Science.gov

Sample records for moisture performance characteristics

  1. Moisture-dependent color characteristics of walnuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Characterizing the shell color of walnuts based on their moisture content (MC) at harvest can provide valuable information for performing walnut sorting before drying. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the color characteristics of the shell of walnuts and their...

  2. [Performance characteristics of root zone moisture and water potential sensors for greenhouses in the conditions of extended space flight].

    PubMed

    Podolskiy, I G; Strugov, O M; Bingham, G E

    2014-01-01

    The investigation was performed using greenhouse Lada in the Russian segment of the International space station (ISS RS) as part of space experiment Plants-2 during ISS missions 5 through to 22. A set of 6 point moisture sensors embedded in the root zone (turface particles of 1-2 mm in diam.) and 4 tensiometers inside root modules (RM) were used to monitor moisture content and water potential in the root zone. The purpose was to verify functionality and to test performance of the sensors in the spacefight environment. It was shown that with the average RZ moisture content of 80% the measurement error of the sensors do not exceed ± 1.5%. Dynamic analysis of the tensiometers measurements attests that error in water potential measurements does not exceed ± 111 Pa.

  3. Characteristics and performance of L-band radar-based soil moisture retrievals using Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) synthetic aperture radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Johnson, J. T.; Moghaddam, M.; Tsang, L.; Colliander, A.

    2016-12-01

    Surface soil moisture of the top 5-cm was estimated at 3-km spatial resolution using L-band dual-copolarized Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data that mapped the globe every three days from mid-April to early July, 2015. Radar observations of soil moisture offer the advantage of high spatial resolution, but have been challenging in the past due to the complicating factors of surface roughness and vegetation scattering. In this work, physically-based forward models of radar scattering for individual vegetation types are inverted using a time-series approach to retrieve soil moisture while correcting for the effects of roughness and dynamic vegetation. The predictions of the forward models used agree with SMAP measurements to within 0.5 dB unbiased-RMSE (root mean square error, ubRMSE) and -0.05 dB (bias). The forward models further allow the mechanisms of radar scattering to be examined to identify the sensitivity of radar scattering to soil moisture. Global patterns of the soil moistures retrieved by the algorithm generally match well with those from other satellite sensors. However biases exist in dry regions, and discrepancies are found in thick vegetation areas. The retrievals are compared with in situ measurements of soil moisture in locations characterized as cropland, grassland, and woody vegetation. Terrain slopes, subpixel heterogeneity, tillage practices, and vegetation growth influence the retrievals, but are largely corrected by the retrieval processes. Soil moisture retrievals agree with the in-situ measurements at 0.052 m3/m3 ubRMSE, -0.015 m3/m3 bias, and a correlation of 0.50. These encouraging retrieval results demonstrate the feasibility of a physically-based time-series retrieval with L-band SAR data for characterizing soil moisture over diverse conditions of soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation types. The findings are important for future L-band radar missions with frequent revisits that permit time

  4. A Field Study Comparison of the Energy and Moisture Performance Characteristics of Ventilated Versus Sealed Crawl Spaces in the South

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Davis; Cyrus Dastur; William E. Warren; Shawn Fitzpatrick; Christine Maurer; Rob Stevens; Terry Brennan; William Rose

    2005-06-22

    This study compared the performance of closed crawl spaces, which had sealed foundation wall vents, a sealed polyethylene film liner and various insulation and drying strategies, to traditional wall-vented crawl spaces with perimeter wall vents and polyethylene film covering 100% of the ground surface. The study was conducted at 12 owner-occupied, all electric, single-family detached houses with the same floor plan located on one cul-de-sac in the southeastern United States. Using the matched pairs approach, the houses were divided into three study groups of four houses each. Comparative data was recorded for each house to evaluate sub-metered heat pump energy consumption, relative humidity, wood moisture content, duct infiltration, house infiltration, temperature, radon, and bioaerosol levels. Findings indicated that in the humid conditions of the southeastern United States, a properly closed crawl space is a robust construction measure that produces a substantially drier crawl space and significantly reduces occupied space conditioning energy use on an annual basis.

  5. Moisturizer technology versus clinical performance.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, A V; Canestrari, David A; Dobkowski, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The principles of humectancy, emolliency, and occlusion, all central to stratum corneum (SC) maintenance, continue to drive the development of novel moisturizing technologies. Humectants promote water retention within the SC, whereas occlusives generally minimize water loss to the external environment. The complementary occlusive activity of emollients contributes to SC hydration as well. Moisturization technologies, ranging from face care to hand and body care, vary in the types and levels of humectants, emollients (including lipids), and occlusives; accordingly, their therapeutic effects differ as well. Emulsification of these components into a single formulation-the technologies of which are as varied as their individual components-is thought to enhance the aesthetics of the moisturizer and its overall moisturization efficiency. The present article reviews the current approaches to SC moisturization, increasingly viewed as critical to its structural and functional integrity, and to fundamental skin care.

  6. Moisture performance analysis of EPS frost insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ojanen, T.; Kokko, E.

    1997-11-01

    A horizontal layer of expanded polystyrene foam (EPS) is widely used as a frost insulation of building foundations in the Nordic countries. The performance properties of the insulation depend strongly on the moisture level of the material. Experimental methods are needed to produce samples for testing the material properties in realistic moisture conditions. The objective was to analyze the moisture loads and the wetting mechanisms of horizontal EPS frost insulation. Typical wetting tests, water immersion and diffusive water vapor absorption tests, were studied and the results were compared with the data from site investigations. Usually these tests give higher moisture contents of EPS than what are detected in drained frost insulation applications. Also the effect of different parameters, like the immersion depth and temperature gradient were studied. Special attention was paid to study the effect of diffusion on the wetting process. Numerical simulation showed that under real working conditions the long period diffusive moisture absorption in EPS frost insulation remained lower than 1% Vol. Moisture performance was determined experimentally as a function of the distance between the insulation and the free water level in the ground. The main moisture loads and the principles for good moisture performance of frost insulation are presented.

  7. Moisture diffusion parameter characteristics for epoxy composites and neat resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, E. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The moisture absorption characteristics of two graphite/epoxy composites and their corresponding cured neat resins were studied in high humidity and water immersion environments at elevated temperatures. Moisture absorption parameters, such as equilibrium moisture content and diffusion coefficient derived from data taken on samples exposed to high humidity and water soak environments, were compared. Composite swelling in a water immersion environment was measured. Tensile strengths of cured neat resin were measured as a function of their equilibrium moisture content after exposure to different moisture environments. The effects of intermittent moderate tensile loads on the moisture absorption parameters of composite and cured neat resin samples were determined.

  8. Performance Assessment of a Humidity Measurement System and Its Use to Evaluate Moisture Characteristics of Wheelchair Cushions at the User-Seat Interface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuofu; Cheng, Haifeng; Luo, Zhongming; Cascioli, Vincenzo; Heusch, Andrew I; Nair, Nadia R; McCarthy, Peter W

    2017-04-05

    Little is known about the changes in moisture that occur at the body-seat interface during sitting. However, as increased moisture can add to the risk of skin damage, we have developed an array of MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) humidity sensors to measure at this interface. Sensors were first evaluated against traceable standards, followed by use in a cross-over field test (n = 11; 20 min duration) using different wheelchair cushions (foam and gel). Relative humidity (RH) was measured at the left mid-thigh, right mid-thigh and coccyx. Sensors were shown to be unaffected by loading and showed highly reliable responses to measured changes in humidity, varying little from the traceable standard (<5%). Field-test data, smoothed through a moving average filter, revealed significant differences between the three chosen locations and between the gel and foam cushions. Maximum RH was attained in less than five minutes regardless of cushion material (foam or gel). Importantly, RH does not appear to distribute uniformly over the body-seat interface; suggesting multiple sensor positions would appear essential for effectively monitoring moisture in this interface. Material properties of the cushions appear to have a significant effect on RH characteristics (profile) at the body-seat interface, but not necessarily the time to peak moisture.

  9. Continuous columns for determining moisture characteristic curves of soilless substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sound water management is essential for effectively producing nursery crops. Understanding substrate water availability is a critical component to managing irrigation properly. The objective of this paper is to report a method for generating moisture characteristic curves of soilless substrate tha...

  10. Size and moisture distribution characteristics of walnuts and their components

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the size characteristics and moisture content (MC) distributions of individual walnuts and their components, including hulls, shells and kernels under different harvest conditions. Measurements were carried out for three walnut varieties, Tulare, Howard a...

  11. Moisture Performance of Energy-Efficient and Conventional Wood-Frame Wall Assemblies in a Mixed-Humid Climate

    Treesearch

    Samuel Glass; Vladimir Kochkin; S. Drumheller; Lance Barta

    2015-01-01

    Long-term moisture performance is a critical consideration for design and construction of building envelopes in energy-efficient buildings, yet field measurements of moisture characteristics for highly insulated wood-frame walls in mixed-humid climates are lacking. Temperature, relative humidity, and moisture content of wood framing and oriented strand board (OSB)...

  12. Moisture sorption characteristics of freeze-dried human platelets*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng-jie; Chen, Guang-ming; Fan, Ju-li; Liu, Jin-hui; Xu, Xian-guo; Zhang, Shao-zhi

    2011-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a promising method for a long-term storage of human platelets. The moisture sorption characteristics of freeze-dried human platelets (FDHPs) were studied in this paper. The moisture sorption isotherms of FDHPs and freeze-dried lyophilization buffer (FDLB) were measured at 4, 25, and 37 °C. The experimental data were fitted to Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equations. There were no significant statistical differences (P>0.05) between the sorption characteristics of FDHPs and FDLB at 4 and 25 °C, while FDHPs absorbed more water at 37 °C. The net isosteric heat of sorption was derived. The heat for FDHPs showed an abnormal negative value at low moisture contents when 25 and 37 °C data were used. Dynamic sorption experiments were carried out at 25 °C with environmental water activity controlled at 0.75, 0.85, and 0.90. The moisture diffusion coefficient was fitted to be 8.24×10−12 m2/s when experimental data at initial time were used. These results would be helpful in choosing prehydration and storage condition for FDHPs. PMID:21370506

  13. Moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Lipozencić, Jasna; Pastar, Zrinjka; Marinović-Kulisić, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Moisturizers combine occlusives and humectants to enhance the water-holding capacity of the skin. Further diversity in moisturizer formulation is created through the addition of special ingredients, designed to enhance the functions of the skin. These agents mimic natural ingredients. Application of moisturizers can serve as important adjunctive therapy for patients with various dermatologic disorders.

  14. Effect of moisture sorption on the performance of crospovidone.

    PubMed

    Hiew, Tze Ning; Johan, Nur Atiqah Binte; Desai, Parind Mahendrakumar; Chua, Siang Meng; Loh, Zhi Hui; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2016-11-30

    Crospovidone is a commonly used tablet disintegrant. However, the synthetic disintegrant has been known to be hygroscopic and high moisture content in crospovidone used could exert deleterious effects on tablets formulated with it. The objective of this study was to elicit a better understanding between crospovidone-water interaction and its effect on disintegrant performance. Moisture sorption and desorption isotherms were obtained together with the enthalpy of immersion. Crospovidone samples stored at four relative humidities were used to formulate tablets and the resultant tablets were evaluated for their mechanical, dimensional and disintegratability attributes. Analyses of the moisture sorption isotherms indicated that externally adsorbed moisture accounted for the bulk of the total moisture content in crospovidone, with minimal amount of moisture absorbed intramolecularly. Enthalpy of immersion became less exothermic with crospovidone samples stored at increasing storage humidity. Correspondingly, improvement in disintegration time became less pronounced. This was postulated to be a consequence of premature wetting of the particle surfaces by externally adsorbed moisture. High humidity was also detrimental to tablet hardness and thickness. In conclusion, the impact of moisture sorption during storage by excipients such as crospovidone could be better understood by the appreciation of crospovidone-water interaction and its consequence on tablet quality.

  15. Moisture diffusion and permeability characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and hard gelatin capsules.

    PubMed

    Barham, Ahmad S; Tewes, Frederic; Healy, Anne Marie

    2015-01-30

    The primary objective of this paper is to compare the sorption characteristics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and hard gelatin (HG) capsules and their ability to protect capsule contents. Moisture sorption and desorption isotherms for empty HPMC and HG capsules have been investigated using dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) at 25°C. All sorption studies were analysed using the Young-Nelson model equations which distinguishes three moisture sorption types: monolayer adsorption moisture, condensation and absorption. Water vapour diffusion coefficients (D), solubility (S) and permeability (P) parameters of the capsule shells were calculated. ANOVA was performed with the Tukey comparison test to analyse the effect of %RH and capsule type on S, P, and D parameters. The moisture uptake of HG capsules were higher than HPMC capsules at all %RH conditions studied. It was found that values of D and P across HPMC capsules were greater than for HG capsules at 0-40 %RH; whereas over the same %RH range S values were higher for HG than for HPMC capsules. S values decreased gradually as the %RH was increased up to 60% RH. To probe the effect of moisture ingress, spray dried lactose was loaded into capsules. Phase evolution was characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The capsules under investigation are not capable of protecting spray dried lactose from induced solid state changes as a result of moisture uptake. For somewhat less moisture sensitive formulations, HPMC would appear to be a better choice than HG in terms of protection of moisture induced deterioration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Temperature Dependence of Soil Moisture Characteristics of Agricultural Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehzadeh, Amir

    1990-01-01

    The temperature dependence of static and dynamic characteristics of four soils: glass beads, Plainfield sand, Plano silt loam, and Elkmound sandy loam were explored. Gain -factor model was employed for quantifying the temperature dependences. The study required novel methods and technologies which were developed and employed for the rapid, and transient measurement of soil-moisture characteristics of these soils. A pressurized 2 cm-high column of soil is sandwiched between two air blocking membranes interfacing outside pressurized water system. Water content (Theta ) is measured with a 2 Curie gamma-ray source combined with a fast detection system giving a statistical accuracy of +/-0.2%. Moisture potential ( Psi) down to -2000 cm was measured with a newly developed "stripper" tensionmeter. While a slowly varying soil-water pressure was imposed on the thin sample through the membranes, firmly held in contact with the soil, water content and moisture -potentials were being monitored in the sample. A plot of water content versus water pressure gave the static characteristics (Theta,Psi ) of soils. An array of tensiometers (between the membranes) allowed measurement of the potential profile; in conjunction with the time-varying water content this permitted measurement of dynamic characteristics, conductivity versus water content (K,Theta). For the (Theta, Psi) characteristics, the measurements indicated that, wholly for glass beads, and largely for sand, the surface tension of pure water governs the temperature response. The temperature dependence of Plano silt loam was largely independent of water content and was roughly five times the temperature dependence of the surface tension of pure water. For Elkmound sandy loam the dependence was complex and not easily explained. Two factors appear to limit further system improvement. (1) A sample thinner than 2 cm faces difficulties of fitting three tensionmeters into the thickness. This limit on the thickness, in turn

  17. Effects of feeding combinations of steam-flaked grain sorghum and steam-flaked, high-moisture, or dry-rolled corn on growth performance and carcass characteristics in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Huck, G L; Kreikemeier, K K; Kuhl, G L; Eck, T P; Bolsen, K K

    1998-12-01

    The objective of these two feeding trials was to determine the associative effects of feeding steam-flaked grain sorghum (SFGS) in combination with steam-flaked (SFC), dry-rolled (DRC), or high-moisture (HMC) corn on growth performance and carcass characteristics in feedlot cattle. In Trial 1, 200 yearling heifers were blocked by weight, allotted to 25 pens, and fed one of five finishing diets (77% grain, 15% corn silage, and 8% supplement on a DM basis) for an average of 137 d. The grain combinations were 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 SFC:SFGS, respectively. Treatment had no effect on DMI (P > .05), but ADG, gain efficiency, and final live and hot carcass weights decreased linearly (P < .05) as the proportion of SFGS increased in the diet. Carcass backfat, quality grade, and liver abscess score were not affected (P > .05) by treatment. In Trial 2, 306 yearling steers were blocked by weight, allotted to 30 pens, and fed diets that contained 74.5% grain, 10% corn silage, 7.5% soybean meal, 4% tallow, and 4% supplement (DM basis) for an average of 139 d. The grain and grain combinations were 100% DRC, HMC, SFC, or SFGS and a 67%:33% combination of SFGS: DRC or SFGS:HMC. For steers fed diets containing a single source of grain, those fed SFC gained 7% more live weight and had a 7% higher gain efficiency (P < .05) than those fed DRC or HMC. Growth performance of steers fed SFGS was intermediate. Feeding grain combinations (67% SFGS:33% HMC or DRC) resulted in a 5 to 6% positive associative effect (P < .05) for ADG and gain efficiency. Carcass characteristics were not affected (P > .05) by treatment. We concluded that there were significant benefits (positive associative effects) when SFGS was fed in combination with DRC or HMC, but the effects were smaller when SFGS was fed in combination with SFC.

  18. [Characteristics of soil moisture in artificial impermeable layers].

    PubMed

    Suo, Gai-Di; Xie, Yong-Sheng; Tian, Fei; Chuai, Jun-Feng; Jing, Min-Xiao

    2014-09-01

    For the problem of low water and fertilizer use efficiency caused by nitrate nitrogen lea- ching into deep soil layer and soil desiccation in dryland apple orchard, characteristics of soil moisture were investigated by means of hand tamping in order to find a new approach in improving the water and fertilizer use efficiency in the apple orchard. Two artificial impermeable layers of red clay and dark loessial soil were built in soil, with a thickness of 3 or 5 cm. Results showed that artificial impermeable layers with the two different thicknesses were effective in reducing or blocking water infiltration into soil and had higher seepage controlling efficiency. Seepage controlling efficiency for the red clay impermeable layer was better than that for the dark loessial soil impermeable layer. Among all the treatments, the red clay impermeable layer of 5 cm thickness had the highest bulk density, the lowest initial infiltration rate (0.033 mm · min(-1)) and stable infiltration rate (0.018 mm · min(-1)) among all treatments. After dry-wet alternation in summer and freezing-thawing cycle in winter, its physiochemical properties changed little. Increase in years did not affect stable infiltration rate of soil water. The red clay impermeable layer of 5 cm thickness could effectively increase soil moisture content in upper soil layer which was conducive to raise the water and nutrient use efficiency. The approach could be applied to the apple production of dryland orchard.

  19. Experimental study on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ligang; Sun, Rui; Fei, Jun; Wu, Shaohua; Liu, Xiang; Dai, Kui; Yao, Na

    2008-10-01

    A fixed-bed experimental reactor was employed to reveal the combustion characteristics in simulated municipal solid waste (MSW) beds. Temperature distributions, ignition front velocity, bed weight were measured during combustion and gas analysis was also performed for O2, CO2, CO, CxHy, NO, HCN. The moisture content in MSW was varied. For higher moisture content, the drying of material was finished much later and the ignition front temperatures, ignition front velocity and overall burning rate were found to drop. The average concentration of CO and CO2 from the bed was inversely proportional to the moisture level, and the highest concentrations of CO and CxHy were observed at middle level of investigated fuel moisture content. Measurements showed that NO and HCN emitted from the bed and reached the peaks simultaneously with the volatile matters, and the conversion ratio of fuel nitrogen to NO and average concentration of NO decreased with increasing moisture content.

  20. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission Status and Science Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Entin, Jared K.

    2016-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observatory was launched January 31, 2015, and its L-band radiometer and radar instruments became operational since mid-April 2015. The SMAP radiometer has been operating flawlessly, but the radar transmitter ceased operation on July 7. This paper provides a status summary of the calibration and validation of the SMAP instruments and the quality assessment of its soil moisture and freeze/thaw products. Since the loss of the radar in July, the SMAP project has been conducting two parallel activities to enhance the resolution of soil moisture products. One of them explores the Backus Gilbert optimum interpolation and de-convolution techniques based on the oversampling characteristics of the SMAP radiometer. The other investigates the disaggregation of the SMAP radiometer data using the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic radar data to obtain soil moisture products at about 1 to 3 kilometers resolution. In addition, SMAP's L-band data have found many new applications, including vegetation opacity, ocean surface salinity and hurricane ocean surface wind mapping. Highlights of these new applications will be provided.

  1. Effect of heat-moisture treatment on the structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Larissa S; Moraes, Jaqueline; Albano, Kivia M; Telis, Vânia R N; Franco, Célia M L

    2016-04-01

    The effect of heat-moisture treatment on structural, physicochemical, and rheological characteristics of arrowroot starch was investigated. Heat-moisture treatment was performed with starch samples conditioned to 28% moisture at 100 ℃ for 2, 4, 8, and 16 h. Structural and physicochemical characterization of native and modified starches, as well as rheological assays with gels of native and 4 h modified starches subjected to acid and sterilization stresses were performed. Arrowroot starch had 23.1% of amylose and a CA-type crystalline pattern that changed over the treatment time to A-type. Modified starches had higher pasting temperature and lower peak viscosity while breakdown viscosity practically disappeared, independently of the treatment time. Gelatinization temperature and crystallinity increased, while enthalpy, swelling power, and solubility decreased with the treatment. Gels from modified starches, independently of the stress conditions, were found to have more stable apparent viscosities and higher G' and G″ than gels from native starch. Heat-moisture treatment caused a reorganization of starch chains that increased molecular interactions. This increase resulted in higher paste stability and strengthened gels that showed higher resistance to shearing and heat, even after acid or sterilization conditions. A treatment time of 4 h was enough to deeply changing the physicochemical properties of starch.

  2. Effects of Starting Moisture on Characteristics of Oil Roasted Peanut

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research has shown that the moisture content of peanuts before dry roasting affects the quality of the finished product. This study demonstrates the effects of the starting moisture content of the raw product on peanuts that were oil roasted. Scanning Electron Microscope images taken befo...

  3. Moisture Adsorption Isotherms and Thermodynamic Characteristics of Tannic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Červenka, L.; Cacková, L.

    2016-09-01

    Moisture adsorption isotherms of tannic acid were determined at 5, 15, and 35°C with the use of the static gravimetric method in the range 0.113-0.980 aw (aw is the water activity). It was shown that tannic acid adsorbed more water at 5°C. The experimental data fitted well to the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer and Yanniotis-Blahovec equations, giving the corresponding parameters by nonlinear regression. The monolayer moisture content, number of monolayers, and the surface area of sorption were demonstrated to decrease with increasing temperature. Mesopores dominated below the monolayer moisture content followed by the formation of macropores. The variation of the differential enthalpy and entropy with the moisture content showed that water was strongly bound to the surface of tannic acid below the moisture content 5.0 g water/100 g dry basis. The adsorption process was found to be enthalpy-driven; however, it was not spontaneous at a low moisture content, as follows from the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. The variation of the net integral enthalpy and entropy (at a constant spreading pressure) with the moisture content exhibited maximum and minimum values, respectively. This behavior indicated that water molecules were strongly bound to the tannic acid surface at the moisture content up to its monolayer values.

  4. Moisture and Structural Analysis for High Performance Hybrid Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-09-01

    Based on past experience in the Building America program, BSC has found that combinations of materials and approaches—in other words, systems—usually provide optimum performance. Integration is necessary, as described in this research project. The hybrid walls analyzed utilize a combination of exterior insulation, diagonal metal strapping, and spray polyurethane foam and leave room for cavity-fill insulation. These systems can provide effective thermal, air, moisture, and water barrier systems in one assembly and provide structure.

  5. Soil moisture dynamics and their effect on bioretention performance in Northeast Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, S. A.; Jefferson, A.; Jarden, K.; Kinsman-Costello, L. E.; Grieser, J.

    2014-12-01

    Urban impervious surfaces lead to increases in stormwater runoff. Green infrastructure, like bioretention cells, is being used to mitigate negative impacts of runoff by disconnecting impervious surfaces from storm water systems and redirecting flow to decentralized treatment areas. While bioretention soil characteristics are carefully designed, little research is available on soil moisture dynamics within the cells and how these might relate to inter-storm variability in performance. Bioretentions have been installed along a residential street in Parma, Ohio to determine the impact of green infrastructure on the West Creek watershed, a 36 km2 subwatershed of the Cuyahoga River. Bioretentions were installed in two phases (Phase I in 2013 and Phase II in 2014); design and vegetation density vary slightly between the two phases. Our research focuses on characterizing soil moisture dynamics of multiple bioretentions and assessing their impact on stormwater runoff at the street scale. Soil moisture measurements were collected in transects for eight bioretentions over the course of one summer. Vegetation indices of canopy height, percent vegetative cover, species richness and NDVI were also measured. A flow meter in the storm drain at the end of the street measured storm sewer discharge. Precipitation was recorded from a meteorological station 2 km from the research site. Soil moisture increased in response to precipitation and decreased to relatively stable conditions within 3 days following a rain event. Phase II bioretentions exhibited greater soil moisture and less vegetation than Phase I bioretentions, though the relationship between soil moisture and vegetative cover is inconclusive for bioretentions constructed in the same phase. Data from five storms suggest that pre-event soil moisture does not control the runoff-to-rainfall ratio, which we use as a measure of bioretention performance. However, discharge data indicate that hydrograph characteristics, such as lag

  6. Moisture absorption and bakeout characteristics of rigid-flexible multilayer printed wiring boards

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Moisture absorption and bakeout characteristics of Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD) rigid-flexible printed wiring boards were determined. It was found that test specimens had absorbed 0.95 weight percent moisture when equilibrated to a 50 percent RH, 25{degree}C environment. Heating those equilibrated specimens in a 120{degree}C static air oven removed 92 percent of this absorbed moisture in 24 h. Heating the samples in a 80{degree}C static air oven removed only 64 percent of the absorbed moisture at the end of 24 h. A 120{degree}C vacuum bake removed moisture at essentially the same rate with parylene slowed the absorption rate by approximately 50 percent but did not appreciably affect the equilibrium moisture content or the drying rate.

  7. Moisture adsorption desorption characteristics of stainless steel tubing measured by ball surface acoustic wave trace moisture analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Toshishiro; Akao, Shingo; Oizumi, Toru; Takeda, Nobuo; Tsukahara, Yusuke; Yamanaka, Kazushi

    2017-07-01

    A ball surface acoustic wave (SAW) trace moisture analyzer (TMA) was applied to measuring the adsorption and desorption (AD) characteristics of a stainless steel tube. For the first time, two-frequency measurement for precise temperature compensation was attempted at intervals of 3 s using a burst waveform undersampling circuit. We succeeded in measuring the variations of moisture transit time and dry-down dynamics caused by inner surface treatments such as bright annealing (BA), electropolishing (EP), and electrochemical buffing (ECB) using a sample-tube length of only 100 mm at a flow rate of 0.1 L/min. Net moisture adsorption was evaluated from the measured adsorption subtracted by the background adsorption. As a result, it was found that the adsorption on the ECB tube was smaller than those on EP and BA tubes by 1/3 and 1/4, respectively, at a baseline concentration of 13 ppbv. From these results, it was demonstrated that the ball SAW TMA could be used for measuring the AD characteristics of stainless steel tubes with various surface treatments.

  8. Soil moisture measurement techniques for remote sensing ground truth: evaluation and performance test of soil moisture sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsegaye, Teferi D.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William L.; Coleman, Tommy L.; Rajbhandari, Narayan B.

    1997-12-01

    Remote sensing technology requires fast and sufficiently accurate devices to take repetitive and less destructive soil moisture measurement techniques for validation of remotely sensed data. This study was conducted at Winfred Thomas Agricultural Research Station (WTARS) in Hazel Green, Alabama. The objectives of this study were to compare volumetric water content values measured with the time domain reflectometry (TDR) and water content reflectometry (WCR) instruments to the values obtained by the standard gravimetric technique for the upper soil depth and to examine the performance of the different types of soil moisture sensors and the effect of the probe length on the accuracy of soil moisture determination. From Huntsville '96 field research, we found that the emitting depth is 5 cm or less, possibly as low as 1 cm. This suggests that, in order to validate remotely sensed data, it is necessary to have fast and sufficiently accurate instruments to take repetitive and non-destructive soil moisture measurement to measure soil moisture. Our results indicated no significance difference between the Delta-T 6 cm probe output with GSM, MESA 10 cm probe output with GSM, and WCR30 and 20 cm probe output with GSM measurements. Even though the standard gravimetric technique is very reliable to measure soil moisture content, it is relatively time consuming and very destructive. Therefore, it may not be used for repetitive measurement at exactly the same location. The different types of TDR and WCR probes we tested can be used for measuring the moisture content. Except the WCR 5 and 10 cm probes, all probes tested in this experiment provided similar results. Therefore, this probe can replace the traditional gravimetric technique as long as the proper calibration is performed for a range of soil moisture and soil types.

  9. Magnetic method for measuring moisture content using diamagnetic characteristics of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiji, Tsukada; Yasuaki, Matsunaga; Yuta, Nakamura; Ryota, Isshiki; Kayo, Fujimoto; Kenji, Sakai; Toshihiko, Kiwa

    2017-01-01

    Moisture content measurements of rice kernels and soil are important for agriculture. Therefore, in this study, a new measurement method using the diamagnetic characteristics of water was developed for measurements of the moisture content of rice kernels and soil. The magnetic characteristics of the samples were determined using a magnetometer developed by us based on a superconducting quantum interference device. Because of the diamagnetic characteristics of water, the susceptibility of rice kernels became more negative with increasing moisture content. In the case of soil, which is a mixture of diamagnetic and ferromagnetic materials, a second-harmonic detection method using AC with DC bias magnetic field was applied to reduce the influence of the ferromagnetic signal. The intensity of the second-harmonic signal of a soil was determined to be proportional to its moisture content.

  10. Consumer Preferences, Product Characteristics, and Potentially Allergenic Ingredients in Best-Selling Moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuai; Kwa, Michael; Lohman, Mary E; Evers-Meltzer, Rachel; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2017-09-06

    Because moisturizer use is critical for the prevention and treatment of numerous dermatological conditions, patients frequently request product recommendations from dermatologists. To determine the product performance characteristics and ingredients of best-selling moisturizers. This cohort study involved publicly available data of the top 100 best-selling whole-body moisturizing products at 3 major online retailers (Amazon, Target, and Walmart). Products marketed for use on a specific body part (eg, face, hands, eyelids) were excluded. Pairwise comparisons of median price per ounce on the basis of marketing claims (eg, dermatologist recommended, fragrance free, hypoallergenic) and presence of ingredients represented in the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) series were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. The effect of vehicle type (eg, ointment, lotion, cream, butter) was assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Cross-reactors and botanicals for fragrances were derived from the American Contact Dermatitis Society's Contact Allergen Management Program database. A total of 174 unique best-selling moisturizer products were identified, constituting 109 713 reviews as of August 2016. The median price per ounce was $0.59 (range, $0.10-$9.51 per ounce) with a wide range (9400%). The most popular vehicles were lotions (102 [59%]), followed by creams (22 [13%]), oils (21 [12%]), butters (14 [8%]), and ointments (3 [2%]). Only 12% (n = 21) of best-selling moisturizer products were free of NACDG allergens. The 3 most common allergens were fragrance mix (n = 87), paraben mix (n = 75), and tocopherol (n = 74). Products with the claim "dermatologist recommended" had higher median price per ounce ($0.79; interquartile range [IQR], $0.56-$1.27) than products without the claim ($0.59; IQR, $0.34-$0.92). Products with the claim "phthalate free" had higher median price per ounce ($1.38; IQR, $0.86-$1.63) than products without the claim ($0.59; IQR

  11. A comparison of soil moisture characteristics predicted by the Arya-Paris model with laboratory-measured data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, L. M.; Richter, J. C.; Davidson, S. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Soil moisture characteristics predicted by the Arya-Paris model were compared with the laboratory measured data for 181 New Jersey soil horizons. For a number of soil horizons, the predicted and the measured moisture characteristic curves are almost coincident; for a large number of other horizons, despite some disparity, their shapes are strikingly similar. Uncertainties in the model input and laboratory measurement of the moisture characteristic are indicated, and recommendations for additional experimentation and testing are made.

  12. Humidification Performance of Heat and Moisture Exchangers for Pediatric Use

    PubMed Central

    Chikata, Yusuke; Sumida, Chihiro; Oto, Jun; Imanaka, Hideaki; Nishimura, Masaji

    2012-01-01

    Background. While heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) have been increasingly used for humidification during mechanical ventilation, the efficacy of pediatric HMEs has not yet been fully evaluated. Methods. We tested ten pediatric HMEs when mechanically ventilating a model lung at respiratory rates of 20 and 30 breaths/min and pressure control of 10, 15, and 20 cmH2O. The expiratory gas passed through a heated humidifier. We created two rates of leakage: 3.2 L/min (small) and 5.1 L/min (large) when pressure was 10 cmH2O. We measured absolute humidity (AH) at the Y-piece. Results. Without leakage, eight of ten HMEs maintained AH at more than 30 mg/L. With the small leak, AH decreased below 30 mg/L (26.6 to 29.5 mg/L), decreasing further (19.7 to 27.3 mg/L) with the large leak. Respiratory rate and pressure control level did not affect AH values. Conclusions. Pediatric HMEs provide adequate humidification performance when leakage is absent. PMID:22312483

  13. Humidification performance of heat and moisture exchangers for pediatric use.

    PubMed

    Chikata, Yusuke; Sumida, Chihiro; Oto, Jun; Imanaka, Hideaki; Nishimura, Masaji

    2012-01-01

    Background. While heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) have been increasingly used for humidification during mechanical ventilation, the efficacy of pediatric HMEs has not yet been fully evaluated. Methods. We tested ten pediatric HMEs when mechanically ventilating a model lung at respiratory rates of 20 and 30 breaths/min and pressure control of 10, 15, and 20 cmH(2)O. The expiratory gas passed through a heated humidifier. We created two rates of leakage: 3.2 L/min (small) and 5.1 L/min (large) when pressure was 10 cmH(2)O. We measured absolute humidity (AH) at the Y-piece. Results. Without leakage, eight of ten HMEs maintained AH at more than 30 mg/L. With the small leak, AH decreased below 30 mg/L (26.6 to 29.5 mg/L), decreasing further (19.7 to 27.3 mg/L) with the large leak. Respiratory rate and pressure control level did not affect AH values. Conclusions. Pediatric HMEs provide adequate humidification performance when leakage is absent.

  14. The Effect of Compaction on Moisture Characteristic Curves of Compactible Soils Measured in a UFAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, K. E.; Poloski, A. P.; Owen, A. T.; Lindenmeier, C. W.; Thompson, D. N.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and test methods to allow the use of the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFAT) for characterization of hydraulic properties of compactable soils often encountered in vadose zone environments. Use of the UFA in this application is limited by compaction of the soil under the applied centrifugal force. The UFA significantly reduces the time required to reach moisture equilibrium by applying driving forces thousands of times greater than natural driving forces for unsaturated flow through sample cores. However, the centrifugal force will also cause some soils to compress in the instrument, significantly changing the macropore volume distribution and thus the moisture characteristic curve. Moisture characteristic curves of undisturbed soil cores were measured both by traditional methods and in the UFA. Changes in pore volume distributions were estimated using X-ray micro-focus tomography (XMT) both before and after adjustment of the moisture content. Using a mathematical model, compaction of the pores at each UFA rotational speed can be accounted for and an original uncompacted macropore volume distribution can be estimated. This uncompacted macropore volume distribution can then be used to predict the moisture characteristic curve of the original soil, greatly shortening the time necessary to complete these measurements.

  15. Evaluation residual moisture in lithium-ion battery electrodes and its effect on electrode performance

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus; Wood, III, David L.; ...

    2016-01-11

    Removing residual moisture in lithium-ion battery electrodes is essential for desired electrochemical performance. In this manuscript, the residual moisture in LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 cathodes produced by conventional solvent-based and aqueous processing is characterized and compared. The electrochemical performance has also been investigated for various residual moisture contents. As a result, it has been demonstrated that the residual moisture lowers the first cycle coulombic efficiency, but its effect on short term cycle life is insignificant.

  16. Evaluation residual moisture in lithium-ion battery electrodes and its effect on electrode performance

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus; Wood, III, David L.; An, Seong Jin

    2016-01-11

    Removing residual moisture in lithium-ion battery electrodes is essential for desired electrochemical performance. In this manuscript, the residual moisture in LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 cathodes produced by conventional solvent-based and aqueous processing is characterized and compared. The electrochemical performance has also been investigated for various residual moisture contents. As a result, it has been demonstrated that the residual moisture lowers the first cycle coulombic efficiency, but its effect on short term cycle life is insignificant.

  17. Optimizing coating performance for diffusion under cyclic moisture exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feickert, Aaron J.; Wagner, Alexander J.

    2017-08-01

    Fickian diffusion is often used to model moisture transport through barrier coatings, where the goal is to protect an underlying substrate from the onset of corrosion caused by buildup of water or other aggressive species. Such coatings are often exposed to cyclic moisture, either in laboratory testing or in service due to natural environmental fluctuations. In this paper, we use lattice Boltzmann numerical techniques to investigate the effects of reservoir cycling on moisture propagation and concentration at the substrate where corrosion onset occurs. We examine both the simple case of constant diffusivity, representing idealized Fickian diffusion, and diffusivity that depends on concentration via either a step or linear function, representing polymer network swelling. The use of a coating subject to swelling is shown to lead to highly variable equilibrium behavior. We show that the nature of the functional diffusivity has large effects on water concentration at the substrate, and has implications for material design and analysis to avoid corrosion.

  18. Moisture removal characteristics of thin layer rough rice under sequenced infrared radiation heating and cooling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice drying with infrared (IR) radiation has been investigated during recent years and showed promising potential with improved quality and energy efficiency. The objective of this study was to further investigate the moisture removal characteristics of thin layer rough rice heated by IR and cooled ...

  19. High Energy Moisture Characteristics: Linking Between Soil Physical Processes and Structure Stability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water storage and flow in soils is usually complicated by the intricate nature of and changes in soil pore size distribution (PSD) due to modifications in soil structure following changes in agricultural management. The paper presents the Soil High Energy Moisture Characteristic (Soil-HEMC) method f...

  20. Moisture-barrier performance of ground covers in basementless homes

    Treesearch

    Jesse D. Diller

    1958-01-01

    The use of ground covers in crawl-space under houses is now widely accepted by builders, maintenance men, and home owners. Such covers are practical for reducing decay in subfloor timbers. They also effectively prevent soil moisture from moving upward into the house, and thus aid in preventing swelling and buckling of floors.

  1. Moisture characteristics of water-repellent consolidants and their applicability to existing buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iba, Chiemi; Fukui, Kazuma; Hokoi, Shuichi

    2016-07-01

    Water-repellent agents are considered an effective measure of preventing moisture damage in building materials. However, data on the moisture transfer characteristics of repellent materials are insufficient. This study focused on the transfer of liquid water in a porous building material and quantitatively evaluated the applicability of a water-repellent consolidant as a protection agent via water infiltration experiments and numerical analysis. The experimental results could be reproduced by treating the water-repellent consolidant as having two layers with different water conductivities.

  2. Enhancing a Remote-Sensing Method for Soil Moisture by Accounting for Regional Soil, Vegetation, and Climatic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahaar, A. S.; Niemann, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of root-zone soil moisture is critical for understanding the perpetuation of droughts and managing agricultural water systems. A remote-sensing method based on optical and thermal satellite imagery has been previously proposed to estimate fine-resolution (30 m) root-zone soil moisture over large regions. This method uses Landsat imagery to calculate all the components of the surface energy balance and then calculates the evaporative fraction (Λ) as the ratio of the latent heat flux to the sum of the sensible and latent heat fluxes. Root-zone soil moisture (θ) is then estimated from an empirical relationship with Λ. A similar approach has also been proposed to estimate the degree of saturation. Previous testing of this method for a semiarid region of southeastern Colorado has shown that a single relationship between θ and Λ does not apply universally. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of regional soil, vegetation, and climatic conditions on the form and strength of the Λ- θ relationship. To accomplish this goal, a global sensitivity analysis is performed using the Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) and a physically-based model (Hydrus-1D) that simulates both the land-surface energy balance and soil moisture dynamics. The modeling results show that, within a given climatic region, soil characteristics are very important in determining the shape of the Λ-θ relationship, while vegetation characteristics have the largest effect on the strength of the relationship. The modeling results also indicate that the annual average rainfall, which helps determine the climatic region, has a strong effect on both the form and strength of the relationship. From this analysis, the constants that define the Λ-θ relationships are estimated using regional characteristics. This approach allows the remote-sensing method to be adapted to local conditions and has the potential to greatly improve its performance.

  3. Moisture content behaviour in extensive green roofs during dry periods: The influence of vegetation and substrate characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berretta, Christian; Poë, Simon; Stovin, Virginia

    2014-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key parameter that influences the stormwater retention capacity, and thus the hydrological performance, of green roofs. This paper investigates how the moisture content in extensive green roofs varies during dry periods due to evapotranspiration. The study is supported by 29 months continuous field monitoring of the moisture content within four green roof test beds. The beds incorporated three different substrates, with three being vegetated with sedum and one left unvegetated. Water content reflectometers were located at three different soil depths to measure the soil moisture profile and to record temporal changes in moisture content at a five-minute resolution. The moisture content vertical profiles varied consistently, with slightly elevated moisture content levels being recorded at the deepest substrate layer in the vegetated systems. Daily moisture loss rates were influenced by both temperature and moisture content, with reduced moisture loss/evapotranspiration when the soil moisture was restricted. The presence of vegetation resulted in higher daily moisture loss. Finally, it is demonstrated that the observed moisture content data can be accurately simulated using a hydrologic model based on water balance and two conventional Potential ET models (Hargreaves and FAO56 Penman-Monteith) combined with a soil moisture extraction function. Configuration-specific correction factors have been proposed to account for differences between green roof systems and standard reference crops.

  4. Use of a submersible pressure outflow cell for determination of moisture characteristic curves on rock core

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.

    1993-06-01

    A simple device for developing moisture characteristic data curves, the submersible pressure outflow cell, was modified for application to rock core at matric potentials of 0 to -0.5 megapascals (MPa) and possibly to -1.0 Mpa. An automated system was developed to continuously and simultaneously collect data from many cells, obtain sorption and desorption characteristic curves to provide hysteretic information, and data from multi-step outflow experiments. The latter can be used to estimate unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The system has resolved many of the problems inherent in standard measurement techniques. Model simulation of imbibition using the hysteretic data collected are in close agreement with laboratory measurements of imbibition, data collected are in close agreement with laboratory measurements of imbibition, suggesting the moisture characteristic data correctly describes the core properties.19 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Analysis of annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, K.E.

    1991-04-01

    This report summarizes a project to model the annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems installed in residential attics. A previously developed model for the thermal performance of attics with radiant barriers was modified to allow estimates of moisture condensation on the underside of radiant barriers that are laid directly on top of existing attic insulation. The model was partially validated by comparing its predictions of ceiling heat flows and moisture condensation with data and visual observations made during a field experiment with full-size houses near Knoxville, Tennessee. Since the model predictions were found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, the models were used to estimate annual energy savings and moisture accumulation rates for a wide variety of climatic conditions. The models results have been used to identify locations where radiant barriers are cost effective and also where radiant barriers have potential for causing moisture problems. 58 refs., 20 figs., 32 tabs.

  6. Analysis of annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, K.E. )

    1991-08-01

    This report summarizes a project to model the annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems installed in residential attics. A previously developed model for the thermal performance of attics with radiant barriers was modified to allow estimates of moisture condensation on the underside of radiant barriers that are laid directly on top of existing attic insulation. The model was partially validated by comparing its predictions of ceiling heat flows and moisture condensation with data and visual observations made during a field experiment with full-size houses near Knoxville, Tennessee. Since the model predictions were found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, the models were used to estimate annual energy savings and moisture accumulation rates for a wide variety of climatic conditions. The model results have been used to identify locations where radiant barriers are cost effective and also where radiant barriers have potential for causing moisture problems. 58 refs., 20 figs., 32 tabs.

  7. Transient Soil Moisture Characteristics Below Different Land Cover Types: Implications for Quantifying Groundwater Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawickreme, D. H.; van Dam, R. L.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2006-12-01

    Statistical analysis of temporal water budgets in Michigan watersheds shows a significant link between land covers and streamflow characteristics. The observed differences in water budgets between the investigated watersheds are largely attributed to spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability of vegetation characteristics. Our findings suggest that management of regional groundwater resources should consider the effects of spatial and temporal vegetation changes. However, due to inadequate information, vegetation dynamics are not considered in most hydrologic models. By instrumenting suitable field sites in Michigan with different land cover types to monitor spatial and temporal variations in subsurface soil moisture , we investigate the interdependence of land cover, climate, soil moisture, and groundwater recharge in regional watersheds. Our approach involves resistivity and ground penetrating radar surveys, in-situ continuous moisture/temperature monitoring at field sites, and computer modeling of evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge. The results of this research are expected to improve our understanding of the impact of vegetation on soil moisture and groundwater recharge from site to regional scales and demonstrate the importance of incorporating land cover types and vegetation dynamics in regional groundwater resource assessment models.

  8. [Variation characteristics of soil moisture in apple orchards of Luochuan County, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ping; Han, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Lin-Sen; Dang, Yong-Jian; Qu, Jun-Tao

    2012-03-01

    To have an overall understanding on the soil moisture characteristics in the apple orchards of Luochuan County can not only provide theoretical basis for selecting apple orchard sites, choosing the best root-stock combination, and improving the soil water management, but also has reference importance in increasing the productive efficiency of our apple orchards. In this study, a fixed-point continuous monitoring was conducted on the overall soil moisture environment and the variation characteristics of soil moisture in the County apple orchards differed in age class, stand type, and tree type (standard or dwarfed). For the apple orchards in the County, the rhizosphere (0-200 cm) soils of most apple trees were water-deficient, and the deficit in 0-60 cm soil layer was less than that in 60-200 cm layer. During growth season, the water storage in 0-60 cm soil layer had the same variation trend as the rainfall pattern. The relative soil moisture content in most orchards was less than 60% , and seasonal drought was quite severe. The coefficient of variation of soil moisture content decreased with soil depth. With the increasing age of the orchards, soil water storage decreased. At the same planting density, the orchards with dwarfed trees had more water storage in 0-5 m soil layer than the orchards with standard trees. However, when the orchards were planted with dwarfed trees at a higher density, the soil water storage in the orchards with dwarfed trees was lesser than that in the standard orchards. The mature orchards on highland had the highest soil moisture content, followed by the mature orchards on flat land, and on terraced land. Tree density had great effects on the soil moisture content. When the tree density was the same, planting dwarfed trees could decrease the water consumption, and increase the soil moisture content significantly. To decrease the planting density through the removal of trees would be an effective way to maintain the soil water balance of

  9. Detection of soil moisture and snow characteristics from Skylab. [Texas and Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleman, J. R. (Principal Investigator); Lin, W. C.; Hardy, N.; Sloan, R.; Parashar, S. K.; Perry, C.; League, L.; Engling, M.; Pogge, E. C.; Moore, R. K.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most significant result is the good response of the passive radiometers, particularly the L-band radiometer, to changing soil moisture conditions near the surface of the earth. Radiometer response was very good for the five complete data sets consisting of three passes across Texas and two passes across Kansas. When data from the five different passes were combined, the correlation between the S194 radiometric temperature and soil moisture content remained high with a value of -0.96. The performance of the S193 passive radiometer was less consistent; however, one data set gave a very high correlation of -0.95. The scatterometer response to soil moisture at incidence angles near 30 deg was not as good as for the radiometers.

  10. [Soil moisture characteristics of apple-planting subarea in Weibei dry highland, Shaanxi Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianzhao; Yi, Huapeng; Li, Shitai

    2004-11-01

    Based on the data of regional scale and located field measurement, this paper investigated the soil moisture characteristics of the apple-planting subarea in Weibei dry highland, Shanxi Province. The results showed that the soil moisture characteristics in this subarea were affected by precipitation and evapotranspiration. At regional scale, the apple-land evapotranspiration in east Weibei area was the largest, and that in tableland gully and in west Weibei area was the medium and the smallest, respectively. Soil water deficit phenomenon was observed in three type areas. In east Weibei area, the mean water deficit amount was about 390.9 mm, the maximum was 674.6 mm, and the minimum value was 186.3 mm. In tableland gully area, the average and maximum values were 264.4 and 441.2 mm, respectively, and sometimes water surplus occurred. As a whole, soil moisture in west Weibei area was deficit, but the phenomena of water surplus were more prevalent than those in tableland gully area, and the maximum value was 151.8 mm. Soil moisture storage amount existed spatial and temporal variations in 3 different areas. The value of 2 m profile in apple growth season in west Weibei area was the largest, and that in Weibei tableland gully area and in Weibei east area was the medium and the smallest, respectively. The characteristics of soil moisture storage depended mainly on precipitation and its spatial-temporal distribution, as well as its consumed amount by apple trees. Water consumption in east Weibei area was the largest, the second was in gully area, and that in west Weibei area was the smallest. During apple growth season, the water consumption in dry year was less than that in wet year. In dry year, except for available precipitation, a considerable part of water used by apple trees came from deep (exceeded 3 m) soil moisture storage, which resulted in a dried soil layer and would affected the sustainable development of fruit production.

  11. The Influence of Aerosols and Environmental Moisture on the Characteristics of Supercellular and Multicellular Deep Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, L. D.; van den Heever, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms leading to differences between low-precipitation (LP) and classic (CL) supercell storm structure are not well understood, due in part to the small number of observational and modeling studies of LPs that have been reported in the literature. Though LPs and CLs sometimes occur within close proximity, CLs are found under a wider range of environmental conditions. LPs usually form near the dryline or in the high plains of the U.S., and they are typically isolated or upwind relative to surrounding deep convection. Since high aerosol concentrations and dry layers are more likely in these environments, the goal of this research is to investigate the sensitivity of deep convective characteristics, including LP and classic supercells as well as neighboring convection, both to changes in the background aerosol concentrations and environmental moisture profile. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), configured as a high-resolution cloud-resolving model, was used to achieve this goal. Simulated convection was initiated with a warm thermal perturbation, and subsequent deep convection was simulated under a range of aerosol concentrations and moisture profiles. In the control simulation, which utilized a clean aerosol background and a moist profile, the initial convection splits into a right-mover that becomes a strong and steady classic supercell, and a left-mover that evolves into a multicellular cluster. Sensitivity tests demonstrate that the right-mover becomes an LP supercell under both clean and polluted aerosol concentrations when elevated dry layers are present in the moisture profile. Precipitation characteristics of the left-moving cluster are sensitive both to the aerosol concentrations and the moisture profile. The relative control of aerosols and dry layers on the precipitation characteristics, microphysical processes, and thermodynamics including cold pool forcing, of different dynamically controlled convective storm types within the same

  12. Changes in soil characteristics and plant species composition along a moisture gradient in a Mediterranean pasture.

    PubMed

    Tzialla, C E; Veresoglou, D S; Papakosta, D; Mamolos, A P

    2006-07-01

    Soil physicochemical characteristics, total aboveground biomass, number of species and relative abundance of groups and individual species were measured along a moisture gradient in a pasture, flooded in part during winter through early summer, adjacent to Pamvotis lake in Ioannina, Greece. Soil and vegetation measurements were conducted in 39 quadrats arranged in four zones perpendicular to the moisture gradient. The zone closest to the lake, recently separated from the lake, became part of the pasture and its soil texture was quite different from that of the other zones with a substrate containing 91% sand. Except for pH, this zone had the lowest values in the other five soil physicochemical characteristics measured (organic matter, total and extracted inorganic nitrogen, Olsen extracted phosphorus and extractable potassium); in the other zones organic matter, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium tended to increase from the driest to the wettest zone. Total aboveground biomass, ranging from 280 to 840 gm-2, is high for herbaceous pastures in the conditions of Mediterranean climate and it was not related to distance from the lake's shoreline, although the highest values were measured at intermediate distances, or to any of the various soil characteristics measured. Also, the number of species/0.25 m2 was not related to any of the various soil characteristics, but it was highest at the intermediate distances from the lake's shoreline. Species composition varied along the moisture gradient. Forbs as well as annual grasses and legumes declined in abundance from the driest to the wettest places; the reverse was the case for sedges and perennial grasses and legumes. These results indicate that the soil moisture gradient was the principal factor affecting soil characteristics and plant species composition. Since most species were recorded in all the four zones of the pasture, indicating that these can tolerate all variations in abiotic conditions of pasture, the

  13. Therapeutic moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z D

    2000-10-01

    Moisturizers have been adapted to perform many important roles on the skin surface. Simple moisturizers combine occlusives and humectants to enhance the water-holding capacity of the skin. The addition of carefully selected emollients can influence the esthetic properties of the moisturizer and the stability of the active ingredients. The addition of sunscreens to moisturizers has created a new product category with an added skin function. Further diversity in moisturizer formulation is created through the addition of specialty ingredients, designed to enhance the functioning of the skin. Moisturizers are an important part of the dermatologist's armamentarium.

  14. Geostatistical and Fractal Characteristics of Soil Moisture Patterns from Plot to Catchment Scale Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korres, Wolfgang; Reichenau, Tim G.; Fiener, Peter; Koyama, Christian N.; Bogena, Heye R.; Cornelissen, Thomas; Baatz, Roland; Herbst, Michael; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Vereecken, Harry; Schneider, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture and its spatio-temporal pattern is a key variable in hydrology, meteorology and agriculture. The aim of the current study is to analyze spatio-temporal soil moisture patterns of 9 datasets from the Rur catchment (Western Germany) with a total area of 2364 km², consisting of a low mountain range (forest and grassland) and a loess plain dominated by arable land. Data was acquired across a variety of land use types, on different spatial scales (plot to mesoscale catchment) and with different methods (field measurements, remote sensing, and modelling). All datasets were analyzed using the same methodology. In a geostatistical analysis sill and range of the theoretical variogram were inferred. Based on this analysis, three groups of datasets with similar characteristics in the autocorrelation structure were identified: (i) modelled and measured datasets from a forest sub-catchment (influenced by soil properties and topography), (ii) remotely sensed datasets from the cropped part of the total catchment (influenced by the land-use structure of the cropped area), and (iii) modelled datasets from the cropped part of the Rur catchment (influenced by large scale variability of soil properties). A fractal analysis revealed that soil moisture patterns of all datasets show a multi-fractal behavior (varying fractal dimensions, patterns are only self-similar over certain ranges of scales), with at least one scale break and generally high fractal dimensions (high spatial variability). Corresponding scale breaks were found in various datasets and the factors explaining these scale breaks are consistent with the findings of the geostatistical analysis. The joined analysis of the different datasets showed that small differences in soil moisture dynamics, especially at maximum porosity and wilting point in the soils, can have a large influence on the soil moisture patterns and their autocorrelation structure.

  15. Building characteristics associated with moisture related problems in 8,918 Swedish dwellings.

    PubMed

    Hägerhed-Engman, Linda; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Moisture problems in buildings have in a number of studies been shown to increase the risk for respiratory symptoms. The study Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) was initiated with the aim to identify health relevant exposures related to dampness in buildings. A questionnaire study about home environment with a focus on dampness problems and health was conducted in one county of Sweden (8,918 homes, response rate 79%). Building characteristics that were associated with one or more of the dampness indicators were for single-family houses, older houses, flat-roofed houses built in the 1960s and 1970s, houses with a concrete slab on the ground that were built before 1983. Moreover, tenancy and earlier renovation due to mould or moisture problems was strongly associated with dampness. A perception of dry air was associated with window-pane condensation, e.g. humid indoor air.

  16. Multi-scale characteristics of moisture transport during a rainstorm process in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengxin; Gao, Shouting; Liang, Li; Deng, Difei; Gong, Hainan

    2014-08-01

    A rainstorm process that occurred in North China from July 24-25, 2011 was accurately simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model, and the multi-scale characteristics of moisture transport were studied based on the simulated results. The results indicated that water vapor was carried to North China mainly by the southwest low-level jet and easterly flow, with the former playing a principal role. The enhancement and northward extension of the southwesterly wind were consistent with the increase of magnitude and northward propulsion of the moisture flux. The variation of the winds mirrored fluctuations in the amount of precipitation. In addition, the water vapor from low latitudes to North China was transported first near the boundary layer over 15°N-21°N and then primarily at 850 hPa over 21°N-30°N, 900 hPa over 30°N-39°N, and 800 hPa over the region north of 39°N. The net budget of water vapor in North China was always positive during the rainstorm process because the zonal deficit was much smaller than the meridional surplus. The contribution of the water vapor advection was larger than that of the water vapor convergence in the prior period of rainfall, and the subsequent moisture aggregation relied on the water vapor convergence. The rainband in North China presented frontal mesoscale characteristics, and the short-term aggregation of moisture was closely related to the genesis and development of the mesoscale convective system that was triggered mainly by the cold air intrusion near the boundary layer. The underlying cold air not only lifted the warm air to trigger the convection, but it also influenced the development of the low pressure system in the lower levels, which further intensified the convergence and benefited the rapid accumulation of moisture to the convective zone near the boundary layer. The moisture transport reached its maximum an hour before the rainstorm occurred.

  17. Heat-Transfer Characteristics of an Insulation with Function of Removing Moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Hiroaki; Okagaki, Osamu; Fukusako, Shoichiro

    Experiments have been performed to investigate the effect of air-flow rate in clearance between the insulation and the wall on the temperature distribution, moisture accumulation, and heat flux. Glass-wool, whose thickness is 100mm and whose density is 16kg/m3, is adopted as a testing material, and the heating surface of the glass-wool and cooled-wall temperature are 25 and -15°C, respectively. The clearance between surface of glass-wool and cooling walls is 20mm, and inlet air velocity ranges from 0.2 to 1.0m/s. A s a result of the present investigation, it is observed that an increase in both air velocity and cooled-wall temperature causes the decrease in moisture accumulation and heat flux within the glass-wool and that inlet air temperature become very important for evaluating performance of insulation.

