Science.gov

Sample records for molasses wastewater bio-hydrogen

  1. Bio-hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred tank reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Li, Yong-feng; Chen, Hong; Deng, Jie-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    A study of bio-hydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 5.4 L). The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for bio-hydrogen production was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 8-32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. The maximum hydrogen production yield of 8.19 L/d was obtained in the reactor with the OLR increased from 8 kg COD/m3 reactor/d to 24 kg COD/m3 d. However, the hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) drastically decreased at an OLR of 32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d. Ethanoi, acetic, butyric and propionic were the main liquid fermentation products with the percentages of 31%, 24%, 20% and 18%, which formed the mixed-type fermentation.

  2. [Enlargement test studies of bio-hydrogen production using artificial wastewater of corn stalk fermentation lixivium by mixed culture].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mao-Lin; Wei, Rui-Xia; Fan, Yao-Ting; Xing, Yan; Hou, Hong-Wei

    2007-08-01

    Conversion of artificial corn stalk wastewater, which was prepared according to the main composition of the corn stalk fermentation lixivium, into bio-hydrogen gas by mixed culture was performed in a 20 L half-continuous flow fermenter. The influences of several environmental factors on the bio-hydrogen production, such as HRT, C/N ratio, Fe2+ and artificial corn stalk wastewater concentration were discussed in the tests. The experimental results showed that HRT, C/N ratio, Fe2+ and artificial corn stalk wastewater concentration significantly affected the fermentation hydrogen production. The maximum H2 yield of 11.80 mol/kg, H2 concentration of 56% and hydrogen production rate of 8.81 L/(L x d) were obtained at HRT = 10 h, C/N = 100, Fe2+ concentration of 100 mg/L and substrate concentration of 12.5 g/L by mixed culture, respectively. In the fermentation hydrogen-producing process, the conversion efficiency of the substrate was more than 90%, and 39.40% of COD was removed from the reactor. The main by-products in the liquid phase were acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid and a little ethanol and butanol throughout this study.

  3. Potential improvement to a citric wastewater treatment plant using bio-hydrogen and a hybrid energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Xiaohua; Yang, Haijun; Berthold, Sascha; Doetsch, Christian; Shen, Jianquan

    Treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater is characterized as cost-consuming. The conventional technology uses the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process (A 2/O), which does not produce hydrogen. There is potential for energy saving using hydrogen utilization associated with wastewater treatment because hydrogen can be produced from organic wastewater using anaerobic fermentation. A 50 m 3 pilot bio-reactor for hydrogen production was constructed in Shandong Province, China in 2006 but to date the hydrogen produced has not been utilized. In this work, a technical-economic model based on hydrogen utilization is presented and analyzed to estimate the potential improvement to a citric wastewater plant. The model assesses the size, capital cost, annual cost, system efficiency and electricity cost under different configurations. In a stand-alone situation, the power production from hydrogen is not sufficient for the required load, thus a photovoltaic array (PV) is employed as the power supply. The simulated results show that the combination of solar and bio-hydrogen has a much higher cost compared with the A 2/O process. When the grid is connected, the system cost achieved is 0.238 US t -1 wastewater, which is lower than 0.257 US t -1 by the A 2/O process. The results reveal that a simulated improvement by using bio-hydrogen and a FC system is effective and feasible for the citric wastewater plant, even when compared to the current cost of the A 2/O process. In addition, lead acid and vanadium flow batteries were compared for energy storage service. The results show that a vanadium battery has lower cost and higher efficiency due to its long lifespan and energy efficiency. Additionally, the cost distribution of components shows that the PV dominates the cost in the stand-alone situation, while the bio-reactor is the main cost component in the parallel grid.

  4. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-02-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control.

  5. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control. PMID:24495932

  6. Kinetic study of ozonation of molasses fermentation wastewater.

    PubMed

    Coca, M; Peña, M; González, G

    2007-10-22

    A kinetic study of molasses wastewater ozonation was carried out in a stirred tank reactor to obtain the rate constants for the decolorization reaction and the regime through which ozone is absorbed. First, fundamental mass transfer parameters such as ozone solubility, volumetric mass transfer coefficients and ozone decomposition kinetics were determined from semi-batch experiments in organic-free solutions with an ionic composition similar that of industrial wastewater. The influence of operating variables such as the stirring rate and gas flow rate on the kinetic and mass transfer parameters was also studied. The application of film theory allows to establish that the reactions between ozone and colored compounds in wastewater take place in the fast and pseudo-first-order regime, within the liquid film. The decolorization rate constants were evaluated at pH 8.7 and 25 degrees C, varying from 0.6 x 10(7) to 3.8 x 10(7)L mol(-1)s(-1), depending on the stirring rate and the inlet gas flow.

  7. Variables affecting efficiency of molasses fermentation wastewater ozonation.

    PubMed

    Coca, M; Peña, M; González, G

    2005-09-01

    The main operating variables affecting ozonation efficiencies of wastewater from beet molasses alcoholic fermentation have been studied. Semibatch experiments have been performed in order to analyze the influence of pH, bicarbonate ion, temperature and stirring rate on color and organic matter removals. The efficiencies were similar regardless of the pH, which indicates that direct reactions of ozone with wastewater organics were predominant to radical reactions. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed the reduction in the concentration of organics absorbing light at 475 nm after ozonation. The elimination of bicarbonate ion, strong inhibitor of hydroxyl radical reactions, yielded an improvement in both color and COD reduction efficiencies. Acidification for removing bicarbonate ions produced a shift of colored compounds to smaller molecular weights. The highest efficiencies were achieved at 40 degrees C. Color and COD reductions at 40 degrees C were about 90% and 37%, respectively. In no case, the percentage of TOC removed was higher than 10-15%. Stirring rate had a slightly positive effect during the first stage of the ozonation showing that mass transfer played a role only during the initial reaction phase when direct attack of ozone molecules to aromatic/olefinic structures of colored substances was the predominant pathway.

  8. Ethanoligenens harbinense gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Qiubo; Lin, Ming; Wang, Aijie; Zhao, Lihua

    2006-04-01

    Two strictly anaerobic bacterial strains (YUAN-3T and X-29) were isolated from anaerobic activated sludge of molasses wastewater in a continuous stirred-tank reactor. The strains were Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, mesophilic and motile. Cells were regular rods (0.4-0.8 x 1.5-8.0 microm) and occurred singly, in pairs and sometimes in chains of up to eight. Autoaggregative and autofluorescent growth of strain YUAN-3T and non-aggregative growth of strain X-29 were observed at 20-44 degrees C and pH 3.5-9.0. Both strains hydrolysed gelatin and aesculin and fermented several kinds of mono-, di- and oligosaccharides. Fermentation end products formed from glucose were acetate, ethanol, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The predominant cellular fatty acids were the branched-chain fatty acids iso-C(16 : 0) (44.18 %) and iso-C(12 : 0) (26.67 %). The DNA G+C contents of strains YUAN-3T and X-29 were 47.8 and 49.0 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates represent a novel phyletic sublineage within the Clostridium cellulosi rRNA cluster, with <92 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to currently known species. On the basis of polyphasic evidence from this study, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium should be classified in a new genus as a novel species, Ethanoligenens harbinense gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Ethanoligenens harbinense is YUAN-3T (=JCM 12961T = CGMCC 1.5033T).

  9. Effect of pH on the anaerobic acidogenesis of agroindustrial wastewaters for maximization of bio-hydrogen production: a lab-scale evaluation using batch tests.

    PubMed

    Dareioti, Margarita Andreas; Vavouraki, Aikaterini Ioannis; Kornaros, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of pH on the production of bio-hydrogen and end-products from a mixture of olive mill wastewater, cheese whey and liquid cow manure (with a ratio of 55:40:5, v/v/v). Batch experiments were performed under mesophilic conditions (37°C) at a range of pH from 4.5 to 7.5. The main end-products identified were acetic, propionic, butyric, lactic acid and ethanol. The highest hydrogen production yield was observed at pH 6.0 (0.642 mol H2/mol equivalent glucose consumed), whereas the maximum VFAs concentration (i.e. 13.43 g/L) was measured at pH 6.5. The composition of acidified effluent in acetic and butyric acid was similar at pH 6.0 and 6.5, albeit an increase of propionic acid was observed in higher pH. Lactic acid was identified as a major metabolite which presented an intense accumulation (up to 11 g/L) before its further bioconversion to butyric acid and hydrogen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wastewater treatment in molasses-based alcohol distilleries for COD and color removal: a review.

    PubMed

    Satyawali, Y; Balakrishnan, M

    2008-02-01

    Molasses-based distilleries are one of the most polluting industries generating large volumes of high strength wastewater. Different processes covering anaerobic, aerobic as well as physico-chemical methods have been employed to treat this effluent. Anaerobic treatment is the most attractive primary treatment due to over 80% BOD removal combined with energy recovery in the form of biogas. Further treatment to reduce residual organic load and color includes various: (i) biological methods employing different fungi, bacteria and algae, and (ii) physico-chemical methods such as adsorption, coagulation/precipitation, oxidation and membrane filtration. This work presents a review of the existing status and advances in biological and physico-chemical methods applied to the treatment of molasses-based distillery wastewater. Both laboratory and pilot/industrial studies have been considered. Furthermore, limitations in the existing processes have been summarized and potential areas for further investigations have been discussed.

  11. Biological decolourisation of wastewater from molasses fermentation by Trametes versicolor in an airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Rioja, R; García, M T; Peña, M; González, G

    2008-06-01

    Continuous decolourisation of wastewater from molasses fermentation using mycelium of Trametes versicolor in pellets shape was performed in an airlift bioreactor (semi-pilot scale) with the aim of operating steadily for a long period, maintaining the colour removal activity. The influences of influent flow and glucose feed rate were tested. Induction of peroxidases secretion by Mn(2+) addition was also studied. The efficiency of the decolourisation process was followed by monitoring colour and enzymatic activities. The experimental results showed that continuous decolourisation in an airlift bioreactor can be considered a suitable alternative for treating molasses fermentation wastewater. A colour removal yield around 60% remained practically constant during 23 days under continuous operation. Laccase was found to be the main enzyme secreted by the strain, being responsible for the decolourisation process. Mn(2+) addition was not likely to induct manganese-dependent peroxidase secretion.

  12. High organic loading treatment for industrial molasses wastewater and microbial community shifts corresponding to system development.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kyohei; Chosei, Tomoaki; Nakahara, Nozomi; Hatamoto, Masashi; Wakabayashi, Takashi; Kawai, Toshikazu; Araki, Nobuo; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Molasses wastewater contains high levels of organic compounds, cations, and anions, causing operational problems for anaerobic biological treatment. To establish a high organic loading treatment system for industrial molasses wastewater, this study designed a combined system comprising an acidification tank, a thermophilic multi-stage (MS)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, mesophilic UASB reactor, and down-flow hanging sponge reactor. The average total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand removal rates were 85%±3% and 95%±2%, respectively, at an organic loading rate of 42kgCODcrm(-3)d(-1) in the MS-UASB reactor. By installation of the acidification tank, the MS-UASB reactor achieved low H2-partial pressure. The abundance of syntrophs such as fatty acid-degrading bacteria increased in the MS-UASB and 2nd-UASB reactors. Thus, the acidification tank contributed to maintaining a favorable environment for syntrophic associations. This study provides new information regarding microbial community composition in a molasses wastewater treatment system.

  13. Wastewater management in a cane molasses distillery involving bioresource recovery.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Tapas; Shastry, Sunita; Kaul, S N

    2002-05-01

    Waste management involving bioresource recovery in a cane molasses-based distillery engaged in the manufacture of rectified spirit (alcohol) is described. The spentwash generated from the distillation of fermenter wash is highly acidic (pH 4.0-4.3) with high rates of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD: 52-58, COD: 92-100 kg/m3) and suspended solids (2.0-2.5 kg/m3). Biogas is recovered from high strength raw spentwash through the full-scale application of a biomethanation system as pretreatment option, comprising anaerobic fixed film reactors. This, combined with subsequent concentration through multiple effect evaporators (MEE), and utilization of concentrated effluent for biocomposting of pressmud (another by-product of the industry) for production of biomanure contributes to the elimination of effluent discharges.

  14. Post-treatment of molasses wastewater by electrocoagulation and process optimization through response surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsioptsias, C; Petridis, D; Athanasakis, N; Lemonidis, I; Deligiannis, A; Samaras, P

    2015-12-01

    Molasses wastewater is a high strength effluent of food industry such as distilleries, sugar and yeast production plants etc. It is characterized by a dark brown color and exhibits a high content in substances of recalcitrant nature such as melanoidins. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was studied as a post treatment step for biologically treated molasses wastewater with high nitrogen content obtained from a baker's yeast industry. Iron and copper electrodes were used in various forms; the influence and interaction of current density, molasses wastewater dilution, and reaction time, on COD, color, ammonium and nitrate removal rates and operating cost were studied and optimized through Box Behnken's response surface analysis. Reaction time varied from 0.5 to 4 h, current density varied from 5 to 40 mA/cm(2) and dilution from 0 to 90% (v/v expressed as water concentration). pH, conductivity and temperature measurements were also carried out during each experiment. From preliminary experiments, it was concluded that the application of aeration and sample dilution, considerably influenced the kinetics of the process. The obtained results showed that COD removal varied between 10 and 54%, corresponding to an operation cost ranging from 0.2 to 33 euro/kg COD removed. Significant removal rates were obtained for nitrogen as nitrate and ammonium (i.e. 70% ammonium removal). A linear relation of COD and ammonium to the design parameters was observed, while operation cost and nitrate removal responded in a curvilinear function. A low ratio of electrode surface to treated volume was used, associated to a low investment cost; in addition, iron wastes could be utilized as low cost electrodes i.e. iron fillings from lathes, aiming to a low operation cost due to electrodes replacement. In general, electrocoagulation proved to be an effective and low cost process for biologically treated molasses-wastewater treatment for additional removal of COD and nitrogen content and

  15. Rhamnolipid production by pseudomonas aeruginosa GIM 32 using different substrates including molasses distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, An-hua; Xu, Mei-ying; Sun, Wei; Sun, Guo-ping

    2011-03-01

    A rhamnolipid production strain newly isolated from oil-contaminated soil was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa GIM32 by its morphology and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The effect of carbon source and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio on rhamnolipids production was investigated. Palm oil was favorable as a carbon source for rhamnolipid production. The maximum biomass and rhamnolipid concentration were 8.24 g/L and 30.4 g/L, respectively, with an optimization medium containing 50 g/L palm oil and 5 g/L sodium nitrate. Molasses distillery wastewater as an unconventional substrate for rhamnolipid production was investigated. It was found that 2.6 g/L of rhamnolipids was produced; this amount was higher than that of past reports using wastewater as a substrate. In addition, 44% of the chemical oxygen demand of wastewater was removed at the same time under the optimization condition. Eleven kinds of different molecular weight rhamnolipid homologues were identified in the rhamnolipids obtained from molasses distillery wastewater by P. aeruginosa GIM32 by LC-MS analysis.

  16. Preparation of a new Fenton-like catalyst from red mud using molasses wastewater as partial acidifying agent.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guangtao; Shao, Luhua; Mo, Jihua; Li, Zhongmin; Zhang, Linye

    2017-06-01

    Using molasses wastewater as partial acidifying agent, a new Fenton-like catalyst (ACRM sm ) was prepared through a simple process of acidification and calcination using red mud as main material. With molasses wastewater, both the free alkali and the chemically bonded alkali in red mud were effectively removed under the action of H2SO4 and molasses wastewater, and the prepared ACRM sm was a near-neutral catalyst. The ACRM sm preparation conditions were as follows: for 3 g of red mud, 9 mL of 0.7 mol/L H2SO4 plus 2 g of molasses wastewater as the acidifying agent, calcination temperature 573 K, and calcination time 1 h. Iron phase of ACRM sm was mainly α-Fe2O3 and trace amount of carbon existed in ACRM sm . The addition of molasses wastewater not only effectively reduced the consumption of H2SO4 in acidification of red mud but also resulted in the generation of carbon and significantly improved the distribution of macropore in prepared ACRM sm . It was found that near-neutral pH of catalyst, generated carbon, and wide distribution of macropore were the main reasons for the high catalytic activity of ACRM sm . The generated carbon and wide distribution of macropore were entirely due to the molasses wastewater added. In degradation of orange II, ACRM sm retained most of its catalytic stability and activity after five recycling times, indicating ACRM sm had an excellent long-term stability in the Fenton-like process. Furthermore, the performance test of settling showed ACRM sm had an excellent settleability. ACRMsm was a safe and green catalytic material used in Fenton-like oxidation for wastewater treatment.

  17. Microalgae-activated sludge treatment of molasses wastewater in sequencing batch photo-bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Tsioptsias, Costas; Lionta, Gesthimani; Samaras, Petros

    2016-08-09

    The aim of this work was the examination of the treatment potential of molasses wastewater, by the utilization of activated sludge and microalgae. The systems used included a sequencing batch bioreactor and a similar photo-bioreactor, favoring microalgae growth. The microalgae treatment of molasses wastewater mixture resulted in a considerable reduction in the total nitrogen content. A reduction in the ammonium and nitrate content was observed in the photo-bioreactor, while the effluent's total nitrogen consisted mainly of 50% organic nitrogen. The transformation of the nitrogen forms in the photo-bioreactor was attributed to microalgae activity, resulting in the production of a better quality effluent. Lower COD removal was observed for the photo-bioreactor than the control, which however increased, by the replacement of the anoxic phase by a long aeration period. The mechanism of nitrogen removal included both the denitrification process during the anoxic stage and the microalgae activities, as the replacement of the anoxic stage resulted in low total nitrogen removal capacities. A decrease in the photobioreactor performance was observed after 35 days of operation due to biofilm formation on the light tube surface, while the operation at higher temperature accelerated microalgae growth, resulting thus in the early failure of the photoreactor.

  18. Development of appropriate technology for treatment of molasses-based wastewater.

    PubMed

    Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Onodera, Takashi; Choeisai, Pairaya; Khodphuvieng, Jamnan; Prammanee, Preecha; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Kaewpradit, Wanwipa; Kubota, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the performance of a proposed treatment system consisting of an anaerobic process (acidification, methane fermentation) and an aerobic process (trickling filter) was evaluated for treating high concentrations of molasses-based wastewater (43-120 gCOD/L) by a continuous flow experiment. An anaerobic up-flow staged sludge bed (USSB) reactor, equipped with multiple gas solid separators, was used as the main treatment/methane recovery process. The USSB showed good efficiency of both COD removal (80-87%) and methane recovery (70-80%) at an organic loading rate of 11-43 kgCOD/m(3) day. As the influent COD concentration was increased, the organic loading rate for stable operation of the USSB was reduced due to cation inhibition. However, the COD removal efficiency of the whole treatment system (including the aerobic post-treatment process) was 96% even at an influent COD concentration of 120 gCOD/L. Use of the treated wastewater as a fertilizer and/or irrigation-water for sugarcane was evaluated by a field cultivation test. Both growth of sugarcane and emission of greenhouse gases from the field soil were measured. A relatively high methane flux (352 μgCH4/m(2) h) was observed when the treated wastewater from day 0 was used. By day 3, however, this value was reduced to the same level as the control. In addition, growth of sugarcane was satisfactory when the treated wastewater was used. The treated wastewater was found to be useful for cultivation of sugarcane in terms of both a low risk of greenhouse gas emission from the field soil and effectiveness for growth of sugarcane.

  19. Effects of volatile solid concentration and mixing ratio on hydrogen production by co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Yeol; Wee, Daehyun; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2014-11-28

    Co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge was evaluated for hydrogen production by response surface methodology (RSM). Batch experiments in accordance with various dilution ratios (40- to 5-fold) and waste mixing composition ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100, on a volume basis) were conducted. Volatile solid (VS) concentration strongly affected the hydrogen production rate and yield compared with the waste mixing ratio. The specific hydrogen production rate was predicted to be optimal when the VS concentration ranged from 10 to 12 g/l at all the mixing ratios of molasses wastewater and sewage sludge. A hydrogen yield of over 50 ml H2/g VS(removed) was obtained from mixed waste of 10% sewage sludge and 10 g/l VS (about 10-fold dilution ratio). The optimal chemical oxygen demand/ total nitrogen ratio for co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge was between 250 and 300 with a hydrogen yield above 20 ml H2/g VS(removed).

  20. Removal of pigments from molasses wastewater by combining micro-electrolysis with biological treatment method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ben; Tian, Xiaofei; Yu, Lian; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-12-01

    Pigments in molasses wastewater (MWW) effluent, such as melanoidins, were considered as kinds of the most recalcitrant and hazardous colorant contaminants to the environment. In this study, de-coloring the MWW by a synergistic combination of micro-electrolysis with bio-treatment was performed. Aiming to a high de-colorization yield, levels of nutrition source supplies, MWW dilution ratio, and micro-electrolysis reaction time were optimized accordingly. For a diluted (50 %, v/v) MWW, an maximum overall de-colorization yield (97.1 ± 0.5 %, for absorbance at 475 nm) was achieved through the bio-electrolysis treatment. In electrolysis bio-treatment, the positive effect of micro-electrolysis was also revealed by a promoted growth of fungal biomass as well as activities of ligninolytic enzymes. Activities of lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase were promoted by 111.2, 103.9, and 7.7 %, respectively. This study also implied that the bio-treatment and the micro-electrolysis had different efficiencies on removal of pigments with distinct polarities.

  1. Key factors affecting on bio-hydrogen production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste and kitchen wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Ahmed; El-Qelish, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The effects of sludge residence time (SRT) and dilution ratio (DR) on the continuous H2 production (HP) from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and kitchen wastewater (KWW) via mesophilic anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was investigated. Increasing DR from 1:2 to 1:3 significantly (P<0.1) increased the H2 yield (HY) from 116.5±76 to 142.5±54 ml H2/g CODremoved d, respectively. However, at a DR of 1:4, the HY was dropped to 114.5±65 ml H2/g CODremoved d. Likewise, HY increased from 83±37 to 95±24 ml H2/g CODremoved d, when SRT increased from 3.6 to 4.0 d. Further increase in HY of 148±42 ml H2/g CODremoved d, was occurred at a SRT of 5.6d. Moreover, hydrogen fermentation facilitated carbohydrate, lipids, protein and volatile solids removal efficiencies of 87±5.8%, 74.3±9.12%, 76.4±11.3% and 84.8±4.1%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adsorption studies of molasse's wastewaters on activated carbon: modelling with a new fractal kinetic equation and evaluation of kinetic models.

    PubMed

    Figaro, S; Avril, J P; Brouers, F; Ouensanga, A; Gaspard, S

    2009-01-30

    Adsorption kinetic of molasses wastewaters after anaerobic digestion (MSWD) and melanoidin respectively on activated carbon was studied at different pH. The kinetic parameters could be determined using classical kinetic equations and a recently published fractal kinetic equation. A linear form of this equation can also be used to fit adsorption data. Even with lower correlation coefficients the fractal kinetic equation gives lower normalized standard deviation values than the pseudo-second order model generally used to fit adsorption kinetic data, indicating that the fractal kinetic model is much more accurate for describing the kinetic adsorption data than the pseudo-second order kinetic model.

  3. Characterization of the COD removal, electricity generation, and bacterial communities in microbial fuel cells treating molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Yeong; Kim, Tae G; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-11-09

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, electricity generation, and microbial communities were compared in 3 types of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) treating molasses wastewater. Single-chamber MFCs without and with a proton exchange membrane (PEM), and double-chamber MFC were constructed. A total of 10,000 mg L(-1) COD of molasses wastewater was continuously fed. The COD removal, electricity generation, and microbial communities in the two types of single-chamber MFCs were similar, indicating that the PEM did not enhance the reactor performance. The COD removal in the single-chamber MFCs (89-90%) was higher than that in the double-chamber MFC (50%). However, electricity generation in the double-chamber MFC was higher than that in the single-chamber MFCs. The current density (80 mA m(-2)) and power density (17 mW m(-2)) in the double-chamber MFC were 1.4- and 2.2-times higher than those in the single-chamber MFCs, respectively. The bacterial community structures in single- and double-chamber MFCs were also distinguishable. The amount of Proteobacteria in the double-chamber MFC was 2-3 times higher than those in the single-chamber MFCs. For the archaeal community, Methanothrix (96.4%) was remarkably dominant in the single-chamber MFCs, but Methanobacterium (35.1%), Methanosarcina (28.3%), and Methanothrix (16.2%) were abundant in the double-chamber MFC.

  4. Performances of microbial fuel cells fed with rejected wastewater from BioCH4 and BioH2 processes treating molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Yeong; Kim, Tae G; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-01-01

    An integrated process involving conventional anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has attracted attention recently to produce sustainable energy and to treat wastewater efficiently. To evaluate the possibility of CH4-producing process (BioCH4)-MFC or H2-producing process (BioH2)-MFC integrating systems, the MFC performances were investigated using rejected wastewater from a BioCH4 reactor (RWCH4) or BioH2 reactor (RWH2) treating molasses wastewater. When RWCH4 or RWH2 was fed into a single-chamber MFC reactor (designated as AC-MFCCH4 and AC-MFCH2, respectively) at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 1-7 d, both MFC systems showed maximum electricity production efficiencies at a HRT of 3 d. In the AC-MFCCH4 reactor, the average current density and average power density were 60.5 mA·m(-2) and 8.8 mW·m(-2), respectively. The AC-MFCH2 reactor generated an average current density of 71.4 mA·m(-2) and an average power density of 12.0 mW·m(-2). The COD removal rates were 45.7% in the AC-MFCCH4 reactor and 90.3% in the AC-MFCH2 reactor. There were no significant differences of the eubacterial community structures between the MFC systems, where Proteobacteria was remarkably dominant in both MFC systems. However, the archaeal community structures were significantly different where Methanothrix (89.3%) was remarkably dominant in the AC-MFCCH4 system, while Methanothrix (52.5%) and Methanosarcina (33.5%) were abundant in the AC-MFCH2 system. These findings demonstrate that the utilization of MFCs after the BioCH4 or BioH2 process is advantageous for energy recovery as well as COD removal from molasses wastewater.

  5. Using pig manure to promote fermentation of sugarcane molasses alcohol wastewater and its effects on microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Shen, Peihong; Han, Fei; Su, Shuquan; Zhang, Junya; Chen, Zhineng; Li, Junfang; Gan, Jiayi; Feng, Bin; Wu, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Molasses alcohol wastewater (MAW) is difficult to be bio-treated and converted into biogas. In this study, MAW mixed with pig manure (PM) in different ratios was co-digested. Biogas production, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and the structure of microbial communities were monitored in the process. Our results showed that under the optimal COD ratio of PM:MAW (1.0:1.5), CODremoval and biogas yield were the highest. And in fermentation tanks with different PM to MAW ratios, the structure and composition of bacterial communities varied in the early and late stage. Furthermore, the type of main bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) have no differences, yet the relative abundance of OTUs varied. The current research showed that there was a good potential to the use of PM as a co-digested material to anaerobic treatment of MAW and provided references for further improving bio-treatment of MAW.

  6. Start-up of bio-hydrogen production reactor seeded with sewage sludge and its microbial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Gong, M L; Ren, N Q; Xing, D F

    2005-01-01

    Start-up of a continuously stirred tank reactor for bio-hydrogen production under different initial organic loading rate (OLR) of 3, 7 and 10 kgCOD/m3 d, respectively, was carried out with sewage sludge as inoculum. Molasses wastewater was used as substrate and hydraulic retention time was kept at 6 h. This study aimed to assess OLR on the formation of fermentation types and the structure of microbial communities during the start-up period. It was found that at an initial OLR of 7 kgCOD/m3 d and an initial biomass of 6.24 gVSS/L, an equilibrial microbial community of ethanol-type fermentation could be established within 30 days. The observed average specific hydrogen production rate was 276 mLH2/gVSS d, which was 40% higher than that of the one acclimated with 3 kgCOD/m3 d. Based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles, significant microbial population shifts took place at the first 15 days, but a longer period up to 30 days was required to establish a microbial community with stable metabolic activity.

  7. [Start-up and continuous operation of bio-hydrogen production reactor at pH 5].

    PubMed

    Gong, Man-li; Ren, Nan-qi; Tang, Jing

    2005-03-01

    A continuous stirred-tank reactor(CSTR)for bio-hydrogen production using molasses wastewater as substrate was investigated. Emphasis was placed on assessing the start-up and continuous operation characteristics when keeping pH value constant. It was found that at pH of 5, biomass of 6g/L, organic loading rate (OLR) of 7.0kg/(m3 x d) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6h, an equilibrial hydrogen-producing microbial community could be established within 30 days. Following that, oxidation redox potential (ORP) were kept within the ranges - 460mV - -480mV. Typical mixed acid type fermentation was exhibited in the reactor. Little difference was observed in the distribution of liquid end products. The liquid end products proportion of the total amount was 36% of acetic acid, 33% of ethanol, 18% of butyric acid, 13% of propionic acid and valeric acid, respectively. Hydrogen content in the biogas was about 30% - 35% . Maximal hydrogen production rate was 1.3m3/(m3 x d). The acid-producing fermentative bacteria were in the same preponderant status when the reactor showed mixed acid type fermentation. They are mostly cocci and bacilli.

  8. Effects of organic loading rate on hydrogen and volatile fatty acid production and microbial community during acidogenic hydrogenesis in a continuous stirred tank reactor using molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yun, J; Cho, K-S

    2016-12-01

    Microbial community associated with hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation was characterized in acidogenic hydrogenesis using molasses wastewater as a feedstock. Hydrogen and VFAs production were measured under an organic loading rate (OLR) from 19 to 35 g-COD l(-1)  day(-1) . The active microbial community was analysed using RNA-based massively parallel sequencing technique, and their correlation patterns were analysed using networking analysis. The continuous stirred tank reactor achieved stable hydrogen production at different OLR conditions, and the maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) was 1·02 L-H2  l(-1)  day(-1) at 31·0 g-COD l(-1)  day(-1) . Butyrate (50%) and acetate (38%) positively increased with increase in OLR. Total VFA production stayed around 7135 mg l(-1) during the operation period. Although Clostridiales and Lactobacillales were relatively abundant, the HPR was positively associated with Pseudomonadaceae and Micrococcineae. Total VFA and acetate, butyrate and propionate concentrations were positively correlated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) such as Bacillales, Sporolactobacillus and Lactobacillus. The close relationship between Pseudomonadaceae and Micrococcineae, and LAB play important roles for stable hydrogen and VFA production from molasses wastewater. Microbial information on hydrogen and VFA production can be useful to design and operate for acidogenic hydrogenesis using high strength molasses wastewater. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Enhancement of the performance of a combined microalgae-activated sludge system for the treatment of high strength molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tsioptsias, Costas; Lionta, Gesthimani; Deligiannis, Andreas; Samaras, Petros

    2016-12-01

    The treatment of molasses wastewater, by a combined microalgae-activated sludge process, for the simultaneous organics and total nitrogen reduction, was examined. Further enhancement of the performance of the combined process was accomplished, by means of biofilm carriers or electrocoagulation. A LED light tube was immersed into the reactor tank aiming to enhance the growth of photosynthetic microalgae, while in a similar unit, biofilm carriers were added to the system, representing a moving bed bioreactor. Exposure of the activated sludge biocommunity to light source, resulted in the growth of microalgae and photoreactors exhibited higher removal rates of total nitrogen and nitrates. However, operation at longer times resulted in low effluent quality due to the presence of microalgae cells as a result of high growth rates, and potential light shading effect. Nevertheless, the moving bed system was more beneficial than the single photoreactor, as biofilm carriers provided a self cleaning capacity of the light source, reducing the effect of microalgae deposition. Advanced treatment of the biological effluents, by electrocoagulation, increased even more the process efficiency: the combined photobioreactor and electrocoagulation process resulted in about 78% COD removal and more than 35% total nitrogen removal in the effluent, where nitrates represented almost the single form of total nitrogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The close relation between Lactococcus and Methanosaeta is a keystone for stable methane production from molasses wastewater in a UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Gwan; Yun, Jeonghee; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2015-10-01

    The up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is a promising method for the treatment of high-strength industrial wastewaters due to advantage of its high treatment capacity and settleable suspended biomass retention. Molasses wastewater as a sugar-rich waste is one of the most valuable raw material for bioenergy production due to its high organic strength and bioavailability. Interpretation for complex interactions of microbial community structures and operational parameters can help to establish stable biogas production. RNA-based approach for biogas production systems is recommended for analysis of functionally active community members which are significantly underestimated. In this study, methane production and active microbial community were characterized in an UASB reactor using molasses wastewater as feedstock. The UASB reactor achieved a stable process performance at an organic loading rate of 1.7~13.8-g chemical oxygen demand (COD,·L(-1) day(-1); 87-95 % COD removal efficiencies), and the maximum methane production rate was 4.01 L-CH4·at 13.8 g-COD L(-1) day(-1). Lactococcus and Methanosaeta were comprised up to 84 and 80 % of the active bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Network analysis of reactor performance and microbial community revealed that Lactococcus and Methanosaeta were network hub nodes and positively correlated each other. In addition, they were positively correlated with methane production and organic loading rate, and they shared the other microbial hub nodes as neighbors. The results indicate that the close association between Lactococcus and Methanosaeta is responsible for the stable production of methane in the UASB reactor using molasses wastewater.

  11. Effect of hydraulic retention time on suppression of methanogens during a continuous biohydrogen production process using molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jeong Hee; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-01-02

    This study was undertaken to investigate the reduction of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) to decrease methane generation and recover hydrogen production during the long-term operation of biohydrogen production in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) using molasses wastewater. Reduction of HRT can be a simple and economic method to immediately control unfavorable methane generated during continuous operation of a hydrogen production system. The steady-state performance of the CSTR showed a hydrogen content of 41.3 ± 3.30% and a hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 63.7 ± 10.01 mmol-H2L(-1)d(-1) under an organic loading rate (OLR) of 29.7 g CODL(-1) at an HRT of 24 h. Increase in the methane level above 40% during long-term operation caused decrease in the hydrogen content and HPR to 5.9 ± 1.6% and 2.1 ± 1.1 mmoL-H2L(-1)d(-1), respectively. When methane increased to a high level over 40%, the CSTR at the HRT of 24 h was operated at the HRT of 12 h. Reduction of the HRT from 24 to 12 h led to decrease in the methane content of 12.1 ± 4.44% and recovery of the HPR value to 48.9 ± 15.37 mmol-H2L(-1)d(-1) over a duration of 13-22 d. When methane is generated in a continuously operated reactor, reduction of the HRT can be an easy way to suppress methanogens and recover hydrogen production without any additives or extra treatments.

  12. Enhanced production of ligninolytic enzymes and decolorization of molasses distillery wastewater by fungi under solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Adholeya, Alok

    2007-10-01

    Selected isolates of fungi were grown on wheat straw and corncob in the presence of different moistening agents such as water, molasses, potato dextrose broth and distillery effluent. All the fungal isolates responded differently with respect to growth and ligninolytic enzyme production. Fungal growth on different substrates was checked by calculating ergosterol content, which varied widely within a single species when grown on different substrates. The maximum laccase production was obtained for Aspergillus flavus TERI DB9 grown on wheat straw with molasses. For manganese peroxidase, highest production was in Aspergillus niger TERI DB20 grown on corncob with effluent. Among the two isolates positive for lignin peroxidase, the highest production was in Fusarium verticillioides ITCC 6140. This immobilized fungal biomass was then used for decolorization of effluent from a cane molasses based distillery. Maximum decolorization (86.33%) was achieved in Pleurotus ostreatus (Florida) Eger EM 1303 immobilized on corncob with molasses in a period of 28 days.

  13. A fuzzy-logic-based model to predict biogas and methane production rates in a pilot-scale mesophilic UASB reactor treating molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Turkdogan-Aydinol, F Ilter; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan

    2010-10-15

    A MIMO (multiple inputs and multiple outputs) fuzzy-logic-based model was developed to predict biogas and methane production rates in a pilot-scale 90-L mesophilic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating molasses wastewater. Five input variables such as volumetric organic loading rate (OLR), volumetric total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal rate (R(V)), influent alkalinity, influent pH and effluent pH were fuzzified by the use of an artificial intelligence-based approach. Trapezoidal membership functions with eight levels were conducted for the fuzzy subsets, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was used to implement a total of 134 rules in the IF-THEN format. The product (prod) and the centre of gravity (COG, centroid) methods were employed as the inference operator and defuzzification methods, respectively. Fuzzy-logic predicted results were compared with the outputs of two exponential non-linear regression models derived in this study. The UASB reactor showed a remarkable performance on the treatment of molasses wastewater, with an average TCOD removal efficiency of 93 (+/-3)% and an average volumetric TCOD removal rate of 6.87 (+/-3.93) kg TCOD(removed)/m(3)-day, respectively. Findings of this study clearly indicated that, compared to non-linear regression models, the proposed MIMO fuzzy-logic-based model produced smaller deviations and exhibited a superior predictive performance on forecasting of both biogas and methane production rates with satisfactory determination coefficients over 0.98.

  14. Process contribution evaluation for COD removal and energy production from molasses wastewater in a BioH2-BioCH4-MFC-integrated system.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jeonghee; Lee, Yun-Yeong; Choi, Hyung Joo; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a three-stage-integrated process using the hydrogenic process (BioH2), methanogenic process (BioCH4), and a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was operated using molasses wastewater. The contribution of individual processes to chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and energy production was evaluated. The three-stage integration system was operated at molasses of 20 g-COD L(-1), and each process achieved hydrogen production rate of 1.1 ± 0.24 L-H2 L(-1) day(-1), methane production rate of 311 ± 18.94 mL-CH4 L(-1) day(-1), and production rate per electrode surface area of 10.8 ± 1.4 g m(-2) day(-1). The three-stage integration system generated energy production of 32.32 kJ g-COD(-1) and achieved COD removal of 98 %. The contribution of BioH2, BioCH4, and the MFC reactor was 20.8, 72.2, and, 7.0 % of the total COD removal, and 18.7, 81.2, and 0.16 % of the total energy production, respectively. The continuous stirred-tank reactor BioH2 at HRT of 1 day, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket BioCH4 at HRT of 2 days, and MFC reactor at HRT of 3 days were decided in 1:2:3 ratios of working volume under hydraulic retention time consideration. This integration system can be applied to various configurations depending on target wastewater inputs, and it is expected to enhance energy recovery and reduce environmental impact of the final effluent.

  15. Bio hydrogen production from cassava starch by anaerobic mixed cultures: Multivariate statistical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, Hai Minh; Le, Kien Anh; Le, Phung Thi Kim

    2017-09-01

    Bio hydrogen is a sustainable energy resource due to its potentially higher efficiency of conversion to usable power, high energy efficiency and non-polluting nature resource. In this work, the experiments have been carried out to indicate the possibility of generating bio hydrogen as well as identifying effective factors and the optimum conditions from cassava starch. Experimental design was used to investigate the effect of operating temperature (37-43 °C), pH (6-7), and inoculums ratio (6-10 %) to the yield hydrogen production, the COD reduction and the ratio of volume of hydrogen production to COD reduction. The statistical analysis of the experiment indicated that the significant effects for the fermentation yield were the main effect of temperature, pH and inoculums ratio. The interaction effects between them seem not significant. The central composite design showed that the polynomial regression models were in good agreement with the experimental results. This result will be applied to enhance the process of cassava starch processing wastewater treatment.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a Klebsiella oxytoca strain for simultaneous azo-dye anaerobic reduction and bio-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Yu, Han-Qing; Wu, Chao

    2012-07-01

    A facultative anaerobic bacteria strain GS-4-08, isolated from an anaerobic sequence batch reactor for synthetic dye wastewater treatment, was investigated for azo-dye decolorization. This bacterium was identified as a member of Klebsiella oxytoca based on Gram staining, morphology characterization and 16S rRNA gene analysis. It exhibited a good capacity of simultaneous decolorization and hydrogen production in the presence of electron donor. The hydrogen production was less affected even at a high Methyl Orange (MO) concentration of 0.5 mM, indicating a superior tolerability of this strain to MO. This efficient bio-hydrogen production from electron donor can not only avoid bacterial inhibition due to accumulation of volatile fatty acids during MO decolorization, but also can recover considerable energy from dye wastewater.

  17. Modeling the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse: extension of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Ernesto L; Spanjers, Henri; Solon, Kimberly; Amerlinck, Youri; Nopens, Ingmar; Dewulf, Jo

    2015-03-15

    This research presents the modeling of the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse, hereby extending the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater. Based on a sensitivity analysis, four parameters of the original ADM1 and all sulfate reduction parameters were calibrated. Although some deviations were observed between model predictions and experimental values, it was shown that sulfates, total aqueous sulfide, free sulfides, methane, carbon dioxide and sulfide in the gas phase, gas flow, propionic and acetic acids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH were accurately predicted during model validation. The model showed high (±10%) to medium (10%-30%) accuracy predictions with a mean absolute relative error ranging from 1% to 26%, and was able to predict failure of methanogenesis and sulfidogenesis when the sulfate loading rate increased. Therefore, the kinetic parameters and the model structure proposed in this work can be considered as valid for the sulfate reduction process in the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse when sulfate and organic loading rates range from 0.36 to 1.57 kg [Formula: see text]  m(-3) d(-1) and from 7.66 to 12 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively.

  18. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  19. Extraction of sucrose from molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, A.M.

    1982-01-26

    Sucrose is extracted from molasses by passing an aqueous molasses solution over an adsorbent, e.g., calcined Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-supported pyrolyzed C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. Thus, 10 mL molasses (approximately 46% solids) was run through a column containing 70 cubic centimetres above adsorbent with sucrose retention volume 21.4 and selectivity for sucrose - betaine 23.8.

  20. Microbial community structure of ethanol type fermentation in bio-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Ren, Nanqi; Xing, Defeng; Rittmann, Bruce E; Zhao, Lihua; Xie, Tianhui; Zhao, Xin

    2007-05-01

    Three continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) were used for H(2) production from molasses wastewater at influent pH of 6.0-6.5 (reactor A), 5.5-6.0 (reactor B), or 4.0-4.5 (reactor C). After operation for 28 days, the microbial community formed ethanol type (C), propionate type (A) and ethanol-butyrate-mixed type (B) fermentation. The H(2) production rate was the highest for ethanol type fermentation, 0.40 l (g VSS)(-1) day(-1) or 0.45 l H(2) (g COD removed)(-1). Microbial community dynamics and diversity were analysed using double-gradient denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DG-DGGE). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles indicated that the community structures changed quickly in the first 14 days. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the dominant bacterial groups were low G+C Gram-positive bacteria, Bacteroides, gamma-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria; alpha-Proteobacteria, beta-Proteobacteria, delta-Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes were also presented as minor groups in the three reactors. H(2)-producing bacteria were affiliated with Ethanoligenens, Acetanaerobacterium, Clostridium, Megasphaera, Citrobacter and Bacteroides. An ethanol-based H(2)-producing bacterium, Ethanoligenens harbinense CGMCC1152, was isolated from reactor C and visualized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to be 19% of the eubacteria in reactor C. In addition, isoenzyme activity staining for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) supported that the majority of ethanol-producing bacteria were affiliated with Ethanoligenens in the microbial community.

  1. Bio-hydrogen production from tempeh and tofu processing wastes via fermentation process using microbial consortium: A mini-review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengga, Wara Dyah Pita; Wati, Diyah Saras; Siregar, Riska Yuliana; Wulandari, Ajeng Riswanti; Lestari, Adela Ayu; Chafidz, Achmad

    2017-03-01

    One of alternative energies that can replace fossil fuels is hydrogen. Hydrogen can be used to generate electricity and to power combustion engines for transportation. Bio-hydrogen produced from tempeh and tofu processing waste can be considered as a renewable energy. Bio-hydrogen produced from tempeh and tofu processing waste is beneficial because the waste of soybean straw and tofu processing waste is plentiful, cheap, renewable and biodegradable. Specification of tempeh and tofu processing waste were soybean straw and sludge of tofu processing. They contain carbohydrates (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) and methane. This paper reviews the optimal condition to produce bio-hydrogen from tempeh and tofu processing waste. The production of bio-hydrogen used microbial consortium which were enriched from cracked cereals and mainly dominated by Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium roseum. The production process of bio-hydrogen from tempeh and tofu processing waste used acid pre-treatment with acid catalyzed hydrolysis to cleave the bond of hemicellulose and cellulose chains contained in biomass. The optimal production of bio-hydrogen has a yield of 6-6.8 mL/g at 35-60 °C, pH 5.5-7 in hydraulic retention time (HRT) less than 16 h. The production used a continuous system in an anaerobic digester. This condition can be used as a reference for the future research.

  2. A palynostratigraphic approach to the SW Anatolian molasse basin: Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgün, Funda; Sözbilir, Hasan

    The study, explains stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene molasse around the Denizli province (SW Anatolia), based on the palynology which is also supported by the detailed mapping and correlation of the measured sections from the coal-bearing sequences of the molasse deposits. For this purpose, two huge depressions named as the Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse basins were examined. The Kale-Tavas molasse deposits has a basal unconformity with the underlying pre-Oligocene basement and begins with the Chattian Karadere and Mortuma formations which are covered unconformably by the Aquitanian Yenidere formation. An angular unconformity between the Chattian and the Burdigalian is only observed in the middle part of the basin, around Kale. In the Tavas section, the Aquitanian and the Burdigalian are absent. The Denizli molasse is characterized by Chattian-Aquitanian sequence consisting of distinctive sedimentary facies, alluvial fan and deltaic-shallow marine deposits with carbonate patch reefs. Palynostratigraphic studies, which have given the Chattian age, have been carried out from the coal lenses of alluvial fan and delta plain deposits. In addition to the palynological determinations, coral and foraminiferal content of the carbonate patch reefs which rest conformably on the coal-bearing sequences have yielded the Chattian-Aquitanian age. Two different palynomorph associations have been determined from the molasse deposits. The first palynomorph association which is established in the samples from the Sağdere and Mortuma formations, corresponds to the Chattian age, whilst the second is of the Aquitanian age. The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene which is claimed as the time of N-S-extensional tectonics in western Turkey, is related to the depositional time of the molasse sequences in the study area. Thus, the molasse is older than the basal deposits of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens.

  3. Production of bio-hydrogen by mesophilic anaerobic fermentation in an acid-phase sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Dae-Yeol; Hansen, Conly L; Stevens, David K

    2007-02-15

    The pH and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) were varied to optimize the conversion of carbohydrate-rich synthetic wastewater into bio-hydrogen. A full factorial design using evolutionary operation (EVOP) was used to determine the effect of the factors and to find the optimum condition of each factor required for high hydrogen production rate. Experimental results from 20 runs indicate that a maximum hydrogen production rate of 4,460-5,540 mL/L/day under the volumetric organic loading rate (VOLR) of 75 g-COD/L/day obtained at an observed design point of HRT = 8 h and pH = 5.7. The hydrogen production rate was strongly dependent on the HRT, and the effect was statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, no significant effect (P > 0.05) was found for the pH on the hydrogen production rate. When the ASBR conditions were set for a maximum hydrogen production rate, the hydrogen production yield and specific hydrogen production rate were 60-74 mL/g-COD and 330-360 mL/g-VSS/day, respectively. The hydrogen composition was 43-51%, and no methanogenesis was observed. Acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, caproate, and ethanol were major liquid intermediate metabolites during runs of this ASBR. The dominant fermentative types were butyrate-acetate or ethanol-acetate, representing the typical anaerobic pathway of Clostridium species. This hydrogen-producing ASBR had a higher hydrogen production rate, compared with that produced using continuous-flow stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). This study suggests that the hydrogen-producing ASBR is a promising bio-system for prolonged and stable hydrogen production.

  4. Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from corncob by a two-step process: dark- and photo-fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Honghui; Guo, Liejin; Liu, Fei

    2010-03-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from pretreated corncob by integrating dark-fermentation with photo-fermentation process was investigated in this study. In the first step, the maximum bio-hydrogen yield and rate from corncob by dark-fermentation was 120.3+/-5.2 mL H(2)/g-corncob and 150 mL H(2)/(Lh), respectively. In the second step, a hydrogen yield of 713.6+/-44.1 mL H(2)/g-COD was obtained from digesting the effluent of dark-fermentation by photosynthetic bacteria. Meanwhile, COD removal efficiency achieved 90%. Bio-hydrogen production in the first step was mainly attributed to the bioconversion of the reducing sugars and oligosaccharides in the hydrolyzate of corncob. Bio-hydrogen production in the second step was due to the biodegradation of acetic acid, butyric acid, butyl alcohol and ethanol in the effluent of dark-fermentation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing optimal fermentation type for bio-hydrogen production in continuous-flow acidogenic reactors.

    PubMed

    Ren, N Q; Chua, H; Chan, S Y; Tsang, Y F; Wang, Y J; Sin, N

    2007-07-01

    In this study, the optimal fermentation type and the operating conditions of anaerobic process in continuous-flow acidogenic reactors was investigated for the maximization of bio-hydrogen production using mixed cultures. Butyric acid type fermentation occurred at pH>6, propionic acid type fermentation occurred at pH about 5.5 with E(h) (redox potential) >-278mV, and ethanol-type fermentation occurred at pH<4.5. The representative strains of these fermentations were Clostridium sp., Propionibacterium sp. and Bacteriodes sp., respectively. Ethanol fermentation was optimal type by comparing the operating stabilities and hydrogen production capacities between the fermentation types, which remained stable when the organic loading rate (OLR) reached the highest OLR at 86.1kgCOD/m(3)d. The maximum hydrogen production reached up to 14.99L/d.

  6. Synergistic collaboration of gut symbionts in Odontotermes formosanus for lignocellulosic degradation and bio-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Gincy Marina; Mathew, Dony Chacko; Lo, Shou-Chen; Alexios, Georgy Mathew; Yang, Jia-Cih; Sashikumar, Jagathala Mahalingam; Shaikh, Tanveer Mahamadali; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2013-10-01

    In this work, gut microbes from the macrotermitine termite Odontotermes formosanus the cellulolytic Bacillus and fermentative Clostridium were studied in batch experiments using different carbon substrates to bio-mimic the termite gut for hydrogen production. Their fungus comb aging and the in vitro lignocellulosic degradation of the mango tree substrates by the synergistic interaction of Bacillus, Clostridium and Termitomyces were detected by Solid-state NMR. From the results, Bacillus species acted as a mutualist, by initiating an anaerobic environment for the growth of Clostridium, for bio-hydrogen production and the presence of Termitomyces enhanced the lignocellulosic degradation of substrates in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the synergistic collaboration of these three microbes can be used for termite-derived bio-fuel processing technology.

  7. Continuous ozonation of biologically pretreated molasses fermentation effluents.

    PubMed

    Peña, Mar; Coca, Mónica; González, Gerardo

    2007-05-01

    In this work, continuous chemical oxidation processes (single ozonation and ozone combined with hydrogen peroxide) of biologically pretreated wastewaters from a beet molasses fermentation factory have been studied. Oxidation processes were carried out in a stirred tank reactor at the natural pH of the wastewater and 25 degrees C, analyzing the effect of the hydraulic residence time and applied ozone mass flow on color and organic matter removals. Ozone consumption was also measured in each experiment. The results show that continuous ozonation was effective for decolorization of molasses wastewater. Operating with a hydraulic residence time of 45 minutes and an applied ozone mass flow of 1.7 g/h, color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reductions were about 80% and 14%, respectively. Increasing the hydraulic residence time or ozone mass flow led to a considerably increase in the ozone consumption, with similar color and organic matter reduction percentages. Slightly higher removal percentages were obtained combining ozone with hydrogen peroxide, attaining 83% color reduction and 20% COD removal. As consequence of the oxidation processes, biodegradability of the decolorized effluent increased about 40-50% and the ratio BOD5/COD was twofold higher.

  8. Production of bioelectricity, bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bioinspired nanomaterials by electrochemically active biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-11-01

    Microorganisms naturally form biofilms on solid surfaces for their mutual benefits including protection from environmental stresses caused by contaminants, nutritional depletion or imbalances. The biofilms are normally dangerous to human health due to their inherited robustness. On the other hand, a recent study suggested that electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) generated by electrically active microorganisms have properties that can be used to catalyze or control the electrochemical reactions in a range of fields, such as bioenergy production, bioremediation, chemical/biological synthesis, bio-corrosion mitigation and biosensor development. EABs have attracted considerable attraction in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, where they act as living bioanode or biocathode catalysts. Recently, it was reported that EABs can be used to synthesize metal nanoparticles and metal nanocomposites. The EAB-mediated synthesis of metal and metal-semiconductor nanocomposites is expected to provide a new avenue for the greener synthesis of nanomaterials with high efficiency and speed than other synthetic methods. This review covers the general introduction of EABs, as well as the applications of EABs in BESs, and the production of bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bio-inspired nanomaterials.

