Sample records for moisture barrier film

  1. The hygroscopicity of moisture barrier film coatings.

    PubMed

    Mwesigwa, Enosh; Buckton, Graham; Basit, Abdul W

    2005-12-01

    The hygroscopicity of three commercial moisture-barrier film coatings, namely, Eudragit L30 D-55 (methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate copolymer), Opadry AMB (polyvinyl alcohol based system), and Sepifilm LP 014 (hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, and stearic acid based formulation), was investigated using a dynamic vapor sorption apparatus. Moisture uptake by cast films and uncoated and coated tablet cores, which were designed to be hygroscopic, low hygroscopic, and waxy, was measured following exposure to repeat relative humidity (RH) cycles of 0-50-0-50-0%, 0-75-0-75-0%, and 0-90-0-90-0% RH at 25 degrees C. Eudragit cast film exhibited the fastest equilibration but was also the least hygroscopic. Sepifilm had the fastest sorption and took up the greatest mass of water. The rate of uptake for Opadry film was similar to Sepifilm. However, this film continued to sorb moisture for a longer period. When returned to 0% RH it retained moisture in the film showing that it had a high affinity for moisture within the film. The data for the different cores indicated that there was very little benefit in using a moisture barrier film on cores with low hygroscopicity, the mass gain being a sum of that which would be expected to sorb to the film and that which sorbs to the uncoated core. There was, however, some advantage for hygroscopic cores where, even though the barrier coatings allowed substantial water sorption into the core, the extent of this was less and the rate of uptake lower than for the uncoated sample.

  2. Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    David M. Dean

    2012-10-30

    Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is themore » key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.« less

  3. Moisture barrier properties of xylan composite films

    Treesearch

    Amit Saxena; Thomas J. Elder; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2011-01-01

    Moisture barrier properties of films based on xylan reinforced with several cellulosic resources including nanocrystalline cellulose, acacia bleached kraft pulp fibers and softwood kraft fibers have been evaluated. Measurements of water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) were performed by a modification of the wet cup method described by ASTM E 96-95, indicating that...

  4. Multilayer moisture barrier

    DOEpatents

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  5. Moisture barrier properties of single-layer graphene deposited on Cu films for Cu metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomasang, Ploybussara; Abe, Takumi; Kawahara, Kenji; Wasai, Yoko; Nabatova-Gabain, Nataliya; Thanh Cuong, Nguyen; Ago, Hiroki; Okada, Susumu; Ueno, Kazuyoshi

    2018-04-01

    The moisture barrier properties of large-grain single-layer graphene (SLG) deposited on a Cu(111)/sapphire substrate are demonstrated by comparing with the bare Cu(111) surface under an accelerated degradation test (ADT) at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity (RH) for various durations. The change in surface color and the formation of Cu oxide are investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. First-principle simulation is performed to understand the mechanisms underlying the barrier properties of SLG against O diffusion. The correlation between Cu oxide thickness and SLG quality are also analyzed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measured on a non-uniform SLG film. SLG with large grains shows high performance in preventing the Cu oxidation due to moisture during ADT.

  6. Influence of Food with High Moisture Content on Oxygen Barrier Property of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)/Vermiculite Nanocomposite Coated Multilayer Packaging Film.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Min; Lee, Min Hyeock; Ko, Jung A; Kang, Dong Ho; Bae, Hojae; Park, Hyun Jin

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the potential complications in applying nanoclay-based waterborne coating to packaging films for food with high moisture content. Multilayer packaging films were prepared by dry laminating commercially available polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/vermiculite nanocomposite coating films and linear low-density polyethylene film, and the changes in oxygen barrier properties were investigated according to different relative humidity using 3 types of food simulants. When the relative humidity was above 60%, the oxygen permeability increased sharply, but this was reversible. Deionized water and 3% acetic acid did not cause any large structural change in the PVA/vermiculite nanocomposite but caused a reversible deterioration of the oxygen barrier properties. In contrast, 50% ethanol, a simulant for the semifatty food, induced irreversible structural changes with deterioration of the oxygen barrier property. These changes are due to the characteristics of PVA rather than vermiculite. We believe this manuscript would be of interest to the wide group of researchers, organizations, and companies in the field of developing nanoclay-based gas barrier packaging for foods with high moisture content. Hence, we wish to diffuse our knowledge to the scientific community. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Edible moisture barriers: how to assess of their potential and limits in food products shelf-life extension?

    PubMed

    Bourlieu, C; Guillard, V; Vallès-Pamiès, B; Guilbert, S; Gontard, N

    2009-05-01

    Control of moisture transfer inside composite food products or between food and its environment remains today a major challenge in food preservation. A wide rage of film-forming compounds is now available and facilitates tailoring moisture barriers with optimized functional properties. Despite these huge potentials, a realistic assessment of the film or coating efficacy is still critical. Due to nonlinear water sorption isotherms, water-dependent diffusivities, and variations of physical state, modelling transport phenomena through edible barriers is complex. Water vapor permeability can hardly be considered as an inherent property of films and only gives a relative indication of the barrier efficacy. The formal or mechanistic models reported in literature that describe the influence of testing conditions on the barrier properties of edible films are reviewed and discussed. Most of these models have been validated on a narrow range of conditions. Conversely, few original predictive models based on Fick's Second Law have been developed to assess shelf-life extension of food products including barriers. These models, assuming complex and realistic hypothesis, have been validated in various model foods. The development of nondestructive methods of moisture content measurement should speed up model validation and allow a better comprehension of moisture transfer through edible films.

  8. Assessment of the physical, mechanical, and moisture-retention properties of pullulan-based ternary co-blended films.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongyang; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Jie; Jin, Zhengyu

    2014-11-04

    Multi-component substances made through direct blending or blending with co-drying can form films on the surfaces of intermediate moisture foods (IMFs), which help retain moisture and protect food texture and flavor. An IMF film system based on pullulan, with glycerol serving as the plasticizer, was studied using alginate and four different types of polysaccharides (propyleneglycol alginate, pectin, carrageenan, and aloe polysaccharide) as the blend-modified substances. The physical, mechanical, color, transparency, and moisture-retention properties of the co-blended films with the polysaccharides were assessed. A new formula was established for the average moisture retention property, water barrier, tensile strength, elongation at break, and oxygen barrier property of the ternary co-blended films using the Design Expert software. The new model established for moisture content measurement used an indirect method of film formation on food surfaces by humectants, which should expedite model validation and allow a better comprehension of moisture transfer through edible films. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Moisture sorption and permeability characteristics of polymer films: implications for their use as barrier coatings for solid dosage forms containing hydrolyzable drug substances.

    PubMed

    Mwesigwa, Enosh; Basit, Abdul W; Buckton, Graham

    2008-10-01

    Moisture sorption and permeability characteristics of polymer films were studied and their effectiveness to protect a hydrolyzable drug assessed. Cast films were prepared from Eudragit L30 D-55, Eudragit EPO, Opadry AMB and Sepifilm LP dispersions, which were also applied onto tablet cores formulated with aspirin as a model moisture sensitive active ingredient. Sorption studies were undertaken using dynamic vapour sorption, ranging between 0% and 90% RH at 25 degrees C. Cast films exhibited fast equilibration (film, followed by Opadry AMB, Eudragit L30 D-55 and Sepifilm LP (permeability coefficients of the order of 10(-6)-10(-7) cm(3) (STP) cm/cm(2) s cm Hg). Coated cores achieved a net reduction in moisture uptake, which was commensurate with the permeability characteristics of films. However, higher aspirin degradation was observed in coated cores, with Eudragit EPO emerging as the least effective barrier. Thus, there was no correlation between sorption/permeability characteristics of films and their functionality as protective coatings. These results suggest that polymer coatings are not sufficiently robust to withstand moisture and do not prevent moisture-related deterioration of drugs. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  10. Evaluation of soil moisture barrier.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-06-01

    This report is an extension report and examines one of the measures being tried to stabilize the development : of pavement damage on expansive soils, which is the use of horizontal moisture barriers. The moisture barrier : will not stop horizontal fl...

  11. Approximation of effective moisture-diffusion coefficient to characterize performance of a barrier coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Shingo

    2013-11-01

    We report estimation of the effective diffusion coefficient of moisture through a barrier coating to develop an encapsulation technology for the thin-film electronics industry. This investigation targeted a silicon oxide (SiOx) film that was deposited on a plastic substrate by a large-process-area web coater. Using the finite difference method based on diffusion theory, our estimation of the effective diffusion coefficient of a SiOx film corresponded to that of bulk glass that was previously reported. This result suggested that the low diffusivities of barrier films can be obtained on a mass-production level in the factory. In this investigation, experimental observations and mathematical confirmation revealed the limit of the water vapor transmission rate on the single barrier coating.

  12. Use of Edible Laminate Layers in Intermediate Moisture Food Rations to Inhibit Moisture Migration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-29

    methylcellulose, propylene glycol, citric acid, modified starch , white beeswax Water resistant coating on one side Watson, Inc. Dual-sided HPMC moisture...barrier film Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, propylene glycol, citric acid, modified starch , white beeswax Water resistant coating on both sides...Moisture Barrier (BWMB) film #1 Pullulan*, beeswax, glycerin, propylene glycol, starch , polysorbate 80 Water soluble Watson, Inc. Pullulan BWMB film

  13. Radio frequency plasma power dependence of the moisture permeation barrier characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jung, Hyunsoo; Samsung Display Co. Ltd., Tangjeong, Chungcheongnam-Do 336-741; Choi, Hagyoung

    2013-11-07

    In the present study, we investigated the gas and moisture permeation barrier properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethersulfone films (PES) by capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) type Remote Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition (RPALD) at Radio Frequency (RF) plasma powers ranging from 100 W to 400 W in 100 W increments using Trimethylaluminum [TMA, Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] as the Al source and O{sub 2} plasma as the reactant. To study the gas and moisture permeation barrier properties of 100-nm-thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at various plasma powers, the Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) was measured using an electrical Ca degradationmore » test. WVTR decreased as plasma power increased with WVTR values for 400 W and 100 W of 2.6 × 10{sup −4} gm{sup −2}day{sup −1} and 1.2 × 10{sup −3} gm{sup −2}day{sup −1}, respectively. The trends for life time, Al-O and O-H bond, density, and stoichiometry were similar to that of WVTR with improvement associated with increasing plasma power. Further, among plasma power ranging from 100 W to 400 W, the highest power of 400 W resulted in the best moisture permeation barrier properties. This result was attributed to differences in volume and amount of ion and radical fluxes, to join the ALD process, generated by O{sub 2} plasma as the plasma power changed during ALD process, which was determined using a plasma diagnosis technique called the Floating Harmonic Method (FHM). Plasma diagnosis by FHM revealed an increase in ion flux with increasing plasma power. With respect to the ALD process, our results indicated that higher plasma power generated increased ion and radical flux compared with lower plasma power. Thus, a higher plasma power provides the best gas and moisture permeation barrier properties.« less

  14. Water vapor barrier and sorption properties of edible films from pullulan and rice wax.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Edible films were prepared by using various ratios of pullulan and rice wax. Freestanding composite films were obtained with up to 46.4% rice wax. Water vapor barrier properties of the film were improved with increased addition of rice wax. Moisture sorption isotherms were also studied to examine...

  15. Investigation of the Interaction between Perovskite Films with Moisture via in Situ Electrical Resistance Measurement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Long; Shao, Gang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Dengbing; Lv, Xinlin; Wang, Hongya; Liu, Xinsheng; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan

    2015-11-18

    Organometal halide perovskites have recently emerged as outstanding semiconductors for solid-state optoelectronic devices. Their sensitivity to moisture is one of the biggest barriers to commercialization. In order to identify the effect of moisture in the degradation process, here we combined the in situ electrical resistance measurement with time-resolved X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the interaction of CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) perovskite films with moisture. Upon short-time exposure, the resistance of the perovskite films decreased and it could be fully recovered, which were ascribed to a mere chemisorption of water molecules, followed by the reversible hydration into CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x)·H2O. Upon long-time exposure, however, the resistance became irreversible due to the decomposition into PbI2. The results demonstrated the formation of monohydrated intermediate phase when the perovskites interacted with moisture. The role of moisture in accelerating the thermal degradation at 85 °C was also demonstrated. Furthermore, our study suggested that the perovskite films with fewer defects may be more inherently resistant to moisture.

  16. An investigation into moisture barrier film coating efficacy and its relevance to drug stability in solid dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Mwesigwa, Enosh; Basit, Abdul W

    2016-01-30

    Barrier coatings are frequently employed on solid oral dosage forms under the assumption that they prevent moisture sorption into tablet cores thereby averting premature degradation of moisture-sensitive active ingredients. However, the efficacy of moisture barrier coatings remains unproven and they may actually accelerate degradation. This study aimed to investigate the barrier performance of four coating systems following application onto a low hygroscopic tablet formulation containing aspirin as a model moisture sensitive drug. Tablets were prepared by direct compaction and coated with aqueous dispersions of Eudragit(®) L30 D-55, Eudragit(®) EPO, Opadry(®) AMB and Sepifilm(®) LP at the vendors' recommended weight gains. Moisture uptake was studied by dynamic vapor sorption at 0 and 75% RH (25°C). Accelerated stability studies were undertaken at 75% RH/25°C for 90 days and HPLC assay was used to determine aspirin content. Uncoated tablet cores equilibrated rapidly and took up very little water (0.09%). The mean water uptake for coated cores was higher than for the uncoated formulation and varied as follows: 0.19% (Eudragit(®) L30 D-55), 0.35% (Opadry(®) AMB), 0.49% (Sepifilm(®) LP) and 0.76% (Eudragit(®) EPO). The level of aspirin decreased in all the samples such that by the time the study was terminated, the mean aspirin recovered was as follows: uncoated cores 80.0%; Eudragit® L30 D-55 coated cores 78.8%; Opadry(®) AMB coated cores 76.2%, Sepifilm(®) LP coated cores 76.0% and Eudragit(®) EPO coated samples 66.5%. From these results, it is concluded that the efficacy of moisture barrier polymer coatings on low hygroscopic cores is limited, and application of these coatings can, instead, enhance drug degradation in solid dosage forms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure and properties of moisture-resistant konjac glucomannan films coated with shellac/stearic acid coating.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xueqin; Pang, Jie; Zhang, Changfeng; Yu, Chengcheng; Chen, Han; Xie, Bingqing

    2015-03-15

    A series of moisture-resistant konjac glucomannan films were prepared by coating shellac/stearic acid emulsion on deacetylated konjac glucomannan films (dKGM). The effect of stearic acid content on structure and properties of the coated films were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), water vapor permeability (WVP), water uptake, water contact angle, and tensile testing. The results revealed that shellac in the coating adhered intimately to the surface of dKGM film, and provided a substrate for the dispersion of stearic acid which played an important role in enhancement of the moisture barrier properties and mechanical properties of the coated films. The WVP of the coated films decreased from 2.63×10(-11) to 0.37×10(-11)g/(msPa) and the water contact angle increased from 68° to 101.2° when stearic acid content increased from 0wt% to 40wt%, showing the potential applications in food preservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of lignin on water vapor barrier, mechanical, and structural properties of agar/lignin composite films.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Shiv; Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-11-01

    Biodegradable composite films were prepared using two renewable resources based biopolymers, agar and lignin alkali. The lignin was used as a reinforcing material and agar as a biopolymer matrix. The effect of lignin concentration (1, 3, 5, and 10wt%) on the performance of the composite films was studied. In addition, the mechanical, water vapor barrier, UV light barrier properties, FE-SEM, and TGA of the films were analyzed. The agar/lignin films exhibited higher mechanical and UV barrier properties along with lower water vapor permeability compared to the neat agar film. The FTIR and SEM results showed the compatibility of lignin with agar polymer. The swelling ratio and moisture content of agar/lignin composite films were decreased with increase in lignin content. The thermostability and char content of agar/lignin composite films increased with increased lignin content. The results suggested that agar/lignin films have a potential to be used as a UV barrier food packaging material for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of moisture content on mechanical properties, transparency, and thermal stability of yuba film.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siran; Kim, Nayeon; Yokoyama, Wallace; Kim, Yookyung

    2018-03-15

    Yuba is the skin formed at the surface during the heating of soymilk. The 3rd, 7th, and 11th films were evaluated for properties at different RH. At 39% RH, the 11th film had the lowest moisture, while the 3rd film had the highest moisture. However, at 75% RH, reverse moisture results were obtained. The tensile strengths of the 3rd and 11th films were highest at 15% moisture, whereas the tensile strength of the 7th film was highest at 25% moisture. Elongation of the 3rd (127%) and 11th (85%) films were highest at 25% moisture. The light transmittance of the films was low and opaque at 5% moisture. The films were transparent at 23%-28% moisture, but became opaque as the moisture increased. The films at 39% RH (ΔH, 113-203J/g) had higher thermal stability than those at 87% RH (ΔH, 315-493J/g). Moisture content markedly changed the yuba film properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Low-Temperature Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride Moisture Permeation Barrier Layers.

    PubMed

    Andringa, Anne-Marije; Perrotta, Alberto; de Peuter, Koen; Knoops, Harm C M; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M; Creatore, Mariadriana

    2015-10-14

    Encapsulation of organic (opto-)electronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells, and field-effect transistors, is required to minimize device degradation induced by moisture and oxygen ingress. SiNx moisture permeation barriers have been fabricated using a very recently developed low-temperature plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) approach, consisting of half-reactions of the substrate with the precursor SiH2(NH(t)Bu)2 and with N2-fed plasma. The deposited films have been characterized in terms of their refractive index and chemical composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The SiNx thin-film refractive index ranges from 1.80 to 1.90 for films deposited at 80 °C up to 200 °C, respectively, and the C, O, and H impurity levels decrease when the deposition temperature increases. The relative open porosity content of the layers has been studied by means of multisolvent ellipsometric porosimetry (EP), adopting three solvents with different kinetic diameters: water (∼0.3 nm), ethanol (∼0.4 nm), and toluene (∼0.6 nm). Irrespective of the deposition temperature, and hence the impurity content in the SiNx films, no uptake of any adsorptive has been observed, pointing to the absence of open pores larger than 0.3 nm in diameter. Instead, multilayer development has been observed, leading to type II isotherms that, according to the IUPAC classification, are characteristic of nonporous layers. The calcium test has been performed in a climate chamber at 20 °C and 50% relative humidity to determine the intrinsic water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of SiNx barriers deposited at 120 °C. Intrinsic WVTR values in the range of 10(-6) g/m2/day indicate excellent barrier properties for ALD SiNx layers as thin as 10 nm, competing with that of state-of-the-art plasma-enhanced chemical vapor-deposited SiNx layers of a few hundred

  1. Super Oxygen and Improved Water Vapor Barrier of Polypropylene Film with Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Nanocoatings.

    PubMed

    Song, Yixuan; Tzeng, Ping; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2016-06-01

    Biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) is widely used in packaging. Although its orientation increases mechanical strength and clarity, BOPP suffers from a high oxygen transmission rate (OTR). Multilayer thin films are deposited from water using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. Polyethylenimine (PEI) is combined with either poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) or vermiculite (VMT) clay to impart high oxygen barrier. A 30-bilayer PEI/VMT nanocoating (226 nm thick) improves the OTR of 17.8 μm thick BOPP by more than 30X, rivaling most inorganic coatings. PEI/PAA multilayers achieve comparable barrier with only 12 bilayers due to greater thickness, but these films exhibit increased oxygen permeability at high humidity. The PEI/VMT coatings actually exhibit improved oxygen barrier at high humidity (and also improve moisture barrier by more than 40%). This high barrier BOPP meets the criteria for sensitive food and some electronics packaging applications. Additionally, this water-based coating technology is cost effective and provides an opportunity to produce high barrier polypropylene film on an industrial scale. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Defect analysis in low temperature atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and physical vapor deposited SiO barrier films and combination of both to achieve high quality moisture barriers

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Maindron, Tony, E-mail: tony.maindron@cea.fr; Jullien, Tony; André, Agathe

    2016-05-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} [20 nm, atomic layer deposition (ALD)] and SiO films' [25 nm, physical vacuum deposition (PVD)] single barriers as well as hybrid barriers of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO or SiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been deposited onto single 100 nm thick tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (AlQ{sub 3}) organic films made onto silicon wafers. The defects in the different barrier layers could be easily observed as nonfluorescent AlQ{sub 3} black spots, under ultraviolet light on the different systems stored into accelerated aging conditions (85 °C/85% RH, ∼2000 h). It has been observed that all devices containing an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer present a lag time τ frommore » which defect densities of the different systems start to increase significantly. This is coherent with the supposed pinhole-free nature of fresh, ALD-deposited, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. For t > τ, the number of defect grows linearly with storage time. For devices with the single Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier layer, τ has been estimated to be 64 h. For t > τ, the defect occurrence rate has been calculated to be 0.268/cm{sup 2}/h. Then, a total failure of fluorescence of the AlQ{sub 3} film appears between 520 and 670 h, indicating that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier has been totally degraded by the hot moisture. Interestingly, the device with the hybrid barrier SiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows the same characteristics as the device with the single Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier (τ = 59 h; 0.246/cm{sup 2}/h for t > τ), indicating that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD is the factor that limits the performance of the barrier system when it is directly exposed to moisture condensation. At the end of the storage period (1410 h), the defect density for the system with the hybrid SiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier is 120/cm{sup 2}. The best sequence has been obtained when Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is passivated by the SiO layer (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO). In that case, a large lag time of 795 h and a

  3. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and moisture permeation barriers

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-12-17

    A thin film stack (100, 200) is provided for use in electronic devices such as photovoltaic devices. The stack (100, 200) may be integrated with a substrate (110) such as a light transmitting/transmissive layer. A electrical conductor layer (120, 220) is formed on a surface of the substrate (110) or device layer such as a transparent conducting (TC) material layer (120,220) with pin holes or defects (224) caused by manufacturing. The stack (100) includes a thin film (130, 230) of metal that acts as a barrier for environmental contaminants (226, 228). The metal thin film (130,230) is deposited on the conductor layer (120, 220) and formed from a self-healing metal such as a metal that forms self-terminating oxides. A permeation plug or block (236) is formed in or adjacent to the thin film (130, 230) of metal at or proximate to the pin holes (224) to block further permeation of contaminants through the pin holes (224).

  4. Physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of sodium alginate/gelatin emulsion based-films incorporated with canola oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syarifuddin, A.; Hasmiyani; Dirpan, A.; Mahendradatta, M.

    2017-12-01

    The development of mixed emulsion-based films formed by sodium alginate/gelatin incorporated with canola oil can offer particular properties such as water vapor barrier properties. The different ratios of sodium alginate/gelatin and sodium alginate/gelatin emulsion-based films incorporated with canola oil were developed and their effects on films’ physical, mechanical and barrier properties were assessed. Here we set out to examine whether canola oil addition and different ratio of sodium alginate/gelatin modified physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of films. To do so, the films were prepared by vary the ratio of sodium alginate/gelatin (2.5, 1, 0.5). Canola oil addition induced changes in moisture content, thickness, solubility, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), percent elongation at break (p<0.05). In addition, it is apparent that varying ratio of sodium alginate to gelatin induced change the mechanical properties of films. The reduction of sodium alginate to gelatin decreased the tensile strength of both films. Improved values of WVTR, tensile strength and solubility at break were observed when the ratio of sodium alginate/gelatin emulsion film incorporated with canola oil was 2.5. Therefore, different ratio of sodium alginate/gelatin incorporated with canola oil can be used to tailor emulsion films with enhanced water vapor barrier and mechanical properties.

  5. The Importance of Moisture in Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskite Thin Film Fabrication.

    PubMed

    Eperon, Giles E; Habisreutinger, Severin N; Leijtens, Tomas; Bruijnaers, Bardo J; van Franeker, Jacobus J; deQuilettes, Dane W; Pathak, Sandeep; Sutton, Rebecca J; Grancini, Giulia; Ginger, David S; Janssen, Rene A J; Petrozza, Annamaria; Snaith, Henry J

    2015-09-22

    Moisture, in the form of ambient humidity, has a significant impact on methylammonium lead halide perovskite films. In particular, due to the hygroscopic nature of the methylammonium component, moisture plays a significant role during film formation. This issue has so far not been well understood and neither has the impact of moisture on the physical properties of resultant films. Herein, we carry out a comprehensive and well-controlled study of the effect of moisture exposure on methylammonium lead halide perovskite film formation and properties. We find that films formed in higher humidity atmospheres have a less continuous morphology but significantly improved photoluminescence, and that film formation is faster. In photovoltaic devices, we find that exposure to moisture, either in the precursor solution or in the atmosphere during formation, results in significantly improved open-circuit voltages and hence overall device performance. We then find that by post-treating dry films with moisture exposure, we can enhance photovoltaic performance and photoluminescence in a similar way. The enhanced photoluminescence and open-circuit voltage imply that the material quality is improved in films that have been exposed to moisture. We determine that this improvement stems from a reduction in trap density in the films, which we postulate to be due to the partial solvation of the methylammonium component and "self-healing" of the perovskite lattice. This work highlights the importance of controlled moisture exposure when fabricating high-performance perovskite devices and provides guidelines for the optimum environment for fabrication. Moreover, we note that often an unintentional water exposure is likely responsible for the high performance of solar cells produced in some laboratories, whereas careful synthesis and fabrication in a dry environment will lead to lower-performing devices.

  6. Transparent oxygen and water vapor barriers for flexible electronics using semi-crystalline polymer matrix thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehgal, Akhil

    Electronic components such as organic light emitting diodes (OLED) and photo-voltaics have been of more focus with the advancement of technology. These electronics are susceptible to degradable in the presence of gases such as water vapor and oxygen. Being that these gases are constituents of the atmosphere and can be found in nearly every environment, certain protocols must take place to mitigate the issues that occur. New generation electronics are sensitive to oxidation and corrosion in the presence of extremely low concentrations of moisture and oxygen and therefore the development and improvements of gas barriers are vital for advancements in electronics technology. The improvements of appliances such as flexible solar cells and OLEDs require barriers that need to be flexible in order to achieve high longevity. The area of research has been focused on designing flexible polymer films with composite nanoparticles and cross-linking agents that have low permeability to moisture and oxygen gas. The polymers studied are in the family of methacrylates. Due to the properties of methacrylate polymers, it has been proposed that they are capable of having efficient barrier properties due to their ability to cross link and form crystalline structures with low chain mobility. The change in intensities of the FTIR peaks of different functional groups indicates the cross-linking and crystallinity of the polymer films. The UV-Vis data indicates high transparency of the films. SEM images of the films show continuous and well cured surfaces with minimal deviations, pores and defects. The addition of cross-linking agents and nanoparticles increased polymerization and cross-linking of the methacrylate polymer chains, therefore increasing inter-chain density and long range order. The incorporation of these additives increased the crystallinity of the films and by decreasing the distances and number of voids between polymer chains along with having minimal sorption sites for gases

  7. Influence of barrier absorption properties on laser patterning thin organic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naithani, Sanjeev; Mandamparambil, Rajesh; van Assche, Ferdie; Schaubroeck, David; Fledderus, Henri; Prenen, An; Van Steenberge, Geert; Vanfleteren, Jan

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a study of selective ablation of thin organic films (LEP- Light Emitting Polymer, PEDOT:PSS- Poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene: polystyrene sulfonate) by using 248 nm Excimer laser, on various kinds of multilayered SiN barrier foils for the development of Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED). Different Silicon Nitride (SiN) barrier foils with dedicated absorption spectra are taken into account for this purpose. The drive for looking into different types of SiN originates from the fact that the laser selective removal of a polymer without damage to the barrier layer underneath is challenging in the dynamic laser processing of thin films. The barrier is solely responsible for the proper encapsulation of the OLED stack. The main limitation of current OLED design is its shorter life span, which is directly related to the moisture or water permeation into the stack, leading to black spots. An optimization of laser parameters like fluence and number of shots has been carried out for the various types of SiN barrier foils. We are able to obtain a wider working process window for the selective removal of LEP and PEDOT:PSS from SiN barrier, by variation of the different types of SiN.

  8. Monitoring the Vadose Zone Moisture Regime Below a Surface Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, C. E.; Field, J. G.

    2009-12-01

    A 6000 m2 interim surface barrier has been constructed over a portion of the T Tank Farm in the Depart of Energy’s Hanford site. The purpose of using a surface barrier was to reduce or eliminate the infiltration of meteoric precipitation into the contaminated soil zone due to past leaks from Tank T-106 and hence to reduce the rate of movement of the plume. As part of the demonstration effort, vadose zone moisture is being monitored to assess the effectiveness of the barrier on the reduction of soil moisture flow. A vadose zone monitoring system was installed to measure soil water conditions at four horizontal locations (i.e., instrument Nests A, B, C, and D) outside, near the edge of, and beneath the barrier. Each instrument nest consists of a capacitance probe with multiple sensors, multiple heat-dissipation units, and a neutron probe access tube used to measure soil-water content and soil-water pressure. Nest A serves as a control by providing subsurface conditions outside the influence of the surface barrier. Nest B provides subsurface measurements to assess barrier edge effects. Nests C and D are used to assess the impact of the surface barrier on soil-moisture conditions beneath it. Monitoring began in September 2006 and continues to the present. To date, the monitoring system has provided high-quality data. Results show that the soil beneath the barrier has been draining from the shallower depth. The lack of climate-caused seasonal variation of soil water condition beneath the barrier indicates that the surface barrier has minimized water exchange between the soil and the atmosphere.

  9. Effect of plasticizer on moisture sorption isotherm of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatmiko, Tri Hadi; Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Prasetyo, Dwi Joko; Rosyida, Vita Taufika

    2016-02-01

    The effect of plasticizer type (glycerol, sorbitol) and plasticizer concentrations (30, 35, 40, 45% w/w polymer) on the moisture sorption isotherm characteristics of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were investigated. Moisture affinity of sugar palm starch films was influenced by the plasticizer type and plasticizer concentration. The affinity of the glycerol plasticized film is stronger than that of sorbitol plasticized film. Sugar palm starch film with a higher concentration of glycerol absorbs more moisture with higher initial absorption rate than that of with sorbitol. Films with higher plasticizer concentration of glycerol and sorbitol show higher equilibrium moisture contents at the given relative humidity. The moisture sorption isotherm characteristic of sugar palm starch films can be described very well with the semi empirical 4 parameter Peleg's model.

  10. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and moisture permeation barriers

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2015-07-28

    Thin film electronic devices (or stacks integrated with a substrate) that include a permeation barrier formed of a thin layer of metal that provides a light transmitting and electrically conductive layer, wherein the electrical conductive layer is formed on a surface of the substrate or device layer such as a transparent conducting material layer with pin holes or defects caused by manufacturing and the thin layer of metal is deposited on the conductive layer and formed from a self-healing metal that forms self-terminating oxides. A permeation plug or block is formed in or adjacent to the thin film of metal at or proximate to the pin holes to block further permeation of contaminants through the pin holes.

  11. Improved stability and efficiency of perovskite solar cells with submicron flexible barrier films deposited in air

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rolston, Nicholas; Printz, Adam D.; Hilt, Florian

    Here in this paper, we report on submicron organosilicate barrier films produced rapidly in air by a scalable spray plasma process that improves both the stability and efficiency of perovskite solar cells. The plasma is at sufficiently low temperature to prevent damage to the underlying layers. Oxidizing species and heat from the plasma improve device performance by enhancing both interfacial contact and the conductivity of the hole transporting layer. The thickness of the barrier films is tunable and transparent over the entire visible spectrum. The morphology and density of the barrier are shown to improve with the addition of amore » fluorine-based precursor. Devices with submicron coatings exhibited significant improvements in stability, maintaining 92% of their initial power conversion efficiencies after more than 3000 h in dry heat (85 °C, 25% RH) while also being resistant to degradation under simulated operational conditions of continuous exposure to light, heat, and moisture. X-ray diffraction measurements performed while heating showed the barrier film dramatically slows the formation of PbI 2. The barrier films also are compatible with flexible devices, exhibiting no signs of cracking or delamination after 10000 bending cycles on a 127 μm substrate with a bending radius of 1 cm.« less

  12. Improved stability and efficiency of perovskite solar cells with submicron flexible barrier films deposited in air

    DOE PAGES

    Rolston, Nicholas; Printz, Adam D.; Hilt, Florian; ...

    2017-10-27

    Here in this paper, we report on submicron organosilicate barrier films produced rapidly in air by a scalable spray plasma process that improves both the stability and efficiency of perovskite solar cells. The plasma is at sufficiently low temperature to prevent damage to the underlying layers. Oxidizing species and heat from the plasma improve device performance by enhancing both interfacial contact and the conductivity of the hole transporting layer. The thickness of the barrier films is tunable and transparent over the entire visible spectrum. The morphology and density of the barrier are shown to improve with the addition of amore » fluorine-based precursor. Devices with submicron coatings exhibited significant improvements in stability, maintaining 92% of their initial power conversion efficiencies after more than 3000 h in dry heat (85 °C, 25% RH) while also being resistant to degradation under simulated operational conditions of continuous exposure to light, heat, and moisture. X-ray diffraction measurements performed while heating showed the barrier film dramatically slows the formation of PbI 2. The barrier films also are compatible with flexible devices, exhibiting no signs of cracking or delamination after 10000 bending cycles on a 127 μm substrate with a bending radius of 1 cm.« less

  13. Morphological, mechanical, barrier and properties of films based on acetylated starch and cellulose from barley.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Biduski, Bárbara; Evangelho, Jarine Amaral do; Bruni, Graziella Pinheiro; Antunes, Mariana Dias; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable films of native or acetylated starches with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. The tensile strength of the acetylated starch film was lower than those of the native starch film, without fibers. The addition of fibers increased the tensile strength and decreased the elongation and the moisture of native and acetylated starches films. The acetylated starch film showed higher water solubility when compared to native starch film. The addition of cellulose fibers reduced the water solubility of the acetylated starch film. The films reinforced with cellulose fiber exhibited a higher initial decomposition temperature and thermal stability. The mechanical, barrier, solubility, and thermal properties are factors which direct the type of the film application in packaging for food products. The films elaborated with acetylated starches of low degree of substitution were not effective in a reduction of the water vapor permeability. The addition of the cellulose fiber in acetylated and native starches films can contribute to the development of more resistant films to be applied in food systems that need to maintain their integrity. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Simple realization of efficient barrier performance of a single layer silicon nitride film via plasma chemistry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Suk; Sahu, Bibhuti Bhusan; Han, Jeon Geon

    2016-11-30

    Due to the problem of degradation by moisture or oxygen, there is growing interest in efficient gas diffusion barriers for organic optoelectronic devices. Additionally, for the continuous and long-term operation of a device, dedicated flexible thin film encapsulation is required, which is the foremost challenge. Many efforts are being undertaken in the plasma assisted deposition process control for the optimization of film properties. Control of the plasma density along with the energy of the principal plasma species is critical to inducing alteration of the plasma reactivity, chemistry, and film properties. Here, we have used the radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique to deposit amorphous silicon nitride (SiN x ) barrier films onto a plastic substrate at different pressures. A large part of our efforts is devoted to a detailed study of the process parameters controlling the plasma treatment. Numerous plasma diagnostic techniques combined with various characterization tools are purposefully used to characterize and investigate the plasma environment and the associated film properties. This contribution also reports a study of the correlations between the plasma chemistry and the chemical, mechanical, barrier, and optical properties of the deposited films. The data reveal that the film possesses a very low stress for the condition where the net energy imparted on the substrate is at a minimum. Simultaneously, a relatively high ion flux and high energy of the ions impinging on the film growth surfaces are crucial for controlling the film stress and the resulting barrier properties.

  15. Influence of low energy argon plasma treatment on the moisture barrier performance of hot wire-CVD grown SiNx multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majee, Subimal; Fátima Cerqueira, Maria; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Alpuim, Pedro; Bourée, Jean Eric

    2014-01-01

    The reliability and stability are key issues for the commercial utilization of organic photovoltaic devices based on flexible polymer substrates. To increase the shelf-lifetime of these devices, transparent moisture barriers of silicon nitride (SiNx) films are deposited at low temperature by hot wire CVD (HW-CVD) process. Instead of the conventional route based on organic/inorganic hybrid structures, this work defines a new route consisting in depositing multilayer stacks of SiNx thin films, each single layer being treated by argon plasma. The plasma treatment allows creating smoother surface and surface atom rearrangement. We define a critical thickness of the single layer film and focus our attention on the effect of increasing the number of SiNx single-layers on the barrier properties. A water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of 2 × 10-4 g/(m2·day) is reported for SiNx multilayer stack and a physical interpretation of the plasma treatment effect is given.

  16. Scaling behavior of moisture-induced grain degradation in polycrystalline hybrid perovskite thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Qi; Chen, Bo; Liu, Ye; ...

    2017-01-01

    The stability of perovskite solar cells has shown a huge variation with respect to the film process and film morphology, while the underlining mechanism for the morphology-dependent degradation of the perovskite film has remained elusive. Herein, we report a scaling behavior of moisture-induced grain degradation in polycrystalline CH 3NH 3PbI 3 films. The degradation rates of CH 3NH 3PbI 3 films in moisture were shown to be sensitive to the grain sizes. The duration that was needed for different films to degrade by the same percent showed a linear relationship with the grain size, despite the fact that the filmsmore » were formed by five different deposition methods. This scaling behavior can be explained by the degradation along the in-plane direction, which is initiated at the grain boundary (GB). The GBs of CH 3NH 3PbI 3 films consist of an amorphous intergranular layer, which allows quick diffusion of moisture into the perovskite films. It was found that thermal annealing induced surface self-passivation plays a critical role in stabilizing the surfaces of thin films and single crystals by reducing the moisture-sensitive methylammonium ions at the surface. Finally, the determination of the scaling behavior of grain degradation highlights the importance of stabilizing the GBs to improve the stability of perovskite solar cells.« less

  17. Scaling behavior of moisture-induced grain degradation in polycrystalline hybrid perovskite thin films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Qi; Chen, Bo; Liu, Ye

    The stability of perovskite solar cells has shown a huge variation with respect to the film process and film morphology, while the underlining mechanism for the morphology-dependent degradation of the perovskite film has remained elusive. Herein, we report a scaling behavior of moisture-induced grain degradation in polycrystalline CH 3NH 3PbI 3 films. The degradation rates of CH 3NH 3PbI 3 films in moisture were shown to be sensitive to the grain sizes. The duration that was needed for different films to degrade by the same percent showed a linear relationship with the grain size, despite the fact that the filmsmore » were formed by five different deposition methods. This scaling behavior can be explained by the degradation along the in-plane direction, which is initiated at the grain boundary (GB). The GBs of CH 3NH 3PbI 3 films consist of an amorphous intergranular layer, which allows quick diffusion of moisture into the perovskite films. It was found that thermal annealing induced surface self-passivation plays a critical role in stabilizing the surfaces of thin films and single crystals by reducing the moisture-sensitive methylammonium ions at the surface. Finally, the determination of the scaling behavior of grain degradation highlights the importance of stabilizing the GBs to improve the stability of perovskite solar cells.« less

  18. Development of oxidised and heat-moisture treated potato starch film.

    PubMed

    Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Klein, Bruna; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Prentice-Hernández, Carlos; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of sodium hypochlorite oxidation and a heat-moisture treatment of potato starch on the physicochemical, pasting and textural properties of potato starches in addition to the water vapour permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties of potato starch films produced from these starches. The carbonyl contents, carboxyl contents, swelling power, solubility, pasting properties and gel texture of the native, oxidised and heat-moisture treated (HMT) starches were evaluated. The films made of native, oxidised and HMT starches were characterised by thickness, water solubility, colour, opacity, mechanical properties and WVP. The oxidised and HMT starches had lower viscosity and swelling power compared to the native starch. The films produced from oxidised potato starch had decreased solubility, elongation and WVP values in addition to increased tensile strength compared to the native starch films. The HMT starch increased the tensile strength and WVP of the starch films compared to the native starch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Amorphous-Metal-Film Diffusion Barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1987-01-01

    Incorporation of N into Ni/W films reduces reactivity with Si substrate. Paper describes reactions between Si substrates and deposited amorphous Ni/W or Ni/N/W films. Thermal stability of amorphous Ni/W films as diffusion barriers in Si markedly improved by introduction of N into Ni/W films during deposition.

  20. Acetylated rice starches films with different levels of amylose: Mechanical, water vapor barrier, thermal, and biodegradability properties.

    PubMed

    Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Biduski, Bárbara; Prietto, Luciana; Castilhos, Danilo Dufech; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2017-04-15

    Biodegradable films from native or acetylated starches with different amylose levels were prepared. The films were characterized according to the mechanical, water vapor barrier, thermal, and biodegradability properties. The films from acetylated high amylose starches had higher moisture content and water solubility than the native high amylose starch film. However, the acetylation did not affect acid solubility of the films, regardless of the amylose content. Films made from high and medium amylose rice starches were obtained; however low amylose rice starches, whether native or acetylated, did not form films with desirable characteristics. The acetylation decreased the tensile strength and increased the elongation of the films. The acetylated starch-based films had a lower decomposition temperature and higher thermal stability than native starch films. Acetylated starches films exhibited more rapid degradation as compared with the native starches films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antibacterial [2-(Methacryloyloxy) ethyl] Trimethylammonium Chloride Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide/Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) Multilayer Barrier Film for Food Packaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hualin; Chen, Minmin; Jin, Chongyang; Niu, Baicheng; Jiang, Suwei; Li, Xingjiang; Jiang, Shaotong

    2018-01-24

    The objective of present work was to construct antibacterial [2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride functionalized reduced graphene oxide/poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (MTAC-rGO/EVOH) multilayer barrier films by using layer-by-layer assembly under a parallel electric field. Besides barrier and mechanical properties, the antibacterial activities of the film and cytotoxicity of MTAC-rGO nanosheets were extensively investigated. The functionalization of rGO was achieved by grafting MTAC onto a graphene framework through C (sp 3 )-C bonds. The assembly of MTAC-rGO on the EVOH matrix not only significantly improved film mechanical strength, but also endowed the targeting film with outstanding moisture barrier even under a relative humidity of 99% (e.g., 0.019 g m -2 s -1 atm -1 for (MTAC-rGO/EVOH) 20 ) besides good oxygen barrier (e.g., 0.07 cm 3 m -2 d -1 atm -1 for (MTAC-rGO/EVOH) 20 ). Among the testing films, MTAC-rGO/EVOH film had the best antibacterial activity, and the activity against S. aureus was better than E. coli. Meanwhile, the cytotoxicity of MTAC-rGO nanosheets was very low. Results suggest that MTAC-rGO/EVOH film may have great potential in food active packaging.

  2. Graphene-based stretchable and transparent moisture barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Sejeong; Van Lam, Do; Lee, Jin Young; Jung, Hyun-June; Hur, Min; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Lee, Hak-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2018-03-01

    We propose an alumina-deposited double-layer graphene (2LG) as a transparent, scalable, and stretchable barrier against moisture; this barrier is indispensable for foldable or stretchable organic displays and electronics. Both the barrier property and stretchability were significantly enhanced through the introduction of 2LG between alumina and a polymeric substrate. 2LG with negligible polymeric residues was coated on the polymeric substrate via a scalable dry transfer method in a roll-to-roll manner; an alumina layer was deposited on the graphene via atomic layer deposition. The effect of the graphene layer on crack generation in the alumina layer was systematically studied under external strain using an in situ micro-tensile tester, and correlations between the deformation-induced defects and water vapor transmission rate were quantitatively analyzed. The enhanced stretchability of alumina-deposited 2LG originated from the interlayer sliding between the graphene layers, which resulted in the crack density of the alumina layer being reduced under external strain.

  3. Compositional and moisture content effects on the biodegradability of zein/ethylcellulose films.

    PubMed

    Romero-Bastida, Claudia A; Flores-Huicochea, Eduardo; Martin-Polo, Martha O; Velazquez, Gonzalo; Torres, J Antonio

    2004-04-21

    The effect of moisture content and film composition on biodegradability is the focus of this study. Flexible films were first characterized for the effect on water sorption isotherms of relative humidity, temperature, zein content, and the addition of the plasticizers stearic acid, poly(ethylene glycol), or etoxylated ricine oil. Zein/ethylcellulose (EC) mixture films had a behavior between that for pure zein and EC films, which had the lowest water sorption. For films with plasticizer, the lowest water sorption at 25 degrees C was observed for those with stearic acid. Biodegradability of zein/EC films, evaluated using bacterial cultures selected for their zein proteolytic activity and isolated from a local solid waste landfill and a lagoon, showed no plasticizer effect even though its effect on moisture content was significant. Large differences were observed at different film zein concentration with the highest biodegradability for 100% zein. However, biodegradability did not mimic the water sorption behavior of zein/EC mixture films.

  4. Development and characterization of an edible composite film based on chitosan and virgin coconut oil with improved moisture sorption properties.

    PubMed

    Binsi, P K; Ravishankar, C N; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2013-04-01

    An edible composite film was prepared from an emulsion system based on chitosan and virgin coconut oil (VCO). The effect of incorporation of VCO was evaluated at various concentrations and the optimum concentration was chosen based on resultant changes in the properties of the film. Addition of VCO in film forming solution resulted in increase in film thickness and marginal reduction in film transparency. Compatibility of VCO with chitosan was better at lower concentration of VCO as indicated by the microstructure of composite film in scanning electron micrographs. Phase separation was evident at higher level of oil incorporation and the optimal oil/chitosan ratio was determined to be at 0.5 to 1 mL/g chitosan. Furthermore, chemical interaction took place between VCO and chitosan as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data. Even though control chitosan films exhibited superior gas barrier properties, composite film with optimum VCO concentration revealed better mechanical and moisture sorption properties. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Arabinoxylan-lipids-based edible films and coatings. 2. Influence of sucroester nature on the emulsion structure and film properties.

    PubMed

    Phan The, D; Péroval, C; Debeaufort, F; Despré, D; Courthaudon, J L; Voilley, A

    2002-01-16

    This work is a contribution to better knowledge of the influence of the structure of films on their functional properties obtained from emulsions based on arabinoxylans, hydrogenated palm kernel oil (HPKO), and emulsifiers. The sucroesters (emulsifiers) have a great effect on the stabilization of the emulsified film structure containing arabinoxylans and hydrogenated palm kernel oil. They improve the moisture barrier properties. Several sucroesters having different esterification degrees were tested. Both lipophilic (90% of di and tri-ester) and hydrophilic (70% of mono-ester) sucrose esters can ensure the stability of the emulsion used to form the film, especially during preparation and drying. These emulsifiers confer good moisture barrier properties to emulsified films.

  6. Effects of lamination and coating with drying oils on tensile and barrier properties of zein films.

    PubMed

    Rakotonirainy, A M; Padua, G W

    2001-06-01

    Zein films plasticized with oleic acid have been considered potentially useful for biodegradable packaging applications. However, moisture was found to affect their tensile and gas barrier properties. We investigated the effects of two converting processes, fusion lamination and coating with drying oils, on tensile properties and gas permeability of zein films. Zein films were laminated to 4-ply sheets in a Carver press and coated with tung oil, linseed oil, or a mixture of tung and soybean oils. Tensile properties and permeability to water vapor, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured according to ASTM methods. Laminated films were clearer, tougher, and more flexible, and had a smoother finish than nontreated sheets. Lamination decreased O(2) and CO(2) permeability by filling in voids and pinholes in the film structure. Coating increased tensile strength and elongation and decreased water vapor permeability. Coatings acted as a composite layer preventing crack propagation and increasing film strength. They also formed a highly hydrophobic surface that prevented film wetting.

  7. Potential of kaolin-based particle film barriers for Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiltz, B.A.; Woodson, W.D.; Puterka, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of three particle film products on Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were evaluated in feeding, tunneling, and contact assays. The particle films, hydrophobic M96-018 and hydrophilic Surround and Surround WP are based on the inert clay mineral kaolin. In 2-week long no-choice feeding tests, significant mortality occurred only with M96-018-coated wood. When a choice was provided, M96-018 and Surround were consumed at higher rates than untreated wood. Surround WP did not differ from controls in either test. In the tunneling assay termites were given the option of crossing a kaolin-sand mixture to reach an alternate food source. After 3-weeks, rates of 1% and 5% M96-018 provided an effective barrier to Formosan termite tunneling, while termites were not stopped by rates as high as 20% Surround and Surround WP. Dust treatments of all three formulations caused significant increases in mortality within 24 h, with mortality rates ranging from 72.0 - 97.3% within 72 h of treatment. The particle films were most effective when moisture levels were low, suggesting that desiccation was the mechanism for mortality. All particle films showed potential for use in above ground applications while hydrophobic M06-018 has the most potential as a soil barrier to subterranean termites.

  8. Evaluation of moisture barrier coatings on carbon-phenolic SRM nozzle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnutt, Ronald C.

    1986-01-01

    The carbon-phenolic composite ablative material used on the Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle is known to absorb moisture from the atmosphere. This could cause problems such as pocketing during firing. Several moisture barrier coatings were tested on the SRM nozzle material. Data are presented for six of the 12 coatings to be tested. The data were obtained from immersion of coated samples in an environmental chamber at 100 F and 100% relative humidity and by using a modified TGA (thermal gravimetric analysis) technique. The TGA technique involved allowing wet nitrogen (25 C, 80% relative humidity) to flow across a small sample at about 65 cu cm per minute while continually monitoring the weight increase. These preliminary results show Kel-F-800, a material supplied by 3M Corporation to be the better moisture barrier. A second task was to collect data on the relative absorption of water and kerosene into the carbon-phenolic SRM nozzle material. These data indicate that water absorbs into the nozzle material to a much greater extent than kerosene. Thus kerosene is the more likely solvent in which to make specific gravity measurements on the SRM nozzle material.

  9. Graphene: Polymer composites as moisture barrier and charge transport layer toward solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakorikar, Tushar; Kavitha, M. K.; Tong, Shi Wun; Vayalamkuzhi, Pramitha; Loh, Kian Ping; Jaiswal, Manu

    2018-05-01

    Graphene: polymer composite based electrically conducting films are realized by a facile solution processable method. Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) measurements on the composite films, reveal a low work function of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) obtained from hydrazine hydrate reduction of graphene oxide (GO). We suggest that the low work function could potentially make rGO: PMMA composite suitable for electron conducting layer in perovskite solar cells in place of traditionally used expensive PCBM ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) layer. Further, we demonstrate from the gravimetric experiments conducted on rGO: PMMA films, that the same coating is also resistant to moisture permeation. This latter property can be used to realize a protective coating layer for perovskite films, which are prone to moisture induced degradation. Thus, dual functionality of rGO-PMMA films is demonstrated towards integration with perovskite solar cells. Architecture of perovskite solar cell based on these concepts is proposed.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of Maintenance Treatment with a Barrier-strengthening Moisturizing Cream in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Norrlid, Hanna; Hjalte, Frida; Lundqvist, Adam; Svensson, Åke; Tennvall, Gunnel Ragnarson

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin disorder with high prevalence, especially in the Nordic countries. Effective maintenance therapy during symptom-free episodes may prolong the time to eczema relapse according to a previously published clinical trial. The present study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of a barrier-strengthening moisturizer containing 5% urea, compared with a moisturizer with no active ingredients during eczema-free periods. A health economic microsimulation model, based on efficacy data from the randomized clinical trial, analysed the cost-effectiveness of the barrier-strengthening treatment in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The barrier-strengthening moisturizer was cost-saving compared with the moisturizer with no active ingredients in all 3 countries. The result was confirmed in all but one sensitivity analysis. In conclusion, the barrier-strengthening moisturizer is cost-effective as maintenance therapy for patients with atopic dermatitis compared with a moisturizer with no active ingredients.

  11. Analysis of Nanoporosity in Moisture Permeation Barrier Layers by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Alberto; García, Santiago J; Michels, Jasper J; Andringa, Anne-Marije; Creatore, Mariadriana

    2015-07-29

    Water permeation in inorganic moisture permeation barriers occurs through macroscale defects/pinholes and nanopores, the latter with size approaching the water kinetic diameter (0.27 nm). Both permeation paths can be identified by the calcium test, i.e., a time-consuming and expensive optical method for determining the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) through barrier layers. Recently, we have shown that ellipsometric porosimetry (i.e., a combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry and isothermal adsorption studies) is a valid method to classify and quantify the nanoporosity and correlate it with the WVTR values. Nevertheless, no information is obtained about the macroscale defects or the kinetics of water permeation through the barrier, both essential in assessing the quality of the barrier layer. In this study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is shown as a sensitive and versatile method to obtain information on nanoporosity and macroscale defects, water permeation, and diffusivity of moisture barrier layers, complementing the barrier property characterization obtained by means of EP and calcium test. EIS is performed on thin SiO2 barrier layers deposited by plasma enhanced-CVD. It allows the determination of the relative water uptake in the SiO2 layers, found to be in agreement with the nanoporosity content inferred by EP. Furthermore, the kinetics of water permeation is followed by EIS, and the diffusivity (D) is determined and found to be in accordance with literature values. Moreover, differently from EP, EIS data are shown to be sensitive to the presence of local macrodefects, correlated with the barrier failure during the calcium test.

  12. Improving the moisturizing properties of collagen film by surface grafting of chondroitin sulfate for corneal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Lv, Huilin; Ren, Li; Xue, Guanhua; Wang, Yingjun

    2016-01-01

    Cornea disease is the second cause of blindness and keratoplasty is the most commonly performed option for visual rehabilitation of patients with corneal blindness. However, the clinical treatment has been drastically limited due to a severe shortage of high-quality donor corneas. Although collagen film with outstanding biocompatibility has promising application in corneal tissue engineering, the moisturizing properties of collagen-based materials must be further improved to satisfy the requirements of clinical applications. This paper describes a novel collagen-based film with high moisture capacity reinforced by surface grafting of chondroitin sulfate. The collagen-chondroitin sulfate (abbreviated as Col-CS) film was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and its hydrophilic property, moisture retention, optical property, and mechanical performance had been tested. The moisture-retaining capacity is found to be improved with the introduction of chondroitin sulfate, and the Col-CS membrane performs better mechanical properties than the collagen film. Moreover, the modified film proves excellent biocompatibility for the proliferation of human corneal epithelial cells in vitro. This Col-CS film with good moisturizing properties can reduce the risk of xerophthalmia and is expected to increase the implant success rate in clinic patients with corneal defects.

  13. Novel synergistic transparent k-Carrageenan/Xanthan gum/Gellan gum hydrogel film: Mechanical, thermal and water barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, R; Kim, Sam Soo; Lee, Jaewoong

    2018-06-24

    The aim is to develop novel synergistic transparent k-Carrageenan/Xanthan gum/Gellan gum (k-C/X/G) hydrogel films with different weight ratio composition and to study the effect of these compositions on the physical properties of the films. The structure and morphological properties of the films were investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Results for FT-IR, DSC and SEM analysis showed a clear interaction between k-C, X, and G to form a new material. The mechanical, thermal and water barrier properties such as water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (WCA) and moisture content were determined. The temperature at 5% weight loss (T 5% ) are in the range of 64.2-121.9 °C. The WVP exhibits are in the range of 1.8-2.4, contact angle are in the range of 32-65.8° and moisture content 16.5-21.51. The hydrogel film had good tensile strength of 19.1-31.0 MPa and elongation at break of 13-19% and tensile modulus of 1.6-2.4 GPa. The UV results indicate that the films were very transparent. The range of properties of the ternary k-C/X/G hydrogel films suggest that the presence molecular interaction and cross linking within the blends. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Enhancement of Moisture Protective Properties and Stability of Pectin through Formation of a Composite Film: Effects of Shellac and Plasticizer.

    PubMed

    Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Soradech, Sitthiphong; Saengsod, Suthep; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop the high moisture protective ability and stable pectin through the design of composite films based on varying shellac concentrations. A film casting method was applied to prepare a free film. The moisture protective properties and mechanical properties were investigated. The findings was the composite films exhibited the reductions in the hydrophilicity, water vapor permeability, and the moisture content compared with pectin films. The single and composite films were then study for their stability at 40 °C and 75% RH for 90 d. Among the concentrations of shellac, 50% (w/w) could improve stability in terms of moisture protection after 90 d of storage, whereas lower concentrations of shellac (10% to 40%) could not achieve this. However, the higher shellac content also contributed to weaker mechanical properties. The mechanical improvement and stability of composite films with the incorporation of plasticizers were further investigated. Polyethylene glycol 400 and diethyl phthalate at a concentration of 10% were used. The results indicated that both plasticizers could enhance the mechanical characteristics and had a slight effect on moisture protection. The stability of pectin in terms of moisture protective properties could, therefore, be modified through the fabrication of composite films with hydrophobic polymers, that is, shellac and the addition of proper plasticizers to enhance mechanical properties, which could offer wide applications for edible film in food, agro, and pharmaceutical industries. The composite film with 50% shellac could improve moisture protective properties of pectin film. Adding a plasticizer could build up the higher mechanical characteristics of composite film. Stability of pectin could be modified by fabrication of composite films with proper content of shellac and plasticizer. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Effect of size and moisture on the mechanical behavior of SU-8 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, C. J.; Jonnalagadda, K. N.

    2016-02-01

    The mechanical properties of SU-8 were investigated in conjunction with size effect, mechanical anisotropy and moisture absorption. Uniaxial tensile experiments were conducted on SU-8 films of 500 nm and 2 μm thickness. A spin coating process was used to fabricate the films with one set from a single coat (single layer) and the others containing multiple coats (multilayer) with pre-baking in between. The stress versus strain response was obtained from in situ optical experiments and a digital image correlation method. Compared to single layer films, the multilayer films showed a significant increase in mechanical properties as well as in-plane anisotropy. This anisotropy was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and attributed to the spin coating process, which resulted in higher crosslinking density in the film, and molecular orientation in the radial direction. Moisture absorption studies revealed that the mechanical properties were affected by water, which exists in both the free and bonded form in the polymer and acts as a plasticizer. The effect of moisture was similar in both the single and multilayer films, but was higher for the latter due to multiple processing steps as well as the existence of higher percentage of epoxy polar groups.

  16. Reactive coating of soybean oil-based polymer on nanofibrillated cellulose film for water vapor barrier packaging.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peng; Xiao, Huining; Zhang, Weiwei; Gong, Glen

    2014-10-13

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) easily forms a high strength film but is unable to withstand the influence of water vapor when used in high moisture situations. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of a NFC film was as high as 5088 g/m(2)24h (38 °C, 90% RH). The addition of beeswax latex in a NFC casting film (NFX) lowered the WVTR to 3918 g/m(2)24h. To further reduce the WVTR, a coating agent comprised of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) was applied onto the NFX film using a rod coater. A combination of the suitable AESO/APTS ratio, initiator dosing, curing time and temperature could reduce the WVTR to 188 g/m(2) 24h when the coat weight was 5 g/m(2). Moreover, the coated NFX film was highly hydrophobic along with the improved transparency and thermal stability. This biodegradable polymer-coated NFC film can be used as potential packaging barrier in certain areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of chitosan concentration on mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch/chitosan films.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lili; Yan, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Jiang; Tong, Jin; Su, Xingguang

    2017-12-01

    The active packaging films based on corn starch and chitosan were prepared through mixing the starch solution and the chitosan solution (1:1) by casting. The aim of this work was to characterize and analyze the effects of the chitosan concentrations (0, 21, 41, 61 and 81wt% of starch) on physicochemical, mechanical and water vapor barrier properties as well as morphological characteristics of the corn starch/chitosan (CS/CH) films. Starch molecules and chitosan could interact through hydrogen bonding as confirmed from the shift of the main peaks to higher wavenumbers in FTIR and the reduction of crystallinity in XRD. Results showed that the incorporation of chitosan resulted in an increase in film solubility, total color differences, tensile strength and elongation at break and a decrease in Young's modulus and water vapor permeability (WVP). Elongation at break of the CS/CH films increased with increasing of chitosan concentration, and reached a maximum at 41 wt%, then declined at higher chitosan concentration. The WVP of CS/CH films increased with an increase of chitosan concentration and the same tendency observed for the moisture content. The results suggest that this biodegradable CS/CH films could potentially be used as active packaging films for food and pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A systematic approach for the accurate and rapid measurement of water vapor transmission through ultra-high barrier films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiese, Sandra; Kücükpinar, Esra; Reinelt, Matthias; Miesbauer, Oliver; Ewender, Johann; Langowski, Horst-Christian

    2017-02-01

    Flexible organic electronic devices are often protected from degradation by encapsulation in multilayered films with very high barrier properties against moisture and oxygen. However, metrology must be improved to detect such low quantities of permeants. We therefore developed a modified ultra-low permeation measurement device based on a constant-flow carrier-gas system to measure both the transient and stationary water vapor permeation through high-performance barrier films. The accumulation of permeated water vapor before its transport to the detector allows the measurement of very low water vapor transmission rates (WVTRs) down to 2 × 10-5 g m-2 d-1. The measurement cells are stored in a temperature-controlled chamber, allowing WVTR measurements within the temperature range 23-80 °C. Differences in relative humidity can be controlled within the range 15%-90%. The WVTR values determined using the novel measurement device agree with those measured using a commercially available carrier-gas device from MOCON®. Depending on the structure and quality of the barrier film, it may take a long time for the WVTR to reach a steady-state value. However, by using a combination of the time-dependent measurement and the finite element method, we were able to estimate the steady-state WVTR accurately with significantly shorter measurement times.