  18. Footprint Characteristics of Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors for Soil Moisture Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrön, Martin; Köhli, Markus; Zreda, Marek; Dietrich, Peter; Zacharias, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Cosmic-ray neutron sensing is a unique and an increasingly accepted method to monitor the effective soil water content at the field scale. The technology is famous for its low maintenance, non-invasiveness, continuous measurement, and most importantly, for its large footprint. Being more representative than point data and finer resolved than remote-sensing products, cosmic-ray neutron derived soil moisture products provide unrivaled advantage for mesoscale hydrologic and land surface models. The method takes advantage of neutrons induced by cosmic radiation which are extraordinarily sensitive to hydrogen and behave like a hot gas. Information about nearby water sources are quickly mixed in a domain of tens of hectares in air. Since experimental determination of the actual spatial extent is hardly possible, scientists have applied numerical models to address the footprint characteristics. We have revisited previous neutron transport simulations and present a modified conceptual design and refined physical assumptions. Our revised study reveals new insights into probing distance and water sensitivity of detected neutrons under various environmental conditions. These results sharpen the range of interpretation concerning the spatial extent of integral soil moisture products derived from cosmic-ray neutron counts. Our findings will have important impact on calibration strategies, on scales for data assimilation and on the interpolation of soil moisture data derived from mobile cosmic-ray neutron surveys.

  19. Footprint Characteristics of Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensing for Soil Moisture Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrön, M.; Köhli, M.; Zreda, M. G.; Dietrich, P.; Zacharias, S.

    2014-12-01

    Cosmic-ray neutron sensing has become an increasingly accepted and unique method to monitor the effective soil water content at the field scale. The technology is famous for its low maintenance, non-invasiveness, continuous measurement, and most importantly, for its large footprint. Being more representative than point data and finer resolved than remote-sensing products, cosmic-ray neutron derived soil moisture products provide unrivaled advantage for mesoscale hydrologic and land surface models. The method takes advantage of neutrons induced by cosmic radiation which are extraordinarily sensitive to hydrogen and behave like a hot gas. Information about nearby water sources quickly mixes a domain of tens of hectares in air. Since experimental determination of the actual spatial extent is hardly possible, scientists have applied numerical models to address the footprint characteristics. We have revisited previous neutron transport simulations and present a modified conceptual design and refined physical assumptions. Our revised study reveals new insights to energy spectra, probing distance and water sensitivity of detected neutrons under various environmental conditions. These results sharpen the range of interpretation concerning the spatial extent of integral soil moisture products derived from cosmic-ray neutron counts. Our findings will have important impact calibration strategies, on scales for data assimilation and on the interpolation of soil moisture data derived from mobile cosmic-ray neutron surveys.

  20. Footprint characteristics revised for field-scale soil moisture monitoring with cosmic-ray neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhli, M.; Schrön, M.; Zreda, M.; Schmidt, U.; Dietrich, P.; Zacharias, S.

    2015-07-01

    Cosmic-ray neutron probes are widely used to monitor environmental water content near the surface. The method averages over tens of hectares and is unrivaled in serving representative data for agriculture and hydrological models at the hectometer scale. Recent experiments, however, indicate that the sensor response to environmental heterogeneity is not fully understood. Knowledge of the support volume is a prerequisite for the proper interpretation and validation of hydrogeophysical data. In a previous study, several physical simplifications have been introduced into a neutron transport model in order to derive the characteristics of the cosmic-ray probe's footprint. We utilize a refined source and energy spectrum for cosmic-ray neutrons and simulate their response to a variety of environmental conditions. Results indicate that the method is particularly sensitive to soil moisture in the first tens of meters around the probe, whereas the radial weights are changing dynamically with ambient water. The footprint radius ranges from 130 to 240 m depending on air humidity, soil moisture, and vegetation. The moisture-dependent penetration depth of 15 to 83 cm decreases exponentially with distance to the sensor. However, the footprint circle remains almost isotropic in complex terrain with nearby rivers, roads or hill slopes. Our findings suggest that a dynamically weighted average of point measurements is essential for accurate calibration and validation. The new insights will have important impact on signal interpretation, sensor installation, data interpolation from mobile surveys, and the choice of appropriate resolutions for data assimilation into hydrological models.

  1. Moisture characteristics over Indian region during Summer Monsoon using RegCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janardanan, Rajesh; Rajanayagam, Lorna; Mohanakumar, Kesavapillai

    In this study, the spatial characteristics of the total Precipitable Water during monsoon season over Indian region, based on the sensitivity experiments performed by a regional climate model for an anomalously dry year. The present study uses a recent version (Version-III) of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Regional Climate Model (RegCM3). RegCM3 has been integrated at 60 km horizontal resolution over the Indian domain. The planetary boundary layer scheme used is that of Holtslag, cumulus parameterization scheme Emanuel of MIT, SUBEX large scale precipitation scheme and BATS ocean flux parameterization scheme. The model is run from 1st May to 30th September. The first month is taken for the spin up. The next four months are taken to study the monsoon. The experiments are carried out by increasing the initial conditions of Sea Surface Temperature by steps of 0.1 degree ranging up to 1degree. The change in the Total Precipitable water and their spatial distribution are studied. The zonal and meridional moisture transports are also analysed. The features simulated by RegCM3 are compared with those of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Key words:- Peninsular India, model integration, Monsoon Rainfall Reference: K. C. chow, Yiming Liu, Johnny C. L. Chan and Yihui Ding, Int. J. Climatol. 26: 1339-1359 (2006) K. C. Chow, Hang-Wai Tong and Johnny C. L. Chan, Clim. Dyn. DOI 10.1007/s00382-007- 0301-6 G. P. Singh, Jai-Ho Oh, Jin-Young Kim and Ok-Yeon Kim; ", SOLA, Vol. 2, pp.29-32 (2006) Dash S. K., Shekhar M. S., Singh G. P. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 86(1-4): 161 (2006)

  2. Estimation of hectare-scale soil-moisture characteristics from aquifer-test data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of a 72-h, constant-rate aquifer test conducted in a coarse-grained and highly permeable, glacial outwash deposit on Cape Cod, Massachusetts revealed that drawdowns measured in 20 piezometers located at various depths below the water table and distances from the pumped well were significantly influenced by effects of drainage from the vadose zone. The influence was greatest in piezometers located close to the water table and diminished with increasing depth. The influence of the vadose zone was evident from a gap, in the intermediate-time zone, between measured drawdowns and drawdowns computed under the assumption that drainage from the vadose zone occurred instantaneously in response to a decline in the elevation of the water table. By means of an analytical model that was designed to account for time-varying drainage, simulated drawdowns could be closely fitted to measured drawdowns regardless of the piezometer locations. Because of the exceptional quality and quantity of the data and the relatively small aquifer heterogeneity, it was possible by inverse modeling to estimate all relevant aquifer parameters and a set of three empirical constants used in the upper-boundary condition to account for the dynamic drainage process. The empirical constants were used to define a one-dimensional (ID) drainage versus time curve that is assumed to be representative of the bulk material overlying the water table. The curve was inverted with a parameter estimation algorithm and a ID numerical model for variably saturated flow to obtain soil-moisture retention curves and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity relationships defined by the Brooks and Corey equations. Direct analysis of the aquifer-test data using a parameter estimation algorithm and a two-dimensional, axisymmetric numerical model for variably saturated flow yielded similar soil-moisture characteristics. Results suggest that hectare-scale soil-moisture characteristics are different from core-scale predictions

  3. Moisture and Structural Analysis for High Performance Hybrid Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-09-01

    This report describes the work conducted by the Building Science Corporation (BSC) Building America Research Team's 'Energy Efficient Housing Research Partnerships' project. Based on past experience in the Building America program, they have found that combinations of materials and approaches---in other words, systems--usually provide optimum performance. No single manufacturer typically provides all of the components for an assembly, nor has the specific understanding of all the individual components necessary for optimum performance.

  4. Moisture absorption characteristics of the Orbiter thermal protection system and methods used to prevent water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schomburg, C.; Dotts, R. L.; Tillian, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter's silica tile Thermal Protection System (TPS) is beset by the moisture absorption problems inherently associated with low density, highly porous insulation systems. Attention is presently given to the comparative success of methods for the minimization and/or prevention of water ingestion by the TPS tiles, covering the development of water-repellent agents and their tile application techniques, flight test program results, and materials improvements. The use of external films for rewaterproofing of the TPS tiles after each mission have demonstrated marginal to unacceptable performance. By contrast, a tile interior waterproofing agent has shown promise.

  5. Baking Performance of Phosphorylated Cross-Linked Resistant Starch in Low-Moisture Bakery Goods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorylated cross-linked resistant starch (RS) is a type 4 RS, which can be used for enhancing the benefits of dietary fiber. The baking performance of the RS was explored using wire-cut cookie baking and benchtop chemically-leavened cracker baking methods to produce low-moisture baked goods (coo...

  6. Performance of a rigid and a flexible adhesive in lumber joints subjected to moisture content changes

    Treesearch

    G. P. Krueger; R. F. Blomquist

    1964-01-01

    Experimental work was undertaken to investigate the extent and magnitude of deterioration that can occur in typical plywood-to-lumber glue joints subjected to stresses resulting from changes in the moisture content of the wood, and to compare the performance of a somewhat flexible or deformable adhesive to that of a rigid adhesive in these joints. Results showed that...

  7. Weathering characteristics and moisture uptake properties of wood coated with water-borne sol-gel thin films

    Treesearch

    M. A. Tshabalala; C. Starr; N. R. Sutherland

    2010-01-01

    In this study, wood specimens were coated with water-borne silsesquioxane oligomers by an in situ sol-gel deposition process. The effect of these water-borne sol-gel thin films on weathering characteristics and moisture-uptake properties of the wood specimens were investigated. The weathering characteristics were investigated by exposure of the specimens to artificial...

  8. [Effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash].

    PubMed

    Du, She-ni; Bai, Gang-shuan; Liang, Yin-li

    2011-04-01

    A pot experiment with artificial shading was conducted to study the effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash variety "Jingyingyihao". Under all test soil moisture conditions, 30% shading promoted the growth of "Jingyingyihao", with the highest yield at 70% - 80% soil relative moisture contents. 70% shading inhibited plant growth severely, only flowering and not bearing fruits, no economic yield produced. In all treatments, there was a similar water consumption trend, i. e., both the daily and the total water consumption decreased with increasing shading and decreasing soil moisture content. Among all treatments, 30% shading and 70% - 80% soil relative moisture contents had the highest water use efficiency (2.36 kg mm(-1) hm(-2)) and water output rate (1.57 kg mm(-1) hm(-2)). The net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content of squash leaves decreased with increasing shading, whereas the intercellular CO2 concentration was in adverse. The leaf protective enzyme activity and proline content decreased with increasing shading, and the leaf MAD content decreased in the order of 70% shading, natural radiation, and 30% shading. Under the three light intensities, the change characteristics of squash leaf photosynthesis, protective enzyme activity, and proline and MAD contents differed with the increase of soil relative moisture content.

  9. Moisture Sorption–desorption Characteristics and the Corresponding Thermodynamic Properties of Carvedilol Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Allada, Ravikiran; Maruthapillai, Arthanareeswari; Palanisamy, Kamaraj; Chappa, Praveen

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Carvedilol phosphate (CDP) is a nonselective beta-blocker used for the treatment of heart failures and hypertension. In this work, moisture sorption–desorption characteristics and thermodynamic properties of CDP have been investigated. Materials and Methods: The isotherms were determined using dynamic vapor sorption analyzer at different humidity conditions (0%–90% relative humidity) and three pharmaceutically relevant temperatures (20°C, 30°C, and 40°C). The experimental sorption data determined were fitted to various models, namely, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller; Guggenheim-Anderson-De Boer (GAB); Peleg; and modified GAB. Isosteric heats of sorption were evaluated through the direct use of sorption isotherms by means of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Statistical Analysis Used: The sorption model parameters were determined from the experimental sorption data using nonlinear regression analysis, and mean relative percentage deviation (P), correlation (Correl), root mean square error, and model efficiency were considered as the criteria to select the best fit model. Results: The sorption–desorption isotherms have sigmoidal shape – confirming to Type II isotherms. Based on the statistical data analysis, modified GAB model was found to be more adequate to explain sorption characteristics of CDP. It is noted that the rate of adsorption and desorption is specific to the temperature at which it was being studied. It is observed that isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. Conclusions: The calculation of the thermodynamic properties was further used to draw an understanding of the properties of water and energy requirements associated with the sorption behavior. The sorption–desorption data and the set of equations are useful in the simulation of processing, handling, and storage of CDP and further behavior during manufacture and storage of CDP formulations. PMID:28584488

  10. Effects of Exterior Insulation on Moisture Performance of Wood-Frame Walls in the Pacific Northwest: Measurements and Hygrothermal Modeling

    Treesearch

    Samuel V. Glass; Borjen Yeh; Benjamin J. Herzog

    2016-01-01

    Continuous exterior insulation on above-grade walls is becoming more common in many parts of North America. It is generally accepted that exterior insulation provides advantages for energy performance, by reducing thermal bridging, and for moisture performance, by warming the wood structural members, thereby reducing the potential for wintertime moisture accumulation....

  11. The effects of surface wettability on the fog and dew moisture harvesting performance on tubular surfaces.

    PubMed

    Seo, Donghyun; Lee, Junghun; Lee, Choongyeop; Nam, Youngsuk

    2016-04-11

    The efficient water harvesting from air-laden moisture has been a subject of great interest to address world-wide water shortage issues. Recently, it has been shown that tailoring surface wettability can enhance the moisture harvesting performance. However, depending on the harvesting condition, a different conclusion has often been reported and it remains unclear what type of surface wettability would be desirable for the efficient water harvesting under the given condition. Here we compare the water harvesting performance of the surfaces with various wettability under two different harvesting conditions-dewing and fogging, and show that the different harvesting efficiency of each surface under these two conditions can be understood by considering the relative importance of the water capturing and removal efficiency of the surface. At fogging, the moisture harvesting performance is determined by the water removal efficiency of the surface with the oil-infused surfaces exhibiting the best performance. Meanwhile, at dewing, both the water capturing and removal efficiency are crucial to the harvesting performance. And well-wetting surfaces with a lower barrier to nucleation of condensates exhibit a better harvesting performance due to the increasing importance of the water capture efficiency over the water removal efficiency at dewing.

  12. The effects of surface wettability on the fog and dew moisture harvesting performance on tubular surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Donghyun; Lee, Junghun; Lee, Choongyeop; Nam, Youngsuk

    2016-04-01

    The efficient water harvesting from air-laden moisture has been a subject of great interest to address world-wide water shortage issues. Recently, it has been shown that tailoring surface wettability can enhance the moisture harvesting performance. However, depending on the harvesting condition, a different conclusion has often been reported and it remains unclear what type of surface wettability would be desirable for the efficient water harvesting under the given condition. Here we compare the water harvesting performance of the surfaces with various wettability under two different harvesting conditions–dewing and fogging, and show that the different harvesting efficiency of each surface under these two conditions can be understood by considering the relative importance of the water capturing and removal efficiency of the surface. At fogging, the moisture harvesting performance is determined by the water removal efficiency of the surface with the oil-infused surfaces exhibiting the best performance. Meanwhile, at dewing, both the water capturing and removal efficiency are crucial to the harvesting performance. And well-wetting surfaces with a lower barrier to nucleation of condensates exhibit a better harvesting performance due to the increasing importance of the water capture efficiency over the water removal efficiency at dewing.

  13. The effects of surface wettability on the fog and dew moisture harvesting performance on tubular surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Donghyun; Lee, Junghun; Lee, Choongyeop; Nam, Youngsuk

    2016-01-01

    The efficient water harvesting from air-laden moisture has been a subject of great interest to address world-wide water shortage issues. Recently, it has been shown that tailoring surface wettability can enhance the moisture harvesting performance. However, depending on the harvesting condition, a different conclusion has often been reported and it remains unclear what type of surface wettability would be desirable for the efficient water harvesting under the given condition. Here we compare the water harvesting performance of the surfaces with various wettability under two different harvesting conditions–dewing and fogging, and show that the different harvesting efficiency of each surface under these two conditions can be understood by considering the relative importance of the water capturing and removal efficiency of the surface. At fogging, the moisture harvesting performance is determined by the water removal efficiency of the surface with the oil-infused surfaces exhibiting the best performance. Meanwhile, at dewing, both the water capturing and removal efficiency are crucial to the harvesting performance. And well-wetting surfaces with a lower barrier to nucleation of condensates exhibit a better harvesting performance due to the increasing importance of the water capture efficiency over the water removal efficiency at dewing. PMID:27063149

  14. Assessment of Soil Moisture and Fixatives Performance in Controlling Wind Erosion of Contaminated Soil at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, L.E.; Gudavalli, R.K.

    2008-07-01

    During the remediation of burial grounds at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in Washington State, the dispersion of contaminated soil particles and dust is an issue that is faced by site workers on a daily basis. This contamination issue is even more of a concern when one takes into account the semi-arid characteristics of the region where the site is located. To mitigate this problem, workers at the site use a variety of engineered methods to minimize the dispersion of contaminated soil and dust particles. Once such methods is the use of water and/or suppression agents (fixatives) that stabilizes the soil prior to soil excavation, segregation, and removal activities. A primary contributor to the dispersion of contaminated soil and dust is wind soil erosion. The erosion process occurs when the wind speed exceeds a certain threshold value (threshold shear velocity), which depends on a number of factors including wind force loading, particle size, surface soil moisture, and the geometry of the soil. Thus under these circumstances the mobility of contaminated soil and generation and dispersion of particulate matter are significantly influenced by these parameters. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at the Florida International University's Applied Research Center (FIU-ARC) to evaluate the effectiveness of three commercially available fixatives in controlling the mobility of soil particles on soil mounds when exposed to varying wind forces. The fixatives tested included: (1) a calcium chloride solution; (2) a petroleum hydrocarbon emulsion; and 3) a synthetic organic. As an initial step, approximately 500 lbs of uncontaminated soil was obtained from the Hanford Reservation in Washington State. Soil samples were placed in an open-loop, low speed wind tunnel and exposed to wind forces ranging from 10 to 30 miles per hour (mph). Wind erosion controlling capabilities of commercially available fixatives and soil moisture were tested at a laboratory

  15. Evaluating the Performance of a Soil Moisture Data Assimilation System for Agricultural Drought Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, E.; Crow, W. T.; Holmes, T. R.; Bolten, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Despite considerable interest in the application of land surface data assimilation systems (LDAS) for agricultural drought applications, relatively little is known about the large-scale performance of such systems and, thus, the optimal methodological approach for implementing them. To address this need, we evaluates a soil moisture assimilation system for agricultural drought monitoring by benchmarking each component of the system (i.e., a satellite soil moisture retrieval algorithm, a soil water balance model and a sequential data assimilation filter) against a series of linear models which perform the same function (i.e., have the same basic inputs/output) as the full component. Lagged soil moisture/NDVI correlations obtained using individual LDAS components versus their linear analogs reveal the degree to which non-linearities and/or complexities contained within each component actually contribute to the performance of the LDAS system as a whole. Here, a particular system based on surface soil moisture retrievals from the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), a two-layer Palmer soil water balance model and an Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is benchmarked. Results suggest significant room for improvement in each component of the system. First, the non-linear LPRM retrieval algorithm does not appear to add much additional predictive information for future NDVI compared to the simple linear benchmark model comprised of initial AMSR-E observations (horizontally and vertically polarized brightness temperatures and surface temperature). Second, the Palmer model performed worse than the purely linear prognostic model (Antecedent Precipitation Index model) in predicting future vegetation condition. This result points out that the saturation threshold of soil layers in the modern LSMs for runoff generation hinders maximum utilization of meteorological input information for agricultural drought monitoring. As to the assimilation algorithm, better performance of the

  16. High-Performance Bio-Based Cyanate Esters with Low Moisture Uptake

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Uptake 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Andrew Guenthner , Matthew...release, distribution is unlimited. HIGH-PERFORMANCE BIO-BASED CYANATE ESTER RESINS WITH LOW MOISTURE UPTAKE Andrew J. Guenthner ,1 Matthew C. Davis,2...275. 2. Illicium, pimpinella, and foeniculum. Jodral, M. M., Ed.; CRC Press: Washington, DC, 2004. 3. Guenthner , A. J.; Lamison, K. R.; Vij, V

  17. Investigating the impact of limited irrigation practices on soil moisture variability and vineyard performance, Boise, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffin, J.; Wilkins, D. E.; Guenther, J.

    2012-12-01

    In semiarid regions, the changing climate may affect the timing and form of precipitation. This could result in increased water stress for agricultural production as available surface water for irrigation diminishes. To prepare for these changing conditions the possibility of limited-irrigation agriculture as an alternative to heavily-irrigated production is being investigated. This study specifically investigates the ability to grow productive wine grapes with different levels of limited irrigation in the Boise Front foothills at the West Foothills TIC Vineyard, located in a climate zone receiving less than 300 mm of annual precipitation over two growing seasons (2011-2012). The vineyard is divided into three test plots on a northwest facing-slope. Soil texture analyses show that soils are homogenous across all three plots. Traditional vineyard performance factors, such as planting densities, soil type, rootstock, and climate, are standardized and serve as constants in this study. Thus, the limiting factor for vine performance is the difference in irrigation on each plot. Water delivery through drip emitters varies in each of the three vineyard test plots from 2 gallons per week to 0.75 gallons per week. Soil moisture is monitored at depths of 0.25 meters and 0.50 meters in two pits in each of the test plots, collecting data in 2011 and 2012, and in a third pit added to each plot in 2012 at upper elevations. The paired upper elevation sensors record the natural soil moisture and the irrigated soil moisture in each irrigation scheme. Soil moisture for each plot, compared to the annual mortality and growth rates of the vines, will suggest a minimum irrigation level needed for limited irrigation farming and highlight other factors that may affect vine performance in this location.

  18. Characteristics of soil moisture in relation to microtopography in the Loess region of Northern Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Bo, Yaojun; Zhu, Qingke; Zhao, Weijun

    2014-07-01

    Soil moisture is the primary factor limiting plant growth and vegetation rehabilitation in the loess region of northern Shaanxi, China. This 5-year (2008-2012) study investigated methods of selecting appropriate microsites for vegetation restoration based on efficient use of soil moisture; 5-year data were compared with 56 years of precipitation data using standardized precipitation index. In addition, the effects of microtopography on the spatiotemporal variations of soil moisture were analyzed at the Wuqi Ecological Station of Beijing Forestry University. Results showed that average annual precipitation during last 5 years fell by 12.4% during the growing season compared with 1957-2012 data and soil moisture content at depth of 0-160 cm under went dramatic changes and became relatively low in July and August. Soil moisture content varied in different microtopographical units as follows: gullies > gently-sloped terraces > collapsed soils > undisturbed slopes (control) > furrows > escarpments. The vertical distribution of soil moisture content in different microtopographical units showed dramatic changes at depth of 0-40 cm. Soil moisture content of gently-sloped terraces, gullies, collapsed areas, furrows, and undisturbed slopes was highest at depth of 80-160 cm with a level of instability at depth of 40-80 cm. For gently-sloped terraces and gullies, soil moisture content followed the order of 40-80 cm > 0-40 cm; for collapsed areas, furrows, and undisturbed slopes, soil moisture content follows the order of 0-40 cm > 40-80 cm. For escarpments, soil moisture content varied with depth in a different pattern: 0-40 cm > 80-160 cm > 40-80 cm. This study is of theoretical significance and will help guide the sustainable development of ecological restoration and vegetation rehabilitation in the Loess region.

  19. Synergistic proinflammatory interactions of microbial toxins and structural components characteristic to moisture-damaged buildings.

    PubMed

    Korkalainen, M; Täubel, M; Naarala, J; Kirjavainen, P; Koistinen, A; Hyvärinen, A; Komulainen, H; Viluksela, M

    2017-01-01

    Indoor exposure to microbes and their structural and metabolic compounds is notoriously complex. To study proinflammatory interactions between the multiple microbial agents, macrophages derived from human THP-1 monocytic cells were exposed to several concentrations of microbial toxins alone (emodin, enniatin B, physcion, sterigmatocystin, valinomycin) and in combination with microbial structural components (bacterial lipopolysaccharide [LPS] or fungal β-glucan). While the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β to single toxins alone was modest, low-dose co-exposure with structural components increased the responses of emodin, enniatin B, and valinomycin synergistically, both at the mRNA and protein level, as measured by RT-qPCR and ELISA, respectively. Co-exposure of toxins and β-glucan resulted in consistent synergistically increased expression of several inflammation-related genes, while some of the responses with LPS were also inhibitory. Co-exposure of toxins with either β-glucan or LPS induced also mitochondrial damage and autophagocytosis. The results demonstrate that microbial toxins together with bacterial and fungal structural components characteristic to moisture-damaged buildings can have drastic synergistic proinflammatory interactions at low exposure levels. © 2016 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Soil moisture characteristics at the boundary of forestland-grassland in hilly area of Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    You, Wenzhong; Zeng, Dehui; Liu, Mingguo; Song, Xide

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, the spatial distribution pattern of soil moisture at the boundary of forestland-grassland in hilly area of Loess Plateau was studied in dry season of June and rainy season of August 2004. The results showed that the variance coefficient of soil moisture content was smaller, and the difference of moisture content between soil layers was less significant in forestland than in grassland in June while reversed in August. There was a weak or medium differentiation of moisture content in different soil layers at the boundary of forestland-grassland. The edge effect area at the boundary was from 2 m (0. 4 of tree height) outside forestland to 2 m inside forestland in June, and from 2 m outside forestland to 4 m (0. 8 of tree height) inside forestland in August. The forestland-grassland landscape could be divided into 3 parts, i.e., grassland area, forest edge area, and forestland area, and the vertical distribution of soil moisture in these three parts showed different traits. In June, soil moisture content increased with increasing soil depth, with a smaller increment in grassland than in forestland, but in August, it was reversed. The vertical distribution of soil moisture at forest edge area showed an in-between feature.

  1. Effects of beet pulp supplementation on growth performance, fecal moisture, serum hormones and litter performance in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pinyao; Zhang, Zhengfan; Kim, In Ho

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate effects of beet pulp supplementation on growth performance, fecal moisture, serum hormones and litter performance in lactating sows. Ninety primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments in a 21-day trial starting 3 days before parturition. The three dietary treatments were supplemented with 0, 10 and 20% beet pulp, respectively. Backfat loss and fecal moisture content were increased (P < 0.05), where cortisol and norepinephrine levels were decreased (P < 0.05) in sows fed beet pulp supplementation diets compared with control diet, but there was no difference between 10% and 20% beet pulp supplementation treatments. No effect was observed on bodyweight, average daily intake, weaning to estrus interval, epinephrine level in sows and litter weight, litter size, survivability in piglets among dietary treatments. Taken together, beet pulp supplementation has no significant effect of growth performance of lactating sows and piglets with decreased cortisol and norepinephrine levels in lactating sows, but it can increase fecal moisture content which is beneficial for sow feces excretion.

  2. Moisture performance of sealed attics in the mixed-humid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R.; Pallin, Simon B.; Jackson, Roderick K.

    2013-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory studied 8 homes in the mixed-humid climate, 4 with vented attics and 4 with sealed attics. ORNL wanted to understand the moisture performance of the sealed attic and how it affected the interior environment. We found that the attic and interior of sealed attic homes were more humid than the attic and interior observed in vented attic homes. This is due to the lack of ventilation in the sealed attic. Historically attics have been vented to dehumidify the attic and interior of the home. A sealed attic design greatly reduces the venting potential and thus this drying pathway and can cause elevated interior moisture over a vented attic home. Despite the elevated attic and interior moisture in the sealed attic homes, so far no mold or material degradation has been found. The roof sheathing moisture content has stayed below 20%, indicating low potential for material degradation. Also the relative humidity at the roof sheathing has stayed within the ASHRAE 160 design criteria except for a short time during the 2011/2012 winter. This was due to a combination of the sealed attic design (minimal venting to the outside) and the duct work not being operated in the attic which usually provides a dehumidification pathway. It was also found that when the humidity was controlled using the HVAC system, it resulted in 7% more cooling energy consumption. In the mixed-humid climate this reduces the cost effectiveness of the sealed attic design as a solution for bringing ducts into a semi-conditioned space. Because of this we are recommending the other alternatives be used to bringing ducts into the conditioned space in both new construction and retrofit work in the mixed-humid climate.

  3. F-5-L Boat Seaplane : performance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, W S

    1922-01-01

    Performance characteristics for the F-5-L Boat Seaplane are given. Characteristic curves for the RAF-6 airfoil and the F-5-L wings, parasite resistance and velocity data, engine and propeller characteristics, effective and maximum horsepower, and cruising performance are discussed.

  4. An investigation of chemically-induced improvement in saturation moisture characteristics of epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; St.clair, T. L.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    MY-720/DDS epoxy samples were treated with three selected chemical compounds to render the active H-sites inactive for moisture absorption. Treating the epoxy castings with acetyl chloride and dichlorodimethyl silane leads only to surface changes indicating that these molecules are too large to penetrate the epoxy castings. Boron trifluoride, on the other hand, does penetrate the epoxy chain as is indicated by the formation of green domains in the interior of the castings. However, the process of saturating the specimens with moisture appears to leach out the chemical additives--thereby nullifying their possible ameliorative effects.

  5. Characteristics and controls of variability in soil moisture and groundwater in a headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, H. K.; Srinivasan, M. S.

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological processes, including runoff generation, depend on the distribution of water in a catchment, which varies in space and time. This paper presents experimental results from a headwater research catchment in New Zealand, where we made distributed measurements of streamflow, soil moisture and groundwater levels, sampling across a range of aspects, hillslope positions, distances from stream and depths. Our aim was to assess the controls, types and implications of spatial and temporal variability in soil moisture and groundwater tables. We found that temporal variability in soil moisture and water table is strongly controlled by the seasonal cycle in potential evapotranspiration, for both the mean and extremes of their distributions. Groundwater is a larger water storage component than soil moisture, and this general difference increases even more with increasing catchment wetness. The spatial standard deviation of both soil moisture and groundwater is larger in winter than in summer. It peaks during rainfall events due to partial saturation of the catchment, and also rises in spring as different locations dry out at different rates. The most important controls on spatial variability in storage are aspect and distance from the stream. South-facing and near-stream locations have higher water tables and showed soil moisture responses for more events. Typical hydrological models do not explicitly account for aspect, but our results suggest that it is an important factor in hillslope runoff generation. Co-measurement of soil moisture and water table level allowed us to identify relationships between the two. Locations where water tables peaked closer to the surface had consistently wetter soils and higher water tables. These wetter sites were the same across seasons. However, patterns of strong soil moisture responses to summer storms did not correspond to the wetter sites. Total catchment spatial variability is composed of multiple variability sources, and the

  6. Seasonal characteristics of the large-scale moisture flux transport over the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, H.; Ammar, K.

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between the lower tropospheric (1000 to 850 hPa) large-scale moisture flux transport and the precipitation over the Arabian Peninsula (AP), on a seasonal basis, using the NCEP-NCAR gridded dataset for the 53-year period (1958-2010), is investigated. The lower tropospheric moisture flux divergence occurs due to the Hadley cell-based descending air over the AP, as well as due to the presence of Somali jet in dry season (June to September) for the southern (≤22° N) AP domain, leading to significantly reduced precipitation in the AP. The AP thus acts more as a net transporter of moisture flux from adjacent Sea areas to nearby regions. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Artic Oscillation (AO) climatic indices are found to modulate significantly the net seasonal moisture flux into the AP region animating from the Mediterranean Sea, and the Arabian Sea, both for the northern (≥22° N) and southern AP domains.

  7. Storage characteristics of large round and square alfalfa bales: low-moisture wrapped bales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Substantial dry matter (DM) and quality losses have been reported for partially dried alfalfa that has been rained on before moisture reduction to levels acceptable for dry hay storage. The objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of preserving alfalfa baled at less than 45% mois...

  8. Effects of Cationic Polyacrylamide Characteristics on Sewage Sludge Dewatering and Moisture Evaporation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chengyi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the molecular weight (MW) and charge density (CD) of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) on sludge dewatering and moisture evaporation were investigated in this study. Results indicated that in sludge conditioning, the optimum dosages were 10, 6, 6, 4, and 4 mg g−1 CPAM with 5 million MW and 20% CD, 5 million MW and 40% CD, 3 million MW and 40% CD, 8 million MW and 40% CD, and 5 million MW and 60% CD, respectively. The optimum dosage of CPAM was negatively correlated with its CD or MW if the CD or MW of CPAM was above 20% or 5 million. In the centrifugal dewatering of sludge, the moisture content in the conditioned sludge gradually decreased with the extension of centrifugation time, and the economical centrifugal force was 400×g. The moisture evaporation rates of the conditioned sludge were closely related to sludge dewaterability, which was in turn significantly correlated either positively with the solid content of sludge particles that were >2 mm in size or negatively with that of particles measuring 1 mm to 2 mm in diameter. During treatment, sludge moisture content was reduced from 80% to 20% by evaporation, and the moisture evaporation rates were 1.35, 1.49, 1.62, and 2.24 times faster in the sludge conditioned using 4 mg g−1 CPAM with 5 million MW and 60% CD than in the sludge conditioned using 4 mg g−1 CPAM with 8 million MW and 40% CD, 6 mg g−1 CPAM with 5 million MW and 40% CD, 6 mg g−1 CPAM with 3 million MW and 40% CD, and 10 mg g−1 CPAM with 5 million MW and 20% CD, respectively. Hence, the CPAM with 5 million MW and 60% CD was ideal for sludge dewatering. PMID:24878582

  9. Effects of cationic polyacrylamide characteristics on sewage sludge dewatering and moisture evaporation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Liu, Fenwu; Pan, Chengyi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the molecular weight (MW) and charge density (CD) of cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) on sludge dewatering and moisture evaporation were investigated in this study. Results indicated that in sludge conditioning, the optimum dosages were 10, 6, 6, 4, and 4 mg g(-1) CPAM with 5 million MW and 20% CD, 5 million MW and 40% CD, 3 million MW and 40% CD, 8 million MW and 40% CD, and 5 million MW and 60% CD, respectively. The optimum dosage of CPAM was negatively correlated with its CD or MW if the CD or MW of CPAM was above 20% or 5 million. In the centrifugal dewatering of sludge, the moisture content in the conditioned sludge gradually decreased with the extension of centrifugation time, and the economical centrifugal force was 400×g. The moisture evaporation rates of the conditioned sludge were closely related to sludge dewaterability, which was in turn significantly correlated either positively with the solid content of sludge particles that were >2 mm in size or negatively with that of particles measuring 1 mm to 2 mm in diameter. During treatment, sludge moisture content was reduced from 80% to 20% by evaporation, and the moisture evaporation rates were 1.35, 1.49, 1.62, and 2.24 times faster in the sludge conditioned using 4 mg g(-1) CPAM with 5 million MW and 60% CD than in the sludge conditioned using 4 mg g(-1) CPAM with 8 million MW and 40% CD, 6 mg g(-1) CPAM with 5 million MW and 40% CD, 6 mg g(-1) CPAM with 3 million MW and 40% CD, and 10 mg g(-1) CPAM with 5 million MW and 20% CD, respectively. Hence, the CPAM with 5 million MW and 60% CD was ideal for sludge dewatering.

  10. A Literature Review of Sealed and Insulated Attics—Thermal, Moisture and Energy Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain; Levinson, Ronnen

    2016-08-01

    In this literature review and analysis, we focus on the thermal, moisture and energy performance of sealed and insulated attics in California climates. Thermal. Sealed and insulated attics are expected to maintain attic air temperatures that are similar to those in the house within +/- 10°F. Thermal stress on the assembly, namely high shingle and sheathing temperatures, are of minimal concern. In the past, many sealed and insulated attics were constructed with insufficient insulation levels (~R-20) and with too much air leakage to outside, leading to poor thermal performance. To ensure high performance, sealed and insulated attics in new California homes should be insulated at levels at least equivalent to the flat ceiling requirements in the code, and attic envelopes and ducts should be airtight. We expect that duct systems in well-constructed sealed and insulated attics should have less than 2% HVAC system leakage to outside. Moisture. Moisture risk in sealed and insulated California attics will increase with colder climate regions and more humid outside air in marine zones. Risk is considered low in the hot-dry, highly populated regions of the state, where most new home construction occurs. Indoor humidity levels should be controlled by following code requirements for continuous whole-house ventilation and local exhaust. Pending development of further guidance, we recommend that the air impermeable insulation requirements of the International Residential Code (2012) be used, as they vary with IECC climate region and roof finish. Energy. Sealed and insulated attics provide energy benefits only if HVAC equipment is located in the attic volume, and the benefits depend strongly on the insulation and airtightness of the attic and ducts. Existing homes with leaky, uninsulated ducts in the attic should have major savings. When compared with modern, airtight duct systems in a vented attic, sealed and insulated attics in California may still provide substantial benefit

  11. Performance characteristics of STIS detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    We report quantum efficiency measurements of back-illuminated, ion-implanted, laser-annealed charge coupled devices (CCD's) in the wavelength range 13-10,000 A. The equivalent quantum efficiency (EQE = effective photons detected per incident photon) ranges from a minimum of 5 percent as 1216 A to a maximum of 87 percent at 135 A. Using a simple relationship for the charge collection efficiency of the CCD pixels as a function of depth, we present a semi-empirical model with few parameters which reproduces our measurements with a fair degree of accuracy. The advantage of this model is that is can be used to predict CCD QE performance for shallow backside implanted devices without detailed solution of a system of differential equations, as in conventional approaches, and yields a simple analytic form for the charge collection efficiency which is adequate for detector calibration purposes. Making detailed assumptions about the dopant profile, we also solve the carrier density and continuity equations in order to relate our semi-empirical model parameters to surface and bulk device properties. The latter procedure helps to better establish device processing parameters for a given level of CCD QE performance.

  12. The performance assessment impacts of disposal of high-moisture, low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.M.; Hansen, W.; Hechnova, A.; Jacobson, R.; Voss, C.; Waters, R.; Sully, M.; Levitt, D.

    1999-03-01

    A panel of independent scientists was convened by the Department of Energy to assess the performance impacts of disposal of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. This waste stream was involved in a transportation incident in December 1997. A resulting outgrowth of investigations of the transportation incident was the recognition that the waste was transported and disposed in stress-fractured metal boxes and some of the waste contained excess moisture (high volumetric water contents). The panel was charged with determining whether disposal of this waste in the Area 5 radioactive waste management site on the Nevada Test Site has impacted the conclusions of the completed performance assessment. Three questions were developed by the panel to assess performance impacts: (1) the performance impacts of reduced container integrity, (2) the impact of reduced container integrity on subsidence of waste in the disposal pits and (3) the performance impacts of excess moisture. No performance or subsidence impacts were noted from disposal of the Fernald waste. The impacts of excess moisture were assessed through simulation modeling of the movement of moisture in the vadose zone assuming high water contents (wet waste) for different percentages of the waste inventory. No performance impacts were noted for either the base-case scenario (ambient conditions) or a scenario involving subsidence and flooding of the waste cells. The absence of performance impacts results form the extreme conservatism used in the Area 5-performance assessment and the robust nature of the disposal site.

  13. [Effects of soil moisture and shading levels on photosynthetic characteristics of cotton leaves].

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Kang, S; Shao, M; Wang, L

    2000-06-01

    The effects of different soil moistures and shading levels on stomatal conductance(Gs), net photosynthetic rates(Pn), transpiration and leaf water potential(LWP) of cotton (variety Zhongmian No. 23) grown in pots from the seedling to flower bud stages in summer noon were evaluated. We designed three shading levels: no-shading(CK), 75% shading (DN), 40% shading(SN); and three soil moistures; 85%-100% (high water, HW), 65%-85% (medium water, MW) and 45%-65% (low water, LW) of field water-bolding capacity. The Gs of DN and SN increased by 16.69% and 28.01% compared with CK at HW, respectively, while the Pn of DN and SN declined by 45.74% and 20.54%, respectively. The Gs of DN and SN enhanced by 28.86% and 23.28% compareds with CK at MW, respectively, while the Pn of DN and SN decreased by 31.97% and 1.64%, respectively. The Gs of CK, DN and Sn did not exhibit significant differences at LW, while Pn of DN and SN reduced by 46.22% and 13.45%, respectively. Significant difference in Gs did not exist between DN and SN at the same soil moisture, but there was significant difference in Pa between them (except at LW). It was suggested that Gs declined with the increasing of leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (VPD) and showed weak correlation with Pn by regression. The combined effects of soil moistures and shading levels on LWP and transpiration rate were not significant. There was no significant difference in LWP and transpiration rate among three shading treatments. Contrasted to treatment CK, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) in DN and SN at HW, MW and LW increased significantly, except no apparent change of Ci in SN at MW.

  14. Characteristics of moisture and salinity of soil in Taklimakan Desert, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhimin; Li, Guomin; Li, Xue; Shan, Shuo; Zhang, Jiangyi; Li, Shengyu; Fan, Jinglong

    2012-01-01

    The Taklimakan desert is known as the largest dunefield in China and also as the world's second largest shifting sand desert. The Tarim Desert Highway, which is the first highway to cross the Taklimakan desert, was built for the purpose of oil and gas resources extraction in the Tarim area, as well as for the development of the southern area of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Shelterbelts have been planted along the highway to prevent shifting sand from burying the road. This paper analyzes the variations of moisture and salinity of the unirrigated desert soil under natural conditions in the center of Taklimakan Desert. A number of important findings indicating the moisture and salinity of the soil at capillary saturation zone were determined by the groundwater and related to the evaporation on the top. Salinity could be affected by vegetation, which was different from moisture in the soil. Meanwhile, clay layer played an important role in water preservation in the soil, which was also beneficial to the accumulation of salinity in soil. Compared with clay layer, vegetation was a decisive factor for the gathering of salinity. The findings were significant for reasonable adjustment of irrigation in the shelterbelts for the further development of the Tarim Desert Highway.

  15. Moisture effects on the prediction performance of a single kernel near-infrared deoxynivalenol calibration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effect of moisture content variation on the accuracy of single kernel deoxynivalenol (DON) prediction by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was investigated. Sample moisture content (MC) considerably affected accuracy of the current NIR DON calibration by underestimating or over estimating DON at high...

  16. Performance of a Commercially Available Microwave-based Bale Moisture Content Meter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Measuring the moisture content of cotton bales has been a topic of intense interest in the last few years. In 2006 the Farm Service Agency defined cotton bales with excessive moisture as those with mc greater than 7.5%, wet basis, at the gin. Therefore it is important for gins to assure themselves...

  17. [Characteristics of Stable Isotopes in Precipitation and Their Moisture Sources in Mengzi Region, Southern Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Zhang, Xin-ping; Xu, You-peng; Song, Song; Wang, Yue-feng; Ji, Xiao-min; Xiang, Jie; Yang, Jie

    2016-04-15

    The δD and δ¹⁸O values in precpitation have disciplinary variations, and they have close connections with meteorological parameters and moisture sources. Based on the continuously collected precipitation samples in Mengzi from Jan. 2009 to Dec. 2011, the reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR), and the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory for 4.8 (HYSPLIT_4.8) model, we analyzed the variations of δD and δ¹⁸O in precipitation at synoptic scale in Mengzi, and the relations between δ¹⁸O in precipitation and air temperature, δ¹⁸O in precipitation and amount, δ¹⁸O in precipitation and wind speed, δ¹⁸O in precipitation and moisture sources. The results showed that the variations of δD and δ¹⁸O values in precipitation exhibited remarkable seasonal variability. The stable isotopic values in precipitation were higher during dry season than those during wet season. The relations between δ¹⁸O in precipitation and air temperature, δ¹⁸O in precipitation and amount indicated significant negative correlations. However, it exhibited significant positive correlation between precipitation δ¹⁸O and wind speed at different pressure levels (300 hPa, 500 hPa, 700 hPa, and 800 hPa), and this result indicated that the wind speed was an important influencing factor for the variations of precipitation δ¹⁸O. With the increasing rainfall levels, the intercept and slope of meteoric water line also increased, and this phenomenon suggested that there was a secondary evaporation effect under sub-cloud in stable isotopes of precipitation. The backward trajectory model showed that the main moisture sources during dry season came from the westerly and the inland. However, during wet season, the remote ocean vapor was the main moisture source in Mengzi, and the δ¹⁸O values in

  18. Critical assessment of the performance of electronic moisture analyzers for small amounts of environmental samples and biological reference materials.

    PubMed

    Krachler, M

    2001-12-01

    Two electronic moisture analyzers were critically evaluated with regard to their suitability for determining moisture in small amounts (< or = 200 mg) of various environmental matrices such as leaves, needles, soil, peat, sediments, and sewage sludge, as well as various biological reference materials. To this end, several homogeneous bulk materials were prepared which were subsequently employed for the development and optimization of all analytical procedures. The key features of the moisture analyzers included a halogen or ceramic heater and an integrated balance with a resolution of 0.1 mg, which is an essential prerequisite for obtaining precise results. Oven drying of the bulk materials in a conventional oven at 105 degrees C until constant mass served as reference method. A heating temperature of 65degrees C was found to provide accurate and precise results for almost all matrices investigated. To further improve the accuracy and precision, other critical parameters such as handling of sample pans, standby temperature, and measurement delay were optimized. Because of its ponderous heating behavior, the performance of the ceramic radiator was inferior to that of the halogen heater, which produced moisture results comparable to those obtained by oven drying. The developed drying procedures were successfully applied to the fast moisture analysis (1.4-6.3 min) of certified biological reference materials of similar provenance to the investigated the bulk materials. Moisture results for 200 mg aliquots ranged from 1.4 to 7.8% and good agreement was obtained between the recommended drying procedure for the reference materials and the electronic moisture analyzers with absolute uncertainties amounting to 0.1% and 0.2-0.3%, respectively.

  19. Drying characteristics and equilibrium moisture content of steam-treated Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii L.).

    PubMed

    Lam, Pak Sui; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Larsson, Sylvia H

    2012-07-01

    Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii L.) particles were exposed to high pressure saturated steam (200 and 220 °C for 5 and 10 min) to improve the durability and hydrophobicity of pellets produced from them. Depending on treatment severity, the moisture content of the particles increased from 10% to 36% (wet basis). Douglas fir particles steam-treated at 220 °C for 10 min had the fastest drying rate of 0.014 min(-1). The equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of steam-treated samples decreased with increasing steam temperature and treatment time. The Giggnheim-Anderson-deBoer (GAB) equilibrium model gave a good fit with the equilibrium data with R(2) = 0.99. The adsorption rate of untreated pellets exposed to humid air (30 °C, 90% RH) for 72 h was 0.0152 min(-1) while that of steam-treated pellets ranged from 0.0125 to 0.0135 min(-1) without a clear trend with steam treatment severity. These findings are critical to develop durable and less hygroscopic pellets.

  20. WindSat Soil Moisture and Vegetation Validation and Performance Prediction for the NPOESS Microwave Imager/Sounder (MIS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System’s (NPOESS) Microwave Imager/Sounder (MIS) instrument is in development, with soil moisture sensing depth as one of the two Key Performance Parameters (KPPs). The other one is ocean surface wind speed precision. Based on the curre...

  1. An experimental investigation of the effect of moisture on the performance of an air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, D.Y.; Mathur, G.D.; Gupta, S.; Stoff, L.; Colacino, F.

    1996-12-31

    Tests were conducted at the University of Florida`s Solar Energy and Energy Conversion Laboratory (SEECL) to determine the effect of the moisture on the performance of a 3 ton residential heat pump system with R-22 as the working fluid. The performance of the heat pump system was tested in accordance with the ARI Standard 210/240 (ARI 1989) and ANSI/ASHRAE-37-1988 for testing unitary equipment. ASHRAE`s Air Enthalpy Method was used to determine the performance of heat pump system and ASHRAE`s condition A [Outside 95 F DBT/75 F WBT; Inside 80 F DBT/67 F WBT] was maintained for the tests. The experimental data reveals that moisture levels of approximately 700 ppm in the refrigerant can decrease the system performance by 10--15%. Approximately 50--60% of the moisture injected into the system remains in the refrigerant and the rest mixes with the compressor oil. Hence, it is possible that over a period of time the moisture in the compressor oil may breakdown at the prevailing temperatures and pressures to form acids which may result in catastrophic failure.

  2. Effect of cladding systems on moisture performance of wood-framed walls in a mixed-humid climate

    Treesearch

    S. Craig Drumheller; Charles G. Carll

    2010-01-01

    A 22-month field investigation of nine different north-and south-oriented wood-framed wall assemblies was conducted to determine the moisture performance of various wall construction types, most of which incorporated absorptive cladding. The study was conducted on the campus of the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) Research Center, in Upper Marlboro, MD, 20...

  3. High-performance and moisture-stable cellulose-starch nanocomposites based on bioinspired core-shell nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Prakobna, Kasinee; Galland, Sylvain; Berglund, Lars A

    2015-03-09

    Moisture stability and brittleness are challenges for plant fiber biocomposites intended for load-bearing applications, for instance those based on an amylopectin-rich (AP) starch matrix. Core-shell amylopectin-coated cellulose nanofibers and nanocomposites are prepared to investigate effects from the distribution of AP matrix. The core-shell nanocomposites are compared with nanocomposites with more irregular amylopectin (AP) distribution. Colloidal properties (DLS), AP adsorption, nanofiber dimensions (atomic force microscopy), and nanocomposite structure (transmission electron microscopy) are analyzed. Tensile tests are performed at different moisture contents. The core-shell nanofibers result in exceptionally moisture stable, ductile, and strong nanocomposites, much superior to reference CNF/AP nanocomposites with more irregular AP distribution. The reduction in AP properties is less pronounced as the AP forms a favorable interphase around individual CNF nanofibers.

  4. The influence of soil moisture on the planetary boundary layer characteristics and on cumulus convection over an isolated mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin

    Many studies have examined how regional soil moisture anomalies impact warm-season precipitation. The focus of this study is on some specific processes relevant to this broader question of land-atmosphere feedback. This study investigates the environment where convection is triggered by mountains, i.e. in the southwestern USA during the monsoon season. Specifically, we examine the relationship between the surface energy balance, boundary-layer (BL) characteristics, thermally-forced orographic circulations, and orographic cumulus convection. Our approach is both observational and numerical. An intensive field campaign was conducted around the Santa Catalina Mountains in Arizona in July and August 2006, i.e. the Cumulus Photogrammetric, In Situ and Doppler Observations (CuPIDO) experiment. An unusual wet spell in late July 2006 allows clear separation of the two-month campaign in two parts, a dry soil period and a wet soil period. Surface flux stations positioned around the mountain range indicate that days in the wet soil period tend to have a higher surface latent heat flux, lower soil and air temperatures, a more stable and shallower BL, and weaker solenoidal forcing resulting in weaker anabatic flow, in comparison with days in the dry soil period. The wet soil period is characterized also by higher humidity and moist static energy in the BL, implying a lower cumulus cloud base and higher convective available potential energy. Therefore this period witnesses rather early growth of orographic cumulus convection, growing rapidly to the cumulonimbus stage, often before noon, and producing precipitation rather efficiently, with relatively little lightning. The wet soil period also witnessed some nocturnal MCSs producing widespread precipitation. Observational data alone do not allow discrimination between soil moisture and advected airmass characteristics in explaining these differences. Hence the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Noah land surface

  5. Structural characteristics of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch isolated from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Joo; Moon, Tae Wha

    2015-07-10

    The objective of this study was to investigate the structural characteristics of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) fractions isolated from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch. The waxy potato starch with 25.7% moisture content was heated at 120°C for 5.3h. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross sections of RS and SDS+RS fractions revealed a growth ring structure. The branch chain-length distribution of debranched amylopectin from the RS fraction had a higher proportion of long chains (DP ≥ 37) than the SDS+RS fraction. The X-ray diffraction intensities of RS and SDS+RS fractions were increased compared to the control. The SDS+RS fraction showed a lower gelatinization enthalpy than the control while the RS fraction had a higher value than the SDS+RS fraction. In this study we showed the RS fraction is composed mainly of crystalline structure and the SDS fraction consists of weak crystallites and amorphous regions.

  6. [Moisture and nutrient characteristics of deep layer soil in apple orchards on the Luochuan highland of Shaanxi, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Jumahan, Kasimu; Fan, Peng; Zhang, Li-Na; Li, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Taking the 11-, 15-, 20-, and 43 years old apple orchards on the Luochuan highland of Shaanxi, Northwest China as test objects, this paper measured the moisture content in 0-1500 cm soil layer and the organic matter and total and available nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium contents in 0-300 cm soil layer, with the soil moisture and nutrient regimes as well as their variation characteristics with apple tree age and soil depth analyzed. The moisture content in 0-1500 cm soil layer in 11-, 15-, 20-, and 43 years old apple orchards was averagely 18.6%, 13.7%, 17.0%, 11.5%, and 13.1%, respectively, and decreased with apple tree age. Soil desiccation did not occurr in the orchards with supplementary irrigation, but a slight or medium soil desiccation occurred in the rainfed orchards. Nevertheless, the moisture content in 0-300 cm soil layer in the rainfed orchards was still higher than that in wheat field. The contents of organic matter and total and available nitrogen in 0-300 cm soil layer in the five apple orchards were less than 10 g.kg-1, 0.75 g. kg-1, and 50 mg.kg-1, respectively, all at shortage level, whilst the content of available phosphorous in 0-300 cm soil layer was 3.30-6.42 mg.kg-1, being moderate in upper soil layer and scarce in deep soil layer. The content of available potassium in 0-300 cm soil layer was 78.09-98.31 mg.kg-1, presenting abundant. The contents of nutrients were all higher in 0-100 cm soil layer than in 100-300 cm soil layer. The soil organic matter and total and available nitrogen contents and the soil nutrient index (SNI) all presented a trend of decrease after an initial increase with the increasing apple tree age. The contents of the test nutrients except total potassium in 0-100 cm soil layer all decreased rapidly with soil depth, while those in deeper soil layers kept relatively stable. There existed significant correlations between the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, total phosphorous

  7. Implementing a physical soil water flow model with minimal soil characteristics and added value offered by surface soil moisture measurements assimilation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanzy, André

    2010-05-01

    climatic data. The strategy takes profit of all work made on soil texture as a proxi of soil hydraulic through pedotransfer functions. It also takes into account the constraints in soil moisture variations after important precipitation events. Performances on soil moisture are assessed by considering both the soil moisture accuracy and the ability of detecting a soil moisture threshold. o The added value of soil moisture measurements. The aim is to evaluate to which extent we can improve soil moisture simulations by assimilating a few soil moisture measurements made in the surface layer (ploughed layers). We focus on such a layer since moisture can be derived from remote sensing observations or by using in situ sensors (capacitance sensor, TDR) with minimal effort. The validity of such measurements to represent the soil moisture at the field scale is analysed. It is shown that relative variations in soil moisture are much easier to obtain than an absolute characterisation of the soil moisture measurements. We evaluate the value of assimilating surface measurement in the TEC model and how we can deal with a measurement of relative soil moisture variations (in order to prevent a tedious calibration process). Again the performances of the approach are evaluated with the soil moisture accuracy and the ability of detecting a soil moisture threshold.

  8. The use of moisturizers as an integral component of topical therapy for rosacea: clinical results based on the Assessment of Skin Characteristics Study.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2009-08-01

    Skin care regimens have been recommended in conjunction with topical medications for the treatment of rosacea. Specifically, a mild cleanser and a moisturizer can help relieve symptoms and maintain skin barrier integrity. The Assessment of Skin Characteristics Study, a multicenter open-label study (N=102), compared the use of a specified skin care regimen with or without the moisturizer component. Participants used a facial cleanser immediately before application of azelaic acid (AzA) gel 15% twice daily to both sides of the face and then applied the provided moisturizer to the right side of the face only. Scores for severity and duration of stinging, burning, tingling, and itching were recorded in the morning and evening for 7 days. Cumulative symptom scores (CSSs) decreased on the right side of the face with facial moisturizer applied.

  9. L-Leucine as an excipient against moisture on in vitro aerosolization performances of highly hygroscopic spray-dried powders.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Sun, Siping; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Denman, John A; Gengenbach, Thomas; Tang, Patricia; Mao, Shirui; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-05-01

    L-Leucine (LL) has been widely used to enhance the dispersion performance of powders for inhalation. LL can also protect powders against moisture, but this effect is much less studied. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LL could prevent moisture-induced deterioration in in vitro aerosolization performances of highly hygroscopic spray-dried powders. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) was chosen as a model drug and different amounts of LL (2-40% w/w) were added to the formulation, with the aim to explore the relationship between powder dispersion, moisture protection and physicochemical properties of the powders. The powder formulations were prepared by spray drying of aqueous solutions containing known concentrations of DSCG and LL. The particle sizes were measured by laser diffraction. The physicochemical properties of fine particles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS). The surface morphology and chemistry of fine particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). In vitro aerosolization performances were evaluated by a next generation impactor (NGI) after the powders were stored at 60% or 75% relative humidity (RH), and 25°C for 24h. Spray-dried (SD) DSCG powders were amorphous and absorbed 30-45% (w/w) water at 70-80% RH, resulting in deterioration in the aerosolization performance of the powders. LL did not decrease the water uptake of DSCG powders, but it could significantly reduce the effect of moisture on aerosolization performances. This is due to enrichment of crystalline LL on the surface of the composite particles. The effect was directly related to the percentage of LL coverage on the surface of particles. Formulations having 61-73% (molar percent) of LL on the particle surface (which correspond to 10-20% (w

  10. Thermic diode performance characteristics and design manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, D. E.; Buckley, S.