  9. Potential use and the energy conversion efficiency analysis of fermentation effluents from photo and dark fermentative bio-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiping; Li, Yameng; Zhang, Huan; He, Chao; Zhang, Quanguo

    2017-09-08

    Effluent of bio-hydrogen production system also can be adopted to produce methane for further fermentation, cogeneration of hydrogen and methane will significantly improve the energy conversion efficiency. Platanus Orientalis leaves were taken as the raw material for photo- and dark-fermentation bio-hydrogen production. The resulting concentrations of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids and ethanol in the photo- and dark-fermentation effluents were 2966mg/L and 624mg/L, 422mg/L and 1624mg/L, 1365mg/L and 558mg/L, and 866mg/L and 1352mg/L, respectively. Subsequently, we calculated the energy conversion efficiency according to the organic contents of the effluents and their energy output when used as raw material for methane production. The overall energy conversion efficiencies increased by 15.17% and 22.28%, respectively, when using the effluents of photo and dark fermentation. This two-step bio-hydrogen and methane production system can significantly improve the energy conversion efficiency of anaerobic biological treatment plants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. [Screening and identification of microorganisms for decolorization of molasses spent wash].

    PubMed

    Li, Bi-Jin; Liu, You-Yan; He, Kai; Teng, Fang-Ming; He, Xi-Pu; Li, Qing-Yun

    2012-09-01

    Microorganisms were screened from the natural environment for decolorization of molasses spent wash, and the isolated strains were then employed in the treatment of actual wastewater. The primary screening was carried out on agar plates supplemented with synthesized melanoidin as the target substrate, since melanoidin is one of the most refractory pigments in wastewater. Promising microorganisms were further selected through secondary screening by decolorization of untreated actual wastewater in shaking flask cultures. Gel filtration chromatography was used to determine the molecular weight distribution of pigments in molasses spent wash before and after decolorization. A strain named A5P1 was isolated from the soil samples collected, showing a good ability of decolorizing molasses spent wash, and was later identified as Aspergillus flavus by morphology and ITS sequence analysis. Experimental study of factors affecting the decolorization performance of strain A5P1 gave the optimal conditions as follows: 4.3 x 10(4) mL(-1) of inoculum size, medium with initial pH of 4.5 and cultivation at 39 degrees C. It could decolorize 53.0% of the pigments in the untreated molasses spent wash and decreased 80% of chemical oxygen demand after four-day incubation. The result of gel filtration chromatography demonstrated that both the large and small molecular weight fractions of pigments in the molasses spent wash could be removed by strain A5P1. Based on the measurement of enzyme activities, at least three different kinds of enzymes, i. e. the enzyme with H2O2-producing activity, laccase and manganese peroxidase were involved in the decolorization process. Therefore, the decolorization mechanism of strain A5P1 was preliminarily considered to be mainly biodegradation, with bioadsorption as a minor reaction.

  11. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  12. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  13. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  14. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  15. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  16. Bio-hydrogen production by biodiesel-derived crude glycerol bioconversion: a techno-economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Global biodiesel production is continuously increasing and it is proportionally accompanied by a huge amount of crude glycerol (CG) as by-product. Due to its crude nature, CG has very less commercial interest; although its pure counterpart has different industrial applications. Alternatively, CG is a very good carbon source and can be used as a feedstock for fermentative hydrogen production. Further, a move of this kind has dual benefits, namely it offers a sustainable method for disposal of biodiesel manufacturing waste as well as produces biofuels and contributes in greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction. Two-stage fermentation, comprising dark and photo-fermentation is one of the most promising options available for bio-hydrogen production. In the present study, techno-economic feasibility of such a two-stage process has been evaluated. The analysis has been made based on the recent advances in fermentative hydrogen production using CG as a feedstock. The study has been carried out with special reference to North American biodiesel market; and more specifically, data available for Canadian province, Québec City have been used. Based on our techno-economic analysis, higher production cost was found to be the major bottleneck in commercial production of fermentative hydrogen. However, certain achievable alternative options for reduction of process cost have been identified. Further, the process was found to be capable in reducing GHG emissions. Bioconversion of 1 kg of crude glycerol (70 % w/v) was found to reduce 7.66 kg CO(2) eq (equivalent) GHG emission, and the process also offers additional environmental benefits.

  17. Biocatalytic decolourisation of molasses by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, A P; Dhamankar, V S; Kapadnis, B P

    2006-08-01

    Bioremediation potential of Phanerochaete chrysosporium strains NCIM 1073, NCIM 1106 and NCIM 1197 to decolourise molasses in solid and liquid molasses media was studied. Strains varied in the pattern of molasses decolourisation on solid medium by Giant colony method. Under submerged cultivation conditions, strain NCIM 1073 did not decolourise molasses while, strains NCIM 1106 and NCIM 1197 could decolourise molasses up to 82% and 76%, respectively. Under stationary cultivation conditions, none of the strains could decolourise molasses. This was overcome by increasing the surface area of the culture in flat bottom glass bottles under stationary cultivation conditions. Under submerged cultivation conditions, growth was more or less same in all strains. However, the lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activities were significantly less in the strain NCIM 1073. Under stationary cultivation conditions, none of the strains could produce enzymes lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase. However, all of them could produce lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase when cultivated in flat bottom glass bottles under stationary cultivation conditions.

  18. Decolorization of anaerobically digested molasses spent wash by Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, M; Ganguli, A; Tripathi, A K

    2009-01-01

    The distillery wastewater (spent wash) contains dark-brown colored recalcitrant organic compounds that are not amenable to conventional biological treatment. The characteristic recalcitrance to decolorization is due to the presence of brown melanoidin polymers. In the present study, feasibility of using Pseudomonas putida strain U for decolorization of spent wash was demonstrated. Batch cultures of P. putida decolourized spent wash by 24%, 2- fold higher decolorization was achieved following immobilization in calcium alginate beads. Glucose concentration was critical for decolourization and improved color removal efficiency was obtained by periodic replenishment of glucose. Decolourization was also observed with lactose or whey as alternative carbon sources. The results of our study suggest that P. putida could be used for biological decolorization of molasses spent washes and that supplementation with whey (a by-product from cheese industry) can offer economical viability to the process.

  19. In a sea of sticky molasses: The physics of the Boston Molasses Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Nicole; Kennedy, Jordan; Rubinstein, Shmuel

    2016-11-01

    On January 15th, 1919, shortly after 12:40 pm local time, a giant storage tank collapsed in Boston's crowded North End, releasing more than 8.7 million liters of molasses. Contemporary accounts estimated the initial wave was 7.6 meters tall and moved at more than 15 m/s. In moments, molasses engulfed the Commercial Street area, flattening buildings, damaging the elevated train, killing 21 people, and injuring 150 more. Molasses is a viscoelastic fluid 1.5 times as dense as water with a viscosity roughly 4000 times greater. This talk will explore the physics of the Boston Molasses Flood, including the effects of temperature fluctuations and molasses rheology on events leading up to the tank's collapse and their impact on subsequent rescue efforts.

  20. Melanoidin-containing wastewaters induce selective laccase gene expression in the white-rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62.

    PubMed

    González, Tania; Terrón, María Carmen; Yagüe, Susana; Junca, Howard; Carbajo, José María; Zapico, Ernesto Javier; Silva, Ricardo; Arana-Cuenca, Ainhoa; Téllez, Alejandro; González, Aldo Enrique

    2008-03-01

    Wastewaters generated from the production of ethanol from sugar cane molasses may have detrimental effects on the environment due to their high chemical oxygen demand and dark brown color. The color is mainly associated with the presence of melanoidins, which are highly recalcitrant to biodegradation. We report here the induction of laccases by molasses wastewaters and molasses melanoidins in the basidiomycetous fungus Trametes sp. I-62. The time course of effluent decolorization and laccase activity in the culture supernatant of the fungus were correlated. The expression of laccase genes lcc1 and lcc2 increased as a result of the addition of complete molasses wastewater and its high molecular weight fraction to fungal cultures. This is the first time differential laccase gene expression has been reported to occur upon exposure of fungal cultures to molasses wastewaters and their melanoidins.

  1. Optimizing the impact of temperature on bio-hydrogen production from food waste and its derivatives under no pH control using statistical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, C.; Sattar, A.; Ji, C.; Sattar, S.; Yousaf, K.; Hashim, S.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of temperature on bio-hydrogen production by co-digestion of sewerage sludge with food waste and its two derivatives, i.e. noodle waste and rice waste, was investigated by statistical modelling. Experimental results showed that increasing temperature from mesophilic (37 °C) to thermophilic (55 °C) was an effective mean for increasing bio-hydrogen production from food waste and noodle waste, but it caused a negative impact on bio-hydrogen production from rice waste. The maximum cumulative bio-hydrogen production of 650 mL was obtained from noodle waste under thermophilic temperature condition. Most of the production was observed during the first 48 h of incubation, which continued until 72 h of incubation. The decline in pH during this interval was 4.3 and 4.4 from a starting value of 7 under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Most of the glucose consumption was also observed during 72 h of incubation and the maximum consumption was observed during the first 24 h, which was the same duration where the maximum pH drop occurred. The maximum hydrogen yields of 82.47 mL VS-1, 131.38 mL COD-1, and 44.90 mL glucose-1 were obtained from thermophilic food waste, thermophilic noodle waste and mesophilic rice waste, respectively. The production of volatile fatty acids increased with an increase in time and temperature in food waste and noodle waste reactors whereas they decreased with temperature in rice waste reactors. The statistical modelling returned good results with high values of coefficient of determination (R2) for each waste type and 3-D response surface plots developed by using models developed. These plots developed a better understanding regarding the impact of temperature and incubation time on bio-hydrogen production trend, glucose consumption during incubation and volatile fatty acids production.

  2. Effects of citrus molasses distillers solubles and molasses on rumen parameters and lactation.

    PubMed

    Wing, J M; Van Horn, H H; Sklare, S D; Harris, B

    1988-02-01

    Effects of dietary citrus molasses distillers solubles (0, 6, 12, and 18% of DM) on diet digestibility and ruminal parameters were studied with four fistulated Holstein cows fed each diet in Latin square sequence. Diets were 25% cottonseed hulls with solubles substituted for corn. Dry matter and organic matter digestibilities were increased curvilinearly with peak at 6%. Crude protein digestibility was depressed linearly and ADF curvilinearly with added solubles. Ruminal acetic acid proportion increased linearly and propionic acid decreased curvilinearly. Change in butyric acid was small with 0, 6, and 12% solubles but it increased dramatically with 18%. In a 36-cow (107 cow-period) lactation experiment with corn silage-based and cottonseed hull-based diets (0, 3, 6, and 9% solubles) milk yield increased; the diet containing 6% solubles gave highest production. We compared cane molasses (3 and 6%), liquid hemicellulose extract (3%, Masonex), and liquid lignin sulfonate (3%, Flambeau) added to cottonseed hull diets. Linear increases in milk yield and FCM were obtained with cane molasses; Flambeau and Masonex effects on production were not different from control. With diets and amounts used in these experiments, citrus molasses solubles and cane molasses each at up to 6% of DM nutritionally were superior to corn.

  3. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

    2007-11-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose.

  4. Optimizing the impact of temperature on bio-hydrogen production from food waste and its derivatives under no pH control using statistical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattar, A.; Arslan, C.; Ji, C.; Sattar, S.; Yousaf, K.; Hashim, S.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of temperature on bio-hydrogen production by co-digestion of sewerage sludge with food waste and its two derivatives, i.e. noodle waste and rice waste, was investigated by statistical modelling. Experimental results showed that increasing temperature from mesophilic (37 °C) to thermophilic (55 °C) was an effective mean for increasing bio-hydrogen production from food waste and noodle waste, but it caused a negative impact on bio-hydrogen production from rice waste. The maximum cumulative bio-hydrogen production of 650 mL was obtained from noodle waste under mesophilic temperature condition. Most of the production was observed during 48 h of incubation that continued till 72 h of incubation, and a decline in pH during this interval was 4.3 and 4.4 from a starting value of 7 under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Most of glucose consumption was also observed during 72 h of incubation and the maximum consumption was observed during the first 24 h, which was the same duration where the maximum pH drop occurred. The maximum hydrogen yields of 82.47 mL VS-1, 131.38 mL COD-1, and 44.90 mL glucose-1 were obtained from mesophilic food waste, thermophilic noodle waste and mesophilic rice waste respectively. The production of volatile fatty acids increased with an increase in time and temperature from food waste and noodle waste reactors whereas it decreased with temperature in rice waste reactors. The statistical modelling returned good results with high values of coefficient of determination (R2) for each waste type when it was opted for the study of cumulative hydrogen production, glucose consumption and volatile fatty acid production. The 3-D response surface plots developed by the statistical models helped a lot in developing better understanding of the impact of temperature and incubation time.

  5. Direct degradation of cellulosic biomass to bio-hydrogen from a newly isolated strain Clostridium sartagoforme FZ11.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Nan; Li, Yan-Hong; Zheng, Hui-Qin; Fan, Yao-Ting; Hou, Hong-Wei

    2015-09-01

    A mesophilic hydrogen-producing strain, Clostridium sartagoforme FZ11, had been newly isolated from cow dung compost acclimated using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) for at least 30 rounds in an anaerobic bioreactor, and identified by the 16S rDNA gene sequencing, which could directly utilized various carbon sources, especially cellulosic biomass, to produce hydrogen. The maximum hydrogen yields from MCC (10 g/l) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, 10 g/l) were 77.2 and 64.6 ml/g, separately. Furthermore, some key parameters of affecting hydrogen production from raw corn stalk were also optimized. The maximal hydrogen yield and substrate degradation rate from raw corn stalk were 87.2 ml/g and 41.2% under the optimized conditions with substrate concentration of 15 g/l, phosphate buffer of 0.15 M, urea of 6 g/l and initial pH of 6.47 at 35 °C. The result showed that the strain FZ11 would be an ideal candidate to directly convert cellulosic biomass into bio-hydrogen without substrate pretreatment.

  6. [Bio-hydrogen production from different pretreated sludge by Pseudomonas sp. GL1 and changes in the liquid phases].

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Guo, Liang; Li, Xiao-ming; Yang, Qi; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Yong-lin; Zeng, Guang-ming; Liu, Jing-jin; Yang, Zhi-qiang

    2008-04-01

    Batch tests of anaerobic fermentative hydrogen production by Pseudomonas sp. GL1 were investigated using sterilization, microwave and ultrasonication pretreated sludge as substrate. The profiles of soluble COD, protein, carbohydrate and pH value during the fermentation process were monitored. The results showed that only hydrogen and carbon dioxide were produced and methane was not observed during the process. A maximal hydrogen yield (30.07 mL x g(-1)) and bio-hydrogen content (81.45%) were obtained from the sterilization pretreated sludge run. The shortest lag time for hydrogen production was in ultrasonication pretreated sludge run (3 h), while the longest one was in sterilization pretreated sludge run (15 h), and the medial one was in microwave pretreated sludge run (12 h). It was found that the changes of sludge substrates (soluble COD, protein, carbohydrate and pH value) were various with different pretreated sludge during the fermentation process, especially in the sterilization sludge run, which implied that the pretreatment method could affect substrate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. GL1.

  7. Bio-hydrogen and bio-methane potentials of skim latex serum in batch thermophilic two-stage anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Jariyaboon, Rattana; O-Thong, Sompong; Kongjan, Prawit

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion by two-stage process, containing hydrogen-producing (acidogenic) first stage and methanogenic second stage, has been proposed to degrade substrates which are difficult to be treated by single stage anaerobic digestion process. This research was aimed to evaluate the bio-hydrogen and the bio-methane potentials (BHP and BMP) of skim latex serum (SLS) by using sequential batch hydrogen and methane cultivations at thermophilic conditions (55°C) and with initial SLS concentrations of 37.5-75.0% (v/v). The maximal 1.57 L H2/L SLS for BHP and 12.2L CH4/L SLS for BMP were both achieved with 60% (v/v) SLS. The dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria in the H2 batch reactor were Thermoanaerobacterium sp. and Clostrdium sp. Meanwhile, the CH4 batch reactor was dominated by the methanogens Methanosarcina mazei and Methanothermobacter defluvii. The results demonstrate that SLS can be degraded by conversion to form hydrogen and methane, waste treatment and bioenergy production are thus combined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation and simultaneous optimization of bio-hydrogen production using 3 2 factorial design and the desirability function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuetos, M. J.; Gómez, X.; Escapa, A.; Morán, A.

    Various mixtures incorporating a simulated organic fraction of municipal solid wastes and blood from a poultry slaughterhouse were used as substrate in a dark fermentation process for the production of hydrogen. The individual and interactive effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), solid content in the feed (%TS) and proportion of residues (%Blood) on bio-hydrogen production were studied in this work. A central composite design and response surface methodology were employed to determine the optimum conditions for the hydrogen production process. Experimental results were approximated to a second-order model with the principal effects of the three factors considered being statistically significant (P < 0.05). The production of hydrogen obtained from the experimental point at conditions close to best operability was 0.97 L Lr -1 day -1. Moreover, a desirability function was employed in order to optimize the process when a second, methanogenic, phase is coupled with it. In this last case, the optimum conditions lead to a reduction in the production of hydrogen when the optimization process involves the maximization of intermediary products.

  9. Optimization studies of bio-hydrogen production in a coupled microbial electrolysis-dye sensitized solar cell system.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Folusho Francis; Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Choi, Mi-Jin; Chang, In Seop; Kim, In S

    2010-03-01

    Bio-hydrogen production in light-assisted microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was optimized by connecting multiple MECs to a single dye (N719) sensitized solar cell (V(OC) approx. 0.7 V). Hydrogen production occurred simultaneously in all the connected MECs when the solar cell was irradiated with light. The amount of hydrogen produced in each MEC depends on the activity of the microbial catalyst on their anode. Substrate (acetate) to hydrogen conversion efficiencies ranging from 42% to 65% were obtained from the reactors during the experiment. A moderate light intensity of 430 W m(-2) was sufficient for hydrogen production in the coupled MEC-DSSC. A higher light intensity of 915 W m(-2), as well as an increase in substrate concentration, did not show any improvement in the current density due to limitation caused by the rate of microbial oxidation on the anode. A significant reduction in the surface area of the connected DSSC only showed a slight effect on current density in the coupled MEC-DSSC system when irradiated with light.

  10. Evaluation of hydrogen production by clostridium strains on beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Avci, Ayşe; Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Dönmez, Gönöl; Dönmez, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792, C. acetobutylicum DSM 1731 and two newly isolated bacteria defined as the members of genus Clostridium - based on the 16S rRNA analysis and biochemical traits - were characterized with regard to their hydrogen production in media containing increasing beet molasses concentrations. The highest hydrogen yield was observed for C. acetobutylicum DSM 792 with a yield of 2.8 mol H2 mol-1 hexose in medium including 60 g L-1 molasses. This bacterium also produced the maximum amount of hydrogen (5908.8 mL L-1) at the same molasses concentration. A slightly lower hydrogen yield was measured for C. acetobutylicum DSM 1731 (2.5 mol H2 mol-1 hexose) when grown on 40 g L-1 molasses. The new isolates Clostridium roseum C and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum PF produced hydrogen with yields of 2.0 mol H2 mol-1 hexose at 40 and 60 g L-1 molasses and 2.1 mol H2 mol-1 hexose at 40 gL-1 molasses, respectively.

  11. Treating industrial discharges by thermophilic sulfate reduction process with molasses as electron donor.

    PubMed

    Liamleam, W; Annachhatre, A P

    2007-06-01

    Thermophilic sulfate reduction process with molasses as an electron donor was investigated for the removal of zinc from rayon industry wastewater. Sulfide rich effluent from the process was used to remove zinc as zinc sulfide precipitate. The investigations with sulfate reduction process were conducted with synthetic (Stage I) as well as real wastewater from Rayon industry (Stage II) as feed. The effect of feed COD: sulfate ratio, which is the key factor for operating the sulfate reduction process, was focused on in this study. The experimental results showed that the process could achieve a high sulfate conversion rate of about 7.22 +/- 1.91 g SO4 l(-1).d(-1) at COD: sulfate ratio of 1.5:1 and 7.20 +/- 2.27 g SO4 l(-1).d(-1) at COD: sulfate ratio of 3:1 during stage I and stage II, respectively. At the end of the operation of stage II, a maximum sulfide production of 496.2 mg S l(-1) was achieved at COD: sulfate ratio of 3:1. Furthermore, sulfide rich effluent from sulfate reduction process was used for zinc sulfide precipitation. The results showed that more than 95% of zinc was removed from a high sulfate-containing wastewater.

  12. Present-day stress orientation in the Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinecker, John; Tingay, Mark; Müller, Birgit; Heidbach, Oliver

    2010-02-01

    The present-day state of stress in Western Europe is considered to be controlled by forces acting at the plate boundaries. It is assumed that the Alpine orogen only influence the regional pattern of present-day stress in Western Europe within the Alps themselves. We examine the present-day maximum horizontal stress orientation in the Molasse Basin in the Alpine foreland in order to investigate the possible influence of the Alps on the far-field stress pattern of Western Europe. Four-arm caliper and image logs were analysed in 137 wells, in which a total of 1348 borehole breakouts and 59 drilling-induced fractures were observed in 98 wells in the German Molasse Basin. The borehole breakouts and drilling-induced fractures reveal that stress orientations are highly consistent within the Molasse Basin and that the present-day maximum horizontal stress orientation rotates from N-S in southeast Germany (002°N ± 19°) to approximately NNW-SSE in southwest Germany and the Swiss Molasse Basin (150°N ± 24°). The present-day maximum horizontal stress orientation in the Molasse Basin is broadly perpendicular to the strike of the Alpine front, indicating that the stress pattern is probably controlled by gravitational potential energy of Alpine topography rather than by plate boundary forces. The present-day maximum horizontal stress orientations determined herein have important implications for the production of hydrocarbons and geothermal energy in the German Molasse Basin, in particular that hydraulically-induced fractures are likely to propagate N-S and that wells deviated to the north or south may have reduced wellbore instability problems.

  13. Riboflavin production by Aspergillus terreus from beet-molasses.

    PubMed

    Sabry, S A; Ghanem, K M; Ghozlan, H A

    1993-12-01

    Aspergillus terreus was used for riboflavin (vitamin B2) production in a medium containing beet molasses as the sole carbon source. Growth and the vitamin production of the fungus were markedly affected by the composition of the culture medium. A maximum riboflavin yield was achieved at the late exponential growth phase (16 day-old cultures) in the presence of (g/l): centrifuged beet-molasses, 90; L-asparagine, 1; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5; K2HPO4/kH2PO4 (1:1), 5; and the medium initially adjusted to pH 8.

  14. Dietary interaction of cane molasses with source of roughage: intake and lactation effects.

    PubMed

    Morales, J L; Van Horn, H H; Moore, J E

    1989-09-01

    Effects of cane molasses at 0, 4, and 8% of DM in complete mixed diets were evaluated when molasses was fed to lactating dairy cows with cottonseed hulls, alfalfa haylage, or both combined. Thirty-six mature Holstein cows from mid to late lactation were used in a partially balanced incomplete block design with three 28-d periods. Variables measured were DM intake, milk yield, and composition. With cottonseed hull diets (30% of DM), molasses improved milk yield, milk fat percentage, solids-corrected milk, and feed efficiency. Dry matter intake was not affected by molasses. With alfalfa haylage diets (35% of DM), 8% molasses depressed actual milk yield and solids-corrected milk, DM intake, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, and feed efficiency. Milk fat percentage was increased with 4% molasses. With 65% alfalfa haylage diets, most variables measured were unaffected by molasses; however, with 8% molasses, DM intake increased and milk protein percentage decreased. In diets with both roughages combined, molasses did not affect any variable measured; however, these diets gave highest solids-corrected milk yields. Results show clearly that molasses effects depend on percentage molasses and type and amount of roughage in the diet.

  15. Combined electron-beam and coagulation purification of molasses distillery slops. Features of the method, technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikaev, A. K.; Ponomarev, A. V.; Bludenko, A. V.; Minin, V. N.; Elizar'eva, L. M.

    2001-04-01

    The paper summarizes the results obtained from the study on combined electron-beam and coagulation method for purification of molasses distillery slops from distillery produced ethyl alcohol by fermentation of grain, potato, beet and some other plant materials. The method consists in preliminary mixing of industrial wastewater with municipal wastewater, electron-beam treatment of the mixture and subsequent coagulation. Technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility (output of 7000 m 3 day -1) with two powerful cascade electron accelerators (total maximum beam power of 400 kW) for treatment of the wastewater by the above method was carried out. It was calculated that the cost of purification of the wastes is equal to 0.25 US$ m -3 that is noticeably less than in the case of the existing method.

  16. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with food waste (FW): Enhancement of bio-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Angeriz-Campoy, Rubén; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos J; Romero-García, Luis I

    2015-10-01

    Bio-hydrogen production from dry thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (55°C and 20% total solids) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and food waste (FW) was studied. OFMSW coming from mechanical-biological treatment plants (MBT plants) presents a low organic matter concentration. However, FW has a high organic matter content but several problems by accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and system acidification. Tests were conducted using a mixture ratio of 80:20 (OFSMW:FW), to avoid the aforementioned problems. Different solid retention times (SRTs) - 6.6, 4.4, 2.4 and 1.9 days - were tested. It was noted that addition of food waste enhances the hydrogen production in all the SRTs tested. Best results were obtained at 1.9-day SRT. It was observed an increase from 0.64 to 2.51 L H2/L(reactor) day in hydrogen productivity when SRTs decrease from 6.6 to 1.9 days. However, the hydrogen yield increases slightly from 33.7 to 38 mL H2/gVS(added). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Production of bio-hydrogenated diesel by catalytic hydrotreating of palm oil over NiMoS2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Srifa, Atthapon; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Itthibenchapong, Vorranutch; Viriya-Empikul, Nawin; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai

    2014-04-01

    Catalytic hydrotreating of palm oil (refined palm olein type) to produce bio-hydrogenated diesel (BHD) was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over NiMoS2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. Effects of dominant hydrotreating parameters: temperature: 270-420°C; H2 pressure: 15-80 bar; LHSV: 0.25-5.0 h(-1); and H2/oil ratio: 250-2000 N(cm(3)/cm(3)) on the conversion, product yield, and a contribution of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and decarbonylation/decarboxylation (DCO/DCO2) were investigated to find the optimal hydrotreating conditions. All calculations including product yield and the contribution of HDO and DCO/DCO2 were extremely estimated based on mole balance corresponding to the fatty acid composition in feed to fully understand deoxygenation behaviors at different conditions. These analyses demonstrated that HDO, DCO, and DCO2 reactions competitively occurred at each condition, and had different optimal and limiting conditions. The differences in the hydrotreating reactions, liquid product compositions, and gas product composition were also discussed.

  18. Sub-Doppler cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colzi, Giacomo; Durastante, Gianmaria; Fava, Eleonora; Serafini, Simone; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    We report on the realization of sub-Doppler laser cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses using the D1 optical transition (3 s 1/2 2S →3 p 1/2 2P) at 589.8 nm. The technique is applied to samples containing 3 ×109 atoms, previously cooled to 350 μ K in a magneto-optical trap, and it leads to temperatures as low as 9 μ K and phase-space densities in the range of 10-4. The capture efficiency of the gray molasses is larger than 2/3, and we observe no density-dependent heating for densities up to 1011cm-3 .

  19. Screening of different fungi for decolorization of molasses

    PubMed Central

    Seyis, Isil; Subasioglu, Tugba

    2009-01-01

    The decolorization of molasses by 17 different fungi in 2 media was studied. Trichoderma viride showed the highest decolorization yield (53.5%) when cultivated at 30ºC for 7 days in Medium 1 which contained the molasses which was diluted to 40 g/L in distilled water. The other Trichoderma species and Penicillium sp. also gave similar results of 40-45%. Decolorization yield was increased by adding peptone and yeast extract to the production medium except Penicillium sp. Growth rate was not related to decolorization yet pH value was. When the pH decreased below 5.0 after the incubation, the decolorization yield increased. Although reducing sugar in culture broth decreased with decreasing color intensity, there was no connection between protein utilization and decolorizing activity. PMID:24031318

  20. Three-dimensional spatial diffusion in optical molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodapp, T. W.; Gerz, C.; Furtlehner, C.; Westbrook, C. I.; Phillips, W. D.; Dalibard, J.

    1995-02-01

    We have studied the expansion of a small cloud of85Rb atoms in three-dimensional optical molasses (lin ⊥ lin and σ+ - σ- configurations) and observed diffusive motion. We determined the spatial-diffusion coefficients for various laser intensities and detunings, and compared them (in the case of lin ⊥ lin molasses) to values calculated from friction and momentum-diffusion coefficients of a one-dimensional (1D) theory of laser cooling. The predicted variations of the spatial-diffusion coefficient with laser intensity and detuning are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental data. We found that the minimal value observed experimentally, ≈ 6 × 10-4 cm2/s, lies within a factor of 3 of the 1D theoretical minimum, ≈, 26ħ/ M, where M is the atomic mass.

  1. Microbial decolorization and bioremediation of melanoidin containing molasses spent wash.

    PubMed

    Singh, K D; Sharma, S; Dwivedi, A; Pandey, P; Thakur, R L; Kumar, V

    2007-07-01

    Molasses spent wash from cane-molasses based distilleries contains a brown coloured recalcitrantpolymer melanoidin, which if disposed untreated poses a great threat to environment. Microbial decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction was found to be dependent on specific carbon and nitrogen source. Under optimal condition of pH, carbon and nitrogen concentration for each treatment, it was found that Bacillus sp isolated from soil was capable of removing COD (85. 35%) and colour (81.10%) from distillery waste to the maximum extent after 9 days atpH 7 in the medium containing 0.5% peptone, 2% glucose and 10% (v/v), followed by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and lowest reduction was obtained by using native microbial consortium.

  2. New data on electron-beam purification of wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikaev, A. K.

    2002-11-01

    Recent environmental applications of radiation technology, developed in the author's laboratory, are presented in this paper. They are electron-beam and coagulation purification of molasses distillery slops from distillery-produced ethyl alcohol by fermentation of plant materials, electron-beam purification of wastewater from carboxylic acids (for example, formic acid) and removal of petroleum products (diesel fuel, motor oil and residual fuel oil) from water by γ-irradiation.

  3. Pilot scale investigation of zinc and sulphate removal from industrial discharges by biological sulphate reduction with molasses as electron donor.

    PubMed

    Liamleam, Warounsak; Oo, Zaw Ko; Thai, Phan Thong; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2009-11-01

    A biological sulphate reduction process, with molasses as an electron donor, was used for the removal of zinc and sulphate from Rayon industrial wastewater. The process involved reduction of sulphate to sulphide under anaerobic conditions. The sulphide-rich effluent was used to remove zinc as zinc sulphide precipitate. The investigation was conducted at pilot scale with real wastewater from the Rayon industry as feed. The effects of sulphate loading rate and temperature of feeding wastewater were evaluated. The experimental results showed that there was no significant difference in sulphide production when the reactor was operated at 50 +/- 2 degrees C and 65 +/- 2 degrees C. Sulphide production was in the range of 500-515 mg L(-1). In addition, an increase in sulphate loading rate from 6.3 +/- 0.7 kg SO4 m(-3) d(-1) to 14.9 +/- 2.4 kg SO4 m(-3) d(-1) resulted in a dramatic decrease in sulphate removal efficiency. Furthermore, zinc sulphide precipitation at pH 7 removed more than 96% of zinc.

  4. Applications of the Box-Wilson design model for bio-hydrogen production using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564).

    PubMed

    Alalayah, W M; Kalil, M S; Kadhum, A A H; Jahim, J; Zaharim, A; Alauj, N M; El-Shafie, A

    2010-07-15

    Box-Wilson design (BWD) model was applied to determine the optimum values of influencing parameters in anaerobic fermentation to produce hydrogen using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564). The main focus of the study was to find the optimal relationship between the hydrogen yield and three variables including initial substrate concentration, initial medium pH and reaction temperature. Microbial growth kinetic parameters for hydrogen production under anaerobic conditions were determined using the Monod model with incorporation of a substrate inhibition term. The values of micro(max) (maximum specific growth rate) and K, (saturation constant) were 0.398 h(-1) and 5.509 g L(-1), respectively, using glucose as the substrate. The experimental substrate and biomass-concentration profiles were in good agreement with those obtained by the kinetic-model predictions. By varying the conditions of the initial substrate concentration (1-40 g L(-1)), reaction temperature (25-40 degrees C) and initial medium pH (4-8), the model predicted a maximum hydrogen yield of 3.24 mol H2 (mol glucose)(-1). The experimental data collected utilising this design was successfully fitted to a second-order polynomial model. An optimum operating condition of 10 g L(-1) initial substrate concentration, 37 degrees C reaction temperature and 6.0 +/- 0.2 initial medium pH gave 80% of the predicted maximum yield of hydrogen where as the experimental yield obtained in this study was 77.75% exhibiting a close accuracy between estimated and experimental values. This is the first report to predict bio-hydrogen yield by applying Box-Wilson Design in anaerobic fermentation while optimizing the effects of environmental factors prevailing there by investigating the effects of environmental factors.

  5. The relationship between mixed microbial culture composition and PHA production performance from fermented molasses.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gilda; Oehmen, Adrian; Albuquerque, Maria G E; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-06-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters that can be produced from industrial wastewater or surplus products by mixed microbial cultures (MMC). To optimise PHA production by MMCs, the link between the microbial structure and function of these enrichments must be better established. This study investigates, for the first time, the impact of operational changes on the microbial community and the associated process performance of PHA producing MMCs. It was found that a PHA producing community fed with fermented molasses was dominated by a combination of Azoarcus, Thauera and Paracoccus, where the former two groups were present in highest abundance. Dominance of either Thauera or Azoarcus seemed to be determined by the organic loading rate imposed in the selection reactor. While higher Azoarcus enrichments led to higher PHA production yields and lower biomass growth yields as compared to Thauera, the Thauera abundance was strongly linked to higher hydroxyvalerate (HV) fractions. Paracoccus abundance was correlated with a lower PHA production capacity as compared to Azoarcus, and produced lower HV fractions than Thauera and Azoarcus. The findings of this study suggest that MMCs targeting the enrichment of Azoarcus as the primary biomass fraction with Thauera as a minor fraction lead to optimal specific PHA production and polymers with high HV content, which is likely to improve their mechanical properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Floating treatment wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Faulwetter, J L; Burr, M D; Cunningham, A B; Stewart, F M; Camper, A K; Stein, O R

    2011-01-01

    Floating islands are a form of treatment wetland characterized by a mat of synthetic matrix at the water surface into which macrophytes can be planted and through which water passes. We evaluated two matrix materials for treating domestic wastewater, recycled plastic and recycled carpet fibers, for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal. These materials were compared to pea gravel or open water (control). Experiments were conducted in laboratory scale columns fed with synthetic wastewater containing COD, organic and inorganic nitrogen, and mineral salts. Columns were unplanted, naturally inoculated, and operated in batch mode with continuous recirculation and aeration. COD was efficiently removed in all systems examined (>90% removal). Ammonia was efficiently removed by nitrification. Removal of total dissolved N was ∼50% by day 28, by which time most remaining nitrogen was present as NO(3)-N. Complete removal of NO(3)-N by denitrification was accomplished by dosing columns with molasses. Microbial communities of interest were visualized with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) by targeting specific functional genes. Shifts in the denitrifying community were observed post-molasses addition, when nitrate levels decreased. The conditioning time for reliable nitrification was determined to be approximately three months. These results suggest that floating treatment wetlands are a viable alternative for domestic wastewater treatment.

  7. Invitro Digestion and Fermentation Characteristics of Temulose Molasses, a Co-Product of Fiberboard Production, and Select Temulose Fractions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is of interest to discover new fermentable carbohydrates sources that function as prebiotics. This study evaluated the hydrolytic digestibility, fermentative capacity, and microbiota modulating properties of temulose molasses, four hydrolyzed fractions of temulose molasses, short-chain fructooli...

  8. Current Research on Molasses as an Alternative Energy Source for Organic Dairy Herds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As organic grain prices have increased and organic milk prices have decreased, dairy farmers are seeking lower-cost supplementation strategies. Sugarcane molasses, a rich source of sucrose, seems to be a viable option as a source of energy. Molasses frequently costs less per pound of dry matter than...

  9. GS4 Molasses ICUMSA (International Commission for Uniform Methods in Sugar Analysis) Report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A report is given on international trade methods for molasses. At the present time there is a need to replace lead acetate clarification agent used in the determination of sucrose in molasses samples, in Europe and other parts of the world. The report discusses possible replacements for lead aceta...

  10. Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

    2009-09-01

    This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of α-amylase, β-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

  11. A novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses for production of prebiotic and functional bioproducts.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Lata, Kusum; Singh, Umesh; Krishania, Meena; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the sugar industry by-product cane molasses was investigated as feedstock for acceptor reactions by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508, leading to the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides. The starch industry corn fiber residue was used as a source for acceptor molecules, maltose, in the reaction. Production of approximately 124g oligosaccharides (DP3-DP6) per kg of fresh molasses was achieved. Further, cane molasses based medium was demonstrated as a sole carbon source for L. mesenteroides growth and dextransucrase production. d-Fructose released by dextransucrase activity as processing by-product was transformed into the functional monosaccharide with zero caloric value, d-psicose, by inducing its epimerization. Quantitative analysis approximated 37g d-psicose per kg of fresh molasses. Thus, the study established a novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses into prebiotic and functional food additives.

  12. Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.

    PubMed

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves.

  13. Mixed culture polyhydroxyalkanoates production from sugar molasses: the use of a 2-stage CSTR system for culture selection.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, M G E; Concas, S; Bengtsson, S; Reis, M A M

    2010-09-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are promising biodegradable polymers. The use of mixed microbial cultures (MMC) and low cost feedstocks have a positive impact on the cost-effectiveness of the process. It has typically been carried out in Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR). In this study, a 2-stage CSTR system (under Feast and Famine conditions) was used to effectively select for PHA-storing organisms using fermented molasses as feedstock. The effect of influent substrate concentration (60-120 Cmmol VFA/L) and HRT ratio between the reactors (0.2-0.5h/h) on the system's selection efficiency was assessed. It was shown that Feast reactor residual substrate concentration impacted on the selective pressure for PHA storage (due to substrate-dependent kinetic limitation). Moreover, a residual substrate concentration coming from the Feast to the Famine reactor did not jeopardize the physiological adaptation required for enhanced PHA storage. The culture reached a maximum PHA content of 61%. This success opens new perspectives to the use of wastewater treatment infrastructure for PHA production, thus valorizing either excess sludge or wastewaters.

  14. The effect of sugar cane molasses on the immune and male reproductive systems using in vitro and in vivo methods

    PubMed Central

    Rahiman, Farzana; Pool, Edmund John

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Sugar cane molasses is a commonly used ingredient in several food products. Contrasting reports suggest that molasses may have potential adverse or beneficial effects on human health. However, little evidence exists that examines the effects of molasses on the different physiological systems. This study investigated the effects of sugar cane molasses on various physiological systems using in vivo and in vitro methods. Materials and Methods: Molasses was administered orally to BALB/c, male mice and animals were randomly assigned into either a treatment or control group. General physiological changes, body weight and molasses intake of animals were monitored. At the end of the exposure period, collected blood samples were evaluated for potential toxicity using plasma biomarkers and liver enzyme activity. Immunised treated and untreated mice were evaluated for antibody titre to determine the effect of molasses on the immune response. To investigate the impact of molasses on testicular steroidogenesis, testes from both treated and control groups were harvested, cultured and assayed for testosterone synthesis. Results: Findings suggest that fluid intake by molasses-treated animals was significantly increased and these animals showed symptoms of loose faeces. Molasses had no significant effect on body weight, serum biomarkers or liver enzyme activity (P>0.05). Immunoglobulin-gamma anti-antigen levels were significantly suppressed in molasses-treated groups (P=0.004). Animals subjected to molasses exposure also exhibited elevated levels of testosterone synthesis (P=0.001). Conclusion: Findings suggests that molasses adversely affects the humoral immune response. The results also promote the use of molasses as a supplement to increase testosterone levels. PMID:27872709

  15. Treatment of melanoidin wastewater by anaerobic digestion and coagulation.

    PubMed

    Arimi, Milton M; Zhang, Yongjun; Götz, Gesine; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Melanoidins are dark-coloured recalcitrant pollutants found in many industrial wastewaters including coffee-manufacturing effluent, molasses distillery wastewater (MDWW) and other wastewater with molasses as the raw material. The wastewaters are mostly treated with anaerobic digestion after some dilution to minimize the inhibition effect. However, the dark colour and recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mainly caused by melanoidin are not effectively removed. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of colour and remnant DOC by different coagulants from anaerobically digested MDWW. From the six coagulants tested, ferric chloride had the highest melanoidin (48%), colour (92.7%) and DOC (63.3%) removal at pH 5 and a dosage of 1.6 g/l. Both polymer and inorganic salt coagulants tested had optimal colour, melanoidin and DOC removal at acidic pH. The molecular size distribution of synthetic melanoidins by liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection indicated a preferential removal of high-molecular-weight melanoidins over low weight melanoidins by the coagulation. Further studies should focus on how to improve biodegradability of the treated effluent for it to be reused as dilution water for anaerobic digestion.

  16. Use of sugarcane molasses by Pycnoporus sanguineus for the production of laccase for dye decolorization.

    PubMed

    Marim, R A; Oliveira, A C C; Marquezoni, R S; Servantes, J P R; Cardoso, B K; Linde, G A; Colauto, N B; Valle, J S

    2016-10-17

    Pycnoporus sanguineus is a white-rot basidiomycete that produces laccase as the only oxidoreductase; enzyme synthesis depends on cultivation variables, and fungal species and strain. Laccases have wide substrate specificity, oxidize a broad range of compounds, and show potential for use in dye decolorization. We evaluated laccase production in a recently isolated strain of P. sanguineus cultivated with sugarcane molasses as the only carbon source, and urea or yeast extract as the nitrogen source [at various nitrogen concentrations (0.4, 1.4, 2.4, 3.4, and 4.4 g/L)], supplemented with copper (0, 150, 200, 250, and 300 µM), with or without agitation. The enzymatic extract produced at laccase peak activity was tested for dye decolorization capability on Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Reactive Black 5, Reactive Red 195, and Reactive Yellow 145. The nitrogen source did not affect enzyme production and the higher nitrogen concentration (3.4 g/L nitrogen as urea) increased enzymatic activity. The addition of up to 300 µM of Cu did not affect laccase production, whereas cultivation with agitation increased the activity peak by 17%. The highest laccase activity was ~50,000 U/L on the ninth day of cultivation. After 24 h, decolorization was 80% for Remazol Brilliant Blue R, 9% for Reactive Yellow 145, 6% for Reactive Red 195, and 2% for Reactive Black 5. The enzymatic extract of P. sanguineus provides a potential alternative to wastewater treatment. A better understanding of the behavior of this fungus under various culture conditions would allow improvement of the enzyme production bioprocess.

  17. Florida Citrus Molasses as a Fermentation Substrate1

    PubMed Central

    Long, Sterling K.; Hill, E. C.; Wheaton, T. A.

    1967-01-01

    Samples of midseason Florida citrus molasses from 10 different manufacturing plants were studied during 2 years of production for suitability as fermentation substrates. They were analyzed for degrees Brix, pH, percentage of protein, and free amino acid content. The following ranges of values were obtained: degrees Brix, 65.4 to 73.0; pH, 4.2 to 6.4; and protein, 3.3 to 5.1%. Although the general characteristics of all samples were quite similar, the total free amino acid content and the number of amino acids differed from year to year and from plant to plant. The free amino acids consistently present were asparagine, aspartic acid, alanine, γ-amino-butyric, glycine, glutamic acid, proline, serine, and threonine. Occasionally found were arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and valine. An extremely high level of proline was detected in all samples. PMID:16349724

  18. Engineered Enterobacter aerogenes for efficient utilization of sugarcane molasses in 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Moo-Young; Park, Bu-Soo; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2013-07-01

    Sugarcane molasses is considered to be a good carbon source for biorefinery due to its high sugar content and low price. Sucrose occupies more than half of the sugar in the molasses. Enterobacter aerogenes is a good host strain for 2,3-butanediol production, but its utilization of sucrose is not very efficient. To improve sucrose utilization in E. aerogenes, a sucrose regulator (ScrR) was disrupted from the genomic DNA. The deletion mutation increased the sucrose consumption rate significantly when sucrose or sugarcane molasses was used as a carbon source. The 2,3-butanediol production from sugarcane molasses by the mutant was enhanced by 60% in batch fermentation compared to that by the wild type strain. In fed-batch fermentation, 98.69 g/L of 2,3-butanediol production was achieved at 36 h.

  19. Phenols in citrus peel byproducts. Concentrations of hydroxycinnamates and polymethoxylated flavones in citrus peel molasses.

    PubMed

    Manthey, J A; Grohmann, K

    2001-07-01

    In addition to the main flavanone glycosides (i.e., hesperidin and naringin) in citrus peel, polymethoxylated flavones and numerous hydroxycinnamates also occur and are major phenolic constituents of the molasses byproduct generated from fruit processing. Although a small number of the hydroxycinnamates in citrus occur as amides, most occur as esters and are susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis. This susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis was used in measuring the concentrations of hydroxycinnamates in citrus peel molasses. The highest concentrations of hydroxycinnamates occurred in molasses of orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and tangerine (C. reticulata Blanco.) compared to grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.) and lemon [C. limon (L.) Burm.]. Concentrations of two phenolic glucosides, phlorin (phloroglucinol-beta-O-glucoside) and coniferin (coniferyl alcohol-4-beta-O-glucoside), were also measured. Measurements of the polymethoxylated flavones in molasses from several tangerine and orange varieties showed that these compounds occurred in the highest amounts in Dancy tangerine, whereas samples from two other tangerine molasses contained significantly lower levels, similar to those in the molasses samples from late- and early/mid-season oranges.

  20. DNA damage protection against free radicals of two antioxidant neolignan glucosides from sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Takahashi, Makoto; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Oku, Hirosuke; Wada, Koji

    2016-03-15

    Sugarcane molasses is a potential by-product of the sugarcane manufacturing industry that is rich in antioxidant materials. The present study aimed to obtain antioxidative compounds from sugarcane molasses and to evaluate their ability to protect DNA from oxidative damage. Two neolignan glucosides were isolated from sugarcane molasses using bioassay and UV spectra monitoring-guided fractionation. The compounds were elucidated as (7R,8S)-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-O-β-d-glucoside (1) and (7S,8R)-simulanol-9'-O-β-d-glucoside (2). Neolignan glucoside 2 protected against DNA damage caused by free radicals more effectively than did neolignan glucoside 1 (13.62 and 9.08 µmol L(-1) for peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals, respectively, compared to 48.07 and 14.42 µmol L(-1) ). Additionally, neolignan glucoside 2 exhibited superior DNA protection against free radicals compared with various known antioxidative compounds, including p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid and epigallocatechin gallate. The isolated neolignan glucosides from sugarcane molasses are able to protect DNA from oxidative damage caused by free radicals. This is the first identification of these two compounds in sugarcane molasses. The sugarcane molasses can therefore be used as potential nutraceutical preventative agents, and the findings may foster the utilization of this by-product as a bioresource-based product. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. Copyright © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Decolorization of synthetic melanoidins-containing wastewater by a bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Jiranuntipon, Suhuttaya; Chareonpornwattana, Supat; Damronglerd, Somsak; Albasi, Claire; Delia, Marie-Line

    2008-11-01

    The presence of melanoidins in molasses wastewater leads to water pollution both due to its dark brown color and its COD contents. In this study, a bacterial consortium isolated from waterfall sediment was tested for its decolorization. The identification of culturable bacteria by 16S rDNA based approach showed that the consortium composed of Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia mercescens, Citrobacter sp. and unknown bacterium. In the context of academic study, prevention on the difficulties of providing effluent as well as its variations in compositions, several synthetic media prepared with respect to color and COD contents based on analysis of molasses wastewater, i.e., Viandox sauce (13.5% v/v), caramel (30% w/v), beet molasses wastewater (41.5% v/v) and sugarcane molasses wastewater (20% v/v) were used for decolorization using consortium with color removal 9.5, 1.13, 8.02 and 17.5%, respectively, within 2 days. However, Viandox sauce was retained for further study. The effect of initial pH and Viandox concentration on decolorization and growth of bacterial consortium were further determined. The highest decolorization of 18.3% was achieved at pH 4 after 2 day of incubation. Experiments on fresh or used medium and used or fresh bacterial cells, led to conclusion that the limitation of decolorization was due to nutritional deficiency. The effect of aeration on decolorization was also carried out in 2 L laboratory-scale suspended cell bioreactor. The maximum decolorization was 19.3% with aeration at KLa=2.5836 h(-1) (0.1 vvm).

  2. COD fractionation and biological treatability of mixed industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Fall, C; Millán-Lagunas, E; Bâ, K M; Gallego-Alarcón, I; García-Pulido, D; Díaz-Delgado, C; Solís-Morelos, C

    2012-12-30

    This study was conducted at a centralized wastewater treatment plant that receives discharges from nearly 160 industries. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) was fractionated for two objectives: delineation of the limits of the activated sludge process being used at the plant, and evaluation of the potential environmental impact of the treated effluent. Physico-chemical analyses, respirometric and biodegradation tests, as well as COD fractionation were carried out. Molasses-wastewaters were determined to be the major contribution to the plant. The influent was dark brown in color, with a relatively high content of both organics (2503 mg/L COD) and salts (5459 μS/cm conductivity), but a low biochemical oxygen demand (568 mg/L BOD(5)) and BOD(5)/COD ratio (0.24). The degradability of the organics was limited by the high content of inert soluble COD (S(I)). The COD fractionation pattern was 40-20-40% for S(I), X(I) (inerts) and S(H) (soluble hydrolyzable), respectively. More than 90% BOD(5) removal was obtained, which was sufficient for the plant to meet the national Standards. However, the effluent discharged into the river was intensely colored and polluted (>1000 mg/L COD, >5000 μS/cm), emphasizing the need for legislation regulating COD, color and salinity, and for upgraded treatment methods worldwide for molasses wastewaters.

  3. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Vaidya, Atul N; Kumar, M Suresh; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2009-09-01

    Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio=28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio=29). PHB production yield (Y(p/s)) was highest (0.184 g g(-1) COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB.

  6. Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A. Vaidya, Atul N.; Kumar, M. Suresh; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2009-09-15

    Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 29). PHB production yield (Y{sub p/s}) was highest (0.184 g g{sup -1} COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB.

  7. [Effects of sugar cane molasses on the nutritive value of Canavalia ensiformis seeds for broiler chicks].

    PubMed

    Vargas, R E; Castillo, M; Michelangeli, C

    1996-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of sugar cane molasses to improve performance of broiler chicks fed a diet containing 30% raw or autoclaved Canavalia ensiformis seeds (Jack beans). For this latter purpose, canavalia seeds were ground and autoclaved at 120 degrees C and 15 psi during 60 min. Day-old male chicks (Cobb x Cobb) were used throughout the study. In Experiment 1, adding 10% molasses to a control diet devoided of jack beans seeds significantly (p < 0.05) increased chick feed intake. However, neither the addition of 10% molasses nor of 5% glucose, sucrose, fructose, xylose or corn starch to the 30% raw canavalia ration allowed feed intakes similar to that shown by the control diet (Experiment 2). Broiler performance was evaluated in Experiment 3 in response to diets containing 30% raw or autoclaved jack bean meal. Ten-percent molasses was also added to both diets which along with the control diet were fed to chiks had free access to diets. Growth was depressed when the Jack bean containing diets were pair-fed to chicks. The results indicated that the use of molasses does not overcome the deleterious effects on chick performance due to the presence of 30% raw or autoclaved jack bean meal in the diets.

