeSkin, 1.2-17%); within-glove CVs greater than 10% were for one brand (SafeSkin); within-lot CVs ranged from 2.8% (Best N-Dex) to 28% (SafeSkin Blue); and between-lot variation was statistically significant (p < or = 0.05) for all but two SafeSkin lots. The RH had variable effects dependent on wavelength, being minimal at 1735, 1252, and 1124 cm(-1) and highest at 3430 cm(-1) (O-H stretch region). There was no significant effect of temperature conditioning. Substantial within-glove, within-lot, and between-lot variability was observed. Thus, surface analysis using ATR-FT-IR must treat glove brands and lots as different. ATR-FT-IR proved to be a useful real-time analytical tool for measuring glove variability, detecting surface humidity effects, and choosing selective and sensitive wavelengths for analysis of nonvolatile surface contaminants.

  11. Evaluation of Diffuse Reflection Infrared Spectrometry for End-of-Shift Measurement of α-quartz in Coal Dust Samples.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur L; Murphy, Nathaniel C; Bayman, Sean J; Briggs, Zachary P; Kilpatrick, Andrew D; Quinn, Courtney A; Wadas, Mackenzie R; Cauda, Emanuele G; Griffiths, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation of toxic substances is a major threat to the health of miners, and dust containing respirable crystalline silica (α-quartz) is of particular concern, due to the recent rise in cases of coal workers' pneumoconiosis and silicosis in some U.S. mining regions. Currently, there is no field-portable instrument that can measure airborne α-quartz and give miners timely feedback on their exposure. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is therefore conducting studies to investigate technologies capable of end-of-shift or real-time measurement of airborne quartz. The present study focuses on the potential application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry conducted in the diffuse reflection (DR) mode as a technique for measuring α-quartz in respirable mine dust. A DR accessory was used to analyze lab-generated respirable samples of Min-U-Sil 5 (which contains more than 90% α-quartz) and coal dust, at mass loadings in the ranges of 100-600 μg and 600-5300 μg, respectively. The dust samples were deposited onto three different types of filters, borosilicate fiberglass, nylon, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The reflectance, R, was calculated by the ratio of a blank filter and a filter with deposited mine dust. Results suggest that for coal and pure quartz dusts deposited on 37 mm PVC filters, measurements of -log R correlate linearly with known amounts of quartz on filters, with R(2) values of approximately 0.99 and 0.94, respectively, for samples loaded up to ∼4000 μg. Additional tests were conducted to measure quartz in coal dusts deposited onto the borosilicate fiberglass and nylon filter media used in the NIOSH-developed Personal Dust Monitor (PDM). The nylon filter was shown to be amenable to DR analysis, but quantification of quartz is more accurate when the filter is "free," as opposed to being mounted in the PDM filter holder. The borosilicate fiberglass filters were shown to produce excessive

  12. Fast and inexpensive detection of total and extractable element concentrations in aquatic sediments using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS).

    PubMed

    Kleinebecker, Till; Poelen, Moni D M; Smolders, Alfons J P; Lamers, Leon P M; Hölzel, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Adequate biogeochemical characterization and monitoring of aquatic ecosystems, both for scientific purposes and for water management, pose high demands on spatial and temporal replication of chemical analyses. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) may offer a rapid, low-cost and reproducible alternative to standard analytical sample processing (digestion or extraction) and measuring techniques used for the chemical characterization of aquatic sediments. We analyzed a total of 191 sediment samples for total and NaCl-extractable concentrations of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, S, Si, and Zn as well as oxalate- extractable concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn and P. Based on the NIR spectral data and the reference values, calibration models for the prediction of element concentrations in unknown samples were developed and tested with an external validation procedure. Except Mn, all prediction models of total element concentrations were found to be acceptable to excellent (ratio of performance deviation: RPD 1.8-3.1). For extractable element fractions, viable model precision could be achieved for NaCl-extractable Ca, K, Mg, NH4 (+)-N, S and Si (RPD 1.7-2.2) and oxalate-extractable Al, Fe and P (RPD 1.9-2.3). For those elements that showed maximum total values below 3 g kg(-1) prediction models were found to become increasingly critical (RPD <2.0). Low concentrations also limited the performance of NIRS calibrations for extracted elements, with critical concentration thresholds <0.1 g kg(-1) and 3.3 g kg(-1) for NaCl and oxalate extractions, respectively. Thus, reliable NIRS measurements of trace metals are restricted to sediments with high metal content. Nevertheless, we demonstrated the suitability of NIRS measurements to determine a large array of chemical properties of aquatic sediments. The results indicate great potential of this fast technique as an analytical tool to better understand the large spatial and temporal variation of sediment characteristics in an