  19. Electronic Devices with Strontium Barrier Film and Process for Making Same

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-20

    structure of the barrier film on an atomic level where the barrier film is comprised of a plurality of contiguous monolayers, while FIG. 7B shows another...another embodiment where the barrier film is comprised of a plurality of contiguous monolayers in which different monolayers thereof are formed of...High Energy Electron 10 Diffraction (RHEED) diagnostic system directed toward the substrate 26. A diffusion barrier precursor compound effusion

  20. Electronic Devices with Barrier Film and Process for Making Same

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-20

    the barrier film on an atomic level where the barrier film is comprised of a plurality of contiguous monolayers, while FIG. 7B shows another...embodiment where the barrier film is comprised of a plurality of contiguous monolayers in which different monolayers thereof are formed of different...compound effusion cell, for example a barium fluoride, strontium fluoride or the like effusion cell, is provided at 32, and has a shutter 33. A

  1. Electronic Devices with Barium Barrier Film and Process for Making Same

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-20

    structure of the barrier film on an atomic level 15 where the barrier .film is comprised of a plurality of contiguous monolayers, while FIG. 7B...yet another embodiment where the barrier film is comprised of a plurality of 20 contiguous monolayers in which different monolayers thereof are...barrier precursor compound effusion cell, for example a barium fluoride, strontium fluoride or the like effusion cell, is provided at 32, and has a

  2. The effects of sugars on moisture sorption isotherm and functional properties of cold water fish gelatin films.

    PubMed

    Hazaveh, Parham; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Abbaspour, Hossein

    2015-08-01

    Sugars were incorporated into CWFG solutions at different ratios (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Functional properties of the modified films were characterized following American standard test methods, and moisture sorption isotherm was characterized by polynomial and GAB models. Permeation to water vapor and oxygen of the modified films decreased compared to that of the control CWFG films. Moisture content, solubility, and monolayer water content of CWFG films decreased with the increase of sugar content. The addition of sugars significantly increased the Tensile strength of CWFG films from 30 to 40 MPa for ribose, and 30 to 35 MPa for fructose whereas elongation at the breaks decreased from 60% to 30% for ribose, and from 60% to 45% for that which incorporated fructose sugars. Moisture sorption isotherm curve significantly shifted to lower moisture content in aw<0.6. In aw>0.6, ribose-incorporated CWFG films, had similar function to hydrogel materials. In all the characterizations, the effects of ribose were significantly higher than those of fructose. Results of this research can be explored for commercial use, depending on the application for either packaging purposes or in the cosmetics industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Skin Barrier Restoration and Moisturization Using Horse Oil-Loaded Dissolving Microneedle Patches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chisong; Eom, Younghyon Andrew; Yang, Huisuk; Jang, Mingyu; Jung, Sang Uk; Park, Ye Oak; Lee, Si Eun; Jung, Hyungil

    2018-01-01

    Horse oil (HO) has skin barrier restoration and skin-moisturizing effects. Although cream formulations have been used widely and safely, their limited penetration through the stratum corneum is a major obstacle to maximizing the cosmetic efficacy of HO. Therefore, we aimed to encapsulate HO in a cosmetic dissolving microneedle (DMN) for efficient transdermal delivery. To overcome these limitations of skin permeation, HO-loaded DMN (HO-DMN) patches were developed and evaluated for their efficacy and safety using in vitro and clinical studies. Despite the lipophilic nature of HO, the HO-DMN patches had a sharp shape and uniform array, with an average length and tip diameter of 388.36 ± 16.73 and 38.54 ± 5.29 µm, respectively. The mechanical strength of the HO-DMN patches was sufficient (fracture force of 0.29 ± 0.01 N), and they could successfully penetrate pig skin. During the 4-week clinical evaluation, HO-DMN patches caused significant improvements in skin and dermal density, skin elasticity, and moisturization. Additionally, a brief safety assessment showed that the HO-DMN patches induced negligible adverse events. The HO-DMNs are efficient, safe, and convenient for wide use in cosmetic applications for skin barrier restoration and moisturization. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Antioxidative activity, moisture retention, film formation, and viscosity stability of Auricularia fuscosuccinea, white strain water extract.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wayne C; Hsueh, Chiu-Yen; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2014-01-01

    This study showed that both water extracts (WAF-W) and ethanol extracts (EAF-W) of Auricularia fuscosuccinea (Montagne) Farlow, white strain (AF-W) demonstrated significantly stronger antioxidative effects than did commercially available Tremella fuciformis sporocarp extracts (WSK; with the exception of EAF-W in terms of superoxide radical scavenging activity levels). The moisture retention capacity of WAF-W is as potent as that of sodium hyaluronate (SHA), but less than that of WSK. No corrugation or fissures were observed in WAF-W film; only the SHA and WSK films demonstrated such effects in low-moisture conditions. The WAF-W solution also exhibited stable viscosity at high temperatures, indicating that the WAF-W film was more stable compared with the SHA and WSK films. WAF-W induced no adverse effects when a hen's egg test was performed on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). This study demonstrated that WAF-W exhibits excellent potential as a topical material for skin moisturizing and anti-aging effects.

  5. Electrical characterization of γ-Al2O3 thin film parallel plate capacitive sensor for trace moisture detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shailesh; Khan, S. A.; Islam, Tariqul

    2012-10-01

    A moisture sensor was fabricated based on porous thin film of γ-Al2O3 formed between the parallel gold electrodes. The sensor works on capacitive technique. The sensing film was fabricated by dipcoating of aluminium hydroxide sol solution obtained from the sol-gel method. The porous structure of the film of γ-Al2O3 phase was obtained by sintering the film at 450 °C for 1 h. The electrical parameters of the sensor have been determined by Agilent 4294A impedance analyzer. The sensor so obtained is found to be sensitive in moisture range 100-600 ppmV. The response time of the sensor in ppmV range moisture is very low ~ 24 s and recovery time is ~ 37 s.

  6. The properties and performance of moisture/oxygen barrier layers deposited by remote plasma sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Hayley Louise

    The development of flexible lightweight OLED devices requires oxygen/moisture barrier layer thin films with water vapour transmission rates (WVTR) of < 10-6 g/m2/day. This thesis reports on single and multilayer architecture barrier layers (mostly based on SiO2, Al2O3 and TiO2) deposited onto glass, Si and polymeric substrates using remote plasma sputtering. The reactive sputtering depositions were performed on Plasma Quest S500 based sputter systems and the morphology, nanostructure and composition of the coatings have been examined using SEM, EDX, STEM, XPS, XRD and AFM. The WVTR has been determined using industry standard techniques (e.g. MOCON) but, for rapid screening of the deposited layers, an in-house permeation test was also developed. SEM, XRD and STEM results showed that the coatings exhibited a dense, amorphous structure with no evidence of columnar growth. However, all of the single and multilayer coatings exhibited relatively poor WVTRs of > 1 x 10-1 g/m2/day at 38 °C and 85 % RH. Further characterisation indicated that the barrier films were failing due to the presence of substrate asperities and airborne particulates. Different mechanisms were investigated in an attempt to reduce the density of film defects including incorporation of a getter layer, modification of growth kinetics, plasma treatment and polymer planarising, but none were successful in lowering the WVTR. Review of this issue indicated that the achievement of good barrier layers was likely to be problematic in commercial practice due to the cost implications of adequately reducing particulate density and the need to cover deliberately non-planar surfaces and fabricated 3D structures. Conformal coverage would therefore be required to bury surface structures and to mitigate particulate issues. Studies of the remote plasma system showed that it both inherently delivered an ionised physical vapour deposition (IPVD) process and was compatible with bias re-sputtering of substrates

  7. Electronic Devices with Composite Atomic Barrier Film and Process for Making Same

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-20

    structure of the barrier film on an atomic level where the barrier film is comprised of a plurality of contiguous monolayers, while FIG. 7B shows...another embodiment where the barrier film is comprised of a plurality of contiguous monolayers in which different monolayers thereof are formed of...High Energy Electron 10 Diffraction (RHEED) diagnostic system directed toward the substrate 26. A diffusion barrier precursor compound effusion

  8. Adhesive flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    DOEpatents

    Blizzard, John Donald; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-02-05

    An adhesive flexible barrier film comprises a substrate and a barrier layer disposed on the substrate. The barrier layer is formed from a barrier composition comprising an organosilicon compound. The adhesive flexible barrier film also comprises an adhesive layer disposed on the barrier layer and formed from an adhesive composition. A method of forming the adhesive flexible barrier film comprises the steps of disposing the barrier composition on the substrate to form the barrier layer, disposing the adhesive composition on the barrier layer to form the adhesive layer, and curing the barrier layer and the adhesive layer. The adhesive flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  9. Treatment with a barrier-strengthening moisturizer prevents relapse of hand-eczema. An open, randomized, prospective, parallel group study.

    PubMed

    Lodén, Marie; Wirén, Karin; Smerud, Knut; Meland, Nils; Hønnås, Helge; Mørk, Gro; Lützow-Holm, Claus; Funk, Jörgen; Meding, Birgitta

    2010-11-01

    Hand eczema influences the quality of life. Management strategies include the use of moisturizers. In the present study the time to relapse of eczema during treatment with a barrier-strengthening moisturizer (5% urea) was compared with no treatment (no medical or non-medicated preparations) in 53 randomized patients with successfully treated hand eczema. The median time to relapse was 20 days in the moisturizer group compared with 2 days in the no treatment group (p = 0.04). Eczema relapsed in 90% of the patients within 26 weeks. No difference in severity was noted between the groups at relapse. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) increased significantly in both groups; from 4.7 to 7.1 in the moisturizer group and from 4.1 to 7.8 in the no treatment group (p < 0.01) at the time of relapse. Hence, the application of moisturizers seems to prolong the disease-free interval in patients with controlled hand eczema. Whether the data is applic-able to moisturizers without barrier-strengthening properties remains to be elucidated.

  10. Electronic Devices with Cesium Barrier Film and Process for Making Same

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-20

    interfacial structure of the barrier film on an atomic level where the barrier film is comprised of a plurality of contiguous monolayers, while FIG. 7B shows...another 20 embodiment where the barrier film is comprised of a plurality of contiguous monolayers in which different monolayers thereof are formed...compound effusion cell, for example a barium fluoride, strontium fluoride or the like effusion cell, is provided at 32, and has a shutter 33. A

  11. Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    DOEpatents

    Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-03-26

    A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  12. Biodegradable Zein-Based Blend Films: Structural, Mechanical and Barrier Properties

    PubMed Central

    Filho, José Francisco Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Summary The effect of adding a hydrocolloid on the structural, mechanical and barrier properties of zein-based blend films is evaluated. Zein-oleic acid blend film with added xanthan gum (Z-OA-XG) showed higher water solubility (13.09%) and opacity (8.49 AU/mm) than zein-oleic acid (Z-OA) film (10.80% and 5.19 AU/mm, respectively). Furthermore, Z-OA film had greater flexibility with lower Young’s Modulus (YM=5.02 MPa) and higher elongation at break (η=10.62%); nonetheless, it was less resistant to tension (tensile strength σ=8.5 MPa) than Z-OA-XG film, which showed YM, η and σ of 6.38 MPa, 6.66% and 10.485 MPa, respectively. Both films had glossy and homogeneous structure with comparable water vapour and oxygen barrier properties around 4.39·10–11 and 1.82·10–13 g/(Pa·s·m), respectively. Based on that, xanthan gum structure influenced mainly mechanical and light barrier properties of zein-oleic acid blend films. PMID:27904368

  13. Diamondlike carbon as a moisture barrier and antireflecting coating on optical materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollam, John A.; De, Bhola N.; Chen, L. Y.; Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1990-01-01

    Diamondlike carbon (DLC) is amorphous, hard, semitransparent, and is under consideration for use as a coating material for infrared optics. DLC is also designated as a-C:H to indicate its amorphous nature as well as to indicate the presence of large (20 to 55 percent) amounts of hydrogen in the film. Two important questions arise with respect to use of DLC in infrared optics. Will the lack of grain boundaries help to keep moisture from penetrating the film. Secondly, application as an antireflection coating places restrictions on the allowed values of the index of refraction of the film relative to the particular substrate material being used. Will DLC have the correct index range. These two questions are addressed in this paper.

  14. Effects of carbohydrate/protein ratio on the microstructure and the barrier and sorption properties of wheat starch-whey protein blend edible films.

    PubMed

    Basiak, Ewelina; Lenart, Andrzej; Debeaufort, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Starch and whey protein isolate and their mixtures were used for making edible films. Moisture sorption isotherms, water vapour permeability, sorption of aroma compounds, microstructure, water contact angle and surface properties were investigated. With increasing protein content, the microstructure changes became more homogeneous. The water vapour permeability increases with both the humidity gradient and the starch content. For all films, the hygroscopicity increases with starch content. Surface properties change according to the starch/whey protein ratio and are mainly related to the polar component of the surface tension. Films composed of 80% starch and 20% whey proteins have more hydrophobic surfaces than the other films due to specific interactions. The effect of carbohydrate/protein ratio significantly influences the microstructure, the surface wettability and the barrier properties of wheat starch-whey protein blend films. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Flexible and transparent polyimide films containing two-dimensional alumina nanosheets templated by graphene oxide for improved barrier property.

    PubMed

    Tseng, I-Hsiang; Tsai, Mei-Hui; Chung, Chi-Wei

    2014-08-13

    Unique two-dimensional alumina nanosheets (Alns) using graphene oxide (GO) as templates are fabricated and successfully incorporated with organo-soluble polyimide (PI) to obtain highly transparent PI nanocomposite films with improved moisture barrier property. The effects of filler types and contents on water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and transparency of PI are systematically studied. The hydroxyl groups on GO react with aluminum isopropoxide via sol-gel process to obtain alumina coverd-GO (Al-GO), and then thermal decomposition is applied to obtain Alns. Alns are the most efficient fillers among others to restrict the diffusion of water vapor within PI matrix and simultaneously maintain the transparency of PI. XRD pattern, TEM, and AFM images confirm the sheet-like morphology of Alns with ultrahigh aspect ratio. With only 0.01 wt % of Alns, the PI nanocomposite film exhibits the most significant reduction of 95% in WVTR as compared to that of pure PI film. Most importantly, the resultant PI/Alns-0.01 film exhibits excellent optical transparency and high mechanical strength and great thermal stability.

  16. The pH of the main Brazilian commercial moisturizers and liquid soaps: considerations on the repair of the skin barrier*

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Giovana M; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2017-01-01

    The pH of the skin is slightly acidic (4.6 to 5.8) which is important for appropriate antibacterial, antifungal, constitution of barrier function, as well as structuring and maturation of the stratum corneum. This study aimed to evaluate the pH of the main commercial moisturizers and liquid soaps in Brazil. Thus, pH of the products was quantified by pH meter in three measurements. A total of 38 moisturizers and six commercial liquid soaps were evaluated. Mean pH of 63% and 50% of the moisturizing and liquid soaps presented results above 5.5, disfavoring repair, function, and synthesis of dermal barrier. PMID:29166523

  17. The pH of the main Brazilian commercial moisturizers and liquid soaps: considerations on the repair of the skin barrier.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Giovana M; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2017-01-01

    The pH of the skin is slightly acidic (4.6 to 5.8) which is important for appropriate antibacterial, antifungal, constitution of barrier function, as well as structuring and maturation of the stratum corneum. This study aimed to evaluate the pH of the main commercial moisturizers and liquid soaps in Brazil. Thus, pH of the products was quantified by pH meter in three measurements. A total of 38 moisturizers and six commercial liquid soaps were evaluated. Mean pH of 63% and 50% of the moisturizing and liquid soaps presented results above 5.5, disfavoring repair, function, and synthesis of dermal barrier.

  18. Electronic Devices with Rubidium Barrier Film and Process for Making Same

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-20

    barrier film is comprised of a plurality of contiguous monolayers, while FIG. 7B shows another embodiment of the 20 invention where the barrier film is... plurality of contiguous monolayers in which different monolayers thereof are formed of different types of metal atoms. -10- FIG. 8 is a schematic...system directed toward the substrate 26. A diffusion barrier precursor compound effusion cell, for example a barium fluoride, strontium fluoride or the

  19. Energy barrier analysis of Nd-Fe-B thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, R.; Okamoto, S.; Kikuchi, N.; Kitakami, O.

    2015-05-01

    The magnetization reversal mechanism of a permanent magnet has long been a controversial issue, which is closely related to the so-called coercivity problem. It is well known that the energy barrier for magnetization reversal contains essential information on reversal process. In this study, we propose a method to analyze the energy barrier function for the magnetization reversal. Preferentially (001) oriented Nd-Fe-B films with and without a Nd overlayer are used as model magnets. By combining the magnetic viscosity and time dependent coercivity measurements, the barrier function has been successfully evaluated. As a result, although the Nd-Fe-B films with and without Nd overlayer exhibit different magnetic behaviors, the power indices for their energy barrier are almost the same, suggesting that the magnetization reversal proceeds in a similar mode.

  20. Structural, Thermal, Physical, Mechanical, and Barrier Properties of Chitosan Films with the Addition of Xanthan Gum.

    PubMed

    de Morais Lima, Maria; Carneiro, Lucia Cesar; Bianchini, Daniela; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Prentice, Carlos; Moreira, Angelita da Silveira

    2017-03-01

    Films based on chitosan and xanthan gum were prepared using casting technique aiming to investigate the potential of these polymers as packaging materials. Six formulations of films were studied varying the proportion of chitosan and xanthan gum: 100:0 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C100XG0 film); 90:10 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C90XG10 film); 80:20 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C80XG20 film); 70:30 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C70XG30 film); 60:40 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C60XG40 film); and 50:50 (chitosan:xanthan gum, w/w, C50XG50 film). The total quantity of solids (chitosan and xanthan gum) in the filmogenic solution was 1.5 g per 100 mL of aqueous solution for all treatments, according to the proportion of each polymer. The films were evaluated by their functional groups, structural, thermal, morphological, physical, mechanical, and barrier properties. All films have presented endothermic peaks in the range of 122 to 175 °C and broad exothermic peaks above 200 °C, which were assigned to the melting temperature and thermal decomposition, respectively. These results demonstrated that films with xanthan gum have the highest T m and Δ m H. The films containing higher content of xanthan gum show also the highest tensile strength and the lowest elongation. Xanthan gum addition did not affect the water vapor permeability, solubility, and moisture of films. This set of data suggests the formation of chitosan-xanthan complexes in the films. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Morphological characteristics and barrier properties of thermoplastic starch/chitosan blown film.

    PubMed

    Dang, Khanh Minh; Yoksan, Rangrong

    2016-10-05

    Fabrication of starch-based edible film using blown film extrusion is challenging and interesting because this process provides continuous operation with shorter production time and lower energy consumption, is less labor intensive, and results in higher productivity than the conventional solution casting technique. Previously, we reported on the preparation and some properties of thermoplastic starch/chitosan (TPS/CTS) blown films; however, their morphological characteristics and barrier properties had not yet been elucidated. The present work thus aims to investigate the effect of chitosan (0.37-1.45%) on morphological characteristics, water vapor and oxygen barrier properties as well as hydrophilicity of the TPS and TPS/CTS films. The relationship between morphological characteristics and properties of the films was also discussed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the distribution and deposition of chitosan on the film surface. The existence of chitosan on the surface imparted the improved water vapor and oxygen barrier properties and the reduced surface hydrophilicity to the film. The results suggest that this biodegradable bio-based TPS/CTS film could potentially be used as an edible film for food and pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling of moisture adsorption for sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatmiko, Tri Hadi; Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Prasetyo, Dwi Joko; Hernawan

    2017-03-01

    Sorption characteristic of food products is important for design, optimization, storage and modelling. Sugar palm starch film with two different plasticizers (sorbitol and glycerol) with varied concentration studied for its adsorption isotherm characteristic. The data of adsorption isotherm fitted with GAB, Oswin, Smith and Peleg models. All models describe the experiment data well, but Peleg model is better than the other models on both sugar palm starch film plasticized with sorbitol and glycerol. Moisture sorption of sugar palm starch increased linearly with plasticizer concentration. A new model by taking account of plasticizer concentration describes the experiment data well with an average of coefficients of determination (R2) 0.9913 and 0.9939 for film plasticized with glycerol and sorbitol respectively.

  3. Effect of Atomic Hydrogen on Preparation of Highly Moisture-Resistive SiNx Films at Low Substrate Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heya, Akira; Niki, Toshikazu; Takano, Masahiro; Yonezawa, Yasuto; Minamikawa, Toshiharu; Muroi, Susumu; Minami, Shigehira; Izumi, Akira; Masuda, Atsushi; Umemoto, Hironobu; Matsumura, Hideki

    2004-12-01

    Highly moisture-resistive SiNx films on a Si substrate are obtained at substrate temperatures of 80°C by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) using a source gas with H2. Atomic hydrogen effected the selective etching of a weak-bond regions and an increase in atomic density induced by the energy of the surface reaction. It is concluded that Cat-CVD using H2 is a promising candidate for the fabrication of highly moisture-resistive SiNx films at low temperatures.

  4. Optical properties of thin gold films applied to Schottky barrier solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    YEH Y. M.

    1974-01-01

    The Schottky barrier solar cell is considered a possible candidate for converting solar to electrical energy both for space and terrestrial applications. Knowledge of the optical constants of the ultrathin metal film used in the cell is essential for analyzing and designing higher efficiency Schottky barrier cells. The optical constants of 7.5 -nm (75-A) gold films on gallium arsenide have been obtained. In addition, the absolute collection efficiency of Schottky barrier solar cells has been determined from measured spectral response and optical constants of the gold film.

  5. Development of Anti-Insect Microencapsulated Polypropylene Films Using a Large Scale Film Coating System.

    PubMed

    Song, Ah Young; Choi, Ha Young; Lee, Eun Song; Han, Jaejoon; Min, Sea C

    2018-04-01

    Films containing microencapsulated cinnamon oil (CO) were developed using a large-scale production system to protect against the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). CO at concentrations of 0%, 0.8%, or 1.7% (w/w ink mixture) was microencapsulated with polyvinyl alcohol. The microencapsulated CO emulsion was mixed with ink (47% or 59%, w/w) and thinner (20% or 25%, w/w) and coated on polypropylene (PP) films. The PP film was then laminated with a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film on the coated side. The film with microencapsulated CO at 1.7% repelled P. interpunctella most effectively. Microencapsulation did not negatively affect insect repelling activity. The release rate of cinnamaldehyde, an active repellent, was lower when CO was microencapsulated than that in the absence of microencapsulation. Thermogravimetric analysis exhibited that microencapsulation prevented the volatilization of CO. The tensile strength, percentage elongation at break, elastic modulus, and water vapor permeability of the films indicated that microencapsulation did not affect the tensile and moisture barrier properties (P > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that effective films for the prevention of Indian meal moth invasion can be produced by the microencapsulation of CO using a large-scale film production system. Low-density polyethylene-laminated polypropylene films printed with ink incorporating microencapsulated cinnamon oil using a large-scale film production system effectively repelled Indian meal moth larvae. Without altering the tensile and moisture barrier properties of the film, microencapsulation resulted in the release of an active repellent for extended periods with a high thermal stability of cinnamon oil, enabling commercial film production at high temperatures. This anti-insect film system may have applications to other food-packaging films that use the same ink-printing platform. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Transparent and robust siloxane-based hybrid lamella film as a water vapor barrier coating.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, Yasuaki; Hara, Takaaki; Abe, Risa; Takahashi, Masahide

    2014-11-12

    Water vapor barriers are important in various application fields, such as food packaging and sealants in electronic devices. Polymer/clay composites are well-studied water vapor barrier materials, but their transparency and mechanical strength degrade with increasing clay loading. Herein, we demonstrate films with good water vapor barrier properties, high transparency, and mechanical/thermal stability. Water vapor barrier films were prepared by the solution crystallization of siloxane hybrid lamellae. The films consist of highly crystallized organic/inorganic hybrid lamellae, which provide high transparency, hardness, and thermal stability and inhibit the permeation of water vapor. The water permeability of a 6 μm thick hybrid film is comparable to that of a 200 μm thick silicon rubber film.

  7. Impermeable flexible liquid barrier film for encapsulation of DSSC metal electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junghee; Min, Misook; Yoon, Yeoheung; Kim, Won Jung; Kim, Sol; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulation of electronic devices such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is prone to degradation under normal atmospheric conditions, even with hermetic barriers on the metal electrodes. Overcoming this problem is crucial to increasing DSSC lifetimes and making them commercially viable. Herein, we report a new impermeable flexible liquid barrier film using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and partially reduced graphene oxide (PrGO), which dramatically enhances the lifetime of Ag metal electrodes (typically used in DSSCs) immersed in a highly acidic iodolyte solution. The Ag metal electrode encapsulated by the PVA/PrGO film survived for over 500 hrs, superior to existing barriers of glass frits, epoxy resins and polymers. The PVA/PrGO film strongly adheres to the Ag metal surface, and the resulting PVA/PrGO/Ag electrode is stable even on a curved substrate, with a sheet resistance nearly independent of curvature. These results give new insight for the design of high-performance and solution-processable flexible liquid barrier films for a wide range of applications, in particular for the encapsulation of electronic devices with liquid electrolytes. PMID:27263654

  8. Thermogravimetric analysis for rapid assessment of moisture diffusivity in polydisperse powder and thin film matrices.

    PubMed

    Thirunathan, Praveena; Arnz, Patrik; Husny, Joeska; Gianfrancesco, Alessandro; Perdana, Jimmy

    2018-03-01

    Accurate description of moisture diffusivity is key to precisely understand and predict moisture transfer behaviour in a matrix. Unfortunately, measuring moisture diffusivity is not trivial, especially at low moisture values and/or elevated temperatures. This paper presents a novel experimental procedure to accurately measure moisture diffusivity based on thermogravimetric approach. The procedure is capable to measure diffusivity even at elevated temperatures (>70°C) and low moisture values (>1%). Diffusivity was extracted from experimental data based on "regular regime approach". The approach was tailored to determine diffusivity from thin film and from poly-dispersed powdered samples. Subsequently, measured diffusivity was validated by comparing to available literature data, showing good agreement. Ability of this approach to accurately measure diffusivity at a wider range of temperatures provides better insight on temperature dependency of diffusivity. Thus, this approach can be crucial to ensure good accuracy of moisture transfer description/prediction especially when involving elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thin-film metal coated insulation barrier in a Josephson tunnel junction. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Hawkins, G.A.; Clarke, J.

    1975-10-31

    A highly stable, durable, and reproducible Josephson tunnel junction consists of a thin-film electrode of a hard superconductor, a thin oxide insulation layer over the electrode constituting a Josephson tunnel junction barrier, a thin-film layer of stabilizing metal over the barrier, and a second thin-film hard superconductive electrode over the stabilizing film. The thin stabilizing metal film is made only thick enough to limit penetration of the electrode material through the insulation layer so as to prevent a superconductive short.

  10. Designed drug-release systems having various breathable polyurethane film-backed hydrocolloid acrylated adhesive layers for moisture healing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Hsien; Liu, Hsia-Wei; Huang, Ching-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    A series of designed drug-release systems were prepared and established for clear moisture healing. These systems were designed to have an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure, which contained a breathable polyurethane film, hydrocolloidlayer, and polyacrylate adhesive layer. Breathable polyurethane film (2000 g/m(2)/24 hr) with high moisture permeability was employed as a base for new drug-release systems or wound dressings. All drug-release systems having a polyurethane film-backed hydrocolloid acrylated adhesive layer showed an increase of water uptakes with increasing time. After 114 hours, high water uptakes of drug-release systems with 20% hydrocolloid components were observed in the values of 160, 1100, and 1870% for different additional hydrocolloid components of carboxymethylcellulose, sodium alginate, and carbomer U10, respectively. New drug-release systems of polyurethane film-backed hydrocolloid/adhesive layers could be designed and established for wound care managements.

  11. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    PubMed

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  12. Spatial characterization of the edge barrier in wide superconducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakov, A. G.; Turutanov, O. G.; Kolinko, A. E.; Pokhila, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The current-induced destruction of superconductivity is discussed in wide superconducting thin films, whose width is greater than the magnetic field penetration depth, in weak magnetic fields. Particular attention is paid to the role of the boundary potential barrier (the Bin-Livingston barrier) in critical state formation and detection of the edge responsible for this critical state with different mutual orientations of external perpendicular magnetic field and transport current. Critical and resistive states of the film were visualized using the space-resolving low-temperature laser scanning microscopy (LTLSM) method, which enables detection of critical current-determining areas on the film edges. Based on these observations, a simple technique was developed for investigation of the critical state separately at each film edge, and for the estimation of residual magnetic fields in cryostats. The proposed method only requires recording of the current-voltage characteristics of the film in a weak magnetic field, thus circumventing the need for complex LTLSM techniques. Information thus obtained is particularly important for interpretation of studies of superconducting film single-photon light emission detectors.

  13. Moisture adsorption in optical coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, H. Angus

    1988-01-01

    The thin film filter is a very large aperture component which is exceedingly useful because of its small size, flexibility and ease of mounting. Thin film components, however, do have defects of performance and especially of stability which can cause problems in systems, particularly where long-term measurements are being made. Of all of the problems, those associated with moisture absorption are the most serious. Moisture absorption occurs in the pore-shaped voids inherent in the columnar structure of the layers. Ion-assisted deposition is a promising technique for substantially reducing moisture adsorption effects in thin film structures.

  14. Amorphous alumina thin films deposited on titanium: Interfacial chemistry and thermal oxidation barrier properties

    DOE PAGES

    Baggetto, Loic; Charvillat, Cedric; Thebault, Yannick; ...

    2015-12-02

    Ti/Al 2O 3 bilayer stacks are used as model systems to investigate the role of atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to prepare 30-180 nm thick amorphous alumina films as protective barriers for the medium temperature oxidation (500-600⁰C) of titanium, which is employed in aeronautic applications. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the films produced from the direct liquid injection (DLI) CVD of aluminum tri-isopropoxide (ATI) are poor oxygen barriers. The films processed using the ALD of trimethylaluminum (TMA) show good barriermore » properties but an extensive intermixing with Ti which subsequently oxidizes. In contrast, the films prepared from dimethyl aluminum isopropoxide (DMAI) by CVD are excellent oxygen barriers and show little intermixing with Ti. Overall, these measurements correlate the effect of the alumina coating thickness, morphology, and stoichiometry resulting from the preparation method to the oxidation barrier properties, and show that compact and stoichiometric amorphous alumina films offer superior barrier properties.« less

  15. Atmospheric deposition process for enhanced hybrid organic-inorganic multilayer barrier thin films for surface protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Mohammad Mutee ur; Kim, Kwang Tae; Na, Kyoung Hoan; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2017-11-01

    In this study, organic polymer poly-vinyl acetate (PVA) and inorganic aluminum oxide (Al2O3) have been used together to fabricate a hybrid barrier thin film for the protection of PET substrate. The organic thin films of PVA were developed through roll to roll electrohydrodynamic atomization (R2R-EHDA) whereas the inorganic thin films of Al2O3 were grown by roll to roll spatial atmospheric atomic layer deposition (R2R-SAALD) for mass production. The use of these two technologies together to develop a multilayer hybrid organic-inorganic barrier thin films under atmospheric conditions is reported for the first time. These multilayer hybrid barrier thin films are fabricated on flexible PET substrate. Each layer of Al2O3 and PVA in barrier thin film exhibited excellent morphological, chemical and optical properties. Extremely uniform and atomically thin films of Al2O3 with average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 1.64 nm and 1.94 nm respectively concealed the non-uniformity and irregularities in PVA thin films with Ra of 2.9 nm and 3.6 nm respectively. The optical transmittance of each layer was ∼ 80-90% while the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of hybrid barrier was in the range of ∼ 2.3 × 10-2 g m-2 day-1 with a total film thickness of ∼ 200 nm. Development of such hybrid barrier thin films with mass production and low cost will allow various flexible electronic devices to operate in atmospheric conditions without degradation of their properties.

  16. Fabrication of a Quartz-Crystal-Microbalance/Surface-Plasmon-Resonance Hybrid Sensor and Its Use for Detection of Polymer Thin-Film Deposition and Evaluation of Moisture Sorption Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbo, Kazunari; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Baba, Akira; Ohdaira, Yasuo; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    2012-03-01

    We fabricated a hybrid sensor utilizing quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. We confirmed its effectiveness by observing QCM frequency shifts and SPR wavelength changes for two processes: deposition of various transparent polymer thin films and moisture sorption. For thin-film deposition, the relationship between the QCM frequency and SPR wavelength was found to depend on the refractive index of the film material. For moisture sorption, the direction of SPR wavelength shift depended on the film thickness. This was estimated to be caused by film swelling and decrease in refractive index induced by moisture.

  17. Effect of different types of plastic packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of pistachio nuts during storage.

    PubMed

    Shakerardekani, Ahmad; Karim, Roselina

    2013-04-01

    Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the popular tree nuts in the world. Proper selection of packaging materials is necessary to prevent absorption of moisture and aflatoxin formation which will influence the overall product quality and safety. This research is undertaken to study the effect of different type of flexible packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of whole pistachio nuts during storage at ambient temperature (22-28 °C) and relative humidity of 85-100%. Five types of plastic films tested were low density polyethylene (LDPE) which serves as the control, food-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon (LDPE/PA), polyamide/polypropylene (PA/PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The moisture content and aflatoxin content of pistachio nuts were measured using oven drying method and HPLC, respectively. Sample were analysed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 months during the storage period. Results showed that there was an increase in moisture content with the increase in storage time of pistachio nuts. The increase in moisture content was associated with the aflatoxin level of pistachio nuts during storage time. All the packaging materials except LDPE delayed the moisture absorption and aflatoxin formation of the product. The most suitable packaging materials for maintaining the quality and safety of pistachio nuts is PET films followed by nylon, PA/PP and PVC. The shelf-life of pistachio can be extended from 2 months (Control) to 5 months when PET is used as the packaging material.

  18. Transparent, Ultrahigh-Gas-Barrier Films with a Brick-Mortar-Sand Structure.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yibo; Pan, Ting; Xu, Simin; Yan, Hong; Han, Jingbin; Wei, Min; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2015-08-10

    Transparent and flexible gas-barrier materials have shown broad applications in electronics, food, and pharmaceutical preservation. Herein, we report ultrahigh-gas-barrier films with a brick-mortar-sand structure fabricated by layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of XAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH, X=Mg, Ni, Zn, Co) nanoplatelets and polyacrylic acid (PAA) followed by CO2 infilling, denoted as (XAl-LDH/PAA)n-CO2. The near-perfectly parallel orientation of the LDH "brick" creates a long diffusion length to hinder the transmission of gas molecules in the PAA "mortar". Most significantly, both the experimental studies and theoretical simulations reveal that the chemically adsorbed CO2 acts like "sand" to fill the free volume at the organic-inorganic interface, which further depresses the diffusion of permeating gas. The strategy presented here provides a new insight into the perception of barrier mechanism, and the (XAl-LDH/PAA)n-CO2 film is among the best gas barrier films ever reported. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Trout skin gelatin-based edible film development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dayeon; Min, Sea C

    2012-09-01

    Edible biopolymer films were developed from gelatin extracted from trout skin (TSG) using thermal protein denaturation conditions and plasticizer (glycerol) concentration as variables. The amino acid composition of the TSG, elastic modulus, viscous modulus, and the viscosity of film-forming solutions, and tensile properties, water vapor permeability, solubility in water, and color of TSG-based films were determined. A 6.8% (w/w, wet basis) trout skin-extracted gelatin solution containing 9, 17, or 23% (w/w, dry basis) glycerol was heated at 80, 90, or 100 °C for 30, 45, or 60 min to prepare a film-forming solution. TSG can be characterized as a gelatin containing high contents of methionine and aspartic acid. The gelation temperature of the film-forming solution was 7 °C and the solution was subjected to heating to form a stable matrix for a film. Increased heating time of the film-forming solution reduced the film solubility (P < 0.05). Heating at 90 °C for 30 min was suggested as the requirement for film formation. As the concentration of glycerol in the film increased, film strength and moisture barrier properties decreased, while film stretchability increased (P < 0.05). Trout skin by-products can be used as a natural protein source for fabricating biopolymer films stable at ambient conditions with certain physical and moisture barrier properties by controlling thermal treatment conditions and glycerol concentrations. The fishing industry produces a significant amount of waste, including fish skin, due to fish processing. Trout skin waste has potential value as a protein source that can be used to form biopolymer edible films for packaging low and intermediate water activity food products, and thus may have practical applications in the food industry, which could be one way to cut waste disposal in the trout processing industry. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Aroma barrier properties of sodium caseinate-based films.

    PubMed

    Fabra, Maria José; Hambleton, Alicia; Talens, Pau; Debeaufort, Fréderic; Chiralt, Amparo; Voilley, Andrée

    2008-05-01

    The mass transport of six different aroma compounds (ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, 2-hexanone, 1-hexanol, and cis-3-hexenol) through sodium caseinate-based films with different oleic acid (OA)/beeswax (BW) ratio has been studied. OA is less efficient than BW in reducing aroma permeability, which can be attributed to its greater polarity. Control film (without lipid) and films prepared with 0:100 OA/BW ratio show the lowest permeability. OA involves a decrease in aroma barrier properties of the sodium caseinate-based films due to its plasticization ability. Preferential sorption and diffusion occurs through OA instead of caseinate matrix and/or BW. The efficiency of sodium caseinate-based films to retain or limit aroma compound transfers depend on the affinity of the volatile compound to the films, which relates physicochemical interaction between volatile compound and film. Specific interactions (aroma compound-hydrocolloid and aroma compound-lipid) induce structural changes during mass transfer.

  1. The influence of external factors on the corrosion resistance of high temperature superconductor thin films against moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugesan, M.; Obara, H.; Yamasaki, H.; Kosaka, S.

    2006-12-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) thin films have been systematically investigated for their corrosion resistance against moisture by studying the role of external factors such as temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and the type of substrates in the corrosion. In general, (i) the corrosion is progressed monotonously with increasing T as well as RH, (ii) a threshold level of water vapor is needed to cause degradation, and (iii) between T and RH, the influence of T is more dominant. HTS films on SrTiO3 and CeO2 buffered sapphire (cbs) substrates showed better corrosion stability and a low rate of degradation in the critical current density as compared to that of the film grown on MgO substrate. Between DyBa2Cu3Oz (DBCO) and YBa2Cu3Oz, the former is reproducibly found to have many fold higher corrosion resistance against moisture. This observed enhancement in the corrosion resistance in DBCO could be explained by the improved microstructure in the films and the better lattice matching with the substrate. Thus, the dual advantage of DBCO/cbs films, i.e., the enhanced corrosion stability of DBCO and the appropriate dielectric properties of sapphire, can be readily exploited for the use of DBCO/cbs films in the microwave and power devices.

  2. Effect of starch type on the physico-chemical properties of edible films.

    PubMed

    Basiak, Ewelina; Lenart, Andrzej; Debeaufort, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    Food preservation is mostly related to packaging in oil-based plastics, inducing environmental problems, but this drawback could be limited by using edible/biodegradable films and coatings. Physical and chemical properties were assessed and reflect the role of the starch type (wheat, corn or potato) and thus that of the amylose/amylopectin ratio, which influences thickness, colour, moisture, wettability, thermal, surface and mechanical properties. Higher amylose content in films induces higher moisture sensitivity, and thus affects the mechanical and barrier properties. Films made from potato starch constitute a greater barrier for oxygen and water vapour though they have weaker mechanical properties than wheat and corn starch films. Starch species with higher amylose content have lower wettability properties, and better mechanical resistance, which strongly depends on the water content due to the hydrophilic nature of starch films, so they could be used for products with higher water activity, such as cheese, fruits and vegetables. It especially concerns wheat starch systems, and the contact angle indicates less hydrophilic surfaces (above 90°) than those of corn and potato starch films (below 90°). The starch origin influences optical properties and thickness: with more amylose, films are opalescent and thicker; with less, they are transparent and thinner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determining ultra-low moisture permeation measurement for sealants on OLED encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung Il; Woo, Sang Bong; Kim, Jong Chul; Kim, Seung Hun; Seo, Sang Joon

    2012-12-01

    As the next-generation flexible display elements are very vulnerable to moisture, securing proper encapsulation is a decisive factor in enabling a long working life. Therefore, together with the recent development of plastic barrier films with very low permeabilities, interest in the permeabilities of sealants used for perimetric sealing has been increasing. In this study, equipment with a resolution of approximately ˜10-7 g·day-1 to measure moisture permeability in perimetric sealing was established, and the permeabilities of different sealants were measured. This equipment could have applications not only in the display industry but also in other sectors requiring encapsulation technology, such as the semiconductor and solar cell industries.

  4. Evaluation of GE-167 Silicone Rubber (RTV) For Possible Service As A Moisture-Barrier For Certain Strain Gage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hare, David A.; Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    2000-01-01

    The Langley Research Center uses strain gages in a wide variety of demanding test environments. Strain gage installations, depending on the testing scenario, may see high temperatures, cryogenic temperature, moisture accumulation, mechanical abuse, or any combination of these conditions. At Langley, there is often a need to provide protection for strain gages against moisture and mechanical abuse, especially when large-scale, harsh environment testing is to be encountered. This technical memorandum discusses the evaluation of a room temperature curing silicone rubber sealant manufactured by the General Electric Company for consideration as a moisture-barrier for certain strain gage installations.

  5. Water-soluble nanocrystalline cellulose films with highly transparent and oxygen barrier properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shaoling; Zhang, Yapei; Cha, Ruitao; Yang, Jinliang; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-12-01

    By mixing a guar gum (GG) solution with a nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) dispersion using a novel circular casting technology, we manufactured biodegradable films as packaging materials with improved optical and mechanical properties. These films could act as barriers for oxygen and could completely dissolve in water within 5 h. We also compared the effect of nanocomposite films and commercial food packaging materials on the preservation of food.By mixing a guar gum (GG) solution with a nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) dispersion using a novel circular casting technology, we manufactured biodegradable films as packaging materials with improved optical and mechanical properties. These films could act as barriers for oxygen and could completely dissolve in water within 5 h. We also compared the effect of nanocomposite films and commercial food packaging materials on the preservation of food. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07647a

  6. Recent Advances in Gas Barrier Thin Films via Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polymers and Platelets.

    PubMed

    Priolo, Morgan A; Holder, Kevin M; Guin, Tyler; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2015-05-01

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly has emerged as the leading non-vacuum technology for the fabrication of transparent, super gas barrier films. The super gas barrier performance of LbL deposited films has been demonstrated in numerous studies, with a variety of polyelectrolytes, to rival that of metal and metal oxide-based barrier films. This Feature Article is a mini-review of LbL-based multilayer thin films with a 'nanobrick wall' microstructure comprising polymeric mortar and nano-platelet bricks that impart high gas barrier to otherwise permeable polymer substrates. These transparent, water-based thin films exhibit oxygen transmission rates below 5 × 10(-3) cm(3) m(-2) day(-1) atm(-1) and lower permeability than any other barrier material reported. In an effort to put this technology in the proper context, incumbent technologies such as metallized plastics, metal oxides, and flake-filled polymers are briefly reviewed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Low-Cost Soil Moisture Profile Probe Using Thin-Film Capacitors and a Capacitive Touch Sensor.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yuki; Shigeta, Ryo; Miyamoto, Naoya; Shirahama, Yasutomo; Nishioka, Kazuhiro; Mizoguchi, Masaru; Kawahara, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-15

    Soil moisture is an important property for agriculture, but currently commercialized soil moisture sensors are too expensive for many farmers. The objective of this study is to develop a low-cost soil moisture sensor using capacitors on a film substrate and a capacitive touch integrated circuit. The performance of the sensor was evaluated in two field experiments: a grape field and a mizuna greenhouse field. The developed sensor captured dynamic changes in soil moisture at 10, 20, and 30 cm depth, with a period of 10-14 days required after sensor installation for the contact between capacitors and soil to settle down. The measured soil moisture showed the influence of individual sensor differences, and the influence masked minor differences of less than 0.05 m³·m(-3) in the soil moisture at different locations. However, the developed sensor could detect large differences of more than 0.05 m³·m(-3), as well as the different magnitude of changes, in soil moisture. The price of the developed sensor was reduced to 300 U.S. dollars and can be reduced even more by further improvements suggested in this study and by mass production. Therefore, the developed sensor will be made more affordable to farmers as it requires low financial investment, and it can be utilized for decision-making in irrigation.

  8. Low-Cost Soil Moisture Profile Probe Using Thin-Film Capacitors and a Capacitive Touch Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Yuki; Shigeta, Ryo; Miyamoto, Naoya; Shirahama, Yasutomo; Nishioka, Kazuhiro; Mizoguchi, Masaru; Kawahara, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Soil moisture is an important property for agriculture, but currently commercialized soil moisture sensors are too expensive for many farmers. The objective of this study is to develop a low-cost soil moisture sensor using capacitors on a film substrate and a capacitive touch integrated circuit. The performance of the sensor was evaluated in two field experiments: a grape field and a mizuna greenhouse field. The developed sensor captured dynamic changes in soil moisture at 10, 20, and 30 cm depth, with a period of 10–14 days required after sensor installation for the contact between capacitors and soil to settle down. The measured soil moisture showed the influence of individual sensor differences, and the influence masked minor differences of less than 0.05 m3·m−3 in the soil moisture at different locations. However, the developed sensor could detect large differences of more than 0.05 m3·m−3, as well as the different magnitude of changes, in soil moisture. The price of the developed sensor was reduced to 300 U.S. dollars and can be reduced even more by further improvements suggested in this study and by mass production. Therefore, the developed sensor will be made more affordable to farmers as it requires low financial investment, and it can be utilized for decision-making in irrigation. PMID:27537881

  9. Development and characterization of novel antimicrobial bilayer films based on Polylactic acid (PLA)/Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun-You; Tang, Chuan-He; Yin, Shou-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2018-02-01

    Biodegradable food packaging is sustainable and has a great application prospect. PLA is a promising alternative for petroleum-derived polymers. However, PLA packaging suffers from poor barrier properties compared with petroleum-derived ones. To address this issue, we designed bilayer films based on PLA and Pickering emulsions. The formed bilayer films were compact and uniform and double layers were combined firmly. This strategy enhanced mechanical resistance, ductility and moisture barrier of Pickering emulsion films, and concomitantly enhanced the oxygen barrier for PLA films. Thymol loadings in Pickering emulsion layer endowed them with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The release profile of thymol was well fitted with Fick's second law. The antimicrobial activity of the films depended on film types, and Pickering emulsion layer presented larger inhibition zone than PLA layer, hinting that the films possessed directional releasing role. This study opens a promising route to fabricate bilayer architecture creating synergism of each layer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibacterial, mechanical, and barrier properties of sago starch film incorporated with Betel leaves extract.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Leila; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2014-05-01

    The antimicrobial, mechanical and barrier properties and light transmission of sago starch film incorporated with different percentage of Betel leaf extract (5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) were evaluated. With regard to mechanical properties, tensile strength decreased when the percentage of extract increased. Elongation at break (%) and seal strength (N/m) increased with increasing percentage of extract from 5% to 20%, while decreased for films containing 30% extract due to heterogeneity of films in this percentage. With regard to barrier properties, water vapour and oxygen barrier properties decreased in all samples when percentage of the extract increased. Antimicrobial activity of all the films increased against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as percentage of Betel leaf extract increased, except for Psuedomonas aeruginosa, which was not susceptible at any percentage of the extract. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of clinical and financial outcomes of a new no-sting barrier film and barrier cream in a large UK primary care organisation.

    PubMed

    Stephen-Haynes, Jackie; Stephens, Claire

    2013-12-01

    The study involves 95 subjects within a UK Primary Care Organisation and was undertaken in two arms. The objective was to determine the clinical outcomes and clinical acceptability of a newly available range of no-sting barrier film and no-sting barrier cream products offering significant financial benefits. The importance of undertaking this study is underpinned by evidence in the literature relating to the use of no-sting barrier preparations within clinical practice. The first part of the study (arm 1) involved extensive evaluation of either the film or cream barrier in 36 patients and was compared to existing standardised barrier protection care within the organisation. The results indicated that the new product range met all the criteria for formulary inclusion and following this the barrier range was further evaluated in arm 2, 33 patients with barrier cream and 26 patients with barrier film. The entire study was conducted over a 3-month period with patient treatment lasting a minimum of 2 days to a maximum 4-week period adhering to the agreed evaluation protocol as approved by clinical governance. In arm 1 (n = 36), the clinical expectation of the product was met in 32 cases relating to ease of use, conformability, no-sting, quick drying, ease of absorption, compatibility with devices, frequency of application, prevention and management including visual skin improvement resulting in a recommendation for formulary listing in 31 of 36 cases. In arm 2 (n = 59), barrier film and barrier cream performance was consistently rated same as, better than or much better than the existing barrier used. A formulary listing recommendation was made in 51 of 59 cases. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  12. New Water Vapor Barrier Film Based on Lamellar Aliphatic-Monoamine-Bridged Polysilsesquioxane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Ce; Ding, Ruimin; Cui, Xinmin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Qinghua; Xu, Yao

    2016-06-15

    Siloxane-based hybrid lamellar materials with ordered nanostructure units paralleling to the substrate have been widely used for water vapor barrier. However, it is very difficult to control the orientation of the lamellar units at molecular level. In this Research Article, a new lamellar bridged polysilsesquioxane (BPSQ) film, whose voids between lamellae were filled by pendant alkyl chains in the organic bridge, was prepared via the stoichiometric reaction between 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane and aliphatic monoamine at 60 °C without catalyst. Experimental evidence obtained from FT-IR, MS, NMR, and GIXRD techniques suggested that the as-prepared BPSQ films were constructed by lamellar units with disordered orientation. Nonetheless, they possessed satisfactory water vapor barrier performance for potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) and deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) optical crystals, and the water vapor transmission rate through BPSQ film with thickness of 25 μm was as low as 20.3 g·m(-2)·d(-1). Those results proved that filling the voids between molecular lamellae with alkyl chains greatly weakened the effect of lamellar unit orientation on the vapor barrier property of BPSQ film.

  13. Moisture Absorption Behaviour of Biopolymer Polycapralactone (PCL) / Organo Modified Montmorillonite Clay (OMMT) biocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Neetu; Shrivastava, Sharad; Bandhu Ghosh, Subrata

    2018-04-01

    Bio composite materials were fabricated using mixing biodegradable polymer polycaptalactone (PCL) and Organo Modified Montmorillonite Clay (OMMT) through solution casting. Various samples of bio composite films were prepared by varying the OMMT wt% composition by 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Thereafter, the density and water absorption of the composites were investigated with respect to immersion time in water. The moisture absorption results show that with an increase in weight percentage (from 0.1 to wt 1.5%) of OMMT within the bio polymer films, the absorption value of bio-nanocomposite films reduced rapidly from 34.4% to 22.3%. The density of hybrid composites also increased with increase in weight percentage of OMMT. The swelling characteristic of PCL increased with increasing % of OMMT clay. These results indicate that the optimized composition of constituents in composite membrane could effectively reduce the anhydrous conditions of bio-composite film.

  14. Process for Making a Semiconductor Device with Barrier Film Formation Using a Metal Halide and Products Thereof

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-20

    structure of the barrier film on an atomic level where the barrier film is comprised of a plurality of contiguous monolayers, while FIG. 7B shows...another embodiment where the barrier film is comprised of a plurality of i contiguous monolayers in which different monolayers thereof are formed... effusion cell, for example a barium fluoride, strontium fluoride or the like effusion cell, is provided at 32, and has a shutter 33. A 15 shutter 35

  15. Super Gas Barrier Thin Films via Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polyelectrolytes and Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priolo, Morgan; Gamboa, Daniel; Grunlan, Jaime

    2010-03-01

    Thin composite films of branched polyethylenimine (PEI), polyacrylic acid (PAA) and sodium montmorillonite clay (MMT) platelets were prepared using layer-by-layer assembly. Film thickness, mass deposited per layer, and barrier were shown to increase exponentially with the number of deposition cycles. After 32 layers (i.e., eight PEI/PAA/PEI/MMT quadlayers) are deposited, the resulting transparent film exhibits an oxygen transmission rate below the detection limit of commercial instrumentation (< 0.005 cm^3/m^2 . day). This level of oxygen barrier is believed to be due to a nano-brick wall microstructure comprised of exfoliated clay bricks in polymeric mortar, where the enhanced spacing between MMT layers, provided by PEI and PAA, creates channels perpendicular concentration gradient that delay the permeating molecule. These films are good candidates for flexible electronics, food, and pharmaceutical packaging due to their transparency, super gas barrier (that rivals SiOx) and lack of metal.

  16. Composite edible films based on hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose reinforced with microcrystalline cellulose nanoparticles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It has been stated that hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) based films have promising applications in the food industry because of their environmental appeal, low cost, flexibility and transparency. Nevertheless, their mechanical and moisture barrier properties should be improved. The aim of th...

  17. Mechanical and water barrier properties of isolated soy protein composite edible films as affected by carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde micro and nanoemulsions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Edible films may be used in food packaging, for which they must deliver good barrier and mechanical properties. Films based on proteins have good gas barrier and mechanical properties, but poor water barrier properties. Films made from lipids have good water barrier properties, but poor mechanical p...

  18. Preparation of pectin/silver nanoparticles composite films with UV-light barrier and properties.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Shiv; Tanomrod, Nattareya; Rawdkuen, Saroat; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was synthesized by a green method using an aqueous extract of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk (CMLE) as reducing and stabilizing agents, and they were used for the preparation of pectin-based antimicrobial composite films. The AgNPs were spherical in shape with the size in the range of 20-80nm and showed the absorption peak around 500nm. The pectin/AgNPs composite film exhibited characteristic absorption peak of AgNPs at 480nm. The surface color and light transmittance of the pectin films were greatly influenced by the addition of AgNPs. The lightness of the films decreased, however, redness and yellowness of the films increased after incorporation of AgNPs. UV-light barrier property of the pectin film increased significantly with a little decrease in the transparency. Though there were no structural changes in the pectin film by the incorporation of CMLE and AgNPs as indicated by the FTIR results, the film properties such as thermal stability, mechanical strength, and water vapor barrier properties of the pectin films increased. The pectin/AgNPs nanocomposite films exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma Surface Modification of Polymer Backsheets: Origins of Future Interfacial Barrier/Backsheet Failure (Poster)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pankow, J. W.; Glick, S. H.

    2006-05-01

    Flexible polymer substrates coated with inorganic oxide moisture barriers are a potential replacement for glass backsheets in thin-film PV (photovoltaic) modules. Silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) represents one potential new backsheet candidate. Barrier deposition runs at NREL have included a nitrogen-rich plasma pretreatment prior to barrier deposition with the intention of cleaning the PET surface and enhancing adhesion of the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} barrier film to PET; however, test coupons of PET/barrier/EVA/TPE failed after damp-heat exposure. (EVA is ethylene vinyl acetate and TPE is Tedlar{reg_sign}-PET-EVA). PET substrates exposedmore » to plasma conditions similar to those used in pretreatment were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to reveal that new low molecular weight PET fragments were created at the PET surface. These fragments are responsible for barrier/PET interfacial failure and barrier transfer to the EVA encapsulant side following damp heat exposure.« less

  20. Development and characterization of bilayer films of FucoPol and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana R V; Torres, Cristiana A V; Freitas, Filomena; Sevrin, Chantal; Grandfils, Christian; Reis, Maria A M; Alves, Vítor D; Coelhoso, Isabel M

    2016-08-20

    Bilayer films of FucoPol and chitosan were prepared and characterized in terms of optical, morphologic, hygroscopic, mechanical and barrier properties, to evaluate their potential application in food packaging. Bilayer films have shown dense and homogeneous layers, and presented enhanced properties when comparing to monolayer FucoPol films. Though, a high swelling degree in contact with liquid water (263.3%) and a high water vapour permeability (0.75×10(-11)mol/msPa), typical of polysaccharide films, was still observed. However, they presented a low permeability to O2 and CO2 (0.47×10(-16)molm/m(2)sPa and 5.8×10(-16)molm/m(2)sPa, respectively). Tensile tests revealed a flexible and resistant film with an elongation at break of 38% and an elastic modulus of 137MPa. The studied properties, in particular the excellent barrier to gases, impart these bilayer films potential to be used in packaging of low moisture content products, as well as in multilayered hydrophobic/hydrophilic/hydrophobic barriers for food products with a broader range of water content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Water-soluble nanocrystalline cellulose films with highly transparent and oxygen barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaoling; Zhang, Yapei; Cha, Ruitao; Yang, Jinliang; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-14

    By mixing a guar gum (GG) solution with a nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) dispersion using a novel circular casting technology, we manufactured biodegradable films as packaging materials with improved optical and mechanical properties. These films could act as barriers for oxygen and could completely dissolve in water within 5 h. We also compared the effect of nanocomposite films and commercial food packaging materials on the preservation of food.

  2. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jung, Hyunsoo; Samsung Display Co. Ltd., Tangjeong, Chungcheongnam-Do 336-741; Jeon, Heeyoung

    2014-02-21

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition have been used for thin film encapsulation of organic light emitting diode. In this study, a multi-density layer structure consisting of two Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers with different densities are deposited with different deposition conditions of O{sub 2} plasma reactant time. This structure improves moisture permeation barrier characteristics, as confirmed by a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) test. The lowest WVTR of the multi-density layer structure was 4.7 × 10{sup −5} gm{sup −2} day{sup −1}, which is one order of magnitude less than WVTR for the reference single-density Al{submore » 2}O{sub 3} layer. This improvement is attributed to the location mismatch of paths for atmospheric gases, such as O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, in the film due to different densities in the layers. This mechanism is analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection, and angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These results confirmed that the multi-density layer structure exhibits very good characteristics as an encapsulation layer via location mismatch of paths for H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} between the two layers.« less

  3. Electrical Conductivity and Barrier Properties of Lithium Niobate Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudkov, S. I.; Baklanova, K. D.; Kamenshchikov, M. V.; Solnyshkin, A. V.; Belov, A. N.

    2018-04-01

    The thin-film structures made of LiNbO3 and obtained via laser ablation and magnetron sputtering are studied with volt-farad and volt-ampere characteristics. A potential barrier on the Si-LiNbO3 interface was found for both types of the films with the capacitance-voltage characteristics. The current-voltage characteristics showed that there are several conduction mechanisms in the structures studied. The Poole-Frenkel effect and the currents limited by a space charge mainly contribute to the electrical conductivity in the LiNbO3 film produced with the laser ablation method. The currents limited by a space charge contribute to the main mechanism in the film heterostructure obtained with the magnetron sputtering method.

  4. A practice-based evaluation of a liquid barrier film.

    PubMed

    Harding, Nicola

    2002-05-01

    In palliative care it is often the little things such as being comfortable that help to improve a patient's quality of life. When the opportunity arose in our hospice to take part in a practice-based evaluation of a product that promised to make patients more comfortable, we were pleased to take part. Our small-scale evaluation was part of a wider study of SuperSkin, a liquid barrier film designed to protect skin at risk of damage. Information was collected from the patient, patient's medical notes and the nursing staff - a patient daily diary record was used in addition to normal information recordings. We evaluated the efficacy of the product and found this liquid barrier film to have a positive effect in several ways. It appeared to assist in the healing of skin damaged by friction and shearing forces, and from excoriation from wound exudates, urine and faeces. In addition, it appeared to protect healthy, 'at risk' skin from the same problems.

  5. A Comparative Study of Some Properties of Cassava and Tree Cassava Starch Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belibi, P. C.; Daou, T. J.; Ndjaka, J. M. B.; Nsom, B.; Michelin, L.; Durand, B.

    Cassava and tree cassava starch films plasticized with glycerol were produced by casting method. Different glycerol contents (30, 35, 40 and 45 wt. % on starch dry basis) were used and the resulting films were fully characterized. Their water barrier and mechanical properties were compared. While increasing glycerol concentration, moisture content, water solubility, water vapour permeability, tensile strength, percent elongation at break and Young's modulus decreased for both cassava and tree cassava films. Tree cassava films presented better values of water vapour permeability, water solubility and percent elongation at break compared to those of cassava films, regardless of the glycerol content.

  6. Diffusion barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The choice of the metallic film for the contact to a semiconductor device is discussed. One way to try to stabilize a contact is by interposing a thin film of a material that has low diffusivity for the atoms in question. This thin film application is known as a diffusion barrier. Three types of barriers can be distinguished. The stuffed barrier derives its low atomic diffusivity to impurities that concentrate along the extended defects of a polycrystalline layer. Sacrificial barriers exploit the fact that some (elemental) thin films react in a laterally uniform and reproducible fashion. Sacrificial barriers have the advantage that the point of their failure is predictable. Passive barriers are those most closely approximating an ideal barrier. The most-studied case is that of sputtered TiN films. Stuffed barriers may be viewed as passive barriers whose low diffusivity material extends along the defects of the polycrystalline host.

  7. Direct measurement of free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous silicon thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Frank G.