    1979-01-01

    Thermic diode solar panels are a passive method of space and hot water heating using the thermosyphon principle. Simplified methods of sizing and performing economic analyses of solar heating systems had until now been limited to passive systems. A mathematical model of the thermic diode including its high level of stratification has been constructed allowing its performance characteristics to be studied. Further analysis resulted in a thermic diode design manual based on the f-chart method.

  11. Performance Characteristics of an Isothermal Freeze Valve

    SciTech Connect

    Hailey, A.E.

    2001-08-22

    This document discusses performance characteristics of an isothermal freeze valve. A freeze valve has been specified for draining the DWPF melter at the end of its lifetime. Two freeze valve designs have been evaluated on the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 (SCM-2). In order to size the DWPF freeze valve, the basic principles governing freeze valve behavior need to be identified and understood.

  12. Improved Methods for Estimating Microbial Activity and Moisture Characteristic Curves in Intact Unsaturated Soil Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, D. N.; Baker, K. E.

    2001-12-01

    Estimation of microbial activity in soils is a complex and often difficult process. In this work, we describe several new and innovative methods we have developed to measure microbial respiration in intact cores of unsaturated soils. The ultimate goal of this work is to predict the effect of microbial activity on contaminant mobility via CO2 generation in variably saturated vadose zone soils. This goal requires estimation of the effect of available water (i.e. in pores accessible to the microbes) on the microbial activity, and thus a homogeneous distribution of substrate throughout the soil water. Prior studies have added substrate solution drop wise to the soil, and then distributed the substrate throughout the soil by mixing. While this method distributes the substrate well, it alters the in situ pore volume distribution and has been shown to result in an anomalously high degree of microbial activity shortly after mixing. Traditional methods for uniformly distributing substrate in intact unsaturated soils require days to weeks to reach equilibrium. Since the substrate would be completely consumed in this time frame, an innovative approach is being used in this study to drain intact soil cores to the desired moisture contents in a matter of hours. This approach involves the use of the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFAT). In the method, the samples are vacuum saturated under refrigeration to uniformly distribute a 14C-labeled substrate throughout the soil water, drained to various pressures in the UFA, and transferred to a sealed container and incubated. The labeled 14CO2 is then trapped and counted after incubation to determine microbial activity. Since the soil used in this study contains a high percentage of swelling clays, the cores tend to compact in the UFA, altering the macropore volume distribution. To address this alteration, we developed a correction function to correct the UFA-measured pore volume distribution at each rotational speed. Finally, the high

  13. Overview of SMOS performance in terms of global soil moisture monitoring after six years in operation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOS) was launched in November 2009 and started delivering data in January 2010. The commissioning phase ended in May 2010. Subsequently, the satellite has been in operation for over 5 years while the retrieval algorithms from Level 1 to Level 2 underw...

  14. Design and performance of a capicitor sensor and impedance analyzer for nondestructive moisture content detemination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper describes a method to determine the moisture content of in-shell peanuts with a parallel-plate electrode system fitted inside a cylinder by using impedance measurements made on the system. Two parallel-plate electrodes were mounted inside a cylinder, made of acrylic material, and the spac...

  15. Evaluation of Soil Moisture, Storm Characteristics, and Their Influence on Storm Runoff and Water Yield at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, Georgia, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. W.; Aulenbach, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the factors that control runoff processes is important for many aspects of water supply and ecosystem protection, especially during climatic extremes that result in flooding or droughts; potentially impacting human safety. Furthermore, having knowledge of the conditions during which runoff occurs contributes to the conceptual understanding of the hydrologic cycle and may improve parameterization of hydrologic models. We evaluated soil moisture, storm characteristics, and the subsequent runoff and water yield for 297 storms over an eight-year period at Panola Mountain Research Watershed to better understand runoff generation processes. Panola Mountain Research Watershed is a small (41-hectare), relatively undisturbed forested watershed near Atlanta, GA, U.S.A. Strong relations were observed between total precipitation for a given storm, deep (70 cm below surface) antecedent soil moisture content and the volume of runoff. However, the strength of the relations varied based on occurrence during the growing (April - September; 172 storms) or dormant (October - March; 125 storms) period. In general, soil moisture responded at a minimum of 15 cm depth for all but 18 events. In addition, we found storms that initiated a response of deep soil moisture (70 cm below surface) to be an important factor relating to storm runoff and water yield. Seventy percent of the dormant period storms generated a response at 70 cm depth compared to 58% of growing period storms. A stronger relation between soil moisture and water yield was noted during the dormant period and indicated that all storms that produced a water yield >12% occurred when deep pre-event soil moisture was >20%. Similar patterns were also present during the growing season with occasional intense thunderstorms also generating higher water yields even in the absence of high soil moisture. The importance of deep soil moisture likely reflects the overall status of watershed storage conditions.

  16. Effects of Performers' External Characteristics on Performance Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermingham, Gudrun A.

    2000-01-01

    States that fairness has been a major concern in the field of music adjudication. Reviews the research literature to reveal information about three external characteristics (race, gender, and physical attractiveness) that may affect judges' performance evaluations and influence fairness of music adjudication. Includes references. (CMK)

  17. Characteristics and performance of MEMS accelerometers

    SciTech Connect

    Kant, R.A.; Nagel, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    Until recently, accelerometer manufacturing appeared to be a reasonably mature field. But, this situation changed rapidly when researchers began to build miniature accelerometers using micron scale lithographic techniques developed for producing integrated circuits. Several micro- electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometers are now available commercially. The MEMS devices are attractive because they are relatively inexpensive to produce and they include electronic circuits to perform a variety control and signal processing functions on the same chip. How does the performance of these new devices compare to their older and larger competitors? The physics of the scaling laws suggests that performance should decrease with size. The MEMS technology may be well positioned to take advantage of new, small-scale sensing and actuating methods and, in the process, MEMS fabricated accelerometers may avoid or overcome the engineering limitations of older generation devices by using high precision micro-machining, arrays of sensors, on-chip temperature control circuitry, etc. This study compares the performance and physical characteristics of micro-machined and conventional accelerometers. We review the physical operating principles and describe the basic scaling laws and other factors that ultimately limit accelerometer performance. Then we tabulate and discuss the current performance and characteristics of diverse types of commercial accelerometers. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Performance Characteristics of a Preformed Elliptical Parachute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Performance Characteristics of a Preformed Elliptical Parachute at Altitudes between 200,000 and 100,000 Thousand Feet Obtained by In-Flight Photography. The performance characteristics of a pre-formed elliptical parachute at altitudes between 200,000 and 100,000 feet were obtained by means of in-flight photography. The tests demonstrate that this type of parachute will open at altitudes of about 200,000 feet if conditions such as twisting of the suspension lines or draping of the suspension lines over the canopy do not occur. Drag-coefficient values between 0.6 and 0.8 were found to be reasonable for this type of parachute system in the altitude range between 200,000 and 100,000 feet. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030980. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  19. Interactions Between Structure and Processing that Control Moisture Uptake in High-Performance Polycyanurates (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-24

    Edwards AFB, CA 4 California State University, Long Beach, CA 90840 2 Outline: Basic Studies of Moisture Uptake in Cyanate Ester Networks • Background...Though more stable than epoxy resins, cyanate esters can degrade on long-term exposure to hot water U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist...Temperature Thermosetting Polymers: Cyanate Esters • Glass transition temperatures at full cure of 200 – 400°C • Uncured resins exist as low-melting solids

  20. Performance Characteristics of Leaky Coaxial Cables.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    although it could result from very localized differences in ground moisture (puddle for- mation perhaps, caused by a local ground depression ). Table 3.5...1973 6NfATETI STATION PRSSURI I~p., 19910. PRISSION MAXIMAL! A LA STATION I.P.1 102.7 15 102.6 2530. 5 17 LEAST STATION PRESEISGI .. 0.71 .7 - AISSION

  1. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  2. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  3. Study on near infrared technology for the measurement of moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yong-cai; Chen, Zhao

    2006-02-01

    This paper studies near infrared technology for measuring moisture content in solid substance. After analyzing and improving traditional moisture instruments and discussing their disadvantages, we present a measuring scheme and instrument structure design with high performance and stability. The novel instrument utilizing near infrared range analysis (NIRA) technology possesses characteristics of on-line working, high accuracy, distribution and non-contact measurement.

  4. Estimating the timing of long bone fractures: correlation between the postmortem interval, bone moisture content, and blunt force trauma fracture characteristics*.

    PubMed

    Wieberg, Danielle A M; Wescott, Daniel J

    2008-09-01

    There is very limited knowledge about how long perimortem fracture characteristics persist into the postmortem interval (PMI). Therefore, in this study, 60 porcine long bones were exposed to natural taphonomic conditions and fractured with a steel bone breaking apparatus every 28 days throughout a 141-day period. Differences between macroscopic blunt force trauma fracture characteristics (fracture angle, surface morphology, and outline) were examined to determine if they varied over time or in relationship to bone moisture content (ash weight) and overall assessment. There are significant relationships between (1) PMI and percent ash weight (%AW), fracture surface, and fracture angle and (2) %AW and fracture surface and fracture angle. Bone moisture content correlates significantly with fracture morphology and other characteristics commonly used by forensic anthropologists to determine the timing of traumatic injuries. However, fracture characteristics normally associated with perimortem trauma can persist long into the PMI.

  5. Effects of whey protein concentrate, feed moisture and temperature on the physicochemical characteristics of a rice-based extruded flour.

    PubMed

    Teba, Carla da Silva; Silva, Erika Madeira Moreira da; Chávez, Davy William Hidalgo; Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler de; Ascheri, José Luis Ramírez

    2017-08-01

    The influence of whey protein concentrate (WPC), feed moisture and temperature on the physicochemical properties of rice-based extrudates has been investigated. WPC (0.64-7.36g/100g rice) was extruded under 5 moisture (16.64-23.36g/100g) and 5 temperature (106.36-173.64°C) established by a 3(2) central composite rotational design. Physicochemical properties [color, porosimetry, crystallinity, water solubility and absorption, pasting properties, reconstitution test, proximate composition, amino acids, minerals and electrophoresis] were determined. WPC and feed moisture increased redness, yellowness and decreased luminosity. Feed moisture and temperature increased density and total volume pore. WPC and moisture increased crystallinity, but only WPC increased solubility and decrease the retrogradation tendency. Increasing temperature increased the viscosity of the extrudates. The addition of WPC improved the nutritional composition of the extrudates, especially proteins. It is suggested that the extrusion process positively affected the retention of most of the polypeptides chains.

  6. Effect of debranching and heat-moisture treatments on structural characteristics and digestibility of sweet potato starch.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Da-Nian; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2015-11-15

    The effects of debranching treatment (DT) and debranching-heat-moisture treatment (D-HMT) on the structural characteristics and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starch were investigated. The results indicated that DT and D-HMT decreased the percentage of starch fraction with degree of polymerization (DP) ⩽ 13, increased the percentages of the other fractions, and decreased the molecular weight of starch sample. The D-HMT starch showed a considerable SDS content of 31.60%. Compared with the DT starch sample, the T(o), T(p), T(c), T(c)-T(o) and ΔH of D-HMT starch samples for the second endothermal were increased significantly, crystalline pattern was altered from C(a) to A type, the surface became more smooth. The pasting temperatures of DT and D-HMT starch samples were higher while the peak viscosities, breakdown and setback values were lower than that of native starch. These results suggested that structural changes of sweet potato starch by D-HMT significantly affected the digestibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Solid waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions Volume 2: Contaminant transport under unsaturated moisture contents

    SciTech Connect

    Lindenmeier, C.W.; Serne, R.J.; Conca, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development and optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release of contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments and (2) the creation of empirical data that become input parameters to performance assessment (PA) analyses for future Hanford Site disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing solid waste disposal units. For this report, efforts focused on developing methodologies to evaluate contaminant transport in Trench 8 (W-5 Burial Ground) sediments under unsaturated (vadose zone) conditions. To accomplish this task, a series of flow-through column tests were run using standard saturated column systems, Wierenga unsaturated column systems (both commercial and modified), and the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA). The reactants investigated were {sup 85}Sr, {sup 236}U, and {sup 238}U as reactive tracers, and tritium as a non-reactive tracer. Results indicate that for moderately unsaturated conditions (volumetric water contents >50 % of saturation), the Wierenga system performed reasonably well such that long water residence times (50-147 h) were achieved, and reasonably good steady-state flow conditions were maintained. The major drawbacks in using this system for reactive tracer work included (1) the inability to achieve reproducible and constant moisture content below 50% of saturation, (2) the four to six month time required to complete a single test, and (3) the propensity for mechanical failure resulting from laboratory power outages during the prolonged testing period.

  8. Performance of MODIS satellite and mesoscale model based land surface temperature for soil moisture deficit estimation using Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; Petropoulos, George P.; Gupta, Manika; Islam, Tanvir

    2015-04-01

    Soil Moisture Deficit (SMD) is a key variable in the water and energy exchanges that occur at the land-surface/atmosphere interface. Monitoring SMD is an alternate method of irrigation scheduling and represents the use of the suitable quantity of water at the proper time by combining measurements of soil moisture deficit. In past it is found that LST has a strong relation to SMD, which can be estimated by MODIS or numerical weather prediction model such as WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model). By looking into the importance of SMD, this work focused on the application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for evaluating its capabilities towards SMD estimation using the LST data estimated from MODIS and WRF mesoscale model. The benchmark SMD estimated from Probability Distribution Model (PDM) over the Brue catchment, Southwest of England, U.K. is used for all the calibration and validation experiments. The performances between observed and simulated SMD are assessed in terms of the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE), the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the percentage of bias (%Bias). The application of the ANN confirmed a high capability WRF and MODIS LST for prediction of SMD. Performance during the ANN calibration and validation showed a good agreement between benchmark and estimated SMD with MODIS LST information with significantly higher performance than WRF simulated LST. The work presented showed the first comprehensive application of LST from MODIS and WRF mesoscale model for hydrological SMD estimation, particularly for the maritime climate. More studies in this direction are recommended to hydro-meteorological community, so that useful information will be accumulated in the technical literature domain for different geographical locations and climatic conditions. Keyword: WRF, Land Surface Temperature, MODIS satellite, Soil Moisture Deficit, Neural Network

  9. Performance characteristics of pulse tube refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B. J.; Tzeng, T. M.

    In the present study experiments were carried out to investigate the performance characteristics of pulse tube refrigerators. It was found that the cool-down time tc during the transient or start-up period is dominated by the time constant of the pulse tube wall τpt and that the dynamics of a basic pulse tube (BPT) refrigerator approaches that of a first-order system. For steady state operation, the cold-end temperature TL was found to vary with τpt, and the cooling load QL increases monotonically with increasing τpt. This indicates that heat pumped by the gas from the cold to the hot end increases with decreasing hpt (i.e. less energy exchange between the gas and wall). The process of heat storage or release of the pulse tube wall is thus shown to have a negative effect on the performance of a BPT refrigerator. It was thus found experimentally that the gas compression/expansion process inside the pulse tube, which is similar to a Brayton cycle but lies between isothermal and adiabatic, can explain the performance of BPT refrigerators. The present experiment also shows that the performance of a pulse tube refrigerator at transient and steady states is mainly dominated by the time constant of the pulse tube wall τpt.

  10. Effect of intra- and interspecific competition on the performance of native and invasive species of Impatiens under varying levels of shade and moisture.

    PubMed

    Skálová, Hana; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Dvořáčková, Śárka; Pyšek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Many alien plants are thought to be invasive because of unique traits and greater phenotypic plasticity relative to resident species. However, many studies of invasive species are unable to quantify the importance of particular traits and phenotypic plasticity in conferring invasive behavior because traits used in comparative studies are often measured in a single environment and by using plants from a single population. To obtain a deeper insight into the role of environmental factors, local differences and competition in plant invasions, we compared species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of different origin and invasion status that occur in central Europe: native I. noli-tangere and three alien species (highly invasive I. glandulifera, less invasive I. parviflora and potentially invasive I. capensis). In two experiments we harvested late-stage reproductive plants to estimate performance. The first experiment quantified how populations differed in performance under varying light and moisture levels in the absence of competition. The second experiment quantified performance across these environments in the presence of intra- and inter-specific competition. The highly invasive I. glandulifera was the strongest competitor, was the tallest and produced the greatest biomass. Small size and high plasticity were characteristic for I. parviflora. This species appeared to be the second strongest competitor, especially under low soil moisture. The performance of I. capensis was within the range of the other Impatiens species studied, but sometimes limited by alien competitors. Our results suggest that invasion success within the genus Impatiens depends on the ability to grow large under a range of environmental conditions, including competition. The invasive species also exhibited greater phenotypic plasticity across environmental conditions than the native species. Finally, the decreased performance of the native I. noli-tangere in competition with other species studied

  11. Effect of impurities and moisture on lithium bisoxalatoborate (LiBOB) electrolyte performance in lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Furczon, M. M.; Xiao, A.; Lucht, B. L.; Zhang, Z.; Abraham, D. P.

    Electrolytes containing LiB(C 2O 4) 2 (LiBOB) salts are of increasing interest for lithium-ion cells for several reasons that include their ability to form a stable solid electrolyte interphase on graphite electrodes. However, cells containing these electrolytes often show inconsistent performance because of impurities in the LiBOB salt. In this work we compare cycling and impedance data from cells containing electrolytes with LiBOB that was obtained commercially and LiBOB purified by a rigorous recrystallization procedure. We relate the difference in performance to a lithium oxalate impurity that may be a residual from the salt manufacturing process. We also examine the reaction of LiBOB with water to determine the effect of salt storage in high-humidity environments. Although LiBOB electrolytes containing trace amounts (∼100 ppm) of moisture appear relatively stable, higher moisture contents (∼1 wt%) lead to observable salt decomposition resulting in the generation of B(C 2O 4)(OH) and LiB(C 2O 4)(OH) 2 compounds that do not dissolve in typical carbonate solutions and impair lithium-ion cell performance.

  12. Performance and Tolerability of the Moisturizers Cetaphil(®) and Excipial(®) in Atopic Dermatitis: What is the Evidence Based on Randomized Trials?

    PubMed

    van Zuuren, Esther J; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Arents, Bernd W M

    2017-06-09

    Moisturizers play a prominent role in the management of atopic dermatitis by improving the impaired skin barrier function and enhancing skin hydration. Their efficacy was evaluated in a recently published Cochrane Review 'Emollients and moisturizers for eczema'. In the present review, we summarize the performance and safety of Cetaphil(®) and Excipial(®) moisturizing products. This review was carried out in compliance with standard Cochrane methodological procedures, which means independent study selection, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias, and analyses by two review authors. The quality of evidence for the predefined outcomes was rated with the GRADE approach. The prespecified outcomes of the review included participant assessments, satisfaction, adverse events, investigator assessments, prevention of flares, change in use of topical active treatment, skin barrier function and quality of life. Four randomized controlled studies examining these moisturizers were included in the previously published Cochrane Review. For the performance and tolerability of these moisturizers, there was very low to moderate quality evidence for the prespecified outcomes. The results from these four studies are in line with those of the Cochrane Review that moisturizers themselves have beneficial effects, and that combining moisturizers with active topical treatment produced better results when compared to active topical treatment alone.

  13. Moisturizer Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Stechschulte, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Moisturizers are used by patients with dry skin conditions as well as those with healthy skin to enhance and preserve the smoothness of the skin and to interrupt the dry-skin cycle. Moisturizers are generally considered safe, although skin reactions, such as allergic contact dermatitis from topical preparations may occur. Cosmetic products including moisturizers are among the main culprits of allergic contact dermatitis. Methods: Utilizing a recently published database of all moisturizers available at Walgreens Pharmacies (Chicago, Illinois), which listed each product's allergens from the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) screening panel, we evaluated the number of moisturizers containing each allergen. Results: Of the 276 moisturizers accounted for in the database, 68 percent contained fragrance making it the most common allergen found in these moisturizers. Parabens were discovered in 62 percent of moisturizers, followed by Vitamin E in 55 percent of products. Essential oils and biologic additives were found in 45 percent of products, followed by benzyl alcohol in 24 percent of moisturizers. Propylene glycol was found in 20 percent of moisturizers, followed by formaldehyde releasers in 20 percent of products. Iodopropynyl butylcarbamate was discovered in 16 percent of products, followed by lanolin in 10 percent of moisturizers. Methylisothiazolinone/methylchloroisothiazolinone was found in six percent of available products. Conclusions: Many ingredients of moisturizers have the potential to cause irritant and allergic contact dermatitis; therefore, it is necessary for clinicians to be aware of such potential allergens in order to manage and advise their patients accordingly. PMID:21212847

  14. Performance characteristics of pitching flexible foil propulsors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownell, Cody; Egan, Brendan; Murray, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Performance characteristics of flexible foil propulsors are studied experimentally. The project investigates the dependence of thrust and efficiency on foil elasticity, Strouhal number, and flow velocity. The experiments took place in a large recirculating water channel, using full span flexible propulsor models to approximate a 2D geometry. The propulsor pitched about a fixed axis at its quarter chord, with a six-axis load cell measuring the forces and torques on the shaft. Propulsive efficiency is found to peak at an optimum Strouhal number for each foil tested. Varying elasticity did not produce a similar local maximum over the sampled parameter space. The ensemble data will facilitate the engineering of fish-like propulsion systems for future application of this technology.

  15. Laser Microprobe Mass Spectrometry 1: Basic Principles and Performance Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denoyer, Eric; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the historical development, performance characteristics (sample requirements, analysis time, ionization characteristics, speciation capabilities, and figures of merit), and applications of laser microprobe mass spectrometry. (JN)

  16. Laser Microprobe Mass Spectrometry 1: Basic Principles and Performance Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denoyer, Eric; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the historical development, performance characteristics (sample requirements, analysis time, ionization characteristics, speciation capabilities, and figures of merit), and applications of laser microprobe mass spectrometry. (JN)

  17. Evaluation of a high-moisture stabilization strategy for harvested microalgae blended with herbaceous biomass: Part I—Storage performance

    DOE PAGES

    Wendt, Lynn M.; Wahlen, Bradley D.; Li, Chenlin; ...

    2017-06-01

    Here, algal biomass is becoming increasingly attractive as a feedstock for biofuel production. However, the swing in algal biomass production between summer and winter months poses a challenge for delivering predictable, constant feedstock supply to a conversion facility. Drying is one approach for stabilizing algal biomass produced in excess during high productivity summer months for utilization during low productivity months, yet drying is energy intensive and thus costly. Wet, anaerobic storage, or ensiling, is a low-cost approach that is commonly used to preserve high moisture herbaceous feedstock. The potential for microalgae stabilization without the need for drying was investigated inmore » this study by simulating ensiling, in which oxygen limitation drives anaerobic fermentation of soluble sugars to organic acids, dropping the pH and thereby stabilizing the material. Algal biomass, Scenedesmus obliquus, was blended with corn stover and stored in acidic, anaerobic conditions at 60% moisture (wet basis) to simulate wet storage by means of ensiling. Results demonstrate that algae and corn stover blends were successfully preserved in anaerobic, acidic conditions for 30 days with < 2% dry matter loss occurring during storage compared to 21% loss in aerobic, non-acidified conditions. Likewise, Scenedesmus obliquus stored alone at 80% moisture (wet basis) in acidified, anaerobic conditions for 30 days, resulted in dry matter losses of 6–14%, compared to 44% loss in neutral pH, anaerobic storage and 37% loss in a neutral pH, aerobically stored condition. Additional experiments were performed at a larger scale in which an algae and corn stover blend was subject to mechanical oxygen exclusion and a Lactobacillus acidophilus inoculum, resulting in 8% loss over 35 days and further indicating that acidic, anaerobic conditions can stabilize microalgae biomass. In summary, the stabilization of harvested algae can be achieved through anaerobic storage, securing a

  18. Physicochemical characteristics and in vitro digestibility of potato and cassava starches under organic acid and heat-moisture treatments.

    PubMed

    Van Hung, Pham; Huong, Nguyen Thi Mai; Phi, Nguyen Thi Lan; Tien, Nguyen Ngoc Thanh

    2017-02-01

    A combination of acid (citric acid or lactic acid) and heat-moisture treatment was used to modify cassava and potato starches in this study. Changes in physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of the treated starches were investigated. The cassava starch contained 17.0% amylose and possessed A-type crystallinity, whereas the potato starch had 27.4% amylose and possessed B-type crystallinity. After acid and heat-moisture treatment, the crystalline structure of the cassava starch remained unchanged (A type), while the crystalline structure of the potato starch changed from B type to the C (B+A) type. The acid and heat-moisture treatment increased gelatinization temperature, peak and final viscosities of cassava starch but reduced peak and breakdown viscosities of the potato starch. After acid and heat-moisture treatment, rapid digestible starch contents of the treated cassava and potato starches were significantly reduced. However, resistant starch (RS) contents of the treated starches significantly increased as compared to the native starches. Citric acid was found to have high impact on formation of RS in starches. The RS contents of cassava and potato starches obtained under the citric acid and heat-moisture treatment were 40.2% and 39.0%, respectively, two times higher than those of the native starches.

  19. Characteristics of High-Performing School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Azah, Vera N.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study inquired about characteristics of districts which influence changes in student achievement and how those characteristics are developed. Staff in 49 Ontario districts were surveyed to estimate the status of nine district characteristics on changes in provincial tests of math and language achievement over five years. A…

  20. Characteristics of High-Performing School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Azah, Vera N.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study inquired about characteristics of districts which influence changes in student achievement and how those characteristics are developed. Staff in 49 Ontario districts were surveyed to estimate the status of nine district characteristics on changes in provincial tests of math and language achievement over five years. A…

  1. Effect of heat and moisture transport and storage properties of building stones on the hygrothermal performance of historical building envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KoÅáková, Dana; Kočí, Václav; Žumár, Jaromír; Keppert, Martin; Holčapek, Ondřej; Vejmelková, Eva; Černý, Robert

    2016-12-01

    The heat and moisture transport and storage parameters of three different natural stones used on the Czech territory since medieval times are determined experimentally, together with the basic physical properties and mechanical parameters. The measured data are applied as input parameters in the computational modeling of hygrothermal performance of building envelopes made of the analyzed stones. Test reference year climatic data of three different locations within the Czech Republic are used as boundary conditions on the exterior side. Using the simulated hygric and thermal performance of particular stone walls, their applicability is assessed in a relation to the geographical and climatic conditions. The obtained results indicate that all three investigated stones are highly resistant to weather conditions, freeze/thaw cycles in particular.

  2. Slowly digestible starch from heat-moisture treated waxy potato starch: preparation, structural characteristics, and glucose response in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) was optimized to increase the formation of slowly digestible starch (SDS) in waxy potato starch, and the structural and physiological properties of this starch were investigated. A maximum SDS content (41.8%) consistent with the expected value (40.1%) was obtained after...

  3. Real-time measurements of temperature, pressure and moisture profiles in High-Performance Concrete exposed to high temperatures during neutron radiography imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Toropovs, N.; Lo Monte, F.; Wyrzykowski, M.; Weber, B.; Sahmenko, G.; Vontobel, P.; Felicetti, R.; Lura, P.

    2015-02-15

    High-Performance Concrete (HPC) is particularly prone to explosive spalling when exposed to high temperature. Although the exact causes that lead to spalling are still being debated, moisture transport during heating plays an important role in all proposed mechanisms. In this study, slabs made of high-performance, low water-to-binder ratio mortars with addition of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) and polypropylene fibers (PP) were heated from one side on a temperature-controlled plate up to 550 °C. A combination of measurements was performed simultaneously on the same sample: moisture profiles via neutron radiography, temperature profiles with embedded thermocouples and pore pressure evolution with embedded pressure sensors. Spalling occurred in the sample with SAP, where sharp profiles of moisture and temperature were observed. No spalling occurred when PP-fibers were introduced in addition to SAP. The experimental procedure described here is essential for developing and verifying numerical models and studying measures against fire spalling risk in HPC.

  4. Approaching Moisture Recycling Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keys, Patrick; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line; Galaz, Victor; Ebbesson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. Despite the surface watershed being the typical unit of water management, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Also, recent research has demonstrated that water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, nation, or continent. Notwithstanding these insights, the major legal and institutional implications of modifying moisture recycling have remained unexplored. In this presentation, we examine potential approaches to moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of legal and institutional governance principles. Likewise, we relate the moisture recycling types to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.

  5. Effects of bacteriophage supplementation on egg performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, and moisture content in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, P Y; Baek, H Y; Kim, I H

    2012-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of bacteriophage supplementation on egg performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, and moisture content in laying hens. A total of 288 Hy-line brown commercial laying hens (36-wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments in this 6-wk trial and dietary treatments included: i) CON, basal diet; ii) T1, CON+0.020% bacteriophage; iii) T2, CON+0.035% bacteriophage; iv) T3, CON+0.050% bacteriophage. There were 6 replicates for each treatment with 6 adjacent cages (2 hens/cage). Laying hens in T2 and T3 treatments had higher (p<0.05) egg production than those in CON and T1 treatments during wk 0 to 3. In addition, egg production in T1, T2, and T3 treatments was increased (p<0.05) compared with that in CON treatment during wk 4 to 6. At wk 4 and 5, birds in T2 group had higher (p<0.05) HU than those in CON. In addition, at wk 5 and 6, HU in birds fed T1 and T3 diets was greater (p<0.05) than those fed CON diet. E. coli and Salmonella spp. concentrations in excreta were decreased (p<0.05) by T1, T2, and T3 treatments. However, egg weight, egg shell color, yolk height, yolk color unit, egg shell strength, egg shell thickness, egg gravity, and excreta moisture content were not influenced by dietary treatments during the entire experimental period. In conclusion, bacteriophage supplementation has beneficial effects on egg production, egg albumen, and excreta microflora concentration in laying hens.

  6. Key Characteristics of Middle School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Nyman, Terri R.

    2008-01-01

    This research project examined student performance in middle schools with a grade configuration of six through eight. Schools were categorized into two groups: high-performing middle schools--middle schools making adequate yearly progress for two consecutive school years, and low-performing middle schools--middle schools not making adequate yearly…

  7. Land surface model performance using cosmic-ray and point-scale soil moisture measurements for calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwema, Joost; Rosolem, Rafael; Rahman, Mostaquimur; Blyth, Eleanor; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-06-01

    At very high resolution scale (i.e. grid cells of 1 km2), land surface model parameters can be calibrated with eddy-covariance flux data and point-scale soil moisture data. However, measurement scales of eddy-covariance and point-scale data differ substantially. In our study, we investigated the impact of reducing the scale mismatch between surface energy flux and soil moisture observations by replacing point-scale soil moisture data with observations derived from Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors (CRNSs) made at larger spatial scales. Five soil and evapotranspiration parameters of the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) were calibrated against point-scale and Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensor soil moisture data separately. We calibrated the model for 12 sites in the USA representing a range of climatic, soil, and vegetation conditions. The improvement in latent heat flux estimation for the two calibration solutions was assessed by comparison to eddy-covariance flux data and to JULES simulations with default parameter values. Calibrations against the two soil moisture products alone did show an advantage for the cosmic-ray technique. However, further analyses of two-objective calibrations with soil moisture and latent heat flux showed no substantial differences between both calibration strategies. This was mainly caused by the limited effect of calibrating soil parameters on soil moisture dynamics and surface energy fluxes. Other factors that played a role were limited spatial variability in surface fluxes implied by soil moisture spatio-temporal stability, and data quality issues.

  8. Moisture Performance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour

    Treesearch

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using extracted and delignified wood flour on water sorption properties of wood–plastic composites. Wood flour (WF) extraction was performed with three solvent systems: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW); delignification was conducted using sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. A 24 full-factorial...

  9. Laboratory Performance of Five Selected Soil Moisture Sensors Applying Factory and Own Calibration Equations for Two Soil Media of Different Bulk Density and Salinity Levels.

    PubMed

    Matula, Svatopluk; Báťková, Kamila; Legese, Wossenu Lemma

    2016-11-15

    Non-destructive soil water content determination is a fundamental component for many agricultural and environmental applications. The accuracy and costs of the sensors define the measurement scheme and the ability to fit the natural heterogeneous conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate five commercially available and relatively cheap sensors usually grouped with impedance and FDR sensors. ThetaProbe ML2x (impedance) and ECH₂O EC-10, ECH₂O EC-20, ECH₂O EC-5, and ECH₂O TE (all FDR) were tested on silica sand and loess of defined characteristics under controlled laboratory conditions. The calibrations were carried out in nine consecutive soil water contents from dry to saturated conditions (pure water and saline water). The gravimetric method was used as a reference method for the statistical evaluation (ANOVA with significance level 0.05). Generally, the results showed that our own calibrations led to more accurate soil moisture estimates. Variance component analysis arranged the factors contributing to the total variation as follows: calibration (contributed 42%), sensor type (contributed 29%), material (contributed 18%), and dry bulk density (contributed 11%). All the tested sensors performed very well within the whole range of water content, especially the sensors ECH₂O EC-5 and ECH₂O TE, which also performed surprisingly well in saline conditions.

  10. Laboratory Performance of Five Selected Soil Moisture Sensors Applying Factory and Own Calibration Equations for Two Soil Media of Different Bulk Density and Salinity Levels

    PubMed Central

    Matula, Svatopluk; Báťková, Kamila; Legese, Wossenu Lemma

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive soil water content determination is a fundamental component for many agricultural and environmental applications. The accuracy and costs of the sensors define the measurement scheme and the ability to fit the natural heterogeneous conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate five commercially available and relatively cheap sensors usually grouped with impedance and FDR sensors. ThetaProbe ML2x (impedance) and ECH2O EC-10, ECH2O EC-20, ECH2O EC-5, and ECH2O TE (all FDR) were tested on silica sand and loess of defined characteristics under controlled laboratory conditions. The calibrations were carried out in nine consecutive soil water contents from dry to saturated conditions (pure water and saline water). The gravimetric method was used as a reference method for the statistical evaluation (ANOVA with significance level 0.05). Generally, the results showed that our own calibrations led to more accurate soil moisture estimates. Variance component analysis arranged the factors contributing to the total variation as follows: calibration (contributed 42%), sensor type (contributed 29%), material (contributed 18%), and dry bulk density (contributed 11%). All the tested sensors performed very well within the whole range of water content, especially the sensors ECH2O EC-5 and ECH2O TE, which also performed surprisingly well in saline conditions. PMID:27854263

  11. Determination of the analytical performance of a headspace capillary gas chromatographic technique and karl Fischer coulometric titration by system calibration using oil samples containing known amounts of moisture.

    PubMed

    Jalbert, J; Gilbert, R; Tétreault, P

    1999-08-01

    Over the past few years, concerns have been raised in the literature about the accuracy of the Karl Fischer (KF) method for assessing moisture in transformer mineral oils. To better understand this issue, the performance of a static headspace capillary gas chromatographic (HS-CGC) technique was compared to that of KF coulometric titration by analyzing moisture in samples containing known amounts of water and various samples obtained from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Two modes of adding samples into the KF vessel were used:  direct injection and indirect injection via an azeotropic distillation of the moisture with toluene. Under the conditions used for direct injection, the oil matrix was totally dissolved in the anolyte, which allowed the moisture to be titrated in a single-phase solution rather than in a suspension. The results have shown that when HS-CGC and combined azeotropic distillation/KF titration are calibrated with moisture-in-oil standards, a linear relation is observed over 0-60 ppm H(2)O with a correlation coefficient better than 0.9994 (95% confidence), with the regression line crossing through zero. A similar relation can also be observed when calibration is achieved by direct KF addition of standards prepared with octanol-1, but in this case an intercept of 4-5 ppm is noted. The amount of moisture determined by curve interpolation in NIST reference materials by the three calibrated systems ranges from 13.0 to 14.8 ppm for RM 8506 and 42.5 to 46.4 ppm for RM 8507, and in any case, the results were as high as those reported in the literature with volumetric KF titration. However, titration of various dehydrated oil and solvent samples showed that direct KF titration is affected by a small bias when samples contain very little moisture. The source of error after correction for the large sample volume used for the determination (8 mL) is about 6 ppm for Voltesso naphthenic oil and 4 ppm for toluene, revealing a matrix

  12. Boundary-layer moisture regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahrt, L.

    1991-01-01

    Boundary-layer moisture fluctuations are estimated by analyzing HAPEX and FIFE data collected on 52 aircraft flight legs. Moisture fluctuations were given considerable attention in the HAPEX flights, which were 120 km long, and flew 150 m over one area of homogeneous terrain. The repetitions permit statistical consideration of motion characteristics on horizontal scales. Two prototypical boundary layer regimes are discovered: the entrainment-drying boundary layer, and the moistening boundary layer. The latter demonstrates positive moisture skewness close to the surface related to high surface evaporation. The former is characterized by boundary-layer instability, weak surface evaporation, and drier air aloft, leading to unexpected negative moisture skewness. It is noted that 10 km moisture variations with horizontal gradients are often found in narrow zones of horizontal convergence, called mesoscale moisture fronts. A negative moisture to temperature correlation, due to surface energy budget inhomogeneity, is shown to incur large mesoscale variations of relative humidity.

  13. Ex vivo assessment and validation of water exchange performance of 23 heat and moisture exchangers for laryngectomized patients.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Cindy; Muller, Sara H; Vincent, Andrew D; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2014-08-01

    Breathing through a tracheostoma results in insufficient warming and humidification of the inspired air. This loss of air conditioning, especially humidification, can be partially restored with the application of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) over the tracheostoma. For medical professionals, it is not easy to judge differences in water exchange performance of various HMEs owing to the lack of universal outcome measures. This study has three aims: assessment of the water exchange performance of commercially available HMEs for laryngectomized patients, validation of these results with absolute humidity outcomes, and assessment of the role of hygroscopic salt present in some of the tested HMEs. Measurements of weight and absolute humidity at end inspiration and end expiration at different breathing volumes of a healthy volunteer were performed using a microbalance and humidity sensor. Twenty-three HMEs from 6 different manufacturers were tested. Associations were determined between core weight, weight change, breathing volume, and absolute humidity, using both linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. Water exchange of the 23 HMEs at a breathing volume of 0.5 L varies between 0.5 and 3.6 mg. Both water exchange and wet core weight correlate strongly with the end-inspiratory absolute humidity values (r2 =0.89/0.87). Hygroscopic salt increases core weight. The 23 tested HMEs for laryngectomized patients show wide variation in water exchange performance. Water exchange correlates well with the end-inspiratory absolute humidity outcome, which validates the ex vivo weight change method. Wet core weight is a predictor of HME performance. Hygroscopic salt increases the weight of the core material. The results of this study can help medical professionals to obtain a more founded opinion about the performance of available HMEs for pulmonary rehabilitation in laryngectomized patients, and allow them to make an informed decision about which HME type to use.

  14. [Effects of supplemental irrigation based on the measurement of moisture content in different soil layers on the water consumption characteristics and grain yield of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Yi, Li-Pan; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Zhang, Yong-Li; Wang, Dong; Shi, Yu; Zhao, Jun-Ye

    2013-05-01

    In 2010-2011, a field experiment with high-yielding winter wheat cultivar Jimai 22 was conducted to study the effects of supplemental irrigation based on the measurement of moisture content in different soil layers on the water consumption characteristics and grain yield of winter wheat. Four soil layers (0-20 cm, W1; 0-40 cm, W2; 0-60 cm, W3; and 0-140 cm, W4) were designed to make the supplemental irrigation at wintering stage (target soil relative moisture content = 75%), jointing stage (target soil relative moisture content = 70%), and anthesis stage (target soil relative moisture content = 70%), taking no irrigation (W0) during the whole growth season as the control. At the wintering, jointing, and anthesis stages, the required irrigation amount followed the order of W3 > W2 > W1. Treatment W4 required smaller irrigation amount at wintering and jointing stages, but significantly higher one at anthesis stage than the other treatments. The proportion of the irrigation amount relative to the total water consumption over the entire growth season followed the sequence of W4, W3 > W2 > W1. By contrast, the proportion of soil water consumption relative to the total water consumption followed the trend of W1 > W2 > W3 > W4. With the increase of the test soil depths, the soil water utilization ratio decreased. The water consumption in 80-140 cm and 160-200 cm soil layers was significantly higher in W2 than in W3 and W4. The required total irrigation amount was in the order of W3 > W4 > W2 > W1, the grain yield was in the order of W2, W3, W4 > W1 > W0, and the water use efficiency followed the order of W2, W4 > W0, W1 > W3. To consider the irrigation amount, grain yield, and water use efficiency comprehensively, treatment W2 under our experimental condition could be the optimal treatment, i. e., the required amount of supplemental irrigation based on the measurement of the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer should be feasible for the local winter wheat production.

  15. The Factor Structure of Test Task Characteristics and Examinee Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Nathan T.

    2006-01-01

    The present study focuses on the task characteristics of reading passages and key sentences in a test of second language reading. Using a new methodological approach to describe variation in test task characteristics and explore how differences in these characteristics might relate to examinee performance, it posed the two following research…

  16. The Factor Structure of Test Task Characteristics and Examinee Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Nathan T.

    2006-01-01

    The present study focuses on the task characteristics of reading passages and key sentences in a test of second language reading. Using a new methodological approach to describe variation in test task characteristics and explore how differences in these characteristics might relate to examinee performance, it posed the two following research…

  17. Thermal performance of underground power cables with constant and cyclic currents in presence of moisture migration in the surrounding soil

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, D.S.; Prata, A.T.; Lima, A.J. de

    1996-07-01

    A numerical methodology for thermal analysis of buried power cables in presence of heat and moisture migration in the surrounding soil is presented. The governing equations are solved via a finite volume methodology and both cable and soil are incorporated in the problem formulation. The developed program is versatile and user-friendly, and was implemented in a personal computer. Results are presented for constant and cyclic loads, stressing the importance of moisture migration in power cable design.

  18. Performance characteristics of the Lysholm engine

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of a 5 in. diameter rotor Lysholm engine prototype running on simulated geothermal flows from 16 to 100% quality is described. Staging was performed with conventional Westinghouse 25 kW steam turbines demonstrating that such a process is feasible. Maximum efficiency and power noted were 37.2% and 26.3 kW respectively, but inhibiting factors were discovered which, upon correction, should allow efficiencies around 50% and powers up to 35 kW. Larger engines with minor modifications should get better efficiencies. Data was taken for inlet pressures of 75 to 120 psia and speeds of 3000 to 9000 rpm's. Further testing under similar conditions is planned.

  19. Moisture sorption kinetics of switchgrass, big bluestem, and bromegrass biomass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Moisture status in biomass is the most influential factor of biomass storage, and hydration kinetics control the dynamic moisture condition of the biomass, thus affecting biomass storage and processing operations and final utilization applications. Moisture hydration characteristics of switchgrass, ...

  20. Preclinical Curriculum Characteristics and Institutional Performance on NBME Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between characteristics of the preclinical curriculum and institutional performance on the Part I examination of the National Board of Medical Examiners at U.S. medical schools was analyzed. Total scheduled hours per week was the single curriculum characteristic having a positive and significant relationship with performance.…

  1. A real time approach for revising generation unit performance characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Viviani, G.L.; Lin, C.E.; Webb, M.G.

    1985-02-01

    This paper presents a unique method for representing the performance characteristics of generation units of electric utilities. The approach utilizes digitally sampled information in an on-line enviroment. The resulting accuracy is superior to conventional approaches, as the true time varying nature of performance characteristics is taken into account.

  2. Precision moisture generation and measurement.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Irwin, Adriane Nadine

    2010-03-01

    In many industrial processes, gaseous moisture is undesirable as it can lead to metal corrosion, polymer degradation, and other materials aging processes. However, generating and measuring precise moisture concentrations is challenging due to the need to cover a broad concentration range (parts-per-billion to percent) and the affinity of moisture to a wide range surfaces and materials. This document will discuss the techniques employed by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of the Materials Reliability Department at Sandia National Laboratories to generate and measure known gaseous moisture concentrations. This document highlights the use of a chilled mirror and primary standard humidity generator for the characterization of aluminum oxide moisture sensors. The data presented shows an excellent correlation in frost point measured between the two instruments, and thus provides an accurate and reliable platform for characterizing moisture sensors and performing other moisture related experiments.

  3. Performance characteristics of a laser initiated microdetonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    The test results of 320 units of a laser initiated microdetonator are summarized. The commercially fabricated units used a lead styphnate/lead azide/HMX (1 mg/13.5 mg) explosive train design contained in a miniature aluminum can that was capped with a glass-metal seal window. The test parameters were the laser energy, temperature, laser pulse duration, laser wavelength and nuclear radiation (5,000,000 rad of 1 MeV gamma rays). The performance parameters were the laser energy for ignition and the actuation response time.

  4. Performance characteristics of a laser initiated microdetonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    The test results of 320 units of a laser initiated microdetonator are summarized. The commercially fabricated units used a lead styphnate/lead azide/HMX (1 mg/13.5 mg) explosive train design contained in a miniature aluminum can that was capped with a glass-metal seal window. The test parameters were the laser energy, temperature, laser pulse duration, laser wavelength and nuclear radiation (5,000,000 rad of 1 MeV gamma rays). The performance parameters were the laser energy for ignition and the actuation response time.

  5. Performance characteristics of wind profiling radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauch, R. G.; Frisch, A. S.; Weber, B. L.

    1986-01-01

    Doppler radars used to measure winds in the troposphere and lower stratosphere for weather analysis and forecasting are lower-sensitivity versions of mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radars widely used for research. The term wind profiler is used to denote these radars because measurements of vertical profiles of horizontal and vertical wind are their primary function. It is clear that wind profilers will be in widespread use within five years: procurement of a network of 30 wind profilers is underway. The Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) has operated a small research network of radar wind profilers in Colorado for about two and one-half years. The transmitted power and antenna aperture for these radars is given. Data archiving procedures have been in place for about one year, and this data base is used to evaluate the performance of the radars. One of the prime concerns of potential wind profilers users is how often and how long wind measurements are lacking at a given height. Since these outages constitute an important part of the performance of the wind profilers, they are calculated at three radar frequencies, 50-, 405-, and 915-MHz, (wavelengths of 6-, 0.74-, and 0.33-m) at monthly intervals to determine both the number of outages at each frequency and annual variations in outages.

  6. Novel Estimation of Pilot Performance Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Edward N.; Aponso, Bimal

    2017-01-01

    Two mechanisms internal to the pilot that affect performance during a tracking task are: 1) Pilot equalization (i.e. lead/lag); and 2) Pilot gain (i.e. sensitivity to the error signal). For some applications McRuer's Crossover Model can be used to anticipate what equalization will be employed to control a vehicle's dynamics. McRuer also established approximate time delays associated with different types of equalization - the more cognitive processing that is required due to equalization difficulty, the larger the time delay. However, the Crossover Model does not predict what the pilot gain will be. A nonlinear pilot control technique, observed and coined by the authors as 'amplitude clipping', is shown to improve stability, performance, and reduce workload when employed with vehicle dynamics that require high lead compensation by the pilot. Combining linear and nonlinear methods a novel approach is used to measure the pilot control parameters when amplitude clipping is present, allowing precise measurement in real time of key pilot control parameters. Based on the results of an experiment which was designed to probe workload primary drivers, a method is developed that estimates pilot spare capacity from readily observable measures and is tested for generality using multi-axis flight data. This paper documents the initial steps to developing a novel, simple objective metric for assessing pilot workload and its variation over time across a wide variety of tasks. Additionally, it offers a tangible, easily implementable methodology for anticipating a pilot's operating parameters and workload, and an effective design tool. The model shows promise in being able to precisely predict the actual pilot settings and workload, and observed tolerance of pilot parameter variation over the course of operation. Finally, an approach is proposed for generating Cooper-Harper ratings based on the workload and parameter estimation methodology.

  7. Multidimensional performance characteristics in selected and deselected talented soccer players.

    PubMed

    Huijgen, Barbara C H; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether performance characteristics discriminated between selected and deselected players in talent development programmes. This examination was carried out in talented soccer players, aged 16-18 years using objective measurement instruments. Four domains of multidimensional performance characteristics (physiological, technical, tactical and psychological) were assessed by using a test battery consisting of soccer-specific field tests and questionnaires. Multivariate analyses of covariance revealed that the physiological characteristics peak and repeated shuttle sprint, the technical characteristics of peak and repeated shuttle dribble and the tactical characteristic of 'positioning and deciding', significantly differed between the selected (n=76) and deselected players (n=37), with selected players performing better (P<0.05). Discriminant function analysis showed that the combination of the technical characteristic 'peak dribbling', the tactical characteristic 'positioning and deciding' and the physiological characteristic of 'peak sprinting' classified 69% of talented players correctly. In conclusion, the decisions made by the investigated clubs to either select or deselect players in their talent development programme, whom were aged 16-18 years, were mostly discriminated by aspects of the players' technical, tactical and physiological skill performances. Sports research can play an essential role in investigating the club's perception of important performance characteristics in talented players.

  8. Use of moisturizers among Danish atopic dermatitis patients-which perceived product characteristics associate with long-term adherence?

    PubMed

    Joergensen, Kristina Melbardis; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2017-08-18

    To identify factors perceived as most important regarding choice and continued use of moisturizers for adult patients with AD. Online survey among members of the Atopic eczema society Denmark. Among 75 participants, the most commonly tried (89.3%) and preferred (16%) product was Locobase(®) (Leo Pharma, Denmark). A-derma(®) (Pierre Fabre, France) had most continued use. The main reason for choosing preferred product was 'Best effect, in my experience' (36%). 'High lipid content' and 'GP/dermatologist suggested product' were considered as important main factors. 'Consistency', 'absorbs fast', and 'nice to wear' were secondary reasons for preferred product. A majority, 81.3% of respondents claimed to be very aware of perfumes and additives, 52% were very aware of allergy certification bodies on the product. AD patients state that the most important factor when choosing a product is out of personal experience followed by high lipid content and recommended by GP/dermatologist. As secondary reasons 'consistency', 'absorbs fast', and 'nice to wear' were important. Respondents generally use more than one product and are aware of additives. Evidence-based guidance on the choice of emollients is needed. The role of the professionals supporting the patient in navigating this market of emollients is therefore particularly important.

  9. Job Characteristics, Work Involvement, and Job Performance of Public Servants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johari, Johanim; Yahya, Khulida Kirana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the predicting role of job characteristics on job performance. Dimensions in the job characteristics construct are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Further, work involvement is tested as a mediator in the hypothesized link. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  10. Performance and Safety Characteristics in Ice-Climbing Equipment Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, W. Tom

    This study sought to determine whether Alaskan ice climbers place more emphasis on performance characteristics or on safety characteristics when selecting their various ice-climbing equipment. A survey distributed to members of the Alaska Alpine Club and the Alaska Alpine Rescue Group was developed to contain responses related to both safety and…

  11. Job Characteristics, Work Involvement, and Job Performance of Public Servants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johari, Johanim; Yahya, Khulida Kirana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the predicting role of job characteristics on job performance. Dimensions in the job characteristics construct are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Further, work involvement is tested as a mediator in the hypothesized link. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  12. Evaluation of soil moisture data products over Indian region and analysis of spatio-temporal characteristics with respect to monsoon rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyanadh, Anusha; Karipot, Anandakumar; Ranalkar, Manish; Prabhakaran, Thara

    2016-11-01

    Soil moisture (SM) is an essential climate variable of greater relevance in the monsoon scenario, hence validation and understanding of its spatio-temporal variability over the Indian region is of high significance. In the present study, five SM products are evaluated against in situ SM measurements conducted by India Meteorological Department and the selected data product is used for spatio-temporal characterization of SM in relation to monsoon rainfall. The data products evaluated are: European Space Agency's merged satellite SM, Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Land SM, ECMWF's ERA interim SM, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis SM, and Global Land Data Assimilation System Noah Land Surface Model SM. Comparisons show that seasonal SM patterns in all products generally follow the characteristics of rainfall, even though there are certain differences in details. The statistical estimates indicate fairly good agreement between in situ and the five products, with some variations among them and over the homogeneous rainfall regions. On comparison, MERRA SM is found appropriate for further analyses on spatio-temporal characteristics, which are then carried out with the 20 year (1993-2012) SM data. Stability analyses revealed SM patterns indicative of relative SM variability as well as persistence. The spatial stability analysis depicts dry and wet patterns and their seasonal variations over different geographical locations in relation to all India spatial average. Large temporal variations are found over central, western and northern Indian regions caused by large intraseasonal variability in rainfall. In brief, intraseasonal and interannual soil moisture variations broadly follow the rainfall pattern, with long-term influences attributed to SM memory effects. The soil moisture persistence and dominant scales of variability are explored with autocorrelation and wavelet transform techniques. Seasonal persistence is large over

  13. Sensor Technology Performance Characteristics- Field and Laboratory Observations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Observed Intangible Performance Characteristics RH and temperature impacts may be significant for some devices Internal battery lifetimes range from 4 to 24 hoursSensor packaging can interfere with accurate measurements (reactivity)Wireless communication protocols are not foolpr...

  14. Sensor Technology Performance Characteristics- Field and Laboratory Observations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Observed Intangible Performance Characteristics RH and temperature impacts may be significant for some devices Internal battery lifetimes range from 4 to 24 hoursSensor packaging can interfere with accurate measurements (reactivity)Wireless communication protocols are not foolpr...

  15. Design and Performance of an Impedance Analyzer for Nondestructive Moisture Content Determination of In-Shell Peanuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Moisture content (MC) in peanuts is measured at various stages of their processing and storage in the peanut industry. A method was developed earlier that would estimate the MC of a small sample of in-shell peanuts (peanut pods) held between two circular parallel-plates, from the values of capacita...

  16. Moisture performance of insulated, raised, wood-frame floors : a study of twelve houses in southern Louisiana

    Treesearch

    Samuel V. Glass; Charles G. Carll; Jay P. Curole; Matthew D. Voitier

    2010-01-01

    In flood-prone areas, elevating a building’s floor system above the anticipated flood level can significantly limit the extent of property damage associated with flooding. In hot and humid climates, such as the Gulf Coast region, raised floor systems may, however, be at risk for seasonal moisture accumulation, as the majority of residential buildings in such climates...

  17. Indoor climate and moisture durability performances of houses with unvented attic roof constructions in a mixed-humid climate.

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B.; Boudreaux, Philip R.; Jackson, Roderick K.