  8. Identification and isolation of Lactobacillus fructivorans from wilted alfalfa silage with and without molasses.

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Nishino, N

    2016-03-01

    To gain insights into the bacterial species associated with anaerobic storage and aerobic stability of alfalfa silage. Wilted alfalfa silage (498 g dry matter kg(-1) ) was prepared with and without the addition of molasses. Aerobic spoilage tests were conducted at 5, 10 and 60 days after ensiling. The composition of fermentation products and the bacterial communities of silage were determined at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after silo opening. Silage without molasses had small amounts of lactic and acetic acids detectable at silo opening but resisted deterioration due to aerobic spoilage for at least 5 days after opening. Resistance to aerobic deterioration in silage increased with the addition of molasses. The predominant bacterial species in molasses-added silage was Lactobacillus fructivorans, which was detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. Different bacterial growth media were used for Lact. fructivorans isolation from alfalfa silage with added molasses: isolation was successful using liver infusion sake medium, but was unsuccessful when de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium was used. A nonconventional lactic acid bacterium (LAB) species may be involved in the high aerobic stability of alfalfa silage. The findings demonstrate that culture-independent microbiota analysis may be useful in the isolation and identification of nonconventional LAB species involved in fermentation and the aerobic stability of silage. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Fermentation of molasses using a thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus IMB3: simplex optimisation of media supplements.

    PubMed

    Gough, S; Flynn, O; Hack, C J; Marchant, R

    1996-09-01

    The use of molasses as a substrate for ethanol production by the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus was investigated at 45 degrees C. A maximum ethanol concentration of 7.4% (v/v) was produced from unsupplemented molasses at a concentration of 23% (v/v). The effect on ethanol production of increasing the sucrose concentration in 23% (v/v) molasses was determined. Increased sucrose concentration had a similar detrimental effect on the final ethanol produced as the increase in molasses concentration. This indicated that the effect may be due to increased osmotic activity as opposed to other components in the molasses. The optimum concentration of the supplements nitrogen, magnesium, potassium and fatty acid for maximum ethanol production rate was determined using the Nelder and Mead (Computer J 7:308-313, 1965) simplex optimisation method. The optimum concentration of the supplements were 0.576 g1(-1) magnesium sulphate, 0.288 g1(-1) potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.36% (v/v) linseed oil. Added nitrogen in the form of ammonium sulphate did not affect the ethanol production rate.

  10. Sugar Beet Pulp as Leuconostoc mesenteroides T3 Support for Enhanced Dextransucrase Production on Molasses.

    PubMed

    Miljković, Miona G; Davidović, Slađana Z; Carević, Milica B; Veljović, Đorđe N; Mladenović, Dragana D; Rajilić-Stojanović, Mirjana D; Dimitrijević-Branković, Suzana I

    2016-11-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) and molasses, as an agro industrial waste material, are produced in large amounts annually. Thus, a major challenge nowadays is to develop procedures that could increase the value of the generated waste. In this study, SBP as a support for cell immobilization and molasses as a source of nutrients were used for a dextransucrase (DS) production by Leuconostoc mesenteroides T3. The influence of SBP in native form (SBP-N) and after treatment with NaOH (SBP-NaOH) on DS production was investigated. The optimal medium composition for the maximum DS production was determined by varying the concentration of molasses, SBP, and sucrose. The maximum DS yield of 2.02 U/ml was obtained in the medium with 2.5 % of molasses, 2.5 % SBP-NaOH, and 4 % of sucrose concentration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed immobilization of Lc. mesenteroides T3 cells onto SBP-NaOH. According to the obtained results, the production of DS on molasses could be improved by using NaOH-treated SBP as a carrier for whole-cell immobilization. Our study reveals the basis for the development of process for DS production with additional reduction of expenses by using waste materials for obtaining the valuable biotechnological product.

  11. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  12. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  13. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  14. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  15. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  16. Kinetics of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses under cell recycle.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

    2013-02-01

    In this work, a kinetic model for ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses was developed. A model previously developed for fermentation of pure molasses was modified by the inclusion of a new term for acetic acid inhibition on microorganism growth rate and the kinetic parameters were estimated as functions of temperature. The influence of the hydrolysate on the kinetic parameters is analyzed by comparing with the parameters from fermentation of pure molasses. The impact of cells recycling in the kinetic parameters is also evaluated, as well as on the ethanol yield and productivity. The model developed described accurately most of the fermentations performed in several successive batches for temperatures from 30 to 38°C.

  17. Collimation of a thulium atomic beam by two-dimensional optical molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sukachev, D D; Kalganova, E S; Sokolov, A V; Savchenkov, A V; Vishnyakova, G A; Golovizin, A A; Akimov, A V; Kolachevsky, Nikolai N; Sorokin, Vadim N

    2013-04-30

    The number of laser cooled and trapped thulium atoms in a magneto-optical trap is increased by a factor of 3 using a two-dimensional optical molasses which collimated the atomic beam before entering a Zeeman slower. A diode laser operating at 410.6 nm was employed to form optical molasses: The laser was heated to 70 Degree-Sign C by a two-step temperature stabilisation system. The laser system consisting of a master oscillator and an injection-locked amplifier emitted more than 100 mW at 410 nm and had a spectral linewidth of 0.6 MHz. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  18. Fungal Invertase as an Aid for Fermentation of Cane Molasses into Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Park, Y. K.; Sato, H. H.

    1982-01-01

    Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30°C and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.5, ethanol production was increased by the addition of invertase. At 40°C, the addition of invertase increased ethanol production by 5.5% at pH 5.0 and by 20.9% at pH 3.5. PMID:16346122

  19. Fungal invertase as an aid for fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Sato, H.H.

    1982-10-01

    Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30 degrees Centigrade and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.4, ethanol production was increased by the addition of invertase. At 40 degrees C, the addition of invertase increased ethanol production by 5.5% at pH 5.0 and by 20.9% at pH 3.5. (Refs. 8).

  20. Response Surface Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Molasses by Pichia veronae Strain HSC-22

    PubMed Central

    Hamouda, Hamed I.; Nassar, Hussein N.; Madian, Hekmat R.; Abu Amr, Salem S.; El-Gendy, Nour Sh.

    2015-01-01

    Pichia veronae strain HSC-22 (accession number KP012558) showed a good tolerance to relatively high temperature, ethanol and sugar concentrations. Response surface optimization based on central composite design of experiments predicted the optimal values of the influencing parameters that affect the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses to be as follows: initial pH 5, 25% (w : v) initial molasses concentration, 35°C, 116 rpm, and 60 h. Under these optimum operating conditions the maximum bioethanol production on a batch fermenter scale was recorded as 32.32 g/L with 44% bioethanol yield. PMID:26779347

  1. Efficient molasses fermentation under high salinity by inocula of marine and terrestrial origin.

    PubMed

    Scoma, Alberto; Coma, Marta; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Boon, Nico; Rabaey, Korneel

    2017-01-01

    Molasses is a dense and saline by-product of the sugar agroindustry. Its high organic content potentially fuels a myriad of renewable products of industrial interest. However, the biotechnological exploitation of molasses is mainly hampered by the high concentration of salts, an issue that is nowadays tackled through dilution. In the present study, the performance of microbial communities derived from marine sediment was compared to that of communities from a terrestrial environment (anaerobic digester sludge). The aim was to test whether adaptation to salinity represented an advantage for fermenting molasses into renewable chemicals such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs) although high sugar concentrations are uncommon to marine sediment, contrary to anaerobic digesters. Terrestrial and marine microbial communities were enriched in consecutive batches at different initial pH values (pHi; either 6 or 7) and molasses dilutions (equivalent to organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1 or 5 gCOD L(-1) d(-1)) to determine the best VFA production conditions. Marine communities were supplied with NaCl to maintain their native salinity. Due to molasses inherent salinity, terrestrial communities experienced conditions comparable to brackish or saline waters (20-47 mS cm(-1)), while marine conditions resembled brine waters (>47 mS cm(-1)). Enrichments at optimal conditions of OLR 5 gCOD L(-1) d(-1) and pHi 7 were transferred into packed-bed biofilm reactors operated continuously. The reactors were first operated at 5 gCOD L(-1) d(-1), which was later increased to OLR 10 gCOD L(-1) d(-1). Terrestrial and marine reactors had different gas production and community structures but identical, remarkably high VFA bioconversion yields (above 85%) which were obtained with conductivities up to 90 mS cm(-1). COD-to-VFA conversion rates were comparable to the highest reported in literature while processing other organic leftovers at much lower salinities. Although salinity represents

  2. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Enhancing L-Lysine Production of Beet Molasses by Engineered Escherichia coli Using an In Situ Pretreatment Method.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Qi, Yanbin; Chen, Kequan; Li, Yan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2016-07-01

    Reducing the viscosity of molasses environmentally and selectively removing the harmful ingredients for microbes are the keys to promoting the bioavailability of molasses. A simple and environmental in situ pretreatment method integrating surfactants and alkali was developed to reduce the viscosity of molasses prior to L-lysine production using Escherichia coli ZY0217. Adding activated carbon and modified orange peel based on the in situ pretreatment process effectively removed pigments and excessive zinc in the molasses and also significantly increased the cell growth and L-lysine yield from E. coli ZY0217. The experimental results showed that a mixture of secondary alkane sulfonate, an anionic surfactant, and HodagCB-6, a non-ionic surfactant, effectively reduced the viscosity of the molasses more so than any single surfactant. When the surfactant mixture was added at a concentration of 0.04 g/L to the molasses, the ω value was 0.4, and when ammonia was added at 0.6 %, the lowest viscosity of 705 mPa · s was obtained. Further, 91.5 % of the color and 86.68 % of the original levels of zinc were removed using an activated carbon and modified orange peel treatment on the molasses with the lowest viscosity, which further promoted cell growth and L-lysine production. In the fed-batch cultivation process, the L-lysine concentration achieved using a constant-speed feeding strategy was 45.89 g/L, with an L-lysine yield of 27.18 %, whereas the L-lysine yield from untreated molasses was only 10.13 %. The increase in L-lysine yield was related to the reduced viscosity and the detoxification of the molasses. Lastly, the pretreatment was found to significantly enhance the conversion of sugars in the molasses to L-lysine.

  5. Immobilized Sclerotinia sclerotiorum invertase to produce invert sugar syrup from industrial beet molasses by-product.

    PubMed

    Mouelhi, Refka; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2014-03-01

    The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces invertase activity during cultivation on many agroindustrial residues. The molasses induced invertase was purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated at 48 kDa. Optimal temperature was determined at 60 °C and thermal stability up to 65 °C. The enzyme was stable between pH 2.0 and 8.0; optimum pH was about 5.5. Apparent K(m) and V(max) for sucrose were estimated to be respectively 5.8 mM and 0.11 μmol/min. The invertase was activated by β-mercaptoethanol. Free enzyme exhibited 80 % of its original activity after two month's storage at 4 °C and 50 % after 1 week at 25 °C. In order to investigate an industrial application, the enzyme was immobilized on alginate and examined for invert sugar production by molasses hydrolysis in a continuous bioreactor. The yield of immobilized invertase was about 78 % and the activity yield was 59 %. Interestingly the immobilized enzyme hydrolyzed beet molasses consuming nearly all sucrose. It retained all of its initial activity after being used for 4 cycles and about 65 % at the sixth cycle. Regarding productivity; 20 g/l of molasses by-product gave the best invert sugar production 46.21 g/day/100 g substrate related to optimal sucrose conversion of 41.6 %.

  6. [BIOCONVERSION OF CRUDE GLYCEROL AND MOLASSES MIXTURE IN BIOSURFACTANTS OF NOCARDIA VACCINII IMB B-7405].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Kudrya, N V; Shevchuk, T A; Beregova, K A; Iutynska, G O

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of replacing glucose and pure glycerol in mixed substrates for surtace-active substances (SAS, biosurfactants) biosynthesis of Nocardia vaccinii IMB B-7405 on molasses (sugar production waste) and crude glycerol (by-product of biodiesel production) was established. It was established that the increasing concentration of crude glycerol to 6% in mixture with 1.0% molasses was accompanied by increase of amount of SAS synthesized more than twice, and the increasing content of molasses to 3.0% in mixture with 1.0% crude glycerol--by some decrease in the level of surfactant as compared to that in a medium containing 1.0% monosubstrates. It was shown that the increasing concentration of sodium nitrate to 2-fold in medium cultivation of N. vaccinii IMB B-7405 allowed to increase to 7.0% content of grude glycerol in mixture with 1.0% molasses. Under such conditions of cultivation concentration of exocellular SAS synthesized was 7,5 g/l, that to 1,3 fold higher than in basic medium with a lower content of nitrogen source.

  7. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Yi; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of functional components from sugar beet molasses. The central composite design (CCD) was used for the optimisation of extraction parameters in terms of total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and anthocyanins. Result suggested the optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from sugar beet molasses were as follows: HCl concentration 1.55-1.72 mol/L, ethanol concentration 57-63% (v/v), extraction temperature 41-48 °C, and extraction time 66-73 min. In the optimal conditions, the experimental total phenolic contents were 17.36 mg GAE/100mL, antioxidant activity was 16.66 mg TE/g, and total anthocyanins were 31.81 mg/100g of the sugar beet molasses extract, which were well matched the predicted values. Teen compounds, i.e. gallic acid, vanillin, hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucuronide and ferulic acid were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS in sugar beet molasses.

  8. Improved welan gum production by Alcaligenes sp. ATCC31555 from pretreated cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hongxia; Liu, Min; Yu, Pingru; Zhang, Shaozhi; Suo, Yukai; Luo, Ping; Li, Shuang; Wang, Jufang

    2015-09-20

    Welan gum production by Alcaligenes sp. ATCC31555 from cane molasses was studied in batch fermentation to reduce production costs and enhance gum production. The pretreatment of cane molasses, agitation speed and the addition of supplements were investigated to optimize the process. Sulfuric acid hydrolysis was found to be the optimal pretreatment, resulting in a maximum gum concentration of 33.5 g/L, which is 50.0% higher than those obtained from the molasses' mother liquor. Agitation at 600 rpm at 30°C and addition of 10% n-dodecane following fermentation for 36 h increased the maximum gum production up to 41.0 ± 1.41 g/L, which is 49.1% higher than the greatest welan gum concentration in the literature so far. The welan gum product showed an acceptable molecular weight, similar rheological properties and better thermal stability to that obtained from glucose. These results indicate that cane molasses may be a suitable and inexpensive substrate for cost-effective industrial-scale welan gum production.

  9. Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea.

    PubMed Central

    Mella, C M; Perez-Oliva, O; Loew, F M

    1976-01-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1000370

  10. Statistical optimization of medium components for enhanced acetoin production from molasses and soybean meal hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Z J; Liu, P H; Qin, J Y; Xu, P

    2007-02-01

    The nutritional requirements for acetoin production by Bacillus subtilis CICC 10025 were optimized statistically in shake flask experiments using indigenous agroindustrial by-products. The medium components considered for initial screening in a Plackett-Burman design comprised a-molasses (molasses submitted to acidification pretreatment), soybean meal hydrolysate (SMH), KH(2)PO(4).3H(2)O, sodium acetate, MgSO(4).7H(2)O, FeCl(2), and MnCl(2), in which the first two were identified as significantly (at the 99% significant level) influencing acetoin production. Response surface methodology was applied to determine the mutual interactions between these two components and optimal levels for acetoin production. In flask fermentations, 37.9 g l(-1) acetoin was repeatedly achieved using the optimized concentrations of a-molasses and SMH [22.0% (v/v) and 27.8% (v/v), respectively]. a-Molasses and SMH were demonstrated to be more productive than pure sucrose and yeast extract plus peptone, respectively, in acetoin fermentation. In a 5-l fermenter, 35.4 g l(-1) of acetoin could be obtained after 56.4 h of cultivation. To our knowledge, these results, i.e., acetoin yields in flask or fermenter fermentations, were new records on acetoin fermentation by B. subtilis.

  11. Unusual catalysts from molasses: synthesis, properties and application in obtaining biofuels from algae.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Chiara; Torri, Cristian; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe; Faraloni, Cecilia; Galletti, Paola; Spera, Silvia; Tagliavini, Emilio; Torzillo, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    Acid catalysts were prepared by sulfonation of carbon materials obtained from the pyrolysis of sugar beet molasses, a cheap, viscous byproduct in the processing of sugar beets into sugar. Conditions for the pyrolysis of molasses (temperature and time) influenced catalyst performance; the best combination came from pyrolysis at low temperature (420 °C) for a relatively long time (8-15 h), which ensured better stability of the final material. The most effective molasses catalyst was highly active in the esterification of fatty acids with methanol (100 % yield after 3 h) and more active than common solid acidic catalysts in the transesterification of vegetable oils with 25-75 wt % of acid content (55-96 % yield after 8 h). A tandem process using a solid acid molasses catalyst and potassium hydroxide in methanol was developed to de-acidificate and transesterificate algal oils from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Nannochloropsis gaditana, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, which contain high amounts of free fatty acids. The amount of catalyst required for the de-acidification step was influenced by the chemical composition of the algal oil, thus operational conditions were determined not only in relation to free fatty acids content in the oil, but according to the composition of the lipid extract of each algal species.

  12. Analysis of Extracted and Volatile Components in Blackstrap Molasses Feed as Candidate House Fly Attractants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    acid 14.41 Both Propionic acid 15.45 Both × Butanoic acid 16.86 Both × Furfuryl alcohol 17.16 Both × Pentanoic acid 18.14 Hexane Propanamide 18.84...Table 1). Another study conducted on volatiles from cane molasses identified furfuryl alcohol, which was found in both hexane and ether extracts in this

  13. Effect of molasses in anaerobic soil disinfestation: Focus on the soil microbiome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growers in Florida have begun to apply molasses to increase the soil microbial biodiversity. Previous reports have indicated that a greater microbial diversity could cause disease suppressive soils. Furthermore, it has been shown that under moderate temperature, 15-20° C, an increase of carbon could...

  14. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    “Temulose” is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in southeastern Texas. Because...

  15. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    "Temulose" is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in south-eastern Texas. Becaus...

  16. Case study: molasses as the primary energy supplement on an organic grazing dairy farm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic dairies face many challenges, one of which is the high cost of purchasing organic feed grains. Many of these farms are seeking lower-cost feed ingredients that can be reasonably fed to lactating dairy cows. Molasses seems to be a viable, less expensive source of supplemental energy and vit...

  17. MOLASSES AS THE PRIMARY ENERGY SUPPLEMENT ON AN ORGANIC GRAZING DAIRY FARM

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic dairies in New York face challenges, including the high cost of purchasing organic feed grains. Many of these farms are looking for alternative ingredients to use that can be reasonably fed to lactating dairy cows, and that are less costly. Molasses seems to be a viable, less expensive, so...

  18. Ensilage characteristics of three tropical grasses as influenced by stage of growth and addition of molasses.

    PubMed

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    When molasses was added during ensilage of three tropical grasses [hamil grass (Panicum maximum cv. Hamil), pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) and setaria (Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula)] the final pH, concentration of fermentation acids (except lactic acid) and NH3-N content were all similar after 100 days of incubation. Pangola grass silage had significantly higher lactic acid content (66 g/kg dry matter) than the other two. Adding either 4 or 8% (w/w) molasses reduced NH3-N, volatile fatty acid content and pH but increased lactic acid content in the final silages. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria remained approximately constant during the course of the fermentation, although large differences were noted in the species composition of the populations. At the time of ensiling, only Pediococcus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. were detected. By 5 days, the homo-fermentative population, notably Lactobacillus plantarum, dominated (43%) and remained dominant. Hetero-fermentative rods were only detected in the 100-day silage, where they represented 29% of the strains isolated. Homo-fermenters were more abundant in pangola (60%) and setaria (47%) silages than hamil (27%) silages. Homo-fermenter populations were lowest in the 12-week forage. Molasses additions increased homo-fermenter populations. Pangola grass gave the best quality silage but, since the water-soluble carbohydrate content in the grasses was insufficient to promote a strong lactic fermentation, the addition of 20 to 30 kg molasses/tonne should achieve satisfactory preservation.

  19. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan; Pavasant, Prasert

    2013-12-15

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  20. Fermentative production of butanol from sorghum molasses as a potential agricultural fuel. Final report, June 26, 1981-September 25, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, L.T.

    1982-12-01

    A strain, Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 4259, suitable for butanol-acetone fermentation of sorghum molasses was selected from several strains of the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It was cultivated in the composition-optimized sorghum molasses medium. The microbial growth and sugar consumption pattern in the sorghum molasses medium exhibited a typical diauxie phenomenon. The results strongly suggest that the difficulty encountered by the Weizmann type of organisms in butanol-acetone fermentation of molasses is due to the diauxie phenomenon causing a significant decrease in the solvent production rate. Acid hydrolysis of sorghum molasses minimizes the occurrence of the phenomenon, thereby remarkably increasing the solvent yield. The final solvent concentrations in the inverted molasses medium were butanol, 1.0% (w/v); acetone, 0.37% (w/v); ethanol, 0.18% (w/v); and total solvent, 1.55% (w/v). The total solvent yield in the inverted sorghum molasses medium was 30.3% based on the weight of sugar consumed. Effects of the temperature, agitation and heat-shocking were also investigated.

  1. Enhanced poly(L-malic acid) production from pretreated cane molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans in fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Xu, Jiaxing; Hu, Lei; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-16

    Poly(L-malic acid) (PMA) is a natural polyester with many attractive properties for biomedical application. However, the cost of PMA production is high when glucose is used as a carbon source. To solve this problem, cane molasses as a low-cost feedstock was applied for the production of PMA. Six pretreatment methods were applied to cane molasses before fermentation. Pretreatment with combined tricalcium phosphate, potassium ferrocyanide, and sulfuric acid (TPFSA) removed significant amounts of metal ions from cane molasses. The PMA concentration increased from 5.4 g/L (untreated molasses) to 36.9 g/L (TPFSA-pretreated molasses) after fermentation in shake flasks. A fed-batch fermentation strategy was then developed. In this method, TPFSA-pretreated cane molasses solution was continuously fed into the fermentor to maintain the total sugar concentration at 20 g/L. This technique generated approximately 95.4 g/L PMA with a productivity of 0.57 g/L/hr. The present study indicated that fed-batch fermentation using pretreated cane molasses is a feasible technique for producing high amounts of PMA.

  2. A cost-effective cane molasses medium for enhanced cell-bound phytase production by Pichia anomala.

    PubMed

    Vohra, A; Satyanarayana, T

    2004-01-01

    Formulation of an inexpensive cane molasses medium for improved cell-bound phytase production by Pichia anomala. Cell-bound phytase production by Pichia anomala was compared in synthetic glucose-beef extract and cane molasses media. The yeast was cultivated in 250 ml flasks containing 50 ml of the medium, inoculated with a 12 h-old inoculum (3 x 10(6) CFU ml(-1)) and incubated at 25 degrees C for 24 h at 250 rev min(-1). Different cultural parameters were optimized in cane molasses medium in batch fermentation. The cell-bound phytase content increased significantly in cane molasses medium (176 U g(-1) dry biomass) when compared with the synthetic medium (100 U g(-1) dry biomass). In fed-batch fermentation, a marked increase in biomass (20 g l(-1)) and the phytase yield (3000 U l(-1)) were recorded in cane molasses medium. The cost of production in cane molasses medium was pound 0.006 per 1000 U, which is much lower when compared with that in synthetic medium (pound 0.25 per 1000 U). An overall 86.6% enhancement in phytase yield was attained in optimized cane molasses medium using fed-batch fermentation when compared with that in synthetic medium. Furthermore, the production in cane molasses medium is cost-effective. Phytase yield was improved in cane molasses when compared with the synthetic medium, and the cost of production was also significantly reduced. This enzyme can find application in the animal feed industry for improving the nutritional status of feed and combating environmental pollution. Copyright 2004 The Society for Applied Microbiology

  3. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2.

    PubMed

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production.

  4. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2

    PubMed Central

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  5. Molasses as a source of carbon dioxide for attracting the malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most odour baits for haematophagous arthropods contain carbon dioxide (CO2). The CO2 is sourced artificially from the fermentation of refined sugar (sucrose), dry ice, pressurized gas cylinders or propane. These sources of CO2 are neither cost-effective nor sustainable for use in remote areas of sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, molasses was evaluated as a potential substrate for producing CO2 used as bait for malaria mosquitoes. Methods The attraction of laboratory-reared and wild Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes to CO2 generated from yeast-fermentation of molasses was assessed under semi-field and field conditions in western Kenya. In the field, responses of wild Anopheles funestus were also assessed. Attraction of the mosquitoes to a synthetic mosquito attractant, Mbita blend (comprising ammonia, L-lactic acid, tetradecanoic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol) when augmented with CO2 generated from yeast fermentation of either molasses or sucrose was also investigated. Results In semi-field, the release rate of CO2 and proportion of An. gambiae mosquitoes attracted increased in tandem with an increase in the quantity of yeast-fermented molasses up to an optimal ratio of molasses and dry yeast. More An. gambiae mosquitoes were attracted to a combination of the Mbita blend plus CO2 produced from fermenting molasses than the Mbita blend plus CO2 from yeast-fermented sucrose. In the field, significantly more female An. gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes were attracted to the Mbita blend augmented with CO2 produced by fermenting 500 g of molasses compared to 250 g of sucrose or 250 g of molasses. Similarly, significantly more An. funestus, Culex and other anopheline mosquito species were attracted to the Mbita blend augmented with CO2 produced from fermenting molasses than the Mbita blend with CO2 produced from sucrose. Augmenting the Mbita blend with CO2 produced from molasses was associated with high catches of blood-fed An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus

  6. Waste molasses alone displaces glucose-based medium for microalgal fermentation towards cost-saving biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong; Lu, Yue; Chen, Yi-Feng; Wu, Qingyu

    2011-06-01

    The by-product of sugar refinery-waste molasses was explored as alternative to glucose-based medium of Chlorella protothecoides in this study. Enzymatic hydrolysis is required for waste molasses suitable for algal growth. Waste molasses hydrolysate was confirmed as a sole source of full nutrients to totally replace glucose-based medium in support of rapid growth and high oil yield from algae. Under optimized conditions, the maximum algal cell density, oil content, and oil yield were respectively 70.9 g/L, 57.6%, and 40.8 g/L. The scalability of the waste molasses-fed algal system was confirmed from 0.5L flasks to 5L fermenters. The quality of biodiesel from waste molasses-fed algae was probably comparable to that from glucose-fed ones. Economic analysis indicated the cost of oil production from waste molasses-fed algae reduced by 50%. Significant cost reduction of algal biodiesel production through fermentation engineering based on the approach is expected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced L-lysine production from pretreated beet molasses by engineered Escherichia coli in fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Chen, Kequan; Li, Yan; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Hong; Qian, Juan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-08-01

    Faster sugar consumption rate and low-cost nitrogen source are required for the chemical biosynthesis using molasses. Five pretreatment methods were applied to beet molasses prior to fermentation through engineered Escherichia coli, respectively, and corn steep liquid was used as an organic nitrogen source to replace expensive yeast extract. Furthermore, the effects of different feeding strategy in fed-batch fermentation on L-lysine production were investigated. The experimental results showed that combined tricalcium phosphate, sulfuric acid, and activated carbon pretreatment method (TPSA) pretreatment could improve the sugar consumption rate most greatly, and the initial total sugar concentration of 35 g/L from TPSA-pretreated beet molasses gave the best results with respect to L-lysine production, dry cell weight concentration, and L-lysine yield in batch fermentation. Moreover, a mixture of low-cost corn steep liquid and yeast extract containing equal amount of nitrogen could be used as the organic nitrogen source for effective L-lysine fermentation, and constant speed feeding strategy of TPSA-pretreated beet molasses promoted L-lysine production by engineered E. coli. The TPSA-pretreated beet molasses had a sugar consumption rate of 1.75 g/(L h), and a L-lysine yield of 27.81% was achieved, compared with the theoretical yield of 62% by glucose. It was clarified that the pretreatment significantly enhanced the conversion of sugars in beet molasses to L-lysine.

  8. Continuous treatment of coloured industry wastewater using immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor reactor.

    PubMed

    Pakshirajan, Kannan; Kheria, Sumeet

    2012-06-30

    Coloured industry wastewaters often contain dyes and other toxic ingredients, and, therefore, pose serious threat to the receiving environment. Among the available methods the eco-friendly biological method has gained maximum attention due to its many advantages over the traditional methods. In the present study, continuous biological treatment of coloured wastewater from a textile dyeing industry was investigated using the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) reactor. The raw wastewater was diluted with an equal volume of either distilled water or media containing glucose at varying concentrations to study its effect on the decolourization process. Results revealed that the wastewater could be decolourized to an extent of more than 64% when diluted with media containing glucose; and, a maximum decolourization efficiency of 83% was obtained with 10 g/l glucose concentration. COD removal efficiencies were also found to be consistent with the decolourization efficiencies of the wastewaters. Further, the results were correlated with the enzyme activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) by the fungus, which were found to play some significant role in decolourization of the wastewater. Results of replacing the costly carbon source glucose in the decolourization media with the more cheap molasses, however, revealed very high COD removal efficiency, but low decolourization efficiency of the industry wastewater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pretreatment of synthetic dairy wastewater using the sophorolipid-producing yeast Candida bombicola.

    PubMed

    Daverey, Achlesh; Pakshirajan, Kannan

    2011-03-01

    The presence of high strength fats and oils in dairy industry wastewaters poses serious challenges for biological treatment systems, and, therefore, its pretreatment is necessary in order to remove them. In the present study, synthetic dairy wastewater prepared in the laboratory was pretreated using the sophorolipid-producing yeast Candida bombicola in a laboratory-scale bioreactor under batch, fed-batch, and continuous modes of operation. To support the yeast growth, the wastewater was supplemented with sugarcane molasses (1% w/v) and yeast extract (0.1% w/v). Results from the batch operated fermentor revealed complete utilization of fats present in the wastewater within 96 h with more than 93% COD removal efficiency. The yeast was, however, able to pretreat the wastewater more quickly and efficiently under fed-batch mode of operation than under batch operated condition in the same fermentor. Continuous experiments were carried out with a wastewater retention time of 28 h in the reactor; results showed very good performance of the system in complete utilization of fats and COD removal efficiency of more than 90%. The study proved the excellent potential of the biosurfactant-producing yeast in pretreating high-fat- and oil-containing dairy industry wastewater.

  10. Engineering of Bacillus subtilis for the Production of 2,3-Butanediol from Sugarcane Molasses.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Apoorva Nandkumar; Nipanikar-Gokhale, Padmaja; Jain, Rishi

    2016-05-01

    2,3-butanediol is known to be a platform chemical with several potential industrial applications. Sustainable industrial scale production can be attained by using a sugarcane molasses based fermentation process using Bacillus subtilis. However, the accumulation of acetoin needs to be reduced to improve process efficiency. In this work, B. subtilis was genetically modified in order to increase the yield of 2,3-butanediol. Metabolic engineering strategies such as cofactor engineering and overexpression of the key enzyme butanediol dehydrogenase were attempted. Both the strategies individually led to a statistically significant increase in the 2,3-butanediol yields for sugarcane molasses based fermentation. Cofactor engineering led to a 26 % increase in 2,3-butanediol yield and overexpression of bdhA led to a 11 % increase. However, the combination of the two strategies did not lead to a synergistic increase in 2,3-butanediol yield.

  11. Escape tectonics and foreland basin evolution: The Austrian-German Molasse basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The Alpine peripheral foreland basin formed during Eocene collision of the lower, European plate and the upper, Adriatic plate. Two marine to continental megasequences fill the basin. The transition form deep marine to continental deposits of the first megasequence at the Early - Late Oligocene boundary has been related to a change from predominant horizontal to vertical movements in the core of the orogenic wedge. The second megasequence is, however, poorly understood, and different models have been put forward. I present an alternative explanation for the development of this second megacycle, based on an analysis of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt east of the Rhine river (Ortner et al., 2015). The main characteristics of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt are: 1) A frontal anticline/thrust started to develop during deposition of the older, marine portion of the second megasequence. Structures continued to grow throughout deposition of the younger, continental part of the megasequence. Structural growth is documented by growth strata. 2) The thrusts in the Subalpine Molasse evolved in a break-back sequence. 3) The amount of shortening during depositon of the second megasequence reduces from 40-50 km near the Rhine valley to zero in the east in the Salzburg area. The onset of the second megasequence in the foreland north of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt is characterized by an angular unconformity documenting a tilt of the foreland toward the orogen, and therefore ongoing flexure of the lower plate. East of the eastern end of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt, the deposits of the second megasequence are in a horizontal position, lower plate flexure had stopped. In the internal part of the Alpine orogenic wedge, shortening, exhumation and E-directed stretching of the Tauern Window as a consequence of escape tectonics was active. Most probably shortening was transferred from the Alpine front into the zone of lateral escape, causing the break-back thrust sequence

  12. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps and evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin

    PubMed Central

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2015-01-01

    The stratigraphies of foreland basins have been related to orogeny, where continent–continent collision causes the construction of topography and the downwarping of the foreland plate. These mechanisms have been inferred for the Molasse basin, stretching along the northern margin of the European Alps. Continuous flexural bending of the subducting European lithosphere as a consequence of topographic loads alone would imply that the Alpine topography would have increased at least between 30 Ma and ca. 5–10 Ma when the basin accumulated the erosional detritus. This, however, is neither consistent with observations nor with isostatic mass balancing models because paleoaltimetry estimates suggest that the topography has not increased since 20 Ma. Here we show that a rollback mechanism for the European plate is capable of explaining the construction of thick sedimentary successions in the Molasse foreland basin where the extra slab load has maintained the Alpine surface at low, but constant, elevations. PMID:26472498

  13. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  14. Betaine and Beet Molasses Enhance L-Lactic Acid Production by Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses. PMID:24956474

  15. Inhibitory effect of sugarcane molasses extract on the formation of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine and N(ε)-(carboxyethyl)lysine.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pei; Xu, Xian-Bing; Yu, Shu-Juan

    2017-04-15

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of phenolic compounds. In this study, the effect of sugarcane molasses extract on the formation of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N(ε)-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) was investigated in glucose-lysine model reaction systems. Results showed that sugarcane molasses extract significantly and dose dependently inhibited the formation of CML and CEL in model reaction systems. The antiglycation activities of sugarcane molasses extract were not only brought about by its antioxidant activities but also associated with its trapping abilities of reactive carbonyl species, such as glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO), the key intermediate compound for the formation of CML and CEL. Besides, the presence of sugarcane molasses extract effectively reduced the extent of browning. The present study emphasized the potential health effects of sugarcane molasses and the possibility of using byproducts as effective ingredients to reduce dietary Maillard reaction end products.

  16. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens growing on molasses and its application in phenol degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryantia, Venty; Marliyana, Soerya Dewi; Wulandari, Astri

    2015-12-01

    A molasses based medium for the biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens was developed, where the effect of pre-treated of molasses and medium composition were evaluated. Biosurfactant production was followed by measuring optical density (OD), surface tension and emulsifying index (E24) over 12 days of fermentation. The optimum condition for the biosurfactant production was obtained when a medium containing of 8 g/L nutrient broth, 5 g/L NaCl, 1 g/L NH4NO3 and 5% v/v pre-treated molasses with centrifugation was used as media with 3 days of fermentation. The biosurfactant was identified as a rhamnolipid type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 801 mg/L and was able to reduce the surface tension of the water from 80 mN/m to 51 mN/m. The biosurfactants had water in oil (w/o) emulsion type. Biosurfactant was able to emulsify various hydrocarbons, which were able to decrase the interfacial tension about 50-75% when benzyl chloride, anisaldehyde and palm oil were used as immiscible compounds. The biosurfactant exhibited the E24 value of about 50% and the stable emulsion was reached up to 30 days when lubricant was used as an immiscible compound. Up to 68% of phenol was degraded in the presence of biosurfactant within 15 days, whereas only 56% of phenol was degraded in the absence of biosurfactant. Overall, the results exhibited that molasses are recommended for the rhamnolipids production which possessed good surface-active properties and had potential application in the enhancement of phenol degradation.

  17. Production of activated carbon from a new precursor molasses by activation with sulphuric acid.

    PubMed

    Legrouri, K; Khouya, E; Ezzine, M; Hannache, H; Denoyel, R; Pallier, R; Naslain, R

    2005-02-14

    Activated carbon has been prepared from molasses, a natural precursor of vegetable origin resulting from the sugar industry in Morocco. The preparation of the activated carbon from the molasses has been carried out by impregnation of the precursor with sulphuric acid, followed by carbonisation at varying conditions (temperature and gas coverage) in order to optimize preparation parameters. The influence of activation conditions was investigated by determination of adsorption capacity of methylene blue and iodine, the BET surface area, and the pore volume of the activated carbon were determined while the micropore volume was determined by the Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equation. The activated materials are mainly microporous and reveal the type I isotherm of the Brunauer classification for nitrogen adsorption. The activated carbons properties in this study were found for activation of the mixture (molasses/sulphuric acid) in steam at 750 degrees C. The samples obtained in this condition were highly microporous, with high surface area (> or =1200 m2/g) and the maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue and iodine were 435 and 1430 mg/g, respectively.

  18. Improvement production of bacterial cellulose by semi-continuous process in molasses medium.

    PubMed

    Cakar, Fatih; Ozer, Işılay; Aytekin, A Özhan; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2014-06-15

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has unique properties such as structural, functional, physical and chemical. The mass production of BC for industrial application has recently become attractive to produce more economical and high productive cellulose. In this study, to improve the productivity of bacterial cellulose (BC), BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus FC01 was investigated in molasses medium with static semi-continuous operation mode. Cell dry weight, polysaccharide, sugar and cellulose concentrations were monitored and cellulose was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highest cellulose yield (1.637 g/L) was obtained in SCP50-7d, which molasses of 1/2 ratio for 7 days by static semi-continuous operation mode. The results show that BC can be highly produced by G. xylinus in molasses with static semi-continuous process than batch process. We claimed that low-cost medium with semi-continuous operation mode in static culture is a good candidate for industrial scale BC productions.

  19. Oil removal from petroleum sludge using bacterial culture with molasses substrate at temperature variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni'matuzahroh, Puspitasari, Alvin Oktaviana; Pratiwi, Intan Ayu; Fatimah, Sumarsih, Sri; Surtiningsih, Tini; Salamun

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to reveal the potency of biosurfactant-producing bacterial culture with molasses as substrate growth in releasing oil from the petroleum sludge at temperature variations. Bacteria used consisted of (Acinetobacter sp. P2(1), Pseudomonas putida T1(8), Bacillus subtilis 3KP and Micrococcus sp. L II 61). The treatments were tested at 40°C, 50°C and 60 °C for 7 days of incubation. Synthetic surfactant (Tween 20) was used as a positive control and molasses as a negative control. Release of petroleum hydrocarbons from oil sludge was expressed in percentage of oil removal from oil sludge (%). Data were analyzed statistically using the Analysis of Variance (α = 0.05) and continued with Games-Howell test. The kinds of bacterial cultures, incubation temperature and combination of both affected the percentage of oil removal. The abilities of Bacillus subtilis 3KP and Micrococcus sp. LII 61cultures in oil removal from oil sludge at the temperature exposure of 60°C were higher than Tween 20. Both of bacterial cultures grown on molasses can be proposed as a replacement for synthetic surfactant to clean up the accumulation of oil sludge in a bottom of oil refinery tank.

  20. Saponin-containing subfractions of soybean molasses induce enteritis in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, David; Urán, Paula; Arnous, Anis; Koppe, Wolfgang; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2007-03-21

    The current work aimed at tracing the causative components for soybean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Soybean molasses was subjected to phase separation using n-butanol. Three subfractions were obtained as follows: butanol phase, precipitate, and water phase. The biochemical composition of soybean molasses and the obtained subfractions were analyzed in detail: Protein, fat, and ash were quantified according to standard methods. Sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose were quantified using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Soyasaponins were quantified using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Finally, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to evaluate the size distribution of the proteins present in each fraction. Molasses and the different subfractions were thereafter fed to Atlantic salmon in two successive fish trials. The level of intestinal inflammation was evaluated by light microscopy using a semiquantitative scoring system. Histological assessments revealed that Atlantic salmon fed a combination of butanol phase and precipitate displayed significant enteritis. Atlantic salmon fed the water phase displayed normal intestinal morphology. The causative components for soybean-induced enteritis withstand butanol treatment and prolonged heating at 70 degrees C. Sucrose, raffinose, stachyose, nor soybean proteins larger than 10 kDa induce enteritis alone. Soyasaponins, or components that follow the same solubility pattern, trigger the inflammatory reaction. We therefore suggest that soybean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon is induced by soyasaponins alone or by soyasaponins in combination with other factors, e.g., antigenic soybean proteins or the intestinal microflora.

  1. Sugarcane Molasses - A Potential Dietary Supplement in the Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rahi; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2017-09-03

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a serious public health problem that debilitates ∼1.6 billion people globally every year, the majority being pregnant women and children from developing countries. In India, for example, in spite of several operational programs at the national level using iron-folic acid and other allopathic interventions, IDA is still prevalent. Traditional medicines, such as Ayurveda, prescribe herbal formulations containing sugarcane derivatives for the management of pandu, a condition similar to IDA. This article reviews molasses, a sugar industry by-product, as a potential raw material to develop nutraceutical products for IDA. Molasses contains iron and its absorption enhancers, such as sulfur, fructose, and copper, which make it a potential dietary supplement for IDA. More research, product development, and evidence of safety and efficacy of molasses in IDA management can provide a tasty and cost-effective dietary supplement, particularly for children. However, there are challenges, such as competition for raw material from refined sugar manufacturers, quality control, etc., that need to be overcome.

  2. Seismic stratigraphy and stratigraphic modelling of the South-eastern German Molasse Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, T.; Jin, J.; Luterbacher, P.

    1995-08-01

    Although the German Molasse Basin can be regarded as a mature hydrocarbon province, no regional sequence stratigraphic analysis has been carried out so far. We have studied seismic lines and well data from the region between the Isar and Inn rivers (SE Germany) that have been generously supplied by German oil companies (DEE, BEB, Mobil, RWE-DEA and Wintershall). Initial work indicates that five major seismic sequences within three main depositional cycles are developed. The Alpine thrust belt to the south serves as the primary sediment source in the foreland basin. However, sedimentary infill mainly took place parallel to the basin axis. Our analysis suggests that the stratigraphic development of the Molasse Basin was mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level changes which caused the shoreline to shift in the W-E direction. The shifting of the depocenter axis in a N-S direction was controlled by the tectonic evolution of the thrust belt. The sea-level curve determined by seismic stratigraphy and well-derived subsidence curves have been used as input parameters for stratigraphic modelling, using the programs GeoMOD and PHIL. Basin-fill simulations with PHIL are in good agreement with the main features of the sequence stratigraphy and the distribution of the systems tracts observed in the study area. The qualitative sea-level curve for the German Molasse Basin derived from the seismostratigraphic analysis could be quantified by the stratigraphic exercises.

  3. Life cycle environmental impacts of bioethanol production from sugarcane molasses in Iran.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Saeid Shahvarooghi; Asoodar, Mohammad Amin

    2017-08-13

    In recent years, bioethanol from sugarcane molasses has been produced on an industrial scale in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate molasses-based bioethanol production from an environmental point of view. Data were collected from Debel Khazai agro-industry situated in southern region of Iran by using face-to-face interviews and annual statistics of 2010 to 2016 (6-year life cycle of sugarcane cultivation). Ten impact categories including abiotic depletion (AD), acidification (AC), eutrophication (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ozone layer depletion (OLD), human toxicity (HT), freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity (FE), marine aquatic ecotoxicity (ME), terrestrial ecotoxicity (TE), and photochemical oxidation (PO) were selected based on CML methodology. Inventory data for production of the inputs were taken from Ecoinvent, BUWAL 250, and IDMAT 2001 databases. The results revealed that in sugarcane cultivation process, electricity and trash burning were the most important contributors to all impact categories except OLD and TE. In industrial phase, natural gas had the highest contribution to the most impact categories. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission for production of 1000 L molasses-based bioethanol was 1322.78 kg CO2 eq. By comparing total GHG emissions from 1000 L bioethanol to gasoline, the net avoided GHG emissions came out at 503.17 kg CO2 eq. According to results, it is clear that with increasing irrigation efficiency and improving performance of heating systems in industrial phase, environmental burdens would be significantly reduced.

  4. Optimization of lipids production by Cryptococcus laurentii 11 using cheese whey with molasses.

    PubMed

    Castanha, Rodrigo Fernandes; Mariano, Adriano Pinto; de Morais, Lilia Aparecida Salgado; Scramin, Shirlei; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed the optimization of culture condition and composition for production of Cryptococcus laurentii 11 biomass and lipids in cheese whey medium supplemented with sugarcane molasses. The optimization of pH, fermentation time, and molasses concentration according to a full factorial statistical experimental design was followed by a Plackett-Burman experimental design, which was used to determine whether the supplementation of the culture medium by yeast extract and inorganic salts could provide a further enhancement of lipids production. The following conditions and composition of the culture medium were found to optimize biomass and lipids production: 360 h fermentation, 6.5 pH and supplementation of (g L(-1)): 50 molasses, 0.5 yeast extract, 4 KH2PO4, 1 Na2HPO4, 0.75 MgSO4 · 7H2O and 0.002 ZnSO4 · H2O. Additional supplementation with inorganic salts and yeast extract was essential to optimize the production, in terms of product concentration and productivity, of neutral lipids by C. laurentii 11. Under this optimized condition, the production of total lipids increased by 133% in relation to control experiment (from 1.27 to 2.96 g L(-1)). The total lipids indicated a predominant (86%) presence of neutral lipids with high content of 16- and 18-carbon-chain saturated and monosaturated fatty acids. This class of lipids is considered especially suitable for the production of biodiesel.

  5. Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol from corn mash and molasses in batch fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Guevenilir, Y.A.; Deveci, N.

    1996-02-01

    The production of solvents from corn mash and molasses in batch fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum P 262 was examined. The content of saccharose of beet molasses used in experiments is determined by using the gravimetric method (52.45% saccharose). The quantities of molasses that are used in the nutrient medium are calculated after doing the above determination. The samples of fermentation liquid are taken within a certain time, the determination of saccharose is done by using the same method, and all the saccharose is converted by the microorganism to organic end products. The quantitative and qualitative determination of acetone-butanol has been made by using gas chromatography. On the other hand, using the three isolation way, three different cultures are obtained, and with microscopic observations, the cultures obtained are of the C. acetobutylicum genus. According to the literature values, the concentration of maximum mixed solvent formed during fermentation is about 2%. This is seen in this experiment. There is only a slight difference from this value. This difference is caused by another organic product that is formed during fermentation. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Optimization of lipids production by Cryptococcus laurentii 11 using cheese whey with molasses

    PubMed Central

    Castanha, Rodrigo Fernandes; Mariano, Adriano Pinto; de Morais, Lilia Aparecida Salgado; Scramin, Shirlei; Monteiro, Regina Teresa Rosim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed the optimization of culture condition and composition for production of Cryptococcus laurentii 11 biomass and lipids in cheese whey medium supplemented with sugarcane molasses. The optimization of pH, fermentation time, and molasses concentration according to a full factorial statistical experimental design was followed by a Plackett-Burman experimental design, which was used to determine whether the supplementation of the culture medium by yeast extract and inorganic salts could provide a further enhancement of lipids production. The following conditions and composition of the culture medium were found to optimize biomass and lipids production: 360 h fermentation, 6.5 pH and supplementation of (g L−1): 50 molasses, 0.5 yeast extract, 4 KH2PO4, 1 Na2HPO4, 0.75 MgSO4·7H2O and 0.002 ZnSO4·H2O. Additional supplementation with inorganic salts and yeast extract was essential to optimize the production, in terms of product concentration and productivity, of neutral lipids by C. laurentii 11. Under this optimized condition, the production of total lipids increased by 133% in relation to control experiment (from 1.27 to 2.96 g L−1). The total lipids indicated a predominant (86%) presence of neutral lipids with high content of 16- and 18-carbon-chain saturated and monosaturated fatty acids. This class of lipids is considered especially suitable for the production of biodiesel. PMID:25242919

  7. Steady, dynamic, creep/recovery, and textural properties of yoghurt/molasses blends: Temperature sweep tests and applicability of Cox-Merz rule.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Ali; Bayrambaş, Kadir; Eroglu, Zeynep; Toker, Omer S; Yilmaz, Mustafa T; Karaman, Safa; Dogan, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    In this study, physicochemical, rheological (steady, dynamic, and creep/recovery), and textural properties of yoghurt/molasses blends (0, 5, 10, and 15% molasses) were investigated. The blends showed shear thinning behavior, as described by Ostwald de Waele model (R(2) ( )≥ 0.955). Consistency coefficient value (K) of the blends decreased with increasing molasses concentration in the sample. Storage modulus (G') of blends was higher than loss modulus (G″), exhibiting weak gel-like behavior. Molasses addition decreased G' and G″ values. Temperature sweep tests indicated that blends followed Arrhenius relationship. A modified Cox-Merz rule was applicable using shift factors. Compliance values (J(t)) increased as molasses concentration increased, revealing that deformation stability and internal viscosity (η1) decreased with concentration. Creep behavior was characterized using Burger model. Obtained J data as a function of time could be satisfactorily fitted to Burger model (R(2) ( )≥ 0.994). The final percentage recovery of blends remarkably decreased with the increase of molasses concentration. Firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity index values decreased with molasses addition. According to the results of the current study, molasses amount to be added to the yoghurt should be determined regarding rheological properties since resistance of the sample to deformation decreased with increase in molasses concentration. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Effect of corn- vs molasses-based supplements on trace mineral status in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Arthington, J D; Pate, F M

    2002-11-01

    Two studies were conducted to compare the availability of trace minerals offered to Brahman-crossbred heifers in either grain- or molasses-based supplements. Heifers were randomly assigned to bahiagrass pastures of equal size (n = 3 and 2 heifers/ pasture with 6 and 4 pastures/treatment for Experiment 1 and 2, respectively). Two supplements were formulated using corn and cottonseed meal (DRY) or molasses and cottonseed meal (LIQ). In Experiment 2, a third treatment consisted of the DRY supplement with additional S to equal the amount naturally supplied by the LIQ treatment (DRY+S). Supplements were formulated to provide, on average, 1.5 kg of TDN and 0.3 kg of CP/heifer daily and were fed three times weekly. Supplements also were fortified to provide 140, 76, and 63 mg of Cu, Mn, and Zn per heifer daily. Individual heifer weights were collected at the start and conclusion of the study, following a 12-h shrink. Plasma ceruloplasmin and liver Cu, Mn, Mo, Fe, and Zn concentrations were determined on d 0, 29, 56, and 84 in Experiment 1, and d 0, 32, 57, and 90 in Experiment 2. No differences were detected in heifer BW change (-9.3 and -7.3 kg for DRY and LIQ in Experiment 1, and 51.7, 46.3, and 46.7 kg for DRY, DRY+S, and LIQ in Experiment 2, respectively). In both experiments, liver Fe, Mn, and Zn concentrations were not affected by supplement treatment. Molybdenum tended (P = 0.06 and 0.10 for Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) to accumulate in the liver of heifers fed molasses-based supplements. In Experiment 1, Cu accumulation was less (P < 0.001) in heifers fed the liquid supplements (271 vs 224, 286 vs 202, and 330 vs 218 ppm, for DRY and LIQ supplements on d 29, 56, and 84, respectively). In Experiment 2, heifers receiving Cu from DRY supplements had a 155-ppm increase in liver Cu concentration, which was greater (P = 0.03) than DRY+S (87 ppm increase) and LIQ (P < 0.001; 13 ppm increase). Although lower than heifers receiving DRY, heifers receiving DRY+S had

  9. Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 highly produces mannitol from sugarcane molasses as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Fornaguera, María José; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2012-08-01

    Mannitol is a natural polyol extensively used in the food industry as low-calorie sugar being applicable for diabetic food products. We aimed to evaluate mannitol production by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 using sugarcane molasses as low-cost energy source. Mannitol formation was studied in free-pH batch cultures using 3-10% (w/v) molasses concentrations at 37 °C and 30 °C under static and agitated conditions during 48 h. L. reuteri CRL 1101 grew well in all assayed media and heterofermentatively converted glucose into lactic and acetic acids and ethanol. Fructose was used as an alternative electron acceptor and reduced it to mannitol in all media assayed. Maximum mannitol concentrations of 177.7 ± 26.6 and 184.5 ± 22.5 mM were found using 7.5% and 10% molasses, respectively, at 37 °C after 24-h incubation. Increasing the molasses concentration from 7.5% up to 10% (w/v) and the fermentation period up to 48 h did not significantly improve mannitol production. In agitated cultures, high mannitol values (144.8 ± 39.7 mM) were attained at 8 h of fermentation as compared to static ones (5.6 ± 2.9 mM), the highest mannitol concentration value (211.3 ± 15.5 mM) being found after 24 h. Mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was measured during growth in all fermentations assayed; the highest MDH values were obtained during the log growth phase, and no correlation between MDH activities and mannitol production was observed in the fermentations performed. L. reuteri CRL 1101 successfully produced mannitol from sugarcane molasses being a promising candidate for microbial mannitol synthesis using low-cost substrate.