    1994-01-01

    A method is introduced to measure the free-energy barrier W(sup *), the activation energy, and activation entropy to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous solids, independent of the energy barrier to growth. The method allows one to determine the temperature dependence of W(sup *), and the effect of the preparation conditions of the initial amorphous phase, the dopants, and the crystallization methds on W(sup *). The method is applied to determine the free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films. For thermally induced nucleation in a-Si thin films with annealing temperatures in the range of from 824 to 983 K, the free-energy barrier W(sup *) to nucleation of silicon crystals is about 2.0 - 2.1 eV regardless of the preparation conditions of the films. The observation supports the idea that a-Si transforms into an intermediate amorphous state through the structural relaxation prior to the onset of nucleation of crystallites in a-Si. The observation also indicates that the activation entropy may be an insignificant part of the free-energy barrier for the nucleation of crystallites in a-Si. Compared with the free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in undoped a-Si films, a significant reduction is observed in the free-energy barrier to nucleation in Cu-doped a-Si films. For a-Si under irradiation of Xe(2+) at 10(exp 5) eV, the free-energy barrier to ion-induced nucleation of crystallites is shown to be about half of the value associated with thermal-induced nucleation of crystallites in a-Si under the otherwise same conditions, which is much more significant than previously expected. The present method has a general kinetic basis; it thus should be equally applicable to nucleation of crystallites in any amorphous elemental semiconductors and semiconductor alloys, metallic and polymeric glasses, and to nucleation of crystallites in melts and solutions.

  8. Diffusion barrier properties of single- and multilayered quasi-amorphous tantalum nitride thin films against copper penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. S.; Chen, S. T.

    2000-06-01

    Tantalum-related thin films containing different amounts of nitrogen are sputter deposited at different argon-to-nitrogen flow rate ratios on (100) silicon substrates. Using x-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, composition and resistivity analyses, and bending-beam stress measurement technique, this work examines the impact of varying the nitrogen flow rate, particularly on the crystal structure, composition, resistivity, and residual intrinsic stress of the deposited Ta2N thin films. With an adequate amount of controlled, reactive nitrogen in the sputtering gas, thin films of the tantalum nitride of nominal formula Ta2N are predominantly amorphous and can exist over a range of nitrogen concentrations slightly deviated from stoichiometry. The single-layered quasi-amorphous Ta2N (a-Ta2N) thin films yield intrinsic compressive stresses in the range 3-5 GPa. In addition, the use of the 40-nm-thick a-Ta2N thin films with different nitrogen atomic concentrations (33% and 36%) and layering designs as diffusion barriers between silicon and copper are also evaluated. When subjected to high-temperature annealing, the single-layered a-Ta2N barrier layers degrade primarily by an amorphous-to-crystalline transition of the barrier layers. Crystallization of the single-layered stoichiometric a-Ta2N (Ta67N33) diffusion barriers occurs at temperatures as low as 450 °C. Doing so allows copper to preferentially penetrate through the grain boundaries or thermal-induced microcracks of the crystallized barriers and react with silicon, sequentially forming {111}-facetted pyramidal Cu3Si precipitates and TaSi2 Overdoping nitrogen into the amorphous matrix can dramatically increase the crystallization temperature to 600 °C. This temperature increase slows down the inward diffusion of copper and delays the formation of both silicides. The nitrogen overdoped Ta2N (Ta64N36) diffusion barriers can thus be significantly enhanced so as to yield a failure temperature 100

  9. Effect of Si in reactively sputtered Ti-Si-N films on structure and diffusion barrier performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X.; Kolawa, E.; Im, S.; Garland, C.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    Two ternary films about 100 nm thick, Ti34Si23N43 (b3) and Ti35Si13N52 (c3), are synthesized by reactively sputtering a Ti5Si3 or a Ti3Si target, respectively. The silicon-lean film (c3) has a columnar structure closely resembling that of TiN. As a diffusion barrier between a shallow Si n+p junction diode and a Cu overlayer, this material is effective up to 700 °C for 30 min annealing in vacuum, a performance similar to that for TiN. The silicon-rich (b3) film contains nanocrystals of TiN, randomly oriented and embedded in an amorphous matrix. A film of (b3) maintains the stability of the same diode structure up to 850 °C for 30 min in vacuum. This film (b3) is clearly superior to TiN or to (c3). Similar experiments performed with Al instead of Cu overlayers highlight the importance of the thermodynamic stability of a barrier layer and demonstrate convincingly that for stable barriers the microstructure is a parameter that directly determines the barrier performance.

  10. Nanomechanical Behavior of High Gas Barrier Multilayer Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Humood, Mohammad; Chowdhury, Shahla; Song, Yixuan; Tzeng, Ping; Grunlan, Jaime C; Polycarpou, Andreas A

    2016-05-04

    Nanoindentation and nanoscratch experiments were performed on thin multilayer films manufactured using the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. These films are known to exhibit high gas barrier, but little is known about their durability, which is an important feature for various packaging applications (e.g., food and electronics). Films were prepared from bilayer and quadlayer sequences, with varying thickness and composition. In an effort to evaluate multilayer thin film surface and mechanical properties, and their resistance to failure and wear, a comprehensive range of experiments were conducted: low and high load indentation, low and high load scratch. Some of the thin films were found to have exceptional mechanical behavior and exhibit excellent scratch resistance. Specifically, nanobrick wall structures, comprising montmorillonite (MMT) clay and polyethylenimine (PEI) bilayers, are the most durable coatings. PEI/MMT films exhibit high hardness, large elastic modulus, high elastic recovery, low friction, low scratch depth, and a smooth surface. When combined with the low oxygen permeability and high optical transmission of these thin films, these excellent mechanical properties make them good candidates for hard coating surface-sensitive substrates, where polymers are required to sustain long-term surface aesthetics and quality.

  11. Covering solid, film cooled surfaces with a duplex thermal barrier coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, C. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating systems were applied to hardware having passageways in the walls connecting apertures in the surface to a gas supply for film cooling. An inert gas, such as argon, is discharged through the apertures during the application of the thermal barrier coating system by plasma spraying. This flow of inert gas reduces both blocking of the holes and base metal oxidation during the coating operation.

  12. Weathering characteristics and moisture uptake properties of wood coated with water-borne sol-gel thin films

    Treesearch

    M. A. Tshabalala; C. Starr; N. R. Sutherland

    2010-01-01

    In this study, wood specimens were coated with water-borne silsesquioxane oligomers by an in situ sol-gel deposition process. The effect of these water-borne sol-gel thin films on weathering characteristics and moisture-uptake properties of the wood specimens were investigated. The weathering characteristics were investigated by exposure of the specimens to artificial...

  13. UV-screening, transparency and water barrier properties of semi refined iota carrageenan packaging film incorporated with ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoirunnisa, Assifa Rahma; Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, Camellia; Rochima, Emma; Praseptiangga, Danar

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to develop film for food packaging application with high UV-screening, transparency and water barrier properties. Semi refined iota carrageenan (SRiC) nanocomposite films prepared by addition of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as nanofiller using solution casting method. The effect of nanofiller with different concentration (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% w/w carrageenan) on UV-screening, transparency and water barrier properties of films were tested. The water barrier properties of the films were studied by measuring water vapor permeability (WVP) and the optical properties of the films were studied by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 280 nm for UV-screening test and at 660 nm for transparency test. WVP value of carrageenan films with addition of ZnO is low compared to a control carrageenan film and the lowest WVP value was found for the film with addition of 1.5% of ZnO. These result indicate that the addition of ZnO had a positive effect on the water barrier properties of the carrageenan matrix. Increase in the concentration of nanofiller leads to an increase in the UV-screening properties. Among all the films, carrageenan film with 1.5% ZnO has the highest UV-screening. The result showed that adding 0.5% and 1.0% of ZnO was insignificantly affect transparency of the films, however the transparency decreased sligthly when 1.5% ZnO was added. In conclusion, incorporating no more than 1.0% of ZnO to the films can obtain films with high UV-screening, transparency and water barrier properties and suitable for food packaging application.

  14. Sandwich-Architectured Poly(lactic acid)-Graphene Composite Food Packaging Films.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kunli; Heising, Jenneke K; Yuan, Yang; Karahan, Huseyin E; Wei, Li; Zhai, Shengli; Koh, Jia-Xuan; Htin, Nanda M; Zhang, Feimo; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G; Dekker, Matthijs; Dehghani, Fariba; Chen, Yuan

    2016-04-20

    Biodegradable food packaging promises a more sustainable future. Among the many different biopolymers used, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) possesses the good mechanical property and cost-effectiveness necessary of a biodegradable food packaging. However, PLA food packaging suffers from poor water vapor and oxygen barrier properties compared to many petroleum-derived ones. A key challenge is, therefore, to simultaneously enhance both the water vapor and oxygen barrier properties of the PLA food packaging. To address this issue, we design a sandwich-architectured PLA-graphene composite film, which utilizes an impermeable reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as the core barrier and commercial PLA films as the outer protective encapsulation. The synergy between the barrier and the protective encapsulation results in a significant 87.6% reduction in the water vapor permeability. At the same time, the oxygen permeability is reduced by two orders of magnitude when evaluated under both dry and humid conditions. The excellent barrier properties can be attributed to the compact lamellar microstructure and the hydrophobicity of the rGO core barrier. Mechanistic analysis shows that the large rGO lateral dimension and the small interlayer spacing between the rGO sheets have created an extensive and tortuous diffusion pathway, which is up to 1450-times the thickness of the rGO barrier. In addition, the sandwiched architecture has imbued the PLA-rGO composite film with good processability, which increases the manageability of the film and its competency to be tailored. Simulations using the PLA-rGO composite food packaging film for edible oil and potato chips also exhibit at least eight-fold extension in the shelf life of these oxygen and moisture sensitive food products. Overall, these qualities have demonstrated the high potential of a sandwich-architectured PLA-graphene composite film for food packaging applications.

  15. Robust Guar Gum/Cellulose Nanofibrils Multilayer Films with Good Barrier Properties.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lei; Long, Zhu; Chen, Jie; An, Xingye; Cheng, Dong; Khan, Avik; Ni, Yonghao

    2017-02-15

    The pursuit of sustainable functional materials requires development of materials based on renewable resources and efficient fabrication methods. Hereby, we fabricated all-polysaccharides multilayer films using cationic guar gum (CGG) and anionic cellulose nanofibrils (i.e., TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils, TOCNs) through a layer-by-layer casting method. This technique is based on alternate depositions of oppositely charged water-based CGG and TOCNs onto laminated films. The resultant polyelectrolyte multilayer films were transparent, ductile, and strong. More importantly, the self-standing films exhibited excellent gas (water vapor and oxygen) and oil barrier performances. Another outstanding feature of these resultant films was their resistance to various organic solvents including methanol, acetone, N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) and tetrahydrofuran (THF). The proposed film fabrication process is environmentally benign, cost-effective, and easy to scale-up. The developed CGG/TOCNs multilayer films can be used as a renewable material for industrial applications such as packaging.

  16. Seeking better topical delivery technologies of moisturizing agents for enhanced skin moisturization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeongmin; Kim, Jeong Tae; Barua, Sonia; Yoo, Seung-Yup; Hong, Seong-Chul; Lee, Kyung Bin; Lee, Jaehwi

    2018-01-01

    An adequate hydration level is essential to maintain epidermal barrier functions and normal physiological activities of skin tissues. Diverse moisturizing agents and pharmaceutical formulations for dermal deliveries have thus extensively been investigated. This review comprehensively discusses scientific outcomes of moisturizing agents and pharmaceutical vehicles for skin moisturization, thereby providing insight into designing innovative pharmaceutical formulations for effective skin moisturization. Areas covered: We discussed the functions of various moisturizing agents ranging from conventional creams to novel moisturizers which has recently been explored. In addition, novel pharmaceutical formulations for efficient dermal delivery of the moisturizers, in particular, nanocarriers, were discussed along with their uses in commercial products. Expert opinion: Although various moisturizing agents have demonstrated their promising effects, exploitation of pharmaceutical formulations for their dermal delivery have been limited to few commonly used moisturizing agents. Thus, combinatorial investigation of novel moisturizers and pharmaceutical vehicles should be further conducted. As a new concept for improving skin moisturization, skin regeneration technologies using therapeutic cells have recently shown great promise for skin moisturization, but major challenges remain, such as efficient delivery and prolonged survival of such cells. Thus, novel approaches for improving skin moisturization require continuous efforts of pharmaceutical scientists to address the remaining problems.

  17. Sputter Deposition of Yttrium-Barium Superconductor and Strontium Titanium Oxide Barrier Layer Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truman, James Kelly

    1992-01-01

    The commercial application of superconducting rm YBa_2Cu_3O_{7 -x} thin films requires the development of deposition methods which can be used to reproducibly deposit films with good superconducting properties on insulating and semiconducting substrates. Sputter deposition is the most popular method to fabricate Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor thin films, but when used in the standard configuration suffers from a deviation between the compositions of the Y-Ba-Cu-O sputter target and deposited films, which is thought to be primarily due to resputtering of the film by negative ions sputtered from the target. In this study, the negative ions were explicitly identified and were found to consist predominantly O^-. The sputter yield of O^- was found to depend on the Ba compound used in the fabrication of Y -Ba-Cu-O targets and was related to the electronegativity difference between the components. An unreacted mixture of rm Y_2O_3, CuO, and BaF_2 was found to have the lowest O^- yield among targets with Y:Ba:Cu = 1:2:3. The high yield of O^- from rm YBa_2Cu_3O _{7-x} was found to depend on the target temperature and be due to the excess oxygen present. The SIMS negative ion data supported the composition data for sputter-deposited Y-Ba-Cu-O films. Targets using BaF _2 were found to improve the Ba deficiency, the run-to-run irreproducibility and the nonuniformity of the film composition typically found in sputtered Y -Ba-Cu-O films. Superconducting Y-Ba-Cu-O films were formed on SrTiO_3 substrates by post-deposition heat treatment of Y-Ba-Cu-O-F films in humid oxygen. The growth of superconducting rm YBa_2Cu_3O_{7-x}, thin films on common substrates such as sapphire or silicon requires the use of a barrier layer to prevent the deleterious interaction which occurs between Y-Ba-Cu-O films and these substrates. Barrier layers of SrTiO_3 were studied and found to exhibit textured growth with a preferred (111) orientation on (100) Si substrates. However, SrTiO_3 was found to be

  18. Effects of ultrasonic treatment on amylose-lipid complex formation and properties of sweet potato starch-based films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; Wang, Rui; Kang, Xuemin; Cui, Bo; Yu, Bin

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the properties of sweet potato starch and sweet potato starch-based films, the complexing index, thermograms and diffractograms of the sweet potato starch-lauric acid composite were tested, and light transmission, microstructure, and mechanical and moisture barrier properties of the films were measured. The results indicated that the low power density ultrasound was beneficial to the formation of an inclusion complex. In thermograms, the gelatinization enthalpies of the ultrasonically treated starches were lower than those of the untreated sample. With the ultrasonic amplitude increased from 40% to 70%, the melting enthalpy (ΔH) of the inclusion complex gradually decreased. X-ray diffraction revealed that the diffraction intensity of the untreated samples was weaker than that of the ultrasonically treated samples. When the ultrasonic amplitude was above 40%, the diffraction intensity and relative crystallinity of inclusion complex gradually decreased. The scanning electronic microscope showed that the surface of the composite films became smooth after being treated by ultrasonication. Ultrasonication led to a reduction in film surface roughness under atomic force microscopy analysis. The films with ultrasonic treatment exhibited higher light transmission, lower elongation at break, higher tensile strength and better moisture barrier property than those without ultrasonic treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial and enzymatic antibrowning film used as coating for bamboo shoot quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Borah, Pallab Kumar; Deka, Sankar C

    2014-03-15

    Edible films were prepared with varying proportion of alginate and starch in the ratio of 2:0(F1), 2:1(F2), 1:1(F3), 1:1.5(F4), 1:2(F5), 0:2(F6) with added carboxymethyl cellulose (15%, w/w of starch). The film F5 had superior barrier, mechanical and thermal properties over the other films. Water vapor permeability, moisture absorption, water solubility, breakage strength and elongation capacity of F5 film were reported as 1.21 × 10(-9)g/Pa h m, 9.37%, 40%, 977.3g and 14.62 mm respectively. However, surface characteristics showed the smooth and uniform film and thermal decomposition took place above 200 °C. The film forming solution of selected F5 film, added with antioxidant and antimicrobial extracts was coated on bamboo shoots and stored for 5 days. The film was successful in lowering the browning of bamboo shoots, and also successfully inhibited surface microbial load. Moreover, the moisture loss of coated shoot was less compared to uncoated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrathin Cr added Ru film as a seedless Cu diffusion barrier for advanced Cu interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kuo-Chung; Perng, Dung-Ching; Yeh, Jia-Bin; Wang, Yi-Chun

    2012-07-01

    A 5 nm thick Cr added Ru film has been extensively investigated as a seedless Cu diffusion barrier. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy micrograph, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and Fourier transform-electron diffraction pattern reveal that a Cr contained Ru (RuCr) film has a glassy microstructure and is an amorphous-like film. XRD patterns and sheet resistance data show that the RuCr film is stable up to 650 °C, which is approximately a 200 °C improvement in thermal stability as compared to that of the pure Ru film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiles show that the RuCr film can successfully block Cu diffusion, even after a 30-min 650 °C annealing. The leakage current of the Cu/5 nm RuCr/porous SiOCH/Si stacked structure is about two orders of magnitude lower than that of a pristine Ru sample for electric field below 1 MV/cm. The RuCr film can be a promising Cu diffusion barrier for advanced Cu metallization.

  1. Use of aluminum oxide as a permeation barrier for producing thin films on aluminum substrates

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Provo, James L., E-mail: jlprovo@verizon.net

    2016-07-15

    Aluminum has desirable characteristics of good thermal properties, good electrical characteristics, good optical properties, and the characteristic of being nonmagnetic and having a low atomic weight (26.98 g atoms), but because of its low melting point (660 °C) and ability as a reactive metal to alloy with most common metals in use, it has been ignored as a substrate material for use in processing thin films. The author developed a simple solution to this problem, by putting a permeation barrier of alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) onto the surface of pure Al substrates by using a standard chemical oxidation process of the surfacemore » (i.e., anodization), before additional film deposition of reactive metals at temperatures up to 500 °C for 1-h, without the formation of alloys or intermetallic compounds to affect the good properties of Al substrates. The chromic acid anodization process used (MIL-A-8625) produced a film barrier of ∼(500–1000) nm of alumina. The fact that refractory Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can inhibit the reaction of metals with Al at temperatures below 500 °C suggests that Al is a satisfactory substrate if properly oxidized prior to film deposition. To prove this concept, thin film samples of Cr, Mo, Er, Sc, Ti, and Zr were prepared on anodized Al substrates and studied by x-ray diffraction, Rutherford ion back scattering, and Auger/argon sputter surface profile analysis to determine any film substrate interactions. In addition, a major purpose of our study was to determine if ErD{sub 2} thin films could be produced on Al substrates with fully hydrided Er films. Thus, a thin film of ErD{sub 2} on an anodized Al substrate was prepared and studied, with and without the alumina permeation barrier. Films for study were prepared on 1.27 cm diameter Al substrates with ∼500 nm of the metals studied after anodization. Substrates were weighed, cleaned, and vacuum fired at 500 °C prior to use. The Al substrates were deposited using standard

  2. Transport, mechanical and global migration data of multilayer copolyamide nanocomposite films with different layouts.

    PubMed

    Scarfato, P; Garofalo, E; Di Maio, L; Incarnato, L

    2017-06-01

    Transport, mechanical and global migration data concern multilayer food packaging films with different layouts, all incorporating a layered silicate/polyamide nanocomposite as oxygen barrier layer, and a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as moisture resistant layer in direct contact with food. The data are related to "Tuning of co-extrusion processing conditions and film layout to optimize the performances of PA/PE multilayer nanocomposite films for food packaging" by Garofalo et al. (2017) [1]. Nanocomposite multilayer films, with different relative layer thicknesses and clay types, were produced using a laboratory scale co-extrusion blown-film equipment and were analyzed in terms of transport to oxygen and water vapor, mechanical properties and overall migration. The results have shown that all the multilayer hybrid films, based on the copolyamide layer filled with Cloisite 30B, displayed the most significant oxygen barrier improvements and the best mechanical properties compared to the unfilled films. No significant alteration of the overall migration values was observed, as expectable [2], [3], [4]. The performance improvement was more relevant in the case of the film with the thinner nanocomposite layer.

  3. A Facile Pathway to Modify Cellulose Composite Film by Reducing Wettability and Improving Barrier towards Moisture.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaorong; Chen, Lin; Tao, Dandan; Ma, Zhaocheng; Liu, Shilin

    2017-01-05

    The hydrophilic property of cellulose is a key limiting factor for its wide application. Here, a novel solution impregnation pathway was developed to increase the hydrophobic properties of cellulose. When compared with the regenerated cellulose (RC), the composite films showed a decrease in water uptake ability towards water vapor, and an increase of the water contact angle from 29° to 65° with increasing resin content in the composites, with only a slight change in the transmittance. Furthermore, the Young's modulus value increased from 3.2 GPa (RC film) to 5.1 GPa (RCBEA50 film). The results indicated that the composites had combined the advantages of cellulose and biphenyl A epoxy acrylate prepolymer (BEA) resin. The presented method has great potential for the preparation of biocomposites with improved properties. The overall results suggest that composite films can be used as high-performance packaging materials.

  4. A Facile Pathway to Modify Cellulose Composite Film by Reducing Wettability and Improving Barrier towards Moisture

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaorong; Chen, Lin; Tao, Dandan; Ma, Zhaocheng; Liu, Shilin

    2017-01-01

    The hydrophilic property of cellulose is a key limiting factor for its wide application. Here, a novel solution impregnation pathway was developed to increase the hydrophobic properties of cellulose. When compared with the regenerated cellulose (RC), the composite films showed a decrease in water uptake ability towards water vapor, and an increase of the water contact angle from 29° to 65° with increasing resin content in the composites, with only a slight change in the transmittance. Furthermore, the Young’s modulus value increased from 3.2 GPa (RC film) to 5.1 GPa (RCBEA50 film). The results indicated that the composites had combined the advantages of cellulose and biphenyl A epoxy acrylate prepolymer (BEA) resin. The presented method has great potential for the preparation of biocomposites with improved properties. The overall results suggest that composite films can be used as high-performance packaging materials. PMID:28772399

  5. Polyethylene barrier impregnated with lambda-cyhalothrin for exclusion of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) from structures.

    PubMed

    Su, Nan-Yao; Ban, Paul; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H

    2004-04-01

    Polyethylene film impregnated with lambda-cyhalothrin was placed over a sand plot and covered with a concrete slab to allow insecticide movement into the sand for a period of 5.5 yr. Discs of polyethylene film and sand beneath them were sampled annually for 5 yr and at 5.5 yr for bioassay with the Formosan and eastern subterranean termite. Results demonstrated that sufficient quantities of lambda-cyhalothrin were released from the impregnated polyethylene film into adjacent sand to prevent termite penetration. The impregnated film has less environmental impact than conventional liquid termiticides because the insecticide is held in the polymer. Other advantages include its dual function as a construction moisture barrier and ease in verifying its proper installation.

  6. High-Performance Ink-Synthesized Cu-Gate Thin-Film Transistor with Diffusion Barrier Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Whang Je; Nam, Taewook; Oh, Il-Kwon; Maeng, Wanjoo; Kim, Hyungjun

    2018-02-01

    The improved electrical properties of Cu-gate thin-film transistors (TFTs) using an ink-synthesizing process were studied; this technology enables a low-cost and large area process for the display industry. We investigated the film properties and the effects of the ink-synthesized Cu layer in detail with respect to device characteristics. The mobility and reliability of the devices were significantly improved by applying a diffusion barrier at the interface between the Cu gate and the gate insulator. By using a TaN diffusion barrier layer, considerably improved and stabilized ink-Cu gated TFTs could be realized, comparable to sputtered-Cu gated TFTs under positive bias temperature stress measurements.

  7. High-Performance Ink-Synthesized Cu-Gate Thin-Film Transistor with Diffusion Barrier Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Whang Je; Nam, Taewook; Oh, Il-Kwon; Maeng, Wanjoo; Kim, Hyungjun

    2018-05-01

    The improved electrical properties of Cu-gate thin-film transistors (TFTs) using an ink-synthesizing process were studied; this technology enables a low-cost and large area process for the display industry. We investigated the film properties and the effects of the ink-synthesized Cu layer in detail with respect to device characteristics. The mobility and reliability of the devices were significantly improved by applying a diffusion barrier at the interface between the Cu gate and the gate insulator. By using a TaN diffusion barrier layer, considerably improved and stabilized ink-Cu gated TFTs could be realized, comparable to sputtered-Cu gated TFTs under positive bias temperature stress measurements.

  8. Coupled Heat and Moisture Transport Simulation on the Re-saturation of Engineered Clay Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W. H.; Chuang, Y. F.

    2014-12-01

    Engineered clay barrier plays a major role for the isolation of radioactive wastes in a underground repository. This paper investigates the resaturation processes of clay barrier, with emphasis on the coupling effects of heat and moisture during the intrusion of groundwater to the repository. A reference bentonite and a locally available clay were adopted in the laboratory program. Soil suction of clay specimens was measured by psychrometers embedded in clay specimens and by vapor equilibrium technique conducted at varying temperatures so as to determine the soil water characteristic curves of the two clays at different temperatures. And water uptake tests were conducted on clay specimens compacted at various densities to simulate the intrusion of groundwater into the clay barrier. Using the soil water characteristic curve, an integration scheme was introduced to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated clay. It was found that soil suction decreases as temperature increases, resulting in a reduction in water retention capability. The finite element method was then employed to carry out the numerical simulation of the saturation process in the near field of a repository. Results of the numerical simulation were validated using the degree of saturation profile obtained from the water uptake tests on the clays. The numerical scheme was then extended to establish a model simulating the resaturation process after the closure of a repository. Finally, the model was then used to evaluate the effect of clay barrier thickness on the time required for groundwater to penetrate the clay barrier and approach saturation. Due to the variation in clay suction and thermal conductivity with temperature of clay barrier material, the calculated temperature field shows a reduction as a result of incorporating the hydro-properties in the calculations.

  9. Transparent nanocellulosic multilayer thin films on polylactic acid with tunable gas barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Aulin, Christian; Karabulut, Erdem; Tran, Amy; Wågberg, Lars; Lindström, Tom

    2013-08-14

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition method was used for the build-up of alternating layers of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with a branched, cationic polyelectrolyte, polyethyleneimine (PEI) on flexible poly (lactic acid) (PLA) substrates. With this procedure, optically transparent nanocellulosic films with tunable gas barrier properties were formed. 50 layer pairs of PEI/NFC and PEI/CMC deposited on PLA have oxygen permeabilities of 0.34 and 0.71 cm(3)·μm/m(2)·day·kPa at 23 °C and 50% relative humidity, respectively, which is in the same range as polyvinyl alcohol and ethylene vinyl alcohol. The oxygen permeability of these multilayer nanocomposites outperforms those of pure NFC films prepared by solvent-casting. The nanocellulosic LbL assemblies on PLA substrates was in detailed characterized using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals large structural differences between the PEI/NFC and the PEI/CMC assemblies, with the PEI/NFC assembly showing a highly entangled network of nanofibrils, whereas the PEI/CMC surfaces lacked structural features. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a nearly perfect uniformity of the nanocellulosic coatings on PLA, and light transmittance results revealed remarkable transparency of the LbL-coated PLA films. The present work demonstrates the first ever LbL films based on high aspect ratio, water-dispersible nanofibrillated cellulose, and water-soluble carboxymethyl cellulose polymers that can be used as multifunctional films and coatings with tailorable properties, such as gas barriers and transparency. Owing to its flexibility, transparency and high-performance gas barrier properties, these thin film assemblies are promising candidates for several large-scale applications, including flexible electronics and renewable packaging.

  10. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings for meat and meat products preservation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ortega, Irais; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Santos-López, Eva María; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar; Regalado, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC) added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics.

  11. Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Meat Products Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Ortega, Irais; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.; Santos-López, Eva María; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Regalado, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC) added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics. PMID:25050387

  12. Borate cross-linked graphene oxide-chitosan as robust and high gas barrier films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ning; Capezzuto, Filomena; Lavorgna, Marino; Buonocore, Giovanna G.; Tescione, Fabiana; Xia, Hesheng; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    Chitosan (CS) is one of the most promising polymers due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and natural abundance. However, its poor mechanical and barrier properties make it difficult to satisfy a wide range of applications. Herein, borate ions, originating from the hydrolysis of sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax), have been used to crosslink chitosan and graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites. Chitosan films consisting of 1.0 wt% boron and 1.0 wt% GO exhibit a significant improvement in both the toughness and oxygen barrier properties compared to pristine chitosan. In particular the tensile strength of the samples after thermal treatment increases by ~160% compared to pristine chitosan, whereas their oxygen permeability reduces by ~90%. This is ascribed to the chemical crosslinking between chitosan and GO nanoplatelets through borate ions, as well as the formation of a layered morphology with graphene nanoplatelets oriented parallel to the sample surface. The exceptional robust and high gas barrier film has promising application in the packaging industry. The borate-crosslinking chemistry represents the potential strategy for improving properties of other polymer nanocomposites.Chitosan (CS) is one of the most promising polymers due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and natural abundance. However, its poor mechanical and barrier properties make it difficult to satisfy a wide range of applications. Herein, borate ions, originating from the hydrolysis of sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax), have been used to crosslink chitosan and graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites. Chitosan films consisting of 1.0 wt% boron and 1.0 wt% GO exhibit a significant improvement in both the toughness and oxygen barrier properties compared to pristine chitosan. In particular the tensile strength of the samples after thermal treatment increases by ~160% compared to pristine chitosan, whereas their oxygen permeability reduces by ~90%. This is ascribed to the chemical

  13. The effect of the stretching of PLA extruded films on their crystallinity and gas barrier properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinault, A.; Menary, G. H.; Courgneau, C.; Griffith, D.; Ducruet, V.; Miri, V.; Sollogoub, C.

    2011-05-01

    Driven by environmental concerns, new polymers based on renewable resources are arriving on the market to replace conventional polymers, obtained from petroleum, for different applications like food packaging. One of the most prominent polymers among these materials is poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a biodegradable, thermoplastic, aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the USA) or sugarcanes (in the rest of the world). However this polymer presents different disadvantages and especially low gas barrier properties [1]. Thermal crystallization can be used to increase its gas barrier properties but long times are necessary [2] and are not compatible with an industrial process. Another way to increase the gas barrier properties consists in stretching the film in order to increase its crystallinity and so its diffusion coefficient. We have prepared stretched PLA films with different stretch ratio and we have studied the effect of the stretching parameters on the gas barrier properties of PLA films. Finally we compared this process with the isothermal crystallization process by taking into account the crystallinity degree and the crystalline morphology.

  14. Effects of moisturizing skincare on skin barrier function and the prevention of skin problems in 3-month-old infants: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Kaori; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Shiraishi, Mie; Kojima, Reiji

    2018-01-01

    An effective newborn skincare protocol has not been established. We aimed to evaluate the effects of moisturizing skincare, including using lotion and reducing routine bathing. Our hypothesis was that moisturizing skincare would improve skin barrier function. This randomized controlled trial included 227 healthy Asian newborns between 1 week and 3 months old. We compared moisturizing skincare (bathing every 2 days and using lotion daily; intervention, n = 113) to daily bathing without lotion (control, n = 114). We assessed the skin barrier function (transepidermal water loss [TEWL], stratum corneum hydration [SCH], skin pH and sebum secretion) as a primary outcome at 3 months old. We also assessed the incidence of skin problems according to parents' diary reports. Compared with the control, the intervention group had a lower face TEWL (mean ± standard deviation, 14.69 ± 7.38 vs 17.08 ± 8.26 g/m 2 per h, P = 0.033), higher face SCH (60.38 ± 13.66 vs 53.52 ± 14.55, P = 0.001) and higher body SCH (58.89 ± 12.96 vs 53.02 ± 10.08, P < 0.001). Compared with the control, newborns in the intervention group had significantly lower rates of diaper dermatitis between birth and 1 month old (6.3% vs 15.9%, P = 0.022), and tended to have lower rates of body skin problems between 1 and 3 months (42.1% vs 55.2%, P = 0.064). Moisturizing skincare was effective for improving skin barrier function and preventing newborns' diaper dermatitis. The results of our study may help parents make informed decisions about newborn skincare. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Effect of Gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid composite films.

    PubMed

    Masamba, Kingsley; Li, Yue; Hategekimana, Joseph; Liu, Fei; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9 MPa to 26.0 MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3 % to 10.2 % and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7 % to 4.2 % in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3 % oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4 % oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid.

  16. Rice stubble as a new biopolymer source to produce carboxymethyl cellulose-blended films.

    PubMed

    Rodsamran, Pattrathip; Sothornvit, Rungsinee

    2017-09-01

    Rice stubble is agricultural waste consisting of cellulose which can be converted to carboxymethyl cellulose from rice stubble (CMCr) as a potential biomaterial. Plasticizer types (glycerol and olive oil) and their contents were investigated to provide flexibility for use as food packaging material. Glycerol content enhanced extensibility, while olive oil content improved the moisture barrier of films. Additionally, CMCr showed potential as a replacement for up to 50% of commercial CMC without any changes in mechanical and permeability properties. A mixture of plasticizers (10% glycerol and 10% olive oil) provided blended film with good water barrier and mechanical properties comparable with 20% individual plasticizer. Principle component (PC) analysis with 2 PCs explained approximately 81% of the total variance, was a useful tool to select a suitable plasticizer ratio for blended film production. Therefore, CMCr can be used to form edible film and coating as a renewable environmentally friendly packaging material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental study of interfacial fracture toughness in a SiN(x)/PMMA barrier film.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongjin; Bulusu, Anuradha; Giordano, Anthony J; Marder, Seth R; Dauskardt, Reinhold; Graham, Samuel

    2012-12-01

    Organic/inorganic multilayer barrier films play an important role in the semihermetic packaging of organic electronic devices. With the rise in use of flexible organic electronics, there exists the potential for mechanical failure due to the loss of adhesion/cohesion when exposed to harsh environmental operating conditions. Although barrier performance has been the predominant metric for evaluating these encapsulation films, interfacial adhesion between the organic/inorganic barrier films and factors that influence their mechanical strength and reliability has received little attention. In this work, we present the interfacial fracture toughness of a model organic/inorganic multilayer barrier (SiN(x)-PMMA). Data from four point bending (FPB) tests showed that adhesive failure occurred between the SiN(x) and PMMA, and that the adhesion increased from 4.8 to 10 J/m(2) by using a variety of chemical treatments to vary the surface energy at the interface. Moreover, the adhesion strength increased to 28 J/m(2) by creating strong covalent bonds at the interface. Overall, three factors were found to have the greatest impact on the interfacial fracture toughness which were (a) increasing the polar component of the surface energy, (b) creating strong covalent bonds at the organic/inorganic interface, and (c) by increasing the plastic zone size at the crack tip by increasing the thickness of the PMMA layer.

  18. A fast method to produce strong NFC films as a platform for barrier and functional materials.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, Monika; Vartiainen, Jari; Lucenius, Jessica; Hippi, Ulla; Seppälä, Jukka; Serimaa, Ritva; Laine, Janne

    2013-06-12

    In this study, we present a rapid method to prepare robust, solvent-resistant, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) films that can be further surface-modified for functionality. The oxygen, water vapor, and grease barrier properties of the films were measured, and in addition, mechanical properties in the dry and wet state and solvent resistance were evaluated. The pure unmodified NFC films were good barriers for oxygen gas and grease. At a relative humidity below 65%, oxygen permeability of the pure and unmodified NFC films was below 0.6 cm(3) μm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1), and no grease penetrated the film. However, the largest advantage of these films was their resistance to various solvents, such as water, methanol, toluene, and dimethylacetamide. Although they absorbed a substantial amount of solvent, the films could still be handled after 24 h of solvent soaking. Hot-pressing was introduced as a convenient method to not only increase the drying speed of the films but also enhance the robustness of the films. The wet strength of the films increased due to the pressing. Thus, they can be chemically or physically modified through adsorption or direct chemical reaction in both aqueous and organic solvents. Through these modifications, the properties of the film can be enhanced, introducing, for example, functionality, hydrophobicity, or bioactivity. Herein, a simple method using surface coating with wax to improve hydrophobicity and oxygen barrier properties at very high humidity is described. Through this modification, the oxygen permeability decreased further and was below 17 cm(3) μm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1) even at 97.4% RH, and the water vapor transmission rate decreased from 600 to 40 g/m(2) day. The wax treatment did not deteriorate the dry strength of the film. Possible reasons for the unique properties are discussed. The developed robust NFC films can be used as a generic, environmentally sustainable platform for functional materials.

  19. Two randomized, controlled, comparative studies of the stratum corneum integrity benefits of two cosmetic niacinamide/glycerin body moisturizers vs. conventional body moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Christman, Jeremy C; Fix, Deborah K; Lucus, Sawanna C; Watson, Debrah; Desmier, Emma; Wilkerson, Rolanda J Johnson; Fixler, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous body moisturizers being available, cosmetic xerosis continues to be a leading skin problem for consumers. We performed two 35-day studies to evaluate the ability of a variety of body moisturizers containing various levels of oils/lipids, humectants, as well as other ingredients (e.g., niacinamide) to improve stratum corneum integrity. 63 and 58 female subjects were enrolled and randomized in an incomplete block design to six of nine products (eight moisturizers or no treatment control) in studies 1 and 2, respectively. The primary endpoints included visual dryness by a qualified skin grader, skin hydration as measured by Corneometer, and barrier integrity as measured by transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The primary comparisons for the two niacinamide/glycerin moisturizers were to the other six moisturizers and to the no treatment control for each endpoint. The two niacinamide/glycerin moisturizers demonstrated an overall better solution towards rapid and prolonged improvement of cosmetic xerosis due to functional improvement of stratum corneum barrier function compared to no treatment and the other moisturizers tested. These studies establish the benefit of including niacinamide in a body moisturizer to improve the integrity of the stratum corneum and thus reduce cosmetic xerosis over time.

  20. Moisture-Induced Alumina Scale Spallation: The Hydrogen Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2010-01-01

    For some time the oxidation community has been concerned with interfacial spallation of protective alumina scales, not just upon immediate cool down, but as a time-delayed phenomenon. Moisture-induced delayed spallation (MIDS) and desktop spallation (DTS) of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) refer to this process. It is most apparent for relatively adherent alumina scales that have survived initial cool down in a dry environment, have built up considerable thickness and strain energy, and have been somewhat damaged, such as by cyclic oxidation cracking. Indeed, a "sensitive zone" can be described that maximizes the observed effect as a function of all the relevant factors. Moisture has been postulated to serve as a source of interfacial hydrogen embrittlement. Hydrogen is derived from reaction with aluminum in the alloy at an exposed interface. The purpose of this monograph is to trace the close analogy of this phenomenon to other hydrogen-induced effects, such as embrittlement of aluminides and blistering of alloys and anodic alumina films. A formalized, top-down, logic-tree structure is presented as a guide to this discussion. A theoretical basis for interfacial weakening by hydrogen is first cited, as are demonstrations of hydrogen detection as a reaction product or interfacial species. Further support is provided by critical experiments that recreate the moisture effect, but by isolating hydrogen from other potential causative factors. These experiments include tests in H 2-containing atmospheres or cathodic hydrogen charging. Accordingly, they strongly indicate that interfacial hydrogen, derived from moisture, is the key chemical species accounting for delayed alumina scale spallation.

  1. Structure and Barrier Properties of Multinanolayered Biodegradable PLA/PBSA Films: Confinement Effect via Forced Assembly Coextrusion.

    PubMed

    Messin, Tiphaine; Follain, Nadège; Guinault, Alain; Sollogoub, Cyrille; Gaucher, Valérie; Delpouve, Nicolas; Marais, Stéphane

    2017-08-30

    Multilayer coextrusion processing was applied to produce 2049-layer film of poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) confined against poly(lactic acid) (PLA) using forced assembly, where the PBSA layer thickness was about 60 nm. This unique technology allowed to process semicrystalline PBSA as confined polymer and amorphous PLA as confining polymer in a continuous manner. The continuity of PBSA layers within the 80/20 wt % PLA/PBSA layered films was clearly evidenced by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Similar thermal events to the reference films were revealed by thermal studies; indicating no diffusion of polymers during the melt-processing. Mechanical properties were measured for the multilayer film and the obtained results were those expected considering the fraction of each polymer, revealing the absence of delamination in the PLA/PBSA multinanolayer film. The confinement effect induced by PLA led to a slight orientation of the crystals, an increase of the rigid amorphous fraction (RAF) in PBSA with a densification of this fraction without changing film crystallinity. These structural changes allowed to strongly improve the water vapor and gas barrier properties of the PBSA layer into the multilayer film up to two decades in the case of CO 2 gas. By confining the PBSA structure in very thin and continuous layers, it was then possible to improve the barrier performances of a biodegradable system and the resulting barrier properties were successfully correlated to the effect of confinement on the microstructure and the chain segment mobility of the amorphous phase. Such investigation on these multinanolayers of PLA/PBSA with the aim of evidencing relationships between microstructure implying RAF and barrier performances has never been performed yet. Besides, gas and water permeation results have shown that the barrier improvement obtained from the multilayer was mainly due to the reduction of solubility linked to the reduction of the free volume while

  2. The Barrier Properties of PET Coated DLC Film Deposited by Microwave Surface-Wave PECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lianhua; Chen, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we report the investigation of diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposited by microwave surface-wave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) web for the purpose of the barrier property improvement. In order to characterize the properties of DLC coatings, we used several substrates, silicon wafer, glass, and PET web and KBr tablet. The deposition rate was obtained by surface profiler based on the DLC deposited on glass substrates; Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) was carried out on KBr tablets to investigate chemical composition and bonding structure; the morphology of the DLC coating was analyzed by atomic force microscope (AFM) on Si substrates. For the barrier properties of PET webs, we measured the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) after coated with DLC films. We addressed the film barrier property related to process parameters, such as microwave power and pulse parameter in this work. The results show that the DLC coatings can greatly improve the barrier properties of PET webs.

  3. Evaluation of moisture ingress from the perimeter of photovoltaic modules: Evaluation of moisture ingress

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kempe, Michael D.; Dameron, Arrelaine A.; Reese, Matthew O.

    2013-05-14

    Many thin film photovoltaic (PV) technologies can be sensitive to corrosion induced by the presence of water vapor in the packaging materials. Typically impermeable front and backsheets are used in conjunction with an edge-seal around the perimeter to prevent water vapor ingress. These edge-seal materials are often made of a polyisobutylene resin filled with desiccant, which dramatically increases the time for moisture to reach sensitive module components. While edge-seals can prevent moisture ingress, even the lowest diffusivity transparent encapsulant materials are insufficient for the lifetime of a module. To evaluate the performance of edge-seal and encapsulant materials in a mannermore » that simulates their function in a PV module, an optical method was devised where ingress is detected by reaction of a Ca film with water. Using this method, we have exposed test samples to heat and humidity allowing quantitative comparison of different edge-seal and encapsulant materials. Next, we use measurements of polymer diffusivity and solubility to evaluate the ability to model this moisture ingress. Here, we find good agreement between these two methods highlighting the much greater ability of polyisobutylene materials to keep moisture out as compared with typical encapsulant materials used in the PV industry.« less

  4. Mechanisms of oxygen permeation through plastic films and barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilski, Stefan; Wipperfürth, Jens; Jaritz, Montgomery; Kirchheim, Dennis; Mitschker, Felix; Awakowicz, Peter; Dahlmann, Rainer; Hopmann, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Oxygen and water vapour permeation through plastic films in food packaging or other applications with high demands on permeation are prevented by inorganic barrier films. Most of the permeation occurs through small defects (<3 µm) in the barrier coating. The defects were visualized by etching with reactive oxygen in a capacitively coupled plasma and subsequent SEM imaging. In this work, defects in SiO x -coatings deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are investigated and the mass transport through the polymer is simulated in a 3D approach. Calculations of single defects showed that there is no linear correlation between the defect area and the resulting permeability. The influence of adjacent defects in different distances was observed and led to flow reduction functions depending on the defect spacing and defect area. A critical defect spacing where no interaction between defects occurs was found and compared to other findings. According to the superposition principle, the permeability of single defects was added up and compared to experimentally determined oxygen permeation. The results showed the same trend of decreasing permeability with decreasing defect densities.

  5. Impact of nano/micron vegetable carbon black on mechanical, barrier and anti-photooxidation properties of fish gelatin film.

    PubMed

    Ding, Junsheng; Wu, Xiaomeng; Qi, Xiaona; Guo, Heng; Liu, Anjun; Wang, Wenhang

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, two kinds of commonly used vegetable carbon black (VCB, 3000 mesh; nano) at 50 g kg -1 concentration (based on dried gelatin) were added to 48 g kg -1 of fish gelatin (GEL) solutions and their effects on mechanical, barrier and anti-photooxidation properties of GEL films were investigated. From the SEM images, it was shown that compared with 3000 mesh VCB (1-2 μm), nano VCB (100-200 nm) made the microstructure of GEL film more compact and more gelatin chains were cross-linked by nano VCB. The addition of nano VCB significantly increased gelatin film strength with the greatest tensile strength of 52.589 MPa and stiffness with the highest Young's modulus of 968.874 MPa, but led to the reduction of film elongation. Also, the VCB presence significantly improved water vapour and oxygen barrier properties of GEL film. Importantly, nano VCB increased GEL film with better UV barrier property due to its stronger UV absorption nature when compared with micron VCB. This property could help in the preservation of oil samples in the photooxidation accelerated test. With improved properties, the nano VCB-reinforced GEL film may have great potential for application in the edible packaging field, especially for the anti-photooxidation property. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Sodium alginate/carboxymethyl cellulose films containing pyrogallic acid: physical and antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingying; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-03-01

    Antibacterial films were prepared using sodium alginate (SA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a matrix, glycerin as a plasticizer and CaCl 2 as a cross-linking agent, and by incorporating the natural antibacterial agent pyrogallic acid (PA). The present study describes the microstructure and the physical, barrier, mechanical, optical and antibacterial properties of blended films prepared by incorporating different concentrations of PA into the SA/CMC matrix. The microstructure of the films was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed that PA interacts with the SA/CMC matrix through hydrogen bonding. Moreover, the incorporation of PA increased the moisture content, water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability of SA/CMC films. Films containing 40 g kg -1 of PA had the highest elongation at break result (39.60%). Compared with pure SA/CMC films, the incorporation of PA improved the barrier properties against ultraviolet light; however, it decreased the color parameter L* value and increased the a* and b* values of the films. Furthermore, films with PA, especially at higher concentrations, were more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial SA/CMC films incorporating PA appear to have good potential to enhance the safety of foods and food products. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Ethylene vinyl alcohol: a review of barrier properties for packaging shelf stable foods.

    PubMed

    Mokwena, K Khanah; Tang, Juming

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) is one of the best known flexible thermoplastic oxygen barrier materials in use today. It is especially important for refrigerated and shelf-stable foods where oxygen deteriorates the quality of packaged products and reduces their shelf life. EVOH accounts for a majority of thermoplastic barrier materials used for rigid or semi-rigid retortable food containers. However. it is of limited use in flexible packages or lid films for rigid trays used for packaging thermally processed shelf-stable low acid foods due to its moisture sensitivity. Nevertheless, current use of other oxygen barrier materials such as polyvinylidene chloride and aluminum foil creates environmental concerns. Innovations in food processing technologies provide opportunities for increased use of EVOH in food packaging. The aim of this review is to give an overview of research on the oxygen barrier properties of EVOH from the perspective of structure-barrier property relationships and the consequences of food processing conditions.

  8. The application of the barrier-type anodic oxidation method to thickness testing of aluminum films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianwen; Yao, Manwen; Xiao, Ruihua; Yang, Pengfei; Hu, Baofu; Yao, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The thickness of the active metal oxide film formed from a barrier-type anodizing process is directly proportional to its formation voltage. The thickness of the consumed portion of the metal film is also corresponding to the formation voltage. This principle can be applied to the thickness test of the metal films. If the metal film is growing on a dielectric substrate, when the metal film is exhausted in an anodizing process, because of the high electrical resistance of the formed oxide film, a sudden increase of the recorded voltage during the anodizing process would occur. Then, the thickness of the metal film can be determined from this voltage. As an example, aluminum films are tested and discussed in this work. This method is quite simple and is easy to perform with high precision.

  9. [Nursing Care Experiences of Periwound Moisture-Associated Dermatitis After Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation].

    PubMed

    Yeh, Pei-Ying; Chen, Hsiao-Ping; Wu, Jing-Yi

    2018-04-01

    Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation is the primary surgical treatment for type I diabetes mellitus with end-stage renal disease. However, this transplant surgery has a high-risk of surgical complications, including duodenal anastomotic leakage, which may lead to pancreas transplantation failure if the leakage worsens. This case report describes a patient who suffered from duodenal anastomotic leakage after SPK transplantation. The digestive enzymes eroded the wound and skin around the wound, resulting in periwound moisture-associated dermatitis. During the period of nursing care, the wound-care intervention was determined by interdisciplinary cooperation. In our case report, the periwound moisture-associated dermatitis healed completely under inter-hospital care. In clinical nursing practice, periwound moisture-associated dermatitis should be cared in combination with macerated wounds. We suggest the following: (1) control the moisture source; (2) use advanced dressings as the primary dressing with sterile gauze as a secondary dressing and silver antimicrobial dressings for infected wounds; (3) consider using negative pressure wound therapy for complicated chronic wounds; and (4) use a pH-neutral skin cleanser with non-woven gauze to clean the periwound skin and keep the skin clean and dry. Finally, we suggest isolating and protecting the skin with No Sting Barrier Film and a hydrocolloid dressing. We hope this nursing care experiences serves as a reference for the nursing care of periwound moisture-associated dermatitis resulting from duodenal anastomotic leakage during / after SPK transplantation.

  10. Photostability and moisture uptake properties of wood veneers coated with a combination of thin sol-gel films and light stabilizers

    Treesearch

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; Ryan Libert; Christian M. Schaller

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of inorganic UV blocking nanoparticles for photostabilization of wood surfaces. Photostability and moisture uptake properties of wood veneers coated with a combination of hybrid inorganic-organic thin sol-gel films and organic light stabilizers was investigated. The light stabilizers were applied by brushing...

  11. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil.

    PubMed

    Galus, Sabina; Kadzińska, Justyna

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters ( d 32 ) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness ( L* ≈90). Parameter a * decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (∆ E ) increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg's equation (R 2 ≥0.99). The tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased.

  12. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil

    PubMed Central

    Kadzińska, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    Summary The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters (d32) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness (L*≈90). Parameter a* decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (∆E) increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg’s equation (R2≥0.99). The tensile strength, Young’s modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased. PMID:27904396

  13. Low temperature synthesis of silicon nitride thin films deposited by VHF/RF PECVD for gas barrier application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun S.; Shin, Kyung S.; Sahu, B. B.; Han, Jeon G.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, silicon nitride (SiNx) thin films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates as barrier layers by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. Utilizing a combination of very high-frequency (VHF 40.68 MHz) and radio-frequency (RF 13.56 MHz) plasmas it was possible to adopt PECVD deposition at low-temperature using the precursors: Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSN) and nitrogen. To investigate relationship between film properties and plasma properties, plasma diagnostic using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was performed along with the film analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). OES measurements show that there is dominance of the excited N2 and N2+ emissions with increase in N2 dilution, which has a significant impact on the film properties. It was seen that all the deposited films contains mainly silicon nitride with a small content of carbon and no signature of oxygen. Interestingly, upon air exposure, films have shown the formation of Si-O bonds in addition to the Si-N bonds. Measurements and analysis reveals that SiNx films deposited with high content of nitrogen with HMDSN plasma can have lower gas barrier properties as low as 7 . 3 ×10-3 g/m2/day. Also at Chiang Mai University.

  14. Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Semi Refined Kappa Carrageenan-based Composite Edible Film and Its Application on Minimally Processed Chicken Breast Fillet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praseptiangga, D.; Maimuni, B. H.; Manuhara, G. J.; Muhammad, D. R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Kappa-carrageenan (KC) is one of the most interesting biopolymers that is composed of a linear chain of sulfated galactans and extracted from red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii. It shows good potential for development as a source of biodegradable or edible films. However, KC films do not have good water vapor barrier properties, as they are intrinsically hydrophilic. Palmitic acid (PA) as hydrophobic material was incorporated into semi-refined kappa-carrageenan (SRKC) edible films in order to improve water vapor barrier properties. In this study, composite films based on SRKC incorporating PA were prepared and their applications on minimally processed chicken breast fillet were evaluated. Composite SRKC-based films with varying concentrations of PA (5%, 10%, and 15% w/w) were obtained by a solvent casting method. Their mechanical and barrier properties were investigated. Results showed that the incorporation of PA in films caused an increase in thickness, but decrease in water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) as the concentration of PA increased (from 5% to 15% w/w). Composite SRKC-based edible film incorporating 15% w/w of PA presented better water vapor barrier properties as compared to other films with 5% and 10% w/w PA incorporation. Thus, formulation containing 15% w/w PA was used as a wrapping material for film application on minimally processed chicken breast fillet. The application results showed that the incorporation of PA in film caused an effect (p < 0.05) on preventing of weight loss significantly compare to control (non-wrapping), however it did not significantly (p >0.05) change the color of minimally processed chicken breast fillet.

  15. Post-annealing-free, room temperature processed nanocrystalline indium tin oxide thin films for plastic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyoung Jang, Jin; Jong Lee, You; Jang, YunSung; Yun, JangWon; Yi, Seungjun; Hong, MunPyo

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we confirm that bombardment by high energy negative oxygen ions (NOIs) is the key origin of electro-optical property degradations in indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films formed by conventional plasma sputtering processes. To minimize the bombardment effect of NOIs, which are generated on the surface of the ITO targets and accelerated by the cathode sheath potential on the magnetron sputter gun (MSG), we introduce a magnetic field shielded sputtering (MFSS) system composed of a permanent magnetic array between the MSG and the substrate holder to block the arrival of energetic NOIs. The MFSS processed ITO thin films reveal a novel nanocrystal imbedded polymorphous structure, and present not only superior electro-optical characteristics but also higher gas diffusion barrier properties. To the best of our knowledge, no gas diffusion barrier composed of a single inorganic thin film formed by conventional plasma sputtering processes achieves such a low moisture permeability.

  16. Integration of amorphous tantalum silicon nitride (TaSiN) films as diffusion barriers in a Cu/SiLK(TM) metallization scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padiyar, Sumant Devdas

    2003-09-01

    Current and future performance requirements for high- speed integrated circuit (IC) devices have placed great emphasis on the introduction of novel materials, deposition techniques and improved metrology techniques. The introduction of copper interconnects and more currently low-k dielectric materials in IC fabrication are two such examples. This introduction necessitates research on the compatibility of these materials and process techniques with adjacent diffusion barrier materials. One candidate, which has attracted significant attention is tantalum-silicon-nitride (TaSiN) on account of its superior diffusion barrier performance and high recrystallization temperature1. The subject of this dissertation is an investigation of the integration compatibility and performance of TaSiN barrier layers with a low-k dielectric polymer (SiLK ®2). A plasma- enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) approach is taken for growth of TaSiN films in this work due to potential advantages in conformal film coverage compared to more conventional physical vapor deposition methods. A Design of Experiment (DOE) methodology was introduced for PECVD of TaSiN on SiLK to optimize film properties such as film composition, resistivity, growth rate and film roughness with respect to the predictors viz. substrate temperature, precursor gas flow and plasma power. The first pass study determined the response window for optimized TaSiN film composition, growth rate and low halide contamination and the compatibility of the process with an organic polymer substrate, i.e. SiLK. Second-pass studies were carried out to deposit ultra- thin (10nm) films on: (a)blanket SiLK to investigate the performance of TaSiN films against copper diffusion, and (b)patterned SiLK to evaluate step coverage and conformality. All TaSiN depositions were carried out on SiO2 substrates for baseline comparisons. A second purpose of the diffusion barrier in IC processing is to improve interfacial adhesion between the

  17. Temperature Mapping of Air Film-Cooled Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces Using Phosphor Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness for jet engine components are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. Phosphor thermometry offers several advantages for mapping temperatures of air film cooled surfaces. While infrared thermography has been typically applied to study air film cooling effectiveness, temperature accuracy depends on knowing surface emissivity (which may change) and correcting for effects of reflected radiation. Because decay time-based full-field phosphor thermometry is relatively immune to these effects, it can be applied advantageously to temperature mapping of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces. In this presentation, an overview will be given of efforts at NASA Glenn Research Center to perform temperature mapping of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces in a burner rig test environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and the strengths and limitations of this method for studying air film cooling effectiveness are discussed.

  18. Water barrier properties of starch films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals obtained from sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Slavutsky, Aníbal M; Bertuzzi, María A

    2014-09-22

    Water transport in edible films based on hydrophilic materials such as starch, is a complex phenomenon due to the strong interaction of sorbed water molecules with the polymeric structure. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were obtained from sugarcane bagasse. Starch and starch/CNC films were formulated and their water barrier properties were studied. The measured film solubility, contact angle, and water sorption isotherm indicated that reinforced starch/CNC films have a lower affinity to water molecules than starch films. The effects that the driving force and the water activity (aw) values at each side of the film have on permeability were analyzed. Permeability, diffusivity, and solubility coefficients indicated that the permeation process depends mostly on the tortuous pathway formed by the incorporation of CNC and therefore were mainly controlled by water diffusion. The interaction between CNC and starch chain is favoured by the chemical similarities of both molecules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of novel zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticle (ZP)-stabilized emulsion films for improved water barrier properties via emulsion/solvent evaporation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Juan; Yin, Ye-Chong; Yin, Shou-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Shi, Wei-Jian; Tang, Chuan-He; Wang, Jin-Mei

    2013-11-20

    This work attempted to develop novel high barrier zein/SC nanoparticle (ZP)-stabilized emulsion films through microfluidic emulsification (ZPE films) or in combination with solvent (ethyl acetate) evaporation techniques (ZPE-EA films). Some physical properties, including tensile and optical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and surface hydrophobicity, as well as the microstructure of ZP-stabilized emulsion films were evaluated and compared with SC emulsion (SCE) films. The emulsion/solvent evaporation approach reduced lipid droplets of ZP-stabilized emulsions, and lipid droplets of ZP-stabilized emulsions were similar to or slightly lower than that of SC emulsions. However, ZP- and SC-stabilized emulsion films exhibited a completely different microstructure, nanoscalar lipid droplets were homogeneously distributed in the ZPE film matrix and interpenetrating protein-oil complex networks occurred within ZPE-EA films, whereas SCE films presented a heterogeneous microstructure. The different stabilization mechanisms against creaming or coalescence during film formation accounted for the preceding discrepancy of the microstructures between ZP-and SC-stabilized emulsion films. Interestingly, ZP-stabilized emulsion films exhibited a better water barrier efficiency, and the WVP values were only 40-50% of SCE films. A schematic representation for the formation of ZP-stabilized emulsion films was proposed to relate the physical performance of the films with their microstructure and to elucidate the possible forming mechanism of the films.

  20. Protection of active aroma compound against moisture and oxygen by encapsulation in biopolymeric emulsion-based edible films.

    PubMed

    Hambleton, Alicia; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Beney, Laurent; Karbowiak, Thomas; Voilley, Andrée

    2008-03-01

    Edible films made of iota-carrageenans display interesting advantages: good mechanical properties, stabilization of emulsions, and reduction of oxygen transfers. Moreover, the addition of lipids to iota-carrageenan-based films to form emulsified films decreases the transfer of water vapor and can be considered to encapsulate active molecules as flavors. The aim of this study was to better understand the influence of the composition and the structure of the carrageenan-based film matrices on its barrier properties and thus on its capacity to encapsulate and to protect active substances encapsulated. Granulometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterizations of films with or without flavor and/or fat showed that the flavor compound modifies the film structure because of interactions with the iota-carrageenan chains. The study of the water vapor permeability (WVP), realized at 25 and 35 degrees C and for three relative humidity differentials (30-100%, 30-84%, 30-75%), showed that the flavor compound increases significantly the WVP, especially for the weaker gradients, but has no effect on the oxygen permeability. This study brings new understanding of the role of carrageenan as a film matrix and on its capacity to protect encapsulated flavors.