  13. Fourier Transform Infrared with Attenuated Total Reflectance Applied to the Discrimination of Freshwater Planktonic Coccoid Green Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Guilherme Pavan; Vieira, Armando Augusto Henriques

    2014-01-01

    Despite the recent advances on fine taxonomic discrimination in microorganisms, namely using molecular biology tools, some groups remain particularly problematic. Fine taxonomy of green algae, a widely distributed group in freshwater ecosystems, remains a challenge, especially for coccoid forms. In this paper, we propose the use of the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as part of a polyphasic approach to identify and classify coccoid green microalgae (mainly order Sphaeropleales), using triplicated axenic cultures. The attenuated total reflectance (ATR) technique was tested to reproducibility of IR spectra of the biological material, a primary requirement to achieve good discrimination of microalgal strains. Spectral window selection was also tested, in conjunction with the first derivative treatment of spectra, to determine which regions of the spectrum provided better separation and clustering of strains. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) and hierarchical clusters (HCA), demonstrated a correct discrimination and classification of closely related strains of chlorophycean coccoid microalgae, with respect to currently accepted classifications. FTIR-ATR was highly reproducible, and provided an excellent discrimination at the strain level. The best separation was achieved by analyzing the spectral windows of 1500–1200 cm−1 and 900–675 cm−1, which differs from those used in previously studies for the discrimination of broad algal groups, and excluding spectral regions related to storage compounds, which were found to give poor discrimination. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analyses have positioned the strains tested into clades correctly, reproducing their taxonomic orders and families. This study demonstrates that FTIR-ATR has great potential to complement classical approaches for fine taxonomy of coccoid green microalgae, though a careful spectrum region selection is needed. PMID:25541701

  14. Quantitative determination of competitive molecular adsorption on gold nanoparticles using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, De-Hao; Davila-Morris, Melissa; DelRio, Frank W; Guha, Suvajyoti; Zachariah, Michael R; Hackley, Vincent A

    2011-08-01

    Surface-sensitive quantitative studies of competitive molecular adsorption on nanoparticles were conducted using a modified attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy method. Adsorption isotherms for thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) (SH-PEG) on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a function of molecular mass (1, 5, and 20 kDa) were characterized. We find that surface density of SH-PEG on AuNPs is inversely proportional to the molecular mass (M(m)). Equilibrium binding constants for SH-PEG, obtained using the Langmuir adsorption model, show the binding affinity for SH-PEG is proportional to M(m). Simultaneous competitive adsorption between mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and 5 kDa SH-PEG (SH-PEG5K) was investigated, and we find that MPA concentration is the dominant factor influencing the surface density of both SH-PEG5K and MPA, whereas the concentration of SH-PEG5K affects only SH-PEG5K surface density. Electrospray differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA) was employed as an orthogonal characterization technique. ES-DMA results are consistent with the results obtained by ATR-FTIR, confirming our conclusions about the adsorption process in this system. Ligand displacement competitive adsorption, where the displacing molecular species is added after completion of the ligand surface binding, was also interrogated by ATR-FTIR. Results indicate that for SH-PEG increasing M(m) yields greater stability on AuNPs when measured against displacement by bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model serum protein. In addition, the binding affinity of BSA to AuNPs is inhibited for SH-PEG conjugated AuNPs, an effect that is enhanced at higher SH-PEG M(m) values.

  15. Quantitative Subtractively Normalized Interfacial Fourier Transform Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy Study of the Adsorption of Adenine on Au(111) Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Francisco; Su, Zhangfei; Leitch, J Jay; Rueda, Manuela; Lipkowski, Jacek