  10. A new and effective approach to boron removal by using novel boron-specific fungi isolated from boron mining wastewater.

    PubMed

    Taştan, Burcu Ertit; Çakir, Dilara Nur; Dönmez, Gönül

    2016-01-01

    Boron-resistant fungi were isolated from the wastewater of a boron mine in Turkey. Boron removal efficiencies of Penicillium crustosum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were detected in different media compositions. Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) and two different waste media containing molasses (WM-1) or whey + molasses (WM-2) were tested to make this process cost effective when scaled up. Both isolates achieved high boron removal yields at the highest boron concentrations tested in MSM and WM-1. The maximum boron removal yield by P. crustosum was 45.68% at 33.95 mg l(-1) initial boron concentration in MSM, and was 38.97% at 42.76 mg l(-1) boron for R. mucilaginosa, which seemed to offer an economically feasible method of removing boron from the effluents.

  11. Green Energy: Advancing Bio-Hydrogen (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, D.

    2007-07-01

    Developing a model of metabolism linked to H2 production in green algae. Develop tools for parameter discovery and optimization at organism level and advance knowledge of hydrogen-producting photosynthetic organisms.

  12. Antioxidant activity of sugarcane molasses against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced peroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Takahashi, Makoto; Mishima, Takashi; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2013-11-01

    Sugarcane molasses is a rich source of antioxidant materials with peroxyl radical scavenging effects. To explore the potent antioxidant activity of sugarcane molasses against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced peroxyl radicals, 7 methanolic fractions of sugarcane molasses (F1-F7) were separated via bioassay-guided fractionation and evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity (CAA), and oxidative DNA damage protective activity assays. The ORAC values of sugarcane molasses fractions ranged from 4399 to 6,266 μmol TE/g, whilst the EC50 values for CAA ranged from 3.7 to 5.9 μg/ml. Moreover, it was found that sugarcane molasses fractions, particularly F6 and F7, could protect against oxidative DNA damage caused by peroxyl radicals at an effective concentration of 100 μg/ml. Ten phenolic constituents were identified in the fractions, including known antioxidative compounds, viz., schaftoside, isoschaftoside, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipid Production of Heterotrophic Chlorella sp. from Hydrolysate Mixtures of Lipid-Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residues and Molasses.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongli; Ma, Xiaochen; Gao, Zhen; Wan, Yiqin; Min, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Li, Yun; Liu, Yuhuan; Huang, He; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of lipid production of Chlorella sp. from waste materials. Lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) and molasses were hydrolyzed, and their hydrolysates were analyzed. Five different hydrolysate mixture ratios (w/w) of LMBRs/molasses (1/0, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, and 0/1) were used to cultivate Chlorella sp. The results showed that carbohydrate and protein were the two main compounds in the LMBRs, and carbohydrate was the main compound in the molasses. The highest biomass concentration of 5.58 g/L, Y biomass/sugars of 0.59 g/g, lipid productivity of 335 mg/L/day, and Y lipids/sugars of 0.25 g/g were obtained at the hydrolysate mixture ratio of LMBRs/molasses of 1/4. High C/N ratio promoted the conversion of sugars into lipids. The lipids extracted from Chlorella sp. shared similar lipid profile of soybean oil and is therefore a potential viable biodiesel feedstock. These results showed that Chlorella sp. can utilize mixed sugars and amino acids from LMBRs and molasses to accumulate lipids efficiently, thus reducing the cost of microalgal biodiesel production and improving its economic viability.

  14. Production of the Functional Trisaccharide 1-Kestose from Cane Sugar Molasses Using Aspergillus japonicus β-Fructofuranosidase.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Katsuki; Kondo, Nobuhiro; Toyota, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Sachio

    2017-01-01

    We report the production of the functional trisaccharide 1-kestose, O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside, by β-fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus japonicus using sugar cane molasses as substrate. Sucrose in cane sugar molasses acted as a fructosyl donor and acceptor for the enzyme. The tetrasaccharide nystose, O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside, was produced from 1-kestose. Cane sugar molasses mixed with water provided a better substrate solution for β-fructofuranosidase compared to undiluted molasses due to the high concentration of product inhibitors such as glucose and fructose in molasses. The maximum concentration of 1-kestose obtained was 84.9 mg/ml and the maximum production efficiency was 32.3% after 24 h reaction at 40 °C. The maximum efficiency of combined fructo-oligosaccharide (1-kestose and nystose) production was 40.6%. 1-Kestose was therefore produced via a fructosyl-transfer reaction catalyzed by β-fructofuranosidase from A. japonicus.

  15. Biodetoxification of silver-cyanide from electroplating industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Patil, Y B; Paknikar, K M

    2000-01-01

    A bacterial consortium capable of utilizing metal-cyanides as a source of nitrogen was used to develop a microbiological process for the detoxification of silver-cyanide from electroplating wastewater. When the treatment was carried out in a 27-l rotating biological contactor (R3C) in continuous mode, the system could achieve > 99.5% removal of 0.1 mmol l(-1) silver-cyanide (approximately 5 mg l(-1) cyanide and 10 mg l(-1) silver) in 10 h with sugarcane molasses (0.1 ml l(-1)) as carbon source. The silver ions set free during biodegradation were efficiently adsorbed by the bacterial biomass. The RBC-treated effluent was found to be safe for discharge into the environment, as confirmed by chemical analysis and fish bioassay studies.

  16. Identification of genes whose expressions are enhanced or reduced in baker's yeast during fed-batch culture process using molasses medium by DNA microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Shima, Jun; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Tanaka, Fumiko; Watanabe, Hajime; Yamamoto, Hideki; Nakajima, Ryoichi; Tokashiki, Tadaaki; Tamura, Hiromi

    2005-06-25

    Genes whose expression levels are enhanced or reduced during the cultivation process that uses cane molasses in baker's yeast production were identified in this study. The results showed that baker's yeast grown in molasses medium had higher fermentation ability and stress tolerance compared with baker's yeast grown in synthetic medium. Molasses apparently provided not only sugar as a carbon source but also provided functional components that enhanced or reduced expression of genes involved in fermentation ability and stress tolerance. To identify the genes whose expression is enhanced or reduced during cultivation in molasses medium, DNA microarray analysis was then used to compare the gene expression profile of cells grown in molasses with that of cells grown in synthetic medium. To simulate the commercial baker's yeast production process, cells were cultivated using a fed-batch culture system. In molasses medium, genes involved in the synthesis or uptake of vitamins (e.g., biotin, pyridoxine and thiamine) showed enhanced expression, suggesting that vitamin concentrations in molasses medium were lower than those in synthetic medium. Genes involved in formate dehydrogenase and maltose assimilation showed enhanced expression in molasses medium. In contrast, genes involved in iron utilization (e.g., siderophore, iron transporter and ferroxidase) showed enhanced expression in synthetic medium, suggesting that iron starvation occurred. The genes involved in the metabolism of amino acids also showed enhanced expression in synthetic medium. This identification of genes provides information that will help improve the baker's yeast production process.

  17. Molasses supplementation for dual-purpose cows during the dry season in subtropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Loreto, Isela; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Estrada-Flores, Julieta Gertrudis; Vicente-Mainar, Fernando; García-Martínez, Anastacio; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito

    2016-03-01

    The effect of including 9 % of molasses in supplements offered to dual purpose cows, during dry season in subtropical Mexico was determined. Forage availability in pastures during the dry season is reduced and of low quality. Molasses is a readily available source of energy that may improve forage utilization and could have a positive effect on cow's milk production and calves daily weight gain (CDWG). Twelve multiparous Brown Swiss cows (409 ± 33 kg of body weight and 136 ± 73 days in milk), and their calves were randomly assigned to two supplements (six cows per treatment). Control supplement (COS) consisted of cracked maize ears (CME), soybean meal and urea (14 % CP), and experimental supplement in which 9 % of CME was replaced by molasses (MOS). Cows received 4.5 kg/cow/day dry matter (DM) of supplement. Experiment lasted 10 weeks divided in five experimental periods (EP). Animal responses (milk yield, milk composition, body weight, body condition score and CDWG) were recorded at the end of every EP. A linear mixed model was used to analyse the data as a complete random design. Net profits from milk and beef due to supplements were estimated using partial budget approach. Average milk yield was 7 (kg/cow/day) with 30.6, 30.4 and 42.5 (g/kg milk) of fat, protein and lactose, respectively. Average cow weight was 422 kg and CDWG was 0.8 kg/day. No significant responses on animal production variables were found when 9 % of MOS was included in the supplement; however, total net income increased on 4 %, due to higher CDWG.

  18. 3-D fault development in a geothermal system in the German Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziesch, Jennifer; Tanner, David C.; Wawerzinek, Britta; Lüschen, Ewald; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Buness, Hermann; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    The southern German Molasse Basin is one of the most promising areas for geothermal exploration in Germany. We aim for an optimized reservoir exploration for deep geothermal facilities in the Bavarian realm. To do this, we analyse seismic faults to characterise potential pathways between the Malm and its overburden, which consists of Molasse sediments. A 3-D seismic survey (27 km_2) was interpreted as part of the research project GeoParaMoL (Geophysical Parameters for facies interpretation and Modelling of Long-term behaviour), in the study area at Unterhaching, Munich, Germany. GeoParaMoL is a partner project of GRAME, which aims to explore the hydrothermal Malm carbonate reservoir (at a depth of ca. 3 km) as a source for deep geothermal energy. First, we interpreted five seismic horizons and over 20 major faults. Here we present preliminary results of the derived 3-D structural model. We determined fault geometries and displacement profiles using isopach and juxtaposition maps. We observe two different tectonic events: The faults within the Molasse sediments are unrelated to the faults of the underlying Malm carbonate platform. The faults within the Malm carbonate platform propagated up to the Top Eocene horizon (Lithothamien carbonates). The faults within the younger Miocene sediments developed subsequently. They dip, in part, with opposing dip direction, but mostly with the same strike. This basic information will be further used to predict fluid pathways by carrying out retro-deformation in the study area to help understand the structural development and regional tectonics. This work will support exploration of geothermal reservoirs in general. This project is funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi).

  19. Industrial wastewater analysis: A toxicity-directed approach

    SciTech Connect

    Reemtsma, T.; Putschew, A.; Jekel, M.

    1999-06-01

    Methods of toxicity-directed analysis have been developed for the characterization and identification of toxic organic constituents in industrial wastewater. Sequential solid-phase extraction is followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation or by automated multiple development thin-layer chromatography fractionation (AMD-TLC) of the toxic extracts. Toxic fractions were finally analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Toxicity was detected before each of the analytical steps by the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri, which was performed on microtiter plates and on the developed TLC plates. While sequential extraction broadens the polarity range of the procedure, the new variants of the luminescence test make the method very versatile and fast. The potential of this kind of toxicity-directed analysis with respect to resolution and polarity of analytes is discussed and applications to partial effluents of a tannery, to molasses wastewater and a spent dyeing bath are presented. A variety of benzothiazoles and more polar organics were identified as major toxic compounds in tannery effluents. It is shown that the procedures are well suited to detect individual toxic components in complex industrial wastewaters. The use of LC-MS is proposed to extend the polarity range of the final identification step.

  20. Design and Optimization of a Process for Sugarcane Molasses Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh.; Madian, Hekmat R.; Amr, Salem S. Abu

    2013-01-01

    A statistical model was developed in this study to describe bioethanol production through a batch fermentation process of sugarcane molasses by locally isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-39. Response surface methodology RSM based on central composite face centered design CCFD was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for maximum bioethanol production and study the significance and interaction of incubation period, initial pH, incubation temperature, and molasses concentration on bioethanol yield. With the use of the developed quadratic model equation, a maximum ethanol production of 255 g/L was obtained in a batch fermentation process at optimum operating conditions of approximately 71 h, pH 5.6, 38°C, molasses concentration 18% wt.%, and 100 rpm. PMID:24222769

  1. Erosion processes in molassic cliffs: the role of the rock surface temperature and atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrea, Dario; Abellán, Antonio; Guerin, Antoine; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Voumard, Jérémie

    2014-05-01

    The morphology of the Swiss Plateau is modeled by numerous steep cliffs of Molasse. These cliffs are mainly composed of sub-horizontal alternated layers of sandstone, shale and conglomerates deposed in the Alps foreland basin during the Tertiary period. These Molasse cliffs are affected by erosion processes inducing numerous rockfall events. Thus, it is relevant to understand how different external factors influence Molasse erosion rates. In this study, we focus on analyzing temperature variation during a winter season. As pilot study area we selected a cliff which is formed by a sub-horizontal alternation of outcropping sandstone and shale. The westward facing test site (La Cornalle, Vaud, Switzerland), which is a lateral scarp of a slow moving landslide area, is currently affected by intense erosion. Regarding data acquisition, we monitored both in-situ rock and air temperatures at 15 minutes time-step since October 2013: (1) on the one hand we measured Ground Surface Temperature (GST) at near-surface (0.1 meter depth) using a GST mini-datalogger M-Log5W-Rock model; (2) On the other hand we monitored atmospheric conditions using a weather station (Davis Vantage pro2 plus) collecting numerous parameters (i.e. temperature, irradiation, rain, wind speed, etc.). Furthermore, the area was also seasonally monitored by Ground-Based (GB) LiDAR since 2010 and monthly monitored since September 2013. In order to understand how atmospheric conditions (such as freeze and thaw effect) influence the erosion of the cliff, we modeled the temperature diffusion through the rock mass. To this end, we applied heat diffusion and radiation equation using a 1D temperature profile, obtaining as a result both temperature variations at different depths together with the location of the 0°C isotherm. Our model was calibrated during a given training set using both in-situ rock temperatures and atmospheric conditions. We then carried out a comparison with the rockfall events derived from the

  2. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps inferred from the stratigraphic evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2016-04-01

    The stratigraphic development of foreland basins have been related to orogenic processes, where continent- continent collision resulted in the construction of topography and the downwarping of the foreland plate. These mechanisms have been used to explain the Oligocene to Miocene evolution of the Molasse basin, situated on the northern side of the European Alps. Continuous flexural bending of the subducting European lithosphere as a consequence of topographic loads alone would imply that the Alpine topography would have increased at least between 30 Ma and ca. 5-10 Ma when the basin accumulated the erosional detritus. This, however, is neither consistent with observations nor with isostatic mass balancing models. In particular, the use of empirical relationships between the spacing of alluvial megafans, orogen width and morphometric properties of stream channels feeding the fans imply a general trend towards an increasing total fluvial relief until 1,900±1,000 m at ca. 20 Ma, followed by a prolonged period of time during which this variable has remained nearly constant. Accordingly, larger topographic loads cannot be invoked to explain the continuous deflection of the foreland plate. Alternatively, a scenario where horizontal forces cause a downward dragging of the foreland plate would offer a valuable explanation for the decoupling between basin depth and topographic loads. However, such a scenario would be associated with the occurrence of compressional forces within the foreland plate, which is not in agreement with observations in the Molasse Basin, at least for the present, where focal mechanisms of current seismic events imply the occurrence of extensional forces at work. We suggest that rollback orogeny, driven by the gravitational pull of the European slab, provides a mechanism to explain the increasing deflection of the foreland in the absence of larger topographic forcing, and it agrees with the geologic record that the subducting European plate did not

  3. Determination of the elemental composition of molasses and its suitability as carbon source for growth of sulphate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Teclu, Daniel; Tivchev, George; Laing, Mark; Wallis, Mike

    2009-01-30

    Bioremediation of arsenic-contaminated water could be a cost-effective process provided a cheap carbon source is used. In this work molasses was tested as a possible source of carbon for the growth of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Its elemental composition and the tolerance of SRB toward different arsenic species (As (III) and As (V)) were also investigated. Batch studies were carried out to assess the suitability of 1, 2.5 and 5 g/l molasses concentrations for SRB growth. The results indicated that molasses does support SRB growth, the level of response being dependant on the concentration. The percentage of sulphate reduction with molasses at 1, 2.5 and 5 g/l was not significantly different. However, growth on molasses was not as good as that obtained when lactate was used as carbon source. Molasses contained the heavy metals Al, As, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in concentrations of 0.54, 0.24, 8.7, 0.35, 11.1 and 19.7 microg/g, respectively. Arsenic tolerance, growth response and sulphate-reducing activity of the SRB were investigated using arsenite and arsenate solutions at final concentrations of 1, 5 and 20 mg/l for each species. The results revealed that very little SRB growth occurred at concentrations of 20 mg/l As(III) or As(V). At lower concentrations (1 mg/l) the SRB grew better with As(V) than with As(III). Arsenic pollution in most groundwater sources is below this level (1 mg/l).

  4. Molasses and microbial inoculants improve fermentability and silage quality of cotton waste-based spent mushroom substrate.

    PubMed

    Kwak, W S; Kim, Y I; Seok, J S; Oh, Y K; Lee, S M

    2009-02-01

    A small-silo study was conducted to develop an effective ensiling storage method for the use of cotton waste-based spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as an animal feed. The SMS was ensiled with 5% molasses (DM basis), 0.5% (v/w) lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus plantarum) inoculant or 0.5% (v/w) yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) inoculant. The treatments included 100% SMS (control), 95% SMS+5% molasses (T1), 95% SMS+5% molasses+0.5% LAB (T2) and 95% SMS+5% molasses+5% LAB+0.5% yeast (T3). The treatments were ensiled for 10. Change in chemical compositions was little (P>0.05) according to the ensiling process and treatments. Compared with those before ensiling, 100% SMS (control) after ensiling showed unstable fermentative properties with high pH (5.2) and little lactic acid production. Compared with the ensiled control, treatments (T1, T2 and T3) resulted in decreased pH, 18-20 times higher concentrations of lactic acid, and greater populations of total bacteria (P<0.07), LAB and yeast (P<0.07). The addition of 5% molasses, 0.5% LAB and 0.5% yeast (T3) to the SMS resulted in the lowest pH (4.25) and the greatest microbial populations. Treatment T3 was selected for a large scale silo study which was ensiled for 10, 20 and 30 d. As in the small-silo study, the T3 treatment showed favorable fermentative and microbial parameters, compared with the control, by decreasing pH and increasing lactic acid concentrations, LAB and yeast populations. The minimum ensiling period was 20 d, when pH was reasonably low and LAB and yeast populations were greatest. In conclusion, molasses and microbial inoculation improved silage quality of SMS.

  5. Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii.

    PubMed

    Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Tokiwa, Yutaka

    2007-09-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40 degrees C. After 72 h, the lactic acid from 13% (w/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l(-1)) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l(-1)) was 107 g l(-1) and 120 g l(-1), respectively. With 10% (w/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l(-1)), 84 g lactic acid l(-1) was produced. The optical purities of D: -lactic acid from the feedstocks ranged from 97.2 to 98.3%.

  6. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  7. Adsorption studies of recalcitrant compounds of molasses spentwash on activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Figaro, S; Louisy-Louis, S; Lambert, J; Ehrhardt, J-J; Ouensanga, A; Gaspard, S

    2006-10-01

    Due to high levels of residual chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent of molasses spentwash (MSW) after anaerobic treatment, acceptable COD levels for discharge cannot be achieved without some form of post-treatment. In this study, the particulate composition of molasses spentwash after anaerobic digestion (MSWD), is characterised as to its particle size distribution, using micro- and ultrafiltration and three activated carbons are characterised as to their ability to reduce significantly the COD of MSWD effluent. The activated carbons tested as adsorbent, were characterised by XPS spectroscopy, elemental analysis, surface area, pore size distribution, and acid-base titration using the Boehm's method. Adsorption of phenol, used here as a reference compound, and of some organic compounds contained in MSWD (gallic acid, tannic acid, and melanoidin, respectively), was studied. It was clearly demonstrated that an activated carbon with a significant distribution of both micropores and mesopores and a significant amount of macropores that are assumed to act as conduits providing access to micro- and mesopores, have a good adsorption efficiency for compounds such as tannic acid and melanoidins. It is a good adsorbent for melanoidin and coloured compounds of MSWD, which represents a large source of the aqueous pollution in sugar cane industries.

  8. Ferrous Ion and Medium Composition Effects on Acidogenic Phase in Biobutanol Production from Molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restiawaty, E.; Grinanda, D.

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum B530 has ability to convert sugar into biobutanol through two phases, i.e. acidogenic and solventogenic. This fermentation process is often hampered by high raw material cost and low product yield. In order to suppress the production cost, the molasses, a byproduct of sugar cane process production, was used as carbon source in this research. Molasses has nitrogen content in a small amount, thus could be negating the beef extract component, which is expected not to affect the growth of C. acetobutylicum B530 and also can reduce the production cost. In addition, a certain amount of Fe2+ (ferrous ion), a precursor in the formation of the enzyme ferredoxin, was added to the fermentation medium to contribute in the synthesis of acetyl-CoA, so that the formation of acidogenic products such as butyric acid and acetic acid is affected. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ferrous ion and the medium composition in acidogenic phase. The addition of 20 ppm FeSO4.7H2O in the fermentation medium without beef extract can increase the concentration of butyric acid by 20% at a temperature of 35°C, while acetic acid concentration decreased by 6%. According to those results, it is expected that the product selectivity of butanol will increase in solventogenic phase. In addition, the removal of beef extract in the fermentation medium does not affect the kinetics of growth of C. acetobutylicum B530.

  9. The fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Dekkera bruxellensis and the mobilization of reserve carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciana Filgueira; Lucatti, Elisa; Basso, Luiz Carlos; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is considered to be very well adapted to industrial environments, in Brazil, USA, Canada and European Countries, when different substrates are used in alcoholic fermentations. Our previous study described its fermentative profile with a sugarcane juice substrate. In this study, we have extended its physiological evaluation to fermentation situations by using sugarcane molasses as a substrate to replicate industrial working conditions. The results have confirmed the previous reports of the low capacity of D. bruxellensis cells to assimilate sucrose, which seems to be the main factor that can cause a bottleneck in its use as fermentative yeast. Furthermore, the cells of D. bruxellensis showed a tendency to deviate most of sugar available for biomass and organic acids (lactic and acetic) compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when calculated on the basis of their respective yields. As well as this, the acetate production from molasses medium by both yeasts was in marked contrast with the previous data on sugarcane juice. Glycerol and ethanol production by D. bruxellensis cells achieved levels of 33 and 53 % of the S. cerevisiae, respectively. However, the ethanol yield was similar for both yeasts. It is worth noting that this yeast did not accumulate trehalose when the intracellular glycogen content was 30 % lower than in S. cerevisiae. The lack of trehalose did not affect yeast viability under fermentation conditions. Thus, the adaptive success of D. bruxellensis under industrial fermentation conditions seems to be unrelated to the production of these reserve carbohydrates.

  10. Effect of sucrose concentration on the products of Kombucha fermentation on molasses.

    PubMed

    Malbaša, R; Lončar, E; Djurić, M; Došenović, I

    2008-06-01

    Fermentation of 1.5g/l of Indian black tea, sweetened with adequate quantities of molasses (containing approx. 70g/l, 50g/l and 35g/l of sucrose), was conducted using domestic Kombucha. Inoculation was performed with 10% of fermentation broth from a previous process. The fermentation in cylindrical vessels containing 2l of liquid phase, was carried out at 22±1°C for 14 days, with periodical sampling, to measure pH, content of acids (total, acetic and l-lactic), content of remaining sucrose, and the yield of biomass at the end of fermentation. A product with 70g/l sucrose from molasses corresponds to an optimal concentration of carbon source, which provided metabolites with high pH, a low content of less desired acetic acid, a high content of highly desired l-lactic acid, an acceptable content of total acids and the highest possible level of utilisation of sucrose. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Butanol production from cane molasses by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864: batch and semicontinuous fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ye; Wang, Yun; Sun, Zhihao

    2012-04-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum strains used in most Chinese ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) plants favorably ferment starchy materials like corn, cassava, etc., rather than sugar materials. This is one major problem of ABE industry in China and significantly limits the exploitation of cheap waste sugar materials. In this work, cane molasses were utilized as substrate in ABE production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864. Under optimum conditions, total solvent of 19.80 g/L (13.40 g/L butanol) was reached after 72 h of fermentation in an Erlenmeyer flask. In a 5-L bioreactor, total solvent of 17.88 g/L was attained after 36 h of fermentation, and the productivity and yield were 0.50 g/L/h and 0.33 g ABE/g sugar consumption, respectively. To further enhance the productivity, a two-stage semicontinuous fermentation process was steadily operated for over 8 days (205 h, 26 cycles) with average productivity (stage II) of 1.05 g/L/h and cell concentration (stage I) of 7.43 OD(660), respectively. The average batch fermentation time (stage I and II) was reduced to 21-25 h with average solvent of 15.27 g/L. This study provides valuable process data for the development of industrial ABE fermentation process using cane molasses as substrate.

  12. Modeling dynamic experiments on the anaerobic degradation of molasses waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Denac, M.; Miguel, A.; Dunn, I.J.

    1988-01-01

    The kinetics of anaerobic degradation of a molasses waste water were measured under constant pH conditions in a laboratory scale packed bed reactor. In continuous and batch experiments the formation and degradation rates of the organic acids (butyric, propionic and acetic) have been followed. The influence of hydrogen gas on the acid degradation rates has been measured and, contrary to the literature and the thermodynamic calculations, no inhibition was detected, biofilm diffusional effects may be the reason. Two dynamic simulation models were tested, a heterogeneous model, which considered the biofilm diffusion-reaction phenomena and a quasihomogeneous model with the same kinetics. Except for hydrogen, the diffusion effects were found to be negligible. Otherwise both models gave essentially the same results and the time profiles of acids, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane agreed relatively well with dynamic startup experiments. Batch experiments showed the acid concentrations to be highly sensitive to the initial molasses concentration. This aspect was not included in the model but is being investigated further.

  13. Production of Mozzarella Cheese Using Rennin Enzyme from Mucor miehei Grown at Rice Bran Molasses Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusdan, I. H.; Kusnadi, J.

    2017-04-01

    The research aimed to study the characteristic and yield of Mozzarella cheese produced by using rennin enzyme from Mucor miehei which is grown at rice bran and molasses medium. The popularity of Mozzarella cheese in Indonesia is increased caused by the spreading of western foods in Indonesia such as pizza and spaghetti that use Mozzarella cheese for ingredient. In Italy, Mozzarella and pizza cheeses are dominating 78% of the total Italian Cheese products. In producing Mozzarella cheese, rennin enzyme is always used as milk coagulant. Even now, Indonesia has not produced the rennin enzyme yet. The rennin enzyme from Mucor miehei growing at rice bran and molases medium which have the availability can be managed purposively within short period of time. The completly randomized design methode used to get the best crude extracts of Mucor miehei rennin enzyme, then is employed to produce mozzarella cheese. The result of Mozzarella cheese has various characteristics such as the yield’s weight is 9.1%, which consists of 50% moisture content, 36.64% peotein levels, 0.1 melting ability and 82.72% stretch ability or 0.79/N. With that characteristic it is concluded that rennin enzyme from Mucor miehei grown at rice bran molasses medium has the potential to alternatively subtitute calf rennin to produce Mozzarella cheese, and the characteristics fulfill the standart.

  14. Enhanced ethanol production at commercial scale from molasses using high gravity technology by mutant S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Muhammad; Hussain, Tariq; Iqbal, Munawar; Abbas, Mazhar

    2017-02-16

    Very high gravity (VHG) technology was employed on industrial scale to produce ethanol from molasses (fermented) as well as by-products formation estimation. The effect of different Brix° (32, 36 and 40) air-flow rates (0.00, 0.20, 0.40, and 0.60vvm) was studied on ethanol production. The maximum ethanol production was recorded to be 12.2% (v/v) at 40 Brix° with 0.2vvm air-flow rate. At optimum level aeration and 40 Brix° VHG, the residual sugar level was recorded in the range of 12.5-18.5g/L, whereas the viable cell count remained constant up to 50h of fermentation and dry matter production increased with fermentation time. Both water and steam consumption reduced significantly under optimum conditions of Brix° and aeration rate with compromising the ethanol production. Results revealed VHG with continuous air flow is viable technique to reduce the ethanol production cost form molasses at commercial scale.

  15. Evolution of the eastern Austrian Molasse Basin: The Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) as a key to the understanding of the Eastern Alps - Molasse Basin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palzer, Markus; Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Wagreich, Michael; Meszar, Maria E.; Gier, Susanne; Soliman, Ali; -Elena Kallanxhi, Mǎdǎlina

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Austrian Molasse Basin is situated between the Bohemian Massif, the Waschberg-Zone and the Alps. There, sands of the Lower Miocene (Upper Ottnangian) Traisen Formation represent a clastic interval at the top of pelitic Schlier successions, which is correlated with the global sea level drop Bur3 (Burdigalian). North of the Danube River, the continuation of the Traisen-Formation is overlain by the Karpatian Laa-Formation. Drill cores from OMV-wells predominantly from the continuation of the Traisen Formation in deep parts in the NE of the basin show hundreds of meters of pelites with intersections of sands. Contrary to the exposed, mainly brackish TF, a turbiditic and predominantly fully marine deep-water environment is inferred from the cores. Profiles of carbonate content, XRD, XRF, whole rock chemistry, clay minerals, calcareous nannoplankton and dinoflagellate cysts of 7 wells were investigated representing a NE-SW transect through the LAMB. Based on these data, a new stratigraphy for the Burdigalian distal parts of the LAMB can be defined and correlated with the proximal units. The Traisen Formation and its equivalents are characterized at their base by an increased clastic input in the south and by increasing mica content in the northern parts. The complete interval is characterized by the decreased carbonate content. The XRD data show strongly reduced calcite contents which goe hand in hand with the absence of nannoplankton. Whether the signal is related to a crisis in primary production or to carbonate dissolution remains unclear. The absence of dinoflagellate cysts and the chemical data (reduced B/Al* ratios indicate reduced salinity) are considered as an argument for an environmental crisis. However, the absence of resedimented Cretaceous to Paleocene nannofossils, which usually occur together with the autochthonous NN4-nannofossils, indicates carbonate dissolution. These results enable us to define a basinal interval as equivalent to the

  16. Effects of cornmeal or molasses supplemented with different protein sources on milk production and nitrogen utilization of organic dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixteen lactating organic Jersey cows were assigned to four replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare the effects of feeding cornmeal (CM) or molasses (MOL) with either flaxseed meal (Flax) or a protein mix [(PM = 11% soybean meal (SB) + 5% sunflower ...

  17. Optimization of process variables for minimization of byproduct formation during fermentation of blackstrap molasses to ethanol at industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Arshad, M; Khan, Z M; Khalil-ur-Rehman; Shah, F A; Rajoka, M I

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the effect of molasses concentration, initial pH of molasses medium, and inoculum's size to maximize ethanol and minimize methanol, fusel alcohols, acetic acid and aldehydes in the fermentation mash in industrial fermentors. Initial studies to optimize temperature, nitrogen source, phosphorous source, sulfur supplement and minerals were performed. The essential nutrients were urea (2 kg in 60 m(3)), 0.5 l each of commercial phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid (for pH control) added at the inoculum preparation stage only. Yields of ethanol, methanol, fusel alcohols, total acids and aldehydes per 100-l fermentation broth were monitored. Molasses at 29 degrees Brix (degree of dissolved sugars in water), initial pH 4.5, inoculum size 30% (v/v) and anaerobic fermentation supported maximum ethanol (7.8%) with Y(P/S) = 238 l ethanol per tonne molasses (96.5% yield) (8.2% increase in yield), and had significantly lower values of byproducts than those in control experiments. Optimization of process variables resulted in higher ethanol yield (8.2%) and reduced yield of methanol, fusel alcohols, acids and aldehydes. More than 5% substrate is converted into byproducts. Eliminating or reducing their formation can increase ethanol yield by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, decrease the overall cost of fermentation process and improve the quality of ethanol.

  18. A two-stage fermentation process of erythritol production by yeast Y. lipolytica from molasses and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Mirończuk, Aleksandra M; Rakicka, Magdalena; Biegalska, Anna; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Dobrowolski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a two-stage fermentation process of erythritol production based on molasses and glycerol was investigated. During the first stage, the biomass of Yarrowia lipolytica was grown on medium containing sucrose as the sole carbon source. In the second stage, production of erythritol was initiated by glycerol addition. To use molasses as a substrate for erythritol synthesis, sucrose utilization was established by expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUC2 gene. In this study, cultivation of yeast Y. lipolytica could produce 52-114 g/L of erythritol. The productivity was 0.58-1.04 g/L/h, and yield was 0.26-0.57 g/g; the final biomasses yield ranged 17-41 g/L. This is the first report describing erythritol production via industrial raw molasses and glycerol by Y. lipolytica. This work uses genetically modified strains of Y. lipolytica as tool for the direct conversion of affordable raw industrial molasses and glycerol into the value-added erythritol product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of microbial inoculant or molasses on fermentative quality and aerobic stability of sawdust-based spent mushroom substrate.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Lee, Y H; Kim, Y I; Ahmadi, F; Oh, Y K; Park, J M; Kwak, W S

    2016-09-01

    In the first experiment, the effect of two novel Lactobacillus plantarum strains was studied on the fermentation of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) through 10d of ensiling. Based on lactic acid production and lactic acid bacteria population, L. plantarum KU5 was identified as the best strain for fermentation with a 5-L bag silo. Spent mushroom substrate was ensiled with 0.5% (v/w) L. plantarum KU5 without or with 5% molasses. Silages treated with microbial inoculant and molasses had the lowest pH and the highest fermentative odors. In a second set of experiments similar to the above 5-L silo study, the simultaneous application of L. plantarum KU5 inoculant and molasses to 80-L silos improved fermentability and aerobic stability of SMS silages. For similar treatment using ton-bag silos, aerobic stability decreased and NH3-N content increased dramatically. In conclusion, sawdust-based SMS for animal use was successfully ensiled with L. plantarum KU5 inoculant and molasses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rim15p-mediated regulation of sucrose utilization during molasses fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2.

    PubMed

    Inai, Tomomi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Fukada, Rie; Akao, Takeshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Inherited loss-of-function mutations in the Rim15p-mediated stress-response pathway contribute to the high fermentation rate of sake yeast strains. In the present study, we found that disruption of the RIM15 gene in ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2 accelerated molasses fermentation through enhanced sucrose utilization following glucose starvation.

  1. Efficient production of l-lactic acid using co-feeding strategy based on cane molasses/glucose carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-02-01

    L-Lactic acid is an important platform chemical, which ought to be produced under cost control to meet its huge demand. Cane molasses, a waste from sugar manufacturing processes, is hopeful to be utilized as a cheap carbon source for L-lactic acid fermentation. Considering that cane molasses contains nutrients and hazardous substances, efficient production of L-lactic acid was developed by using a co-feeding strategy based on the utilization of cane molasses/glucose carbon sources. Based on the medium optimization with response surface method, 168.3g/L L-lactic acid was obtained by a Bacillus coagulans strain H-1 after 78h fed-batch fermentation, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 0.88g/g. Since cane molasses is a feasible carbon source, the co-feeding fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of L-lactic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lithofacies Associations and Depositional Environments of the Neogene Molasse succession, Pishin Belt, northwestern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasi, A.; Kassi, A.; Friis, H.; Umar, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pishin Belt is a NE-SW trending mixed flysch and molasse basin, situated at the northwestern part of Pakistan, bordered by Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate in the west and Indian Plate in the east. Western boundary of the belt is marked by the well-known Chaman Transform Fault, whereas the Zhob Valley Thrust and Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite mark the eastern boundary. The Belt is divisible into six tectono-stratigraphic zones bounded by major thrusts. Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite is the base and Zone-I of this belt. Zone-II comprises shallow marine and flysch successions of the Eocene Nisai Formation and Oligocene Khojak Formation. The Early to Middle Miocene Dasht Murgha group comprises Zone-III, the Late Miocene-Pliocene Malthanai formation comprises Zone-IV, the Pleistocene Bostan Formation makes Zone-V, and the flat-laying Holocene deposits of the Zhob Valley comprise Zone-VI. The Neogene molasse successions of the Pishin Belt include the Dasht Murgha group, Malthanai formation and Bostan Formation; these are mostly composed of sandstone, claystone and conglomerate lithologies. Sandstones have been classified as lithic arenites and their QFL values suggest quartzolithic composition. Twelve distinct lithofacies have been recognized in the succession and thus grouped into four types of facies associations. Lithofacies include clast-supported massive gravel (Gcm), clast-supported crudely bedded gravel (Gh), cross-stratified conglomerate (Gt and Gp), trough cross-stratified sandstone (St), planar cross-stratified sandstone (Sp), ripple cross-laminated sandstone (Sr), horizontally stratified sandstone (Sh), low-angle cross-stratified sandstone (Sl), massive sandstones (Sm), massive mudstone and siltstone (Fm) and paleosol carbonate (P). The lithofacies associations include channel facies association (CHA), crevasse-splay facies association (CSA), natural-levee facies association (LVA) and floodplain facies association (FPA). The lithofacies associations suggest

  3. Enhanced bioremediation of crude oil utilizing lipophilic fertilizers combined with biosurfactants and molasses.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, Maria; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2008-11-01

    Many research studies have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus to combat oil spills in marine environments. Rapid dilution of water-soluble nutrients can be overcome by oleophilic formulations that retain optimal nutrient concentrations at the oil-water interface where biodegradation occurs. Previous work has demonstrated that biodegradation processes are enhanced by the addition of lipophilic fertilizers of natural origin (uric acid and lecithin). In this work, we examined the effectiveness of these nutrients in combination with biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) and molasses (source of C and vitamins) to enhance the biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms. It was found that the use of biosurfactants resulted in an increased removal of petroleum hydrocarbons (96% removal of C19-C34 n-alkanes within a period of 18 days) as well as in a reduction of the lag phase (almost 80% removal was achieved within the first week of biosurfactant application).

  4. A radiochemical, hydrochemical and dissolved gas study of groundwaters in the Molasse basin of Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. N.; Goldbrunner, J. E.; Darling, W. G.; Hooker, P. J.; Wilson, G. B.; Youngman, M. J.; Eichinger, L.; Rauert, W.; Stichler, W.

    1985-05-01

    The Innviertel (Ottnangian) formation of the Molasse zone of Upper Austria is of major importance as a source of potable water. A hydrochemical, radiochemical and dissolved gas study was undertaken to establish the flow pattern in the Innviertel and its relationship to groundwaters in deeper formations in the Molasse basin. The Innviertel groundwaters could be differentiated into three groups on the basis of their chemical compositions. Waters from shallow boreholes which sampled very localised systems are oxidising waters of the Ca-bicarbonate type and may have high 3H contents. A transition to reducing groundwaters occurs in the second and third groups, with Na + replacing Ca 2+ as the dominant cation and sulphate being reduced to sulphide. The uranium solution chemistry also changes systematically with this change in redox conditions. The 234U/ 238U activity ratios are enhanced for group 2 groundwaters and decrease again in group 3 groundwaters. The low Cl contents of all the Innviertel groundwaters indicate that the marine sediments have been completely flushed by meteoric water and this is confirmed by the stable isotope composition of the water. Groundwater residence times have been estimated from hydrological data, radiogenic 4He accumulation rates and palaeotemperatures of recharge which were estimated from noble gas contents. The 3He/ 4He ratio shows that most radiogenic He diffuses from the basement granite and the He flux was estimated on the basis of diffusion theory. Groundwater residence times were assessed from this diffusive flux of helium and together with the recharge temperatures, indicate that the evolved groundwaters of the Innviertel were recharged during the interstadial which preceded the last glaciation.

  5. Stability of Molasse: TLS for structural analysis in the valley of Gotteron-Fribourg, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Hammouda, Mariam; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc Henri; Bouaziz, Samir; Mazotti, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    The marine molasses of Fribourg (Switzerland) is an area where the cliff collapses and rockfalls are quite frequent and difficult to predict due to this particular lithology, a poorly consolidated greywacke. Because of some recent rockfall events, the situation became critical especially in the valley of Gotteron where a big block has slightly moved down and might destroy a house in case of rupture. The cliff made of jointed sandstone and thin layers of clay and siltstone presents many fractures, joints and massive cross bedding surfaces which increases the possibility of slab failure. This paper presents a detailed structural analysis of the cliff and the identification of the potential failure mechanisms. The methodology is about combining field observation and terrestrial LiDAR scanning point cloud in order to assess the stability of potential slope instabilities of molasses. Three LiDAR scans were done i) to extract discontinuity families depending to the dip and the dip direction of joints and ii) to run kinematic tests in order to identify responsible sets for each potential failure mechanisms. Raw point clouds were processed using IMAlign module of Polyworks and CloudCompare software. The structural analysis based on COLTOP 3D (Jaboyedoff et al. 2007) allowed the identification of four discontinuity sets that were not measured in the field. Two different failure mechanisms have been identified as critical: i) planar sliding which is the main responsible mechanism of the present fallen block and ii) wedge sliding. The planar sliding is defined by the discontinuity sets J1 and J5 with a direction parallel to the slope and with a steep dip angle. The wedges, defined by couples of discontinuity sets, contribute to increase cracks' opening and to the detachment of slabs. The use of TLS combined with field survey provides us a first interpretation of instabilities and a very promising structural analysis.

  6. Production and characterization of PHA from recombinant E. coli harbouring phaC1 gene of indigenous Pseudomonas sp. LDC-5 using molasses

    PubMed Central

    Saranya, V.; Shenbagarathai, R.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biodegradable and biocompatible green thermoplastics, synthesized by wide variety of bacteria as an intracellular carbon and energy storage intermediate. They are used as an alternative to nonrenewable petroleum derived plastics. The current interest in these biopolyesters is stimulated by the search for cost-effective capitalized production. This paper attempts to achieve maximized production rate from recombinant system using inexpensive substrate. Molasses from agro-industrial waste was used to produce PHA from recombinant E.coli in batch culture. PHA yield in molasses (3.06g/L ± 0.05‒75.5%) was higher than that of sucrose (2.5g/L ± 0.05 - 65.1%). Properties of the polymer produced from molasses and sucrose were analyzed by DSC, TGA, DTA, GC/MS, TLC and optical rotation studies. The findings suggested that molasses enhanced PHA production in recombinant E.coli. PMID:24031729

  7. Use of sugarcane molasses "B" as an alternative for ethanol production with wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 at high sugar concentrations.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, C L; Torrestiana-Sánchez, B; Salgado-Cervantes, M A; García, P G Mendoza; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2012-05-01

    Molasses "B" is a rich co-product of the sugarcane process. It is obtained from the second step of crystallization and is richer in fermentable sugars (50-65%) than the final molasses, with a lower non-sugar solid content (18-33%); this co-product also contains good vitamin and mineral levels. The use of molasses "B" for ethanol production could be a good option for the sugarcane industry when cane sugar prices diminish in the market. In a complex medium like molasses, osmotolerance is a desirable characteristic for ethanol producing strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of molasses "B" for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 (a wild-type yeast isolated from sugarcane molasses) using different initial sugar concentrations (70-291 g L(-1)), two inoculum sizes and the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract, urea, and ammonium sulphate to the culture medium. The results obtained showed that the strain was able to grow at 291 g L(-1) total sugars in molasses "B" medium; the addition of nutrients to the culture medium did not produce a statistically significant difference. This yeast exhibits high osmotolerance in this medium, producing high ethanol yields (0.41 g g(-1)). The best conditions for ethanol production were 220 g L(-1) initial total sugars in molasses "B" medium, pH 5.5, using an inoculum size of 6 × 10(6) cell mL(-1); ethanol production was 85 g L(-1), productivity 3.8 g L(-1 )h(-1) with 90% preserved cell viability.

  8. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock.

  9. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock. PMID:25942565

  10. Effects of the level of sugarcane molasses on growth and carcass performance of Caribbean growing pigs reared under a ground sugarcane stalks feeding system.

    PubMed

    Xandé, X; Archimède, H; Gourdine, J L; Anais, C; Renaudeau, D

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the level of sugarcane (SC) molasses on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in Creole (CR) growing pigs fed with ground sugarcane stalks (GCS)-based diet was studied in a mixed farming system context. The aim of the study was to optimize the growth performance of CR pigs with SC-molasses as an energy source in this unconventional feeding. A total of 32 CR pigs were used from 30 to 60 kg of body weight (BW). The experimental dietary treatments consisted of four levels of inclusion of SC-molasses (200, 400, 600, and 800 g DM/d/pig) into a GCS diet, for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The GCS allowance was based on live BW (170 g/kg BW/d) and the diets were supplemented with a soya-bean meal supplement (350 g/d of a 49.2% CP and 16.6 MJ DE/kg). All the pigs were slaughtered at 60 kg BW. Increasing the level of molasses did not affect (p > 0.05) average BW gain (254 g/d), CP intake (154 g/d) and sugar extraction rate from the total ration (85%). A gradual inclusion of molasses in a GCS-based diet did not affect the carcass and meat quality of CR pigs. In conclusion, molasses supplementation does not allow the increase of growth performance in GCS fed pigs.

  11. Small Wastewater Systems Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small communities face barriers to building and maintaining effective wastewater treatment services, challenges include financial/economic limitations, lack of managerial training and geographic isolation/remoteness.

  12. Isotropic light versus six-beam molasses for Doppler cooling of atoms from background vapor: Theoretical comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trémine, Stéphane; de Clercq, Emeric; Verkerk, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    We present a three-dimensional theoretical comparison between the radiation-pressure forces exerted on an atom in an isotropic light cooling scheme and in a six-beam molasses. We demonstrate that, in the case of a background vapor where all the space directions of the atomic motion have to be considered, the mean cooling rate is equal in both configurations. Nevertheless, we also point out what mainly differentiates the two cooling techniques: the force component orthogonal to the atomic motion. If this transverse force is always null in the isotropic light case, it can exceed the radiation-pressure-force longitudinal component in the six-beam molasses configuration for high atomic velocities, hence reducing the velocity capture range.

  13. Comparative study of the effect of ferrocyanide and EDTA on the production of ethyl alcohol from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Oderinde, R.A.; Ngoka, L.C.; Adesogan, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of potassium ferrocyanide and EDTA on ethyl alcohol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated on simulated batch pilot-plant-scale conditions for alcoholic fermentation of molasses. Ethyl alcohol production was more sensitive to ferrocyanide than to EDTA. When ferrocyanide was introduced into the cultures at the time of inoculation, there was stimulation of ethyl alcohol production, with 261 ppm ferrocyanide producing the maximum effect, which was 3.0% more than n control cultures. When added during the propagation of the yeast, ferrocyanide depressed ethyl alcohol production by 4.0% maximum whereas EDTA stimulated ethyl alcohol production by 2.0%. Addition of ferrocyanide during the fermentation stage produced no significant effect on alcohol production, whereas over a wide range of EDTA concentration there was a steady increase in alcohol yield.

  14. Sub-Doppler laser cooling of 40K with Raman gray molasses on the {D}_{2} line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, G. D.; Haller, E.; Peaudecerf, B.; Cotta, D. A.; Andia, M.; Wu, S.; Johnson, M. Y. H.; Lovett, B. W.; Kuhr, S.

    2017-05-01

    Gray molasses is a powerful tool for sub-Doppler laser cooling of atoms to low temperatures. For alkaline atoms, this technique is commonly implemented with cooling lasers which are blue-detuned from either the D 1 or D 2 line. Here we show that efficient gray molasses can be implemented on the D 2 line of 40K with red-detuned lasers. We obtained temperatures of 48(2) μ {{K}}, which enables direct loading of 9.2(3)× {10}6 atoms from a magneto-optical trap into an optical dipole trap. We support our findings by a one-dimensional model and three-dimensional numerical simulations of the optical Bloch equations which qualitatively reproduce the experimentally observed cooling effects.

  15. The northern coast of the Ottnangian (middle Burdigalian, early Miocene) Molasse Sea in Germany: sediments, foraminiferal assemblages and biostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippèrr, Martina; Reichenbacher, Bettina; Doppler, Gerhard; Hagmaier, Mischa; Jung, Dietmar

    2016-04-01

    This study provides new data on the litho- and biostratigraphy of the middle Burdigalian (Ottnangian) marine sediments at or close to the former northern coastline of the German Molasse Basin, based on cores from three boreholes (Burgau, Hamlar 2 and Lutzingen) and two outcrops (Haunsheim and Dattenhausen). Methods include quantitative analysis of benthic foraminiferal assemblages (90 samples), studies of planktonic foraminifers and ostracods and investigations of lithofacies. The data indicate that the transgressive-regressive marine sediments of the Upper Marine Molasse (OMM) at Burgau and Hamlar 2 can be subdivided into the well-known lower and middle Ottnangian sedimentation cycles, with the first cycle being represented by the "OMM-Basisschichten" and Kalkofen Formation and the second by the Baltringen and Steinhöfe Formations. We show for the first time that also the northernmost marginal-marine OMM facies (Lutzingen, Haunsheim and Dattenhausen) can be correlated with the lower and middle Ottnangian sedimentation cycles. Consequently, our results do not support the presence of a previously suggested third sedimentation cycle within the OMM sediments. Our micropaleontological data reveal regionally diverse depositional environments, reflecting different water depths and co-varying environmental variables. Significant differences in abundance, diversity and species composition of the benthic foraminiferal assemblages demonstrate marginal-marine facies for Lutzingen, Haunsheim and Dattenhausen, nearshore facies for Hamlar 2 and shallow marine basin facies for Burgau. The characteristic lower Ottnangian benthic foraminiferal species exhibit restricted ecological tolerances. Hence, the absence or scarcity of these species in nearshore to marginal-marine deposits has no stratigraphic significance. The presence of two sedimentation cycles in the western German Molasse Basin alone may have resulted from the interplay of regional tectonics and basin development that

  16. Invertase activity of intact cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on sugar cane molasses. 1. Steady-state continuous culture tests

    SciTech Connect

    Vitolo, M.; Vairo, M.L.R.; Borzani, W.

    1985-08-01

    During the steady-state continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on sugar cane blackstrap molasses under different experimental conditions, oscillatory variations of the invertase activity of the intact yeast cells were observed. The continuous morphological changes of the cells wall and of the periplasmic space affecting the interaction between invertase and sucrose molecules could be responsible by the observed oscillatory phenomena. The average invertase activity at the steady state is linearly correlated to the cell's growth rate.

  17. High-cell-density fed-batch culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae KV-25 using molasses and corn steep liquor.

    PubMed

    Vu, Van Hanh; Kim, Keun

    2009-12-01

    High-cell-density cultivation of yeast was investigated using the agricultural waste products corn steep liquor (CSL) and molasses. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae KV-25 cell mass was significantly dependent on the ratio between C and N sources. The concentrations of molasses and CSL in the culture medium were statistically optimized at 10.25% (v/v) and 16.87% (v/v), respectively, by response surface methodology (RSM). Batch culture in a 5-l stirred tank reactor using the optimized medium resulted in a cell mass production of 36.5 g/l. In the fed-batch culture, the feed phase was preceded by a batch phase using the optimized medium, and a very high dried-cell-mass yield of 187.63 g/l was successfully attained by feeding a mixture of 20% (v/v) molasses and 80% (v/v) CSL at a rate of 22 ml/h. In this system, the production of cell mass depended mainly on the agitation speed, the composition of the feed medium, and the glucose level in the medium, but only slightly on the aeration rate.