    2014-10-01

    A sealed or unvented attic is an energy-efficient envelope component that can reduce the amount of energy a house consumes for space conditioning if the air handler and/or ducts are located in the attic. The attic is typically sealed by using spray foam on the underside of the roof deck and covering the soffit, ridge and gable vents to minimize air leakage from the attic to the outside. This approach can save up to 10% in space-conditioning energy when ducts are located in the attic (DOE 2013). Past research done by ORNL and Florida Solar Energy Center suggests that in more hot, humid climates, an unvented attic could potentially create a more humid, uncomfortable living environment than a vented attic (Colon 2011, Boudreaux, Pallin et al. 2013). Research showed that controlling the higher indoor humidity could reduce the energy savings from the sealed, unvented attic, which in turn would decrease the energy savings payback. Research also showed that the roof assembly (5.5 inches of open-cell foam, 1inch of closed-cell foam, OSB, felt paper, and asphalt shingles) stored moisture, thus acting as a moisture buffer. During the fall and winter, the roof assembly stored moisture and during the spring and summer it released moisture. This phenomenon is not seen in a vented attic, in which the air exchange rate to the outside is greater and, in the winter, helps to dehumidify the attic air. It was also seen that in a vented attic, the direction of water vapor diffusion is on average from the attic to the interior of the house. Air leakage from the attic to the interior also occurs during more of the year in a house with an unvented attic than in one with a vented attic. These discoveries show that the moisture dynamics in a house with an unvented attic are much different from those in a house with a vented attic. This study reports on a series of computer model investigations completed to determine the key variables impacting indoor comfort and the durability of roof

  18. The impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in Central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Ioannis, Tegoulias; Ioannis, Pytharoulis; Stergios, Kartsios; Dimitrios, Bampzelis; Theodore, Karacostas

    2015-04-01

    The region of Thessaly is the second largest plain in Greece and has a vital role in the financial life of the country, because of its significant agricultural production. The intensive and extensive cultivation of irrigated crops, in combination with the population increase and the alteration of precipitation patterns due to climate change, often leading the region to experience severe drought conditions, especially during the warm period of the year. The aim of the DAPHNE project is to tackle the problem of drought in this area by means of Weather Modification.In the framework of the project DAPHNE, the numerical weather prediction model WRF-ARW 3.5.1 is used to provide operational forecasts and hindcasts for the region of Thessaly. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas, on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in the region of interest. To this end, six cases under the six most frequent synoptic conditions, which are associated with convective activity in the region of interest, are utilized, considering six different soil moisture initialization scenarios. In the first scenario (Control Run), the model is initialized with the surface soil moisture of the ECMWF analysis data, that usually does not take into account the modification of soil moisture due to agricultural activity in the area of interest. In the other five scenarios (Experiment 1,2,3,4,5) the soil moisture in the upper soil layers of the study area are modified from -50% to 50% of field capacity (-50%FC, -25%FC, FC, 25%FC, 50%FC),for the irrigated cropland.Three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and central Greece - Thessaly region (d03) are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and

  19. Protection of hydrophobic amino acids against moisture-induced deterioration in the aerosolization performance of highly hygroscopic spray-dried powders.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiaqi; Chan, Hak-Kim; Gengenbach, Thomas; Denman, John A

    2017-10-01

    Inhalable particles containing amorphous form of drugs or excipients may absorb atmospheric moisture, causing powder aggregation and recrystallization, adversely affecting powder dispersion and lung deposition. The present study aims to explore hydrophobic amino acids for protection against moisture in spray-dried amorphous powders, using disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) as a model drug. DSCG powders were produced by co-spray drying with isoleucine (Ile), valine (Val) and methionine (Met) in various concentrations (10, 20 and 40%w/w). Particle size distribution and morphology were measured by laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Physiochemical properties of the powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS). Particle surface chemistry was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). In vitro aerosolization performance was evaluated by a next generation impactor (NGI) after the powders were stored at 60% or 75% relative humidity (RH) for one month and three months. Ile, Val and Met significantly reduced the deleterious effect of moisture on aerosol performance, depending on the amount of amino acids in the formulation. Formulations containing 10% or 20% of Ile, Val and Met showed notable deterioration in aerosol performance, with fine particle fraction (FPF) reduced by 6-15% after one-month storage at both 60% and 75% RH. However, 40% Ile was able to maintain the aerosol performance of DSCG stored at 75% RH for one month, while the FPF dropped by 7.5% after three months of storage. In contrast, 40% Val or Met were able to maintain the aerosol performance at 60% RH storage but not at 75% RH. At 40%w/w ratio, these formulations had particle surface coverage of 94.5% (molar percent) of Ile, 87.1% of Val and 84.6% of Met, respectively, which may explain their

  20. SMALT - Soil Moisture from Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Richard; Salloway, Mark; Berry, Philippa; Hahn, Sebastian; Wagner, Wolfgang; Egido, Alejandro; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Benveniste, Jerome

    2014-05-01

    Soil surface moisture is a key scientific parameter; however, it is extremely difficult to measure remotely, particularly in arid and semi-arid terrain. This paper outlines the development of a novel methodology to generate soil moisture estimates in these regions from multi-mission satellite radar altimetry. Key to this approach is the development of detailed DRy Earth ModelS (DREAMS), which encapsulate the detailed and intricate surface brightness variations over the Earth's land surface, resulting from changes in surface roughness and composition. DREAMS have been created over a number of arid and semi-arid deserts worldwide to produce historical SMALT timeseries over soil moisture variation. These products are available in two formats - a high resolution track product which utilises the altimeter's high frequency content alongtrack and a multi-looked 6" gridded product at facilitate easy comparison/integeration with other remote sensing techniques. An overview of the SMALT processing scheme, covering the progression of the data from altimeter sigma0 through to final soil moisture estimate, is included along with example SMALT products. Validation has been performed over a number of deserts by comparing SMALT products with other remote sensing techniques, results of the comparison between SMALT and Metop Warp 5.5 are presented here. Comparisons with other remote sensing techniques have been limited in scope due to differences in the operational aspects of the instruments, the restricted geographical coverage of the DREAMS and the low repeat temporal sampling rate of the altimeter. The potential to expand the SMALT technique into less arid areas has been investigated. Small-scale comparison with in-situ and GNSS-R data obtained by the LEiMON experimental campaign over Tuscany, where historical trends exist within both SMALT and SMC probe datasets. A qualitative analysis of unexpected backscatter characteristics in dedicated dry environments is performed with

  1. Hospital ownership, decisions on supervisory board characteristics, and financial performance.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Ludwig; Pulm, Jannis; Wittland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic and complex transformations in the hospital market increase the relevance of good corporate governance. However, hospital performance and the characteristics of supervisory boards differ depending on ownership. The question therefore arises whether hospital owners can influence performance by addressing supervisory board characteristics. The objective of this study is to explain differences in the financial performance of hospitals with regard to ownership by studying the size and composition of supervisory boards. The AMADEUS database was used to collect information on hospital financial performance in 2009 and 2010. Business and quality reports, hospital websites, and data from health insurer were used to obtain information on hospital and board characteristics. The resulting sample consisted of 175 German hospital corporations. We utilized ANOVA and regression analysis to test a mediation hypothesis that investigated whether decisions regarding board size and composition were associated with financial performance and could explain performance differences. Financial performance and board size and composition depend on ownership. An increase in board size and greater politician participation were negatively associated with all five tested measures of financial performance. Furthermore, an increase in physician participation was positively associated with one dimension of financial performance, whereas one negative relationship was identified for nurse and economist participation. For clerics, no associations were found. Decisions concerning board size and composition are important as they relate to hospital financial performance. We contribute to existing research by showing that, in addition to board size and physician participation, the participation of other professionals can also influence financial performance.

  2. Relationships of physician characteristics to performance quality and improvement.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, B C; Lyons, T F; Neuhaus, E

    1984-01-01

    The quality of ambulatory medical care provided by 1,135 physicians in five separate practice settings in the Midwest was measured using predetermined process criteria. Specialists performed better in their own areas of specialized training than did family/general practitioners or specialists performing outside their specialty areas. Physicians with fewer years of practice performed somewhat better than physicians with more years since medical school graduation. Board certification was not consistently related to performance. Performances of the physicians improved following quality assurance interventions in these sites. Differences in the rates of change in performance quality were not consistently related to any of the physician characteristics studied. PMID:6746295

  3. [Effects of supplemental irrigation by measuring moisture content in different soil layers on water consumption characteristics, photosynthesis and grain yield of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Man, Jian-guo; Yu, Zhen-wen; Shi, Yu; Zhang, Yong-li

    2015-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted during 2012-2014 winter wheat growing seasons. Six irrigation treatments were designed: rainfed, W0; a local irrigation practice that irrigated at jointing and anthesis with 60 mm each time, W1; four irrigation treatments were designed with target relative soil moisture of 65% field capacity (FC) at jointing and 70% FC at anthesis in 0-20 (W2) 0-40 (W3), 0-60 (W4) , and 0-140 cm (W5) soil layers, respectively, to study the effects of supplemental irrigation by measuring moisture content in different soil layers on water consumption characteristics and photosynthesis and grain yield of winter wheat. The irrigation amounts at jointing in W1 and W4 were the highest, followed by W3 treatment, W2 and W5 were the lowest. The irrigation amounts at anthesis and total irrigation amounts were ranked as W5 > Wl, W4 > W3 > W2, the total water consumption in W3 was higher than that in W2, but had no difference with that in W1, W4 and W5 treatments, W3 had the higher soil water consumption than W1, W4 and W5 treatments, and the soil water consumption in 40-140 cm soil layers from jointing to anthesis and in 60-140 cm soil layers from anthesis to maturity in W3 were significantly higher than the other treatments. The photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency of flag leaf at middle stage of grain filling from the W3 treatment were the highest, followed by the W1 and W4 treatments, and W0 treatment was the lowest. In the two growing seasons, the grain yield and water use efficiency in the W3 were 9077-9260 kg · hm(-2) and 20.7-20.9 kg · hm(-2) · mm(-1), respectively, which were higher than those from the other treatments, and the irrigation water productivity in the W3 was the highest. As far as high-yield and high-water use efficiency were concerned in this experiment, the most appropriate soil layer for measuring moisture content was 0-40 cm.

  4. Influence of the feed moisture, rotor speed, and blades gap on the performances of a biomass pulverization technology.

    PubMed

    Luo, Siyi; Zhou, Yangmin; Yi, Chuijie; Luo, Yin; Fu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a novel biomass pulverization technology was proposed by our group. In this paper, further detailed studies of this technology were carried out. The effects of feed moisture and crusher operational parameters (rotor speed and blades gap) on product particle size distribution and energy consumption were investigated. The results showed that higher rotor speed and smaller blades gap could improve the hit probability between blades and materials and enhance the impacting and grinding effects to generate finer products, however, resulting in the increase of energy consumption. Under dry conditions finer particles were much more easily achieved, and there was a tendency for the specific energy to increase with increasing feed moisture. Therefore, it is necessary for the raw biomass material to be dried before pulverization.

  5. Effect of Moisture Content on Thermal Properties of Porous Building Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kočí, Václav; Vejmelková, Eva; Čáchová, Monika; Koňáková, Dana; Keppert, Martin; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert

    2017-02-01

    The thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of characteristic types of porous building materials are determined in the whole range of moisture content from dry to fully water-saturated state. A transient pulse technique is used in the experiments, in order to avoid the influence of moisture transport on measured data. The investigated specimens include cement composites, ceramics, plasters, and thermal insulation boards. The effect of moisture-induced changes in thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity on the energy performance of selected building envelopes containing the studied materials is then analyzed using computational modeling of coupled heat and moisture transport. The results show an increased moisture content as a substantial negative factor affecting both thermal properties of materials and energy balance of envelopes, which underlines the necessity to use moisture-dependent thermal parameters of building materials in energy-related calculations.

  6. Collecting real-time soil moisture profiles in the vadose zone

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, C.M.; Armstrong, S.C.; Walker, J.L.; Young, G.N.; Burton, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    The savings realized by using cone penetrometer (CPT) technology to supplement site characterization work are well documented. Adding soil moisture profiling to CPT testing can further enhance the interpretation of geologic and hydrogeologic conditions at a site. The performance characteristics of three soil moisture probes (SMPs) used with direct push technology were tested at a site in South Carolina. In the unsaturated zone, all three probes predicted volumetric soil moisture within {+-}5 moisture units of the laboratory values more than 65% of the time. When the results were outside this range, the difference was not large enough to lead to erroneous interpretations of the actual soil moisture trends. Results of testing in a variety of hydrogeologic conditions indicate that when SMPs are used with proper site calibration and controls, each probe can predict soil moisture values within the unsaturated zone that closely match laboratory results, in real time.

  7. Soil Moisture State and Hydrologic Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Western, A. W.; Grayson, R. B.; Blöschl, G.; Wilson, D.; Longobardi, A.; Villani, P.; Duncan, M.

    It has long been recognized that soil moisture has a key role in controlling evapo- transpiration during dryer periods, as well as runoff processes, particularly saturation excess runoff. The temporal and spatial variability of moisture can be an important influence on the temporal and spatial characteristics of these processes. More recently, the role of soil moisture in controlling lateral flow processes has re- ceived close attention, with switching between persistent dry and wet states leading to switches between controls on spatial patterns of soil moisture and consequent changes in runoff behaviour. In this paper we will review results on the spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture at the small catchment scale, concentrating in particular on dominant controls and temporal changes in dominant controls. We will discuss the climatic and catchment characteristics under which switching between dominant controls is likely. We will also present results relating spatial soil moisture behaviour to soil moisture state and relating rainfall-runoff response to moisture state: in particular we investi- gated the relationships between the basin soil moisture dynamic and the occurrence of very extreme flood events. The spatial probability density function of soil moisture is bounded by wilting point and porosity. This bounding combined with catchment processes leads to a strong link between spatial variance and spatial mean soil mois- ture, with an initial increase in variance followed by a decrease as mean soil moisture increases from wilting point to saturation. Changes in the spatial control of soil mois- ture and the relationship between soil moisture and terrain also occur as the spatial controls on the soil moisture pattern change in response to mean soil moisture. Strong links between the changes in the spatial characteristics of soil moisture will be demon- strated and the potential of measurements of soil moisture to provide information on catchment state

  8. Performance characteristics of multi-anode microchannel array detector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The multi-anode microchannel arrays (MAMAs) are state-of-the-art, pulse-counting, photoelectric array detectors designed specifically for use in space astrophysics instruments. The present paper provides a description of recent progress related to the development of ultraviolet and visible-light versions of the MAMA detectors, taking into account a comparison of the operating characteristics of these devices with those of photoconductive array detectors, such as the CCDs. Attention is given to MAMA detector system design parameters, the operating characteristics of MAMAs and CCDs, MAMA performance characteristics, and future developments.

  9. Soil Moisture and Excavation Behaviour in the Chaco Leaf-Cutting Ant (Atta vollenweideri): Digging Performance and Prevention of Water Inflow into the Nest

    PubMed Central

    Pielström, Steffen; Roces, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    The Chaco leaf-cutting ant Atta vollenweideri is native to the clay-heavy soils of the Gran Chaco region in South America. Because of seasonal floods, colonies are regularly exposed to varying moisture across the soil profile, a factor that not only strongly influences workers' digging performance during nest building, but also determines the suitability of the soil for the rearing of the colony's symbiotic fungus. In this study, we investigated the effects of varying soil moisture on behaviours associated with underground nest building in A. vollenweideri. This was done in a series of laboratory experiments using standardised, plastic clay-water mixtures with gravimetric water contents ranging from relatively brittle material to mixtures close to the liquid limit. Our experiments showed that preference and group-level digging rate increased with increasing water content, but then dropped considerably for extremely moist materials. The production of vibrational recruitment signals during digging showed, on the contrary, a slightly negative linear correlation with soil moisture. Workers formed and carried clay pellets at higher rates in moist clay, even at the highest water content tested. Hence, their weak preference and low group-level excavation rate observed for that mixture cannot be explained by any inability to work with the material. More likely, extremely high moistures may indicate locations unsuitable for nest building. To test this hypothesis, we simulated a situation in which workers excavated an upward tunnel below accumulated surface water. The ants stopped digging about 12 mm below the interface soil/water, a behaviour representing a possible adaptation to the threat of water inflow field colonies are exposed to while digging under seasonally flooded soils. Possible roles of soil water in the temporal and spatial pattern of nest growth are discussed. PMID:24748382

  10. [Change characteristics of soil moisture and nutrients in rain-fed winter wheat field under different fertilization modes in Southern Shanxi of China during summer fallow period].

    PubMed

    Li, Ting-Liang; Xie, Ying-He; Hong, Jian-Ping; Feng, Qian; Sun, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Wei

    2013-06-01

    In 2009-2011, a field experiment was conducted in a rain-fed winter wheat field in Southern Shanxi of China to study the effects of different fertilization modes on the change characteristics of soil moisture and nitrate-N contents in 0-200 cm layer and of soil available phosphorus (Oslen-P) and potassium contents in 0-40 cm layer during summer fallow period (from June to September). Three fertilization modes were installed, i. e., conventional fertilization (CF), recommended fertilization (RF), and ridge film furrow planting (RFFP) combined with straw mulch. The results showed that the rainfall in summer fallow period could complement the consumed water in 0-200 cm soil layer in dryland wheat field throughout the growth season, and more than 94% of the water storage was in 0-140 cm soil layer, with the fallow efficiency ranged from 6% to 27%. The rainfall in summer fallow period caused the soil nitrate-N moving downward. 357-400 mm rainfall could make the soil nitrate-N leaching down to 100 cm soil layer, with the peak in 20-40 cm soil layer. Straw mulching or plastic film with straw mulch in summer fallow period could effectively increase the Oslen-P and available K contents in 0-40 cm soil layer, and the accumulative increment in three summer fallow periods was 16-45% and 36-49%, respectively. Among the three modes, the binary coverage mode of RFFP plus furrow straw mulching had the best effect in maintaining soil water and fertility. The accumulative water storage and mineral N in 0-200 cm soil layer in three summer fallow periods were up to 215 mm and 90 kg x hm(-2), and the accumulative Oslen-P and available K contents in plough layer were increased by 2.7 mg x kg(-1) and 83 mg x kg(-1), respectively, being significantly higher than those in treatments CF and RF. There were no significant differences in the change characteristics in the soil moisture and nutrients between treatments CF and RF.

  11. Effects of isoprene production on the photosynthetic performance of Poplars (Populus sp.) under thermal and moisture stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, E. A.; McFarland, E.; Minor, R. L.; Heard, M. M.; Barron-Gafford, G.

    2015-12-01

    Poplars are an important agro-forestry product used for both biofuel and paper production. Importantly, all poplars are not created equal - some have the potential to produce isoprene, a compound thought to aid plants under temperatures and water stress conditions. Isoprene production, then, would be an important feature in a plant's response to projected climatic changes of warmer temperatures and longer inter-storm periods of drought. Our project observed how drought conditions modulated photosynthetic rates in two lineages of Populus trees, those that produce isoprene and those that have had isoprene gene knocked out. We measured leaf-level photosynthesis and thermal sensitivity from the two lineages under high and low soil water conditions in a common garden experiment. We found that both lines had similar photosynthetic rates over the range of temperatures and water exposure levels measured. However, we wondered if some of the variation we found in our data was due to the time of day of the measurements. Subsequent measurements of photosynthetic rates in the morning and afternoon on the same leaves illustrated that poplars reached higher rates of photosynthesis in the morning, but ultimately decreased faster than observed in the afternoon measurements (indicative of an eased thermal sensitivity in the afternoon). Also, we used measures of soil moisture and leaf water potential to determine that the "drought" treatment we had induced didn't actually yield any differences in the moisture status among the trees. Ultimately, our experiment showed that isoprene did not aid in photosynthesis under heat stressed conditions and that the common garden setting was not able to currently induce a water stress condition in the plants. We have begun exploring the use of low-altitude remote sensing by an unmanned aerial vehicles outfitted with thermal and multi-spectral cameras to quantify patterns of transpirational water loss, NDVI, leaf browning due to moisture stress

  12. Transactive memory system links work team characteristics and performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Xue; Hempel, Paul S; Han, Yu-Lan; Tjosvold, Dean

    2007-11-01

    Teamwork and coordination of expertise among team members with different backgrounds are increasingly recognized as important for team effectiveness. Recently, researchers have examined how team members rely on transactive memory system (TMS; D. M. Wegner, 1987) to share their distributed knowledge and expertise. To establish the ecological validity and generality of TMS research findings, this study sampled 104 work teams from a variety of organizational settings in China and examined the relationships between team characteristics, TMS, and team performance. The results suggest that task interdependence, cooperative goal interdependence, and support for innovation are positively related to work teams' TMS and that TMS is related to team performance; moreover, structural equation analysis indicates that TMS mediates the team characteristics-performance links. Findings have implications both for team leaders to manage their work teams effectively and for team members to improve their team performance. (c) 2007 APA

  13. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Treesearch

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  14. Interior moisture design loads for residences

    Treesearch

    Anton TenWolde; Iain S. Walker

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology to obtain design values for indoor boundary conditions for moisture design calculations for residences. This is part of a larger effort by ASHRAE Standard Project Committee 160P, Design Criteria for Moisture Control in Buildings, to formulate criteria for moisture design loads, analysis techniques, and material and building performance...

  15. Performance characteristics of the Mayo/IBM PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persons, Kenneth R.; Gehring, Dale G.; Pavicic, Mark J.; Ding, Yingjai

    1991-07-01

    The Mayo Clinic and IBM (at Rochester, Minnesota) have jointly developed a picture archiving system for use with Mayo's MRI and Neuro CT imaging modalities. The communications backbone of the PACS is a portion of the Mayo institutional network: a series of 4-Mbps token rings interconnected by bridges and fiber optic extensions. The performance characteristics of this system are important to understand because they affect the response time a PACS user can expect, and the response time for non-PACS users competing for resources on the institutional network. The performance characteristics of each component and the average load levels of the network were measured for various load distributions. These data were used to quantify the response characteristics of the existing system and to tune a model developed by North Dakota State University Department of Computer Science for predicting response times of more complex topologies.

  16. Performance characteristics of proximity focused ultraviolet image converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. T.; Feibelman, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Performance characteristics of Bendix type BX 8025-4522 proximity focused image tubes for ultraviolet to visible light conversion are presented. Quantum efficiency, resolution, background, geometric distortion, and environmental test results are discussed. The converters use magnesium fluoride input windows with Cs - Te photocathodes, and P-11 phosphors on fiber optic output windows.

  17. Performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed crude glycerol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, were determined in a 138-d feeding trial conducted at the Iowa State University Swine Nutrition Research Farm, Ames, IA. Pigs were weaned at 21d of age and were fed a commercial starter-...

  18. Do the Managerial Characteristics of Schools Influence Their Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Bonomi, Francesca; Sibiano, Piergiacomo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of governance and managerial characteristics of schools. More specifically, the aim is to individuate the factors that are associated to higher schools' performances, as measured through student achievement. Design/methodology/approach: The research is conducted by means of a survey in…

  19. Do the Managerial Characteristics of Schools Influence Their Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Bonomi, Francesca; Sibiano, Piergiacomo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of governance and managerial characteristics of schools. More specifically, the aim is to individuate the factors that are associated to higher schools' performances, as measured through student achievement. Design/methodology/approach: The research is conducted by means of a survey in…

  20. [Characteristics of delta18O in precipitation and moisture transports over the arid region in Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Jun; Li, Ya-Ju; Wang, Sheng-Jie; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Qian; Ma, Xue-Ning

    2012-03-01

    Based on the observed data of stable isotopes in precipitation and meteorological statistics at Urümqi (1986-2003), Zhangye (1986-2003), and Hotan (1988-1992) from IAEA/WMO, the precipitation equation of arid region in Northwest China was calculated through the regression analysis, and the characteristics of stable isotopic in precipitation, as well as the correlation between stable isotopic and meteorological records, were analyzed. The water vapor source of the three sites was tracked by the HYSPLIT4. 9 model, and water vapour transmission regime of arid region in Northwest China was established, while the record of delta18O in cryosphere was discussed. Results showed that the precipitation equation of deltaD = 7.24 delta18O + 1.96 per thousand indicates intense evaporation; delta18O values at Urümqi, Zhangye and Hotan fluctuates at -20.58 per thousand- -5.4 per thousand, -18.58 per thousand- -2.46 per thousand and -20.33 per thousand- -0.01 per thousand, respectively. The delta18O value is low in winter and high in summer, but the values of d-excess is on the contrary; The spatial distribution shows that delta18O value at Zhangye is highest, followed by Hotan, and the lowest is at Urümqi; The highest of d-excess value is at Urümqi, followed by Hotan, the lowest is at Zhangye; The temperature effect of delta18O in precipitation is significant with the correlation coefficients of 0.85, 0.81 and 0.86, respectively, and the rainfall effect does not exist; The modeled trajectory of vapor source showed there are two main paths all the year, which are from the Atlantic Ocean via Westerlies and the Arctic region, respectively, influence by different vapor sources, the seasonality of delta18O values lower in winter, higher in summer; In addition, according to the cryospheric environment, the correlation between delta18O in snow pack or ice core and the corresponding meteorological station record was significant, which reflects the variation of temperature efficiently.

  1. Detecting Moisture In Buildings Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Stephen J.

    1981-01-01

    Visual examination is a reliable means of moisture detection in building walls after serious damaR'e has been done. Traditional spot measurement instruments are inexpedient devices for elusive moisture detection in heterogeneous materials. The infrared thermal imaging system was found t be a more versatile tool for in-situ moisture detection because of its unique characteristics. Several thermographic examples of moisture detection in. building walls are presented, which will aid the reader in the qualitative interpretation o1 therm.ograms 1or moisture problem.s.

  2. Artemisia dominant species succession relating to the soil moisture decrease in abandoned land of the Loess Plateau (China): comparative study of drought-adaptive characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Jing; Xia, Pengguo; He, Shaoxuan; Zhou, Ziyun; Han, Ruilian; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii were three dominant Artemisia species which successive grew in the secondary succession on abandoned land of the Loess Plateau. The succession accompanied the soil moisture steady decrease with field age after their abandonment. To elucidate the relationship between the Artemisia species succession and their drought-adaptation, three dominant species and a contrastive species Artemisia annua (mesophyte), were selected to compare their drought-resistant characteristics, including morphological and anatomical traits of leaf and root. Then physiological responses were investigated in mature plants after drought treatment. The results indicated that three dominant species leaf presented drought-adaptive structures, such as bushy trichomes, transitional or isolateral leaf cells, thick cuticles and epidermal cells. However, A. annua had no leaf traits involved in drought-adaptation. In addition, A. sacrorum and A. giraldii contained large root systems, while A. scoparia and A. annua utilized succulent roots. The physiological responses to drought suggested that A. giraldii had strong regulation in water using strategy, growth, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. A. sacrorum and A. giraldii could maintain high ascorbate peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content, while A. scoparia and A. giraldii presented higher peroxidase activity, ascorbate and soluble sugar content. A. annua exhibited high proline and carotenoid contents under drought. The drought-resistant of the four Artemisia species presented the order of A. giraldii > A. sacrorum > A. scoparia > A. annua, which was consistent with their succession on abandoned land.

  3. GNSSProbe, penetrating GNSS signals for measuring soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Francisco; Navarro, Victor; Reppucci, Antonio; Mollfulleda, Antonio; Balzter, Heiko; Nicolas-Perea, Virginia; Kissick, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture content (SMC) is an essential parameter from both a scientific and economical point of view. On one hand, it is key for the understanding of hydrological. Secondly, it is a most relevant parameter for agricultural activities and water management. Wide research has been done in this field using different sensors, spanning different parts of the measured electromagnetic spectrum, leading thus several methodologies to estimate soil moisture content. However complying with requirements in terms of accuracy and spatial resolution is still a major challenge. A novel approach based on the measurement of GNSS signals penetrating a soil volume is proposed here. This model relates soil moisture content to the measured soil transmissivity, and attenuation coefficient, which are a function of the soil characteristics (i.e soil moisture content, soit type, soil temperature, etc). A preliminary experiment has been performed to demonstrate the validity of this technique, where the signal received by a GNSS-R L1/E1 RHCP antenna buried at 5, 10, and 15 cm below the surface, was compared to the one received by a GNSS-R L1/E1 RHCP antenna with clear sky visibility. Preliminary results show agreement with theoretical results based on transmissivity and with previous campaigns performed where the soil moisture were collected at two different depths (5 and 15 cm). Details related to the GNSS soil moisture modeling, instrument preparation, measurement campaign, data processing and main results will be presented at the conference.

  4. A review of hospital characteristics associated with improved performance.

    PubMed

    Brand, Caroline A; Barker, Anna L; Morello, Renata T; Vitale, Michael R; Evans, Sue M; Scott, Ian A; Stoelwinder, Johannes U; Cameron, Peter A

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this review was to critically appraise the literature relating to associations between high-level structural and operational hospital characteristics and improved performance. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL, proQuest and PsychINFO were searched for articles published between January 1996 and May 2010. Reference lists of included articles were reviewed and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. and data extraction Studies were included if they were systematic reviews or meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, controlled before and after studies or observational studies (cohort and cross-sectional) that were multicentre, comparative performance studies. Two reviewers independently extracted data, assigned grades of evidence according to the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines and critically appraised the included articles. Data synthesis Fifty-seven studies were reported within 12 systematic reviews and 47 observational articles. There was heterogeneity in use and definition of performance outcomes. Hospital characteristics investigated were environment (incentives, market characteristics), structure (network membership, ownership, teaching status, geographical setting, service size) and operational design (innovativeness, leadership, organizational culture, public reporting and patient safety practices, information technology systems and decision support, service activity and planning, workforce design, staff training and education). The strongest evidence for an association with overall performance was identified for computerized physician order entry systems. Some evidence supported the associations with workforce design, use of financial incentives, nursing leadership and hospital volume. There is limited, mainly low-quality evidence, supporting the associations between hospital characteristics and healthcare performance. Further characteristic-specific systematic reviews are

  5. Relations between mental health team characteristics and work role performance.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Farand, Lambert

    2017-01-01

    Effective mental health care requires a high performing, interprofessional team. Among 79 mental health teams in Quebec (Canada), this exploratory study aims to 1) determine the association between work role performance and a wide range of variables related to team effectiveness according to the literature, and to 2) using structural equation modelling, assess the covariance between each of these variables as well as the correlation with other exogenous variables. Work role performance was measured with an adapted version of a work role questionnaire. Various independent variables including team manager characteristics, user characteristics, team profiles, clinical activities, organizational culture, network integration strategies and frequency/satisfaction of interactions with other teams or services were analyzed under the structural equation model. The later provided a good fit with the data. Frequent use of standardized procedures and evaluation tools (e.g. screening and assessment tools for mental health disorders) and team manager seniority exerted the most direct effect on work role performance. While network integration strategies had little effect on work role performance, there was a high covariance between this variable and those directly affecting work role performance among mental health teams. The results suggest that the mental healthcare system should apply standardized procedures and evaluation tools and, to a lesser extent, clinical approaches to improve work role performance in mental health teams. Overall, a more systematic implementation of network integration strategies may contribute to improved work role performance in mental health care.

  6. Evaluation of D-1 tape and cassette characteristics: Moisture content of Sony and Ampex D-1 tapes when delivered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, Gary

    Commercial D-1 cassette tapes and their associated recorders were designed to operate in broadcast studios and record in accordance with the International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) 607 digital video standards. The D-1 recorder resulted in the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) standards 224 to 228 and is the first digital video recorder to be standardized for the broadcast industry. The D-1 cassette and associated media are currently marketed for broadcast use. The recorder was redesigned for data applications and is in the early stages of being evaluated. The digital data formats used are specified in MIL-STD-2179 and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3.175-190 standard. In early 1990, the National Media Laboratory (NML) was asked to study the effects of time, temperature, and relative humidity on commercial D-1 cassettes. The environmental range to be studied was the one selected for the Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System (ATARS) program. Several discussions between NML personnel, ATARS representatives, recorder contractors, and other interested parties were held to decide upon the experimental plan to be implemented. Review meetings were held periodically during the course of the experiment. The experiments were designed to determine the dimensional stability of the media and cassette since this is one of the major limiting factors of helical recorders when the media or recorders are subjected to non-broadcasting environments. Measurements were also made to characterize each sample of cassettes to give preliminary information on which purchase specifications could be developed. The actual tests performed on the cassettes and media before and after aging fall into the general categories listed.

  7. Performance characteristics of brush seals for limited-life engines

    SciTech Connect

    Chupp, R.E. ); Dowler, C.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Brush seals are potential replacements for air-to-air labyrinth seals in gas turbine engines. An investigation has been conducted to determine the performance characteristics of brush seals for application in limited-life gas turbine engines. An elevated temperature, rotating test rig was designed and built to test labyrinth and brush seals in simulated subsonic and supersonic engine conditions. Results from initial tests for subsonic applications demonstrated that brush seals exhibit appreciably lower leakage compared to labyrinth seals, and thus offer significant engine performance improvements. Performance results have been obtained showing the effect of various brush seal parameters, including: initial interference, backplate gap, and multiple brush seals in series.

  8. General performance characteristics of an irreversible ferromagnetic Stirling refrigeration cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, G.; Tegus, O.; Zhang, L.; Brück, E.

    2004-02-01

    A new magnetic-refrigeration-cycle model using ferromagnetic materials as a cyclic working substance is set up, in which finite-rate heat transfer, heat leak and regeneration time are taken into account. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of a ferromagnetic material, the general performance characteristics of the ferromagnetic Stirling refrigeration cycle are investigated and the effects of some key irreversibilities on the performance of the cycle are revealed. By using the optimal-control theory, the optimal relation between the coefficient of performance and the cooling rate is derived and some important performance bounds, e.g., the maximum cooling rate, the maximum coefficient of performance, are determined. Moreover, the optimal operating regions for cooling rate, coefficient of performance and the optimal operating temperatures of a cyclic working substance in the two heat-transfer processes are obtained. Furthermore, the influences of magnetization and magnetic field on the performance characteristics of the cycle are discussed. The results obtained here have general significance and can be deduced to the related ones of the Stirling refrigeration cycle using paramagnetic salt as a cyclic working substance.

  9. Treadmill performance and selected physiological characteristics of wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Lakomy, H K; Campbell, I; Williams, C

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine selected physiological characteristics and pushing performance over a distance of five kilometres (5 km) in twelve wheelchair athletes (10 paraplegics and 2 tetraplegics). The physiological tests and 5 km wheelchair time trials were performed on a motorised treadmill adapted for use by wheelchairs. The maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and %VO2 max utilised at a fixed speed equivalent to a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol.l-1, identified as being of importance in successful able-bodied endurance performance, were also found to correlate highly with 5 km performance in wheelchair athletes. Low correlations were found between performance and mean %VO2 max utilised over the whole distance and between performance and oxygen uptake at a standard speed. The results also showed that the tetraplegics had lower physiological reserves than the paraplegics, with a much reduced maximum heart rate and ventilation. The findings indicate that a combination of physiological characteristics influence pushing performance in wheelchair athletes. PMID:3676640

  10. Auditory virtual environment with dynamic room characteristics for music performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Daniel Dhaham

    A room-adaptive system was designed to simulate an electro-acoustic space that changes room characteristics in real-time according to the content of sound. In this specific case, the focus of the sound components is on the different styles and genres of music. This system is composed of real-time music recognition algorithms that analyze the different elements of music, determine the desired room characteristics, and output the acoustical parameters via multi-channel room simulation mechanisms. The system modifies the acoustic properties of a space and enables it to "improvise" its acoustical parameters based on the sounds of the music performances.

  11. Computational studies on small wind turbine performance characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, N.; Suthakar, T.

    2016-10-01

    To optimize the selection of suitable airfoils for small wind turbine applications, computational investigation on aerodynamic characteristics of low Re airfoils MID321a, MID321d, SG6040, SG6041, SG6042 and SG6043 are carried out for the Reynolds number range of (0.5- 2)×105. The BEM method is used to determine the power coefficient of the rotor from the airfoil characteristics; in addition, the blade parameters like chord and twist are also determined. The newly designed MID321a airfoil shows better aerodynamic performance and maximum power coefficient as compared with other investigated airfoils for wider operating ranges.

  12. Understanding anthropometric characteristics associated with performance in manual lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Beck, Ben; Middleton, Kane J; Billing, Daniel C; Caldwell, Joanne N; Carstairs, Greg L

    2017-07-03

    Manual lifting is an essential military job task and is commonly linked to occupational injury. Methods to reduce injury risk focus on ensuring that employees have the requisite physical capacity to safely conduct critical job tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate which anthropometric characteristics are associated with lifting performance to inform targeted training programs for job critical lifting tasks. Sixty-three (42 males and 21 females) participants conducted three maximal lifts to a platform (pack lift to 1.5 m, box lift to 1.3 m and box lift to 1.5 m). A dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan was used to quantify anthropometric characteristics (body-region specific lean mass and fat mass). While anthropometric measures were strongly associated with each other, multivariable linear regression revealed that a significant proportion of the total variation in lifting performance in each of the three tasks was explained by upper arm lean mass (pack lift: β = 5.42, p<0.001; box lift 1.3 m: β = 5.64, p<0.001; box lift 1.5 m: β = 7.00, p<0.001). Leg lean mass also significantly contributed to the variation of pack lift performance (β = 0.93, p=0.01). When controlling for key anthropometric characteristics in these three tasks, separate analyses showed no significant effect of sex or stature on lift performance. These results suggest that the perceived limitations of stature and sex may be overcome by targeted training programs to improve specific physical characteristics associated with lifting performance.

  13. Estimating Sahelian and East African soil moisture using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Funk, C.; Husak, G. J.; Michaelsen, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Demarty, J.; Pellarin, T.; Young, T. P.; Caylor, K. K.; Riginos, C.; Veblen, K. E.

    2013-06-01

    Rainfall gauge networks in Sub-Saharan Africa are inadequate for assessing Sahelian agricultural drought, hence satellite-based estimates of precipitation and vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) provide the main source of information for early warning systems. While it is common practice to translate precipitation into estimates of soil moisture, it is difficult to quantitatively compare precipitation and soil moisture estimates with variations in NDVI. In the context of agricultural drought early warning, this study quantitatively compares rainfall, soil moisture and NDVI using a simple statistical model to translate NDVI values into estimates of soil moisture. The model was calibrated using in-situ soil moisture observations from southwest Niger, and then used to estimate root zone soil moisture across the African Sahel from 2001-2012. We then used these NDVI-soil moisture estimates (NSM) to quantify agricultural drought, and compared our results with a precipitation-based estimate of soil moisture (the Antecedent Precipitation Index, API), calibrated to the same in-situ soil moisture observations. We also used in-situ soil moisture observations in Mali and Kenya to assess performance in other water-limited locations in sub Saharan Africa. The separate estimates of soil moisture were highly correlated across the semi-arid, West and Central African Sahel, where annual rainfall exhibits a uni-modal regime. We also found that seasonal API and NDVI-soil moisture showed high rank correlation with a crop water balance model, capturing known agricultural drought years in Niger, indicating that this new estimate of soil moisture can contribute to operational drought monitoring. In-situ soil moisture observations from Kenya highlighted how the rainfall-driven API needs to be recalibrated in locations with multiple rainy seasons (e.g., Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia). Our soil moisture estimates from NDVI, on the other hand, performed

  14. Performance Characteristics of Absorption Hybrid Cycle Introduced Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyoki, Shigeki; Kotani, Yuji; Uemura, Tadashi

    In this paper, four kinds of absorption hybrid cycle which introduced the compressor in the absorption cycle were proposed. As basic cycle of absorption refrigerating machine, the following were chosen: two kinds of single-stage absorption refrigerating machine and two kinds of double effect absorption refrigerating machine. As a working medium-absorbent system, NH3-H2O system, C2H5NH2-H2O system and C2H5NH2-H2O-LiBr system were adopted. Using these three kinds of working medium-absorbent system, the performance characteristics of four kinds of absorption hybrid cycle were simulated. And the performance characteristics of these cycles were compared.

  15. Performance characteristics of 1977 Ford 300 Cid engine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boziuk, J.

    1980-02-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of a 1977 Ford 300 CID engine to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen) at steady-state engine operating modes. The objective of the test was to obtain engine performance data for estimating fuel consumption and emissions for varied engine service and duty and to provide basic engine characteristic data required for the TSC Vehicle Simulator (VEHSIM).

  16. Performance characteristics of 1977 Chrysler 318 Cid engine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boziuk, J.

    1980-02-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of a 1977 Chrysler 318 CID engine to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen) at steady-state engine operating modes. The objective of the test was to obtain engine performance data for estimating fuel consumption and emissions for varied engine service and duty and to provide basic engine characteristic data required for the TSC Vehicle Simulator (VEHSIM).

  17. A Study of Coaxial Rotor Performance and Flow Field Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-22

    A Study of Coaxial Rotor Performance and Flow Field Characteristics Natasha L. Barbely Aerospace Engineer NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field...The pressure field generated by the two airfoils aided our interpretation of the more complex coaxial rotor system flow field. The pressure fields...velocity (ft/sec) Z vertical distance between rotors (ft) αS pitch angle (deg), negative pitch down κint coaxial rotor induced power interference

  18. Moisture adsorption in optical coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, H. Angus

    1988-01-01

    The thin film filter is a very large aperture component which is exceedingly useful because of its small size, flexibility and ease of mounting. Thin film components, however, do have defects of performance and especially of stability which can cause problems in systems, particularly where long-term measurements are being made. Of all of the problems, those associated with moisture absorption are the most serious. Moisture absorption occurs in the pore-shaped voids inherent in the columnar structure of the layers. Ion-assisted deposition is a promising technique for substantially reducing moisture adsorption effects in thin film structures.

  19. Internal performance characteristics of short convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles designed by the method of characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krull, H George; Beale, William T

    1956-01-01

    Internal performance data on a short exhaust nozzle designed by the method of characteristics were obtained over a range of pressure ratios from 1.5 to 22. The peak thrust coefficient was not affected by a shortened divergent section, but it occurred at lower pressure ratios due to reduction in expansion ratio. This nozzle contour based on characteristics solution gave higher thrust coefficients than a conical convergent-divergent nozzle of equivalent length. Abrupt-inlet sections permitted a reduction in nozzle length without a thrust-coefficient reduction.

  20. Effects of changing airfoil aerodynamic characteristics on turning diffuser performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh@Seth, Nur Hazirah; Isa, Norasikin Mat

    2017-04-01

    Combining both turning and diffusing activities by using 3-dimensional turning diffuser offer more advantages as compared to bend-diffuser systems. However, adverse pressure gradient and curvature design of turning diffuser itself will result in existence of secondary flow at the inner wall and both left and right wall region, which will disrupt turning diffuser performance. Introduction of baffle has successfully proven able to improve the performance of 3-dimensional turning diffuser in terms of both pressure recovery and flow uniformity using experimental approach. Preliminary design airfoil referred to previous study was used, and the results were used to validate present study simulation work. Aerodynamic characteristic of the airfoil were varied and series of simulation were conducted to study the effects of changing aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil on turning diffuser performance. Optimum parameters proposed in this study have successfully improved 3-dimensional turning diffuser performance by 7.20% in terms of flow uniformity and 6.16% in terms of pressure recovery. Turning diffuser efficiency was also improved with increment of 6.12%. These parameters can be used in the future for reference in the design of airfoil baffle especially for usage involving 3-dimensional turning diffuser.

  1. Performance and Characteristics of Heat Pump Clothes Drier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambarita, H.; Nasution, D. M.; Gunawan, S.; Nasution, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a study of clothes drying using a heat pump drier has been carried out. The objective is to examine the performance and drying characteristics of the heat pump clothes dryer. The result of performances and drying characteristics were compared with waste heat drying system of split-type residential air conditioner (RAC). A drying chamber with volume 1 m3 integrated with heat pump component had been designed and fabricated. The heat pump operated by vapor compression cycle with power input of 800W and refrigerant R22 as a working fluid. The clothes dried made of pure cotton with initial weight varied from 3.00 kg, 5.25 kg, and 6.38 kg, respectively. The results shown that the drying time and drying rate of heat pump drier are faster than waste heat drying system. The average total performance of heat pump clothes drier is 6.56. On the other hand, SMER which is obtained 1.492 kg/kWh. These values are lower than the SMER of waste heat drying system which shown the average value of 2.492 kg/kWh. In the case of drying clothes, waste heat drying of RAC shows a better performance in comparison with heat pump drying system.

  2. Using soil moisture forecasts for sub-seasonal summer temperature predictions in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, René; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2014-12-01

    Soil moisture exhibits outstanding memory characteristics and plays a key role within the climate system. Especially through its impacts on the evapotranspiration of soils and plants, it may influence the land energy balance and therefore surface temperature. These attributes make soil moisture an important variable in the context of weather and climate forecasting. In this study we investigate the value of (initial) soil moisture information for sub-seasonal temperature forecasts. For this purpose we employ a simple water balance model to infer soil moisture from streamflow observations in 400 catchments across Europe. Running this model with forecasted atmospheric forcing, we derive soil moisture forecasts, which we then translate into temperature forecasts using simple linear relationships. The resulting temperature forecasts show skill beyond climatology up to 2 weeks in most of the considered catchments. Even if forecasting skills are rather small at longer lead times with significant skill only in some catchments at lead times of 3 and 4 weeks, this soil moisture-based approach shows local improvements compared to the monthly European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) temperature forecasts at these lead times. For both products (soil moisture-only forecast and ECMWF forecast), we find comparable or better forecast performance in the case of extreme events, especially at long lead times. Even though a product based on soil moisture information alone is not of practical relevance, our results indicate that soil moisture (memory) is a potentially valuable contributor to temperature forecast skill. Investigating the underlying soil moisture of the ECMWF forecasts we find good agreement with the simple model forecasts, especially at longer lead times. Analyzing the drivers of the temperature forecast skills we find that they are mainly controlled by the strengths of (1) the soil moisture-temperature coupling and (2) the soil moisture memory. We

  3. Physique and motor performance characteristics of US national rugby players.

    PubMed

    Carlson, B R; Carter, J E; Patterson, P; Petti, K; Orfanos, S M; Noffal, G J

    1994-08-01

    Anthropometric and performance data were collected on 65 US rugby players (mean age = 26.3 years) to make comparison on these characteristics by player position and performance level. Anthropometry included stature, body mass, nine skinfolds, two girths and two bone breadths. Skinfold patterns, estimated percent fat and Heath-Carter somatotypes were calculated from anthropometry. Motor performance measures included standing vertical jump, 40 yard dash, 110 yard dash, shuttle run, repeated jump in place, push-up, sit-up and squat thrust. Descriptive statistics were used for the total sample as well as selected sub-groups. Discriminant function analyses were employed to determine which combination of variables best discriminated between position and level of performance for the anthropometric and performance data. The results indicated that forwards were taller, heavier and had more subcutaneous adiposity than backs. Additionally, forwards and backs differed in somatotypes, with forwards being more endo-mesomorphic than backs and with a greater scatter about their mean. The anthropometric variables that best discriminated between backs and forwards were body mass, femur breadth and arm girth, with 88% correctly classified using these variables. The motor performance variables that best discriminated between backs and forwards were repeated jump in place, push-up and standing vertical jump, with 76% correct classification using these variables. Classification into three playing levels was unsatisfactory using either anthropometric or motor performance variables. These data can be used to assess present status and change in players, or potential national players, by position to locate strengths and weaknesses.

  4. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Rui; Ismail, Tamer M.; Ren, Xiaohan; Abd El-Salam, M.

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW.

  5. Drought monitoring using downscaled soil moisture through machine learning approaches over North and South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Im, J.; Rhee, J.; Park, S.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is one of the most important key variables for drought monitoring. It reflects hydrological and agricultural processes because soil moisture is a function of precipitation and energy flux and crop yield is highly related to soil moisture. Many satellites including Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity sensor (SMOS), and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) provide global scale soil moisture products through microwave sensors. However, as the spatial resolution of soil moisture products is typically tens of kilometers, it is difficult to monitor drought using soil moisture at local or regional scale. In this study, AMSR-E and AMSR2 soil moisture were downscaled up to 1 km spatial resolution using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data—Evapotranspiration, Land Surface Temperature, Leaf Area Index, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index and Albedo—through machine learning approaches over Korean peninsula. To monitor drought from 2003 to 2014, each pixel of the downscaled soil moisture was scaled from 0 to 1 (1 is the wettest and 0 is the driest). The soil moisture based drought maps were validated using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and crop yield data. Spatial distribution of drought status was also compared with other drought indices such as Scaled Drought Condition Index (SDCI). Machine learning approaches were performed well (R=0.905) for downscaling. Downscaled soil moisture was validated using in situ Asia flux data. The Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) improved from 0.172 (25 km AMSR2) to 0.065 (downscaled soil moisture). The correlation coefficients improved from 0.201 (25 km AMSR2) to 0.341 (downscaled soil moisture). The soil moisture based drought maps and SDCI showed similar spatial distribution that caught both extreme drought and no drought. Since the proposed drought monitoring approach based on the downscaled

  6. Characteristics and Performance of Existing Load Disaggregation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Butner, Ryan S.; Hao, He; Baechler, Michael C.

    2015-04-10

    Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) or non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is an analytic approach to disaggregate building loads based on a single metering point. This advanced load monitoring and disaggregation technique has the potential to provide an alternative solution to high-priced traditional sub-metering and enable innovative approaches for energy conservation, energy efficiency, and demand response. However, since the inception of the concept in the 1980’s, evaluations of these technologies have focused on reporting performance accuracy without investigating sources of inaccuracies or fully understanding and articulating the meaning of the metrics used to quantify performance. As a result, the market for, as well as, advances in these technologies have been slowly maturing.To improve the market for these NILM technologies, there has to be confidence that the deployment will lead to benefits. In reality, every end-user and application that this technology may enable does not require the highest levels of performance accuracy to produce benefits. Also, there are other important characteristics that need to be considered, which may affect the appeal of NILM products to certain market targets (i.e. residential and commercial building consumers) and the suitability for particular applications. These characteristics include the following: 1) ease of use, the level of expertise/bandwidth required to properly use the product; 2) ease of installation, the level of expertise required to install along with hardware needs that impact product cost; and 3) ability to inform decisions and actions, whether the energy outputs received by end-users (e.g. third party applications, residential users, building operators, etc.) empower decisions and actions to be taken at time frames required for certain applications. Therefore, stakeholders, researchers, and other interested parties should be kept abreast of the evolving capabilities, uses, and characteristics

  7. Anthropometrics, Physical Performance, and Injury Characteristics of Youth American Football

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Shane V.; Ausborn, Ashley; Diao, Guoqing; Johnson, David C.; Johnson, Timothy S.; Atkins, Rickie; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Cortes, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior research has described the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional, collegiate, and high school American football players. Yet, little research has described these factors in American youth football and their potential relationship with injury. Purpose: To characterize anthropometric and physical performance measures, describe the epidemiology of injury, and examine the association of physical performance measures with injury among children participating within age-based divisions of a large metropolitan American youth football league. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance characteristics and injuries of 819 male children were collected over a 2-year period (2011-2012). Injury data were collected by the league athletic trainer (AT) and coaches. Descriptive analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance measures (40-yard sprint, pro-agility, push-ups, and vertical jump) were conducted. Incidence rates were computed for all reported injuries; rates were calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify whether the categories of no injury, no-time-loss (NTL) injury, and time-loss (TL) injury were associated with physical performance measures. Results: Of the 819 original participants, 760 (92.8%) completed preseason anthropometric measures (mean ± SD: age, 11.8 ± 1.2 years; height, 157.4 ± 10.7 cm; weight, 48.7 ± 13.3 kg; experience, 2.0 ± 1.8 years); 640 (78.1%) players completed physical performance measures. The mean (±SD) 40-yard sprint and pro-agility measures of the players were 6.5 ± 0.6 and 5.7 ± 0.5 seconds, respectively; the number of push-ups and maximal vertical jump height were 16.5 ± 9.3 repetitions and 42.3 ± 8.4 cm, respectively. Players assigned to different teams within age divisions demonstrated no differences in

  8. Soil Moisture Prediction in the Soil, Vegetation and Snow (SVS) Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi, Nasim; Bélair, Stéphane; Fortin, Vincent; Zhang, Shunli; Husain, Syed; Carrera, Marco; Abrahamowicz, Maria

    2016-04-01

    A new land surface scheme has been developed at Environment of Canada to provide surface fluxes of momentum, heat and moisture for the Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) atmospheric model. In this study, the performance of the soil, vegetation and snow (SVS) scheme in estimating surface and root-zone soil moisture is evaluated against the ISBA (Interactions between Surface, Biosphere, and Atmosphere) scheme currently used operationally within GEM for numerical weather prediction. In addition, the sensitivity of SVS soil moisture results to soil texture and vegetation data sources (type and fractional coverage) has been explored. The performance of SVS and ISBA was assessed against a large set of in situ as well as brightness temperature data from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite over North America. The results indicate that SVS estimates the time evolution of soil moisture more accurately, and compared to ISBA results in higher correlations with observations and reduced errors. The sensitivity tests carried out during this study revealed that SVS soil moisture results are not affected significantly by the soil texture data from different sources. The vegetation data source, however, has a major impact on the soil moisture results predicted by SVS, and accurate specification of vegetation characteristics is crucial for accurate soil moisture prediction.

  9. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui; Ismail, Tamer M; Ren, Xiaohan; Abd El-Salam, M

    2015-05-01

    In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k-ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance Characteristic Mems-Based IMUs for UAVs Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, H. A.; Hansen, J. M.; Elhabiby, M. M.; El-Sheimy, N.; Sesay, A. B.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate 3D reconstruction has become essential for non-traditional mapping applications such as urban planning, mining industry, environmental monitoring, navigation, surveillance, pipeline inspection, infrastructure monitoring, landslide hazard analysis, indoor localization, and military simulation. The needs of these applications cannot be satisfied by traditional mapping, which is based on dedicated data acquisition systems designed for mapping purposes. Recent advances in hardware and software development have made it possible to conduct accurate 3D mapping without using costly and high-end data acquisition systems. Low-cost digital cameras, laser scanners, and navigation systems can provide accurate mapping if they are properly integrated at the hardware and software levels. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are emerging as a mobile mapping platform that can provide additional economical and practical advantages. However, such economical and practical requirements need navigation systems that can provide uninterrupted navigation solution. Hence, testing the performance characteristics of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) or low cost navigation sensors for various UAV applications is important research. This work focuses on studying the performance characteristics under different manoeuvres using inertial measurements integrated with single point positioning, Real-Time-Kinematic (RTK), and additional navigational aiding sensors. Furthermore, the performance of the inertial sensors is tested during Global Positioning System (GPS) signal outage.

  11. Performance characteristics of CdTe drift ring detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alruhaili, A.; Sellin, P. J.; Lohstroh, A.; Veeramani, P.; Kazemi, S.; Veale, M. C.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Kachkanov, V.

    2014-03-01

    CdTe and CdZnTe material is an excellent candidate for the fabrication of high energy X-ray spectroscopic detectors due to their good quantum efficiency and room temperature operation. The main material limitation is associated with the poor charge transport properties of holes. The motivation of this work is to investigate the performance characteristics of a detector fabricated with a drift ring geometry that is insensitive to the transport of holes. The performance of a prototype Ohmic CdTe drift ring detector fabricated by Acrorad with 3 drift rings is reported; measurements include room temperature current voltage characteristics (IV) and spectroscopic performance. The data shows that the energy resolution of the detector is limited by leakage current which is a combination of bulk and surface leakage currents. The energy resolution was studied as a function of incident X-ray position with an X-ray microbeam at the Diamond Light Source. Different ring biasing schemes were investigated and the results show that by increasing the lateral field (i.e. the bias gradient across the rings) the active area, evaluated by the detected count rate, increased significantly.

  12. The impact of green roof ageing on substrate characteristics and hydrological performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De-Ville, Simon; Menon, Manoj; Jia, Xiaodong; Reed, George; Stovin, Virginia

    2017-04-01

    Green roofs contribute to stormwater management through the retention of rainfall and the detention of runoff. However, there is very limited knowledge concerning the evolution of green roof hydrological performance with system age. This study presents a non-invasive technique which allows for repeatable determination of key substrate characteristics over time, and evaluates the impact of observed substrate changes on hydrological performance. The physical properties of 12 green roof substrate cores have been evaluated using non-invasive X-ray microtomography (XMT) imaging. The cores comprised three replicates of two contrasting substrate types at two different ages: unused virgin samples; and 5-year-old samples from existing green roof test beds. Whilst significant structural differences (density, pore and particle sizes, tortuosity) between virgin and aged samples of a crushed brick substrate were observed, these differences did not significantly affect hydrological characteristics (maximum water holding capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity). A contrasting substrate based upon a light expanded clay aggregate experienced increases in the number of fine particles and pores over time, which led to increases in maximum water holding capacity of 7%. In both substrates, the saturated hydraulic conductivity estimated from the XMT images was lower in aged compared with virgin samples. Comparisons between physically-derived and XMT-derived substrate hydrological properties showed that similar values and trends in the data were identified, confirming the suitability of the non-invasive XMT technique for monitoring changes in engineered substrates over time. The observed effects of ageing on hydrological performance were modelled as two distinct hydrological processes, retention and detention. Retention performance was determined via a moisture-flux model using physically-derived values of virgin and aged maximum water holding capacity. Increased water holding

  13. An Evaluation of Performance Characteristics of Primary Display Devices.

    PubMed

    Ekpo, Ernest U; McEntee, Mark F

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to complete a full evaluation of the new EIZO RX850 liquid crystal display and compare it to two currently used medical displays in Australia (EIZO GS510 and Barco MDCG 5121). The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 18 Quality Control test pattern was used to assess the performance of three high-resolution primary medical displays: EIZO RX850, EIZO GS510, and Barco MDCG 5121. A Konica Minolta spectroradiometer (CS-2000) was used to assess luminance response, non-uniformity, veiling glare, and color uniformity. Qualitative evaluation of noise was also performed. Seven breast lesions were displayed on each monitor and photographed with a calibrated 5.5-MP Olympus E-1 digital SLR camera. ImageJ software was used to sample pixel information from each lesion and surrounding background to calculate their conspicuity index on each of the displays. All monitor fulfilled all AAPM acceptance criteria. The performance characteristics for EIZO RX850, Barco MDCG 5121, and EIZO GS510 respectively were as follows: maximum luminance (490, 500.5, and 413 cd/m(2)), minimum luminance (0.724, 1.170, and 0.92 cd/m(2)), contrast ratio (675:1, 428:1, 449:1), just-noticeable difference index (635, 622, 609), non-uniformity (20, 5.92, and 8.5 %), veiling glare (GR = 2465.6, 720.4, 1249.8), and color uniformity (Δu'v' = +0.003, +0.002, +0.002). All monitors demonstrated low noise levels. The conspicuity index (χ) of the lesions was slightly higher in the EIZO RX850 display. All medical displays fulfilled AAPM performance criteria, and performance characteristics of EIZO RX850 are equal to or better than those of the Barco MDCG 5121 and EIZO GS510 displays.

  14. Performance characteristics of the Cray X1 and their implicationsfor application performance tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Hogzhang; Strohmaier, Erich

    2004-05-11

    During the last decade the scientific computing community has optimized many applications for execution on superscalar computing platforms. The recent arrival of the Japanese Earth Simulator has revived interest in vector architectures especially in the US. It is important to examine how to port our current scientific applications to the new vector platforms and how to achieve high performance. The success of porting these applications will also influence the acceptance of new vector architectures. In this paper, we first investigate the memory performance characteristics of the Cray X1, a recently released vector platform, and determine the most influential performance factors. Then, we examine how to optimize applications tuned on superscalar platforms for the Cray X1 using its performance characteristics as guidelines. Finally, we evaluate the different types of optimizations used, the effort for their implementations, and whether they provide any performance benefits when ported back to superscalar platforms.

  15. Breeder design for enhanced performance and safety characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G J; Atefi, B; Yang, J W; Galperin, A; Segev, M

    1980-01-01

    A fast breeder reactor design has been created which offers a considerably extended fuel cycle and excellent performance characteristics. An example of a core designed to operate on a ten-year fuel cycle is described in some detail. Use of metal fuel along with a moderator such as beryllium oxide dispersed throughout the core provides both design flexibility and safety advantages such as a strong Doppler feedback and limited sodium void reactivity gain. Local power variations are small for the entire cycle; control requirements are also modest, and fuel cycle costs are low.

  16. Performance characteristics of the DIII-D advanced divertor cryopump

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.M.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Baxi, C.B.; Campbell, G.L.; Holtrop, K.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; Laughon, G.J.; Makariou, C.C.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Reis, E.E.; Schaffer, M.J.; Schaubel, K.M.; Scoville, J.T.; Smith, J.P.; Stambaugh, R.D.

    1993-10-01

    A cryocondensation pump, cooled by forced flow of two-phase helium, has been installed for particle exhaust from the divertor region of the DIII-D tokamak. The Inconel pumping surface is of coaxial geometry, 25.4 mm in outer diameter and 11.65 m in length. Because of the tokamak environment, the pump is designed to perform under relatively high pulsed heat loads (300 Wm{sup {minus}2}). Results of measurements made on the pumping characteristics for D{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Ar are discussed.