    2016-04-26

    Quantitative subtractively normalized interfacial Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy (SNIFTIRS) was used to determine the molecular orientation and identify the metal-molecular interactions responsible for the adsorption of adenine from the bulk electrolyte solution onto the surface of the Au(111) electrode. The recorded p-polarized IR spectra of the adsorbed species were subtracted from the collected s-polarized IR spectra to remove the IR contributions of the vibrational bands of the desorbed molecules that are located within the thin layer cavity of the spectroelectrochemical cell. The intense IR band around 1640 cm(-1), which is assigned to the pyrimidine ring stretching vibrations of the C5-C6 and C6-N10 bonds, and the IR band at 1380 cm(-1), which results from a combination of the ring stretching vibration of the C5-C7 bond and the in-plane CH bending vibration, were selected for the quantitative analysis measurements. The transition dipoles of these bands were evaluated by DFT calculations. Their orientations differed by 85 ± 5°. The tilt angles of adsorbed adenine molecules were calculated from the intensity of these two vibrations at different potentials. The results indicate that the molecular plane is tilted at an angle of 40° with respect to the surface normal of the electrode and rotates by 16° around its normal axis with increasing electrode potential. This orientation results from the chemical interaction between the N10 and gold atoms coupled with the π-π parallel stacking interactions between the adjacent adsorbed molecules. Furthermore, the changes in the molecular plane rotation with the electric field suggests that the N1 atom of adenine must also participate in the interaction between the molecule and metal.

  16. Evaluation of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) techniques for total and phytate phosphorus of common poultry feed ingredients.

    PubMed

    Tahir, M; Shim, M Y; Ward, N E; Westerhaus, M O; Pesti, G M

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of estimating the total and phytate P content of common poultry feed ingredients by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). Samples of 8 plant-origin feedstuffs were collected from poultry producers in the USA and Canada during the summer of 2009: corn (133), soybean meal (114), corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 89), bakery by-product meal (95), wheat (22), wheat middlings (31), canola meal (21), and wheat shorts (15). The samples were assayed by standard wet chemical techniques for total and phytate P contents. There was considerable variation found in most of the ingredient components. The average values for the laboratory determinations versus NIRS predictions were all within 0.030 for total phosphorus and 0.012 for phytate P. For phytate P, the magnitude of the standard errors of the predictions ranged from 0.009% for soybean meal to 0.012% for canola meal. These values may be sufficiently precise for nutritionists to use the NIRS predictions to estimate how much of the P in their ingredients is not available to the birds. For total P, the magnitude of the standard errors of the predictions ranged from 0.027% for corn DDGS to 0.142% for wheat middlings. In general, total P predictions by NIRS were not generally sufficiently precise for most nutritionists to use in feed formulation. Decision making may be quite easy in using NIRS estimates for the phytate P content of bakery by-product meal [R(2) = 0.89 for predicted = f (determined)] but not for the total P content of soybean meal (R(2) = 0.03). It is concluded that precise estimates of phytate P through NIRS should allow nutritionists for more efficient formulate and mix feed, lowering feed costs and reducing the amount of residual polluting phosphorus in poultry excreta.

  17. Applicability of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for determination of crude protein content in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Towett, Erick K; Alex, Merle; Shepherd, Keith D; Polreich, Severin; Aynekulu, Ermias; Maass, Brigitte L

    2013-01-01

    There is uncertainty on how generally applicable near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations are across genotypes and environments, and this study tests how well a single calibration performs across a wide range of conditions. We also address the optimization of NIRS to perform the analysis of crude protein (CP) content in a variety of cowpea accessions (n = 561) representing genotypic variation as well as grown in a wide range of environmental conditions in Tanzania and Uganda. The samples were submitted to NIRS analysis and a predictive calibration model developed. A modified partial least-squares regression with cross-validation was used to evaluate the models and identify possible spectral outliers. Calibration statistics for CP suggests that NIRS can predict this parameter in a wide range of cowpea leaves from different agro-ecological zones of eastern Africa with high accuracy (R2cal = 0.93; standard error of cross-validation = 0.74). NIRS analysis improved when a calibration set was developed from samples selected to represent the range of spectral variability. We conclude from the present results that this technique is a good alternative to chemical analysis for the determination of CP contents in leaf samples from cowpea in the African context, as one of the main advantages of NIRS is the large number of compounds that can be measured at once in the same sample, thus substantially reducing the cost per analysis. The current model is applicable in predicting the CP content of young cowpea leaves for human nutrition from different agro-ecological zones and genetic materials, as cowpea leaves are one of the popular vegetables in the region. PMID:24804013