  18. The Effects of Freezing and Supplementation of Molasses and Inoculants on Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Sunflower Silage

    PubMed Central

    Konca, Y.; Beyzi, S. Buyukkilic; Ayaşan, T.; Kaliber, M.; Kiraz, A. Bozkurt

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of freezing and supplementation of molasses (M), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and LAB+enzyme mixture on chemical and nutritional composition of sunflower silage (SF). Sunflower crops were harvested (at about 29.2%±1.2% dry matter) and half of fresh sunflower was ensiled alone and half was frozen (F) at −20°C for 7 days. Silage additives were admixed into frozen SF material. All samples were ensiled in glass jars with six replicates for 90 days. The treatments were as follows: i) positive control (non-frozen and no additives, NF), ii) negative control (frozen, no additives, F), iii) F+5% molasses (FM), iv) F+LAB (1.5 g/tons, Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium, FLAB); v) F+LAB+enzyme (2 g/tons Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium and cellulase and amylase enzymes, FLEN). Freezing silage increased dry matter, crude ash, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin. The organic matter, total digestible nutrient, non-fiber carbohydrate, metabolizable energy and in vitro dry matter digestibility were negatively influenced by freezing treatments (p<0.05). In conclusion, freezing sunflower plants prior to ensiling may negatively affect silage quality, while molasses supplementation improved some quality traits of frozen silage. Lactic acid bacteria and LAB+enzyme inoculations did not effectively compensate the negative impacts of freezing on sunflower silage. PMID:26954197

  19. High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, M.; Keera, Abeer A.; Mouafi, Foukia E.; Kahil, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300 L, 3 m3, and 12 m3 fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65 m3 working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18% (w/v), inoculum size of 20% (v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 108/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10 kg/65 m3 working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4 g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved. PMID:24363937

  20. Changes in development and ultrastructure of Aspergillus niger mycelium, strain with increased tolerance to toxic substances from beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Zakowska, Z; Gabara, B

    1991-01-01

    Effects of a defoamer and toxic molasses compounds on development and ultrastructure of A. niger mycelium, strain Z, characterized by high tolerance to these substances and producing citric acid in surface fermentation on proper molasses media with 70% yield were presented. Spumol BJ in concentration of 5 microliters/100 cm3 as well as toxic molasses compounds stimulated the process of swelling and germinating of conidia. Moreover, giant conidia, unable to germinate, appeared. Developing mycelium with dispersed hyphae became mucilaginous after 17-20 h culture, which indicated the process of sinking but after 24 h some part of the mycelium developed normally. Electron microscopic observations of mycelium developing in the presence of the toxic substances showed along with electron-transparent cytoplasm in a consequence of decrease in ribosome number, changes in ultrastructure of mitochondria. It may be assumed that one of the reasons of the above described abnormalities in development and ultrastructure of mycelium was a disturbance of respiration processes. The appearance of deposits of electron-dense material in mitochondria suggested the existence of a defence mechanism, eliminating toxic substances.

  1. Quality of gingernut type biscuits as affected by varying fat content and partial replacement of honey with molasses.

    PubMed

    Filipčev, Bojana; Šimurina, Olivera; Bodroža-Solarov, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Gingernut type biscuits were prepared with varying fat content (10, 20, and 30 % w/w flour basis) and with sugar beet molasses replacing 0, 25, and 50 % w/w of the honey in the formulation. To evaluate the effects of these modifications, dough properties, and the physical, and sensory properties, and chemical composition of the biscuits were determined. Dough properties were significantly affected by the fat content; higher fat gave softer dough with reduced adhesiveness, cohesiveness and springiness. Biscuit height and diameter were also significantly affected only by the fat content. The tested biscuit variants showed no difference with respect to hardness and fracturability. During storage, hardness, fracturability and brittleness of the biscuits significantly increased but significant differences within the biscuits variants were observed after two months of storage in terms of fracturability which was least impaired in the biscuits with 30 % fat. Higher fat content also contributed to better flavour keeping during storage. Substitution of honey with molasses resulted in products with darker colour, less yellow and more red tone. Molasses also contributed to better nutritive value of biscuits by increasing significantly the content of proteins, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron.

  2. Production of ethanol by filamentous and yeast-like forms of Mucor indicus from fructose, glucose, sucrose, and molasses.

    PubMed

    Sharifia, Mahnaz; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2008-11-01

    The fungus Mucor indicus is found in this study able to consume glucose and fructose, but not sucrose in fermentation of sugarcane and sugar beet molasses. This might be an advantage in industries which want to selectively remove glucose and fructose for crystallisation of sucrose present in the molasses. On the other hand, the fungus assimilated sucrose after hydrolysis by the enzyme invertase. The fungus efficiently grew on glucose and fructose and produced ethanol in synthetic media or from molasses. The cultivations were carried out aerobically and anaerobically, and manipulated toward filamentous or yeast-like morphology. Ethanol was the major metabolite in all the experiments. The ethanol yield in anaerobic cultivations was between 0.35 and 0.48 g/g sugars consumed, depending on the carbon source and the growth morphology, while a yield of as low as 0.16 g/g was obtained during aerobic cultivation. The yeast-like form of the fungus showed faster ethanol production with an average productivity of 0.90 g/l h from glucose, fructose and inverted sucrose, than the filamentous form with an average productivity of 0.33 g/l h. The biomass of the fungus was also analyzed with respect to alkali-insoluble material (AIM), chitin, and chitosan. The biomass of the fungus contained per g maximum 0.217 g AIM and 0.042 g chitosan in yeast-like cultivation under aerobic conditions.

  3. Continuous separation of sugarcane molasses with a simulated moving-bed adsorber. Adsorption equilibria, kinetics, and application

    SciTech Connect

    Saska, M.; Mei Di Wu; Clarke, S.J.; Iqbal, K. )

    1992-10-01

    Fundamental chromatographic properties are reported that are related to the industrial separation of sugarcane molasses in a simulated moving-bed adsorber. The distribution coefficients of KCL, sucrose, glucose, and fructose on XUS-40166.00 (K[sup +]) cation exchanger were determined by pulse testing to be 0.00, 0.22, 0.45, and 0.50 at infinite dilution at 70 C. The adsorption isotherm of KCl is quadratic; those of the sugars only slightly nonlinear and dependent on KCl concentration. HETP was found to be independent of fluid velocity for KCl in the range of the interstitial velocity of 5 to 35 cm/min, and increasing with v for sucrose. At high fluid velocities the broadening of the sucrose band in a packed bed comes primarily from intraparticle mass transfer, with axial dispersion and film diffusion playing minor roles. The process for separation of sugarcane molasses was demonstrated on a 47 liter, eight-column simulated moving-bed adsorber. A theoretical, staged model of the simulated moving-bed adsorber with one inert totally excluded and three linearly adsorbing components was found to give an excellent representation of the transient and steady-state behavior of the continuous separation of sugarcane molasses.

  4. Lower Miocene (Upper Ottnangian) sands in the Lower Austrian Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palzer, Markus; Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Wagreich, Michael; Gier, Susanne; Meszar, Maria Elisabeth; Soliman, Ali

    2015-04-01

    In the Early Miocene (late Ottnangian), a global sea level drop and the continuous rise of the Alps lead to the regression of the Parathethys sea, and to the sedimentation of the Upper Freshwater Molasse. In the Lower Austrian Molasse Basin, this event is represented by yellowish-brownish to greyish white mica-rich and carbonate-free sands and silts with clayish interlayers, formerly called Oncophora Beds (OB), which crop out between St. Pölten and Tulln. A new lithostratigraphy combines these sediments, now called Traisen-Formation (TF) together with the Dietersdorf Formation within the Pixendorf Group. Drill cores from OMV-wells predominantly from the NE show hundreds of meters thick sequences of pelites with intersections of sands interpreted as representing the OB. Contrary to the mainly brackish TF, a turbiditic marine deeper-water environment is inferred. An OMV-funded project investigates the relationship between these sediments, their stratigraphical and chronological range, provenance, facies and internal stratigraphy. First results from outcrops and several wells in the NE confirm large differences in grain size, structures and carbonate content. XRD-results indicate quartz, feldspar, muscovite, chlorite, calcite and dolomite as the main minerals within the sands and pelites. Pyrite is frequent. Halite and kaolinite occur. Whole rock chemistry, carbonate content measurements and biostratigraphic investigations of samples from the Wildendürnbach K4 well indicate, that these turbiditic OB can be divided into two sections: A lower fossil-free, carbonate poor and probably brackish (indicated by B/Al* and TOC/S) section with only few turbiditic very fine sands, and an upper microfossil bearing, marine section with carbonate contents up to 30% and more and coarser turbiditic sands. Therefore we use the working terms Lower and Upper Wildendürnbach Member (LWM, UWM). The lower part is enriched in (redox sensitive) heavy minerals such as Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Gd, Ni

  5. Fault analysis as part of urban geothermal exploration in the German Molasse Basin around Munich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziesch, Jennifer; Tanner, David C.; Hanstein, Sabine; Buness, Hermann; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2017-04-01

    Faults play an essential role in geothermal exploration. The prediction of potential fluid pathways in urban Munich has been started with the interpretation of a 3-D seismic survey (170 km2) that was acquired during the winter of 2015/2016 in Munich (Germany) within the Bavarian Molasse Basin. As a part of the research project GeoParaMoL*, we focus on the structural interpretation and retro-deformation analysis to detect sub-seismic structures within the reservoir and overburden. We explore the hydrothermal Malm carbonate reservoir (at a depth of 3 km) as a source of deep geothermal energy and the overburden of Tertiary Molasse sediments. The stratigraphic horizons, Top Aquitan, Top Chatt, Top Bausteinschichten, Top Lithothamnien limestone (Top Eocene), Top and Base Malm (Upper Jurassic), together with the detailed interpretation of the faults in the study area are used to construct a 3-D geological model. The study area is characterised by synthetic normal faults that strike parallel to the alpine front. Most major faults were active from Upper Jurassic up to the Miocene. The Munich Fault, which belongs to the Markt-Schwabener Lineament, has a maximum vertical offset of 350 metres in the central part, and contrary to previous interpretation based on 2-D seismic, this fault dies out in the eastern part of the area. The south-eastern part of the study area is dominated by a very complex fault system. Three faults that were previously detected in a smaller 3-D seismic survey at Unterhaching, to the south of the study area, with strike directions of 25°, 45° and 70° (Lüschen et al. 2014), were followed in to the new 3-D seismic survey interpretation. Particularly noticeable are relay ramps and horst/graben structures. The fault with a strike of 25° ends in three big sinkholes with a maximum vertical offset of 60 metres. We interpret this special structure as fault tip horsetail-structure, which caused a large amount of sub-seismic deformation. Consequently, this

  6. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

  7. Decentralized wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Tchobanoglous, G.

    1998-07-01

    Decentralized wastewater management systems maintain both the solid and liquid fractions of the wastewater near their point of origin. In the future, as long-term strategies are developed to optimize the use of water resources and to protect the environment, it is clear that decentralized systems will become an important element of those strategies.

  8. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

  9. Effect of copper source and level on performance and copper status of cattle consuming molasses-based supplements.

    PubMed

    Arthington, J D; Pate, F M; Spears, J W

    2003-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the availability of dietary Cu offered to growing beef cattle consuming molasses-based supplements. In Exp. 1, 24 Braford heifers were assigned randomly to bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pastures (two heifers/pasture). Heifers were provided 1.5 kg of TDN and 0.3 kg of supplemental CP/heifer daily using a molasses-cottonseed meal slurry. Three treatments were randomly assigned to pastures (four pastures/treatment), providing 100 mg of supplemental Cu daily in the form of either CuSO4 (inorganic Cu) or organic-Cu. A third treatment offered no supplemental Cu (negative control). Heifer BW was collected at the start and end of the study. Jugular blood and liver samples were collected on d 0, 29, 56, and 84. In Exp. 2, 24 Brahman-crossbred steers were fed the same molasses-cottonseed meal supplement at the same rates used in Exp. 1. Steers were housed in individual pens (15 m2) with free-choice access to stargrass (Cynodon spp.) hay. Four Cu treatments were assigned to individual steers (six pens/treatment) providing 1) 10 ppm of Cu from an organic source; 2) 10 ppm Cu from Tri-basic Cu chloride (TBCC); 3) 30 ppm of Cu from TBCC; or 4) 30 ppm of Cu, a 50:50 ratio of TBCC and organic Cu. Body weights and jugular blood and liver samples were collected on d 0, 24, 48, and 72. In Exp. 1, liver Cu concentrations did not differ between heifers supplemented with inorganic and organic Cu. Each source resulted in increased (P < 0.05) liver Cu concentrations compared with the unsupplemented control. Plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for Cu-supplemented heifers, independent of Cu source. Heifer ADG tended (P = 0.11) to increase with Cu supplementation compared with the unsupplemented control. In Exp. 2, liver Cu was greater (P < 0.05) on d 24, 48, and 72 for steers consuming 30 vs. 10 ppm of Cu. Steers supplemented with organic Cu had lower DMI than steers supplemented with 10 or 30 ppm of TBCC. These data suggest that

  10. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects of Polyphenols from Sugar Beet Molasses on Colon Carcinoma Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Three polyphenols were isolated and purified from sugar beet molasses by ultrasonic-aid extraction and various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and Western blot assay. The results showed that gallic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and epicatechin have cytotoxicity to the human colon, hepatocellular and breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride showed its cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, particularly against colon cancer Caco-2 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 23.21 ± 0.14 μg/mL in vitro. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colon cancer. In the mechanism study, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride increased the ratio of cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and reduced cyclin D1 expression on Caco-2 cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride decreased mutant p21 expression, and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. PMID:27347927

  11. Azospirillum melinis sp. nov., a group of diazotrophs isolated from tropical molasses grass.

    PubMed

    Peng, Guixiang; Wang, Huarong; Zhang, Guoxia; Hou, Wei; Liu, Yang; Wang, En Tao; Tan, Zhiyuan

    2006-06-01

    Fifteen bacterial strains isolated from molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora Beauv.) were identified as nitrogen-fixers by using the acetylene-reduction assay and PCR amplification of nifH gene fragments. These strains were classified as a unique group by insertion sequence-PCR fingerprinting, SDS-PAGE protein patterns, DNA-DNA hybridization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and morphological characterization. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that these diazotrophic strains belonged to the genus Azospirillum and were closely related to Azospirillum lipoferum (with 97.5 % similarity). In all the analyses, including in addition phenotypic characterization using Biolog MicroPlates and comparison of cellular fatty acids, this novel group was found to be different from the most closely related species, Azospirillum lipoferum. Based on these data, a novel species, Azospirillum melinis sp. nov., is proposed for these endophytic diazotrophs of M. minutiflora, with TMCY 0552(T) (=CCBAU 5106001(T) = LMG 23364(T) = CGMCC 1.5340(T)) as the type strain.

  12. Electrical, thermal and electrochemical properties of disordered carbon prepared from palygorskite and cane molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Edelio Danguillecourt; Laffita, Yodalgis Mosqueda; Montoro, Luciano Andrey; Della Santina Mohallem, Nelcy; Cabrera, Humberto; Pérez, Guillermo Mesa; Frutis, Miguel Aguilar; Cappe, Eduardo Pérez

    2017-02-01

    We have synthesized and electrochemically tested a carbon sample that was suitable as anode for lithium secondary battery. The synthesis was based on the use of the palygorskite clay as template and sugar cane molasses as carbon source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) analysis showed that the nanometric carbon material has a highly disordered graphene-like wrinkled structure and large specific surface area (467 m2 g-1). The compositional characterization revealed a 14% of heteroatoms-containing groups (O, H, N, S) doping the as-prepared carbon. Thermophysical measurements revealed the good thermal stability and an acceptable thermal diffusivity (9·10-7 m2 s-1) and conductivity (1.1 W m-1 K-1) of this carbon. The electrical properties showed an electronic conductivity of hole-like carriers of approximately one S/cm in a 173-293 K range. The testing of this material as anodes in a secondary lithium battery displayed a high specific capacity and excellent performance in terms of number of cycles. A high reversible capacity of 356 mA h g-1 was reached.

  13. Preliminary magnetostratigraphic dating of the South-Pyrenean Molasse (Uncastillo Fm, Oligocene-Miocene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva-Urcia, Belén; Beamud, Elisabet; Soto, Ruth; Arenas, Concha; Garcés, Miguel; Pueyo, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    The Uncastillo Fm crops out along the southern boundary of the External Sierras, which represents the southernmost limit of the Pyrenean Range. Three sedimentary units (genetic units) related to tectonic pulses have been previously differentiated in this formation. The sedimentary evolution of the Uncastillo Fm is mainly related to the tightening of the WNW-ESE Santo Domingo anticline in the External Sierras during Chattian-Aquitanian times and records the younger tectonic movement of the south Pyrenean sole thrust. These Oligocene-Miocene molasse deposits record the change to overall southward-flowing alluvial and fluvial systems (Uncastillo Fm) as an abrupt transition from overall west-northwest-flowing fluvial systems (Campodarbe Fm). Recent magnetostratigraphic results from the underlying Campodarbe Fm shift to younger ages (from chron 10r to 7r) the base of the Uncastillo Fm in the proximal area of the fluvial system (Luesia fan). In order to check that reassignment and refine the age of the Uncastillo Fm a new magnetostratigraphic study has been conducted in laterally equivalent deposits that represent middle-distal areas located to the east of the Luesia fan. These deposits consist of thick brown to orange mudstones with interbedded brown to grey sandstones. These finer grain size sediments allow for a magnetostratigraphic study. The ~ 1300m long Fuencalderas section comprises 130 new paleomagnetic sites. The new results will yield a complete chronostratigraphic frame to constrain the last tectonic pulses of the Pyrenean Mountain Range building.

  14. Chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of potato-wheat straw silage treated with molasses and lactic acid bacteria and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Babaeinasab, Y; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of molasses and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of an ensiled potato-wheat straw mixture in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Wheat straw was harvested at full maturity and potato tuber when the leaves turned yellowish. The potato-wheat straw (57:43 ratio, DM basis) mixture was treated with molasses, LAB, or a combination. Lalsil Fresh LB (Lallemand, France; containing NCIMB 40788) or Lalsil MS01 (Lallemand, France; containing MA18/5U and MA126/4U) were each applied at a rate of 3 × 10 cfu/g of fresh material. Treatments were mixed potato-wheat straw silage (PWSS) without additive, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01, PWSS + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01 + 5% molasses, and corn silage (CS). The compaction densities of PWSS treatments and CS were approximately 850 and 980 kg wet matter/m, respectively. After anaerobic storage for 90 d, chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vitro gas production (GP), estimated OM disappearance (OMD), ammonia-N, VFA, microbial CP (MCP) production, and cellulolytic bacteria count were determined. Compared to CS, PWSS had greater ( < 0.001) values of DM, ADL, water-soluble carbohydrates, pH, and ammonia-N but lower ( < 0.05) values of CP, ash free-NDF (NDFom), ash, nitrate, and lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids concentrations. When PWSS was treated with molasses, LAB, or both, the contents of CP and lactic and acetic acids increased, whereas NDFom, ammonia-N, and butyric acid decreased ( < 0.05). Based on in vitro ruminal experiments, PWSS had greater ( < 0.05) values of GP, OMD, and MCP but lower ( < 0.05) VFA and acetic acid compared to CS. With adding molasses alone or in combination with LAB inoculants to PWSS, the values of GP

  15. Co-digestion of molasses or kitchen waste with high-rate activated sludge results in a diverse microbial community with stable methane production.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Plovie, Kristof; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2015-04-01

    Kitchen waste and molasses are organic waste streams with high organic content, and therefore are interesting substrates for renewable energy production by means of anaerobic digestion. Both substrates, however, often cause inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process, when treated separately, hence, co-digestion with other substrates is required to ensure stable methane production. In this research, A-sludge (sludge harvested from a high rate activated sludge system) was used to stabilize co-digestion with kitchen waste or molasses. Lab-scale digesters were fed with A-sludge and kitchen waste or molasses for a total period of 105 days. Increased methane production values revealed a stabilizing effect of concentrated A-sludge on kitchen waste digestion. Co-digestion of molasses with A-sludge also resulted in a higher methane production. Volumetric methane production rates up to 1.53 L L(-1) d(-1) for kitchen waste and 1.01 L L(-1) d(-1) for molasses were obtained by co-digestion with A-sludge. The stabilizing effect of A-sludge was attributed to its capacity to supplement various nutrients. Microbial community results demonstrated that both reactor conditions and substrate composition determined the nature of the bacterial community, although there was no direct influence of micro-organisms in the substrate itself, while the methanogenic community profile remained constant as long as optimal conditions were maintained.

  16. Effect of sugarcane molasses extract on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in a model system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Di; Chen, Ming-Shun; Yu, Shu-Juan

    2016-04-15

    Molasses, the main by-product of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study, sugarcane molasses extract was investigated for its total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant capacity. The experimental total phenolic content was 101.3 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) in 1 g of extract, IC50 of Trolox and sugarcane molasses extract were 125.33 μg/ml and 126.0 μg/ml, respectively. A chemical model system showed that the sugarcane molasses extract effectively reduced the formation of phenylacetaldehyde and the aldol condensation product, meanwhile, the amount of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) also decreased. This could be due to the reaction between the phenolic compounds of sugarcane molasses extract and the carbonyl group of phenylacetaldehyde inhibiting the aldol condensation product formation, and this would suppress the formation of PhIP. A pathway that phenolic compounds inhibited the formation of PhIP is proposed. This pathway also suggested a mechanism for how the sugarcane affects the formation of PHIP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An integrated anaerobic digestion and UV photocatalytic treatment of distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Apollo, Seth; Onyango, Maurice S; Ochieng, Aoyi

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic up-flow fixed bed reactor and annular photocatalytic reactor were used to study the efficiency of integrated anaerobic digestion (AD) and ultraviolet (UV) photodegradation of real distillery effluent and raw molasses wastewater (MWW). It was found that UV photodegradation as a stand-alone technique achieved colour removal of 54% and 69% for the distillery and MWW, respectively, with a COD reduction of <20% and a negligible BOD reduction. On the other hand, AD as a single treatment technique was found to be effective in COD and BOD reduction with efficiencies of above 75% and 85%, respectively, for both wastewater samples. However, the AD achieved low colour removal efficiency, with an increase in colour intensity of 13% recorded when treating MWW while a colour removal of 51% was achieved for the distillery effluent. The application of UV photodegradation as a pre-treatment method to the AD process reduced the COD removal and biogas production efficiency. However, an integration in which UV photodegradation was employed as a post-treatment to the AD process achieved high COD removal of above 85% for both wastewater samples, and colour removal of 88% for the distillery effluent. Thus, photodegradation can be employed as a post-treatment technique to an AD system treating distillery effluent for complete removal of the biorecalcitrant and colour imparting compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High strength distillery wastewater treatment by a PAC-MBR with low PAC dosage.

    PubMed

    Basu, Subhankar; Kaushik, Ankita; Saranya, P; Batra, Vidya S; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2016-01-01

    Augmentation of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with activated carbon is established to offer several operational advantages. This work investigates the influence of low dosing (2 g/L) of powdered activated carbons (PACs) with different characteristics on the performance of MBR treating high strength molasses distillery wastewater containing difficult-to-biodegrade recalcitrant components. Two MBRs, augmented with different PACs, were operated in parallel over a period of 240 days and their performance monitored in terms of biomass growth, reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD), sludge properties like extracellular polymeric substances content, filterability, and morphology. Removal of organics and coloring matter by adsorption, biodegradation and membrane filtration was estimated. Although adsorptive removal of color and COD is influenced by the properties of the PAC used, the performance of the PAC-MBRs was independent of PAC properties. Both PACs preferentially adsorbed the low molecular weight components in distillery wastewater. Retention by the membrane filter with the secondary cake layer contributed to reduction in color and COD of treated effluent. The findings indicate that low dosing with PAC adsorbing low molecular weight organics has a limited role in PAC-MBR treating distillery wastewater.

  19. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into a municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant.

  20. Thermal and exhumation histories from borehole thermochronometer samples in the Swiss Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillon, Charlotte; Ehlers, Todd; Enkelmann, Eva; Becker, Jens K.; Schnellmann, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, significant interest has emerged to better understand the links between the foreland basin evolution and the erosion history of the Alps. For this, the European Alps are indeed a well-suited study region since the hinterland and the Swiss Molasse basin erosion rates and timing were extensively studied using basin analysis, and low-temperature thermochronology 1-4,5,6. However, the driving mechanisms for the post-Miocene erosion of the Swiss Molasse basin remains controversial, and several papers discuss whether global climatic changes1 or local variations of base level7,8,9 have controlled the erosion of the basin. With this study, we add quantitative constraints on the late-stage history of the basin by presenting new AFT and AHe dataset (respectively 16 and 19 samples) from two boreholes located ~30 km apart from each other, one located close to the center (Sonnengarten, depth of 3500 m) and one located to the North (Benken, depth of 100 m) of the basin. The data are derived from Triassic to Pliocene sand deposits as well as the underlying gneissic basement rocks and both AFT and AHe results are ranging from Pliocene to Triassic ages. The two dataset present very different age patterns which make the direct interpretation difficult. Therefore, thermal models using the QTQt software10,11 have been performed. This software is capable to evaluate cooling rates and timing using multiple samples from a single borehole. To test the robustness of the simulations, several runs for each borehole based on different data sets were performed, and showed some discrepancies between the resulting thermal histories. We provide, based on the simulations results, the most probable erosion estimates which are in the same range as the ones proposed in previous studies in the basin. For the borehole Benken, we reproduce a long and slow erosion phase starting at 23 Ma, with an overall estimate of the amount of eroded sediments ranging between 1.2 to 2 km. For the

  1. Scalings at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm Aquifer (Bavarian Molasse Baisin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhl, Bernhard; Herbrich, Moritz; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Scalings at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm Aquifer (Bavarian Molasse Basin) (Herbrich, M., Köhl, B., Baumann, T.) Scalings are a widespread problem among geothermal plants which exploit the Malm Aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Zone. They effect the technical and economic efficiency of geothermal plants and cause costly revisions of the geothermal cycle. Scalings observed at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm Aquifer mainly consist of different CaCO3 polymorphs and are found at the motor, in the pumps and pipes and throughout the groundlevel facilities including the heat exchangers. There are two main processes leading to a disruption of the carbonate equilibrium and causing these CaCO3 scalings: local temperature peaks and degassing of less soluble gases due to local pressure drops. While the increase of the temperature leads to a local supersaturation at the hot surface of e.g. the motor, the formation of gas bubbles strips all soluble gases from the solution according to the Henry equilibrum constants, thus shifting the carbonate-equilibrium towards less soluble CaCO3. In order to prevent the formation of scalings, these processes have to be quantified. Therefore, we investigated the scalings in all sections of the geothermal cycle at geothermal plants in the Malm Aquifer. So far, we have sampled scalings from the pumps and the production pipes after three exchanges of the pump, scalings collected in the particle filters, scalings from the ground level geothermal facilities, and scalings from the injection pipes. The samples were characterized by REM-EDX, XRD, and image processing to assess the mineralogical features and the elemental composition. The porosity and bulk density were measured to assess the mass of the deposits and to calculate the kinetics of the formation. All together, this generated a unique quantitative dataset with a spatial resolution of 9 m along the production tubes. The thickness of the scalings first decreases from the

  2. MIUS wastewater technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A modular integrated utility system wastewater-treatment process is described. Research in the field of wastewater treatment is reviewed, treatment processes are specified and evaluated, and recommendations for system use are made. The treatment processes evaluated are in the broad categories of preparatory, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment, physical-chemical processing, dissolved-solids removal, disinfection, sludge processing, and separate systems. Capital, operating, and maintenance costs are estimated, and extensive references are given.

  3. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Jiang, Yi; Lee, Gordon; Kokabian, Bahareh; Fast, Sara; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L; Magbanua, Benjamin S; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides a review of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment. In particular, this paper primarily focuses on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (single and multiple pollutants, and metals), and emerging pollutant removal (pharmaceuticals). A summary of studies involving the plant (vegetation) effects, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included.

  4. Simplified modeling of fed-batch alcoholic fermentation of sugarcane blackstrap molasses.

    PubMed

    Converti, Attilio; Arni, Saleh; Sato, Sunao; de Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro; Aquarone, Eugênio

    2003-10-05

    Simplified modeling based on material balances for biomass, ethanol and substrate was used to describe the kinetics of fed-batch alcohol fermentation of sugarcane blackstrap molasses. Maintenance requirements were previously shown to be of particular significance in this system, owing to the use of massive inoculum to minimize inhibitions; therefore, they were taken into consideration for kinetic modeling. Average values of biomass and ethanol yields, productivities, and substrate consumption rates, calculated at the end of runs performed either at constant or exponentially varying flow rates, demonstrated that all of these parameters were influenced by the initial sugar-feeding rate, F(o)S(o). Under conditions of substrate shortage (F(o)S(o)

  5. Comprehensive assessment of the L-lysine production process from fermentation of sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Reza, Omar; Lopez-Arenas, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    L-Lysine is an essential amino acid that can be produced by chemical processes from fossil raw materials, as well as by microbial fermentation, the latter being a more efficient and environmentally friendly procedure. In this work, the production process of L-lysine-HCl is studied using a systematic approach based on modeling and simulation, which supports decision making in the early stage of process design. The study considers two analysis stages: first, the dynamic analysis of the fermentation reactor, where the conversion of sugars from sugarcane molasses to L-lysine with a strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum is carried out. In this stage, the operation mode (either batch or fed batch) and operating conditions of the fermentation reactor are defined to reach the maximum technical criteria. Afterwards, the second analysis stage relates to the industrial production process of L-lysine-HCl, where the fermentation reactor, upstream processing, and downstream processing are included. In this stage, the influence of key parameters on the overall process performance is scrutinized through the evaluation of several technical, economic, and environmental criteria, to determine a profitable and sustainable design of the L-lysine production process. The main results show how the operating conditions, process design, and selection of evaluation criteria can influence in the conceptual design. The best plant design shows maximum product yield (0.31 g L-lysine/g glucose) and productivity (1.99 g/L/h), achieving 26.5% return on investment (ROI) with a payback period (PBP) of 3.8 years, decreasing water and energy consumption, and with a low potential environmental impact (PEI) index.

  6. Soy molasses as fermentation substrate for production of butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, N; Lolas, A; Blaschek, H P

    2001-05-01

    Spray-dried soy molasses (SDSM) contains the sugars dextrose, sucrose, fructose, pinitol, raffinose, verbascose, melibiose, and stachyose. Of the 746 g kg(-1) total sugars in SDSM, 434 g kg(-1) is fermentable using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101. SDSM was used to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by C. beijerinckii BA101 in batch cultures. Using 80 g l(-1) SDSM, 10.7 g l(-1) ABE was produced in P2 medium. Higher concentrations of SDSM resulted in poor solvent production due to the presence of excessive salt and inhibitory components. C. beijerinckii BA101 in SDSM at 80 g l(-1) concentration produced 22.8 g l(-1) ABE when supplemented with 25.3 g l(-1) glucose. SDSM contains 57.4 g kg(-1) mineral ash and 2% tri-calcium phosphate. Tri-calcium phosphate up to 43.1 g l(-1) was not inhibitory and at a tri-calcium phosphate concentration of 28.8 g l(-1), the culture produced more solvents (30.1 g l(-1)) than the control experiment (23.8 g l(-1)). In contrast, sodium chloride was a strong inhibitor of C. beijerinckii BA101 cell growth. At a concentration of 10 g l(-1) sodium chloride, a maximum cell concentration of 0.6 g l(-1) was achieved compared to 1.7 g l(-1) in the control experiment. The effects of two salts on specific growth rate constant (mu) and specific rate of ABE production (nu) for C. beijerinckii BA101 were examined.

  7. Provenance Analysis of Lower Miocene Sediments in the Lower Austrian Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Palzer, Markus; Wagreich, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In the Early Miocene (Late Ottnangian) a global drop of the sea level and the continuous rise of the Alps caused a regression of the Paratethys. During this time interval the Traisen Formation (formerly Oncophora beds) was deposited in the Lower Austrian Molasse Basin. These yellowish-brownish to greyish mica-rich and carbonate-free sands and silts with clayish interlayers were originally named after a brackish water bivalve ("Oncophora"- now Rzehakia). The southeastern part of the TF partly interfingers with finer sands of the Dietersdorf Formation (DF). The Pixendorf Group combines the TF and the DF [coarse sands, conglomerates, blocks] of the Upper Ottnangian lithostratigraphic units in Lower Austria. West to the Waschberg Zone a deeper-water environment (so called Oncophora beds in former literature, herein [informally] renamed to Wildendürnbach Member) with sediment gravity flows (turbidites, muddy/sandy slumps) is inferred from OMV well data. Examinations of these fine sandstones, silts and laminated pelites have been carried out on the basis of the Wildendürnbach-4 OMV drilling core. Analyses of the TF revealed rather homogenous heavy mineral assemblages, dominated by high amounts of garnet (~65%) and relatively high amounts of epidote/zoisite (~10%) and amphiboles (~10%). Conducted surveys point towards a primary influence of metamorphic (metapelitic) source rocks of Austroalpine Crystalline Complexes of the rising Eastern Alps. Heavy mineral analysis of the WDK-4 drilling core showed even higher amounts of garnet (~80%) combined with minor amounts of rutile, staurolite, apatite, epidote/zoisite, tourmalines, zircon and amphiboles. Consistent heavy mineral assemblages and chemical data (EMPA) suggest a stratigraphical correlation with the Křepice Formation and the Ždánice-Hustopeče Formation in the Czech Republic and sedimentary influence from the Western Carpathian Flysch Belt.

  8. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  9. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  10. Noteworthy Facts about a Methane-Producing Microbial Community Processing Acidic Effluent from Sugar Beet Molasses Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Szczęsny, Paweł; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław K; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Detman, Anna; Salamon, Agnieszka; Sikora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a complex process involving hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The separation of the hydrogen-yielding (dark fermentation) and methane-yielding steps under controlled conditions permits the production of hydrogen and methane from biomass. The characterization of microbial communities developed in bioreactors is crucial for the understanding and optimization of fermentation processes. Previously we developed an effective system for hydrogen production based on long-term continuous microbial cultures grown on sugar beet molasses. Here, the acidic effluent from molasses fermentation was used as the substrate for methanogenesis in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. This study focused on the molecular analysis of the methane-yielding community processing the non-gaseous products of molasses fermentation. The substrate for methanogenesis produces conditions that favor the hydrogenotrophic pathway of methane synthesis. Methane production results from syntrophic metabolism whose key process is hydrogen transfer between bacteria and methanogenic Archaea. High-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of total DNA isolated from the methanogenic microbial community and bioinformatic sequence analysis revealed that the domain Bacteria was dominated by Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), Bacteroidetes, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, Cloacimonetes and Spirochaetes. In the domain Archaea, the order Methanomicrobiales was predominant, with Methanoculleus as the most abundant genus. The second and third most abundant members of the Archaeal community were representatives of the Methanomassiliicoccales and the Methanosarcinales. Analysis of the methanogenic sludge by scanning electron microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that it was composed of small highly heterogeneous mineral-rich granules. Mineral components of methanogenic granules probably modulate syntrophic metabolism and methanogenic

  11. Noteworthy Facts about a Methane-Producing Microbial Community Processing Acidic Effluent from Sugar Beet Molasses Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Szczęsny, Paweł; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław K.; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Detman, Anna; Salamon, Agnieszka; Sikora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a complex process involving hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The separation of the hydrogen-yielding (dark fermentation) and methane-yielding steps under controlled conditions permits the production of hydrogen and methane from biomass. The characterization of microbial communities developed in bioreactors is crucial for the understanding and optimization of fermentation processes. Previously we developed an effective system for hydrogen production based on long-term continuous microbial cultures grown on sugar beet molasses. Here, the acidic effluent from molasses fermentation was used as the substrate for methanogenesis in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. This study focused on the molecular analysis of the methane-yielding community processing the non-gaseous products of molasses fermentation. The substrate for methanogenesis produces conditions that favor the hydrogenotrophic pathway of methane synthesis. Methane production results from syntrophic metabolism whose key process is hydrogen transfer between bacteria and methanogenic Archaea. High-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of total DNA isolated from the methanogenic microbial community and bioinformatic sequence analysis revealed that the domain Bacteria was dominated by Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), Bacteroidetes, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, Cloacimonetes and Spirochaetes. In the domain Archaea, the order Methanomicrobiales was predominant, with Methanoculleus as the most abundant genus. The second and third most abundant members of the Archaeal community were representatives of the Methanomassiliicoccales and the Methanosarcinales. Analysis of the methanogenic sludge by scanning electron microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that it was composed of small highly heterogeneous mineral-rich granules. Mineral components of methanogenic granules probably modulate syntrophic metabolism and methanogenic

  12. Thermal history of the westernmost Eastern Alps (Penninic Rhenodanubian Flysch nappes, Helvetic nappes, and Subalpine Molasse thrust sheets)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerlauth, Michael; Bertrand, Audrey; Rantitsch, Gerd; Groß, Doris; Ortner, Hugo; Pomella, Hannah; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    The frontal part of the westernmost Eastern Alps comprises from top to bottom of the Austroalpine and Penninic nappes, Ultrahelvetic slices, and two Helvetic thrust sheets, thrust upon the northern Alpine Molasse Basin. The thermal evolution of the Penninic Rhenodanubian Flysch nappes, the Helvetic nappes, and the allochthonous part of the Alpine Molasse Basin is constrained by vitrinite reflectance measurements and apatite fission track dating and implemented in a tectonic evolution scheme. Within the Helvetic nappes, vitrinite reflectance increases regionally from north to south and stratigraphically from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Wang Formation to the Toarcian Mols Member. Apatite fission track ages from Penninic and Subalpine Molasse units are consistently younger than the deposition age. They indicate therefore a post-depositional thermal overprint exceeding approximately 120 °C, the upper temperature limit of the apatite partial annealing zone. 1D thermal modelling suggests that the Penninic nappes attained deepest burial between the latest Cretaceous and Early Palaeocene with the Penninic basal thrust being located at approximately 8 km in the north compared to approximately 12 km in the south. Deepest burial of the upper Helvetic nappe occurred between the latest Eocene and Early Miocene. Its base was buried down to approximately 10.5 km in the north compared to 11.5 km in the south. Exhumation of the entire nappe stack started in the Early to Middle Miocene. For both Penninic and Helvetic models, a heatflow minimum during the Cenozoic deformation (max. 27-32 mW/m2), followed by an increase from the Middle Miocene onwards (up to 60 mW/m2), was assumed.

  13. Silage preparation and fermentation quality of kudzu, sugarcane top and their mixture treated with lactic acid bacteria, molasses and cellulase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinzhu; Li, Wenyang; Gao, Chengfang; Zhang, Xiaopei; Weng, Boqi; Cai, Yimin

    2017-05-30

    We studied silage fermentation of kudzu (KZ), sugarcane top (ST) and their mixtures treated with additives to be able to effectively use available local feed resources. The silages were prepared using KZ, ST, KZ 90% + ST 10%, KZ 80% + ST 20%, KZ 70% + ST 30% and KZ 60% + ST 40%, based on fresh matter (FM). These silages were treated with 10(8)  colony-forming units/g epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB), 5% molasses and 0.02% cellulase of FM. The KZ contained higher crude protein (CP; 14.52%) content and lower levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 62.15%) than those of ST (6.84% CP and 64.93% NDF) based on dry matter (DM). The KZ 60% + ST 40% silage fermented well with a higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid content and lower (P < 0.05) pH than those of the other mixed silages. Silages treated with molasses had lower (P < 0.05) ammonia-N, NDF, acid detergent fiber, and hemi-cellulose contents as well as pH, but higher (P < 0.05) DM, water-soluble carbohydrate, and lactic acid contents, than those of the control, LAB and cellulase treatments. The results confirmed that KZ 60% + ST 40% was the best mixing ratio to prepare silage, and molasses improved silage fermentation and fiber degradation. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Mechanical analysis of the thin- versus thick-skin tectonics in the Molasse basin and Jura thrust belt (Swiss Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillot, Bertrand; Caer, Typhaine; Souloumiac, Pauline; Nussbaum, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    The Jura fold-and-thrust belt is classically interpreted as a thin-skin belt developed over a triasic décollement, which is itself topping Permo-carboniferous E-W transpressive grabens delimited by N-S strike-slip faults. These faults have been reactivated in eo-oligocene times as normal faults. Today, the basement is seismically active, suggesting that the Jura belt involves some amount of basement deformation. We tested both thin and thick-skin hypotheses using a simple rheological prototype with two potential décollements : a Triassic horizon extending below Jura and Molasse basin, and the upper-lower crust interface rooted deep south of the Alpine front close to the Penninic nappes region. Using the theory of limit analysis combined with automatic adaptive meshing, we demonstrate that the main Jura Triassic décollement can be activated with the present day topography, if its friction angle is below 5°, a counter-intuitive result, that was not foreseen by sand box models. In contrast, a thick-skin deformation involving all the upper crust is possible either only south of the Jura below the topographic depression of the Molasse basin if the upper-lower crust interface has an equivalent friction angle above 4.6°, or far beyond it towards the North, if it is weaker. Active thick-skin thrusting within the Jura belt requires further assumptions on the existence of weak zones, for which a good candidate could be the inherited eo-oligocene normal faults as previously suggested in the litterature. We also demonstrated the potential major role of the topographic depression of the Molasse basin in conveying deformation from the Alps to the Jura, and in localising thick-skin thrusting.

  15. Optimization of the production and characterization of lipase from Candida rugosa and Geotrichum candidum in soybean molasses by submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Wilson Galvão; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Ribeiro, Eloízio Júlio; Pessela, Benevides Costa; Cardoso, Vicelma Luiz; de Resende, Miriam Maria

    2016-07-01

    This present work describes the production and biochemical characterization of lipase by Candida rugosa and Geotrichum candidum in a culture supplemented with soybean molasses. After optimizing the fermentation times for both microorganisms, the effects of changing the soybean molasses concentration, the fermentative medium pH and the fermentation temperature were evaluated using the Central Composite Planning. When soybean molasses was used at a concentration of 200 g/L at 27 ± 1 °C and pH 3.5, the lipolytic activity measured in the broth was 12.3 U/mL after 12 h for C. rugosa and 11.48 U/mL after 24 h for G. candidum. The molecular masses were 38.3 kDa to G. candidum lipase and 59.7 kDa to C. rugosa lipase, determined by SDS-PAGE. The lipase from both microorganisms exhibited maximal hydrolytic activity at a temperature of 40 °C and were inhibited at pH 10.0. Using different concentration of p-nitrophenylbutyrate (p-NPB), the kinetic parameters were calculated, as follows: the Km of lipase from G. candidum was 465.44 μM and the Vmax 0.384 μmol/min; the Km and Vmax of lipase from C. rugosa were 129.21 μM and 0.034 μmol/min, respectively. Lipases activity were increased by metallic ions Mg(2+) and Na(+) and inhibited by metallic ion Cu(3+). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil-brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or without nitrate to boost microbial growth. Growth of the indigenous microbes was stimulated by addition of molasses. Pyrosequencing showed that specifically Anaerobaculum, Petrotoga, and Methanothermococcus were enriched. Addition of nitrate favored the growth of Petrotoga over Anaerobaculum. The microbial growth caused changes in the crude oil-brine system: formation of oil emulsions, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT). Reduction in IFT was associated with microbes being present at the oil-brine interphase. These findings suggest that stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by addition of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs.

  17. Conversion of beet molasses and cheese whey into fatty acid methyl esters by the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus.

    PubMed

    Takakuwa, Naoya; Saito, Katsuichi

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-one yeast isolates from raw milk were surveyed for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Only one species, identified as Cryptococcus curvatus, produced FAME at a detectable level. Cr. curvatus TYC-19 produced more FAME from beet molasses and cheese whey medium than other strains of the same species. In both media, the major FAME produced were linoleic and oleic acid methyl esters. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA indicated that TYC-19 diverged from the same species.

  18. Beyond optical molasses: 3D raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density

    PubMed

    Kerman; Vuletic; Chin; Chu

    2000-01-17

    We demonstrate a simple, general purpose method to cool neutral atoms. A sample containing 3x10(8) cesium atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap is cooled and simultaneously spin polarized in 10 ms at a density of 1.1x10(11) cm (-3) to a phase space density nlambda(3)(dB) = 1/500, which is almost 3 orders of magnitude higher than attainable in free space with optical molasses. The technique is based on 3D degenerate Raman sideband cooling in optical lattices and remains efficient even at densities where the mean lattice site occupation is close to unity.

  19. Controls of erosional denudation in the orogen on foreland basin evolution: The Oligocene central Swiss Molasse Basin as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Jordan, Teresa E.; Klaper, Eva Maria

    1997-10-01

    A high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction of the 25-m.y.-old central Swiss Molasse Basin reveals two sedimentary domains separated by a ˜5-km-wide flood-plain. The proximal domain of the basin attained a width of 20 km, and its basement is steeply flexed (6°-7° dip). Petrographic data indicate that it was filled by sediment from the Rigi dispersal system derived from the central Alps of eastern Switzerland and by locally sourced bajadas. In contrast, the distal sedimentary domain, located farther north, was gently dipping (<2°) and was filled by the meandering Lac Léman and Honegg dispersal systems. Chronological data reveal that sedimentation in the northern proximal part of the basin started at ˜27 Ma, when sediment supply to the basin started to increase. Deflection of the foreland plate at ˜25 Ma is successfully simulated by flexural modeling of the thrust load and the sediment load. The model reveals that the Lac Léman and Honegg dispersal systems are located on a buried flexural bulge. Furthermore, it shows that burial and suppression of the flexural bulge at ˜27 Ma as well as an increase of the basin wavelength were controlled by the contemporaneous increase in the sediment supply rate of the Rigi system. The model presented suggests that the tectonic subsidence of the Molasse Basin was mainly controlled by tectonic events in the northern part of the orogen, within ˜70 km distance from the tip of the orogenic wedge. Crustal thickening in this part of the orogen is reflected in the proximal Molasse by sedimentary cycles characterized by an increase in the sediment accumulation rates up section and by the presence of locally sourced bajada fans at the top of each cycle. Although south vergent back thrusting along the Insubric Line ˜150 km south of the foreland basin contributed little to flexure, it resulted in an increase of the sediment supply to the foreland basin. This is reflected in the Molasse by coarsening and thickening upward

  20. Effect of molasses supplementation on the production of lactating dairy cows fed diets based on alfalfa and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Broderick, G A; Radloff, W J

    2004-09-01

    Adding sugar to the diet has been reported to improve production in dairy cows. In each of 2 trials, 48 lactating Holsteins (8 with ruminal cannulas) were fed covariate diets for 2 wk, blocked by days in milk into 12 groups of 4, and then randomly assigned to diets based on alfalfa silage containing 4 levels of dried molasses (trial 1) or liquid molasses (trial 2). In both studies, production data were collected for 8 wk, ruminal samples were taken in wk 4 and 8, and statistical models were used that included covariate means and block. In trial 1, experimental diets contained 18% CP and 0, 4, 8, or 12% dried molasses with 2.6, 4.2, 5.6, or 7.2% total sugar. With increasing sugar, there was a linear increase in dry matter intake (DMI), and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM), but no effect on yield of milk or protein. This resulted in linear decreases in fat-corrected milk (FCM)/DMI and milk N/N-intake. There was a linear decrease in urinary N with increasing sugar, and quadratic effects on milk fat content, yield of fat and FCM, and ruminal ammonia. Mean optimum from these quadratic responses was 4.8% total sugar in these diets. In trial 2, experimental diets contained 15.6% crude protein (CP) and 0, 3, 6, or 9% liquid molasses with 2.6, 4.9, 7.4, or 10.0% total sugar, respectively. Again, there were linear declines in FCM/DMI and milk N/N-intake with increasing sugar, but quadratic responses for DMI, yield of milk, protein, and SNF, digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, milk urea, urinary excretion of purine derivatives, and ruminal ammonia. Mean optimum from all quadratic responses in this trial was 6.3% total sugar. An estimate of an overall optimum, based on yield of fat and FCM (trial 1) and yield of milk, protein, and SNF (trial 2), was 5.0% total sugar, equivalent to adding 2.4% sugar to the basal diets. Feeding more than 6% total sugar appeared to depress production.

  1. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

  2. Development and application of a new biotechnology of the molasses in-situ method; detailed evaluation for selected wells in the Romashkino carbonate reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M.; Lungerhausen, D.; Murtada, H.; Rosenthal, G.

    1995-12-31

    On the basis of different laboratory studies, by which special strains of the type Clostridium tyrobutyricum were found, the application of molasses in-situ method for the enhanced recovery of oil in Romashkino oil field was executed. In an anaerobic, 6%-molasses medium the strains produce about 11,400 mg/l of organic acids (especially butyric acid), 3,200 mg/l ethanol, butanol, etc., and more than 350 ml/g of molasses biogas with a content of 80% C0{sub 2} and 20% H{sub 2}. The metabolics of Clostridium tyrobutyricum depress the growth of SRB, whereas methanogenic bacteria grow in an undiluted fermented molasses medium very well. In this way the dominant final fermentation process is methanogenesis. By laboratory studies with original cores under the conditions of the carbonate reservoir in Bashkir, the recovery of oil increased from 15% after waterflooding to 29% OOIP during the treatment with molasses and bacteria. We developed a new biotechnological method for a self-regulated, automatic continuous culture and constructed a special pilot plant with a high technical standard. The plant produced during the pilot on Romashkino field (September 1992 to August 1994) about 1,000 m{sup 3} of clean inoculum with a content of 3-4 billion cells per ml. This inoculum was injected in slugs together with 15,000 m{sup 3} of molasses medium, first in one, later in five wells. We will demonstrate for two example wells the complex microbiological and chemical changes in the oil, gas, and water phases, and their influences on the recover of oil.

  3. Learn about Small Wastewater Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many small and rural communities, including those in Indian Country and along the U.S.-Mexico border, struggle with aging or inadequate wastewater treatment systems, or do not have access to basic wastewater services.

  4. [Modern approaches to wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Ivan'ko, O M

    2013-01-01

    The present state and prospects of new methods for cleaning in the water and wastewater using membrane separation, are examples of application of this technology in the treatment of surface and subsurface natural waters, seawater desalination, wastewater treatment plants.

  5. Feeding value of urea molasses-treated wheat straw ensiled with fresh cattle manure for growing crossbred cattle calves.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad A; Nisa, Mahr U; Afzal, Danish; Sharif, Muhammad; Saddiqi, Hafiz A

    2011-03-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the influence of urea plus molasses-treated wheat straw (WS) ensiled with cattle manure (CM) on nutrients intake, their digestibilities, and growth performance of crossbred (Sahiwal × Holstein Friesian) cattle calves. The CM was mixed with ground WS in a ratio of 30:70 on dry matter (DM) basis. The WS-CM mixture treated with urea (4% DM) and molasses (4% DM) was allowed to ferment for 40 days in a cemented pit. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic fermented wheat straw (FWS)-based experimental diets were formulated. The FWS0, FWS20, FWS30, and FWS40 diets contained 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% FWS, respectively. Twenty calves (9-10 months of age) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design, five in each group. Increasing trends for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber intakes by calves were observed with increasing dietary FWS level. Weight gain was significantly different among calves fed different levels of FWS. The highest weight gain (491.8 g/day) was observed in calves fed FWS40 diet, while calves fed FWS0 and FWS20 diets gained 350.0 and 449.6 g/day, respectively. The results from this study imply that the FWS can be added up to 30% in the diet of growing crossbred calves without any detrimental effect on their performance.

  6. Lava Flow Hazard Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory: A Probabilistic Approach to Modeling Lava Flow Inundation with MOLASSES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, E.; Connor, C.; Richardson, J. A.; Wetmore, P. H.; Connor, L.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of a lava flow hazard assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) using a new lava flow code, MOLASSES (MOdular LAva Simulation Software for Earth Science). INL is a nuclear research and development facility located on the eastern Snake River Plain with the potential for lava flow inundation from both monogenetic and polygenetic basaltic eruptions. Previously published inventories of observed surface vents and vents that are buried by younger lava flows and inferred from interpretation of borehole stratigraphy were used to created spatial density maps of vents within the INL region. Monte carlo simulations were run using the MOLASSES code to compare the difference between events initiated using only surface vents and events initiated using both the surface and the buried vents. We find that the inclusion of the buried vent locations drastically increases the number of site inundations and events initiating within INL boundaries. This highlights the need to seek out a more complete eruption record in an area of heavy prehistoric activity to better assess future hazard and associated risk.