  17. Performance Characteristics of Cylindrical Target-type Thrust Reversers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Fred W; Mcardle, Jack G

    1956-01-01

    From tests on cylindrical target-type thrust reversers, it was found that the reverser frontal area, lip angle, end-plate angle, and end-plate depth had important effects on reverse-thrust performance. Frontal area, reverser depth, lip angle, and end-plate angele had important effects on the spacing required for unrestricted nozzle flow. For reverse-thrust ratios greater than 64 percent, the reversed flow attached to the 7 degree cowl in quiescent air. Swept-type cylindrical reversers were generally unstable. The thrust-modulation characteristics of a cylindrical target-type thrust reverser were found to be satisfactory.

  18. Study of high SAR backscattering caused by an increase of soil moisture over a sparsely vegetated area: Implications for characteristics of backscattering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Meyer, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    We used interferometric methods on a pair of repeat-pass ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to study soil moisture changes over sparsely vegetated targets. The intensity of the SAR image acquired at one time was higher than that of an image acquired at an earlier time. We used a correlation image computed from the SAR image pair to study the cause of the observed changes in SAR intensity. Because a reduction of correlation over areas with intensity changes was not observed, we interpreted the intensity changes as not being caused by changes in roughness/structure, but by a change in soil moisture owing to rainfall. An increase in soil moisture ranging from 5% to 20% is the most likely explanation for the increase of intensity. These analyses imply that both intensity and phase information should be used in SAR change detection applications.

  19. Internal performance characteristics of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Milton

    1995-01-01

    A series of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles were designed and experimentally tested for internal performance and pumping characteristics at the Langley research center. This study indicated that discontinuities in the performance occurred at low primary nozzle pressure ratios and that these discontinuities were mitigated by decreasing expansion area ratio. The addition of secondary flow increased the performance of the nozzles. The mid-to-high range of secondary flow provided the most overall improvements, and the greatest improvements were seen for the largest ejector area ratio. Thrust vectoring the ejector nozzles caused a reduction in performance and discharge coefficient. With or without secondary flow, the vectored ejector nozzles produced thrust vector angles that were equivalent to or greater than the geometric turning angle. With or without secondary flow, spacing ratio (ejector passage symmetry) had little effect on performance (gross thrust ratio), discharge coefficient, or thrust vector angle. For the unvectored ejectors, a small amount of secondary flow was sufficient to reduce the pressure levels on the shroud to provide cooling, but for the vectored ejector nozzles, a larger amount of secondary air was required to reduce the pressure levels to provide cooling.

  20. Characteristics and Thermal Behaviour of Low Rank Malaysian Coals towards Liquefaction Performance via Thermogravimetric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, M. A. M.; Ismail, K.; Nawawi, W. I.; Jawad, A. H.; Abdullah, M. F.; Kasim, M. N.; Ani, A. Y.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, thermal behaviour of two low-rank Malaysian coals namely Mukah Balingian (MB) and Batu Arang (BA) were obtained under pyrolysis conditions via Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at a heating rate of 20°C min-1. The thermal characteristics of the coals were investigated prior to direct liquefaction in order to determine the liquefaction performance, i.e. coal conversion and oil yield. The differential weight loss (DTG) results for both coals showed that there are three main stages evolved which consists of moisture, volatile matter and heavier hydrocarbons that correspond to temperature range of 150, 200-500 and 550-800°C, respectively. Apparently, the DTG curves of BA coal reveals a similar pattern of thermal evolution profile in comparison to that of the MB coal. However, the calculated mean reactivity of BA coal is higher than that of MB, which implied that BA would probably enhance coal conversion and oil yield in comparison to MB coal. Interestingly, results showed that under the same liquefaction conditions (i.e. at 4MPa pressure and 420°C), conversion and oil yield of both coals were well correlated with their reactivity and petrofactor value obtained.

  1. High performance liquid chromatography characteristic spectrum of artificial musk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Xiao, Xuan; Zhang, Nan-Ping; Xiao, Xin-Yue; Zhang, Shu; Wei, Feng; Yu, De-Quan

    2014-12-01

    To determine the high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)characteristic spectrum of artificial musk. HPLC was performed on a HiQ Sil C18 analytical column(4.6 mm×250 mm)with the mobile phase of methanol/water(90:10 v/v);the detection wavelength was 254 nm and the column temperature was maintained at 25 ℃. The similarities among 10 batches of artificial musk samples were anlysised in accordance with the System for Evaluating the Similarities among the Chromatographic Fingerprints of Traditional Chinese Drugs,which is recommended by Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission. The similarities among these 10 batches of artificial musk ranged between 0.999 and 1.000. HPLC is a convenient,accurate and reliable technique for establishing the specific spectum of artificial musk and therefore can be used for the quality control of this product.

  2. Characteristics and Applications of a High Performance, Miniaturized, Infrasound Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothman, J. L.; Marriott, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Infrasound Sensors have been used for many years to monitor a large number of geophysical phenomena and manmade sources. Due to their large size and power consumption these sensors have typically been deployed in fixed arrays, portable arrays have required trucks to transport the sensors and support equipment. A high performance, miniaturized, infrasound microphone has been developed to enable mobile infrasound measurements that would otherwise be impractical. The new device is slightly larger than a hockey puck, weighs 200g, and consumes less than 150mW. The sensitivity is 0.4V/Pa and self noise at 1Hz is less than 0.63μPa²/Hz. The characteristics were verified using a calibrator tracable to the Los Alamos calibration chamber. Field tests have demonstrated the performance is comparable to a Chaparral model 25. Applications include man portable arrays, mobile installations, and UAV based measurements.

  3. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  4. Internal performance characteristics of vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Milton

    1993-01-01

    A series of vectoring axisymmetric ejector nozzles were designed and experimentally tested for internal performance and pumping characteristics at NASA-Langley Research Center. These ejector nozzles used convergent-divergent nozzles as the primary nozzles. The model geometric variables investigated were primary nozzle throat area, primary nozzle expansion ratio, effective ejector expansion ratio (ratio of shroud exit area to primary nozzle throat area), ratio of minimum ejector area to primary nozzle throat area, ratio of ejector upper slot height to lower slot height (measured on the vertical centerline), and thrust vector angle. The primary nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to 10.0 depending upon primary nozzle throat area. The corrected ejector-to-primary nozzle weight-flow ratio was varied from 0 (no secondary flow) to approximately 0.21 (21 percent of primary weight-flow rate) depending on ejector nozzle configuration. In addition to the internal performance and pumping characteristics, static pressures were obtained on the shroud walls.

  5. The performance characteristics of a piezoelectric ultrasonic dental scaler.

    PubMed

    Pecheva, E; Sammons, R L; Walmsley, A D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the performance characteristics of a piezoelectric ultrasonic dental scaler using scanning laser vibrometry. The vibration characteristics of three standard piezoelectric tips were assessed with scanning laser vibrometry under various conditions: unconstrained, under a stream of flowing water, in a water tank, as well as subjected to loads to simulate clinical conditions. Subsequently, the tips were used to disrupt an in-vitro biofilm model of dental plaque, developed using a non-pathogenic Gram-negative species of Serratia (NCIMB40259). The laser vibrometry data showed that the oscillation pattern of the ultrasonic tip depends primarily on its shape and design, as well as on the generator power. Thin tips and high power settings induce the highest vibrations. Water irrigation of the tip and loads influence the tip performance by diminishing its vibration, while water volume increases it. Serratia biofilm was disrupted by the cavitation bubbles occurring around the scaler tip. The most effective biofilm removal occurred with the thinner tip. Understanding how the ultrasonic tip oscillates when in use and how it removes dental plaque is essential for gaining more knowledge regarding the cleaning mechanisms of the ultrasonic system. Cavitation may be used to remove plaque and calculus without a mechanical contact between the dental tip and the teeth. Better knowledge would enable dental specialists to understand and improve their techniques during routine cleaning of teeth. It will also lead to improving tip design and to the production of more effective instruments for clinical use.

  6. The responses of the quantitative characteristics of a ramet population of the ephemeroid rhizomatous sedge Carex physodes to the moisture content of the soil in various locations on sand dunes.

    PubMed

    Abudureheman, Buhailiqiemu; Liu, Huiliang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Guan, Kaiyun; Zhang, Yongkuan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the soil moisture content was measured, and the quantitative characteristics of this sedge species were compared. The phenotypic plasticity of each parameter and the linear regression relationships were analyzed. The results showed that the soil moisture content was significantly affected by location, soil depth, and sampling date. The aboveground biomass, underground biomass, biomass density, and population density at the peak were significantly higher than elsewhere on the dune. However, the morphological plasticity index of the quantitative characteristics was higher at the base and middle of the dune. When the soil moisture content decreased, the underground biomass and ramet biomass density increased. The aboveground and underground biomasses were strongly negatively correlated, but the ramet height and aboveground biomass were strongly positively correlated. These results indicated that the soil water content significantly affected the clonal growth of C. physodes. The responsiveness of C. physodes may be adaptive when the soil resource supply is low. The strong morphological plasticity of the species appears to be ecologically important for the maintenance and dominance of this species in the dune habitat.

  7. Performance characteristics of volleyball players with patellar tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lian, Øystein; Refsnes, Per-Egil; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald

    2003-01-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is assumed to result from chronic tendon overload. There may be a relationship between tendon pain and jumping ability. There is no difference in performance characteristics between volleyball players with patellar tendinopathy and those without. Prospective cohort study. We examined the performance of the leg extensor apparatus in high-level male volleyball players with patellar tendinopathy (N = 24) compared with a control group (N = 23) without knee symptoms. The testing program consisted of different jump tests with and without added load, and a composite jump score was calculated to reflect overall performance. The groups were similar in age, height, and playing experience, but the patellar tendinopathy group did more specific strength training and had greater body weight. They scored significantly higher than the control group on the composite jump score (50.3 versus 39.2), and significant differences were also observed for work done in the drop-jump and average force and power in the standing jumps with half- and full-body weight loads. Greater body weight, more weight training, and better jumping performance may increase susceptibility to patellar tendinopathy in volleyball players.

  8. Change in color and other fruit quality characteristics of tomato cultivars after hot-air drying at low final-moisture content.

    PubMed

    Ashebir, Dereje; Jezik, Karoline; Weingartemann, Herbert; Gretzmacher, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the drying quality of three tomato cultivars (Amoroso, Berlinto and Messina) at low final-moisture content. Tomatoes were cut into slices and hot-air-dried from 92% (wet basis) to 12% final moisture content at 55 degrees C, 65 degrees C and 75 degrees C at 1.5 m/sec air flow. Color, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) and ascorbic acid (AA) content were measured in both fresh and dried tomatoes. Brightness of the dried tomato slices was significantly decreased, while intensity of the red and yellow colors and brightness of the red color (a*/b*) increased. Low overall color change (DeltaE) was obtained at the lowest drying temperature (55 degrees C). Messina and Amoroso showed a higher a* value and lower DeltaE, respectively. The TSS content was increased, while the TA and AA contents were decreased through drying. This study shows that it is possible to hot-air dry tomato slices to a final moisture content of 12% maintaining quality that is comparable with studies where the final-moisture content was higher (15% or more).

  9. Predicting root zone soil moisture using surface data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfreda, S.; Brocca, L.; Moramarco, T.; Melone, F.; Sheffield, J.; Fiorentino, M.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, much effort has been given to monitoring of soil moisture from satellite remote sensing. These tools represent an extraordinary source of information for hydrological applications, but they only provide information on near-surface soil moisture. In the present work, we developed a new formulation for the estimation of the soil moisture in the root zone based on the measured value of soil moisture at the surface. The method derives from a simplified form of the soil water balance equation and for this reason all parameters adopted are physically consistent. The formulation provides a closed form of the relationship between the root zone soil moisture and the surface soil moisture with a limited number of parameters, such as: the ratio between the depth of the surface layer and the deeper layer, the water loss coefficient, and the field capacity. The method has been tested using modeled soil moisture obtained from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). The NLDAS is a multi-institution partnership aimed at developing a retrospective data set, using available atmospheric and land surface meteorological observations to compute the land surface hydrological budget. The NLDAS database was extremely useful for the scope of the present research since it provides simulated data over an extended area with different climatic and physical condition and moreover it provides soil moisture data averaged over different depths. In particular, we used values in the top 10 cm and 100 cm layers. One year of simulation was used to test the ability of the developed method to describe soil moisture fluctuation in the 100cm layer over the entire NLDAS domain. The method was adopted by calibrating one of its three parameters and defining the remaining two based on physical characteristics of the site (using the potential evapotranspiration and ratio between the first and the second soil layer depth). In general, the method performed better than

  10. Effect of phytase supplementation to diets varying in chloride level on performance, litter moisture, foot pad score, and gait score of growing turkeys.

    PubMed

    Farahat, M H; Abdel-Razik, W M; Hassanein, E I; Noll, S L

    2013-07-01

    Phytase was examined as a means to improve turkey performance in diets with high Cl by modifying dietary electrolyte balance. Nicholas turkey toms (10 poults/pen; 10 replicates per pen) were fed corn-soy-distillers dried grains with solubles-canola meal-based diets (DDGS/CM) with varying Cl (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, or 0.5%) and phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg of diet), making 8 treatments (4 × 2 factorial). A ninth treatment was a corn-soy based diet (CS) with 0.3% Cl and without phytase (positive control). The diets were formulated to contain similar AMEn and digestible amino acid levels for each of 5 feeding periods (2 to 5, 5 to 8, 8 to 11, 11 to 14, and 14 to 17 wk of age) and fed in mash form. Turkey BW, ADG, ADFI, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were determined for each pen along with litter moisture, foot pad, and gait scores. An ANOVA was conducted to determine the effects of Cl, phytase, and their interaction. Turkey BW, ADG, and ADFI decreased in a linear or curvilinear manner with increasing diet Cl (P < 05). At 17 wk of age, litter moisture and foot pad score showed a cubic trend with diet Cl (P < 0.05). Phytase improved FCR during 8 to 11 wk and increased litter moisture at 11 wk of age (P < 0.003). Phytase modified the FCR response to Cl during 2 to 5 and 14 to 17 wk of age at the 2 lowest levels of dietary Cl (P < 0.05). Turkeys fed CS had better BW and FCR through 17 wk of age compared with those receiving DDGS/CM at 0.3% Cl. Based on BW, minimum dietary electrolyte balance based on Na, K, and Cl was found to be 247, 217, 200, and 171 mEq/kg during 5 to 8, 8 to 11, 11 to 14, and 14 to 17 wk of age, respectively. The present findings emphasized the importance of considering Cl, phytase, and associated dietary electrolyte balance in turkey diets containing high levels of alternative byproducts.

  11. Effect of dietary corn dried distillers grains with solubles, canola meal, and chloride on electrolyte balance, growth performance, and litter moisture of growing turkeys.

    PubMed

    Farahat, M H; Hassanein, E I; Abdel-Razik, W M; Noll, S L

    2013-05-01

    A study determined if dietary corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), canola meal (CM), or chloride (Cl) could adversely affect the performance and litter moisture of turkeys. A total of 1,089 Nicholas toms were used in a study during 2 to 14 wk of age. The poults were randomized into 99 pens (11 poults/pen) with number reduced to 10/pen at 8 wk. The factorial arrangement consisted of 3 diet sets [corn-soy (CS), CS + 20% DDGS, CS + 20% DDGS + 10% canola meal] and 3 Cl levels (0.22, 0.32, 0.42%), making 9 treatments distributed in 11 replicate blocks. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric with similar levels of digestible amino acids for each of 4 feeding phases. The dietary electrolyte balance varied with diet set and age period and ranged from 351 to 181 mEq/kg of diet (Na(+) + K(+) - Cl(-)) or 184 to -29 mEq/kg (Na(+) + K(+)) - (Cl(-) + S(2-)). Individual BW and pen feed residues were measured at each phase. Samples of litter were collected at 11 and 14 wk for measuring moisture. During 2 to 14 wk, no differences were observed in BW and ADG attributable to diet (P < 0.05). Birds fed diets containing DDGS or with CM consumed 6.0% more ADFI (P > 0.05). No differences were found for Cl or diet × Cl interaction for BW, ADG, or ADFI. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was higher (P > 0.05) for birds fed diets containing DDGS or CM. A diet × Cl interaction was found for FCR during 8 to 14 wk; increasing Cl over 0.22% significantly increased the FCR by 3.0% only in diets containing DDGS with CM. Litter moisture was increased in diets containing DDGS or with CM, and by increased Cl. Including S in dietary electrolyte balance resulted in a better albeit weak correlation with ADG during 2 to 5 wk (-0.51 vs. -0.36) and FCR during 11 to 14 wk (-0.36 vs. -0.21). Due to the detrimental effect on FCR, high Cl should be avoided with DDGS and CM in turkey grower diets.

  12. The New Zealand rugby injury and performance project. III. Anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of players.

    PubMed Central

    Quarrie, K L; Handcock, P; Waller, A E; Chalmers, D J; Toomey, M J; Wilson, B D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of New Zealand rugby players of different ages and both sexes. METHODS: 356 rugby players (264 male, 92 female) took part in the study during a single season. Playing grade ranged from schoolboys and schoolgirls to senior men and women. Assessment of height, weight, neck circumference, and somatotype was performed before the competitive rugby season. A battery of six physical performance assessments was completed after the anthropometry. Analysis of variance was used to examine differences in these variables between field positions and grades. RESULTS: Significant differences between forwards and backs on anthropometric and physical performance variables were apparent at all grades assessed. In terms of anthropometric characteristics, forwards of a given grade were generally taller, possessed greater body mass, and were more endomorphic and less ectomorphic than backs of the same grade. The backs tended to perform better on physical performance measures than forwards, being more aerobically fit, faster, more agile, and possessing a higher degree of muscular endurance. Differences in anthropometry and physical performance attributes were also apparent between players from the various grades. The players at higher levels were generally larger, and performed better on tests of physical performance than the players at lower levels. These differences were found in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The greater body mass of the forwards allows them to obtain greater momentum than the backs when sprinting. The ability to obtain greater momentum is important in the body contact phases of the game. Forwards may compromise their aerobic fitness and speed to some extent in order to maintain a high body mass. The anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of players appear to reflect the demands placed on them by the sport. PMID:8808542

  13. Interaction of lipophilic moisturizers on stratum corneum lipid domains in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Caussin, J; Gooris, G S; Groenink, H W W; Wiechers, J W; Bouwstra, J A

    2007-01-01

    Dry skin symptoms such as scaling and itching are often treated with lipophilic moisturizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lipophilic moisturizers on the stratum corneum (SC) ultra-structure and lipid organization. Lipophilic moisturizers were applied on the forearms of 4 healthy volunteers for 3 h. Subsequently, the application sites were tape stripped, and selected tape strips prepared for Freeze Fracture Electron Microscopy (FFEM), a method to visualize the SC intercellular lipid parallel to the skin surface. To investigate the effect of lipid moisturizers on the lipid lamellae, isolated SC was pretreated with the lipophilic moisturizers for 24 h prior to performing small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD) measurements. Additionally, the lipid organization of mixtures prepared with ceramides, cholesterol, free fatty acids and lipophilic moisturizer in a 2:1:1:1 molar ratio were studied using SAXD. The FFEM data (in vivo) as well as the SAXD data (in vitro) show that the lipophilic moisturizers do not change the lipid lamellar organization in the SC. Addition of 20% m/m lipophilic moisturizer to the ceramide:cholesterol:free fatty acids mixture did not inhibit the formation of the long periodicity phase, the characteristic lamellar phase in the SC, even though there was clear evidence that two of the three moisturizers were at least partially incorporated in the long periodicity phase. Concluding, all findings suggest that the lipophilic moisturizers investigated in this study do not drastically change the lamellar organization of the SC intracellular lipid matrix, but that the moisturizers form separate domains in the SC, as was visualized by FFEM. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Moisture properties

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    Wood was designed by nature over millions of years to perform in a wet environment. The wood structure is formed in a water-saturated environment in the living tree, and the water in the living tree keeps the wood elastic and able to withstand environmental strain such as high wind loads. We cut down a tree, dry the wood, and mainly use it in its dry state. But wood in...

  15. Neuromuscular performance characteristics of open-wheel and rally drivers.

    PubMed

    Backman, Jani; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ylinen, Jari; Häkkinen, Arja; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate neuromuscular performance characteristics in open-wheel and rally drivers using the cross-sectional study design. The subjects (N = 28) consisted of experienced international-level open-wheel drivers (n = 9), experienced international-level rally drivers (n = 9) and a physically active nondriving male control group (n = 10). In 3 separate test sessions, speed, muscle strength, and endurance tests were performed. The rally drivers had higher (p < 0.05) grip, shoulder flexion, and ankle plantar flexion strength, as compared to the control group. The open-wheel drivers showed higher strengths (p < 0.05) than the controls in neck forces, grip, shoulder flexion, and leg extension. The rally drivers were stronger (p < 0.05) than the open-wheel drivers in grip, plantar flexion, and trunk extension forces, whereas the open-wheel drivers were stronger (p < 0.01) than the rally drivers in neck lateral flexions and extension forces. Thus, competitive long-term open-wheel and rally drivers differ specifically in neuromuscular performance. For practice, these findings suggest that rally drivers should concentrate on training hand, ankle, and trunk muscles, whereas open-wheel drivers should train neck muscles, especially, and all other muscle groups rather equally.

  16. Morphological characteristics and performance variables of women soccer players.

    PubMed

    Can, Filiz; Yilmaz, Ilker; Erden, Zafer

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe certain morphological characteristics of women soccer players and to examine aspects of training and performance. Twenty-two anthropometric sites were used in measurements of somatotype and body composition; flexibility, agility, anaerobic power, leg muscle power, and dynamic pulmonary functions were used as performance variables. Measurements were made on 17 professional athletes and 17 age-matched sedentary women who acted as controls. The women soccer players showed less fat content and less lean body mass than did the sedentary women. The mean somatotype for the soccer players was 3.07-3.55-2.43 and for the nonathletes was 3.57-3.35-2.90. Anaerobic power, leg muscle power, and agility in the athletes were higher than in the nonathletes, whereas no differences were found in flexibility and pulmonary functions (p > 0.05). The women soccer players showed more significantly mesomorphic, less endomorphic, least ectomorphic components and higher performance level than did the sedentary women.

  17. Performance Characteristics of a Vertical Axis Hydrokinetic Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailin, Benjamin; Flack, Karen; Lust, Ethan

    2016-11-01

    Performance characteristics are presented for a vertical axis hydrokinetic turbine designed for use in a riverine environment. The test turbine is a 1:6 scale model of a three-bladed device (9.5 m span, 6.5 m diameter) that has been proposed by the Department of Energy. Experiments are conducted in the large towing tank (116 m long, 7.9 m wide, 5 m deep) at the United States Naval Academy. The large scale facility allows for scale independent results. The turbine is towed beneath a moving carriage at a constant speed in combination with a shaft brake to achieve the desired tip speed ratio (TSR) range. The measured quantities of turbine thrust, torque and RPM result in power and thrust coefficients for a range of TSR. Results will be presented for cases with quiescent flow and flow with mild surface waves, representative of riverine environments.

  18. Distributed utility technology cost, performance, and environmental characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y; Adelman, S

    1995-06-01

    Distributed Utility (DU) is an emerging concept in which modular generation and storage technologies sited near customer loads in distribution systems and specifically targeted demand-side management programs are used to supplement conventional central station generation plants to meet customer energy service needs. Research has shown that implementation of the DU concept could provide substantial benefits to utilities. This report summarizes the cost, performance, and environmental and siting characteristics of existing and emerging modular generation and storage technologies that are applicable under the DU concept. It is intended to be a practical reference guide for utility planners and engineers seeking information on DU technology options. This work was funded by the Office of Utility Technologies of the US Department of Energy.

  19. Multispectral sensing of moisture stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, C. E., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Laboratory reflectance data, and field tests with multispectral remote sensors provide support for this hypotheses that differences in moisture content and water deficits are closely related to foliar reflectance from woody plants. When these relationships are taken into account, automatic recognition techniques become more powerful than when they are ignored. Evidence is increasing that moisture relationships inside plant foliage are much more closely related to foliar reflectance characteristics than are external variables such as soil moisture, wind, and air temperature. Short term changes in water deficits seem to have little influence on foliar reflectance, however. This is in distinct contrast to significant short-term changes in foliar emittance from the same plants with changing wind, air temperature, incident radiation, or water deficit conditions.

  20. Performance of AMSR_E soil moisture data assimilation in CLM4.5 model for monitoring hydrologic fluxes at global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Di; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the performance of community land surface model (CLM4.5) to simulate the hydrologic fluxes, such as, soil moisture (SM), evapotranspiration (ET) and runoff with (without) remote sensing data assimilation. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR_E) daily SM (both ascending and descending) are incorporated into the CLM4.5 model using data assimilation (DA) technique. The GLDAS data is used to validate the AMSR_E SM data and evaluate the performance of CLM4.5 simulations. The AMSR_E SM data are rescaled to meet the resolution of CLM4.5 model. By assimilating the AMSR_E SM data into the CLM4.5 model can improve the SM simulations, especially over the climate transition zones in Africa, East Australia, South South America, Southeast Asia, and East North America in summer season. The Local Ensemble Kalman Filter (LEnKF) technique improves the performance of CLM4.5 model compared to the directly substituted method. The improvement in ET and surface runoff simulations from CLM4.5 model assimilated with AMSR_E SM data shares similar spatial patterns with SM.

  1. Estimating Soil Moisture from Satellite Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, M.; VandeGriend, A. A.; deJeu, R.; deVries, J.; Seyhan, E.

    1998-01-01

    and used to derive the one-way canopy transmissivity. Using a simple radiative transfer model, this information was combined with horizontally polarized 6.6 GHz SMMR observations to derive a 9-year time series of soil moisture for all of Spain at a one quarter degree spatial scale. Both day and night SMMR observations were used independently, in order to check the consistency of the results. A first order Fourier Transform was performed on the mean monthly soil moisture values to identify major characteristics of time series such as trend, amplitude, and phase shift.

  2. Estimating Soil Moisture from Satellite Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, M.; VandeGriend, A. A.; deJeu, R.; deVries, J.; Seyhan, E.

    1998-01-01

    and used to derive the one-way canopy transmissivity. Using a simple radiative transfer model, this information was combined with horizontally polarized 6.6 GHz SMMR observations to derive a 9-year time series of soil moisture for all of Spain at a one quarter degree spatial scale. Both day and night SMMR observations were used independently, in order to check the consistency of the results. A first order Fourier Transform was performed on the mean monthly soil moisture values to identify major characteristics of time series such as trend, amplitude, and phase shift.

  3. Transonic Performance Characteristics of Several Jet Noise Suppressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmeer, James W.; Salters, Leland B., Jr.; Cassetti, Marlowe D.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation of the transonic performance characteristics of several noise-suppressor configurations has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. The models were tested statically and over a Mach number range from 0.70 to 1.05 at an angle of attack of 0 deg. The primary jet total-pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to about 4.5. The effect of secondary air flow on the performance of two of the configurations was investigated. A hydrogen peroxide turbojet-engine simulator was used to supply the hot-jet exhaust. An 8-lobe afterbody with centerbody, short shroud, and secondary air had the highest thrust-minus-drag coefficients of the six noise-suppressor configurations tested. The 12-tube and 12-lobe afterbodies had the lowest internal losses. The presence of an ejector shroud partially shields the external pressure distribution of the 8-lobe after-body from the influence of the primary jet. A ring-airfoil shroud increased the static thrust of the annular nozzle but generally decreased the thrust minus drag at transonic Mach numbers.

  4. Organizational Characteristics Associated With Fundraising Performance of Nonprofit Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Cathleen Owens; Landry, Amy Yarbrough

    2015-01-01

    Fundraising has become increasingly important to nonprofit hospitals as access to capital has grown more difficult and reimbursement for services more complex. This study analyzes the variation in organizational characteristics and fundraising performance among nonprofit acute care hospitals in the United States to identify and measure critical factors related to one key fundraising performance indicator: public support. Results indicate that the presence of an endowment, along with its value, investments in fundraising, and the geographic location of the organization, account for approximately 46% of variance in public support among nonprofit hospitals. The use of a separate foundation for the fundraising operation is not necessarily associated with measures of fundraising success; however, a majority of hospitals do use a foundation, signaling a strategic choice that may be made for numerous reasons. The study results and limitations are discussed and recommendations are made for maximizing the effectiveness of the fundraising enterprise within nonprofit hospitals. Increasing awareness of challenges associated with fundraising success will enhance the strategic management of fundraising operations by hospital executives and board members.

  5. Physical and performance characteristics of successful high school football players.

    PubMed

    Williford, H N; Kirkpatrick, J; Scharff-Olson, M; Blessing, D L; Wang, N Z

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the performance and physiologic characteristics of a "successful" American high school football team, and to compare the present values with values reported for other groups of high school, college, and professional players. For descriptive purposes, players were divided into two groups: backs (N = 8) and linemen (N = 10). Maximal aerobic power (VO2max) was determined from a maximal treadmill test, and body composition was evaluated by hydrostatic weighing. Maximal strength values were evaluated by one-repetition maximum bench press and squat test; the sit-and-reach test was used to measure flexibility. Speed and power were evaluated by a vertical jump and a 36.6-meter sprint. Results indicate that compared with other groups of college and professional players, as the level of competition increases so do height, weight, and fat-free weight of the players. Similar maximum oxygen consumption values were found for the present group when compared with other groups of these players. From the strength and power standpoint, football players at all levels are becoming stronger. Incorporation of strength training programs has greatly improved strength and performance profiles of football players at all levels of competition.

  6. Performance characteristics of an MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic) pilot plant electrostatic precipitator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, J. S.; Jang, P. R.; Okhuysen, W. P.; Holt, J. K.

    In magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation, a seed material, normally K2CO3, is added to enhance the conductivity of the coal-fired gas stream. The plasma is passed through a magnetic field and electricity is produced by the Hall effect. Future large scale MHD facilities are expected to be more efficient than conventional coal-fired power plants not only because of the dc electricity produced but also from increased heat recovery owing to the large (3000 K) combustion temperatures employed. There is; however, a finite cost for the seed material and the resulting K2SO4 particles (SO2 emissions are minimized by combination with seed potassium) must be collected, converted back to K2CO3 or KCO2H, and recycled back to the combustor. The performance characteristics of the MHD electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are therefore, of interest. We describe Mie scattering and electric field measurements on an MHD pilot scale ESP located at the Coal Fire Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute. Results are reported for the determination of near-real-time collection efficiencies, the variation of the ESP performance with seed percentage, and initial studies on the extent of particle re-entrainment.

  7. Radio frequency plasma power dependence of the moisture permeation barrier characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Hyunsoo; Choi, Hagyoung; Lee, Sanghun; Jeon, Heeyoung; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2013-11-07

    In the present study, we investigated the gas and moisture permeation barrier properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethersulfone films (PES) by capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) type Remote Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition (RPALD) at Radio Frequency (RF) plasma powers ranging from 100 W to 400 W in 100 W increments using Trimethylaluminum [TMA, Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] as the Al source and O{sub 2} plasma as the reactant. To study the gas and moisture permeation barrier properties of 100-nm-thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at various plasma powers, the Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) was measured using an electrical Ca degradation test. WVTR decreased as plasma power increased with WVTR values for 400 W and 100 W of 2.6 × 10{sup −4} gm{sup −2}day{sup −1} and 1.2 × 10{sup −3} gm{sup −2}day{sup −1}, respectively. The trends for life time, Al-O and O-H bond, density, and stoichiometry were similar to that of WVTR with improvement associated with increasing plasma power. Further, among plasma power ranging from 100 W to 400 W, the highest power of 400 W resulted in the best moisture permeation barrier properties. This result was attributed to differences in volume and amount of ion and radical fluxes, to join the ALD process, generated by O{sub 2} plasma as the plasma power changed during ALD process, which was determined using a plasma diagnosis technique called the Floating Harmonic Method (FHM). Plasma diagnosis by FHM revealed an increase in ion flux with increasing plasma power. With respect to the ALD process, our results indicated that higher plasma power generated increased ion and radical flux compared with lower plasma power. Thus, a higher plasma power provides the best gas and moisture permeation barrier properties.

  8. Evaluation of Contemporary Holmium Laser Fibers for Performance Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lusch, Achim; Heidari, Emon; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Osann, Kathryn; Landman, Jaime

    2016-05-01

    Several holmium:YAG laser fibers for urologic applications are currently commercially available. We compared contemporary holmium laser fibers with different core sizes for performance characteristics, including energy transmission, fiber failure, fiber flexibility, and core diameter. Single-use fibers from Cook, Boston Scientific, and Storz were tested in small (200 and 272/273 μm), medium (365 μm), and large (550 and 940/1000 μm) core sizes. Fibers were tested in straight and deflected configurations. All fibers were evaluated for flexibility, true fiber diameter, energy transmission, and fiber failure. For energy transmission, fibers were tested at a pulse energy of 1 J and a frequency of 10 Hz for 30 seconds. All tests were performed on a 30 W holmium laser. For the small core fibers, Storz, Cook OptiLite, and Smart Sync had the smallest core diameter (p < 0.005). In the large core group, Cook OptiLite and Boston Scientific AccuMax showed the smallest diameter. Among the small core fibers, Storz and Cook Smart Sync showed a significant higher deflection, whereas in the 550 μm group, Boston Scientific AccuMax and Cook Smart Sync were the most flexible fibers. In the large and medium core groups, Boston Scientific AccuMax showed superior energy transmission (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001, respectively), whereas in the small core group, there was no significant difference between the fibers, except for 272/3 μm (Storz was inferior compared with the competitors [p < 0.0005]). For fiber failure, Storz, Cook OptiLite, and BS AccuTrac completed all testing without failing (200 μm, bending radius <0.5 cm). In the 365 μm group, Cook OptiLite showed superior results, whereas in the large core group, Boston Scientific AccuMax was superior. Performance characteristics differ significantly between different laser fiber diameters and manufacturers, and fiber choice should depend on specific surgical requirements. There is a trend for less

  9. Performance and flow characteristics of MHD seawater thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    The main goal of the research is to investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the electrical and flow fields inside MHD thrusters. The results of this study is important in the assessment of the feasibility of MHD seawater propulsion for the Navy. To accomplish this goal a three-dimensional fluid flow computer model has been developed and applied to study the concept of MHD seawater propulsion. The effects of strong magnetic fields on the current and electric fields inside the MHD thruster and their interaction with the flow fields, particularly those in the boundary layers, have been investigated. The results of the three-dimensional computations indicate that the velocity profiles are flatter over the sidewalls of the thruster walls in comparison to the velocity profiles over the electrode walls. These nonuniformities in the flow fields give rise to nonuniform distribution of the skin friction along the walls of the thrusters, where higher values are predicted over the sidewalls relative to those over the electrode walls. Also, a parametric study has been performed using the three-dimensional MHD flow model to analyze the performance of continuous electrode seawater thrusters under different operating parameters. The effects of these parameters on the fluid flow characteristics, and on the thruster efficiency have been investigated. Those parameters include the magnetic field (10--20 T), thruster diameter, surface roughness, flow velocity, and the electric load factor. The results show also that the thruster performance improves with the strength of the magnetic field and thruster diameter, and the efficiency decreases with the flow velocity and surface roughness.

  10. Understanding Moisture and Carbon Dioxide Involved Interfacial Reactions on Electrochemical Performance of Lithium-Air Batteries Catalyzed by Gold/Manganese-Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoqing; Huang, Liliang; Liu, Shuangyu; Xie, Jian; Zhang, Shichao; Zhu, Peiyi; Cao, Gaoshao; Zhao, Xinbing

    2015-11-04

    Lithium-air (Li-air) battery works essentially based on the interfacial reaction of 2Li + O2 ↔ Li2O2 on the catalyst/oxygen-gas/electrolyte triphase interface. Operation of Li-air batteries in ambient air still remains a great challenge despite the recent development, because some side reactions related to moisture (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) will occur on the interface with the formation of some inert byproducts on the surface of the catalyst. In this work, we investigated the effect of H2O and CO2 on the electrochemical performance of Li-air batteries to evaluate the practical operation of the batteries in ambient air. The use of a highly efficient gold/δ-manganese-dioxide (Au/δ-MnO2) catalyst helps to understand the intrinsic mechanism of the effect. We found that H2O has a more detrimental influence than CO2 on the battery performance when operated in ambient air. The battery operated in simulated dry air can sustain a stable cycling up to 200 cycles at 400 mA g(-1) with a relatively low polarization, which is comparable with that operated in pure O2. This work provides a possible method to operate Li-air batteries in ambient air by using optimized catalytic electrodes with a protective layer, for example a hydrophobic membrane.

  11. A model of the 1.6 GHz scatterometer. [performance of airborne scatterometer used as microwave remote sensor of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The performance was studied of the 1.6 GHz airborne scatterometer system which is used as one of several Johnson Space Center (JSC) microwave remote sensors to detect moisture content of soil. The system is analyzed with respect to its antenna pattern and coupling, the signal flow in the receiver data channels, and the errors in the signal outputs. The operational principle and the sensitivity of the system, as well as data handling are also described. The finite cross-polarized gains of all four 1.6 GHz scatterometer antennae are found to have profound influence on the cross-polarized backscattered signal returns. If these signals are not analyzed properly, large errors could result in the estimate of the cross-polarized coefficient. It is also found necessary to make corrections to the variations of the aircraft parameters during data reduction in order to minimize the error in the coefficient estimate. Finally, a few recommendations are made to improve the overall performance of the scatterometer system.

  12. Performance Characteristics of Plane-Wall Two-Dimensional Diffusers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Elliott G

    1953-01-01

    Experiments have been made at Stanford University to determine the performance characteristics of plane-wall, two-dimensional diffusers which were so proportioned as to insure reasonable approximation of two-dimensional flow. All of the diffusers had identical entrance cross sections and discharged directly into a large plenum chamber; the test program included wide variations of divergence angle and length. During all tests a dynamic pressure of 60 pounds per square foOt was maintained at the diffuser entrance and the boundary layer there was thin and fully turbulent. The most interesting flow characteristics observed were the occasional appearance of steady, unseparated, asymmetric flow - which was correlated with the boundary-layer coalescence - and the rapid deterioration of flow steadiness - which occurred as soon as the divergence angle for maximum static pressure recovery was exceeded. Pressure efficiency was found to be controlled almost exclusively by divergence angle, whereas static pressure recovery was markedly influenced by area ratio (or length) as well as divergence angle. Volumetric efficiency. diminished as area ratio increased, and at a greater rate with small lengths than with large ones. Large values of the static-pressure-recovery coefficient were attained only with long diffusers of large area ratio; under these conditions pressure efficiency was high and. volumetric efficiency low. Auxiliary tests with asymmetric diffusers demonstrated that longitudinal pressure gradient, rather than wall divergence angle, controlled flow separation. Others showed that the addition of even a short exit duct of uniform section augmented pressure recovery. Finally, it was found that the installation of a thin, central, longitudinal partition suppressed flow separation in short diffusers and thereby improved pressure recovery

  13. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Treesearch

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  14. SOIL moisture data intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Yann; Rodriguez-Frenandez, Nemesio; Al-Yaari, Amen; Parens, Marie; Molero, Beatriz; Mahmoodi, Ali; Mialon, Arnaud; Richaume, Philippe; Bindlish, Rajat; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOS) was launched in November 2009 and started delivering data in January 2010. Subsequently, the satellite has been in operation for over 6 years while the retrieval algorithms from Level 1 to Level 2 underwent significant evolutions as knowledge improved. Other approaches for retrieval at Level 2 over land were also investigated while Level 3 and 4 were initiated. In this présentation these improvements are assessed by inter-comparisons of the current Level 2 (V620) against the previous version (V551) and new products either using neural networks or Level 3. In addition a global evaluation of different SMOS soil moisture (SM) products is performed comparing products with those of model simulations and other satellites (AMSR E/ AMSR2 and ASCAT). Finally, all products were evaluated against in situ measurements of soil moisture (SM). The study demonstrated that the V620 shows a significant improvement (including those at level1 improving level2)) with respect to the earlier version V551. Results also show that neural network based approaches can yield excellent results over areas where other products are poor. Finally, global comparison indicates that SMOS behaves very well when compared to other sensors/approaches and gives consistent results over all surfaces from very dry (African Sahel, Arizona), to wet (tropical rain forests). RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) is still an issue even though detection has been greatly improved while RFI sources in several areas of the world are significantly reduced. When compared to other satellite products, the analysis shows that SMOS achieves its expected goals and is globally consistent over different eco climate regions from low to high latitudes and throughout the seasons.

  15. Silver arsenate amorphous electrolyte batteries: conduction characteristics and electrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathya Sainath Prasad, P.; Rambabu, B.

    Transport properties of silver ion conducting ternary amorphous solid electrolytes, XAgI[(1 - X)( yAg 2O zAs 2O 3)] and XAgI[(1 - X)( yAg 2O zAs 2O 5)] for 30⩽ X⩽70 mol% AgI and 0.20 ⩽( z/y) ⩽3.0 were characterized in a two step process to determine the highest ion conducting composition. Interesting results were obtained by the variation of Glass Former to Glass Modifier ratio ( z/y) and AgI content ( X). Some of the results were previously reported with z/y as a variable parameter for a constant concentration of X. The values of z/y were maintained at the best conducting compositions as derived from the previous work, and the present study reports the conduction characteristics with X as a variable parameter. The best conducting amorphous electrolytes in these two systems were used in the fabrication of solid-state batteries, and their electrochemical performance has been evaluated. A comparison of the solid-state cells with amorphous and polycrystalline electrolytes was undertaken with regard to the current discharge profiles and the cell capacities.

  16. Evaluation of Dewatering Performance and Fractal Characteristics of Alum Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongjun; Fan, Wei; Zheng, Huaili; Zhang, Yuxin; Li, Fengting; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The dewatering performance and fractal characteristics of alum sludge from a drinking-water treatment plant were investigated in this study. Variations in residual turbidity of supernatant, dry solid content (DS), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), floc size, fractal dimension, and zeta potential were analyzed. Sludge dewatering efficiency was evaluated by measuring both DS and SRF. Results showed that the optimum sludge dewatering efficiency was achieved at 16 mg∙L-1 flocculant dosage and pH 7. Under these conditions, the maximum DS was 54.6%, and the minimum SRF was 0.61 × 1010 m∙kg-1. Floc-size measurements demonstrated that high flocculant dosage significantly improved floc size. Correlation analysis further revealed a strong correlation between fractal dimension and floc size after flocculation. A strong correlation also existed between floc size and zeta potential, and flocculants with a higher cationic degree had a larger correlation coefficient between floc size and zeta potential. In the flocculation process, the main flocculation mechanisms involved adsorption bridging under an acidic condition, and a combination between charge neutralization and adsorption-bridging interaction under neutral and alkaline conditions. PMID:26121132

  17. Performance Characteristics of the Multi-Zone NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Haoqiang; VanderWijngaart, Rob F.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new suite of computational benchmarks that models applications featuring multiple levels of parallelism. Such parallelism is often available in realistic flow computations on systems of grids, but had not previously been captured in bench-marks. The new suite, named NPB Multi-Zone, is extended from the NAS Parallel Benchmarks suite, and involves solving the application benchmarks LU, BT and SP on collections of loosely coupled discretization meshes. The solutions on the meshes are updated independently, but after each time step they exchange boundary value information. This strategy provides relatively easily exploitable coarse-grain parallelism between meshes. Three reference implementations are available: one serial, one hybrid using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and OpenMP, and another hybrid using a shared memory multi-level programming model (SMP+OpenMP). We examine the effectiveness of hybrid parallelization paradigms in these implementations on three different parallel computers. We also use an empirical formula to investigate the performance characteristics of the multi-zone benchmarks.

  18. Evaluation of Dewatering Performance and Fractal Characteristics of Alum Sludge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongjun; Fan, Wei; Zheng, Huaili; Zhang, Yuxin; Li, Fengting; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The dewatering performance and fractal characteristics of alum sludge from a drinking-water treatment plant were investigated in this study. Variations in residual turbidity of supernatant, dry solid content (DS), specific resistance to filtration (SRF), floc size, fractal dimension, and zeta potential were analyzed. Sludge dewatering efficiency was evaluated by measuring both DS and SRF. Results showed that the optimum sludge dewatering efficiency was achieved at 16 mg∙L(-1) flocculant dosage and pH 7. Under these conditions, the maximum DS was 54.6%, and the minimum SRF was 0.61 × 10(10) m∙kg(-1). Floc-size measurements demonstrated that high flocculant dosage significantly improved floc size. Correlation analysis further revealed a strong correlation between fractal dimension and floc size after flocculation. A strong correlation also existed between floc size and zeta potential, and flocculants with a higher cationic degree had a larger correlation coefficient between floc size and zeta potential. In the flocculation process, the main flocculation mechanisms involved adsorption bridging under an acidic condition, and a combination between charge neutralization and adsorption-bridging interaction under neutral and alkaline conditions.

  19. SMALT - Soil Moisture from Altimetry project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Richard; Benveniste, Jérôme; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Berry, Philippa; Wagner, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sebastian; Egido, Alejandro

    Soil surface moisture is a key scientific parameter; however, it is extremely difficult to measure remotely, particularly in arid and semi-arid terrain. This paper outlines the development of a novel methodology to generate soil moisture estimates in these regions from multi-mission satellite radar altimetry. Key to this approach is the development of detailed DRy Earth ModelS (DREAMS), which encapsulate the detailed and intricate surface brightness variations over the Earth’s land surface, resulting from changes in surface roughness and composition. DREAMS have been created over a number of arid and semi-arid deserts worldwide to produce historical SMALT timeseries over soil moisture variation. These products are available in two formats - a high resolution track product which utilises the altimeter’s high frequency content alongtrack and a multi-looked 6” gridded product at facilitate easy comparison/integeration with other remote sensing techniques. An overview of the SMALT processing scheme, covering the progression of the data from altimeter sigma0 through to final soil moisture estimate, is included along with example SMALT products. Validation has been performed over a number of deserts by comparing SMALT products with other remote sensing techniques, results of the comparison between SMALT and Metop Warp 5.5 are presented here. Comparisons with other remote sensing techniques have been limited in scope due to differences in the operational aspects of the instruments, the restricted geographical coverage of the DREAMS and the low repeat temporal sampling rate of the altimeter. The potential to expand the SMALT technique into less arid areas has been investigated. Small-scale comparison with in-situ and GNSS-R data obtained by the LEiMON experimental campaign over Tuscany, where historical trends exist within both SMALT and SMC probe datasets. A qualitative analysis of unexpected backscatter characteristics in dedicated dry environments is performed

  20. Effect of calcium and phosphorus, residual lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio on the melting characteristics and hardness of cheddar cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Chevanan, N; Muthukumarappan, K

    2007-05-01

    Meltability, melt profile parameters, and hardness of cheddar cheese prepared with varying levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content, residual lactose content, and salt-to-moisture ratio were studied at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mo of ripening. Meltability, melt profile parameters, and hardness of cheddar cheeses measured at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mo of ripening showed significant interaction between the levels of Ca and P, residual lactose, salt-to-moisture ratio, and ripening time for most of the properties studied. cheddar cheese prepared with high Ca and P (0.67% Ca and 0.53% P) resulted in up to 6.2%, 4.5%, 9.6%, 5.0%, and 22.8% increase in softening time, softening temperature, melting time, melting temperature, and hardness, respectively, and 23.5%, 9.6%, and 3.2% decrease in meltability, flow rate, and extent of flow, respectively, compared to the cheddar cheese prepared with low Ca and P (0.53% Ca and 0.39% P). cheddar cheese prepared with high lactose (1.4%) content resulted in up to 7.7%, 7.0%, 4.9%, 4.2%, and 24.6% increase in softening time, softening temperature, melting time, melting temperature, and hardness, respectively, and 14.7%, 12.7%, and 2.8% decrease in meltability, flow rate, and extent of flow respectively compared to the cheddar cheese prepared with low lactose (0.78%) content. cheddar cheese prepared with high salt-to-moisture ratio (6.4%) resulted in up to 21.8%, 11.3%, 12.9%, 4.1%, and 29.4% increase in softening time, softening temperature, melting time, melting temperature, and hardness, respectively, and 13.2%, 28.6%, and 2.6% decrease in meltability, flow rate, and extent of flow, respectively, compared to the cheddar cheese prepared with low salt-to-moisture ratio (4.8%) during ripening.

  1. ELBARA II, an L-Band Radiometer System for Soil Moisture Research

    PubMed Central

    Schwank, Mike; Wiesmann, Andreas; Werner, Charles; Mätzler, Christian; Weber, Daniel; Murk, Axel; Völksch, Ingo; Wegmüller, Urs

    2010-01-01

    L-band (1–2 GHz) microwave radiometry is a remote sensing technique that can be used to monitor soil moisture, and is deployed in the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). Performing ground-based radiometer campaigns before launch, during the commissioning phase and during the operative SMOS mission is important for validating the satellite data and for the further improvement of the radiative transfer models used in the soil-moisture retrieval algorithms. To address these needs, three identical L-band radiometer systems were ordered by ESA. They rely on the proven architecture of the ETH L-Band radiometer for soil moisture research (ELBARA) with major improvements in the microwave electronics, the internal calibration sources, the data acquisition, the user interface, and the mechanics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the instruments and the main characteristics that are relevant for the user. PMID:22315556

  2. ELBARA II, an L-band radiometer system for soil moisture research.

    PubMed

    Schwank, Mike; Wiesmann, Andreas; Werner, Charles; Mätzler, Christian; Weber, Daniel; Murk, Axel; Völksch, Ingo; Wegmüller, Urs

    2010-01-01

    L-band (1-2 GHz) microwave radiometry is a remote sensing technique that can be used to monitor soil moisture, and is deployed in the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). Performing ground-based radiometer campaigns before launch, during the commissioning phase and during the operative SMOS mission is important for validating the satellite data and for the further improvement of the radiative transfer models used in the soil-moisture retrieval algorithms. To address these needs, three identical L-band radiometer systems were ordered by ESA. They rely on the proven architecture of the ETH L-Band radiometer for soil moisture research (ELBARA) with major improvements in the microwave electronics, the internal calibration sources, the data acquisition, the user interface, and the mechanics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the instruments and the main characteristics that are relevant for the user.

  3. Influence of Surface Roughness Spatial Variability and Temporal Dynamics on the Retrieval of Soil Moisture from SAR Observations

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Mozos, Jesús; Verhoest, Niko E.C.; Larrañaga, Arantzazu; Casalí, Javier; González-Audícana, María

    2009-01-01

    Radar-based surface soil moisture retrieval has been subject of intense research during the last decades. However, several difficulties hamper the operational estimation of soil moisture based on currently available spaceborne sensors. The main difficulty experienced so far results from the strong influence of other surface characteristics, mainly roughness, on the backscattering coefficient, which hinders the soil moisture inversion. This is especially true for single configuration observations where the solution to the surface backscattering problem is ill-posed. Over agricultural areas cultivated with winter cereal crops, roughness can be assumed to remain constant along the growing cycle allowing the use of simplified approaches that facilitate the estimation of the moisture content of soils. However, the field scale spatial variability and temporal variations of roughness can introduce errors in the estimation of soil moisture that are difficult to evaluate. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of roughness spatial variability and roughness temporal variations on the retrieval of soil moisture from radar observations. A series of laser profilometer measurements were performed over several fields in an experimental watershed from September 2004 to March 2005. The influence of the observed roughness variability and its temporal variations on the retrieval of soil moisture is studied using simulations performed with the Integral Equation Model, considering different sensor configurations. Results show that both field scale roughness spatial variability and its temporal variations are aspects that need to be taken into account, since they can introduce large errors on the retrieved soil moisture values. PMID:22389611

  4. Anthropometric Characteristics and Physical Performance of Colombian Elite Male Wrestlers

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Velez, Robinson; Argothyd, Rodrigo; Meneses-Echavez, Jose Francisco; Beatriz Sanchez-Puccini, Maria; Lopez-Alban, Carlos Alejandro; Cohen, Daniel Dylan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Wrestling was an important part of the ancient Olympic Games and is still one of the most popular events of the modern Olympic Games. Studies indicate that general physiologic profile of successful wrestlers is high anaerobic power and capacity, muscular strength, above average aerobic power, exceptional flexibility, fat free mass, and a mesomorphic somatotype. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of elite male wrestlers. Patients and Methods: The Colombian Wrestling Team was evaluated while in preparation for the Olympic Games (n = 21; age, 27.9 ± 6.7 years). Athletes were tested on anthropometric and fitness parameters: body composition, somatotype distribution according to Heath-Carter, aerobic capacity, vertical jump, and anaerobic power. Results: The evaluations showed a mean body fat percentage of 13.6% ± 3.0% (95% CI, 12.2%-15%), muscle mass of 46.4% ± 2.2% (95% CI, 45.4%-47.4%), Ponderal index of 41.0 ± 1.8 (95% CI, 40.2-41.8), body adiposity index (BAI) 25.1 ± 3.6 (95% CI, 23.5-26.8), and somatotype distribution mesomorphic-ectomorph (5.3-1.6-3.8). Mean aerobic capacity was 45.9 ± 6.6 mL/kg/min (95% CI, 42.8-48.9), vertical jump was 36.4 ± 6.6 cm (95% CI, 11.8-16.6), and anaerobic power was 92.6 ± 19.5 kg/s (95% CI, 83.7-101.5). Conclusions: These results provided a profile of elite wrestlers that could be used as training targets for developing athletes. The results may also provide information for training and tactical planning. PMID:25741411

  5. Anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of colombian elite male wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Velez, Robinson; Argothyd, Rodrigo; Meneses-Echavez, Jose Francisco; Beatriz Sanchez-Puccini, Maria; Lopez-Alban, Carlos Alejandro; Cohen, Daniel Dylan

    2014-12-01

    Wrestling was an important part of the ancient Olympic Games and is still one of the most popular events of the modern Olympic Games. Studies indicate that general physiologic profile of successful wrestlers is high anaerobic power and capacity, muscular strength, above average aerobic power, exceptional flexibility, fat free mass, and a mesomorphic somatotype. The objective of the present study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics and physical performance of elite male wrestlers. The Colombian Wrestling Team was evaluated while in preparation for the Olympic Games (n = 21; age, 27.9 ± 6.7 years). Athletes were tested on anthropometric and fitness parameters: body composition, somatotype distribution according to Heath-Carter, aerobic capacity, vertical jump, and anaerobic power. The evaluations showed a mean body fat percentage of 13.6% ± 3.0% (95% CI, 12.2%-15%), muscle mass of 46.4% ± 2.2% (95% CI, 45.4%-47.4%), Ponderal index of 41.0 ± 1.8 (95% CI, 40.2-41.8), body adiposity index (BAI) 25.1 ± 3.6 (95% CI, 23.5-26.8), and somatotype distribution mesomorphic-ectomorph (5.3-1.6-3.8). Mean aerobic capacity was 45.9 ± 6.6 mL/kg/min (95% CI, 42.8-48.9), vertical jump was 36.4 ± 6.6 cm (95% CI, 11.8-16.6), and anaerobic power was 92.6 ± 19.5 kg/s (95% CI, 83.7-101.5). These results provided a profile of elite wrestlers that could be used as training targets for developing athletes. The results may also provide information for training and tactical planning.

  6. Ex vivo water exchange performance and short-term clinical feasibility assessment of newly developed heat and moisture exchangers for pulmonary rehabilitation after total laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Cindy; Muller, Sara H; Vincent, Andrew D; Züchner, Klaus; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2014-02-01

    Laryngectomized patients suffer from respiratory complaints due to insufficient warming and humidification of inspired air in the upper respiratory tract. Improvement of pulmonary humidification with significant reduction of pulmonary complaints is achieved by the application of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) over the tracheostoma. The aim of this study was to determine whether the new Provox HMEs (XM-HME and XF-HME) have a better water exchange performance than their predecessors (R-HME and L-HME, respectively; Atos Medical, Hörby, Sweden). The other aim was to assess the short-term clinical feasibility of these HMEs. The XM-HME and XF-HME were weighed at the end of inspiration and at the end of expiration at different breathing volumes produced by a healthy volunteer. The associations between weight changes, breathing volume and absolute humidity were determined using both linear and non-linear mixed effects models. Study-specific questionnaires and tally sheets were used in the clinical feasibility study. The weight change of the XM-HME is 3.6 mg, this is significantly higher than that of the R-HME (2.0 mg). The weight change of the XF-HME (2.0 mg) was not significantly higher than that of the L-HME (1.8 mg). The absolute humidity values of both XM- and XF-HME were significantly higher than that of their predecessors. The clinical feasibility study did not reveal any practical problems over the course of 3 weeks. The XM-HME has a significantly better water exchange performance than its predecessor (R-HME). Both newly designed HMEs did succeed in the clinical feasibility study.

  7. Evaluation of the porous silicon capacitor as a moisture sensor for vacuum applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, K.R.; Cordes, G.T.; Kelly, M.J.; Guilinger, T.R.

    1996-10-01

    A growing demand exists for inexpensive and reliable sensors for moisture detection in reduced pressure processing environments. Sandia`s Porous Silicon Capacitor (PSC) sensor appears to be an ideal candidate for this application. This sensor is a solid state device that detects moisture through changes in dielectric constant with water adsorption. Standard microelectronic fabrication techniques are used in its production affording low cost production and ready integration into complex sensor and electronic arrays. This sensor has previously been investigated for moisture detection in fluid streams, however, little effort has been placed on its behavior in a vacuum environment. Sandia`s Sensors in Vacuum (SIV) test facility has been employed to evaluate the performance characteristics of this sensor in vacuum. In addition, a vacuum-based study allows for a more controlled environment in which the intrinsic lower limit for moisture detection and response times to moisture changes can be easily determined quantitatively. This report describes the performance characteristics of a series of sensors from a single production lot. Calibration of these sensors to moisture levels from part per billion to part per hundred concentrations has been performed. The concentration-dependent sensitivity of these sensors is documented. The response time and drift characteristics of these sensors are also discussed. The investigation of a preliminary method for increasing the recovery time of the sensor after moisture exposure is presented. The role of hydrocarbon contamination, a potential problem in some vacuum schemes, is also evaluated. Specific recommendations are made on how to implement this sensor for vacuum applications.