  1. Determination of the saturated film conductivity to improve the EMFX model in describing the soil hydraulic properties over the entire moisture range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunquan; Ma, Jinzhu; Guan, Huade; Zhu, Gaofeng

    2017-06-01

    Difficulty in measuring hydraulic conductivity, particularly under dry conditions, calls for methods of predicting the conductivity from easily obtained soil properties. As a complement to the recently published EMFX model, a method based on two specific suction conditions is proposed to estimate saturated film conductivity from the soil water retention curve. This method reduces one fitting parameter in the previous EMFX model, making it possible to predict the hydraulic conductivity from the soil water retention curve over the complete moisture range. Model performance is evaluated with published data of soils in a broad texture range from sand to clay. The testing results indicate that 1) the modified EMFX model (namely the EMFX-K model), incorporating both capillary and adsorption forces, provides good agreement with the conductivity data over the entire moisture range; 2) a value of 0.5 for the tortuosity factor in the EMFX-K model as that in the Mualem's model gives comparable estimation of the relative conductivity associated with the capillary force; and 3) a value of -1.0 × 10-20 J for the Hamaker constant, rather than the commonly used value of -6.0 × 10-20 J, appears to be more appropriate to represent solely the effect of the van der Waals forces and to predict the film conductivity. In comparison with the commonly used van Genuchten-Mualem model, the EMFX-K model significantly improves the prediction of hydraulic conductivity under dry conditions. The sensitivity analysis result suggests that the uncertainty in the film thickness estimation is important in explaining the model underestimation of hydraulic conductivity for the soils with fine texture, in addition to the uncertainties from the measurements and the model structure. High quality data that cover the complete moisture range for a variety of soil textures are required to further test the method.

  2. Flexible Electronic Substrate Film Fabricated Using Natural Clay and Wood Components with Cross-Linking Polymer.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kiyonori; Ishii, Ryo; Nakamura, Takashi; Suzuki, Asami; Ebina, Takeo; Yoshida, Manabu; Kubota, Munehiro; Nge, Thi Thi; Yamada, Tatsuhiko

    2017-05-01

    Requirements for flexible electronic substrate are successfully accomplished by green nanocomposite film fabricated with two natural components: glycol-modified biomass lignin and Li + montmorillonite clay. In addition to these major components, a cross-linking polymer between the lignin is incorporated into montmorillonite. Multilayer-assembled structure is formed due to stacking nature of high aspect montmorillonite, resulting in thermal durability up to 573 K, low thermal expansion, and oxygen barrier property below measurable limit. Preannealing for montmorillonite and the cross-linking formation enhance moisture barrier property superior to that of industrial engineering plastics, polyimide. As a result, the film has advantages for electronic film substrate. Furthermore, these properties can be achieved at the drying temperature up to 503 K, while the polyimide films are difficult to fabricate by this temperature. In order to examine its applicability for substrate film, flexible electrodes are finely printed on it and touch sensor device can be constructed with rigid elements on the electrode. In consequence, this nanocomposite film is expected to contribute to production of functional materials, progresses in expansion of biomass usage with low energy consumption, and construction of environmental friendly flexible electronic devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Formulation and evaluation of herbal anti-acne moisturizer.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Arun; Shama, Shaik Neelufar; Joy, Jyothi Mulanjananiyil; Reddy, Bobbu Sravya; Roja, Chirra

    2012-10-01

    The moisture content present in human skin makes it look young and the use of moisturizer results in fastening the moisture with a surface film of oil. Acne vulgaris is one of the most commonly seen diseases among the youth. The present study is focused on the use of herbs as moisturizer for acne treatment. The anti-acne moisturizer was formulated from herbal crude extracts and investigated the physico-chemical parameters as well as antibacterial activity of the formulation. The study revealed that ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ocimum sanctum, Azadiracta indica and Green tea possessed the potential for inhibiting acne. It was observed that the optimal formula of anti-acne moisturizer was satisfactorily effective to control acne inducing bacteria i.e., Staphylococcus epidermis and Propionibacterium. The physico-chemical parameters of the formulation were also optimal with no signs of irritation.

  4. Graphene-Based Environmental Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fei; Silverberg, Gregory; Bowers, Shin; Kim, Sang-Pil; Datta, Dibakar; Shenoy, Vivek; Hurt, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many environmental technologies rely on containment by engineered barriers that inhibit the release or transport of toxicants. Graphene is a new, atomically thin, two-dimensional sheet material, whose aspect ratio, chemical resistance, flexibility, and impermeability make it a promising candidate for inclusion in a next generation of engineered barriers. Here we show that ultrathin graphene oxide (GO) films can serve as effective barriers for both liquid and vapor permeants. First, GO deposition on porous substrates is shown to block convective flow at much lower mass loadings than other carbon nanomaterials, and can achieve hydraulic conductivities of 5×10−12 cm/s or lower. Second we show that ultrathin GO films of only 20 nm thickness coated on polyethylene films reduce their vapor permeability by 90% using elemental mercury as a model vapor toxicant. The barrier performance of GO in this thin-film configuration is much better than the Nielsen model limit, which describes ideal behavior of flake-like fillers uniformly imbedded in a polymer. The Hg barrier performance of GO films is found to be sensitive to residual water in the films, which is consistent with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that show lateral diffusion of Hg atoms in graphene interlayer spaces that have been expanded by hydration. PMID:22717015

  5. High barrier multilayer packaging by the coextrusion method: The effect of nanocomposites and biodegradable polymers on flexible film properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thellen, Christopher T.

    The objective of this research was to investigate the use of nanocomposite and multilayer co-extrusion technologies for the development of high gas barrier packaging that is more environmentally friendly than many current packaging system. Co-extruded bio-based and biodegradable polymers that could be composted in a municipal landfill were one direction that this research was aimed. Down-gauging of high performance barrier films using nanocomposite technology and co-extrusion was also investigated in order to reduce the amount of solid waste being generated by the packaging. Although the research is focused on military ration packaging, the technologies could easily be introduced into the commercial flexible packaging market. Multilayer packaging consisting of poly(m-xylylene adipamide) nanocomposite layers along with adhesive and tie layers was co-extruded using both laboratory and pilot-scale film extrusion equipment. Co-extrusion of biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) along with polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and tie layers was also accomplished using similar co-extrusion technology. All multilayer films were characterized for gas barrier, mechanical, and thermal properties. The biodegradability of the PVOH and PHA materials in a marine environment was also investigated. The research has shown that co-extrusion of these materials is possible at a research and pilot level. The use of nanocomposite poly(m-xylylene adipamide) was effective in down-gauging the un-filled barrier film to thinner structures. Bio-based PHA/PVOH films required the use of a malefic anhydride grafted PHA tie layer to improve layer to layer adhesion in the structure to avoid delamination. The PHA polymer demonstrated a high rate of biodegradability/mineralization in the marine environment while the rate of biodegradation of the PVOH polymer was slower.

  6. Characterization of rice starch-ι-carrageenan biodegradable edible film. Effect of stearic acid on the film properties.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Rahul; Saberi, Bahareh; Pristijono, Penta; Golding, John; Stathopoulos, Costas; Scarlett, Christopher; Bowyer, Michael; Vuong, Quan

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop rice starch (RS), ι-carrageenan (ι-car) based film. Different formulations of RS (1-4%, w/w), ι-car (0.5-2%, w/w) was blended with stearic acid (SA; 0.3-0.9%, w/w) and glycerol (1%, w/w) as a plasticizer. The effect of film ingredients on the thickness, water vapour permeability (WVP), film solubility (FS), moisture content (MC), colour, film opacity (FO), tensile strength (TS), elongation-at-break (EAB) of film was examined. Interactions and miscibility of partaking components was studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hydrocolloid suspension solution of mix polysaccharides imparted a significant impact (p<0.05) on the important attributes of resulting edible film. TS and EAB of film were improved significantly (p<0.05) when ι-car was increased in the film matrix. Formulation F1 comprising 2% ι-car, 2% RS, 0.3% SA, Gly 30% w/w and 0.2% surfactant (tween ® 20) provided film with good physical, mechanical and barrier properties. FT-IR and XRD results reveal that molecular interactions between RS-ι-car have a great impact on the film properties confining the compatibility and miscibility of mixed polysaccharide. Results of the study offers new biodegradable formulation for application on fruit and vegetables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Using carboxylated cellulose nanofibers to enhance mechanical and barrier properties of collagen fiber film by electrostatic interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhang; Zhang, Xiuling; Li, Cong; Du, Guanhua; Zhang, Hongjie; Ni, Yonghao

    2018-06-01

    Collagen-based films including casings with a promising application in meat industry are still needed to improve its inferior performance. In the present study, the reinforcement of carboxylated cellulose nanofibers (CNF) for collagen film, based on inter-/intra- molecular electrostatic interaction between cationic acid-swollen collagen fiber and anionic carboxylated CNF, was investigated. Adding CNF decreased the zeta-potential but increased particle size of collagen fiber suspension, with little effect on pH. Furthermore, CNF addition led to a higher tensile strength but a lower elongation, and the water vapor and oxygen barrier properties were improved remarkably. Because the CNF content was 50 g kg -1 or lower, the films had a homogeneous interwoven network, and CNF homogeneously embedded into collagen fiber matrix according to the scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis. Additionally, CNF addition increased film thickness and opacity, as well as swelling rate. The incorporation of CNF endows collagen fiber films good mechanical and barrier properties over a proper concentration range (≤ 50 g kg -1 collagen fiber), which is closely associated with electrostatic reaction of collagen fiber and CNF and, subsequently, the form of the homogenous, compatible spatial network, indicating a potential applications of CNF in collagenous protein films, such as edible casings. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Production and physicochemical properties of carboxymethyl cellulose films enriched with spent coffee grounds polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Lina F; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Teixeira, José A; Mussatto, Solange I

    2018-01-01

    Extracts rich in polysaccharides were obtained by alkali pretreatment (PA) or autohydrolysis (PB) of spent coffee grounds, and incorporated into a carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based film aiming at the development of bio-based films with new functionalities. Different concentrations of PA or PB (up to 0.20% w/v) were added to the CMC-based film and the physicochemical properties of the final films were determined. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, as well as determinations of optical and mechanical properties, moisture content, solubility in water, water vapor permeability, contact angle and sorption isotherms were performed. The addition of PA or PB resulted in important changes in the properties of the CMC-based film, mainly in color and opacity. The polysaccharides incorporation significantly improved the light barrier of the film and provided an enhancement or at least a preservation in the physicochemical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Controlling effective aspect ratio and packing of clay with pH for improved gas barrier in nanobrick wall thin films.

    PubMed

    Hagen, David A; Saucier, Lauren; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2014-12-24

    Polymer-clay thin films constructed via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, with a nanobrick wall structure (i.e., clay nanoplatelets as bricks surrounded by a polyelectrolyte mortar), are known to exhibit a high oxygen barrier. Further barrier improvement can be achieved by lowering the pH of the clay suspension in the polyethylenimine (PEI) and montmorillonite (MMT) system. In this case, the charge of the deposited PEI layer is increased in the clay suspension environment, which causes more clay to be deposited. At pH 4, MMT platelets deposit with near perfect ordering, observed with transmission electron microscopy, enabling a 5× improvement in the gas barrier for a 10 PEI/MMT bilayer thin film (85 nm) relative to the same film made with pH 10 MMT. This improved gas barrier approaches that achieved with much higher aspect ratio vermiculite clay. In essence, lower pH is generating a higher effective aspect ratio for MMT due to greater induced surface charge in the PEI layers, which causes heavier clay deposition. These flexible, transparent nanocoatings have a wide range of possible applications, from food and electronics packaging to pressurized bladders.

  10. Patterning of organic photovoltaic on R2R processed thin film barriers using IR laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fledderus, H.; Akkerman, H. B.; Salem, A.; Friedrich Schilling, N.; Klotzbach, U.

    2017-02-01

    We present the development of laser processes for flexible OPV on roll-to-roll (RR2R) produced thin film barrier with indium tin oxide (ITO) as transparent conductive (TC) bottom electrode. Direct laser structuring of ITO on such barrier films (so-called P1 process) is very challenging since the layers are all transparent, a complete electrical isolation is required, and the laser process should not influence the barrier performance underneath the scribes. Based on the optical properties off the SiN and ITTO, ultra-short pulse lasers inn picosecond and femtosecond regime with standard infrared (IR) wavelength as well as lasers with new a wavelength (22 μm regime) are tested for this purpose. To determine a process window for a specific laser a fixed methodology is adopted. Single pulse ablation tests were followed by scribing experiments where the pulse overlap was tuned by varying laser pulse fluence, writing speed and frequency. To verify that the laser scribing does not result inn barrier damage underneath, a new test method was developed based on the optical Ca-test. This method shows a clear improvement in damage analysis underneath laser scribes over normal optical inspection methods (e.g. microscope, optical profiler, SEM). This way clear process windows can be obtained for IR TC patterning.

  11. Tailoring barrier properties of thermoplastic corn starch-based films (TPCS) by means of a multilayer design.

    PubMed

    Fabra, María José; López-Rubio, Amparo; Cabedo, Luis; Lagaron, Jose M

    2016-12-01

    This work compares the effect of adding different biopolyester electrospun coatings made of polycaprolactone (PCL), polylactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) on oxygen and water vapour barrier properties of a thermoplastic corn starch (TPCS) film. The morphology of the developed multilayer structures was also examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results showed a positive linear relationship between the amount of the electrospun coatings deposited onto both sides of the TPCS film and the thickness of the coating. Interestingly, the addition of electrospun biopolyester coatings led to an exponential oxygen and water vapour permeability drop as the amount of the electrospun coating increased. This study demonstrated the versatility of the technology here proposed to tailor the barrier properties of food packaging materials according to the final intended use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Post-processing optimization of electrospun submicron poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) fibers to obtain continuous films of interest in food packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Cherpinski, Adriane; Torres-Giner, Sergio; Cabedo, Luis; Lagaron, Jose M

    2017-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are one of the most researched family of biodegradable polymers based on renewable materials due to their thermoplastic nature and moisture resistance. The present study was targeted to investigate the preparation and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) films obtained through the electrospinning technique. To convert them into continuous films and then to increase their application interest in packaging, the electrospun fiber mats were subsequently post-processed by different physical treatments. Thus, the effect of annealing time and cooling method on morphology, molecular order, thermal, optical, mechanical, and barrier properties of the electrospun submicron PHB fibers was studied. Annealing at 160°C, well below the homopolyester melting point, was found to be the minimum temperature at which homogeneous transparent films were produced. The film samples that were cooled slowly after annealing showed the lowest permeability to oxygen, water vapor, and limonene. The optimally post-processed electrospun PHB fibers exhibited similar rigidity to conventional compression-molded PHA films, but with enhanced elongation at break and toughness. Films made by this electrospinning technique have many potential applications, such as in the design of barrier layers, adhesive interlayers, and coatings for fiber- and plastic-based food packaging materials.

  13. Improvement of Self-Heating of Indium Gallium Zinc Aluminum Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Using Al2O3 Barrier Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Li-Yi; Lee, Hsin-Ying; Lin, Yung-Hao; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2018-02-01

    To study the self-heating effect, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) barrier layers of various thicknesses have been inserted between the channel layer and insulator layer in bottom-gate-type indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). Each IGZAO channel layer was deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate by using a magnetron radiofrequency cosputtering system with dual targets composed of indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) and Al. The 3 s orbital of Al cation provided an extra transport pathway and widened the conduction-band bottom, thus increasing the electron mobility of the IGZAO films. The Al-O bonds were able to sustain the oxygen stability of the IGZAO films. The self-heating behavior of the resulting IGZAO TFTs was studied by Hall measurements on the IGZAO films as well as the electrical performance of the IGZAO TFTs with Al2O3 barrier layers of various thicknesses at different temperatures. IGZAO TFTs with 50-nm-thick Al2O3 barrier layer were stressed by positive gate bias stress (PGBS, at gate-source voltage V GS = 5 V and drain-source voltage V DS = 0 V); at V GS = 5 V and V DS = 10 V, the threshold voltage shifts were 0.04 V and 0.2 V, respectively, much smaller than for the other IGZAO TFTs without Al2O3 barrier layer, which shifted by 0.2 V and 1.0 V when stressed under the same conditions.

  14. Gentle cleansing and moisturizing for patients with atopic dermatitis and sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Wai Kwong

    2009-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common condition characterized by pruritus, inflammation, and dryness of the skin. Inflammation disrupts the barrier function of the stratum corneum, predisposing the skin to be dry, and increases susceptibility to irritants and secondary bacterial infection. Sensitive skin is common, reported by 40-50% of women and 30% of men in the US, Europe, and Japan. Basic requirements in managing eczema and sensitive skin include effective cleansers that do not compromise skin barrier integrity, alleviation of skin dryness, and restoration of skin barrier function through the use of therapeutic moisturizers. The selection of a skin cleanser is therefore an important part of managing these conditions. Studies have reported clinical improvement with the use of soap-free cleansers in combination with topical treatments. While topical corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents are mainstays of treatment for atopic dermatitis, therapeutic moisturizers are important adjuncts. Moisturizers improve skin hydration, reduce susceptibility to irritation, restore the integrity of the stratum corneum, and enhance the efficacy of topical corticosteroids.

  15. Measuring the continuity of diffusion barriers on porous films using γ-ray energy spectra of escaping positronium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Mills, Allen P.; Case, Carlye

    2005-08-01

    Diffusion barriers for capping porous low dielectric constant films are important for preventing metal migration into a semiconductor circuit. Using the fact that positrons implanted into a porous dielectric form ortho-positronium (o-Ps) copiously, Gidley et al. [D. W. Gidley, W. F. Frieze, T. L. Dull, J. Sun, A. F. Yee, C. V. Nguyen, and D. Y. Yoon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1282 (2000)], have been able to measure open area fractions as low as 10-5 in porous dielectric film barrier layers from the increase in the ortho-positronium lifetime and intensity associated with positronium escape into vacuum. We demonstrate that it is possible to obtain comparable sensitivities by measuring the gamma-ray energy spectrum of the escaping positronium.

  16. Measuring the continuity of diffusion barriers on porous films using {gamma}-ray energy spectra of escaping positronium

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Xu Jun; Mills, Allen P. Jr.; Case, Carlye

    2005-08-01

    Diffusion barriers for capping porous low dielectric constant films are important for preventing metal migration into a semiconductor circuit. Using the fact that positrons implanted into a porous dielectric form ortho-positronium (o-Ps) copiously, Gidley et al. [D. W. Gidley, W. F. Frieze, T. L. Dull, J. Sun, A. F. Yee, C. V. Nguyen, and D. Y. Yoon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1282 (2000)], have been able to measure open area fractions as low as 10{sup -5} in porous dielectric film barrier layers from the increase in the ortho-positronium lifetime and intensity associated with positronium escape into vacuum. We demonstrate thatmore » it is possible to obtain comparable sensitivities by measuring the gamma-ray energy spectrum of the escaping positronium.« less

  17. Moisture ingress prediction in polyisobutylene-based edge seal with molecular sieve desiccant

    DOE PAGES

    Kempe, Michael D.; Nobles, Dylan L.; Postak, Lori; ...

    2017-10-26

    Often photovoltaic modules are constructed with materials that are sensitive to water. This is most often the case with thin film technologies, including perovskite cells, where the active layers are a few microns thick and can be sensitive to moisture, liquid water or both. When moisture or liquid water can ingress, a small amount of water can lead to corrosion and depending on the resulting reactions, a larger local detrimental effect is possible. To prevent moisture from contacting photovoltaic components, impermeable frontsheets and backsheets are used with a polyisobutylene (PIB)-based edge seal material around the perimeter. Here, we evaluate themore » ability of a PIB-based edge seal using a molecular sieve desiccant to keep moisture out for the expected module lifetime. Moisture ingress is evaluated using test coupons where the edge seal is placed between 2 pieces of glass, one of which has a metallic calcium film on it, and monitoring the moisture ingress distance as a function of time. We expose samples to different temperature and humidity conditions to create permeation models useful for extrapolation to field use. This extrapolation indicates that this PIB material is capable of keeping moisture out of a module for the desired lifetime.« less

  18. Moisture ingress prediction in polyisobutylene-based edge seal with molecular sieve desiccant

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kempe, Michael D.; Nobles, Dylan L.; Postak, Lori

    Often photovoltaic modules are constructed with materials that are sensitive to water. This is most often the case with thin film technologies, including perovskite cells, where the active layers are a few microns thick and can be sensitive to moisture, liquid water or both. When moisture or liquid water can ingress, a small amount of water can lead to corrosion and depending on the resulting reactions, a larger local detrimental effect is possible. To prevent moisture from contacting photovoltaic components, impermeable frontsheets and backsheets are used with a polyisobutylene (PIB)-based edge seal material around the perimeter. Here, we evaluate themore » ability of a PIB-based edge seal using a molecular sieve desiccant to keep moisture out for the expected module lifetime. Moisture ingress is evaluated using test coupons where the edge seal is placed between 2 pieces of glass, one of which has a metallic calcium film on it, and monitoring the moisture ingress distance as a function of time. We expose samples to different temperature and humidity conditions to create permeation models useful for extrapolation to field use. This extrapolation indicates that this PIB material is capable of keeping moisture out of a module for the desired lifetime.« less

  19. Biodegradable multilayer barrier films based on alginate/polyethyleneimine and biaxially oriented poly(lactic acid).

    PubMed

    Gu, Chun-Hong; Wang, Jia-Jun; Yu, Yang; Sun, Hui; Shuai, Ning; Wei, Bing

    2013-02-15

    A layer-by-layer (LBL) approach was used to assemble alternating layers of sodium alginate (ALG)/polyethyleneimine (PEI) on biaxially oriented poly(lactic acid) (BOPLA) films in order to produce bio-based all-polymer thin films with low gas permeability. Increasing the depositing of ALG and PEI from 0 to 30 layers results in large thickness variations (from 0 to 3.92 μm). After 30 ALG/PEI layers are deposited, the resulting assembly has an OTR of 1.22 cm(3)/(m(2) day atm). When multiplied by thickness, the resulting oxygen permeability (OP) is found to be less than 3.8×10(-17) cm(3) cm/cm(2) s Pa, which is almost 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of uncoated BOPLA film (1.8×10(-14) cm(3)cm/cm(2) s Pa). At the same time, the resulting multilayer-coated BOPLA films maintain high optical clarity and tensile properties. This unique barrier thin film has become a promising alternative to non-biodegradable synthetic food packaging materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Universal Pinning Energy Barrier for Driven Domain Walls in Thin Ferromagnetic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeudy, V.; Mougin, A.; Bustingorry, S.; Savero Torres, W.; Gorchon, J.; Kolton, A. B.; Lemaître, A.; Jamet, J.-P.

    2016-07-01

    We report a comparative study of magnetic field driven domain wall motion in thin films made of different magnetic materials for a wide range of field and temperature. The full thermally activated creep motion, observed below the depinning threshold, is shown to be described by a unique universal energy barrier function. Our findings should be relevant for other systems whose dynamics can be modeled by elastic interfaces moving on disordered energy landscapes.

  1. Effect of SiN x diffusion barrier thickness on the structural properties and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films obtained by sol-gel dip coating and reactive magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Ghazzal, Mohamed Nawfal; Aubry, Eric; Chaoui, Nouari; Robert, Didier

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of the thickness of the silicon nitride (SiN x ) diffusion barrier on the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films obtained with different processes. We show that the structural and photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films produced using soft chemistry (sol-gel) and physical methods (reactive sputtering) are affected differentially by the intercalating SiN x diffusion barrier. Increasing the thickness of the SiN x diffusion barrier induced a gradual decrease of the crystallite size of TiO2 films obtained by the sol-gel process. However, TiO2 obtained using the reactive sputtering method showed no dependence on the thickness of the SiN x barrier diffusion. The SiN x barrier diffusion showed a beneficial effect on the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 films regardless of the synthesis method used. The proposed mechanism leading to the improvement in the photocatalytic efficiency of the TiO2 films obtained by each process was discussed.

  2. Influence of the simultaneous addition of bentonite and cellulose fibers on the mechanical and barrier properties of starch composite-films.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, J Oliveira; Müller, C M O; Laurindo, J B

    2012-02-01

    The addition of nanoclay or cellulose fibers has been presented in the literature as a suitable alternative for reinforcing starch films. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the simultaneous incorporation of nanoclay (bentonite) and cellulose fibers on the mechanical and water barrier properties of the resultant composite-films. Films were prepared by casting with 3% in weight of cassava starch, using glycerol as plasticizer (0.30 g per g of starch), cellulose fibers at a concentration of 0.30 g of fibers per g of starch and nanoclay (0.05 g clay per g starch and 0.10 g clay per g starch). The addition of cellulose fibers and nanoclay increased the tensile strength of the films 8.5 times and the Young modulus 24 times but reduced the elongation capacity 14 times. The water barrier properties of the composite-films to which bentonite and cellulose fibers were added were approximately 60% inferior to those of starch films. Diffractograms showed that the nanoclay was intercalated in the polymeric matrix. These results indicate that the simultaneous addition of bentonite and cellulose fibers is a suitable alternative to increase the tensile strength of the films and decrease their water vapor permeabilities.

  3. Water Sorption Isotherm of Pea Starch Edible Films and Prediction Models.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Bahareh; Vuong, Quan V; Chockchaisawasdee, Suwimol; Golding, John B; Scarlett, Christopher J; Stathopoulos, Costas E

    2015-12-24

    The moisture sorption isotherm of pea starch films prepared with various glycerol contents as plasticizer was investigated at different storage relative humidities (11%-96% RH) and at 5 ± 1, 15 ± 1, 25 ± 1 and 40 ± 1 °C by using gravimetric method. The results showed that the equilibrium moisture content of all films increased substantially above a w = 0.6. Films plasticized with glycerol, under all temperatures and RH conditions (11%-96%), adsorbed more moisture resulting in higher equilibrium moisture contents. Reduction of the temperature enhanced the equilibrium moisture content and monolayer water of the films. The obtained experimental data were fitted to different models including two-parameter equations (Oswin, Henderson, Brunauer-Emmitt-Teller (BET), Flory-Huggins, and Iglesias-Chirife), three-parameter equations Guggenhiem-Anderson-deBoer (GAB), Ferro-Fontan, and Lewicki) and a four-parameter equation (Peleg). The three-parameter Lewicki model was found to be the best-fitted model for representing the experimental data within the studied temperatures and whole range of relative humidities (11%-98%). Addition of glycerol increased the net isosteric heat of moisture sorption of pea starch film. The results provide important information with estimating of stability and functional characteristics of the films in various environments.

  4. Water Sorption Isotherm of Pea Starch Edible Films and Prediction Models

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Bahareh; Vuong, Quan V.; Chockchaisawasdee, Suwimol; Golding, John B.; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Stathopoulos, Costas E.

    2015-01-01

    The moisture sorption isotherm of pea starch films prepared with various glycerol contents as plasticizer was investigated at different storage relative humidities (11%–96% RH) and at 5 ± 1, 15 ± 1, 25 ± 1 and 40 ± 1 °C by using gravimetric method. The results showed that the equilibrium moisture content of all films increased substantially above aw = 0.6. Films plasticized with glycerol, under all temperatures and RH conditions (11%–96%), adsorbed more moisture resulting in higher equilibrium moisture contents. Reduction of the temperature enhanced the equilibrium moisture content and monolayer water of the films. The obtained experimental data were fitted to different models including two-parameter equations (Oswin, Henderson, Brunauer–Emmitt–Teller (BET), Flory–Huggins, and Iglesias–Chirife), three-parameter equations Guggenhiem–Anderson–deBoer (GAB), Ferro–Fontan, and Lewicki) and a four-parameter equation (Peleg). The three-parameter Lewicki model was found to be the best-fitted model for representing the experimental data within the studied temperatures and whole range of relative humidities (11%–98%). Addition of glycerol increased the net isosteric heat of moisture sorption of pea starch film. The results provide important information with estimating of stability and functional characteristics of the films in various environments. PMID:28231096

  5. The Role of Moisturizers in Addressing Various Kinds of Dermatitis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Indrastuti, Niken; Danarti, Retno; Saefudin, Tatan

    2017-01-01

    Moisturizer is a major component of basic daily skin care, particularly in presence of epidermal barrier alteration and reduced epidermal water content. It is an important part of a dermatologist’s strategy to maintain skin health as well as treating various dermatoses which co-exist with skin dryness and are linked to impaired skin barrier function, such as in atopic disorders as well as other types of dermatitis. Mastering the knowledge regarding mechanism of action, application, dosage, adverse effects as well as specific clinical usage of moisturizers is a must for a dermatologist in order to support their use, particularly for evidence-based, therapeutic purposes. This review discusses the use of moisturizer both for skin health maintenance as well as a definitive or adjuvant therapy for many kinds of dermatitis. PMID:29229630

  6. Facile synthesis of high strength hot-water wood extract films with oxygen-barrier performance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ge-Gu; Fu, Gen-Que; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Gong, Xiao-Dong; Niu, Ya-Shuai; Peng, Feng; Yao, Chun-Li; Sun, Run-Cang

    2017-01-01

    Biobased nanocomposite films for food packaging with high mechanical strength and good oxygen-barrier performance were developed using a hot-water wood extract (HWE). In this work, a facile approach to produce HWE/montmorillonite (MMT) based nanocomposite films with excellent physical properties is described. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of the MMT content on the structure and mechanical properties of nanocomposites and the effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the physical properties of the HWE-MMT films. The experimental results suggested that the intercalation of HWE and CMC in montmorillonite could produce compact, robust films with a nacre-like structure and multifunctional characteristics. This results of this study showed that the mechanical properties of the film designated FCMC0.05 (91.5 MPa) were dramatically enhanced because the proportion of HWE, MMT and CMC was 1:1.5:0.05. In addition, the optimized films exhibited an oxygen permeability below 2.0 cm3 μm/day·m2·kPa, as well as good thermal stability due to the small amount of CMC. These results provide a comprehensive understanding for further development of high-performance nanocomposites which are based on natural polymers (HWE) and assembled layered clays (MMT). These films offer great potential in the field of sustainable packaging. PMID:28112259

  7. Facile synthesis of high strength hot-water wood extract films with oxygen-barrier performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ge-Gu; Fu, Gen-Que; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Gong, Xiao-Dong; Niu, Ya-Shuai; Peng, Feng; Yao, Chun-Li; Sun, Run-Cang

    2017-01-01

    Biobased nanocomposite films for food packaging with high mechanical strength and good oxygen-barrier performance were developed using a hot-water wood extract (HWE). In this work, a facile approach to produce HWE/montmorillonite (MMT) based nanocomposite films with excellent physical properties is described. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of the MMT content on the structure and mechanical properties of nanocomposites and the effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the physical properties of the HWE-MMT films. The experimental results suggested that the intercalation of HWE and CMC in montmorillonite could produce compact, robust films with a nacre-like structure and multifunctional characteristics. This results of this study showed that the mechanical properties of the film designated FCMC0.05 (91.5 MPa) were dramatically enhanced because the proportion of HWE, MMT and CMC was 1:1.5:0.05. In addition, the optimized films exhibited an oxygen permeability below 2.0 cm3 μm/day·m2·kPa, as well as good thermal stability due to the small amount of CMC. These results provide a comprehensive understanding for further development of high-performance nanocomposites which are based on natural polymers (HWE) and assembled layered clays (MMT). These films offer great potential in the field of sustainable packaging.

  8. Moisture-barrier performance of ground covers in basementless homes

    Treesearch

    Jesse D. Diller

    1958-01-01

    The use of ground covers in crawl-space under houses is now widely accepted by builders, maintenance men, and home owners. Such covers are practical for reducing decay in subfloor timbers. They also effectively prevent soil moisture from moving upward into the house, and thus aid in preventing swelling and buckling of floors.

  9. Characteristics of WN{sub x}C{sub y} films deposited using remote plasma atomic layer deposition with ({sup Me}Cp)W(CO){sub 2}(NO) for Cu diffusion barrier

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kim, Hyunjung; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Heeyoung

    Diffusion barrier characteristics of tungsten–nitride–carbide (WN{sub x}C{sub y}) thin films interposed between Cu and SiO{sub 2} layers were studied. The WN{sub x}C{sub y} films were deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RPALD) using a metal organic source, ({sup Me}Cp)W(CO){sub 2}(NO), and ammonia. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis indicated the WN{sub x}C{sub y} films consisted of tungsten, nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the film deposited at 350 °C was nanocrystalline. The resistivity of WN{sub x}C{sub y} film deposited by RPALD was very low compared to that in previous research because of the lower nitrogen content and differentmore » crystal structures of the WN{sub x}C{sub y}. To verify the diffusion barrier characteristics of the WN{sub x}C{sub y} film, Cu films were deposited by physical vapor deposition after WN{sub x}C{sub y} film was formed by RPALD on Si substrate. The Cu/WN{sub x}C{sub y}/Si film stack was annealed in a vacuum by rapid thermal annealing at 500 °C. Cu diffusion through the barrier layer was verified by XRD. Stable film properties were observed up to 500 °C, confirming that WN{sub x}C{sub y} film is suitable as a Cu diffusion barrier in microelectronic circuits.« less

  10. Subthreshold Schottky-barrier thin-film transistors with ultralow power and high intrinsic gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungsik; Nathan, Arokia

    2016-10-01

    The quest for low power becomes highly compelling in newly emerging application areas related to wearable devices in the Internet of Things. Here, we report on a Schottky-barrier indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor operating in the deep subthreshold regime (i.e., near the OFF state) at low supply voltages (<1 volt) and ultralow power (<1 nanowatt). By using a Schottky-barrier at the source and drain contacts, the current-voltage characteristics of the transistor were virtually channel-length independent with an infinite output resistance. It exhibited high intrinsic gain (>400) that was both bias and geometry independent. The transistor reported here is useful for sensor interface circuits in wearable devices where high current sensitivity and ultralow power are vital for battery-less operation.

  11. Enhancement of the barrier performance in organic/inorganic multilayer thin-film structures by annealing of the parylene layer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kim, Namsu, E-mail: nkim@keti.re.kr; Components and Materials Physics Research Center, #68 Yatop-dong, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Bundang-gu, 463-816; Graham, Samuel

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • High performance thin-film barrier structure for encapsulation was fabricated. • By annealing parylene in encapsulation structure, the barrier performance was improved. • The effective water vapor transmission rate is 7.2 ± 3.0 × 10{sup −6} g/m{sup 2}/day. - Abstract: A multilayered barrier structure was fabricated by chemical vapor deposition of parylene and subsequent plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiO{sub x} or SiN{sub x}. The barrier performance against water vapor ingress was significantly improved by annealing the parylene layer before the deposition of either SiO{sub x} or SiN{sub x}. The mechanism of this enhancement was investigated using atomic forcemore » microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The surface roughness of the parylene before the deposition of either SiO{sub x} or SiN{sub x} was found to correlate closely with the barrier performance of the multilayered structures. In addition, removing absorbed water vapor in the film by annealing results in a lower water vapor transmission rate in the transient region and a longer lag time. Annealing the parylene leads to a large decrease in the effective water vapor transmission rate, which reaches 7.2 ± 3.0 × 10{sup −6} g/m{sup 2}/day.« less

  12. Seedling establishment and physiological responses to temporal and spatial soil moisture changes

    Treesearch

    Jeremy Pinto; John D. Marshall; Kas Dumroese; Anthony S. Davis; Douglas R. Cobos

    2016-01-01

    In many forests of the world, the summer season (temporal element) brings drought conditions causing low soil moisture in the upper soil profile (spatial element) - a potentially large barrier to seedling establishment. We evaluated the relationship between initial seedling root depth, temporal and spatial changes in soil moisture during drought after...

  13. A Paired, Double-Blind, Randomized Comparison of a Moisturizing Durable Barrier Cream to 10% Glycerine Cream in the Prophylactic Management of Postmastectomy Irradiation Skin Care: Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 04.01

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Graham, Peter H., E-mail: peter.graham@sesiahs.health.nsw.gov.au; Plant, Natalie; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: A previous, unblinded study demonstrated that an alcohol-free barrier film containing an acrylate terpolymer (ATP) was effective in reducing skin reactions compared with a 10% glycerine cream (sorbolene). The different appearances of these products precluded a blinded comparison. To test the acrylate terpolymer principle in a double-blinded manner required the use of an alternative cream formulation, a moisturizing durable barrier cream (MDBC); the study was conducted by the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) as protocol 04.01. Methods and Materials: A total of 333 patients were randomized; 1 patient was ineligible and 14 patients withdrew or had less thanmore » 7 weeks' observations, leaving 318 for analysis. The chest wall was divided into medial and lateral compartments, and patients were randomized to have MDBC applied daily to the medial or lateral compartment and sorbolene to the other compartment. Weekly observations, photographs, and symptom scores (pain and pruritus) were collected to week 12 or resolution of skin reactions if earlier. Skin dose was confirmed by centrally calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters. Results: Rates of medial and lateral compartment Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), version 3, greater than or equal to grade 3 skin reactions were 23% and 41%, but rates by skin care product were identical at 32%. There was no significant difference between MDBC and sorbolene in the primary endpoint of peak skin reactions or secondary endpoints of area-under-the-curve skin reaction scores. Conclusions: The MDBC did not reduce the peak skin reaction compared to sorbolene. It is possible that this is related to the difference in the formulation of the cream compared with the film formulation. Skin dosimetry verification and double blinding are essential for radiation skin care comparative studies.« less

  14. Penetrating the oxide barrier in situ and separating freestanding porous anodic alumina films in one step.

    PubMed

    Tian, Mingliang; Xu, Shengyong; Wang, Jinguo; Kumar, Nitesh; Wertz, Eric; Li, Qi; Campbell, Paul M; Chan, Moses H W; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2005-04-01

    A simple method for penetrating the barrier layer of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film and for detaching the AAO film from residual Al foil was developed by reversing the bias voltage in situ after the anodization process is completed. With this technique, we have been able to obtain large pieces of free-standing AAO membranes with regular pore sizes of sub-10 nm. By combining Ar ion milling and wetting enhancement processes, Au nanowires were grown in the sub-10 nm pores of the AAO films. Further scaling down of the pore size and extension to the deposition of nanowires and nanotubes of materials other than Au should be possible by further optimizing this procedure.

  15. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch films incorporated with plant essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Aliheidari, Nahal; Fahmi, Ronak; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Keshavarz, Behnam; Cran, Marlene J; Khaksar, Ramin

    2013-10-15

    Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work two essential oils, Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZEO) or Mentha pulegium (MEO) at three levels (1%, 2% and 3% (v/v)), were incorporated into starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapor permeability (WVP) properties and to impart antimicrobial activity. Increasing the content of ZEO or MEO from 2% to 3% (v/v) increased values for elongation at break from 94.38% to 162.45% and from 53.34% to 107.71% respectively, but did not significantly change tensile strength values of the films. The WVP properties of the films decreased from 7.79 to 3.37 or 3.19 g mm m(-2) d(-1) kPa(-1) after 3% (v/v) ZEO or MEO incorporation respectively. The oxygen barrier properties were unaffected at the 1% and 2% (v/v) oil concentration used but oxygen transmission increased with 3% (v/v) for both formulations. The films' color became slightly yellow as the levels of ZEO or MEO were increased although transparency was maintained. Both films demonstrated antimicrobial activity with films containing ZEO more effective against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus than those containing MEO. These results suggest that ZEO and MEO have the potential to be directly incorporated into corn starch to prepare antimicrobial biodegradable films for various food packaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Au-nanoparticle-embedded cross-linked gelatin films synthesized on aqueous solution in contact with dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirafuji, Tatsuru; Nakamura, Yusuke; Azuma, Shiori; Sotoda, Naoya; Isshiki, Toshiyuki

    2018-01-01

    A wine-red free-standing thin film has been formed by irradiating dielectric barrier discharge plasma on an aqueous solution containing HAuCl4 and gelatin. The film has a fibrous structure with an inhomogeneous thickness profile and is composed of cross-linked gelatin, as confirmed by optical microscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The film has embedded Au nanoparticles (GNPs), as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In the region with a relatively small film thickness, the number density of GNPs is relatively low, and the sizes of GNPs range from 5.3 to 34.3 nm. In the region with a relatively large film thickness, on the other hand, GNPs are highly accumulated, and the sizes of GNPs range from 10.0 to 26.7 nm. The aqueous solution remains transparent even after the film growth process, which indicates that the plasma-induced processes involving GNP formation and film growth are confined near the surface of the aqueous solution. A possible film growth mechanism is discussed on the basis of the experimental results of this study.

  17. Preliminary results of SAR soil moisture experiment, November 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Chang, A. T. C.; Schmugge, T. J.; Salomonson, V. V.; Wang, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The experiment was performed using the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan's (ERIM) dual-frequency and dual-polarization side-looking SAR system on board a C-46 aircraft. For each frequency, horizontally polarized pulses were transmitted and both horizontally and vertically polarized return signals were recorded on the signal film simultaneously. The test sites were located in St. Charles, Missouri; Centralia, Missouri; and Lafayette, Indiana. Each test site was a 4.83 km by 8.05 km (3 mile by 5 mile) rectangular strip of terrain. Concurrent with SAR overflight, ground soil samples of 0-to-2.5 cm and 0-to-15 cm layers were collected for soil moisture estimation. The surface features were also noted. Hard-copy image films and the digital data produced via optical processing of the signal films are analyzed in this report to study the relationship of radar backscatter to the moisture content and the surface roughness. Many difficulties associated with processing and analysis of the SAR imagery are noted. In particular, major uncertainty in the quantitative analysis appeared due to the difficulty of quality reproduction of digital data from the signal films.

  18. Fast Postmoisture Treatment of Luminescent Perovskite Films for Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoran; Li, Xiaomin; Yuan, Mingjian; Yang, Xuyong

    2018-04-01

    Despite the recent advances in the performance of perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs), the effects of water on the perovskite emissive layer and its electroluminescence are still unclear, even though it has been previously demonstrated that moisture has a significant impact on the quality of perovskite films in the fabrication process of perovskite solar cells and is a prerequisite for obtaining high-performance PeLEDs. Here, the effects of postmoisture on the luminescent CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 (MAPbBr 3 ) perovskite films are systematically investigated. It is found that postmoisture treatment can efficiently control the morphology and growth of perovskite films and only a fast moisture exposure at a 60% high relative humidity results in significantly improved crystallinity, carrier lifetime, and photoluminescence quantum yield of perovskite films. With the optimized moisture-treated perovskite films, a high-performance PeLED is fabricated, exhibiting a maximum current efficiency of 20.4 cd A -1 , which is an almost 20-fold enhancement when compared with perovskite films without moisture treatment. The results provide valuable insights into the moisture-assisted growth of luminescent perovskite films and will aid in the development of high-performance perovskite light-emitting devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Electronic structures and chemical states of methylammonium lead triiodide thin films and the impact of annealing and moisture exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Soichiro; Hayakawa, Kei; Cojocaru, Ludmila; Tsuruta, Ryohei; Sato, Tomoya; Mase, Kazuhiko; Uchida, Satoshi; Nakayama, Yasuo

    2018-04-01

    Methylammonium lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3) is the fundamental material used in perovskite solar cells, and its electronic properties have, therefore, attracted a great deal of attention as a potential key to highly efficient solar cell performance. However, the deterioration of perovskite solar cells when exposed to high temperature and humidity remains a serious obstacle to the material's use, and the clarification of the degradation mechanisms has been keenly anticipated. In this study, the valence electronic structures and depth-dependence of the chemical states of CH3NH3PbI3 thin films are investigated using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and excitation energy dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Additionally, the effects of high temperature and a moisture rich atmosphere on the CH3NH3PbI3 thin films are examined. It is confirmed that the high temperature and moist atmosphere facilitate the oxidation of CH3NH3PbI3, whereas the Pb:I stoichiometry of the CH3NH3PbI3 thin films is found to be preserved at its original ratio (1:3) after thermal annealing and exposure to a moist atmosphere.

  20. In Situ Ramp Anneal X-ray Diffraction Study of Atomic Layer Deposited Ultrathin TaN and Ta 1-x Al x N y Films for Cu Diffusion Barrier Applications

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Consiglio, S.; Dey, S.; Yu, K.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrathin TaN and Ta 1-xAl xN y films with x = 0.21 to 0.88 were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and evaluated for Cu diffusion barrier effectiveness compared to physical vapor deposition (PVD) grown TaN. Cu diffusion barrier effectiveness was investigated using in-situ ramp anneal synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) on Cu/1.8 nm barrier/Si stacks. A Kissinger-like analysis was used to assess the kinetics of Cu 3Si formation and determine the effective activation energy (E a) for Cu silicidation. Compared to the stack with a PVD TaN barrier, the stacks with the ALD films exhibited a higher crystallization temperature (Tmore » c) for Cu silicidation. The Ea values of Cu 3Si formation for stacks with the ALD films were close to the reported value for grain boundary diffusion of Cu whereas the Ea of Cu 3Si formation for the stack with PVD TaN is closer to the reported value for lattice diffusion. For 3 nm films, grazing incidence in-plane XRD showed evidence of nanocrystallites in an amorphous matrix with broad peaks corresponding to high density cubic phase for the ALD grown films and lower density hexagonal phase for the PVD grown film further elucidating the difference in initial failure mechanisms due to differences in barrier crystallinity and associated phase.« less

  1. Effect of dual-dielectric hydrogen-diffusion barrier layers on the performance of low-temperature processed transparent InGaZnO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tari, Alireza; Wong, William S.

    2018-02-01

    Dual-dielectric SiOx/SiNx thin-film layers were used as back-channel and gate-dielectric barrier layers for bottom-gate InGaZnO (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The concentration profiles of hydrogen, indium, gallium, and zinc oxide were analyzed using secondary-ion mass spectroscopy characterization. By implementing an effective H-diffusion barrier, the hydrogen concentration and the creation of H-induced oxygen deficiency (H-Vo complex) defects during the processing of passivated flexible IGZO TFTs were minimized. A bilayer back-channel passivation layer, consisting of electron-beam deposited SiOx on plasma-enhanced chemical vapor-deposition (PECVD) SiNx films, effectively protected the TFT active region from plasma damage and minimized changes in the chemical composition of the semiconductor layer. A dual-dielectric PECVD SiOx/PECVD SiNx gate-dielectric, using SiOx as a barrier layer, also effectively prevented out-diffusion of hydrogen atoms from the PECVD SiNx-gate dielectric to the IGZO channel layer during the device fabrication.

  2. Thermal stability, adhesion and electrical studies on (Ti,Zr)N x thin films as low resistive diffusion barriers between Cu and Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Cheng-Lin; Lai, Chih-Huang; Tsai, Po-Hao; Kuo, Yu-Lin; Lin, Jing-Cheng; Lee, Chiapyng

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the thermal stability, wettability, adhesion and reliability of (Ti,Zr)N x films used as the diffusion barrier between Cu and Si. (Ti,Zr)N x films were prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering from a Ti-5 at. % Zr alloy target in N2/Ar gas mixtures. A minimum film resistivity of 59.3 µω cm was obtained at an N2/Ar flow ratio of 2.75, which corresponds to the near stoichiometric composition (N/(Ti,Zr) ratio ˜0.95). The sheet resistance of Cu/(Ti,Zr)N0.95/Si was not significantly increased until annealing above 750°C, indicating good thermal stability. On the other hand, the adhesion energy between Cu and the (Ti,Zr)Nx film was reduced as the N/Ti ratio was increased. To obtain reliable performance on stress-induced-voiding (SIV) and electromigration (EM) tests, we proposed to use (Ti,Zr)/(Ti,Zr)N x /(Ti,Zr) tri-layers. We suggest that the interfacial adhesion between barrier and Cu plays an important role in reliability. The proposed tri-layer structure may be a promising candidate for a barrier, as it exhibits excellent reliability without increasing resistance.

  3. Temperature dependent barrier height and ideality factor of electrodeposited n-CdSe/Cu Schottky barrier diode

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mahato, S., E-mail: som.phy.ism@gmail.com; Shiwakoti, N.; Kar, A. K.

    2015-06-24

    This article reports the measurement of temperature-dependent barrier height and ideality factor of n-CdSe/Cu Schottky barrier diode. The Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) thin films have been deposited by simple electrodeposition technique. The XRD measurements ravels the deposited single phase CdSe films are highly oriented on (002) plane and the average particle size has been calculated to be ~18 nm. From SEM characterization, it is clear that the surface of CdSe thin films are continuous, homogeneous and the film is well adhered to the substrate and consists of fine grains which are irregular in shape and size. Current-Voltage characteristics have been measured atmore » different temperatures in the range (298 K – 353 K). The barrier height and ideality factor are found to be strongly temperature dependent. The inhomogenious barrier height increases and ideality factor decreases with increase in temperature. The expectation value has been calculated and its value is 0.30 eV.« less

  4. Polybenzoxazole Nanofiber-Reinforced Moisture-Responsive Soft Actuators.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meiling; Frueh, Johannes; Wang, Daolin; Lin, Xiankun; Xie, Hui; He, Qiang

    2017-04-10

    Hydromorphic biological systems, such as morning glory flowers, pinecones, and awns, have inspired researchers to design moisture-sensitive soft actuators capable of directly converting the change of moisture into motion or mechanical work. Here, we report a moisture-sensitive poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) nanofiber (PBONF)-reinforced carbon nanotube/poly(vinyl alcohol) (CNT/PVA) bilayer soft actuator with fine performance on conductivity and mechanical properties. The embedded PBONFs not only assist CNTs to form a continuous, conductive film, but also enhance the mechanical performance of the actuators. The PBONF-reinforced CNT/PVA bilayer actuators can unsymmetrically adsorb and desorb water, resulting in a reversible deformation. More importantly, the actuators show a pronounced increase of conductivity due to the deformation induced by the moisture change, which allows the integration of a moisture-sensitive actuator and a humidity sensor. Upon changing the environmental humidity, the actuators can respond by the deformation for shielding and report the humidity change in a visual manner, which has been demonstrated by a tweezer and a curtain. Such nanofiber-reinforced bilayer actuators with the sensing capability should hold considerable promise for the applications such as soft robots, sensors, intelligent switches, integrated devices, and material storage.

  5. Practical Considerations of Moisture in Baled Biomass Feedstocks

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    William A. Smith; Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural residues make up a large portion of the immediately available biomass feedstock for renewable energy markets. Current collection and storage methods rely on existing feed and forage practices designed to preserve nutrients and properties of digestibility. Low-cost collection and storage practices that preserve carbohydrates across a range of inbound moisture contents are needed to assure the economic and technical success of the emerging biomass industry. This study examines the movement of moisture in storage and identifies patterns of migration resulting from several on-farm storage systems and their impacts on moisture measurement and dry matter recovery. Baled corn stover andmore » energy sorghum were stored outdoors in uncovered, tarp-covered, or wrapped stacks and sampled periodically to measure moisture and dry matter losses. Interpolation between discrete sampling locations in the stack improved bulk moisture content estimates and showed clear patterns of accumulation and re-deposition. Atmospheric exposure, orientation, and contact with barriers (i.e., soil, tarp, and wrap surfaces) were found to cause the greatest amount of moisture heterogeneity within stacks. Although the bulk moisture content of many stacks remained in the range suitable for aerobic stability, regions of high moisture were sufficient to support microbial activity, thus support dry matter loss. Stack configuration, orientation, and coverage methods are discussed relative to impact on moisture management and dry matter preservation. Additionally, sample collection and data analysis are discussed relative to assessment at the biorefinery as it pertains to stability in storage, queuing, and moisture carried into processing.« less

  6. Investigation of the proposed solar-driven moisture phenomenon in asphalt shingle roofs

    DOE PAGES

    Boudreaux, Philip; Pallin, Simon; Jackson, Roderick

    2016-01-19

    We report that unvented, sealed or conditioned attics are an energy efficiency measure to reduce the thermal load of the home and decrease the space conditioning energy consumption. This retrofit is usually done by using spray polyurethane foam underneath the roof sheathing and on the gables and soffits of an attic to provide a thermal and air barrier. Unvented attics perform well from this perspective but from a moisture perspective sometimes the unvented attic homes have high interior humidity or moisture damage to the roof. As homes become more air tight and energy efficient, an understanding of the hygrothermal dynamicsmore » of the home become more important. One proposed reason for high unvented attic humidity has been that moisture can come through the asphalt shingle roof system and increase the moisture content of the roof sheathing and attic air. This has been called solar driven moisture. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) investigated this proposed phenomenon by examining the physical properties of a roof and the physics required for the phenomenon. Results showed that there are not favorable conditions for solar driven moisture to occur. ORNL also conducted an experimental study on an unvented attic home and compared the humidity below the roof sheathing before and after a vapor impermeable underlayment was installed. There was no statistically significant difference in absolute humidity before and after the vapor barrier was installed. Finally, the outcome of the theoretical and experimental study both suggest that solar driven moisture does not occur in any significant amount.« less

  7. Subthreshold Schottky-barrier thin-film transistors with ultralow power and high intrinsic gain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungsik; Nathan, Arokia

    2016-10-21

    The quest for low power becomes highly compelling in newly emerging application areas related to wearable devices in the Internet of Things. Here, we report on a Schottky-barrier indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor operating in the deep subthreshold regime (i.e., near the OFF state) at low supply voltages (<1 volt) and ultralow power (<1 nanowatt). By using a Schottky-barrier at the source and drain contacts, the current-voltage characteristics of the transistor were virtually channel-length independent with an infinite output resistance. It exhibited high intrinsic gain (>400) that was both bias and geometry independent. The transistor reported here is useful for sensor interface circuits in wearable devices where high current sensitivity and ultralow power are vital for battery-less operation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. The Evaluation and Validation of New Creep Barrier Films for Prevention of Oil Loss by Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampson, Matthew R.; Wardzinski, Ben

    2015-09-01

    Creep barrier films are used to prevent loss of oil by surface migration. This paper gives an overview of studies to select, characterise and validate creep barrier materials for spacecraft mechanisms [1].One of the more commonly used materials, Fluorad FC- 725, is no longer manufactured, and there is a need to identify a replacement.A survey of available materials was carried out, and after a series of trial tests, three materials were down- selected for the validation exercise: two new materials - 3M Novec 2708 and Dr Tillwich E2 Concentrate - alongside the obsolete Fluorad FC-725 used as a baseline.A validation procedure is defined, which may be applied to other new creep barrier materials in future. Testing confirmed that either of the new materials would be suitable for use.

  9. A new oxygen barrier film reduces aerobic deterioration in farm-scale corn silage.

    PubMed

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E; Cavallarin, L

    2007-10-01

    Recently, many studies have focused on the aerobic deterioration of corn silage at the farm level, because a large part of the product stored in horizontal silos is exposed to air and is more prone to spoilage. The most important factor influencing the preservation of forage ensiling is the degree of anaerobiosis that is usually achieved with sheets of polyethylene. A new black-on-white (125-microm) coextruded oxygen barrier (OB) film has been developed for silage sealing and was tested in the present experiment to assess the effects on fermentation quality, dry matter losses, and yeast and mold counts at opening of whole-crop corn bunker silos compared with conventional polyethylene (ST) film. Two trials were carried out on 2 commercial farms. The bunkers were divided into 2 parts along the length so that half of the feedout face would be covered with ST film and the other half with OB film. Eight plastic net bags with well-mixed fresh material were weighed and buried in the upper layer of the bunker, and 4 bags were buried in the central part. The silos were opened for summer consumption and were fed out at different rates (19 vs. 33 cm/d). The bags were unloaded, weighed, and subsampled to analyze the DM content, pH, lactic and monocarboxylic acids, ammonia, yeast and mold counts, and aerobic stability. The pH of the peripheral silage was different under the 2 films, with a lower value in the OB treatment. The OB film on farm 1 affected the silage dry matter losses, which were reduced 3.7 times in comparison with the ST film sealing. On farm 2, although the dry matter losses were numerically higher in the silage sealed with the ST film compared with OB film (9.0 vs. 5.9%, respectively), the difference was not statistically significant. However, the corn silage sealed with the ST film was less stable than the silage sealed with the OB film. The results indicate that the new OB film is a promising tool to constrain spoilage and dry matter losses under critical

  10. Large-scale fabrication of linear low density polyethylene/layered double hydroxides composite films with enhanced heat retention, thermal, mechanical, optical and water vapor barrier properties

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Xie, Jiazhuo; Zhang, Kun; Zhao, Qinghua

    Novel LDH intercalated with organic aliphatic long-chain anion was large-scale synthesized innovatively by high-energy ball milling in one pot. The linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)/layered double hydroxides (LDH) composite films with enhanced heat retention, thermal, mechanical, optical and water vapor barrier properties were fabricated by melt blending and blowing process. FT IR, XRD, SEM results show that LDH particles were dispersed uniformly in the LLDPE composite films. Particularly, LLDPE composite film with 1% LDH exhibited the optimal performance among all the composite films with a 60.36% enhancement in the water vapor barrier property and a 45.73 °C increase in themore » temperature of maximum mass loss rate compared with pure LLDPE film. Furthermore, the improved infrared absorbance (1180–914 cm{sup −1}) of LLDPE/LDH films revealed the significant enhancement of heat retention. Therefore, this study prompts the application of LLDPE/LDH films as agricultural films with superior heat retention. - Graphical abstract: The fabrication process of LLDPE/LDH composite films. - Highlights: • LDH with basal spacing of 4.07 nm was synthesized by high-energy ball milling. • LLDPE composite films with homogeneous LDH dispersion were fabricated. • The properties of LLDPE/LDH composite films were improved. • LLDPE/LDH composite films show superior heat retention property.« less

  11. Clinical use of a ceramide-based moisturizer for treating dogs with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji-young; Nam, Eui-hwa; Park, Seol-hee; Han, Seung-hee

    2013-01-01

    In humans, skin barrier dysfunction is thought to be responsible for enhanced penetration of allergens. Similar to conditions seen in humans, canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is characterized by derangement of corneocytes and disorganization of intercellular lipids in the stratum corenum (SC) with decreased ceramide levels. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a moisturizer containing ceramide on dogs with CAD. Dogs (n = 20, 3~8 years old) with mild to moderate clinical signs were recruited and applied a moisturizer containing ceramide for 4 weeks. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, pruritus index for canine atopic dermatitis (PICAD) scores, and canine atopic dermatitis extent and severity index (CADESI) scores of all dogs were evaluated. Skin samples from five dogs were also examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using ruthenium tetroxide. TEWL, PICAD, and CADESI values decreased (p < 0.05) and skin hydration increased dramatically over time (p < 0.05). Electron micrographs showed that the skin barrier of all five dogs was partially restored (p < 0.05). In conclusion, these results demonstrated that moisturizer containing ceramide was effective for treating skin barrier dysfunction and CAD symptoms. PMID:23814473

  12. Poly(4-Vinylpyridine)-Based Interfacial Passivation to Enhance Voltage and Moisture Stability of Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Bhumika; Kulkarni, Ashish; Jena, Ajay Kumar; Ikegami, Masashi; Udagawa, Yosuke; Kunugita, Hideyuki; Ema, Kazuhiro; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2017-06-09

    It is well known that the surface trap states and electronic disorders in the solution-processed CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite film affect the solar cell performance significantly and moisture sensitivity of photoactive perovskite material limits its practical applications. Herein, we show the surface modification of a perovskite film with a solution-processable hydrophobic polymer (poly(4-vinylpyridine), PVP), which passivates the undercoordinated lead (Pb) atoms (on the surface of perovskite) by its pyridine Lewis base side chains and thereby eliminates surface-trap states and non-radiative recombination. Moreover, it acts as an electron barrier between the perovskite and hole-transport layer (HTL) to reduce interfacial charge recombination, which led to improvement in open-circuit voltage (V oc ) by 120 to 160 mV whereas the standard cell fabricated in same conditions showed V oc as low as 0.9 V owing to dominating interfacial recombination processes. Consequently, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) increased by 3 to 5 % in the polymer-modified devices (PCE=15 %) with V oc more than 1.05 V and hysteresis-less J-V curves. Advantageously, hydrophobicity of the polymer chain was found to protect the perovskite surface from moisture and improved stability of the non-encapsulated cells, which retained their device performance up to 30 days of exposure to open atmosphere (50 % humidity). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Dispersion Process and Effect of Oleic Acid on Properties of Cellulose Sulfate- Oleic Acid Composite Film

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The cellulose sulfate (CS) is a newly developed cellulose derivative. The work aimed to investigate the effect of oleic acid (OA) content on properties of CS-OA film. The process of oleic acid dispersion into film was described to evaluate its effect on the properties of the film. Among the formulations evaluated, the OA addition decreased the solubility and water vapor permeability of the CS-OA film. The surface contact angle changed from 64.2° to 94.0° by increasing CS/OA ratio from 1:0 to 1:0.25 (w/w). The TS increased with OA content below 15% and decreased with OA over 15%, but the ε decreased with higher OA content. The micro-cracking matrices and micro pores in the film indicated the condense structure of the film destroyed by the incorporation of oleic acid. No chemical interaction between the OA and CS was observed in the XRD and FTIR spectrum. Film formulation containing 2% (w/w) CS, 0.3% (w/w) glycerol and 0.3% (w/w) OA, showed good properties of mechanic, barrier to moisture and homogeneity.