  7. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter.

  8. Production, optimization and characterization of lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIM 2025 from utilizing agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Abhinay Kumar; Tripathi, Abhishek Dutt; Jha, Alok; Poonia, Amrita; Sharma, Nitya

    2015-06-01

    In the present work Lactobacillus delbrueckii was used to utilize agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses) for lactic acid production under submerged fermentation process. Screening of LAB was done by Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). Effect of different amino acids (DL-Phenylalanine, L-Lysine and DL-Aspartic acid) on the fermentation process was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to optimize the levels of three parameters viz. tween 80, amino acid and cane molasses concentration during fermentative production of lactic acid. Under optimum condition lactic acid production was enhanced from 55.89 g/L to 84.50 g/L. Further, validation showed 81.50 g/L lactic acid production. Scale up was done on 7.5 L fermentor. Productivity was found to be 3.40 g/L/h which was higher than previous studies with reduced fermentation time from 24 h to 12 h. Further characterization of lactic acid was done by FTIR.

  9. Superior molasses assimilation, stress tolerance, and trehalose accumulation of baker's yeast isolated from dried sweet potatoes (hoshi-imo).

    PubMed

    Nishida, Osamu; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Suzuki, Chise; Shima, Jun

    2004-07-01

    Yeast strains were isolated from dried sweet potatoes (hoshi-imo), a traditional preserved food in Japan. Dough fermentation ability, freeze tolerance, and growth rates in molasses, which are important characteristics of commercial baker's yeast, were compared between these yeast strains and a commercial yeast derivative that had typical characteristics of commercial strains. Classification tests including pulse-field gel electrophoresis and fermentation/assimilation ability of sugars showed that almost the stains isolated belonged to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One strain, ONY1, accumulated intracellular trehalose at a higher level than commercial strain T128. Correlated with intracellular trehalose contents, the fermentation ability of high-sugar dough containing ONY1 was higher. ONY1 also showed higher freeze tolerance in both low-sugar and high-sugar doughs. The growth rate of ONY1 was significantly higher under batch and fed-batch cultivation conditions using either molasses or synthetic medium than that of strain T128. These results suggest that ONY1 has potential commercial use as baker's yeast for frozen dough and high-sugar dough.

  10. Influence of the Production Process on the Key Aroma Compounds of Rum: From Molasses to the Spirit.

    PubMed

    Franitza, Laura; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-11-30

    The production of rum consists of fermentation, distillation, and aging. To check the influence of each step on the final rum aroma, molasses, mash, distillate, and the final rum were analyzed using the sensomics concept. The changes in key aroma compounds were determined by application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) for quantitation. Odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to respective odor threshold) were calculated for the compounds determined in the rum and, finally, the rum aroma was successfully simulated by recombination. (E)-β-Damascenone showed by far the highest OAV (3280) in rum. Although this compound was determined already in molasses, its concentration increased significantly during distillation, indicating a thermolabile precursor. Vanillin, 4-ethylphenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol are well-known compounds mainly stemming from the wood barrels used for aging and showed an OAV ≥ 1. Another important group of aroma-active compounds in rum were ethyl esters, for which a significant increase was determined during fermentation but also to a lesser extent during aging. Altogether, the concentrations of 68% of the aroma-active compounds increased during the process, demonstrating its influence on the overall rum aroma.

  11. Effect of temperature, anaerobiosis, stirring and salt addition on natural fermentation silage of sardine and sardine wastes in sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Zahar, M; Benkerroum, N; Guerouali, A; Laraki, Y; El Yakoubi, K

    2002-04-01

    Conditions for a natural fermentation during ensilage of sardines or their waste in sugarcane molasses (60:40 w/w) were evaluated regarding the effect of temperature (15, 25 and 35 degrees C), anaerobiosis (closed vs. open jars), daily stirring of the mixture, and salt addition to the initial mix at 5% (w/w) level. Successful natural fermentation took place in sardine silages incubated at 25 or 35 degrees C in open jars to reach a pH of 4.4 in about 2 and 1 weeks, respectively. For samples kept at 15 degrees C, the pH decline was very slow and pH did not decrease below 5.5 after one month of incubation. At 25 degrees C, the most favorable conditions for silage of sardine waste in cane molasses, as evidenced by the fastest decline in pH to a stable value of about 4.4, were achieved in closed jars and with daily stirring of the mix. The pH 4.4 was reached in one week with an advance of at least 3 days compared to the other conditions (open jars and closed jars without daily stirring). Addition of salt at 5% (w/w) in the mix before incubation inhibited the fermentation process.

  12. Slowly released molasses barrier system for controlling nitrate plumes in groundwater: a pilot-scale tank study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Sun; Lee, Kyuyeon; Um, Jae Yeon; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2014-02-01

    A well-type barrier system containing solidified molasses as a reactive medium was developed to promote the indigenous denitrifying activity and to treat nitrate plumes in groundwater. Three slowly released molasses (SRM) barrier systems harboring 60, 120, and 120 SRM rods, which were named System A, B, and C, respectively, were operated to examine nitrate removal efficiency in a pilot-scale sandy tank. These SRM systems induced a consistent removal of nitrate without pore clogging and hydraulic disturbance during the test period. The initial nitrate concentration was 142mgL(-1), and the concentrations decreased by 80%, 84%, and 79% in System A, B, and C, respectively. In particular, System C was inoculated with heterotrophic denitrifiers, but the nitrate removal efficiency was not enhanced compared to System B, probably due to the prior existence of indigenous denitrifiers in the sandy tank. The presence of nitrite reductase-encoding gene (i.e. nirK) at the site was confirmed by denatured gradient gel electrophoresis analysis.

  13. Quantification of heat mining in the Malm aquifer of the Bavarian Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafogler, Mark; Wenderoth, Frank; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Geothermal energy is a key technology for the transition from fossil ressources to renewable energy. The Bavarian Molasse Basin offers unique geological and hydrogeological conditions for district heating and heat and power generation. With 15 plants operating and another dozen in construction or planning, exploration is highly successful. However, detailed knowledge about the processes occuring in the aquifer which is crucial to run geothermal facilities efficiently and economically, still is scarce. After more than 10 years of operation there is a good record of the hydraulics and the hydrochemistry at the production well, including numerous data from pump failures and the development of precipitates. The injection well and its surrounding, however, is usually a black box which is not readily accessible. Here, not even the temperatures in the immediate vicinity have been measured. Nevertheless, the performance of the aquifer near the injection well controls the long-term operation of the geothermal system. Thanks to an extension of the Pullach geothermal facility with a third well in 2011 there was a unique opportunity to produce water from a former injection well after 5 years of operation. Since the start of the production from this well in 2012, we collected an extensive data set of hydraulic, thermal and hydrochemical data. Within the first two years after reverting the flow direction and at a production rate of 20 L/s, which is significantly lower than the injection rate of up to 35 L/s, the temperature at the well head increased with a rate of 10 K/a. These temperatures were compared with predictions from the initial heat mining model, which was then refined. From the data it was immediately obvious that a homogeneous treatment of the Malm aquifer is not applicable. Instead a heterogeneous flow regime has to be assumed to account for the fast initial increase of the temperatures which is caused by a higher effective exchange area. The results suggest that

  14. A multi-stage 3-D stress field modelling approach exemplified in the Bavarian Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Moritz O.; Heidbach, Oliver; Reinecker, John; Przybycin, Anna M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge of the contemporary in situ stress state is a key issue for safe and sustainable subsurface engineering. However, information on the orientation and magnitudes of the stress state is limited and often not available for the areas of interest. Therefore 3-D geomechanical-numerical modelling is used to estimate the in situ stress state and the distance of faults from failure for application in subsurface engineering. The main challenge in this approach is to bridge the gap in scale between the widely scattered data used for calibration of the model and the high resolution in the target area required for the application. We present a multi-stage 3-D geomechanical-numerical approach which provides a state-of-the-art model of the stress field for a reservoir-scale area from widely scattered data records. Therefore, we first use a large-scale regional model which is calibrated by available stress data and provides the full 3-D stress tensor at discrete points in the entire model volume. The modelled stress state is used subsequently for the calibration of a smaller-scale model located within the large-scale model in an area without any observed stress data records. We exemplify this approach with two-stages for the area around Munich in the German Molasse Basin. As an example of application, we estimate the scalar values for slip tendency and fracture potential from the model results as measures for the criticality of fault reactivation in the reservoir-scale model. The modelling results show that variations due to uncertainties in the input data are mainly introduced by the uncertain material properties and missing SHmax magnitude estimates needed for a more reliable model calibration. This leads to the conclusion that at this stage the model's reliability depends only on the amount and quality of available stress information rather than on the modelling technique itself or on local details of the model geometry. Any improvements in modelling and increases

  15. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gnaneswar Gude, Veera; Magbanua, Benjamin; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L

    2016-10-01

    An update on the current research and development of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment, is provided in this paper. The main focus is on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (metals, industrial and emerging pollutants including pharmaceutical compounds). A summary of studies involving the effects of vegetation, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included.

  16. Supplementation of herbage-based diets with corn meal or liquid molasses changes the milk fatty acids profile in grazing dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies showed that feeding carbohydrate sources with different NSC profiles (e.g., starch vs. sucrose) and rates of ruminal degradation altered the milk fatty acids (FA) profile in dairy cows. This study evalu¬ated the impact of corn meal (CM) or liquid molasses (MOL) on the milk FA profil...

  17. Economical production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) using untreated cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Feng, Xiaohai; Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Hong

    2012-06-01

    The production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 from cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL) was studied for the first time in this work. When batch fermentation was carried out with untreated molasses, 33.6±0.37 g L(-1) PGA was obtained with a productivity of 0.46±0.006 g L(-1) h(-1). In order to minimize the substrate inhibition, fed-batch fermentation was performed with untreated or hydrolyzed molasses in 7.5 L bioreactor, giving 50.2±0.53 and 51.1±0.51 g L(-1) of PGA at 96 h, respectively. Further studies were carried out by using MGWL as another carbon source, resulting in a PGA concentration of 52.1±0.52 g L(-1) with a productivity of 0.54±0.003 g L(-1) h(-1). These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and MGWL can be used for the environmental-friendly and economical production of PGA by B. subtilis NX-2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Production performance and milk fatty acids profile in grazing dairy cows offered ground corn or liquid molasses as the sole supplemental nonstructural carbohydrate source

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of corn meal or liquid molasses fed as the sole supplemental nonstructural carbohydrate source on milk yield and composition, milk fatty acids, and N use efficiency in grazing dairy cows. Ten multiparous organically-certified Jersey cows averagi...

  19. Economical production of poly(ε-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) using cane molasses and hydrolysate of streptomyces cells by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Xu, Zhaoxian; Xu, Hong; Liang, Jinfeng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiaohai

    2014-07-01

    Poly(ε-L-lysine) (ε-PL) and poly(L-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP) co-production by Streptomyces albulus PD-1 from cane molasses and hydrolysate of strepyomyces cells (HSC) was investigated for the first time in this study. The optimal initial total sugar concentration of the cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was determined to be 20 g L(-1), and HSC could substitute for yeast extract for ε-PL and PDAP co-production. When fed-batch fermentation was performed in 1t fermentor with pretreated cane molasses and HSC, 20.6 ± 0.5 g L(-1) of ε-PL and 5.2 ± 0.6 g L(-1) of PDAP were obtained. The amount of strepyomyces cells obtained in one fed-batch fermentation is sufficient to prepare the HSC to satisfy the demand of subsequent fermentations, thus the self-cycling of organic nitrogen source becomes available. These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and HSC can be used for the economical production of ε-PL and PDAP by S. albulus PD-1.

  20. Efficient production of L-lactic acid from corncob molasses, a waste by-product in xylitol production, by a newly isolated xylose utilizing Bacillus sp. strain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limin; Zhao, Bo; Liu, Bo; Yu, Bo; Ma, Cuiqing; Su, Fei; Hua, Dongliang; Li, Qinggang; Ma, Yanhe; Xu, Ping

    2010-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars are considered nowadays to be an economically attractive carbohydrate feedstock for large-scale fermentations of bulk chemicals such as lactic acid. In the present study, corncob molasses containing a high content of xylose, which is one of the lignocellulosic biomasses and a waste by-product from xylitol production, was used for L-lactic acid production via a newly isolated xylose utilizing Bacillus sp. strain XZL9. Bacillus sp. strain XZL9 can utilize the mixture of sugars including xylose, arabinose, and glucose in corncob molasses for L-lactic acid production. High concentration of L-lactic acid (74.7 g l⁻¹) was obtained from corncob molasses (initial total sugars of 91.4 g l⁻¹) in fed-batch fermentation. This study provides an encouraging means of producing L-lactic acid from lignocellulosic resource such as the low-cost corncob molasses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microalgae and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Raouf, N; Al-Homaidan, A A; Ibraheem, I B M

    2012-07-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater.

  2. Wastewater Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Srinivas

    2015-10-01

    This chapter presents a review of the literature published in 2014 on topics relating to wastewater collection systems. It presents advances in noteworthy research and industry experiences selected from major literature sources. This review is divided into the following sections: sewer system planning; sewer condition assessment/rehabilitation; pump stations and system design; operation and maintenance; and regulatory issues/ integrated planning.

  3. WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the wastewater collection systems in the United States were developed in the early part of the last century. Maintenance, retrofits, and rehabilitations since then have resulted in patchwork systems consisting of technologies from different eras. More advanced and cos...

  4. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  5. WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the wastewater collection systems in the United States were developed in the early part of the last century. Maintenance, retrofits, and rehabilitations since then have resulted in patchwork systems consisting of technologies from different eras. More advanced and cos...

  6. Disinfection. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C.N.; McCreary, J.J.

    1982-06-01

    Methods of disinfection of wastewater including chlorination, ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and quaternary compounds are reviewed. Various analytical methods to detect residues of the disinfectants are described. The production of inorganic and nonvolatile organic compounds in conventional water treatment processes is reviewed. (KRM)

  7. Effect of aeration and agitation regimes on lipase production by newly isolated Rhodotorula mucilaginosa-MTCC 8737 in stirred tank reactor using molasses as sole production medium.

    PubMed

    Potumarthi, Ravichandra; Subhakar, Chennupati; Vanajakshi, J; Jetty, Annapurna

    2008-12-01

    The influence of media and process parameters (aeration and agitation) on fermentation broth rheology and biomass formation has been studied in 1.5-l stirred tank reactor for lipase production using Rhodotorula mucilaginosa MTCC 8737. Molasses, as sole production medium, is used for lipase production by varying aeration (1, 2, and 3 vvm) and agitation speeds (100, 200, and 300 rpm). Maximum lipase activity of 72 U/ml was obtained during 96 h of fermentation at 2 vvm, 200 rpm, pH 7, and 25 +/- 2 degrees C temperature. Lipase production kinetics with respect to dry cell weight of biomass showed Y (P/S) of 25.71 U/mg, specific product formation of 10.9 U/mg DC, and Y (X/S) 2.35 mg/mg. Maximum lipase activity (MC 2) of 56 U/ml was observed at 1% molasses, and a further increase in the molasses concentration of (%) 1.5 and 2 inhibited the product formation of lipase with 15 and 8.5 U/ml, respectively. The production kinetics of molasses media showed Y (P/X) was 14 U/mg DC, Y (P/S) 16 U/mg, and Y (X/S) 1.14 mg/mg during 96 h of bioreactor operation. The k(L)a values for all batches (MC 1-MC 4) at 96 h of fermentation were 32, 28, 21, and 19/h, and the |oxygen transfer rate were 54.4, 56, 35.7, and 17.29 mg/l h, respectively. Increase in molasses concentration resulted in decreased lipase activity by increase in viscosity of the fermentation broth.

  8. Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Phesatcha, K.; Wanapat, M.

    2016-01-01

    Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that

  9. Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Phesatcha, K; Wanapat, M

    2016-08-01

    Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that

  10. Ethanol fermentation from molasses at high temperature by thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 and energy assessment for recovery.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Diptarka; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Ghosh, Debashish; Suman, Sunil Kumar; Khan, Rashmi; Agrawal, Deepti; Adhikari, Dilip K

    2014-10-01

    High temperature ethanol fermentation from sugarcane molasses B using thermophilic Crabtree-positive yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 was carried out in batch bioreactor system. Strain was found to have a maximum specific ethanol productivity of 0.688 g/g/h with 92 % theoretical ethanol yield. Aeration and initial sugar concentration were tuning parameters to regulate metabolic pathways of the strain for either cell mass or higher ethanol production during growth with an optimum sugar to cell ratio 33:1 requisite for fermentation. An assessment of ethanol recovery from fermentation broth via simulation study illustrated that distillation-based conventional recovery was significantly better in terms of energy efficiency and overall mass recovery in comparison to coupled solvent extraction-azeotropic distillation technique for the same.

  11. Effects of Houttuyniae cordata and refinery final molasses on the development of offensive odor in porcine small intestine during storage.

    PubMed

    Urabe, K; Nadamoto, T; Kawamura, M; Yasumoto, K

    1994-02-01

    Porcine small intestine evolved a specific offensive odor only 0.5 to 1 day after storage at 20 degrees C. We investigated the effects of Houttuyniae cordata (dokudami), refinery final molasses (RFM), green tea, and brown sugar on the evolution of methylmercaptan and ethanol, which were the main components of the volatiles which evolved from porcine small intestine in storage. Furthermore, we determined their antibacterial effect and deodorant activity against methylmercaptan, as possible factors in reducing the offensive odor. Addition of those materials reduced the offensive odor during storage. In particular, dokudami, green tea, and RFM markedly suppressed the evolution of methylmercaptan. RFM was most effective in suppressing the growth of bacteria. Dokudami had the highest deodorant activity, comparable to that of perilla leaves. However, the retardation of methylmercaptan evolution in situ cannot be simply explained by either of deodorant or antibacterial effect. It seems likely that the combined action of both effects affects the evolution of methylmercaptan in situ.

  12. A controlled-release molasses barrier system for controlling nitrate plume in groundwater: A large flow-tank study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. S.; Um, J. Y.; Lee, K. Y.; Kim, Y. B.; Nam, K.; Woo, N. C.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    A well-type permeable barrier system containing controlled-release molasses as a reactive material to promote the indigenous denitrifying activity (termed CRM system hereafter) has been developed for controlling nitrate plume in groundwater. To control the release of molasses as an extra carbon and energy source, CRM rod (OD x L = 4 cm x 30 cm) was manufactured using molding technique by dispersing molasses in paraffin wax-cellulose-silica matrix. A large scale flow-tank (L x W x D = 8 m x 4 m x 1 m, 95 m3 of sands, porosity of 0.45) was prepared to test the CRM system (L x W x D = 3 m x 4 m x 1 m) in destroying nitrate, which was consisted of three layers of discrete barriers installed at 1-m interval. Nitrate plume (1.2 m/d of velocity, 142 mg/L of nitrate) was generated by introducing both tap water (1.1 m3/d) and diluted nitrate solution (0.5 m3/d, 312 mg/L of nitrate) daily. Changes in nitrate concentrations were monitored at 30 monitoring points across the flow-tank. For 14 (i.e., the first test), 21 (i.e., the second test), and 42 (i.e., the third test) days, 80, 140, and 140 CRM rods were placed into the barriers to construct the CRM system, respectively. An indigenous microorganism Ensifer adhaerens (97% similarity) was identified from the flow-tank sands, which was probably the main denitrifier in the system. After the second test, a heterotrophic denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. KY1 was inoculated to increase destruction efficiency into the flow-tank sands for the third test. For the first test, nitrate concentrations decreased by 29, 59, and 80% after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd barriers, respectively. For the second and third tests, nitrate concentrations decreased by 32 and 26% for the 1st, 68 and 74% for the 2nd, and 84 and 81% for the 3rd barrier, indicating little effects of inoculating KY1 on destruction efficiencies. At 5.5 m downstream (i.e., 1.75 m behind the 3rd barrier), nitrate concentrations decreased by 81, 90, and 90% at the first, second, and third

  13. Improved ethanol production from cheese whey, whey powder, and sugar beet molasses by "Vitreoscilla hemoglobin expressing" Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Sar, Taner; Ozcelik, Busra

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated the improvement of ethanol production by engineered ethanologenic Escherichia coli to express the hemoglobin from the bacterium Vitreoscilla (VHb). Ethanologenic E. coli strain FBR5 and FBR5 transformed with the VHb gene in two constructs (strains TS3 and TS4) were grown in cheese whey (CW) medium at small and large scales, at both high and low aeration, or with whey powder (WP) or sugar beet molasses hydrolysate (SBMH) media at large scale and low aeration. Culture pH, cell growth, VHb levels, and ethanol production were evaluated after 48 h. VHb expression in TS3 and TS4 enhanced their ethanol production in CW (21-419%), in WP (17-362%), or in SBMH (48-118%) media. This work extends the findings that "VHb technology" may be useful for improving the production of ethanol from waste and byproducts of various sources.

  14. Characteristics of activated carbon produced from biosludge and its use in wastewater post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Pikkov, L; Kallas, J; Rüütmann, T; Rikmann, E

    2001-02-01

    Experimental research into the bench-scale production of activated carbon from waste-activated sludge from water purification, sawdust, peat, and their mixtures, by carbonisation and activation was undertaken. The research work was carried out to determine possible methods of production of cheap activated carbon from local raw materials and to use it in water purification technology. Along with the samples produced, several commercial activated carbons (namely RB-1, F 100, CA (adsorbent from military gas masks), BAY (product of the USSR)) were tested to compare adsorption properties in the adsorption of phenols, xylidines, amines, methylene blue and molasses. It has been found that the activated carbon produced from waste biosludge was of higher quality than that produced from either sawdust or peat, and performed similarly to RB-1 and F100 in adsorption tests. It was also determined that the activated carbon produced from biosludge could possibly be used in the post-treatment of wastewater. Residual sludge from the biological treatment of the wastewater from the purification of oil-shale in the chemical processing industry could cover up to 80% of the need for activated carbon. Some of this activated carbon could be used in the post-treatment of the same water, adsorbing polyalcaline phenols from the initial content of 4 mg l-1 to the demanded level of 1 mg l-1.

  15. Near real-time imaging of molasses injections using time-lapse electrical geophysics at the Brandywine DRMO, Brandywine, Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Johnson, T.; Major, B.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Lane, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Enhanced bioremediation, which involves introduction of amendments to promote biodegradation, increasingly is used to accelerate cleanup of recalcitrant compounds and has been identified as the preferred remedial treatment at many contaminated sites. Although blind introduction of amendments can lead to sub-optimal or ineffective remediation, the distribution of amendment throughout the treatment zone is difficult to measure using conventional sampling. Because amendments and their degradation products commonly have electrical properties that differ from those of ambient soil, time-lapse electrical geophysical monitoring has the potential to verify amendment emplacement and distribution. In order for geophysical monitoring to be useful, however, results of the injection ideally should be accessible in near real time. In August 2010, we demonstrated the feasibility of near real-time, autonomous electrical geophysical monitoring of amendment injections at the former Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) in Brandywine, Maryland. Two injections of about 1000 gallons each of molasses, a widely used amendment for enhanced bioremediation, were monitored using measurements taken with borehole and surface electrodes. During the injections, multi-channel resistance data were recorded; data were transmitted to a server and processed using a parallel resistivity inversion code; and results in the form of time-lapse imagery subsequently were posted to a website. This process occurred automatically without human intervention. The resulting time-lapse imagery clearly showed the evolution of the molasses plume. The delay between measurements and online delivery of images was between 45 and 60 minutes, thus providing actionable information that could support decisions about field procedures and a check on whether amendment reached target zones. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of using electrical imaging as a monitoring tool both during amendment emplacement

  16. Interaction of molasses and monensin in alfalfa hay- or corn silage-based diets on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and milk production by Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Oelker, E R; Reveneau, C; Firkins, J L

    2009-01-01

    Sugar supplementation can stimulate rumen microbial growth and possibly fiber digestibility; however, excess ruminal carbohydrate availability relative to rumen-degradable protein (RDP) can promote energy spilling by microbes, decrease rumen pH, or depress fiber digestibility. Both RDP supply and rumen pH might be altered by forage source and monensin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate interactions of a sugar source (molasses) with monensin and 2 forage sources on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and production and fatty acid composition of milk. Seven ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a 5 x 7 incomplete Latin square design with five 28-d periods. Four corn silage diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), 3) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea (MU), or 4) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea plus monensin sodium (Rumensin, at the intermediate dosage from the label, 16 g/909 kg of dry matter; MUR). Three chopped alfalfa hay diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), or 3) 2.6% molasses plus Rumensin (MR). Urea was added to corn silage diets to provide RDP comparable to alfalfa hay diets with no urea. Corn silage C and M diets were balanced to have 16.2% crude protein; and the remaining diets, 17.2% crude protein. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment, but there was a trend for lower milk production in alfalfa hay diets compared with corn silage diets. Despite increased total volatile fatty acid and acetate concentrations in the rumen, total tract organic matter digestibility was lower for alfalfa hay-fed cows. Rumensin did not affect volatile fatty acid concentrations but decreased milk fat from 3.22 to 2.72% in corn silage diets but less in alfalfa hay diets. Medium-chain milk fatty acids (% of total fat) were lower for alfalfa hay compared with corn silage diets, and short-chain milk fatty acids tended to decrease when Rumensin was added. In whole rumen contents, concentrations of

  17. Biodenitrification of industrial wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.L.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Helfrich, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), a US Department of Energy facility at Fernald, Ohio, is constructing a fluidized-bed biodenitrification plant based on pilot work conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. This plant is designed to treat approximately 600 to 800 L/min of wastewater having a nitrate concentration as high as 10 g/L. The effluent is to contain less than 0.1 g/L of nitrate. Since this new facility is an extrapolation of the ORNL work to significantly larger scale equipment and to actual rather than synthetic wastewater, design verification studies have been performed to reduce uncertainties in the scaleup. The results of these studies are summarized in this report. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Environmental aspects of wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Choudhary, Mahendra Pratap

    2007-07-01

    The population is increasing rapidly and the demand for water by cities, industries and agriculture has tended to grow even faster than the population. Wastewater reclamation consists of a combination of conventional and advanced treatment processes employed to return a wastewater to nearly original quality, reclaiming the water. The environmental health aspects associated with reclamation of wastewater include quality aspects and public health aspects. An attempt has been made in the present paper to describe these aspects and to suggest appropriate solutions.

  19. Wastewater Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Srinivas

    2016-10-01

    This chapter presents a review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to wastewater collection systems. It presents noteworthy advances in research and industry experiences selected from major literature sources. This review is divided into the following sections: sewer system planning; sewer condition assessment/rehabilitation; pump stations/force mains/ system design; operation and maintenance; asset management; and regulatory issues/ integrated planning.

  20. PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hirzel, D.R.

    1995-05-11

    This test report documents the results obtained while conducting operational testing of the sampling equipment in the 225-WC building, the PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility. The Wastewater Sampling Facility houses equipment to sample and monitor the PFP`s liquid effluents before discharging the stream to the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). The majority of the streams are not radioactive and discharges from the PFP Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC). The streams that might be contaminated are processed through the Low Level Waste Treatment Facility (LLWTF) before discharging to TEDF. The sampling equipment consists of two flow-proportional composite samplers, an ultrasonic flowmeter, pH and conductivity monitors, chart recorder, and associated relays and current isolators to interconnect the equipment to allow proper operation. Data signals from the monitors are received in the 234-5Z Shift Office which contains a chart recorder and alarm annunciator panel. The data signals are also duplicated and sent to the TEDF control room through the Local Control Unit (LCU). Performing the OTP has verified the operability of the PFP wastewater sampling system. This Operability Test Report documents the acceptance of the sampling system for use.

  1. Bioindicators of wastewater ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jirova, Gabriela; Wittlingerova, Zdenka; Zimova, Magdalena; Vlkova, Alena; Wittlerova, Martina; Dvorakova, Marketa; Jirova, Dagmar

    2016-12-18

    Wastewater, especially containing hospital effluents, exhibits high chemical complexity and specificity since it includes various chemicals, biocides, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, radionuclides, disinfectants and pathogens. Biological tests provide true evidence of the wastewater quality and unlike chemical analytical tests show comprehensive pollution effects on the environment and human health. Normalized conventional bioassays are not sensitive enough for ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewater and there is a great need for the development of suitable sensitive bioassays in order to characterize properly the residual toxicity of treated effluents. Provisions of binding EU legislation regarding protection of animals used for scientific purposes and legislation dealing with test methods for identification and classification of health hazard of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biocides, medical devices and consumer products such as cosmetics for environmental ecosystems and for man require to employ alternative toxicological methods respecting the 3Rs concept with priority given to methods in vitro. The Fish Embryo Test (FET) is identified as a relevant, reliable and efficient alternative test method in vitro for determination of acute toxicity for fish. Using the FET, additional toxicological endpoints may be investigated to assess organ specific bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and mutagenicity, developmental toxicity, teratogenicity, various forms of neurotoxicity or endocrine disruptivity. The addition of multiparametric sensitive endpoints makes the FET a true alternative in vitro assay and a powerful tool in toxicology.

  2. [Continuous bio-hydrogen production by mesophilic and thermophilic cultures].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zuo, Jian-E; Cui, Long-Tao; Xing, Wei; Yang, Yang

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic biological hydrogen productions were achieved successfully in two lab-scale anaerobic hydrogen production reactors under mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) conditions, respectively. The mesophilic reactor, a CSTR, was operated over 4 months by seeding with river sediments and feeding with glucose solution, in which the highest hydrogen production rate was 8.6 L/(L x d) and the substrate hydrogen production molar ratio (H2/glucose) was 1.98. After seeded with anaerobic methanogenic granules, a UASB reactor was thermophilically operated by feeding with sucrose solution and during its steady operation period, the hydrogen production rate was 6.8 L/(L x d) and the substrate hydrogen production molar ratio (H2/sucrose) was 3.6. Within the produced gas, the H2 percentages were about 43% and others were CO2, no methane could be detected. Thermophilic hydrogen-producing granules were successfully cultivated in the UASB reactor, which were grey-white in color, the diameters were about 0.8 - 1.2 mm, and typical settling velocities were about 30 - 40 m/h. Through SEM a great number of bacilli could be found on the surface of the granules which made the surface rough. Total DNA of these two hydrogen production sludges were extracted and purified, and the PCR and DGGE process were conducted, the results indicate that most of the eubacteria in two sludges are the same, but the dominant species are obviously different with each other.

  3. Training Centers for Onsite Wastewater Treatment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Onsite wastewater training centers offer classes, demonstration projects and research facilities for onsite industry professionals. Classes include wastewater management, new technologies and pre-licensing.

  4. Biological nutrient removal from dairy wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Danalewich, J.R.; Papagiannis, T.G.; Gerards, R.; Vriens, L.; Belyea, R.; Tumbleson, M.E.; Raskin, L.

    1998-07-01

    The authors developed a synthetic wastewater which closely represents actual milk processing wastewater. The design of this synthetic wastewater was facilitated by the collection of composite wastewater samples from 15 milk processing plants in the Upper Midwest. These samples, milk, and milk products were analyzed for various chemical parameters. Based on these results, they diluted evaporated milk and cottage cheese, as well as a number of dry chemicals to create a synthetic wastewater. The concentrations in the resulting synthetic wastewater matched average concentrations of 15 composite wastewater samples. Four continuous-flow activated sludge treatment systems are currently being operated to evaluate biological nutrient removal using this synthetic wastewater as an influent.

  5. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  6. Along-strike variations of structural styles in the imbricated Molasse of Salzburg and Upper Austria: a 3-D seismic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Linzer, Hans-Gert

    2010-05-01

    At the southern border of the Northern Alpine Foreland Basin syntectonic deposits (Molasse Sediments) are partly incorporated into Alpine contractional deformation. Along the alpine chain style and timing of this deformation varies significantly. In this study we use one of the largest European on-shore 3-D seismic datasets, spanning the Molasse basin of Upper Austria and Salzburg states, to investigate the along-strike structural architecture of the alpine deformation front. In the Austrian Part of the Molasse basin, foredeep sedimentation started in Upper-Eocene times (Wagner, 1996). The sediments cover the European margin, consisting of a crystalline basement covered by variously thick Mesozoic sediments (Nachtmann und Wagner, 1987). In Oligocene to Lower Miocene times, syntectonic foredeep sedimentation took place in a deep marine environment, comprising an axial channel system (Linzer 2001, DeRuig and Hubbard, 2006). Parts of these syntectonic sediments are subsequently affected by the advancing thrust wedge. Within the study area, three distinct fold-and-thrust belt segments of different structural architecture can be defined. 1) The Perwang Imbricates are a promontory mostly situated in Salzburg at the border to Germany. Complexly deformed small thrust sheets evolve above a detachment horizon situated in Late Cretaceous shaly marls in Oligocene times. Syntectonic piggy-back and thrust top basins evolve (Covault et al. 2008), which are partly affected by subsequent Miocene overthrusting. 2) The Regau Segment is the area west of the Perwang lobe. It is dominated by few number of thrust sheets in the Molasse sediments. Instead, over-thrusting by the alpine wedge (pre-deformed Flysch and Helvetic thrust sheets) dominates. 3) The Sierning Imbricates segment is located further to the east, at the border of Upper Austria to Lower Austria. The structural inventory of this thrust belt is comprises varying numbers of thrust sheets along strike (1-5), ramp

  7. Solid-state fermentation for gluconic acid production from sugarcane molasses by Aspergillus niger ARNU-4 employing tea waste as the novel solid support.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit; Vivekanand, V; Singh, Rajesh P

    2008-06-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was evaluated to produce gluconic acid by metal resistant Aspergillus niger (ARNU-4) strain using tea waste as solid support and with molasses based fermentation medium. Various crucial parameters such as moisture content, temperature, aeration and inoculum size were derived; 70% moisture level, 30 degrees C temperature, 3% inoculum size and an aeration volume of 2.5l min(-1) was suited for maximal (76.3 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production. Non-clarified molasses based fermentation media was utilized by strain ARNU-4 and maximum gluconic acid production was observed following 8-12 days of fermentation cycle. Different concentrations of additives viz. oil cake, soya oil, jaggary, yeast extract, cheese whey and mustard oil were supplemented for further enhancement of the production ability of microorganism. Addition of yeast extract (0.5%) was observed inducive for enhanced (82.2 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production.

  8. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Anand R.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2009-10-01

    Many biofuel standards, including California's recently adopted low carbon fuel standard, consider just one feedstock from one supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol: fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian factory. While cane juice is the dominant feedstock for ethanol in most Brazilian factories, a large number of producers in Indonesia, India, and the Caribbean, and a significant number in Brazil, manufacture most of their ethanol from molasses, a low value co-product of raw sugar. Several producers in these countries have the capacity to export ethanol to California, but the GREET (from: greenhouse gas, regulated emissions and energy use in transportation) model, which is the LCA (lifecycle assessment) model of choice for most biofuel regulators including California, does not currently include this production pathway. We develop a modification to GREET to account for this pathway. We use the upstream and process lifecycle results from the existing GREET model for Brazilian ethanol to derive lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for ethanol manufactured from any combination of molasses and fresh cane juice. We find that ethanol manufactured with only molasses as a feedstock with all other processes and inputs identical to those of the average Brazilian mill has a lifecycle GHG (greenhouse gas) rating of 15.1 gCO2- eq MJ-1, which is significantly lower than the current California-GREET assigned rating of 26.6 gCO2- eq MJ-1. Our model can be applied at any level of granulation from the individual factory to an industry-wide average. We examine some ways in which current sugarcane producers could inaccurately claim this molasses credit. We discuss methods for addressing this in regulation.

  9. Partitioning of the Taconic foreland basin: Middle to Late Ordovician flysch and molasse sub-basins of New York State and Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, D.; Brett, C.E.; Ingram, S.L. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of field and well data suggest that the foreland basin in New York and Ontario is divisible into two sub-basins containing siliciclastic fill which are separated by a moderately narrow, north/south oriented region of relatively thin siliciclastic strata. The eastern sub-basin contains a thick succession of late Middle and early Late Ordovician basinal black shales and turbiditic siltstones and sandstones (flysch). These strata thicken eastward to over 800 m beneath the thrust belt (Taconic allochthon) in the eastern most portion of the sub-basin. The flysch is, at least in part, time-correlative with ramp carbonates present in the western sub-basin. The western sub-basin contains a relatively thin succession of flysch deposits that overlie Upper Ordovician carbonates. The flysch deposits from the western sub-basin correlate with only the stratigraphically highest strata in the eastern sub-basin. In the western sub-basin, flysch deposits are overlain by Upper Ordovician shallow marine to non-marine mudstones and sandstones (molasse). The molasse is unconformably overlain by Lower Silurian strata. Due to the angularity of the unconformity surface, the molasse is stratigraphically most complete towards the western margin of the western sub-basin; thickest deposits in this sub-basin ([gt] 600 m) are not the most stratigraphically complete. The general sedimentary history of the New York portion of the Taconic siliciclastic wedge is bipartite: (1) rapid subsidence in the eastern sub-basin during the late Middle and early Late Ordovician accompanied by flysch-phase filling; (2) rapid subsidence in the western sub-basin during the middle to late Late Ordovician accompanied by molasse-phase filling.

  10. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  11. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  12. Wastewater Treatment I. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This instructor's manual provides an outline and guide for teaching Wastewater Treatment I. It consists of nine sections. An introductory note and a course outline comprise sections 1 and 2. Section 3 (the bulk of the guide) presents lesson outlines for teaching the ten chapters of the manual entitled "Operation of Wastewater Treatment…

  13. Electrophoretic Process For Purifying Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Twitty, Garland E.; Sharnez, Rizwan; Egen, Ned B.

    1992-01-01

    Microbes, poisonous substances, and colloidal particles removed by combination of electric fields. Electrophoretic process removes pathogenicorganisms, toxins, toxic metals, and cooloidal soil particles from wastewater. Used to render domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastewater streams potable. Process also useful in bioregenerative and other closed systems like in space stations and submarines, where water must be recycled.

  14. Wastewater Treatment I. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This instructor's manual provides an outline and guide for teaching Wastewater Treatment I. It consists of nine sections. An introductory note and a course outline comprise sections 1 and 2. Section 3 (the bulk of the guide) presents lesson outlines for teaching the ten chapters of the manual entitled "Operation of Wastewater Treatment…

  15. Electrophoretic Process For Purifying Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Twitty, Garland E.; Sharnez, Rizwan; Egen, Ned B.

    1992-01-01

    Microbes, poisonous substances, and colloidal particles removed by combination of electric fields. Electrophoretic process removes pathogenicorganisms, toxins, toxic metals, and cooloidal soil particles from wastewater. Used to render domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastewater streams potable. Process also useful in bioregenerative and other closed systems like in space stations and submarines, where water must be recycled.

  16. Method for treating contaminated wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Fochtman, E.G.; Forbes, F.S.; Koch, R.L.

    1983-09-06

    A method is disclosed for treating hydrazine-fuel contaminated wastewater in which hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and dimethylnitrosamine pollutants are effectively decomposed at a controlled pH of about 5 by an ultraviolet induced chlorination treatment of the wastewater.

  17. Silvicultural Use of Wastewater Sludge

    Treesearch

    J.B. Hart; P.V. Nguyen; D.H. Urie; Dale G. Brockway

    1988-01-01

    Generation of wastewater sludge in the United States has become a problem of increasing proportion, with annual production at 4 million tons in 1970 (Walsh 1976) and 7 million tons currently(Maness 1987). While population and industrial growth have contributed to this problem, legislation requiring higher standards of treatment for wastewater processed in the 15,378...

  18. Polymalic acid fermentation by Aureobasidium pullulans for malic acid production from soybean hull and soy molasses: Fermentation kinetics and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chi; Zhou, Yipin; Lin, Meng; Wei, Peilian; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-01-01

    Polymalic acid (PMA) production by Aureobasidium pullulans ZX-10 from soybean hull hydrolysate supplemented with corn steep liquor (CSL) gave a malic acid yield of ∼0.4g/g at a productivity of ∼0.5g/L·h. ZX-10 can also ferment soy molasses, converting all carbohydrates including the raffinose family oligosaccharides to PMA, giving a high titer (71.9g/L) and yield (0.69g/g) at a productivity of 0.29g/L·h in fed-batch fermentation under nitrogen limitation. A higher productivity of 0.64g/L·h was obtained in repeated batch fermentation with cell recycle and CSL supplementation. Cost analysis for a 5000 MT plant shows that malic acid can be produced at $1.10/kg from soy molasses, $1.37/kg from corn, and $1.74/kg from soybean hull. At the market price of $1.75/kg, malic acid production from soy molasses via PMA fermentation offers an economically competitive process for industrial production of bio-based malic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of Laccase by Recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica from Molasses: Bioprocess Development Using Statistical Modeling and Increase Productivity in Shake-Flask and Bioreactor Cultures.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Farshad; Moradi, Marzieh; Madzak, Catherine; Jolivalt, Claude

    2017-03-01

    Laccases are used in numerous applications, from green degradation of various xenobiotic compounds, waste detoxification, textile dye bleaching, and delignification of lignocellulose materials to biofuel production. In this study, the recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica YL4 strain carrying the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor laccase IIIb gene was used for laccase production from beet molasses as an agro-industrial residue. Response surface methodology was used to statistical optimization of the production of laccase by Y. lipolytica using an industrial medium containing molasses which allows a six times increase in laccase activity compared to primary medium contains glucose after 144 h. In bioreactor cultivation after 48 h, laccase production reached to 3.7- and 22.5-fold more than optimized and primary media in shake-flask cultures, respectively. Laccase productivity in bioreactor (0.0937 U/h) was higher than shake-flask culture (0.0084 U/h). The present study provides valuable information about statistical optimization of bioprocess development for cost-effective production of laccase and other heterologous proteins in Y. lipolytica from beet molasses as sole carbon source, thus allowing the valorization and decreasing environmental pollution of this agro-industrial waste.

  20. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1

    PubMed Central

    Veana, F.; Martínez-Hernández, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodríguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

  1. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1.

    PubMed

    Veana, F; Martínez-Hernández, J L; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Michelena, G

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse).

  2. Effects of fat and/or methionine hydroxy analog added to a molasses-urea-based supplement on ruminal and postruminal digestion and duodenal flow of nutrients in beef steers consuming low-quality lovegrass hay.

    PubMed

    Lopez, R; Pulsipher, G D; Guerra-Liera, J E; Soto-Navarro, S A; Balstad, L A; Petersen, M K; Dhuyvetter, D V; Brown, M S; Krehbiel, C R

    2016-06-01

    Five crossbred beef steers (initial BW = 338.6 ± 7.8 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the effects of methionine hydroxy analog (MHA) and/or yellow grease (fat) added to a molasses-urea-based supplement on intake and characteristics of digestion. Steers were fed low-quality hay (long-stem lovegrass : 3.3% CP, 76.8% NDF; DM basis) ad libitum and supplemented with 0.91 kg/d (as fed) of 1 of 4 supplements in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments. Supplemental treatments were 1) control (no supplement, NC); 2) molasses-urea liquid supplement (U); 3) U containing (as-fed basis) 1.65% MHA (UM); 4) U containing (as-fed basis) 12% fat (UF); and 5) U containing (as-fed basis) 1.65% MHA and 12% fat (UMF). Total and forage OM intake (kg/d and as % of BW) increased ( < 0.01) with molasses-urea, decreased ( ≤ 0.04) with MHA, and were not affected ( = 0.61) with fat supplementation. Total tract NDF digestibility increased ( = 0.01) with molasses-urea supplementation, and was less ( = 0.01) for fat than for nonfat supplementation. Total and microbial N flowing to the duodenum increased ( = 0.01) with molasses-urea supplementation. Although, total N flowing to duodenum was not affected ( = 0.27), microbial N decreased ( = 0.01), and nonammonia nonmicrobial N (NANMN) increased ( = 0.01) with fat supplementation. Extent of in situ OM and NDF digestibility at 96 h increased ( = 0.01) with molasses-urea supplementation, but were not affected ( ≥ 0.14) by either MHA or fat supplementation. Duodenal flow of total AA, essential AA, and nonessential AA increased ( ≤ 0.02) with molasses-urea supplementation. Total and nonessential serum AA concentration decreased ( < 0.01) with molasses-urea supplementation. Total ruminal VFA concentration increased ( = 0.01) with molasses-urea supplementation, and was not affected ( ≥ 0.14) by MHA or fat supplementation. Fat can be used in molasses-urea liquid

  3. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  4. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  5. Portable wastewater flow meter

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  6. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn

    PubMed Central

    Oltramari, C. E.; Nápoles, G. G. O.; De Paula, M. R.; Silva, J. T.; Gallo, M. P. C.; Pasetti, M. H. O.; Bittar, C. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p<0.05) total concentration of SCFAs, acetate and propionate than 0MO, and these treatments did not differ from 10MO and 5GS (p>0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen. PMID

  7. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn.

    PubMed

    Oltramari, C E; Nápoles, G G O; De Paula, M R; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Pasetti, M H O; Bittar, C M M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p<0.05) total concentration of SCFAs, acetate and propionate than 0MO, and these treatments did not differ from 10MO and 5GS (p>0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen.

  8. Geothermal exploration in the German Molasse Basin - Supplementary exploration using integrated 3-component data and shear wave measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawerzinek, Britta; Buness, Hermann; Lüschen, Ewald; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2017-04-01

    To establish a dense area-wide network of geothermal facilities, the Stadtwerke München initiated the joint research project GRAME together with the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (GeoParaMoL*). As a database for the project, a 3D seismic survey was acquired from November 1015 to March 2016 and covers 170 km2 of the southern part of Munich. 3D seismic exploration is a well-established method to explore geothermal reservoirs, and its value for reservoir characterization of the Malm has been proven by several projects. A particular challenge often is the determination of geophysical parameters for facies interpretation without any borehole information, which is needed for calibration. A new approach to facilitate a reliable interpretation is to include shear waves in the interpretation workflow, which helps to tie down the range of lithological and petrophysical parameters. Shear wave measurements were conducted during the regular 3D seismic survey in Munich. In a passive experiment, the survey was additionally recorded on 467 single, 3-component (3C), digital receivers that were deployed along one main line (15 km length) and two crosslines (4 km length). In this way another 3D P-wave as well as a 3D shear wave dataset were acquired. In the active shear wave experiment the SHOVER technique (Edelmann, 1981) was applied to directly excite shear waves using standard vertical vibrators. The 3C recordings of both datasets show, in addition to the P-wave reflections on the vertical component, clear shear-wave signals on the horizontal components. The structural image of the P-waves recorded on the vertical component of the 3C receivers displays clear reflectors within the Molasse Basin down to the Malm and correlates well with the structural image of the regular survey. Taking into account a travel time ratio of 1.6 the reflection patterns of horizontal and vertical components approximately coincide. This indicates that Molasse sediments and the Malm can also

  9. 3D model of the Bernese Part of the Swiss Molasse Basin: visualization of uncertainties in a 3D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Samuel; Allenbach, Robin; Reynolds, Lance; Wehrens, Philip; Kurmann-Matzenauer, Eva; Kuhn, Pascal; Michael, Salomè; Di Tommaso, Gennaro; Herwegh, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The Swiss Molasse Basin comprises the western and central part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. In recent years it has come under closer scrutiny due to its promising geopotentials such as geothermal energy and CO2 sequestration. In order to adress these topics good knowledge of the subsurface is a key prerequisite. For that matter, geological 3D models serve as valuable tools. In collaboration with the Swiss Geological Survey (swisstopo) and as part of the project GeoMol CH, a geological 3D model of the Swiss Molasse Basin in the Canton of Bern has been built. The model covers an area of 1810 km2and reaches depth of up to 6.7 km. It comprises 10 major Cenozoic and Mesozoic units and numerous faults. The 3D model is mainly based on 2D seismic data complemented by information from few deep wells. Additionally, data from geological maps and profiles were used for refinement at shallow depths. In total, 1163 km of reflection seismic data, along 77 seismic lines, have been interpreted by different authors with respect to stratigraphy and structures. Both, horizons and faults, have been interpreted in 2D and modelled in 3D using IHS's Kingdom Suite and Midland Valley's MOVE software packages, respectively. Given the variable degree of subsurface information available, each 3D model is subject of uncertainty. With the primary input data coming from interpretation of reflection seismic data, a variety of uncertainties comes into play. Some of them are difficult to address (e.g. author's style of interpretation) while others can be quantified (e.g. mis-tie correction, well-tie). An important source of uncertainties is the quality of seismic data; this affects the traceability and lateral continuation of seismic reflectors. By defining quality classes we can semi-quantify this source of uncertainty. In order to visualize the quality and density of the input data in a meaningful way, we introduce quality-weighted data density maps. In combination with the geological 3D

  10. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids.

  11. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1) When...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator of each affected source shall comply with the HON wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1) When...

  14. Marine carbohydrates of wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Prasad N; Gomathi, Thandapani; Vinodhini, P Angelin; Nasreen, K

    2014-01-01

    Our natural heritage (rivers, seas, and oceans) has been exploited, mistreated, and contaminated because of industrialization, globalization, population growth, urbanization with increased wealth, and more extravagant lifestyles. The scenario gets worse when the effluents or contaminants are discharged directly. So wastewater treatment is a very important and necessary in nowadays to purify wastewater before it enters a body of natural water, or it is applied to the land, or it is reused. Various methods are available for treating wastewater but with many disadvantages. Recently, numerous approaches have been studied for the development of cheaper and more effective technologies, both to decrease the amount of wastewater produced and to improve the quality of the treated effluent. Biosorption is an emerging technology, which uses natural materials as adsorbents for wastewater treatment. Low-cost adsorbents of polysaccharide-based materials obtained from marine, such as chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan, are acting as rescue for wastewater treatment. This chapter reviews the treatment of wastewater up to the present time using marine polysaccharides and its derivatives. Special attention is paid to the advantages of the natural adsorbents, which are a wonderful gift for human survival.

  15. Enhancement of dibenzothiophene desulfurization by Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B using sugar beet molasses as alternative carbon source.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luís; Paixão, Susana M

    2014-03-01

    There are several problems limiting an industrial application of fossil fuel biodesulfurization, and one of them is the cost of culture media used to grow the microorganisms involved in the process. In this context, the utilization of alternative carbon sources resulting from agro-industrial by-products could be a strategy to reduce the investment in the operating expenses of a future industrial application. Recently, Gordonia alkanivorans 1B was described as a fructophilic desulfurizing bacterium, and this characteristic opens a new interest in alternative carbon sources rich in fructose. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the utilization of sugar beet molasses (SBM) in the dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulfurization process using strain 1B. SBM firstly treated with 0.25% BaCl2 (w/v) was used after sucrose acidic hydrolysis or in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process with a Zygosaccharomyces bailii Talf1 invertase (1%), showing promising results. In optimal conditions, strain 1B presented a μ max of 0.0795 h(-1), and all DBT was converted to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (250 μM) within 48 h with a maximum production rate of 7.78 μM h(-1). Our results showed the high potential of SBM to be used in a future industrial fossil fuel biodesulfurization process using strain 1B.

  16. Graded replacement of maize grain with molassed sugar beet pulp modulated ruminal microbial community and fermentation profile in vitro.

    PubMed

    Münnich, Matthias; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Klevenhusen, Fenja; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2017-07-19

    Molassed sugar beet pulp (Bp) is a viable alternative to grains in cattle nutrition for reducing human edible energy input. Yet little is known about the effects of high inclusion rates of Bp on rumen microbiota. This study used an in vitro approach and the quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique to establish the effects of a graded replacement of maize grain (MG) by Bp on the ruminal microbial community, fermentation profile and nutrient degradation. Six different amounts of Bp (0-400 g kg(-1) ), which replaced MG in the diet, were tested using the in vitro semi-continuous rumen simulation technique. The increased inclusion of Bp resulted in greater dietary content and degradation of neutral detergent fibre (P < 0.01). Further, Bp feeding enhanced (P < 0.01) the abundance of genus Prevotella and shifted (P < 0.01) the short-chain fatty acid patterns in favour of acetate and propionate and at the expense of butyrate. A total replacement of MG with Bp resulted in an increased daily methane production (P < 0.01). Results suggest positive effects of the replacement of MG by Bp especially in terms of stimulating ruminal acetate and propionate fermentation. However, high replacement rates of Bp resulted in lowered utilization of ammonia and higher ruminal methane production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Decolorization of molasses spent wash by the white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus, isolated from a marine habitat.