  8. Effect of time on feed on performance of feedlot steers, carcass characteristics, and tenderness and composition of longissimus muscles.

    PubMed

    Van Koevering, M T; Gill, D R; Owens, F N; Dolezal, H G; Strasia, C A

    1995-01-01

    Two hundred fifty-six British and Continental crossbred yearling steers (329 kg initially) were fed to study the effect of time on feed on live performance, carcass characteristics, tissue composition, and steak tenderness. Steers were divided into four slaughter groups and fed for either 105, 119, 133, or 147 d. Daily gains (carcass weight-adjusted basis) increased in a quadratic manner (P < .05; maximum at 119 d), whereas feed intake tended to increase linearly (P < .08) as cattle were fed longer. Feed conversion (carcass weight-adjusted basis) for steers fed 119 d was superior to that of steers fed for 147 d. Carcass weight, s.c. fat thickness, kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, overall carcass maturity, and yield grade increased linearly (P < .01) with time on feed. Marbling score and the percentage of cattle grading U.S. Choice increased (linearly; P < .01) with time on feed but at a decreasing rate (quadratic; P < .05). Cholesterol and total lipid concentrations in longissimus muscle increased linearly (P < .01) as time on feed increased, whereas the percentage of protein and moisture tended to decrease linearly (P < .10 and P < .01). Tenderness of ribeye steaks tended to increase linearly (P < .07) with time on feed, primarily due to a linear decrease (P < .03) in the percentage of steaks considered tough (shear force above 4.50 kg). Performance and carcass characteristics indicate that a feedlot finishing period of 119 to 133 d is ideal for British Continental crossbred yearling steers (329 kg).

  9. Characteristics of Whipple Shield Performance in the Shatter Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Shannon; Bjorkman, Michael; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2009-01-01

    those obtained in this study at normal incidence, suggesting that shielding performance in the shatter regime could be well described by considering more complex phase conditions than currently implemented in most BLEs. Furthermore, evidence of these phase effects were found in the oblique test results, providing the basis for an empirical description of these effects that can be applied in MMOD risk assessment software. In this paper, results of the impact experiments are presented, and characteristics of target damage are evaluated. A comparison of intermediate velocity impact failure mechanisms in current BLEs are discussed and compared to the findings of the experimental study. Risk assessment calculations have been made on a simplified structure using currently implemented penetration equations and predicted limits from the experimental program, and the variation in perceived mission risk is discussed. It was found that ballistic limit curves that explicitly incorporated phase change effects within the intermediate regime lead to a decrease in predicted MMOD risk for ISS-representative orbits. When considered for all Whipple-based shielding configurations onboard the ISS, intermediate phase change effects could lead to significant variations in predicted mission risk.

  10. Performance and Safety Characteristics of Lithium-molybdenum Disulfide Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The lithium-molybdenum disulfide system offers attractive characteristics including high rate capability, successful operation up to 75 C, a very low self-discharge rate, a good cycle life and safety characteristics which compare favorably to those of other lithium cells. Moreover, the materials and manufacturing costs for the system is effectively controlled, so the cells should ultimately be competitive with currently marketed rechargeable cells.

  11. Soil moisture modeling review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildreth, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    A determination of the state of the art in soil moisture transport modeling based on physical or physiological principles was made. It was found that soil moisture models based on physical principles have been under development for more than 10 years. However, these models were shown to represent infiltration and redistribution of soil moisture quite well. Evapotranspiration has not been as adequately incorporated into the models.

  12. Moisture detection in composites by terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Paweł; Pałka, Norbert; Opoka, Szymon; Wandowski, Tomasz; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2015-07-01

    The application of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) in many branches of industry has been increasing steadily. Many research works focus on damage identification for structures made out of such materials. However, not only delaminations, cracks or other damage can have a negative influence of GFRP parts performance. Previous research proved that fluid absorption influences the mechanical performance of composites. GFRP parts can be contaminated by moisture or release agent during manufacturing, while fuel, hydraulic fluid and moisture ingression into the composite can be the in-service treats. In the reported research authors focus on moisture detection. There are numerous sources of moisture such as post manufacturing NDT inspection with ultrasonics coupled by water or exposition to moisture during transportation and in service. An NDT tool used for the research is a terahertz (THz) spectrometer. The device uses an electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz range (0.1-3 THz) and allows for reflection and transmission measurements. The spectrometer is equipped with moving table that allows for XY scanning of large objects such as GFRP panels. In the conducted research refractive indices were experimentally extracted from the materials of interest (water and GFRP). Time signals as well as C-scans were analysed for samples with moisture contamination. In order to be sure that the observed effects are related to moisture contamination reference measurements were conducted. The obtained results showed that the THz NDT technique can detect moisture hidden under a GFRP with multiple layers.

  13. An overview of the measurements of soil moisture and modeling of moisture flux in FIFE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of soil moisture and calculations of moisture transfer in the soil medium and at the air-soil interface were performed over a 15-km by 15-km test site during FIFE in 1987 and 1989. The measurements included intensive soil moisture sampling at the ground level and surveys at aircraft altitudes by several passive and active microwave sensors as well as a gamma radiation device.

  14. Use of a root zone soil moisture model and crop spectral characteristics to estimate sorghum yields in a dryland Alfisol toposequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Uttam Kumar; Victor, U. S.; Srivastava, N. N.; Sharma, K. L.; Ramesh, V.; Vanaja, M.; Korwar, G. R.; Ramakrishna, Y. S.

    2006-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between sorghum grain yield over range of soil depth with seasonal crop water stress index based on relative evapotranspiration deficits and spectral vegetation indices. A root zone soil moisture model has been used to evaluate the seasonal soil moisture fluctuation and actual evapotranspiration within a toposequence having varying soil depth of 30 to 75 cm as well as different available water capacity ranging from 6.9% to 12.6% (V/V%). The higher r2 values between modeled and observed values of soil water (r2> 0.69 significant at <0.001) and runoff (r2 = 0.95, significant at P<0.001) indicated good agreement between model output and observed values. The spectral vegetation indices like simple ratio, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), green NDVI, perpendicular vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) and modified SAVI (MSAVI) was recorded through out the growth period of sorghum. The vegetation indices except perpendicular vegetation index measured during booting to anthesis stages were positively correlated (P<0.05) with leaf area index and yield. The MSAVI measured during booting to milk-grain stage have the highest positive correlation with yield. Variation was noticed when additive and multiplicative forms of water-production functions calculated from water budget model were used to predict crop yield. But the yield estimation was improved when spectral vegetation indices measured during booting to milk-grain is incorporated along with water production functions. The water budget model along with spectral vegetation indices gave satisfactory estimates of sorghum grain yields and appears to be a useful tool to estimate yield as a function of soil depth and available soil water.

  15. Moisturizers for Acne

    PubMed Central

    Chularojanamontri, Leena; Tuchinda, Papapit; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai

    2014-01-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit that affects almost all teenagers. Different treatments offer different modes of action, but aim to target acne pathology. Topical therapies, such as benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics with alcohol-based preparations, and salicylic acid, can cause skin irritation resulting in a lack of patient adherence. Some physicians recommend patients use moisturizers as adjunctive treatment of acne, especially when either topical benzoyl peroxide or a retinoid is prescribed. Furthermore, some evidence shows that moisturizers can contribute independently to improve signs and symptoms of acne. Moisturizers contain three main properties, which are occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Currently, many moisturizers claim to be suitable for acne treatment. This article aims to provide a review of the active ingredients and properties of those moisturizers. Fifty-two moisturizers for acne were included for analysis. Most of the products (92%) have anti-inflammatory properties apart from occlusive, humectant, and emollient effects. Anti-acne medications, including salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, and retinol, were found respectively in 35, 10, and 8 percent of the moisturizer products containing anti-inflammatory properties. More than half of the products contain dimethicone and/or glycerin for its moisturizer property. Aloe vera and witch hazel are botanical anti-inflammatories that were commonly found in this study. Scientific data regarding some ingredients are discussed to provide a guide for physicians in selecting moisturizers for acne patients. PMID:24847408

  16. Performance characteristics of a new helical-channel microchannel plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. Gethyn; Graves, Peter W.; Loretz, Thomas J.; Roy, Raymond L.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced version of the 'helical-channel' microchannel plate (MCP) is presented. This MCP is composed of four channels per fiber with each channel having a diameter of 50 microns. The dynamic range, pulse-height distribution, and gain characteristics of this MCP are discussed. It is found that increasing the twist density of the channels makes it possible to increase the detection efficiency and further improve the suppression of ion-feedback providing a tighter saturated pulse-height distribution and improved high-voltage characteristics.

  17. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for moisture meters. 801.6 Section 801.6... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.6 Tolerances for moisture meters. (a) The maintenance tolerances for Motomco 919 moisture meters used in performing official inspection services shall be:...

  18. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tolerances for moisture meters. 801.6 Section 801.6... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.6 Tolerances for moisture meters. (a) The maintenance tolerances for Motomco 919 moisture meters used in performing official inspection services shall be:...

  19. Soil Moisture Measurements and their Applications at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.

    2000-09-26

    the Savannah River Site (SRS), located in the southeastern US, which provides 15-minute average soil moisture data. The measurement technique is first discussed, along with characteristics of the observation sites. Several applications of the monitoring are then examined. This includes the use of soil moisture as a decision-making tool in performing prescribed fires of the local forest vegetation. Since soil moisture measurements are also very important in the proper determination of surface fluxes in atmospheric models, a comparison of these point measurements with the National Center for Atmospheric Predictions (NCEP) model simulations over an extended period of time are examined. Finally, simple expressions describing the temporal variation of the soil moisture with precipitation events at the SRS are discussed.

  20. A Literature Review on the Study of Moisture in Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Trautschold, Olivia Carol

    2016-05-25

    This literature review covers the main chemical and physical interactions between moisture and the polymer matrix. Fickian versus Non-Fickian diffusion behaviors are discussed in approximating the characteristics of moisture sorption. Also, bound water and free water sorbed in polymers are distinguished. Methods to distinguish between bound and free water include differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The difference between moisture sorption and water sorption is considered, as well as the difficulties associated with preventing moisture sorption. Furthermore, specific examples of how moisture sorption influences polymers include natural fiber-polymer composites, starch-based biodegradable thermoplastics, and thermoset polyurethane and epoxies.

  1. On-irrigator pasture soil moisture sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng-Choon Tan, Adrian; Richards, Sean; Platt, Ian; Woodhead, Ian

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we presented the development of a proximal soil moisture sensor that measured the soil moisture content of dairy pasture directly from the boom of an irrigator. The proposed sensor was capable of soil moisture measurements at an accuracy of  ±5% volumetric moisture content, and at meter scale ground area resolutions. The sensor adopted techniques from the ultra-wideband radar to enable measurements of ground reflection at resolutions that are smaller than the antenna beamwidth of the sensor. An experimental prototype was developed for field measurements. Extensive field measurements using the developed prototype were conducted on grass pasture at different ground conditions to validate the accuracy of the sensor in performing soil moisture measurements.

  2. Preservatives in moisturizers on the Swedish market.

    PubMed

    Gruvberger, B; Bruze, M; Tammela, M

    1998-01-01

    The presence of 9 common preservatives was investigated in 100 moisturizers by high-performance liquid chromatography. According to the manufacturers/suppliers 88 of the 100 moisturizers contained at least one of the 9 preservatives. This information was erroneous in 9 cases (10.2%). When the moisturizers were investigated for the presence of the 9 preservatives which should not be present in the moisturizers according to the manufacturers/suppliers, at least one of the preservatives was detected in 17 moisturizers (17.0%). Parabens were the most common preservatives. The concentrations of the 9 preservatives did not exceed the maximum concentrations allowed in cosmetics. When a patient with suspected allergic contact dermatitis tests positively to a preservative, the assessment of present clinical relevance requires demonstration of exposure to the sensitizer. This demonstration cannot rely solely on information on the packages or from the manufacturers/suppliers but has often to be supplemented by chemical analysis.

  3. Rail gun performance and plasma characteristics due to wall ablation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    The experiment of Bauer, et al. (1982) is analyzed by considering wall ablation and viscous drag in the plasma. Plasma characteristics are evaluated through a simple fluid-mechanical analysis considering only wall ablation. By equating the energy dissipated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the average properties of the plasma are determined as a function of time.

  4. Effects of College Programme Characteristics on Graduates' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Aracil, Adela

    2015-01-01

    Education programmes are designed to equip young populations with the qualifications required to assume responsible roles in specific professions and in society generally. In this paper, the focus of the analysis is on the significance of a number of higher education programme characteristics in allocating young higher education graduates across…

  5. Rail gun performance and plasma characteristics due to wall ablation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    The experiment of Bauer, et al. (1982) is analyzed by considering wall ablation and viscous drag in the plasma. Plasma characteristics are evaluated through a simple fluid-mechanical analysis considering only wall ablation. By equating the energy dissipated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the average properties of the plasma are determined as a function of time.

  6. Performance of sampling methods to estimate log characteristics for wildlife.

    Treesearch

    Lisa J. Bate; Torolf R. Torgersen; Michael J. Wisdom; Edward O. Garton

    2004-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the characteristics of log resources, or coarse woody debris (CWD), is critical to effective management of wildlife and other forest resources. Despite the importance of logs as wildlife habitat, methods for sampling logs have traditionally focused on silvicultural and fire applications. These applications have emphasized estimates of log volume...

  7. Performance and antrhropometric characteristics of Elite Rugby Players.

    PubMed

    Pasin, Federico; Caroli, Barbara; Spigoni, Valentina; Dei Cas, Alessandra; Volpi, Riccardo; Galli, Carlo; Passeri, Giovanni

    2017-08-23

    Physical performance is the result of a complex combination of several factors such as genetic and anthropometric aspects, nutrition and hormonal status. In the past few years many studies have considered the impact of vitamin D on muscular strength and athletic performance.The aim of the present study was to assess the anthropometric measures impacting on physical performance in a group of professional rugby athletes.  As a secondary aim we investigated a possible relationship between baseline vitamin D status and athletic performance status in these subjects. All rugby players completed a test-retest reliability study on performance measures, as 70kg jump squat and body weight (BW) jump squat to assess musculoskeletal performance. Additionally at the time point we collected a blood sample of every athletes for the assessment of serum vitamin D. We found that lean mass was an important independent predictor of performance score in 70kg jump squat (p=0.007, R2=0.74) and BW jump squat (p=0.010, R2=0.66) in these well trained athletes. No statistically significant association was present between performance score and serum vitamin D in this specific setting. We demonstrate a positive interaction between lower limb lean mass and performance score, but we have not been able to identify any statistically significant association between worsening in performance measures and decrease of serum 25 OH Vitamin D.

  8. SMOS validation of soil moisture and ocen salinity (SMOS) soil moisture over watershed networks in the U.S.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estimation of soil moisture at large scale has been performed using several satellite-based passive microwave sensors and a variety of retrieval methods. The most recent source of soil moisture is the European Space Agency Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. A thorough validation must b...

  9. On-the-Move Nutrient Delivery System Performance Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    on·the-movc nutrient intake. Tcsts were perfonned using an artificial sipping system and carbohydrate- beverage concentrates (CHO) to characterize...NDS performance allributes. A varielY ofCI-IO formulations were also studied to define the ideal beverage concentrate for maximizing system efficiency...performed using an artificial sipping system and carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage concentrates to characterize the NDS performance attributes. Glucose

  10. Dynamic Characteristics of Human Motor Performance in Control Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    including the neural control of respiration and vestibular organization. In addition, computer simulations of small neuronal networks have added an understanding of circuits involved in motor performance. (Author)

  11. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOEpatents

    Harrah, L.A.; Mead, K.E.; Smith, H.M.

    1983-09-20

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (1) a solid acetylenic compound and (2) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  12. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOEpatents

    Harrah, Larry A.; Mead, Keith E.; Smith, Henry M.

    1983-01-01

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  13. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-04-29

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the reusltant hydrogen.

  14. Understanding Soil Moisture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding soil moisture is critical for landscape irrigation management. This landscaep irrigation seminar will compare volumetric and matric potential soil-moisture sensors, discuss the relationship between their readings and demonstrate how to use these data. Soil water sensors attempt to sens...

  15. Do moisturizers work?

    PubMed

    Lodén, M

    2003-07-01

    Moisturizers are used on large body surfaces to maintain the smoothness of the skin and to break the dry-skin cycle. Many healthcare professionals and patients overlook the importance of moisturizers and do not consider them to be 'active' treatments. However, evidence from clinical and experimental studies shows that moisturizers enhance both the smoothness and hydration of skin. Different moisturizers have different ingredients, and each may have a different mode of action. Some smooth the skin, others affect barrier function. Some enhance barrier function in both diseased and normal skin. Others impair barrier function in both diseased and normal skin. Defective barrier function may trigger the development of eczema. The composition of a particular moisturizer should reflect its desired therapeutic effect, i.e. a moisturizer to diminish dryness may need different ingredients from those required to improve barrier function. The content of excipients, such as emulsifiers, chelating agents and antioxidants, may have greater impact than is commonly believed. Greater tailoring of moisturizers will improve their efficacy. Confidence in the therapeutic effects of moisturizers will be enhanced by well-designed randomized controlled trials.

  16. Soil Moisture Sensing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil moisture monitoring can be useful as an irrigation management tool for both landscapes and agriculture, sometimes replacing an evapotranspiration (ET) based approach or as a useful check on ET based approaches since the latter tend to drift off target over time. All moisture sensors, also known...

  17. Effects of altering alfalfa hay quality when feeding steam-flaked versus high-moisture corn grain on ruminal fermentation and lactational performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Kelley, A W; Neal, K; Young, A J; Hall, J O

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was performed to test a hypothesis that nutritive benefits of feeding high-moisture corn (HMC) would be different when fed with different qualities of alfalfa hay (AH) due to associative effects on ruminal fermentation and nutrient utilization efficiency. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used; 4 were surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas. Days in milk averaged 184 ± 10.7 at the start of the experiment. The experiment was performed in a duplicate 4 × 4 Latin square design. Within each square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets during each of the four 21-d periods (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was used; fair-quality AH [FAH; 39.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 17.9% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH; 33.6% NDF and 21.9% CP) was combined with steam-flaked corn (SFC) or HMC to form 4 treatments: FAH with SFC, FAH with HMC, HAH with SFC, and HAH with HMC. The AH was fed at 32% dry matter (DM) content, whereas SFC or HMC was included at 17% DM content. Quality of AH did not affect DM intake, whereas feeding HMC decreased DM intake, regardless of quality of AH. Digestibility of DM was greater for cows fed HAH compared with those fed FAH (70.1 vs. 67.6%). Digestibility of NDF increased by feeding HMC (67.6 vs. 58.4%), but not by quality of AH. Under FAH, starch digestibility decreased by feeding HMC compared with SFC (85.7 vs. 95.0%), but it was similar under HAH, resulting in an interaction between quality of AH and type of corn grain (CG). Feeding different qualities of AH did not affect milk yield; however, feeding HMC decreased milk yield in FAH diet, causing an AH × CG interaction. Efficiency of milk yield/DM intake was improved due to feeding HMC, regardless of the quality of the AH. In addition, dietary N utilization for milk N tended to increase by feeding HMC, but it was not influenced by quality of AH. Yield of microbial

  18. Gust characteristics for WECS design and performance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Powell, D.C.

    1980-05-01

    This document provides a description of some gust characteristics which are useful in the study of wind turbine fatigue caused by a fluctuating wind environment. The particular gust form chosen can also be used in the analysis of the dynamic response of a turbine. The statistical behavior of such gust characteristics is not identical to that determined simply from the wind recorded by an anemometer. These modes of behavior may be related, however, by the application of appropriate digital filters to the anemometer data. This procedure has been carried out for a number of sample cases, and the variations of the resultant gust features are presented. A number of suggestions on specific applications and interpretations of the data are included.

  19. Microwave moisture measurement of cotton fiber moisture content in the laboratory

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The moisture content of cotton fiber is an important fiber property, but it is often measured by a laborious, time-consuming laboratory oven drying method. A program was implemented to establish the capabilities of a laboratory microwave moisture measurement instrument to perform rapid, precise and...

  20. Towards Justifying Enlistment Standards: Linking Input Characteristics to Job Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    argument advanced here is that performance should be held constant % I and then cost minimized for attaining that level of performance. In prac- tice, of...Training. While it may be argued that all personnel receive the same basic and even advanced training (in this case, training would be a 6 -AV -W. -W W...length of training necessary to achieve a mastery level of the subject matterI or, if training time is fixed, differential Lraining pass rates. The

  1. Characteristics of Whipple Shield Performance in the Shatter Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S.; Bjorkman, M.; Christiansen, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Ballistic limit equations define the failure of metallic Whipple shields in three parts: low velocity, shatter, and hypervelocity. Failure limits in the shatter regime are based on a linear interpolation between the onset of projectile fragmentation, and impulsive rupture of the shield rear wall. A series of hypervelocity impact tests have been performed on aluminum alloy Whipple shields to investigate failure mechanisms and performance limits in the shatter regime. Test results demonstrated a more rapid increase in performance than predicted by the latest iteration of the JSC Whipple shield BLE following the onset of projectile fragmentation. This increase in performance was found to level out between 4.0-5.0 km/s, with a subsequent decrease in performance for velocities up to 6.0 km/s. For a detached spall failure criterion, the failure limit was found to continually decrease up to a velocity of 7.0 km/s, substantially varying from the BLE, while for perforation-based failure an increase in performance was observed. An existing phenomenological ballistic limit curve was found to provide a more accurate reproduction of shield behavior that the BLE, however a number of underlying assumptions such as the occurrence of complete projectile fragmentation and the effect on performance of incipient projectile melt were found to be inaccurate. A cratering relationship based on the largest residual fragment size has been derived for application at velocities between 3.0-4.0 km/s, and was shown to accurately reproduce the trends of the experimental data. Further investigation is required to allow a full analytical description of shatter regime performance for metallic Whipple shields.

  2. Performance Characteristics of Current-Generation Immulite 2000 TORCH Assays

    PubMed Central

    Centonze, A. R.; Tonolli, E.

    2013-01-01

    The performances of seven Immulite 2000 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics) TORCH (Toxoplasma gondii, other microorganisms, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) assays were evaluated in comparison with the performances of the ETI-MAX 3000 (DiaSorin) TORCH assays. The two systems demonstrated good agreement, and given their sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value, they can be used with confidence for TORCH prenatal screening. PMID:23175287

  3. Performance characteristics of gravity-assisted, potassium heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Prenger, F.C.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments with potassium-stainless steel gravity-assisted heat pipes were performed. Performance limitations due to entrainment or flooding of the liquid return flow are compared with analytical model predictions. The effect of heated pool height was investigated and problems with surface wetting are discussed. A comparison between entrainment limits for smooth-walled and textured-walled heat pipes was made and a minimum internal surface texturing depth is suggested.

  4. Performance characteristics of gravity-assisted potassium heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Prenger, F.C.; Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.

    1986-08-01

    Experiments with potassium-stainless steel gravity-assisted heat pipes were performed. Performance limitations due to entrainment or flooding of the liquid return flow are compared with analytical model predictions. The effect of heated pool height was investigated, and problems with surface wetting are discussed. A comparison between entrainment limits for smoothand textured-walled heat pipes was made, and a minimum internal surface texturing depth is suggested.

  5. Vegetable oils: Precombustion characteristics and performance as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils show technical promise as alternative fuels for diesel engines and have good potential as emergency fuels. Realistically, vegetable oils cause a number of problems when used in direct-injection diesel engines, generally attributable to inefficient combustion. At least partially responsible for poor combustion of neat vegetable oils are their high viscosity and non-volatility. To improve combustion several somewhat empirical approaches involving both chemical and physical modifications have been investigated by endurance tests in a variety of engines. Using the EMA 200 h engine screening test, several fuels show technical promise. These include methyl, ethyl, and butyl esters; high-oleic oils:diesel blend (1:3); diesel:soybean oil:butanol:cetane improver (33:33:33:1); and microemulsion fuels (diesel:soybean oil:190 proff ethanol:butanol, 50:25:5:20) and (soybean oil:methanol:2-octanol:cetane improver, 53:13:33:1). Using a pressure vessel, fuel injection system, and high speed motion picture camera, fuel injection characteristics of vegetable oils, e.g., soybean, sunflower, cottonseed, and peanut, have been observed in a quiescent nitrogen atmosphere at 480/sup 0/C and 4.1MPa. Their injection and atomization characteristics are markedly different from those of petroleum derived diesel fuels. Heating the vegetable oils to lower their viscosities increased spray penetration rate, reduced spray cone angles, and resulted in spray characteristics resembling those of diesel fuel. Significant chemical changes occurred following injection. Samples collected at about 400 microseconds after the injection event consisted of appreciable quantities of C/sub 4/-C/sub 16/ hydrocarbons, and free carboxyl groups were present.

  6. Performance characteristics of three-phase induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation into the characteristics of three phase, 400 Hz, induction motors of the general type used on aircraft and spacecraft is summarized. Results of laboratory tests are presented and compared with results from a computer program. Representative motors were both tested and simulated under nominal conditions as well as off nominal conditions of temperature, frequency, voltage magnitude, and voltage balance. Good correlation was achieved between simulated and laboratory results. The primary purpose of the program was to verify the simulation accuracy of the computer program, which in turn will be used as an analytical tool to support the shuttle orbiter.

  7. Performance characteristics of magnesium— N,N'-dichlorodimethylhydantoin primary cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udhayan, R.; Muniyandi, N.; Mathur, P. B.

    The electrochemical characteristics of cells using N,N'-dichlorodimethylhydantoin (DDH) as a cathode depolarizer and magnesium anodes are reported. The discharge behaviour of DDH gives high cathode potential and efficiency. The discharge data are fitted to a general equation to express the voltage/current features of the system. Cyclic voltammograms of DDH in neutral electrolytes substantiate the claimed reduction behaviour. Magnesium bromide solution provides higher capacities than Mg(ClO 4) 2 but corrosion of the magnesium anode is more severe in the former electrolyte.

  8. A novel approach to validate satellite soil moisture retrievals using precipitation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, L.; Kumar, D. Nagesh

    2016-10-01

    A novel approach is proposed that attempts to validate passive microwave soil moisture retrievals using precipitation data (applied over India). It is based on the concept that the expectation of precipitation conditioned on soil moisture follows a sigmoidal convex-concave-shaped curve, the characteristic of which was recently shown to be represented by mutual information estimated between soil moisture and precipitation. On this basis, with an emphasis over distribution-free nonparametric computations, a new measure called Copula-Kernel Density Estimator based Mutual Information (CKDEMI) is introduced. The validation approach is generic in nature and utilizes CKDEMI in tandem with a couple of proposed bootstrap strategies, to check accuracy of any two soil moisture products (here Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS sensor's Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam-NASA (VUAN) and University of Montana (MONT) products) using precipitation (India Meteorological Department) data. The proposed technique yields a "best choice soil moisture product" map which contains locations where any one of the two/none of the two/both the products have produced accurate retrievals. The results indicated that in general, VUA-NASA product has performed well over University of Montana's product for India. The best choice soil moisture map is then integrated with land use land cover and elevation information using a novel probability density function-based procedure to gain insight on conditions under which each of the products has performed well. Finally, the impact of using a different precipitation (Asian Precipitation-Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources) data set over the best choice soil moisture product map is also analyzed. The proposed methodology assists researchers and practitioners in selecting the appropriate soil moisture product for various assimilation strategies at both basin and continental scales.

  9. Strength training improves performance and pedaling characteristics in elite cyclists.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, B R; Hansen, J; Hollan, I; Ellefsen, S

    2015-02-01

    The purpose was to investigate the effect of 25 weeks heavy strength training in young elite cyclists. Nine cyclists performed endurance training and heavy strength training (ES) while seven cyclists performed endurance training only (E). ES, but not E, resulted in increases in isometric half squat performance, lean lower body mass, peak power output during Wingate test, peak aerobic power output (W(max)), power output at 4 mmol L(-1)[la(-)], mean power output during 40-min all-out trial, and earlier occurrence of peak torque during the pedal stroke (P < 0.05). ES achieved superior improvements in W(max) and mean power output during 40-min all-out trial compared with E (P < 0.05). The improvement in 40-min all-out performance was associated with the change toward achieving peak torque earlier in the pedal stroke (r = 0.66, P < 0.01). Neither of the groups displayed alterations in VO2max or cycling economy. In conclusion, heavy strength training leads to improved cycling performance in elite cyclists as evidenced by a superior effect size of ES training vs E training on relative improvements in power output at 4 mmol L(-1)[la(-)], peak power output during 30-s Wingate test, W(max), and mean power output during 40-min all-out trial. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Global characterization of surface soil moisture drydowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McColl, Kaighin A.; Wang, Wei; Peng, Bin; Akbar, Ruzbeh; Short Gianotti, Daniel J.; Lu, Hui; Pan, Ming; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-04-01

    Loss terms in the land water budget (including drainage, runoff, and evapotranspiration) are encoded in the shape of soil moisture "drydowns": the soil moisture time series directly following a precipitation event, during which the infiltration input is zero. The rate at which drydowns occur—here characterized by the exponential decay time scale τ—is directly related to the shape of the loss function and is a key characteristic of global weather and climate models. In this study, we use 1 year of surface soil moisture observations from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission to characterize τ globally. Consistent with physical reasoning, the observations show that τ is lower in regions with sandier soils, and in regions that are more arid. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of τ—based on observations alone—at scales relevant to weather and climate models.

  11. Performance characteristics of omnidirectional antennas for spacecraft using NASA networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, Lawrence M.

    1987-01-01

    Described are the performance capabilities and critical elements of the shaped omni antenna developed for NASA for space users of NASA networks. The shaped omni is designed to be operated in tandem for virtually omnidirectional coverage and uniform gain free of spacecraft interference. These antennas are ideal for low gain data requirements and emergency backup, deployment, amd retrieval of higher gain RF systems. Other omnidirectional antennas that have flown in space are described in the final section. A performance summary for the shaped omni is in the Appendix. This document introduces organizations and projects to the shaped omni applications for NASA's space use. Coverage, gain, weight, power, and implementation and other performance information for satisfying a wide range of data requirements are included.

  12. Performance characteristics of a three-axis superconducting rock magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lienert, B. R.

    1977-01-01

    A series of measurements are carried out with the purpose of quantitatively determining the characteristics of a commercial 6.8 cm access superconducting rock magnetometer located in the magnetic properties laboratory at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The measurements show that although a considerable improvement in measurement speed and signal to noise ratios can be obtained using such an instrument, a number of precautions are necessary to obtain accuracies comparable with more conventional magnetometers. These include careful calibration of the sensor outputs, optimum positioning of the sample within the detection region and quantitatively establishing the degree of cross-coupling between the detector coils. In order to examine the uniformity of response for each detector, the responses are mapped as a function of position, using a small dipole.

  13. Soil Moisture Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilman, J. L. (Editor); Moore, D. G. (Editor); Schmugge, T. J. (Editor); Friedman, D. B. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Workshop was held at the United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Library in Beltsville, Maryland on January 17-19, 1978. The objectives of the Workshop were to evaluate the state of the art of remote sensing of soil moisture; examine the needs of potential users; and make recommendations concerning the future of soil moisture research and development. To accomplish these objectives, small working groups were organized in advance of the Workshop to prepare position papers. These papers served as the basis for this report.

  14. School and Teacher Characteristics in Relationship to the Academic Performance of Elementary Schools in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Rhonda D.

    2013-01-01

    This correlation research study examined school and teacher characteristics in relationship to the academic performance of students in elementary schools in South Carolina. The school characteristics examined in this study were school size, poverty, minority level, and student teacher ratio. The teacher characteristics examined in this study were…

  15. Transient soil moisture profile of a water-shedding soil cover in north Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, Christopher; Baumgartl, Thomas; Scheuermann, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    In current agricultural and industrial applications, soil moisture determination is limited to point-wise measurements and remote sensing technologies. The former has limitations on spatial resolution while the latter, although has greater coverage in three dimensions, but may not be representative of real-time hydrologic conditions of the substrate. This conference paper discusses the use of elongated soil moisture probes to describe the transient soil moisture profile of water-shedding soil cover trial plots in north Queensland, Australia. Three-metre long flat ribbon cables were installed at designed depths across a soil cover with substrate materials from mining activities comprising of waste rocks and blended tailings. The soil moisture measurement is analysed using spatial time domain reflectometry (STDR) (Scheuermann et al., 2009) Calibration of the flat ribbon cable's soil moisture measurement in waste rocks is undertaken in a glasshouse setting. Soil moisture retention and outflows are monitored at specific time interval by mass balance and water potential measurements. These data sets together with the soil hydrologic properties derived from laboratory and field measurements are used as input in the numerical code on unsaturated flow, Hydrus2D. The soil moisture calculations of the glasshouse calibration using this numerical method are compared with results from the STDR soil moisture data sets. In context, the purpose of the soil cover is to isolate sulphide-rich mine wastes from atmospheric interaction as oxidation and leaching of these materials may result to acid and metalliferous drainage. The long term performance of a soil cover will be described in terms of the quantities and physico-chemical characteristics of its outflows. With the soil moisture probes set at automated and pre-determined measurement time intervals, it is expected to distinguish between macropore and soil moisture flows during high intensity rainfall events and, also continuously

  16. FIELD AND LABORATORY PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A NEW SAMPLING PROTOCOL FOR RIVERINE MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement and estimation of performance characteristics (i.e., precision, bias, performance range, interferences and sensitivity) are often neglected in the development and use of new biological sampling methods. However, knowledge of this information is critical in enabling p...

  17. FIELD AND LABORATORY PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A NEW SAMPLING PROTOCOL FOR RIVERINE MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement and estimation of performance characteristics (i.e., precision, bias, performance range, interferences and sensitivity) are often neglected in the development and use of new biological sampling methods. However, knowledge of this information is critical in enabling p...

  18. Performance characteristics of aerodynamically optimum turbines for wind energy generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrbach, C.; Worobel, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a brief discussion of the aerodynamic methodology for wind energy generator turbines, an approach to the design of aerodynamically optimum wind turbines covering a broad range of design parameters, some insight on the effect on performance of nonoptimum blade shapes which may represent lower fabrication costs, the annual wind turbine energy for a family of optimum wind turbines, and areas of needed research. On the basis of the investigation, it is concluded that optimum wind turbines show high performance over a wide range of design velocity ratios; that structural requirements impose constraints on blade geometry; that variable pitch wind turbines provide excellent power regulation and that annual energy output is insensitive to design rpm and solidity of optimum wind turbines.

  19. Experimental investigation of the performance characteristics of hydrocyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.P.

    1984-09-01

    A mathematical model of hydrocyclone classifiers used to process drilling fluid is presented. Four basic non-dimensional parameters are defined to describe the performance of the hydrocyclones. The mathematical model is based on data acquired during a series of tests using 3'', 4'', 5'', and 7'' cones with interchangable parts. The analysis of the model indicates a non-Stokesian behavior in the classification process. According to the present findings, a Stokesian model tends to underdesign the hydrocyclones by at least 15-25%. Further, an optimum value of 4 X 10/sup 4/ for the inlet Reynolds number to the hydrocyclones has been found. A term called the ''Performance Parameter,'' introduced in the analysis, can assist a designer to search for an optimum design through a parametric study.

  20. The Effects of Ratee Characteristics on Rater Performance Appraisal Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    should spend more time observing Kate and less time working on the 9.,e , e{e,,,,. ; c e’. ’,..... : ;..: ..-.- . . . . . . ... % Page-17 Favero & Ilg...observing, the more accurate were the performance ratings. Page-23 Favero & Ilgen Henneman & Wexley (in press) found a similar relationship between...Page-27 Favero & Ilgen Footnotes 1. We wish to thank Patricia C . Smith for providing us with this scale. 2. Other manipulations and measures included

  1. Vocal Characteristics and Laryngoscopic Findings in Future Musical Theater Performers.

    PubMed

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Claeys, Sofie; Meerschman, Iris; Bettens, Kim; Degeest, Sofie; Dijckmans, Caroline; De Smet, Joke; Luyten, Anke; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2017-07-01

    Musical theater performers are a special group of elite vocal performers with a high vocal load as they combine singing, acting, and physical performance. As they are absolutely depending on their voice quality and vocal capacities for their studies and their future profession, an optimal voice production is very important. The purpose of this study was to determine the voice quality of musical theater students. The voice quality of seven students was then reevaluated 1 year after the first assessment. Observational study. Thirty-one musical students (7 men and 24 women) with a mean age of 20 years participated in the study. To determine the voice quality, objective (aerodynamic measurements, voice range profile, acoustic analysis, and Dysphonia Severity Index) and subjective (videolaryngostroboscopy, Voice Handicap Indexes, and questionnaires regarding voice symptoms and risk factors) voice measurements were performed. The median Dysphonia Severity Index in male and female musical students was respectively 5.3 and 5.7, both corresponding with an overall good voice quality. The questionnaires revealed the presence of vocal fatigue, dryness of the throat, vocal tract discomfort, and harmful vocal habits in the majority of students. In 45% of the subjects, videolaryngostroboscopic evaluation of the vocal folds showed an organic lesion. The majority of these lesions are inflammatory lesions (26%). In 68% of the subjects, a certain degree of supraglottic constriction was observed. Despite the overall good voice quality, videolaryngostroboscopy showed a high presence of vocal fold lesions and supraglottic constriction during phonation. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design for the Maintainer: Projecting Maintenance Performance from Design Characteristics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    come from experimentally produced changes in the micro-elements. Several projects have employed time synthesis simulation with generally positive ...would produce, positions the video tape unit to the segment showing that outcome, and plays the taped segment showing a technician performing the test and... Psycological Services, Inc. Massachusetts Institute of Technolgy 404 East Lancaster Street Cembridge, MA 02139 Wayne, PA 19087 Dr. Harry Snyder 1 Dr. W. S

  3. Pitching Flexible Propulsors: Experimental Assessment of Performance Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-09

    E. Motor The motor, shown in Fig. 16, manipulated the angular position of the propulsor using a proportional/integral/derivative ( PID ) controller...cogging torque. The motor also became easier to tune for higher frequency oscillations. The increased frequency corresponded to an increase in the...frequency to resonant frequency, may allow for proper tuning of flexible oscillation parameters for increased performance. Operating at or near a resonant

  4. Characteristics of sprint performance in college football players.

    PubMed

    Brechue, William F; Mayhew, Jerry L; Piper, Fontaine C

    2010-05-01

    To investigate sprinting strategy, acceleration and velocity patterns were determined in college football players (n = 61) during performance of a 9.1-, 36.6-, and 54.9-m sprints. Acceleration and velocity were determined at 9.1-m intervals during each sprint. Lower-body strength and power were evaluated by 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) squat, power clean, jerk, vertical jump, standing long jump, and standing triple jump. Sprint times averaged 1.78 +/- 0.11 seconds (9.1 m), 5.18 +/- 0.35 seconds (36.6 m), and 7.40 +/- 0.53 seconds. Acceleration peaked at 9.1 m (2.96 +/- 0.44 m x s(-2)), was held constant at 18.3 m (3.55 +/- 0.0.94 m x s(-2)), and was negative at 27.4 m (-1.02 +/- 0.72 m x s(-2)). Velocity peaked at 18.3 m (8.38 +/- 0.65 m x s(-2)) and decreased slightly, but significantly at 27.4 m (7.55 +/- 0.66 m x s(-2)), associated with the negative acceleration. Measures of lower-body strength were significantly related to acceleration, velocity, and sprint performance only when corrected for body mass. Lower-body strength/BM and power correlated highest with 36.6-m time (rs = -0.55 to -0.80) and with acceleration (strength r = 0.67-0.49; power r = 0.73-0.81) and velocity (strength r = 0.68-0.53; power r = 0.74-0.82) at 9.1 m. Sprint times and strength per body mass were significantly lower in lineman compared with linebackers-tight ends and backs. The acceleration and velocity patterns were the same for each position group, and differences in sprint time were determined by the magnitude of acceleration and velocity at 9.1 and 18.3 m. Sprint performance in football players is determined by a rapid increase in acceleration (through 18.3 m) and a high velocity maintained throughout the sprint and is independent of position played. The best sprint performances (independent of sprint distance) appear to be related to the highest initial acceleration (through 18.3 m) and highest attained and maintained velocity. Strength relative to body mass and power appears to

  5. Calculation of the Characteristic Performance Indicators in an Electrochemical Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, C. M.; Expósito, E.; Solla-Gullón, J.; García-García, V.; Montiel, V.; Aldaz, A.

    2003-05-01

    Electrochemical engineering, a relatively young discipline, has important interrelationships with chemical engineering and electrochemistry. The main objectives of electrochemical engineering are the characterization and optimization, both in design and operation mode, of the mechanisms and the processes related to the conversion of chemical and electrical energies. Among the examples of electrochemical synthesis implemented at an industry scale are the synthesis of chlor alkali, aluminium, adiponitrile (an intermediate compound in the manufacture of Nylon). It is feasible to review the systems of electric energy generation (batteries and fuel cells) and sewage treatment. The definition of figures of merit is focused on the electrochemical process and is related to its yield. This concept constitutes a very useful tool to optimize the cost and the economic balance of this process. In this paper, the most characteristic figures of merit in an electrochemical process are defined. They are applied using experimental data obtained in an organic electrosynthesis process: the reduction of L-cystine to L-cysteine in acid media.

  6. Fiber optic moisture sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kirkham, R.R.

    1984-08-03

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  7. Performance characteristics of gang scheduling in multiprogrammed environments

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    Gang scheduling provides both space-slicing and time-slicing of computer resources for parallel programs. Each thread of execution from a parallel job is concurrently scheduled on an independent processor in order to achieve an optimal level of program performance. Time-slicing of parallel jobs provides for better overall system responsiveness and utilization than otherwise possible. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has deployed three generations of its gang scheduler on a variety of computing platforms. Results indicate the potential benefits of this technology to parallel processing are no less significant than time-sharing was in the 1960`s.

  8. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  9. Moisture map by IR thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinzato, E.; Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.

    2010-10-01

    A new approach to moisture detection in buildings by an optical method is presented. Limits of classical and new methods are discussed. The state of the art about the use of IR thermography is illustrated as well. The new technique exploits characteristics of the materials and takes into account explicitly the heat and mass exchange between surface and environment. A set of experiments in controlled laboratory conditions on different materials is used to better understand the physical problem. The testing procedure and the data reduction are illustrated. A case study on a heritage building points up the features of this technique.

  10. First soil moisture values from SMOS over a Sahelian region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruhier, Claire; Kerr, Yann; de Rosnay, Patricia; Pellarin, Thierry; Grippa, Manuela

    2010-05-01

    Soil moisture is a crucial variable which influences the land surface processes. Numerous studies shown microwaves at low frequency are particularly performed to access to soil moisture values. SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), launched the November 2th 2009, is the first space mission dedicated to soil moisture observations. Before SMOS, several soil moisture products were provided, based on active or passive microwaves measurements. Gruhier et al. (2010) analyse five of them over a Sahelian area. The results show that the range of volumetric soil moisture values obtained over Sahel is drastically different depending on the remote sensing approach used to produce soil moisture estimates. Although microwave bands currently available are not optimal, some products are in very good agreement with ground data. The main goal of this study is to introduce the first soil moisture maps from SMOS over West Africa. A first analyse of values over a Sahelian region is investigated. The study area is located in Gourma region in Mali. This site has been instrumented in the context of the AMMA project (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis) and was specifically designed to address the validation of remotely sensed soil moisture. SMOS soil moisture values was analysed with ground knowledge and placed in the context of previous soil moisture products. The high sensitivity of the L-band used by SMOS should provide very accurate soil moisture values.

  11. An investigation of error characteristics and coding performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebel, William J.; Ingels, Frank M.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of forward error correcting coding schemes on errors anticipated for the Earth Observation System (EOS) Ku-band downlink are studied. The EOS transmits picture frame data to the ground via the Telemetry Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) to a ground-based receiver at White Sands. Due to unintentional RF interference from other systems operating in the Ku band, the noise at the receiver is non-Gaussian which may result in non-random errors output by the demodulator. That is, the downlink channel cannot be modeled by a simple memoryless Gaussian-noise channel. From previous experience, it is believed that those errors are bursty. The research proceeded by developing a computer based simulation, called Communication Link Error ANalysis (CLEAN), to model the downlink errors, forward error correcting schemes, and interleavers used with TDRSS. To date, the bulk of CLEAN was written, documented, debugged, and verified. The procedures for utilizing CLEAN to investigate code performance were established and are discussed.

  12. Assimilation of Passive and Active Microwave Soil Moisture Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, C. S.; Reichle, R. H.; DeLannoy, G. J. M.; Liu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Root-zone soil moisture is an important control over the partition of land surface energy and moisture, and the assimilation of remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture has been shown to improve model profile soil moisture [1]. To date, efforts to assimilate remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture at large scales have focused on soil moisture derived from the passive microwave Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the active Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT; together with its predecessor on the European Remote Sensing satellites (ERS. The assimilation of passive and active microwave soil moisture observations has not yet been directly compared, and so this study compares the impact of assimilating ASCAT and AMSR-E soil moisture data, both separately and together. Since the soil moisture retrieval skill from active and passive microwave data is thought to differ according to surface characteristics [2], the impact of each assimilation on the model soil moisture skill is assessed according to land cover type, by comparison to in situ soil moisture observations.

  13. Performance characteristics of a new pixelated portable gamma camera

    PubMed Central

    Siman, W.; Cheenu Kappadath, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and characterize the performance of a new commercially available pixelated portable gamma camera Ergo (Digirad, Poway, CA). Methods: The authors evaluated a pixelated portable gamma camera system, Ergo, that consists of 11 520 elements of 3 × 3 mm2 CsI(Tl) crystals that are 6-mm thick and are coupled to silicon photodiodes. The detector element has a size of 3.31 × 3.24 mm2. The gamma camera performance was evaluated for both low-energy all-purpose (LEAP) and low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimators. The flood-field uniformity for 99mTc and 201Tl was assessed using fillable uniform flood phantoms. Energy spectra were acquired for 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl, and 67Ga to evaluate energy linearity and energy resolution. Spectral fits were performed to calculate the photopeak energies and resolutions. The pixel size and multiwindow spatial registration (MWSR) was evaluated by measuring mixed 99mTc and 201Tl point sources placed at known distances apart. The system’s sensitivity was measured according to the National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association (NEMA) NU1-2007 standards for both LEAP and LEHR collimators as a function of distance from the collimator surface (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 40 cm). The system resolution without scatter was measured for both LEAP and LEHR using 99mTc-filled capillary tubes located at 0, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 12 cm away from the surface of the collimator. As a measure of the spatial resolution, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) at a given distance was calculated from the presampling line spread function (LSF), constructed from the line profiles of the capillary tubes at the same distance. As a comparison, the FWHM at 10 cm away from LEHR and LEAP collimators was also calculated from linear interpolation as described by NEMA NU-1 2007 and from fitting the profiles to a Gaussian-plus-constant model. Results: All isotope-collimator pairs demonstrated good flood-field uniformity with an integral

  14. Spatial Variation of Soil Type and Soil Moisture in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.

    2001-06-27

    Soil characteristics (texture and moisture) are typically assumed to be initially constant when performing simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). Soil texture is spatially homogeneous and time-independent, while soil moisture is often spatially homogeneous initially, but time-dependent. This report discusses the conversion of a global data set of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) soil types to RAMS soil texture and the subsequent modifications required in RAMS to ingest this information. Spatial variations in initial soil moisture obtained from the National Center for Environmental Predictions (NCEP) large-scale models are also introduced. Comparisons involving simulations over the southeastern United States for two different time periods, one during warmer, more humid summer conditions, and one during cooler, dryer winter conditions, reveals differences in surface conditions related to increases or decreases in near-surface atmospheric moisture con tent as a result of different soil properties. Three separate simulation types were considered. The base case assumed spatially homogeneous soil texture and initial soil moisture. The second case assumed variable soil texture and constant initial soil moisture, while the third case allowed for both variable soil texture and initial soil moisture. The simulation domain was further divided into four geographically distinct regions. It is concluded there is a more dramatic impact on thermodynamic variables (surface temperature and dewpoint) than on surface winds, and a more pronounced variability in results during the summer period. While no obvious trends in surface winds or dewpoint temperature were found relative to observations covering all regions and times, improvement in surface temperatures in most regions and time periods was generally seen with the incorporation of variable soil texture and initial soil moisture.

  15. Vegetation Response to Rainfall and Soil Moisture Variability in Botswana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    34 4 Results and Discussion 35 4.1 NDVI Spatial and Temporal Characteristics ....................... 36 4.2 A Comparison of Mean...Patterns of NDVI , Rainfall, and Soil Moisture . . . 45 4.3 Relationships Between NDVI , Rainfall, and Soil Moisture By Vegetation Type 48 4.4...Correlations/Regression Analyses by Vegetation Type ................ 56 4.5 Effects of Varying Soil Type on the NDVI /Rainfall and NDVI /Soil Moisture

  16. Performance characteristics of commercial Y-STR multiplex systems.

    PubMed

    Mayntz-Press, Kathleen A; Ballantyne, Jack

    2007-09-01

    In this work, a number of performance checks were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of commercial Y-short tandem repeats (Y-STR) kits for casework applications. The study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity and stability of the Y-STR markers used and the ability to obtain a male profile from postcoital samples taken at various time points after intercourse. All systems performed well with 1-3 ng of male DNA as recommended by the manufacturers. All systems gave full profiles at 100 pg of input DNA, which is within the realm of low copy number DNA analysis. Moreover all, except Y-Plex12, gave full profiles with 30-50 pg of male DNA. No increased performance was obtained with any of the systems by increasing the cycle number beyond that recommended by the various manufacturers. When up to 1 microg of female DNA was used (in the absence of male DNA) no female DNA cross reactivity was observed with the Y-Plex 12 and Y-Filer systems. PowerPlex Y produced female DNA derived products near the DYS438 and within the DYS392 loci at a rare allele position with high input DNA levels (300 ng and 1 microg, respectively). Male/female DNA admixture experiments indicated the particularly high specificity of the Y-Filer and PowerPlex Y systems under conditions of several thousand fold female DNA excess. All systems were able to detect the minor alleles in male/male DNA admixtures at a 1:5 dilution with the PowerPlex Y and Y-Filer being able to detect some minor alleles at 1:20. Species testing indicated some limited, minor cross reactivity of the commercial systems with some domestic male mammals although it is easily recognizable and would not pose any problems in casework analysis. As expected a significant number of cross-reacting products were obtained with nonhuman primate species. All Y-STR multiplex systems tested were able to produce complete Y-STR profiles from bloodstains and semen stains exposed up to 6 weeks when the samples were protected against precipitation and

  17. Performance characteristics and statistics of a laser initiated microdetonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    The test results of 320 units of the laser initiated microdetonator are summarized. The commercially fabricated units used a lead styphnate/lead azide/HMX (1 mg/17.5 mg/13.5 mg) explosive train design contained in a miniature aluminum can and completed with a glass-metal seal window. The test parameters were the high and low laser energy, high and low temperature, laser pulse duration, laser wavelength and nuclear radiation (5 x 10 to the 6th rads of 1 MeV gamma ray). The performance parameters were the laser energy for ignition and the actuation response time. Included also is a description of the development of a flexible, continuously advanced train of explosive devices by using the units, miniature optics and fiber optics.

  18. Performance characteristics and statistics of a laser initiated microdetonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    The test results of 320 units of the laser initiated microdetonator are summarized. The commercially fabricated units used a lead styphnate/lead azide/HMX (1 mg/17.5 mg/13.5 mg) explosive train design contained in a miniature aluminum can and completed with a glass-metal seal window. The test parameters were the high and low laser energy, high and low temperature, laser pulse duration, laser wavelength and nuclear radiation (5 x 10 to the 6th rads of 1 MeV gamma ray). The performance parameters were the laser energy for ignition and the actuation response time. Included also is a description of the development of a flexible, continuously advanced train of explosive devices by using the units, miniature optics and fiber optics.

  19. Performance characteristics of solar-photovoltaic flywheel-storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, P. O.; Brench, B. L.; Rasmussen, N. E.

    1981-01-01

    A solar photovoltaic energy flywheel storage and conversion system for residential applications was designed, built and tested. Performance and efficiency measurements were conducted on the system, which utilizes low-loss magnetic bearings, maximum-power-point tracking of the photovoltaic array, integrated permanent magnet motor-generator, and output power-conditioning sections of either the stand-alone cycloconverter or utility interactive inverter type. The overall in-out electrical storage efficiency of the flywheel system was measured along with the power transfer efficiencies of the individual components and the system spin-down tare losses. A round-trip storage efficiency of 82% in the utility interactive mode and 74% in the stand-alone mode was found. This compares favorably with systems involving batteries and an inverter, which typically exhibit a round trip efficiency less than 70%.

  20. RPC detector characteristics and performance for INO-ICAL experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Gaur, A.; Hasbuddin, Md.; Naimuddin, Md.

    2016-03-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is an approved multi-institutional collaboration neutrino physics project, aimed at building an underground laboratory in the southern India. INO will utilize a large magnetized Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector to study the atmospheric neutrinos, and to explore the unresolved issues related to neutrinos. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), interleaved in between iron absorber layers, are going to be used as the active signal readouts for the ICAL experiment at INO. The research and development is carried out to find structural quality and electrical response for RPC electrode materials available within local domain. The assembled 2 mm gap RPCs are tested using cosmic muons for their detection performance. The study also incorporates preliminary results on detector timing and signal induced charge measurements.

  1. Performance characteristics of a cosmology package on leading HPCarchitectures

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jonathan; Borrill, Julian; Oliker, Leonid

    2004-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is a snapshot of the Universe some 400,000 years after the Big Bang. The pattern of anisotropies in the CMB carries a wealth of information about the fundamental parameters of cosmology. Extracting this information is an extremely computationally expensive endeavor, requiring massively parallel computers and software packages capable of exploiting them. One such package is the Microwave Anisotropy Dataset Computational Analysis Package (MADCAP) which has been used to analyze data from a number of CMB experiments. In this work, we compare MADCAP performance on the vector-based Earth Simulator (ES) and Cray X1 architectures and two leading superscalar systems, the IBM Power3 and Power4. Our results highlight the complex interplay between the problem size, architectural paradigm, interconnect, and vendor-supplied numerical libraries, while isolating the I/O file system as the key bottleneck across all the platforms.

  2. Comparison of physical characteristics and performance among elite snowboarders.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Hans-Peter; Raschner, Christian; Patterson, Carson; Lembert, Sandra

    2009-08-01

    There are little scientific data regarding snowboarding and the physiological demands on snowboarders. The aim of this study was to assemble and evaluate a battery of tests for the snowboard disciplines parallel, snowboard cross (SBX), big air, and half-pipe (HP). Thirty-seven competitive snowboarders participated in the study and completed a test battery that comprised tests for aerobic capacity, balance, jumping, isokinetic core power, isokinetic leg power, isometric bench press, isometric bench pull, and a snowboard start simulator. The results showed that the battery of tests explained between 61 and 98% of variance when predicting snowboard performance. The test battery predicts better for women than for men and better for SBX, HP, and overall World Cup ranking than for the other disciplines. The results indicate that starting speed, leg power, core power, and aerobic capacity are important in different snowboarding events.

  3. Performance characteristics of a wave attenuation for pulsed chemical lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonadonna, V.; Weisbach, M. F.; Tong, K.-O.; McClure, J. D.

    1981-06-01

    Parametric performance measurements are reported for a pulsed chemical laser wave attenuator. The attenuator utilizes the combined effects of flow channel area expansion, caustic water spray, and flow-through damping screens to suppress and control the pressure disturbances produced by the chemical heat release of the F2 + D2 chain reaction. Experimental results that illustrate the effects of different area expansion geometries, water spray configurations, and damping screen arrangements are presented. Capability to tune the attenuator system to provide short pressure wave clearing times is emphasized. An attenuator configuration is reported which gives a wave clearing time of 2 msec with a corresponding entropy-wave density nonuniformity of 0.001 for a 18.5/6/76.5 F2/O2/diluent gas mixture at a pulse repetition frequency of 100 Hz.