  14. Thermoplastic processing of proteins for film formation--a review.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Izquierdo, V M; Krochta, J M

    2008-03-01

    Increasing interest in high-quality food products with increased shelf life and reduced environmental impact has encouraged the study and development of edible and/or biodegradable polymer films and coatings. Edible films provide the opportunity to effectively control mass transfer among different components in a food or between the food and its surrounding environment. The diversity of proteins that results from an almost limitless number of side-chain amino-acid sequential arrangements allows for a wide range of interactions and chemical reactions to take place as proteins denature and cross-link during heat processing. Proteins such as wheat gluten, corn zein, soy protein, myofibrillar proteins, and whey proteins have been successfully formed into films using thermoplastic processes such as compression molding and extrusion. Thermoplastic processing can result in a highly efficient manufacturing method with commercial potential for large-scale production of edible films due to the low moisture levels, high temperatures, and short times used. Addition of water, glycerol, sorbitol, sucrose, and other plasticizers allows the proteins to undergo the glass transition and facilitates deformation and processability without thermal degradation. Target film variables, important in predicting biopackage performance under various conditions, include mechanical, thermal, barrier, and microstructural properties. Comparisons of film properties should be made with care since results depend on parameters such as film-forming materials, film formulation, fabrication method, operating conditions, testing equipment, and testing conditions. Film applications include their use as wraps, pouches, bags, casings, and sachets to protect foods, reduce waste, and improve package recyclability.

  15. Edible bioactive fatty acid-cellulosic derivative composites used in food-packaging applications.

    PubMed

    Sebti, Issam; Ham-Pichavant, Frédérique; Coma, Véronique

    2002-07-17

    To develop biodegradable packaging that both acts as a moisture barrier and as antimicrobial activity, nisin and stearic acid were incorporated into a hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) based film. Fifteen percent (w/w HPMC) of stearic acid improved film moisture barrier. However, film mechanical resistance and film antimicrobial activity on Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus pathogenic strains were both reduced. This lower film inhibitory activity was due to interactions between nisin and stearic acid. The molecular interaction was modeled, and an equation was developed to calculate the nisin concentration needed to be incorporated into the film matrix to obtain a desired residual antimicrobial activity. Because the molecular interactions were pH dependent, the impact of the pH of the film-forming solution on film inhibitory activity was investigated. Adjusting the pH to 3 totally avoided stearic acid and nisin interaction, inducing a high film inhibitory activity.

  16. Determination of radiolysis products in gamma-irradiated multilayer barrier food packaging films containing a middle layer of recycled LDPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chytiri, Stavroula; Goulas, Antonios E.; Badeka, Anastasia; Riganakos, Kyriakos A.; Petridis, Dimitrios; Kontominas, Michael G.

    2008-09-01

    Volatile and non-volatile radiolysis products and sensory changes of five-layer food packaging films have been determined after gamma irradiation (5-60 kGy). Barrier films were based on polyamide (PA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Each film contained a middle buried layer of recycled LDPE or 100% virgin LDPE (control samples). Data showed that a large number of radiolysis products were produced such as hydrocarbons, alcohols, carbonyl compounds, carboxylic acid. These compounds were detected in the food simulant after contact with all films even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy. The type and concentration of radiolysis products increased progressively with radiation dose, while no new compounds were detected as a result of the presence of recycled LDPE. In addition, irradiation dose appears to influence the sensory properties of table water in contact with films.

  17. An artificial neural network model for the prediction of mechanical and barrier properties of biodegradable films.

    PubMed

    Nobrega, Marcelo Medre; Bona, Evandro; Yamashita, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays, the production of biodegradable starch-based films is of great interest because of the growing environmental concerns regarding pollution and the need to reduce dependence on the plastics industry. A broad view of the role of different components, added to starch-based films to improve their properties, is required to guide the future development. The self-organizing maps (SOMs) provide comparisons that initially were complicated due to the large volume of the data. Furthermore, the construction of a model capable of predicting the mechanical and barrier properties of these films will accelerate the development of films with improved characteristics. The water vapor permeability (WVP) analysis using the SOM algorithm showed that the presence of glycerol is very important for films with low amounts of poly (butylene adipate co-terephthalate) and confirms the role of the equilibrium relative humidity in the determination of WVP. Considering the mechanical properties, the SOM analysis emphasizes the important role of poly (butylene adipate co-terephthalate) in thermoplastic starch based films. The properties of biodegradable films were predicted and optimized by using a multilayer perceptron coupled with a genetic algorithm, presenting a great correlation between the experimental and theoretical values with a maximum error of 24%. To improve the response of the model and to ensure the compatibility of the components more information will be necessary. © 2013.

  18. Improvement of Permeation of Solvent-Free Multilayer Encapsulation of Thin Films on Poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Kang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Gwi-Yeol; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2006-12-01

    In this study, inorganic multilayer thin-film encapsulation is adopted for the first time to protect an organic layer from moisture and oxygen. Inorganic multilayer thin-film encapsulation is deposited onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) using an electron beam and sputtering. The SiON/SiO2 and parylene layer show the most suitable properties. Under these conditions, the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) for PET can be reduced from a level of 0.57 g m-2 day-1 (bare substrate) to 1× 10-5 g m-2 day-1 after the application of a SiON and SiO2 layer. These results indicate that PET/parylene/SiO2/SiON barrier coatings have high potential for flexible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) applications.

  19. Effect of polyethyleneimine modified graphene on the mechanical and water vapor barrier properties of methyl cellulose composite films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyu; Liu, Cuiyun; Peng, Shuge; Pan, Bingli; Lu, Chang

    2018-02-15

    A series of novel methyl cellulose (MC) composite films were prepared using polyethyleneimine reduced graphene oxide (PEI-RGO) as an effective filler for water vapor barrier application. The as-prepared PEI-RGO/MC composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, tensile test and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental and theoretical results exhibited that PEI-RGO was uniformly dispersed in the MC matrix without aggregation and formed an aligned dispersion. The addition of PEI-RGO resulted in an enhanced surface hydrophobicity and a tortuous diffusion pathway for water molecules. Water vapor permeability of PEI-RGO/MC with loading of 3.0% of surface modified graphene was as low as 5.98×10 -11 gmm -2 s -1 Pa -1 . The synergistic effects of enhanced surface hydrophobicity and tortuous diffusion pathway were accounted for the improved water vapor barrier performance of the PEI-RGO/MC composite films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antimicrobial and physical-mechanical properties of agar-based films incorporated with grapefruit seed extract.

    PubMed

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-02-15

    The use of synthetic petroleum based packaging films caused serious environmental problems due to their difficulty in recycling and poor biodegradability. Therefore, present study was aimed to develop natural biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging films as an alternative for the synthetic packaging films. As a natural antimicrobial agent, grapefruit seed extract (GSE) has been incorporated into agar to prepare antimicrobial packaging film. The films with different concentrations of GSE were prepared by a solvent casting method and the resulting composite films were examined physically and mechanically. In addition, the films were characterized by FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA. The incorporation of GSE caused increase in color, UV barrier, moisture content, water solubility and water vapor permeability, while decrease in surface hydrophobicity, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the films. As the concentration of GSE increased from 0.6 to 13.3 μg/mL, the physical and mechanical properties of the films were affected significantly. The addition of GSE changed film microstructure of the film, but did not influence the crystallinity of agar and thermal stability of the agar-based films. The agar/GSE films exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against three test food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that agar/GSE films have potential to be used in an active food packaging systems for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of deposition temperature on thermal stabilities of copper-carbon films in barrier-less Cu metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huan; Fu, Zhiqiang; Xie, Qi; Yue, Wen; Wang, Chengbiao; Kang, Jiajie; Zhu, Lina

    2018-01-01

    Copper-carbon alloy films have been applied in barrier-less Cu metallization as seed layers for improving the thermal stabilities. The effect of the deposition temperature on the microstructure and properties of C-doped Cu films on Si substrates was investigated. The films were prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition at various deposition temperatures by co-sputtering of Cu and graphite targets. No inter-diffusion between Cu and Si was observed in Cu(C) films throughout this experiment, because XRD patterns corresponding to their deep-level reaction product, namely, Cu3Si, were not observed in XRD patterns and EDS results of Cu(C) films. Amorphous carbon layer and SiC layer were found in the interface of Cu(C) as-deposited films when deposition temperature rose to 100 °C by TEM, high-resolution image and Fourier transformation pattern. The Cu(C) films deposited at 100 °C had the best thermal stabilities and the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.44 μW cm after annealing at 400 °C for 1 h. Cu agglomeration was observed in Cu(C) alloy films with deposition temperatures of 200, 300 and 400 °C, and the most serious agglomeration occurred in Cu(C) films deposited at 200 °C. Undesired Cu agglomeration resulted in a sharp increase in the resistivity after annealing at 300 °C for 1 h. The deposition temperature of 100 °C reflected the superior thermal stabilities of Cu(C) seed layers compared with those of other layers.

  2. From Nanofibrillar to Nanolaminar Poly(butylene succinate): Paving the Way to Robust Barrier and Mechanical Properties for Full-Biodegradable Poly(lactic acid) Films.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lan; Xu, Huan; Chen, Jing-Bin; Zhang, Zi-Jing; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Chen, Jun; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2015-04-22

    The traditional approach toward barrier property enhancement of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is the incorporation of sheet-like fillers such as nanoclay and graphene, unfortunately leading to the sacrificed biocompatibility and degradability. Here we unveil the first application of a confined flaking technique to establish the degradable nanolaminar poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) in PLA films based on PLA/PBS in situ nanofibrillar composites. The combination of high pressure (10 MPa) and appropriate temperature (160 °C) during the flaking process desirably enabled sufficient deformation of PBS nanofibrils and retention of ordered PLA channels. Particularly, interlinked and individual nanosheets were created in composite films containing 10 and 20 wt % PBS, respectively, both of which presented desirable alignment and large width/thickness ratio (nanoscale thickness with a width of 428±13.1 and 76.9±8.2 μm, respectively). With the creation of compact polymer "nano-barrier walls", a dramatic decrease of 86% and 67% in the oxygen permeability coefficient was observed for the film incorporated with well-organized 20 wt % PBS nanosheets compared to pure PLA and pure PBS (1.4 and 0.6×10(-14) cm3·cm·cm(-2)·s(-1)·Pa(-1)), respectively. Unexpectedly, prominent increases of 21% and 28% were achieved in the tensile strength and modulus of composite films loaded 20 wt % PBS nanosheets compared to pure PLA films, although PBS intrinsically presents poor strength and stiffness. The unusual combination of barrier and mechanical performances established in the fully degradable system represent specific properties required in packaging beverages, food and medicine.

  3. Evidence-based treatment of atopic dermatitis with topical moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Micali, Giuseppe; Paternò, Valentina; Cannarella, Rossella; Dinotta, Franco; Lacarrubba, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Skin barrier restoration represents the mainstay of the treatment of atopic dermatitis and the use of moisturizers is recommended by several international guidelines. The aim of the study was to investigate through an evidence-based medicine analysis the effectiveness and safety of different moisturizing products available for a non-pharmacological treatment of atopic dermatitis. A total of 92 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been identified and analyzed. The results confirm the presence of a reasonable number of studies highlighting moisturizers safety and effectiveness in the treatment of atopic dermatitis by improving disease severity, increasing the time of relapse and reducing the time of flares. Moisturizers containing urea, glycerin or glycyrrhetinic acid seem to show the greater evidence of efficacy being supported by more clinical trials. Among the existing moisturizers, those containing a single agent generally work although the heterogeneity of RCTs does not allow reaching more definitive conclusions. Moisturizers made of a mixture of substances seem to be more effective thanks to the presence of different active substances that may exert a synergistic effect. A meta-analysis of 4 RCTs confirms the efficacy of a medical device containing glycyrrhetinic acid, hyaluronic acid, shea butter, telmesteine, and vitis vinifera in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  4. Development of Seaweed-based Biopolymers for Edible Films and Lectins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praseptiangga, D.

    2017-04-01

    Marine macroalgae (seaweeds) as one of important groups of biopolymers play an important role in human life. Biopolymers have been studied regarding their film-forming properties to produce edible films intended as food packaging and active ingredient carriers. Edible film, a thin layer or which is an integral part of food and can be eaten together with, have been used to avoid food quality deterioration due to physico-chemical changes, texture changes, or chemical reactions. Film-forming materials can be utilized individually or as mixed composite blends. Proteins and polysaccharides used for their mechanical and structural properties, and hydrophobic substances (lipids, essential oils, and emulsifiers) to provide good moisture barrier properties. In addition, bioactive substances from marine natural products, including seaweeds, have been explored for being used in the fields of medicine, food science, pharmaceutical science, biochemistry, and glycobiology. Among them, lectins or carbohydrate-binding proteins from seaweeds have recently been remarked. Lectins (hemagglutinins) are widely distributed in nature and also good candidates in such prospecting of seaweeds. They are useful as convenient tools to discriminate differences in carbohydrate structures and reveal various biological activities through binding and interacting to carbohydrates, suggesting that they are promising candidates for medicinal and clinical application.

  5. Radiolysis products and sensory properties of electron-beam-irradiated high-barrier food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Chytiri, S D; Badeka, A V; Riganakos, K A; Kontominas, M G

    2010-04-01

    The aim was to study the effect of electron-beam irradiation on the production of radiolysis products and sensory changes in experimental high-barrier packaging films composed of polyamide (PA), ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled LDPE, while films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the middle buried layer were taken as controls. Irradiation doses ranged between zero and 60 kGy. Generally, a large number of radiolysis products were produced during electron-beam irradiation, even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy (approved doses for food 'cold pasteurization'). The quantity of radiolysis products increased with irradiation dose. There were no significant differences in radiolysis products identified between samples containing a recycled layer of LDPE and those containing virgin LDPE (all absorbed doses), indicating the 'functional barrier' properties of external virgin polymer layers. Sensory properties (mainly taste) of potable water were affected after contact with irradiated as low as 5 kGy packaging films. This effect increased with increasing irradiation dose.

  6. Tailored Waveform of Dielectric Barrier Discharge to Control Composite Thin Film Morphology.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Paul; Rincón, Rocío; Matouk, Zineb; Chaker, Mohamed; Massines, Françoise

    2018-02-06

    Nanocomposite thin films of TiO 2 in a polymer-like matrix are grown in a filamentary argon (Ar) dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) from a suspension of TiO 2 nanoparticles in isopropanol (IPA). The sinusoidal voltage producing the plasma is designed to independently control the matrix growth rate and the transport of nanoparticle (NP) aggregates to the surface. The useful FSK (frequency shift keying) modulation mode is chosen to successively generate two sinusoidal voltages: a high frequency of 15 kHz and a low frequency ranging from 0.5 to 3 kHz. The coating surface coverage by the NPs and the thickness of the matrix are measured as a function of the FSK parameters. The duty cycle between these two signals is varied from 0 to 100%. It is observed that the matrix thickness is mainly controlled by the power of the discharge, which largely depends on the high-frequency value. The quantity of NPs deposited in the composite thin film is proportional to the duration of the low frequency applied. The FSK waveform has a double modulation effect, allowing us to obtain a uniform coating as the NPs are not affected by the high frequency and the matrix growth rate is limited when the low frequency is applied. When it is close to a frequency limit, the low frequency acts like a filter for the NP aggregates. The higher the frequency, the smaller the size of the aggregates transferred to the surface. By changing only the FSK modulation parameters, the thin film can be switched from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic, and under suitable conditions, a nanocomposite thin film is obtained.

  7. Ethanolic extract of propolis for biodegradable films packaging enhanced with chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M. I.; Roslan, A.; Saari, N. S.; Hashim, K. H.; Kalamullah, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    The use of industrial organic waste which are chitosan and propolis as materials for the development of biodegradable and active packaging is economical and environmentally appealing. Processing of propolis-chitosan film can minimize waste, and produce low-cost added value biopolymer packaging films for targeted applications. This aims of this research is to develop and characterize a biodegradable films by incorporating chitosan with propolis extract to enhance the functional properties for potential use as active food packaging. The film's moisture content, solubility and antimicrobial activity increase due to increasing volume of propolis extract which are 0 ml, 1.2 ml and 2.4 ml of propolis extract. Propolis-chitosan film with 2.4 ml of propolis extract is more soluble in water compared to propolis-chitosan film with 0 ml of propolis extract and 1.2 ml of propolis extract. The higher the volume of the propolis extract used, the higher the solubility of film in the water. The moisture content also will increase when higher volume of propolis extract used. Characterization of moisture content, solubility and antimicrobial activities revealed the benefits of adding propolis extract into chitosan films and the potential of using the developed film as active food packaging.

  8. Orientation filtering for crystalline films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Henry I.; Atwater, Harry A.; Thompson, Carl V.; Geis, Michael W.

    1986-12-30

    A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations.

  9. Orientation filtering for crystalline films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, H.I.; Atwater, H.A.; Thompson, C.V.; Geis, M.W.

    1986-12-30

    A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations. 7 figs.

  10. Effect of EMA and antioxidants on properties of thermoplastic starch blown films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threepopnatkul, P.; Kulsetthanchalee, C.; Sittattrakul, A.; Kaewjinda, E.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate) (EMA) at 10, 30 and 50 wt% on the morphological properties, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability of thermoplastic starch (TPS). Urea and formamide were used as a mixed plasticizer. In addition, the effect of antioxidants namely, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate (DTBH), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and bis(octadecyl)hydroxylamine (BOH) at 1 wt% on the properties of TPS/EMA film was investigated. TPS/EMA films were produced by a blown film molding machine and characterized by scanning electron microscropy, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability measurement. Results found that the increment of EMA content in the TPS matrix could improve the water sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability properties of TPS/EMA films. For biodegradation, the weight loss of the blended films was directly proportional to TPS content. Regarding the antioxidants effect, the water vapor permeability of TPS/EMA films containing DTBH was higher than the one with BOH and BHT. However, the antioxidants contributed little to the biodegradability of TPS/EMA films and had no effect on the moisture sorption of TPS/EMA films.

  11. Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Heilmann, M.; Latzel, Michael; Kapoor, Raman; Sharma, Intu; Göbelt, M.; Christiansen, Silke H.; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    The electrical behaviour of Schottky barrier diodes realized on vertically standing individual GaN nanorods and array of nanorods is investigated. The Schottky diodes on individual nanorod show highest barrier height in comparison with large area diodes on nanorods array and epitaxial film which is in contrast with previously published work. The discrepancy between the electrical behaviour of nanoscale Schottky diodes and large area diodes is explained using cathodoluminescence measurements, surface potential analysis using Kelvin probe force microscopy and 1ow frequency noise measurements. The noise measurements on large area diodes on nanorods array and epitaxial film suggest the presence of barrier inhomogeneities at the metal/semiconductor interface which deviate the noise spectra from Lorentzian to 1/f type. These barrier inhomogeneities in large area diodes resulted in reduced barrier height whereas due to the limited role of barrier inhomogeneities in individual nanorod based Schottky diode, a higher barrier height is obtained. PMID:27282258

  12. L-band radar sensing of soil moisture. [Kern County, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Atwater, S.; Salomonson, V. V.; Estes, J. E.; Simonett, D. S.; Bryan, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of an L-band, 25 cm wavelength imaging synthetic aperture radar was assessed for soil moisture determination, and the temporal variability of radar returns from a number of agricultural fields was studied. A series of three overflights was accomplished over an agricultural test site in Kern County, California. Soil moisture samples were collected from bare fields at nine sites at depths of 0-2, 2-5, 5-15, and 15-30 cm. These gravimetric measurements were converted to percent of field capacity for correlation to the radar return signal. The initial signal film was optically correlated and scanned to produce image data numbers. These numbers were then converted to relative return power by linear interpolation of the noise power wedge which was introduced in 5 dB steps into the original signal film before and after each data run. Results of correlations between the relative return power and percent of field capacity (FC) demonstrate that the relative return power from this imaging radar system is responsive to the amount of soil moisture in bare fields. The signal returned from dry (15% FC) and wet (130% FC) fields where furrowing is parallel to the radar beam differs by about 10 dB.

  13. Dual frequency diffuse dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric-pressure air-like gas mixture for thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaoge; Starostin, Serguei; Welzel, Stefan; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; de Vries, Hindrik; Fom Institute-Differ Team; Eindhoven University Of Technology Team; Fujifilm Manufacturing Europe B. v. Team

    2016-09-01

    A dual frequency (DF) diffuse discharge was obtained in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge reactor in air-like gas mixtures. By adding a radio frequency (RF) voltage to a low frequency (LF) voltage, we aim to increase the plasma power density. In this study, the discussion is mainly focused on the discharge characteristics and the thin film deposition. According to the spatio-temporal emission, the discharge shows a glow-like structure with both LF and DF voltages. By fitting the spectral lines of the second positive system of N2, the gas temperature was estimated which does not obviously increase with the extra RF signal. Moreover, SiO2-like film was deposited from TEOS using the DF power supply. Thin film properties such as surface morphology, microstructure and stoichiometry were analyzed by AFM, FTIR and XPS, respectively. Because of the higher plasma power density, the DF power supply can be an efficient approach to improve the properties and to increase the throughput of the thin film deposition.

  14. Application of moisturizer to neonates prevents development of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Horimukai, Kenta; Morita, Kumiko; Narita, Masami; Kondo, Mai; Kitazawa, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Makoto; Shigematsu, Yukiko; Yoshida, Kazue; Niizeki, Hironori; Motomura, Ken-Ichiro; Sago, Haruhiko; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Inoue, Eisuke; Kamemura, Norio; Kido, Hiroshi; Hisatsune, Junzo; Sugai, Motoyuki; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro; Sasaki, Takashi; Amagai, Masayuki; Morita, Hideaki; Matsuda, Akio; Matsumoto, Kenji; Saito, Hirohisa; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have suggested that epidermal barrier dysfunction contributes to the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) and other allergic diseases. We performed a prospective, randomized controlled trial to investigate whether protecting the skin barrier with a moisturizer during the neonatal period prevents development of AD and allergic sensitization. An emulsion-type moisturizer was applied daily during the first 32 weeks of life to 59 of 118 neonates at high risk for AD (based on having a parent or sibling with AD) who were enrolled in this study. The onset of AD (eczematous symptoms lasting >4 weeks) and eczema (lasting >2 weeks) was assessed by a dermatology specialist on the basis of the modified Hanifin and Rajka criteria. The primary outcome was the cumulative incidence of AD plus eczema (AD/eczema) at week 32 of life. A secondary outcome, allergic sensitization, was evaluated based on serum levels of allergen-specific IgE determined by using a high-sensitivity allergen microarray of diamond-like carbon-coated chips. Approximately 32% fewer neonates who received the moisturizer had AD/eczema by week 32 than control subjects (P = .012, log-rank test). We did not show a statistically significant effect of emollient on allergic sensitization based on the level of IgE antibody against egg white at 0.34 kUA/L CAP-FEIA equivalents. However, the sensitization rate was significantly higher in infants who had AD/eczema than in those who did not (odds ratio, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.22-6.73). Daily application of moisturizer during the first 32 weeks of life reduces the risk of AD/eczema in infants. Allergic sensitization during this time period is associated with the presence of eczematous skin but not with moisturizer use. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ductile all-cellulose nanocomposite films fabricated from core-shell structured cellulose nanofibrils.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Per A; Berglund, Lars A; Wågberg, Lars

    2014-06-09

    Cellulosic materials have many desirable properties such as high mechanical strength and low oxygen permeability and will be an important component in a sustainable biomaterial-based society, but unfortunately they often lack the ductility and formability offered by petroleum-based materials. This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of nanocomposite films made of core-shell modified cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) surrounded by a shell of ductile dialcohol cellulose, created by heterogeneous periodate oxidation followed by borohydride reduction of the native cellulose in the external parts of the individual fibrils. The oxidation with periodate selectively produces dialdehyde cellulose, and the process does not increase the charge density of the material. Yet the modified cellulose fibers could easily be homogenized to CNFs. Prior to film fabrication, the CNF was shown by atomic force microscopy to be 0.5-2 μm long and 4-10 nm wide. The films were fabricated by filtration, and besides uniaxial tensile testing at different relative humidities, they were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and oxygen permeability. The strength-at-break at 23 °C and 50% RH was 175 MPa, and the films could, before rupture, be strained, mainly by plastic deformation, to about 15% and 37% at 50% RH and 90% RH, respectively. This moisture plasticization was further utilized to form a demonstrator consisting of a double-curved structure with a nominal strain of 24% over the curvature. At a relative humidity of 80%, the films still acted as a good oxygen barrier, having an oxygen permeability of 5.5 mL·μL/(m(2)·24 h·kPa). These properties indicate that this new material has a potential for use as a barrier in complex-shaped structures and hence ultimately reduce the need for petroleum-based plastics.

  16. Long-Term Outcomes of Using Hyaluronic Acid-Carboxymethylcellulose Adhesion Barrier Film on the Neurovascular Bundle.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rutveej; Modi, Parth K; Elsamra, Sammy E; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2016-06-01

    We hypothesize that the use of hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose (HACM) adhesion barrier at the neurovascular bundle may hasten the return of erectile function after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. A retrospective review identified 462 consecutive patients who underwent a nerve-sparing prostatectomy between 2009 and 2012. The first 246 patients were administered the barrier film, while the next 216 patients, the control group, did not receive HACM. Postoperative erectile function and oncologic outcomes were compared. Independent t-test and Kaplan-Meier analysis were conducted, p < 0.05 was considered significant. The two groups were well matched, without significant differences in age, weight, operative time, prostate size, preoperative prostate-specific antigen, sexual health inventory for men (SHIM), or AUA symptom scores. The mean SHIM was significantly higher for the experimental group at 6 months (6.39 vs 4.75, p = 0.008), 9 months (7.32 vs 5.44, p = 0.006), 1 year (8.52 vs 6.90, p = 0.049), and 18 months (10.01 vs 7.60, p = 0.018). This effect was not noted beyond 18 months. A subgroup analysis of patients with initial SHIM scores 22 or greater demonstrated a higher rate of return to the preoperative SHIM score for the barrier film group, 23% vs 12% (p = 0.046). There was no significant difference in biochemical recurrence between groups, with a median follow-up duration of 18 months. HACM application at the neurovascular bundle during prostatectomy may decrease the time to return of erectile function, with improved SHIM at 6 to 18 months after surgery. This effect is more pronounced in patients with better baseline erectile function. There is no significant effect on biochemical recurrence.

  17. Multi-objective optimization of process conditions in the manufacturing of banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) starch/natural rubber films.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Hernández, A; Aparicio-Saguilán, A; Reynoso-Meza, G; Carrillo-Ahumada, J

    2017-02-10

    Multi-objective optimization was used to evaluate the effect of adding banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) starch and natural rubber (cis-1,4-poliisopreno) at different ratios (1-13w/w) to the manufacturing process of biodegradable films, specifically the effect on the biodegradability, crystallinity and moisture of the films. A structural characterization of the films was performed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and SEM, moisture and biodegradability properties were studied. The models obtained showed that degradability vs. moisture tend to be inversely proportional and crystallinity vs. degradability tend to be directly proportional. With respect to crystallinity vs. moisture behavior, it is observed that crystallinity remains constant when moisture values remain between 27 and 41%. Beyond this value there is an exponential increase in crystallinity. These results allow for predictions on the mechanical behavior that can occur in starch/rubber films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of the aqueous film coating process on the properties and stability of tablets containing a moisture-labile drug.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Mirja; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Taipale, Krista; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2003-01-01

    The effects of an aqueous film coating process on the morphology and storage stability of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-coated tablets containing a moisture-labile model drug (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA) were evaluated using an instrumented side-vented tablet pan coater. Coating parameters studied were inlet air absolute humidity 5 g/m3 and 12 g/m3, spraying air pressure 100 kPa and 500 kPa, pan air temperature 35 degrees C and 55 degrees C, and coating solution flow rate 2.2 g/min and 7.8 g/min. The surface roughness of the coatings was measured with a laser profilometer and the chemical hydrolysis of the model drug ASA with an UV-spectrophotometer. The film-coated tablets were stored at 25 degrees C/60% RH and 40 degrees C/75% RH for three months. The high absolute humidity of the inlet air increased the residual water content and surface roughness of the coated tablets. Using a lower coating solution flow rate, higher spraying air pressure and pan temperature the coatings were smooth and homogeneous. In both ambient and accelerated storage conditions, the roughness of the coatings and the hydrolysis of ASA increased, but this was independent of the film coating process. Uniform and smooth hydroxypropyl methylcellulose coatings can be achieved by improved control of process parameters related to the application of the coating solution and water evaporation of the tablet surface.

  19. A review on the role of moisturizers for atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Adelaide Ann; Dizon, Maria Victoria; Van Bever, Hugo; Tiongco-Recto, Marysia; Kim, Kyu-Han; Soebono, Hardyanto; Munasir, Zakiudin; Diana, Inne Arline; Luk, David Chi Kang

    2016-01-01

    Effective management of atopic dermatitis (AD) involves the treatment of a defective skin barrier. Patients with AD are therefore advised to use moisturizers regularly. To date, there are few comparative studies involving moisturizers in patients with AD, and no classification system exists to objectively determine which types of moisturizers are best suited to specific AD phenotypes. With this in mind, a group of experts from allergy and immunology, adult and pediatric dermatology, and pediatrics centers within Southeast Asia met to review current data and practice, and to develop recommendations regarding the use of moisturizers in patients with AD within the Asia-Pacific region. Chronicity and severity of AD, along with patient age, treatment compliance, and economic background should all be taken into account when selecting an appropriate moisturizer for AD patients. Other considerations include adjuvant properties of the product, cosmetic acceptability, and availability over the counter. Well-defined clinical phenotypes of AD could optimally benefit from specific moisturizers. It is hoped that future studies may identify such differences by means of filaggrin mutation subtypes, confocal microscopic evaluation, pH, transepidermal water loss or presence of allergy specific IgE. Recommendations to improve the regular use of moisturizers among AD patients include measures that focus on treatment compliance, patient and caregiver education, appropriate treatment goals, avoidance of sensitizing agents, and collaboration with other relevant specialists. PMID:27141486

  20. Trace moisture detection in oil filled transformer by ceramic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Debdulal; Sengupta, K.

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports on the suitability of thin film nano porous γ-alumina sensor for sensing parts per million (ppm) moisture present in transformer oil. Transformer oil degrades slowly by weathering, causing dielectric break down voltage of the oil to fall down. For improving this break down voltage, water must be removed from the transformer oil. Flash point of the transformer oil ranges from 150°C to 200°C.When the oil is slowly heated up to 75°C water vapour comes out from oil which is detected by ceramic sensor. The sensor is prepared from organo-metallic precursor by sol-gel process. Gold coated α-alumina substrate was dipped within the alumina hydra-sol and a thin film of γ-alumina formed on the substrate. The sensor capacitance was measured as a function of ppm moisture level. The circuit produces an output voltage which is precisely related to the absolute value of the capacitance of the dielectric material. In order to improve the sensitivity, parallel electrode structure was patterned on the nano porous dielectric. The response is sufficiently linear in extremely low ppm level moisture. A prototype hygrometer was built for detection of trace moisture in transformer oil. Porous alumina can be produced at a relatively low cost and in a variety of structural configurations. Sol- gel processing of alumina allows superior control on pore morphology, phase formation, purity and product microstructure compared to the more traditional techniques like Anodic oxidation of alumina sheets, tape cast by different sizes of alumina powder etc.

  1. Efficacy and safety of the C-Qur™ Film Adhesion Barrier for the prevention of surgical adhesions (CLIPEUS Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Stommel, Martijn W J; Strik, Chema; ten Broek, Richard P G; van Goor, Harry

    2014-09-26

    Adhesions develop in over 90% of patients after intra-abdominal surgery. Adhesion barriers are rarely used despite the high morbidity caused by intra-abdominal adhesions. Only one of the currently available adhesion barriers has demonstrated consistent evidence for reducing adhesions in visceral surgery. This agent has limitations through poor handling characteristics because it is sticky on both sides. C-Qur™ Film is a novel thin film adhesion barrier and it is sticky on only one side, resulting in better handling characteristics. The objective of this study is to assess efficacy and safety of C-Qur™ Film to decrease the incidence of adhesions after colorectal surgery. This is a prospective, investigator initiated, randomized, double-blinded, multicenter trial. Eligible patients undergoing colorectal resection requiring temporary loop ileostomy or loop/split colostomy by laparotomy or hand assisted laparoscopy will be included in the trial. Before closure, patients are randomized 1:1 to either the treatment arm (C-Qur™ Film) or control arm (no adhesion barrier). Patients will return 8 to 16 weeks post-colorectal resection for take down of their ostomy. During ostomy takedown, adhesions will be evaluated for incidence, extent, and severity. The primary outcome evaluation will be assessment of adhesions to the incision site. It is hypothesized that the use of C-Qur™ Film underneath the primary incision reduces the incidence of adhesion at the incision by 30%. To demonstrate 30% reduction in the incidence of adhesions, a sample size of 84 patients (32 + 10 per group (25% drop out)) is required (two-sided test, α = 0.05, 80% power). Results of this study add to the evidence on the use of anti-adhesive barriers in open and laparoscopic 'hand-assisted' colorectal surgery. We chose incidence of adhesions to the incision site as primary outcome measure since clinical outcomes such as small bowel obstruction, secondary infertility and adhesiolysis related

  2. Moisture-Induced Delamination Video of an Oxidized Thermal Barrier Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    PVD TBC coatings were thermally cycled to near-failure at 1150 C. Normal failure occurred after 200-300 1-hr cycles with only moderate weight gains (0.5 mg/cm2). Delamination and buckling was often delayed until well after cooldown (desktop spallation), but could be instantly induced by the application of water drops, as shown in an accompanying video-recording. Moisture therefore plays a primary role in delayed desktop TBC failure. Hydrogen embrittlement is proposed as the underlying mechanism.

  3. Cellulose-glycerol-polyvinyl alcohol composite films for food packaging: Evaluation of water adsorption, mechanical properties, light-barrier properties and transparency.

    PubMed

    Cazón, Patricia; Vázquez, Manuel; Velazquez, Gonzalo

    2018-09-01

    Nowadays consumers are aware of environmental problems. As an alternative to petrochemical polymers for food packaging, researchers have been focused on biopolymeric materials as raw material. The aim of this study was to evaluate mechanical properties (toughness, burst strength and distance to burst), water adsorption, light-barrier properties and transparency of composite films based on cellulose, glycerol and polyvinyl alcohol. Scanning electron microscopy, spectral analysis (FT-IR and UV-VIS-NIR) and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to explain the morphology, structural and thermal properties of the films. Results showed that polyvinyl alcohol enhances the toughness of films up to 44.30 MJ/m 3 . However, toughness decreases when glycerol concentration is increased (from 23.41 to 10.55 MJ/m 3 ). Water adsorption increased with increasing polyvinyl alcohol concentration up to 222%. Polyvinyl alcohol increased the film thickness. The films showed higher burst strength (up to 12014 g) than other biodegradable films. The films obtained have optimal values of transparency like those values of synthetic polymers. Glycerol produced a UV protective effect in the films, an important effect for food packaging to prevent lipid oxidative deterioration. Results showed that it is feasible to obtain cellulose-glycerol-polyvinyl alcohol composite films with improved properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Borate cross-linking chitosan/graphene oxide films: Toward the simultaneous enhancement of gases barrier and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ning; Capezzuto, Filomena; Buonocore, Giovanna G.; Tescione, Fabiana; Lavorgna, Marino; Xia, Hesheng; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Borate adducts, originated from hydrolysis of sodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax), have been used to crosslink chitosan (CS) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets for the production of innovative composite sustainable materials. CS/GO film consisting of 10wt% borax and 1wt% GO exhibits a significant improvement of both toughness and oxygen barrier properties in comparison to pristine chitosan. In particular the tensile strength increases by about 100% and 150% after thermal annealing of samples at 90°C for 50min whereas the oxygen permeability reduces of about 90% compared to pristine chitosan. The enhancement of both mechanical and barrier properties is ascribed to the formation of a resistant network due to the chemical crosslinking, including borate orthoester bonds and hydroxyl moieties complexes, formed among borate ions, chitosan, and GO nanoplatelets. The crosslinked graphene-based chitosan material with its enhanced mechanical and barrier properties may significantly broad the range of applications of chitosan based-materials which presently are very limited and addressed only to packaging.

  5. Reactive diffusion in the presence of a diffusion barrier: Experiment and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangelinck, D.; Luo, T.; Girardeaux, C.

    2018-05-01

    Reactions in thin films and diffusion barriers are important for applications such as protective coatings, electrical contact, and interconnections. In this work, the effect of a barrier on the kinetics of the formation for a single phase by reactive diffusion is investigated from both experimental and modeling point of views. Two types of diffusion barriers are studied: (i) a thin layer of W deposited between a Ni film and Si substrate and (ii) Ni alloy films, Ni(1%W) and Ni(5%Pt), that form a diffusion barrier during the reaction with the Si substrate. The effect of the barriers on the kinetics of δ-Ni2Si formation is determined by in situ X ray diffraction and compared to models that explain the kinetic slowdown induced by both types of barrier. A linear parabolic growth is found for the deposited barrier with an increasing linear contribution for increasing barrier thickness. On the contrary, the growth is mainly parabolic for the barrier formed by the reaction between an alloy film and the substrate. The permeability of the two types of barrier is determined and discussed. The developed models fit well with the dedicated model experiments, leading to a better understanding of the barrier effect on the reactive diffusion and allowing us to predict the barrier behaviour in various applications.

  6. Dielectric Spectroscopy Analysis of Aged EVOH films with Application to Deterioration of Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeller, Timothy

    2007-06-01

    Samples of EVOH films from compositions of 29 - 44 mol% ethylene content were exposed to thermal aging with and without light exposure. The results of Dielectric Spectroscopy on select samples showed Cole-Cole plots of skewed dielectric constant indicating multiple distributions of dipole relaxation times. The onset for decreases in dielectric response occurs earlier in samples exposed to elevated temperature under light exposure. Lower permittivity is exhibited in samples of higher ethylene content. Results from heat exposed samples are presented. Colorimetric analysis indicates only a slight film yellowing in one case. Raman spectroscopy on untreated films discerns changes in the C-C-O stretch associated with the alcohol. The effects of aging on microstructure may cause hindrance of molecular motion from moisture desorption. Slight material degradation occurs from film hardening presumably due to crosslinking. An electrical circuit model of the conduction processes associated with the EVOH films is presented. Dielectric analysis shows promise for monitoring material changes related to deterioration. We are also using these methods to understand Fluorescence Imaging which has been recently released for paper and plastic materials analysis. Future work may include refinement of these techniques for identification of changes in material properties correlated to packaging material barrier resistance.

  7. Moisture-Induced Delamination Video of an Oxidized Thermal Barrier Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    PVD TBC coatings were thermally cycled to near-failure at 1150 C. Normal failure occurred after 200 to 300 1-hr cycles with only moderate weight gains (0.5 mg/sq cm). Delamination and buckling was often delayed until well after cooldown (desktop spallation), but could be instantly induced by the application of water drops, as shown in a video clip which can be viewed by clicking on figure 2 of this report. Moisture therefore plays a primary role in delayed desktop TBC failure. Hydrogen embrittlement is proposed as the underlying mechanism.

  8. Photocured epoxy/graphene nanocomposites with enhanced water vapor barrier properties

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Periolatto, M.; Spena, P. Russo; Sangermano, M.

    A transparent, water vapor barrier film made of an epoxy resin and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by photopolymerization process. The epoxy/GO film with just 0.05 wt% GO gives a 93% WVTR reduction with respect to the pristine polymer, reaching barrier properties better than other polymer composites containing higher amounts of graphene. The excellent water vapor barrier is attributed to the good dispersion of GO in the polymer matrix. Moreover, GO significantly enhances the toughness and the damping capacity of the epoxy resins. The hybrid film can have potential applications in anticorrosive coatings, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals and food packaging.

  9. Photocured epoxy/graphene nanocomposites with enhanced water vapor barrier properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Periolatto, M.; Sangermano, M.; Spena, P. Russo

    2016-05-01

    A transparent, water vapor barrier film made of an epoxy resin and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by photopolymerization process. The epoxy/GO film with just 0.05 wt% GO gives a 93% WVTR reduction with respect to the pristine polymer, reaching barrier properties better than other polymer composites containing higher amounts of graphene. The excellent water vapor barrier is attributed to the good dispersion of GO in the polymer matrix. Moreover, GO significantly enhances the toughness and the damping capacity of the epoxy resins. The hybrid film can have potential applications in anticorrosive coatings, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals and food packaging.

  10. Method Producing an SNS Superconducting Junction with Weak Link Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Brian D. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing a high temperature superconductor Josephson element and an improved SNS weak link barrier element is provided. A YBaCuO superconducting electrode film is deposited on a substrate at a temperature of approximately 800 C. A weak link barrier layer of a nonsuperconducting film of N-YBaCuO is deposited over the electrode at a temperature range of 520 C. to 540 C. at a lower deposition rate. Subsequently a superconducting counter-electrode film layer of YBaCuO is deposited over the weak link barrier layer at approximately 800 C. The weak link barrier layer has a thickness of approximately 50 A and the SNS element can be constructed to provide an edge geometry junction.

  11. Physical-mechanical properties of agar/κ-carrageenan blend film and derived clay nanocomposite film.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2012-12-01

    Binary blend films with different mixing ratio of agar and κ-carrageenan were prepared using a solution casting method with and without nanoclay and the effect of their composition on the mechanical, water vapor barrier, and water resistance properties was tested. The tensile strength (TS) of the κ-carrageenan film was greater than that of agar film. The water vapor permeability (WVP) of the agar film was lower than that of κ-carrageenan film, the swelling ratio (SR) and water solubility (WS) of κ-carrageenan film were higher than those of agar film. Each property of the binary blend films varied proportionately depending on the mixing ratio of each component. The XRD result indicated that the nanocomposite with agar/κ-carrageenan/clay (Cloisite(®) Na(+)) was intercalated. Consequently, the mechanical strength, water vapor barrier properties, and water contact angle (CA) were significantly (P < 0.05) improved through nanocomposite formation. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Review of Graphene as a Solid State Diffusion Barrier.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Wayne K; Pearton, Stephen J; Ren, Fan

    2016-01-06

    Conventional thin-film diffusion barriers consist of 3D bulk films with high chemical and thermal stability. The purpose of the barrier material is to prevent intermixing or penetration from the two materials that encase it. Adhesion to both top and bottom materials is critical to the success of the barrier. Here, the effectiveness of a single atomic layer of graphene as a solid-state diffusion barrier for common metal schemes used in microelectronics is reviewed, and specific examples are discussed. Initial studies of electrical contacts to graphene show a distinct separation in behavior between metallic groups that strongly or weakly bond to it. The two basic classes of metal reactions with graphene are either physisorbed metals, which bond weakly with graphene, or chemisorbed metals, which bond strongly to graphene. For graphene diffusion barrier testing on Si substrates, an effective barrier can be achieved through the formation of a carbide layer with metals that are chemisorbed. For physisorbed metals, the barrier failure mechanism is loss of adhesion at the metal–graphene interface. A graphene layer encased between two metal layers, in certain cases, can increase the binding energy of both films with graphene, however, certain combinations of metal films are detrimental to the bonding with graphene. While the prospects for graphene's future as a solid-state diffusion barrier are positive, there are open questions, and areas for future research are discussed. A better understanding of the mechanisms which influence graphene's ability to be an effective diffusion barrier in microelectronic applications is required, and additional experiments are needed on a broader range of metals, as well as common metal stack contact structures used in microelectronic applications. The role of defects in the graphene is also a key area, since they will probably influence the barrier properties. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Flow control of an elongated jet in cross-flow: Film cooling effectiveness enhancement using surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audier, P.; Fénot, M.; Bénard, N.; Moreau, E.

    2016-02-01

    The case presented here deals with plasma flow control applied to a cross-flow configuration, more specifically to a film cooling system. The ability of a plasma dielectric barrier discharge actuator for film cooling effectiveness enhancement is investigated through an experimental set-up, including a film injection from an elongated slot into a thermally uniform cross-flow. Two-dimensional particle image velocimetry and infrared-thermography measurements are performed for three different blowing ratios of M = 0.4, 0.5, and 1. Results show that the effectiveness can be increased when the discharge is switched on, as predicted by the numerical results available in literature. Whatever the blowing ratio, the actuator induces a deflection of the jet flow towards the wall, increases its momentum, and delays its diffusion in the cross-flow.

  14. Development of methods for skin barrier peeling tests.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yuko; Kazuharu, Seki; Kenji, Oishi

    2006-01-01

    We sought to develop a more effective method to evaluate the adhesive properties of skin barriers. The experimental design used was based on 3 principles: partial control, randomization, and repetition. Using these principles, the 180-degree peeling tests were conducted as specified in a standardized methodology (JIS Z0297) to the extent possible. However, the use of a stainless steel plate as a proxy for skin barrier application may result in the stretching and breaking of the skin barrier, making it impossible to obtain suitable measurements. Tests were conducted in constant temperature/ humidity chambers using a Tensilon Automatic Elongation Tester, where a sample was fixed on the side of a sample immobilization device, a sturdy metal (aluminum) box from which the air in the box was drawn off with a vacuum pump. A fluorocarbon polymer film was applied to the adhesive surface of a sample skin barrier. The film was peeled off in the volte-face (180-degree) direction in order to measure adhesive strengths. The films exhibit such properties as (a) ease of removal from the adhesive surface, (b) no resistance to a 180-degree fold back due to the thinness and flexibility of the material, and (c) tolerance of elongation. The adhesive properties of skin barriers were measured by peeling the fluorocarbon polymers in a 180-degree direction. Twelve specimen skin barrier products were selected for measurement, providing results with satisfactory reproducibility. Results based on the conventional stainless steel plate-based testing method acted as a control. The newly developed testing method enables chronological measurement results for skin barriers applied to fluorocarbon polymer films after 24 hours, 48 hours, and longer period.

  15. Subcritical crack growth in SiNx thin-film barriers studied by electro-mechanical two-point bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Qingling; Laven, Jozua; Bouten, Piet C. P.; de With, Gijsbertus

    2013-06-01

    Mechanical failure resulting from subcritical crack growth in the SiNx inorganic barrier layer applied on a flexible multilayer structure was studied by an electro-mechanical two-point bending method. A 10 nm conducting tin-doped indium oxide layer was sputtered as an electrical probe to monitor the subcritical crack growth in the 150 nm dielectric SiNx layer carried by a polyethylene naphthalate substrate. In the electro-mechanical two-point bending test, dynamic and static loads were applied to investigate the crack propagation in the barrier layer. As consequence of using two loading modes, the characteristic failure strain and failure time could be determined. The failure probability distribution of strain and lifetime under each loading condition was described by Weibull statistics. In this study, results from the tests in dynamic and static loading modes were linked by a power law description to determine the critical failure over a range of conditions. The fatigue parameter n from the power law reduces greatly from 70 to 31 upon correcting for internal strain. The testing method and analysis tool as described in the paper can be used to understand the limit of thin-film barriers in terms of their mechanical properties.

  16. Moisturizing and Antiinflammatory Properties of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Centella asiatica Extract

    PubMed Central

    Ratz-Łyko, A.; Arct, J.; Pytkowska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Centella asiatica extract is a rich source of natural bioactive substances, triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, triterpenic steroids, amino acids and sugars. Thus, many scavenging free radicals, exhibit antiinflammatory activity and affect on the stratum corneum hydration and epidermal barrier function. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo moisturizing and antiinflammatory properties of cosmetic formulations (oil-in-water emulsion cream and hydrogel) containing different concentrations of Centella asiatica extract. The study was conducted over four weeks on a group of 25 volunteers after twice a day application of cosmetic formulations with Centella asiatica extract (2.5 and 5%, w/w) on their forearms. The measurement of basic skin parameters (stratum corneum hydration and epidermal barrier function) was performed once a week. The in vivo antiinflammatory activity based on the methyl nicotinate model of microinflammation in human skin was evaluated after four weeks application of tested formulations. In vivo tests formulations containing 5% of Centella asiatica extract showed the best efficacy in improving skin moisture by increase of skin surface hydration state and decrease in transepidermal water loss as well as exhibited antiinflammatory properties based on the methyl nicotinate model of microinflammation in human skin. Comparative tests conducted by corneometer, tewameter and chromameter showed that cosmetic formulations containing Centella asiatica extract have the moisturizing and antiinflammatory properties. PMID:27168678

  17. Leakage current and charging/discharging processes in barrier-type anodic alumina thin films for use in metal-insulator-metal capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourdakis, E.; Koutsoureli, M.; Papaioannou, G.; Nassiopoulou, A. G.

    2018-06-01

    Barrier-type anodic alumina thin films are interesting for use in high capacitance density metal-insulator-metal capacitors due to their excellent dielectric properties at small thickness. This thickness is easily controlled by the anodization voltage. In previous papers we studied the main parameters of interest of the Al/barrier-type anodic alumina/Al structure for use in RF applications and showed the great potential of barrier-type anodic alumina in this respect. In this paper, we investigated in detail charging/discharging processes and leakage current of the above dielectric material. Two different sets of metal-insulator-metal capacitors were studied, namely, with the top Al electrode being either e-gun deposited or sputtered. The dielectric constant of the barrier-type anodic alumina was found at 9.3. Low leakage current was observed in all samples studied. Furthermore, depending on the film thickness, field emission following the Fowler-Nordheim mechanism was observed above an applied electric field. Charging of the anodic dielectric was observed, occurring in the bulk of the anodic layer. The stored charge was of the order of few μC/cm2 and the calculated trap density ˜2 × 1018 states/cm3, the most probable origin of charge traps being, in our opinion, positive electrolyte ions trapped in the dielectric during anodization. We do not think that oxygen vacancies play an important role, since their existence would have a more important impact on the leakage current characteristics, such as resistive memory effects or significant changes during annealing, which were not observed. Finally, discharging characteristic times as high as 5 × 109 s were measured.

  18. Moisture effect on interfacial integrity of epoxy-bonded system: a hierarchical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Lik-ho; Lun Chow, Cheuk; Lau, Denvid

    2018-01-01

    The epoxy-bonded system has been widely used in various applications across different scale lengths. Prior investigations have indicated that the moisture-affected interfacial debonding is the major failure mode of such a system, but the fundamental mechanism remains unknown, such as the basis for the invasion of water molecules in the cross-linked epoxy and the epoxy-bonded interface. This prevents us from predicting the long-term performance of the epoxy-related applications under the effect of the moisture. Here, we use full atomistic models to investigate the response of the epoxy-bonded system towards the adhesion test, and provide a detailed analysis of the interfacial integrity under the moisture effect and the associated debonding mechanism. Molecular dynamics simulations show that water molecules affect the hierarchical structure of the epoxy-bonded system at the nanoscale by disrupting the film-substrate interaction and the molecular interaction within the epoxy, which leads to the detachment of the epoxy thin film, and the final interfacial debonding. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental results of the epoxy-bonded system. Through identifying the relationship between the epoxy structure and the debonding mechanism at multiple scales, it is shown that the hierarchical structure of the epoxy-bonded system is crucial for the interfacial integrity. In particular, the available space of the epoxy-bonded system, which consists of various sizes ranging from the atomistic scale to the macroscale and is close to the interface facilitates the moisture accumulation, leading to a distinct interfacial debonding when compared to the dry scenario.

  19. Barrier SiO2-like coatings for archaeological artefacts preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, M.; Blahova, L.; Krcma, F.

    2016-10-01

    Thin film chemical vapour deposition technique has been used for more than 50 years. Introducing organo-silicones as precursors, e.g. hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) or tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), brought new possibilities to this method. Barrier properties of thin films have become an important issue, especially for army and emergency services as well as for food and drink manufacturers. Our work is focused on protective HMDSO thin films for encapsulating cleaned archaeological artefacts, preventing the corrosion from destroying these historical items.Thin films are deposited via plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) technique using low pressure capacitively coupled pasma in flow regime. Oxygen transmission rate (OTR) measurement was chosen as the most important one for characterization of barrier properties of deposited thin films. Lowest OTR reached for 50 nm thin film thickness was 120 cm3 m-2 atm-1 day-1. Samples were also analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR) to determine their composition. Optical emission spectra and thin film thickness were measured during the deposition process. We optimized the deposition parameters for barrier layers by implementation of pulsed mode of plasma and argon plasma pre-treatment into the process.

  20. Investigation of amorphous RuMoC alloy films as a seedless diffusion barrier for Cu/ p-SiOC:H ultralow- k dielectric integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Guohua; Liu, Bo; Li, Qiran

    2015-08-01

    Ultrathin RuMoC amorphous films prepared by magnetron co-sputtering with Ru and MoC targets in a sandwiched scheme Si/ p-SiOC:H/RuMoC/Cu were investigated as barrier in copper metallization. The evolution of final microstructure of RuMoC alloy films show sensitive correlation with the content of doped Mo and C elements and can be easily controlled by adjusting the sputtering power of the MoC target. There was no signal of interdiffusion between the Cu and SiOC:H layer in the sample of Cu/RuMoC/ p-SiOC:H/Si, even annealing up to 500 °C. Very weak signal of oxygen have been confirmed in the RuMoC barrier layer both as-deposited and after being annealed, and a good performance on preventing oxygen diffusion has been proved. Leakage current and resistivity evaluations also reveal the excellent thermal reliability of this Si/ p-SiOC:H/RuMoC/Cu film stack at the temperatures up to 500 °C, indicating its potential application in the advanced barrierless Cu metallization.

  1. Flexible fluoropolymer filled protective coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Mirtich, Michael J.; Sovey, James S.; Nahra, Henry; Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1991-01-01

    Metal oxide films such as SiO2 are known to provide an effective barrier to the transport of moisture as well as gaseous species through polymeric films. Such thin film coatings have a tendency to crack upon flexure of the polymeric substrate. Sputter co-deposition of SiO2 with 4 to 15 percent fluoropolymers was demonstrated to produce thin films with glass-like barrier properties that have significant increases in strain to failure over pure glass films which improves their tolerance to flexure on polymeric substrates. Deposition techniques capable of producing these films on polymeric substrates are suitable for durable food packaging and oxidation/corrosion protection applications.

  2. Effect of plasticizer type and concentration on physical properties of biodegradable films based on sugar palm (arenga pinnata) starch for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, M; Ishak, M R; Sahari, J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sugar palm starch (SPS) films were developed using glycerol (G), sorbitol (S) or their combination (GS) as plasticizers at the ratio of 15, 30 and 45 (wt)% using casting technique. The addition of plasticizers to SPS film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittle and fragile nature of unplasticized SPS films. Increased plasticizer concentration resulted to an increase in film thickness, moisture content and solubility. On the contrary, density and water absorption of plasticized films decreased with increasing plasticizer concentration. Raising the plasticizer content from 15 to 45 % showed less effect on the moisture content and water absorption of S-plasticized films. Films containing glycerol and glycerol-sorbitol plasticizer (G, and GS) demonstrated higher moisture content, solubility and water absorption capacity compared to S-plasticized films. The results obtained in this study showed that plasticizer type and concentration significantly improves film properties and enhances their suitability for food packaging applications.

  3. Acoustic wave (AW) based moisture sensor for use with corrosive gases

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Frye, Gregory C.; Schneider, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    Moisture corrosive gas stream is measured as a function of the difference in resonant frequencies between two acoustic wave (AW) devices, each with a film which accepts at least one of the components of the gas stream. One AW is located in the gas stream while the other is located outside the gas stream but in the same thermal environment. In one embodiment, the film is a hydrophilic material such as SiO.sub.2. In another embodiment, the SiO.sub.2 is covered with another film which is impermeable to the corrosive gas, such that the AW device in the gas stream measures only the water vapor. In yet another embodiment, the film comprises polyethylene oxide which is hydrophobic and measures only the partial pressure of the corrosive gas. Other embodiments allow for compensation of drift in the system.

  4. Acoustic wave (AW) based moisture sensor for use with corrosive gases

    DOEpatents

    Pfeifer, K.B.; Frye, G.C.; Schneider, T.W.

    1996-11-05

    Moisture corrosive gas stream is measured as a function of the difference in resonant frequencies between two acoustic wave (AW) devices, each with a film which accepts at least one of the components of the gas stream. One AW is located in the gas stream while the other is located outside the gas stream but in the same thermal environment. In one embodiment, the film is a hydrophilic material such as SiO{sub 2}. In another embodiment, the SiO{sub 2} is covered with another film which is impermeable to the corrosive gas, such that the AW device in the gas stream measures only the water vapor. In yet another embodiment, the film comprises polyethylene oxide which is hydrophobic and measures only the partial pressure of the corrosive gas. Other embodiments allow for compensation of drift in the system. 8 figs.

  5. Identifying barriers to charge-carriers in the bulk and surface regions of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystal films by x-ray absorption fine structures (XAFSs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Matthew J.; Vaccarello, Daniel; Yiu, Yun Mui; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Ding, Zhifeng

    2016-11-01

    Solar cell performance is most affected by the quality of the light absorber layer. For thin-film devices, this becomes a two-fold problem of maintaining a low-cost design with well-ordered nanocrystal (NC) structure. The use of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) NCs as the light absorber films forms an ideal low-cost design, but the quaternary structure makes it difficult to maintain a well-ordered layer without the use of high-temperature treatments. There is little understanding of how CZTS NC structures affect the photoconversion efficiency, the charge-carriers, and therefore the performance of the device manufactured from it. To examine these relationships, the measured photoresponse from the photo-generation of charge-carrier electron-hole pairs was compared against the crystal structure, as short-range and long-range crystal orders for the films. The photoresponse simplifies the electronic properties into three basic steps that can be associated with changes in energy levels within the band structure. These changes result in the formation of barriers to charge-carrier flow. The extent of these barriers was determined using synchrotron-based X-ray absorbance fine structure to probe the individual metal centers in the film, and comparing these to molecular simulations of the ideal extended x-ray absorbance fine structure scattering. This allowed for the quantification of bond lengths, and thus an interpretation of the distortions in the crystal lattice. The various characteristics of the photoresponse were then correlated to the crystallographic order and used to gain physical insight into barriers to charge-carriers in the bulk and surface regions of CZTS films.

  6. Barrier island community change: What controls it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dows, B.; Young, D.; Zinnert, J.

    2014-12-01

    Conversion from grassland to woody dominated communities has been observed globally. In recent decades, this pattern has been observed in coastal communities along the mid-Atlantic U.S. In coastal environments, a suite of biotic and abiotic factors interact as filters to determine plant community structure and distribution. Microclimatic conditions: soil and air temperature, soil moisture and salinity, and light attenuation under grass cover were measured across a grassland-woody encroachment gradient on a Virginia barrier island; to identify the primary factors that mediate this change. Woody establishment was associated with moderately dense (2200 shoots/m2) grass cover, but reduced at high (> 6200 shoots/ m2) and low (< 1250 shoots/ m2) densities. Moderately dense grass cover reduced light attenuation (82.50 % reduction) to sufficiently reduce soil temperature thereby limiting soil moisture evaporation. However, high grass density reduced light attenuation (98.7 % reduction) enough to inhibit establishment of woody species; whereas low grass density attenuated much less light (48.7 % reduction) which allowed for greater soil moisture evaporation. Soil salinity was dynamic as rainfall, tidal inundation, and sea spray produce spatiotemporal variation throughout the barrier island landscape. The importance of light and temperature were compounded as they also indirectly affect soil salinity via their affects on soil moisture. Determining how these biotic and abiotic factors relate to sea level rise and climate change will improve understanding coastal community response as global changes proceed. Understanding how community shifts affect ecosystem function and their potential to affect adjacent systems will also improve predictive ability of coastal ecosystem responses.

  7. Effects of a Skin Barrier Cream on Management of Incontinence-Associated Dermatitis in Older Women: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kon, Yuka; Ichikawa-Shigeta, Yoshie; Iuchi, Terumi; Nakajima, Yukari; Nakagami, Gojiro; Tabata, Keiko; Sanada, Hiromi; Sugama, Junko

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a skin barrier cream with moisturization and skin-protectant characteristics for improving the severity of incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) pertaining to the skin physiology and appearance. We measured the following outcomes: (1) skin physiological characteristics indicating skin protection and enhancement of the skin's moisture barrier (stratum corneum hydration, dermis hydration level, transepidermal water loss, and skin pH); and (2) changes in skin appearance (the degree of erythema and pigmentation, and the sulcus cutis condition). Single-blind, cluster randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted in a long-term care facility in Japan between November 7, 2011, and May 6, 2012. We used block randomization to obtain a random sample of 6 (4 experimental and 2 control) out of 10 available wards. All subjects were elderly women with IAD of the buttock or inner thigh. We assessed 295 patients, but only 33 met inclusion criteria; 18 were allocated to the experimental group and 15 were allocated to the control group. All participants were managed with cleansing with a skin cleanser and application of a moisturizer daily. In addition, a skin barrier cream designed to enhance the skin's moisture barrier and act as a protective barrier was applied to the skin of patients in the experimental group 3 times a day when absorptive briefs were changed. Skin physiological and appearance characteristics were scored only at the buttock or thigh area. All data were collected on days 1 and 14 of the study. Univariate analysis found that the erythema index was lower in the intervention group than in the control group at day 14 (P = .004). Multivariate analysis found significant associations between use of the skin barrier cream and increased stratum corneum hydration (β= .443, P = .031), decreased skin pH (β=-.439, P = .020), and magnitude of erythema (β=-.451, P = .018). Study findings suggest that a barrier

  8. Controlling the hydration of the skin though the application of occluding barrier creams

    PubMed Central

    Sparr, Emma; Millecamps, Danielle; Isoir, Muriel; Burnier, Véronique; Larsson, Åsa; Cabane, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The skin is a barrier membrane that separates environments with profoundly different water contents. The barrier properties are assured by the outer layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), which controls the transepidermal water loss. The SC acts as a responding membrane, since its hydration and permeability vary with the boundary condition, which is the activity of water at the outer surface of the skin. We show how this boundary condition can be changed by the application of a barrier cream that makes a film with a high resistance to the transport of water. We present a quantitative model that predicts hydration and water transport in SC that is covered by such a film. We also develop an experimental method for measuring the specific resistance to water transport of films made of occluding barrier creams. Finally, we combine the theoretical model with the measured properties of the barrier creams to predict how a film of cream changes the activity of water at the outer surface of the SC. Using the known variations of SC permeability and hydration with the water activity in its environment (i.e. the relative humidity), we can thus predict how a film of barrier cream changes SC hydration. PMID:23269846

  9. Controlling the hydration of the skin though the application of occluding barrier creams.

    PubMed

    Sparr, Emma; Millecamps, Danielle; Isoir, Muriel; Burnier, Véronique; Larsson, Åsa; Cabane, Bernard

    2013-03-06

    The skin is a barrier membrane that separates environments with profoundly different water contents. The barrier properties are assured by the outer layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), which controls the transepidermal water loss. The SC acts as a responding membrane, since its hydration and permeability vary with the boundary condition, which is the activity of water at the outer surface of the skin. We show how this boundary condition can be changed by the application of a barrier cream that makes a film with a high resistance to the transport of water. We present a quantitative model that predicts hydration and water transport in SC that is covered by such a film. We also develop an experimental method for measuring the specific resistance to water transport of films made of occluding barrier creams. Finally, we combine the theoretical model with the measured properties of the barrier creams to predict how a film of cream changes the activity of water at the outer surface of the SC. Using the known variations of SC permeability and hydration with the water activity in its environment (i.e. the relative humidity), we can thus predict how a film of barrier cream changes SC hydration.