  18. Classification and quantification analysis of peach kernel from different origins with near-infrared diffuse reflection spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Qing, Jian-Ping; Li, Hong-Juan; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peach kernels which contain kinds of fatty acids play an important role in the regulation of a variety of physiological and biological functions. Objective: To establish an innovative and rapid diffuse reflectance near-infrared spectroscopy (DR-NIR) analysis method along with chemometric techniques for the qualitative and quantitative determination of a peach kernel. Materials and Methods: Peach kernel samples from nine different origins were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a reference method. DR-NIR is in the spectral range 1100-2300 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithm were applied to obtain prediction models, The Savitzky-Golay derivative and first derivative were adopted for the spectral pre-processing, PCA was applied to classify the varieties of those samples. For the quantitative calibration, the models of linoleic and oleinic acids were established with the PLSR algorithm and the optimal principal component (PC) numbers were selected with leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validation. The established models were evaluated with the root mean square error of deviation (RMSED) and corresponding correlation coefficients (R2). Results: The PCA results of DR-NIR spectra yield clear classification of the two varieties of peach kernel. PLSR had a better predictive ability. The correlation coefficients of the two calibration models were above 0.99, and the RMSED of linoleic and oleinic acids were 1.266% and 1.412%, respectively. Conclusion: The DR-NIR combined with PCA and PLSR algorithm could be used efficiently to identify and quantify peach kernels and also help to solve variety problem. PMID:25422544

  19. [Research on error reduction of path change of liquid samples based on near infrared trans-reflective spectra measurement].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Hong; Dong, Da-Ming; Zhou, Ping; Zheng, Wen-Gang; Ye, Song; Wang, Wen-Zhong

    2014-10-01

    Based on sucrose solution as the research object, this paper measured the trans-reflective spectrum of sucrose solution of different concentration by the technique of near infrared spectrum in three optical path (4, 5, 6 mm). Five kinds of pretreatment method (vector normalization, baseline offset correction, multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate transformation, a derivative) were used to eliminate the influence of the optical path difference, and to establish model of the calibration set in combination with the PLS (Partial Least Squares)method. Five kinds of pretreatment method could restrain the inter ference of light path in varying degrees. Compared with the PLS model of original spectra, the model of multiple scattering correction combined with PLS method is the optimal model. The results of quantitative analysis of original spectra: the number of principal component PC= 6, the determination coefficient R2 = 0.891 278, the determination coefficient of cross validation R2CV = 0.888 374, root mean square error of calibration RMSEC = 1.704%, root mean square error of cross validation RMSECV = 1.827%; The results of quantitative analysis of spectra after MSC pretreatment: the number of principal component PC = 3, the determination coefficient R2 = 0.987 535, the determination coefficient of cross validation R2CV = 0.983 343, root mean square er- ror of calibration RMSEC = 0.89%, root mean square error of cross validation RMSECV = 1.05%. The correlation coefficient of the prediction set is as much as 0.976 22. root mean square error of prediction is 0.01, lesser than 0.014 36. The results show that the MSC can eliminate the influence of optical path difference, improve the prediction precision and improve the stability.

  20. Applicability of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for determination of crude protein content in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) leaves.

    PubMed

    Towett, Erick K; Alex, Merle; Shepherd, Keith D; Polreich, Severin; Aynekulu, Ermias; Maass, Brigitte L

    2013-01-01

    There is uncertainty on how generally applicable near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations are across genotypes and environments, and this study tests how well a single calibration performs across a wide range of conditions. We also address the optimization of NIRS to perform the analysis of crude protein (CP) content in a variety of cowpea accessions (n = 561) representing genotypic variation as well as grown in a wide range of environmental conditions in Tanzania and Uganda. The samples were submitted to NIRS analysis and a predictive calibration model developed. A modified partial least-squares regression with cross-validation was used to evaluate the models and identify possible spectral outliers. Calibration statistics for CP suggests that NIRS can predict this parameter in a wide range of cowpea leaves from different agro-ecological zones of eastern Africa with high accuracy (R (2)cal = 0.93; standard error of cross-validation = 0.74). NIRS analysis improved when a calibration set was developed from samples selected to represent the range of spectral variability. We conclude from the present results that this technique is a good alternative to chemical analysis for the determination of CP contents in leaf samples from cowpea in the African context, as one of the main advantages of NIRS is the large number of compounds that can be measured at once in the same sample, thus substantially reducing the cost per analysis. The current model is applicable in predicting the CP content of young cowpea leaves for human nutrition from different agro-ecological zones and genetic materials, as cowpea leaves are one of the popular vegetables in the region.