  4. Performance Characteristics of the Verbal QuickDASH

    PubMed Central

    London, Daniel A.; Stepan, Jeffrey G.; Boyer, Martin I.; Calfee, Ryan P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To quantify the performance of the verbally administered Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) by assessing its replication of self-administered scores, its test-retest reliability, and its rate of scorable completion compared to its self-administered, written administration. Methods 50 patients presenting for initial visits to a hand clinic were enrolled regardless of diagnosis. All patients completed a written and a verbal QuickDASH 1 day apart (25 patients written first, 25 patients verbal first). Intraclass correlation coefficients quantified the verbal questionnaire’s ability to reproduce written scores. Participants verbally completed the questionnaire a final time, 5 months later, to assess test-retest reliability. To quantify the usability of survey data, we compared percentages of scorable surveys between written and verbally administered QuickDASH questionnaires in this study and in prior studies within our division. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient between the 2 QuickDASH administration types for the entire sample was 0.91. Across all participants, there was a minimal change in mean score from a patient’s written QuickDASH to that patient’s first verbal QuickDASH score. Scoring consistency between QuickDASH administrations was similar for each administration sequence (phone followed by written vs. written followed by phone) and by diagnosis. Test-retest reliability between the 2 verbal administrations demonstrated good reliability and a minimal difference between scores. In this study, no written or verbal surveys were incomplete. Reviewing our practice, 17% of 258 written questionnaires produced unscorable data compared to 0% of 140 verbally administered surveys. Discussion Our results indicate that verbal administration of the QuickDASH replicates clinically relevant scores of the written QuickDASH, has good test-retest performance, and may minimize unusable data. These data allow researchers greater

  5. De-noising of microwave satellite soil moisture time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chun-Hsu; Ryu, Dongryeol; Western, Andrew; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The use of satellite soil moisture data for scientific and operational hydrologic, meteorological and climatological applications is advancing rapidly due to increasing capability and temporal coverage of current and future missions. However evaluation studies of various existing remotely-sensed soil moisture products from these space-borne microwave sensors, which include AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer) on Aqua satellite, SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission and ASCAT (Advanced Scatterometer) on MetOp-A satellite, found them to be significantly different from in-situ observations, showing large biases and different dynamic ranges and temporal patterns (e.g., Albergel et al., 2012; Su et al., 2012). Moreover they can have different error profiles in terms of bias, variance and correlations and their performance varies with land surface characteristics (Su et al., 2012). These severely impede the effort to use soil moisture retrievals from multiple sensors concurrently in land surface modelling, cross-validation and multi-satellite blending. The issue of systematic errors present in data sets should be addressed prior to renormalisation of the data for blending and data assimilation. Triple collocation estimation technique has successfully yielded realistic error estimates (Scipal et al., 2008), but this method relies on availability of large number of coincident data from multiple independent satellite data sets. In this work, we propose, i) a conceptual framework for distinguishing systematic periodic errors in the form of false spectral resonances from non-systematic errors (stochastic noise) in remotely-sensed soil moisture data in the frequency domain; and ii) the use of digital filters to reduce the variance- and correlation-related errors in satellite data. In this work, we focus on the VUA-NASA (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam with NASA) AMSR-E, CATDS (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, CNES) SMOS and TUWIEN (Vienna University of

  6. Effects of essential oil on performance characteristics, survival, processing characteristics, and fillet proximate composition of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined the effects of matrix encapsulated essential oils (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE) on performance, survival, processing characteristics, and fillet proximate composition of channel catfish. Fifteen one-acre ponds at the Delta-Western Research Center, Indianola, MS were stocked with approximatel...

  7. Small-scale soil moisture determination with GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, Jan; Preetz, Holger

    2010-05-01

    The knowledge of topsoil moisture distribution is an important input for modelling water flow and evapotranspiration which are essential processes in hydrology, meteorology, and agriculture. All these processes involve non-linear effects and thus the small-scale variability of input parameters play an important role. Using smoothed interpolations instead can cause significant biases. Lateral soil moisture distribution can be sensed by different techniques at various scales whereby geophysical methods provide spatial information which closes the gap between point measurements by classical soil scientific methods and measurements on the field or regional scale by remote sensing. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to explore soil moisture on the field scale as propagation of electromagnetic waves is correlated to soil water content. By determining the velocity of the ground wave, which is a guided wave travelling along the soil surface, we can sense soil water content. This method has been applied to determine topsoil moisture for several years. We present a new groundwave technique which determines the velocity in between two receiving antennas which enables a higher lateral resolution (approx. 10 cm) compared to classical groundwave technique (half meter and more). We present synthetic data from finite-differences (FD) calculations as well as data from a sandbox experiment carried out under controlled conditions to demonstrate the performance of this method. Further, we carried out field measurements on two sites on a sandy soil which is used as grassland. The measurements were carried out in late summer at dry soil conditions. Soil moisture on the first site shows an isotropic pattern with correlation lengths of approx. 35 cm. We think this natural pattern is governed by rout distribution within the soil and the water uptake of vegetation. On the second site, soil moisture distribution shows a regular stripe pattern. As the land has been used as

  8. NEXT Long-Duration Test Neutralizer Performance and Erosion Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program is developing the next-generation ion propulsion system with significant enhancements beyond the state-of-the-art to provide future NASA science missions with enhanced capabilities at a low total development cost. A Long-Duration Test (LDT) was initiated in June 2005, to verify the NEXT propellant throughput capability to a qualification-level of 450 kg, 1.5 times the anticipated throughput requirement of 300 kg per thruster based on mission analyses. As of September 2, 2009, the thruster has accumulated 24,400 hr of operation with extensive durations at the following input powers: 6.9, 4.7, 1.1, and 0.5 kW. The thruster has processed 434 kg of xenon, surpassing the NASA Solar Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) program thruster propellant throughput demonstrated during the extended life testing of the Deep Space 1 flight spare ion thruster and approaching the NEXT development qualification throughput goal of 450 kg. The NEXT LDT has demonstrated a total impulse of 16.1 10(exp 6zzz0 N s; the highest total impulse ever demonstrated by an ion thruster. A reduction in neutralizer flow margin has been the only appreciable source of thruster performance degradation. The behavior of the neutralizer is not easily predicted due to both erosion and deposition observed in previous wear tests. Spot-to-plume mode transition flow data and in-situ erosion results for the LDT neutralizer are discussed. This loss of flow margin has been addressed through a combination of a design change in the prototype-model neutralizer to increase flow margin at low emission current and to update the NEXT throttle table to ensure adequate flow margin as a function of propellant throughput processed. The new throttle table will be used for future LDT operations. The performance of the NEXT LDT neutralizer is consistent with that observed for long-life hollow cathodes. The neutralizer life-limiting failure modes are progressing as expected

  9. Evaluation of litter type and dietary coarse ground corn inclusion on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract development, and litter characteristics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Nusairat, B; Brake, J

    2015-03-01

    Two 49 d floor pen studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of litter type and dietary coarse ground corn (CC) inclusion on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and litter characteristics. Experiment 1 was a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 genders (male or female) and 2 CC levels (0 or 50%). From 15 to 35 d, the addition of CC decreased feed intake (P<0.01) and BW gain (P<0.05) of males but not females. The inclusion of CC decreased feed intake (P<0.01) and BW gain (P<0.01) from 0 to 49 d but improved adjusted feed conversion ratio (AdjFCR) from 35 to 49 d (P<0.05). Male broilers exhibited better live performance than females during the study as evidenced by greater feed intake (P<0.01) and BW gain (P<0.01), and improved FCR (P<0.01), but with increased mortality (P<0.05). The inclusion of CC increased relative gizzard weight (P<0.01) and decreased relative proventriculus weight (P<0.01) at 49 d. Experiment 2 was a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 CC levels (0 or 50%) and 2 litter types (ground old litter or new wood shavings litter). The inclusion of CC decreased feed intake throughout the experiment without affecting final BW when only males were used and improved FCR after 25 d (P<0.01). New litter improved FCR from 1 to 14 d (P<0.01). At 49 d, the birds fed the CC diet had reduced excreta nitrogen (P<0.05) and litter moisture (P<0.05). In conclusion, 50% CC inclusion initially produced negative effects on live performance that became positive as BW increased. The effects of CC became evident at an earlier age for males. New litter had only a marginal benefit on broiler live performance.

  10. Runway drainage characteristics related to tire friction performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of a runway pavement to rapidly drain water buildup during periods of precipitation is crucial to minimize tire hydroplaning potential and maintain adequate aircraft ground operational safety. Test results from instrumented aircraft, ground friction measuring vehicles, and NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) track have been summarized to indicate the adverse effects of pavement wetness conditions on tire friction performance. Water drainage measurements under a range of rainfall rates have been evaluated for several different runway surface treatments including the transversely grooved and longitudinally grinded concrete surfaces at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The major parameters influencing drainage rates and extent of flooding/drying conditions are identified. Existing drainage test data are compared to a previously derived empirical relationship and the need for some modification is indicated. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed toward improving empirical relationships to properly define runway drainage capability and consequently, enhance aircraft ground operational safety, is given.

  11. Towards uniformly dispersed battery electrode composite materials: Characteristics and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Yo Han Kwon; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Huie, Matthew M.; Choi, Dalsu; Chang, Mincheol; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2016-01-14

    Battery electrodes are complex mesoscale systems comprised of electroactive components, conductive additives, and binders. In this report, methods for processing electrodes with dispersion of the components are described. To investigate the degree of material dispersion, a spin-coating technique was adopted to provide a thin, uniform layer that enabled observation of the morphology. Distinct differences in the distribution profile of the electrode components arising from individual materials physical affinities were readily identified. Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) analysis revealed pertinent surface interactions associated with materials dispersivity. Further studies demonstrated that HSPs can provide an effective strategy to identify surface modification approaches for improved dispersions of battery electrode materials. Specifically, introduction of surfactantlike functionality such as oleic acid (OA) capping and P3HT-conjugated polymer wrapping on the surface of nanomaterials significantly enhanced material dispersity over the composite electrode. The approach to the surface treatment on the basis of HSP study can facilitate design of composite electrodes with uniformly dispersed morphology and may contribute to enhancing their electrical and electrochemical behaviors. The conductivity of the composites and their electrochemical performance was also characterized. In conclusion, the study illustrates the importance of considering electronic conductivity, electron transfer, and ion transport in the design of environments incorporating active nanomaterials.

  12. Towards uniformly dispersed battery electrode composite materials: Characteristics and performance

    DOE PAGES

    Yo Han Kwon; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Huie, Matthew M.; ...

    2016-01-14

    Battery electrodes are complex mesoscale systems comprised of electroactive components, conductive additives, and binders. In this report, methods for processing electrodes with dispersion of the components are described. To investigate the degree of material dispersion, a spin-coating technique was adopted to provide a thin, uniform layer that enabled observation of the morphology. Distinct differences in the distribution profile of the electrode components arising from individual materials physical affinities were readily identified. Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) analysis revealed pertinent surface interactions associated with materials dispersivity. Further studies demonstrated that HSPs can provide an effective strategy to identify surface modification approaches formore » improved dispersions of battery electrode materials. Specifically, introduction of surfactantlike functionality such as oleic acid (OA) capping and P3HT-conjugated polymer wrapping on the surface of nanomaterials significantly enhanced material dispersity over the composite electrode. The approach to the surface treatment on the basis of HSP study can facilitate design of composite electrodes with uniformly dispersed morphology and may contribute to enhancing their electrical and electrochemical behaviors. The conductivity of the composites and their electrochemical performance was also characterized. In conclusion, the study illustrates the importance of considering electronic conductivity, electron transfer, and ion transport in the design of environments incorporating active nanomaterials.« less

  13. Toward Uniformly Dispersed Battery Electrode Composite Materials: Characteristics and Performance.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yo Han; Huie, Matthew M; Choi, Dalsu; Chang, Mincheol; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2016-02-10

    Battery electrodes are complex mesoscale systems comprised of electroactive components, conductive additives, and binders. In this report, methods for processing electrodes with dispersion of the components are described. To investigate the degree of material dispersion, a spin-coating technique was adopted to provide a thin, uniform layer that enabled observation of the morphology. Distinct differences in the distribution profile of the electrode components arising from individual materials physical affinities were readily identified. Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) analysis revealed pertinent surface interactions associated with materials dispersivity. Further studies demonstrated that HSPs can provide an effective strategy to identify surface modification approaches for improved dispersions of battery electrode materials. Specifically, introduction of surfactantlike functionality such as oleic acid (OA) capping and P3HT-conjugated polymer wrapping on the surface of nanomaterials significantly enhanced material dispersity over the composite electrode. The approach to the surface treatment on the basis of HSP study can facilitate design of composite electrodes with uniformly dispersed morphology and may contribute to enhancing their electrical and electrochemical behaviors. The conductivity of the composites and their electrochemical performance was also characterized. The study illustrates the importance of considering electronic conductivity, electron transfer, and ion transport in the design of environments incorporating active nanomaterials.

  14. Thermophilic biofilter for SO2 removal: performance and microbial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingying; Li, Lin; Liu, Junxin

    2015-03-01

    A bench-scale thermophilic biofilter was applied to remove SO2 at 60°C in the present study. The SO2 concentration in the inlet stream ranged from 100mg/m(3) to 200mg/m(3). An average SO2 removal efficiency of 93.10% was achieved after developing acclimated organisms that can degrade SO2. The thermophilic biofilter effectively reduced SO2, with a maximum elimination capacity of 50.67g/m(3)/h at a loading rate of 51.44g/m(3)/h. Removal efficiency of the thermophilic biofilter was largely influenced by the water containing rate of the packing materials. The SO2 transfer in the biofilter included adsorption by the packing materials, dissolution in liquid, and microbial degradation. The main product of SO2 degradation was SO4(2-). The temporal shifts in the bacterial community that formed in the biofilter were determined through polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequence analysis. These shifts revealed a correlation between biofilter performance and bacterial community structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance characteristics of a submarine panoramic infrared imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. M.; Waterman, J. R.; Menon, Raghu; Devitt, John

    2010-04-01

    A high-resolution mid-wave infrared panoramic periscope sensor system has been developed. The sensor includes a catadioptric optical system that provides a 360° horizontal azimuth by -10° to +30° elevation field of view without requiring moving components (e.g. rotating mirrors). The focal plane is a 2048 x 2048, 15μm pitch InSb detector operating at 80K. An on-board thermo-electric reference source allows for real-time nonuniformity correction using the two-point correction method. The entire system (detector-dewar assembly, cooler, electronics and optics) is packaged to fit in an 8" high, 6.5" diameter volume. This work describes both the system optics and electronics and presents sample imagery. We also discuss the sensor's radiometric performance, quantified by the NEDT, as a function of key system parameters. The ability of the system to resolve targets as a function of imaged spatial frequency is also presented.

  16. Performance characteristics of valveless and cantilever-valve micropump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukur, A. F. M.; Sabani, N.; Taib, B. N.; Azidin, M. A. M.; Shahimin, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents comparison between two classes of micropump which are valveless micropump and cantilever-valve micropump. These micropumps consist of basic components which are diaphragm, pumping chamber, actuation mechanism, inlet and outlet. Piezoelectric actuation is carried out by applying pressure on the micropump diaphragm to produce deflection. The micropumps studied in this paper had been designed with specific diaphragm thickness and diameter; while varying the materials, pressure applied and liquid types used. The outer dimension for both micropumps is 4mm × 4mm × 0.5mm with diameter and thickness of the diaphragm are 3.8mm and 20μm respectively. Valveless micropump was shown in this paper to have better performance in mechanical and fluid analysis in terms of maximum deflection and maximum flow rate at actuation pressure 30kPa vis-à-vis cantilever-valve micropump. Valveless micropump was shown in this study to have maximum diaphragm deflection of 183.06μm and maximum flow rate with 191.635μL/s at actuation pressure 30kPa using silicon dioxide as material.

  17. Dairy shed effluent treatment and recycling: Effluent characteristics and performance.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Julian; Hagare, Dharma; Sivakumar, Muttucumaru

    2016-09-15

    Dairy farm milking operations produce considerable amounts of carbon- and nutrient-rich effluent that can be a vital source of nutrients for pasture and crops. The study aim was to characterise dairy shed effluent from a commercial farm and examine the changes produced by treatment, storage and recycling of the effluent through a two-stage stabilisation pond system. The data and insights from the study are broadly applicable to passive pond systems servicing intensive dairy and other livestock operations. Raw effluent contained mostly poorly biodegradable particulate organic material and organically bound nutrients, as well as a large fraction of fixed solids due to effluent recycling. The anaerobic pond provided effective sedimentation and biological treatment, but hydrolysis of organic material occurred predominantly in the sludge and continually added to effluent soluble COD, nutrients and cations. Sludge digestion also suppressed pH in the pond and increased salt levels through formation of alkalinity. High sludge levels significantly impaired pond treatment performance. In the facultative pond, BOD5 concentrations were halved; however smaller reductions in COD showed the refractory nature of incoming organic material. Reductions in soluble N and P were proportional to reductions in respective particulate forms, suggesting that respective removal mechanisms were not independent. Conditions in the ponds were unlikely to support biological nutrient removal. Recycling caused conservative inert constituents to accumulate within the pond system. Material leaving the system was mostly soluble (86% TS) and inert (65% TS), but salt concentrations remained below thresholds for safe land application. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Entekhabi, Dara

    1996-01-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for direct observation of soil moisture. Remote measurements from space afford the possibility of obtaining frequent, global sampling of soil moisture over a large fraction of the Earth's land surface. Microwave measurements have the benefit of being largely unaffected by cloud cover and variable surface solar illumination, but accurate soil moisture estimates are limited to regions that have either bare soil or low to moderate amounts of vegetation cover. A particular advantage of passive microwave sensors is that in the absence of significant vegetation cover soil moisture is the dominant effect on the received signal. The spatial resolutions of passive Microwave soil moisture sensors currently considered for space operation are in the range 10-20 km. The most useful frequency range for soil moisture sensing is 1-5 GHz. System design considerations include optimum choice of frequencies, polarizations, and scanning configurations, based on trade-offs between requirements for high vegetation penetration capability, freedom from electromagnetic interference, manageable antenna size and complexity, and the requirement that a sufficient number of information channels be available to correct for perturbing geophysical effects. This paper outlines the basic principles of the passive microwave technique for soil moisture sensing, and reviews briefly the status of current retrieval methods. Particularly promising are methods for optimally assimilating passive microwave data into hydrologic models. Further studies are needed to investigate the effects on microwave observations of within-footprint spatial heterogeneity of vegetation cover and subsurface soil characteristics, and to assess the limitations imposed by heterogeneity on the retrievability of large-scale soil moisture information from remote observations.

  19. Effect of moisture on the aging behavior of asphalt binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tao; Huang, Xiao-Ming; Mahmoud, Enad; Garibaldy, Emil

    2011-08-01

    The moisture aging effect and mechanism of asphalt binder during the in-service life of pavement were investigated by laboratory simulating tests. Pressure aging vessel (PAV) test simulating the long-term aging of binder during the in-service life of pavement was modified to capture the long-term moisture aging effect of binder. Penetration grade tests including penetration test, soften point test, and ductility test as well as Superpave™ performance grade tests including viscosity test, dynamic shear rheometer test, and bending beam rheometer test were conducted to fully evaluate the moisture aging effect of binder. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy test and Gel-permeation chromatography test were applied to provide a fundamental understanding of the moisture aging mechanism of binder. The results indicate that moisture condition can accelerate the aging of asphalt binder and shorten the service life of asphalt binder. The modified PAV test with moisture condition can well characterize the moisture aging properties of asphalt binder.

  20. Specific gravity and wood moisture variation of white pine

    Treesearch

    Glenn L. Gammon

    1969-01-01

    A report on results of a study to develop a means for estimating specific gravity and wood moisture content of white pine. No strong relationships were found by using either the single or combined factors of age and dimensional stem characteristics. Inconsistent patterns of specific gravity and moisture over height in tree are graphically illustrated.

  1. Validation of SMAP soil moisture over a complex agricultural catchment in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeil, Isabella Maria; Vreugdenhil, Mariette; Strauss, Peter; Oismueller, Markus; Wagner, Wolfgang; Bloeschl, Guenter

    2017-04-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched in January 2015. After an irrecoverable failure of the radar, the remaining passive L-band radiometer is now providing soil moisture in the upper layer of the soil as well as freeze-thaw state every 2-3 days on a 36 km Earth-fixed grid. The first aim of this work is to validate SMAP soil moisture data against in situ ground measurements from the soil moisture network at the Hydrological Open Air Laboratory in Petzenkirchen (Lower Austria), which was installed in 2013. A heterogeneous agricultural catchment, the HOAL is characteristic for a range of catchments around the world. The network consists of 20 permanent and 11 temporary soil moisture stations distributed over an area of 66 ha. The challenge is to find a suitable combination of the in situ stations to represent the SMAP footprint. Therefore, additional sensors were installed outside of the catchment to facilitate upscaling of the in situ data to the scale of SMAP. A validation at a similar spatial scale is performed using soil moisture data from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) on-board the Metop satellites and AMSR2 on-board GCOM-W1, respectively. Results show strong correspondence (Pearson R > 0.5) between SMAP and in situ and satellite soil moisture datasets. This investigation follows the work by Chan et al. (2016), using longer time series and validation data from a not yet investigated ground truthing site, and will help assess the performance of the SMAP mission.

  2. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 2: Large scale moisture and passive microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. The research program consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components are explained in general and activities performed within the passive microwave research component are summarized. The microwave theory is discussed taking into account: soil dielectric constant, emissivity, soil roughness effects, vegetation effects, optical depth, single scattering albedo, and wavelength effects. The study site is described. The soil moisture data and its processing are considered. The relation between observed large scale soil moisture and normalized brightness temperatures is discussed. Vegetation characteristics and inverse modeling of soil emissivity is considered.

  3. Electrochemically regenerable metabolic CO2 and moisture control system for an advanced EMU application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Beckstrom, P. S.; Cusick, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Regenerable CO2 and moisture removal techniques that reduce expendables and logistics requirements are needed to sustain people undertaking extravehicular activities for the Space Station. NASA has been investigating ways to advance the Electrochemically Regenerable CO2 and Moisture Absorption (ERCA) technology to replace the nonregenerable solid lithium hydroxide absorber for the advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The ERCA technology, due to its use of liquid absorbent, has the ability to effectively satisfy the high metabolic CO2 and moisture removal requirements of PLSS applications. This paper defines the ERCA technology concept and its advantages for the PLSS application, reviews breadboard and subscale testdata and presents the results of design concepts for a prototype Absorber Module of improved performance and the physical characteristics of the projected flight hardware.

  4. Thermodynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a Regional Model with Constrained Moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Dudhia, Jimy

    2011-09-01

    In order to identify the main thermodynamic processes that sustain the Madden Julian Oscillation, an eddy available potential energy budget analysis is performed on a WRF simulation with moisture constrained by observations. The model realistically simulates the two MJO episodes observed during the winter of 2007-2008. The analysis shows that instabilities and damping associated with variations in diabatic heating and energy transport work in concert to provide the MJO with its observed characteristics. The results are used to construct a simplified paradigm of MJO thermodynamics. Furthermore, the effect of moisture nudging on the simulation is analyzed to understand the limitations of the model cumulus parameterization. Without moisture nudging, the parameterization fails to provide adequate low-level (upper-level) moistening during the early (late) stage of the MJO active phase. The moistening plays a critical role in providing stratiform heating variability that is an important source of eddy available potential energy for the model MJO.

  5. Soil moisture variability of root zone profiles within SMEX02 remote sensing footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Minha; Jacobs, Jennifer M.

    2007-04-01

    Remote sensing of soil moisture effectively provides soil moisture at a large scale, but does not explain highly heterogeneous soil moisture characteristics within remote sensing footprints. In this study, field scale spatio-temporal variability of root zone soil moisture was analyzed. During the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02), daily soil moisture profiles (i.e., 0-6, 5-11, 15-21, and 25-31 cm) were measured in two fields in Walnut Creek watershed, Ames, Iowa, USA. Theta probe measurements of the volumetric soil moisture profile data were used to analyze statistical moments and time stability and to validate soil moisture predicted by a simple physical model simulation. For all depths, the coefficient of variation of soil moisture is well explained by the mean soil moisture using an exponential relationship. The simple model simulated very similar variability patterns as those observed. As soil depth increases, soil moisture distributions shift from skewed to normal patterns. At the surface depth, the soil moisture during dry down is log-normally distributed, while the soil moisture is normally distributed after rainfall. At all depths below the surface, the normal distribution captures the soil moisture variability for all conditions. Time stability analyses show that spatial patterns of sampling points are preserved for all depths and that time stability of surface measurements is a good indicator of subsurface time stability. The most time stable sampling sites estimate the field average root zone soil moisture value within ±2.1% volumetric soil moisture.

  6. Individual Characteristics and Unit Performance. A Review of Research and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, James P.; And Others

    This report reviews existing studies of the determinants of group performance in an attempt to understand how personnel characteristics of units affect the effectiveness and efficiency with which those units perform their missions. As defined for this project, unit performance is the aggregate behavior of personnel in a unit. This review provides…

  7. Multilayer moisture barrier

    DOEpatents

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  8. Moisturizers: The Slippery Road

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Anisha; Kaur, Tejinder; Malhotra, SK; Gambhir, ML

    2016-01-01

    Moisturizers are an important part of a dermatologist's armamentarium although little is written and well, a less is truly known about them. There is a cornucopia of projected skin products in the market whose real scientific role is not proven. These products although at times are regarded as mere cosmetics but have a well-known role in many skin disorders. Adequate knowledge about their mechanism of action, dosage, usage, and adverse effects is must for a dermatologist in this era. This article aims to bring forth the ever hidden facts of the much-hyped moisturizers. It is probably the first of its kind covering all aspects of moisturizers ranging from basic science to clinical usage, a subject that receives a short shrift in the current dermatological text. PMID:27293248

  9. Moisturizers: The Slippery Road.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Anisha; Kaur, Tejinder; Malhotra, S K; Gambhir, M L

    2016-01-01

    Moisturizers are an important part of a dermatologist's armamentarium although little is written and well, a less is truly known about them. There is a cornucopia of projected skin products in the market whose real scientific role is not proven. These products although at times are regarded as mere cosmetics but have a well-known role in many skin disorders. Adequate knowledge about their mechanism of action, dosage, usage, and adverse effects is must for a dermatologist in this era. This article aims to bring forth the ever hidden facts of the much-hyped moisturizers. It is probably the first of its kind covering all aspects of moisturizers ranging from basic science to clinical usage, a subject that receives a short shrift in the current dermatological text.

  10. Global atmospheric moisture variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; James, Bonnie F.; Chi, Kay; Huang, Huo-Jin

    1989-01-01

    Research efforts during FY-88 have focused on completion of several projects relating to analysis of FGGE data during SOP-1 and on expanded studies of global atmospheric moisture. In particular, a revised paper on the relationship between diabatic heating and baroclinicity in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) was submitted. A summary of completed studies on diagnostic convective parameterization was presented at the Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography Convergence last February. These investigations of diabatic heating in the SPCZ have demonstrated the requirement for a more quantitative description of atmospheric moisture. As a result, efforts were directed toward use of passive remote microwave measurements from the Nimbus-7 SMMR and the DOD's Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI/I) as critical sources of moisture data. Activities this year are summarized.

  11. Evaluation of uncertainty in field soil moisture estimations by cosmic-ray neutron sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiffele, Lena Maria; Baroni, Gabriele; Schrön, Martin; Ingwersen, Joachim; Oswald, Sascha E.

    2017-04-01

    wheat (Pforzheim, 2013) and maize (Braunschweig, 2014) and differ in soil type and management. The results confirm a general good agreement between soil moisture estimated by CRNS and the soil moisture network. However, several sources of uncertainty were identified i.e., overestimation of dry conditions, strong effects of the additional hydrogen pools and an influence of the vertical soil moisture profile. Based on that, a global sensitivity analysis based on Monte Carlo sampling can be performed and evaluated in terms of soil moisture and footprint characteristics. The results allow quantifying the role of the different factors and identifying further improvements in the method.

  12. Physical properties and moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Tye, C.; Neumann, R.M.

    1985-07-01

    Our principal accomplishments in the physical property studies of low-rank coals are the determination of their: (A) relative amounts of tightly and loosely bound moisture, (B) porosity and pore size distribution, (C) mechanical and thermal friabilities, and (D) surface areas. The occurrence of moisture in low-rank coals involves at least two fundamentally different mechanisms for binding the water to the coal matrix. The first type of moisture behaves as if it were ''free''; the vapor pressure versus temperature behavior is similar to that of pure water. The second type occurs at sites where it is bound more tightly, resulting in a lowering of the corresponding vapor pressure. A dielectric-relaxation-spectroscopic investigation of a North Dakota lignite and a subbituminous coal provides direct evidence for the existence of the two types of moisture. Lignite incorporates 80% of its moisture in a loosely-bound form which freezes to ice and the remaining 20% is present possibly chemically bound to inorganic moieties. The subbituminous coal contains only the latter type of bound moisture. Small angle scattering has proven to be a useful and convenient method of studying the pore structure of coal, and yields information related to pore size, pore size distribution, specific surface area and specific volume. Calculation of values for these parameters must be made in terms of some model; a pore model developed at the University of Missouri has proven to be quite useful. The objective in friability studies is to determine the shift in particle size distribution as a result of tumbling or heating. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Scaling surface soil moisture in the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosh, M. H.; Jackson, T. J.; Moran, S.; Bindlish, R.; Mladenova, I.

    2006-05-01

    The estimation of surface soil moisture in semi-arid and arid regions is complicated by the inherent heterogeneous precipitation patterns and ephemeral surface water characteristics. Large-scale sampling is inefficient for long term monitoring of surface soil moisture, especially with the goal of calibration of a satellite soil moisture product such as that generated by the AMSR-E instrument for example. Statistical methods of accurately monitoring and scaling point and watershed estimates to satellite scale moisture values are explored. The location for this study is the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in Tombstone, Arizona, which is also the location of the Soil Moisture Experiment in 2004 (SMEX04). The variability of radiometric temperature brightness data is also examined for its relationships to land surface parameters, climate variables, and insitu soil moisture measurements. Variability assessment is also evaluated for consistency and persistence over a three-year period.

  14. Examining the Relationship between Learning Organization Characteristics and Change Adaptation, Innovation, and Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontoghiorghes, Constantine; Awbre, Susan M.; Feurig, Pamela L.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the relationship between certain learning organization characteristics and change adaptation, innovation, and bottom-line organizational performance. The following learning organization characteristics were found to be the strongest predictors of rapid change adaptation, quick product or…

  15. Job Characteristics and College Performance and Attitudes: A Model of Work-School Conflict and Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Adam B.

    2007-01-01

    The processes linking job characteristics to school performance and satisfaction in a sample of 253 full-time college students were examined from 2 role theory perspectives, 1 of which emphasized resource scarcity and the other resource expansion. Model tests using structural equation modeling showed that 2 resource-enriching job characteristics,…

  16. 78 FR 15112 - Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane Performance and Handling Characteristics-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane Performance and Handling Characteristics--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned...

  17. Spatiotemporal moisture dynamics in a prairie pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Amber; Ireson, Andrew; Helgason, Warren

    2016-04-01

    For most practical applications, soil moisture estimates are needed at field scale, integrated over the root zone. We present here results from a field study in a pasture site in Saskatchewan, Canada. We combine observations of point scale soil moisture content from an array of neutron probes with continuous, field scale, shallow soil moisture content observations from the COSMOS instrument. The neutron probe data provide insights into the spatial variability of soil moisture processes, which is highly significant at this site. In particular, we find that the field comprises non-participating profiles, where infiltration, change in storage and drainage are minimal, and dynamic profiles, where these processes are highly dynamic. This strongly affects the relationship between the spatial mean vs standard deviation of moisture content, with important implications for upscaling of point scale observations to field scale. The COSMOS performs well, but only captures changes in water content to a depth of around 20 cm, meaning that upscaling with depth is required to produce a field scale, root zone integrated estimation of soil moisture content. We compare three upscaling approaches.

  18. Research on a novel infrared moisture instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chao; Ma, Hao-bing

    2006-02-01

    Based on the principle of Beer-Lambert Law and aiming at the limit of traditional infrared measuring method of the moisture which utilizes mechanical modulating technology, the current paper presents a new-style measuring means, the measurement circuit and an optical structure which are based on electrically modulated technology. This application overcomes the disadvantages of common method and the moisture can be inspected uninterruptedly, untouchedly, great-range and fast if the infrared detector is used in the industry process. Without the effects of mechanical vibration, the whole system has the characteristics of low power consumption, high stability, high selectivity, free maintenance and is pocket-sized.

  19. A Roadmap for Humidity and Moisture Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, S.; Benyon, R.; Böse, N.; Heinonen, M.

    2008-10-01

    An initial roadmap for humidity and related measurements was developed in Spring 2006 as part of the EUROMET iMERA activity toward increasing impact from national investment in European metrology R&D. The conclusions address both humidity (for which standards and traceability methodologies exist, but need to be developed) and moisture content of materials (for which measurement traceability is more problematic and is not so well developed in general). The roadmap represents a shared vision of how humidity and moisture measurements and standards should develop over the next 15 years to meet future needs, open to revision as needs and technologies evolve. The roadmap identifies the main social and economic triggers that drive developments in humidity and moisture measurements and standards—notably, global warming and advanced manufacturing processes. Stemming from these triggers, key targets that require improved humidity and moisture measurements are identified. In view of global warming, one key target is the development of improved models of climate through improved measurements of atmospheric water vapor. A further target is the reduction of carbon emissions through humidity measurement to optimize industrial heat treatment and combustion processes, and through humidity and moisture measurements to achieve energy-efficient buildings. For high-performance manufacturing, one key target is improved precision control of manufacturing processes through better humidity and moisture measurements. Another key target is contaminant-free manufacture in industries such as microelectronics, through high-purity gases of known moisture content at the parts-per-trillion level. To enable these outcomes, the roadmap identifies the advances needed in measurement standards. These include the following: improved trace humidity standards; new humidity standards to cover high temperatures and pressures, steam, and non-air gases; and improved standards for moisture content of

  20. The urban moisture climate

    Treesearch

    Douglas L. Sisterson

    1977-01-01

    Data collected on 26 July 1974 as a part of project METROMEX in St. Louis show the three-dimensional structure of the urban moisture field. Mesoscale dry regions at the urban surface, corresponding to large residential and light industrial land-use characterization, were responsible for a reduction in specific humidity in the urban mixing layer. Anthropogenic sources...

  1. Tropical Pacific moisture variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Research objectives are to: (1) describe the synoptic scale variability of moisture over the tropical Pacific Ocean; (2) describe the systems leading to this variability; and (3) develop and implement satellite analysis procedures to facilitate (1) and (2) over the data sparse Pacific.

  2. Psychosocial Characteristics of Optimum Performance in Isolated and Confined Environments (ICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Keeton, Kathryn E.; Shea, Camille; Leveton, Lauren B.

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element addresses human health risks in the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), including the Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and the Risk of Psychiatric Disorders. BHP supports and conducts research to help characteristics and mitigate the Behavioral Medicine risk for exploration missions, and in some instances, current Flight Medical Operations. The Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element identified research gaps within the Behavioral Medicine Risk, including Gap BMed6: What psychosocial characteristics predict success in an isolated, confined environment (ICE)? To address this gap, we conducted an extensive and exhaustive literature review to identify the following: 1) psychosocial characteristics that predict success in ICE environments; 2) characteristics that are most malleable; and 3) specific countermeasures that could enhance malleable characteristics.

  3. Development of tough, moisture resistant laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, R. A.; Harrison, E. S.

    1982-01-01

    Tough, moisture resistant laminating resins for employment with graphite fibers were developed. The new laminating resins exhibited cost, handleability and processing characteristics equivalent to 394K (250 F) curing epoxies. The laminating resins were based on bisphenol A dicyanate and monofunctional cyanates with hydrophobic substituents. These resins sorb only small quantities of moisture at equilibrium (0.5% or less) with minimal glass transition temperature depression and represent an improvement over epoxies which sorb around 2% moisture at equilibrium. Toughening was accomplished by the precipitation of small diameter particles of butadiene nitrile rubber throughout the resin matrix. The rubber domains act as microcrack termini and energy dissipation sites, allowing increased stress accommodation prior to catastrophic failure. A unique blend of amine terminated butadiene nitrile elastomer (MW 2,000) and a high nitrile content butadiene nitrile rubber yielded the desired resin morphology.

  4. Hydrologic applications of SAR derived soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engman, Edwin T.

    1992-01-01

    The MACHYDRO-90 was a multi-sensor aircraft campaign conducted to study drainage basin hydrology and the role of soil moisture in defining hydrologic characteristics and patterns. The results from the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are presented. Data were collected over a period in which the soil conditions changed from dry to wet and then through a drying period which was close to ideal. Radar backscatter data are compared to detailed soil moisture samples taken to define soil moisture gradients within a watershed. The analysis also includes 40-MHz bandwidth SAR data, which provide very high spatial resolution. It is shown these data can be interpreted for hydrology and their application to hydrologic modeling is discussed.

  5. Soil moisture and biogeochemical factors influence the distribution of annual Bromus species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Stark, John Thomas; Rau, Benjamin; Allen, Edith B.; Phillips, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic factors have a strong influence on where annual Bromus species are found. At the large regional scale, temperature and precipitation extremes determine the boundaries of Bromusoccurrence. At the more local scale, soil characteristics and climate influence distribution, cover, and performance. In hot, dry, summer-rainfall-dominated deserts (Sonoran, Chihuahuan), little or noBromus is found, likely due to timing or amount of soil moisture relative to Bromus phenology. In hot, winter-rainfall-dominated deserts (parts of the Mojave Desert), Bromus rubens is widespread and correlated with high phosphorus availability. It also responds positively to additions of nitrogen alone or with phosphorus. On the Colorado Plateau, with higher soil moisture availability, factors limiting Bromus tectorum populations vary with life stage: phosphorus and water limit germination, potassium and the potassium/magnesium ratio affect winter performance, and water and potassium/magnesium affect spring performance. Controlling nutrients also change with elevation. In cooler deserts with winter precipitation (Great Basin, Columbia Plateau) and thus even greater soil moisture availability, B. tectorum populations are controlled by nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium. Experimental nitrogen additions stimulate Bromus performance. The reason for different nutrients limiting in dissimilar climatic regions is not known, but it is likely that site conditions such as soil texture (as it affects water and nutrient availability), organic matter, and/or chemistry interact in a manner that regulates nutrient availability and limitations. Under future drier, hotter conditions,Bromus distribution is likely to change due to changes in the interaction between moisture and nutrient availability.

  6. Comparison of the moisturization efficacy of two vaginal moisturizers: Pectin versus polycarbophil technologies.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Michael; Kane, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the vaginal deposition and moisturization of two vaginal moisturizers, Summer's Eve (SE), based on pectin, and Replens (Rp), based on polycarbophil, in a double-blind crossover study design. Fifty-one female patients were each randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. After a one-week washout period, the products were used for two weeks. After another one-week washout period, product assignments were switched. Colposcopy examinations were performed at the beginning and at the end of each product use. Of the forty-seven patients completing the study, 41 (87%) were found to have no vaginal residue after SE vaginal moisturizer, while only 25 (53%) were found to have no vaginal residue after using Rp vaginal moisturizer. No difference in relief of vaginal dryness or in product acceptance was found between the two products. This study shows that the use of SE vaginal moisturizer, based on pectin, resulted in significantly less vaginal residue compared to Rp vaginal moisturizer, based on polycarbophil, and in comparable relief of vaginal dryness. These results strongly suggest that bioadhesion is not important in vaginal moisturizers.

  7. Influence of Morphological Characteristics on Physical and Physiological Performances of Tunisian Elite Male Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Moncef, Cherif; Said, Mohamed; Olfa, Najlaoui; Dagbaji, Gomri

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the body structure and morphological characteristics of Tunisian elite handball players, and to determine the effect of these variables on functional and physical performance levels. Methods A sample of 42 male handball players (mean age 21.98±3.24 years; training duration 12 years) at international level was submitted to a test battery comprising morphological, physical and physiological assessments. Tests were yo-yo intermittent recovery test, squat jump test, countermovement jump test, vertical-jump test, and Repeated sprint Ability. Measures for assessment of anthropometric characteristics were age, size, weight, body mass index, body fat, fat mass and thin mass. Results Weight was negatively correlated to the squat jump and the countermovement jump performance. Age, weight, and body composition measures (fat and thin body mass) were additionally negatively related to the maximal oxygen uptake, and to the maximal velocity obtained in the Yo-Yo recovery test. No relationship was found between size, body mass index, body fat and the physical abilities considered. Concerning the effects of physical characteristics on the functional performances, we can note a positive relationship between squat jump, countermovement jump, and the yo-yo recovery test performance. No relationship was found between vertical jump, repeated sprint ability, and the physiological performances. Conclusions Study results point to the existence of strong correlation between morphological and physical characteristics with functional characteristics. In handball, it is possible to have a reliable estimate of anthropometric measurements, physical and physiological performances. PMID:22942992

  8. Supervisors' Performance Ratings Correlated with Selected Personal Characteristics of Attendants in a Mental Retardation Developmental Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Joseph; And Others

    A research study investigated the relationship between personal characteristics and selected demographic data of 75 attendants in a mental retardation developmental center and the assessment by 24 administrators of the attendants' job performance. Instruments used included a 20-item Direct Care Performance Scale and the Demographic Data Scale,…

  9. Academic Performance, Characteristics and Expenditures in New York City Elementary and Middle Schools. Condition Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiefel, Leanna; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Iatarola, Patrice; Fruchter, Norm

    This study examines the academic performance of students in New York City's elementary and middle schools, investigating variations across grades and schools and documenting differences in student and teacher characteristics and the pattern and level of expenditure between low, middle, and high performing schools. The study reports averages of…

  10. Relationship of Student Characteristics and Performance in a Personalized System of Instruction Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Michael C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The author examined college student characteristics and their relation to performance in a psychology course which employed a personalized system of instruction (PSI). Findings indicated that dependable predictors, such as past performance and ability measures, were as applicable to PSI courses as to traditional ones. (Author/DB)

  11. Measuring Up: Examining the Connections among State Structural Characteristics, Regulatory Practices, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks; Tandberg, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Using "Measuring Up" data from 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2006, this study examines the extent to which the state performance grades, and changes in grades, are associated with the characteristics of each state and its arrangements for higher education governance and control. To what extent is each state's higher education performance a product of…

  12. Supervisors' Performance Ratings Correlated with Selected Personal Characteristics of Attendants in a Mental Retardation Developmental Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Joseph; And Others

    A research study investigated the relationship between personal characteristics and selected demographic data of 75 attendants in a mental retardation developmental center and the assessment by 24 administrators of the attendants' job performance. Instruments used included a 20-item Direct Care Performance Scale and the Demographic Data Scale,…

  13. Moisture Control Handbook: New, low-rise, residential construction

    SciTech Connect

    Lstiburek, J.; Carmody, J.

    1991-10-01

    Moisture problems are prevalent all over North America, almost independent of climate. They are viewed as one of the single largest factors limiting the useful service life of a building. Elevated levels of moisture in buildings also can lead to serious health effects for occupants. Until recently, very little consensus on moisture control existed in the building community. The information available was typically incomplete, contradictory, usually limited to specific regions, and in many cases misleading. A need to develop a document which presented the issues relating to moisture from a building science or ``systems`` approach existed. This handbook attempts to fill that need and illustrates that energy-efficient, tight envelope design is clearly part of the solution to healthy buildings when interior relative humidity, temperature, and pressure are controlled simultaneously. The first three chapters of the handbook present the basic principles of moisture problems and solutions in buildings. Chapter 1 -- Mold, Mildew, and Condensation, examines surface moisture problems. Chapter 2 -- Moisture Movement, examines how building assemblies get wet from both the exterior and interior. Chapter 3 -- Wetting and Drying of Building Assemblies, introduces the concepts of acceptable performance, moisture balance, and the redistribution of moisture within building assemblies. Chapters 4 through 6 apply the concepts outlined in the previous chapters and present specific moisture control practices for three basic US climate zones. The advantages and disadvantages of several wall, foundation, and roof assemblies are discussed for each climate zone.

  14. A Study of the Associations between Conditions of Performance and Characteristics of Performers and New York State Solo Performance Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vonWurmb, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation undertakes an analysis of 1,044 performance evaluations from New York State School Music Association (NYSSMA) Spring Festival solo adjudication ratings of student performers from a large suburban school district. It relies on results of evaluations of observed performances, and takes these evaluations as assessments of what the…

  15. A Study of the Associations between Conditions of Performance and Characteristics of Performers and New York State Solo Performance Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    vonWurmb, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation undertakes an analysis of 1,044 performance evaluations from New York State School Music Association (NYSSMA) Spring Festival solo adjudication ratings of student performers from a large suburban school district. It relies on results of evaluations of observed performances, and takes these evaluations as assessments of what the…

  16. Electric moisture meters for wood

    Treesearch

    William L. James

    1963-01-01

    Common methods of measuring the moisture content of wood are described briefly, and a short historical account of the development of electric moisture meters is given. Electrical properties of wood are discussed briefly, and the basic operation of the resistance type and the radio- frequency types of moisture meter is outlined. Data relating the electrical resistance...

  17. Electric moisture meters for wood

    Treesearch

    William L. James

    1988-01-01

    Electric moisture meters for wood measure electric conductance (resistance) or dielectric properties, which vary fairly consistently with moisture content when it is less than 30 percent. The two major classes of electric moisture meters are the conductance (resistance) type and the dielectric type. Conductance-t ype meters use penetrating electrodes that measure in a...

  18. Moisturizer allergy: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Zirwas, Matthew J; Stechschulte, Sarah A

    2008-11-01

    Moisturizers are used by patients with dry skin conditions as well as those with healthy skin to enhance and preserve the smoothness of the skin and to interrupt the dry-skin cycle. Moisturizers are generally considered safe, although skin reactions, such as allergic contact dermatitis from topical preparations may occur. Cosmetic products including moisturizers are among the main culprits of allergic contact dermatitis. Utilizing a recently published database of all moisturizers available at Walgreens Pharmacies (Chicago, Illinois), which listed each product's allergens from the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) screening panel, we evaluated the number of moisturizers containing each allergen. Of the 276 moisturizers accounted for in the database, 68 percent contained fragrance making it the most common allergen found in these moisturizers. Parabens were discovered in 62 percent of moisturizers, followed by Vitamin E in 55 percent of products. Essential oils and biologic additives were found in 45 percent of products, followed by benzyl alcohol in 24 percent of moisturizers. Propylene glycol was found in 20 percent of moisturizers, followed by formaldehyde releasers in 20 percent of products. Iodopropynyl butylcarbamate was discovered in 16 percent of products, followed by lanolin in 10 percent of moisturizers. Methylisothiazolinone/methylchloroisothiazolinone was found in six percent of available products. Many ingredients of moisturizers have the potential to cause irritant and allergic contact dermatitis; therefore, it is necessary for clinicians to be aware of such potential allergens in order to manage and advise their patients accordingly.

  19. A Redesigned DFA Moisture Meter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The DFA moisture meter has been internationally recognized as the standard for determining moisture content of dried fruit in general and is AOAC Official Method 972.2 for measuring moisture in prunes and raisins since 1972. The device has remained virtually unchanged since its inception, with its o...

  20. Characterization of non-Fickian moisture absorption in thermosetting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guloglu, Gorkem E.; Altan, M. Cengiz

    2015-05-01

    A recently developed moisture absorption model for thermosetting polymers that combines the non-Fickian, diffusion hindrance effects and three-dimensional anisotropy is introduced. The hindered diffusion model is shown to predict both short term Fickian and long term anomalous moisture absorption behavior often observed in thermosetting polymers and their composites. The salient characteristics of long term moisture uptake such as the equilibrium moisture content and the effect of non-Fickian phenomena are presented. Anomalous moisture concentration profiles predicted by the two-dimensional solution of hindered diffusion model are demonstrated for various cases, including the through-the-thickness moisture profile of a 40-ply, quartz/bismaleimide (BMI) composite laminate. The effects of diffusion hindrance and anisotropy on the two-dimensional, through-the-thickness concentration profiles are illustrated. The moisture absorption parameters for an EPON 862 epoxy laminate are recovered from the experimental moisture absorption data. The hindered diffusion model is shown to accurately predict the moisture uptake of EPON 862 over the complete absorption time period. The non-Fickian effects governed by the hindrance coefficient are identified for both EPON 862 and quartz/BMI composite laminate. It is shown that the quartz/BMI laminate displays significant non-Fickian behavior compared to EPON 862 epoxy resin.

  1. Influence of low energy argon plasma treatment on the moisture barrier performance of hot wire-CVD grown SiNx multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majee, Subimal; Fátima Cerqueira, Maria; Tondelier, Denis; Geffroy, Bernard; Bonnassieux, Yvan; Alpuim, Pedro; Bourée, Jean Eric

    2014-01-01

    The reliability and stability are key issues for the commercial utilization of organic photovoltaic devices based on flexible polymer substrates. To increase the shelf-lifetime of these devices, transparent moisture barriers of silicon nitride (SiNx) films are deposited at low temperature by hot wire CVD (HW-CVD) process. Instead of the conventional route based on organic/inorganic hybrid structures, this work defines a new route consisting in depositing multilayer stacks of SiNx thin films, each single layer being treated by argon plasma. The plasma treatment allows creating smoother surface and surface atom rearrangement. We define a critical thickness of the single layer film and focus our attention on the effect of increasing the number of SiNx single-layers on the barrier properties. A water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of 2 × 10-4 g/(m2·day) is reported for SiNx multilayer stack and a physical interpretation of the plasma treatment effect is given.

  2. Evaluation of moisture sources for the Central European summer flood of May/June 2013 based on regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, Fanni Dora; Ludwig, Patrick; Reyers, Mark; Ulbrich, Sven; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    Heavy precipitation affected Central Europe in May/June 2013, triggering damaging floods both on the Danube and the Elbe rivers. A modelling approach with COSMO-CLM is used for a detailed analysis of the evolution of the event. Moisture flux, backward trajectories, evaporation and cyclone track analysis are evaluated for the relevant time period 30 May to 2 June 2013. The aim is to identify potential moisture sources and to quantify their contribution to the flood event in the Danube basin. Control simulations with undisturbed ERA-Interim boundary conditions and sensitivity experiments with modified evaporation characteristics are performed to estimate the role of moisture evaporated from different marine and land areas. The simulated cyclone tracks and upper level flow are compared against reanalysis. Simulated precipitation amounts are validated against E-OBS precipitation data. Two relevant cyclones are identified, which moved counterclockwise in a retrograde path from Southeastern Europe over Eastern Europe towards the northern slopes of the Alps. The control simulations represent the cyclone characteristics and tracks reasonably well. The evolution of the precipitation event in the simulations shows some minor differences to the Reanalysis in terms of its spatial and temporal characteristics. Our sensitivity experiment results provide evidence that the two main sources contributing to the event were the continental evapotranspiration (moisture recycling) and the North Atlantic Ocean. The Mediterranean Sea played only a minor role as a moisture source. This study confirms the importance of continental moisture recycling for heavy precipitation events over Central Europe during the summer half year.

  3. Effects of fish meal in beef cattle diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Mandell, I B; Buchanan-Smith, J G; Holub, B J; Campbell, C P

    1997-04-01

    We investigated the effects of fish meal (FM) in beef cattle diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid (FA) composition of longissimus muscle in 63 yearling steers (335 +/- 23 kg). High-moisture corn and alfalfa silage diets were supplemented with either a corn gluten/blood meal mixture or FM at 10% of the diet. Fish meal contained (as-is basis) 5.87 g/kg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 9.84 g/kg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Seven strategies were developed to feed either a control diet (no FM) or diets containing 5 or 10% FM with FM fed for either 56, 112, or 168 d before slaughter. Average daily gain and feed efficiency were not affected (P > .10) by FM feeding but DMI decreased. Within FM diets, cattle fed 5% FM consumed more (P < .01) DM and gained more (P < .02) than cattle fed 10% FM. Carcass traits were not affected (P > .05) by feeding strategy except for fatter (P < .05) and lower (P < .06) yielding carcasses in cattle fed 5 vs 10% FM diets. Fish meal feeding increased (P < .01) concentrations of (n-3) FA, including EPA and DHA, and decreased (P < .05) concentrations of arachidonic acid. Increasing the amount of dietary FM further increased (P < .01) concentrations of EPA and DHA and decreased (P < .05) concentrations of (n-6) FA. We estimate that a 114-g steak from cattle fed 10% FM would supply 35 to 90% of the current average daily intake of EPA and DHA in North America. The results indicate that FM may have a role in niche marketing of beef provided that eating quality is not compromised.

  4. Moisture Metrics Project

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchmann, Mark

    2011-08-31

    the goal of this project was to determine the optimum moisture levels for biomass processing for pellets commercially, by correlating data taken from numerous points in the process, and across several different feedstock materials produced and harvested using a variety of different management practices. This was to be done by correlating energy consumption and material through put rates with the moisture content of incoming biomass ( corn & wheat stubble, native grasses, weeds, & grass straws), and the quality of the final pellet product.This project disseminated the data through a public website, and answering questions form universities across Missouri that are engaged in biomass conversion technologies. Student interns from a local university were employed to help collect data, which enabled them to learn firsthand about biomass processing.

  5. Physical properties and moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Hauserman, W.B.

    1984-05-01

    This is an interim report of work done to identify and define numerically a group of coal properties relating the structural integrity and intrinsic moisture content of coals. It represents work for the first time approaching a possibility of correlating properties formerly considered as completely unrelated subject areas. The data are still preliminary but demonstrate productive experimental techniques for further insight into the physical and molecular structure of coals. The only firm conclusion to be drawn from the friability and dielectric data together is that both are simple, numerical techniques to characterize and compare coals with respect to their mechanical structure and mode of intrinsic moisture attachment. Each provides sets of several variables, whose full significance can only be established after expanding the data base to include more coals, with more replications for statistical validity. The accomplishment to date consists of demonstrating that such data are possible. 10 references, 16 figures.

  6. Socioeconomic characteristics of enrollees appear to influence performance scores for medicare part D contractors.

    PubMed

    Young, Gary J; Rickles, Nathaniel M; Chou, Chia-Hung; Raver, Eli

    2014-01-01

    More than 150 private companies contract with the federal government to provide Part D prescription drug benefits to Medicare beneficiaries, either through stand-alone drug plans or as part of Medicare Advantage plans. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) evaluates these companies on a set of performance measures, including plan enrollees' medication adherence. We used 2012 data from CMS and data from the US Census Bureau to investigate whether these performance ratings are influenced by the socioeconomic characteristics of enrollee populations. We found that some companies have a substantial advantage over others because of their enrollees' socioeconomic characteristics, with more than a third of the variation in adherence scores tied to these characteristics. CMS should seriously consider adjusting adherence scores to account for differences in the socioeconomic characteristics of enrollee populations.

  7. Use of temperature and humidity sensors to determine moisture content of oolong tea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew; Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Chen, Chiachung

    2014-08-22

    The measurement of tea moisture content is important for processing and storing tea. The moisture content of tea affects the quality and durability of the product. Some electrical devices have been proposed to measure the moisture content of tea leaves but are not practical. Their performance is influenced by material density and packing. The official oven method is time-consuming. In this study, the moisture content of Oolong tea was measured by the equilibrium relative humidity technique. The equilibrium relative humidity, and temperature, of tea materials were measured by using temperature and relative humidity sensors. Sensors were calibrated, and calibration equations were established to improve accuracy. The moisture content was calculated by using an equilibrium moisture content model. The error of the moisture content determined with this method was within 0.5% w.b. at moisture <15% w.b. Uncertainty analysis revealed that the performance of the humidity sensor had a significant effect on the accuracy of moisture determination.

  8. Effects of various dietary lipid additives on lamb performance, carcass characteristics, adipose tissue fatty acid composition, and wool characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meale, S J; Chaves, A V; He, M L; Guan, L L; McAllister, T A

    2015-06-01

    Tasco (Ascophyllum nodosum; TA) was compared to canola (CO), flax (FO), and safflower oils (SO) for effects on performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid profiles of adipose tissue in skirt muscle (SM), subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues, and wool production and quality characteristics of Canadian Arcott lambs. Fifty-six lambs were randomly assigned to dietary treatments (n = 14 per treatment). Diets consisted of a pelleted, barley-based finishing diet containing either TA, CO, FO, or SO (2% of dietary DM). Feed deliveries and orts were recorded daily. Lambs were weighed weekly and slaughtered once they reached ≥ 45 kg BW. Carcass characteristics, rumen pH, and liver weights were determined at slaughter. Wool yield was determined on mid-side patches of 100 cm2 shorn at d 0 and on the day before slaughter (d 105 or 140). Dye-bands were used to determine wool growth, micrometer and staple length. Adipose tissues and SM samples were taken at slaughter and analyzed for FA profiles. No effects were observed on intake, growth, or carcass characteristics. A greater (P = 0.02) staple strength of lambs fed CO was the only effect observed in wool. Flax oil increased total n-3 and decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio in tissue FA profiles (P < 0.001) in comparison to other diets. Tasco increased (P ≤ 0.001) SFA/PUFA in all tissues, whereas concentrations of CLA c-9, t-11 were greatest with SO in all tissues (P ≤ 0.02), compared to other diets. These results suggest Tasco supplementation did not improve the n-3/n-6 or SFA/PUFA ratios of lamb adipose tissues compared to other dietary lipid additives.

  9. Spatial representativeness of soil moisture using in situ, remote sensing, and land reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolai-Shaw, Nadine; Hirschi, Martin; Mittelbach, Heidi; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the spatial representativeness of the temporal dynamics of absolute soil moisture and its temporal anomalies over North America based on a range of data sets. We use three main data sources: in situ observations, the remote-sensing-based data set of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative on the Essential Climate Variable soil moisture (ECV-SM), and land surface model estimates from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts's ERA-Land. The intercomparisons of the three soil moisture data sources are performed at the in situ locations as well as for the full-gridded products. The applied method allows us to quantify the spatial footprint of soil moisture. At the in situ locations it is shown that for absolute soil moisture the ECV-SM and ERA-Land products perform similarly, while for the temporal anomalies the ECV-SM product shows more similarity in spatial representativeness with the in situ data. When taking into account all grid cells of the ECV-SM and ERA-Land products to calculate spatial representativeness, we find the largest differences in spatial representativeness for the absolute values. The differences in spatial representativeness between the single products can be related to some of their intrinsic characteristics, i.e., for ECV-SM low similarities are found in topographically complex terrain and areas with dense vegetation, while for ERA-Land the smoothed model topography and surface properties affect soil moisture and its spatial representativeness. Additionally, we show that the applied method is robust and can be used to analyze existing networks to provide insight into the locations in which higher station density would be of most benefit.