  10. Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In order to reduce heat transfer between a hot gas heat source and a metallic engine component, a thermal insulating layer of material is placed between them. This thermal barrier coating is applied by plasma spray processing the thin films. The coating has been successfully employed in aerospace applications for many years. Lewis Research Center, a leader in the development engine components coating technology, has assisted Caterpillar, Inc. in applying ceramic thermal barrier coatings on engines. Because these large engines use heavy fuels containing vanadium, engine valve life is sharply decreased. The barrier coating controls temperatures, extends valve life and reduces operating cost. Additional applications are currently under development.

  11. Polyelectrolyte/Graphene Oxide Barrier Film for Flexible OLED.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Yeol; Park, Jongwhan; Kim, Yong-Seog

    2015-10-01

    Ultra-thin flexible nano-composite barrier layer consists of graphene oxide and polyelectrolyte was prepared using the layer-by-layer processing method. Microstructures of the barrier layer was optimized via modifying coating conditions and inducing chemical reactions. Although the barrier layer consists of hydrophilic polyelectrolyte was not effective in blocking the water vapor permeation, the chemical reduction of graphene oxide as well as conversion of polyelectrolyte to hydrophobic nature were very effective in reducing the permeation.

  12. Super-Robust Polylactide Barrier Films by Building Densely Oriented Lamellae Incorporated with Ductile in Situ Nanofibrils of Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng-Yang; Huang, Hua-Dong; Ji, Xu; Yan, Ding-Xiang; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Remarkable combination of excellent gas barrier performance, high strength, and toughness was realized in polylactide (PLA) composite films by constructing the supernetworks of oriented and pyknotic crystals with the assistance of ductile in situ nanofibrils of poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT). On the basis that the permeation of gas molecules through polymer materials with anisotropic structure would be more frustrated, we believe that oriented crystalline textures cooperating with inerratic amorphism can be favorable for the enhancement of gas barrier property. By taking full advantage of intensively elongational flow field, the dispersed phase of PBAT in situ forms into nanofibrils, and simultaneously sufficient row-nuclei for PLA are induced. After appropriate thermal treatment with the acceleration effect of PBAT on PLA crystallization, oriented lamellae of PLA tend to be more perfect in a preferential direction and constitute into a kind of network interconnecting with each other. At the same time, the molecular chains between lamellae tend to be more extended. This unique structure manifests superior ability in ameliorating the performance of PLA film. The oxygen permeability coefficient can be achieved as low as 2 × 10(-15) cm(3) cm cm(-2) s(-1) Pa(-1), combining with the high strength, modulus, and ductility (104.5 MPa, 3484 MPa, and 110.6%, respectively). The methodology proposed in this work presents an industrially scalable processing method to fabricate super-robust PLA barrier films. It would indeed push the usability of biopolymers forward, and certainly prompt wider application of biodegradable polymers in the fields of environmental protection such as food packaging, medical packaging, and biodegradable mulch.

  13. Synthesis of flat sticky hydrophobic carbon diamond-like films using atmospheric pressure Ar/CH4 dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón, R.; Hendaoui, A.; de Matos, J.; Chaker, M.

    2016-06-01

    An Ar/CH4 atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (AP-DBD) was used to synthesize sticky hydrophobic diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on glass surface. The film is formed with plasma treatment duration shorter than 30 s, and water contact angles larger than 90° together with contact angle hysteresis larger than 10° can be achieved. According to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis, hydrocarbon functional groups are created on the glass substrate, producing coatings with low surface energy (˜35 mJ m-2) with no modification of the surface roughness. To infer the plasma processes leading to the formation of low energy DLC surfaces, optical emission spectroscopy was used. From the results, a direct relationship between the CH species present in the plasma and the carbon concentration in the hydrophobic layer was found, which suggests that the CH species are the precursors of DLC film growth. Additionally, the plasma gas temperature was measured to be below 350 K which highlights the suitability of using AP-DBD to treat thermo-sensitive surfaces.

  14. Magnetic tunnel junctions utilizing diamond-like carbon tunnel barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadieu, F. J.; Chen, Li; Li, Biao

    2002-05-01

    We have devised a method whereby thin particulate-free diamond-like carbon films can be made with good adhesion onto even room-temperature substrates. The method employs a filtered ionized carbon beam created by the vacuum impact of a high-energy, approximately 1 J per pulse, 248 nm excimer laser onto a carbon target. The resultant deposition beam can be steered and deflected by magnetic and electric fields to paint a specific substrate area. An important aspect of this deposition method is that the resultant films are particulate free and formed only as the result of atomic species impact. The vast majority of magnetic tunnel junctions utilizing thin metallic magnetic films have employed a thin oxidized layer of aluminum to form the tunnel barrier. This has presented reproducibility problems because the indicated optimal barrier thickness is only approximately 13 Å thick. Magnetic tunnel junctions utilizing Co and permalloy films made by evaporation and sputtering have been fabricated with an intervening diamond-like carbon tunnel barrier. The diamond-like carbon thickness profile has been tapered so that seven junctions with different barrier thickness can be formed at once. Magnetoresistive (MR) measurements made between successive permalloy strip ends include contributions from two junctions and from the permalloy and Co strips that act as current leads to the junctions. Magnetic tunnel junctions with thicker carbon barriers exhibit MR effects that are dominated by that of the permalloy strips. Since these tunnel barriers are formed without the need for oxygen, complete tunnel junctions can be formed with all high-vacuum processing.

  15. Ultrasound treated potato peel and sweet lime pomace based biopolymer film development.

    PubMed

    Borah, Purba Prasad; Das, Pulak; Badwaik, Laxmikant S

    2017-05-01

    Treatment and management of food processing waste is a major challenge for food industry. Potato processing industry generates tremendous amount of peel and consider it as zero valued waste. Again, pomace generated after juice extraction from sweet lime pulp is considered as waste and not properly utilized. Whereas these waste could be utilized for the development of biodegradable packaging film to overcome environmental issues. Composite films were prepared with varying proportion of potato peel powder (PP) and sweet lime pomace (SLP) in the ratio of 0:1(A), 0.5:1(B), 1:1(C), 1:0.5(D), 1:0(E) with an ultrasound treatment of 45min, and 0:1(F), 0.5:1(G), 1:1(H), 1:0.5(I), 1:0(J) with an ultrasound treatment of 60min. Ultrasound was applied for 45 and 60min to film forming solutions to break down biopolymer particles small enough to form a film. All the films were analyzed for their barrier and mechanical properties. It was observed that increasing ultrasound treatment times gives better result in film properties and less PP content also gives better film properties, from these observations film G prepared with 0.5:1 (PP:SLP) showed better characteristics among all other films. Water vapor permeability, moisture absorption, water solubility, breakage strength and elongation capacity of G film were reported as 7.25×10 -9 g/Pahm, 12.88±0.348%, 38.92±0.702%, 242.01±3.074g and 7.61±0.824mm respectively. However, thermal decomposition for film G took place above 200°C. The film forming solution of selected G film, added with clove essential oil (1.5%) as an antimicrobial agent was wrapped on bread and stored it for 5days. The film was successful in lowering the weight loss, reducing the hardness and inhibition of surface microbial load from bread sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Temperature Mapping of Air Film-Cooled Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces Using Cr-Doped GdAlO3 Phosphor Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently shown that the high luminescence intensity from a Cr-doped GdAlO3 (Cr:GdAlO3) thermographic phosphor enables non-rastered full-field temperature mapping of thermal barrier coating (TBC) surfaces to temperatures above 1000C. In this presentation, temperature mapping by Cr:GdAlO3 based phosphor thermometry of air film-cooled TBC-coated surfaces is demonstrated for both scaled-up cooling hole geometries as well as for actual components in a burner rig test environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  17. Development of antioxidant packaging material by applying corn-zein to LLDPE film in combination with phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Ki Myong; You, Young-Sun; Kim, So Yeon; Han, Jaejoon

    2012-10-01

    Functional active packaging materials were successfully developed by incorporating antioxidant agents into corn-zein-laminated linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) film. The minimum effective concentrations of the active compounds (for example, thymol, carvacrol, eugenol) were determined and these compounds were then laminated into LLDPE films to develop corn-zein-laminated films with antioxidant agents. The release rate of antioxidant agents in gas and liquid media were determined along with the mechanical and water barrier properties of the films containing these compounds. Tensile strength and percentage elongation at break were reduced in the corn-zein-laminated LLDPE films when compared to typical LLDPE film. Furthermore, the ability of the corn-zein-laminated films to repel moisture decreased by approximately 12.2%, but was improved by incorporating hydrophobic antioxidant compounds in the corn-zein layer. Examination of release kinetics in the gas and liquid phases verified that antioxidants were effectively released from the films and inhibited oxidation during testing. Finally, the films were used for fresh ground beef packaging, and effectively inhibited lipid oxidation and had a positive effect on the color stability of beef patties during storage. These results indicate that the developed antioxidant films are a novel active packaging material that can be effectively implemented by the food industry to improve the quality and safety of foods. Zein protein, a by-product of corn processing industry, was laminated into plastic films in combination with natural phenolic compounds to develop antioxidant packaging films. The films demonstrated their efficient release patterns of antioxidant compounds, which are suitable for packaging applications and food protection. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Evaluation of the permeability of agricultural films to various fumigants.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yaorong; Kamel, Alaa; Stafford, Charles; Nguyen, Thuy; Chism, William J; Dawson, Jeffrey; Smith, Charles W

    2011-11-15

    A variety of agricultural films are commercially available for managing emissions and enhancing pest control during soil fumigation. These films are manufactured using different materials and processes which can ultimately result in different permeability to fumigants. A systematic laboratory study of the permeability of the agricultural films to nine fumigants was conducted to evaluate the performance of commonly used film products, including polyethylene, metalized, and high-barrier films. The permeability, as expressed by mass transfer coefficient (cm/h), of 27 different films from 13 manufacturers ranged from below 1 × 10(-4) cm/h to above 10 cm/h at 25 °C under ambient relative humidity test conditions. The wide range in permeability of commercially available films demonstrates the need to use films which are appropriate for the fumigation application. The effects of environmental factors, such as temperature and humidity, on the film permeability were also investigated. It was found that high relative humidity could drastically increase the permeability of the high-barrier films. The permeability of some high-barrier films was increased by 2-3 orders of magnitude when the films were tested at high relative humidity. Increasing the temperature from 25 to 40 °C increased the permeability for some high-barrier films up to 10 times more than the permeability at 25 °C, although the effect was minimal for several of these films. Analysis of the distribution of the permeability of the films under ambient humidity conditions to nine fumigants indicated that the 27 films largely followed the material type, although the permeability varied considerably among the films of similar material.

  19. Plastic Schottky barrier solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Waldrop, James R.; Cohen, Marshall J.

    1984-01-24

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped, intrinsically p-type organic semiconductor comprising polyacetylene. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a magnesium electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates the magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film.

  20. Laboratory and test-site testing of moisture-cured urethanes on steel in salt-rich environment.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-11-01

    Three 3-coat moisture-cured (MC) urethane commercial products formulated for protecting new steel (SSPC-SP 10) and power : tool-cleaned steel (SSPC-SP 3) surfaces against corrosion were evaluated; the total coating film thickness was about 75 : micro...

  1. Laboratory and test-site testing of moisture-cured urethanes on steel in salt-rich environment

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-12-01

    Three 3-coat moisture-cured (MC) urethane commercial products formulated for protecting new steel (SSPC-SP 10) and power tool-cleaned steel (SSPC-SP 3) surfaces against corrosion were evaluated; the total coating film thickness was about 75 microns. ...

  2. Data on physicochemical properties of active films derived from plantain flour/PCL blends developed under reactive extrusion conditions.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Tomy J; Alvarez, Vera A

    2017-12-01

    The data given below relates to the research paper entitled: "Eco-friendly films prepared from plantain flour/PCL blends under reactive extrusion conditions using zirconium octanoate as a catalyst", recently published by our research group [1]. This article provides information concerning the physicochemical properties of the above-mentioned film systems: thickness, density, opacity, moisture content and surface moisture.

  3. Electronic Devices with Diffusion Barrier and Process for Making Same

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-09

    conductivity metallization materials such as gold , silver, and platinum. As can be appreciated from the foregoing, a barrier film is needed which... gold ), as well as platinum. These metals are highly attractive 10 for interconnect strategies on account of there intrinsic low resistivity and...the monolayer portion of the barrier -7- material. The monolayer ( monoatomic ) layer of metal atoms and the homoepitaxial film of metal halide

  4. Impact of order of application of moisturizers on percutaneous absorption kinetics: evaluation of sequential application of moisturizer lotions and azelaic acid gel 15% using a human skin model.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Lehman, Paul A; Raney, Sam G

    2009-03-01

    The medical management of rosacea increasingly has involved not only the appropriate selection of topical medication but also patient education and specific recommendations regarding appropriate skin care. The recognition that epidermal barrier dysfunction and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) play a pathophysiologic role in rosacea and that skin moisturization may help to mitigate signs and symptoms of the disease has led to a deeper appreciation of the importance of proper skin care in the treatment of rosacea. Data from a percutaneous penetration study performed using human skin suggest that any of the tested moisturizer lotions may be applied either before or after azelaic acid gel 15% without a major change in the percutaneous absorption profile of azelaic acid.

  5. In-line multipoint near-infrared spectroscopy for moisture content quantification during freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Ari; Toiviainen, Maunu; Korhonen, Ossi; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Järvinen, Kristiina; Paaso, Janne; Juuti, Mikko; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2013-02-19

    During the past decade, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been applied for in-line moisture content quantification during a freeze-drying process. However, NIR has been used as a single-vial technique and thus is not representative of the entire batch. This has been considered as one of the main barriers for NIR spectroscopy becoming widely used in process analytical technology (PAT) for freeze-drying. Clearly it would be essential to monitor samples that reliably represent the whole batch. The present study evaluated multipoint NIR spectroscopy for in-line moisture content quantification during a freeze-drying process. Aqueous sucrose solutions were used as model formulations. NIR data was calibrated to predict the moisture content using partial least-squares (PLS) regression with Karl Fischer titration being used as a reference method. PLS calibrations resulted in root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) values lower than 0.13%. Three noncontact, diffuse reflectance NIR probe heads were positioned on the freeze-dryer shelf to measure the moisture content in a noninvasive manner, through the side of the glass vials. The results showed that the detection of unequal sublimation rates within a freeze-dryer shelf was possible with the multipoint NIR system in use. Furthermore, in-line moisture content quantification was reliable especially toward the end of the process. These findings indicate that the use of multipoint NIR spectroscopy can achieve representative quantification of moisture content and hence a drying end point determination to a desired residual moisture level.

  6. Reliability Improvement By Adopting Ti-barrier Metal For Porous Low-k ILD Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, A.; Yamashita, S.; Omoto, S.; Hatano, M.; Wada, J.; Higashi, K.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yosho, T.; Imamizu, K.; Yamada, M.; Hasunuma, M.; Takahashi, S.; Yamada, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Motoyama, K.; Tagami, M.; Kitano, T.; Kaneko, H.

    2007-10-01

    Titanium (Ti) has been proposed as an excellent barrier metal (BM) material for ULSI's Cu metallization from the stand point of two characteristics. One is the oxidation property, especially for the porous low-k ILD materials for 45 nm node device; the other is the interface behavior of Ti with Cu. Both stress induced voiding (SIV) suppression and one order longer electromigration (EM) lifetime were obtained by the adoption of Ti-BM instead of the conventional Tantalum (Ta)-BM. SIV failure is accelerated in porous low-k ILD by the following steps; 1) BM oxidation by the absorbed moisture in porous low-k ILD, 2) Adhesion degradation caused by the BM oxidation results in micro delamination of Cu film (void nucleation), 3) Void growth induced by the stress gradient in the Cu interconnect. It has been considered that the small volume change of Ti oxidation and the existence of metallic Ti-O solid-solution phase would be the reason for control of moisture penetration from the low-k ILD materials. In addition, Ti/Cu intermetallic reaction and the segregation of Ti atoms at Cu grain boundaries suppress Cu migration at BM/Cu interface and Cu grain boundaries, respectively. This is supported by higher EM activation energy of Cu line with Ti-BM than that with Ta-BM. These phenomena contribute to higher interconnect reliability.

  7. Cooling Effectiveness Measurements for Air Film Cooling of Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces in a Burner Rig Environment Using Phosphor Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. In this investigation, surface temperature mapping was performed using recently developed Cr-doped GdAlO3 phosphor thermometry. Measurements were performed in the NASA GRC Mach 0.3 burner rig on a TBC-coated plate using a scaled up cooling hole geometry where both the mainstream hot gas temperature and the blowing ratio were varied. Procedures for surface temperature and cooling effectiveness mapping of the air film-cooled TBC-coated surface are described. Applications are also shown for an engine component in both the burner rig test environment as well as an engine afterburner environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  8. Improvement of High-Temperature Stability of Al₂O₃/Pt/ZnO/Al₂O₃ Film Electrode for SAW Devices by Using Al₂O₃ Barrier Layer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingpeng; Peng, Bin; Zhang, Wanli; Zhu, Jun; Liu, Xingzhao; Wei, Meng

    2017-12-01

    In order to develop film electrodes for the surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices operating in harsh high-temperature environments, novel Al₂O₃/Pt/ZnO/Al₂O₃ multilayered film electrodes were prepared by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE) at 150 °C. The first Al₂O₃ layer was used as a barrier layer to prevent the diffusion of Ga, La, and Si atoms from the La₃Ga₅SiO 14 (LGS) substrate to the film electrode and thus improved the crystalline quality of ZnO and Pt films. It was found that the resistance of the Al₂O₃/Pt/ZnO/Al₂O₃ electrode did not vary up to a temperature of 1150 °C, suggesting a high reliability of electrode under harsh high-temperature environments. The mechanism of the stable resistance of the Al₂O₃/Pt/ZnO/Al₂O₃ film electrodes at high temperature was investigated by analyzing its microstructure. The proposed Al₂O₃/Pt/ZnO/Al₂O₃ film electrode has great potential for application in high-temperature SAW devices.

  9. Quantum Dot/Siloxane Composite Film Exceptionally Stable against Oxidation under Heat and Moisture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwea Yoon; Yoon, Da-Eun; Jang, Junho; Lee, Daewon; Choi, Gwang-Mun; Chang, Joon Ha; Lee, Jeong Yong; Lee, Doh C; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2016-12-21

    We report on the fabrication of a siloxane-encapsulated quantum dot (QD) film (QD-silox film), which exhibits stable emission intensity for over 1 month even at elevated temperature and humidity. QD-silox films are solidified via free radical addition reaction between oligosiloxane resin and ligand molecules on QDs. We prepare the QD-oligosiloxane resin by sol-gel condensation reaction of silane precursors with QDs blended in the precursor solution, forgoing ligand-exchange of QDs. The resulting QD-oligosiloxane resin remains optically clear after 40 days of storage, in contrast to other QD-containing resins which turn turbid and ultimately form sediments. QDs also disperse uniformly in the QD-silox film, whose photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) remains nearly unaltered under harsh conditions; for example, 85 °C/5% relative humidity (RH), 85 °C/85% RH, strongly acidic, and strongly basic environments for 40 days. The QD-silox film appears to remain equally emissive even after being immersed into boiling water (100 °C). Interestingly, the PL QY of the QD-silox film noticeably increases when the film is exposed to a moist environment, which opens a new, facile avenue to curing dimmed QD-containing films. Given its excellent stability, we envision that the QD-silox film is best suited in display applications, particularly as a PL-type down-conversion layer.

  10. Practical identification of moisture sources in building assemblies using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Gregory B.; Colantonio, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Water, in its various phases, in any environment other than desert (hot or cold) conditions, is the single most destructive element that causes deterioration of materials and failure of building assemblies. It is the key element present in the formation of mold and fungi that lead to indoor air quality problems. Water is the primary element that needs to be managed in buildings to ensure human comfort, health and safety. Under the right thermodynamic conditions the detection of moisture in its various states is possible through the use of infrared thermography for a large variety of building assemblies and materials. The difficulty is that moisture is transient and mobile from one environment to another via air movement, vapor pressure or phase change. Building materials and enclosures provide both repositories and barriers to this moisture movement. In real life steady state conditions do not exist for moisture within building materials and enclosures. Thus the detection of moisture is in a constant state of transition. Sometimes you will see it and sometimes you will not. Understanding the limitations at the time of inspection will go a long way to mitigating unsatisfied clients or difficult litigation. Moisture detection can be observed by IRT via three physical mechanisms; latent heat absorption or release during phase change; a change in conductive heat transfer; and a change in thermal capacitance. Complicating the three methodologies is the factor of variable temperature differentials and variable mass air flow on, through and around surfaces being inspected. Building enclosures come in variable assembly types and are designed to perform differently in different environmental regions. Sources for moisture accumulation will vary for different environmental conditions. Detection methodologies will change for each assembly type in different ambient environments. This paper will look at the issue of the methodologies for detection of the presence of moisture and

  11. Biodegradation of poly(hydroxy butanoic acid) copolymer mulch films in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukade, Pranav

    Agricultural mulch films that are used to cover soil of crop rows contribute to earlier maturation of crops and higher yield. Incineration and landfill disposals are the most common means of disposal of the incumbent polyethylene (PE) mulch films; however, these are not environment friendly options. Biodegradable mulch films that can be rototilled into the soil after crop harvest are a promising alternative to offset problems such as landfill disposal, film retrieval and disposal costs. In this study, an in-house laboratory scale test method was developed in which the rate of disintegration, as a result of biodegradation of films based on polyhydroxybutanoic acid (PHB) copolymers was investigated in a soil environment using the residual weight loss method. The influence of soil composition, moisture levels in the soil, and industry-standard anti-microbial additive in the film composition on the rate of disintegration of PHB copolymer films was investigated. The soil composition has significant effect on the disintegration kinetics of PHB copolymer films, since the increasing compost levels in the soil lowered the rate of disintegration of the film. Also, with the increase in moisture level up to a threshold limit, the microbial activity and, hence, the rate of disintegration increased. Lastly, the developed lab-scale test protocol was found to be sensitive to even small concentrations of industry-standard antimicrobial additive in the film composition.

  12. Liquid and vapour water transfer through whey protein/lipid emulsion films.

    PubMed

    Kokoszka, Sabina; Debeaufort, Frederic; Lenart, Andrzej; Voilley, Andree

    2010-08-15

    Edible films and coatings based on protein/lipid combinations are among the new products being developed in order to reduce the use of plastic packaging polymers for food applications. This study was conducted to determine the effect of rapeseed oil on selected physicochemical properties of cast whey protein films. Films were cast from heated (80 degrees C for 30 min) aqueous solutions of whey protein isolate (WPI, 100 g kg(-1) of water) containing glycerol (50 g kg(-1) of WPI) as a plasticiser and different levels of added rapeseed oil (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4% w/w of WPI). Measurements of film microstructure, laser light-scattering granulometry, differential scanning calorimetry, wetting properties and water vapour permeability (WVP) were made. The emulsion structure in the film suspension changed significantly during drying, with oil creaming and coalescence occurring. Increasing oil concentration led to a 2.5-fold increase in surface hydrophobicity and decreases in WVP and denaturation temperature (T(max)). Film structure and surface properties explain the moisture absorption and film swelling as a function of moisture level and time and consequently the WVP behaviour. Small amounts of rapeseed oil favourably affect the WVP of WPI films, particularly at higher humidities. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Enigmatic Moisture Effects on Al2O3 Scale and TBC Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Alumina scale adhesion to high temperature alloys is known to be affected primarily by sulfur segregation and reactive element additions. However, adherent scales can become partially compromised by excessive strain energy and cyclic cracking. With time, exposure of such scales to moisture can lead to spontaneous interfacial decohesion, occurring while the samples are maintained at ambient conditions. Examples of this Moisture-Induced Delayed Spallation (MIDS) are presented for NiCrAl and single crystal superalloys, becoming more severe with sulfur level and cyclic exposure conditions. Similarly, delayed failure or Desk Top Spallation (DTS) results are reviewed for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), culminating in the water drop failure test. Both phenomena are discussed in terms of moisture effects on bulk alumina and bulk aluminides. A mechanism is proposed based on hydrogen embrittlement and is supported by a cathodic hydrogen charging experiment. Hydroxylation of aluminum from the alloy interface appears to be the relevant basic reaction.

  14. Thin film encapsulation for flexible AM-OLED: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Seong; Chae, Heeyeop; Chung, Ho Kyoon; In Lee, Sang

    2011-03-01

    Flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) will be the ultimate display technology to customers and industries in the near future but the challenges are still being unveiled one by one. Thin-film encapsulation (TFE) technology is the most demanding requirement to prevent water and oxygen permeation into flexible OLED devices. As a polymer substrate does not offer the same barrier performance as glass, the TFE should be developed on both the bottom and top side of the device layers for sufficient lifetimes. This work provides a review of promising thin-film barrier technologies as well as the basic gas diffusion background. Topics include the significance of the device structure, permeation rate measurement, proposed permeation mechanism, and thin-film deposition technologies (Vitex system and atomic layer deposition (ALD)/molecular layer deposition (MLD)) for effective barrier films.

  15. Effect of moisture on the traction-separation behavior of cellulose nanocrystal interfaces

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sinko, Robert; Keten, Sinan, E-mail: s-keten@northwestern.edu; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Room A136, Evanston, Illinois 60208

    2014-12-15

    Interfaces and stress transfer between cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) dictate the mechanical properties of hierarchical cellulose materials such as neat films and nanocomposites. An interesting question that remains is how the behavior of these interfaces changes due to environmental stimuli, most notably moisture. We present analyses on the traction-separation behavior between Iβ CNC elementary fibrils, providing insight into how the presence of a single atomic layer of water at these interfaces can drastically change the mechanical behavior. We find that molecular water at the interface between hydrophilic CNC surfaces has a negligible effect on the tensile separation adhesion energy. However, whenmore » water cannot hydrogen bond easily to the surface (i.e., hydrophobic surface), it tends to maintain hydrogen bonds with other water molecules across the interface and form a capillary bridge that serves to increase the energy required to separate the crystals. Under shear loading, water lowers the energy barriers to sliding by reducing the atomic friction and consequently the interlayer shear modulus between crystals. Our simulations indicate that these nanoscale interfaces and physical phenomena such as interfacial adhesion, interlayer shear properties, and stick-slip friction behavior can be drastically altered by the presence of water.« less

  16. Surface pre-treatment for barrier coatings on polyethylene terephthalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahre, H.; Bahroun, K.; Behm, H.; Steves, S.; Awakowicz, P.; Böke, M.; Hopmann, Ch; Winter, J.

    2013-02-01

    Polymers have favourable properties such as light weight, flexibility and transparency. Consequently, this makes them suitable for food packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and flexible solar cells. Nonetheless, raw plastics do not possess sufficient barrier functionality against oxygen and water vapour, which is of paramount importance for most applications. A widespread solution is to deposit thin silicon oxide layers using plasma processes. However, silicon oxide layers do not always fulfil the requirements concerning adhesion and barrier performance when deposited on films. Thus, plasma pre-treatment is often necessary. To analyse the influence of a plasma-based pre-treatment on barrier performance, different plasma pre-treatments on three reactor setups were applied to a very smooth polyethylene terephthalate film before depositing a silicon oxide barrier layer. In this paper, the influence of oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatments towards the barrier performance is discussed examining the chemical and topological change of the film. It was observed that a short one-to-ten-second plasma treatment can reduce the oxygen transmission rate by a factor of five. The surface chemistry and the surface topography change significantly for these short treatment times, leading to an increased surface energy. The surface roughness rises slowly due to the development of small spots in the nanometre range. For very long treatment times, surface roughness of the order of the barrier layer's thickness results in a complete loss of barrier properties. During plasma pre-treatment, the trade-off between surface activation and roughening of the surface has to be carefully considered.

  17. Cytocompatibility of amorphous hydrogenated carbon nitride films deposited by CH4/N2 dielectric barrier discharge plasmas with respect to cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Abhijit; Schröder, Karsten; Hippler, Rainer

    2008-10-01

    Special amorphous hydrogenated carbon nitride (a-H-CNx) films have been prepared on glass substrates for the investigation of adhesion and proliferation of different mammalian cell lines. CH4/N2 dielectric barrier discharge plasmas were applied to deposit a-H-CNx coatings at half of the atmospheric pressure. Film quality was modified by varying the CH4:N2 ratio and deposition duration. Chemical composition was determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The N/C ratio was in the range of 0.20-0.55. A very small surface roughness was verified by atomic force microscopy. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) and rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were cultivated on the a-H-CNx films to investigate the cytocompatibility of these surfaces. The microscopic images show that both kinds of cells lines were unable to survive. The cells did not adhere to the surfaces, and most of the cells died after certain time spans. Increased amounts of nitrogen in the film induce an accelerated cell death. It is concluded, that the deposited CNx film behaves cytotoxic to HEK and PC12 cell lines.

  18. Films based on neutralized chitosan citrate as innovative composition for cosmetic application.

    PubMed

    Libio, Illen C; Demori, Renan; Ferrão, Marco F; Lionzo, Maria I Z; da Silveira, Nádya P

    2016-10-01

    In this work, citrate and acetate buffers, were investigated as neutralizers to chitosan salts in order to provide biocompatible and stable films. To choose the appropriate film composition for this study, neutralized chitosan citrate and acetate films, with and without the plasticizer glycerol, were prepared and characterized by thickness, moisture content, degree of swelling, total soluble matter in acid medium, simultaneous thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Chitosan films neutralized in citrate buffer showed greater physical integrity resulted from greater thicknesses, lower moisture absorbance, lower tendency to solubility in the acid medium, and better swelling capacities. According to thermal analyses, these films had higher interaction with water which is considered an important feature for cosmetic application. Since the composition prepared in citrate buffer without glycerol was considered to present better physical integrity, it was applied to investigate hyaluronic acid release in a skin model. Skins treated with those films, with or without hyaluronic acid, show stratum corneum desquamation and hydration within 10min. The results suggest that the neutralized chitosan citrate film prepared without glycerol promotes a cosmetic effect for skin exfoliation in the presence or absence of hyaluronic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum: a new source of carbohydrate to make a biodegradable film.

    PubMed

    Seyedi, Samira; Koocheki, Arash; Mohebbi, Mohebbat; Zahedi, Younes

    2014-01-30

    Microstructural, physical, mechanical and thermal properties of a novel biodegradable film based on Lepidium perfoliatum seed gum (LPSG) were investigated. LPSG films were successfully prepared by incorporation of four levels of glycerol (40%, 50%, 60% and 70%, w/w). As expected, increasing glycerol concentration from 40 to 70% (w/w), increased water vapor permeability (WVP), elongation at break (EB%), moisture content, moisture adsorption and water solubility of LPSG films; whilst, elastic modulus (EM), contact angle, melting point (Tm), enthalpy of melting (ΔHm) and glass transition point (Tg) decreased significantly. LPSG films became slightly greenish and yellowish in color but still transparent in appearance. The images taken from electron scanning microscopy indicated uniform surface, compact sheets with no holes or fracture. This study demonstrates that LPSG based films with desired properties can be obtained by adjusting glycerol content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Temperature dependence of the distribution of the thermally activated energy barriers in Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, C.; Lin, F. Y.; Ding, S. Y.; Li, Z. M.; Aruna, S. A.; Qiu, L.; Yao, X. X.; Yan, S. L.; Si, M. S.

    1999-06-01

    The effects of frequency and ac amplitude on ac susceptibility have been measured for a thin Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 film in the range 100 Hz-100 kHz in magnetic field 0.52 T. A phenomenological equation with an asymmetrical distribution of thermally activated energy barriers has been used to analyse these frequency and amplitude dependences of the ac susceptibility icons/Journals/Common/chi" ALT="chi" ALIGN="TOP"/>(icons/Journals/Common/omega" ALT="omega" ALIGN="TOP"/>,hac) in the vicinity of the peak temperature of icons/Journals/Common/chi" ALT="chi" ALIGN="TOP"/>´´. We obtain the effective energy barrier U against amplitude hac (current density j): Uicons/Journals/Common/propto" ALT="propto" ALIGN="TOP"/> hac-0.38. This U(j) relationship shows that the flux lines are in the 3D collective creep regime. Therefore, we conclude that the effective energy barrier is in fact an average of the barrier's distribution, and the distribution function is a distinguished asymmetrical one in this 3D collective creep regime.

  1. Plastic Schottky-barrier solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Waldrop, J.R.; Cohen, M.J.

    1981-12-30

    A photovoltaic cell structure is fabricated from an active medium including an undoped polyacetylene, organic semiconductor. When a film of such material is in rectifying contact with a metallic area electrode, a Schottky-barrier junction is obtained within the body of the cell structure. Also, a gold overlayer passivates a magnesium layer on the undoped polyacetylene film. With the proper selection and location of elements a photovoltaic cell structure and solar cell are obtained.

  2. Competitive Advantage Market Analysis | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Study An NREL market assessment of raw and intermediate materials, equipment, and products for equipment for c-Si PV Abundant raw materials for production of moisture barrier films, glass, aluminum

  3. COMPARING MOISTURE METER READINGS WITH MEASURED EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT OF GYPSUM BOARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Moisture meters routinely used in the field to determine the moisture content in gypsum wallboard are primarily designed and manufactured to measure the moisture content of wood. Often they are used to decide whether to replace wallboard by determining if moisture is qualitativel...

  4. Evaluation of Assimilated SMOS Soil Moisture Data for US Cropland Soil Moisture Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Zhengwei; Sherstha, Ranjay; Crow, Wade; Bolten, John; Mladenova, Iva; Yu, Genong; Di, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed soil moisture data can provide timely, objective and quantitative crop soil moisture information with broad geospatial coverage and sufficiently high resolution observations collected throughout the growing season. This paper evaluates the feasibility of using the assimilated ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS)Mission L-band passive microwave data for operational US cropland soil surface moisture monitoring. The assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are first categorized to match with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) survey based weekly soil moisture observation data, which are ordinal. The categorized assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are compared with NASSs survey-based weekly soil moisture data for consistency and robustness using visual assessment and rank correlation. Preliminary results indicate that the assimilated SMOS soil moisture data highly co-vary with NASS field observations across a large geographic area. Therefore, SMOS data have great potential for US operational cropland soil moisture monitoring.

  5. Correlation of film morphology and defect content with the charge-carrier transport in thin-film transistors based on ZnO nanoparticles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Polster, S.; Jank, M. P. M.; Frey, L.

    2016-01-14

    The correlation of defect content and film morphology with the charge-carrier transport in field-effect devices based on zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated. Changes in the defect content and the morphology were realized by annealing and sintering of the nanoparticle thin films. Temperature-dependent electrical measurements reveal that the carrier transport is thermally activated for both the unsintered and sintered thin films. Reduced energetic barrier heights between the particles have been determined after sintering. Additionally, the energetic barrier heights between the particles can be reduced by increasing the drain-to-source voltage and the gate-to-source voltage. The changes in the barrier height are discussedmore » with respect to information obtained by scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements. It is found that a reduction of surface states and a lower roughness at the interface between the particle layer and the gate dielectric lead to lower barrier heights. Both surface termination and layer morphology at the interface affect the barrier height and thus are the main criteria for mobility improvement and device optimization.« less

  6. Suppression of interfacial voids formation during silane (SiH4)-based silicon oxide bonding with a thin silicon nitride capping layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang Hong; Bao, Shuyu; Wang, Yue; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Seng Tan, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    The material properties and bonding behavior of silane-based silicon oxide layers deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition were investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed to determine the chemical composition of the silicon oxide films. The incorporation of hydroxyl (-OH) groups and moisture absorption demonstrates a strong correlation with the storage duration for both as-deposited and annealed silicon oxide films. It is observed that moisture absorption is prevalent in the silane-based silicon oxide film due to its porous nature. The incorporation of -OH groups and moisture absorption in the silicon oxide films increase with the storage time (even in clean-room environments) for both as-deposited and annealed silicon oxide films. Due to silanol condensation and silicon oxidation reactions that take place at the bonding interface and in the bulk silicon, hydrogen (a byproduct of these reactions) is released and diffused towards the bonding interface. The trapped hydrogen forms voids over time. Additionally, the absorbed moisture could evaporate during the post-bond annealing of the bonded wafer pair. As a consequence, defects, such as voids, form at the bonding interface. To address the problem, a thin silicon nitride capping film was deposited on the silicon oxide layer before bonding to serve as a diffusion barrier to prevent moisture absorption and incorporation of -OH groups from the ambient. This process results in defect-free bonded wafers.

  7. Moisture and Structural Analysis for High Performance Hybrid Wall Assemblies

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-09-01

    Based on past experience in the Building America program, BSC has found that combinations of materials and approaches—in other words, systems—usually provide optimum performance. Integration is necessary, as described in this research project. The hybrid walls analyzed utilize a combination of exterior insulation, diagonal metal strapping, and spray polyurethane foam and leave room for cavity-fill insulation. These systems can provide effective thermal, air, moisture, and water barrier systems in one assembly and provide structure.

  8. Moisturizers for Acne

    PubMed Central

    Chularojanamontri, Leena; Tuchinda, Papapit; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai

    2014-01-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects almost all teenagers. Different treatments offer different modes of action, but aim to target acne pathology. Topical therapies, such as benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics with alcohol-based preparations, and salicylic acid, can cause skin irritation resulting in a lack of patient adherence. Some physicians recommend patients use moisturizers as adjunctive treatment of acne, especially when either topical benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid is prescribed. Furthermore, some evidence shows that moisturizers can contribute independently to improve signs and symptoms of acne. Moisturizers contain three main properties, which are occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Currently, many moisturizers claim to be suitable for acne treatment. This article aims to provide a review of the active ingredients and properties of those moisturizers. Fifty-two moisturizers for acne were included for analysis. Most of the products (92%) have anti-inflammatory properties apart from occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Anti-acne medications, including salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and retinol, were found respectively in 35, 10, and 8 percent of the moisturizer products containing anti-inflammatory properties. More than half of the products contain dimethicone and/or glycerin for its moisturizer property. Aloe vera and witch hazel are botanical anti-inflammatories that were commonly found in this study. Scientific data regarding some ingredients are discussed to provide a guide for physicians in selecting moisturizers for acne patients. PMID:24847408

  9. Moisture-Induced Alumina Scale Spallation: The Hydrogen Factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2009-01-01

    For some time our community has been concerned with interfacial spallation of protective alumina scales, not just upon immediate cooldown, but as a time-delayed phenomenon. Moisture-induced delayed spallation (MIDS) and desktop spallation (DTS) of TBC's refer to this process. It is most apparent for relatively adherent alumina scales that have survived cool down in a dry environment, built up considerable thickness and strain energy, and have been somewhat damaged, such as by cyclic oxidation cracking. Indeed, a "sweet zone" can be defined that maximizes the observed effect as a function of all the relevant factors. Moisture has been postulated to serve as a source of interfacial hydrogen embrittlement derived from reaction with aluminum in the alloy at an exposed interface. The purpose of this monograph is to trace the close analogy of this phenomenon to other hydrogen effects, such as embrittlement of aluminides and blistering of alloys and anodic alumina films. A formalized, top-down, logic tree structure is presented as a guide to this discussion. A theoretical basis for interfacial weakening by hydrogen is first cited, as are demonstrations of hydrogen as a reaction product or detected interfacial species. Further support is provided by critical experiments that produce the same moisture effect, but by isolating hydrogen from other potential causative factors. These experiments include tests in H2-containing atmospheres or cathodic hydrogen charging.

  10. Physicochemical properties of sugar palm starch film: Effect of concentration and plasticizer type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, D. J.; Apriyana, W.; Jatmiko, T. H.; Hernawan; Hayati, S. N.; Rosyida, V. T.; Pranoto, Y.; Poeloengasih, C. D.

    2017-07-01

    In order to find the best formula for capsule shell production, this present work dealt with exploring physicochemical properties of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch film as a function of different kinds and various concentrations of plasticizers. The films were prepared by casting method at different formula: starch 9-11%, glycerol or sorbitol 35-45% and polyethylene-glycol 400 (PEG 400) 5-9%. Appearance, thickness, retraction ratio, moisture content, swelling behavior and solubility of the film in water were analyzed. Both glycerol and sorbitol are compatible with starch matrix. On the contrary, PEG 400 did not form a film with suitable characteristics. The result reveals that glycerol- and sorbitol-plasticized films appeared translucent, homogenous, smooth and slightly brown in all formulas. Different type and concentration of plasticizers altered the physicochemical of film in different ways. The sorbitol-plasticized film had lower moisture content (≤ 10%) than that of glycerol-plasticized film (≥ 18%). In contrast, film plasticized with sorbitol showed higher solubility in water (28-35%) than glycerol-plasticized film (22-28%). As the concentration of both plasticizers increased, there was an increasing tendency on thickness and solubility in water. Conversely, retraction ratio and swelling degree decreased when both plasticizers concentration increased. In conclusion, the sorbitol-plasticized film showed a potency to be developed as hard capsule material.

  11. Multiscale soil moisture estimates using static and roving cosmic-ray soil moisture sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJannet, David; Hawdon, Aaron; Baker, Brett; Renzullo, Luigi; Searle, Ross

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture plays a critical role in land surface processes and as such there has been a recent increase in the number and resolution of satellite soil moisture observations and the development of land surface process models with ever increasing resolution. Despite these developments, validation and calibration of these products has been limited because of a lack of observations on corresponding scales. A recently developed mobile soil moisture monitoring platform, known as the rover, offers opportunities to overcome this scale issue. This paper describes methods, results and testing of soil moisture estimates produced using rover surveys on a range of scales that are commensurate with model and satellite retrievals. Our investigation involved static cosmic-ray neutron sensors and rover surveys across both broad (36 × 36 km at 9 km resolution) and intensive (10 × 10 km at 1 km resolution) scales in a cropping district in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia. We describe approaches for converting rover survey neutron counts to soil moisture and discuss the factors controlling soil moisture variability. We use independent gravimetric and modelled soil moisture estimates collected across both space and time to validate rover soil moisture products. Measurements revealed that temporal patterns in soil moisture were preserved through time and regression modelling approaches were utilised to produce time series of property-scale soil moisture which may also have applications in calibration and validation studies or local farm management. Intensive-scale rover surveys produced reliable soil moisture estimates at 1 km resolution while broad-scale surveys produced soil moisture estimates at 9 km resolution. We conclude that the multiscale soil moisture products produced in this study are well suited to future analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals and finer-scale soil moisture models.

  12. NITRILE ELASTOMER-NYLON LAMINATES INCLUDING BARRIER FILMS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ADHESIVES, *NYLON, *NITRILE RUBBER , LAMINATES, LAMINATES, FILMS, TEXTILES, RUBBER COATINGS, BUTADIENES, ACRYLONITRILE POLYMERS, BONDING, ADHESION... DEGRADATION , MOISTUREPROOFING, PHENOLIC PLASTICS, HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS, ISOCYANATES, CURING AGENTS, ELASTOMERS.

  13. Moisture Budget of the MJO over the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. E.; Zhang, C.; Kiladis, G. N.; Bechtold, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Maritime Continent (MC) often acts as a barrier for the eastward propagation of the MJO originating from the Indian Ocean (IO). Convective anomalies associated with the MJO tend to weaken over the MC, and MJO convection sometimes fails to pass through the MC. MJO events observed during the DYNAMO field campaign during late 2011 to early 2012 are not an exception in this regard. Modulation of convection for DYNAMO MJOs over the MC is investigated using moisture budget analysis of a reforecast product by the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). Vertical profiles of diabatic drying and heating by physical processes from convection, microphysics, and radiation schemes in IFS under the weak temperature gradient (WTG) environment enable us to estimate vertically resolved processes that control local moistening and drying associated with the MJO. We will compare three-dimensional moisture budgets over the IO and MC to understand which processes contribute to the changes in the MJO propagation and intensity over the MC.

  14. Mesquite root distribution and water use efficiency in response to long-term soil moisture manipulations

    Treesearch

    R. J. Ansley; T. W. Boutton; P. W. Jacoby

    2007-01-01

    This study quantified honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) root growth and water use efficiency following chronic soil drought or wetness on a clay loam site in north Texas. Root systems of mature trees were containerized with barriers inserted into the soil. Soil moisture within containers was manipulated with irrigation (Irrigated) or rain...

  15. Evaluation of Electroplated Co-P Film as Diffusion Barrier Between In-48Sn Solder and SiC-Dispersed Bi2Te3 Thermoelectric Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Siyang; Yang, Donghua; Tan, Qing; Li, Liangliang

    2015-06-01

    The diffusion barrier property of Co-P film as a buffer layer between SiC-dispersed Bi2Te3 bulk material and In-48Sn solder was investigated. A Co-P film with thickness of ~6 µm was electroplated on SiC-dispersed Bi2Te3 substrate, joined with In-48Sn solder by a reflow process, and annealed at 100°C for up to 625 h. The formation and growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the interface between the In-48Sn and substrate were studied using transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The results showed that crystalline Co(In,Sn)3 formed as an irregular layer adjacent to the solder side at the solder/Co-P interface due to diffusion of Co towards the solder, and a small amount of amorphous Co45P13In12Sn30 appeared at the Co-P side because of diffusion of In and Sn into Co-P. The growth of Co(In,Sn)3 and Co45P13In12Sn30 during solid-state aging was slow, being controlled by interfacial reaction and diffusion, respectively. For comparison, In-48Sn/Bi2Te3-SiC joints were prepared and the IMCs in the joints analyzed. Without a diffusion barrier, In penetrated rapidly into the substrate, which led to the formation of amorphous In x Bi y phase in crystalline In4Te3 matrix. These IMCs grew quickly with prolongation of the annealing time, and their growth was governed by volume diffusion of elements. The experimental data demonstrate that electroplated Co-P film is an effective diffusion barrier for use in Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric modules.

  16. Hygroscopic Swelling Determination of Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC) Films by Polarized Light Microscopy Digital Image Correlation.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Shikha; Diaz, Jairo A; Ghanbari, Siavash; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2017-05-08

    The coefficient of hygroscopic swelling (CHS) of self-organized and shear-oriented cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films was determined by capturing hygroscopic strains produced as result of isothermal water vapor intake in equilibrium. Contrast enhanced microscopy digital image correlation enabled the characterization of dimensional changes induced by the hygroscopic swelling of the films. The distinct microstructure and birefringence of CNC films served in exploring the in-plane hygroscopic swelling at relative humidity values ranging from 0% to 97%. Water vapor intake in CNC films was measured using dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) at constant temperature. The obtained experimental moisture sorption and kinetic profiles were analyzed by fitting with Guggenheim, Anderson, and deBoer (GAB) and Parallel Exponential Kinetics (PEK) models, respectively. Self-organized CNC films showed isotropic swelling, CHS ∼0.040 %strain/%C. By contrast, shear-oriented CNC films exhibited an anisotropic swelling, resulting in CHS ∼0.02 and ∼0.30 %strain/%C, parallel and perpendicular to CNC alignment, respectively. Finite element analysis (FEA) further predicted moisture diffusion as the predominant mechanism for swelling of CNC films.

  17. Biodegradable films produced from the bacterial polysaccharide FucoPol.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana R V; Torres, Cristiana A V; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M; Alves, Vítor D; Coelhoso, Isabel M

    2014-11-01

    FucoPol, an exopolysaccharide produced by Enterobacter A47, grown in bioreactor with glycerol as carbon source, was used with citric acid to obtain biodegradable films by casting. The films were characterized in terms of optical, hygroscopic, mechanical and barrier properties. These films have shown to be transparent, but with a brown tone, imparting small colour changes when applied over coloured surfaces. They were hydrophilic, with high permeability to water vapour (1.01×10(-11)mol/msPa), but presented good barrier properties to oxygen and carbon dioxide (0.7×10(-16)molm/m(2)sPa and 42.7×10(-16)molm/m(2)sPa, respectively). Furthermore, films have shown mechanical properties under tensile tests characteristic of ductile films with high elongation at break, low tension at break and low elastic modulus. Although the obtained results are promising, films properties can be improved, namely by testing alternative plasticizers, crosslinking agents and blends with other biopolymers. Taking into account the observed ductile mechanical properties, good barrier properties to gases when low water content is used and their hydrophilic character, it is foreseen a good potential for FucoPol films to be incorporated as inner layer of a multilayer packaging material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of soil moisture ocean salinity (SMOS) satellite soil moisture products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The surface soil moisture state controls the partitioning of precipitation into infiltration and runoff. High-resolution observations of soil moisture will lead to improved flood forecasts, especially for intermediate to large watersheds where most flood damage occurs. Soil moisture is also key in d...

  19. Changes induced by UV radiation in the presence of sodium benzoate in films formulated with polyvinyl alcohol and carboxymethyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Villarruel, S; Giannuzzi, L; Rivero, S; Pinotti, A

    2015-11-01

    This work was focused on: i) developing single and blend films based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) studying their properties, ii) analyzing the interactions between CMC and PVOH and their modifications UV-induced in the presence of sodium benzoate (SB), and iii) evaluating the antimicrobial capacity of blend films containing SB with and without UV treatment. Once the blend films with SB were exposed to UV radiation, they exhibited lower moisture content as well as a greater elongation at break and rougher surfaces compared to those without treatment. Considering oxygen barrier properties, the low values obtained would allow their application as packaging with selective oxygen permeability. Moreover, the characteristics of the amorphous phase of the matrix prevailed with a rearrangement of the structure of the polymer chain, causing a decrease of the crystallinity degree. These results were supported by X-rays and DSC analysis. FT-IR spectra reflected some degree of polymer-polymer interaction at a molecular level in the amorphous regions. The incorporation of sodium benzoate combined with UV treatment in blend films was positive from the microbial point of view because of the growth inhibition of a wide spectrum of microorganisms. From a physicochemical perspective, the UV treatment of films also changed their morphology rendering them more insoluble in water, turning the functionalized blend films into a potential material to be applied as food packaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Real-time monitoring of moisture levels in wound dressings in vitro: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    McColl, David; Cartlidge, Brian; Connolly, Patricia

    2007-10-01

    Retaining an appropriate level of moisture at the interface between a healing wound and an applied dressing is considered to be critical for effective wound healing. Failure to control exudate at this interface can result in maceration or drying out of the wound surface. The ability to control moisture balance at the wound interface is therefore a key aspect of wound dressing performance. To date it has not been possible to monitor in any effective manner the distribution of moisture within dressings or how this varies with time. A new measurement system is presented based on sensors placed at the wound/dressing interface which are capable of monitoring moisture levels in real time. The system comprises a model wound bed and sensor array complete with fluid injection path to mimic exudate flow. Eight monitoring points, situated beneath the test dressing, allow the moisture profile across the complete dressing to be measured both during and after fluid injection. The system has been used to evaluate the performance of four foam dressings, a composite hydrofibre dressing and a film dressing. Stark contrasts in the performance of the wound contact layer were found between the different wound dressing types. The composite hydrofibre dressing retained moisture at the wound interface throughout the experiments while areas of the foam dressing quickly became dry, even during constant injection of fluid. The abundance of sensors allowed a moisture map of the surface of the wound dressing to be constructed, illustrating that the moisture profile was not uniform across several of the dressings tested during absorption and evaporation of liquid. These results raise questions as to how the dressings behave on a wound in vivo and indicate the need for a similar clinical monitoring system for tracking wound moisture levels.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of a barrier-strengthening moisturizing cream as maintenance therapy vs. no treatment after an initial steroid course in patients with atopic dermatitis in Sweden--with model applications for Denmark, Norway and Finland.

    PubMed

    Hjalte, F; Asseburg, C; Tennvall, G R

    2010-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) affects health and quality of life and it has great impact on both health-care costs and costs to the society. The objective of this study was to develop a model to analyse the cost-effectiveness of a barrier-strengthening moisturizing cream as maintenance therapy compared with no treatment after initial treatment with betamethasone valerate in adult patients with AD in Sweden. A further aim was to apply a similar health-economic analysis for Denmark, Norway and Finland. A Markov simulation model was developed including data from three sources: (i) efficacy data from a randomized controlled trial including patients with moderate AD treated with either a moisturizing cream or no treatment, (ii) resource utilization and quality of life data, and (iii) unit prices from official price lists. A societal perspective was used and the analysis was performed according to treatment practice in Sweden. The model simulation was also applied for Denmark, Norway and Finland with inclusion of country-specific unit costs. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. The results from the present analyses of treatment for patients with moderate AD indicate that maintenance treatment with a moisturizing cream during eczema-free periods could be cost-effective in a societal perspective. Similar results were obtained for Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. According to the analysis, treatment with a moisturizing cream was found to be a cost-effective option compared with no treatment in eczema-free periods in adult patients with AD in the four Nordic countries.

  2. A new radiochromic dosimeter film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidney, L. N.; Lynch, D. C.; Willet, P. S.

    By employing acid-sensitive leuco dyes in a chlorine-containing polymer matrix, a new radiochromic dosimeter film has been developed for gamma, electron beam, and ultraviolet radiation. These dosimeter films undergo a color change from colorless to royal blue, red fuchsia, or black, depending on dye selection, and have been characterized using a visible spectrophotometer over an absorbed dose range of 1 to 100 kGy. The primary features of the film are improved color stability before and after irradiation, whether stored in the dark or under artificial lights, and improved moisture resistance. The effects of absorbed dose, dose rate, and storage conditions on dosimeter performance are discussed. The dosimeter material may be produced as a free film or coated onto a transparent substrate and optionally backed with adhesive. Potential applications for these materials include gamma sterilization indicator films for food and medical products, electron beam dosimeters, and in-line radiation monitors for electron beam and ultraviolet processing.

  3. Fiber optic moisture sensor with moisture-absorbing reflective target

    DOEpatents

    Kirkham, Randy R.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  4. Determination of the moisture content of bromobutyl rubber stoppers as a function of processing: implications for the stability of lyophilized products.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Allen C; Placek, Jiri; Xu, Hui; Mahajan, Rajiv; Hunke, William A; Reed, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to apply and contrast several analytical techniques to understand the change in moisture content of 20 mm diameter bromobutyl rubber stoppers as a function of typical stopper processing conditions. Three separate methods were examined and Karl-Fischer titration and techniques based on capacitance measurements at a thin-film sensor were found to provide comparable results. Stopper moisture levels were examined in stoppers: (i) as received from the manufacturer, (ii) following steam sterilization, (iii) as a function of various drying cycles, and (iv) during simulated hold conditions prior to use. Finally, the transfer of moisture from stopper to an actual product is examined on storage and general agreement observed between stopper drying conditions and cake moisture levels.

  5. MoisturEC: a new R program for moisture content estimation from electrical conductivity data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data‐analysis tools are needed to “translate” geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user‐friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil‐moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two‐ and three‐dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach.

  6. Characterization of the new biodegradable WPI/clay nanocomposite films based on kefiran exopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Zolfi, Mohsen; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mousavi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Maryam

    2015-06-01

    Physico-mechanical, thermal and structural characteristics of nanocomposite film composed of kefiran-whey protein isolate (WPI)-montmorillonite (MMT; 1, 3 and 5 % w/w) were studied. Incorporation of MMT significantly affected the mechanical attributes of the kefiran-WPI films. The tensile strength and Young's modulus increased and the percentage of elongation at break decreased as the MMT content increased. Moisture content, moisture absorption and water solubility decreased as the MMT concentration increased. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the glass transition temperature for kefiran-WPI film was -12.5 °C and was noticeably affected by an increase in MMT. X-ray diffraction analysis showed formation of an exfoliated structure with the addition of small amounts of MMT to the kefiran-WPI matrix. Intercalation and some exfoliation occurred up to 5 % (wt) increase in MMT. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated ideal dispersion for MMT nanoparticles into the structure of the bio-nanocomposite films.

  7. Coating processes for increasing the moisture resistance of polyurethane baffle material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Sawko, P.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted with the objective to improve the hydrolytic stability of reticulated polyurethane baffle material. This material is used in fuel tanks of aircraft and ground vehicles. The most commonly used foam of this type is hydrolytically unstable. Potential moisture barrier coatings which were evaluated include Parylene, epoxy-polysulfide, polyether based polyurethanes, polysulfides, polyolefin rubbers, and several other materials. Parylene coatings of at least 0.2 mil were found to provide the greatest improvement in hydrolytic stability.

  8. Mechanical and Tear Properties of Fabric/Film Laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Said, Magdi A.

    1998-01-01

    Films reinforced with woven fabrics are being considered for the development of a material suitable for long duration scientific balloons under a program managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Recently developed woven fabrics provide a relatively high strength to weight ratio compared to standard homogenous films. Woven fabrics also have better crack propagation resistance and rip stop capabilities when compared to homogenous lightweight, high strength polymeric films such as polyester and nylon. If joining is required, such as in the case of scientific balloons, woven fabrics have the advantage over polymeric thin films to utilize traditional textile methods as well as other techniques including hot sealing, adhesion, and ultrasonic means. Woven fabrics, however, lack the barrier properties required for helium filled scientific balloons, therefore lamination with homogenous films is required to provide the gas barrier capabilities required in these applications.

  9. Effect of protein and glycerol concentration on the mechanical, optical, and water vapor barrier properties of canola protein isolate-based edible films.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chang; Nickerson, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable edible films prepared using proteins are both economically and environmentally important to the food packaging industry relative to traditional petroleum-derived synthetic materials. In the present study, the mechanical and water vapor barrier properties of casted canola protein isolate edible films were investigated as a function of protein (5.0% and 7.5%) and glycerol (30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50%) content. Specifically, tensile strength and elongation, elastic modulus, puncture strength and deformation, opacity, and water vapor permeability were measured. Results indicated that tensile strength, puncture strength, and elastic modulus decreased, while tensile elongation and puncture deformation values increased as glycerol concentration increased for both 5.0% and 7.5% canola protein isolate films. Furthermore, tensile strength, puncture strength, and elastic modulus values were found to increase at higher protein concentrations within the canola protein isolate films, whereas puncture deformation values decreased. Tensile elongation was found to be similar for both canola protein isolate protein levels. Canola protein isolate films became more transparent with increasing of glycerol concentration and decreasing of canola protein isolate concentration. Water vapor permeability value was also found to increase with increasing glycerol and protein contents. Overall, results indicated that canola protein isolate films were less brittle, more malleable and transparent, and had greater water vapor permeability at higher glycerol levels. However, as protein level increased, canola protein isolate films were more brittle, less malleable and more opaque, and also had increased water vapor permeability. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. MoisturEC: A New R Program for Moisture Content Estimation from Electrical Conductivity Data.

    PubMed

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Werkema, Dale; Lane, John W

    2018-03-06

    Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data-analysis tools are needed to "translate" geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user-friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil-moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two- and three-dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Effects of thermally induced denaturation on technological-functional properties of whey protein isolate-based films.