    PubMed

    Raghukumar, C; Rivonkar, G

    2001-05-01

    Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden, a basidiomycete (NIOCC strain 312) isolated from decomposing leaves of a sea grass, decolorized pigments in molasses spent wash (MSW) by 80% after 8 days of incubation, when used at concentrations of 10% and 50%. Decolorizing activity was also present in media prepared with half-strength seawater (equivalent to 15 ppt salinity). Decolorizing activity was seen in low-nitrogen medium, nutrient-rich medium and in sugarcane bagasse medium. The percentage decolorization of MSW was highest when glucose or sucrose was used as the carbon source in the low-nitrogen medium. The production of lignin-modifying enzymes, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MNP) and laccase decreased in a medium containing MSW. MNP production and MSW decolorization were inversely correlated, suggesting no role for MNP in MSW decolorization. The decolorization of MSW was not effective when F. flavus was immobilized in calcium alginate beads. Decolorization was achieved best in oxygenated cultures. Besides color, total phenolics and chemical oxygen demand were reduced by 50% in MSW treated with F. flavus, suggesting its potential in the bioremediation of effluents.

  18. Effect of different operational conditions on the decolorization of molasses spent wash using once developed soil inoculum.

    PubMed

    Adikane, H V; Dixit, J N

    2009-11-01

    A stirred vessel coupled with membrane unit containing cellulose acetate (0.45 mum) membrane was used to study the decolorization of anaerobically digested molasses spent wash (MSW). The soil collected from the MSW disposal site was used as inoculum to study the decolorization without addition of any additives. The same inoculum was used over a period of 163 days at room temperature to study the decolorization of 12.5-50% (v/v) MSW using different operational conditions. The reactor was entered in to the inhibition mode after the feeding of 50% MSW, which was restored 100% without changing any operational condition. The maximum decolorization obtained for 12.5% (v/v) MSW was 77.22 +/- 0.13%. The decolorization achieved for 25, 37.5, and 50% (v/v) MSW was 70.41 +/- 0.12, 56.47 +/- 0.17, and 48.78 +/- 0.09%, respectively. Increase in the utilization of protein and reducing sugar was observed up to 25% MSW whereas, higher concentration showed decrease in the utilization. Results indicate 63% removal of chemical oxygen demand for 12.5% (v/v) MSW. Membrane flux which was significantly reduced after the feeding of 50% MSW was regenerated without changing the washing procedure, however, 35% decrease in sample flux was observed over the continuous use of membrane for the period of 198 days.

  19. Immediate and delayed signal of slab breakoff in Oligo/Miocene Molasse deposits from the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Castelltort, Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution 32–20 Ma-old stratigraphic records from the Molasse foreland basin situated north of the Alps, and Gonfolite Lombarda conglomerates deposited on the southern Alpine margin, document two consecutive sedimentary responses - an immediate and delayed response - to slab breakoff beneath the central Alps c. 32–30 Ma ago. The first signal, which occurred due to rebound and surface uplift in the Alps, was a regional and simultaneous switch from basin underfill to overfill at 30 Ma paired with shifts to coarse-grained depositional environments in the foreland basin. The second signal, however, arrived several million years after slab breakoff and was marked by larger contributions of crystalline clasts in the conglomerates, larger clast sizes, larger sediment fluxes and shifts to more proximal facies. We propose that this secondary pulse reflects a delayed whiplash-type erosional response to surface uplift, where erosion and sediment flux became amplified through positive feedbacks once larger erosional thresholds of crystalline bedrock were exceeded.

  20. Immediate and delayed signal of slab breakoff in Oligo/Miocene Molasse deposits from the European Alps

    PubMed Central

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Castelltort, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution 32–20 Ma-old stratigraphic records from the Molasse foreland basin situated north of the Alps, and Gonfolite Lombarda conglomerates deposited on the southern Alpine margin, document two consecutive sedimentary responses - an immediate and delayed response - to slab breakoff beneath the central Alps c. 32–30 Ma ago. The first signal, which occurred due to rebound and surface uplift in the Alps, was a regional and simultaneous switch from basin underfill to overfill at 30 Ma paired with shifts to coarse-grained depositional environments in the foreland basin. The second signal, however, arrived several million years after slab breakoff and was marked by larger contributions of crystalline clasts in the conglomerates, larger clast sizes, larger sediment fluxes and shifts to more proximal facies. We propose that this secondary pulse reflects a delayed whiplash-type erosional response to surface uplift, where erosion and sediment flux became amplified through positive feedbacks once larger erosional thresholds of crystalline bedrock were exceeded. PMID:27510939

  1. Use of pervaporation process for the recovery of aroma compounds produced by P. fermentans in sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Suzan Cristina; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Weschenfelder, Thiago André; de Paula Scheer, Agnes; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-03-17

    Natural fruity aroma was produced during submerged fermentation by Pichia fermentans using sugarcane molasses as a cultivation broth. The aroma compounds were recovered from the fermentation by a pervaporation process using a polydimethylsiloxane membrane (Pervap 4060-Sulzer). Isoamyl acetate, a characteristic compound associated with fruity aromas, was the major compound produced. The pervaporation module was fed at three different temperatures to test the best conditions to recover the natural fruity aroma. The total flux (J T), partial fluxes of each component (J i), and enrichment factors (β) were determined within the tested ranges. The process was performed at 45 °C, a feed flow of 1.5 mL/min and 0.1 kPa, for a duration of 13 h to concentrate the natural flavor. The pervaporation process can concentrate the isoamyl acetate from fermented broth from 9 to 61.8 mg/L in the first hour of pervaporation. As a single step of downstream operation, pervaporation was efficient for recovering and concentrating the natural fruity aroma. The obtained product was colorless and had a characteristic banana flavor.

  2. Engineered nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge - Evidence and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Brar, Satinder K.; Verma, Mausam; Tyagi, R.D.; Surampalli, R.Y.

    2010-03-15

    Nanotechnology has widespread application in agricultural, environmental and industrial sectors ranging from fabrication of molecular assemblies to microbial array chips. Despite the booming application of nanotechnology, there have been serious implications which are coming into light in the recent years within different environmental compartments, namely air, water and soil and its likely impact on the human health. Health and environmental effects of common metals and materials are well-known, however, when the metals and materials take the form of nanoparticles - consequential hazards based on shape and size are yet to be explored. The nanoparticles released from different nanomaterials used in our household and industrial commodities find their way through waste disposal routes into the wastewater treatment facilities and end up in wastewater sludge. Further escape of these nanoparticles into the effluent will contaminate the aquatic and soil environment. Hence, an understanding of the presence, behavior and impact of these nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge is necessary and timely. Despite the lack of sufficient literature, the present review attempts to link various compartmentalization aspects of the nanoparticles, their physical properties and toxicity in wastewater and wastewater sludge through simile drawn from other environmental streams.

  3. Wastewater treatment with microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, W.J. )

    1992-01-01

    In locations where total solar energy inputs average 400 langeleys or more, microscopic algae, grown in properly designed ponds, can contribute significantly and economically to wastewater treatment. While growing, microalgae produce an abundance of oxygen for microbial and biochemical oxidation of organics and other reduced compounds and for odor control. Microalgae also accelerate the inactivation of disease bacteria and parasitic ova by increasing water temperature and pH. Microalgae remove significant amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus and adsorb most polyvalent metals, including those that are toxic. After growth in properly designed paddle wheel mixed high rate ponds, microalgae settle readily, leaving a supernatant free of most pollutants. Such effluents are suitable for irrigation of ornamental plants, crops not eaten raw, aquaculture, and grounwater recharge. The settled and concentrated microalgae may be used for fertilizer, for fermentation to methane, or, assuming no toxicity, for fish, bivalve, or animal feed.

  4. Economical fermentation media for the production of a whole cell catalyst for the treatment of Cr(VI)-containing wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Alessandrello, Mauricio J; Vullo, Diana L

    The biotechnology sector is continually seeking sustainable and more economical bioprocesses. Fermentation media produced with cheap components or wastes reduce production costs. Moreover, if wastes are used, they contribute to avoid environmental pollution. In this work, microbial growth media based on molasses or acidified glycerol as carbon sources and fertilizer as nitrogen source were tested for the production of a whole-cell catalyst that could be used in Cr(VI)-containing wastewater treatments. Results showed that the highest biomass production yield was obtained with a medium containing acidified glycerol 5% v/v and fertilizer 0.6% v/v. The biomass produced using this medium was immobilized in calcium alginate beads and used as catalyst in the biotransformation of Cr(VI) into Cr(III). The catalyst could be efficiently used for 5 reduction cycles of 40mg/l Cr(VI) each. Cr(III) retention assays were performed to determine whether Cr(III) could be retained by the catalyst avoiding its solubilization in the supernatants. The retention capacity of the catalyst at 32°C and pH 3.0 was 3mg Cr(III)/g. Both an alternative and economical fermentation medium is here proposed for the optimization of Cr(VI)-containing wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Fischer-Tropsch Wastewater Utilization

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Lalit S.

    2003-03-18

    The present invention is generally directed to handling the wastewater, or condensate, from a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor. More particularly, the present invention provides a process wherein the wastewater of a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor, such as a Fischer-Tropsch reactor, is sent to a gasifier and subsequently reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas. The wastewater may also be recycled back to a slurry preparation stage, where solid combustible organic materials are pulverized and mixed with process water and the wastewater to form a slurry, after which the slurry fed to a gasifier where it is reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas.

  6. Small and Rural Wastewater Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many tools, training, technical assistance, and funding resources are available to develop and maintain reliable and affordable wastewater treatment systems in small and rural communities including in tribal and U.S.-Mexico Border area.

  7. Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

  8. Prioritizing pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral presentation at SETAC North America 32nd annual meeting, describing our prioritization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), based on estimates of risks posed by API residues originating from municipal wastewater. Goals of this project include prioritization of APIs f...

  9. Prioritizing pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral presentation at SETAC North America 32nd annual meeting, describing our prioritization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), based on estimates of risks posed by API residues originating from municipal wastewater. Goals of this project include prioritization of APIs f...

  10. Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

  11. The Sources and Solutions: Wastewater

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Wastewater treatment plants process water from homes and businesses, which contains nitrogen and phosphorus from human waste, food and certain soaps and detergents, and they can be a major source of nutrient pollution.

  12. Deployable Wastewater Treatment Technology Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    AFRL/MLQD is expanding the Deployable Waste Disposal System to include bare base wastewater treatment. The goal of AFRL/MLQD is for the deployable... wastewater treatment system to be integrated into a waste treatment system that will treat both solid and aqueous waste. The US Army (TARDEC) and the... Air Force (AAC/WMO) have been involved in preliminary studies that provide extensive useful background information for this project. These studies show

  13. Post 12 Ma tectonic activity of the Subalpine Molasse resolved by combining thermochronology and critical wedge analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hagke, C.; Oncken, O.; Ortner, H.; Cederbom, C.

    2012-04-01

    Thermochronological studies in the Northern Alpine Foreland Basin show that the folded and thrusted part of the basin, the Subalpine Molasse (SM), has been tectonically active during the last 12 Ma (Cederbom, C. E. et al., 2011; von Hagke, C. et al., in review). However, the amount of erosion and timing of thrusting is so far only reported from the Swiss Molasse basin. To test whether this is a local signal and whether climate contributed to this thrusting, we report thermochronological data from a profile south of Lake Constance and analyse the results in the framework of critical taper theory. We selected the Bregenzerach stream as suitable study area because it is one of the few profiles, which provides excellent outcrops in all stratigraphic units of the SM and is located east of the Jura fold and thrust belt, north of the Eastern Alps. We present new apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) and apatite fission track (AFT) data. In contrast to the Central Alps, the new data do not show full resetting of the AFT system. This demonstrates that the eastern SM has experienced less erosion than the central SM. The AHe system in contrast, shows complete resetting also in the eastern SM. We observe age-offsets across the same thrusts which have been reactivated in the central SM. This confirms that the SM of the Eastern Alps must have been tectonically active until at least 5 Ma, as is also known from the central SM. This implies reactivation of thrusts, which formed originally in mid to late Miocene times. From critical taper analysis, reactivation of thrusting (assuming constant dip of the basal detachment through time) can only be obtained (1) by an increase of basal detachment strength or (2) a decrease of surface slope. An increase of detachment strength through time is either possible due to jumping of the detachment to another stratigraphic level or a change in pore fluid pressure. A decrease in surface slope is either tectonic- or erosion-controlled. We show that today the

  14. Modelling "reality" in tectonics: Simulation of the mechanical evolution of the Jura Mountains-Molasse Basin system, and routes to forward-inverse modelling of fold thrust belts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    The ultimate validation of any numerical model of any geological process comes when it can accurately forward model a case study from the geological record. However, as the example of the Jura-Molasse fold thrust belt demonstrates, geological information on even the most basic aspects of the present day state of such systems is highly incomplete and usually known only with large uncertainties. Fold thrust-belts are studied and understood by geologists in an iterative process of constructing their subsurface geometries and structures (folds, faults, bedding etc) based on limited subsurface information from boreholes, tunnels or seismic data where available, and surface information on outcrops of different layers and their dips. This data is usually processed through geometric models which involve conservation of line length of different beds over the length of an entire cross section. Constructing such sections is the art of cross section balancing. A balanced cross section can be easily restored to its pre-deformation state, assuming (usually) originally horizontal bedding to remove the effects of folding and faulting. Such a pre-deformation state can then form an initial condition for a forward mechanical model of the section. A mechanical model introduces new parameters into the system such as rock elasticity, cohesion, and frictional properties. However, a forward mechanical model can also potentially show the continuous evolution of a fold thrust belt, including dynamic quantities like stress. Moreover, a forward mechanical model, if correct in most aspects, should match in its final state, the present day geological cross section it is simulating. However, when attempting to achieve a match between geometric and mechanical models, it becomes clear that many more aspects of the geodynamic history of a fold thrust belt have to be taken into account. Erosion of the uppermost layers of an evolving thrust belt is the most obvious one of these. This can potentially

  15. Temporal evolution of fault systems in the Upper Jurassic of the Central German Molasse Basin: case study Unterhaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budach, Ingmar; Moeck, Inga; Lüschen, Ewald; Wolfgramm, Markus

    2017-08-01

    The structural evolution of faults in foreland basins is linked to a complex basin history ranging from extension to contraction and inversion tectonics. Faults in the Upper Jurassic of the German Molasse Basin, a Cenozoic Alpine foreland basin, play a significant role for geothermal exploration and are therefore imaged, interpreted and studied by 3D seismic reflection data. Beyond this applied aspect, the analysis of these seismic data help to better understand the temporal evolution of faults and respective stress fields. In 2009, a 27 km2 3D seismic reflection survey was conducted around the Unterhaching Gt 2 well, south of Munich. The main focus of this study is an in-depth analysis of a prominent v-shaped fault block structure located at the center of the 3D seismic survey. Two methods were used to study the periodic fault activity and its relative age of the detected faults: (1) horizon flattening and (2) analysis of incremental fault throws. Slip and dilation tendency analyses were conducted afterwards to determine the stresses resolved on the faults in the current stress field. Two possible kinematic models explain the structural evolution: One model assumes a left-lateral strike slip fault in a transpressional regime resulting in a positive flower structure. The other model incorporates crossing conjugate normal faults within a transtensional regime. The interpreted successive fault formation prefers the latter model. The episodic fault activity may enhance fault zone permeability hence reservoir productivity implying that the analysis of periodically active faults represents an important part in successfully targeting geothermal wells.

  16. Reservoir characterization of the Upper Jurassic geothermal target formations (Molasse Basin, Germany): role of thermofacies as exploration tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homuth, S.; Götz, A. E.; Sass, I.

    2015-06-01

    The Upper Jurassic carbonates of the southern German Molasse Basin are the target of numerous geothermal combined heat and power production projects since the year 2000. A production-orientated reservoir characterization is therefore of high economic interest. Outcrop analogue studies enable reservoir property prediction by determination and correlation of lithofacies-related thermo- and petrophysical parameters. A thermofacies classification of the carbonate formations serves to identify heterogeneities and production zones. The hydraulic conductivity is mainly controlled by tectonic structures and karstification, whilst the type and grade of karstification is facies related. The rock permeability has only a minor effect on the reservoir's sustainability. Physical parameters determined on oven-dried samples have to be corrected, applying reservoir transfer models to water-saturated reservoir conditions. To validate these calculated parameters, a Thermo-Triaxial-Cell simulating the temperature and pressure conditions of the reservoir is used and calorimetric and thermal conductivity measurements under elevated temperature conditions are performed. Additionally, core and cutting material from a 1600 m deep research drilling and a 4850 m (total vertical depth, measured depth: 6020 m) deep well is used to validate the reservoir property predictions. Under reservoir conditions a decrease in permeability of 2-3 magnitudes is observed due to the thermal expansion of the rock matrix. For tight carbonates the matrix permeability is temperature-controlled; the thermophysical matrix parameters are density-controlled. Density increases typically with depth and especially with higher dolomite content. Therefore, thermal conductivity increases; however the dominant factor temperature also decreases the thermal conductivity. Specific heat capacity typically increases with increasing depth and temperature. The lithofacies-related characterization and prediction of reservoir

  17. Effects of Rice Straw Supplemented with Urea and Molasses on Intermediary Metabolism of Plasma Glucose and Leucine in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Ogata, Yasumichi; Sato, Yukari; Sano, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    An isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose and [1-13C]leucine (Leu) was conducted to evaluate the effects of rice straw supplemented with urea and molasses (RSUM-diet) on plasma glucose and Leu turnover rates in sheep. Nitrogen (N) balance, rumen fermentation characteristics and blood metabolite concentrations were also determined. Four sheep were fed either mixed hay (MH-diet), or a RSUM-diet with a crossover design for two 21 days period. Feed allowance was computed on the basis of metabolizable energy at maintenance level. The isotope dilution method was performed as the primed-continuous infusion on day 21 of each dietary period. Nitrogen intake was lower (p = 0.01) for the RSUM-diet and N digestibility did not differ (p = 0.57) between diets. Concentrations of rumen total volatile fatty acids tended to be higher (p = 0.09) for the RSUM-diet than the MH-diet. Acetate concentration in the rumen did not differ (p = 0.38) between diets, whereas propionate concentration was higher (p = 0.01) for the RSUM-diet compared to the MH-diet. Turnover rates as well as concentrations of plasma glucose and Leu did not differ between diets. It can be concluded that kinetics of plasma glucose and Leu metabolism were comparable between the RSUM-diet and the MH-diet, and rumen fermentation characteristics were improved in sheep fed the RSUM-diet compared to the MH-diet. PMID:26949953

  18. Valorisation of untreated cane molasses for enhanced phytase production by Bacillus subtilis K46b and its potential role in dephytinisation.

    PubMed

    Rocky-Salimi, Karim; Hashemi, Maryam; Safari, Mohammad; Mousivand, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    The high cost of phytase production is the most limiting factor in its application in animal feeds. The present study aimed to develop a low-cost medium for production of a novel phytase in submerged fermentation using inexpensive agro-industrial by-products. The applicability of phytase in dephytinisation of commonly used food/feed ingredients, i.e. soybean meal and wheat bran, was also investigated. Using a one-factor-at-a-time approach, soybean meal and cane molasses were identified as significant agro-industrial by-products and these factors were subsequently optimised using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design was employed to further enhance phytase yield. Under optimum conditions of soybean meal 22.3 g L(-1) , cane molasses 100 g L(-1) and 39 h fermentation, phytase production increased to 56.562 U mL(-1) , indicating more than 28-fold enhancement. The enzyme efficiently dephytinised wheat bran and soybean meal after 24 h incubation at 56.5 °C and increased inorganic phosphate content by 240% and 155%, respectively. Soybean meal and cane molasses were successfully used for enhancement of phytase production as economical carbon, nitrogen and phytic acid sources using RSM. The phytase showed a good capability to dephytinise wheat bran and soybean meal, demonstrating that the enzyme can be considered as a potential candidate for industrial food and feed applications. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Selection of bacteria capable of dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) from a long-term continuous culture on molasses and their use in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Anna; Wójtowicz-Sieńko, Justyna; Piela, Piotr; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Tomczyk-Zak, Karolina; Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Sikora, Radosław; Kowalczyk, Paweł; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław

    2011-03-01

    Ferric ion-respiring microorganisms (FRMs) are a group of prokaryotes that use Fe(III) as well as other metals as terminal electron acceptors in the process of anaerobic respiration. Special attention is paid to a biotechnological significance of FRMs because of their potential role in electricity production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) where the terminal acceptor of the electrons during anaerobic respiration is not a ferric ion but the anode. One of the best known FRMs is the Shewanellaceae family. Most of the Shewanella species have been isolated from marine environments. In this report, sugar beet molasses and ferric oxide were successfully used in the selection of a bacterial consortium capable of dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction in a long-term continuous culture. The inoculum was a sample of eutrophic lake bottom sediment. Among the bacteria present in this culture were representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Pseudomonas, Arcobacter, and Shewanella. Two non-marine Fe(III)-reducing Shewanella-related clones named POL1 and POL2 were isolated. The abilities of the POL1 and POL2 isolates to metabolize a panel of 190 carbon sources were examined using a BIOLOG assay. The results confirmed the abilities of the shewanellas to utilize a broad range of carbon substrates. The utility of the POL1 and POL2 isolates in H-type MFCs operating on pyruvate or molasses was demonstrated. The operation of the MFC with shewanellas cultured on molasses was shown for the first time. A two-stage character of the fuel cell polarization curves, not previously noted in Shewanella MFC studies, was observed.

  20. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Guo, Gang; Yuan, Xianjun; Shimojo, Masataka; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM) was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control), molasses (M), propionic acid (P), and molasses+propionic acid (PM), in laboratory silos (250 mL) and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN), and high lactic acid (LA) content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p<0.05) LA content and higher dry matter (DM) recovery than the control and P silages. P silage had lower (p<0.05) LA content than the control silage. During aerobic exposure, lactic acid contents decreased gradually in the control and M silages, while that of P and PM silages increased, and the peak values were observed after 9 d. M silage had similar yeast counts with the control silage (>105 cfu/g FM), however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM) (p<0.05) and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage. PMID:25049961

  1. Phytase production by Sporotrichum thermophile in a cost-effective cane molasses medium in submerged fermentation and its application in bread.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Satyanarayana, T

    2008-12-01

    Phytase production by Sporotrichum thermophile in a cost-effective cane molasses medium in submerged fermentation and its application in bread. The production of phytase by a thermophilic mould S. thermophile was investigated using free and immobilized conidiospores in cane molasses medium in shake flasks, and stirred tank and air-lift fermenters. Among surfactants tested, Tweens (Tween-20, 40 and 80) and sodium oleate increased phytase accumulation, whereas SDS and Triton X-100 inhibited the enzyme production. The mould produced phytase optimally at a(w) 0.95, and it declined sharply below this a(w) value. The enzyme production was comparable in air-lift and stirred tank reactors with a marked reduction in fermentation time. Among the matrices tried, Ca-alginate was the best for conidiospore immobilization, and fungus secreted sustained levels of enzyme titres over five cycles. The phytic acid in the dough was efficiently hydrolysed by the enzyme accompanied by the liberation of soluble phosphate in the bread. The phytase production by S. thermophile was enhanced in the presence of Tween-80 in cane molasses medium. A peak in enzyme production was attained in 48 h in the fermenter when compared with that of 96 h in shake flasks. Ca-alginate immobilized conidiospores germinated to produce fungal growth that secreted sustained levels of phytase over five cycles. The bread made with phytase contained reduced level of phytic acid and a high-soluble phosphate. The phytase accumulation by S. thermophile was increased by the surfactants. The sustainability of enzyme production in stirred tank and air-lift fermenters suggested the possibility for scaling up of phytase. The bread made with phytase contained low level of antinutrient, i.e. phytic acid.

  2. Covalently Immobilized Laccase for Decolourization of Glucose-Glycine Maillard Products as Colourant of Distillery Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nimisha; Basu, Subhankar; Vankelecom, Ivo F J; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2015-09-01

    Maillard reaction products like melanoidins are recalcitrant, high-molecular-weight compounds responsible for colour in sugarcane molasses distillery wastewater. Conventional biological treatment is unable to break down melanoidins, but extracellular laccase and manganese peroxidase of microbial origin can degrade these complex molecules. In this work, laccase was covalently immobilized on alumina pellets activated with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The immobilization yield was 50-60 %, and the enzyme activity (886 U/L) was 5-fold higher compared to the soluble enzyme (176 U/L). The immobilized enzyme also showed higher tolerance to pH (4-6) and temperature (35-60 °C), as well as improved storage stability (49 days) and operational stability (10 cycles). Degradation of glucose-glycine Maillard products using immobilized laccase led to 47 % decolourization in 6 h at pH 4.5 and 28 °C. A comprehensive treatment scheme integrating enzymatic, microbial and membrane filtration steps resulted in 90 % decolourization.

  3. Characterization of wastewater treatment by two microbial fuel cells in continuous flow operation.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Keiichi; Watanabe, Tomohide; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    A two serially connected single-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was applied to the treatment of diluted molasses wastewater in a continuous operation mode. In addition, the effect of series and parallel connection between the anodes and the cathode on power generation was investigated experimentally. The two serially connected MFC process achieved 79.8% of chemical oxygen demand removal and 11.6% of Coulombic efficiency when the hydraulic retention time of the whole process was 26 h. The power densities were 0.54, 0.34 and 0.40 W m(-3) when electrodes were in individual connection, serial connection and parallel connection modes, respectively. A high open circuit voltage was obtained in the serial connection. Power density decreased at low organic loading rates (OLR) due to the shortage of organic matter. Power generation efficiency tended to decrease as a result of enhancement of methane fermentation at high OLRs. Therefore, high power density and efficiency can be achieved by using a suitable OLR range.

  4. Effect of applying molasses or inoculants containing homofermentative or heterofermentative bacteria at two rates on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage.

    PubMed

    Huisden, C M; Adesogan, A T; Kim, S C; Ososanya, T

    2009-02-01

    This study determined how the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage are affected by treatment with molasses or 2 dual-purpose inoculants applied at or above the recommended rate. Corn forage (DeKalb 69-70) was harvested at 39% dry matter (DM) and ensiled after treatment with no additives (control, CON), molasses (MOL), Buchneri 500 inoculant, or Pioneer 11C33 inoculant. Molasses was applied at 3% of forage DM. Buchneri 500 was applied at the recommended rate of 8 mg/kg fresh forage to supply 1 x 10(5) cfu/g of Pediococcus pentosaceus 12455 and 4 x 10(5) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 (BB) or at twice the recommended rate (DBB). Pioneer 11C33 inoculant was applied at the recommended rate of 1.1 mg/kg fresh forage to supply 1 x 10(5) cfu/g of a mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. buchneri, and Enteroccocus faecium (PN) or at twice the recommended rate (DPN). Each treatment was applied in quadruplicate and the treated forages were ensiled within 20-L mini silos for 135 d at 18 to 35 degrees C. Molasses-treated silages had greater ash and starch concentrations than CON silages and greater lactate and ethanol concentrations than other silages. Like CON silages, MOL silages had high yeast counts (>10(5) cfu/g); consequently, they deteriorated within 30 h as shown by temperature increase. Inoculant-treated silages had lower lactate to acetate ratios than CON or MOL silages largely because they had greater acetate concentrations. Consequently, all inoculant-treated silages had fewer yeasts (<10(5) cfu/g) and were more stable (>30 h) than CON and MOL silages. When applied at recommended rates, PN and BB had similar effects on silage chemical composition, fermentation, fungal counts, and aerobic stability, except for a lower lactate concentration in PN silages. Concentrations of VFA, and NH(3)-N, pH, and extent of aerobic stability were similar for PN, DPN, BB, and DBB silages. However, lactate concentration was greater in DPN than in PN. In conclusion

  5. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  6. Riverview Estates Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number ND-0031143, the Riverview Estates Wastewater Treatment Facility is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in designated locations as described in the permit.

  7. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will assist wastewater utilities with the condition assessment of their deteriorating wastewater collections systems, and will support the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Program Offices with addressing proposed capacity, management, operation and mainte...

  8. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  9. Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

  10. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residual removed from such affected wastewater to an onsite treatment operation not owned or operated by the owner or operator of the source generating the wastewater or residual, or to an offsite treatment... may not transfer the wastewater stream or residual to the treatment operation. (iv) By providing...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residual removed from such affected wastewater to an onsite treatment operation not owned or operated by the owner or operator of the source generating the wastewater or residual, or to an offsite treatment... may not transfer the wastewater stream or residual to the treatment operation. (iv) By providing...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group 2...

  13. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream originating...

  15. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group 2...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator...

  18. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator...

  20. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

  1. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

  2. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart...

  3. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator...

  5. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group 2...

  7. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream originating...

  8. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of all...

  9. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  10. Wastewater Treatment: The Natural Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc. is widely acclaimed for innovative work in natural water purification which involves use of aquatic plants to remove pollutants from wastewater at a relatively low-cost. Haughton, Louisiana, visited Wolverton's artificial marsh test site and decided to use this method of wastewater treatment. They built an 11 acre sewage lagoon with a 70 by 900 foot artificial marsh called a vascular aquatic plant microbial filter cell. In the cell, microorganisms and rooted aquatic plants combine to absorb and digest wastewater pollutants, thereby converting sewage to relatively clean water. Raw waste water, after a period in the sewage lagoon, flows over a rock bed populated by microbes that digest nutrients and minerals from the sewage thus partially cleaning it. Additional treatment is provided by the aquatic plants growing in the rock bed, which absorb more of the pollutants and help deodorize the sewage.

  11. Recovery of purified lactonic sophorolipids by spontaneous crystallization during the fermentation of sugarcane molasses with Candida albicans O-13-1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Zhu, Lingqing; Xue, Chaoyou; Chen, Yu; Qu, Liang; Lu, Wenyu

    2012-12-10

    Numerous studies have focused on how to obtain high yield of sophorolipids using low-cost materials as substrates, and there has been various work on the experimental methods for purifying lactonic sophorolipids. These studies have not yet obtained satisfied results in combining a low-cost fermentation process and the purification of lactonic sophorolipids. This study establishes a fed-batch fermentation process of purifying sophorolipids from Candida albicans O-13-1 using low-cost sugarcane molasses as the substrate. In the optimized conditions of this research, using sugarcane molasses as a substrate and product synthesis based on the temperature stage-controlled fermentation, our result indicates that sophorolipids production could reach 108.7 g/L. More importantly, lactonic sophorolipids can crystallize and precipitate during our established fermentation process. The structures and content of sophorolipids separated from the fermentation broth and sophorolipids crystallized in the fermentation broth were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The fermentation process produced 90.5 g/L crystallized lactonic sophorolipids with 90.51% purity. This is an energy-saving and low-cost method to obtain such pure lactonic sophorolipids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethanol fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 immobilized in Luffa cylindrica L. sponge discs and Ca-alginate matrices

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama C.; Ray, Ramesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Bio-ethanol production from cane molasses (diluted to 15 % sugar w/v) was studied using the bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 entrapped in luffa (Luffa cylindrica L.) sponge discs and Ca-alginate gel beads as the immobilizing matrices. At the end of 96 h fermentation, the final ethanol concentrations were 58.7 ± 0.09 and 59.1 ± 0.08 g/l molasses with luffa and Ca-alginate entrapped Z. mobilis cells, respectively exhibiting 83.25 ± 0.03 and 84.6 ± 0.02 % sugar conversion. There was no statistical significant difference (Fischer’s LSD) in sugar utilization (t = 0.254, p<0.801) and ethanol production (t =-0.663, p<0.513) between the two immobilization matrices used. Further, the immobilized cells in both the matrices were physiologically active for three more cycles of operation with less than 15 % decrease in ethanol yield in the 4th cycle, which was due to some leakage of cells. In conclusion, luffa sponge was found to be equally good as Ca-alginate as a carrier material for bacterial (Z. mobilis) cell immobilization for ethanol production. Further, it has added advantages such as it is cheap, non-corrosive and has no environmental hazard. PMID:24031981

  13. Ethanol fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 immobilized in Luffa cylindrica L. sponge discs and Ca-alginate matrices.

    PubMed

    Behera, Shuvashish; Mohanty, Rama C; Ray, Ramesh C

    2012-10-01

    Bio-ethanol production from cane molasses (diluted to 15 % sugar w/v) was studied using the bacterium, Zymomonas mobilis MTCC 92 entrapped in luffa (Luffa cylindrica L.) sponge discs and Ca-alginate gel beads as the immobilizing matrices. At the end of 96 h fermentation, the final ethanol concentrations were 58.7 ± 0.09 and 59.1 ± 0.08 g/l molasses with luffa and Ca-alginate entrapped Z. mobilis cells, respectively exhibiting 83.25 ± 0.03 and 84.6 ± 0.02 % sugar conversion. There was no statistical significant difference (Fischer's LSD) in sugar utilization (t = 0.254, p<0.801) and ethanol production (t =-0.663, p<0.513) between the two immobilization matrices used. Further, the immobilized cells in both the matrices were physiologically active for three more cycles of operation with less than 15 % decrease in ethanol yield in the 4(th) cycle, which was due to some leakage of cells. In conclusion, luffa sponge was found to be equally good as Ca-alginate as a carrier material for bacterial (Z. mobilis) cell immobilization for ethanol production. Further, it has added advantages such as it is cheap, non-corrosive and has no environmental hazard.

  14. Evaluating the efficiency of a mixed culture biofilm for the treatment of black liquor and molasses in a mediator-less microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Ali, Naeem; Yousaf, Sameen; Anam, Maira; Bangash, Zain; Maleeha, Sehrish

    2016-11-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging environment-friendly technology to recover the useful energy available in waste by using microorganisms as catalyst. In this study, double chamber mediator-less MFCs separated by proton exchange membrane (PEM; Nafion) were constructed to determine the efficiency of mixed culture in using complex substrates (molasses and black liquor). It was found that activated sludge can serve as efficient source of electricigens for biofilm development on an anode. Power density of 2.425 W/m² was generated from molasses with chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 67% as compared to power density of 3.55 W/m² produced from black liquor along with COD removal efficiency of 78%. Moreover, it was demonstrated that surface area of PEM has a significant effect on power generation. An almost 5- to 8-fold increase in voltage was observed as the size of PEM was increased from 6.5 to 25 cm².

  15. Engineering and adaptive evolution of Escherichia coli W for L-lactic acid fermentation from molasses and corn steep liquor without additional nutrients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongze; Li, Kunpeng; Huang, Feng; Wang, Jinhua; Zhao, Jinfang; Zhao, Xiao; Garza, Erin; Manow, Ryan; Grayburn, Scott; Zhou, Shengde

    2013-11-01

    The D-lactic acid producing strain, Escherichia coli HBUT-D, was reengineered for L(+)-lactic acid fermentation by replacing the D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhA) with an L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) from Pedicoccus acidilactici, followed by adaptive evolution in sucrose. The resulting strain, WYZ-L, has enhanced expression of the sucrose operon (cscA and cscKB). In 100 g L(-1) of sucrose fermentation using mineral salt medium, WYZ-L produced 97 g L(-1) of l(+)-lactic acid, with a yield of 90%, a maximum productivity of 3.17 g L(-1)h(-1) and an optical purity of greater than 99%. In fermentations using sugarcane molasses and corn steep liquor without additional nutrients, WYZ-L produced 75 g L(-1) of l(+)-lactic acid, with a yield of 85%, a maximum productivity of 1.18 g L(-1)h(-1), and greater than 99% optical purity. These results demonstrated that WYZ-L has the potential to use waste molasses and corn steep liquor as a resource for L(+)-lactic acid fermentation.

  16. Green synthesis of isomaltulose from cane molasses by Bacillus subtilis WB800-pHA01-palI in a biologic membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingtian; Wu, Shanshan; Qiu, Juanjuan; Xu, Chuanxue; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong

    2017-08-15

    A green process and environmentally benign process is highly desirable in the development of enzymatic catalysis. In this work, the shuttle plasmid pHA01 was constructed and the sucrose isomerase (SIase) was expressed in Bacillus subtilis WB800. The optimal nitrogen and carbon sources for SIase expression were yeast extract (15g/L) and un-pretreated cane molasses (UCM, 20g/L), respectively. After the UCM fed, the whole cell activity reached 5.2U/mL in a 7.5L fermentor. Optimum catalytic temperature and pH of whole cell were 35°C and 5.5, respectively. Although the biologic membrane reactor (BMR) system consecutively worked for 12 batches, the sucrose conversion remained higher than 90%, indicating the BMR system had a greater operational stability. Furthermore, isomaltulose production using the BMR system with low-cost cane molasses as its substrate not only reduces the production cost and mediates environmental pollution, but also solves the genetic background problem of the non-food-grade strains.

  17. Enhanced industrial wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nachabe, A.H.; Durlak, E.

    1997-12-31

    The sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate (SS/FS) process is a treatment technology for the reduction of hexavalent chromium and precipitation of heavy metals in industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTP). When the ferrous ion, as ferrous sulfate, is mixed with sulfide, the hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to its trivalent state at a neutral pH and then precipitated. SS/FS technology can be used to replace the current hydroxide treatment chemistry in Navy IWTPs. This paper will present the results and lessons learned from full-scale implementation of SS/FS at Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport, Washington. The SS/FS treatment process reduced the chemical cost by fifty nine percent and sludge disposal cost by thirty one percent. On an annual basis total cost savings amounted to $31,950 or thirty four percent. The SS/FS treatment process lowered the amount of treatment chemicals used in the IWTP. Furthermore, metal sulfides tend to be two to three orders of magnitude less soluble than their corresponding metal hydroxides. This allows for cleaner effluent, which will help the facility meet environmental discharge requirements. Further benefits include the removal from the shop area of the high pressure sulfur dioxide cylinder (used in the hydroxide process), a faster and more reliable chrome reduction method, neutral pH operation that extends tank and equipment life, and less acid and caustic chemicals stored on the shop floor. As Navy activities respond to the ever increasing pressures to do more with less, the SS/FS process can help them meet the increasingly stringent standards.

  18. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  19. Sequential determination of nickel and cadmium in tobacco, molasses and refill solutions for e-cigarettes samples by molecular fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Talio, María Carolina; Alesso, Magdalena; Acosta, Mariano; Wills, Verónica S; Fernández, Liliana P

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a new procedure was developed for separation and preconcentration of nickel(II) and cadmium(II) in several and varied tobacco samples. Tobacco samples were selected considering the main products consumed by segments of the population, in particular the age (youth) and lifestyle of the consumer. To guarantee representative samples, a randomized strategy of sampling was used. In the first step, a chemofiltration on nylon membrane is carried out employing eosin (Eo) and carbon nanotubes dispersed in sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) solution (phosphate buffer pH 7). In this condition, Ni(II) was selectively retained on the solid support. After that, the filtrate liquid with Cd(II) was re-conditioned with acetic acid /acetate buffer solution (pH 5) and followed by detection. A spectrofluorimetric determination of both metals was carried out, on the solid support and the filtered aqueous solution, for Ni(II) and Cd(II), respectively. The solid surface fluorescence (SSF) determination was performed at λem = 545nm (λex = 515nm) for Ni(II)-Eo complex and the fluorescence of Cd(II)-Eo was quantified in aqueous solution using λem = 565nm (λex = 540nm). The calibration graphs resulted linear in a range of 0.058-29.35μgL(-1) for Ni(II) and 0.124-56.20μgL(-1) for Cd(II), with detection limits of 0.019 and 0.041μgL(-1) (S/N = 3). The developed methodology shows good sensitivity and adequate selectivity, and it was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of nickel and cadmium present in tobacco samples (refill solutions for e-cigarettes, snuff used in narguille (molasses) and traditional tobacco) with satisfactory results. The new methodology was validated by ICP-MS with adequate agreement. The proposed methodology represents a novel fluorescence application to Ni(II) and Cd(II) quantification with sensitivity and accuracy similar to atomic spectroscopies, introducing for the first time the quenching effect on SSF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  20. Late Alpine to recent thick-skinned tectonics of the central Swiss Molasse Basin, Canton of Bern, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Samuel; Allenbach, Robin; Wehrens, Philip; Reynolds, Lance; Kurmann-Matzenauer, Eva; Michael, Salomè; Herwegh, Marco

    2017-04-01

    The Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB) forms part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. It is a typical peripheral foreland basin, which developed in Paleogene and Neogene times in response to flexural bending of the European lithosphere induced by the orogenic loading of the advancing Alpine thrust wedge. The tectonics of the SMB and the role of Paleozoic and Mesozoic structures are still poorly understood. It is widely accepted that during the main deformation phase of the Jura fold-and-thrust belt, the SMB was riding piggy-back above a major detachment horizon situated within Triassic evaporites. In recent years it has been observed that the Jura fold-and-thrust belt is today deforming in a thick-skinned tectonic style. As for the western and central SMB, most authors still argue in favor of a classical foreland type, thin-skinned style of deformation. Based on the geological 3D modeling of seismic interpretations, we present new insights into the structural configuration of the central SMB. Revised and new interpretations of 2D reflection seismic data from the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a major strike-slip fault zone affecting not only the Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover, but also the crystalline basement beneath. The fault zone reactivated late Paleozoic synsedimentary normal faults bounding a Permo-Carboniferous trough. Basement-involved thrusting observed in the southern part of the SMB seems to be controlled by the presence of slightly inverted Permo-Carboniferous troughs as well. These observations, combined with a compiled structural map and the distribution of recent earthquake hypocenters suggest a late stage, NNW-SSE directed, compressional thick-skinned and strike-slip dominated tectonic activity of the central SMB, post-dating the main deformation phase of the Jura fold-and-thrust belt. This still ongoing deformation might be related to the slab rollback of the European plate and the associated lower crustal delamination as recently suggested by Singer et al. (2014

  1. Method and apparatus for treatment of wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, A.

    1982-01-19

    A method is disclosed for removing ammonia from a wastewater containing free and fixed ammonia. The process comprises the steps of: distilling the wastewater to remove the free ammonia; treating the distilled wastewater with soda ash to decompose the fixed ammonia; and distilling the treated wastewater to remove the decomposed ammonia. An apparatus is disclosed for removing ammonia from a wastewater containing free and fixed ammonia comprising: an ammonia still for removing free and fixed ammonia; a source of soda ash solution; and means for feeding the soda ash solution from said soda ash source to the ammonia still to decompose the fixed ammonia.

  2. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A.; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R.; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C.

    2016-01-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [•OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source. PMID:26854604

  3. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-04-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source.

  4. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acids composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated the interactions of molasses or corn meal [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) sources] with flaxseed meal or a soybean-sunflower meal protein mix [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) sources] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in organic Jersey cows fed...

  5. Cultivation of green algae Chlorella sp. in different wastewaters from municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Min, Min; Li, Yecong; Chen, Paul; Chen, Yifeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yingkuan; Ruan, Roger

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of green algae Chlorella sp. on wastewaters sampled from four different points of the treatment process flow of a local municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) and how well the algal growth removed nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions from the wastewaters. The four wastewaters were wastewater before primary settling (#1 wastewater), wastewater after primary settling (#2 wastewater), wastewater after activated sludge tank (#3 wastewater), and centrate (#4 wastewater), which is the wastewater generated in sludge centrifuge. The average specific growth rates in the exponential period were 0.412, 0.429, 0.343, and 0.948 day(-1) for wastewaters #1, #2, #3, and #4, respectively. The removal rates of NH4-N were 82.4%, 74.7%, and 78.3% for wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, respectively. For #3 wastewater, 62.5% of NO3-N, the major inorganic nitrogen form, was removed with 6.3-fold of NO2-N generated. From wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, 83.2%, 90.6%, and 85.6% phosphorus and 50.9%, 56.5%, and 83.0% COD were removed, respectively. Only 4.7% was removed in #3 wastewater and the COD in #3 wastewater increased slightly after algal growth, probably due to the excretion of small photosynthetic organic molecules by algae. Metal ions, especially Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn in centrate, were found to be removed very efficiently. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient-rich centrate offers a new option of applying algal process in MWTP to manage the nutrient load for the aeration tank to which the centrate is returned, serving the dual roles of nutrient reduction and valuable biofuel feedstock production.

  6. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  7. Handbook for Monitoring Industrial Wastewater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associated Water & Air Resources Engineers, Inc., Nashville, TN.

    This manual for industrial wastewater monitoring covers the philosophy of monitoring needs, planning, sampling, measuring, and analysis. Sufficient detail is given for those who wish to explore more deeply some of the practical and theoretical aspects of any of the phases of a monitoring program. A logical procedure is suggested and direction…

  8. Wastewater Treatment I. Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This student's guide is designed to provide students with the job skills necessary for the safe and effective operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. It consists of three sections. Section 1 consists of an introductory note outlining course objectives and the format of the guide. A course outline constitutes the second section.…

  9. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  10. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  11. Wastewater Treatment I. Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This student's guide is designed to provide students with the job skills necessary for the safe and effective operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. It consists of three sections. Section 1 consists of an introductory note outlining course objectives and the format of the guide. A course outline constitutes the second section.…

  12. Measuring Thicknesses of Wastewater Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Davenport, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Sensor determines when thickness of film of electrically conductive wastewater on rotating evaporator drum exceeds preset value. Sensor simple electrical probe that makes contact with liquid surface. Made of materials resistant to chemicals in liquid. Mounted on shaft in rotating cylinder, liquid-thickness sensor extends toward cylinder wall so tip almost touches. Sensor body accommodates probe measuring temperature of evaporated water in cylinder.

  13. Sulphur, Molasses, Purple Ditto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatch, Jean

    1978-01-01

    Homework, like grandmother's spring tonic, is a useless and hated ritual that is continued only because everyone seems to expect it. The best way to make homework enriching and personal is to prepare idea cards for each study unit, allowing each student to select a suitable project. (SJL)

  14. Integrated stratigraphy and 40Ar/39Ar chronology of the Early to Middle Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse in eastern Bavaria (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Aziz, H.; Böhme, M.; Rocholl, A.; Zwing, A.; Prieto, J.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Heissig, K.; Bachtadse, V.

    2008-02-01

    A detailed integrated stratigraphic study was carried out on middle Miocene fluvial successions of the Upper Freshwater Molasse (OSM) from the North Alpine Foreland Basin, in eastern Bavaria, Germany. The biostratigraphic investigations yielded six new localities thereby refining the OSM biostratigraphy for units C to E (sensu; Heissig, Actes du Congres BiochroM’97. Mem Trav EPHE, Inst Montpellier 21, 1997) and further improving biostratigraphic correlations between the different sections throughout eastern Bavaria. Radioisotopic ages of 14.55 ± 0.19 and 14.88 ± 0.11 Ma have been obtained for glass shards from the main bentonite horizon and the Ries impactite: two important stratigraphic marker beds used for confirming our magnetostratigraphic calibration to the Astronomical Tuned Neogene Time Scale (ATNTS04; Lourens et al. in Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press, 2004). Paleomagnetic analysis was performed using alternating field (AF) and thermal (TH) demagnetization methods. The AF method revealed both normal and reverse polarities but proofs to yield unreliable ChRM directions for the Puttenhausen section. Using the biostratigraphic information and radioisotopic ages, the magnetostratigraphic records of the different sections are tentatively correlated to the Astronomical Tuned Neogene Time Scale (ATNTS04; Lourens et al. in Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press, 2004). This correlation implies that the main bentonite horizon coincides to chron C5ADn, which is corroborated by its radioisotopic age of 14.55 Ma, whereas the new fossil locality Furth 460, belonging to OSM unit E, probably correlates to chron C5Bn.1r. The latter correlation agrees well with the Swiss Molasse locality Frohberg. Correlations of the older sections are not straightforward. The Brock horizon, which comprises limestone ejecta from the Ries impact, possibly correlates to C5ADr (14.581 14.784 Ma), implying that, although within error, the radioisotopic age

  15. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  16. Design of petroleum products terminal wastewater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klock, B.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum products terminals, used in conjunction with transportation operations to accomplish the flow of products from their source in refineries down to the consumers, are relatively simple facilities comprising product storage, the means for connecting storage to transportation operations, and other operations to support those functions. Although wastewater generation at terminals is relatively minor, increasingly strict regulation of wastewater from even minor sources is making it more critical that terminal wastewater handling, treatment, and disposal be understood and optimized to ensure that effective wastewater treatment is accomplished at reasonable cost. Anticipating the increased demands on terminal wastewater handling, the API Marketing Terminal Effluent Task Force has sponsored a number of studies to characterize wastewater at terminals and to develop practical means for treating the water. In addition, the Task Force sponsored Texaco`s writing of the report on which this paper is based, API 4602, Minimization, Handling, Treatment, and Disposal of Petroleum Products Terminal Wastewaters. This paper highlights some of the key recommendations in the report, which are: (1) begin characterizing the terminal`s tank bottoms water flow and quality as soon as possible; (2) determine the optimum wastewater disposal option; (3) for most situations, segregate stormwater from contaminated water; (4) if wastewater is treated, use a collection tank to equalize the flow and concentration of tank bottoms water; (5) if wastewater is hauled off to a disposal company, consider removing benzene first; and (6) minimize the use of detergents in the terminal.

  17. The yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium thailandense LB01 produces a new biosurfactant using olive oil mill wastewater as an inducer.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Dayana P; Gudiña, Eduardo J; Fernandes, Fabiano; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Rodrigues, Lígia R; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the biosurfactant production by an Aureobasidium thailandense LB01 was reported for the first time. Different agro-industrial by-products (corn steep liquor, sugarcane molasses, and olive oil mill wastewater) were evaluated as alternative low-cost substrates. The composition of the culture medium was optimized through response surface methodology. The highest biosurfactant production (139±16mg/L) was achieved using a culture medium containing yeast extract (2g/L); olive oil mill wastewater (1.5%, w/w); glucose (6g/L) and KH2PO4 (1g/L) after 48h of fermentation. The partially purified biosurfactant exhibited a critical micelle concentration of 550mg/L, reducing the surface tension of water up to 31.2mN/m. Its molecular structure was found to be similar to a lauric acid ester. The biosurfactant exhibited a better performance than the chemical surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in oil dispersion assays, thus suggesting its potential application in bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (1980 EDITION) AND ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL (2002 EDITION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) first issued detailed guidance on the design, construction, and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) in 1980. Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems (USEPA.1980) was the most comprehens...

  19. ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (1980 EDITION) AND ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL (2002 EDITION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) first issued detailed guidance on the design, construction, and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) in 1980. Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems (USEPA.1980) was the most comprehens...

  20. Biodegradation of organic compounds of molasses melanoidin (MM) from biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) during the decolourisation by a potential bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram

    2012-07-01

    Molasses melanoidin (MM) is a major pollutant in biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) due to its recalcitrant properties. The 75% colour and 71% COD of MM (1,000 ppm) were reduced with developed bacterial consortium comprising Proteus mirabilis (IITRM5; FJ581028), Bacillus sp. (IITRM7; FJ581030), Raoultella planticola (IITRM15; GU329705) and Enterobacter sakazakii (IITRM16, FJ581031) in the ratio of 4:3:2:1 within 10 days at optimized nutrient. Bacterial consortium showed manganese peroxidase and laccase activity during MM decolourisation. The dominant growth of R. planticola and E. sakazakii was noted in consortium during MM decolourisation. The comparative GC-MS analysis of extracted compounds of control and degraded samples showed that most of the compounds present in control were completely utilized by bacterial consortium along with production of some metabolites. The developed bacterial consortium could be a tool for the decolourisation and degradation of melanoidin containing BMDS.

  1. Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in sugarcane blackstrap molasses through a fed-batch process: optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, João C M; Vitolo, Michele; Sato, Sunao; Aquarone, Eugênio

    2003-09-01

    We studied the effect of reactor filling time (T) (3-5 h), initial mass of inoculum (M) (1000-2100 g), and exponential time decay constant for the substrate feed rate (K) (0.6-1.6 h-1) on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in sugarcane blackstrap molasses through a fed-batch culture. The highest ethanol productivity (16.9 g/[L x h]) occurred at T = 3 h, K = 1.6 h-1, and M = 1300 g. In addition, productivity was affected by both M (for T = 3 and 4 h) and K (for T = 3 h) and varied inversely with T under any value fixed for M and K. By the quadratic regression multivariable analysis method, equations were determined to estimate ethanol yield and productivity as function of the variables studied (T, K, and M).

  2. Effects of tribasic copper chloride versus copper sulfate provided in corn-and molasses-based supplements on forage intake and copper status of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Arthington, J D; Spears, J W

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplemental tribasic copper chloride (Cu(2)(OH(3))Cl; TBCC) vs. Cu sulfate (CuSO(4)) on Cu status and voluntary forage DMI in growing heifers. Two 90-d experiments were conducted using 48 non-pregnant, crossbred heifers (24 heifers/experiment; 355 +/- 10.7 and 309 +/- 9.9 kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively). In each experiment, 3 supplemental Cu treatments were randomly allocated to heifers in individual pens consisting of (1) 100 mg of Cu/d from CuSO(4), (2) 100 mg of Cu/d from TBCC, or (3) 0 mg of Cu/d. The 2 experiments differed by the form of supplement used to deliver the Cu treatments (corn- vs. molasses-based supplements for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively). Supplements were formulated and fed to provide equivalent amounts of CP and TDN daily but differed in their concentration of the Cu antagonists, Mo (0.70 vs. 1.44 mg/kg), Fe (113 vs. 189 mg/kg), and S (0.18 vs. 0.37%) for corn- and molasses-based supplements, respectively. All heifers were provided free-choice access to ground stargrass (Cynodon spp.) hay. Jugular blood and liver biopsy samples were collected on d 0, 30, 60, and 90 of each experiment. Heifer BW was collected on d 0 and 90. Heifer ADG was not affected by Cu treatment (average = 0.22 +/- 0.11 and 0.44 +/- 0.05 kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively; P > 0.20). In Exp. 1, heifers provided supplemental Cu, independent of source, had greater (P < 0.05) liver Cu concentrations on d 60 and 90 compared with heifers provided no supplemental Cu. In Exp. 2, average liver Cu concentrations were greater (P = 0.04) for heifers receiving supplemental Cu compared with heifers receiving no Cu; however, all treatments experienced a decrease in liver Cu concentration over the 90-d treatment period. Plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations did not differ in Exp. 1 (P = 0.83) but were greater (P = 0.04) in Exp. 2 for heifers receiving supplemental Cu compared with heifers receiving no Cu. In Exp. 1, voluntary

  3. Wastewater Characterization Survey Victor Valley, Wastewater Reclamation Authority and Hazardous Waste Survey at George AFB, Californi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    and the type of pretreatment required are speculative. By the compounds found in the wastewater characterization and hazardous waste survey, SBRs ...shall oean a station positioned In a. sewer system at which wastewater is pumped to a higher level . (67) Sewer shall mean a pipe or conduit that...USAFOEHL REPORT 87-004EQO073AEF WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION SURVEY VICTOR VALLEY, WASTEWATER RECLAMATION AUTHORITY AND HAZARDOUS WASTE SURVEY AT

  4. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Wastewater Inputs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intro to wastewater inputs associated with urbanization, overview of combined sewer overflows, overview of how wastewater inputs can contribute to enrichment or eutrophication, overview of how wastewater inputs can affect reproduction by stream fauna.

  5. The age of volcanic tuffs from the Upper Freshwater Molasse (North Alpine Foreland Basin) and their possible use for tephrostratigraphic correlations across Europe for the Middle Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocholl, Alexander; Schaltegger, Urs; Gilg, H. Albert; Wijbrans, Jan; Böhme, Madelaine

    2017-07-01

    The Middle Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse sediments represent the last cycle of clastic sedimentation during the evolution of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. They are characterized by small-scale lateral and temporal facies changes that make intra-basin stratigraphic correlations at regional scale difficult. This study provides new U-Pb zircon ages as well as revised 40Ar/39Ar data of volcanic ash horizons in the Upper Freshwater Molasse sediments from southern Germany and Switzerland. In a first and preliminary attempt, we propose their possible correlation to other European tephra deposits. The U-Pb zircon data of one Swiss (Bischofszell) and seven southern German (Zahling, Hachelstuhl, Laimering, Unterneul, Krumbad, Ponholz) tuff horizons indicate eruption ages between roughly 13.0 and 15.5 Ma. The stratigraphic position of the Unterneul and Laimering tuffs, bracketing the ejecta of the Ries impact (Brockhorizon), suggests that the Ries impact occurred between 14.93 and 15.00 Ma, thus assigning the event to the reversed chron C5Bn1r (15.032-14.870 Ma) which is in accordance with paleomagnetic evidence. We combine our data with published ages of tuff horizons from Italy, Switzerland, Bavaria, Styria, Hungary, and Romania to derive a preliminary tephrochronological scheme for the Middle Miocene in Central Europe in the age window from 13.2 to 15.5 Ma. The scheme is based on the current state of knowledge that the Carpathian-Pannonian volcanic field was the only area in the region producing explosive calc-alkaline felsic volcanism. This preliminary scheme will require verification by more high-quality ages complemented by isotopic, geochemical and paleomagnetic data.

  6. Simulation program for wastewater coagulation.

    PubMed

    Ratnaweera, H; Lei, L; Lindholm, O

    2002-01-01

    The lack of comprehensive simulation models for wastewater coagulation is one of the obstacles to achieving optimal coagulant dosing. Two approaches for developing a model to describe the coagulation process are presented. The comprehensiveness in describing the influent quality with several parameters, rather than with one parameter, is identified to give high efficiency in dosing models based on algorithms constructed using the partial least squares method. The concept was tested on two full-scale wastewater treatment plants, with coagulant savings and effluent quality improvements. Significant differences were observed with the increase of online parameters in the models. The second approach is based on distribution of coagulant for particle and phosphate removal processes and is discussed for inert fractions. The concept is integrated into existing simulation software as a module. The calibration results and dosage predictions are demonstrated.

  7. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  8. Outsource water/wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Tedesco, J.A.; Cichon, E.J.

    1997-08-01

    For some operating facilities, outsourcing water/wastewater management offers an economical way to receive and use high-quality water and maintain effluent treatment services. As high-volume water users, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) companies daily use, consume and discard large quantities of water and wastewater. To remain competitive and to reduce daily operating costs, HPI companies have farmed out services. Water management is a possible plant function that can be administrated by a third party. Outsourcing the utilities area allows operators to focus and allocate resources on their core profit-generating products. It is an opportunity to try new technologies without risking capital. Before signing the contract, facilities should carefully scrutinize the benefits--financial, environmental, etc.--and actual costs from outsourcing their water management.

  9. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options for...

  10. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... GGG, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks...

  11. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options for...

  12. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... GGG, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks...

  13. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options for...

  14. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options for...

  15. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options for...

  16. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  17. Wastewater treatment using ferrous sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Boetskaya, K.P.; Ioffe, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of industrial wastewater with coagulants is used extensively in the thorough removal of emulsified tars and oils. The central plant laboratory at the Zhdanov Coke Works conducted investigations of the treatment of wastewater, subsequently used for quenching coke, with ferrous sulfate. Laboratory tests and subsequent industrial tests demonstrated the efficiency of the method. In order to further intensify the wastewater treatment process we conducted laboratory tests with the addition of certain quantities of other coagulation reagents, for example polyacrylamide (PAA) and caustic soda, in addition to the ferrous sulfate. The combined use of polyacrylamide and ferrous sulfate permits instant coagulation of the sludge and very rapid (5 to 10 min) clarification of the water. In addition, in this case the degree of purification of the water is less dependent on the initial concentration of impurities. The purification is also improved when caustic soda is added, raising the pH. From the data it is apparent that an identical degree of purification of the water may be achieved either by increasing the consumption of ferrous sulfate, or by adding PAA or NaOH. During industrial tests of the purification of wastewater with ferrous sulfate, we also investigated the resulting sludge. The use of ferrous sulfate causes a significant increase in its quantity (by a factor of 1.5 to 1.8) and in its oil content (by a factor of 2 to 2.5). The water content in the sludge decreases. The sludge (in the quantity of 0.6% of the charge) may be added to the coking charge.

  18. Wastewater treatment by immobilized cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, R.D.; Vembu, K.

    1990-01-01

    Immobilized cell processes for wastewater treatment have only recently been intensively studied and applied. Essential information on the feasibility of various immobilization methods has been reviewed and examined with special reference to wastewater treatment. Included are the suitability of various supports, techniques used for microbial attachment factors affecting affinity for the support, strength of fixation, nature of polymers, role of radical groups, properties of attached microorganisms, effects of carriers on settling properties of biomass, characteristics of biofilm on carriers, and changes in cell metabolism as a result of immobilization. The morphologies for identification of immobilized cells, the methods of identification of structure and composition of microbial aggregates, and analytical methods for the estimate of biomass in the presence of carriers are discussed. Applications of immobilized cells to toxic wasted, anaerobic and aerobic systems, and operational criteria for different wastes are specified. The results of immobilized microalgae and cyanobacteria for wastewater treatment are reported and their future prospects are highlighted. Various immobilized cell bioreactor configurations have been critically reviewed with respect to design and granulation process including the topics of: biomass retention, resistance to washout, diffusional resistances, response to toxic shocks, theoretical aspects of hydrodynamic characteristics, start-up and steady-state processes, selection of support particles, particle size and active biomass, head loss considerations, surface area, reactor liquid velocity, hydraulic retention time aerobic versus anaerobic systems, temperature and substrate concentration effects, metabolic interspecies transfer, stability, suspended solids and microbial film interactions, solids residence time requirements, and operational issues.

  19. Tannery wastewater pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Elsheikh, Mahmoud Abdel-Shafy

    2009-01-01

    Tannery wastewater is one of the most pollution sources. It can cause environmental problems related to its high organic matter, suspended solids and chromium. Chromium (III) salts are the most widely used chemicals for tanning processes, causing the tannery wastewater to be highly pollutant with chromium. The main objective of this study is to investigate the pre-treatment of an actual Egyptian tannery wastewater using two systems; the first electrolytic system and the second physico-chemical system. The performances of electrolytic system at current of 10, 20, 30 and 40 A were discussed. Poor removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), chromium (III), ammonia (NH(4) (+) and sulfide (S(2-)) were obtained. In the second physico-chemical system, calcium hydroxide was used as a coagulant material for chromium precipitation and plain sedimentation was applied for reducing of COD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) and TSS. The results demonstrate 98.8% removal of chromium, 31% removal of COD, 25.8% removal of BOD(5) and 51.2% removal of TSS.

  20. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-25

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

  1. Sustainability of wastewater treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Muga, Helen E; Mihelcic, James R

    2008-08-01

    A set of indicators that incorporate environmental, societal, and economic sustainability were developed and used to investigate the sustainability of different wastewater treatment technologies, for plant capacities of <5 million gallons per day (MGD) or 18.9 x 10(3) cubic meters (m(3)/day). The technologies evaluated were mechanical (i.e., activated sludge with secondary treatment), lagoon (facultative, anaerobic, and aerobic), and land treatment systems (e.g., slow rate irrigation, rapid infiltration, and overland flow). The economic indicators selected were capital, operation and management, and user costs because they determine the economic affordability of a particular technology to a community. Environmental indicators include energy use, because it indirectly measures resource utilization, and performance of the technology in removing conventional wastewater constituents such as biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, phosphorus, and pathogens. These indicators also determine the reuse potential of the treated wastewater. Societal indicators capture cultural acceptance of the technology through public participation and also measure whether there is improvement in the community from the specific technology through increased job opportunities, better education, or an improved local environment. While selection of a set of indicators is dependent on the geographic and demographic context of a particular community, the overall results of this study show that there are varying degrees of sustainability with each treatment technology.

  2. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Brito, A F; Petit, H V; Pereira, A B D; Soder, K J; Ross, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the interactions of corn meal or molasses [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) supplements] with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) supplements] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay diets. Eight multiparous and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 135±49d in milk and 386±61kg of body weight in the beginning of the study were randomly assigned to 4 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period lasted 19d with 14d for diet adaptation and 5d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed diets composed of mixed-mostly grass hay plus 1 of the following 4 concentrate blends: (1) corn meal plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; (2) corn meal plus flaxseed meal; (3) liquid molasses plus a protein mix containing soybean meal and sunflower meal; or (4) liquid molasses plus flaxseed meal. Data were analyzed for main effects of NSC and RDP supplements, and the NSC × RDP supplement interactions. Significant NSC × RDP supplement interactions were observed for milk urea N, milk N efficiency, and the sums of milk saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. No effect of NSC supplements was observed for nutrient intake and milk yield. However, 4% fat-corrected milk (-0.70kg/d) and energy-corrected milk (-0.60kg/d) were significantly reduced in cows fed liquid molasses due to a trend to decreased concentration of milk fat (-0.17%). Diets with liquid molasses resulted in increased (+35%) concentration and yield of milk enterolactone, indicating that this mammalian lignan can be modulated by supplements with different NSC profiles. Overall, NSC and RDP supplements profoundly changed the milk fatty acid profile, likely because of differences in fatty acids intake, Δ(9)-desaturase indices, and ruminal biohydrogenation pathways. Feeding liquid molasses significantly reduced plasma

  3. Removal of endotoxin from dairy wastewater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of various treatments on removing endotoxin (ET) from wastewater was tested by using the treated water to induce a systemic reaction via intratracheal inoculation (20 ml/goat, 6 goats/group). Treatments (T1-T7) of wastewater were as follows: 1) autoclaved 15 min, centrifuged and contain...

  4. MANUAL - CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Constructed wetlands are man-made wastewater treatment systems. They usually have one or more cells less than 1 meter deep and are planted with aquatic greenery. Water outlet structures control the flow of wastewater through the system to keep detention times and water levels at ...

  5. Chlorine Disinfection of Blended Municipal Wastewater Effluents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blending is a practice used in the wastewater industry to manage wet weather events when the influx of storm water to municipal treatment facilities could compromise the hydraulic capacity of the facility’s biological treatment system. To prevent this, wastewater is treated thro...

  6. Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Douglas D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment: (1) operators, training, and certification; (2) solutions to operating problems; (3) collection systems; (4) operations manuals; (5) wastewater treatment facility case histories; (5) land application; and (6) treatment of industrial wastes. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Chlorine Disinfection of Blended Municipal Wastewater Effluents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blending is a practice used in the wastewater industry to manage wet weather events when the influx of storm water to municipal treatment facilities could compromise the hydraulic capacity of the facility’s biological treatment system. To prevent this, wastewater is treated thro...

  8. Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Douglas D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment: (1) operators, training, and certification; (2) solutions to operating problems; (3) collection systems; (4) operations manuals; (5) wastewater treatment facility case histories; (5) land application; and (6) treatment of industrial wastes. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Ferrous and Sulfide Treatment of Electroplating Wastewater.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    chromium contaminants and the precipitation of heavy metal contaminants from contaminated electroplating wastewater. The wastewater is first adjusted...to a pH of from about 8 to 10 and then treated with sodium sulfide to provide sulfide ions to effect precipitation of heavy metal contaminants followed

  10. Persistence of Ebola Virus in Sterilized Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the ongoing 2014/2015 Ebola virus outbreak, significant questions regarding the appropriate handling of Ebola virus-contaminated liquid waste remain, including the persistence of Ebola virus in wastewater. To address these uncertainties, we evaluated the persistence of Ebola virus spiked in sterilized domestic sewage. The viral titer decreased approximately 99% within the first test day from an initial viral titer of 106 TCID50 mL–1; however, it could not be determined if this initial rapid decrease was due to aggregation or inactivation of the viral particles. The subsequent viral titer decrease was less rapid, and infectious Ebola virus particles persisted for all 8 days of the test. The inactivation constant (k) was determined to be −1.08 (2.1 days for a 90% viral titer decrease). Due to experimental conditions, we believe these results to be an upper bound for Ebola virus persistence in wastewater. Wastewater composition is inherently heterogeneous; subsequently, we caution that interpretation of these results should be made within a holistic assessment, including the effects of wastewater composition, dilution, and potential exposure routes within wastewater infrastructure. While it remains unknown if Ebola virus may be transmitted via wastewater, these data demonstrate a potential exposure route to infectious Ebola virus via wastewater and emphasize the value of a precautionary approach to wastewater handling in an epidemic response. PMID:26523283

  11. A Technology of Wastewater Sludge Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizatulin, R. A.; Senkus, V. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Baldanova, A. S.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-04-01

    At many communities, industrial and agricultural enterprises, treatment and recycling of wastewater sludge is an urgent task as the sludge is poured and stored in sludge banks for many years and thus worsens the ecology and living conditions of the region. The article suggests a new technology of wastewater sludge treatment using water-soluble binder and heat treatment in microwave ovens.

  12. MANUAL - CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Constructed wetlands are man-made wastewater treatment systems. They usually have one or more cells less than 1 meter deep and are planted with aquatic greenery. Water outlet structures control the flow of wastewater through the system to keep detention times and water levels at ...

  13. Hydrogen sulfide pollution in wastewater treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    AlDhowalia, K.H. )

    1987-01-01

    The hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) found in wastewater collection systems and wastewater treatment facilities results from the bacterial reduction of the sulfate ion (SO{sub 4}). Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that occurs both in the sewer atmosphere and as a dissolved gas in the wastewater. When raw wastewater first enters the wastewater treatment facility by gravity most of the hydrogen sulfide is in the gaseous phase and will escape into the atmosphere at the inlet structures. Also some of the dissolved hydrogen sulfide will be released at points of turbulance such as at drops in flow, flumes, or aeration chambers. Several factors can cause excessive hydrogen sulfide concentrations in a sewerage system. These include septic sewage, long flow times in the sewerage system, high temperatures, flat sewer grades, and poor ventilation. These factors are discussed in this paper.

  14. Wastewater temperature decrease in pressure sewers.

    PubMed

    Sallanko, Jarmo; Pekkala, Mari

    2008-12-01

    The centralization of wastewater treatment in large central treatment plants and the connection of sparsely populated areas to sewerage systems have increased the time wastewater is retained in sewers. These retention times lead to a decrease in wastewater temperature and affect wastewater treatment, especially the removal of nitrogen. In this study, temperature changes in long transfer sewers were examined. The temperature change was greatest at the end of winter and in the front part of the sewer. Temperature changes in the front parts of the sewers ranged from 0.16 to 0.27 degree C/km, and in the end parts from 0.02 to 0.10 degree C/km. When expressed in terms of the retention time for wastewater in the sewer, the temperature changes ranged from 0.12 to 0.17 degree C per retention hour.

  15. Wastewater washing screens out solids

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, D.G.

    1994-09-01

    Screening, as practiced by most municipal wastewater treatment plants, involves the manual or mechanical separation of all undesirable solids that flow into the sewer system. This consists of putresible or rotting material and inert solids such as paper, food, leaves, plastics, rubber, rocks, glass, metal and cigarette butts. These constituents, if not removed, clog downstream equipment and put a heavy load on aeration basins, dissolved air flotation equipment and digesters. Screenings washing is just entering the U.S. market with numerous benefits including increased efficiency, economics, safer work environment, and the ability to meet more stringent regulations.

  16. Experimental Oily Wastewater Separation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-28

    simulants, and bilgewater demonstrated the 0017 1A T3 IOOOpp Rovs 69Is eu.,sIT4 Unclassified $*Ccu1fV Cf.ANOPOCAr,0U Of tM#$ 0444 fftf em -- nd...Oxyphotolysls Reactor Assembly 0 (From Shipboard Installation) .... ............ 4-3 4-3. 1200-Watt UV Lamp Stabilizer, Enclosure for 550-Watt and 700-Watt...steel reactor assembly where the dissolved components in the oily wastewater are oxidized with ozone in the presence of UV radiation. During the

  17. 7 CFR 3201.98 - Wastewater systems coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wastewater systems coatings. 3201.98 Section 3201.98... Designated Items § 3201.98 Wastewater systems coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings that protect wastewater... procurement preference for qualifying biobased wastewater systems coatings. By that date, Federal agencies...

  18. 40 CFR 63.147 - Process wastewater provisions-recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.147 Process wastewater provisions—recordkeeping. (a) The owner or operator transferring a Group 1 wastewater stream or...

  19. 7 CFR 3201.98 - Wastewater systems coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wastewater systems coatings. 3201.98 Section 3201.98... Designated Items § 3201.98 Wastewater systems coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings that protect wastewater... procurement preference for qualifying biobased wastewater systems coatings. By that date, Federal agencies...

  20. Effects of cooked molasses blocks and fermentation extract or brown seaweed meal inclusion on intake, digestion, and microbial efficiency in steers fed low-quality hay.

    PubMed

    Leupp, J L; Caton, J S; Soto-Navarro, S A; Lardy, G P

    2005-12-01

    Five ruminally, duodenally, and ileally cannulated steers (376 +/- 8.1 kg of initial BW) were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square to evaluate effects of cooked molasses block supplementation and inclusion of fermentation extract (Aspergillus oryzae) or brown seaweed meal (Ascophyllum nodosum) on intake, site of digestion, and microbial efficiency. Diets consisted of switchgrass hay (6.0% CP; DM basis) offered ad libitum, free access to water, and one of three molasses blocks (0.341 kg of DM/d; one-half at 0600 and one-half at 1800). Treatments were no block (control), block with no additive (40.5% CP; POS), block plus fermentation extract bolused directly into the rumen via gelatin capsules (2.0 g/d; FS), fermentation extract included in the block (2.0 g/d; FB), and seaweed meal included in the block (10 g/d; SB). Steers were adapted to diets for 14 d followed by a 7-d collection period. Overall treatment effect on hay OM intake tended (8.1 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.5 kg/d; P = 0.14) to increase with block supplementation. Total OM intake (8.4 vs. 7.6 +/- 0.5 kg/d; P = 0.01) increased in steers consuming block compared with control. Apparent and true ruminal OM digestibility increased (P = 0.05) with block consumption. Steers fed SB had greater (P = 0.10) true ruminal OM digestibility compared with steers fed POS (61.0 vs. 57.9 +/- 1.6%). True ruminal CP digestibility increased (P = 0.01) with block supplementation compared with control (37.5 vs. 23.6 +/- 3.7%). Addition of fermentation extract did not affect intake or digestion. Treatments did not alter ruminal pH, total VFA, or individual VFA proportions; however, ruminal ammonia increased (P = 0.01) with block supplementation. In situ disappearance rates of hay DM (3.14 +/- 0.44 %/h), NDF (3.18 +/- 0.47 %/h), and ADF (3.02 +/- 0.57 %/h) were not altered by treatment. Seaweed block increased (P = 0.01) slowly degraded CP fraction compared with POS (39.5 vs. 34.0 +/- 2.07%). Similarly, SB increased (P = 0.01) the extent of CP

  1. The Levels of Trace Elements in Honey and Molasses Samples That Were Determined by ICP-OES After Microwave Digestion Method.

    PubMed

    Altundag, Huseyin; Bina, Emel; Altıntıg, Esra

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is determining the amount of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in samples of molasses and honey which were gathered from the Sakarya and Istanbul regions. In this study, trace elements in 8 honey and 20 molasses samples with different botanic features were evaluated. The sample preparation phase was performed via wet decomposition method and microwave digestion system. The accuracy of the method was checked by the standard reference material; tea leaves (INCY-TL-1) and NIST-SRM 1515-apple. The concentrations of essential trace elements (TEs) were observed in the range of 1.61 ± 0.01-287.03 ± 1.07; 0.21 ± 0.01-11.04 ± 0.12; 0.35 ± 0.03-21.71 ± 0.02 and 1.19 ± 0.01-60.90 ± 1.09 μg g(-1) for iron, copper, manganese and zinc ions, respectively, while the toxic element contents were observed in the range of 0.82 ± 0.17-3.06 ± 0.03; 0.04 ± 0.05-1.96 ± 0.03 and 0.62 ± 0.01-120.52 ± 0.10 μg g(-1) for lead, nickel and aluminum ions, respectively. The concentrations of basic TEs iron, copper, manganese and zinc were determined as 3.87 ± 0.04-16.76 ± 0.06; 0.45 ± 0.03-2.15 ± 0.01; 0.13 ± 0.01-15.02 ± 0.14 and 0.80 ± 0.09-12.03 ± 0.19 for honey samples. Also, toxic metal, lead, nickel and aluminum values in the honey samples were determined as 1.21 ± 0.12-2.46 ± 0.21; 0.28 ± 0.14-0.88 ± 0.43 and 2.11 ± 0.02-8.04 ± 0.08. A comparison between gathered data and literature values has performed and it is determined that such findings are suitable with the literature.

  2. Integrated stratigraphy and 40Ar/39Ar chronology of the early to middle Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse in western Bavaria (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Hayfaa Abdul; Böhme, Madelaine; Rocholl, Alexander; Prieto, Jerome; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Bachtadse, Valerian; Ulbig, Albert

    2010-12-01

    A detailed integrated stratigraphic study (biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy) was carried out on five sections from the western part of the Bavarian Upper Freshwater Molasse of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB), greatly improving the chronostratigraphy of these sediments. The sections belong to the lithostratigraphic units Limnische Untere Serie (UL) and Fluviatile Untere Serie (UF) and contain 19 (mostly new) small-mammal bearing levels, significantly refining the local biostratigraphy. Radiometric ages obtained from glass shards from tuff horizons are used together with the biostratigraphic information for constructing and confirming the magnetostratigraphic correlation of the studied sections to the Astronomical Tuned Time Scale (ANTS04; Lourens et al. in Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press, 2004). This correlation implies that the UL lithostratigraphic unit corresponds to the latest Ottnangian and the Early Karpatian, whereas the UF corresponds to the Karpatian and the Early Badenian. This indicates that the Brackish- to Freshwater Molasse transition already occurred during the late Ottnangian. The pre-Riesian hiatus occurred in the latest Karpatian and lower Early Badenian in Eastern Bavaria and Bohemia and in the Late Karpatian and earliest Badenian in Western Bavaria. The geochemical and Ar-Ar data of volcanic ashes suggest that highly evolved silicic magmas from a single volcano or volcanic center, characterized by a uniform Nd isotopic composition, erupted repetitively over the course of at least 1.6 Myr. Three phases of eruptive activity were identified at 16.1 ± 0.2 Ma (Zahling-2), 15.6 ± 0.4 Ma (Krumbad), and 14.5 ± 0.2 Ma (Heilsberg, Hegau). The correlation of the local biostratigraphic zonation to the ANTS04 enables further the characterization of both the Ottnangian-Karpatian and Karpatian-Badenian boundaries in the NAFB by small-mammal biostratigraphy. According to these results the Ottnangian-Karpatian boundary is

  3. Mitigating ammonia nitrogen deficiency in dairy wastewaters for algae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qian; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Ma, Xiaochen; Ma, Yiwei; Chen, Paul; Zheng, Hongli; Doan, Yen T T; Liu, Hui; Chen, Chi; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Ruan, Roger

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrated that the limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewater was the ammonia nitrogen deficiency. Dairy wastewaters were mixed with a slaughterhouse wastewater that has much higher ammonia nitrogen content. The results showed the mixing wastewaters improved the nutrient profiles and biomass yield at low cost. Algae grown on mixed wastewaters contained high protein (55.98-66.91%) and oil content (19.10-20.81%) and can be exploited to produce animal feed and biofuel. Furthermore, algae grown on mixed wastewater significantly reduced nutrient contents remained in the wastewater after treatment. By mitigating limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewaters, the key issue of low biomass yield of algae grown on dairy wastewaters was resolved and the wastewater nutrient removal efficiency was significantly improved by this study.

  4. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, A.

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  5. Effects of wastewater on forested wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Cycling nutrient-enriched wastewater from holding ponds through natural, forested wetlands is a practice that municipal waste treatment managers are considering as a viable option for disposing of wastewater. In this wastewater cycling process, sewer effluent that has been circulated through aerated ponds is discharged into neighboring wetland systems. To understand how wastewater cycling affects forest and species productivity, researchers at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center conducted dendroecological investigations in a swamp system and in a bog system that have been exposed to wastewater effluent for many decades. Dendroecology involves the study of forest changes over time as interpreted from tree rings. Tree-ring chronologies describe the pattern and history of growth suppression and release that can be associated with aging and disturbances such as hurricanes, floods, and fires. But because of limited monitoring, little is known about the potential for long-term effects on forested wetlands as a result of wastewater flooding. USGS researchers used tree rings to detect the effect of wastewater cycling on tree growth. Scientists expected to find that tree-ring width would be increased as a result of added nutrients.

  6. Ecological considerations in wetlands treatment of municipal wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, P.J.; Kaynor, E.R.; Benforado, J.

    1985-01-01

    What are the possible or probable environmental consequences of applying municipal wastewater to wetlands. Here, 31 papers address this question from various perspectives. Coverage includes: state-of-the art engineering for applying wastewater to wetlands; environmental values and perspectives; ecosystem dynamics - particularly hydrology-nutrient interactions; human and wildlife environmental health problems that could result from wastewater applications; case histories of the long term effects on wetlands that received wastewater or simulated wastewater for several years; and wetland management potential.

  7. Simulation of wastewater treatment plant within integrated urban wastewater models.

    PubMed

    Heusch, S; Kamradt, B; Ostrowski, M

    2010-01-01

    In the federal state of Hesse in Germany the application of an integrated software modelling framework is becoming part of the planning process to attain legal approval for the operation of combined sewer systems. The software allows for parallel simulation of flow and water quality routing in the sewer system and in receiving rivers. It combines existing pollution load model approaches with a simplified version of the River Water Quality Model No. 1 (RWQM1). Comprehensive simulation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is not considered yet. The paper analyses alternatives for the implementation of a WWTP module to model activated sludge plants. For both primary and secondary clarifiers as well as for the activated sludge process concepts for the integration into the existing software framework were developed. The activated sludge concept which uses a linearized version of the well known ASM1 model is presented in detail.

  8. Electrocoagulation of wastewater from almond industry.

    PubMed

    Valero, David; Ortiz, Juan M; García, Vicente; Expósito, Eduardo; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    This work was carried out to study the treatment of almond industry wastewater by the electrocoagulation process. First of all, laboratory scale experiments were conducted in order to determine the effects of relevant wastewater characteristics such as conductivity and pH, as well as the process variables such as anode material, current density and operating time on the removal efficiencies of the total organic carbon (TOC) and the most representative analytical parameters. Next, the wastewater treatment process was scaled up to pre-industrial size using the best experimental conditions and parameters obtained at laboratory scale. Finally, economic parameters such as chemicals, energy consumption and sludge generation have been discussed.

  9. Postprandial insulin and glucose levels are reduced in healthy subjects when a standardised breakfast meal is supplemented with a filtered sugarcane molasses concentrate.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Timothy P; Wright, Alison G; Clifton, Peter M; Ilag, Leodevico L

    2016-12-01

    A phytochemical- and mineral-rich filtered sugarcane molasses concentrate (FMC), when added to carbohydrate-containing foods as a functional ingredient, lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses. We hypothesised that this beneficial effect would also occur if FMC was administered as an oral supplement taken before a meal. This study measured the postprandial glucose and insulin responses elicited by different doses of FMC administered immediately prior to a standard breakfast to healthy subjects. Each subject was given three or five breakfast meals once, on different days. The composition of the meals was identical, except for the addition of either placebo syrup (test meal 1) or increasing doses of FMC (test meals 2-5). The plasma glucose concentration curves were similar for the five test meals. Plasma insulin curves were lowered in a dose-dependent manner. Stratifying subjects based on age, BMI and insulin resistance showed greater effects of low doses of FMC on lowering insulin responses in those subjects with potentially greater insulin resistance. When insulin response is standardised to amount of carbohydrate in the meal/dose combination, the reduction in response is linear and inversely proportional to the FMC dose. FMC shows promise as an agent that can reduce insulin responses and lessen the load on the pancreatic beta cells.

  10. Continuous Ethanol Fermentation of Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomasses, Waste Biomasses, Molasses and Syrup Using the Anaerobic, Thermophilic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter italicus Pentocrobe 411.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Rasmus Lund; Jensen, Karen Møller; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellosic ethanol production is now at a stage where commercial or semi-commercial plants are coming online and, provided cost effective production can be achieved, lignocellulosic ethanol will become an important part of the world bio economy. However, challenges are still to be overcome throughout the process and particularly for the fermentation of the complex sugar mixtures resulting from the hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Here we describe the continuous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose from non-detoxified pretreated wheat straw, birch, corn cob, sugar cane bagasse, cardboard, mixed bio waste, oil palm empty fruit bunch and frond, sugar cane syrup and sugar cane molasses using the anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter Pentocrobe 411. All fermentations resulted in close to maximum theoretical ethanol yields of 0.47-0.49 g/g (based on glucose, xylose, and arabinose), volumetric ethanol productivities of 1.2-2.7 g/L/h and a total sugar conversion of 90-99% including glucose, xylose and arabinose. The results solidify the potential of Thermoanaerobacter strains as candidates for lignocellulose bioconversion.

  11. Continuous Ethanol Fermentation of Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomasses, Waste Biomasses, Molasses and Syrup Using the Anaerobic, Thermophilic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter italicus Pentocrobe 411

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Rasmus Lund; Jensen, Karen Møller; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellosic ethanol production is now at a stage where commercial or semi-commercial plants are coming online and, provided cost effective production can be achieved, lignocellulosic ethanol will become an important part of the world bio economy. However, challenges are still to be overcome throughout the process and particularly for the fermentation of the complex sugar mixtures resulting from the hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Here we describe the continuous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose from non-detoxified pretreated wheat straw, birch, corn cob, sugar cane bagasse, cardboard, mixed bio waste, oil palm empty fruit bunch and frond, sugar cane syrup and sugar cane molasses using the anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter Pentocrobe 411. All fermentations resulted in close to maximum theoretical ethanol yields of 0.47–0.49 g/g (based on glucose, xylose, and arabinose), volumetric ethanol productivities of 1.2–2.7 g/L/h and a total sugar conversion of 90–99% including glucose, xylose and arabinose. The results solidify the potential of Thermoanaerobacter strains as candidates for lignocellulose bioconversion. PMID:26295944

  12. Effects of ethanol, molasses and Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation quality, in vitro digestibility and aerobic stability of total mixed ration silages in the Tibetan plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xianjun; Wen, Aiyou; Wang, Jian; Guo, Gang; Desta, Seare T; Shao, Tao

    2016-05-01

    In Tibet, it is common practice to make and relocate total mixed ration (TMR) silages before feeding due to the uneven distribution of forages temporally and spatially. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (L), molasses (M) or ethanol (E) on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of local adaptive TMR silage. After 45 days of ensiling, pH and ammonia nitrogen in inoculated TMR silages were significantly lower than control. During the first 6 days of the aerobic exposure test, a small fluctuation in lactic acid concentration for all TMR silages was observed, and then silages with ethanol continued this trend, while lactic acid in silage without ethanol sharply decreased until the end of the aerobic exposure period. Meanwhile, pH gradually increased along the aerobic exposure; silages treated with ethanol showed lower pH after 9 days of aerobic exposure. The population of yeast gradually increased during 6 days of aerobic exposure, after that an accelerated rise was observed in TMR silages without ethanol. The combinational beneficial effect of L. plantarum and ethanol was found in combined addition of ethanol and Lactobacillus plantarum silages (EL), indicated by intermediate fermentation quality and higher aerobic stability. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. The 3K Blackbody Radiation, 'Stored' & 'Frozen' Light, 'Viscous Optical Molasses' as Effects of the Electron Positron Lattice (EPOLA) Structure of Our "Vacuum" Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhony, Menahem

    2002-05-01

    In the EPOLA model of space [1] the mysterious 3K blackbody radiation of the sky is due to random thermal vibrations of the electrons and positrons, bound in the epola. They also cause the zero-point motion of helium atoms, a Brownian Motion analog. The temperature T of our epola region is therefore 3K. In space regions with more hot stars, more nuclear activity, T is higher and they may create the mystery of gray matter. Epola regions below 3K are observed as mysterious dark matter. The gray and dark matter regions are considered to constitute 90 percent of the mass of the universe. The 1997 Nobel Prize winners' "Optical Molasses" at micro-K T's are also explained by the epola model, as well as the 'stored', 'frozen' light effects, observed in 1999-2001. References: 1. M.Simhony, Invitation to the Natural Physics of Matter, Space, and Radiation, World Scientific, 1994 (292 pp), ISBN 981-02-1649-1. See the website: www.word1.co.il/physics .

  14. Optimization of anaerobically digested distillery molasses spent wash decolorization using soil as inoculum in the absence of additional carbon and nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Adikane, H V; Dange, M N; Selvakumari, K

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve maximum decolorization of molasses spent wash (MSW) in absence of any additional carbon or nitrogen source using soil as inoculum. Soil samples were collected from the MSW disposal site. Colored soil samples exhibited higher pH, sugar and protein as compare to less colored samples. A decolorization of 69% was obtained using 10% (w/v) soil and 12.5% (v/v) MSW after 7 days incubation. Optimized parameters including days--6 days, pH--6, MSW--12.5% and soil concentration--40%, were obtained for maximum decolorization. A decolorization of 81% was achieved using 10% soil and 12.5% MSW after 18 days incubation in absence of any media supplement. Nearly 12% reduction in decolorization activity of the soil sample was observed over a period of 12 months when stored at 6 degrees C. It could be concluded that the decolorization of MSW might be achieved using soil as inoculum without addition of chemical amendments.

  15. Study of Sugarcane Pieces as Yeast Supports for Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Juice and Molasses Using Newly Isolated Yeast from Toddy Sap

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, Botcha; Balakrishnan, Kesavapillai; Raghava Rao, Tamanam; Seshagiri Rao, Gudapaty

    2012-01-01

    A repeated batch fermentation system was used to produce ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (NCIM 3640) immobilized on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) pieces. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy evidently showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 72.65~76.28 g/L in an average value) and ethanol productivities (about 2.27~2.36 g/L/hr in an average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.9~3.25 g/L) with conversions ranging from 98.03~99.43%, showing efficiency 91.57~95.43 and operational stability of biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of the work pertaining to the use of sugarcane as immobilized yeast support could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:22783132

  16. Effect of pH, aeration and sucrose feeding on the invertase activity of intact S. cerevisiae cells grown in sugarcane blackstrap molasses.

    PubMed

    Vitolo, M; Duranti, M A; Pellegrim, M B

    1995-08-01

    S. cerevisiae was grown in a blackstrap molasses containing medium in batch and fed-batch cultures. The following parameters were varied: pH (from 4.0 to 6.5), dissolved oxygen (DO) (from 0 to 5.0 mg O2 L-1) and sucrose feeding rate. When glucose concentration (S) was higher than 0.5 g L-1 a reduction in the specific invertase activity of intact cells (v) and an oscillatory behavior of v values during fermentation were observed. Both the invertase reduction and the oscillatory behavior of v values could be related to the glucose inhibitory effect on invertase biosynthesis. The best culture conditions for attaining S. cerevisiae cells suitable for invertase production were: temperature = 30 degrees C; pH = 5.0; DO = 3.3 mg O2 L-1; (S) = 0.5 g L-1 and sucrose added into the fermenter according to the equations: (V-Vo) = t2/16 or (V - Vo) = (Vf - Vo).(e0.6t-1)/10.

  17. An organic acid-tolerant HAA1-overexpression mutant of an industrial bioethanol strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application to the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Takuya; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Ogawa, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Shima, Jun

    2013-12-30

    Bacterial contamination is known as a major cause of the reduction in ethanol yield during bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acetate is an effective agent for the prevention of bacterial contamination, but it negatively affects the fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae. We have proposed that the combined use of organic acids including acetate and lactate and yeast strains tolerant to organic acids may be effective for the elimination of principally lactic acid bacterial (LAB) contamination. In a previous study employing laboratory S. cerevisiae strains, we showed that overexpression of the HAA1 gene, which encodes a transcriptional activator, could be a useful molecular breeding method for acetate-tolerant yeast strains. In the present study, we constructed a HAA1-overexpressing diploid strain (MATa/α, named ER HAA1-OP) derived from the industrial bioethanol strain Ethanol Red (ER). ER HAA1-OP showed tolerance not only to acetate but also to lactate, and this tolerance was dependent on the increased expression of HAA1 gene. The ethanol production ability of ER HAA1-OP was almost equivalent to that of the parent strain during the bioethanol production process from sugarcane molasses in the absence of acetate. The addition of acetate at 0.5% (w/v, pH 4.5) inhibited the fermentation ability of the parent strain, but such an inhibition was not observed in the ethanol production process using ER HAA1-OP.

  18. Comparison of two mathematical models for correlating the organic matter removal efficiency with hydraulic retention time in a hybrid anaerobic baffled reactor treating molasses.

    PubMed

    Ghaniyari-Benis, S; Martín, A; Borja, R; Martín, M A; Hedayat, N

    2012-03-01

    A modelling of the anaerobic digestion process of molasses was conducted in a 70-L multistage anaerobic biofilm reactor or hybrid anaerobic baffled reactor with six compartments at an operating temperature of 26 °C. Five hydraulic retention times (6, 16, 24, 72 and 120 h) were studied at a constant influent COD concentration of 10,000 mg/L. Two different kinetic models (one was based on a dispersion model with first-order kinetics for substrate consumption and the other based on a modification of the Young equation) were evaluated and compared to predict the organic matter removal efficiency or fractional conversion. The first-order kinetic constant obtained with the dispersion model was 0.28 h(-1), the Peclet dispersion number being 45, with a mean relative error of 2%. The model based on the Young equation predicted the behaviour of the reactor more accurately showing deviations lower than 10% between the theoretical and experimental values of the fractional conversion, the mean relative error being 0.9% in this case.

  19. An organic acid-tolerant HAA1-overexpression mutant of an industrial bioethanol strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application to the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial contamination is known as a major cause of the reduction in ethanol yield during bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acetate is an effective agent for the prevention of bacterial contamination, but it negatively affects the fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae. We have proposed that the combined use of organic acids including acetate and lactate and yeast strains tolerant to organic acids may be effective for the elimination of principally lactic acid bacterial (LAB) contamination. In a previous study employing laboratory S. cerevisiae strains, we showed that overexpression of the HAA1 gene, which encodes a transcriptional activator, could be a useful molecular breeding method for acetate-tolerant yeast strains. In the present study, we constructed a HAA1-overexpressing diploid strain (MATa/α, named ER HAA1-OP) derived from the industrial bioethanol strain Ethanol Red (ER). ER HAA1-OP showed tolerance not only to acetate but also to lactate, and this tolerance was dependent on the increased expression of HAA1 gene. The ethanol production ability of ER HAA1-OP was almost equivalent to that of the parent strain during the bioethanol production process from sugarcane molasses in the absence of acetate. The addition of acetate at 0.5% (w/v, pH 4.5) inhibited the fermentation ability of the parent strain, but such an inhibition was not observed in the ethanol production process using ER HAA1-OP. PMID:24373204

  20. Wastewater treatment with acoustic separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambayashi, Takuya; Saeki, Tomonori; Buchanan, Ian

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic separation is a filter-free wastewater treatment method based on the forces generated in ultrasonic standing waves. In this report, a batch-system separator based on acoustic separation was demonstrated using a small-scale prototype acoustic separator to remove suspended solids from oil sand process-affected water (OSPW). By applying an acoustic separator to the batch use OSPW treatment, the required settling time, which was the time that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased to the environmental criterion (<200 mg/L), could be shortened from 10 to 1 min. Moreover, for a 10 min settling time, the acoustic separator could reduce the FeCl3 dose as coagulant in OSPW treatment from 500 to 160 mg/L.

  1. Decolorization and treatment of Kokuto-shochu distillery wastewater by the combination treatment involving biodecolorization and biotreatment by Penicillium oxalicum d, physical decolorization by ozonation and treatment by activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Tanaka, Miki; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2010-11-01

    Kokuto-shochu is a traditional Japanese distilled liquor made from brown sugar. Kokuto-shochu distillery wastewater (KDW) contains high concentrations of organic compounds and brown pigments (called molasses pigments) which are hardly decolorized by general biological wastewater treatment. A fungus, Penicillium oxalicum d, which we isolated in a previous study, decolorizes 47% of the color from KDW without the addition of any nutrients. P. oxalicum d decolorizes KDW by absorbing the pigments into its mycelia. Here we describe a KDW treatment system that combines biodecolorization and biotreatment by P. oxalicum d with treatment by activated sludge and physical decolorization by ozonation. Adding HClO to suppress bacterial growth and replacing fresh seed sludge at regular intervals helped to maintain the dominance and decolorization ability of P. oxalicum d. In a laboratory-scale demonstration, 48 cycles (12 days) achieved a decolorization ratio of 90% and removed more than 97% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) and dissolved total phosphorus (DTP). A major feature of our system is that it uses only 6% of the water used in an activated sludge-ozonation system.

  2. Wastewater services for small communities.

    PubMed

    Gray, S; Booker, N

    2003-01-01

    Connection to centralised regional sewage systems has been too expensive for small-dispersed communities, and these townships have traditionally been serviced by on-site septic tank systems. The conventional on-site system in Australia has consisted of an anaerobic holding tank followed by adsorption trenches. This technique relies heavily on the uptake of nutrients by plants for effective removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the effluent, and is very seasonal in its efficiency. Hence, as these small communities have grown in size, the environmental effects of the septic tank discharges have become a problem. In locations throughout Australia, such as rural Victoria and along the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, septic tanks as being replaced with the transport of sewage to regional treatment plants. For some isolated communities, this can mean spending 20,000 dollars-40,000 dollars/household, as opposed to more common connection prices of 7,000 dollars/household. This paper explores some alternative options that might be suitable for these small communities, and attempts to identify solutions that provide acceptable environmental outcomes at lower cost. The types of alternative systems that are assessed in the paper include local treatment systems, separate blackwater and greywater collection and treatment systems both with and without non-potable water recycling, a small township scale treatment plant compared to either existing septic tank systems or pumping to a remote regional treatment facility. The work demonstrated the benefits of a scenario analysis approach for the assessment of a range of alternative systems. It demonstrated that some of the alternatives systems can achieve better than 90% reductions in the discharge of nutrients to the environment at significantly lower cost than removing the wastewater to a remote regional treatment plant. These concepts allow wastewater to be retained within a community allowing for local reuse of treated effluent.

  3. SCIENCE BRIEF: REHABILITATION OF WASTEWATER COLLECTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    System rehabilitation is the application of infrastructure repair, renewal and replacement technologies in order to reinstate functionality of a wastewater system or subsystem. The proper balance of the repair, renewal, and replacement depends on the condition assessment, the lif...

  4. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  5. Wastewater Disinfectants: Many Called--Few Chosen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Gives a comparative study of disinfectants used to rid wastewater of pathogens. Concentrates on the effects of chlorine and ozone, with some mention of ultra-violet irradiation, bromine chloride, and chlorine dioxide. (MA)

  6. Charlo Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0022551, the Consolidated Charlo-Lake County Water & Sewer District is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Lake County, Montana to an unnamed swale that runs to Dublin Gulch.

  7. Woodcock Home Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030554, the Salish and Kootenai Housing Authority is authorized to discharge from its Woodcock Home Addition Wastewater Treatment Facility in Lake County, Montana, to a swale draining to Middle Crow Creek.

  8. Wastewater Disinfectants: Many Called--Few Chosen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Gives a comparative study of disinfectants used to rid wastewater of pathogens. Concentrates on the effects of chlorine and ozone, with some mention of ultra-violet irradiation, bromine chloride, and chlorine dioxide. (MA)

  9. Towards practical implementation of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rozendal, René A; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Rabaey, Korneel; Keller, Jurg; Buisman, Cees J N

    2008-08-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), are generally regarded as a promising future technology for the production of energy from organic material present in wastewaters. The current densities that can be generated with laboratory BESs now approach levels that come close to the requirements for practical applications. However, full-scale implementation of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment is not straightforward because certain microbiological, technological and economic challenges need to be resolved that have not previously been encountered in any other wastewater treatment system. Here, we identify these challenges, provide an overview of their implications for the feasibility of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment and explore the opportunities for future BESs.

  10. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Sewage Works, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

  11. Treatment of coal gasification wastewaters: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.L.; Lee, D.D.; Singh, S.P.N.

    1987-03-01

    A bench-scale fluidized-bed bioreactor was operated for over 4 months to characterize the biooxidation of major organic pollutants in coal gasification wastewater obtained from the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Monohydric phenol was degraded first, followed by more complex phenolics, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Organic components were assayed by methylene chloride extraction followed by gas chromatography. Genetic capability for degradation of naphthalene by the biofilm was identified by gene probe analysis. Further studies were conducted to determine if the existing biofilm could be enhanced for naphthalene degradation by supplemental inoculation with a microbial culture having good naphthalene-degrading capabilities. The biofilm response was monitored using gene probe techniques. An assessment of wastewater treatment technologies for coal conversion wastewaters was initiated. A bibliography was compiled, arrangements were initiated to collaborate with other investigators doing wastewater treatability studies, and a site visit was made to the Great Plains plant. 201 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Wastewater Out Front in Bay Restoration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Clean Water Act programs administered by EPA and the delegated states have played a central role in the success of the wastewater sector in effectively meeting nutrient limits in the Chesapeake Bay “pollution diet” a decade early.

  13. Bacterial Survival in Snow Made from Wastewater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium, Balantidum coli, and Entomoeba histolytica. Helminths of concern include Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Enterobius ... vermicularis (pinworm), and Trichuris trichiura (whipworm). Primary wastewater treatment removes floating and settleable solids by using physical

  14. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Sewage Works, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

  15. Energy Efficiency in Water and Wastewater Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide describes how water and wastewater facilities can lead by example and achieve multiple benefits by improving the energy efficiency of their new, existing, and renovated buildings and their day-to-day operations.

  16. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wastewater stream originates at equipment that produces styrene butadiene latex. (20) When the provisions of... elastomer products are latex products. (2) Back-end streams at affected sources that are subject to a...

  17. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: ZENOGEM™ WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zenon Environmental System's ZenoGem™ Wastewater Treatment Process treats aqueous media contaminated with volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds. This technology combines aerobic biological treatment to remove biodegradable organic compounds with ultrafiltration to separate res...

  18. Wastewater Treatment Evaluation, Mather AFB, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    Flov measurement. g. Poli.’ihing lagoons. h. Anaerobic Sludge Digestion. i. Sludge drying on sand beds. In this report, processes a... process . Solids (sludge) removed from the wastewater in the secondary clarifiers are pumped to the treatment facility influent channel upstream from...undetermined amount of wastewater to return, by gravity, to the recirculation pumps. The effluent from the two secondary clarifiers is combined at

  19. Micropollutants produced by disinfection of wastewater effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Lee, N.E.; Thompson, J.E.; Lewis, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to the chemical effects of the disinfectants chlorine, ozone, and uv light on nonvolatile organic constituents and the formation of mutagenic constituents during disinfection. Results indicate that disinfection by chlorine or ozone can lead to an increase in the number of mutagenic materials in the effluents. (JGB)

  20. Biodegradability of tannin-containing wastewater from leather industry.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Yao, Kai; Sun, Danhong; Shi, Bi

    2007-08-01

    Tannins occur commonly in the wastewaters from forestry, plant medicine, paper and leather industries. The treatment of this kind of wastewaters, including settling and biodegradation, is usually difficult because tannins are highly soluble in water and would inhibit the growth of microorganisms in activated sludge. The objective of this study is to investigate biodegradability of tannin-containing wastewaters, so as to characterize the pollution properties of such wastewaters and provide a reference for their biological treatment in wastewater treatment plants. The research was typified by using the wastewater collected from vegetable tanning process in leather industry. A model was developed to describe the activated sludge process, and the biodegradation kinetics of vegetable tanning wastewater (VET wastewater) was studied. It was found that the biodegradability of tannin-containing wastewater varies heavily with the content of tannins in wastewater. The biodegradation of VET wastewater with tannin content around 4,900 mg/l occurred inefficiently due to the inhibition of tannins to the activated sludge process, and only 34.7% of biodegradation extent was reached in 14 days of incubation. The optimal biodegradability of VET wastewater was observed when its tannin content was diluted to 490 mg/l, where the COD and tannin removals reached 51.3% and 45.1% respectively in 6 days. Hence, it is suggested that a proper control of tannin content is necessary to achieve an effective biodegradation of tannin-containing wastewaters in wastewater treatment plants.