  10. Root-zone soil moisture estimation from assimilation of downscaled Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumedah, Gift; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Merlin, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    The crucial role of root-zone soil moisture is widely recognized in land-atmosphere interaction, with direct practical use in hydrology, agriculture and meteorology. But it is difficult to estimate the root-zone soil moisture accurately because of its space-time variability and its nonlinear relationship with surface soil moisture. Typically, direct satellite observations at the surface are extended to estimate the root-zone soil moisture through data assimilation. But the results suffer from low spatial resolution of the satellite observation. While advances have been made recently to downscale the satellite soil moisture from Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission using methods such as the Disaggregation based on Physical And Theoretical scale Change (DisPATCh), the assimilation of such data into high spatial resolution land surface models has not been examined to estimate the root-zone soil moisture. Consequently, this study assimilates the 1-km DisPATCh surface soil moisture into the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) to better estimate the root-zone soil moisture. The assimilation is demonstrated using the advanced Evolutionary Data Assimilation (EDA) procedure for the Yanco area in south eastern Australia. When evaluated using in-situ OzNet soil moisture, the open loop was found to be 95% as accurate as the updated output, with the updated estimate improving the DisPATCh data by 14%, all based on the root mean square error (RMSE). Evaluation of the root-zone soil moisture with in-situ OzNet data found the updated output to improve the open loop estimate by 34% for the 0-30 cm soil depth, 59% for the 30-60 cm soil depth, and 63% for the 60-90 cm soil depth, based on RMSE. The increased performance of the updated output over the open loop estimate is associated with (i) consistent estimation accuracy across the three soil depths for the updated output, and (ii) the deterioration of the open loop output for deeper soil depths. Thus, the

  11. Governance and performance: the performance of Dutch hospitals explained by governance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Blank, Jos L T; van Hulst, Bart Laurents

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of Dutch hospitals using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method with bootstrapping. In particular, the analysis focuses on accounting for cost inefficiency measures on the part of hospital corporate governance. We use bootstrap techniques, as introduced by Simar and Wilson (J. Econom. 136(1):31-64, 2007), in order to obtain more efficient estimates of the effects of governance on the efficiency. The results show that part of the cost efficiency can be explained with governance. In particular we find that a higher remuneration of the board as well as a higher remuneration of the supervisory board does not implicate better performance.

  12. Perceptual characteristics of nutritional supplements determine the expected effectiveness in boosting strength, endurance, and concentration performances.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Attila; Bérdi, Márk; Köteles, Ferenc; Bárdos, György

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the link between the physical-perceptual characteristics of nutritional supplements and their expected effectiveness in enhancing sport performance. Participants (n = 267) ranked nine images of fictive nutritional supplements, varying in shape, color, and route of administration (e.g., pill, powder, lotion, etc.), in ranked- order of expected effectiveness. They performed the task three times, (1) for strength, (2) endurance, and (3) for concentration. Results have revealed that the perceived effectiveness of the supplements was statistically significantly different for the three types of performances (p < .001). A significant interpersonal variability was observed in the ranking-order of the supplements. The findings reveal that perceptual characteristics of 'believed to be nutritional supplements', aimed at sport performance enhancement, influence their perceived effectiveness. Future inquiries in sport nutrition should examine the relationship between expected and experienced effectiveness of various nutritional supplements in enhancing sport performance.

  13. Performance characteristics of LOX-H2, tangential-entry, swirl-coaxial, rocket injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Doug; Petersen, Eric; Clark, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Development of a high performing swirl-coaxial injector requires an understanding of fundamental performance characteristics. This paper addresses the findings of studies on cold flow atomic characterizations which provided information on the influence of fluid properties and element operating conditions on the produced droplet sprays. These findings are applied to actual rocket conditions. The performance characteristics of swirl-coaxial injection elements under multi-element hot-fire conditions were obtained by analysis of combustion performance data from three separate test series. The injection elements are described and test results are analyzed using multi-variable linear regression. A direct comparison of test results indicated that reduced fuel injection velocity improved injection element performance through improved propellant mixing.

  14. Modifiable Anthropometric Characteristics Are Associated With Unilateral and Bilateral Carry Performance.

    PubMed

    Beck, Ben; Carstairs, Greg L; Billing, Daniel C; Caldwell, Joanne N; Middleton, Kane J

    2017-02-01

    Beck, B, Carstairs, GL, Billing, DC, Caldwell, JN, and Middleton, KJ. Modifiable anthropometric characteristics are associated with unilateral and bilateral carry performance. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 489-494, 2017-A mismatch between physical ability and task requirements can increase the risk of on-the-job injury. Therefore, understanding key anthropometric characteristics associated with job performance is important in developing targeted training programs and selecting employees in physically demanding occupations. The aims of this study were to understand which anthropometric and demographic (age/sex) characteristics were associated with performance in a unilateral stretcher carry and bilateral jerry can and kettle bell carries. Sixty-seven enlisted Australian Army soldiers (46 men and 21 women) participated in this investigation. Body composition was quantified using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Univariate and multivariable regression techniques were used to quantify correlations between anthropometric characteristics and carry performance. Median carry distance was 650 m (interquartile range [IQR] = 425-1,025 m) in the stretcher carry, 300 m (IQR = 215-445 m) in the jerry can carry, and 265 m (IQR = 200-400 m) in the kettle bell carry. Univariate analyses demonstrated that whole body, trunk, upper arm, forearm, and leg lean mass, as well as stature and body mass were associated with performance across the 3 carry tasks. Of these, leg lean mass was shown to be a key characteristic associated with carry performance. Subsequently, it is suggested that training programs focus on whole-body lean mass with specific emphasis on leg lean mass. Additionally, we demonstrated that age and sex were not significantly associated with carry performance when controlling for leg lean mass, indicating that modifiable factors can be targeted in training programs to improve job performance.

  15. Preventive Care Quality of Medicare Accountable Care Organizations: Associations of Organizational Characteristics With Performance.

    PubMed

    Albright, Benjamin B; Lewis, Valerie A; Ross, Joseph S; Colla, Carrie H

    2016-03-01

    Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) are a delivery and payment model aiming to coordinate care, control costs, and improve quality. Medicare ACOs are responsible for 8 measures of preventive care quality. To create composite measures of preventive care quality and examine associations of ACO characteristics with performance. This is a cross-sectional study of Medicare Shared Savings Program and Pioneer participants. We linked quality performance to descriptive data from the National Survey of ACOs. We created composite measures using exploratory factor analysis, and used regression to assess associations with organizational characteristics. Of 252 eligible ACOs, 246 reported on preventive care quality, 177 of which completed the survey (response rate=72%). In their first year, ACOs lagged behind PPO performance on the majority of comparable measures. We identified 2 underlying factors among 8 measures and created composites for each: disease prevention, driven by vaccines and cancer screenings, and wellness screening, driven by annual health screenings. Participation in the Advanced Payment Model, having fewer specialists, and having more Medicare ACO beneficiaries per primary care provider were associated with significantly better performance on both composites. Better performance on disease prevention was also associated with inclusion of a hospital, greater electronic health record capabilities, a larger primary care workforce, and fewer minority beneficiaries. ACO preventive care quality performance is related to provider composition and benefitted by upfront investment. Vaccine and cancer screening quality performance is more dependent on organizational structure and characteristics than performance on annual wellness screenings, likely due to greater complexity in eligibility determination and service administration.

  16. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  17. Using ARM observations to test soil moisture dynamics in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S.; Cook, D. R.; Drewniak, B. A.; Stein, M.; Collis, S. M.; Moyer, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Potential changes in soil moisture may have significant societal impacts, as soil moisture directly influences agriculture. Soil moisture is also a critical factor in climate simulations as it is the moisture source for evapotranspiration over land. Climate model projections generally show reduced soil moisture in future warmer climate conditions, and the scale of potential adverse impacts means that validation of those projections is a science priority. Our understanding of soil moisture dynamics is hampered by limited suitable observational data, but the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site offers a unique resource for this purpose, with over a decade of simultaneous measurements of soil moisture profiles and measurements of moisture fluxes and aboveground variables. In this work we use stations across SGP to identify statistical relationships in drivers of soil moisture dynamics. We also compare observed soil moisture dynamics to those in the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4), running CLM4 in an offline mode with observationally derived atmospheric forcing, to identify similarities and discrepancies in resulting soil moisture evolution in observations and model. Preliminary comparison of metrics such as soil moisture characteristic time, soil moisture infiltration rate, etc. suggests that the governing hydrological and/or biophysical processes in models need improvements. The spatial heterogeneity of the SGP measurement stations also provides insight into the role of sub-grid scale features and the role of spatial resolution in producing accurate representations of soil moisture in climate models.

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Management of High-Walls

    SciTech Connect

    2013-12-01

    Moisture management of high-R walls is important to ensure optimal performance. This case study, developed by Building America team Building Science Corporation, focuses on how eight high-R walls handle the three main sources of moisture—construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leaks.

  19. A new method of determining moisture gradient in wood

    Treesearch

    Zhiyong Cai

    2008-01-01

    Moisture gradient in wood and wood composites is one of most important factors that affects both physical stability and mechanical performance. This paper describes a method for measuring moisture gradient in lumber and engineering wood composites as it varies across material thickness. This innovative method employs a collimated radiation beam (x rays or [gamma] rays...

  20. A scheme for assessing the performance characteristics of small field-of-view gamma cameras.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, B S; Bugby, S L; Lees, J E; Perkins, A C

    2015-02-01

    Existing protocols for assessing the performance characteristics of large field-of-view (LFOV) gamma cameras can be inappropriate and require modification for use with small field-of-view (SFOV) gamma camera systems. This communication proposes a generic scheme suitable for evaluating the performance characteristics of SFOV gamma cameras, based on modifications to the standard procedures of NEMA NU1-2007. Key differences in methodology between tests for LFOV and SFOV gamma cameras are highlighted along with the rationale for these changes. It is envisaged that this scheme will provide more appropriate methods for equipment characterisation, ensuring quality and consistency for all SFOV cameras.

  1. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Prototype Batteries for Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L.; Surampudi, S.; Byers, J.; Marsh, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the scientific payload, expected launch date and tasks, and an image of the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander components. The Lander's battery specifications are given. The program objectives for the Li-ion cells for the Lander are listed, and results performance evaluation and cycle life performance tests are outlined for different temperatures. Cell charge characteristics are described, and test data is presented for charge capacity at varying temperatures. Capacity retention and storage characteristics tests are described and results are shown.

  2. Development of FEC and ESC performance characteristics for IDR carriers greater than 10 Mb/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Francisco; Koga, Keiichiro

    1988-12-01

    The requirement for restoration of high capacity fiber optic cables and the new tariffs approved for Intelsat digital services has created a requirement to develop performance characteristics for intermediate data rate (IDR) carriers greater than 10 Mb/s. This paper presents the trade-offs used in this development, and estimates the coding gains needed to meet these requirements. A number of forward error correction schemes are evaluated and a rate 3/4 convolutional code with soft decision Viterbi decoding is selected. Engineering service circuits performance characteristics for IDR carriers greater than 10 Mb/s are presented.

  3. Moisture barrier properties of xylan composite films

    Treesearch

    Amit Saxena; Thomas J. Elder; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2011-01-01

    Moisture barrier properties of films based on xylan reinforced with several cellulosic resources including nanocrystalline cellulose, acacia bleached kraft pulp fibers and softwood kraft fibers have been evaluated. Measurements of water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) were performed by a modification of the wet cup method described by ASTM E 96-95, indicating that...

  4. Soil Moisture Estimation Using Hyperspectral SWIR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, D.

    2007-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is engaged with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and the University of Georgia's National Environmentally Sound Production Agriculture Laboratory (NESPAL) both in Tifton, Georgia, USA, to develop transformations for medium and high resolution remotely sensed images to generate moisture indicators for soil. The Institute for Technology Development (ITD) is located at the Stennis Space Center in southern Mississippi and has developed hyperspectral sensor systems that, when mounted in aircraft, collect electromagnetic reflectance data of the terrain. The sensor suite consists of sensors for three different sections of the electromagnetic spectrum; the Ultra-Violet (UV), Visible/Near InfraRed (VNIR) and Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR). The USDA/ ARS' Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory has probes that measure and record soil moisture. Data taken from the ITD SWIR sensor and the USDA/ARS soil moisture meters were analyzed to study the informatics relationships between SWIR data and measured soil moisture. The geographic locations of 29 soil moisture meters provided by the USDA/ARS are in the vicinity of Tifton, Georgia. Using USGS Digital Ortho Quads (DOQ), flightlines were drawn over the 29 soil moisture meters. The SWIR sensor was installed into an aircraft. The coordinates for the flightlines were also loaded into the navigational system of the aircraft. This airborne platform was used to collect the data over these flightlines. In order to prepare the data set for analysis, standard preprocessing was performed. These standard processes included sensor calibration, spectral subsetting, and atmospheric calibration. All 60 bands of the SWIR data were collected for each line in the image data, 15 bands of which were stripped from the data set leaving 45 bands of information in the wavelength range of 906 to 1705 nanometers. All the image files were calibrated using the regression equations

  5. Malaysian and Singaporean students' affective characteristics and mathematics performance: evidence from PISA 2012.

    PubMed

    Thien, Lei Mee; Ong, Mei Yean

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the extent to which the affective characteristics of Malaysian and Singaporean students' attainment compared to the OECD average in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012, and examine the influence of students' affective characteristics, gender, and their socioeconomic status on mathematics performance at both student and school levels. Sample consisted of 5197 and 5546 15-year-old Malaysian and Singaporean students. Data were analysed using hierarchical linear modelling approach with HLM 7.0 software. Results showed that the Index of economic, social, and cultural status (ESCS), mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematics anxiety have significant effects on mathematics performance in Malaysia and Singapore at the student level. Proportion of boys at the school level has no significant effects on mathematics performance for both Malaysian and Singaporean students. ESCS mean at the school level has positive and significant effects on mathematics performance in Malaysia, but not in Singapore. Limitations, implications, and future studies were discussed.

  6. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission - Science and Data Product Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nloku, E.; Entekhabi, D.; O'Neill, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, planned for launch in late 2014, has the objective of frequent, global mapping of near-surface soil moisture and its freeze-thaw state. The SMAP measurement system utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The instruments will operate on a spacecraft in a 685 km polar orbit with 6am/6pm nodal crossings, viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width, providing 3-day global coverage. Data from the instruments will yield global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state at 10 km and 3 km resolutions, respectively, every two to three days. The 10-km soil moisture product will be generated using a combined radar and radiometer retrieval algorithm. SMAP will also provide a radiometer-only soil moisture product at 40-km spatial resolution and a radar-only soil moisture product at 3-km resolution. The relative accuracies of these products will vary regionally and will depend on surface characteristics such as vegetation water content, vegetation type, surface roughness, and landscape heterogeneity. The SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw measurements will enable significantly improved estimates of the fluxes of water, energy and carbon between the land and atmosphere. Soil moisture and freeze/thaw controls of these fluxes are key factors in the performance of models used for weather and climate predictions and for quantifYing the global carbon balance. Soil moisture measurements are also of importance in modeling and predicting extreme events such as floods and droughts. The algorithms and data products for SMAP are being developed in the SMAP Science Data System (SDS) Testbed. In the Testbed algorithms are developed and evaluated using simulated SMAP observations as well as observational data from current airborne and spaceborne L-band sensors including data from the SMOS and Aquarius missions. We report here on the development status

  7. Fingertip moisture is optimally modulated during object manipulation.

    PubMed

    André, T; Lefèvre, P; Thonnard, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Coordination between the normal force exerted by fingers on a held object and the tangential constraints at the fingertips helps to successfully manipulate objects. It is well established that the minimal grip force required to prevent an object from slipping strongly depends on the frictional properties at the finger-object interface. Moreover, interindividual variation in the modulation of grip force suggests that the moisture level of the skin could influence grip force strategy. In the present study we asked subjects to perform a horizontal point-to-point task holding an object with a precision grip. The object was equipped with a moisture sensor. We found large inter- and intraindividual moisture level variations. There was a strong correlation between grip force exerted and moisture level at the fingertips. Indeed, the grip force was minimal when the fingertip moisture was optimal with respect to friction. Furthermore, fingertip moisture tended toward this optimal level at which grip force is minimal. In conclusion, we showed a modulation of the grip force with moisture level and hypothesized novel mechanisms of moisture regulation that tend to stabilize the moisture level toward the value that minimizes grip force.

  8. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  9. Moisture Management of High-R Walls (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  10. Drought monitoring with soil moisture active passive (SMAP) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashok; Vu, Tue; Veettil, Anoop Valiya; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-09-01

    Recent launch of space-borne systems to estimate surface soil moisture may expand the capability to map soil moisture deficit and drought with global coverage. In this study, we use Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) soil moisture geophysical retrieval products from passive L-band radiometer to evaluate its applicability to forming agricultural drought indices. Agricultural drought is quantified using the Soil Water Deficit Index (SWDI) based on SMAP and soil properties (field capacity and available water content) information. The soil properties are computed using pedo-transfer function with soil characteristics derived from Harmonized World Soil Database. The SMAP soil moisture product needs to be rescaled to be compatible with the soil parameters derived from the in situ stations. In most locations, the rescaled SMAP information captured the dynamics of in situ soil moisture well and shows the expected lag between accumulations of precipitation and delayed increased in surface soil moisture. However, the SMAP soil moisture itself does not reveal the drought information. Therefore, the SMAP based SWDI (SMAP_SWDI) was computed to improve agriculture drought monitoring by using the latest soil moisture retrieval satellite technology. The formulation of SWDI does not depend on longer data and it will overcome the limited (short) length of SMAP data for agricultural drought studies. The SMAP_SWDI is further compared with in situ Atmospheric Water Deficit (AWD) Index. The comparison shows close agreement between SMAP_SWDI and AWD in drought monitoring over Contiguous United States (CONUS), especially in terms of drought characteristics. The SMAP_SWDI was used to construct drought maps for CONUS and compared with well-known drought indices, such as, AWD, Palmer Z-Index, sc-PDSI and SPEI. Overall the SMAP_SWDI is an effective agricultural drought indicator and it provides continuity and introduces new spatial mapping capability for drought monitoring. As an

  11. Tropical Pacific moisture variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, James P.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives are to describe synoptic scale variability of moisture over the tropical Pacific Ocean and the systems leading to this variability; implement satellite analysis procedures in support of this effort, and to incorporate additional satellite information into operational analysis forecast systems at the National Meteorological Center (NMC). Composite satellite radiance patterns describe features detectable well before the development of synoptic scale tropical plumes. These typical features were extracted from historical files of Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) radiance observations for a pair of tropical plumes which developed during January 1989. Signals were inserted into the NMC operational medium range forecast model and a suite of model integrations were conducted. Many of the 48 h model errors of the historical forecasts were eliminated by the inclusion of more complete satellite observations. Three studies in satellite radiance analysis progressed. An analysis which blended TOVS moisture channels, OLR observations and European Center for Medium Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model analysis to generate fields of total precipitable water comparable to those estimated from Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) mu-wave observations. This study demonstrated that a 10 y climatology of precipitable water over the oceans is feasible, using available infrared observations (OLR and TOVS) and model analysis (ECMWF, NMC or similar quality). The estimates are sensitive to model quality and the estimating model must be updated with operational model changes. Coe developed a set of tropical plume and ITCZ composites from TOVS observations, and from NMC and ECMWF analyses which had been passed through a radiative transfer model to simulate TOVS radiances. The composites have been completed as well as many statistical diagnostics of individual TOVS channels. Analysis of the computations is commencing. Chung has initiated a study of the

  12. Predicting root zone soil moisture with satellite near-surface moisture data in semiarid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfreda, S.; Baldwin, D. C.; Keller, K.; Smithwick, E. A. H.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most critical variables in semiarid environment is the soil water content that represents a controlling factor for both ecological and hydrological processes. Soil moisture monitoring over large scales may be extremely useful, but it is limited by the fact that most of the available tools provides only surface measurements not representative of the effective amount of water stored in the subsurface. Therefore, a methodology able to infer root-zone soil moisture starting from surface measurements is highly desirable. Recently a new simplified formulation has been introduced to provide a formal description of the mathematical relationship between surface measurements and root-zone soil moisture (Manfreda et al., HESS 2014). This is a physically based approach derived from the soil water balance equation, where different soil water loss functions have been explored in order to take into account for the non-linear processes governing soil water fluxes. The study highlighted that the soil loss function is the key for such relationship that is therefore strongly influenced by soil type and physiological plant types. The new formulation has been tested on soil moisture based on measurements taken from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) and the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) databases. The method sheds lights on the physical controls for soil moisture dynamics and on the possibility to use such a simplified method for the description of root-zone soil moisture. Furthermore, the method has been also couple with an Enasamble Kalman Filter (EnKF) in order to optimize its performances for the large scale monitoring based the new satellite near-surface moisture data (SMAP). The optimized SMAR-EnKF model does well in both wet and dry climates and across many different soil types (51 SCAN locations) providing a strategy for real-time soil moisture monitoring.

  13. Using anthropometric and performance characteristics to predict selection in junior UK Rugby League players.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; O'Hara, John; Brightmore, Amy; Cooke, Carlton; Chapman, Chris

    2011-05-01

    Research examining the factors influencing selection within talented junior Rugby League players is limited. The aims of this study were firstly to determine whether differences existed for anthropometric and performance characteristics between regional and national selection in high performance UK junior Rugby League players, and secondly to identify variables that discriminated between these selection levels. Regional representative (n=1172) selected junior players (aged 13-16 years) undertook an anthropometric and fitness testing battery with players split according to selection level (i.e., national, regional). MANCOVA analyses, with age and maturation controlled, identified national players as having lower sum of 4 skinfolds scores compared to regional players, and also performed significantly better on all physical tests. Stepwise discriminant analysis identified that estimated maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), chronological age, body mass, 20 m sprint, height, sum of 4 skinfolds and sitting height discriminated between selection levels, accounting for 28.7% of the variance. This discriminant analysis corresponded to an overall predictive accuracy of 63.3% for all players. These results indicate that performance characteristics differed between selection levels in junior Rugby League players. However, the small magnitude of difference between selection levels suggests that physical qualities only partially explain higher representative selection. The monitoring and evaluation of such variables, alongside game related performance characteristics, provides greater knowledge and understanding about the processes and consequences of selection, training and performance in youth sport. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of dietary coarsely ground corn and 3 bedding floor types on broiler live performance, litter characteristics, gizzard and proventriculus weight, and nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Lin, Y M; Stark, C R; Ferket, P R; Williams, C M; Brake, J

    2017-03-02

    The effects of zero or 50% dietary coarsely ground corn (CC) in pelleted and screened grower and finisher diets on broilers reared on 3 bedding floor types (plastic net [NET], new pine wood shavings litter [NEW], or old pine wood shavings litter [OLD]) on broiler live performance, litter characteristics, gizzard and proventriculus weight, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) were studied in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Fine corn was produced with a hammermill (271 μm) and CC with a roller mill (1145 μm). Utilization of CC reduced milling cost by 9.47 cents per MT with similar nutrient content of screened pellets. The 50% CC treatment exhibited improved (P ≤ 0.05) feed intake at 42 d (2.5%) and 49 d (3.0%), and BW (5.4%) and FCR from 28 d (1.4%). Birds on NEW litter exhibited improved (P < 0.05) BW at 28 and 35 d and 42 d FCR as compared to NET and 49 d FCR compared to NET and OLD. The 50% CC treatment exhibited increased (P < 0.05) gizzard weight but decreased proventriculus weight at 49 d. NEW litter birds exhibited increased (P ≤ 0.05) gizzard weight at 28 d and 49 d and decreased proventriculus weight as compared to NET at 49 days. The 50% CC treatment exhibited decreased (P ≤ 0.05) litter moisture at 35 and 42 d, litter N at 35 and 49 d, and litter pH at 49 days. OLD litter birds exhibited greater (P < 0.05) litter N at 14, 35, and 49 d, as well as litter moisture, pH, and ammonia concentration at 49 days. The 50% CC group also exhibited improved AID of nitrogen (P < 0.05). Broilers fed pelleted and screened diets containing 50% CC exhibited improved live performance and reduced litter moisture while use of NEW litter resulted in a somewhat similar effect, which indicated that consumption of NEW litter also facilitated gastric development and function.

  15. Performance characteristics of a low-cost, field-deployable miniature CCD spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Simon; Nimmo, Malcolm; Worsfold, Paul J.

    2000-01-01

    Miniature spectrometers incorporating array detectors are becoming a viable, low-cost option for field and process deployments. The performance characteristics of one such instrument are reported and compared with those of a conventional benchtop instrument. The parameters investigated were wavelength repeatability, photometric linearity, instrumental noise (photometric precision) and instrumental drift. PMID:18924863

  16. Linking Student and Programmatic Characteristics to Test Performance: Issues and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Kristin Kline; Thurlow, Martha; Albus, Debra; Spicuzza, Richard; Minnema, Jane

    This study was conducted to analyze student background characteristics and educational history data that affect participation and performance of non-English language background students, including those with limited English proficiency, on Minnesota's Basic Standards Test. Data were obtained from individual student cumulative files in six schools…

  17. The Impact of Learner Characteristics on Learning Performance in Hybrid Courses among Japanese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Minoru; Yamamoto, Hiroh; Santiago, Rowena

    2007-01-01

    To improve the management of hybrid courses, the relationship between learner characteristics and learning performance was analyzed in two regular university courses. Undergraduate and graduate students participated in two 15-week hybrid courses which consisted of face-to-face lectures (Information Industrial issues), and the corresponding modules…

  18. Method of Estimating the Principal Characteristics of an Infantry Fighting Vehicle from Basic Performance Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    can be shown to have a linear scaling with load when their performance characteristics are left unchanged. 10 M. G. Bekker , Theory of Land Locomotion...Configuration.” US TACOM Report 13575. Warren MI: US Army Tank- Automotive Command, 03 January 1992. Bekker , M. G., Theory of Land Locomotion: the Mechanics of

  19. Physical Performance Characteristics of Assisted Living Residents and Risk for Adverse Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliani, Carol A.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Park, Nan S.; Schrodt, Lori A.; Rokoske, Franzi; Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers know little about the physical performance ability of residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) residents and its relationship to adverse outcomes such as fracture, nursing home placement, functional decline, and death. The purposes of this article are to (a) describe the functional characteristics of RC/AL residents, (b)…

  20. Hindi Heritage Language Learners' Performance during OPIs: Characteristics and Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilieva, Gabriela Nik.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examines the oral performance of Hindi language learners during practice Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPI) conducted during workshops hosted by New York University and sponsored by STARTALK. The most salient characteristics of the heritage language learners' output are compared with the output of foreign language learners who are…

  1. Hindi Heritage Language Learners' Performance during OPIs: Characteristics and Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilieva, Gabriela Nik.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examines the oral performance of Hindi language learners during practice Oral Proficiency Interviews (OPI) conducted during workshops hosted by New York University and sponsored by STARTALK. The most salient characteristics of the heritage language learners' output are compared with the output of foreign language learners who are…

  2. Physical Performance Characteristics of Assisted Living Residents and Risk for Adverse Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliani, Carol A.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Park, Nan S.; Schrodt, Lori A.; Rokoske, Franzi; Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers know little about the physical performance ability of residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) residents and its relationship to adverse outcomes such as fracture, nursing home placement, functional decline, and death. The purposes of this article are to (a) describe the functional characteristics of RC/AL residents, (b)…

  3. Test-Taker Characteristics and Integrated Speaking Test Performance: A Path-Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan; Hong, He-Ting Vivian

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among language proficiency, two selected test-taker characteristics (i.e., topical knowledge and anxiety), and integrated speaking test performance. Data collection capitalized on three sets of instruments: three integrated tasks derived from TOEFL-iBT preparation materials, the state anxiety inventory created…

  4. Test-Taker Characteristics and Integrated Speaking Test Performance: A Path-Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan; Hong, He-Ting Vivian

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among language proficiency, two selected test-taker characteristics (i.e., topical knowledge and anxiety), and integrated speaking test performance. Data collection capitalized on three sets of instruments: three integrated tasks derived from TOEFL-iBT preparation materials, the state anxiety inventory created…

  5. Postweaning feed restriction effects on steer feedlot performance and carcass characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to evaluate impacts of 2 levels of supplemental feed provided to cows during late gestation and 2 levels of feed provided to their sons during postweaning development on subsequent feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. Bull calves (n = 56 in 2010; n = 51 in 2011) were bo...

  6. Epilepsy in the School Aged Child: Cognitive-Behavioral Characteristics and Effects on Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathryn C.; Hynd, George W.

    1995-01-01

    Children with epilepsy frequently display cognitive sequelae that are overlooked or misunderstood by educational personnel, yet may adversely impact academic performance. Reviews common cognitive-behavioral characteristics of children with epilepsy, typical effects of anticonvulsant medications, and various periictal phenomena and their relative…

  7. Students' Psychosocial Characteristics as Predictors of Academic Performance in Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojat, Mahammadreza; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study of 175 Jefferson Medical College (Pennsylvania) students compared psychosocial characteristics with basic science examination grades, clinical examination grades, and ratings of clinical competence as performance measures. Results indicate the noncognitive psychosocial measures are significant and unique predictors of medical school…

  8. A Report on the Performance Characteristics of Power Sources for Remote Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report summarizes performance characteristics of candidate power sources planned particularly for use by indigenous forces of friendly...underdeveloped nations. Older types of power sources , such as heat engines, hydroelectric and magnetohydrodynamic, are suggested for continued research and...summarizes in detail the status of technologic development of power sources is included.

  9. Epilepsy in the School Aged Child: Cognitive-Behavioral Characteristics and Effects on Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathryn C.; Hynd, George W.

    1995-01-01

    Children with epilepsy frequently display cognitive sequelae that are overlooked or misunderstood by educational personnel, yet may adversely impact academic performance. Reviews common cognitive-behavioral characteristics of children with epilepsy, typical effects of anticonvulsant medications, and various periictal phenomena and their relative…

  10. Effect of backgrounding system on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of steers that were backgrounded using 1 of 3 treatments: 1) corn residue grazing supplemented 6 days a week with 2.77 kg DM/hd of distillers (CRD), 2) oat-brassica forage grazing (OBF) or 3) drylotting on a ...

  11. An integrated GIS application system for soil moisture data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Di; Shen, Runping; Huang, Xiaolong; Shi, Chunxiang

    2014-11-01

    The gaps in knowledge and existing challenges in precisely describing the land surface process make it critical to represent the massive soil moisture data visually and mine the data for further research.This article introduces a comprehensive soil moisture assimilation data analysis system, which is instructed by tools of C#, IDL, ArcSDE, Visual Studio 2008 and SQL Server 2005. The system provides integrated service, management of efficient graphics visualization and analysis of land surface data assimilation. The system is not only able to improve the efficiency of data assimilation management, but also comprehensively integrate the data processing and analysis tools into GIS development environment. So analyzing the soil moisture assimilation data and accomplishing GIS spatial analysis can be realized in the same system. This system provides basic GIS map functions, massive data process and soil moisture products analysis etc. Besides,it takes full advantage of a spatial data engine called ArcSDE to effeciently manage, retrieve and store all kinds of data. In the system, characteristics of temporal and spatial pattern of soil moiture will be plotted. By analyzing the soil moisture impact factors, it is possible to acquire the correlation coefficients between soil moisture value and its every single impact factor. Daily and monthly comparative analysis of soil moisture products among observations, simulation results and assimilations can be made in this system to display the different trends of these products. Furthermore, soil moisture map production function is realized for business application.

  12. Current Performance Characteristics of NASA Langley Research Center's Cockpit Motion Base and Standardized Test Procedure for Future Performance Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowen, Brandon; Stringer, Mary T.; Hutchinson, Brian K.; Davidson, Paul C.; Gupton, Lawrence E.

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the updated performance characteristics of NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Cockpit Motion Base (CMB) after recent revisions that were made to its inner-loop, feedback control law. The modifications to the control law will be briefly described. The performance of the Cockpit Motion Facility (CMF) will be presented. A short graphical comparison to the previous control law can be found in the appendix of this report. The revised controller will be shown to yield reduced parasitic accelerations with respect to the previous controller. Metrics based on the AGARD Advisory Report No. 144 are used to assess the overall system performance due to its recent control algorithm modification. This report also documents the standardized simulator test procedure which can be used in the future to evaluate potential updates to the control law.

  13. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  14. Part-load performance characteristics of a lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Juan; Li, Ming; Zhu, Jun-qiang

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the part-load performance of a lean burn catalytic combustion gas turbine (LBCCGT) system in three different control modes: varying fuel, bleeding off the fuel mixture flow after the compressor and varying rotational speed. The conversions of methane species for chemical process are considered. A 1D heterogeneous plug flow model was utilized to analyze the system performance. The actual turbomachinery components were designed and predicted performance maps were applied to system performance research. The part-load characteristics under three control strategies were numerically investigated. The main results show that: the combustor inlet temperature is a significant factor that can significantly affect the part-load characteristics of the LBCCGT system; the rotational speed control mode can provide the best performance characteristics for part-load operations; the operation range of the bleed off mode is narrower than that of the speed control mode and wider than that of the fuel only mode; with reduced power, methane does not achieve full conversion over the reactor at the fuel only control mode, which will not warrant stable operation of the turbine system; the thermal efficiency of the LBCCGT system at fuel only control strategy is higher than that at bleed off control strategy within the operation range.

  15. A study on the performance and emission characteristics of esterified pinnai oil tested in VCR engine.

    PubMed

    Ashok Kumar, T; Chandramouli, R; Mohanraj, T

    2015-11-01

    Biodiesel is a clean renewable fuel derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. It is biodegradable, oxygenated, non toxic and free from sulfur and aromatics. The biodiesel prepared from pinnai oil undergoes acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification process. The fatty acid methyl esters components were identified using gas chromatography and compared with the standard properties. The properties of biodiesel are comparable with diesel. The yield of the biodiesel production depends upon the process parameters such as reaction temperature, pH, time duration and amount of catalyst. The yield of biodiesel by transesterification process was 73% at 55°C. This fuel was tested in a variable compression ratio engine with blend ratios of B10 and B20. During the test runs the compression ratio of the engine was varied from 15:1 to 18:1 and the torque is adjusted from zero to maximum value of 22Nm. The performance characteristics such as the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption and exhaust gas temperature of the engine are analyzed. The combustion characteristics of biodiesel like ignition delay, combustion duration and maximum gas temperature and the emission characteristics are also analyzed. The performance characteristics, combustion characteristics and engine emission are effective in the variable compression ratio engine with biodiesel and it is compared with diesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Thermal Performance and Air Leakage Characteristics of Six Log Homes in Idaho.

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, Carolyn; Eklund, Ken; Baylon, David

    1993-08-01

    The thermal performance and air leakage characteristics of four electrically heated log houses located in Idaho are summarized. The air leakage and construction characteristics of two additional log homes are also examined. The energy consumption of the four homes was submetered at weekly reporting intervals for up to 16 months. Blower door tests and site audits were performed. In addition, conditions at two of these homes, including heat flux through the log walls, indoor and outdoor temperatures, solar flux and envelope tightness, were measured in detail over several days during winter conditions. The energy use and thermal performance of these two homes were then modeled using SUNCODE-PC, an hourly thermal simulation program employing a finite difference technique.

  17. EFFECTS OF MOISTURE IN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE FIBERBOARD ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Murphy, J.; Hackney, B.

    2010-02-11

    The fiberboard assembly used in 9975 shipping packages as an impact-absorption and insulation component has the capacity to absorb moisture, with an accompanying change to its properties. While package fabrication requirements generally maintain the fiberboard moisture content within manufacturing range, there is the potential during use or storage for atypical handling or storage practices which result in the absorption of additional moisture. In addition to performing a transportation function, the 9975 shipping packages are used as a facility storage system for special nuclear materials at the Savannah River Site. A small number of packages after extended storage have been found to contain elevated moisture levels. Typically, this condition is accompanied by an axial compaction of the bottom fiberboard layers, and the growth of mold. In addition to potential atypical practices, fiberboard can exchange moisture with the surrounding air, depending on the ambient humidity. Laboratory data have been generated to correlate the equilibrium moisture content of cane fiberboard with the humidity of the surrounding air. These data are compared to measurements taken within shipping packages. With a reasonable measurement of the fiberboard moisture content, an estimate of the fiberboard properties can be made. Over time, elevated moisture levels will negatively impact performance properties, and promote fiberboard mold growth and resultant degradation.

  18. Observed inter-camera variability of clinically relevant performance characteristics for Siemens Symbia gamma cameras.

    PubMed

    Kappadath, S Cheenu; Erwin, William D; Wendt, Richard E

    2006-11-28

    We conducted an evaluation of the intercamera (i.e., between cameras) variability in clinically relevant performance characteristics for Symbia gamma cameras (Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, PA) based on measurements made using nine separate systems. The significance of the observed intercamera variability was determined by comparing it to the intracamera (i.e., within a single camera) variability. Measurements of performance characteristics were based on the standards of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association and reports 6, 9, 22, and 52 from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. All measurements were performed using 99mTc (except 57Co used for extrinsic resolution) and low-energy, high-resolution collimation. Of the nine cameras, four have crystals 3/8 in. thick and five have crystals 5/8 in. thick. We evaluated intrinsic energy resolution, intrinsic and extrinsic spatial resolution, intrinsic integral and differential flood uniformity over the useful field-of-view, count rate at 20% count loss, planar sensitivity, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) resolution, and SPECT integral uniformity. The intracamera variability was estimated by repeated measurements of the performance characteristics on a single system. The significance of the observed intercamera variability was evaluated using the two-tailed F distribution. The planar sensitivity of the gamma cameras tested was found be variable at the 99.8% confidence level for both the 3/8-in. and 5/8-in. crystal systems. The integral uniformity and energy resolution were found to be variable only for the 5/8-in. crystal systems at the 98% and 90% confidence level, respectively. All other performance characteristics tested exhibited no significant variability between camera systems. The measured variability reported here could perhaps be used to define nominal performance values of Symbia gamma cameras for planar and SPECT imaging.

  19. Board characteristics, governance objectives, and hospital performance: An empirical analysis of German hospitals.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Andrea; Winter, Vera; Büchner, Vera Antonia

    2017-02-02

    There is a growing need for hospital supervisory boards to support hospital management in different areas, including (financial) monitoring, resource provision, stakeholder relationships, and strategic decision-making. Little is currently known about how boards' emphases on these various governance objectives contribute to performance. Using a dominant logics perspective, this article aims to detect the governance logics that hospital boards emphasize, to determine whether there are distinct clusters of hospitals with the same sets of emphases, and to show how cluster membership relates to board characteristics and financial performance. Using factor analysis, we identify latent classes of governance objectives and use hierarchical cluster analysis to detect distinct clusters with varying emphasis on the classes. We then use multinomial regression to explore the associations between cluster membership and board characteristics (size, gender diversity, and occupational diversity) and examine the associations between clusters and financial performance using OLS regression. Classes of objectives reflecting three governance theories-agency theory, stewardship theory, and stakeholder theory-can be distinguished, and hospitals can be divided into four clusters based on their board's relative emphasis on the classes. Cluster membership is significantly associated with board characteristics. There is also a significant association between cluster membership and hospital financial performance, with two of three groups performing significantly better than the reference group. High performance in hospitals can be the result of governance logics, which, compared to simple board characteristics, are associated with better financial outcomes. Hospitals can influence the emphasis placed on different governance objectives and enhance organizational success by creating boards that are small enough to be effective yet diverse enough to profit from a wide variety of expertise and

  20. Off-Design Performance Prediction of Gas Turbines without the use of Compressor or Turbine Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suraweera, Janitha Kanishka

    A new method of predicting gas turbine off-design performance is presented. This method, referred to as the core control method, is based on the idea that performance across a gas turbine depends on a single parameter that controls the energy input to the said gas turbine. It is shown that only the design-point performance of a gas turbine is needed to predict its off-design performance, and that neither compressor nor turbine characteristics are required. A thermodynamic model is developed for predicting the off-design performance of a single-spool turbojet and a two-spool gas generator with a free power turbine. This model is further developed to simulate the effects of handling bleed schedules, performance limiters and performance deterioration. The core control method is then used to predict the off-design performance of a Rolls-Royce Viper Mark 521 as a proof-of-concept, after which, the new and deteriorated off-design performance of three Rolls-Royce RB211-24GT gas turbines is predicted. In addition to the discussions on the involved theories and the performance predictions, the process by which the deteriorated RB211-24GT performance data was analyzed, and the sources and propagation of measurement uncertainties are also discussed.

  1. The influence of tyre characteristics on measures of rolling performance during cross-country mountain biking.

    PubMed

    Macdermid, Paul William; Fink, Philip W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    This investigation sets out to assess the effect of five different models of mountain bike tyre on rolling performance over hard-pack mud. Independent characteristics included total weight, volume, tread surface area and tread depth. One male cyclist performed multiple (30) trials of a deceleration field test to assess reliability. Further tests performed on a separate occasion included multiple (15) trials of the deceleration test and six fixed power output hill climb tests for each tyre. The deceleration test proved to be reliable as a means of assessing rolling performance via differences in initial and final speed (coefficient of variation (CV) = 4.52%). Overall differences between tyre performance for both deceleration test (P = 0.014) and hill climb (P = 0.032) were found, enabling significant (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.049) models to be generated, allowing tyre performance prediction based on tyre characteristics. The ideal tyre for rolling and climbing performance on hard-pack surfaces would be to decrease tyre weight by way of reductions in tread surface area and tread depth while keeping volume high.

  2. Soil Moisture Project Evaluation Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, R. H. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Approaches planned or being developed for measuring and modeling soil moisture parameters are discussed. Topics cover analysis of spatial variability of soil moisture as a function of terrain; the value of soil moisture information in developing stream flow data; energy/scene interactions; applications of satellite data; verifying soil water budget models; soil water profile/soil temperature profile models; soil moisture sensitivity analysis; combinations of the thermal model and microwave; determing planetary roughness and field roughness; how crust or a soil layer effects microwave return; truck radar; and truck/aircraft radar comparison.

  3. Performance characteristics according to the channel length and magnetic fields of cylindrical Hall thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongsub; Seo, Mihui; Seon, Jongho; June Lee, Hae; Choe, Wonho

    2011-09-01

    Performance characteristics of low power cylindrical Hall thrusters are investigated in terms of the length of the discharge channel. Thrust, efficiency, discharge current, and propellant utilization are evaluated for different channel lengths of 19, 22, and 25 mm. It is found that the propellant utilization and ion energy distribution function are strongly associated with the channel length. Increase of thrust and efficiency are also found with increasing channel lengths. These characteristics of the thruster are interpreted with possible generation of multi-charged ions due to increased residing time within the extended space inside the channel.

  4. Simulation Model for Prediction of Transient Performance Characteristics of Single-Phase Shaded Pole Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarac, Vasilija; Atanasova-Pacemska, Tatjana

    2016-07-01

    Paper proposes mathematical model of single phase shaded pole motor suitable for analysis of motor dynamic behavior. Derived mathematical model from d-q reference frame theory is applied at motor simulation model. Derived simulation model enables analysis of transient performance characteristics of motor currents, speed and electromagnetic torque under different operating regimes. Obtained results from the simulation are compared with data from analytical calculations based on method of symmetrical components and data from experiment for the purpose of verification of the simulation model. Simulation model is useful for studying the effect of parameters on motor starting and running characteristics at different types of loads.

  5. Summary of directional divergence characteristics of several high performance aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the high-angle-of-attack characteristics of a number of high-performance aircraft as determined from model force tests and free-flight model tests and correlates these characteristics with the dynamic directional-stability parameter. This correlation shows that the dynamic directional-stability parameter correlates fairly well with directional divergence. Data are also presented to show the effect of some airframe modifications on the directional divergence potential of the configuration. These results show that leading-edge slates seem to be the most effective airframe modification for reducing or eliminating the directional divergence potential of aircraft with moderately swept wings.

  6. Preventive care quality of Medicare Accountable Care Organizations: Associations of organizational characteristics with performance

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Benjamin B.; Lewis, Valerie A.; Ross, Joseph S.; Colla, Carrie H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) are a delivery and payment model aiming to coordinate care, control costs, and improve quality. Medicare ACOs are responsible for eight measures of preventive care quality. Objectives To create composite measures of preventive care quality and examine associations of ACO characteristics with performance. Design Cross-sectional study of Medicare Shared Savings Program and Pioneer participants. We linked quality performance to descriptive data from the National Survey of ACOs. We created composite measures using exploratory factor analysis, and used regression to assess associations with organizational characteristics. Results Of 252 eligible ACOs, 246 reported on preventive care quality, 177 of which completed the survey (response rate=72%). In their first year, ACOs lagged behind PPO performance on the majority of comparable measures. We identified two underlying factors among eight measures and created composites for each: disease prevention, driven by vaccines and cancer screenings, and wellness screening, driven by annual health screenings. Participation in the Advanced Payment Model, having fewer specialists, and having more Medicare ACO beneficiaries per primary care provider were associated with significantly better performance on both composites. Better performance on disease prevention was also associated with inclusion of a hospital, greater electronic health record capabilities, a larger primary care workforce, and fewer minority beneficiaries. Conclusions ACO preventive care quality performance is related to provider composition and benefitted by upfront investment. Vaccine and cancer screening quality performance is more dependent on organizational structure and characteristics than performance on annual wellness screenings, likely due to greater complexity in eligibility determination and service administration. PMID:26759974

  7. Distributed Soil Moisture Estimation in a Mountainous Semiarid Basin: Constraining Soil Parameter Uncertainty through Field Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatheendradas, S.; Vivoni, E.

    2007-12-01

    A common practice in distributed hydrological modeling is to assign soil hydraulic properties based on coarse textural datasets. For semiarid regions with poor soil information, the performance of a model can be severely constrained due to the high model sensitivity to near-surface soil characteristics. Neglecting the uncertainty in soil hydraulic properties, their spatial variation and their naturally-occurring horizonation can potentially affect the modeled hydrological response. In this study, we investigate such effects using the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) applied to the mid-sized (100 km2) Sierra Los Locos watershed in northern Sonora, Mexico. The Sierra Los Locos basin is characterized by complex mountainous terrain leading to topographic organization of soil characteristics and ecosystem distributions. We focus on simulations during the 2004 North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) when intensive soil moisture measurements and aircraft- based soil moisture retrievals are available in the basin. Our experiments focus on soil moisture comparisons at the point, topographic transect and basin scales using a range of different soil characterizations. We compare the distributed soil moisture estimates obtained using (1) a deterministic simulation based on soil texture from coarse soil maps, (2) a set of ensemble simulations that capture soil parameter uncertainty and their spatial distribution, and (3) a set of simulations that conditions the ensemble on recent soil profile measurements. Uncertainties considered in near-surface soil characterization provide insights into their influence on the modeled uncertainty, into the value of soil profile observations, and into effective use of on-going field observations for constraining the soil moisture response uncertainty.

  8. SMOS soil moisture validation with U.S. in situ newworks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estimation of soil moisture at large scale has been performed using several satellite-based passive microwave sensors using a variety of retrieval methods. The most recent source of soil moisture is the European Space Agency Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. Since it is a new sensor u...

  9. Validation of SMAP surface soil moisture products with core validation sites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission has utilized a set of core validation sites as the primary methodology in assessing the soil moisture retrieval algorithm performance. Those sites provide well-calibrated in situ soil moisture measurements within SMAP product grid pixels for diver...

  10. Transformational leadership and safety performance among nurses: the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lievens, Ilse; Vlerick, Peter

    2014-03-01

    To report the impact of transformational leadership on two dimensions of nurses' safety performance (i.e. safety compliance and safety participation) and to study the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics in this relationship. Safety performance refers to the behaviours that employees exhibit to adhere to safety guidelines and to promote health and safety at their workplace. Nurses' safety performance is a major challenge for healthcare settings, urging the need to identify the key determinants and psychological mechanisms that influence it. A cross-sectional survey study. The study was carried out in September 2010 in a large Belgian hospital. We used self-administered questionnaires; 152 nurses participated. The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. In line with our first hypothesis, the results show that transformational leadership exerted a significant positive impact on both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This positive relation was mediated by knowledge-related job characteristics, supporting our second hypothesis. Head nurses' transformational leadership can enhance nurses' compliance with and participation in safety. Furthermore, transformational head nurses are able to influence the perception that their nurses have about the kind and amount of knowledge in their job, which can also lead to increases in both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This study therefore demonstrates the key impact that transformational head nurses have, both directly and indirectly, on the safety performance of their nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. SELECTION OF ENDOCRINOLOGY SUBSPECIALTY TRAINEES: WHICH APPLICANT CHARACTERISTICS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH PERFORMANCE DURING FELLOWSHIP TRAINING?

    PubMed Central

    Natt, Neena; Chang, Alice Y.; Berbari, Elie F.; Kennel, Kurt A.; Kearns, Ann E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine which residency characteristics are associated with performance during endocrinology fellowship training as measured by competency-based faculty evaluation scores and faculty global ratings of trainee performance. Method We performed a retrospective review of interview applications from endocrinology fellows who graduated from a single academic institution between 2006 and 2013. Performance measures included competency-based faculty evaluation scores and faculty global ratings. The association between applicant characteristics and measures of performance during fellowship was examined by linear regression. Results The presence of a laudatory comparative statement in the residency program director’s letter of recommendation (LoR) or experience as a chief resident was significantly associated with competency-based faculty evaluation scores (β = 0.22, P = 0.001; and β = 0.24, P = 0.009, respectively) and faculty global ratings (β = 0.85, P = 0.006; and β = 0.96, P = 0.015, respectively). Conclusion The presence of a laudatory comparative statement in the residency program director’s LoR or experience as a chief resident were significantly associated with overall performance during subspecialty fellowship training. Future studies are needed in other cohorts to determine the broader implications of these findings in the application and selection process. PMID:26437219

  12. Space-time soil moisture variability for two different land use types: analysis at the plot scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuecco, Giulia; Borga, Marco; Penna, Daniele; Canone, Davide; Ferraris, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    Understanding space-time soil moisture variability at various scales is a key issue in hydrological research. At the plot scale soil moisture variability is expected to be explained by physical factors such as soil hydraulic properties, local topography and vegetation cover. This study aims to: i) characterize the spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture at the plot scale at two soil depths and for two different types of land use (meadow and vineyard); ii) investigate the role of vegetation cover on the seasonal variability of soil moisture; iii) assess the capability of a dynamic model to explain soil moisture variability and the control exerted by land use. The work is based on soil moisture data collected on a plot (about 200 m2) in Grugliasco (Po River basin, Northern Italy) by means of Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurements. The plot is divided into two subplots: one covered by grapevine plants, the other covered homogeneously by grass. The soil is sandy, the slope is about 1%, and there is a buffer grass area about 20 m wide around the measurement field. The characteristics of the site allow to isolate the contribution of soil hydraulic properties and land use to space-time soil moisture variability. We used the data of 40 probes distributed in the two subplots, vertically inserted into the soil at 0-30 cm and 0-60 cm depths. Precipitation and temperature are recorded continuously on site. Statistics were computed based on soil moisture measurements collected continuously at daily time step over three years (2006-2008). Results show that soil moisture spatial patterns at the two sampling depths are highly correlated for both land uses. Higher values of mean soil moisture at 0-60 cm depth with respect to 0-30 cm for both types of land use likely reflect the evaporation processes affecting more the surface layer. Spatial mean soil moisture is always higher in the vineyard than in the meadow (especially at 0-30 cm depth), implying the influence of

  13. Soil moisture and the persistence of North American drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglesby, Robert J.; Erickson, David J., III

    1989-01-01

    Numerical sensitivity experiments on the effects of soil moisture on North American summertime climate are performed using a 12-layer global atmospheric general circulation model. Consideration is given to the hypothesis that reduced soil moisture may induce and amplify warm, dry summers of midlatitude continental interiors. The simulations resemble the conditions of the summer of 1988, including an extensive drought over much of North America. It is found that a reduction in soil moisture leads to an increase in surface temperature, lower surface pressure, increased ridging aloft, and a northward shift of the jet stream. It is shown that low-level moisture advection from the Gulf of Mexico is important in the maintenance of persistent soil moisture deficits.

  14. Prediction of Dried Durian Moisture Content Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husna, Marati; Purqon, Acep

    2016-08-01

    Moisture content has a crucial issue in post-harvest processing since it plays main role to estimate a quality of dried product. However, estimating the moisture content is difficult since it shows mathematically nonlinear systems and complex physical processes. We investigate the prediction of moisture content of dried product by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Our sample is a Bengkulu's local durian that is dried using a microwave oven. Our results show that ANN can predict the moisture content by performing with R2 value is 98.47%. Moreover, the RMSE values is 3.97% and MSE values is 0.16%. Our results indicate that ANN model have high capability for predicting moisture content and it is potentially applied in post-harvest product, especially in drying product quality control.

  15. A quantitative comparison of soil moisture inversion algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zyl, J. J. van; Kim, Y.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of four bare surface radar soil moisture inversion algorithms in the presence of measurement errors. The particular errors considered include calibration errors, system thermal noise, local topography and vegetation cover.

  16. A quantitative comparison of soil moisture inversion algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zyl, J. J. van; Kim, Y.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of four bare surface radar soil moisture inversion algorithms in the presence of measurement errors. The particular errors considered include calibration errors, system thermal noise, local topography and vegetation cover.

  17. Estimation of surface heat and moisture fluxes over a prairie grassland. IV - Impact of satellite remote sensing of slow canopy variables on performance of a hybrid biosphere model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosson, William L.; Smith, Eric A.; Cooper, Harry J.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical experiments are conducted using the Ex-BATS model of Crosson and Weng (1993), which is an adaptation the Dickinson (1983, 1984) and Dickinson et al. (1986) biosphere model BATS. The purpose of these experiments is the assessment of the Ex-BATS performance when using remotely sensed data for the estimation of three key canopy variables retrieved from NOAA-AVHRR measurements: the total surface albedo, the leaf area index (LAI), and the nondiurnally varying component of stomatal resistance, r(s). The results of the simulations, which cover the entire FIFE 1987 time period, show that the satellite retrievals of r(s) are only 20 to 30 percent less accurate than the idealized results of the control experiment. The performance of the model which used satellite retrieval of the surface albedo and LAI was essentially equivalent to the hypothetical version.

  18. Physical Characteristics and Performance of Japanese Top-Level American Football Players.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Daichi; Asakura, Masaki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shinzo; Yamada, Yosuke

    2017-09-01

    Yamashita, D, Asakura, M, Ito, Y, Yamada, S, and Yamada, Y. Physical characteristics and performance of Japanese top-level American football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2455-2461, 2017-This study aimed to compare the physical characteristics and performance between top-level nonprofessional football players in Japan and National Football League (NFL) Combine invited players and between top-level and middle-level players in Japan to determine the factors that enhance performance in international and national competitions. A total of 168 American football players (>20 years) in Japan participated in an anthropometric (height and weight) and physical (vertical jump, long jump, 40-yard dash, pro-agility shuttle, 3-cone drill, and bench press repetition test) measurement program based on the NFL Combine program to compete in the selection of candidates for the Senior World Championship. All players were categorized into 1 of the 3 position groups based on playing position: skill players, big skill players, and linemen. Japanese players were additionally categorized into selected and nonselected players for the second tryout. The NFL Combine candidates had significantly better performance than selected Japanese players on all variables except on performance related to quickness among the 3 position groups. Compared with nonselected players, selected Japanese skill players had better performance in the 40-yard dash and bench press test and big skill players had better performance in the vertical jump, broad jump, and 40-yard dash. Selected and nonselected Japanese linemen were not different in any measurements. These results showed the challenges in American football in Japan, which include not only improving physical performance of top-level players, but also increasing the number of football players with good physical performance.

  19. Physical Characteristics and Performance of Japanese Top-Level American Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, Masaki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shinzo; Yamada, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Yamashita, D, Asakura, M, Ito, Y, Yamada, S, and Yamada, Y. Physical characteristics and performance of Japanese top-level American football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2455–2461, 2017—This study aimed to compare the physical characteristics and performance between top-level nonprofessional football players in Japan and National Football League (NFL) Combine invited players and between top-level and middle-level players in Japan to determine the factors that enhance performance in international and national competitions. A total of 168 American football players (>20 years) in Japan participated in an anthropometric (height and weight) and physical (vertical jump, long jump, 40-yard dash, pro-agility shuttle, 3-cone drill, and bench press repetition test) measurement program based on the NFL Combine program to compete in the selection of candidates for the Senior World Championship. All players were categorized into 1 of the 3 position groups based on playing position: skill players, big skill players, and linemen. Japanese players were additionally categorized into selected and nonselected players for the second tryout. The NFL Combine candidates had significantly better performance than selected Japanese players on all variables except on performance related to quickness among the 3 position groups. Compared with nonselected players, selected Japanese skill players had better performance in the 40-yard dash and bench press test and big skill players had better performance in the vertical jump, broad jump, and 40-yard dash. Selected and nonselected Japanese linemen were not different in any measurements. These results showed the challenges in American football in Japan, which include not only improving physical performance of top-level players, but also increasing the number of football players with good physical performance. PMID:28052052

  20. Performance characteristics of low-dissipative generalized Carnot cycles with external leakage losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chuan-Kun; Guo, Jun-Cheng; Chen, Jin-Can

    2015-11-01

    Under the assumption of low-dissipation, a unified model of generalized Carnot cycles with external leakage losses is established. Analytical expressions for the power output and efficiency are derived. The general performance characteristics between the power output and the efficiency are revealed. The maximum power output and efficiency are calculated. The lower and upper bounds of the efficiency at the maximum power output are determined. The results obtained here are universal and can be directly used to reveal the performance characteristics of different Carnot cycles, such as Carnot heat engines, Carnot-like heat engines, flux flow engines, gravitational engines, chemical engines, two-level quantum engines, etc. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11405032).