    PubMed

    Schmid, M; Krimmel, B; Grupa, U; Noller, K

    2014-09-01

    This study examined how and to what extent the degree of denaturation affected the technological-functional properties of whey protein isolate (WPI)-based coatings. It was observed that denaturation affected the material properties of WPI-coated films significantly. Surface energy decreased by approximately 20% compared with native coatings. Because the surface energy of a coating should be lower than that of the substrate, this might result in enhanced wettability characteristics between WPI-based solution and substrate surface. Water vapor barrier properties increased by about 35% and oxygen barrier properties increased by approximately 33%. However, significant differences were mainly observed between coatings made of fully native WPI and ones with a degree of denaturation of 25%. Higher degrees of denaturation did not lead to further improvement of material properties. This observation offers cost-saving potential: a major share of denatured whey proteins may be replaced by fully native ones that are not exposed to energy-intensive heat treatment. Furthermore, native WPI solutions can be produced with higher dry matter content without gelatinizing. Hence, less moisture has to be removed through drying, resulting in reduced energy consumption. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Controlled Release of Antimicrobial ClO2 Gas from a Two-Layer Polymeric Film System.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhifeng; Cristancho, Diego E; Rachford, Aaron A; Reder, Amy L; Williamson, Alexander; Grzesiak, Adam L

    2016-11-16

    We report a two-component label system comprising a chlorite-containing polymer film and an acid-containing polymer film that can release antimicrobial ClO 2 gas upon adhering the two films together to enable a reaction of the chlorite and acid under moisture exposure. The chlorite-containing film comprises a commercial acrylate-based pressure-sensitive adhesive polymer impregnated with sodium chlorite. The acid-containing film comprises a commercial poly(vinyl alcohol) polymer loaded with tartaric acid. Both of the films were prepared on low ClO 2 -absorbing substrate films from stable aqueous systems of the polymers with high reagent loading. Rapid and sustained releases of significant amounts of ClO 2 gas from the label system were observed in an in situ quantification system using UV-vis spectroscopy. It was found that the ClO 2 release is slower at a lower temperature and can be accelerated by moisture in the atmosphere and the films. Controlled release of ClO 2 gas from the label system was demonstrated by tailoring film composition and thickness. A model was developed to extract release kinetics and revealed good conversions of the label system. This two-component system can potentially be applied as a two-part label without premature release for applications in food packaging.

  13. Preparation and characterization of chitosan-based antimicrobial active food packaging film incorporated with apple peel polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Asad; Lei, Shicheng; Akhtar, Hafiz Muhammad Saleem; Wan, Peng; Chen, Dan; Jabbar, Saqib; Abid, Muhammad; Hashim, Malik Muhammad; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2018-07-15

    In the present study, apple peel polyphenols (APP) were incorporated into chitosan (CS) to develop a novel functional film. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses were performed to study the structure, potential interaction and thermal stability of the prepared films. Physical properties including moisture content, density, color, opacity, water solubility, swelling ration and water vapor permeability were measured. The results revealed that addition of APP into CS significantly improved the physical properties of the film by increasing its thickness, density, solubility, opacity and swelling ratio whereas moisture content and water vapor permeability were decreased. Tensile strength and elongation at break of the CS-APP film with 1% APP was 16.48MPa and 13.33%, respectively, significantly lower than those for CS control film. Thermal stability of the prepared films was decreased while antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the CS-based APP film were significantly increased. CS-APP film with 0.50% APP concentration exhibited good mechanical and antimicrobial properties, indicating that it could be developed as bio-composite food packaging material for the food industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Storage stability and improvement of intermediate moisture foods, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for improvement of shelf-life stability of intermediate moisture foods are considered. It was found that vitamin C is the most limiting vitamin from a nutritional standpoint with its rate of destruction increasing with a sub w. Techniques for microbial challenge studies were developed. It was shown that organisms have a higher growth a sub w limit if the IMF is prepared by the adsorption process and long times are needed for challenge studies. Several alternative antimycotic systems were found. It was also found that the vegetative cells of pathogens have a maximum heat resistance in the IMF a sub w range. If glycols are in the formula, the IMF should have as high an a sub w as possible. The reverse is true if lipid oxidation occurs. In addition, to prevent rancidity, antioxidants and a low O2 atmosphere are necessary. The package also must be a good moisture barrier.

  15. One Single Graphene Oxide Film for Responsive Actuation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Huhu; Zhao, Fei; Xue, Jiangli; Shi, Gaoquan; Jiang, Lan; Qu, Liangti

    2016-09-22

    Graphene, because of its superior electrical/thermal conductivity, high surface area, excellent mechanical flexibility, and stability, is currently receiving significant attention and benefit to fabricate actuator devices. Here, a sole graphene oxide (GO) film responsive actuator with an integrated self-detecting sensor has been developed. The film exhibits an asymmetric surface structure on its two sides, creating a promising actuation ability triggered by multistimuli, such as moisture, thermals, and infrared light. Meanwhile, the built-in laser-writing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sensor in the film can detect its own deformation in real time. Smart perceptual fingers in addition to rectangular-shaped and even four-legged walking robots have been developed based on the responsive GO film.

  16. Surface treatment of polypropylene (PP) film by 50 Hz dielectric barrier discharge produced in air and argon/air mixture at atmospheric pressure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Joshi, Ujjwal Man, E-mail: umjoshi@gmail.com; Subedi, Deepak Prasad, E-mail: deepaksubedi2001@yahoo.com

    Thin films of polypropylene (PP) are treated for improving hydrophilicity using non-thermal plasma generated by 50 Hz line frequency dielectric barrier discharge produced in air and argon/air mixture at atmospheric pressure. PP samples before and after the treatments are studied using contact angle measurements, surface free energy calculations and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Distilled water (H{sub 2}O), glycerol (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}O{sub 3}) and diiodomethane (CH{sub 2}I{sub 2}) are used as test liquids. The contact angle measurements between test liquids and PP samples are used to determine total surface free energy using sessile drop technique. PP films show a remarkable increase inmore » surface free energy after plasma treatment. SEM analysis of the plasma-treated PP films shows that plasma treatment introduces greater roughness on the surface leading to the increased surface free energy. Furthermore, it is found that introducing a small quantity of argon can enhance the surface treatment remarkably.« less

  17. Silicon oxide permeation barrier coating of PET bottles and foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steves, Simon; Deilmann, Michael; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Modern packaging materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have displaced established materials in many areas of food and beverage packaging. Plastic packing materials offer are various advantages concerning production and handling. PET bottles for instance are non-breakable and lightweight compared to glass and metal containers. However, PET offers poor barrier properties against gas permeation. Therefore, the shelf live of packaged food is reduced. Permeation of gases can be reduced by depositing transparent plasma polymerized silicon oxide (SiOx) barrier coatings. A microwave (2.45 GHz) driven low pressure plasma reactor is developed based on a modified Plasmaline antenna to treat PET foils or bottles. To increase the barrier properties of the coatings furthermore a RF substrate bias (13.56 MHz) is applied. The composition of the coatings is analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy regarding carbon and hydrogen content. Influence of gas phase composition and substrate bias on chemical composition of the coatings is discussed. A strong relation between barrier properties and film composition is found: good oxygen barriers are observed as carbon content is reduced and films become quartz-like. Regarding oxygen permeation a barrier improvement factor (BIF) of 70 is achieved.

  18. Skin moisturization by hydrogenated polyisobutene--quantitative and visual evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Nava; Sivalenka, Rajarajeswari; Chase, John

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogenated polyisobutene (HP) is used in topically applied cosmetic/personal care formulations as an emollient that leaves a pleasing skin feel when applied, and rubbed in after application. This effect, although distinguishable to the user, is difficult to define and quantify. Recognizing that some of the physical properties of HP such as film formation and wear resistance may contribute, in certain mechanisms, to skin moisturization, we designed a short-term pilot study to follow changes in skin moisturization. HP's incorporation into an o/w emulsion at 8% yielded increased viscosity and reduced emulsion droplet size as compared to the emollient ester CCT (capric/caprylic triglyceride) or a control formulation. Quantitative data indicate that application of the o/w emulsion formulation containing either HP or CCT significantly elevated skin moisture content and thus reduced transepidermal water loss (TEWL) by a maximal approximately 33% against the control formulation within 3 h and maintained this up to 6 h. Visual observation of skin treated with the HP-containing formulation showed fine texture and clear contrast as compared to the control or the CCT formulation, confirming this effect. As a result of increased hydration, skin conductivity, as measured in terms of corneometer values, was also elevated significantly by about tenfold as early as 20 min after HP or CCT application and was maintained throughout the test period. Throughout the test period the HP formulation was 5-10% more effective than the CCT formulation both in reduction of TEWL as well as in increased skin conductivity. Thus, compared to the emollient ester (CCT), HP showed a unique capability for long-lasting effect in retaining moisture and improving skin texture.

  19. Experimental investigation of defect-assisted and intrinsic water vapor permeation through ultrabarrier films

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kim, Hyungchul; Singh, Ankit Kumar; Wang, Cheng-Yin

    In the development of ultrabarrier films for packaging electronics, the effective water vapor transmission rate is a combination of permeation through pinhole defects and the intrinsic permeation through the actual barrier film. While it is possible to measure the effective permeation rate through barriers, it is important to develop a better understanding of the contribution from defects to the overall effective barrier performance. Here, we demonstrate a method to investigate independently defect-assisted permeation and intrinsic permeation rates by observing the degradation of a calcium layer encapsulated with a hybrid barrier film, that is, prepared using atomic layer deposition (ALD) andmore » plasma enhanced deposition (PECVD). The results are rationalized using an analytical diffusion model to calculate the permeation rate as a function of spatial position within the barrier. It was observed that a barrier film consisting of a PECVD SiN{sub x} layer combined with an ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub x} nanolaminate resulted in a defect-assisted water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of 4.84 × 10{sup −5} g/m{sup 2} day and intrinsic WVTR of 1.41 × 10{sup −4} g/m{sup 2} day at 50 °C/85% RH. Due to the low defect density of the tested barrier film, the defect-assisted WVTR was found to be three times lower than the intrinsic WVTR, and an effective (or total) WVTR value was 1.89 × 10{sup −4} g/m{sup 2} day. Thus, improvements of the barrier performance should focus on reducing the number of defects while also improving the intrinsic barrier performance of the hybrid layer.« less

  20. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOEpatents

    Harrah, L.A.; Mead, K.E.; Smith, H.M.

    1983-09-20

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (1) a solid acetylenic compound and (2) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  1. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOEpatents

    Harrah, Larry A.; Mead, Keith E.; Smith, Henry M.

    1983-01-01

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  2. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-04-29

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the reusltant hydrogen.

  3. Influence of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose addition and homogenization conditions on properties and ageing of corn starch based films.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Alberto; Fabra, María José; Talens, Pau; Chiralt, Amparo

    2012-06-20

    Edible films based on corn starch, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and their mixtures were prepared by using two different procedures to homogenize the film forming dispersions (rotor-stator and rotor-stator plus microfluidizer). The influence of both HPMC-starch ratio and the homogenization method on the structural, optical, tensile and barrier properties of the films was analysed. The ageing of the films was also studied by characterizing them after 5 weeks' storage. Starch re-crystallization in newly prepared and stored films was analysed by means of X-ray diffraction. HPMC-corn starch films showed phase separation of polymers, which was enhanced when microfluidization was applied to the film forming dispersion. Nevertheless, HPMC addition inhibited starch re-crystallization during storage, giving rise to more flexible films at the end of the period. Water barrier properties of starch films were hardly affected by the addition of HPMC, although oxygen permeability increased due to its poorer oxygen barrier properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Formulation and characterization of sustained release dosage form of moisture sensitive drug

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Priya; Dave, Abhishek; Vasava, Amit; Patel, Paresh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to prepare sustained release tablet of moisture sensitive drug like Ranitidine Hydrochloride for treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease along with the improvement of moisture stability to get better therapeutic efficacy. Materials and Methods: Pan coating technique was used for coating of the tablet. Film coating was done using Eudragit RLPO and Eugragit EPO as coating polymer. 32 full factorial design was applied for optimization purpose, and 9 runs were conducted. In that Eudragit RLPO and Eudragit EPO taken as an independent variables and moisture gain and Cummulative Drug Release (CDR) were taken as dependent variables. Drug and excipient compatibility was done using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study. The tablet was evaluated for precompression parameter and all postcompression parameter. Stability study was carried out at room temperature (30°C ± 2°C/65% ± 5% relative humidity). Final formulation was compared with marketed formulation RANTEC 300. Result: Tablets were passing out all precompression parameter along with postcompression parameter. Stability study shows that the parameter such as hardness, friability, and dissolution are in the range. Hence, there is no significant change shown after stability study. Our final formulation was compared with marketed formulation RANTEC 300 and result demonstrates that our final formulation have less moisture gain and give release up to 12 h. Conclusion: The result of present study demonstrates that final formulation has less moisture gain and getting desired CDR for sustained release of drug. On the basis of all study, it was concluded that the tablet was coated by combination of Eudragit RLPO 10% and Eudragit EPO 10% give better result. This formation provided promising approach for the drug release up to 12 h for moisture sensitive drug like ranitidine hydrochloride. PMID:25838994

  5. Physicochemical and microstructural properties of a novel edible film synthesized from Balangu seed mucilage.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Varkani, Atina; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Askari, Gholamreza

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of a novel edible film from Balangu seed mucilage (BSM) as a new carbohydrate source. Optimal formulation of the proposed edible film was found through fabricating several distinct films with different concentrations of BSM and glycerol. The effect of these formulation variables on the physical, mechanical, thermal, barrier, and microstructural properties of the manufactured films was then investigated. Optimal formulation of the BSM edible film was then determined based on the measured mechanical and barrier characteristics. These characteristics were found to deteriorate with an excessive use of glycerol which caused non-homogeneity of the films as observed through scanning electron micrographs. In-depth analysis of the optimal BSM film properties was performed through investigating its oxygen permeability, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and water sorption isotherm. The superior mechanical and barrier characteristics of the obtained optimal BSM edible film make it a potential candidate for packaging that aim at an extended shelf-life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Water absorption and moisture permeation properties of chitosan/poly(acrylamide-co-itaconic acid) IPC films.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, M; Bajpai, S K; Jyotishi, Pooja

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous solutions of chitosan (Ch) and [poly(acrylamide(AAm)-co-itaconicacid(IA)] have been mixed to yield Ch/poly(AAm-co-IA) Inter-polyelectrolyte complex (IPC) films. The films were characterized by FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). There was remarkable increase in the crystalline nature of IPC films. The films were investigated for their water absorption capacity in the physiological fluid (PF) of pH 7.4 at 37 °C. The amount of IA present in the film forming solutions affected the water absorption behavior of the resulting films. The dynamic water uptake data were interpreted by various kinetic models. The effect of pH on the swelling ratio (SR) indicated that the films showed highest swelling in lower as well as higher pH media. The water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) were obtained in the range of 6000-6645 g/m(2)/day. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface Soil Moisture Estimates Across China Based on Multi-satellite Observations and A Soil Moisture Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke; Yang, Tao; Ye, Jinyin; Li, Zhijia; Yu, Zhongbo

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable that regulates exchanges of water and energy between land surface and atmosphere. Soil moisture retrievals based on microwave satellite remote sensing have made it possible to estimate global surface (up to about 10 cm in depth) soil moisture routinely. Although there are many satellites operating, including NASA's Soil Moisture Acitive Passive mission (SMAP), ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission (SMOS), JAXA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 mission (AMSR2), and China's Fengyun (FY) missions, key differences exist between different satellite-based soil moisture products. In this study, we applied a single-channel soil moisture retrieval model forced by multiple sources of satellite brightness temperature observations to estimate consistent daily surface soil moisture across China at a spatial resolution of 25 km. By utilizing observations from multiple satellites, we are able to estimate daily soil moisture across the whole domain of China. We further developed a daily soil moisture accounting model and applied it to downscale the 25-km satellite-based soil moisture to 5 km. By comparing our estimated soil moisture with observations from a dense observation network implemented in Anhui Province, China, our estimated soil moisture results show a reasonably good agreement with the observations (RMSE < 0.1 and r > 0.8).

  8. Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Kempe, Michael

    2014-03-04

    A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.

  9. Mango kernel starch-gum composite films: Physical, mechanical and barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Lutfi, Zubala; Hasnain, Abid

    2017-05-01

    Composite films were developed by the casting method using mango kernel starch (MKS) and guar and xanthan gums. The concentration of both gums ranged from 0% to 30% (w/w of starch; db). Mechanical properties, oxygen permeability (OP), water vapor permeability (WVP), solubility in water and color parameters of composite films were evaluated. The crystallinity and homogeneity between the starch and gums were also evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The scanning electron micrographs showed homogeneous matrix, with no signs of phase separation between the components. XRD analysis demonstrated diminished crystalline peak. Regardless of gum type the tensile strength (TS) of composite films increased with increasing gum concentration while reverse trend was noted for elongation at break (EAB) which found to be decreased with increasing gum concentration. The addition of both guar and xanthan gums increased solubility and WVP of the composite films. However, the OP was found to be lower than that of the control with both gums. Furthermore, addition of both gums led to changes in transparency and opacity of MKS films. Films containing 10% (w/w) xanthan gum showed lower values for solubility, WVP and OP, while film containing 20% guar gum showed good mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis and optimal design of moisture sensor for rice grain moisture measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sweety; Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Thakare, Vandana Vikas

    2018-04-01

    The analysis and design of a microstrip sensor for accurate determination of moisture content (MC) in rice grains based on oven drying technique, this technique is easy, fast and less time-consuming to other techniques. The sensor is designed with low insertion loss, reflection coefficient and maximum gain is -35dB and 5.88dB at 2.68GHz as well as discussed all the parameters such as axial ratio, maximum gain, smith chart etc, which is helpful for analysis the moisture measurement. The variation in percentage of moisture measurement with magnitude and phase of transmission coefficient is investigated at selected frequencies. The microstrip moisture sensor consists of one layer: substrate FR4, thickness 1.638 is simulated by computer simulated technology microwave studio (CST MWS). It is concluded that the proposed sensor is suitable for development as a complete sensor and to estimate the optimum moisture content of rice grains with accurately, sensitivity, compact, versatile and suitable for determining the moisture content of other crops and agriculture products.

  11. Converting Soil Moisture Observations to Effective Values for Improved Validation of Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William L.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Manu, Andrew; Archer, Frank

    2005-01-01

    We compare soil moisture retrieved with an inverse algorithm with observations of mean moisture in the 0-6 cm soil layer. A significant discrepancy is noted between the retrieved and observed moisture. Using emitting depth functions as weighting functions to convert the observed mean moisture to observed effective moisture removes nearly one-half of the discrepancy noted. This result has important implications in remote sensing validation studies.

  12. High oxygen nanocomposite barrier films based on xylan and nanocrystalline cellulose

    Treesearch

    Amit Saxena; Thomas J. Elder; Jeffrey Kenvin; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work is to produce nanocomposite film with low oxygen permeability by casting an aqueous solution containing xylan, sorbitol and nanocrystalline cellulose. The morphology of the resulting nanocomposite films was examined by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy which showed that control films containing xylan and sorbitol had a more...

  13. MoisturEC: an R application for geostatistical estimation of moisture content from electrical conductivity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, N.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Werkema, D. D.; Lane, J. W., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture is a critical parameter for agriculture, water supply, and management of landfills. Whereas direct data (as from TDR or soil moisture probes) provide localized point scale information, it is often more desirable to produce 2D and/or 3D estimates of soil moisture from noninvasive measurements. To this end, geophysical methods for indirectly assessing soil moisture have great potential, yet are limited in terms of quantitative interpretation due to uncertainty in petrophysical transformations and inherent limitations in resolution. Simple tools to produce soil moisture estimates from geophysical data are lacking. We present a new standalone program, MoisturEC, for estimating moisture content distributions from electrical conductivity data. The program uses an indicator kriging method within a geostatistical framework to incorporate hard data (as from moisture probes) and soft data (as from electrical resistivity imaging or electromagnetic induction) to produce estimates of moisture content and uncertainty. The program features data visualization and output options as well as a module for calibrating electrical conductivity with moisture content to improve estimates. The user-friendly program is written in R - a widely used, cross-platform, open source programming language that lends itself to further development and customization. We demonstrate use of the program with a numerical experiment as well as a controlled field irrigation experiment. Results produced from the combined geostatistical framework of MoisturEC show improved estimates of moisture content compared to those generated from individual datasets. This application provides a convenient and efficient means for integrating various data types and has broad utility to soil moisture monitoring in landfills, agriculture, and other problems.

  14. Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Herst, Patries M

    2014-06-15

    Radiation-induced skin reactions are an unavoidable side effect of external beam radiation therapy, particularly in areas prone to friction and excess moisture such as the axilla, head and neck region, perineum and skin folds. Clinical studies investigating interventions for preventing or managing these reactions have largely focussed on formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties. However, none of these interventions has emerged as a consistent candidate for best practice. Much less emphasis has been placed on evaluating ways to protect the radiation-damaged skin from friction and excess moisture. This mini review analyses the clinical evidence for barrier productsmore » that form a protective layer by adhering very closely to the skin folds and do not cause further trauma to the radiation-damaged skin upon removal. A database search identified only two types of barrier products that fitted these criteria and these were tested in two case series and six controlled clinical trials. Friction protection was most effective when the interventions were used from the start of treatment and continued for several weeks after completion of treatment. Soft silicone dressings (Mepilex Lite and Mepitel Film) and Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film, but not Cavilon Moisturizing Barrier Cream, decreased skin reaction severity, most likely due to differences in formulation and skin build-up properties. It seems that prophylactic use of friction protection of areas at risk could be a worthwhile addition to routine care of radiation-damaged skin.« less

  15. Protecting the radiation-damaged skin from friction: a mini review

    PubMed Central

    Herst, Patries M

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced skin reactions are an unavoidable side effect of external beam radiation therapy, particularly in areas prone to friction and excess moisture such as the axilla, head and neck region, perineum and skin folds. Clinical studies investigating interventions for preventing or managing these reactions have largely focussed on formulations with moisturising, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and wound healing properties. However, none of these interventions has emerged as a consistent candidate for best practice. Much less emphasis has been placed on evaluating ways to protect the radiation-damaged skin from friction and excess moisture. This mini review analyses the clinical evidence for barrier products that form a protective layer by adhering very closely to the skin folds and do not cause further trauma to the radiation-damaged skin upon removal. A database search identified only two types of barrier products that fitted these criteria and these were tested in two case series and six controlled clinical trials. Friction protection was most effective when the interventions were used from the start of treatment and continued for several weeks after completion of treatment. Soft silicone dressings (Mepilex Lite and Mepitel Film) and Cavilon No Sting Barrier Film, but not Cavilon Moisturizing Barrier Cream, decreased skin reaction severity, most likely due to differences in formulation and skin build-up properties. It seems that prophylactic use of friction protection of areas at risk could be a worthwhile addition to routine care of radiation-damaged skin. PMID:26229646

  16. Novel p-Type Conductive Semiconductor Nanocrystalline Film as the Back Electrode for High-Performance Thin Film Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Lin, Qinxian; Yang, Xiaoyang; Mei, Zongwei; Liang, Jun; Lin, Yuan; Pan, Feng

    2016-02-10

    Thin film solar cells, due to the low cost, high efficiency, long-term stability, and consumer applications, have been widely applied for harvesting green energy. All of these thin film solar cells generally adopt various metal thin films as the back electrode, like Mo, Au, Ni, Ag, Al, graphite, and so forth. When they contact with p-type layer, it always produces a Schottky contact with a high contact potential barrier, which greatly affects the cell performance. In this work, we report for the first time to find an appropriate p-type conductive semiconductor film, digenite Cu9S5 nanocrystalline film, as the back electrode for CdTe solar cells as the model device. Its low sheet resistance (16.6 Ω/sq) could compare to that of the commercial TCO films (6-30 Ω/sq), like FTO, ITO, and AZO. Different from the traditonal metal back electrode, it produces a successive gradient-doping region by the controllable Cu diffusion, which greatly reduces the contact potential barrier. Remarkably, it achieved a comparable power conversion efficiency (PCE, 11.3%) with the traditional metal back electrode (Cu/Au thin films, 11.4%) in CdTe cells and a higher PCE (13.8%) with the help of the Au assistant film. We believe it could also act as the back electrode for other thin film solar cells (α-Si, CuInS2, CIGSe, CZTS, etc.), for their performance improvement.

  17. In Situ Monitoring the Uptake of Moisture into Hybrid Perovskite Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Schlipf, Johannes; Bießmann, Lorenz; Oesinghaus, Lukas; Berger, Edith; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Lercher, Johannes A; Porcar, Lionel; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2018-04-19

    Solution-processed hybrid perovskites are of great interest for use in photovoltaics. However, polycrystalline perovskite thin films show strong degradation in humid atmospheres, which poses an important challenge for large-scale market introduction. With in situ grazing incidence neutron scattering (GISANS) we analyzed water content, degradation products, and morphological changes during prolonged exposure to several humidity levels. In high humidity, the formation of metastable hydrate phases is accompanied by domain swelling, which transforms the faceted crystals to a round-washed, pebble-like form. The films incorporate much more water than is integrated into the hydrates, with smaller crystals being more affected, making the degradation strongly dependent on film morphology. Even at low humidity, water is adsorbed on the crystal surfaces without the formation of crystalline degradation products. Thus, although production in an ambient atmosphere is of interest for industrial production it might lead to long-term degradation without appropriate countermeasures like postproduction drying below 30% RH.

  18. Characterization of Thin Film Dissolution in Water with in Situ Monitoring of Film Thickness Using Reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Yersak, Alexander S; Lewis, Ryan J; Tran, Jenny; Lee, Yung C

    2016-07-13

    Reflectometry was implemented as an in situ thickness measurement technique for rapid characterization of the dissolution dynamics of thin film protective barriers in elevated water temperatures above 100 °C. Using this technique, multiple types of coatings were simultaneously evaluated in days rather than years. This technique enabled the uninterrupted characterization of dissolution rates for different coating deposition temperatures, postdeposition annealing conditions, and locations on the coating surfaces. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) SiO2 and wet thermally grown SiO2 (wtg-SiO2) thin films were demonstrated to be dissolution-predictable barriers for the protection of metals such as copper. A ∼49% reduction in dissolution rate was achieved for ALD SiO2 films by increasing the deposition temperatures from 150 to 300 °C. ALD SiO2 deposited at 300 °C and followed by annealing in an inert N2 environment at 1065 °C resulted in a further ∼51% reduction in dissolution rate compared with the nonannealed sample. ALD SiO2 dissolution rates were thus lowered to values of wtg-SiO2 in water by the combination of increasing the deposition temperature and postdeposition annealing. Thin metal films, such as copper, without a SiO2 barrier corroded at an expected ∼1-2 nm/day rate when immersed in room temperature water. This measurement technique can be applied to any optically transparent coating.

  19. Approaching Moisture Recycling Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keys, Patrick; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line; Galaz, Victor; Ebbesson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. Despite the surface watershed being the typical unit of water management, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Also, recent research has demonstrated that water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, nation, or continent. Notwithstanding these insights, the major legal and institutional implications of modifying moisture recycling have remained unexplored. In this presentation, we examine potential approaches to moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of legal and institutional governance principles. Likewise, we relate the moisture recycling types to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.

  20. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Treesearch

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  1. Thin-Film Material Science and Processing | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    , a prime example of this research is thin-film photovoltaics (PV). Thin films are important because have developed a quantitative high-throughput technique that can measure many barriers in parallel with

  2. [Application of biodegradable plastic film to reduce plastic film residual pollution in Chinese agriculture].

    PubMed

    Yan, Changrong; He, Wenqing; Xue, Yinghao; Liu, Enke; Liu, Qin

    2016-06-25

    Plastic film has become an important agriculture production material in recent years. Over the past three decades, the amount and application area of plastic film have increased steadily, and in 2014, which are 1.4 million tons and more than 180 million hm² respectively. It plays a key role for ensuring the supply of agricultural goods in China. Meanwhile, plastic film residual pollution becomes more and more serious, and in some regions, the amount of plastic film residues has reached over 250 kg/hm². In part of the Northwest region, soil structure of farmland has been destroyed by plastic film residues and then crop growth and farming operations were suppressed. It is recognized as a good choice to replace plastic film with biodegradable plastic film, an effective measure to solve the plastic film residue pollution. Now, it is in a critical stage of study and assessment of biodegradable plastic film in China and fortunately some biodegradable plastic films show effects in the production of potatoes, peanuts and tobacco. Overall, a series of challenges has still been faced by the biodegradable plastic film, mainly including improving the quality of biodegradable plastic products, such as tensile strength, flexibility, improving the controllability of rupture and degradation, enhancing the ability of increasing soil temperature and preserving soil moisture, and to satisfy the demand of crops production with mulching. In addition, it is essential to reduce the cost of the biodegradable film and promote the application of biodegradable film on large-scale. With the development of biodegradable plastic technology and agricultural production environment, the application of the biodegradable film will have a good future.

  3. Formulation and characterization of novel composite semi-refined iota carrageenan-based edible film incorporating palmitic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praseptiangga, Danar; Giovani, Sarah; Manuhara, Godras Jati; Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji

    2017-09-01

    Novel composite films based on semi-refined iota-carrageenan (SRIC) incorporating palmitic acid (PA) were prepared by an emulsification method. Palmitic acid (PA) as hydrophobic material was incorporated into semi-refined iota-carrageenan edible films in order to improve water vapor barrier properties. Composite SRIC-based films with varying concentrations of PA (10%, 20%, and 30% w/w) were obtained by a solvent casting method. Their mechanical and barrier properties were investigated. Results showed that the incorporation of PA in films caused a significant increase (p < 0.05) in thickness as the concentration of PA increased (from 10% to 30% w/w). The mechanical properties of semi-refined iota-carrageenan were also affected by PA incorporation; increasing the concentration of PA (from 10% to 30% w/w) in films improved the tensile strength (TS). Interestingly, the TS value increased to a peak at 20% w/w PA. However, the TS value showed a decrease when PA were added at 30% w/w. Elongation-at-break (EAB) were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased when the concentration of PA in films increased (from 10% to 30% w/w). Furthermore, the incorporation of PA also affected the water vapor barrier properties of the films. Water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the composite semi-refined iota-carrageenan-based edible film decreased significantly (p < 0.05) as the concentration of palmitic acid increased (from 10% to 30% w/w). Composite SRIC-based edible film incorporating 30% w/w of PA presented better water vapor barrier properties as compared to other films with 10% and 20% w/w PA incorporation. Thus, formulation containing 30% w/w palmitic acid promoted films with a highly beneficial to improve water vapor barrier properties and it has the potential for food packaging applications.

  4. [Functions of different cultivation modes in oasis agriculture on soil wind erosion control and soil moisture conservation].

    PubMed

    Su, Peixi; Zhao, Aifen; Du, Mingwu

    2004-09-01

    During 2001-2002, the effects of different cultivation modes including winter irrigation and zero tillage, crop-grass intercropping, and early spring film mulching on sand entrainment, wind velocity gradient and soil moisture conservation were studied in the middle reaches of the Heihe River in the Hexi Corridor region. The results showed that all these modes could reduce soil wind erosion and halt sand entrainment to different degrees. Compared with the bare fields exposed by spring plowing, early spring film mulching could increase soil moisture storage by 35.6%. At present, spring plowing and sowing was a main factor responsible to the occurrence of sand storms and the increase in suspended dust content. Farmlands in the upper and middle reaches of the Heihe River generally produced a dust transport up to 4.8-6.0 million tons per year, which was higher than that of sandy desert in the same region. In the Hexi Corridor region, the suspended dust amount produced from 1 hm2 farmland was equivalent to that of 1.5 hm2 desert.

  5. Soil Moisture Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilman, J. L. (Editor); Moore, D. G. (Editor); Schmugge, T. J. (Editor); Friedman, D. B. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Workshop was held at the United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Library in Beltsville, Maryland on January 17-19, 1978. The objectives of the Workshop were to evaluate the state of the art of remote sensing of soil moisture; examine the needs of potential users; and make recommendations concerning the future of soil moisture research and development. To accomplish these objectives, small working groups were organized in advance of the Workshop to prepare position papers. These papers served as the basis for this report.

  6. Development and Characterization of Biodegradable Composite Films Based on Gelatin Derived from Beef, Pork and Fish Sources

    PubMed Central

    Nur Hanani, Zainal A.; Beatty, Eddie; Roos, Yrjo H.; Morris, Mick A.; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop composite films using various gelatin sources with corn oil (CO) incorporation (55.18%) and to investigate the mechanical and physical properties of these films as potential packaging films. There were increases (p < 0.05) in the tensile strength (TS) and puncture strength (PS) of films when the concentration of gelatin increased. The mechanical properties of these films were also improved when compared with films produced without CO. Conversely, the water barrier properties of composite films decreased (p < 0.05) when the concentration of gelatin in composite films increased. Comparing with pure gelatin films, water and oxygen barrier properties of gelatin films decreased when manufactured with the inclusion of CO. PMID:28239092

  7. Understanding Soil Moisture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding soil moisture is critical for landscape irrigation management. This landscaep irrigation seminar will compare volumetric and matric potential soil-moisture sensors, discuss the relationship between their readings and demonstrate how to use these data. Soil water sensors attempt to sens...

  8. Moisture content measurement in paddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  9. JT90 thermal barrier coated vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffler, K. D.; Graziani, R. A.; Sinko, G. C.

    1982-01-01

    The technology of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings applied to turbine vane platforms in modern high temperature commercial engines was advanced to the point of demonstrated feasibility for application to commercial aircraft engines. The three thermal barrier coatings refined under this program are zirconia stabilized with twenty-one percent magnesia (21% MSZ), six percent yttria (6% YSZ), and twenty percent yttria (20% YSZ). Improvement in thermal cyclic endurance by a factor of 40 times was demonstrated in rig tests. A cooling system evolved during the program which featured air impingement cooling for the vane platforms rather than film cooling. The impingement cooling system, in combination with the thermal barrier coatings, reduced platform cooling air requirements by 44% relative to the current film cooling system. Improved durability and reduced cooling air requirements were demonstrated in rig and engine endurance tests. Two engine tests were conducted, one of 1000 cycles and the other of 1500 cycles. All three coatings applied to vanes fabricated with the final cooling system configuration completed the final 1500 cycle engine endurance test. Results of this test clearly demonstrated the durability of the 6% YSZ coating which was in very good condition after the test. The 21% MSZ and 20% YSZ coatings had numerous occurrences of significant spalling in the test.

  10. Direct measurement of intrinsic critical strain and internal strain in barrier films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellinga, W. P.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.; Bouten, P. C. P.

    2011-08-01

    Resistance measurements during uniaxial tensile deformation of very thin (10 nm) conducting oxide films deposited on 150 nm SiN films on polyethylene naphthalate are discussed. It is first shown that certain characteristics of resistance versus strain curves are representative for the fracture behavior of the SiN film and not for that of the thin conducting oxide film. Subsequently, it is shown that the hysteresis in curves of resistance as a function of strain offers a way to directly measure the intrinsic critical strain of the SiN film without the need to determine internal strains from independent (curvature) measurements that rely on knowledge of moduli and geometry. The method should be applicable, in general, to measure intrinsic critical strain and residual strains of thin brittle films on polymers. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed.

  11. Detection of moisture and moisture related phenomena from Skylab. [Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleman, J. R.; Pogge, E. C.; Moore, R. K. (Principal Investigator); Hardy, N.; Lin, W.; League, L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This is a preliminary report on the ability to detect soil moisture variation from the two different sensors on board Skylab. Initial investigations of S190A and Sl94 Skylab data and ground truth has indicated the following significant results. (1) There was a decrease in Sl94 antenna temperature from NW to SE across the Texas test site. (2) Soil moisture increases were measured from NW to SE across the test site. (3) There was a general increase in precipitation distribution and radar echoes from NW to SE across the site for the few days prior to measurements. This was consistent with the soil moisture measurements and gives more complete coverage of the site. (4) There are distinct variations in soil textures over the test site. This affects the moisture holding capacity of soils and must be considered. (5) Strong correlation coefficients were obtained between S194 antenna temperature and soil moisutre content. As the antenna temperature decreases soil moisture increases. (6) The Sl94 antenna temperature correlated best with soil mositure content in the upper two inches of the soil. A correlation coefficient of .988 was obtained. (7) Sl90A photographs in the red-infrared region were shown to be useful for identification of Abilene clay loam and for determining the distribution of this soil type.

  12. Damage-free back channel wet-etch process in amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors using a carbon-nanofilm barrier layer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dongxiang; Zhao, Mingjie; Xu, Miao; Li, Min; Chen, Zikai; Wang, Lang; Zou, Jianhua; Tao, Hong; Wang, Lei; Peng, Junbiao

    2014-07-23

    Amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (IZO-TFTs) with damage-free back channel wet-etch (BCE) process were investigated. A carbon (C) nanofilm was inserted into the interface between IZO layer and source/drain (S/D) electrodes as a barrier layer. Transmittance electron microscope images revealed that the 3 nm-thick C nanofilm exhibited a good corrosion resistance to a commonly used H3PO4-based etchant and could be easily eliminated. The TFT device with a 3 nm-thick C barrier layer showed a saturated field effect mobility of 14.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), a subthreshold swing of 0.21 V/decade, an on-to-off current ratio of 8.3 × 10(10), and a threshold voltage of 2.0 V. The favorable electrical performance of this kind of IZO-TFTs was due to the protection of the inserted C to IZO layer in the back-channel-etch process. Moreover, the low contact resistance of the devices was proved to be due to the graphitization of the C nanofilms after annealing. In addition, the hysteresis and thermal stress testing confirmed that the usage of C barrier nanofilms is an effective method to fabricate the damage-free BCE-type devices with high reliability.

  13. Moisture processes accompanying convective activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sienkiewicz, M. E.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A moisture budget analysis was performed on data collected during the AVE 7 (May 2 to 3, 1978) and AVE-SESAME1 (April 10 to 11, 1979) experiments. Local rates-of-change of moisture were compared with average moisture divergence in the same time period. Results were presented as contoured plots in the horizontal and as vertical cross sections. These results were used to develop models of the distribution of moisture processes in the vicinity of convective areas in two layers representing lower and middle tropospheric conditions. Good correspondence was found between the residual term of the moisture budget and actual precipitation.

  14. Cryogenic Moisture Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James; Smith, Trent; Breakfield, Robert; Baughner, Kevin; Heckle, Kenneth; Meneghelli, Barry

    2010-01-01

    The Cryogenic Moisture Apparatus (CMA) is designed for quantifying the amount of moisture from the surrounding air that is taken up by cryogenic-tank-insulating material specimens while under typical conditions of use. More specifically, the CMA holds one face of the specimen at a desired low temperature (e.g., the typical liquid-nitrogen temperature of 77 K) while the opposite face remains exposed to humid air at ambient or near-ambient temperature. The specimen is weighed before and after exposure in the CMA. The difference between the "after" and "before" weights is determined to be the weight of moisture absorbed by the specimen. Notwithstanding the term "cryogenic," the CMA is not limited to cryogenic applications: the low test temperature can be any temperature below ambient, and the specimen can be made of any material affected by moisture in air. The CMA is especially well suited for testing a variety of foam insulating materials, including those on the space-shuttle external cryogenic tanks, on other cryogenic vessels, and in refrigerators used for transporting foods, medicines, and other perishables. Testing is important because absorbed moisture not only adds weight but also, in combination with thermal cycling, can contribute to damage that degrades insulating performance. Materials are changed internally when subjected to large sub-ambient temperature gradients.

  15. Cosmetic formulations containing Lithospermum erythrorhizon root extract show moisturizing effects on human skin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Man-Jau; Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Hsien-Cheh; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2008-07-01

    Retention of water in the stratum corneum of skin epidermis plays an important role in regulation of skin function. Loss of water may decline skin appearance gradually and lead to irregular skin disorders. The root extract of Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LES) is known for its various pharmacological activities. However, the potential skin care effect of LES is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the moisturizing efficacy and skin barrier repairing activity of LES. For this study, 30 healthy Asian females (age 20-30) with healthy skin had applied the test emulsions twice daily over a period of 28 days. The skin properties were measured by skin bioengineering techniques. Our preliminary results indicated that LES show moisturizing effect on skin hydration in a time- and dose-dependent pattern, and the maximum increase in skin humidity was 11.77 +/- 1.18% for emulsion LES5.00. Particularly, LES-containing emulsions significantly improve skin barrier function by decreasing the value of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in a time- and dose-dependent pattern, and the maximum decrease in TEWL value was 7.68 +/- 0.79% for emulsion LES5.00. Taken together, our data demonstrate that LES is more effective in increasing skin humidity and decreasing the TEWL values, indicating the potential skin care effects of LES.

  16. Soil moisture modeling review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildreth, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    A determination of the state of the art in soil moisture transport modeling based on physical or physiological principles was made. It was found that soil moisture models based on physical principles have been under development for more than 10 years. However, these models were shown to represent infiltration and redistribution of soil moisture quite well. Evapotranspiration has not been as adequately incorporated into the models.

  17. Optimization of disintegration behavior of biodegradable poly (hydroxy butanoic acid) copolymer mulch films in soil environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Viabhav

    Biodegradation of polymeric films used for mulch film applications in agriculture not only eliminates problems of sorting out and disposal of plastics films, but also ensures increased yields in crop growth and cost reduction. One such polymer which is completely biodegradable in the soil is poly 3-hydroxy butanoic acid copolymer, which is a promising alternative to non-biodegradable incumbent polyethylene mulch films. The purpose of mulch film made of poly 3-hydroxy butanoic acid copolymers is to sustain itself during the crop growth and disintegrate and eventually biodegrade back to nature after the crop cycle is over. The disintegration phase of the biodegradation process was evaluated for poly 3-hydroxy butanoic acid copolymer incorporated with no additive, antimicrobial additives, varying amount of crystallinities, another biodegradable polymer, and in different soils, with or without varying soil moisture content. The tools used for quantification were weight loss and visual observation. The test method was standardized using repeatability tests. The onset of disintegration was optimized with addition of right anti-microbial additives, higher crystallinity of film, blending with other biodegradable polymers, compared to virgin poly 3-hydroxy butanoic acid copolymer film. The onset of disintegration time was reduced when soil moisture content was reduced. After the onset of disintegration, the polymer film was physically and mechanically deteriorated, withering away in soil, which is possible to tailor with the crop growth cycle.

  18. Oscillatory shear response of moisture barrier coatings containing clay of different shape factor.

    PubMed

    Kugge, C; Vanderhoek, N; Bousfield, D W

    2011-06-01

    Oscillatory shear rheology of barrier coatings based on dispersed styrene-butadiene latex and clay of various shape factors or aspect ratio has been explored. Barrier performance of these coatings when applied to paperboard has been assessed in terms of water vapour transmission rates and the results related to shape factor, dewatering and critical strain. It has been shown that a system based on clay with high shape factor gives a lower critical strain, dewatering and water vapour transmission rate compared with clays of lower shape factor. The dissipated energy, as calculated from an amplitude sweep, indicated no attractive interaction between clay and latex implying a critical strain that appears to be solely dependent on the shape factor at a constant volume fraction. Particle size distribution was shown to have no effect on the critical strain while coatings of high elasticity exhibited high yield strains as expected. The loss modulus demonstrated strain hardening before the elastic to viscous transition. The loss modulus peak was identified by a maximum strain which was significantly lower for a coating based on clay with a high shape factor. The characteristic elastic time was found to vary between 0.6 and 1.3s. The zero shear viscosity of barrier dispersion coatings were estimated from the characteristic elastic time and the characteristic modulus to be of the order of 25-100 Pa s. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Soil Moisture Sensing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil moisture monitoring can be useful as an irrigation management tool for both landscapes and agriculture, sometimes replacing an evapotranspiration (ET) based approach or as a useful check on ET based approaches since the latter tend to drift off target over time. All moisture sensors, also known...

  20. Film forming microbial biopolymers for commercial applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Vijayendra, S V N; Shamala, T R

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms synthesize intracellular, structural and extracellular polymers also referred to as biopolymers for their function and survival. These biopolymers play specific roles as energy reserve materials, protective agents, aid in cell functioning, the establishment of symbiosis, osmotic adaptation and support the microbial genera to function, adapt, multiply and survive efficiently under changing environmental conditions. Viscosifying, gelling and film forming properties of these have been exploited for specific significant applications in food and allied industries. Intensive research activities and recent achievements in relevant and important research fields of global interest regarding film forming microbial biopolymers is the subject of this review. Microbial polymers such as pullulan, kefiran, bacterial cellulose (BC), gellan and levan are placed under the category of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and have several other functional properties including film formation, which can be used for various applications in food and allied industries. In addition to EPS, innumerable bacterial genera are found to synthesis carbon energy reserves in their cells known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), microbial polyesters, which can be extruded into films with excellent moisture and oxygen barrier properties. Blow moldable biopolymers like PHA along with polylactic acid (PLA) synthesized chemically in vitro using lactic acid (LA), which is produced by LA bacteria through fermentation, are projected as biodegradable polymers of the future for packaging applications. Designing and creating of new property based on requirements through controlled synthesis can lead to improvement in properties of existing polysaccharides and create novel biopolymers of great commercial interest and value for wider applications. Incorporation of antimicrobials such as bacteriocins or silver and copper nanoparticles can enhance the functionality of polymer films especially in food packaging

  1. Lateral polarity control of III-nitride thin film and application in GaN Schottky barrier diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junmei; Guo, Wei; Sheikhi, Moheb; Li, Hongwei; Bo, Baoxue; Ye, Jichun

    2018-05-01

    N-polar and III-polar GaN and AlN epitaxial thin films grown side by side on single sapphire substrate was reported. Surface morphology, wet etching susceptibility and bi-axial strain conditions were investigated and the polarity control scheme was utilized in the fabrication of Schottky barrier diode where ohmic contact and Schottky contact were deposited on N-polar domains and Ga-polar domains, respectively. The influence of N-polarity on on-state resistivity and I–V characteristic was discussed, demonstrating that lateral polarity structure of GaN and AlN can be widely used in new designs of optoelectronic and electronic devices. Project partially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2016YFB0400802), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61704176), and the Open project of Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Advanced Microelectronic Intelligent Systems and Applications (No. ZJUAMIS1704).

  2. Synthesis of Diamond-Like Carbon Films on Planar and Non-Planar Geometries by the Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noborisaka, Mayui; Hirako, Tomoaki; Shirakura, Akira; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Masashi; Seki, Masaki; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2012-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were synthesized by the dielectric barrier discharge-based plasma deposition at atmospheric pressure and their hardness and gas barrier properties were measured. A decrease in size of grains and heating substrate temperature improved nano-hardness up to 3.3 GPa. The gas barrier properties of DLC-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) sheets were obtained by 3-5 times of non-coated PET with approximately 0.5 µm in film thickness. The high-gas-barrier DLC films deposited on PET sheets are expected to wrap elevated bridge of the super express and prevent them from neutralization of concrete. We also deposited DLC films inside PET bottles by the microwave surface-wave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method at near-atmospheric pressure. Under atmospheric pressure, the films were coated uniformly inside the PET bottles, but did not show high gas barrier properties. In this paper, we summarize recent progress of DLC films synthesized at atmospheric pressure with the aimed of food packaging and concrete pillar.

  3. Microwave moisture measurement of cotton fiber moisture content in the laboratory

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The moisture content of cotton fiber is an important fiber property, but it is often measured by a laborious, time-consuming laboratory oven drying method. A program was implemented to establish the capabilities of a laboratory microwave moisture measurement instrument to perform rapid, precise and...

  4. A single-layer permeation barrier for organic light-emitting displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandlik, Prashant; Gartside, Jonathan; Han, Lin; Cheng, I.-Chun; Wagner, Sigurd; Silvernail, Jeff A.; Ma, Rui-Qing; Hack, Michael; Brown, Julie J.

    2008-03-01

    Films of a hybrid material with part-SiO2 part-silicone character are deposited as environmental barriers on bottom-emitting and on transparent organic light-emitting diodes. Devices coated with this barrier have lifetimes of up to ˜7500h when stored at 65°C and 85% relative humidity, by far exceeding the industrial requirement of 1000h. The intensity of the Si-O-Si absorption at the wavenumber of 1075cm-1, the wetting angle by water, and the indentation hardness support the interpretation of a homogeneous material with the properties of a SiO2-silicone hybrid. The films remain intact over 58600cycles of bending to ˜0.2% tensile strain.

  5. Water-Based Peeling of Thin Hydrophobic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaparast, Sepideh; Boulogne, François; Poulard, Christophe; Stone, Howard A.

    2017-10-01

    Inks of permanent markers and waterproof cosmetics create elastic thin films upon application on a surface. Such adhesive materials are deliberately designed to exhibit water-repellent behavior. Therefore, patterns made up of these inks become resistant to moisture and cannot be cleaned by water after drying. However, we show that sufficiently slow dipping of such elastic films, which are adhered to a substrate, into a bath of pure water allows for complete removal of the hydrophobic coatings. Upon dipping, the air-water interface in the bath forms a contact line on the substrate, which exerts a capillary-induced peeling force at the edge of the hydrophobic thin film. We highlight that this capillary peeling process is more effective at lower velocities of the air-liquid interface and lower viscosities. Capillary peeling not only removes such thin films from the substrate but also transfers them flawlessly onto the air-water interface.

  6. Measurements of volatile compound contents in resins using a moisture analyzer.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Masanori; Nagano, Futami; Endo, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Hiroki

    2010-02-01

    The contents of volatile adhesive compounds, such as water, solvents, and residual unpolymerized monomers, affect the integrity and durability of adhesive bonding. However, there is no method available that can be used to rapidly assess the residual solvent or water contents of adhesive resins. This study examined the effectiveness of a digital moisture analyzer to measure the volatile compound contents of resins. Five self-etching adhesives and seven experimental light-cured resins prepared with different contents (0, 10, and 20% by weight) of water or solvents (acetone and ethanol) were examined in this study. The resins were prepared using different methods (with and without air blast or light-curing) to simulate the clinical conditions of adhesive application. Resin weight changes (% of weight loss) were determined as the residual volatile compound contents, using the moisture analyzer. After the measurements, the resin films were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The weight changes of the resins were found to depend on the amount of water or solvents evaporating from the resin. Water and solvents were evaporated by air blast or light-curing, but some of the water and solvents remained in the cured resin. The moisture analyzer is easy to operate and is a useful instrument for using to measure the residual volatile compound contents of adhesive resin.

  7. Biopolymer nanocomposite films reinforced with nanocellulose whiskers

    Treesearch

    Amit Saxena; Marcus Foston; Mohamad Kassaee; Thomas J. Elder; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2011-01-01

    A xylan nanocomposite film with improved strength and barrier properties was prepared by a solution casting using nanocellulose whiskers as a reinforcing agent. The 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the spectral data obtained for the NCW/xylan nanocomposite films indicated the signal intensity originating...

  8. Soil moisture variability across different scales in an Indian watershed for satellite soil moisture product validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurjeet; Panda, Rabindra K.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Jana, Raghavendra B.

    2016-05-01

    Strategic ground-based sampling of soil moisture across multiple scales is necessary to validate remotely sensed quantities such as NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) product. In the present study, in-situ soil moisture data were collected at two nested scale extents (0.5 km and 3 km) to understand the trend of soil moisture variability across these scales. This ground-based soil moisture sampling was conducted in the 500 km2 Rana watershed situated in eastern India. The study area is characterized as sub-humid, sub-tropical climate with average annual rainfall of about 1456 mm. Three 3x3 km square grids were sampled intensively once a day at 49 locations each, at a spacing of 0.5 km. These intensive sampling locations were selected on the basis of different topography, soil properties and vegetation characteristics. In addition, measurements were also made at 9 locations around each intensive sampling grid at 3 km spacing to cover a 9x9 km square grid. Intensive fine scale soil moisture sampling as well as coarser scale samplings were made using both impedance probes and gravimetric analyses in the study watershed. The ground-based soil moisture samplings were conducted during the day, concurrent with the SMAP descending overpass. Analysis of soil moisture spatial variability in terms of areal mean soil moisture and the statistics of higher-order moments, i.e., the standard deviation, and the coefficient of variation are presented. Results showed that the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of measured soil moisture decreased with extent scale by increasing mean soil moisture.

  9. Highly Sensitive and Fast Response Colorimetric Humidity Sensors Based on Graphene Oxides Film.

    PubMed

    Chi, Hong; Liu, Yan Jun; Wang, FuKe; He, Chaobin

    2015-09-16

    Uniform graphene oxide (GO) film for optical humidity sensing was fabricated by dip-coating technique. The resulting GO thin film shows linear optical shifts in the visible range with increase of humidity in the whole relative humidity range (from dry state to 98%). Moreover, GO films exhibit ultrafast sensing to moisture within 250 ms because of the unique atomic thinness and superpermeability of GO sheets. The humidity sensing mechanism was investigated using XRD and computer simulation. The ultrasensitive humidity colorimetric properties of GOs film may enable many potential applications such as disposable humidity sensors for packaging, health, and environmental monitoring.

  10. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of mass transfer in active multilayer polymeric film for food applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedane, T.; Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.; Incarnato, L.; Marra, F.

    2015-12-01

    The barrier performance of multilayer polymeric films for food applications has been significantly improved by incorporating oxygen scavenging materials. The scavenging activity depends on parameters such as diffusion coefficient, solubility, concentration of scavenger loaded and the number of available reactive sites. These parameters influence the barrier performance of the film in different ways. Virtualization of the process is useful to characterize, design and optimize the barrier performance based on physical configuration of the films. Also, the knowledge of values of parameters is important to predict the performances. Inverse modeling and sensitivity analysis are sole way to find reasonable values of poorly defined, unmeasured parameters and to analyze the most influencing parameters. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a model to predict barrier properties of multilayer film incorporated with reactive layers and to analyze and characterize their performances. Polymeric film based on three layers of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), with a core reactive layer, at different thickness configurations was considered in the model. A one dimensional diffusion equation with reaction was solved numerically to predict the concentration of oxygen diffused into the polymer taking into account the reactive ability of the core layer. The model was solved using commercial software for different film layer configurations and sensitivity analysis based on inverse modeling was carried out to understand the effect of physical parameters. The results have shown that the use of sensitivity analysis can provide physical understanding of the parameters which highly affect the gas permeation into the film. Solubility and the number of available reactive sites were the factors mainly influencing the barrier performance of three layered polymeric film. Multilayer films slightly modified the steady transport properties in comparison to net PET, giving a small reduction

  11. Modeling and sensitivity analysis of mass transfer in active multilayer polymeric film for food applications

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bedane, T.; Di Maio, L.; Scarfato, P.

    The barrier performance of multilayer polymeric films for food applications has been significantly improved by incorporating oxygen scavenging materials. The scavenging activity depends on parameters such as diffusion coefficient, solubility, concentration of scavenger loaded and the number of available reactive sites. These parameters influence the barrier performance of the film in different ways. Virtualization of the process is useful to characterize, design and optimize the barrier performance based on physical configuration of the films. Also, the knowledge of values of parameters is important to predict the performances. Inverse modeling and sensitivity analysis are sole way to find reasonable values ofmore » poorly defined, unmeasured parameters and to analyze the most influencing parameters. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a model to predict barrier properties of multilayer film incorporated with reactive layers and to analyze and characterize their performances. Polymeric film based on three layers of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), with a core reactive layer, at different thickness configurations was considered in the model. A one dimensional diffusion equation with reaction was solved numerically to predict the concentration of oxygen diffused into the polymer taking into account the reactive ability of the core layer. The model was solved using commercial software for different film layer configurations and sensitivity analysis based on inverse modeling was carried out to understand the effect of physical parameters. The results have shown that the use of sensitivity analysis can provide physical understanding of the parameters which highly affect the gas permeation into the film. Solubility and the number of available reactive sites were the factors mainly influencing the barrier performance of three layered polymeric film. Multilayer films slightly modified the steady transport properties in comparison to net PET, giving a small

  12. Thin-film hermeticity - A quantitative analysis of diamondlike carbon using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orzeszko, S.; De, Bhola N.; Woollam, John A.; Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the successful application of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry to quantitative thin-film hermeticity evaluation. It is shown that, under a variety of film preparations and moisture introduction conditions, water penetrates only a very thin diamondlike carbon (DLC) top surface-roughness region. Thus, DLC is an excellent candidate for use as protective coatings in adverse chemical and aqueous environments.

  13. Effect of type and content of modified montmorillonite on the structure and properties of bio-nanocomposite films based on soy protein isolate and montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Sandeep, K P; Alavi, S; Truong, V D; Gorga, R E

    2010-06-01

    The nonbiodegradable and nonrenewable nature of plastic packaging has led to a renewed interest in packaging materials based on bio-nanocomposites (biopolymer matrix reinforced with nanoparticles such as layered silicates). Bio-nanocomposite films based on soy protein isolate (SPI) and modified montmorillonite (MMT) were prepared using melt extrusion. The effect of different type (Cloisite 20A and Cloisite 30B) and content (0% to 15%) of modified MMT on the structure (degree of intercalation and exfoliation) and properties (color, mechanical, dynamic mechanical, thermal stability, and water vapor permeability) of SPI-MMT bio-nanocomposite films were investigated. Extrusion of SPI and modified MMTs resulted in bio-nanocomposites with exfoliated structures at lower MMT content (5%). At higher MMT content (15%), the structure of bio-nanocomposites ranged from intercalated for Cloisite 20A to disordered intercalated for Cloisite 30B. At an MMT content of 5%, bio-nanocomposite films based on modified MMTs (Cloisite 20A and Cloisite 30B) had better mechanical (tensile strength and percent elongation at break), dynamic mechanical (glass transition temperature and storage modulus), and water barrier properties as compared to those based on natural MMT (Cloisite Na(+)). Bio-nanocomposite films based on 10% Cloisite 30B had mechanical properties comparable to those of some of the plastics that are currently used in food packaging applications. However, much higher WVP values of these films as compared to those of existing plastics might limit the application of these films to packaging of high moisture foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Composites Based on Polylactic Acid and Beeswax with Improved Water Vapor Barrier Properties.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Jeong Ae; Ko, Jung A; Park, Hyun Jin

    2015-11-01

    Beeswax and a plasticizer (ATBC) were added to polylactic acid (PLA) films in order to enhance the water vapor barrier properties of the films. Beeswax improved the barrier properties; the water vapor permeability in the composite containing 1% beeswax was 58% lower than that of the neat PLA. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the incorporation of beeswax and ATBC had so little effect on the PLA structure. In addition, the structure of PLA did not vary substantially with the additions. The surfaces of the composites were examined by using field emission scanning electron microscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that the degree of crystallinity of the PLA films increased with the addition of beeswax and ATBC. However, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the composites containing beeswax were up to approximately 50% lower than those of the neat PLA. Although further study is needed to improve the mechanical properties, the aforementioned results showed that the PLA barrier properties can be improved by the incorporation of a small amount of beeswax and ATBC. The results of this study can be applied for the preparation of PLA composite films with improved barrier properties. Such biodegradable films are extremely useful for applications in the food packaging industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Investigation the electroplating behavior of self formed CuMn barrier.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yang; Lee, Wen-Hsi; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Ying-Lang

    2013-08-01

    The electrical and material properties of Copper (Cu) mixed with [0-10 atomic% manganese (Mn)] and pure Cu films deposited on silicon oxide (SiO2)/silicon (Si) are explored. Cu electroplating on self formed CuMn barrier was investigated with different Mn content. The electrochemical deposition of the Cu thin film onto the electrode using CuMn barrier was investigated. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) micrographs of copper electroplating on CuMn films were examined, and the copper nucleation behaviors changed with the Mn content. Since the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is widely recognized as a powerful tool for the investigation of electrochemical behaviors, the tool was also used to verify the phenomena during plating. It was found that the charge-trasfer impedance decrease with the rise in the Mn content below 5%, but increase with the rise in the Mn content higher than 5%. The result was corresponded to the surface energy, the surface morphology, the corrosion and the oxidation of the substrate.

  16. Engineering the Mechanical Properties of Ultrabarrier Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition for the Encapsulation of Printed Electronics

    DOE PAGES

    Bulusu, Anuradha; Singh, Ankit K.; Wang, Cheng-Yin; ...

    2015-08-28

    Direct deposition of barrier films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto printed electronics presents a promising method for packaging devices. Films made by ALD have been shown to possess desired ultrabarrier properties, but face challenges when directly grown onto surfaces with varying composition and topography. Challenges include differing nucleation and growth rates across the surface, stress concentrations from topography and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch, elastic mismatch, and particle contamination that may impact the performance of the ALD barrier. In such cases, a polymer smoothing layer may be needed to coat the surface prior to ALD barrier film deposition.more » We present the impact of architecture on the performance of aluminum oxide (Al2O3)/hafnium oxide (HfO2) ALD nanolaminate barrier films deposited on fluorinated polymer layer using an optical calcium (Ca) test under damp heat. It is found that with increasing polymer thickness, the barrier films with residual tensile stress are prone to cracking resulting in rapid failure of the Ca sensor at 50{degree sign}C/85% RH. Inserting a SiNx layer with residual compressive stress between the polymer and ALD layers is found to prevent cracking over a range of polymer thicknesses with more than 95% of the Ca sensor remaining after 500 h of testing. These results suggest that controlling mechanical properties and film architecture play an important role in the performance of direct deposited ALD barriers.« less

  17. Utilization of point soil moisture measurements for field scale soil moisture averages and variances in agricultural landscapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil moisture is a key variable in understanding the hydrologic processes and energy fluxes at the land surface. In spite of new technologies for in-situ soil moisture measurements and increased availability of remotely sensed soil moisture data, scaling issues between soil moisture observations and...

  18. Modifications of surfactant distributions and surface morphologies in latex films due to moisture exposure

    Treesearch

    Guizhen H. Xu; Jinping Dong; Steven J. Severtson; Carl J. Houtman; Larry E. Gwin

    2009-01-01

    Migration of surfactants in water-based, pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) films exposed to static and cyclic relative humidity conditions was investigated using confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Studied PSA films contain monomers n-butyl acrylate, vinyl acetate, and methacrylic acid and an equal mass mixture of anionic and nonionic...

  19. Physical properties and biocompatibility of oligochitosan membrane film as wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Ujang, Zanariah; Abdul Rashid, Ahmad Hazri; Suboh, Siti Kasmarizawaty; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Lim, Chin Keong

    2014-12-30

    The physical and biological characteristics of oligochitosan (O-C) film, including its barrier and mechanical properties, in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility, were studied to assess its potential use as a wound dressing. Membrane films were prepared from water-soluble O-C solution blended with various concentrations of glycerol to modify the physical properties of the films. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility evaluations were performed using primary human skin fibroblast cultures and subcutaneous implantation in a rat model, respectively. Addition of glycerol significantly influenced the barrier and mechanical properties of the films. Water absorption capacity was in the range of 80%-160%, whereas water vapor transmission rate varied from 1,180 to 1,618 g/m2 per day. Both properties increased with increasing glycerol concentration. Tensile strength decreased while elongation at break increased with the addition of glycerol. O-C films were found to be noncytotoxic to human fibroblast cultures and histological examination proved that films are biocompatible. These results indicate that the membrane film from O-C has potential application as a wound-dressing material.

  20. Growth of <111>-oriented Cu layer on thin TaWN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeyama, Mayumi B.; Sato, Masaru

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we examine the growth of a <111>-oriented Cu layer on a thin TaWN ternary alloy barrier for good electromigration reliability. The strongly preferentially oriented Cu(111) layer is observed on a thin TaWN barrier even in the as-deposited Cu (100 nm)/TaWN (5 nm)/Si system. Also, this system tolerates annealing at 700 °C for 1 h without silicide reaction. It is revealed that the TaWN film is one of the excellent barriers with thermal stability and low resistivity. Simultaneously, the TaWN film is a candidate for a superior underlying material to achieve the Cu(111) preferential orientation.

  1. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Moisture, Uniformity of Size, Defects § 52.3185 Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits for the applicable grades and kind and...

  2. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Moisture, Uniformity of Size, Defects § 52.3185 Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits for...

  3. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Moisture, Uniformity of Size, Defects § 52.3185 Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits for...

  4. A Redesigned DFA Moisture Meter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The DFA moisture meter has been internationally recognized as the standard for determining moisture content of dried fruit in general and is AOAC Official Method 972.2 for measuring moisture in prunes and raisins since 1972. The device has remained virtually unchanged since its inception, with its o...

  5. 7 CFR 868.258 - Moisture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moisture. 868.258 Section 868.258 Agriculture... Governing Application of Standards § 868.258 Moisture. Water content in brown rice for processing as... purpose of this paragraph, “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other...

  6. 7 CFR 868.258 - Moisture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moisture. 868.258 Section 868.258 Agriculture... Governing Application of Standards § 868.258 Moisture. Water content in brown rice for processing as... purpose of this paragraph, “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other...

  7. 7 CFR 868.258 - Moisture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moisture. 868.258 Section 868.258 Agriculture... Governing Application of Standards § 868.258 Moisture. Water content in brown rice for processing as... purpose of this paragraph, “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other...

  8. Effect of Fatty acids and beeswax addition on properties of sodium caseinate dispersions and films.

    PubMed

    Fabra, M J; Jiménez, A; Atarés, L; Talens, P; Chiralt, A

    2009-06-08

    Edible films based on sodium caseinate and different saturated fatty acids, oleic acid, or beeswax were formulated. Film-forming emulsions were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, rheological behavior and surface tension. In order to evaluate the influence of lipids on sodium caseinate matrices, mechanical, optical, and water vapor barrier properties were studied, taking into account the effect of water content and film structure on such properties. Saturated fatty acids affected the film properties in a particular way due to the formation of bilayer structures which limited water vapor permeability, giving rise to nonflexible and more opaque films. Oleic acid and beeswax were less effective as water vapor barriers, although the former imparted more flexibility to the caseinate films and did not reduce the film transparency notably.

  9. A Study on Organic-Metal Halide Perovskite Film Morphology, Interfacial Layers, Tandem Applications, and Encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Dallas A.

    decreased drastically due to poor band alignment. Fe2O3 appears to be better suited to a narrower band gap material than methylammonium lead iodide perovskite. Finally, encapsulation of perovskite devices with epoxy coatings is explored as a method to improve long-term stability. Perovskites are sensitive to a variety of conditions, but most importantly water and polar molecules. Encapsulants act as a moisture/oxygen barrier, but also prevent outgassing of the organic components. Three epoxies were tested in high heat and high humidity conditions. Important factors in the curing process were uncovered such as the sensitivity of UV-epoxies to amine functional groups found in common p-type dopants and perovskite layers. Moisture ingress was the failure point for high-humidity/heat devices which was confirmed through conversion to yellow lead iodide. A revised device fabrication method is proposed to reduce moisture ingress for future experiments.

  10. Ambient-Stable and Durable Conductive Ag-Nanowire-Network 2-D Films Decorated with a Ti Layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Mi; Hwang, Bu-Yeon; Lee, Ki-Wook; Kim, Jin-Yeol

    2018-05-11

    Highly stable and durable conductive silver nanowire (Ag NW) network electrode films were prepared through decoration with a 5-nm-thick Ti layer. The Ag NW network 2-D films showed sheet resistance values as low as 32 ohm/sq at 88% transparency when decorated with Ti. These 2-D films exhibited a 30% increase in electrical conductivity while maintaining good stability of the films through enhanced resistance to moisture and oxygen penetration as a result of the protective effect of the Ti layer.

  11. Non-hydrolytic metal oxide films for perovskite halide overcoating and stabilization

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Martinson, Alex B.; Kim, In Soo

    A method of protecting a perovskite halide film from moisture and temperature includes positioning the perovskite halide film in a chamber. The chamber is maintained at a temperature of less than 200 degrees Celsius. An organo-metal compound is inserted into the chamber. A non-hydrolytic oxygen source is subsequently inserted into the chamber. The inserting of the organo-metal compound and subsequent inserting of the non-hydrolytic oxygen source into the chamber is repeated for a predetermined number of cycles. The non-hydrolytic oxygen source and the organo-metal compound interact in the chamber to deposit a non-hydrolytic metal oxide film on perovskite halide film.more » The non-hydrolytic metal oxide film protects the perovskite halide film from relative humidity of greater than 35% and a temperature of greater than 150 degrees Celsius, respectively.« less

  12. Lining bunker walls with oxygen barrier film reduces nutrient losses in corn silages.

    PubMed

    Lima, L M; Dos Santos, J P; Casagrande, D R; Ávila, C L S; Lara, M S; Bernardes, T F

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate 2 systems for covering corn silage in bunker silos. The first system consisted of a sheet of 45-μm-thick oxygen barrier film (OB, polyethylene + ethylene-vinyl alcohol) placed along the length of the sidewall before filling. After filling, the excess film was pulled over the wall on top of the silage, and a sheet of polyethylene was placed on top. The second system involved using a standard sheet (ST) of 180-μm-thick polyethylene film. Eight commercial bunker silos were divided into 2 parts lengthwise so that one-half of the silo was covered with OB and the other half with a ST system. During the filling, 3 net bags with chopped corn were buried in the central part (halfway between the top and bottom of the silo) of the bunkers (CCOR) in 3 sections 10 m apart. After filling, 18 net bags (9 per covering system) were buried 40 cm below the top surface of the 3 sections. These bags were placed at 3 distances from the bunker walls (0 to 50 cm, 51 to 100 cm, and 101 to 150 cm). During unloading, the bags were removed from the silos to determine the dry matter (DM) losses, fermentation end products, and nutritive value. The Milk2006 spreadsheet was used to estimate milk per tonne of DM. The model included the fixed effect of treatment (7 different locations in the bunker) and the random effect of the silo. Two contrasts were tested to compare silages in the top laterals (shoulders) with that in the CCOR (CCOR vs. OB and CCOR vs. ST). Three contrasts compared the corresponding distances of the silage covered by the 2 systems (OB50 vs. ST50, OB100 vs. ST100 and OB150 vs. ST150). Variables were analyzed with the PROC MIXED procedure of the SAS at the 5% level. The OB method produced well-fermented silages, which were similar to CCOR, whereas the OB system showed less lactic acid and greater pH and mold counts compared with CCOR. The ST method had 116.2 kg of milk/t less than the CCOR, as the OB system and the CCOR were similar

  13. Bionanocomposite films based on polysaccharides from banana peels.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Túlio Ítalo S; Rosa, Morsyleide F; Ridout, Michael J; Cross, Kathryn; Brito, Edy S; Silva, Lorena M A; Mazzetto, Selma E; Waldron, Keith W; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2017-08-01

    Pectin and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) isolated from banana peels were used to prepare films. The effects of a reinforcing phase (CNCs) and a crosslinker (citric acid, CA) on properties of pectin films were studied. Glycerol-plasticized films were prepared by casting, with different CNC contents (0-10wt%), with or without CA. Overall tensile properties were improved by intermediate CNC contents (around 5wt%). The water resistance and water vapor barrier properties were also enhanced by CNC. Evidences were found from Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra supporting the occurrence of crosslinking by CA. Additionally, the tensile strength, water resistance and barrier to water vapor were improved by the presence of CA. The 13 C ssNMR spectra indicated that both CA and CNC promoted stiffening of the polymer chains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Soil Moisture Project Evaluation Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, R. H. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Approaches planned or being developed for measuring and modeling soil moisture parameters are discussed. Topics cover analysis of spatial variability of soil moisture as a function of terrain; the value of soil moisture information in developing stream flow data; energy/scene interactions; applications of satellite data; verifying soil water budget models; soil water profile/soil temperature profile models; soil moisture sensitivity analysis; combinations of the thermal model and microwave; determing planetary roughness and field roughness; how crust or a soil layer effects microwave return; truck radar; and truck/aircraft radar comparison.

  15. Thick adherent dielectric films on plastic substrates and method for depositing same

    DOEpatents

    Wickboldt, Paul; Ellingboe, Albert R.; Theiss, Steven D.; Smith, Patrick M.

    2002-01-01

    Thick adherent dielectric films deposited on plastic substrates for use as a thermal barrier layer to protect the plastic substrates from high temperatures which, for example, occur during laser annealing of layers subsequently deposited on the dielectric films. It is desirable that the barrier layer has properties including: a thickness of 1 .mu.m or greater, adheres to a plastic substrate, does not lift-off when cycled in temperature, has few or no cracks and does not crack when subjected to bending, resistant to lift-off when submersed in fluids, electrically insulating and preferably transparent. The thick barrier layer may be composed, for example, of a variety of dielectrics and certain metal oxides, and may be deposited on a variety of plastic substrates by various known deposition techniques. The key to the method of forming the thick barrier layer on the plastic substrate is maintaining the substrate cool during deposition of the barrier layer. Cooling of the substrate maybe accomplished by the use of a cooling chuck on which the plastic substrate is positioned, and by directing cooling gas, such as He, Ar and N.sub.2, between the plastic substrate and the cooling chucks. Thick adherent dielectric films up to about 5 .mu.m have been deposited on plastic substrates which include the above-referenced properties, and which enable the plastic substrates to withstand laser processing temperatures applied to materials deposited on the dielectric films.

  16. Fiber optic moisture sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kirkham, R.R.

    1984-08-03

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  17. 7 CFR 868.207 - Moisture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Moisture. 868.207 Section 868.207 Agriculture... Application of Standards § 868.207 Moisture. Water content in rough rice as determined by an approved device..., “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other equipment that is approved by the...

  18. 7 CFR 868.207 - Moisture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Moisture. 868.207 Section 868.207 Agriculture... Application of Standards § 868.207 Moisture. Water content in rough rice as determined by an approved device..., “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other equipment that is approved by the...

  19. 7 CFR 868.207 - Moisture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Moisture. 868.207 Section 868.207 Agriculture... Application of Standards § 868.207 Moisture. Water content in rough rice as determined by an approved device..., “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other equipment that is approved by the...

  20. Properties of gelatin film from horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) scale.

    PubMed

    Le, Thuy; Maki, Hiroki; Takahashi, Kigen; Okazaki, Emiko; Osako, Kazufumi

    2015-04-01

    Optimal conditions for extracting gelatin and preparing gelatin film from horse mackerel scale, such as extraction temperature and time, as well as the protein concentration of film-forming solutions were investigated. Yields of extracted gelatin at 70 °C, 80 °C, and 90 °C for 15 min to 3 h were 1.08% to 3.45%, depending on the extraction conditions. Among the various extraction times and temperatures, the film from gelatin extracted at 70 °C for 1 h showed the highest tensile strength and elongation at break. Horse mackerel scale gelatin film showed the greatly low water vapor permeability (WVP) compared with mammalian or fish gelatin films, maybe due to its containing a slightly higher level of hydrophobic amino acids (total 653 residues per 1000 residues) than that of mammalian, cold-water fish and warm-water fish gelatins. Gelatin films from different preparation conditions showed excellent UV barrier properties at wavelength of 200 nm, although the films were transparent at visible wavelength. As a consequence, it can be suggested that gelatin film from horse mackerel scale extracted at 70 °C for 1 h can be applied to food packaging material due to its lowest WVP value and excellent UV barrier properties. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Thin-film Nanofibrous Composite Membranes Containing Cellulose or Chitin Barrier Layers Fabricated by Ionic Liquids

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    H Ma; B Hsiao; B Chu

    The barrier layer of high-flux ultrafiltration (UF) thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) membranes for purification of wastewater (e.g., bilge water) have been prepared by using cellulose, chitin, and a cellulose-chitin blend, regenerated from an ionic liquid. The structures and properties of regenerated cellulose, chitin, and a cellulose-chitin blend were analyzed with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The surface morphology, pore size and pore size distribution of TFNC membranes were determined by SEM images and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) methods. An oil/water emulsion, a model of bilge water, was used as the feed solution, and the permeation flux andmore » rejection ratio of the membranes were investigated. TFNC membranes based on the cellulose-chitin blend exhibited 10 times higher permeation flux when compared with a commercial UF membrane (PAN10, Sepro) with a similar rejection ratio after filtration over a time period of up to 100 h, implying the practical feasibility of such membranes for UF applications.« less

  2. Recyclability of PET/WPI/PE Multilayer Films by Removal of Whey Protein Isolate-Based Coatings with Enzymatic Detergents

    PubMed Central

    Cinelli, Patrizia; Schmid, Markus; Bugnicourt, Elodie; Coltelli, Maria Beatrice; Lazzeri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer plastic films provide a range of properties, which cannot be obtained from monolayer films but, at present, their recyclability is an open issue and should be improved. Research to date has shown the possibility of using whey protein as a layer material with the property of acting as an excellent barrier against oxygen and moisture, replacing petrochemical non-recyclable materials. The innovative approach of the present research was to achieve the recyclability of the substrate films by separating them, with a simple process compatible with industrial procedures, in order to promote recycling processes leading to obtain high value products that will beneficially impact the packaging and food industries. Hence, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET)/polyethylene (PE) multi-layer film was prepared based on PET coated with a whey protein layer, and then the previous structure was laminated with PE. Whey proteins, constituting the coating, can be degraded by enzymes so that the coating films can be washed off from the plastic substrate layer. Enzyme types, dosage, time, and temperature optima, which are compatible with procedures adopted in industrial waste recycling, were determined for a highly-efficient process. The washing of samples based on PET/whey and PET/whey/PE were efficient when performed with enzymatic detergent containing protease enzymes, as an alternative to conventional detergents used in recycling facilities. Different types of enzymatic detergents tested presented positive results in removing the protein layer from the PET substrate and from the PET/whey/PE multilayer films at room temperature. These results attested to the possibility of organizing the pre-treatment of the whey-based multilayer film by washing with different available commercial enzymatic detergents in order to separate PET and PE, thus allowing a better recycling of the two different polymers. Mechanical properties of the plastic substrate, such as stress at yield, stress and

  3. Recyclability of PET/WPI/PE Multilayer Films by Removal of Whey Protein Isolate-Based Coatings with Enzymatic Detergents.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Patrizia; Schmid, Markus; Bugnicourt, Elodie; Coltelli, Maria Beatrice; Lazzeri, Andrea

    2016-06-14

    Multilayer plastic films provide a range of properties, which cannot be obtained from monolayer films but, at present, their recyclability is an open issue and should be improved. Research to date has shown the possibility of using whey protein as a layer material with the property of acting as an excellent barrier against oxygen and moisture, replacing petrochemical non-recyclable materials. The innovative approach of the present research was to achieve the recyclability of the substrate films by separating them, with a simple process compatible with industrial procedures, in order to promote recycling processes leading to obtain high value products that will beneficially impact the packaging and food industries. Hence, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET)/polyethylene (PE) multi-layer film was prepared based on PET coated with a whey protein layer, and then the previous structure was laminated with PE. Whey proteins, constituting the coating, can be degraded by enzymes so that the coating films can be washed off from the plastic substrate layer. Enzyme types, dosage, time, and temperature optima, which are compatible with procedures adopted in industrial waste recycling, were determined for a highly-efficient process. The washing of samples based on PET/whey and PET/whey/PE were efficient when performed with enzymatic detergent containing protease enzymes, as an alternative to conventional detergents used in recycling facilities. Different types of enzymatic detergents tested presented positive results in removing the protein layer from the PET substrate and from the PET/whey/PE multilayer films at room temperature. These results attested to the possibility of organizing the pre-treatment of the whey-based multilayer film by washing with different available commercial enzymatic detergents in order to separate PET and PE, thus allowing a better recycling of the two different polymers. Mechanical properties of the plastic substrate, such as stress at yield, stress and

  4. Electric moisture meters for wood

    Treesearch

    William L. James

    1988-01-01

    Electric moisture meters for wood measure electric conductance (resistance) or dielectric properties, which vary fairly consistently with moisture content when it is less than 30 percent. The two major classes of electric moisture meters are the conductance (resistance) type and the dielectric type. Conductance-t ype meters use penetrating electrodes that measure in a...

  5. Physicochemical, mechanical and thermal properties of chitosan films with and without sorbitol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Zhou, Yibin; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Chen; Cao, Shengnan

    2014-09-01

    The effect of sorbitol on the physicochemical, mechanical and thermal properties of chitosan films with different degrees of deacetylation (DD; i.e., DD85% and DD95%) was investigated. The thickness, moisture content (MC), water solubility (WS) and water-vapor permeability (WVP) of the films were evaluated. Sorbitol addition reduced MC, increased WS and significantly (p<0.01) reduced WVP of both film types. DD95% films had lower MC and WVP, and higher WS than DD85% films. Static (thermomechanical analysis) and dynamic (dynamic mechanical analysis) tests indicated that sorbitol increased the strain and decreased stress for both DD films, but DD95% could sustain higher strain and DD85% could sustain higher stress. Thermogravimetrics analysis and differential scanning calorimetry showed that sorbitol elicited a lower degradation temperature for both films, and that DD95% films exhibited higher thermal stability than DD85% films. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting moisture content: fuel moisture indicator sticks in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Owen P. Cramer

    1961-01-01

    Successful day-to-day planning of presuppression activities requires accurate prediction of burning index. In the Pacific Northwest, forecasts of burning index are prepared by the fire-control man and are based on predictions of windspeed and fuel moisture. Although fuel moisture is affected by a number of weather elements and is consequently difficult to predict, the...

  7. Electric moisture meters for wood

    Treesearch

    William L. James

    1963-01-01

    Common methods of measuring the moisture content of wood are described briefly, and a short historical account of the development of electric moisture meters is given. Electrical properties of wood are discussed briefly, and the basic operation of the resistance type and the radio- frequency types of moisture meter is outlined. Data relating the electrical resistance...

  8. Observation of spin superfluidity: YIG magnetic films and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonin, Edouard

    2018-03-01

    From topology of the order parameter of the magnon condensate observed in yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) magnetic films one must not expect energetic barriers making spin supercurrents metastable. But we show that some barriers of dynamical origin are possible nevertheless until the gradient of the phase (angle of spin precession) does not exceed the critical value (analog of the Landau critical velocity in superfluids). On the other hand, recently published claims of experimental detection of spin superfluidity in YIG films and antiferromagnets are not justified, and spin superfluidity in magnetically ordered solids has not yet been experimentally confirmed.

  9. Cling film as a barrier against CJD in corneal contact A-scan ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Rani, Asha; Dunne, Mark C M; Barnes, Derek A

    2003-01-01

    To determine the validity of covering a corneal contact transducer probe with cling film as protection against the transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). The anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and vitreous chamber depth of the right eyes of 10 subjects was recorded, under cycloplegia, with and without cling film covering over the transducer probe of a Storz Omega Compu-scan Biometric Ruler. Measurements were repeated on two occasions. Cling film covering did not influence bias or repeatability. Although the 95% limits of agreement between measurements made with and without cling film covering tended to exceed the intrasessional repeatability, they did not exceed the intersessional repeatability of measurements taken without cling film. The results support the use of cling film as a disposable covering for corneal contact A-scan ultrasonography to avoid the risk of spreading CJD from one subject to another.

  10. Improving corn silage quality in the top layer of farm bunker silos through the use of a next-generation barrier film with high impermeability to oxygen.

    PubMed

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect on the fermentation, chemical, and microbiological quality of corn silage covered with a new-generation high oxygen barrier film (HOB) made with a special grade of ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) compared with a standard polyethylene film (PE). Two bunkers (farms 1 and 2) were divided into 2 parts lengthwise so that half of the silo would be covered with PE film and the other with HOB film. Plastic net bags with fresh chopped corn were buried in the upper layer (close to and far from the wall) and in the central part of the bunkers. During spring-summer consumption, the bags were unloaded, weighed, and subsampled to analyze the dry matter (DM) content, neutral detergent fiber and starch contents, pH, lactic and monocarboxylic acids, yeast and mold counts, aerobic and anaerobic spore-former counts, and aerobic stability. We also determined the economic benefit of applying the novel covering. The top layer of silage conserved under the HOB film had a higher lactic acid content and lower pH; lower counts of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers; higher aerobic stability; and lower DM losses than the silage conserved under the PE film. The use of the HOB film prevented almost all of the silage in the upper layer from spoiling; only 2 out of 32 samples had a mold count >6log10 cfu/g. This led to a net economic gain when the HOB film was used on both farms due to the increased DM recovery and reduced labor time required to clean the upper layer, even though the HOB film cost about 2.3 times more than the PE film. Furthermore, use of the HOB film, which ensures a longer shelf life of silage during consumption, reduced the detrimental effect of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers on the nutritional and microbiological quality of the unloaded silage. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The International Soil Moisture Network: a data hosting facility for global in situ soil moisture measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorigo, W. A.; Wagner, W.; Hohensinn, R.; Hahn, S.; Paulik, C.; Drusch, M.; Mecklenburg, S.; van Oevelen, P.; Robock, A.; Jackson, T.

    2011-02-01

    In situ measurements of soil moisture are invaluable for calibrating and validating land surface models and satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. In addition, long-term time series of in situ soil moisture measurements themselves can reveal trends in the water cycle related to climate or land cover change. Nevertheless, on a worldwide basis the number of meteorological networks and stations measuring soil moisture, in particular on a continuous basis, is still limited and the data they provide lack standardization of technique and protocol. To overcome many of these limitations, the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN; http://www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/insitu) was initiated to serve as a centralized data hosting facility where globally available in situ soil moisture measurements from operational networks and validation campaigns are collected, harmonized, and made available to users. Data collecting networks share their soil moisture datasets with the ISMN on a voluntary and no-cost basis. Incoming soil moisture data are automatically transformed into common volumetric soil moisture units and checked for outliers and implausible values. Apart from soil water measurements from different depths, important metadata and meteorological variables (e.g., precipitation and soil temperature) are stored in the database. These will assist the user in correctly interpreting the soil moisture data. The database is queried through a graphical user interface while output of data selected for download is provided according to common standards for data and metadata. Currently (status January 2011), the ISMN contains data of 16 networks and more than 500 stations located in the North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. The time period spanned by the entire database runs from 1952 until the present, although most datasets have originated during the last decade. The database is rapidly expanding, which means that

  12. The International Soil Moisture Network: a data hosting facility for global in situ soil moisture measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorigo, W. A.; Wagner, W.; Hohensinn, R.; Hahn, S.; Paulik, C.; Xaver, A.; Gruber, A.; Drusch, M.; Mecklenburg, S.; van Oevelen, P.; Robock, A.; Jackson, T.

    2011-05-01

    In situ measurements of soil moisture are invaluable for calibrating and validating land surface models and satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. In addition, long-term time series of in situ soil moisture measurements themselves can reveal trends in the water cycle related to climate or land cover change. Nevertheless, on a worldwide basis the number of meteorological networks and stations measuring soil moisture, in particular on a continuous basis, is still limited and the data they provide lack standardization of technique and protocol. To overcome many of these limitations, the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN; http://www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/insitu) was initiated to serve as a centralized data hosting facility where globally available in situ soil moisture measurements from operational networks and validation campaigns are collected, harmonized, and made available to users. Data collecting networks share their soil moisture datasets with the ISMN on a voluntary and no-cost basis. Incoming soil moisture data are automatically transformed into common volumetric soil moisture units and checked for outliers and implausible values. Apart from soil water measurements from different depths, important metadata and meteorological variables (e.g., precipitation and soil temperature) are stored in the database. These will assist the user in correctly interpreting the soil moisture data. The database is queried through a graphical user interface while output of data selected for download is provided according to common standards for data and metadata. Currently (status May 2011), the ISMN contains data of 19 networks and more than 500 stations located in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. The time period spanned by the entire database runs from 1952 until the present, although most datasets have originated during the last decade. The database is rapidly expanding, which means that both the

  13. Characterization of konjac glucomannan-ethyl cellulose film formation via microscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Man; Wan, Li; Corke, Harold; Yan, Wenli; Ni, Xuewen; Fang, Yapeng; Jiang, Fatang

    2016-04-01

    Konjac glucomannan-ethyl cellulose (KGM-EC, 7:3, w/w) blended film shows good mechanical and moisture resistance properties. To better understand the basis for the KGM-EC film formation, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to observe the formation of the film from emulsion. Optical microscopy images showed that EC oil droplets were homogeneously dispersed in KGM water phase without obviously coalescence throughout the entire drying process. SEM images showed the surface and cross-sectional structures of samples maintained continuous and homogeneous appearance from the emulsion to dried film. AFM images indicated that KGM molecules entangled EC molecules in the emulsion. Interactions between KGM and EC improved the stability of KGM-EC emulsion, and contributed to uniformed structures of film formation. Based on these output information, a schematic model was built to elucidate KGM-EC film-forming process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Blend-modification of soy protein/lauric acid edible films using polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongyang; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Jie; Jin, Zhengyu

    2014-05-15

    Different types of polysaccharides (propyleneglycol alginate (PGA), pectin, carrageenan and aloe polysaccharide) were incorporated into soy protein isolate (SPI)/lauric acid (La) films using a co-drying process or by direct addition to form biodegradable composite films with modified water vapour permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties. The WVP of SPI/La/polysaccharide films decreased when polysaccharides were added using the co-drying process, regardless of the type of polysaccharide. The tensile strength of SPI/La film was increased by the addition of polysaccharides, and the percentage elongation at break was increased by incorporating PGA using the co-drying process. Regarding oxygen-barrier performance, no notable differences were observed between the SPI/La and SPI/La/polysaccharide films. The most significant improvement was observed by blending PGA, with the co-dried preparation exhibiting better properties than the direct-addition preparation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the microstructures of the films are the basis for the differences in the barrier and mechanical properties of the modified blends of SPI, polysaccharides and La. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of Thin Film Polymers Through Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and Permeation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Helen

    2003-01-01

    Thin polymer films are being considered, as candidate materials to augment the permeation resistance of cryogenic hydrogen fuel tanks such as would be required for future reusable launch vehicles. To evaluate performance of candidate films after environmental exposure, an experimental study was performed to measure the thermal/mechanical and permeation performance of six, commercial-grade materials. Dynamic storage modulus, as measured by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, was found over a range of temperatures. Permeability, as measured by helium gas diffusion, was found at room temperature. Test data was correlated with respect to film type and pre-test exposure to moisture, elevated temperature, and cryogenic temperature. Results indicated that the six films were comparable in performance and their resistance to environmental degradation.

  16. A study of physical properties of ODPA-p-PDA polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; St.clair, Terry L.

    1990-01-01

    Physical properties were investigated of ODPA-p-PDA polyimide films, including their lower molecular weight versions with phthalimide endcaps. Free volume, determined by low energy positron annihilation in the test films, was the major parameter of interest since all other physical properties are ostensibly related to it. It affects the dielectric constant as well as the saturation moisture pickup of the test films. An empirical relation was developed between the free volume and molecular weight of the test films, comparable to the Mark-Houwink relation between the polymer solution viscosity and the molecular weight. Development of such a relation constitutes a unique achievement since it enables researchers to estimate the molecular weight of an intractable polymer in solid state for the first time.

  17. The Use of Feature Parameters to Asses Barrier Properties of ALD coatings for Flexible PV Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blunt, Liam; Robbins, David; Fleming, Leigh; Elrawemi, Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the recent work carried out as part of the EU funded NanoMend project. The project seeks to develop integrated process inspection, cleaning, repair and control systems for nano-scale thin films on large area substrates. In the present study flexible photovoltaic films have been the substrate of interest. Flexible PV films are the subject of significant development at present and the latest films have efficiencies at or beyond the level of Si based rigid PV modules. These flexible devices are fabricated on polymer film by the repeated deposition, and patterning, of thin layer materials using roll-to-roll processes, where the whole film is approximately 3um thick prior to encapsulation. Whilst flexible films offer significant advantages in terms of mass and the possibility of building integration (BIPV) they are at present susceptible to long term environmental degradation as a result of water vapor transmission through the barrier layers to the CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Selenide CuInxGa(1-x)Se2) PV cells thus causing electrical shorts and efficiency drops. Environmental protection of the GIGS cell is provided by a thin (40nm) barrier coating of Al2O3. The highly conformal aluminium oxide barrier layer is produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD) where, the ultra-thin Al2O3 layer is deposited onto polymer thin films before these films encapsulate the PV cell. The surface of the starting polymer film must be of very high quality in order to avoid creating defects in the device layers. Since these defects reduce manufacturing yield, in order to prevent them, a further thin polymer coating (planarization layer) is generally applied to the polymer film prior to deposition. The presence of surface irregularities on the uncoated film can create defects within the nanometre-scale, aluminium oxide, barrier layer and these are measured and characterised. This paper begins by reporting the results of early stage measurements conducted to characterise

  18. Influence of Initial Moisture Content on Heat and Moisture Transfer in Firefighters' Protective Clothing

    PubMed Central

    He, Song

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model for heat and moisture transfer through firefighters' protective clothing (FPC) during radiation exposure. The model, which accounts for air gaps in the FPC as well as heat transfer through human skin, investigates the effect of different initial moisture contents on the thermal insulation performance of FPC. Temperature, water vapor density, and the volume fraction of liquid water profiles were monitored during the simulation, and the heat quantity absorbed by water evaporation was calculated. Then the maximum durations of heat before the wearer acquires first- and second-degree burns were calculated based on the bioheat transfer equation and the Henriques equation. The results show that both the moisture weight in each layer and the total moisture weight increase linearly within a given environmental humidity level. The initial moisture content in FPC samples significantly influenced the maximum water vapor density. The first- and second-degree burn injury time increase 16 sec and 18 sec when the RH increases from 0% to 90%. The total quantity of heat accounted for by water evaporation was about 10% when the relative humidity (RH) is 80%. Finally, a linear relationship was identified between initial moisture content and the human skin burn injury time before suffering first- and second-degree burn injuries. PMID:28466066

  19. Influence of Initial Moisture Content on Heat and Moisture Transfer in Firefighters' Protective Clothing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dongmei; He, Song

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model for heat and moisture transfer through firefighters' protective clothing (FPC) during radiation exposure. The model, which accounts for air gaps in the FPC as well as heat transfer through human skin, investigates the effect of different initial moisture contents on the thermal insulation performance of FPC. Temperature, water vapor density, and the volume fraction of liquid water profiles were monitored during the simulation, and the heat quantity absorbed by water evaporation was calculated. Then the maximum durations of heat before the wearer acquires first- and second-degree burns were calculated based on the bioheat transfer equation and the Henriques equation. The results show that both the moisture weight in each layer and the total moisture weight increase linearly within a given environmental humidity level. The initial moisture content in FPC samples significantly influenced the maximum water vapor density. The first- and second-degree burn injury time increase 16 sec and 18 sec when the RH increases from 0% to 90%. The total quantity of heat accounted for by water evaporation was about 10% when the relative humidity (RH) is 80%. Finally, a linear relationship was identified between initial moisture content and the human skin burn injury time before suffering first- and second-degree burn injuries.

  20. Schottky barrier betavoltaic battery

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Manasse, F.K.; Pinajian, J.J.; Tse, A.N.

    1976-02-01

    A new nuclear betavoltaic battery is described. It uses a Schottky barrier in place of the more standard p-n junction diode, along with $sup 147$Pm metal film rather than Pm$sub 2$O$sub 3$ oxide as in the commercially available Betacel. Design details of the battery including measurement of absorption, conversion efficiency, thickness etc. as functions of resistivity and other cell parameters are described. A prototype design is discussed and its performance assessed. (auth)

  1. Protection of moisture-sensitive drugs with aqueous polymer coatings: importance of coating and curing conditions.

    PubMed

    Bley, O; Siepmann, J; Bodmeier, R

    2009-08-13

    The aim of this study was to better understand the importance of coating and curing conditions of moisture-protective polymer coatings. Tablets containing freeze-dried garlic powder were coated with aqueous solutions/dispersions of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), poly(vinyl alcohol), ethyl cellulose and poly(methacrylate-methylmethacrylates). The water content of the tablets during coating and during storage at different temperatures and relative humidities (RH) was determined gravimetrically. In addition, changes in the allicin (active ingredient in garlic powder) content were monitored. During the coating process, the water uptake was below 2.7% and no drug degradation was detectable. Thermally induced drug degradation occurred only at temperatures above the coating temperatures. Different polymer coatings effectively decreased the rate, but not the extent of water uptake during open storage at room temperature and 75% RH. Tablets coated with poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(methacrylate-methylmethacrylates) showed the lowest moisture uptake rates (0.49 and 0.57%/d, respectively). Curing at elevated temperature after coating did not improve the moisture-protective ability of the polymeric films, but reduced the water content of the tablets. Drug stability was significantly improved with tablets coated with poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(methacrylate-methylmethacrylates).

  2. Directed Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers for High Breakdown Strength Polymer Film Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Samant, Saumil P; Grabowski, Christopher A; Kisslinger, Kim; Yager, Kevin G; Yuan, Guangcui; Satija, Sushil K; Durstock, Michael F; Raghavan, Dharmaraj; Karim, Alamgir

    2016-03-01

    Emerging needs for fast charge/discharge yet high-power, lightweight, and flexible electronics requires the use of polymer-film-based solid-state capacitors with high energy densities. Fast charge/discharge rates of film capacitors on the order of microseconds are not achievable with slower charging conventional batteries, supercapacitors and related hybrid technologies. However, the current energy densities of polymer film capacitors fall short of rising demand, and could be significantly enhanced by increasing the breakdown strength (EBD) and dielectric permittivity (εr) of the polymer films. Co-extruded two-homopolymer component multilayered films have demonstrated much promise in this regard showing higher EBD over that of component polymers. Multilayered films can also help incorporate functional features besides energy storage, such as enhanced optical, mechanical, thermal and barrier properties. In this work, we report accomplishing multilayer, multicomponent block copolymer dielectric films (BCDF) with soft-shear driven highly oriented self-assembled lamellar diblock copolymers (BCP) as a novel application of this important class of self-assembling materials. Results of a model PS-b-PMMA system show ∼50% enhancement in EBD of self-assembled multilayer lamellar BCP films compared to unordered as-cast films, indicating that the breakdown is highly sensitive to the nanostructure of the BCP. The enhancement in EBD is attributed to the "barrier effect", where the multiple interfaces between the lamellae block components act as barriers to the dielectric breakdown through the film. The increase in EBD corresponds to more than doubling the energy storage capacity using a straightforward directed self-assembly strategy. This approach opens a new nanomaterial paradigm for designing high energy density dielectric materials.

  3. Directed self-assembly of block copolymers for high breakdown strength polymer film capacitors

    DOE PAGES

    Samant, Saumil P.; Grabowski, Christopher A.; Kisslinger, Kim; ...

    2016-03-04

    Emerging needs for fast charge/discharge yet high-power, lightweight, and flexible electronics requires the use of polymer-film-based solid-state capacitors with high energy densities. Fast charge/discharge rates of film capacitors on the order of microseconds are not achievable with slower charging conventional batteries, supercapacitors and related hybrid technologies. However, the current energy densities of polymer film capacitors fall short of rising demand, and could be significantly enhanced by increasing the breakdown strength (E BD) and dielectric permittivity (ε r) of the polymer films. Co-extruded two-homopolymer component multilayered films have demonstrated much promise in this regard showing higher E BD over that ofmore » component polymers. Multilayered films can also help incorporate functional features besides energy storage, such as enhanced optical, mechanical, thermal and barrier properties. In this work, we report accomplishing multilayer, multicomponent block copolymer dielectric films (BCDF) with soft-shear driven highly oriented self-assembled lamellar diblock copolymers (BCP) as a novel application of this important class of self-assembling materials. Results of a model PS- b-PMMA system show ~50% enhancement in E BD of self-assembled multilayer lamellar BCP films compared to unordered as-cast films, indicating that the breakdown is highly sensitive to the nanostructure of the BCP. The enhancement in E BD is attributed to the “barrier effect”, where the multiple interfaces between the lamellae block components act as barriers to the dielectric breakdown through the film. The increase in E BD corresponds to more than doubling the energy storage capacity using a straightforward directed self-assembly strategy. Lastly, this approach opens a new nanomaterial paradigm for designing high energy density dielectric materials.« less

  4. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat Mid ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat High ±0.05 percent moisture, mean deviation from National standard moisture meter using Hard Red Winter wheat...

  5. Appearance benefits of skin moisturization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z-X; DeLaCruz, J

    2011-02-01

    Skin hydration is essential for skin health. Moisturized skin is generally regarded as healthy and healthy looking. It is thus speculated that there may be appearance benefits of skin moisturization. This means that there are corresponding changes in the optical properties when skin is moisturized. The appearance of the skin is the result of light reflection, scattering and absorption at various skin layers of the stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis and beyond. The appearance benefits of skin moisturization are likely primarily due to the changes in the optical properties of the stratum corneum. We hypothesize that the major optical effect of skin moisturization is the decrease of light scattering at the skin surface, i.e., the stratum corneum. This decrease of surface scattering corresponds to an increase of light penetration into the deeper layers of the skin. An experiment was conducted to measure the corresponding change in skin spectral reflectance, the skin scattering coefficient and skin translucency with a change in skin hydration. In the experiment, skin hydration was decreased with the topical application of acetone and alcohol and increased with the topical application of known moisturizers and occlusives such as PJ. It was found that both the skin spectral reflectance and the skin scattering coefficient increased when the skin was dehydrated and decreased when the skin was hydrated. Skin translucency increased as the skin became moisturized. The results agree with the hypothesis that there is less light scattering at the skin surface and more light penetration into the deeper skin layers when the skin is moisturized. As a result, the skin appears darker, more pinkish and more translucent. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Water Vapor Permeation of Metal Oxide/Polymer Coated Plastic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, Yukihiro; Oya, Toshiyuki; Kuwahara, Mitsuru; Ito, Katsuya

    Barrier performance to water vapor permeation of ceramic coated layers deposited on flexible polymer films is of great interest to food packaging, medical device packaging and flat panel display industries. In this study, a new type film in which a ceramic layer is deposited on a polymer coated film was proposed for lower water vapor permeation. It is important how to control interfacial properties between each layer and film for good barrier performance. Several kinds of polymer coated materials were prepared for changing surface free energy of the films before and after depositing the ceramic layer. The ceramic layer, which is composed of mixed material of SiO2 and Al2O3, was adopted under the same conditions. The following results were obtained; 1) Water vapor permeation is not related to the surface energy of polymer coated films, 2) After depositing the ceramic layer, however, a strong correlation is observed between the water vapor permeation and surface free energy. 3) The phenomenon is considered that the polarity of the polymer layers plays a key role in changing the structure of ceramic coated layers.

  7. Release behavior and stability of encapsulated D-limonene from emulsion-based edible films.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzo, Eva; Debeaufort, Frédéric; Sensidoni, Alessandro; Tat, Lara; Beney, Laurent; Hambleton, Alicia; Peressini, Donatella; Voilley, Andrée

    2012-12-12

    Edible films may act as carriers of active molecules, such as flavors. This possibility confers to them the status of active packaging. Two different film-forming biopolymers, gluten and ι-carrageenans, have been compared. D-Limonene was added to the two film formulations, and its release kinetics from emulsion-based edible films was assessed with HS-SPME. Results obtained for edible films were compared with D-limonene released from the fatty matrix called Grindsted Barrier System 2000 (GBS). Comparing ι-carrageenans with gluten-emulsified film, the latter showed more interesting encapsulating properties: in fact, D-limonene was retained by gluten film during the process needed for film preparation, and it was released gradually during analysis time. D-Limonene did not show great affinity to ι-carrageenans film, maybe due to high aroma compound hydrophobicity. Carvone release from the three different matrices was also measured to verify the effect of oxygen barrier performances of edible films to prevent D-limonene oxidation. Further investigations were carried out by FT-IR and liquid permeability measurements. Gluten film seemed to better protect D-limonene from oxidation. Gluten-based edible films represent an interesting opportunity as active packaging: they could retain and release aroma compounds gradually, showing different mechanical and nutritional properties from those of lipid-based ingredients.

  8. The international soil moisture network: A data hosting facility for global in situ soil moisture measurements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In situ measurements of soil moisture are invaluable for calibrating and validating land surface models and satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. In addition, long-term time series of in situ soil moisture measurements themselves can reveal trends in the water cycle related to climate or land co...

  9. Development and characterization of the kefiran-whey protein isolate-TiO2 nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Zolfi, Mohsen; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mousavi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Maryam

    2014-04-01

    Biodegradable kefiran-whey protein isolate (WPI)-titanium dioxide (TiO2) blend films were developed and characterized as a function of incorporating amount of TiO2 nanoparticles (1, 3 and 5% wt.). Results showed that the water vapor permeability, moisture content, moisture absorption and water solubility decreased by increasing the nano-TiO2 content. Mechanical tests revealed the plasticizing effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on the kefiran-WPI-TiO2 film. Addition of TiO2 nanoparticles to kefiran-WPI films significantly decreased tensile strength and Young's modulus, while increased its elongation at break. Differential scanning calorimetry data indicated that the glass transition temperature significantly changed by adding nano-TiO2. X-ray diffraction analysis also demonstrated that crystal type in kefiran-WPI was not affected by incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles. A uniform distribution at 1 and 3% wt. loading levels of TiO2 nanoparticles was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil Moisture Memory in Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Suarez, Max J.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Water balance considerations at the soil surface lead to an equation that relates the autocorrelation of soil moisture in climate models to (1) seasonality in the statistics of the atmospheric forcing, (2) the variation of evaporation with soil moisture, (3) the variation of runoff with soil moisture, and (4) persistence in the atmospheric forcing, as perhaps induced by land atmosphere feedback. Geographical variations in the relative strengths of these factors, which can be established through analysis of model diagnostics and which can be validated to a certain extent against observations, lead to geographical variations in simulated soil moisture memory and thus, in effect, to geographical variations in seasonal precipitation predictability associated with soil moisture. The use of the equation to characterize controls on soil moisture memory is demonstrated with data from the modeling system of the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project.

  11. Probing bias reduction to improve comparability of lint cotton water and moisture contents at moisture equilibrium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) reference method is specific for water in lint cotton and was designed for samples conditioned to moisture equilibrium, thus limiting its biases. There is a standard method for moisture content – weight loss – by oven drying (OD), just not for equilibrium moisture c...

  12. Antioxidant migration resistance of SiOx layer in SiOx/PLA coated film.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chongxing; Zhao, Yuan; Su, Hongxia; Bei, Ronghua

    2018-02-01

    As novel materials for food contact packaging, inorganic silicon oxide (SiO x ) films are high barrier property materials that have been developed rapidly and have attracted the attention of many manufacturers. For the safe use of SiO x films for food packaging it is vital to study the interaction between SiO x layers and food contaminants, as well as the function of a SiO x barrier layer in antioxidant migration resistance. In this study, we deposited a SiO x layer on polylactic acid (PLA)-based films to prepare SiO x /PLA coated films by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Additionally, we compared PLA-based films and SiO x /PLA coated films in terms of the migration of different antioxidants (e.g. t-butylhydroquinone [TBHQ], butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], and butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT]) via specific migration experiments and then investigated the effects of a SiO x layer on antioxidant migration under different conditions. The results indicate that antioxidant migration from SiO x /PLA coated films is similar to that for PLA-based films: with increase of temperature, decrease of food simulant polarity, and increase of single-sided contact time, the antioxidant migration rate and amount in SiO x /PLA coated films increase. The SiO x barrier layer significantly reduced the amount of migration of antioxidants with small and similar molecular weights and similar physical and chemical properties, while the degree of migration blocking was not significantly different among the studied antioxidants. However, the migration was affected by temperature and food simulant. Depending on the food simulants considered, the migration amount in SiO x /PLA coated films was reduced compared with that in PLA-based films by 42-46%, 44-47%, and 44-46% for TBHQ, BHA, and BHT, respectively.

  13. Properties of Cast Films Made from Different Ratios of Whey Protein Isolate, Hydrolysed Whey Protein Isolate and Glycerol

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Whey protein isolate (WPI)-based cast films are very brittle, due to several chain interactions caused by a large amount of different functional groups. In order to overcome film brittleness, plasticizers, like glycerol, are commonly used. As a result of adding plasticizers, the free volume between the polymer chains increases, leading to higher permeability values. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of partially substituting glycerol by hydrolysed whey protein isolate (h-WPI) in WPI-based cast films on their mechanical, optical and barrier properties. As recently published by the author, it is proven that increasing the h-WPI content in WPI-based films at constant glycerol concentrations significantly increases film flexibility, while maintaining the barrier properties. The present study considered these facts in order to increase the barrier performance, while maintaining film flexibility. Therefore glycerol was partially replaced by h-WPI in WPI-based cast films. The results clearly indicate that partially replacing glycerol by h-WPI reduces the oxygen permeability and the water vapor transmission rate, while the mechanical properties did not change significantly. Thus, film flexibility was maintained, even though the plasticizer concentration was decreased. PMID:28811434

  14. Chemical nature of the barrier in Pb/YBa2Cu3O(7-x) tunneling structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, R. P.; Foote, M. C.; Hunt, B. D.; Bajuk, L.

    1991-01-01

    Several reports of reproducible tunneling measurements on YBa2Cu3O(7-x) thin films or single crystals with a Pb counterelectrode have recently appeared. The nature of the tunnel barrier, formed by air exposure, in these structures has been unknown. In the present work, the chemical nature of the tunnel barrier is studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Laser-ablated films grown on LaAlO3 which have been chemically etched and heated in air are found to form nonsuperconducting surface Ba species, evident in an increase of the high binding energy Ba 3d and O 1s signals. A deposited Pb film about 10 A thick is found to be oxidized, and Cu(+2) is partially reduced to Cu(+1). The tunneling barrier thus appears to consist of species resulting from a combination of the air exposure and a reaction between the superconductor and the deposited Pb counterelectrode.

  15. Effect of Maillard reaction products on the physical and antimicrobial properties of edible films based on ε-polylysine and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingying; Liu, Fuguo; Liang, Chunxuan; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2014-11-01

    Edible films based on Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of ε-polylysine and chitosan, without the use of any plasticiser, were prepared by solution casting. The effect of Maillard reaction parameters (reaction time and the ratio of polylysine/chitosan) of ε-polylysine and chitosan on the structure, moisture content, water solubility, total colour difference and mechanical properties of edible films formed by MRPs were systematically evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that edible films prepared by the MRPs of ε-polylysine and chitosan through the Maillard reaction exhibited a more compact and dense structure than those from the mixture of biopolymers without the presence of MRPs. The tensile strength and % elongation values of films from the mixture were decreased significantly with the rise of ε-polylysine (P < 0.05). The moisture content of the films was not significantly affected by Maillard reaction, whereas water solubility was decreased and total colour difference was increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the extension of Maillard reaction time. In addition, antimicrobial activity of chitosan films against E. coli and S. aureus. could be achieved by incorporating ε-polylysine into chitosan. These films can ensure food quality and safety, especially for coating highly perishable foods, such as meat products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The moisture budget in relation to convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. W.; Scoggins, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation of the moisture budget in the environment of convective storms is presented by using the unique 3- to 6-h rawinsonde data. Net horizontal and vertical boundary fluxes accounted for most of the large amounts of moisture which were concentrated into convective regions associated with two squall lines that moved through the area during the experiment. The largest values of moisture accumulations were located slightly downwind of the most intense convective activity. Relationships between computed moisture quantities of the moisture budget and radar-observed convection improved when lagging the radar data by 3 h. The residual of moisture which represents all sources and sinks of moisture in the budget equation was largely accounted for by measurements of precipitation.

  17. On the performance of capillary barriers as landfill cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpf, M.; Montenegro, H.

    Landfills and waste heaps require an engineered surface cover upon closure. The capping system can vary from a simple soil cover to multiple layers of earth and geosynthetic materials. Conventional design features a compacted soil layer, which suffers from drying out and cracking, as well as root and animal intrusion. Capillary barriers consisting of inclined fine-over-coarse soil layers are investigated as an alternative cover system. Under unsaturated conditions, the textural contrast delays vertical drainage by capillary forces. The moisture that builds up above the contact will flow downdip along the interface of the layers. Theoretical studies of capillary barriers have identified the hydraulic properties of the layers, the inclination angle, the length of the field and the infiltration rate as the fundamental characteristics of the system. However, it is unclear how these findings can lead to design criteria for capillary barriers. To assess the uncertainty involved in such approaches, experiments have been carried out in a 8 m long flume and on large scale test sites (40 m x 15 m). In addition, the ability of a numerical model to represent the relevant flow processes in capillary barriers has been examined.

  18. Ingested hyaluronan moisturizes dry skin.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Chinatsu; Yoshida, Takushi; Yoshida, Hideto; Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Sakamoto, Wakako; Odanaka, Wataru; Sato, Toshihide; Yamasaki, Takeshi; Kanemitsu, Tomoyuki; Masuda, Yasunobu; Urushibata, Osamu

    2014-07-11

    Hyaluronan (HA) is present in many tissues of the body and is essential to maintain moistness in the skin tissues, which contain approximately half the body's HA mass. Due to its viscosity and moisturizing effect, HA is widely distributed as a medicine, cosmetic, food, and, recently marketed in Japan as a popular dietary supplement to promote skin moisture. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study it was found that ingested HA increased skin moisture and improved treatment outcomes for patients with dry skin. HA is also reported to be absorbed by the body distributed, in part, to the skin. Ingested HA contributes to the increased synthesis of HA and promotes cell proliferation in fibroblasts. These effects show that ingestion of HA moisturizes the skin and is expected to improve the quality of life for people who suffer from dry skin. This review examines the moisturizing effects of dry skin by ingested HA and summarizes the series of mechanisms from absorption to pharmacological action.

  19. An overview of the measurements of soil moisture and modeling of moisture flux in FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of soil moisture and calculations of moisture transfer in the soil medium and at the air-soil interface were performed over a 15-km by 15-km test site during FIFE in 1987 and 1989. The measurements included intensive soil moisture sampling at the ground level and surveys at aircraft altitudes by several passive and active microwave sensors as well as a gamma radiation device.

  20. Validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite soil moisture retrieval in an Arctic tundra environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, Elizabeth; Rowlandson, Tracy L.; Nambiar, Manoj; Berg, Aaron A.; Colliander, Andreas; Marsh, Philip

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the Soil Moisture Active Passive soil moisture product on the Equal Area Scalable Earth-2 (EASE-2) 36 km Global cylindrical and North Polar azimuthal grids relative to two in situ soil moisture monitoring networks that were installed in 2015 and 2016. Results indicate that there is no relationship between the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Level-2 passive soil moisture product and the upscaled in situ measurements. Additionally, there is very low correlation between modeled brightness temperature using the Community Microwave Emission Model and the Level-1 C SMAP brightness temperature interpolated to the EASE-2 Global grid; however, there is a much stronger relationship to the brightness temperature measurements interpolated to the North Polar grid, suggesting that the soil moisture product could be improved with interpolation on the North Polar grid.

  1. Porous Alumina Films with Width-Controllable Alumina Stripes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Porous alumina films had been fabricated by anodizing from aluminum films after an electropolishing procedure. Alumina stripes without pores can be distinguished on the surface of the porous alumina films. The width of the alumina stripes increases proportionally with the anodizing voltage. And the pores tend to be initiated close to the alumina stripes. These phenomena can be ascribed to the electric field distribution in the alumina barrier layer caused by the geometric structure of the aluminum surface. PMID:21170406

  2. Mechanical and barrier properties of maize starch-gelatin composite films: effects of amylose content.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Wang, Wenhang; Ye, Ran; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Ding, Junsheng; Zhang, Shaojing; Liu, Anjun

    2017-08-01

    In order to obtain new reinforcing bio-fillers to improve the physicochemical properties of gelatin-based films, three types of maize starch, waxy maize starch (Ap), normal starch (Ns) and high-amylose starch (Al), were incorporated into gelatin film and the resulting film properties were investigated, focusing on the impact of amylose content. The thickness, opacity and roughness of gelatin film increased depending on the amylose content along with the starch concentration. The effects of the three starches on the mechanical properties of gelatin film were governed by amylose content, starch concentration as well as environmental relative humidity (RH). At 75% RH, the presence of Al and Ns in the gelatin matrix increased the film strength but decreased its elongation, while Ap exhibited an inverse effect. Starch addition decreased the oxygen permeability of the film, with the lowest value at 20% Al and Ns. All starches, notably at 30% content, led to a decrease in the water vapor permeability of the film at 90% RH, especially Ns starch. Furthermore, the starches improved the thermal stability of the film to some extent. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated that some weak intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding occurred between gelatin and starch. Moreover, a high degree of B-type crystallinity of starch was characterized in Gel-Al film by X-ray diffraction. Tailoring the properties of gelatin film by the incorporation of different types of maize starch provides the potential to extend its applications in edible food packaging. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Fast spatial atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at low temperature (<100 °C) as a gas permeation barrier for flexible organic light-emitting diode displays

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Choi, Hagyoung; Shin, Seokyoon; Jeon, Hyeongtag, E-mail: hjeon@hanyang.ac.kr

    2016-01-15

    The authors developed a high throughput (70 Å/min) and scalable space-divided atomic layer deposition (ALD) system for thin film encapsulation (TFE) of flexible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays at low temperatures (<100 °C). In this paper, the authors report the excellent moisture barrier properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on 2G glass substrates of an industrially relevant size (370 × 470 mm{sup 2}) using the newly developed ALD system. This new ALD system reduced the ALD cycle time to less than 1 s. A growth rate of 0.9 Å/cycle was achieved using trimethylaluminum as an Al source and O{sub 3} as an O reactant. Themore » morphological features and step coverage of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The chemical composition was analyzed using Auger electron spectroscopy. These deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films demonstrated a good optical transmittance higher than 95% in the visible region based on the ultraviolet visible spectrometer measurements. Water vapor transmission rate lower than the detection limit of the MOCON test (less than 3.0 × 10{sup −3} g/m{sup 2} day) were obtained for the flexible substrates. Based on these results, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited using our new high-throughput and scalable spatial ALD is considered a good candidate for preparation of TFE films of flexible OLEDs.« less

  4. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng-Choon Tan, Adrian; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements.

  5. Enhanced nonlinear current-voltage behavior in Au nanoparticle dispersed CaCu 3 Ti 4 O 12 composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cong; Wang, Can; Ning, Tingyin; Lu, Heng; Zhou, Yueliang; Ming, Hai; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Dongxiang; Yang, Guozhen

    2011-10-01

    An enhanced nonlinear current-voltage behavior has been observed in Au nanoparticle dispersed CaCu 3Ti 4O 12 composite films. The double Schottky barrier model is used to explain the enhanced nonlinearity in I-V curves. According to the energy-band model and fitting result, the nonlinearity in Au: CCTO film is mainly governed by thermionic emission in the reverse-biased Schottky barrier. This result not only supports the mechanism of double Schottky barrier in CCTO, but also indicates that the nonlinearity of current-voltage behavior could be improved in nanometal composite films, which has great significance for the resistance switching devices.

  6. Soil moisture monitoring for crop management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Dale

    2015-07-01

    The 'Risk management through soil moisture monitoring' project has demonstrated the capability of current technology to remotely monitor and communicate real time soil moisture data. The project investigated whether capacitance probes would assist making informed pre- and in-crop decisions. Crop potential and cropping inputs are increasingly being subject to greater instability and uncertainty due to seasonal variability. In a targeted survey of those who received regular correspondence from the Department of Primary Industries it was found that i) 50% of the audience found the information generated relevant for them and less than 10% indicted with was not relevant; ii) 85% have improved their knowledge/ability to assess soil moisture compared to prior to the project, with the most used indicator of soil moisture still being rain fall records; and iii) 100% have indicated they will continue to use some form of the technology to monitor soil moisture levels in the future. It is hoped that continued access to this information will assist informed input decisions. This will minimise inputs in low decile years with a low soil moisture base and maximise yield potential in more favourable conditions based on soil moisture and positive seasonal forecasts

  7. Moisture plasticization for enteric Eudragit® L30D-55-coated pellets prior to compression into tablets.

    PubMed

    Rujivipat, Soravoot; Bodmeier, Roland

    2012-05-01

    Enteric polymers such as cellulose esters (cellulose acetate phthalate, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate) and methacrylic acid-acrylate copolymers (Eudragit® L100-55 and S100) are quite brittle in the dry state and thus not suitable as pellet coatings for compression into tablets. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of humidity treatment for moisture plasticization in order to successfully compress the enterically coated pellets. The mechanical properties of Eudragit® L100-55 improved dramatically, while the properties of the other enteric polymers showed only minor changes after storage at higher humidity. The significant increase in flexibility of the Eudragit® L film was caused by hydration/plasticization; its elongation value changed from approx. 3% in the dry state to approx. 140% at the higher storage humidity. Storage at 84% relative humidity resulted in comparable release profiles of compressed and uncompressed pellets. The glass transition temperature of Eudragit® L films decreased below the compression temperature (room temperature) at storage humidities between 75% and 84%. The glass transition relative humidity leading to a change from the glassy to the rubbery state was determined by dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) to be 76.8%. Moisture resulted in superior plasticization for Eudragit® L than the conventional plasticizer triethyl citrate. The improved compressibility of high humidity treated Eudragit® L-coated pellets was also shown with single pellet compression data as indicated by an increased crushing force and deformation. In conclusion, moisture plasticization was a highly effective tool to enable the successful compression of pellets coated with the brittle enteric polymer Eudragit® L. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gas barrier properties of bio-inspired Laponite-LC polymer hybrid films.

    PubMed

    Tritschler, Ulrich; Zlotnikov, Igor; Fratzl, Peter; Schlaad, Helmut; Grüner, Simon; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-05-26

    Bio-inspired Laponite (clay)-liquid crystal (LC) polymer composite materials with high clay fractions (>80%) and a high level of orientation of the clay platelets, i.e. with structural features similar to the ones found in natural nacre, have been shown to exhibit a promising behavior in the context of reduced oxygen transmission. Key characteristics of these bio-inspired composite materials are their high inorganic content, high level of exfoliation and orientation of the clay platelets, and the use of a LC polymer forming the organic matrix in between the Laponite particles. Each single feature may be beneficial to increase the materials gas barrier property rendering this composite a promising system with advantageous barrier capacities. In this detailed study, Laponite/LC polymer composite coatings with different clay loadings were investigated regarding their oxygen transmission rate. The obtained gas barrier performance was linked to the quality, respective Laponite content and the underlying composite micro- and nanostructure of the coatings. Most efficient oxygen barrier properties were observed for composite coatings with 83% Laponite loading that exhibit a structure similar to sheet-like nacre. Further on, advantageous mechanical properties of these Laponite/LC polymer composites reported previously give rise to a multifunctional composite system.

  9. Dual ion beam processed diamondlike films for industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Kussmaul, M. T.; Banks, B. A.; Sovey, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Single and dual beam ion source systems are used to generate amorphous diamondlike carbon (DLC) films, which were evaluated for a variety of applications including protective coatings on transmitting materials, power electronics as insulated gates and corrosion resistant barriers. A list of the desirable properties of DLC films along with potential applications are presented.

  10. Lubrication and failure mechanisms of molybdenum disulfide films. 1: Effect of atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports