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Sample records for molasses wastewater bio-hydrogen

  1. Bio-hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred tank reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Li, Yong-feng; Chen, Hong; Deng, Jie-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    A study of bio-hydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 5.4 L). The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for bio-hydrogen production was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 8-32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. The maximum hydrogen production yield of 8.19 L/d was obtained in the reactor with the OLR increased from 8 kg COD/m3 reactor/d to 24 kg COD/m3 d. However, the hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) drastically decreased at an OLR of 32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d. Ethanoi, acetic, butyric and propionic were the main liquid fermentation products with the percentages of 31%, 24%, 20% and 18%, which formed the mixed-type fermentation.

  2. [Enlargement test studies of bio-hydrogen production using artificial wastewater of corn stalk fermentation lixivium by mixed culture].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mao-Lin; Wei, Rui-Xia; Fan, Yao-Ting; Xing, Yan; Hou, Hong-Wei

    2007-08-01

    Conversion of artificial corn stalk wastewater, which was prepared according to the main composition of the corn stalk fermentation lixivium, into bio-hydrogen gas by mixed culture was performed in a 20 L half-continuous flow fermenter. The influences of several environmental factors on the bio-hydrogen production, such as HRT, C/N ratio, Fe2+ and artificial corn stalk wastewater concentration were discussed in the tests. The experimental results showed that HRT, C/N ratio, Fe2+ and artificial corn stalk wastewater concentration significantly affected the fermentation hydrogen production. The maximum H2 yield of 11.80 mol/kg, H2 concentration of 56% and hydrogen production rate of 8.81 L/(L x d) were obtained at HRT = 10 h, C/N = 100, Fe2+ concentration of 100 mg/L and substrate concentration of 12.5 g/L by mixed culture, respectively. In the fermentation hydrogen-producing process, the conversion efficiency of the substrate was more than 90%, and 39.40% of COD was removed from the reactor. The main by-products in the liquid phase were acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid and a little ethanol and butanol throughout this study.

  3. Potential improvement to a citric wastewater treatment plant using bio-hydrogen and a hybrid energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Xiaohua; Yang, Haijun; Berthold, Sascha; Doetsch, Christian; Shen, Jianquan

    Treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater is characterized as cost-consuming. The conventional technology uses the anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process (A 2/O), which does not produce hydrogen. There is potential for energy saving using hydrogen utilization associated with wastewater treatment because hydrogen can be produced from organic wastewater using anaerobic fermentation. A 50 m 3 pilot bio-reactor for hydrogen production was constructed in Shandong Province, China in 2006 but to date the hydrogen produced has not been utilized. In this work, a technical-economic model based on hydrogen utilization is presented and analyzed to estimate the potential improvement to a citric wastewater plant. The model assesses the size, capital cost, annual cost, system efficiency and electricity cost under different configurations. In a stand-alone situation, the power production from hydrogen is not sufficient for the required load, thus a photovoltaic array (PV) is employed as the power supply. The simulated results show that the combination of solar and bio-hydrogen has a much higher cost compared with the A 2/O process. When the grid is connected, the system cost achieved is 0.238 US t -1 wastewater, which is lower than 0.257 US t -1 by the A 2/O process. The results reveal that a simulated improvement by using bio-hydrogen and a FC system is effective and feasible for the citric wastewater plant, even when compared to the current cost of the A 2/O process. In addition, lead acid and vanadium flow batteries were compared for energy storage service. The results show that a vanadium battery has lower cost and higher efficiency due to its long lifespan and energy efficiency. Additionally, the cost distribution of components shows that the PV dominates the cost in the stand-alone situation, while the bio-reactor is the main cost component in the parallel grid.

  4. Enhanced Bio-hydrogen Production from Protein Wastewater by Altering Protein Structure and Amino Acids Acidification Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Naidong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Aihui; Feng, Leiyu

    2014-02-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type via pH control was investigated. The hydrogen production reached 205.2 mL/g-protein when protein wastewater was pretreated at pH 12 and then fermented at pH 10. The mechanism studies showed that pH 12 pretreatment significantly enhanced protein bio-hydrolysis during the subsequent fermentation stage as it caused the unfolding of protein, damaged the protein hydrogen bonding networks, and destroyed the disulfide bridges, which increased the susceptibility of protein to protease. Moreover, pH 10 fermentation produced more acetic but less propionic acid during the anaerobic fermentation of amino acids, which was consistent with the theory of fermentation type affecting hydrogen production. Further analyses of the critical enzymes, genes, and microorganisms indicated that the activity and abundance of hydrogen producing bacteria in the pH 10 fermentation reactor were greater than those in the control.

  5. Ethanoligenens harbinense gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Qiubo; Lin, Ming; Wang, Aijie; Zhao, Lihua

    2006-04-01

    Two strictly anaerobic bacterial strains (YUAN-3T and X-29) were isolated from anaerobic activated sludge of molasses wastewater in a continuous stirred-tank reactor. The strains were Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, mesophilic and motile. Cells were regular rods (0.4-0.8 x 1.5-8.0 microm) and occurred singly, in pairs and sometimes in chains of up to eight. Autoaggregative and autofluorescent growth of strain YUAN-3T and non-aggregative growth of strain X-29 were observed at 20-44 degrees C and pH 3.5-9.0. Both strains hydrolysed gelatin and aesculin and fermented several kinds of mono-, di- and oligosaccharides. Fermentation end products formed from glucose were acetate, ethanol, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The predominant cellular fatty acids were the branched-chain fatty acids iso-C(16 : 0) (44.18 %) and iso-C(12 : 0) (26.67 %). The DNA G+C contents of strains YUAN-3T and X-29 were 47.8 and 49.0 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates represent a novel phyletic sublineage within the Clostridium cellulosi rRNA cluster, with <92 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to currently known species. On the basis of polyphasic evidence from this study, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium should be classified in a new genus as a novel species, Ethanoligenens harbinense gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Ethanoligenens harbinense is YUAN-3T (=JCM 12961T = CGMCC 1.5033T).

  6. Biological decolourisation of wastewater from molasses fermentation by Trametes versicolor in an airlift reactor.

    PubMed

    Rioja, R; García, M T; Peña, M; González, G

    2008-06-01

    Continuous decolourisation of wastewater from molasses fermentation using mycelium of Trametes versicolor in pellets shape was performed in an airlift bioreactor (semi-pilot scale) with the aim of operating steadily for a long period, maintaining the colour removal activity. The influences of influent flow and glucose feed rate were tested. Induction of peroxidases secretion by Mn(2+) addition was also studied. The efficiency of the decolourisation process was followed by monitoring colour and enzymatic activities. The experimental results showed that continuous decolourisation in an airlift bioreactor can be considered a suitable alternative for treating molasses fermentation wastewater. A colour removal yield around 60% remained practically constant during 23 days under continuous operation. Laccase was found to be the main enzyme secreted by the strain, being responsible for the decolourisation process. Mn(2+) addition was not likely to induct manganese-dependent peroxidase secretion.

  7. High organic loading treatment for industrial molasses wastewater and microbial community shifts corresponding to system development.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kyohei; Chosei, Tomoaki; Nakahara, Nozomi; Hatamoto, Masashi; Wakabayashi, Takashi; Kawai, Toshikazu; Araki, Nobuo; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Molasses wastewater contains high levels of organic compounds, cations, and anions, causing operational problems for anaerobic biological treatment. To establish a high organic loading treatment system for industrial molasses wastewater, this study designed a combined system comprising an acidification tank, a thermophilic multi-stage (MS)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, mesophilic UASB reactor, and down-flow hanging sponge reactor. The average total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand removal rates were 85%±3% and 95%±2%, respectively, at an organic loading rate of 42kgCODcrm(-3)d(-1) in the MS-UASB reactor. By installation of the acidification tank, the MS-UASB reactor achieved low H2-partial pressure. The abundance of syntrophs such as fatty acid-degrading bacteria increased in the MS-UASB and 2nd-UASB reactors. Thus, the acidification tank contributed to maintaining a favorable environment for syntrophic associations. This study provides new information regarding microbial community composition in a molasses wastewater treatment system.

  8. Post-treatment of molasses wastewater by electrocoagulation and process optimization through response surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Tsioptsias, C; Petridis, D; Athanasakis, N; Lemonidis, I; Deligiannis, A; Samaras, P

    2015-12-01

    Molasses wastewater is a high strength effluent of food industry such as distilleries, sugar and yeast production plants etc. It is characterized by a dark brown color and exhibits a high content in substances of recalcitrant nature such as melanoidins. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was studied as a post treatment step for biologically treated molasses wastewater with high nitrogen content obtained from a baker's yeast industry. Iron and copper electrodes were used in various forms; the influence and interaction of current density, molasses wastewater dilution, and reaction time, on COD, color, ammonium and nitrate removal rates and operating cost were studied and optimized through Box Behnken's response surface analysis. Reaction time varied from 0.5 to 4 h, current density varied from 5 to 40 mA/cm(2) and dilution from 0 to 90% (v/v expressed as water concentration). pH, conductivity and temperature measurements were also carried out during each experiment. From preliminary experiments, it was concluded that the application of aeration and sample dilution, considerably influenced the kinetics of the process. The obtained results showed that COD removal varied between 10 and 54%, corresponding to an operation cost ranging from 0.2 to 33 euro/kg COD removed. Significant removal rates were obtained for nitrogen as nitrate and ammonium (i.e. 70% ammonium removal). A linear relation of COD and ammonium to the design parameters was observed, while operation cost and nitrate removal responded in a curvilinear function. A low ratio of electrode surface to treated volume was used, associated to a low investment cost; in addition, iron wastes could be utilized as low cost electrodes i.e. iron fillings from lathes, aiming to a low operation cost due to electrodes replacement. In general, electrocoagulation proved to be an effective and low cost process for biologically treated molasses-wastewater treatment for additional removal of COD and nitrogen content and

  9. Rhamnolipid production by pseudomonas aeruginosa GIM 32 using different substrates including molasses distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, An-hua; Xu, Mei-ying; Sun, Wei; Sun, Guo-ping

    2011-03-01

    A rhamnolipid production strain newly isolated from oil-contaminated soil was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa GIM32 by its morphology and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The effect of carbon source and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio on rhamnolipids production was investigated. Palm oil was favorable as a carbon source for rhamnolipid production. The maximum biomass and rhamnolipid concentration were 8.24 g/L and 30.4 g/L, respectively, with an optimization medium containing 50 g/L palm oil and 5 g/L sodium nitrate. Molasses distillery wastewater as an unconventional substrate for rhamnolipid production was investigated. It was found that 2.6 g/L of rhamnolipids was produced; this amount was higher than that of past reports using wastewater as a substrate. In addition, 44% of the chemical oxygen demand of wastewater was removed at the same time under the optimization condition. Eleven kinds of different molecular weight rhamnolipid homologues were identified in the rhamnolipids obtained from molasses distillery wastewater by P. aeruginosa GIM32 by LC-MS analysis.

  10. Microalgae-activated sludge treatment of molasses wastewater in sequencing batch photo-bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Tsioptsias, Costas; Lionta, Gesthimani; Samaras, Petros

    2016-08-09

    The aim of this work was the examination of the treatment potential of molasses wastewater, by the utilization of activated sludge and microalgae. The systems used included a sequencing batch bioreactor and a similar photo-bioreactor, favoring microalgae growth. The microalgae treatment of molasses wastewater mixture resulted in a considerable reduction in the total nitrogen content. A reduction in the ammonium and nitrate content was observed in the photo-bioreactor, while the effluent's total nitrogen consisted mainly of 50% organic nitrogen. The transformation of the nitrogen forms in the photo-bioreactor was attributed to microalgae activity, resulting in the production of a better quality effluent. Lower COD removal was observed for the photo-bioreactor than the control, which however increased, by the replacement of the anoxic phase by a long aeration period. The mechanism of nitrogen removal included both the denitrification process during the anoxic stage and the microalgae activities, as the replacement of the anoxic stage resulted in low total nitrogen removal capacities. A decrease in the photobioreactor performance was observed after 35 days of operation due to biofilm formation on the light tube surface, while the operation at higher temperature accelerated microalgae growth, resulting thus in the early failure of the photoreactor.

  11. Development of appropriate technology for treatment of molasses-based wastewater.

    PubMed

    Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Onodera, Takashi; Choeisai, Pairaya; Khodphuvieng, Jamnan; Prammanee, Preecha; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Kaewpradit, Wanwipa; Kubota, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the performance of a proposed treatment system consisting of an anaerobic process (acidification, methane fermentation) and an aerobic process (trickling filter) was evaluated for treating high concentrations of molasses-based wastewater (43-120 gCOD/L) by a continuous flow experiment. An anaerobic up-flow staged sludge bed (USSB) reactor, equipped with multiple gas solid separators, was used as the main treatment/methane recovery process. The USSB showed good efficiency of both COD removal (80-87%) and methane recovery (70-80%) at an organic loading rate of 11-43 kgCOD/m(3) day. As the influent COD concentration was increased, the organic loading rate for stable operation of the USSB was reduced due to cation inhibition. However, the COD removal efficiency of the whole treatment system (including the aerobic post-treatment process) was 96% even at an influent COD concentration of 120 gCOD/L. Use of the treated wastewater as a fertilizer and/or irrigation-water for sugarcane was evaluated by a field cultivation test. Both growth of sugarcane and emission of greenhouse gases from the field soil were measured. A relatively high methane flux (352 μgCH4/m(2) h) was observed when the treated wastewater from day 0 was used. By day 3, however, this value was reduced to the same level as the control. In addition, growth of sugarcane was satisfactory when the treated wastewater was used. The treated wastewater was found to be useful for cultivation of sugarcane in terms of both a low risk of greenhouse gas emission from the field soil and effectiveness for growth of sugarcane.

  12. Effects of volatile solid concentration and mixing ratio on hydrogen production by co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Yeol; Wee, Daehyun; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2014-11-28

    Co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge was evaluated for hydrogen production by response surface methodology (RSM). Batch experiments in accordance with various dilution ratios (40- to 5-fold) and waste mixing composition ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100, on a volume basis) were conducted. Volatile solid (VS) concentration strongly affected the hydrogen production rate and yield compared with the waste mixing ratio. The specific hydrogen production rate was predicted to be optimal when the VS concentration ranged from 10 to 12 g/l at all the mixing ratios of molasses wastewater and sewage sludge. A hydrogen yield of over 50 ml H2/g VS(removed) was obtained from mixed waste of 10% sewage sludge and 10 g/l VS (about 10-fold dilution ratio). The optimal chemical oxygen demand/ total nitrogen ratio for co-digesting molasses wastewater and sewage sludge was between 250 and 300 with a hydrogen yield above 20 ml H2/g VS(removed).

  13. Removal of pigments from molasses wastewater by combining micro-electrolysis with biological treatment method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ben; Tian, Xiaofei; Yu, Lian; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-12-01

    Pigments in molasses wastewater (MWW) effluent, such as melanoidins, were considered as kinds of the most recalcitrant and hazardous colorant contaminants to the environment. In this study, de-coloring the MWW by a synergistic combination of micro-electrolysis with bio-treatment was performed. Aiming to a high de-colorization yield, levels of nutrition source supplies, MWW dilution ratio, and micro-electrolysis reaction time were optimized accordingly. For a diluted (50 %, v/v) MWW, an maximum overall de-colorization yield (97.1 ± 0.5 %, for absorbance at 475 nm) was achieved through the bio-electrolysis treatment. In electrolysis bio-treatment, the positive effect of micro-electrolysis was also revealed by a promoted growth of fungal biomass as well as activities of ligninolytic enzymes. Activities of lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase were promoted by 111.2, 103.9, and 7.7 %, respectively. This study also implied that the bio-treatment and the micro-electrolysis had different efficiencies on removal of pigments with distinct polarities.

  14. Key factors affecting on bio-hydrogen production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste and kitchen wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Ahmed; El-Qelish, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The effects of sludge residence time (SRT) and dilution ratio (DR) on the continuous H2 production (HP) from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and kitchen wastewater (KWW) via mesophilic anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was investigated. Increasing DR from 1:2 to 1:3 significantly (P<0.1) increased the H2 yield (HY) from 116.5±76 to 142.5±54 ml H2/g CODremoved d, respectively. However, at a DR of 1:4, the HY was dropped to 114.5±65 ml H2/g CODremoved d. Likewise, HY increased from 83±37 to 95±24 ml H2/g CODremoved d, when SRT increased from 3.6 to 4.0 d. Further increase in HY of 148±42 ml H2/g CODremoved d, was occurred at a SRT of 5.6d. Moreover, hydrogen fermentation facilitated carbohydrate, lipids, protein and volatile solids removal efficiencies of 87±5.8%, 74.3±9.12%, 76.4±11.3% and 84.8±4.1%, respectively.

  15. Adsorption studies of molasse's wastewaters on activated carbon: modelling with a new fractal kinetic equation and evaluation of kinetic models.

    PubMed

    Figaro, S; Avril, J P; Brouers, F; Ouensanga, A; Gaspard, S

    2009-01-30

    Adsorption kinetic of molasses wastewaters after anaerobic digestion (MSWD) and melanoidin respectively on activated carbon was studied at different pH. The kinetic parameters could be determined using classical kinetic equations and a recently published fractal kinetic equation. A linear form of this equation can also be used to fit adsorption data. Even with lower correlation coefficients the fractal kinetic equation gives lower normalized standard deviation values than the pseudo-second order model generally used to fit adsorption kinetic data, indicating that the fractal kinetic model is much more accurate for describing the kinetic adsorption data than the pseudo-second order kinetic model.

  16. Characterization of the COD removal, electricity generation, and bacterial communities in microbial fuel cells treating molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Yeong; Kim, Tae G; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-11-09

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, electricity generation, and microbial communities were compared in 3 types of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) treating molasses wastewater. Single-chamber MFCs without and with a proton exchange membrane (PEM), and double-chamber MFC were constructed. A total of 10,000 mg L(-1) COD of molasses wastewater was continuously fed. The COD removal, electricity generation, and microbial communities in the two types of single-chamber MFCs were similar, indicating that the PEM did not enhance the reactor performance. The COD removal in the single-chamber MFCs (89-90%) was higher than that in the double-chamber MFC (50%). However, electricity generation in the double-chamber MFC was higher than that in the single-chamber MFCs. The current density (80 mA m(-2)) and power density (17 mW m(-2)) in the double-chamber MFC were 1.4- and 2.2-times higher than those in the single-chamber MFCs, respectively. The bacterial community structures in single- and double-chamber MFCs were also distinguishable. The amount of Proteobacteria in the double-chamber MFC was 2-3 times higher than those in the single-chamber MFCs. For the archaeal community, Methanothrix (96.4%) was remarkably dominant in the single-chamber MFCs, but Methanobacterium (35.1%), Methanosarcina (28.3%), and Methanothrix (16.2%) were abundant in the double-chamber MFC.

  17. Performances of microbial fuel cells fed with rejected wastewater from BioCH4 and BioH2 processes treating molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Yeong; Kim, Tae G; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-01-01

    An integrated process involving conventional anaerobic digestion and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has attracted attention recently to produce sustainable energy and to treat wastewater efficiently. To evaluate the possibility of CH4-producing process (BioCH4)-MFC or H2-producing process (BioH2)-MFC integrating systems, the MFC performances were investigated using rejected wastewater from a BioCH4 reactor (RWCH4) or BioH2 reactor (RWH2) treating molasses wastewater. When RWCH4 or RWH2 was fed into a single-chamber MFC reactor (designated as AC-MFCCH4 and AC-MFCH2, respectively) at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 1-7 d, both MFC systems showed maximum electricity production efficiencies at a HRT of 3 d. In the AC-MFCCH4 reactor, the average current density and average power density were 60.5 mA·m(-2) and 8.8 mW·m(-2), respectively. The AC-MFCH2 reactor generated an average current density of 71.4 mA·m(-2) and an average power density of 12.0 mW·m(-2). The COD removal rates were 45.7% in the AC-MFCCH4 reactor and 90.3% in the AC-MFCH2 reactor. There were no significant differences of the eubacterial community structures between the MFC systems, where Proteobacteria was remarkably dominant in both MFC systems. However, the archaeal community structures were significantly different where Methanothrix (89.3%) was remarkably dominant in the AC-MFCCH4 system, while Methanothrix (52.5%) and Methanosarcina (33.5%) were abundant in the AC-MFCH2 system. These findings demonstrate that the utilization of MFCs after the BioCH4 or BioH2 process is advantageous for energy recovery as well as COD removal from molasses wastewater.

  18. Using pig manure to promote fermentation of sugarcane molasses alcohol wastewater and its effects on microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Shen, Peihong; Han, Fei; Su, Shuquan; Zhang, Junya; Chen, Zhineng; Li, Junfang; Gan, Jiayi; Feng, Bin; Wu, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Molasses alcohol wastewater (MAW) is difficult to be bio-treated and converted into biogas. In this study, MAW mixed with pig manure (PM) in different ratios was co-digested. Biogas production, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and the structure of microbial communities were monitored in the process. Our results showed that under the optimal COD ratio of PM:MAW (1.0:1.5), CODremoval and biogas yield were the highest. And in fermentation tanks with different PM to MAW ratios, the structure and composition of bacterial communities varied in the early and late stage. Furthermore, the type of main bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) have no differences, yet the relative abundance of OTUs varied. The current research showed that there was a good potential to the use of PM as a co-digested material to anaerobic treatment of MAW and provided references for further improving bio-treatment of MAW.

  19. Comparative metabolomic-based metabolic mechanism hypothesis for microbial mixed cultures utilizing cane molasses wastewater for higher 2-phenylethanol production.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xinrong; Qi, Haishan; Mu, Li; Wen, Jianping; Jia, Xiaoqiang

    2014-10-08

    The mixed microbes coculture method in cane molasses wastewater (CMW) was adopted to produce 2-phenylethanol (2-PE). Comparative metabolomics combined with multivariate statistical analysis was performed to profile the differences of overall intracellular metabolites concentration for the mixed microbes cocultured under two different fermentation conditions with low and high 2-PE production. In total 102 intracellular metabolites were identified, and 17 of them involved in six pathways were responsible for 2-PE biosynthesis. After further analysis of metabolites and verification by feeding experiment, an overall metabolic mechanism hypothesis for the microbial mixed cultures (MMC) utilizing CMW for higher 2-PE production was presented. The results demonstrated that the branches of intracellular pyruvate metabolic flux, as well as the flux of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, glutamate, proline, leucine, threonine, and oleic acid, were closely related to 2-PE production and cell growth, which provided theoretical guidance for domestication and selection of species as well as medium optimization for MMC metabolizing CMW to enhance 2-PE yield.

  20. The close relation between Lactococcus and Methanosaeta is a keystone for stable methane production from molasses wastewater in a UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Gwan; Yun, Jeonghee; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2015-10-01

    The up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is a promising method for the treatment of high-strength industrial wastewaters due to advantage of its high treatment capacity and settleable suspended biomass retention. Molasses wastewater as a sugar-rich waste is one of the most valuable raw material for bioenergy production due to its high organic strength and bioavailability. Interpretation for complex interactions of microbial community structures and operational parameters can help to establish stable biogas production. RNA-based approach for biogas production systems is recommended for analysis of functionally active community members which are significantly underestimated. In this study, methane production and active microbial community were characterized in an UASB reactor using molasses wastewater as feedstock. The UASB reactor achieved a stable process performance at an organic loading rate of 1.7~13.8-g chemical oxygen demand (COD,·L(-1) day(-1); 87-95 % COD removal efficiencies), and the maximum methane production rate was 4.01 L-CH4·at 13.8 g-COD L(-1) day(-1). Lactococcus and Methanosaeta were comprised up to 84 and 80 % of the active bacterial and archaeal communities, respectively. Network analysis of reactor performance and microbial community revealed that Lactococcus and Methanosaeta were network hub nodes and positively correlated each other. In addition, they were positively correlated with methane production and organic loading rate, and they shared the other microbial hub nodes as neighbors. The results indicate that the close association between Lactococcus and Methanosaeta is responsible for the stable production of methane in the UASB reactor using molasses wastewater.

  1. Effect of hydraulic retention time on suppression of methanogens during a continuous biohydrogen production process using molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jeong Hee; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-01-02

    This study was undertaken to investigate the reduction of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) to decrease methane generation and recover hydrogen production during the long-term operation of biohydrogen production in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) using molasses wastewater. Reduction of HRT can be a simple and economic method to immediately control unfavorable methane generated during continuous operation of a hydrogen production system. The steady-state performance of the CSTR showed a hydrogen content of 41.3 ± 3.30% and a hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 63.7 ± 10.01 mmol-H2L(-1)d(-1) under an organic loading rate (OLR) of 29.7 g CODL(-1) at an HRT of 24 h. Increase in the methane level above 40% during long-term operation caused decrease in the hydrogen content and HPR to 5.9 ± 1.6% and 2.1 ± 1.1 mmoL-H2L(-1)d(-1), respectively. When methane increased to a high level over 40%, the CSTR at the HRT of 24 h was operated at the HRT of 12 h. Reduction of the HRT from 24 to 12 h led to decrease in the methane content of 12.1 ± 4.44% and recovery of the HPR value to 48.9 ± 15.37 mmol-H2L(-1)d(-1) over a duration of 13-22 d. When methane is generated in a continuously operated reactor, reduction of the HRT can be an easy way to suppress methanogens and recover hydrogen production without any additives or extra treatments.

  2. Enhanced production of ligninolytic enzymes and decolorization of molasses distillery wastewater by fungi under solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pant, Deepak; Adholeya, Alok

    2007-10-01

    Selected isolates of fungi were grown on wheat straw and corncob in the presence of different moistening agents such as water, molasses, potato dextrose broth and distillery effluent. All the fungal isolates responded differently with respect to growth and ligninolytic enzyme production. Fungal growth on different substrates was checked by calculating ergosterol content, which varied widely within a single species when grown on different substrates. The maximum laccase production was obtained for Aspergillus flavus TERI DB9 grown on wheat straw with molasses. For manganese peroxidase, highest production was in Aspergillus niger TERI DB20 grown on corncob with effluent. Among the two isolates positive for lignin peroxidase, the highest production was in Fusarium verticillioides ITCC 6140. This immobilized fungal biomass was then used for decolorization of effluent from a cane molasses based distillery. Maximum decolorization (86.33%) was achieved in Pleurotus ostreatus (Florida) Eger EM 1303 immobilized on corncob with molasses in a period of 28 days.

  3. A fuzzy-logic-based model to predict biogas and methane production rates in a pilot-scale mesophilic UASB reactor treating molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Turkdogan-Aydinol, F Ilter; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan

    2010-10-15

    A MIMO (multiple inputs and multiple outputs) fuzzy-logic-based model was developed to predict biogas and methane production rates in a pilot-scale 90-L mesophilic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating molasses wastewater. Five input variables such as volumetric organic loading rate (OLR), volumetric total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal rate (R(V)), influent alkalinity, influent pH and effluent pH were fuzzified by the use of an artificial intelligence-based approach. Trapezoidal membership functions with eight levels were conducted for the fuzzy subsets, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was used to implement a total of 134 rules in the IF-THEN format. The product (prod) and the centre of gravity (COG, centroid) methods were employed as the inference operator and defuzzification methods, respectively. Fuzzy-logic predicted results were compared with the outputs of two exponential non-linear regression models derived in this study. The UASB reactor showed a remarkable performance on the treatment of molasses wastewater, with an average TCOD removal efficiency of 93 (+/-3)% and an average volumetric TCOD removal rate of 6.87 (+/-3.93) kg TCOD(removed)/m(3)-day, respectively. Findings of this study clearly indicated that, compared to non-linear regression models, the proposed MIMO fuzzy-logic-based model produced smaller deviations and exhibited a superior predictive performance on forecasting of both biogas and methane production rates with satisfactory determination coefficients over 0.98.

  4. Process contribution evaluation for COD removal and energy production from molasses wastewater in a BioH2-BioCH4-MFC-integrated system.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jeonghee; Lee, Yun-Yeong; Choi, Hyung Joo; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a three-stage-integrated process using the hydrogenic process (BioH2), methanogenic process (BioCH4), and a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was operated using molasses wastewater. The contribution of individual processes to chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and energy production was evaluated. The three-stage integration system was operated at molasses of 20 g-COD L(-1), and each process achieved hydrogen production rate of 1.1 ± 0.24 L-H2 L(-1) day(-1), methane production rate of 311 ± 18.94 mL-CH4 L(-1) day(-1), and production rate per electrode surface area of 10.8 ± 1.4 g m(-2) day(-1). The three-stage integration system generated energy production of 32.32 kJ g-COD(-1) and achieved COD removal of 98 %. The contribution of BioH2, BioCH4, and the MFC reactor was 20.8, 72.2, and, 7.0 % of the total COD removal, and 18.7, 81.2, and 0.16 % of the total energy production, respectively. The continuous stirred-tank reactor BioH2 at HRT of 1 day, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket BioCH4 at HRT of 2 days, and MFC reactor at HRT of 3 days were decided in 1:2:3 ratios of working volume under hydraulic retention time consideration. This integration system can be applied to various configurations depending on target wastewater inputs, and it is expected to enhance energy recovery and reduce environmental impact of the final effluent.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a Klebsiella oxytoca strain for simultaneous azo-dye anaerobic reduction and bio-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Yu, Han-Qing; Wu, Chao

    2012-07-01

    A facultative anaerobic bacteria strain GS-4-08, isolated from an anaerobic sequence batch reactor for synthetic dye wastewater treatment, was investigated for azo-dye decolorization. This bacterium was identified as a member of Klebsiella oxytoca based on Gram staining, morphology characterization and 16S rRNA gene analysis. It exhibited a good capacity of simultaneous decolorization and hydrogen production in the presence of electron donor. The hydrogen production was less affected even at a high Methyl Orange (MO) concentration of 0.5 mM, indicating a superior tolerability of this strain to MO. This efficient bio-hydrogen production from electron donor can not only avoid bacterial inhibition due to accumulation of volatile fatty acids during MO decolorization, but also can recover considerable energy from dye wastewater.

  6. Modeling the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse: extension of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Ernesto L; Spanjers, Henri; Solon, Kimberly; Amerlinck, Youri; Nopens, Ingmar; Dewulf, Jo

    2015-03-15

    This research presents the modeling of the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse, hereby extending the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater. Based on a sensitivity analysis, four parameters of the original ADM1 and all sulfate reduction parameters were calibrated. Although some deviations were observed between model predictions and experimental values, it was shown that sulfates, total aqueous sulfide, free sulfides, methane, carbon dioxide and sulfide in the gas phase, gas flow, propionic and acetic acids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH were accurately predicted during model validation. The model showed high (±10%) to medium (10%-30%) accuracy predictions with a mean absolute relative error ranging from 1% to 26%, and was able to predict failure of methanogenesis and sulfidogenesis when the sulfate loading rate increased. Therefore, the kinetic parameters and the model structure proposed in this work can be considered as valid for the sulfate reduction process in the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse when sulfate and organic loading rates range from 0.36 to 1.57 kg [Formula: see text]  m(-3) d(-1) and from 7.66 to 12 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively.

  7. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  8. Extraction of sucrose from molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Landis, A.M.

    1982-01-26

    Sucrose is extracted from molasses by passing an aqueous molasses solution over an adsorbent, e.g., calcined Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-supported pyrolyzed C/sub 6/H/sub 6/. Thus, 10 mL molasses (approximately 46% solids) was run through a column containing 70 cubic centimetres above adsorbent with sucrose retention volume 21.4 and selectivity for sucrose - betaine 23.8.

  9. Bio-hydrogen production from tempeh and tofu processing wastes via fermentation process using microbial consortium: A mini-review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengga, Wara Dyah Pita; Wati, Diyah Saras; Siregar, Riska Yuliana; Wulandari, Ajeng Riswanti; Lestari, Adela Ayu; Chafidz, Achmad

    2017-03-01

    One of alternative energies that can replace fossil fuels is hydrogen. Hydrogen can be used to generate electricity and to power combustion engines for transportation. Bio-hydrogen produced from tempeh and tofu processing waste can be considered as a renewable energy. Bio-hydrogen produced from tempeh and tofu processing waste is beneficial because the waste of soybean straw and tofu processing waste is plentiful, cheap, renewable and biodegradable. Specification of tempeh and tofu processing waste were soybean straw and sludge of tofu processing. They contain carbohydrates (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) and methane. This paper reviews the optimal condition to produce bio-hydrogen from tempeh and tofu processing waste. The production of bio-hydrogen used microbial consortium which were enriched from cracked cereals and mainly dominated by Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium roseum. The production process of bio-hydrogen from tempeh and tofu processing waste used acid pre-treatment with acid catalyzed hydrolysis to cleave the bond of hemicellulose and cellulose chains contained in biomass. The optimal production of bio-hydrogen has a yield of 6-6.8 mL/g at 35-60 °C, pH 5.5-7 in hydraulic retention time (HRT) less than 16 h. The production used a continuous system in an anaerobic digester. This condition can be used as a reference for the future research.

  10. A palynostratigraphic approach to the SW Anatolian molasse basin: Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgün, Funda; Sözbilir, Hasan

    The study, explains stratigraphy of the Oligo-Miocene molasse around the Denizli province (SW Anatolia), based on the palynology which is also supported by the detailed mapping and correlation of the measured sections from the coal-bearing sequences of the molasse deposits. For this purpose, two huge depressions named as the Kale-Tavas molasse and Denizli molasse basins were examined. The Kale-Tavas molasse deposits has a basal unconformity with the underlying pre-Oligocene basement and begins with the Chattian Karadere and Mortuma formations which are covered unconformably by the Aquitanian Yenidere formation. An angular unconformity between the Chattian and the Burdigalian is only observed in the middle part of the basin, around Kale. In the Tavas section, the Aquitanian and the Burdigalian are absent. The Denizli molasse is characterized by Chattian-Aquitanian sequence consisting of distinctive sedimentary facies, alluvial fan and deltaic-shallow marine deposits with carbonate patch reefs. Palynostratigraphic studies, which have given the Chattian age, have been carried out from the coal lenses of alluvial fan and delta plain deposits. In addition to the palynological determinations, coral and foraminiferal content of the carbonate patch reefs which rest conformably on the coal-bearing sequences have yielded the Chattian-Aquitanian age. Two different palynomorph associations have been determined from the molasse deposits. The first palynomorph association which is established in the samples from the Sağdere and Mortuma formations, corresponds to the Chattian age, whilst the second is of the Aquitanian age. The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene which is claimed as the time of N-S-extensional tectonics in western Turkey, is related to the depositional time of the molasse sequences in the study area. Thus, the molasse is older than the basal deposits of the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens.

  11. Production of bio-hydrogen by mesophilic anaerobic fermentation in an acid-phase sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Dae-Yeol; Hansen, Conly L; Stevens, David K

    2007-02-15

    The pH and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) were varied to optimize the conversion of carbohydrate-rich synthetic wastewater into bio-hydrogen. A full factorial design using evolutionary operation (EVOP) was used to determine the effect of the factors and to find the optimum condition of each factor required for high hydrogen production rate. Experimental results from 20 runs indicate that a maximum hydrogen production rate of 4,460-5,540 mL/L/day under the volumetric organic loading rate (VOLR) of 75 g-COD/L/day obtained at an observed design point of HRT = 8 h and pH = 5.7. The hydrogen production rate was strongly dependent on the HRT, and the effect was statistically significant (P < 0.05). However, no significant effect (P > 0.05) was found for the pH on the hydrogen production rate. When the ASBR conditions were set for a maximum hydrogen production rate, the hydrogen production yield and specific hydrogen production rate were 60-74 mL/g-COD and 330-360 mL/g-VSS/day, respectively. The hydrogen composition was 43-51%, and no methanogenesis was observed. Acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, caproate, and ethanol were major liquid intermediate metabolites during runs of this ASBR. The dominant fermentative types were butyrate-acetate or ethanol-acetate, representing the typical anaerobic pathway of Clostridium species. This hydrogen-producing ASBR had a higher hydrogen production rate, compared with that produced using continuous-flow stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). This study suggests that the hydrogen-producing ASBR is a promising bio-system for prolonged and stable hydrogen production.

  12. Synergistic collaboration of gut symbionts in Odontotermes formosanus for lignocellulosic degradation and bio-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Gincy Marina; Mathew, Dony Chacko; Lo, Shou-Chen; Alexios, Georgy Mathew; Yang, Jia-Cih; Sashikumar, Jagathala Mahalingam; Shaikh, Tanveer Mahamadali; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2013-10-01

    In this work, gut microbes from the macrotermitine termite Odontotermes formosanus the cellulolytic Bacillus and fermentative Clostridium were studied in batch experiments using different carbon substrates to bio-mimic the termite gut for hydrogen production. Their fungus comb aging and the in vitro lignocellulosic degradation of the mango tree substrates by the synergistic interaction of Bacillus, Clostridium and Termitomyces were detected by Solid-state NMR. From the results, Bacillus species acted as a mutualist, by initiating an anaerobic environment for the growth of Clostridium, for bio-hydrogen production and the presence of Termitomyces enhanced the lignocellulosic degradation of substrates in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the synergistic collaboration of these three microbes can be used for termite-derived bio-fuel processing technology.

  13. Assessing optimal fermentation type for bio-hydrogen production in continuous-flow acidogenic reactors.

    PubMed

    Ren, N Q; Chua, H; Chan, S Y; Tsang, Y F; Wang, Y J; Sin, N

    2007-07-01

    In this study, the optimal fermentation type and the operating conditions of anaerobic process in continuous-flow acidogenic reactors was investigated for the maximization of bio-hydrogen production using mixed cultures. Butyric acid type fermentation occurred at pH>6, propionic acid type fermentation occurred at pH about 5.5 with E(h) (redox potential) >-278mV, and ethanol-type fermentation occurred at pH<4.5. The representative strains of these fermentations were Clostridium sp., Propionibacterium sp. and Bacteriodes sp., respectively. Ethanol fermentation was optimal type by comparing the operating stabilities and hydrogen production capacities between the fermentation types, which remained stable when the organic loading rate (OLR) reached the highest OLR at 86.1kgCOD/m(3)d. The maximum hydrogen production reached up to 14.99L/d.

  14. Production of bioelectricity, bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bioinspired nanomaterials by electrochemically active biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-11-01

    Microorganisms naturally form biofilms on solid surfaces for their mutual benefits including protection from environmental stresses caused by contaminants, nutritional depletion or imbalances. The biofilms are normally dangerous to human health due to their inherited robustness. On the other hand, a recent study suggested that electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) generated by electrically active microorganisms have properties that can be used to catalyze or control the electrochemical reactions in a range of fields, such as bioenergy production, bioremediation, chemical/biological synthesis, bio-corrosion mitigation and biosensor development. EABs have attracted considerable attraction in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, where they act as living bioanode or biocathode catalysts. Recently, it was reported that EABs can be used to synthesize metal nanoparticles and metal nanocomposites. The EAB-mediated synthesis of metal and metal-semiconductor nanocomposites is expected to provide a new avenue for the greener synthesis of nanomaterials with high efficiency and speed than other synthetic methods. This review covers the general introduction of EABs, as well as the applications of EABs in BESs, and the production of bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bio-inspired nanomaterials.

  15. [Screening and identification of microorganisms for decolorization of molasses spent wash].

    PubMed

    Li, Bi-Jin; Liu, You-Yan; He, Kai; Teng, Fang-Ming; He, Xi-Pu; Li, Qing-Yun

    2012-09-01

    Microorganisms were screened from the natural environment for decolorization of molasses spent wash, and the isolated strains were then employed in the treatment of actual wastewater. The primary screening was carried out on agar plates supplemented with synthesized melanoidin as the target substrate, since melanoidin is one of the most refractory pigments in wastewater. Promising microorganisms were further selected through secondary screening by decolorization of untreated actual wastewater in shaking flask cultures. Gel filtration chromatography was used to determine the molecular weight distribution of pigments in molasses spent wash before and after decolorization. A strain named A5P1 was isolated from the soil samples collected, showing a good ability of decolorizing molasses spent wash, and was later identified as Aspergillus flavus by morphology and ITS sequence analysis. Experimental study of factors affecting the decolorization performance of strain A5P1 gave the optimal conditions as follows: 4.3 x 10(4) mL(-1) of inoculum size, medium with initial pH of 4.5 and cultivation at 39 degrees C. It could decolorize 53.0% of the pigments in the untreated molasses spent wash and decreased 80% of chemical oxygen demand after four-day incubation. The result of gel filtration chromatography demonstrated that both the large and small molecular weight fractions of pigments in the molasses spent wash could be removed by strain A5P1. Based on the measurement of enzyme activities, at least three different kinds of enzymes, i. e. the enzyme with H2O2-producing activity, laccase and manganese peroxidase were involved in the decolorization process. Therefore, the decolorization mechanism of strain A5P1 was preliminarily considered to be mainly biodegradation, with bioadsorption as a minor reaction.

  16. Bio-hydrogen production by biodiesel-derived crude glycerol bioconversion: a techno-economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Le Bihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Global biodiesel production is continuously increasing and it is proportionally accompanied by a huge amount of crude glycerol (CG) as by-product. Due to its crude nature, CG has very less commercial interest; although its pure counterpart has different industrial applications. Alternatively, CG is a very good carbon source and can be used as a feedstock for fermentative hydrogen production. Further, a move of this kind has dual benefits, namely it offers a sustainable method for disposal of biodiesel manufacturing waste as well as produces biofuels and contributes in greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction. Two-stage fermentation, comprising dark and photo-fermentation is one of the most promising options available for bio-hydrogen production. In the present study, techno-economic feasibility of such a two-stage process has been evaluated. The analysis has been made based on the recent advances in fermentative hydrogen production using CG as a feedstock. The study has been carried out with special reference to North American biodiesel market; and more specifically, data available for Canadian province, Québec City have been used. Based on our techno-economic analysis, higher production cost was found to be the major bottleneck in commercial production of fermentative hydrogen. However, certain achievable alternative options for reduction of process cost have been identified. Further, the process was found to be capable in reducing GHG emissions. Bioconversion of 1 kg of crude glycerol (70 % w/v) was found to reduce 7.66 kg CO(2) eq (equivalent) GHG emission, and the process also offers additional environmental benefits.

  17. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  18. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  19. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  20. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  1. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars....

  2. Biocatalytic decolourisation of molasses by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, A P; Dhamankar, V S; Kapadnis, B P

    2006-08-01

    Bioremediation potential of Phanerochaete chrysosporium strains NCIM 1073, NCIM 1106 and NCIM 1197 to decolourise molasses in solid and liquid molasses media was studied. Strains varied in the pattern of molasses decolourisation on solid medium by Giant colony method. Under submerged cultivation conditions, strain NCIM 1073 did not decolourise molasses while, strains NCIM 1106 and NCIM 1197 could decolourise molasses up to 82% and 76%, respectively. Under stationary cultivation conditions, none of the strains could decolourise molasses. This was overcome by increasing the surface area of the culture in flat bottom glass bottles under stationary cultivation conditions. Under submerged cultivation conditions, growth was more or less same in all strains. However, the lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activities were significantly less in the strain NCIM 1073. Under stationary cultivation conditions, none of the strains could produce enzymes lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase. However, all of them could produce lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase when cultivated in flat bottom glass bottles under stationary cultivation conditions.

  3. Decolorization of anaerobically digested molasses spent wash by Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, M; Ganguli, A; Tripathi, A K

    2009-01-01

    The distillery wastewater (spent wash) contains dark-brown colored recalcitrant organic compounds that are not amenable to conventional biological treatment. The characteristic recalcitrance to decolorization is due to the presence of brown melanoidin polymers. In the present study, feasibility of using Pseudomonas putida strain U for decolorization of spent wash was demonstrated. Batch cultures of P. putida decolourized spent wash by 24%, 2- fold higher decolorization was achieved following immobilization in calcium alginate beads. Glucose concentration was critical for decolourization and improved color removal efficiency was obtained by periodic replenishment of glucose. Decolourization was also observed with lactose or whey as alternative carbon sources. The results of our study suggest that P. putida could be used for biological decolorization of molasses spent washes and that supplementation with whey (a by-product from cheese industry) can offer economical viability to the process.

  4. In a sea of sticky molasses: The physics of the Boston Molasses Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Nicole; Kennedy, Jordan; Rubinstein, Shmuel

    2016-11-01

    On January 15th, 1919, shortly after 12:40 pm local time, a giant storage tank collapsed in Boston's crowded North End, releasing more than 8.7 million liters of molasses. Contemporary accounts estimated the initial wave was 7.6 meters tall and moved at more than 15 m/s. In moments, molasses engulfed the Commercial Street area, flattening buildings, damaging the elevated train, killing 21 people, and injuring 150 more. Molasses is a viscoelastic fluid 1.5 times as dense as water with a viscosity roughly 4000 times greater. This talk will explore the physics of the Boston Molasses Flood, including the effects of temperature fluctuations and molasses rheology on events leading up to the tank's collapse and their impact on subsequent rescue efforts.

  5. Effects of acid pre-treatment on bio-hydrogen production and microbial communities during dark fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung-Joo; Song, Ji-Hyeon; Hwang, Sun-Jin

    2009-02-01

    Optimal conditions for acid pre-treatment were investigated for the enrichment of hydrogen-producing bacteria (HPB) in a mixed culture using three strong acids: HCl, HNO(3), and H2SO4 x HCl was selected as a suitable acid for the enrichment of HPB in the fermentation process. The volume of bio-hydrogen produced when the mixed culture was pre-treated using HCl at pH 2 was 3.2 times higher than that obtained without acid pre-treatment. Changes in the microbial community during acid pre-treatment were monitored using images obtained by the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method and the Live/Dead cell viability test. The tests clearly indicated that the Clostridium species of cluster I were the predominant strains involved in bio-H(2) fermentation, and could be selectively enriched by HCl pre-treatment.

  6. Optimizing the impact of temperature on bio-hydrogen production from food waste and its derivatives under no pH control using statistical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, C.; Sattar, A.; Ji, C.; Sattar, S.; Yousaf, K.; Hashim, S.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of temperature on bio-hydrogen production by co-digestion of sewerage sludge with food waste and its two derivatives, i.e. noodle waste and rice waste, was investigated by statistical modelling. Experimental results showed that increasing temperature from mesophilic (37 °C) to thermophilic (55 °C) was an effective mean for increasing bio-hydrogen production from food waste and noodle waste, but it caused a negative impact on bio-hydrogen production from rice waste. The maximum cumulative bio-hydrogen production of 650 mL was obtained from noodle waste under thermophilic temperature condition. Most of the production was observed during the first 48 h of incubation, which continued until 72 h of incubation. The decline in pH during this interval was 4.3 and 4.4 from a starting value of 7 under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Most of the glucose consumption was also observed during 72 h of incubation and the maximum consumption was observed during the first 24 h, which was the same duration where the maximum pH drop occurred. The maximum hydrogen yields of 82.47 mL VS-1, 131.38 mL COD-1, and 44.90 mL glucose-1 were obtained from thermophilic food waste, thermophilic noodle waste and mesophilic rice waste, respectively. The production of volatile fatty acids increased with an increase in time and temperature in food waste and noodle waste reactors whereas they decreased with temperature in rice waste reactors. The statistical modelling returned good results with high values of coefficient of determination (R2) for each waste type and 3-D response surface plots developed by using models developed. These plots developed a better understanding regarding the impact of temperature and incubation time on bio-hydrogen production trend, glucose consumption during incubation and volatile fatty acids production.

  7. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

    2007-11-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose.

  8. Optimizing the impact of temperature on bio-hydrogen production from food waste and its derivatives under no pH control using statistical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattar, A.; Arslan, C.; Ji, C.; Sattar, S.; Yousaf, K.; Hashim, S.

    2015-08-01

    The effect of temperature on bio-hydrogen production by co-digestion of sewerage sludge with food waste and its two derivatives, i.e. noodle waste and rice waste, was investigated by statistical modelling. Experimental results showed that increasing temperature from mesophilic (37 °C) to thermophilic (55 °C) was an effective mean for increasing bio-hydrogen production from food waste and noodle waste, but it caused a negative impact on bio-hydrogen production from rice waste. The maximum cumulative bio-hydrogen production of 650 mL was obtained from noodle waste under mesophilic temperature condition. Most of the production was observed during 48 h of incubation that continued till 72 h of incubation, and a decline in pH during this interval was 4.3 and 4.4 from a starting value of 7 under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Most of glucose consumption was also observed during 72 h of incubation and the maximum consumption was observed during the first 24 h, which was the same duration where the maximum pH drop occurred. The maximum hydrogen yields of 82.47 mL VS-1, 131.38 mL COD-1, and 44.90 mL glucose-1 were obtained from mesophilic food waste, thermophilic noodle waste and mesophilic rice waste respectively. The production of volatile fatty acids increased with an increase in time and temperature from food waste and noodle waste reactors whereas it decreased with temperature in rice waste reactors. The statistical modelling returned good results with high values of coefficient of determination (R2) for each waste type when it was opted for the study of cumulative hydrogen production, glucose consumption and volatile fatty acid production. The 3-D response surface plots developed by the statistical models helped a lot in developing better understanding of the impact of temperature and incubation time.

  9. Optimization studies of bio-hydrogen production in a coupled microbial electrolysis-dye sensitized solar cell system.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Folusho Francis; Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Choi, Mi-Jin; Chang, In Seop; Kim, In S

    2010-03-01

    Bio-hydrogen production in light-assisted microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was optimized by connecting multiple MECs to a single dye (N719) sensitized solar cell (V(OC) approx. 0.7 V). Hydrogen production occurred simultaneously in all the connected MECs when the solar cell was irradiated with light. The amount of hydrogen produced in each MEC depends on the activity of the microbial catalyst on their anode. Substrate (acetate) to hydrogen conversion efficiencies ranging from 42% to 65% were obtained from the reactors during the experiment. A moderate light intensity of 430 W m(-2) was sufficient for hydrogen production in the coupled MEC-DSSC. A higher light intensity of 915 W m(-2), as well as an increase in substrate concentration, did not show any improvement in the current density due to limitation caused by the rate of microbial oxidation on the anode. A significant reduction in the surface area of the connected DSSC only showed a slight effect on current density in the coupled MEC-DSSC system when irradiated with light.

  10. Bio-hydrogen and bio-methane potentials of skim latex serum in batch thermophilic two-stage anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Jariyaboon, Rattana; O-Thong, Sompong; Kongjan, Prawit

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic digestion by two-stage process, containing hydrogen-producing (acidogenic) first stage and methanogenic second stage, has been proposed to degrade substrates which are difficult to be treated by single stage anaerobic digestion process. This research was aimed to evaluate the bio-hydrogen and the bio-methane potentials (BHP and BMP) of skim latex serum (SLS) by using sequential batch hydrogen and methane cultivations at thermophilic conditions (55°C) and with initial SLS concentrations of 37.5-75.0% (v/v). The maximal 1.57 L H2/L SLS for BHP and 12.2L CH4/L SLS for BMP were both achieved with 60% (v/v) SLS. The dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria in the H2 batch reactor were Thermoanaerobacterium sp. and Clostrdium sp. Meanwhile, the CH4 batch reactor was dominated by the methanogens Methanosarcina mazei and Methanothermobacter defluvii. The results demonstrate that SLS can be degraded by conversion to form hydrogen and methane, waste treatment and bioenergy production are thus combined.

  11. Direct degradation of cellulosic biomass to bio-hydrogen from a newly isolated strain Clostridium sartagoforme FZ11.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Nan; Li, Yan-Hong; Zheng, Hui-Qin; Fan, Yao-Ting; Hou, Hong-Wei

    2015-09-01

    A mesophilic hydrogen-producing strain, Clostridium sartagoforme FZ11, had been newly isolated from cow dung compost acclimated using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) for at least 30 rounds in an anaerobic bioreactor, and identified by the 16S rDNA gene sequencing, which could directly utilized various carbon sources, especially cellulosic biomass, to produce hydrogen. The maximum hydrogen yields from MCC (10 g/l) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, 10 g/l) were 77.2 and 64.6 ml/g, separately. Furthermore, some key parameters of affecting hydrogen production from raw corn stalk were also optimized. The maximal hydrogen yield and substrate degradation rate from raw corn stalk were 87.2 ml/g and 41.2% under the optimized conditions with substrate concentration of 15 g/l, phosphate buffer of 0.15 M, urea of 6 g/l and initial pH of 6.47 at 35 °C. The result showed that the strain FZ11 would be an ideal candidate to directly convert cellulosic biomass into bio-hydrogen without substrate pretreatment.

  12. Evaluation and simultaneous optimization of bio-hydrogen production using 3 2 factorial design and the desirability function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuetos, M. J.; Gómez, X.; Escapa, A.; Morán, A.

    Various mixtures incorporating a simulated organic fraction of municipal solid wastes and blood from a poultry slaughterhouse were used as substrate in a dark fermentation process for the production of hydrogen. The individual and interactive effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), solid content in the feed (%TS) and proportion of residues (%Blood) on bio-hydrogen production were studied in this work. A central composite design and response surface methodology were employed to determine the optimum conditions for the hydrogen production process. Experimental results were approximated to a second-order model with the principal effects of the three factors considered being statistically significant (P < 0.05). The production of hydrogen obtained from the experimental point at conditions close to best operability was 0.97 L Lr -1 day -1. Moreover, a desirability function was employed in order to optimize the process when a second, methanogenic, phase is coupled with it. In this last case, the optimum conditions lead to a reduction in the production of hydrogen when the optimization process involves the maximization of intermediary products.

  13. Dietary interaction of cane molasses with source of roughage: intake and lactation effects.

    PubMed

    Morales, J L; Van Horn, H H; Moore, J E

    1989-09-01

    Effects of cane molasses at 0, 4, and 8% of DM in complete mixed diets were evaluated when molasses was fed to lactating dairy cows with cottonseed hulls, alfalfa haylage, or both combined. Thirty-six mature Holstein cows from mid to late lactation were used in a partially balanced incomplete block design with three 28-d periods. Variables measured were DM intake, milk yield, and composition. With cottonseed hull diets (30% of DM), molasses improved milk yield, milk fat percentage, solids-corrected milk, and feed efficiency. Dry matter intake was not affected by molasses. With alfalfa haylage diets (35% of DM), 8% molasses depressed actual milk yield and solids-corrected milk, DM intake, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, and feed efficiency. Milk fat percentage was increased with 4% molasses. With 65% alfalfa haylage diets, most variables measured were unaffected by molasses; however, with 8% molasses, DM intake increased and milk protein percentage decreased. In diets with both roughages combined, molasses did not affect any variable measured; however, these diets gave highest solids-corrected milk yields. Results show clearly that molasses effects depend on percentage molasses and type and amount of roughage in the diet.

  14. Combined electron-beam and coagulation purification of molasses distillery slops. Features of the method, technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikaev, A. K.; Ponomarev, A. V.; Bludenko, A. V.; Minin, V. N.; Elizar'eva, L. M.

    2001-04-01

    The paper summarizes the results obtained from the study on combined electron-beam and coagulation method for purification of molasses distillery slops from distillery produced ethyl alcohol by fermentation of grain, potato, beet and some other plant materials. The method consists in preliminary mixing of industrial wastewater with municipal wastewater, electron-beam treatment of the mixture and subsequent coagulation. Technical and economic evaluation of large-scale facility (output of 7000 m 3 day -1) with two powerful cascade electron accelerators (total maximum beam power of 400 kW) for treatment of the wastewater by the above method was carried out. It was calculated that the cost of purification of the wastes is equal to 0.25 US$ m -3 that is noticeably less than in the case of the existing method.

  15. Production of bio-hydrogenated diesel by catalytic hydrotreating of palm oil over NiMoS2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Srifa, Atthapon; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Itthibenchapong, Vorranutch; Viriya-Empikul, Nawin; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai

    2014-04-01

    Catalytic hydrotreating of palm oil (refined palm olein type) to produce bio-hydrogenated diesel (BHD) was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over NiMoS2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. Effects of dominant hydrotreating parameters: temperature: 270-420°C; H2 pressure: 15-80 bar; LHSV: 0.25-5.0 h(-1); and H2/oil ratio: 250-2000 N(cm(3)/cm(3)) on the conversion, product yield, and a contribution of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and decarbonylation/decarboxylation (DCO/DCO2) were investigated to find the optimal hydrotreating conditions. All calculations including product yield and the contribution of HDO and DCO/DCO2 were extremely estimated based on mole balance corresponding to the fatty acid composition in feed to fully understand deoxygenation behaviors at different conditions. These analyses demonstrated that HDO, DCO, and DCO2 reactions competitively occurred at each condition, and had different optimal and limiting conditions. The differences in the hydrotreating reactions, liquid product compositions, and gas product composition were also discussed.

  16. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with food waste (FW): Enhancement of bio-hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Angeriz-Campoy, Rubén; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos J; Romero-García, Luis I

    2015-10-01

    Bio-hydrogen production from dry thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (55°C and 20% total solids) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and food waste (FW) was studied. OFMSW coming from mechanical-biological treatment plants (MBT plants) presents a low organic matter concentration. However, FW has a high organic matter content but several problems by accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and system acidification. Tests were conducted using a mixture ratio of 80:20 (OFSMW:FW), to avoid the aforementioned problems. Different solid retention times (SRTs) - 6.6, 4.4, 2.4 and 1.9 days - were tested. It was noted that addition of food waste enhances the hydrogen production in all the SRTs tested. Best results were obtained at 1.9-day SRT. It was observed an increase from 0.64 to 2.51 L H2/L(reactor) day in hydrogen productivity when SRTs decrease from 6.6 to 1.9 days. However, the hydrogen yield increases slightly from 33.7 to 38 mL H2/gVS(added).

  17. Screening of different fungi for decolorization of molasses

    PubMed Central

    Seyis, Isil; Subasioglu, Tugba

    2009-01-01

    The decolorization of molasses by 17 different fungi in 2 media was studied. Trichoderma viride showed the highest decolorization yield (53.5%) when cultivated at 30ºC for 7 days in Medium 1 which contained the molasses which was diluted to 40 g/L in distilled water. The other Trichoderma species and Penicillium sp. also gave similar results of 40-45%. Decolorization yield was increased by adding peptone and yeast extract to the production medium except Penicillium sp. Growth rate was not related to decolorization yet pH value was. When the pH decreased below 5.0 after the incubation, the decolorization yield increased. Although reducing sugar in culture broth decreased with decreasing color intensity, there was no connection between protein utilization and decolorizing activity. PMID:24031318

  18. Three-dimensional spatial diffusion in optical molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodapp, T. W.; Gerz, C.; Furtlehner, C.; Westbrook, C. I.; Phillips, W. D.; Dalibard, J.

    1995-02-01

    We have studied the expansion of a small cloud of85Rb atoms in three-dimensional optical molasses (lin ⊥ lin and σ+ - σ- configurations) and observed diffusive motion. We determined the spatial-diffusion coefficients for various laser intensities and detunings, and compared them (in the case of lin ⊥ lin molasses) to values calculated from friction and momentum-diffusion coefficients of a one-dimensional (1D) theory of laser cooling. The predicted variations of the spatial-diffusion coefficient with laser intensity and detuning are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental data. We found that the minimal value observed experimentally, ≈ 6 × 10-4 cm2/s, lies within a factor of 3 of the 1D theoretical minimum, ≈, 26ħ/ M, where M is the atomic mass.

  19. Microbial decolorization and bioremediation of melanoidin containing molasses spent wash.

    PubMed

    Singh, K D; Sharma, S; Dwivedi, A; Pandey, P; Thakur, R L; Kumar, V

    2007-07-01

    Molasses spent wash from cane-molasses based distilleries contains a brown coloured recalcitrantpolymer melanoidin, which if disposed untreated poses a great threat to environment. Microbial decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction was found to be dependent on specific carbon and nitrogen source. Under optimal condition of pH, carbon and nitrogen concentration for each treatment, it was found that Bacillus sp isolated from soil was capable of removing COD (85. 35%) and colour (81.10%) from distillery waste to the maximum extent after 9 days atpH 7 in the medium containing 0.5% peptone, 2% glucose and 10% (v/v), followed by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and lowest reduction was obtained by using native microbial consortium.

  20. Sub-Doppler cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colzi, Giacomo; Durastante, Gianmaria; Fava, Eleonora; Serafini, Simone; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    We report on the realization of sub-Doppler laser cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses using the D1 optical transition (3 s 1/2 2S →3 p 1/2 2P) at 589.8 nm. The technique is applied to samples containing 3 ×109 atoms, previously cooled to 350 μ K in a magneto-optical trap, and it leads to temperatures as low as 9 μ K and phase-space densities in the range of 10-4. The capture efficiency of the gray molasses is larger than 2/3, and we observe no density-dependent heating for densities up to 1011cm-3 .

  1. New data on electron-beam purification of wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikaev, A. K.

    2002-11-01

    Recent environmental applications of radiation technology, developed in the author's laboratory, are presented in this paper. They are electron-beam and coagulation purification of molasses distillery slops from distillery-produced ethyl alcohol by fermentation of plant materials, electron-beam purification of wastewater from carboxylic acids (for example, formic acid) and removal of petroleum products (diesel fuel, motor oil and residual fuel oil) from water by γ-irradiation.

  2. Applications of the Box-Wilson design model for bio-hydrogen production using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564).

    PubMed

    Alalayah, W M; Kalil, M S; Kadhum, A A H; Jahim, J; Zaharim, A; Alauj, N M; El-Shafie, A

    2010-07-15

    Box-Wilson design (BWD) model was applied to determine the optimum values of influencing parameters in anaerobic fermentation to produce hydrogen using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564). The main focus of the study was to find the optimal relationship between the hydrogen yield and three variables including initial substrate concentration, initial medium pH and reaction temperature. Microbial growth kinetic parameters for hydrogen production under anaerobic conditions were determined using the Monod model with incorporation of a substrate inhibition term. The values of micro(max) (maximum specific growth rate) and K, (saturation constant) were 0.398 h(-1) and 5.509 g L(-1), respectively, using glucose as the substrate. The experimental substrate and biomass-concentration profiles were in good agreement with those obtained by the kinetic-model predictions. By varying the conditions of the initial substrate concentration (1-40 g L(-1)), reaction temperature (25-40 degrees C) and initial medium pH (4-8), the model predicted a maximum hydrogen yield of 3.24 mol H2 (mol glucose)(-1). The experimental data collected utilising this design was successfully fitted to a second-order polynomial model. An optimum operating condition of 10 g L(-1) initial substrate concentration, 37 degrees C reaction temperature and 6.0 +/- 0.2 initial medium pH gave 80% of the predicted maximum yield of hydrogen where as the experimental yield obtained in this study was 77.75% exhibiting a close accuracy between estimated and experimental values. This is the first report to predict bio-hydrogen yield by applying Box-Wilson Design in anaerobic fermentation while optimizing the effects of environmental factors prevailing there by investigating the effects of environmental factors.

  3. GS4 Molasses ICUMSA (International Commission for Uniform Methods in Sugar Analysis) Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A report is given on international trade methods for molasses. At the present time there is a need to replace lead acetate clarification agent used in the determination of sucrose in molasses samples, in Europe and other parts of the world. The report discusses possible replacements for lead aceta...

  4. Current Research on Molasses as an Alternative Energy Source for Organic Dairy Herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As organic grain prices have increased and organic milk prices have decreased, dairy farmers are seeking lower-cost supplementation strategies. Sugarcane molasses, a rich source of sucrose, seems to be a viable option as a source of energy. Molasses frequently costs less per pound of dry matter than...

  5. Production and Purification of Bioethanol from Molasses and Cassava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryana, Roni; Wahono, Satriyo Krido

    2009-09-01

    This research aim to analysis bioethanol purification process. Bioethanol from cassava has been produced in previous research and the ethanol from molasses was taken from Bekonang region. The production of bioethanol from cassava was carried out through several processes such as homogenization, adding of α-amylase, β-amylase and yeast (Saccharomyces c). Two types of laboratory scale distillator have been used, the first type is 50 cm length and 4 cm diameter. The second type distillator is 30 cm length and 9 cm diameter. Both types have been used to distill bioethanol The initial concentration after the fermentation process is 15% for bioethanol from cassava and 20-30% ethanol from molasses. The results of first type distillator are 90% of bioethanol at 50° C and yield 2.5%; 70% of bioethanol at 60° C and yield 11.2%. 32% of bioethanol at 70° C and yield 42%. Meanwhile the second distillator results are 84% of bioethanol at 50° C with yield 12%; 51% of bioethanol at 60° C with yield 35.5%; 20% of bioethanol at 70° C with yield 78.8%; 16% of bioethanol at 80° C with yield 81.6%. The ethanol from molasses has been distillated once times in Bekonang after the fermentation process, the yield was about 20%. In this research first type distillator and the initial concentration is 20% has been used. The results are 95% of bioethanol at 75° C with yield 8%; 94% of bioethanol at 85° C with yield 13% when vacuum pump was used. And 94% of bioethanol at 90° C with yield 3.7% and 94% of bioethanol at 96° C with yield 10.27% without vacuum pump. The bioethanol purification use second type distillator more effective than first type distillator.

  6. A novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses for production of prebiotic and functional bioproducts.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Lata, Kusum; Singh, Umesh; Krishania, Meena; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the sugar industry by-product cane molasses was investigated as feedstock for acceptor reactions by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508, leading to the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides. The starch industry corn fiber residue was used as a source for acceptor molecules, maltose, in the reaction. Production of approximately 124g oligosaccharides (DP3-DP6) per kg of fresh molasses was achieved. Further, cane molasses based medium was demonstrated as a sole carbon source for L. mesenteroides growth and dextransucrase production. d-Fructose released by dextransucrase activity as processing by-product was transformed into the functional monosaccharide with zero caloric value, d-psicose, by inducing its epimerization. Quantitative analysis approximated 37g d-psicose per kg of fresh molasses. Thus, the study established a novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses into prebiotic and functional food additives.

  7. Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.

    PubMed

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves.

  8. Mixed culture polyhydroxyalkanoates production from sugar molasses: the use of a 2-stage CSTR system for culture selection.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, M G E; Concas, S; Bengtsson, S; Reis, M A M

    2010-09-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are promising biodegradable polymers. The use of mixed microbial cultures (MMC) and low cost feedstocks have a positive impact on the cost-effectiveness of the process. It has typically been carried out in Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBR). In this study, a 2-stage CSTR system (under Feast and Famine conditions) was used to effectively select for PHA-storing organisms using fermented molasses as feedstock. The effect of influent substrate concentration (60-120 Cmmol VFA/L) and HRT ratio between the reactors (0.2-0.5h/h) on the system's selection efficiency was assessed. It was shown that Feast reactor residual substrate concentration impacted on the selective pressure for PHA storage (due to substrate-dependent kinetic limitation). Moreover, a residual substrate concentration coming from the Feast to the Famine reactor did not jeopardize the physiological adaptation required for enhanced PHA storage. The culture reached a maximum PHA content of 61%. This success opens new perspectives to the use of wastewater treatment infrastructure for PHA production, thus valorizing either excess sludge or wastewaters.

  9. The effect of sugar cane molasses on the immune and male reproductive systems using in vitro and in vivo methods

    PubMed Central

    Rahiman, Farzana; Pool, Edmund John

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Sugar cane molasses is a commonly used ingredient in several food products. Contrasting reports suggest that molasses may have potential adverse or beneficial effects on human health. However, little evidence exists that examines the effects of molasses on the different physiological systems. This study investigated the effects of sugar cane molasses on various physiological systems using in vivo and in vitro methods. Materials and Methods: Molasses was administered orally to BALB/c, male mice and animals were randomly assigned into either a treatment or control group. General physiological changes, body weight and molasses intake of animals were monitored. At the end of the exposure period, collected blood samples were evaluated for potential toxicity using plasma biomarkers and liver enzyme activity. Immunised treated and untreated mice were evaluated for antibody titre to determine the effect of molasses on the immune response. To investigate the impact of molasses on testicular steroidogenesis, testes from both treated and control groups were harvested, cultured and assayed for testosterone synthesis. Results: Findings suggest that fluid intake by molasses-treated animals was significantly increased and these animals showed symptoms of loose faeces. Molasses had no significant effect on body weight, serum biomarkers or liver enzyme activity (P>0.05). Immunoglobulin-gamma anti-antigen levels were significantly suppressed in molasses-treated groups (P=0.004). Animals subjected to molasses exposure also exhibited elevated levels of testosterone synthesis (P=0.001). Conclusion: Findings suggests that molasses adversely affects the humoral immune response. The results also promote the use of molasses as a supplement to increase testosterone levels. PMID:27872709

  10. Florida Citrus Molasses as a Fermentation Substrate1

    PubMed Central

    Long, Sterling K.; Hill, E. C.; Wheaton, T. A.

    1967-01-01

    Samples of midseason Florida citrus molasses from 10 different manufacturing plants were studied during 2 years of production for suitability as fermentation substrates. They were analyzed for degrees Brix, pH, percentage of protein, and free amino acid content. The following ranges of values were obtained: degrees Brix, 65.4 to 73.0; pH, 4.2 to 6.4; and protein, 3.3 to 5.1%. Although the general characteristics of all samples were quite similar, the total free amino acid content and the number of amino acids differed from year to year and from plant to plant. The free amino acids consistently present were asparagine, aspartic acid, alanine, γ-amino-butyric, glycine, glutamic acid, proline, serine, and threonine. Occasionally found were arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and valine. An extremely high level of proline was detected in all samples. PMID:16349724

  11. Engineered Enterobacter aerogenes for efficient utilization of sugarcane molasses in 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Moo-Young; Park, Bu-Soo; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2013-07-01

    Sugarcane molasses is considered to be a good carbon source for biorefinery due to its high sugar content and low price. Sucrose occupies more than half of the sugar in the molasses. Enterobacter aerogenes is a good host strain for 2,3-butanediol production, but its utilization of sucrose is not very efficient. To improve sucrose utilization in E. aerogenes, a sucrose regulator (ScrR) was disrupted from the genomic DNA. The deletion mutation increased the sucrose consumption rate significantly when sucrose or sugarcane molasses was used as a carbon source. The 2,3-butanediol production from sugarcane molasses by the mutant was enhanced by 60% in batch fermentation compared to that by the wild type strain. In fed-batch fermentation, 98.69 g/L of 2,3-butanediol production was achieved at 36 h.

  12. Phenols in citrus peel byproducts. Concentrations of hydroxycinnamates and polymethoxylated flavones in citrus peel molasses.

    PubMed

    Manthey, J A; Grohmann, K

    2001-07-01

    In addition to the main flavanone glycosides (i.e., hesperidin and naringin) in citrus peel, polymethoxylated flavones and numerous hydroxycinnamates also occur and are major phenolic constituents of the molasses byproduct generated from fruit processing. Although a small number of the hydroxycinnamates in citrus occur as amides, most occur as esters and are susceptible to alkaline hydrolysis. This susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis was used in measuring the concentrations of hydroxycinnamates in citrus peel molasses. The highest concentrations of hydroxycinnamates occurred in molasses of orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] and tangerine (C. reticulata Blanco.) compared to grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.) and lemon [C. limon (L.) Burm.]. Concentrations of two phenolic glucosides, phlorin (phloroglucinol-beta-O-glucoside) and coniferin (coniferyl alcohol-4-beta-O-glucoside), were also measured. Measurements of the polymethoxylated flavones in molasses from several tangerine and orange varieties showed that these compounds occurred in the highest amounts in Dancy tangerine, whereas samples from two other tangerine molasses contained significantly lower levels, similar to those in the molasses samples from late- and early/mid-season oranges.

  13. COD fractionation and biological treatability of mixed industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Fall, C; Millán-Lagunas, E; Bâ, K M; Gallego-Alarcón, I; García-Pulido, D; Díaz-Delgado, C; Solís-Morelos, C

    2012-12-30

    This study was conducted at a centralized wastewater treatment plant that receives discharges from nearly 160 industries. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) was fractionated for two objectives: delineation of the limits of the activated sludge process being used at the plant, and evaluation of the potential environmental impact of the treated effluent. Physico-chemical analyses, respirometric and biodegradation tests, as well as COD fractionation were carried out. Molasses-wastewaters were determined to be the major contribution to the plant. The influent was dark brown in color, with a relatively high content of both organics (2503 mg/L COD) and salts (5459 μS/cm conductivity), but a low biochemical oxygen demand (568 mg/L BOD(5)) and BOD(5)/COD ratio (0.24). The degradability of the organics was limited by the high content of inert soluble COD (S(I)). The COD fractionation pattern was 40-20-40% for S(I), X(I) (inerts) and S(H) (soluble hydrolyzable), respectively. More than 90% BOD(5) removal was obtained, which was sufficient for the plant to meet the national Standards. However, the effluent discharged into the river was intensely colored and polluted (>1000 mg/L COD, >5000 μS/cm), emphasizing the need for legislation regulating COD, color and salinity, and for upgraded treatment methods worldwide for molasses wastewaters.

  14. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A. Vaidya, Atul N.; Kumar, M. Suresh; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2009-09-15

    Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio = 29). PHB production yield (Y{sub p/s}) was highest (0.184 g g{sup -1} COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB.

  16. Sugar Beet Pulp as Leuconostoc mesenteroides T3 Support for Enhanced Dextransucrase Production on Molasses.

    PubMed

    Miljković, Miona G; Davidović, Slađana Z; Carević, Milica B; Veljović, Đorđe N; Mladenović, Dragana D; Rajilić-Stojanović, Mirjana D; Dimitrijević-Branković, Suzana I

    2016-11-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) and molasses, as an agro industrial waste material, are produced in large amounts annually. Thus, a major challenge nowadays is to develop procedures that could increase the value of the generated waste. In this study, SBP as a support for cell immobilization and molasses as a source of nutrients were used for a dextransucrase (DS) production by Leuconostoc mesenteroides T3. The influence of SBP in native form (SBP-N) and after treatment with NaOH (SBP-NaOH) on DS production was investigated. The optimal medium composition for the maximum DS production was determined by varying the concentration of molasses, SBP, and sucrose. The maximum DS yield of 2.02 U/ml was obtained in the medium with 2.5 % of molasses, 2.5 % SBP-NaOH, and 4 % of sucrose concentration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed immobilization of Lc. mesenteroides T3 cells onto SBP-NaOH. According to the obtained results, the production of DS on molasses could be improved by using NaOH-treated SBP as a carrier for whole-cell immobilization. Our study reveals the basis for the development of process for DS production with additional reduction of expenses by using waste materials for obtaining the valuable biotechnological product.

  17. Production of L-ornithine from sucrose and molasses by recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Bu, Yi-Fan; Liu, Jian-Zhong

    2015-09-01

    Sucrose and molasses are attractive raw materials for industrial fermentation. Although Corynebacterium glutamicum shows sucrose-utilizing activity, sucrose or molasses is only a fraction of carbon source used in the fermentation medium in most works. An engineered C. glutamicum strain was constructed for producing L-ornithine with sucrose or molasses as a sole carbon source by transferring Mannheimia succiniciproducens β-fructofuranosidase gene (sacC). The engineered strain, C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 (pEC-sacC), produced 22.0 g/L of L-ornithine with sucrose as the sole carbon source, which is on par with that obtained by the parent strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 with glucose as the sole carbon. The resulting strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 (pEC-sacC) produced 27.0 g/L of L-ornithine with molasses as the sole carbon source, which is higher than that obtained by the parent strain C. glutamicum ΔAPE6937R42 with glucose as the sole carbon. This strategy can be applied for developing sucrose- or molasses-utilizing industrial strains.

  18. [Effects of sugar cane molasses on the nutritive value of Canavalia ensiformis seeds for broiler chicks].

    PubMed

    Vargas, R E; Castillo, M; Michelangeli, C

    1996-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of sugar cane molasses to improve performance of broiler chicks fed a diet containing 30% raw or autoclaved Canavalia ensiformis seeds (Jack beans). For this latter purpose, canavalia seeds were ground and autoclaved at 120 degrees C and 15 psi during 60 min. Day-old male chicks (Cobb x Cobb) were used throughout the study. In Experiment 1, adding 10% molasses to a control diet devoided of jack beans seeds significantly (p < 0.05) increased chick feed intake. However, neither the addition of 10% molasses nor of 5% glucose, sucrose, fructose, xylose or corn starch to the 30% raw canavalia ration allowed feed intakes similar to that shown by the control diet (Experiment 2). Broiler performance was evaluated in Experiment 3 in response to diets containing 30% raw or autoclaved jack bean meal. Ten-percent molasses was also added to both diets which along with the control diet were fed to chiks had free access to diets. Growth was depressed when the Jack bean containing diets were pair-fed to chicks. The results indicated that the use of molasses does not overcome the deleterious effects on chick performance due to the presence of 30% raw or autoclaved jack bean meal in the diets.

  19. Utilization of molasses spentwash for production of bioplastics by waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Vaidya, Atul N; Kumar, M Suresh; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2009-09-01

    Present study describes the treatment of molasses spentwash and its use as a potential low cost substrate for production of biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by waste activated sludge. Fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of PHB granules in sludge biomass which was further confirmed by fourier transform-infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The processing of molasses spentwash was carried out for attaining different ratios of carbon and nitrogen (C:N). Highest chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and PHB accumulation of 60% and 31% respectively was achieved with raw molasses spentwash containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio=28) followed by COD removal of 52% and PHB accumulation of 28% for filtered molasses containing inorganic nitrogen (C:N ratio=29). PHB production yield (Y(p/s)) was highest (0.184 g g(-1) COD consumed) for deproteinized spentwash supplemented with nitrogen. In contrast, the substrate consumption and product formation were higher in case of raw spentwash. Though COD removal was lowest from deproteinized spentwash, evaluation of kinetic parameters suggested higher rates of conversion of available carbon to biomass and PHB. Thus the process provided dual benefit of conversion of two wastes viz. waste activated sludge and molasses spentwash into value-added product-PHB.

  20. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  1. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  2. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  3. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  4. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  5. Kinetics of ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses under cell recycle.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens; da Costa, Aline Carvalho

    2013-02-01

    In this work, a kinetic model for ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse enzymatic hydrolysate concentrated with molasses was developed. A model previously developed for fermentation of pure molasses was modified by the inclusion of a new term for acetic acid inhibition on microorganism growth rate and the kinetic parameters were estimated as functions of temperature. The influence of the hydrolysate on the kinetic parameters is analyzed by comparing with the parameters from fermentation of pure molasses. The impact of cells recycling in the kinetic parameters is also evaluated, as well as on the ethanol yield and productivity. The model developed described accurately most of the fermentations performed in several successive batches for temperatures from 30 to 38°C.

  6. Fungal invertase as an aid for fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.K.; Sato, H.H.

    1982-10-01

    Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30 degrees Centigrade and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.4, ethanol production was increased by the addition of invertase. At 40 degrees C, the addition of invertase increased ethanol production by 5.5% at pH 5.0 and by 20.9% at pH 3.5. (Refs. 8).

  7. Collimation of a thulium atomic beam by two-dimensional optical molasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sukachev, D D; Kalganova, E S; Sokolov, A V; Savchenkov, A V; Vishnyakova, G A; Golovizin, A A; Akimov, A V; Kolachevsky, Nikolai N; Sorokin, Vadim N

    2013-04-30

    The number of laser cooled and trapped thulium atoms in a magneto-optical trap is increased by a factor of 3 using a two-dimensional optical molasses which collimated the atomic beam before entering a Zeeman slower. A diode laser operating at 410.6 nm was employed to form optical molasses: The laser was heated to 70 Degree-Sign C by a two-step temperature stabilisation system. The laser system consisting of a master oscillator and an injection-locked amplifier emitted more than 100 mW at 410 nm and had a spectral linewidth of 0.6 MHz. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  8. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Enhancing L-Lysine Production of Beet Molasses by Engineered Escherichia coli Using an In Situ Pretreatment Method.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Qi, Yanbin; Chen, Kequan; Li, Yan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2016-07-01

    Reducing the viscosity of molasses environmentally and selectively removing the harmful ingredients for microbes are the keys to promoting the bioavailability of molasses. A simple and environmental in situ pretreatment method integrating surfactants and alkali was developed to reduce the viscosity of molasses prior to L-lysine production using Escherichia coli ZY0217. Adding activated carbon and modified orange peel based on the in situ pretreatment process effectively removed pigments and excessive zinc in the molasses and also significantly increased the cell growth and L-lysine yield from E. coli ZY0217. The experimental results showed that a mixture of secondary alkane sulfonate, an anionic surfactant, and HodagCB-6, a non-ionic surfactant, effectively reduced the viscosity of the molasses more so than any single surfactant. When the surfactant mixture was added at a concentration of 0.04 g/L to the molasses, the ω value was 0.4, and when ammonia was added at 0.6 %, the lowest viscosity of 705 mPa · s was obtained. Further, 91.5 % of the color and 86.68 % of the original levels of zinc were removed using an activated carbon and modified orange peel treatment on the molasses with the lowest viscosity, which further promoted cell growth and L-lysine production. In the fed-batch cultivation process, the L-lysine concentration achieved using a constant-speed feeding strategy was 45.89 g/L, with an L-lysine yield of 27.18 %, whereas the L-lysine yield from untreated molasses was only 10.13 %. The increase in L-lysine yield was related to the reduced viscosity and the detoxification of the molasses. Lastly, the pretreatment was found to significantly enhance the conversion of sugars in the molasses to L-lysine.

  10. Improved welan gum production by Alcaligenes sp. ATCC31555 from pretreated cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hongxia; Liu, Min; Yu, Pingru; Zhang, Shaozhi; Suo, Yukai; Luo, Ping; Li, Shuang; Wang, Jufang

    2015-09-20

    Welan gum production by Alcaligenes sp. ATCC31555 from cane molasses was studied in batch fermentation to reduce production costs and enhance gum production. The pretreatment of cane molasses, agitation speed and the addition of supplements were investigated to optimize the process. Sulfuric acid hydrolysis was found to be the optimal pretreatment, resulting in a maximum gum concentration of 33.5 g/L, which is 50.0% higher than those obtained from the molasses' mother liquor. Agitation at 600 rpm at 30°C and addition of 10% n-dodecane following fermentation for 36 h increased the maximum gum production up to 41.0 ± 1.41 g/L, which is 49.1% higher than the greatest welan gum concentration in the literature so far. The welan gum product showed an acceptable molecular weight, similar rheological properties and better thermal stability to that obtained from glucose. These results indicate that cane molasses may be a suitable and inexpensive substrate for cost-effective industrial-scale welan gum production.

  11. Immobilized Sclerotinia sclerotiorum invertase to produce invert sugar syrup from industrial beet molasses by-product.

    PubMed

    Mouelhi, Refka; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2014-03-01

    The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum produces invertase activity during cultivation on many agroindustrial residues. The molasses induced invertase was purified by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated at 48 kDa. Optimal temperature was determined at 60 °C and thermal stability up to 65 °C. The enzyme was stable between pH 2.0 and 8.0; optimum pH was about 5.5. Apparent K(m) and V(max) for sucrose were estimated to be respectively 5.8 mM and 0.11 μmol/min. The invertase was activated by β-mercaptoethanol. Free enzyme exhibited 80 % of its original activity after two month's storage at 4 °C and 50 % after 1 week at 25 °C. In order to investigate an industrial application, the enzyme was immobilized on alginate and examined for invert sugar production by molasses hydrolysis in a continuous bioreactor. The yield of immobilized invertase was about 78 % and the activity yield was 59 %. Interestingly the immobilized enzyme hydrolyzed beet molasses consuming nearly all sucrose. It retained all of its initial activity after being used for 4 cycles and about 65 % at the sixth cycle. Regarding productivity; 20 g/l of molasses by-product gave the best invert sugar production 46.21 g/day/100 g substrate related to optimal sucrose conversion of 41.6 %.

  12. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Temulose" is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in south-eastern Texas. Becaus...

  13. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Temulose” is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in southeastern Texas. Because...

  14. Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea.

    PubMed Central

    Mella, C M; Perez-Oliva, O; Loew, F M

    1976-01-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:1000370

  15. Effect of molasses in anaerobic soil disinfestation: Focus on the soil microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers in Florida have begun to apply molasses to increase the soil microbial biodiversity. Previous reports have indicated that a greater microbial diversity could cause disease suppressive soils. Furthermore, it has been shown that under moderate temperature, 15-20° C, an increase of carbon could...

  16. Unusual catalysts from molasses: synthesis, properties and application in obtaining biofuels from algae.

    PubMed

    Samorì, Chiara; Torri, Cristian; Fabbri, Daniele; Falini, Giuseppe; Faraloni, Cecilia; Galletti, Paola; Spera, Silvia; Tagliavini, Emilio; Torzillo, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    Acid catalysts were prepared by sulfonation of carbon materials obtained from the pyrolysis of sugar beet molasses, a cheap, viscous byproduct in the processing of sugar beets into sugar. Conditions for the pyrolysis of molasses (temperature and time) influenced catalyst performance; the best combination came from pyrolysis at low temperature (420 °C) for a relatively long time (8-15 h), which ensured better stability of the final material. The most effective molasses catalyst was highly active in the esterification of fatty acids with methanol (100 % yield after 3 h) and more active than common solid acidic catalysts in the transesterification of vegetable oils with 25-75 wt % of acid content (55-96 % yield after 8 h). A tandem process using a solid acid molasses catalyst and potassium hydroxide in methanol was developed to de-acidificate and transesterificate algal oils from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Nannochloropsis gaditana, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, which contain high amounts of free fatty acids. The amount of catalyst required for the de-acidification step was influenced by the chemical composition of the algal oil, thus operational conditions were determined not only in relation to free fatty acids content in the oil, but according to the composition of the lipid extract of each algal species.

  17. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan; Pavasant, Prasert

    2013-12-15

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  18. Analysis of Extracted and Volatile Components in Blackstrap Molasses Feed as Candidate House Fly Attractants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    acid 14.41 Both Propionic acid 15.45 Both × Butanoic acid 16.86 Both × Furfuryl alcohol 17.16 Both × Pentanoic acid 18.14 Hexane Propanamide 18.84...Table 1). Another study conducted on volatiles from cane molasses identified furfuryl alcohol, which was found in both hexane and ether extracts in this

  19. [BIOCONVERSION OF CRUDE GLYCEROL AND MOLASSES MIXTURE IN BIOSURFACTANTS OF NOCARDIA VACCINII IMB B-7405].

    PubMed

    Pirog, T P; Kudrya, N V; Shevchuk, T A; Beregova, K A; Iutynska, G O

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of replacing glucose and pure glycerol in mixed substrates for surtace-active substances (SAS, biosurfactants) biosynthesis of Nocardia vaccinii IMB B-7405 on molasses (sugar production waste) and crude glycerol (by-product of biodiesel production) was established. It was established that the increasing concentration of crude glycerol to 6% in mixture with 1.0% molasses was accompanied by increase of amount of SAS synthesized more than twice, and the increasing content of molasses to 3.0% in mixture with 1.0% crude glycerol--by some decrease in the level of surfactant as compared to that in a medium containing 1.0% monosubstrates. It was shown that the increasing concentration of sodium nitrate to 2-fold in medium cultivation of N. vaccinii IMB B-7405 allowed to increase to 7.0% content of grude glycerol in mixture with 1.0% molasses. Under such conditions of cultivation concentration of exocellular SAS synthesized was 7,5 g/l, that to 1,3 fold higher than in basic medium with a lower content of nitrogen source.

  20. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Yi; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of functional components from sugar beet molasses. The central composite design (CCD) was used for the optimisation of extraction parameters in terms of total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and anthocyanins. Result suggested the optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from sugar beet molasses were as follows: HCl concentration 1.55-1.72 mol/L, ethanol concentration 57-63% (v/v), extraction temperature 41-48 °C, and extraction time 66-73 min. In the optimal conditions, the experimental total phenolic contents were 17.36 mg GAE/100mL, antioxidant activity was 16.66 mg TE/g, and total anthocyanins were 31.81 mg/100g of the sugar beet molasses extract, which were well matched the predicted values. Teen compounds, i.e. gallic acid, vanillin, hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucuronide and ferulic acid were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS in sugar beet molasses.

  1. Ensilage characteristics of three tropical grasses as influenced by stage of growth and addition of molasses.

    PubMed

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    When molasses was added during ensilage of three tropical grasses [hamil grass (Panicum maximum cv. Hamil), pangola grass (Digitaria decumbens) and setaria (Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula)] the final pH, concentration of fermentation acids (except lactic acid) and NH3-N content were all similar after 100 days of incubation. Pangola grass silage had significantly higher lactic acid content (66 g/kg dry matter) than the other two. Adding either 4 or 8% (w/w) molasses reduced NH3-N, volatile fatty acid content and pH but increased lactic acid content in the final silages. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria remained approximately constant during the course of the fermentation, although large differences were noted in the species composition of the populations. At the time of ensiling, only Pediococcus spp. and Leuconostoc spp. were detected. By 5 days, the homo-fermentative population, notably Lactobacillus plantarum, dominated (43%) and remained dominant. Hetero-fermentative rods were only detected in the 100-day silage, where they represented 29% of the strains isolated. Homo-fermenters were more abundant in pangola (60%) and setaria (47%) silages than hamil (27%) silages. Homo-fermenter populations were lowest in the 12-week forage. Molasses additions increased homo-fermenter populations. Pangola grass gave the best quality silage but, since the water-soluble carbohydrate content in the grasses was insufficient to promote a strong lactic fermentation, the addition of 20 to 30 kg molasses/tonne should achieve satisfactory preservation.

  2. Fermentative production of butanol from sorghum molasses as a potential agricultural fuel. Final report, June 26, 1981-September 25, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, L.T.

    1982-12-01

    A strain, Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 4259, suitable for butanol-acetone fermentation of sorghum molasses was selected from several strains of the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It was cultivated in the composition-optimized sorghum molasses medium. The microbial growth and sugar consumption pattern in the sorghum molasses medium exhibited a typical diauxie phenomenon. The results strongly suggest that the difficulty encountered by the Weizmann type of organisms in butanol-acetone fermentation of molasses is due to the diauxie phenomenon causing a significant decrease in the solvent production rate. Acid hydrolysis of sorghum molasses minimizes the occurrence of the phenomenon, thereby remarkably increasing the solvent yield. The final solvent concentrations in the inverted molasses medium were butanol, 1.0% (w/v); acetone, 0.37% (w/v); ethanol, 0.18% (w/v); and total solvent, 1.55% (w/v). The total solvent yield in the inverted sorghum molasses medium was 30.3% based on the weight of sugar consumed. Effects of the temperature, agitation and heat-shocking were also investigated.

  3. Enhanced poly(L-malic acid) production from pretreated cane molasses by Aureobasidium pullulans in fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Xu, Jiaxing; Hu, Lei; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-16

    Poly(L-malic acid) (PMA) is a natural polyester with many attractive properties for biomedical application. However, the cost of PMA production is high when glucose is used as a carbon source. To solve this problem, cane molasses as a low-cost feedstock was applied for the production of PMA. Six pretreatment methods were applied to cane molasses before fermentation. Pretreatment with combined tricalcium phosphate, potassium ferrocyanide, and sulfuric acid (TPFSA) removed significant amounts of metal ions from cane molasses. The PMA concentration increased from 5.4 g/L (untreated molasses) to 36.9 g/L (TPFSA-pretreated molasses) after fermentation in shake flasks. A fed-batch fermentation strategy was then developed. In this method, TPFSA-pretreated cane molasses solution was continuously fed into the fermentor to maintain the total sugar concentration at 20 g/L. This technique generated approximately 95.4 g/L PMA with a productivity of 0.57 g/L/hr. The present study indicated that fed-batch fermentation using pretreated cane molasses is a feasible technique for producing high amounts of PMA.

  4. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2

    PubMed Central

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production. PMID:25242924

  5. Optimization of biodegradable plastic production on sugar cane molasses in Enterobacter sp. SEL2.

    PubMed

    Naheed, Nighat; Jamil, Nazia

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated environments have a large number of bacteria which can accumulate PHA as their energy reserves. Out of 54 isolated bacterial strains from three groups of contaminated sites 48 were found PHA positive. The sites were grouped on the basis of the type of carbon sources i.e. sugars, fatty acids and much diverse type. Strains MFD5, MFD11, UML3, USL2, SEL2, SEL3, SEL10 and PFW1 produced 69.9 ± 0.29, 75.27 ± 0.45, 65.43 ± 0.1, 72.54 ± 0.27, 76.61 ± 0.28, 61.81 ± 0.05, 71.16 ± 0.09 and 74.92 ± 0.5 percent of PHA to their constant cell weight (CCW) respectively in PHA detection media supplemented with 2% glucose. Molasses, whey, crumbs hydrolysate and palm oil were checked as inexpensive carbon sources. Molasses alone could supply the required nutrients for growth and PHA production. Strain SEL2 produced 47.36 ± 0.45% PHA using 2% molasses at 37 °C and pH 7.0. Upon production optimization the best accumulation (80.95 ± 0.01%) was observed in PHA detection media with 0.2% nitrogen source, 3% molasses, pH 5.0 and 37 °C by the strain SEL2. The overall effect of the presence of increased molasses concentration in the media was positive it increased the accumulation period till 72 h. Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) is first time being reported for PHA production.

  6. Wastewater Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... amazing ability to cope with small amounts of water wastes and pollution, but it would be overwhelmed if we didn't treat the billions of gallons of wastewater and sewage produced every day before ... is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  7. Waste molasses alone displaces glucose-based medium for microalgal fermentation towards cost-saving biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong; Lu, Yue; Chen, Yi-Feng; Wu, Qingyu

    2011-06-01

    The by-product of sugar refinery-waste molasses was explored as alternative to glucose-based medium of Chlorella protothecoides in this study. Enzymatic hydrolysis is required for waste molasses suitable for algal growth. Waste molasses hydrolysate was confirmed as a sole source of full nutrients to totally replace glucose-based medium in support of rapid growth and high oil yield from algae. Under optimized conditions, the maximum algal cell density, oil content, and oil yield were respectively 70.9 g/L, 57.6%, and 40.8 g/L. The scalability of the waste molasses-fed algal system was confirmed from 0.5L flasks to 5L fermenters. The quality of biodiesel from waste molasses-fed algae was probably comparable to that from glucose-fed ones. Economic analysis indicated the cost of oil production from waste molasses-fed algae reduced by 50%. Significant cost reduction of algal biodiesel production through fermentation engineering based on the approach is expected.

  8. Pretreatment of synthetic dairy wastewater using the sophorolipid-producing yeast Candida bombicola.

    PubMed

    Daverey, Achlesh; Pakshirajan, Kannan

    2011-03-01

    The presence of high strength fats and oils in dairy industry wastewaters poses serious challenges for biological treatment systems, and, therefore, its pretreatment is necessary in order to remove them. In the present study, synthetic dairy wastewater prepared in the laboratory was pretreated using the sophorolipid-producing yeast Candida bombicola in a laboratory-scale bioreactor under batch, fed-batch, and continuous modes of operation. To support the yeast growth, the wastewater was supplemented with sugarcane molasses (1% w/v) and yeast extract (0.1% w/v). Results from the batch operated fermentor revealed complete utilization of fats present in the wastewater within 96 h with more than 93% COD removal efficiency. The yeast was, however, able to pretreat the wastewater more quickly and efficiently under fed-batch mode of operation than under batch operated condition in the same fermentor. Continuous experiments were carried out with a wastewater retention time of 28 h in the reactor; results showed very good performance of the system in complete utilization of fats and COD removal efficiency of more than 90%. The study proved the excellent potential of the biosurfactant-producing yeast in pretreating high-fat- and oil-containing dairy industry wastewater.

  9. Continuous treatment of coloured industry wastewater using immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor reactor.

    PubMed

    Pakshirajan, Kannan; Kheria, Sumeet

    2012-06-30

    Coloured industry wastewaters often contain dyes and other toxic ingredients, and, therefore, pose serious threat to the receiving environment. Among the available methods the eco-friendly biological method has gained maximum attention due to its many advantages over the traditional methods. In the present study, continuous biological treatment of coloured wastewater from a textile dyeing industry was investigated using the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) reactor. The raw wastewater was diluted with an equal volume of either distilled water or media containing glucose at varying concentrations to study its effect on the decolourization process. Results revealed that the wastewater could be decolourized to an extent of more than 64% when diluted with media containing glucose; and, a maximum decolourization efficiency of 83% was obtained with 10 g/l glucose concentration. COD removal efficiencies were also found to be consistent with the decolourization efficiencies of the wastewaters. Further, the results were correlated with the enzyme activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) by the fungus, which were found to play some significant role in decolourization of the wastewater. Results of replacing the costly carbon source glucose in the decolourization media with the more cheap molasses, however, revealed very high COD removal efficiency, but low decolourization efficiency of the industry wastewater.

  10. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps and evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin

    PubMed Central

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2015-01-01

    The stratigraphies of foreland basins have been related to orogeny, where continent–continent collision causes the construction of topography and the downwarping of the foreland plate. These mechanisms have been inferred for the Molasse basin, stretching along the northern margin of the European Alps. Continuous flexural bending of the subducting European lithosphere as a consequence of topographic loads alone would imply that the Alpine topography would have increased at least between 30 Ma and ca. 5–10 Ma when the basin accumulated the erosional detritus. This, however, is neither consistent with observations nor with isostatic mass balancing models because paleoaltimetry estimates suggest that the topography has not increased since 20 Ma. Here we show that a rollback mechanism for the European plate is capable of explaining the construction of thick sedimentary successions in the Molasse foreland basin where the extra slab load has maintained the Alpine surface at low, but constant, elevations. PMID:26472498

  11. Escape tectonics and foreland basin evolution: The Austrian-German Molasse basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The Alpine peripheral foreland basin formed during Eocene collision of the lower, European plate and the upper, Adriatic plate. Two marine to continental megasequences fill the basin. The transition form deep marine to continental deposits of the first megasequence at the Early - Late Oligocene boundary has been related to a change from predominant horizontal to vertical movements in the core of the orogenic wedge. The second megasequence is, however, poorly understood, and different models have been put forward. I present an alternative explanation for the development of this second megacycle, based on an analysis of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt east of the Rhine river (Ortner et al., 2015). The main characteristics of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt are: 1) A frontal anticline/thrust started to develop during deposition of the older, marine portion of the second megasequence. Structures continued to grow throughout deposition of the younger, continental part of the megasequence. Structural growth is documented by growth strata. 2) The thrusts in the Subalpine Molasse evolved in a break-back sequence. 3) The amount of shortening during depositon of the second megasequence reduces from 40-50 km near the Rhine valley to zero in the east in the Salzburg area. The onset of the second megasequence in the foreland north of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt is characterized by an angular unconformity documenting a tilt of the foreland toward the orogen, and therefore ongoing flexure of the lower plate. East of the eastern end of the Subalpine Molasse thrust belt, the deposits of the second megasequence are in a horizontal position, lower plate flexure had stopped. In the internal part of the Alpine orogenic wedge, shortening, exhumation and E-directed stretching of the Tauern Window as a consequence of escape tectonics was active. Most probably shortening was transferred from the Alpine front into the zone of lateral escape, causing the break-back thrust sequence

  12. Engineering of Bacillus subtilis for the Production of 2,3-Butanediol from Sugarcane Molasses.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Apoorva Nandkumar; Nipanikar-Gokhale, Padmaja; Jain, Rishi

    2016-05-01

    2,3-butanediol is known to be a platform chemical with several potential industrial applications. Sustainable industrial scale production can be attained by using a sugarcane molasses based fermentation process using Bacillus subtilis. However, the accumulation of acetoin needs to be reduced to improve process efficiency. In this work, B. subtilis was genetically modified in order to increase the yield of 2,3-butanediol. Metabolic engineering strategies such as cofactor engineering and overexpression of the key enzyme butanediol dehydrogenase were attempted. Both the strategies individually led to a statistically significant increase in the 2,3-butanediol yields for sugarcane molasses based fermentation. Cofactor engineering led to a 26 % increase in 2,3-butanediol yield and overexpression of bdhA led to a 11 % increase. However, the combination of the two strategies did not lead to a synergistic increase in 2,3-butanediol yield.

  13. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  14. Inhibitory effect of sugarcane molasses extract on the formation of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine and N(ε)-(carboxyethyl)lysine.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pei; Xu, Xian-Bing; Yu, Shu-Juan

    2017-04-15

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of phenolic compounds. In this study, the effect of sugarcane molasses extract on the formation of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N(ε)-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) was investigated in glucose-lysine model reaction systems. Results showed that sugarcane molasses extract significantly and dose dependently inhibited the formation of CML and CEL in model reaction systems. The antiglycation activities of sugarcane molasses extract were not only brought about by its antioxidant activities but also associated with its trapping abilities of reactive carbonyl species, such as glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO), the key intermediate compound for the formation of CML and CEL. Besides, the presence of sugarcane molasses extract effectively reduced the extent of browning. The present study emphasized the potential health effects of sugarcane molasses and the possibility of using byproducts as effective ingredients to reduce dietary Maillard reaction end products.

  15. Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens growing on molasses and its application in phenol degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryantia, Venty; Marliyana, Soerya Dewi; Wulandari, Astri

    2015-12-01

    A molasses based medium for the biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas fluorescens was developed, where the effect of pre-treated of molasses and medium composition were evaluated. Biosurfactant production was followed by measuring optical density (OD), surface tension and emulsifying index (E24) over 12 days of fermentation. The optimum condition for the biosurfactant production was obtained when a medium containing of 8 g/L nutrient broth, 5 g/L NaCl, 1 g/L NH4NO3 and 5% v/v pre-treated molasses with centrifugation was used as media with 3 days of fermentation. The biosurfactant was identified as a rhamnolipid type biosurfactant which had critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of 801 mg/L and was able to reduce the surface tension of the water from 80 mN/m to 51 mN/m. The biosurfactants had water in oil (w/o) emulsion type. Biosurfactant was able to emulsify various hydrocarbons, which were able to decrase the interfacial tension about 50-75% when benzyl chloride, anisaldehyde and palm oil were used as immiscible compounds. The biosurfactant exhibited the E24 value of about 50% and the stable emulsion was reached up to 30 days when lubricant was used as an immiscible compound. Up to 68% of phenol was degraded in the presence of biosurfactant within 15 days, whereas only 56% of phenol was degraded in the absence of biosurfactant. Overall, the results exhibited that molasses are recommended for the rhamnolipids production which possessed good surface-active properties and had potential application in the enhancement of phenol degradation.

  16. Production of activated carbon from a new precursor molasses by activation with sulphuric acid.

    PubMed

    Legrouri, K; Khouya, E; Ezzine, M; Hannache, H; Denoyel, R; Pallier, R; Naslain, R

    2005-02-14

    Activated carbon has been prepared from molasses, a natural precursor of vegetable origin resulting from the sugar industry in Morocco. The preparation of the activated carbon from the molasses has been carried out by impregnation of the precursor with sulphuric acid, followed by carbonisation at varying conditions (temperature and gas coverage) in order to optimize preparation parameters. The influence of activation conditions was investigated by determination of adsorption capacity of methylene blue and iodine, the BET surface area, and the pore volume of the activated carbon were determined while the micropore volume was determined by the Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equation. The activated materials are mainly microporous and reveal the type I isotherm of the Brunauer classification for nitrogen adsorption. The activated carbons properties in this study were found for activation of the mixture (molasses/sulphuric acid) in steam at 750 degrees C. The samples obtained in this condition were highly microporous, with high surface area (> or =1200 m2/g) and the maximum adsorption capacity of methylene blue and iodine were 435 and 1430 mg/g, respectively.

  17. Oil removal from petroleum sludge using bacterial culture with molasses substrate at temperature variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni'matuzahroh, Puspitasari, Alvin Oktaviana; Pratiwi, Intan Ayu; Fatimah, Sumarsih, Sri; Surtiningsih, Tini; Salamun

    2016-03-01

    The study aims to reveal the potency of biosurfactant-producing bacterial culture with molasses as substrate growth in releasing oil from the petroleum sludge at temperature variations. Bacteria used consisted of (Acinetobacter sp. P2(1), Pseudomonas putida T1(8), Bacillus subtilis 3KP and Micrococcus sp. L II 61). The treatments were tested at 40°C, 50°C and 60 °C for 7 days of incubation. Synthetic surfactant (Tween 20) was used as a positive control and molasses as a negative control. Release of petroleum hydrocarbons from oil sludge was expressed in percentage of oil removal from oil sludge (%). Data were analyzed statistically using the Analysis of Variance (α = 0.05) and continued with Games-Howell test. The kinds of bacterial cultures, incubation temperature and combination of both affected the percentage of oil removal. The abilities of Bacillus subtilis 3KP and Micrococcus sp. LII 61cultures in oil removal from oil sludge at the temperature exposure of 60°C were higher than Tween 20. Both of bacterial cultures grown on molasses can be proposed as a replacement for synthetic surfactant to clean up the accumulation of oil sludge in a bottom of oil refinery tank.

  18. Seismic stratigraphy and stratigraphic modelling of the South-eastern German Molasse Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, T.; Jin, J.; Luterbacher, P.

    1995-08-01

    Although the German Molasse Basin can be regarded as a mature hydrocarbon province, no regional sequence stratigraphic analysis has been carried out so far. We have studied seismic lines and well data from the region between the Isar and Inn rivers (SE Germany) that have been generously supplied by German oil companies (DEE, BEB, Mobil, RWE-DEA and Wintershall). Initial work indicates that five major seismic sequences within three main depositional cycles are developed. The Alpine thrust belt to the south serves as the primary sediment source in the foreland basin. However, sedimentary infill mainly took place parallel to the basin axis. Our analysis suggests that the stratigraphic development of the Molasse Basin was mainly controlled by eustatic sea-level changes which caused the shoreline to shift in the W-E direction. The shifting of the depocenter axis in a N-S direction was controlled by the tectonic evolution of the thrust belt. The sea-level curve determined by seismic stratigraphy and well-derived subsidence curves have been used as input parameters for stratigraphic modelling, using the programs GeoMOD and PHIL. Basin-fill simulations with PHIL are in good agreement with the main features of the sequence stratigraphy and the distribution of the systems tracts observed in the study area. The qualitative sea-level curve for the German Molasse Basin derived from the seismostratigraphic analysis could be quantified by the stratigraphic exercises.

  19. Saponin-containing subfractions of soybean molasses induce enteritis in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, David; Urán, Paula; Arnous, Anis; Koppe, Wolfgang; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2007-03-21

    The current work aimed at tracing the causative components for soybean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Soybean molasses was subjected to phase separation using n-butanol. Three subfractions were obtained as follows: butanol phase, precipitate, and water phase. The biochemical composition of soybean molasses and the obtained subfractions were analyzed in detail: Protein, fat, and ash were quantified according to standard methods. Sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose were quantified using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Soyasaponins were quantified using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Finally, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to evaluate the size distribution of the proteins present in each fraction. Molasses and the different subfractions were thereafter fed to Atlantic salmon in two successive fish trials. The level of intestinal inflammation was evaluated by light microscopy using a semiquantitative scoring system. Histological assessments revealed that Atlantic salmon fed a combination of butanol phase and precipitate displayed significant enteritis. Atlantic salmon fed the water phase displayed normal intestinal morphology. The causative components for soybean-induced enteritis withstand butanol treatment and prolonged heating at 70 degrees C. Sucrose, raffinose, stachyose, nor soybean proteins larger than 10 kDa induce enteritis alone. Soyasaponins, or components that follow the same solubility pattern, trigger the inflammatory reaction. We therefore suggest that soybean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon is induced by soyasaponins alone or by soyasaponins in combination with other factors, e.g., antigenic soybean proteins or the intestinal microflora.

  20. Improvement production of bacterial cellulose by semi-continuous process in molasses medium.

    PubMed

    Cakar, Fatih; Ozer, Işılay; Aytekin, A Özhan; Sahin, Fikrettin

    2014-06-15

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has unique properties such as structural, functional, physical and chemical. The mass production of BC for industrial application has recently become attractive to produce more economical and high productive cellulose. In this study, to improve the productivity of bacterial cellulose (BC), BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus FC01 was investigated in molasses medium with static semi-continuous operation mode. Cell dry weight, polysaccharide, sugar and cellulose concentrations were monitored and cellulose was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highest cellulose yield (1.637 g/L) was obtained in SCP50-7d, which molasses of 1/2 ratio for 7 days by static semi-continuous operation mode. The results show that BC can be highly produced by G. xylinus in molasses with static semi-continuous process than batch process. We claimed that low-cost medium with semi-continuous operation mode in static culture is a good candidate for industrial scale BC productions.

  1. Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 highly produces mannitol from sugarcane molasses as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Fornaguera, María José; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2012-08-01

    Mannitol is a natural polyol extensively used in the food industry as low-calorie sugar being applicable for diabetic food products. We aimed to evaluate mannitol production by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 using sugarcane molasses as low-cost energy source. Mannitol formation was studied in free-pH batch cultures using 3-10% (w/v) molasses concentrations at 37 °C and 30 °C under static and agitated conditions during 48 h. L. reuteri CRL 1101 grew well in all assayed media and heterofermentatively converted glucose into lactic and acetic acids and ethanol. Fructose was used as an alternative electron acceptor and reduced it to mannitol in all media assayed. Maximum mannitol concentrations of 177.7 ± 26.6 and 184.5 ± 22.5 mM were found using 7.5% and 10% molasses, respectively, at 37 °C after 24-h incubation. Increasing the molasses concentration from 7.5% up to 10% (w/v) and the fermentation period up to 48 h did not significantly improve mannitol production. In agitated cultures, high mannitol values (144.8 ± 39.7 mM) were attained at 8 h of fermentation as compared to static ones (5.6 ± 2.9 mM), the highest mannitol concentration value (211.3 ± 15.5 mM) being found after 24 h. Mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was measured during growth in all fermentations assayed; the highest MDH values were obtained during the log growth phase, and no correlation between MDH activities and mannitol production was observed in the fermentations performed. L. reuteri CRL 1101 successfully produced mannitol from sugarcane molasses being a promising candidate for microbial mannitol synthesis using low-cost substrate.

  2. A new and effective approach to boron removal by using novel boron-specific fungi isolated from boron mining wastewater.

    PubMed

    Taştan, Burcu Ertit; Çakir, Dilara Nur; Dönmez, Gönül

    2016-01-01

    Boron-resistant fungi were isolated from the wastewater of a boron mine in Turkey. Boron removal efficiencies of Penicillium crustosum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were detected in different media compositions. Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) and two different waste media containing molasses (WM-1) or whey + molasses (WM-2) were tested to make this process cost effective when scaled up. Both isolates achieved high boron removal yields at the highest boron concentrations tested in MSM and WM-1. The maximum boron removal yield by P. crustosum was 45.68% at 33.95 mg l(-1) initial boron concentration in MSM, and was 38.97% at 42.76 mg l(-1) boron for R. mucilaginosa, which seemed to offer an economically feasible method of removing boron from the effluents.

  3. Green Energy: Advancing Bio-Hydrogen (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, D.

    2007-07-01

    Developing a model of metabolism linked to H2 production in green algae. Develop tools for parameter discovery and optimization at organism level and advance knowledge of hydrogen-producting photosynthetic organisms.

  4. Lipid Production of Heterotrophic Chlorella sp. from Hydrolysate Mixtures of Lipid-Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residues and Molasses.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongli; Ma, Xiaochen; Gao, Zhen; Wan, Yiqin; Min, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Li, Yun; Liu, Yuhuan; Huang, He; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of lipid production of Chlorella sp. from waste materials. Lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) and molasses were hydrolyzed, and their hydrolysates were analyzed. Five different hydrolysate mixture ratios (w/w) of LMBRs/molasses (1/0, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, and 0/1) were used to cultivate Chlorella sp. The results showed that carbohydrate and protein were the two main compounds in the LMBRs, and carbohydrate was the main compound in the molasses. The highest biomass concentration of 5.58 g/L, Y biomass/sugars of 0.59 g/g, lipid productivity of 335 mg/L/day, and Y lipids/sugars of 0.25 g/g were obtained at the hydrolysate mixture ratio of LMBRs/molasses of 1/4. High C/N ratio promoted the conversion of sugars into lipids. The lipids extracted from Chlorella sp. shared similar lipid profile of soybean oil and is therefore a potential viable biodiesel feedstock. These results showed that Chlorella sp. can utilize mixed sugars and amino acids from LMBRs and molasses to accumulate lipids efficiently, thus reducing the cost of microalgal biodiesel production and improving its economic viability.

  5. Production of the Functional Trisaccharide 1-Kestose from Cane Sugar Molasses Using Aspergillus japonicus β-Fructofuranosidase.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Katsuki; Kondo, Nobuhiro; Toyota, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Sachio

    2017-01-01

    We report the production of the functional trisaccharide 1-kestose, O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside, by β-fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus japonicus using sugar cane molasses as substrate. Sucrose in cane sugar molasses acted as a fructosyl donor and acceptor for the enzyme. The tetrasaccharide nystose, O-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2→1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside, was produced from 1-kestose. Cane sugar molasses mixed with water provided a better substrate solution for β-fructofuranosidase compared to undiluted molasses due to the high concentration of product inhibitors such as glucose and fructose in molasses. The maximum concentration of 1-kestose obtained was 84.9 mg/ml and the maximum production efficiency was 32.3% after 24 h reaction at 40 °C. The maximum efficiency of combined fructo-oligosaccharide (1-kestose and nystose) production was 40.6%. 1-Kestose was therefore produced via a fructosyl-transfer reaction catalyzed by β-fructofuranosidase from A. japonicus.

  6. Antioxidant activity of sugarcane molasses against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced peroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Asikin, Yonathan; Takahashi, Makoto; Mishima, Takashi; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2013-11-01

    Sugarcane molasses is a rich source of antioxidant materials with peroxyl radical scavenging effects. To explore the potent antioxidant activity of sugarcane molasses against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced peroxyl radicals, 7 methanolic fractions of sugarcane molasses (F1-F7) were separated via bioassay-guided fractionation and evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity (CAA), and oxidative DNA damage protective activity assays. The ORAC values of sugarcane molasses fractions ranged from 4399 to 6,266 μmol TE/g, whilst the EC50 values for CAA ranged from 3.7 to 5.9 μg/ml. Moreover, it was found that sugarcane molasses fractions, particularly F6 and F7, could protect against oxidative DNA damage caused by peroxyl radicals at an effective concentration of 100 μg/ml. Ten phenolic constituents were identified in the fractions, including known antioxidative compounds, viz., schaftoside, isoschaftoside, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde.

  7. Identification of genes whose expressions are enhanced or reduced in baker's yeast during fed-batch culture process using molasses medium by DNA microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Shima, Jun; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Tanaka, Fumiko; Watanabe, Hajime; Yamamoto, Hideki; Nakajima, Ryoichi; Tokashiki, Tadaaki; Tamura, Hiromi

    2005-06-25

    Genes whose expression levels are enhanced or reduced during the cultivation process that uses cane molasses in baker's yeast production were identified in this study. The results showed that baker's yeast grown in molasses medium had higher fermentation ability and stress tolerance compared with baker's yeast grown in synthetic medium. Molasses apparently provided not only sugar as a carbon source but also provided functional components that enhanced or reduced expression of genes involved in fermentation ability and stress tolerance. To identify the genes whose expression is enhanced or reduced during cultivation in molasses medium, DNA microarray analysis was then used to compare the gene expression profile of cells grown in molasses with that of cells grown in synthetic medium. To simulate the commercial baker's yeast production process, cells were cultivated using a fed-batch culture system. In molasses medium, genes involved in the synthesis or uptake of vitamins (e.g., biotin, pyridoxine and thiamine) showed enhanced expression, suggesting that vitamin concentrations in molasses medium were lower than those in synthetic medium. Genes involved in formate dehydrogenase and maltose assimilation showed enhanced expression in molasses medium. In contrast, genes involved in iron utilization (e.g., siderophore, iron transporter and ferroxidase) showed enhanced expression in synthetic medium, suggesting that iron starvation occurred. The genes involved in the metabolism of amino acids also showed enhanced expression in synthetic medium. This identification of genes provides information that will help improve the baker's yeast production process.

  8. Industrial wastewater analysis: A toxicity-directed approach

    SciTech Connect

    Reemtsma, T.; Putschew, A.; Jekel, M.

    1999-06-01

    Methods of toxicity-directed analysis have been developed for the characterization and identification of toxic organic constituents in industrial wastewater. Sequential solid-phase extraction is followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation or by automated multiple development thin-layer chromatography fractionation (AMD-TLC) of the toxic extracts. Toxic fractions were finally analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Toxicity was detected before each of the analytical steps by the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri, which was performed on microtiter plates and on the developed TLC plates. While sequential extraction broadens the polarity range of the procedure, the new variants of the luminescence test make the method very versatile and fast. The potential of this kind of toxicity-directed analysis with respect to resolution and polarity of analytes is discussed and applications to partial effluents of a tannery, to molasses wastewater and a spent dyeing bath are presented. A variety of benzothiazoles and more polar organics were identified as major toxic compounds in tannery effluents. It is shown that the procedures are well suited to detect individual toxic components in complex industrial wastewaters. The use of LC-MS is proposed to extend the polarity range of the final identification step.

  9. Molasses supplementation for dual-purpose cows during the dry season in subtropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salvador-Loreto, Isela; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Estrada-Flores, Julieta Gertrudis; Vicente-Mainar, Fernando; García-Martínez, Anastacio; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito

    2016-03-01

    The effect of including 9 % of molasses in supplements offered to dual purpose cows, during dry season in subtropical Mexico was determined. Forage availability in pastures during the dry season is reduced and of low quality. Molasses is a readily available source of energy that may improve forage utilization and could have a positive effect on cow's milk production and calves daily weight gain (CDWG). Twelve multiparous Brown Swiss cows (409 ± 33 kg of body weight and 136 ± 73 days in milk), and their calves were randomly assigned to two supplements (six cows per treatment). Control supplement (COS) consisted of cracked maize ears (CME), soybean meal and urea (14 % CP), and experimental supplement in which 9 % of CME was replaced by molasses (MOS). Cows received 4.5 kg/cow/day dry matter (DM) of supplement. Experiment lasted 10 weeks divided in five experimental periods (EP). Animal responses (milk yield, milk composition, body weight, body condition score and CDWG) were recorded at the end of every EP. A linear mixed model was used to analyse the data as a complete random design. Net profits from milk and beef due to supplements were estimated using partial budget approach. Average milk yield was 7 (kg/cow/day) with 30.6, 30.4 and 42.5 (g/kg milk) of fat, protein and lactose, respectively. Average cow weight was 422 kg and CDWG was 0.8 kg/day. No significant responses on animal production variables were found when 9 % of MOS was included in the supplement; however, total net income increased on 4 %, due to higher CDWG.

  10. Design and Optimization of a Process for Sugarcane Molasses Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh.; Madian, Hekmat R.; Amr, Salem S. Abu

    2013-01-01

    A statistical model was developed in this study to describe bioethanol production through a batch fermentation process of sugarcane molasses by locally isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-39. Response surface methodology RSM based on central composite face centered design CCFD was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for maximum bioethanol production and study the significance and interaction of incubation period, initial pH, incubation temperature, and molasses concentration on bioethanol yield. With the use of the developed quadratic model equation, a maximum ethanol production of 255 g/L was obtained in a batch fermentation process at optimum operating conditions of approximately 71 h, pH 5.6, 38°C, molasses concentration 18% wt.%, and 100 rpm. PMID:24222769

  11. Erosion processes in molassic cliffs: the role of the rock surface temperature and atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrea, Dario; Abellán, Antonio; Guerin, Antoine; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Voumard, Jérémie

    2014-05-01

    The morphology of the Swiss Plateau is modeled by numerous steep cliffs of Molasse. These cliffs are mainly composed of sub-horizontal alternated layers of sandstone, shale and conglomerates deposed in the Alps foreland basin during the Tertiary period. These Molasse cliffs are affected by erosion processes inducing numerous rockfall events. Thus, it is relevant to understand how different external factors influence Molasse erosion rates. In this study, we focus on analyzing temperature variation during a winter season. As pilot study area we selected a cliff which is formed by a sub-horizontal alternation of outcropping sandstone and shale. The westward facing test site (La Cornalle, Vaud, Switzerland), which is a lateral scarp of a slow moving landslide area, is currently affected by intense erosion. Regarding data acquisition, we monitored both in-situ rock and air temperatures at 15 minutes time-step since October 2013: (1) on the one hand we measured Ground Surface Temperature (GST) at near-surface (0.1 meter depth) using a GST mini-datalogger M-Log5W-Rock model; (2) On the other hand we monitored atmospheric conditions using a weather station (Davis Vantage pro2 plus) collecting numerous parameters (i.e. temperature, irradiation, rain, wind speed, etc.). Furthermore, the area was also seasonally monitored by Ground-Based (GB) LiDAR since 2010 and monthly monitored since September 2013. In order to understand how atmospheric conditions (such as freeze and thaw effect) influence the erosion of the cliff, we modeled the temperature diffusion through the rock mass. To this end, we applied heat diffusion and radiation equation using a 1D temperature profile, obtaining as a result both temperature variations at different depths together with the location of the 0°C isotherm. Our model was calibrated during a given training set using both in-situ rock temperatures and atmospheric conditions. We then carried out a comparison with the rockfall events derived from the

  12. Slab rollback orogeny in the Alps inferred from the stratigraphic evolution of the Swiss Molasse basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Kissling, Edi

    2016-04-01

    The stratigraphic development of foreland basins have been related to orogenic processes, where continent- continent collision resulted in the construction of topography and the downwarping of the foreland plate. These mechanisms have been used to explain the Oligocene to Miocene evolution of the Molasse basin, situated on the northern side of the European Alps. Continuous flexural bending of the subducting European lithosphere as a consequence of topographic loads alone would imply that the Alpine topography would have increased at least between 30 Ma and ca. 5-10 Ma when the basin accumulated the erosional detritus. This, however, is neither consistent with observations nor with isostatic mass balancing models. In particular, the use of empirical relationships between the spacing of alluvial megafans, orogen width and morphometric properties of stream channels feeding the fans imply a general trend towards an increasing total fluvial relief until 1,900±1,000 m at ca. 20 Ma, followed by a prolonged period of time during which this variable has remained nearly constant. Accordingly, larger topographic loads cannot be invoked to explain the continuous deflection of the foreland plate. Alternatively, a scenario where horizontal forces cause a downward dragging of the foreland plate would offer a valuable explanation for the decoupling between basin depth and topographic loads. However, such a scenario would be associated with the occurrence of compressional forces within the foreland plate, which is not in agreement with observations in the Molasse Basin, at least for the present, where focal mechanisms of current seismic events imply the occurrence of extensional forces at work. We suggest that rollback orogeny, driven by the gravitational pull of the European slab, provides a mechanism to explain the increasing deflection of the foreland in the absence of larger topographic forcing, and it agrees with the geologic record that the subducting European plate did not

  13. Molasses and microbial inoculants improve fermentability and silage quality of cotton waste-based spent mushroom substrate.

    PubMed

    Kwak, W S; Kim, Y I; Seok, J S; Oh, Y K; Lee, S M

    2009-02-01

    A small-silo study was conducted to develop an effective ensiling storage method for the use of cotton waste-based spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as an animal feed. The SMS was ensiled with 5% molasses (DM basis), 0.5% (v/w) lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus plantarum) inoculant or 0.5% (v/w) yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) inoculant. The treatments included 100% SMS (control), 95% SMS+5% molasses (T1), 95% SMS+5% molasses+0.5% LAB (T2) and 95% SMS+5% molasses+5% LAB+0.5% yeast (T3). The treatments were ensiled for 10. Change in chemical compositions was little (P>0.05) according to the ensiling process and treatments. Compared with those before ensiling, 100% SMS (control) after ensiling showed unstable fermentative properties with high pH (5.2) and little lactic acid production. Compared with the ensiled control, treatments (T1, T2 and T3) resulted in decreased pH, 18-20 times higher concentrations of lactic acid, and greater populations of total bacteria (P<0.07), LAB and yeast (P<0.07). The addition of 5% molasses, 0.5% LAB and 0.5% yeast (T3) to the SMS resulted in the lowest pH (4.25) and the greatest microbial populations. Treatment T3 was selected for a large scale silo study which was ensiled for 10, 20 and 30 d. As in the small-silo study, the T3 treatment showed favorable fermentative and microbial parameters, compared with the control, by decreasing pH and increasing lactic acid concentrations, LAB and yeast populations. The minimum ensiling period was 20 d, when pH was reasonably low and LAB and yeast populations were greatest. In conclusion, molasses and microbial inoculation improved silage quality of SMS.

  14. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  15. Enhanced ethanol production at commercial scale from molasses using high gravity technology by mutant S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Muhammad; Hussain, Tariq; Iqbal, Munawar; Abbas, Mazhar

    2017-02-16

    Very high gravity (VHG) technology was employed on industrial scale to produce ethanol from molasses (fermented) as well as by-products formation estimation. The effect of different Brix° (32, 36 and 40) air-flow rates (0.00, 0.20, 0.40, and 0.60vvm) was studied on ethanol production. The maximum ethanol production was recorded to be 12.2% (v/v) at 40 Brix° with 0.2vvm air-flow rate. At optimum level aeration and 40 Brix° VHG, the residual sugar level was recorded in the range of 12.5-18.5g/L, whereas the viable cell count remained constant up to 50h of fermentation and dry matter production increased with fermentation time. Both water and steam consumption reduced significantly under optimum conditions of Brix° and aeration rate with compromising the ethanol production. Results revealed VHG with continuous air flow is viable technique to reduce the ethanol production cost form molasses at commercial scale.

  16. The fermentation of sugarcane molasses by Dekkera bruxellensis and the mobilization of reserve carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciana Filgueira; Lucatti, Elisa; Basso, Luiz Carlos; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2014-03-01

    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is considered to be very well adapted to industrial environments, in Brazil, USA, Canada and European Countries, when different substrates are used in alcoholic fermentations. Our previous study described its fermentative profile with a sugarcane juice substrate. In this study, we have extended its physiological evaluation to fermentation situations by using sugarcane molasses as a substrate to replicate industrial working conditions. The results have confirmed the previous reports of the low capacity of D. bruxellensis cells to assimilate sucrose, which seems to be the main factor that can cause a bottleneck in its use as fermentative yeast. Furthermore, the cells of D. bruxellensis showed a tendency to deviate most of sugar available for biomass and organic acids (lactic and acetic) compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when calculated on the basis of their respective yields. As well as this, the acetate production from molasses medium by both yeasts was in marked contrast with the previous data on sugarcane juice. Glycerol and ethanol production by D. bruxellensis cells achieved levels of 33 and 53 % of the S. cerevisiae, respectively. However, the ethanol yield was similar for both yeasts. It is worth noting that this yeast did not accumulate trehalose when the intracellular glycogen content was 30 % lower than in S. cerevisiae. The lack of trehalose did not affect yeast viability under fermentation conditions. Thus, the adaptive success of D. bruxellensis under industrial fermentation conditions seems to be unrelated to the production of these reserve carbohydrates.

  17. Effect of sucrose concentration on the products of Kombucha fermentation on molasses.

    PubMed

    Malbaša, R; Lončar, E; Djurić, M; Došenović, I

    2008-06-01

    Fermentation of 1.5g/l of Indian black tea, sweetened with adequate quantities of molasses (containing approx. 70g/l, 50g/l and 35g/l of sucrose), was conducted using domestic Kombucha. Inoculation was performed with 10% of fermentation broth from a previous process. The fermentation in cylindrical vessels containing 2l of liquid phase, was carried out at 22±1°C for 14 days, with periodical sampling, to measure pH, content of acids (total, acetic and l-lactic), content of remaining sucrose, and the yield of biomass at the end of fermentation. A product with 70g/l sucrose from molasses corresponds to an optimal concentration of carbon source, which provided metabolites with high pH, a low content of less desired acetic acid, a high content of highly desired l-lactic acid, an acceptable content of total acids and the highest possible level of utilisation of sucrose.

  18. Evolution of the eastern Austrian Molasse Basin: The Lower Miocene (Burdigalian) as a key to the understanding of the Eastern Alps - Molasse Basin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palzer, Markus; Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Wagreich, Michael; Meszar, Maria E.; Gier, Susanne; Soliman, Ali; -Elena Kallanxhi, Mǎdǎlina

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Austrian Molasse Basin is situated between the Bohemian Massif, the Waschberg-Zone and the Alps. There, sands of the Lower Miocene (Upper Ottnangian) Traisen Formation represent a clastic interval at the top of pelitic Schlier successions, which is correlated with the global sea level drop Bur3 (Burdigalian). North of the Danube River, the continuation of the Traisen-Formation is overlain by the Karpatian Laa-Formation. Drill cores from OMV-wells predominantly from the continuation of the Traisen Formation in deep parts in the NE of the basin show hundreds of meters of pelites with intersections of sands. Contrary to the exposed, mainly brackish TF, a turbiditic and predominantly fully marine deep-water environment is inferred from the cores. Profiles of carbonate content, XRD, XRF, whole rock chemistry, clay minerals, calcareous nannoplankton and dinoflagellate cysts of 7 wells were investigated representing a NE-SW transect through the LAMB. Based on these data, a new stratigraphy for the Burdigalian distal parts of the LAMB can be defined and correlated with the proximal units. The Traisen Formation and its equivalents are characterized at their base by an increased clastic input in the south and by increasing mica content in the northern parts. The complete interval is characterized by the decreased carbonate content. The XRD data show strongly reduced calcite contents which goe hand in hand with the absence of nannoplankton. Whether the signal is related to a crisis in primary production or to carbonate dissolution remains unclear. The absence of dinoflagellate cysts and the chemical data (reduced B/Al* ratios indicate reduced salinity) are considered as an argument for an environmental crisis. However, the absence of resedimented Cretaceous to Paleocene nannofossils, which usually occur together with the autochthonous NN4-nannofossils, indicates carbonate dissolution. These results enable us to define a basinal interval as equivalent to the

  19. Effect of microbial inoculant or molasses on fermentative quality and aerobic stability of sawdust-based spent mushroom substrate.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Lee, Y H; Kim, Y I; Ahmadi, F; Oh, Y K; Park, J M; Kwak, W S

    2016-09-01

    In the first experiment, the effect of two novel Lactobacillus plantarum strains was studied on the fermentation of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) through 10d of ensiling. Based on lactic acid production and lactic acid bacteria population, L. plantarum KU5 was identified as the best strain for fermentation with a 5-L bag silo. Spent mushroom substrate was ensiled with 0.5% (v/w) L. plantarum KU5 without or with 5% molasses. Silages treated with microbial inoculant and molasses had the lowest pH and the highest fermentative odors. In a second set of experiments similar to the above 5-L silo study, the simultaneous application of L. plantarum KU5 inoculant and molasses to 80-L silos improved fermentability and aerobic stability of SMS silages. For similar treatment using ton-bag silos, aerobic stability decreased and NH3-N content increased dramatically. In conclusion, sawdust-based SMS for animal use was successfully ensiled with L. plantarum KU5 inoculant and molasses.

  20. Rim15p-mediated regulation of sucrose utilization during molasses fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2.

    PubMed

    Inai, Tomomi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Fukada, Rie; Akao, Takeshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Inherited loss-of-function mutations in the Rim15p-mediated stress-response pathway contribute to the high fermentation rate of sake yeast strains. In the present study, we found that disruption of the RIM15 gene in ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2 accelerated molasses fermentation through enhanced sucrose utilization following glucose starvation.

  1. A two-stage fermentation process of erythritol production by yeast Y. lipolytica from molasses and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Mirończuk, Aleksandra M; Rakicka, Magdalena; Biegalska, Anna; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Dobrowolski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a two-stage fermentation process of erythritol production based on molasses and glycerol was investigated. During the first stage, the biomass of Yarrowia lipolytica was grown on medium containing sucrose as the sole carbon source. In the second stage, production of erythritol was initiated by glycerol addition. To use molasses as a substrate for erythritol synthesis, sucrose utilization was established by expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUC2 gene. In this study, cultivation of yeast Y. lipolytica could produce 52-114 g/L of erythritol. The productivity was 0.58-1.04 g/L/h, and yield was 0.26-0.57 g/g; the final biomasses yield ranged 17-41 g/L. This is the first report describing erythritol production via industrial raw molasses and glycerol by Y. lipolytica. This work uses genetically modified strains of Y. lipolytica as tool for the direct conversion of affordable raw industrial molasses and glycerol into the value-added erythritol product.

  2. Lithofacies Associations and Depositional Environments of the Neogene Molasse succession, Pishin Belt, northwestern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasi, A.; Kassi, A.; Friis, H.; Umar, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Pishin Belt is a NE-SW trending mixed flysch and molasse basin, situated at the northwestern part of Pakistan, bordered by Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate in the west and Indian Plate in the east. Western boundary of the belt is marked by the well-known Chaman Transform Fault, whereas the Zhob Valley Thrust and Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite mark the eastern boundary. The Belt is divisible into six tectono-stratigraphic zones bounded by major thrusts. Muslim Bagh-Zhob Ophiolite is the base and Zone-I of this belt. Zone-II comprises shallow marine and flysch successions of the Eocene Nisai Formation and Oligocene Khojak Formation. The Early to Middle Miocene Dasht Murgha group comprises Zone-III, the Late Miocene-Pliocene Malthanai formation comprises Zone-IV, the Pleistocene Bostan Formation makes Zone-V, and the flat-laying Holocene deposits of the Zhob Valley comprise Zone-VI. The Neogene molasse successions of the Pishin Belt include the Dasht Murgha group, Malthanai formation and Bostan Formation; these are mostly composed of sandstone, claystone and conglomerate lithologies. Sandstones have been classified as lithic arenites and their QFL values suggest quartzolithic composition. Twelve distinct lithofacies have been recognized in the succession and thus grouped into four types of facies associations. Lithofacies include clast-supported massive gravel (Gcm), clast-supported crudely bedded gravel (Gh), cross-stratified conglomerate (Gt and Gp), trough cross-stratified sandstone (St), planar cross-stratified sandstone (Sp), ripple cross-laminated sandstone (Sr), horizontally stratified sandstone (Sh), low-angle cross-stratified sandstone (Sl), massive sandstones (Sm), massive mudstone and siltstone (Fm) and paleosol carbonate (P). The lithofacies associations include channel facies association (CHA), crevasse-splay facies association (CSA), natural-levee facies association (LVA) and floodplain facies association (FPA). The lithofacies associations suggest

  3. Enhanced bioremediation of crude oil utilizing lipophilic fertilizers combined with biosurfactants and molasses.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, Maria; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2008-11-01

    Many research studies have demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of fertilization with nitrogen and phosphorus to combat oil spills in marine environments. Rapid dilution of water-soluble nutrients can be overcome by oleophilic formulations that retain optimal nutrient concentrations at the oil-water interface where biodegradation occurs. Previous work has demonstrated that biodegradation processes are enhanced by the addition of lipophilic fertilizers of natural origin (uric acid and lecithin). In this work, we examined the effectiveness of these nutrients in combination with biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) and molasses (source of C and vitamins) to enhance the biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms. It was found that the use of biosurfactants resulted in an increased removal of petroleum hydrocarbons (96% removal of C19-C34 n-alkanes within a period of 18 days) as well as in a reduction of the lag phase (almost 80% removal was achieved within the first week of biosurfactant application).

  4. A radiochemical, hydrochemical and dissolved gas study of groundwaters in the Molasse basin of Upper Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. N.; Goldbrunner, J. E.; Darling, W. G.; Hooker, P. J.; Wilson, G. B.; Youngman, M. J.; Eichinger, L.; Rauert, W.; Stichler, W.

    1985-05-01

    The Innviertel (Ottnangian) formation of the Molasse zone of Upper Austria is of major importance as a source of potable water. A hydrochemical, radiochemical and dissolved gas study was undertaken to establish the flow pattern in the Innviertel and its relationship to groundwaters in deeper formations in the Molasse basin. The Innviertel groundwaters could be differentiated into three groups on the basis of their chemical compositions. Waters from shallow boreholes which sampled very localised systems are oxidising waters of the Ca-bicarbonate type and may have high 3H contents. A transition to reducing groundwaters occurs in the second and third groups, with Na + replacing Ca 2+ as the dominant cation and sulphate being reduced to sulphide. The uranium solution chemistry also changes systematically with this change in redox conditions. The 234U/ 238U activity ratios are enhanced for group 2 groundwaters and decrease again in group 3 groundwaters. The low Cl contents of all the Innviertel groundwaters indicate that the marine sediments have been completely flushed by meteoric water and this is confirmed by the stable isotope composition of the water. Groundwater residence times have been estimated from hydrological data, radiogenic 4He accumulation rates and palaeotemperatures of recharge which were estimated from noble gas contents. The 3He/ 4He ratio shows that most radiogenic He diffuses from the basement granite and the He flux was estimated on the basis of diffusion theory. Groundwater residence times were assessed from this diffusive flux of helium and together with the recharge temperatures, indicate that the evolved groundwaters of the Innviertel were recharged during the interstadial which preceded the last glaciation.

  5. Stability of Molasse: TLS for structural analysis in the valley of Gotteron-Fribourg, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Hammouda, Mariam; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc Henri; Bouaziz, Samir; Mazotti, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    The marine molasses of Fribourg (Switzerland) is an area where the cliff collapses and rockfalls are quite frequent and difficult to predict due to this particular lithology, a poorly consolidated greywacke. Because of some recent rockfall events, the situation became critical especially in the valley of Gotteron where a big block has slightly moved down and might destroy a house in case of rupture. The cliff made of jointed sandstone and thin layers of clay and siltstone presents many fractures, joints and massive cross bedding surfaces which increases the possibility of slab failure. This paper presents a detailed structural analysis of the cliff and the identification of the potential failure mechanisms. The methodology is about combining field observation and terrestrial LiDAR scanning point cloud in order to assess the stability of potential slope instabilities of molasses. Three LiDAR scans were done i) to extract discontinuity families depending to the dip and the dip direction of joints and ii) to run kinematic tests in order to identify responsible sets for each potential failure mechanisms. Raw point clouds were processed using IMAlign module of Polyworks and CloudCompare software. The structural analysis based on COLTOP 3D (Jaboyedoff et al. 2007) allowed the identification of four discontinuity sets that were not measured in the field. Two different failure mechanisms have been identified as critical: i) planar sliding which is the main responsible mechanism of the present fallen block and ii) wedge sliding. The planar sliding is defined by the discontinuity sets J1 and J5 with a direction parallel to the slope and with a steep dip angle. The wedges, defined by couples of discontinuity sets, contribute to increase cracks' opening and to the detachment of slabs. The use of TLS combined with field survey provides us a first interpretation of instabilities and a very promising structural analysis.

  6. Production and characterization of PHA from recombinant E. coli harbouring phaC1 gene of indigenous Pseudomonas sp. LDC-5 using molasses

    PubMed Central

    Saranya, V.; Shenbagarathai, R.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biodegradable and biocompatible green thermoplastics, synthesized by wide variety of bacteria as an intracellular carbon and energy storage intermediate. They are used as an alternative to nonrenewable petroleum derived plastics. The current interest in these biopolyesters is stimulated by the search for cost-effective capitalized production. This paper attempts to achieve maximized production rate from recombinant system using inexpensive substrate. Molasses from agro-industrial waste was used to produce PHA from recombinant E.coli in batch culture. PHA yield in molasses (3.06g/L ± 0.05‒75.5%) was higher than that of sucrose (2.5g/L ± 0.05 - 65.1%). Properties of the polymer produced from molasses and sucrose were analyzed by DSC, TGA, DTA, GC/MS, TLC and optical rotation studies. The findings suggested that molasses enhanced PHA production in recombinant E.coli. PMID:24031729

  7. Effects of the level of sugarcane molasses on growth and carcass performance of Caribbean growing pigs reared under a ground sugarcane stalks feeding system.

    PubMed

    Xandé, X; Archimède, H; Gourdine, J L; Anais, C; Renaudeau, D

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the level of sugarcane (SC) molasses on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality in Creole (CR) growing pigs fed with ground sugarcane stalks (GCS)-based diet was studied in a mixed farming system context. The aim of the study was to optimize the growth performance of CR pigs with SC-molasses as an energy source in this unconventional feeding. A total of 32 CR pigs were used from 30 to 60 kg of body weight (BW). The experimental dietary treatments consisted of four levels of inclusion of SC-molasses (200, 400, 600, and 800 g DM/d/pig) into a GCS diet, for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The GCS allowance was based on live BW (170 g/kg BW/d) and the diets were supplemented with a soya-bean meal supplement (350 g/d of a 49.2% CP and 16.6 MJ DE/kg). All the pigs were slaughtered at 60 kg BW. Increasing the level of molasses did not affect (p > 0.05) average BW gain (254 g/d), CP intake (154 g/d) and sugar extraction rate from the total ration (85%). A gradual inclusion of molasses in a GCS-based diet did not affect the carcass and meat quality of CR pigs. In conclusion, molasses supplementation does not allow the increase of growth performance in GCS fed pigs.

  8. Improvement of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic Acid Production by Marine Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii Using Rapeseed Meal Hydrolysate and Waste Molasses as Feedstock

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yangmin; Liu, Jiao; Jiang, Mulan; Liang, Zhuo; Jin, Hu; Hu, Xiaojia; Wan, Xia; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed meal and waste molasses are two important agro-industrial by-products which are produced in large quantities. In this study, solid state fermentation and fungal autolysis were performed to produce rapeseed meal hydrolysate (RMH) using fungal strains of Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium oxalicum and Neurospora crassa. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation feedstock for heterotrophic growth of microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii that produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The addition of waste molasses as a supplementary carbon source greatly increased the biomass and DHA yield. In the batch fermentations using media composed of diluted RMH (7%) and 1-9% waste molasses, the highest biomass concentration and DHA yield reached 3.43 g/L and 8.72 mg/L, respectively. The algal biomass produced from RMH and molasses medium also had a high percentage of DHA (22-34%) in total fatty acids similar to that of commercial algal biomass. RMH was shown to be rich in nitrogen supply comparable to the commercial nitrogen feedstock like yeast extract. Using RMH as sole nitrogen source, waste molasses excelled other carbon sources and produced the highest concentration of biomass. This study suggests that DHA production of the marine dinoflagellate C. cohnii could be greatly improved by concomitantly using the cheap by-products rapeseed meal hydrolysate and molasses as alternative feedstock. PMID:25942565

  9. Small Wastewater Systems Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small communities face barriers to building and maintaining effective wastewater treatment services, challenges include financial/economic limitations, lack of managerial training and geographic isolation/remoteness.

  10. Comparative study of the effect of ferrocyanide and EDTA on the production of ethyl alcohol from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Oderinde, R.A.; Ngoka, L.C.; Adesogan, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of potassium ferrocyanide and EDTA on ethyl alcohol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated on simulated batch pilot-plant-scale conditions for alcoholic fermentation of molasses. Ethyl alcohol production was more sensitive to ferrocyanide than to EDTA. When ferrocyanide was introduced into the cultures at the time of inoculation, there was stimulation of ethyl alcohol production, with 261 ppm ferrocyanide producing the maximum effect, which was 3.0% more than n control cultures. When added during the propagation of the yeast, ferrocyanide depressed ethyl alcohol production by 4.0% maximum whereas EDTA stimulated ethyl alcohol production by 2.0%. Addition of ferrocyanide during the fermentation stage produced no significant effect on alcohol production, whereas over a wide range of EDTA concentration there was a steady increase in alcohol yield.

  11. Invertase activity of intact cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on sugar cane molasses. 1. Steady-state continuous culture tests

    SciTech Connect

    Vitolo, M.; Vairo, M.L.R.; Borzani, W.

    1985-08-01

    During the steady-state continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on sugar cane blackstrap molasses under different experimental conditions, oscillatory variations of the invertase activity of the intact yeast cells were observed. The continuous morphological changes of the cells wall and of the periplasmic space affecting the interaction between invertase and sucrose molecules could be responsible by the observed oscillatory phenomena. The average invertase activity at the steady state is linearly correlated to the cell's growth rate.

  12. The northern coast of the Ottnangian (middle Burdigalian, early Miocene) Molasse Sea in Germany: sediments, foraminiferal assemblages and biostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippèrr, Martina; Reichenbacher, Bettina; Doppler, Gerhard; Hagmaier, Mischa; Jung, Dietmar

    2016-04-01

    This study provides new data on the litho- and biostratigraphy of the middle Burdigalian (Ottnangian) marine sediments at or close to the former northern coastline of the German Molasse Basin, based on cores from three boreholes (Burgau, Hamlar 2 and Lutzingen) and two outcrops (Haunsheim and Dattenhausen). Methods include quantitative analysis of benthic foraminiferal assemblages (90 samples), studies of planktonic foraminifers and ostracods and investigations of lithofacies. The data indicate that the transgressive-regressive marine sediments of the Upper Marine Molasse (OMM) at Burgau and Hamlar 2 can be subdivided into the well-known lower and middle Ottnangian sedimentation cycles, with the first cycle being represented by the "OMM-Basisschichten" and Kalkofen Formation and the second by the Baltringen and Steinhöfe Formations. We show for the first time that also the northernmost marginal-marine OMM facies (Lutzingen, Haunsheim and Dattenhausen) can be correlated with the lower and middle Ottnangian sedimentation cycles. Consequently, our results do not support the presence of a previously suggested third sedimentation cycle within the OMM sediments. Our micropaleontological data reveal regionally diverse depositional environments, reflecting different water depths and co-varying environmental variables. Significant differences in abundance, diversity and species composition of the benthic foraminiferal assemblages demonstrate marginal-marine facies for Lutzingen, Haunsheim and Dattenhausen, nearshore facies for Hamlar 2 and shallow marine basin facies for Burgau. The characteristic lower Ottnangian benthic foraminiferal species exhibit restricted ecological tolerances. Hence, the absence or scarcity of these species in nearshore to marginal-marine deposits has no stratigraphic significance. The presence of two sedimentation cycles in the western German Molasse Basin alone may have resulted from the interplay of regional tectonics and basin development that

  13. Continuous separation of sugarcane molasses with a simulated moving-bed adsorber. Adsorption equilibria, kinetics, and application

    SciTech Connect

    Saska, M.; Mei Di Wu; Clarke, S.J.; Iqbal, K. )

    1992-10-01

    Fundamental chromatographic properties are reported that are related to the industrial separation of sugarcane molasses in a simulated moving-bed adsorber. The distribution coefficients of KCL, sucrose, glucose, and fructose on XUS-40166.00 (K[sup +]) cation exchanger were determined by pulse testing to be 0.00, 0.22, 0.45, and 0.50 at infinite dilution at 70 C. The adsorption isotherm of KCl is quadratic; those of the sugars only slightly nonlinear and dependent on KCl concentration. HETP was found to be independent of fluid velocity for KCl in the range of the interstitial velocity of 5 to 35 cm/min, and increasing with v for sucrose. At high fluid velocities the broadening of the sucrose band in a packed bed comes primarily from intraparticle mass transfer, with axial dispersion and film diffusion playing minor roles. The process for separation of sugarcane molasses was demonstrated on a 47 liter, eight-column simulated moving-bed adsorber. A theoretical, staged model of the simulated moving-bed adsorber with one inert totally excluded and three linearly adsorbing components was found to give an excellent representation of the transient and steady-state behavior of the continuous separation of sugarcane molasses.

  14. Changes in development and ultrastructure of Aspergillus niger mycelium, strain with increased tolerance to toxic substances from beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Zakowska, Z; Gabara, B

    1991-01-01

    Effects of a defoamer and toxic molasses compounds on development and ultrastructure of A. niger mycelium, strain Z, characterized by high tolerance to these substances and producing citric acid in surface fermentation on proper molasses media with 70% yield were presented. Spumol BJ in concentration of 5 microliters/100 cm3 as well as toxic molasses compounds stimulated the process of swelling and germinating of conidia. Moreover, giant conidia, unable to germinate, appeared. Developing mycelium with dispersed hyphae became mucilaginous after 17-20 h culture, which indicated the process of sinking but after 24 h some part of the mycelium developed normally. Electron microscopic observations of mycelium developing in the presence of the toxic substances showed along with electron-transparent cytoplasm in a consequence of decrease in ribosome number, changes in ultrastructure of mitochondria. It may be assumed that one of the reasons of the above described abnormalities in development and ultrastructure of mycelium was a disturbance of respiration processes. The appearance of deposits of electron-dense material in mitochondria suggested the existence of a defence mechanism, eliminating toxic substances.

  15. The Effects of Freezing and Supplementation of Molasses and Inoculants on Chemical and Nutritional Composition of Sunflower Silage

    PubMed Central

    Konca, Y.; Beyzi, S. Buyukkilic; Ayaşan, T.; Kaliber, M.; Kiraz, A. Bozkurt

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of freezing and supplementation of molasses (M), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and LAB+enzyme mixture on chemical and nutritional composition of sunflower silage (SF). Sunflower crops were harvested (at about 29.2%±1.2% dry matter) and half of fresh sunflower was ensiled alone and half was frozen (F) at −20°C for 7 days. Silage additives were admixed into frozen SF material. All samples were ensiled in glass jars with six replicates for 90 days. The treatments were as follows: i) positive control (non-frozen and no additives, NF), ii) negative control (frozen, no additives, F), iii) F+5% molasses (FM), iv) F+LAB (1.5 g/tons, Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium, FLAB); v) F+LAB+enzyme (2 g/tons Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium and cellulase and amylase enzymes, FLEN). Freezing silage increased dry matter, crude ash, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin. The organic matter, total digestible nutrient, non-fiber carbohydrate, metabolizable energy and in vitro dry matter digestibility were negatively influenced by freezing treatments (p<0.05). In conclusion, freezing sunflower plants prior to ensiling may negatively affect silage quality, while molasses supplementation improved some quality traits of frozen silage. Lactic acid bacteria and LAB+enzyme inoculations did not effectively compensate the negative impacts of freezing on sunflower silage. PMID:26954197

  16. High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, M.; Keera, Abeer A.; Mouafi, Foukia E.; Kahil, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300 L, 3 m3, and 12 m3 fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65 m3 working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18% (w/v), inoculum size of 20% (v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 108/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10 kg/65 m3 working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4 g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved. PMID:24363937

  17. Quality of gingernut type biscuits as affected by varying fat content and partial replacement of honey with molasses.

    PubMed

    Filipčev, Bojana; Šimurina, Olivera; Bodroža-Solarov, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Gingernut type biscuits were prepared with varying fat content (10, 20, and 30 % w/w flour basis) and with sugar beet molasses replacing 0, 25, and 50 % w/w of the honey in the formulation. To evaluate the effects of these modifications, dough properties, and the physical, and sensory properties, and chemical composition of the biscuits were determined. Dough properties were significantly affected by the fat content; higher fat gave softer dough with reduced adhesiveness, cohesiveness and springiness. Biscuit height and diameter were also significantly affected only by the fat content. The tested biscuit variants showed no difference with respect to hardness and fracturability. During storage, hardness, fracturability and brittleness of the biscuits significantly increased but significant differences within the biscuits variants were observed after two months of storage in terms of fracturability which was least impaired in the biscuits with 30 % fat. Higher fat content also contributed to better flavour keeping during storage. Substitution of honey with molasses resulted in products with darker colour, less yellow and more red tone. Molasses also contributed to better nutritive value of biscuits by increasing significantly the content of proteins, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron.

  18. Production of ethanol by filamentous and yeast-like forms of Mucor indicus from fructose, glucose, sucrose, and molasses.

    PubMed

    Sharifia, Mahnaz; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2008-11-01

    The fungus Mucor indicus is found in this study able to consume glucose and fructose, but not sucrose in fermentation of sugarcane and sugar beet molasses. This might be an advantage in industries which want to selectively remove glucose and fructose for crystallisation of sucrose present in the molasses. On the other hand, the fungus assimilated sucrose after hydrolysis by the enzyme invertase. The fungus efficiently grew on glucose and fructose and produced ethanol in synthetic media or from molasses. The cultivations were carried out aerobically and anaerobically, and manipulated toward filamentous or yeast-like morphology. Ethanol was the major metabolite in all the experiments. The ethanol yield in anaerobic cultivations was between 0.35 and 0.48 g/g sugars consumed, depending on the carbon source and the growth morphology, while a yield of as low as 0.16 g/g was obtained during aerobic cultivation. The yeast-like form of the fungus showed faster ethanol production with an average productivity of 0.90 g/l h from glucose, fructose and inverted sucrose, than the filamentous form with an average productivity of 0.33 g/l h. The biomass of the fungus was also analyzed with respect to alkali-insoluble material (AIM), chitin, and chitosan. The biomass of the fungus contained per g maximum 0.217 g AIM and 0.042 g chitosan in yeast-like cultivation under aerobic conditions.

  19. High-cell-density fed-batch culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae KV-25 using molasses and corn steep liquor.

    PubMed

    Vu, Van Hanh; Kim, Keun

    2009-12-01

    High-cell-density cultivation of yeast was investigated using the agricultural waste products corn steep liquor (CSL) and molasses. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae KV-25 cell mass was significantly dependent on the ratio between C and N sources. The concentrations of molasses and CSL in the culture medium were statistically optimized at 10.25% (v/v) and 16.87% (v/v), respectively, by response surface methodology (RSM). Batch culture in a 5-l stirred tank reactor using the optimized medium resulted in a cell mass production of 36.5 g/l. In the fed-batch culture, the feed phase was preceded by a batch phase using the optimized medium, and a very high dried-cell-mass yield of 187.63 g/l was successfully attained by feeding a mixture of 20% (v/v) molasses and 80% (v/v) CSL at a rate of 22 ml/h. In this system, the production of cell mass depended mainly on the agitation speed, the composition of the feed medium, and the glucose level in the medium, but only slightly on the aeration rate.

  20. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

  1. Decentralized wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Tchobanoglous, G.

    1998-07-01

    Decentralized wastewater management systems maintain both the solid and liquid fractions of the wastewater near their point of origin. In the future, as long-term strategies are developed to optimize the use of water resources and to protect the environment, it is clear that decentralized systems will become an important element of those strategies.

  2. Effect of copper source and level on performance and copper status of cattle consuming molasses-based supplements.

    PubMed

    Arthington, J D; Pate, F M; Spears, J W

    2003-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the availability of dietary Cu offered to growing beef cattle consuming molasses-based supplements. In Exp. 1, 24 Braford heifers were assigned randomly to bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pastures (two heifers/pasture). Heifers were provided 1.5 kg of TDN and 0.3 kg of supplemental CP/heifer daily using a molasses-cottonseed meal slurry. Three treatments were randomly assigned to pastures (four pastures/treatment), providing 100 mg of supplemental Cu daily in the form of either CuSO4 (inorganic Cu) or organic-Cu. A third treatment offered no supplemental Cu (negative control). Heifer BW was collected at the start and end of the study. Jugular blood and liver samples were collected on d 0, 29, 56, and 84. In Exp. 2, 24 Brahman-crossbred steers were fed the same molasses-cottonseed meal supplement at the same rates used in Exp. 1. Steers were housed in individual pens (15 m2) with free-choice access to stargrass (Cynodon spp.) hay. Four Cu treatments were assigned to individual steers (six pens/treatment) providing 1) 10 ppm of Cu from an organic source; 2) 10 ppm Cu from Tri-basic Cu chloride (TBCC); 3) 30 ppm of Cu from TBCC; or 4) 30 ppm of Cu, a 50:50 ratio of TBCC and organic Cu. Body weights and jugular blood and liver samples were collected on d 0, 24, 48, and 72. In Exp. 1, liver Cu concentrations did not differ between heifers supplemented with inorganic and organic Cu. Each source resulted in increased (P < 0.05) liver Cu concentrations compared with the unsupplemented control. Plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for Cu-supplemented heifers, independent of Cu source. Heifer ADG tended (P = 0.11) to increase with Cu supplementation compared with the unsupplemented control. In Exp. 2, liver Cu was greater (P < 0.05) on d 24, 48, and 72 for steers consuming 30 vs. 10 ppm of Cu. Steers supplemented with organic Cu had lower DMI than steers supplemented with 10 or 30 ppm of TBCC. These data suggest that

  3. Electrical, thermal and electrochemical properties of disordered carbon prepared from palygorskite and cane molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Edelio Danguillecourt; Laffita, Yodalgis Mosqueda; Montoro, Luciano Andrey; Della Santina Mohallem, Nelcy; Cabrera, Humberto; Pérez, Guillermo Mesa; Frutis, Miguel Aguilar; Cappe, Eduardo Pérez

    2017-02-01

    We have synthesized and electrochemically tested a carbon sample that was suitable as anode for lithium secondary battery. The synthesis was based on the use of the palygorskite clay as template and sugar cane molasses as carbon source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) analysis showed that the nanometric carbon material has a highly disordered graphene-like wrinkled structure and large specific surface area (467 m2 g-1). The compositional characterization revealed a 14% of heteroatoms-containing groups (O, H, N, S) doping the as-prepared carbon. Thermophysical measurements revealed the good thermal stability and an acceptable thermal diffusivity (9·10-7 m2 s-1) and conductivity (1.1 W m-1 K-1) of this carbon. The electrical properties showed an electronic conductivity of hole-like carriers of approximately one S/cm in a 173-293 K range. The testing of this material as anodes in a secondary lithium battery displayed a high specific capacity and excellent performance in terms of number of cycles. A high reversible capacity of 356 mA h g-1 was reached.

  4. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects of Polyphenols from Sugar Beet Molasses on Colon Carcinoma Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Three polyphenols were isolated and purified from sugar beet molasses by ultrasonic-aid extraction and various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and Western blot assay. The results showed that gallic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and epicatechin have cytotoxicity to the human colon, hepatocellular and breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride showed its cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, particularly against colon cancer Caco-2 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 23.21 ± 0.14 μg/mL in vitro. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colon cancer. In the mechanism study, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride increased the ratio of cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and reduced cyclin D1 expression on Caco-2 cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride decreased mutant p21 expression, and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. PMID:27347927

  5. Chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of potato-wheat straw silage treated with molasses and lactic acid bacteria and corn silage.

    PubMed

    Babaeinasab, Y; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of molasses and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of an ensiled potato-wheat straw mixture in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Wheat straw was harvested at full maturity and potato tuber when the leaves turned yellowish. The potato-wheat straw (57:43 ratio, DM basis) mixture was treated with molasses, LAB, or a combination. Lalsil Fresh LB (Lallemand, France; containing NCIMB 40788) or Lalsil MS01 (Lallemand, France; containing MA18/5U and MA126/4U) were each applied at a rate of 3 × 10 cfu/g of fresh material. Treatments were mixed potato-wheat straw silage (PWSS) without additive, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01, PWSS + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01 + 5% molasses, and corn silage (CS). The compaction densities of PWSS treatments and CS were approximately 850 and 980 kg wet matter/m, respectively. After anaerobic storage for 90 d, chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vitro gas production (GP), estimated OM disappearance (OMD), ammonia-N, VFA, microbial CP (MCP) production, and cellulolytic bacteria count were determined. Compared to CS, PWSS had greater ( < 0.001) values of DM, ADL, water-soluble carbohydrates, pH, and ammonia-N but lower ( < 0.05) values of CP, ash free-NDF (NDFom), ash, nitrate, and lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids concentrations. When PWSS was treated with molasses, LAB, or both, the contents of CP and lactic and acetic acids increased, whereas NDFom, ammonia-N, and butyric acid decreased ( < 0.05). Based on in vitro ruminal experiments, PWSS had greater ( < 0.05) values of GP, OMD, and MCP but lower ( < 0.05) VFA and acetic acid compared to CS. With adding molasses alone or in combination with LAB inoculants to PWSS, the values of GP

  6. Co-digestion of molasses or kitchen waste with high-rate activated sludge results in a diverse microbial community with stable methane production.

    PubMed

    De Vrieze, Jo; Plovie, Kristof; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2015-04-01

    Kitchen waste and molasses are organic waste streams with high organic content, and therefore are interesting substrates for renewable energy production by means of anaerobic digestion. Both substrates, however, often cause inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process, when treated separately, hence, co-digestion with other substrates is required to ensure stable methane production. In this research, A-sludge (sludge harvested from a high rate activated sludge system) was used to stabilize co-digestion with kitchen waste or molasses. Lab-scale digesters were fed with A-sludge and kitchen waste or molasses for a total period of 105 days. Increased methane production values revealed a stabilizing effect of concentrated A-sludge on kitchen waste digestion. Co-digestion of molasses with A-sludge also resulted in a higher methane production. Volumetric methane production rates up to 1.53 L L(-1) d(-1) for kitchen waste and 1.01 L L(-1) d(-1) for molasses were obtained by co-digestion with A-sludge. The stabilizing effect of A-sludge was attributed to its capacity to supplement various nutrients. Microbial community results demonstrated that both reactor conditions and substrate composition determined the nature of the bacterial community, although there was no direct influence of micro-organisms in the substrate itself, while the methanogenic community profile remained constant as long as optimal conditions were maintained.

  7. High strength distillery wastewater treatment by a PAC-MBR with low PAC dosage.

    PubMed

    Basu, Subhankar; Kaushik, Ankita; Saranya, P; Batra, Vidya S; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2016-01-01

    Augmentation of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with activated carbon is established to offer several operational advantages. This work investigates the influence of low dosing (2 g/L) of powdered activated carbons (PACs) with different characteristics on the performance of MBR treating high strength molasses distillery wastewater containing difficult-to-biodegrade recalcitrant components. Two MBRs, augmented with different PACs, were operated in parallel over a period of 240 days and their performance monitored in terms of biomass growth, reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD), sludge properties like extracellular polymeric substances content, filterability, and morphology. Removal of organics and coloring matter by adsorption, biodegradation and membrane filtration was estimated. Although adsorptive removal of color and COD is influenced by the properties of the PAC used, the performance of the PAC-MBRs was independent of PAC properties. Both PACs preferentially adsorbed the low molecular weight components in distillery wastewater. Retention by the membrane filter with the secondary cake layer contributed to reduction in color and COD of treated effluent. The findings indicate that low dosing with PAC adsorbing low molecular weight organics has a limited role in PAC-MBR treating distillery wastewater.

  8. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into a municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant.

  9. Scalings at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm Aquifer (Bavarian Molasse Baisin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhl, Bernhard; Herbrich, Moritz; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Scalings at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm Aquifer (Bavarian Molasse Basin) (Herbrich, M., Köhl, B., Baumann, T.) Scalings are a widespread problem among geothermal plants which exploit the Malm Aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Zone. They effect the technical and economic efficiency of geothermal plants and cause costly revisions of the geothermal cycle. Scalings observed at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm Aquifer mainly consist of different CaCO3 polymorphs and are found at the motor, in the pumps and pipes and throughout the groundlevel facilities including the heat exchangers. There are two main processes leading to a disruption of the carbonate equilibrium and causing these CaCO3 scalings: local temperature peaks and degassing of less soluble gases due to local pressure drops. While the increase of the temperature leads to a local supersaturation at the hot surface of e.g. the motor, the formation of gas bubbles strips all soluble gases from the solution according to the Henry equilibrum constants, thus shifting the carbonate-equilibrium towards less soluble CaCO3. In order to prevent the formation of scalings, these processes have to be quantified. Therefore, we investigated the scalings in all sections of the geothermal cycle at geothermal plants in the Malm Aquifer. So far, we have sampled scalings from the pumps and the production pipes after three exchanges of the pump, scalings collected in the particle filters, scalings from the ground level geothermal facilities, and scalings from the injection pipes. The samples were characterized by REM-EDX, XRD, and image processing to assess the mineralogical features and the elemental composition. The porosity and bulk density were measured to assess the mass of the deposits and to calculate the kinetics of the formation. All together, this generated a unique quantitative dataset with a spatial resolution of 9 m along the production tubes. The thickness of the scalings first decreases from the

  10. Thermal and exhumation histories from borehole thermochronometer samples in the Swiss Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillon, Charlotte; Ehlers, Todd; Enkelmann, Eva; Becker, Jens K.; Schnellmann, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, significant interest has emerged to better understand the links between the foreland basin evolution and the erosion history of the Alps. For this, the European Alps are indeed a well-suited study region since the hinterland and the Swiss Molasse basin erosion rates and timing were extensively studied using basin analysis, and low-temperature thermochronology 1-4,5,6. However, the driving mechanisms for the post-Miocene erosion of the Swiss Molasse basin remains controversial, and several papers discuss whether global climatic changes1 or local variations of base level7,8,9 have controlled the erosion of the basin. With this study, we add quantitative constraints on the late-stage history of the basin by presenting new AFT and AHe dataset (respectively 16 and 19 samples) from two boreholes located ~30 km apart from each other, one located close to the center (Sonnengarten, depth of 3500 m) and one located to the North (Benken, depth of 100 m) of the basin. The data are derived from Triassic to Pliocene sand deposits as well as the underlying gneissic basement rocks and both AFT and AHe results are ranging from Pliocene to Triassic ages. The two dataset present very different age patterns which make the direct interpretation difficult. Therefore, thermal models using the QTQt software10,11 have been performed. This software is capable to evaluate cooling rates and timing using multiple samples from a single borehole. To test the robustness of the simulations, several runs for each borehole based on different data sets were performed, and showed some discrepancies between the resulting thermal histories. We provide, based on the simulations results, the most probable erosion estimates which are in the same range as the ones proposed in previous studies in the basin. For the borehole Benken, we reproduce a long and slow erosion phase starting at 23 Ma, with an overall estimate of the amount of eroded sediments ranging between 1.2 to 2 km. For the

  11. MIUS wastewater technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A modular integrated utility system wastewater-treatment process is described. Research in the field of wastewater treatment is reviewed, treatment processes are specified and evaluated, and recommendations for system use are made. The treatment processes evaluated are in the broad categories of preparatory, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment, physical-chemical processing, dissolved-solids removal, disinfection, sludge processing, and separate systems. Capital, operating, and maintenance costs are estimated, and extensive references are given.

  12. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Jiang, Yi; Lee, Gordon; Kokabian, Bahareh; Fast, Sara; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L; Magbanua, Benjamin S; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides a review of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment. In particular, this paper primarily focuses on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (single and multiple pollutants, and metals), and emerging pollutant removal (pharmaceuticals). A summary of studies involving the plant (vegetation) effects, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included.

  13. Soy molasses as fermentation substrate for production of butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, N; Lolas, A; Blaschek, H P

    2001-05-01

    Spray-dried soy molasses (SDSM) contains the sugars dextrose, sucrose, fructose, pinitol, raffinose, verbascose, melibiose, and stachyose. Of the 746 g kg(-1) total sugars in SDSM, 434 g kg(-1) is fermentable using Clostridium beijerinckii BA101. SDSM was used to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by C. beijerinckii BA101 in batch cultures. Using 80 g l(-1) SDSM, 10.7 g l(-1) ABE was produced in P2 medium. Higher concentrations of SDSM resulted in poor solvent production due to the presence of excessive salt and inhibitory components. C. beijerinckii BA101 in SDSM at 80 g l(-1) concentration produced 22.8 g l(-1) ABE when supplemented with 25.3 g l(-1) glucose. SDSM contains 57.4 g kg(-1) mineral ash and 2% tri-calcium phosphate. Tri-calcium phosphate up to 43.1 g l(-1) was not inhibitory and at a tri-calcium phosphate concentration of 28.8 g l(-1), the culture produced more solvents (30.1 g l(-1)) than the control experiment (23.8 g l(-1)). In contrast, sodium chloride was a strong inhibitor of C. beijerinckii BA101 cell growth. At a concentration of 10 g l(-1) sodium chloride, a maximum cell concentration of 0.6 g l(-1) was achieved compared to 1.7 g l(-1) in the control experiment. The effects of two salts on specific growth rate constant (mu) and specific rate of ABE production (nu) for C. beijerinckii BA101 were examined.

  14. Simplified modeling of fed-batch alcoholic fermentation of sugarcane blackstrap molasses.

    PubMed

    Converti, Attilio; Arni, Saleh; Sato, Sunao; de Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro; Aquarone, Eugênio

    2003-10-05

    Simplified modeling based on material balances for biomass, ethanol and substrate was used to describe the kinetics of fed-batch alcohol fermentation of sugarcane blackstrap molasses. Maintenance requirements were previously shown to be of particular significance in this system, owing to the use of massive inoculum to minimize inhibitions; therefore, they were taken into consideration for kinetic modeling. Average values of biomass and ethanol yields, productivities, and substrate consumption rates, calculated at the end of runs performed either at constant or exponentially varying flow rates, demonstrated that all of these parameters were influenced by the initial sugar-feeding rate, F(o)S(o). Under conditions of substrate shortage (F(o)S(o)

  15. Provenance Analysis of Lower Miocene Sediments in the Lower Austrian Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knierzinger, Wolfgang; Palzer, Markus; Wagreich, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In the Early Miocene (Late Ottnangian) a global drop of the sea level and the continuous rise of the Alps caused a regression of the Paratethys. During this time interval the Traisen Formation (formerly Oncophora beds) was deposited in the Lower Austrian Molasse Basin. These yellowish-brownish to greyish mica-rich and carbonate-free sands and silts with clayish interlayers were originally named after a brackish water bivalve ("Oncophora"- now Rzehakia). The southeastern part of the TF partly interfingers with finer sands of the Dietersdorf Formation (DF). The Pixendorf Group combines the TF and the DF [coarse sands, conglomerates, blocks] of the Upper Ottnangian lithostratigraphic units in Lower Austria. West to the Waschberg Zone a deeper-water environment (so called Oncophora beds in former literature, herein [informally] renamed to Wildendürnbach Member) with sediment gravity flows (turbidites, muddy/sandy slumps) is inferred from OMV well data. Examinations of these fine sandstones, silts and laminated pelites have been carried out on the basis of the Wildendürnbach-4 OMV drilling core. Analyses of the TF revealed rather homogenous heavy mineral assemblages, dominated by high amounts of garnet (~65%) and relatively high amounts of epidote/zoisite (~10%) and amphiboles (~10%). Conducted surveys point towards a primary influence of metamorphic (metapelitic) source rocks of Austroalpine Crystalline Complexes of the rising Eastern Alps. Heavy mineral analysis of the WDK-4 drilling core showed even higher amounts of garnet (~80%) combined with minor amounts of rutile, staurolite, apatite, epidote/zoisite, tourmalines, zircon and amphiboles. Consistent heavy mineral assemblages and chemical data (EMPA) suggest a stratigraphical correlation with the Křepice Formation and the Ždánice-Hustopeče Formation in the Czech Republic and sedimentary influence from the Western Carpathian Flysch Belt.

  16. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  17. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  18. Noteworthy Facts about a Methane-Producing Microbial Community Processing Acidic Effluent from Sugar Beet Molasses Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Szczęsny, Paweł; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław K.; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Detman, Anna; Salamon, Agnieszka; Sikora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a complex process involving hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The separation of the hydrogen-yielding (dark fermentation) and methane-yielding steps under controlled conditions permits the production of hydrogen and methane from biomass. The characterization of microbial communities developed in bioreactors is crucial for the understanding and optimization of fermentation processes. Previously we developed an effective system for hydrogen production based on long-term continuous microbial cultures grown on sugar beet molasses. Here, the acidic effluent from molasses fermentation was used as the substrate for methanogenesis in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. This study focused on the molecular analysis of the methane-yielding community processing the non-gaseous products of molasses fermentation. The substrate for methanogenesis produces conditions that favor the hydrogenotrophic pathway of methane synthesis. Methane production results from syntrophic metabolism whose key process is hydrogen transfer between bacteria and methanogenic Archaea. High-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of total DNA isolated from the methanogenic microbial community and bioinformatic sequence analysis revealed that the domain Bacteria was dominated by Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), Bacteroidetes, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, Cloacimonetes and Spirochaetes. In the domain Archaea, the order Methanomicrobiales was predominant, with Methanoculleus as the most abundant genus. The second and third most abundant members of the Archaeal community were representatives of the Methanomassiliicoccales and the Methanosarcinales. Analysis of the methanogenic sludge by scanning electron microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that it was composed of small highly heterogeneous mineral-rich granules. Mineral components of methanogenic granules probably modulate syntrophic metabolism and methanogenic

  19. Thermal history of the westernmost Eastern Alps (Penninic Rhenodanubian Flysch nappes, Helvetic nappes, and Subalpine Molasse thrust sheets)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerlauth, Michael; Bertrand, Audrey; Rantitsch, Gerd; Groß, Doris; Ortner, Hugo; Pomella, Hannah; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    The frontal part of the westernmost Eastern Alps comprises from top to bottom of the Austroalpine and Penninic nappes, Ultrahelvetic slices, and two Helvetic thrust sheets, thrust upon the northern Alpine Molasse Basin. The thermal evolution of the Penninic Rhenodanubian Flysch nappes, the Helvetic nappes, and the allochthonous part of the Alpine Molasse Basin is constrained by vitrinite reflectance measurements and apatite fission track dating and implemented in a tectonic evolution scheme. Within the Helvetic nappes, vitrinite reflectance increases regionally from north to south and stratigraphically from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Wang Formation to the Toarcian Mols Member. Apatite fission track ages from Penninic and Subalpine Molasse units are consistently younger than the deposition age. They indicate therefore a post-depositional thermal overprint exceeding approximately 120 °C, the upper temperature limit of the apatite partial annealing zone. 1D thermal modelling suggests that the Penninic nappes attained deepest burial between the latest Cretaceous and Early Palaeocene with the Penninic basal thrust being located at approximately 8 km in the north compared to approximately 12 km in the south. Deepest burial of the upper Helvetic nappe occurred between the latest Eocene and Early Miocene. Its base was buried down to approximately 10.5 km in the north compared to 11.5 km in the south. Exhumation of the entire nappe stack started in the Early to Middle Miocene. For both Penninic and Helvetic models, a heatflow minimum during the Cenozoic deformation (max. 27-32 mW/m2), followed by an increase from the Middle Miocene onwards (up to 60 mW/m2), was assumed.

  20. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil-brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or without nitrate to boost microbial growth. Growth of the indigenous microbes was stimulated by addition of molasses. Pyrosequencing showed that specifically Anaerobaculum, Petrotoga, and Methanothermococcus were enriched. Addition of nitrate favored the growth of Petrotoga over Anaerobaculum. The microbial growth caused changes in the crude oil-brine system: formation of oil emulsions, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT). Reduction in IFT was associated with microbes being present at the oil-brine interphase. These findings suggest that stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by addition of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs.

  1. Conversion of beet molasses and cheese whey into fatty acid methyl esters by the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus.

    PubMed

    Takakuwa, Naoya; Saito, Katsuichi

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-one yeast isolates from raw milk were surveyed for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Only one species, identified as Cryptococcus curvatus, produced FAME at a detectable level. Cr. curvatus TYC-19 produced more FAME from beet molasses and cheese whey medium than other strains of the same species. In both media, the major FAME produced were linoleic and oleic acid methyl esters. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA indicated that TYC-19 diverged from the same species.

  2. Beyond optical molasses: 3D raman sideband cooling of atomic cesium to high phase-space density

    PubMed

    Kerman; Vuletic; Chin; Chu

    2000-01-17

    We demonstrate a simple, general purpose method to cool neutral atoms. A sample containing 3x10(8) cesium atoms prepared in a magneto-optical trap is cooled and simultaneously spin polarized in 10 ms at a density of 1.1x10(11) cm (-3) to a phase space density nlambda(3)(dB) = 1/500, which is almost 3 orders of magnitude higher than attainable in free space with optical molasses. The technique is based on 3D degenerate Raman sideband cooling in optical lattices and remains efficient even at densities where the mean lattice site occupation is close to unity.

  3. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

  4. Development and application of a new biotechnology of the molasses in-situ method; detailed evaluation for selected wells in the Romashkino carbonate reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M.; Lungerhausen, D.; Murtada, H.; Rosenthal, G.

    1995-12-31

    On the basis of different laboratory studies, by which special strains of the type Clostridium tyrobutyricum were found, the application of molasses in-situ method for the enhanced recovery of oil in Romashkino oil field was executed. In an anaerobic, 6%-molasses medium the strains produce about 11,400 mg/l of organic acids (especially butyric acid), 3,200 mg/l ethanol, butanol, etc., and more than 350 ml/g of molasses biogas with a content of 80% C0{sub 2} and 20% H{sub 2}. The metabolics of Clostridium tyrobutyricum depress the growth of SRB, whereas methanogenic bacteria grow in an undiluted fermented molasses medium very well. In this way the dominant final fermentation process is methanogenesis. By laboratory studies with original cores under the conditions of the carbonate reservoir in Bashkir, the recovery of oil increased from 15% after waterflooding to 29% OOIP during the treatment with molasses and bacteria. We developed a new biotechnological method for a self-regulated, automatic continuous culture and constructed a special pilot plant with a high technical standard. The plant produced during the pilot on Romashkino field (September 1992 to August 1994) about 1,000 m{sup 3} of clean inoculum with a content of 3-4 billion cells per ml. This inoculum was injected in slugs together with 15,000 m{sup 3} of molasses medium, first in one, later in five wells. We will demonstrate for two example wells the complex microbiological and chemical changes in the oil, gas, and water phases, and their influences on the recover of oil.

  5. Learn about Small Wastewater Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many small and rural communities, including those in Indian Country and along the U.S.-Mexico border, struggle with aging or inadequate wastewater treatment systems, or do not have access to basic wastewater services.

  6. [Modern approaches to wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Ivan'ko, O M

    2013-01-01

    The present state and prospects of new methods for cleaning in the water and wastewater using membrane separation, are examples of application of this technology in the treatment of surface and subsurface natural waters, seawater desalination, wastewater treatment plants.

  7. Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Torrellas, Max; Rábena, María Teresa; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Aranda, Agustín; Matallana, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    The tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to desiccation is important for the use of this microorganism in the wine industry, since active dry yeast (ADY) is routinely used as starter for must fermentations. Both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress, therefore negatively affecting yeast performance. Protective treatments against oxidative damage, such as natural antioxidants, may have important biotechnological implications. In this study we analysed the antioxidant capacity of pure chemical compounds (quercetin, ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, oleic acid, and glutathione) added to molasses during biomass propagation, and we determine several oxidative damage/response parameters (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, protective metabolites and enzymatic activities) to assess their molecular effects. Supplementation with ascorbic, caffeic or oleic acids diminished the oxidative damage associated to ADY production. Based on these results, we tested supplementation of molasses with argan oil, a natural food-grade ingredient rich in these three antioxidants, and we showed that it improved both biomass yield and fermentative performance of ADY. Therefore, we propose the use of natural, food-grade antioxidant ingredients, such as argan oil, in industrial processes involving high cellular oxidative stress, such as the biotechnological production of the dry starter.

  8. Production, optimization and characterization of lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIM 2025 from utilizing agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Abhinay Kumar; Tripathi, Abhishek Dutt; Jha, Alok; Poonia, Amrita; Sharma, Nitya

    2015-06-01

    In the present work Lactobacillus delbrueckii was used to utilize agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses) for lactic acid production under submerged fermentation process. Screening of LAB was done by Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). Effect of different amino acids (DL-Phenylalanine, L-Lysine and DL-Aspartic acid) on the fermentation process was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to optimize the levels of three parameters viz. tween 80, amino acid and cane molasses concentration during fermentative production of lactic acid. Under optimum condition lactic acid production was enhanced from 55.89 g/L to 84.50 g/L. Further, validation showed 81.50 g/L lactic acid production. Scale up was done on 7.5 L fermentor. Productivity was found to be 3.40 g/L/h which was higher than previous studies with reduced fermentation time from 24 h to 12 h. Further characterization of lactic acid was done by FTIR.

  9. Superior molasses assimilation, stress tolerance, and trehalose accumulation of baker's yeast isolated from dried sweet potatoes (hoshi-imo).

    PubMed

    Nishida, Osamu; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Suzuki, Chise; Shima, Jun

    2004-07-01

    Yeast strains were isolated from dried sweet potatoes (hoshi-imo), a traditional preserved food in Japan. Dough fermentation ability, freeze tolerance, and growth rates in molasses, which are important characteristics of commercial baker's yeast, were compared between these yeast strains and a commercial yeast derivative that had typical characteristics of commercial strains. Classification tests including pulse-field gel electrophoresis and fermentation/assimilation ability of sugars showed that almost the stains isolated belonged to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One strain, ONY1, accumulated intracellular trehalose at a higher level than commercial strain T128. Correlated with intracellular trehalose contents, the fermentation ability of high-sugar dough containing ONY1 was higher. ONY1 also showed higher freeze tolerance in both low-sugar and high-sugar doughs. The growth rate of ONY1 was significantly higher under batch and fed-batch cultivation conditions using either molasses or synthetic medium than that of strain T128. These results suggest that ONY1 has potential commercial use as baker's yeast for frozen dough and high-sugar dough.

  10. Influence of the Production Process on the Key Aroma Compounds of Rum: From Molasses to the Spirit.

    PubMed

    Franitza, Laura; Granvogl, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2016-11-30

    The production of rum consists of fermentation, distillation, and aging. To check the influence of each step on the final rum aroma, molasses, mash, distillate, and the final rum were analyzed using the sensomics concept. The changes in key aroma compounds were determined by application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs) for quantitation. Odor activity values (OAVs; ratio of concentration to respective odor threshold) were calculated for the compounds determined in the rum and, finally, the rum aroma was successfully simulated by recombination. (E)-β-Damascenone showed by far the highest OAV (3280) in rum. Although this compound was determined already in molasses, its concentration increased significantly during distillation, indicating a thermolabile precursor. Vanillin, 4-ethylphenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol are well-known compounds mainly stemming from the wood barrels used for aging and showed an OAV ≥ 1. Another important group of aroma-active compounds in rum were ethyl esters, for which a significant increase was determined during fermentation but also to a lesser extent during aging. Altogether, the concentrations of 68% of the aroma-active compounds increased during the process, demonstrating its influence on the overall rum aroma.

  11. Feeding value of urea molasses-treated wheat straw ensiled with fresh cattle manure for growing crossbred cattle calves.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad A; Nisa, Mahr U; Afzal, Danish; Sharif, Muhammad; Saddiqi, Hafiz A

    2011-03-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the influence of urea plus molasses-treated wheat straw (WS) ensiled with cattle manure (CM) on nutrients intake, their digestibilities, and growth performance of crossbred (Sahiwal × Holstein Friesian) cattle calves. The CM was mixed with ground WS in a ratio of 30:70 on dry matter (DM) basis. The WS-CM mixture treated with urea (4% DM) and molasses (4% DM) was allowed to ferment for 40 days in a cemented pit. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic fermented wheat straw (FWS)-based experimental diets were formulated. The FWS0, FWS20, FWS30, and FWS40 diets contained 0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% FWS, respectively. Twenty calves (9-10 months of age) were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design, five in each group. Increasing trends for DM, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber intakes by calves were observed with increasing dietary FWS level. Weight gain was significantly different among calves fed different levels of FWS. The highest weight gain (491.8 g/day) was observed in calves fed FWS40 diet, while calves fed FWS0 and FWS20 diets gained 350.0 and 449.6 g/day, respectively. The results from this study imply that the FWS can be added up to 30% in the diet of growing crossbred calves without any detrimental effect on their performance.

  12. Effect of temperature, anaerobiosis, stirring and salt addition on natural fermentation silage of sardine and sardine wastes in sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Zahar, M; Benkerroum, N; Guerouali, A; Laraki, Y; El Yakoubi, K

    2002-04-01

    Conditions for a natural fermentation during ensilage of sardines or their waste in sugarcane molasses (60:40 w/w) were evaluated regarding the effect of temperature (15, 25 and 35 degrees C), anaerobiosis (closed vs. open jars), daily stirring of the mixture, and salt addition to the initial mix at 5% (w/w) level. Successful natural fermentation took place in sardine silages incubated at 25 or 35 degrees C in open jars to reach a pH of 4.4 in about 2 and 1 weeks, respectively. For samples kept at 15 degrees C, the pH decline was very slow and pH did not decrease below 5.5 after one month of incubation. At 25 degrees C, the most favorable conditions for silage of sardine waste in cane molasses, as evidenced by the fastest decline in pH to a stable value of about 4.4, were achieved in closed jars and with daily stirring of the mix. The pH 4.4 was reached in one week with an advance of at least 3 days compared to the other conditions (open jars and closed jars without daily stirring). Addition of salt at 5% (w/w) in the mix before incubation inhibited the fermentation process.

  13. Slowly released molasses barrier system for controlling nitrate plumes in groundwater: a pilot-scale tank study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Sun; Lee, Kyuyeon; Um, Jae Yeon; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2014-02-01

    A well-type barrier system containing solidified molasses as a reactive medium was developed to promote the indigenous denitrifying activity and to treat nitrate plumes in groundwater. Three slowly released molasses (SRM) barrier systems harboring 60, 120, and 120 SRM rods, which were named System A, B, and C, respectively, were operated to examine nitrate removal efficiency in a pilot-scale sandy tank. These SRM systems induced a consistent removal of nitrate without pore clogging and hydraulic disturbance during the test period. The initial nitrate concentration was 142mgL(-1), and the concentrations decreased by 80%, 84%, and 79% in System A, B, and C, respectively. In particular, System C was inoculated with heterotrophic denitrifiers, but the nitrate removal efficiency was not enhanced compared to System B, probably due to the prior existence of indigenous denitrifiers in the sandy tank. The presence of nitrite reductase-encoding gene (i.e. nirK) at the site was confirmed by denatured gradient gel electrophoresis analysis.

  14. Quantification of heat mining in the Malm aquifer of the Bavarian Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafogler, Mark; Wenderoth, Frank; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Geothermal energy is a key technology for the transition from fossil ressources to renewable energy. The Bavarian Molasse Basin offers unique geological and hydrogeological conditions for district heating and heat and power generation. With 15 plants operating and another dozen in construction or planning, exploration is highly successful. However, detailed knowledge about the processes occuring in the aquifer which is crucial to run geothermal facilities efficiently and economically, still is scarce. After more than 10 years of operation there is a good record of the hydraulics and the hydrochemistry at the production well, including numerous data from pump failures and the development of precipitates. The injection well and its surrounding, however, is usually a black box which is not readily accessible. Here, not even the temperatures in the immediate vicinity have been measured. Nevertheless, the performance of the aquifer near the injection well controls the long-term operation of the geothermal system. Thanks to an extension of the Pullach geothermal facility with a third well in 2011 there was a unique opportunity to produce water from a former injection well after 5 years of operation. Since the start of the production from this well in 2012, we collected an extensive data set of hydraulic, thermal and hydrochemical data. Within the first two years after reverting the flow direction and at a production rate of 20 L/s, which is significantly lower than the injection rate of up to 35 L/s, the temperature at the well head increased with a rate of 10 K/a. These temperatures were compared with predictions from the initial heat mining model, which was then refined. From the data it was immediately obvious that a homogeneous treatment of the Malm aquifer is not applicable. Instead a heterogeneous flow regime has to be assumed to account for the fast initial increase of the temperatures which is caused by a higher effective exchange area. The results suggest that

  15. A multi-stage 3-D stress field modelling approach exemplified in the Bavarian Molasse Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Moritz O.; Heidbach, Oliver; Reinecker, John; Przybycin, Anna M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge of the contemporary in situ stress state is a key issue for safe and sustainable subsurface engineering. However, information on the orientation and magnitudes of the stress state is limited and often not available for the areas of interest. Therefore 3-D geomechanical-numerical modelling is used to estimate the in situ stress state and the distance of faults from failure for application in subsurface engineering. The main challenge in this approach is to bridge the gap in scale between the widely scattered data used for calibration of the model and the high resolution in the target area required for the application. We present a multi-stage 3-D geomechanical-numerical approach which provides a state-of-the-art model of the stress field for a reservoir-scale area from widely scattered data records. Therefore, we first use a large-scale regional model which is calibrated by available stress data and provides the full 3-D stress tensor at discrete points in the entire model volume. The modelled stress state is used subsequently for the calibration of a smaller-scale model located within the large-scale model in an area without any observed stress data records. We exemplify this approach with two-stages for the area around Munich in the German Molasse Basin. As an example of application, we estimate the scalar values for slip tendency and fracture potential from the model results as measures for the criticality of fault reactivation in the reservoir-scale model. The modelling results show that variations due to uncertainties in the input data are mainly introduced by the uncertain material properties and missing SHmax magnitude estimates needed for a more reliable model calibration. This leads to the conclusion that at this stage the model's reliability depends only on the amount and quality of available stress information rather than on the modelling technique itself or on local details of the model geometry. Any improvements in modelling and increases

  16. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gnaneswar Gude, Veera; Magbanua, Benjamin; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L

    2016-10-01

    An update on the current research and development of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment, is provided in this paper. The main focus is on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (metals, industrial and emerging pollutants including pharmaceutical compounds). A summary of studies involving the effects of vegetation, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included.

  17. Economical production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) using untreated cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Feng, Xiaohai; Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Hong

    2012-06-01

    The production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 from cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL) was studied for the first time in this work. When batch fermentation was carried out with untreated molasses, 33.6±0.37 g L(-1) PGA was obtained with a productivity of 0.46±0.006 g L(-1) h(-1). In order to minimize the substrate inhibition, fed-batch fermentation was performed with untreated or hydrolyzed molasses in 7.5 L bioreactor, giving 50.2±0.53 and 51.1±0.51 g L(-1) of PGA at 96 h, respectively. Further studies were carried out by using MGWL as another carbon source, resulting in a PGA concentration of 52.1±0.52 g L(-1) with a productivity of 0.54±0.003 g L(-1) h(-1). These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and MGWL can be used for the environmental-friendly and economical production of PGA by B. subtilis NX-2.

  18. Economical production of poly(ε-l-lysine) and poly(l-diaminopropionic acid) using cane molasses and hydrolysate of streptomyces cells by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Xu, Zhaoxian; Xu, Hong; Liang, Jinfeng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiaohai

    2014-07-01

    Poly(ε-L-lysine) (ε-PL) and poly(L-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP) co-production by Streptomyces albulus PD-1 from cane molasses and hydrolysate of strepyomyces cells (HSC) was investigated for the first time in this study. The optimal initial total sugar concentration of the cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was determined to be 20 g L(-1), and HSC could substitute for yeast extract for ε-PL and PDAP co-production. When fed-batch fermentation was performed in 1t fermentor with pretreated cane molasses and HSC, 20.6 ± 0.5 g L(-1) of ε-PL and 5.2 ± 0.6 g L(-1) of PDAP were obtained. The amount of strepyomyces cells obtained in one fed-batch fermentation is sufficient to prepare the HSC to satisfy the demand of subsequent fermentations, thus the self-cycling of organic nitrogen source becomes available. These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and HSC can be used for the economical production of ε-PL and PDAP by S. albulus PD-1.

  19. Supplementation of herbage-based diets with corn meal or liquid molasses changes the milk fatty acids profile in grazing dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies showed that feeding carbohydrate sources with different NSC profiles (e.g., starch vs. sucrose) and rates of ruminal degradation altered the milk fatty acids (FA) profile in dairy cows. This study evalu¬ated the impact of corn meal (CM) or liquid molasses (MOL) on the milk FA profil...

  20. Effect of aeration and agitation regimes on lipase production by newly isolated Rhodotorula mucilaginosa-MTCC 8737 in stirred tank reactor using molasses as sole production medium.

    PubMed

    Potumarthi, Ravichandra; Subhakar, Chennupati; Vanajakshi, J; Jetty, Annapurna

    2008-12-01

    The influence of media and process parameters (aeration and agitation) on fermentation broth rheology and biomass formation has been studied in 1.5-l stirred tank reactor for lipase production using Rhodotorula mucilaginosa MTCC 8737. Molasses, as sole production medium, is used for lipase production by varying aeration (1, 2, and 3 vvm) and agitation speeds (100, 200, and 300 rpm). Maximum lipase activity of 72 U/ml was obtained during 96 h of fermentation at 2 vvm, 200 rpm, pH 7, and 25 +/- 2 degrees C temperature. Lipase production kinetics with respect to dry cell weight of biomass showed Y (P/S) of 25.71 U/mg, specific product formation of 10.9 U/mg DC, and Y (X/S) 2.35 mg/mg. Maximum lipase activity (MC 2) of 56 U/ml was observed at 1% molasses, and a further increase in the molasses concentration of (%) 1.5 and 2 inhibited the product formation of lipase with 15 and 8.5 U/ml, respectively. The production kinetics of molasses media showed Y (P/X) was 14 U/mg DC, Y (P/S) 16 U/mg, and Y (X/S) 1.14 mg/mg during 96 h of bioreactor operation. The k(L)a values for all batches (MC 1-MC 4) at 96 h of fermentation were 32, 28, 21, and 19/h, and the |oxygen transfer rate were 54.4, 56, 35.7, and 17.29 mg/l h, respectively. Increase in molasses concentration resulted in decreased lipase activity by increase in viscosity of the fermentation broth.

  1. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  2. WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the wastewater collection systems in the United States were developed in the early part of the last century. Maintenance, retrofits, and rehabilitations since then have resulted in patchwork systems consisting of technologies from different eras. More advanced and cos...

  3. Wastewater Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Srinivas

    2015-10-01

    This chapter presents a review of the literature published in 2014 on topics relating to wastewater collection systems. It presents advances in noteworthy research and industry experiences selected from major literature sources. This review is divided into the following sections: sewer system planning; sewer condition assessment/rehabilitation; pump stations and system design; operation and maintenance; and regulatory issues/ integrated planning.

  4. Disinfection. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C.N.; McCreary, J.J.

    1982-06-01

    Methods of disinfection of wastewater including chlorination, ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and quaternary compounds are reviewed. Various analytical methods to detect residues of the disinfectants are described. The production of inorganic and nonvolatile organic compounds in conventional water treatment processes is reviewed. (KRM)

  5. Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Phesatcha, K; Wanapat, M

    2016-08-01

    Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that

  6. Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Phesatcha, K.; Wanapat, M.

    2016-01-01

    Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that

  7. Ethanol fermentation from molasses at high temperature by thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 and energy assessment for recovery.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Diptarka; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Ghosh, Debashish; Suman, Sunil Kumar; Khan, Rashmi; Agrawal, Deepti; Adhikari, Dilip K

    2014-10-01

    High temperature ethanol fermentation from sugarcane molasses B using thermophilic Crabtree-positive yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453 was carried out in batch bioreactor system. Strain was found to have a maximum specific ethanol productivity of 0.688 g/g/h with 92 % theoretical ethanol yield. Aeration and initial sugar concentration were tuning parameters to regulate metabolic pathways of the strain for either cell mass or higher ethanol production during growth with an optimum sugar to cell ratio 33:1 requisite for fermentation. An assessment of ethanol recovery from fermentation broth via simulation study illustrated that distillation-based conventional recovery was significantly better in terms of energy efficiency and overall mass recovery in comparison to coupled solvent extraction-azeotropic distillation technique for the same.

  8. Improved ethanol production from cheese whey, whey powder, and sugar beet molasses by "Vitreoscilla hemoglobin expressing" Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Sar, Taner; Ozcelik, Busra

    2014-01-01

    This work investigated the improvement of ethanol production by engineered ethanologenic Escherichia coli to express the hemoglobin from the bacterium Vitreoscilla (VHb). Ethanologenic E. coli strain FBR5 and FBR5 transformed with the VHb gene in two constructs (strains TS3 and TS4) were grown in cheese whey (CW) medium at small and large scales, at both high and low aeration, or with whey powder (WP) or sugar beet molasses hydrolysate (SBMH) media at large scale and low aeration. Culture pH, cell growth, VHb levels, and ethanol production were evaluated after 48 h. VHb expression in TS3 and TS4 enhanced their ethanol production in CW (21-419%), in WP (17-362%), or in SBMH (48-118%) media. This work extends the findings that "VHb technology" may be useful for improving the production of ethanol from waste and byproducts of various sources.

  9. Near real-time imaging of molasses injections using time-lapse electrical geophysics at the Brandywine DRMO, Brandywine, Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Johnson, T.; Major, B.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Lane, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Enhanced bioremediation, which involves introduction of amendments to promote biodegradation, increasingly is used to accelerate cleanup of recalcitrant compounds and has been identified as the preferred remedial treatment at many contaminated sites. Although blind introduction of amendments can lead to sub-optimal or ineffective remediation, the distribution of amendment throughout the treatment zone is difficult to measure using conventional sampling. Because amendments and their degradation products commonly have electrical properties that differ from those of ambient soil, time-lapse electrical geophysical monitoring has the potential to verify amendment emplacement and distribution. In order for geophysical monitoring to be useful, however, results of the injection ideally should be accessible in near real time. In August 2010, we demonstrated the feasibility of near real-time, autonomous electrical geophysical monitoring of amendment injections at the former Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) in Brandywine, Maryland. Two injections of about 1000 gallons each of molasses, a widely used amendment for enhanced bioremediation, were monitored using measurements taken with borehole and surface electrodes. During the injections, multi-channel resistance data were recorded; data were transmitted to a server and processed using a parallel resistivity inversion code; and results in the form of time-lapse imagery subsequently were posted to a website. This process occurred automatically without human intervention. The resulting time-lapse imagery clearly showed the evolution of the molasses plume. The delay between measurements and online delivery of images was between 45 and 60 minutes, thus providing actionable information that could support decisions about field procedures and a check on whether amendment reached target zones. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of using electrical imaging as a monitoring tool both during amendment emplacement

  10. Interaction of molasses and monensin in alfalfa hay- or corn silage-based diets on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and milk production by Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Oelker, E R; Reveneau, C; Firkins, J L

    2009-01-01

    Sugar supplementation can stimulate rumen microbial growth and possibly fiber digestibility; however, excess ruminal carbohydrate availability relative to rumen-degradable protein (RDP) can promote energy spilling by microbes, decrease rumen pH, or depress fiber digestibility. Both RDP supply and rumen pH might be altered by forage source and monensin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate interactions of a sugar source (molasses) with monensin and 2 forage sources on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and production and fatty acid composition of milk. Seven ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a 5 x 7 incomplete Latin square design with five 28-d periods. Four corn silage diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), 3) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea (MU), or 4) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea plus monensin sodium (Rumensin, at the intermediate dosage from the label, 16 g/909 kg of dry matter; MUR). Three chopped alfalfa hay diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), or 3) 2.6% molasses plus Rumensin (MR). Urea was added to corn silage diets to provide RDP comparable to alfalfa hay diets with no urea. Corn silage C and M diets were balanced to have 16.2% crude protein; and the remaining diets, 17.2% crude protein. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment, but there was a trend for lower milk production in alfalfa hay diets compared with corn silage diets. Despite increased total volatile fatty acid and acetate concentrations in the rumen, total tract organic matter digestibility was lower for alfalfa hay-fed cows. Rumensin did not affect volatile fatty acid concentrations but decreased milk fat from 3.22 to 2.72% in corn silage diets but less in alfalfa hay diets. Medium-chain milk fatty acids (% of total fat) were lower for alfalfa hay compared with corn silage diets, and short-chain milk fatty acids tended to decrease when Rumensin was added. In whole rumen contents, concentrations of

  11. Environmental aspects of wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Choudhary, Mahendra Pratap

    2007-07-01

    The population is increasing rapidly and the demand for water by cities, industries and agriculture has tended to grow even faster than the population. Wastewater reclamation consists of a combination of conventional and advanced treatment processes employed to return a wastewater to nearly original quality, reclaiming the water. The environmental health aspects associated with reclamation of wastewater include quality aspects and public health aspects. An attempt has been made in the present paper to describe these aspects and to suggest appropriate solutions.

  12. Wastewater Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Srinivas

    2016-10-01

    This chapter presents a review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to wastewater collection systems. It presents noteworthy advances in research and industry experiences selected from major literature sources. This review is divided into the following sections: sewer system planning; sewer condition assessment/rehabilitation; pump stations/force mains/ system design; operation and maintenance; asset management; and regulatory issues/ integrated planning.

  13. [Continuous bio-hydrogen production by mesophilic and thermophilic cultures].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zuo, Jian-E; Cui, Long-Tao; Xing, Wei; Yang, Yang

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic biological hydrogen productions were achieved successfully in two lab-scale anaerobic hydrogen production reactors under mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) conditions, respectively. The mesophilic reactor, a CSTR, was operated over 4 months by seeding with river sediments and feeding with glucose solution, in which the highest hydrogen production rate was 8.6 L/(L x d) and the substrate hydrogen production molar ratio (H2/glucose) was 1.98. After seeded with anaerobic methanogenic granules, a UASB reactor was thermophilically operated by feeding with sucrose solution and during its steady operation period, the hydrogen production rate was 6.8 L/(L x d) and the substrate hydrogen production molar ratio (H2/sucrose) was 3.6. Within the produced gas, the H2 percentages were about 43% and others were CO2, no methane could be detected. Thermophilic hydrogen-producing granules were successfully cultivated in the UASB reactor, which were grey-white in color, the diameters were about 0.8 - 1.2 mm, and typical settling velocities were about 30 - 40 m/h. Through SEM a great number of bacilli could be found on the surface of the granules which made the surface rough. Total DNA of these two hydrogen production sludges were extracted and purified, and the PCR and DGGE process were conducted, the results indicate that most of the eubacteria in two sludges are the same, but the dominant species are obviously different with each other.

  14. Biological nutrient removal from dairy wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Danalewich, J.R.; Papagiannis, T.G.; Gerards, R.; Vriens, L.; Belyea, R.; Tumbleson, M.E.; Raskin, L.

    1998-07-01

    The authors developed a synthetic wastewater which closely represents actual milk processing wastewater. The design of this synthetic wastewater was facilitated by the collection of composite wastewater samples from 15 milk processing plants in the Upper Midwest. These samples, milk, and milk products were analyzed for various chemical parameters. Based on these results, they diluted evaporated milk and cottage cheese, as well as a number of dry chemicals to create a synthetic wastewater. The concentrations in the resulting synthetic wastewater matched average concentrations of 15 composite wastewater samples. Four continuous-flow activated sludge treatment systems are currently being operated to evaluate biological nutrient removal using this synthetic wastewater as an influent.

  15. Training Centers for Onsite Wastewater Treatment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Onsite wastewater training centers offer classes, demonstration projects and research facilities for onsite industry professionals. Classes include wastewater management, new technologies and pre-licensing.

  16. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  17. Solid-state fermentation for gluconic acid production from sugarcane molasses by Aspergillus niger ARNU-4 employing tea waste as the novel solid support.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit; Vivekanand, V; Singh, Rajesh P

    2008-06-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) was evaluated to produce gluconic acid by metal resistant Aspergillus niger (ARNU-4) strain using tea waste as solid support and with molasses based fermentation medium. Various crucial parameters such as moisture content, temperature, aeration and inoculum size were derived; 70% moisture level, 30 degrees C temperature, 3% inoculum size and an aeration volume of 2.5l min(-1) was suited for maximal (76.3 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production. Non-clarified molasses based fermentation media was utilized by strain ARNU-4 and maximum gluconic acid production was observed following 8-12 days of fermentation cycle. Different concentrations of additives viz. oil cake, soya oil, jaggary, yeast extract, cheese whey and mustard oil were supplemented for further enhancement of the production ability of microorganism. Addition of yeast extract (0.5%) was observed inducive for enhanced (82.2 gl(-1)) gluconic acid production.

  18. Along-strike variations of structural styles in the imbricated Molasse of Salzburg and Upper Austria: a 3-D seismic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Linzer, Hans-Gert

    2010-05-01

    At the southern border of the Northern Alpine Foreland Basin syntectonic deposits (Molasse Sediments) are partly incorporated into Alpine contractional deformation. Along the alpine chain style and timing of this deformation varies significantly. In this study we use one of the largest European on-shore 3-D seismic datasets, spanning the Molasse basin of Upper Austria and Salzburg states, to investigate the along-strike structural architecture of the alpine deformation front. In the Austrian Part of the Molasse basin, foredeep sedimentation started in Upper-Eocene times (Wagner, 1996). The sediments cover the European margin, consisting of a crystalline basement covered by variously thick Mesozoic sediments (Nachtmann und Wagner, 1987). In Oligocene to Lower Miocene times, syntectonic foredeep sedimentation took place in a deep marine environment, comprising an axial channel system (Linzer 2001, DeRuig and Hubbard, 2006). Parts of these syntectonic sediments are subsequently affected by the advancing thrust wedge. Within the study area, three distinct fold-and-thrust belt segments of different structural architecture can be defined. 1) The Perwang Imbricates are a promontory mostly situated in Salzburg at the border to Germany. Complexly deformed small thrust sheets evolve above a detachment horizon situated in Late Cretaceous shaly marls in Oligocene times. Syntectonic piggy-back and thrust top basins evolve (Covault et al. 2008), which are partly affected by subsequent Miocene overthrusting. 2) The Regau Segment is the area west of the Perwang lobe. It is dominated by few number of thrust sheets in the Molasse sediments. Instead, over-thrusting by the alpine wedge (pre-deformed Flysch and Helvetic thrust sheets) dominates. 3) The Sierning Imbricates segment is located further to the east, at the border of Upper Austria to Lower Austria. The structural inventory of this thrust belt is comprises varying numbers of thrust sheets along strike (1-5), ramp

  19. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Anand R.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2009-10-01

    Many biofuel standards, including California's recently adopted low carbon fuel standard, consider just one feedstock from one supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol: fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian factory. While cane juice is the dominant feedstock for ethanol in most Brazilian factories, a large number of producers in Indonesia, India, and the Caribbean, and a significant number in Brazil, manufacture most of their ethanol from molasses, a low value co-product of raw sugar. Several producers in these countries have the capacity to export ethanol to California, but the GREET (from: greenhouse gas, regulated emissions and energy use in transportation) model, which is the LCA (lifecycle assessment) model of choice for most biofuel regulators including California, does not currently include this production pathway. We develop a modification to GREET to account for this pathway. We use the upstream and process lifecycle results from the existing GREET model for Brazilian ethanol to derive lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for ethanol manufactured from any combination of molasses and fresh cane juice. We find that ethanol manufactured with only molasses as a feedstock with all other processes and inputs identical to those of the average Brazilian mill has a lifecycle GHG (greenhouse gas) rating of 15.1 gCO2- eq MJ-1, which is significantly lower than the current California-GREET assigned rating of 26.6 gCO2- eq MJ-1. Our model can be applied at any level of granulation from the individual factory to an industry-wide average. We examine some ways in which current sugarcane producers could inaccurately claim this molasses credit. We discuss methods for addressing this in regulation.

  20. Partitioning of the Taconic foreland basin: Middle to Late Ordovician flysch and molasse sub-basins of New York State and Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, D.; Brett, C.E.; Ingram, S.L. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of field and well data suggest that the foreland basin in New York and Ontario is divisible into two sub-basins containing siliciclastic fill which are separated by a moderately narrow, north/south oriented region of relatively thin siliciclastic strata. The eastern sub-basin contains a thick succession of late Middle and early Late Ordovician basinal black shales and turbiditic siltstones and sandstones (flysch). These strata thicken eastward to over 800 m beneath the thrust belt (Taconic allochthon) in the eastern most portion of the sub-basin. The flysch is, at least in part, time-correlative with ramp carbonates present in the western sub-basin. The western sub-basin contains a relatively thin succession of flysch deposits that overlie Upper Ordovician carbonates. The flysch deposits from the western sub-basin correlate with only the stratigraphically highest strata in the eastern sub-basin. In the western sub-basin, flysch deposits are overlain by Upper Ordovician shallow marine to non-marine mudstones and sandstones (molasse). The molasse is unconformably overlain by Lower Silurian strata. Due to the angularity of the unconformity surface, the molasse is stratigraphically most complete towards the western margin of the western sub-basin; thickest deposits in this sub-basin ([gt] 600 m) are not the most stratigraphically complete. The general sedimentary history of the New York portion of the Taconic siliciclastic wedge is bipartite: (1) rapid subsidence in the eastern sub-basin during the late Middle and early Late Ordovician accompanied by flysch-phase filling; (2) rapid subsidence in the western sub-basin during the middle to late Late Ordovician accompanied by molasse-phase filling.

  1. Wastewater Treatment I. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This instructor's manual provides an outline and guide for teaching Wastewater Treatment I. It consists of nine sections. An introductory note and a course outline comprise sections 1 and 2. Section 3 (the bulk of the guide) presents lesson outlines for teaching the ten chapters of the manual entitled "Operation of Wastewater Treatment…

  2. Method for treating contaminated wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Fochtman, E.G.; Forbes, F.S.; Koch, R.L.

    1983-09-06

    A method is disclosed for treating hydrazine-fuel contaminated wastewater in which hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and dimethylnitrosamine pollutants are effectively decomposed at a controlled pH of about 5 by an ultraviolet induced chlorination treatment of the wastewater.

  3. Electrophoretic Process For Purifying Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Twitty, Garland E.; Sharnez, Rizwan; Egen, Ned B.

    1992-01-01

    Microbes, poisonous substances, and colloidal particles removed by combination of electric fields. Electrophoretic process removes pathogenicorganisms, toxins, toxic metals, and cooloidal soil particles from wastewater. Used to render domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastewater streams potable. Process also useful in bioregenerative and other closed systems like in space stations and submarines, where water must be recycled.

  4. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  5. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1.

    PubMed

    Veana, F; Martínez-Hernández, J L; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Michelena, G

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse).

  6. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1

    PubMed Central

    Veana, F.; Martínez-Hernández, J.L.; Aguilar, C.N.; Rodríguez-Herrera, R.; Michelena, G.

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse). PMID:25242918

  7. Polymalic acid fermentation by Aureobasidium pullulans for malic acid production from soybean hull and soy molasses: Fermentation kinetics and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chi; Zhou, Yipin; Lin, Meng; Wei, Peilian; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-01-01

    Polymalic acid (PMA) production by Aureobasidium pullulans ZX-10 from soybean hull hydrolysate supplemented with corn steep liquor (CSL) gave a malic acid yield of ∼0.4g/g at a productivity of ∼0.5g/L·h. ZX-10 can also ferment soy molasses, converting all carbohydrates including the raffinose family oligosaccharides to PMA, giving a high titer (71.9g/L) and yield (0.69g/g) at a productivity of 0.29g/L·h in fed-batch fermentation under nitrogen limitation. A higher productivity of 0.64g/L·h was obtained in repeated batch fermentation with cell recycle and CSL supplementation. Cost analysis for a 5000 MT plant shows that malic acid can be produced at $1.10/kg from soy molasses, $1.37/kg from corn, and $1.74/kg from soybean hull. At the market price of $1.75/kg, malic acid production from soy molasses via PMA fermentation offers an economically competitive process for industrial production of bio-based malic acid.

  8. Production of Laccase by Recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica from Molasses: Bioprocess Development Using Statistical Modeling and Increase Productivity in Shake-Flask and Bioreactor Cultures.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Farshad; Moradi, Marzieh; Madzak, Catherine; Jolivalt, Claude

    2017-03-01

    Laccases are used in numerous applications, from green degradation of various xenobiotic compounds, waste detoxification, textile dye bleaching, and delignification of lignocellulose materials to biofuel production. In this study, the recombinant Yarrowia lipolytica YL4 strain carrying the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor laccase IIIb gene was used for laccase production from beet molasses as an agro-industrial residue. Response surface methodology was used to statistical optimization of the production of laccase by Y. lipolytica using an industrial medium containing molasses which allows a six times increase in laccase activity compared to primary medium contains glucose after 144 h. In bioreactor cultivation after 48 h, laccase production reached to 3.7- and 22.5-fold more than optimized and primary media in shake-flask cultures, respectively. Laccase productivity in bioreactor (0.0937 U/h) was higher than shake-flask culture (0.0084 U/h). The present study provides valuable information about statistical optimization of bioprocess development for cost-effective production of laccase and other heterologous proteins in Y. lipolytica from beet molasses as sole carbon source, thus allowing the valorization and decreasing environmental pollution of this agro-industrial waste.

  9. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn

    PubMed Central

    Oltramari, C. E.; Nápoles, G. G. O.; De Paula, M. R.; Silva, J. T.; Gallo, M. P. C.; Pasetti, M. H. O.; Bittar, C. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p<0.05) total concentration of SCFAs, acetate and propionate than 0MO, and these treatments did not differ from 10MO and 5GS (p>0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen. PMID

  10. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  11. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  12. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids.

  13. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator of each affected source shall comply with the HON wastewater requirements in §§...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator of each affected source shall comply with the HON wastewater requirements in §§...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  20. Marine carbohydrates of wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Prasad N; Gomathi, Thandapani; Vinodhini, P Angelin; Nasreen, K

    2014-01-01

    Our natural heritage (rivers, seas, and oceans) has been exploited, mistreated, and contaminated because of industrialization, globalization, population growth, urbanization with increased wealth, and more extravagant lifestyles. The scenario gets worse when the effluents or contaminants are discharged directly. So wastewater treatment is a very important and necessary in nowadays to purify wastewater before it enters a body of natural water, or it is applied to the land, or it is reused. Various methods are available for treating wastewater but with many disadvantages. Recently, numerous approaches have been studied for the development of cheaper and more effective technologies, both to decrease the amount of wastewater produced and to improve the quality of the treated effluent. Biosorption is an emerging technology, which uses natural materials as adsorbents for wastewater treatment. Low-cost adsorbents of polysaccharide-based materials obtained from marine, such as chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan, are acting as rescue for wastewater treatment. This chapter reviews the treatment of wastewater up to the present time using marine polysaccharides and its derivatives. Special attention is paid to the advantages of the natural adsorbents, which are a wonderful gift for human survival.

  1. Use of pervaporation process for the recovery of aroma compounds produced by P. fermentans in sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Suzan Cristina; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Weschenfelder, Thiago André; de Paula Scheer, Agnes; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-03-17

    Natural fruity aroma was produced during submerged fermentation by Pichia fermentans using sugarcane molasses as a cultivation broth. The aroma compounds were recovered from the fermentation by a pervaporation process using a polydimethylsiloxane membrane (Pervap 4060-Sulzer). Isoamyl acetate, a characteristic compound associated with fruity aromas, was the major compound produced. The pervaporation module was fed at three different temperatures to test the best conditions to recover the natural fruity aroma. The total flux (J T), partial fluxes of each component (J i), and enrichment factors (β) were determined within the tested ranges. The process was performed at 45 °C, a feed flow of 1.5 mL/min and 0.1 kPa, for a duration of 13 h to concentrate the natural flavor. The pervaporation process can concentrate the isoamyl acetate from fermented broth from 9 to 61.8 mg/L in the first hour of pervaporation. As a single step of downstream operation, pervaporation was efficient for recovering and concentrating the natural fruity aroma. The obtained product was colorless and had a characteristic banana flavor.

  2. Immediate and delayed signal of slab breakoff in Oligo/Miocene Molasse deposits from the European Alps

    PubMed Central

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Castelltort, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution 32–20 Ma-old stratigraphic records from the Molasse foreland basin situated north of the Alps, and Gonfolite Lombarda conglomerates deposited on the southern Alpine margin, document two consecutive sedimentary responses - an immediate and delayed response - to slab breakoff beneath the central Alps c. 32–30 Ma ago. The first signal, which occurred due to rebound and surface uplift in the Alps, was a regional and simultaneous switch from basin underfill to overfill at 30 Ma paired with shifts to coarse-grained depositional environments in the foreland basin. The second signal, however, arrived several million years after slab breakoff and was marked by larger contributions of crystalline clasts in the conglomerates, larger clast sizes, larger sediment fluxes and shifts to more proximal facies. We propose that this secondary pulse reflects a delayed whiplash-type erosional response to surface uplift, where erosion and sediment flux became amplified through positive feedbacks once larger erosional thresholds of crystalline bedrock were exceeded. PMID:27510939

  3. Immediate and delayed signal of slab breakoff in Oligo/Miocene Molasse deposits from the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Castelltort, Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    High-resolution 32–20 Ma-old stratigraphic records from the Molasse foreland basin situated north of the Alps, and Gonfolite Lombarda conglomerates deposited on the southern Alpine margin, document two consecutive sedimentary responses - an immediate and delayed response - to slab breakoff beneath the central Alps c. 32–30 Ma ago. The first signal, which occurred due to rebound and surface uplift in the Alps, was a regional and simultaneous switch from basin underfill to overfill at 30 Ma paired with shifts to coarse-grained depositional environments in the foreland basin. The second signal, however, arrived several million years after slab breakoff and was marked by larger contributions of crystalline clasts in the conglomerates, larger clast sizes, larger sediment fluxes and shifts to more proximal facies. We propose that this secondary pulse reflects a delayed whiplash-type erosional response to surface uplift, where erosion and sediment flux became amplified through positive feedbacks once larger erosional thresholds of crystalline bedrock were exceeded.

  4. Decolorization of molasses spent wash by the white-rot fungus Flavodon flavus, isolated from a marine habitat.

    PubMed

    Raghukumar, C; Rivonkar, G

    2001-05-01

    Flavodon flavus (Klotzsch) Ryvarden, a basidiomycete (NIOCC strain 312) isolated from decomposing leaves of a sea grass, decolorized pigments in molasses spent wash (MSW) by 80% after 8 days of incubation, when used at concentrations of 10% and 50%. Decolorizing activity was also present in media prepared with half-strength seawater (equivalent to 15 ppt salinity). Decolorizing activity was seen in low-nitrogen medium, nutrient-rich medium and in sugarcane bagasse medium. The percentage decolorization of MSW was highest when glucose or sucrose was used as the carbon source in the low-nitrogen medium. The production of lignin-modifying enzymes, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MNP) and laccase decreased in a medium containing MSW. MNP production and MSW decolorization were inversely correlated, suggesting no role for MNP in MSW decolorization. The decolorization of MSW was not effective when F. flavus was immobilized in calcium alginate beads. Decolorization was achieved best in oxygenated cultures. Besides color, total phenolics and chemical oxygen demand were reduced by 50% in MSW treated with F. flavus, suggesting its potential in the bioremediation of effluents.

  5. Effect of different operational conditions on the decolorization of molasses spent wash using once developed soil inoculum.

    PubMed

    Adikane, H V; Dixit, J N

    2009-11-01

    A stirred vessel coupled with membrane unit containing cellulose acetate (0.45 mum) membrane was used to study the decolorization of anaerobically digested molasses spent wash (MSW). The soil collected from the MSW disposal site was used as inoculum to study the decolorization without addition of any additives. The same inoculum was used over a period of 163 days at room temperature to study the decolorization of 12.5-50% (v/v) MSW using different operational conditions. The reactor was entered in to the inhibition mode after the feeding of 50% MSW, which was restored 100% without changing any operational condition. The maximum decolorization obtained for 12.5% (v/v) MSW was 77.22 +/- 0.13%. The decolorization achieved for 25, 37.5, and 50% (v/v) MSW was 70.41 +/- 0.12, 56.47 +/- 0.17, and 48.78 +/- 0.09%, respectively. Increase in the utilization of protein and reducing sugar was observed up to 25% MSW whereas, higher concentration showed decrease in the utilization. Results indicate 63% removal of chemical oxygen demand for 12.5% (v/v) MSW. Membrane flux which was significantly reduced after the feeding of 50% MSW was regenerated without changing the washing procedure, however, 35% decrease in sample flux was observed over the continuous use of membrane for the period of 198 days.

  6. Enhancement of dibenzothiophene desulfurization by Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B using sugar beet molasses as alternative carbon source.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luís; Paixão, Susana M

    2014-03-01

    There are several problems limiting an industrial application of fossil fuel biodesulfurization, and one of them is the cost of culture media used to grow the microorganisms involved in the process. In this context, the utilization of alternative carbon sources resulting from agro-industrial by-products could be a strategy to reduce the investment in the operating expenses of a future industrial application. Recently, Gordonia alkanivorans 1B was described as a fructophilic desulfurizing bacterium, and this characteristic opens a new interest in alternative carbon sources rich in fructose. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the utilization of sugar beet molasses (SBM) in the dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulfurization process using strain 1B. SBM firstly treated with 0.25% BaCl2 (w/v) was used after sucrose acidic hydrolysis or in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process with a Zygosaccharomyces bailii Talf1 invertase (1%), showing promising results. In optimal conditions, strain 1B presented a μ max of 0.0795 h(-1), and all DBT was converted to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (250 μM) within 48 h with a maximum production rate of 7.78 μM h(-1). Our results showed the high potential of SBM to be used in a future industrial fossil fuel biodesulfurization process using strain 1B.

  7. Engineered nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge - Evidence and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Brar, Satinder K.; Verma, Mausam; Tyagi, R.D.; Surampalli, R.Y.

    2010-03-15

    Nanotechnology has widespread application in agricultural, environmental and industrial sectors ranging from fabrication of molecular assemblies to microbial array chips. Despite the booming application of nanotechnology, there have been serious implications which are coming into light in the recent years within different environmental compartments, namely air, water and soil and its likely impact on the human health. Health and environmental effects of common metals and materials are well-known, however, when the metals and materials take the form of nanoparticles - consequential hazards based on shape and size are yet to be explored. The nanoparticles released from different nanomaterials used in our household and industrial commodities find their way through waste disposal routes into the wastewater treatment facilities and end up in wastewater sludge. Further escape of these nanoparticles into the effluent will contaminate the aquatic and soil environment. Hence, an understanding of the presence, behavior and impact of these nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge is necessary and timely. Despite the lack of sufficient literature, the present review attempts to link various compartmentalization aspects of the nanoparticles, their physical properties and toxicity in wastewater and wastewater sludge through simile drawn from other environmental streams.

  8. Wastewater treatment with microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, W.J. )

    1992-01-01

    In locations where total solar energy inputs average 400 langeleys or more, microscopic algae, grown in properly designed ponds, can contribute significantly and economically to wastewater treatment. While growing, microalgae produce an abundance of oxygen for microbial and biochemical oxidation of organics and other reduced compounds and for odor control. Microalgae also accelerate the inactivation of disease bacteria and parasitic ova by increasing water temperature and pH. Microalgae remove significant amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus and adsorb most polyvalent metals, including those that are toxic. After growth in properly designed paddle wheel mixed high rate ponds, microalgae settle readily, leaving a supernatant free of most pollutants. Such effluents are suitable for irrigation of ornamental plants, crops not eaten raw, aquaculture, and grounwater recharge. The settled and concentrated microalgae may be used for fertilizer, for fermentation to methane, or, assuming no toxicity, for fish, bivalve, or animal feed.

  9. Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

  10. Prioritizing pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral presentation at SETAC North America 32nd annual meeting, describing our prioritization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), based on estimates of risks posed by API residues originating from municipal wastewater. Goals of this project include prioritization of APIs f...

  11. The Sources and Solutions: Wastewater

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Wastewater treatment plants process water from homes and businesses, which contains nitrogen and phosphorus from human waste, food and certain soaps and detergents, and they can be a major source of nutrient pollution.

  12. Fischer-Tropsch Wastewater Utilization

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Lalit S.

    2003-03-18

    The present invention is generally directed to handling the wastewater, or condensate, from a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor. More particularly, the present invention provides a process wherein the wastewater of a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor, such as a Fischer-Tropsch reactor, is sent to a gasifier and subsequently reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas. The wastewater may also be recycled back to a slurry preparation stage, where solid combustible organic materials are pulverized and mixed with process water and the wastewater to form a slurry, after which the slurry fed to a gasifier where it is reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas.

  13. Small and Rural Wastewater Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many tools, training, technical assistance, and funding resources are available to develop and maintain reliable and affordable wastewater treatment systems in small and rural communities including in tribal and U.S.-Mexico Border area.

  14. Deployable Wastewater Treatment Technology Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    AFRL/MLQD is expanding the Deployable Waste Disposal System to include bare base wastewater treatment. The goal of AFRL/MLQD is for the deployable... wastewater treatment system to be integrated into a waste treatment system that will treat both solid and aqueous waste. The US Army (TARDEC) and the... Air Force (AAC/WMO) have been involved in preliminary studies that provide extensive useful background information for this project. These studies show

  15. Post 12 Ma tectonic activity of the Subalpine Molasse resolved by combining thermochronology and critical wedge analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hagke, C.; Oncken, O.; Ortner, H.; Cederbom, C.

    2012-04-01

    Thermochronological studies in the Northern Alpine Foreland Basin show that the folded and thrusted part of the basin, the Subalpine Molasse (SM), has been tectonically active during the last 12 Ma (Cederbom, C. E. et al., 2011; von Hagke, C. et al., in review). However, the amount of erosion and timing of thrusting is so far only reported from the Swiss Molasse basin. To test whether this is a local signal and whether climate contributed to this thrusting, we report thermochronological data from a profile south of Lake Constance and analyse the results in the framework of critical taper theory. We selected the Bregenzerach stream as suitable study area because it is one of the few profiles, which provides excellent outcrops in all stratigraphic units of the SM and is located east of the Jura fold and thrust belt, north of the Eastern Alps. We present new apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) and apatite fission track (AFT) data. In contrast to the Central Alps, the new data do not show full resetting of the AFT system. This demonstrates that the eastern SM has experienced less erosion than the central SM. The AHe system in contrast, shows complete resetting also in the eastern SM. We observe age-offsets across the same thrusts which have been reactivated in the central SM. This confirms that the SM of the Eastern Alps must have been tectonically active until at least 5 Ma, as is also known from the central SM. This implies reactivation of thrusts, which formed originally in mid to late Miocene times. From critical taper analysis, reactivation of thrusting (assuming constant dip of the basal detachment through time) can only be obtained (1) by an increase of basal detachment strength or (2) a decrease of surface slope. An increase of detachment strength through time is either possible due to jumping of the detachment to another stratigraphic level or a change in pore fluid pressure. A decrease in surface slope is either tectonic- or erosion-controlled. We show that today the

  16. Modelling "reality" in tectonics: Simulation of the mechanical evolution of the Jura Mountains-Molasse Basin system, and routes to forward-inverse modelling of fold thrust belts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    The ultimate validation of any numerical model of any geological process comes when it can accurately forward model a case study from the geological record. However, as the example of the Jura-Molasse fold thrust belt demonstrates, geological information on even the most basic aspects of the present day state of such systems is highly incomplete and usually known only with large uncertainties. Fold thrust-belts are studied and understood by geologists in an iterative process of constructing their subsurface geometries and structures (folds, faults, bedding etc) based on limited subsurface information from boreholes, tunnels or seismic data where available, and surface information on outcrops of different layers and their dips. This data is usually processed through geometric models which involve conservation of line length of different beds over the length of an entire cross section. Constructing such sections is the art of cross section balancing. A balanced cross section can be easily restored to its pre-deformation state, assuming (usually) originally horizontal bedding to remove the effects of folding and faulting. Such a pre-deformation state can then form an initial condition for a forward mechanical model of the section. A mechanical model introduces new parameters into the system such as rock elasticity, cohesion, and frictional properties. However, a forward mechanical model can also potentially show the continuous evolution of a fold thrust belt, including dynamic quantities like stress. Moreover, a forward mechanical model, if correct in most aspects, should match in its final state, the present day geological cross section it is simulating. However, when attempting to achieve a match between geometric and mechanical models, it becomes clear that many more aspects of the geodynamic history of a fold thrust belt have to be taken into account. Erosion of the uppermost layers of an evolving thrust belt is the most obvious one of these. This can potentially

  17. Reservoir characterization of the Upper Jurassic geothermal target formations (Molasse Basin, Germany): role of thermofacies as exploration tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homuth, S.; Götz, A. E.; Sass, I.

    2015-06-01

    The Upper Jurassic carbonates of the southern German Molasse Basin are the target of numerous geothermal combined heat and power production projects since the year 2000. A production-orientated reservoir characterization is therefore of high economic interest. Outcrop analogue studies enable reservoir property prediction by determination and correlation of lithofacies-related thermo- and petrophysical parameters. A thermofacies classification of the carbonate formations serves to identify heterogeneities and production zones. The hydraulic conductivity is mainly controlled by tectonic structures and karstification, whilst the type and grade of karstification is facies related. The rock permeability has only a minor effect on the reservoir's sustainability. Physical parameters determined on oven-dried samples have to be corrected, applying reservoir transfer models to water-saturated reservoir conditions. To validate these calculated parameters, a Thermo-Triaxial-Cell simulating the temperature and pressure conditions of the reservoir is used and calorimetric and thermal conductivity measurements under elevated temperature conditions are performed. Additionally, core and cutting material from a 1600 m deep research drilling and a 4850 m (total vertical depth, measured depth: 6020 m) deep well is used to validate the reservoir property predictions. Under reservoir conditions a decrease in permeability of 2-3 magnitudes is observed due to the thermal expansion of the rock matrix. For tight carbonates the matrix permeability is temperature-controlled; the thermophysical matrix parameters are density-controlled. Density increases typically with depth and especially with higher dolomite content. Therefore, thermal conductivity increases; however the dominant factor temperature also decreases the thermal conductivity. Specific heat capacity typically increases with increasing depth and temperature. The lithofacies-related characterization and prediction of reservoir

  18. Effects of Rice Straw Supplemented with Urea and Molasses on Intermediary Metabolism of Plasma Glucose and Leucine in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Ogata, Yasumichi; Sato, Yukari; Sano, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    An isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose and [1-13C]leucine (Leu) was conducted to evaluate the effects of rice straw supplemented with urea and molasses (RSUM-diet) on plasma glucose and Leu turnover rates in sheep. Nitrogen (N) balance, rumen fermentation characteristics and blood metabolite concentrations were also determined. Four sheep were fed either mixed hay (MH-diet), or a RSUM-diet with a crossover design for two 21 days period. Feed allowance was computed on the basis of metabolizable energy at maintenance level. The isotope dilution method was performed as the primed-continuous infusion on day 21 of each dietary period. Nitrogen intake was lower (p = 0.01) for the RSUM-diet and N digestibility did not differ (p = 0.57) between diets. Concentrations of rumen total volatile fatty acids tended to be higher (p = 0.09) for the RSUM-diet than the MH-diet. Acetate concentration in the rumen did not differ (p = 0.38) between diets, whereas propionate concentration was higher (p = 0.01) for the RSUM-diet compared to the MH-diet. Turnover rates as well as concentrations of plasma glucose and Leu did not differ between diets. It can be concluded that kinetics of plasma glucose and Leu metabolism were comparable between the RSUM-diet and the MH-diet, and rumen fermentation characteristics were improved in sheep fed the RSUM-diet compared to the MH-diet. PMID:26949953

  19. Selection of bacteria capable of dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) from a long-term continuous culture on molasses and their use in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Anna; Wójtowicz-Sieńko, Justyna; Piela, Piotr; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Tomczyk-Zak, Karolina; Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Sikora, Radosław; Kowalczyk, Paweł; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław

    2011-03-01

    Ferric ion-respiring microorganisms (FRMs) are a group of prokaryotes that use Fe(III) as well as other metals as terminal electron acceptors in the process of anaerobic respiration. Special attention is paid to a biotechnological significance of FRMs because of their potential role in electricity production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) where the terminal acceptor of the electrons during anaerobic respiration is not a ferric ion but the anode. One of the best known FRMs is the Shewanellaceae family. Most of the Shewanella species have been isolated from marine environments. In this report, sugar beet molasses and ferric oxide were successfully used in the selection of a bacterial consortium capable of dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction in a long-term continuous culture. The inoculum was a sample of eutrophic lake bottom sediment. Among the bacteria present in this culture were representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Pseudomonas, Arcobacter, and Shewanella. Two non-marine Fe(III)-reducing Shewanella-related clones named POL1 and POL2 were isolated. The abilities of the POL1 and POL2 isolates to metabolize a panel of 190 carbon sources were examined using a BIOLOG assay. The results confirmed the abilities of the shewanellas to utilize a broad range of carbon substrates. The utility of the POL1 and POL2 isolates in H-type MFCs operating on pyruvate or molasses was demonstrated. The operation of the MFC with shewanellas cultured on molasses was shown for the first time. A two-stage character of the fuel cell polarization curves, not previously noted in Shewanella MFC studies, was observed.

  20. Effect of Applying Molasses and Propionic Acid on Fermentation Quality and Aerobic Stability of Total Mixed Ration Silage Prepared with Whole-plant Corn in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Guo, Gang; Yuan, Xianjun; Shimojo, Masataka; Yu, Chengqun; Shao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of molasses and propionic acid on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. TMR (354 g/kg DM) was ensiled with four different treatments: no additive (control), molasses (M), propionic acid (P), and molasses+propionic acid (PM), in laboratory silos (250 mL) and fermented for 45 d. Silos were opened and silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 12 days, in which chemical and microbiological parameters of TMR silages were measured to determined the aerobic deterioration. After 45 d of ensiling, the four TMR silages were of good quality with low pH value and ammonia/total N (AN), and high lactic acid (LA) content and V-scores. M silage showed the highest (p<0.05) LA content and higher dry matter (DM) recovery than the control and P silages. P silage had lower (p<0.05) LA content than the control silage. During aerobic exposure, lactic acid contents decreased gradually in the control and M silages, while that of P and PM silages increased, and the peak values were observed after 9 d. M silage had similar yeast counts with the control silage (>105 cfu/g FM), however, it appeared to be more stable as indicated by a delayed pH value increase. P and PM silages showed fewer yeasts (<105 cfu/g FM) (p<0.05) and were more stable than the control and M silages during aerobic exposure. It was concluded that M application increased LA content and improved aerobic stability of TMR silage prepared with whole-plant corn in Tibet. P application inhibited lactic acid production during ensiling, and apparently preserved available sugars which stimulated large increases in lactic acid during aerobic exposure stage, which resulted in greater aerobic stability of TMR silage. PMID:25049961

  1. Covalently Immobilized Laccase for Decolourization of Glucose-Glycine Maillard Products as Colourant of Distillery Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nimisha; Basu, Subhankar; Vankelecom, Ivo F J; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2015-09-01

    Maillard reaction products like melanoidins are recalcitrant, high-molecular-weight compounds responsible for colour in sugarcane molasses distillery wastewater. Conventional biological treatment is unable to break down melanoidins, but extracellular laccase and manganese peroxidase of microbial origin can degrade these complex molecules. In this work, laccase was covalently immobilized on alumina pellets activated with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). The immobilization yield was 50-60 %, and the enzyme activity (886 U/L) was 5-fold higher compared to the soluble enzyme (176 U/L). The immobilized enzyme also showed higher tolerance to pH (4-6) and temperature (35-60 °C), as well as improved storage stability (49 days) and operational stability (10 cycles). Degradation of glucose-glycine Maillard products using immobilized laccase led to 47 % decolourization in 6 h at pH 4.5 and 28 °C. A comprehensive treatment scheme integrating enzymatic, microbial and membrane filtration steps resulted in 90 % decolourization.

  2. Effect of applying molasses or inoculants containing homofermentative or heterofermentative bacteria at two rates on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage.

    PubMed

    Huisden, C M; Adesogan, A T; Kim, S C; Ososanya, T

    2009-02-01

    This study determined how the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage are affected by treatment with molasses or 2 dual-purpose inoculants applied at or above the recommended rate. Corn forage (DeKalb 69-70) was harvested at 39% dry matter (DM) and ensiled after treatment with no additives (control, CON), molasses (MOL), Buchneri 500 inoculant, or Pioneer 11C33 inoculant. Molasses was applied at 3% of forage DM. Buchneri 500 was applied at the recommended rate of 8 mg/kg fresh forage to supply 1 x 10(5) cfu/g of Pediococcus pentosaceus 12455 and 4 x 10(5) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 (BB) or at twice the recommended rate (DBB). Pioneer 11C33 inoculant was applied at the recommended rate of 1.1 mg/kg fresh forage to supply 1 x 10(5) cfu/g of a mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. buchneri, and Enteroccocus faecium (PN) or at twice the recommended rate (DPN). Each treatment was applied in quadruplicate and the treated forages were ensiled within 20-L mini silos for 135 d at 18 to 35 degrees C. Molasses-treated silages had greater ash and starch concentrations than CON silages and greater lactate and ethanol concentrations than other silages. Like CON silages, MOL silages had high yeast counts (>10(5) cfu/g); consequently, they deteriorated within 30 h as shown by temperature increase. Inoculant-treated silages had lower lactate to acetate ratios than CON or MOL silages largely because they had greater acetate concentrations. Consequently, all inoculant-treated silages had fewer yeasts (<10(5) cfu/g) and were more stable (>30 h) than CON and MOL silages. When applied at recommended rates, PN and BB had similar effects on silage chemical composition, fermentation, fungal counts, and aerobic stability, except for a lower lactate concentration in PN silages. Concentrations of VFA, and NH(3)-N, pH, and extent of aerobic stability were similar for PN, DPN, BB, and DBB silages. However, lactate concentration was greater in DPN than in PN. In conclusion

  3. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  4. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will assist wastewater utilities with the condition assessment of their deteriorating wastewater collections systems, and will support the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Program Offices with addressing proposed capacity, management, operation and mainte...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or...

  6. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards: Wastewater. 63.1256 Section... for Pharmaceuticals Production § 63.1256 Standards: Wastewater. (a) General. Each owner or operator of any affected source (existing or new) shall comply with the general wastewater requirements...

  9. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  10. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  11. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  12. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  13. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or...

  15. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  16. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  17. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  18. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  1. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  2. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  4. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  5. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or...

  8. Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

  9. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residual removed from such affected wastewater to an onsite treatment operation not owned or operated by the owner or operator of the source generating the wastewater or residual, or to an offsite treatment... may not transfer the wastewater stream or residual to the treatment operation. (iv) By providing...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residual removed from such affected wastewater to an onsite treatment operation not owned or operated by the owner or operator of the source generating the wastewater or residual, or to an offsite treatment... may not transfer the wastewater stream or residual to the treatment operation. (iv) By providing...

  11. Wastewater Treatment: The Natural Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc. is widely acclaimed for innovative work in natural water purification which involves use of aquatic plants to remove pollutants from wastewater at a relatively low-cost. Haughton, Louisiana, visited Wolverton's artificial marsh test site and decided to use this method of wastewater treatment. They built an 11 acre sewage lagoon with a 70 by 900 foot artificial marsh called a vascular aquatic plant microbial filter cell. In the cell, microorganisms and rooted aquatic plants combine to absorb and digest wastewater pollutants, thereby converting sewage to relatively clean water. Raw waste water, after a period in the sewage lagoon, flows over a rock bed populated by microbes that digest nutrients and minerals from the sewage thus partially cleaning it. Additional treatment is provided by the aquatic plants growing in the rock bed, which absorb more of the pollutants and help deodorize the sewage.

  12. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  13. Evaluating the efficiency of a mixed culture biofilm for the treatment of black liquor and molasses in a mediator-less microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Ali, Naeem; Yousaf, Sameen; Anam, Maira; Bangash, Zain; Maleeha, Sehrish

    2016-11-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging environment-friendly technology to recover the useful energy available in waste by using microorganisms as catalyst. In this study, double chamber mediator-less MFCs separated by proton exchange membrane (PEM; Nafion) were constructed to determine the efficiency of mixed culture in using complex substrates (molasses and black liquor). It was found that activated sludge can serve as efficient source of electricigens for biofilm development on an anode. Power density of 2.425 W/m² was generated from molasses with chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 67% as compared to power density of 3.55 W/m² produced from black liquor along with COD removal efficiency of 78%. Moreover, it was demonstrated that surface area of PEM has a significant effect on power generation. An almost 5- to 8-fold increase in voltage was observed as the size of PEM was increased from 6.5 to 25 cm².

  14. Engineering and adaptive evolution of Escherichia coli W for L-lactic acid fermentation from molasses and corn steep liquor without additional nutrients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongze; Li, Kunpeng; Huang, Feng; Wang, Jinhua; Zhao, Jinfang; Zhao, Xiao; Garza, Erin; Manow, Ryan; Grayburn, Scott; Zhou, Shengde

    2013-11-01

    The D-lactic acid producing strain, Escherichia coli HBUT-D, was reengineered for L(+)-lactic acid fermentation by replacing the D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhA) with an L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) from Pedicoccus acidilactici, followed by adaptive evolution in sucrose. The resulting strain, WYZ-L, has enhanced expression of the sucrose operon (cscA and cscKB). In 100 g L(-1) of sucrose fermentation using mineral salt medium, WYZ-L produced 97 g L(-1) of l(+)-lactic acid, with a yield of 90%, a maximum productivity of 3.17 g L(-1)h(-1) and an optical purity of greater than 99%. In fermentations using sugarcane molasses and corn steep liquor without additional nutrients, WYZ-L produced 75 g L(-1) of l(+)-lactic acid, with a yield of 85%, a maximum productivity of 1.18 g L(-1)h(-1), and greater than 99% optical purity. These results demonstrated that WYZ-L has the potential to use waste molasses and corn steep liquor as a resource for L(+)-lactic acid fermentation.

  15. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  16. Enhanced industrial wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nachabe, A.H.; Durlak, E.

    1997-12-31

    The sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate (SS/FS) process is a treatment technology for the reduction of hexavalent chromium and precipitation of heavy metals in industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTP). When the ferrous ion, as ferrous sulfate, is mixed with sulfide, the hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to its trivalent state at a neutral pH and then precipitated. SS/FS technology can be used to replace the current hydroxide treatment chemistry in Navy IWTPs. This paper will present the results and lessons learned from full-scale implementation of SS/FS at Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport, Washington. The SS/FS treatment process reduced the chemical cost by fifty nine percent and sludge disposal cost by thirty one percent. On an annual basis total cost savings amounted to $31,950 or thirty four percent. The SS/FS treatment process lowered the amount of treatment chemicals used in the IWTP. Furthermore, metal sulfides tend to be two to three orders of magnitude less soluble than their corresponding metal hydroxides. This allows for cleaner effluent, which will help the facility meet environmental discharge requirements. Further benefits include the removal from the shop area of the high pressure sulfur dioxide cylinder (used in the hydroxide process), a faster and more reliable chrome reduction method, neutral pH operation that extends tank and equipment life, and less acid and caustic chemicals stored on the shop floor. As Navy activities respond to the ever increasing pressures to do more with less, the SS/FS process can help them meet the increasingly stringent standards.

  17. Method and apparatus for treatment of wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, A.

    1982-01-19

    A method is disclosed for removing ammonia from a wastewater containing free and fixed ammonia. The process comprises the steps of: distilling the wastewater to remove the free ammonia; treating the distilled wastewater with soda ash to decompose the fixed ammonia; and distilling the treated wastewater to remove the decomposed ammonia. An apparatus is disclosed for removing ammonia from a wastewater containing free and fixed ammonia comprising: an ammonia still for removing free and fixed ammonia; a source of soda ash solution; and means for feeding the soda ash solution from said soda ash source to the ammonia still to decompose the fixed ammonia.

  18. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-04-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source.

  19. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A.; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R.; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C.

    2016-01-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [•OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source. PMID:26854604

  20. Cultivation of green algae Chlorella sp. in different wastewaters from municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Min, Min; Li, Yecong; Chen, Paul; Chen, Yifeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yingkuan; Ruan, Roger

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of green algae Chlorella sp. on wastewaters sampled from four different points of the treatment process flow of a local municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) and how well the algal growth removed nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions from the wastewaters. The four wastewaters were wastewater before primary settling (#1 wastewater), wastewater after primary settling (#2 wastewater), wastewater after activated sludge tank (#3 wastewater), and centrate (#4 wastewater), which is the wastewater generated in sludge centrifuge. The average specific growth rates in the exponential period were 0.412, 0.429, 0.343, and 0.948 day(-1) for wastewaters #1, #2, #3, and #4, respectively. The removal rates of NH4-N were 82.4%, 74.7%, and 78.3% for wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, respectively. For #3 wastewater, 62.5% of NO3-N, the major inorganic nitrogen form, was removed with 6.3-fold of NO2-N generated. From wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, 83.2%, 90.6%, and 85.6% phosphorus and 50.9%, 56.5%, and 83.0% COD were removed, respectively. Only 4.7% was removed in #3 wastewater and the COD in #3 wastewater increased slightly after algal growth, probably due to the excretion of small photosynthetic organic molecules by algae. Metal ions, especially Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn in centrate, were found to be removed very efficiently. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient-rich centrate offers a new option of applying algal process in MWTP to manage the nutrient load for the aeration tank to which the centrate is returned, serving the dual roles of nutrient reduction and valuable biofuel feedstock production.

  1. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  2. Measuring Thicknesses of Wastewater Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Davenport, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Sensor determines when thickness of film of electrically conductive wastewater on rotating evaporator drum exceeds preset value. Sensor simple electrical probe that makes contact with liquid surface. Made of materials resistant to chemicals in liquid. Mounted on shaft in rotating cylinder, liquid-thickness sensor extends toward cylinder wall so tip almost touches. Sensor body accommodates probe measuring temperature of evaporated water in cylinder.

  3. Wastewater Treatment I. Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This student's guide is designed to provide students with the job skills necessary for the safe and effective operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. It consists of three sections. Section 1 consists of an introductory note outlining course objectives and the format of the guide. A course outline constitutes the second section.…

  4. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  5. Design of petroleum products terminal wastewater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klock, B.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum products terminals, used in conjunction with transportation operations to accomplish the flow of products from their source in refineries down to the consumers, are relatively simple facilities comprising product storage, the means for connecting storage to transportation operations, and other operations to support those functions. Although wastewater generation at terminals is relatively minor, increasingly strict regulation of wastewater from even minor sources is making it more critical that terminal wastewater handling, treatment, and disposal be understood and optimized to ensure that effective wastewater treatment is accomplished at reasonable cost. Anticipating the increased demands on terminal wastewater handling, the API Marketing Terminal Effluent Task Force has sponsored a number of studies to characterize wastewater at terminals and to develop practical means for treating the water. In addition, the Task Force sponsored Texaco`s writing of the report on which this paper is based, API 4602, Minimization, Handling, Treatment, and Disposal of Petroleum Products Terminal Wastewaters. This paper highlights some of the key recommendations in the report, which are: (1) begin characterizing the terminal`s tank bottoms water flow and quality as soon as possible; (2) determine the optimum wastewater disposal option; (3) for most situations, segregate stormwater from contaminated water; (4) if wastewater is treated, use a collection tank to equalize the flow and concentration of tank bottoms water; (5) if wastewater is hauled off to a disposal company, consider removing benzene first; and (6) minimize the use of detergents in the terminal.

  6. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  7. ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (1980 EDITION) AND ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL (2002 EDITION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) first issued detailed guidance on the design, construction, and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) in 1980. Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems (USEPA.1980) was the most comprehens...

  8. Effects of tribasic copper chloride versus copper sulfate provided in corn-and molasses-based supplements on forage intake and copper status of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Arthington, J D; Spears, J W

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplemental tribasic copper chloride (Cu(2)(OH(3))Cl; TBCC) vs. Cu sulfate (CuSO(4)) on Cu status and voluntary forage DMI in growing heifers. Two 90-d experiments were conducted using 48 non-pregnant, crossbred heifers (24 heifers/experiment; 355 +/- 10.7 and 309 +/- 9.9 kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively). In each experiment, 3 supplemental Cu treatments were randomly allocated to heifers in individual pens consisting of (1) 100 mg of Cu/d from CuSO(4), (2) 100 mg of Cu/d from TBCC, or (3) 0 mg of Cu/d. The 2 experiments differed by the form of supplement used to deliver the Cu treatments (corn- vs. molasses-based supplements for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively). Supplements were formulated and fed to provide equivalent amounts of CP and TDN daily but differed in their concentration of the Cu antagonists, Mo (0.70 vs. 1.44 mg/kg), Fe (113 vs. 189 mg/kg), and S (0.18 vs. 0.37%) for corn- and molasses-based supplements, respectively. All heifers were provided free-choice access to ground stargrass (Cynodon spp.) hay. Jugular blood and liver biopsy samples were collected on d 0, 30, 60, and 90 of each experiment. Heifer BW was collected on d 0 and 90. Heifer ADG was not affected by Cu treatment (average = 0.22 +/- 0.11 and 0.44 +/- 0.05 kg for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively; P > 0.20). In Exp. 1, heifers provided supplemental Cu, independent of source, had greater (P < 0.05) liver Cu concentrations on d 60 and 90 compared with heifers provided no supplemental Cu. In Exp. 2, average liver Cu concentrations were greater (P = 0.04) for heifers receiving supplemental Cu compared with heifers receiving no Cu; however, all treatments experienced a decrease in liver Cu concentration over the 90-d treatment period. Plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations did not differ in Exp. 1 (P = 0.83) but were greater (P = 0.04) in Exp. 2 for heifers receiving supplemental Cu compared with heifers receiving no Cu. In Exp. 1, voluntary

  9. Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in sugarcane blackstrap molasses through a fed-batch process: optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, João C M; Vitolo, Michele; Sato, Sunao; Aquarone, Eugênio

    2003-09-01

    We studied the effect of reactor filling time (T) (3-5 h), initial mass of inoculum (M) (1000-2100 g), and exponential time decay constant for the substrate feed rate (K) (0.6-1.6 h-1) on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in sugarcane blackstrap molasses through a fed-batch culture. The highest ethanol productivity (16.9 g/[L x h]) occurred at T = 3 h, K = 1.6 h-1, and M = 1300 g. In addition, productivity was affected by both M (for T = 3 and 4 h) and K (for T = 3 h) and varied inversely with T under any value fixed for M and K. By the quadratic regression multivariable analysis method, equations were determined to estimate ethanol yield and productivity as function of the variables studied (T, K, and M).

  10. Biodegradation of organic compounds of molasses melanoidin (MM) from biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) during the decolourisation by a potential bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram

    2012-07-01

    Molasses melanoidin (MM) is a major pollutant in biomethanated distillery spent wash (BMDS) due to its recalcitrant properties. The 75% colour and 71% COD of MM (1,000 ppm) were reduced with developed bacterial consortium comprising Proteus mirabilis (IITRM5; FJ581028), Bacillus sp. (IITRM7; FJ581030), Raoultella planticola (IITRM15; GU329705) and Enterobacter sakazakii (IITRM16, FJ581031) in the ratio of 4:3:2:1 within 10 days at optimized nutrient. Bacterial consortium showed manganese peroxidase and laccase activity during MM decolourisation. The dominant growth of R. planticola and E. sakazakii was noted in consortium during MM decolourisation. The comparative GC-MS analysis of extracted compounds of control and degraded samples showed that most of the compounds present in control were completely utilized by bacterial consortium along with production of some metabolites. The developed bacterial consortium could be a tool for the decolourisation and degradation of melanoidin containing BMDS.

  11. Wastewater Characterization Survey Victor Valley, Wastewater Reclamation Authority and Hazardous Waste Survey at George AFB, Californi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    and the type of pretreatment required are speculative. By the compounds found in the wastewater characterization and hazardous waste survey, SBRs ...shall oean a station positioned In a. sewer system at which wastewater is pumped to a higher level . (67) Sewer shall mean a pipe or conduit that...USAFOEHL REPORT 87-004EQO073AEF WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION SURVEY VICTOR VALLEY, WASTEWATER RECLAMATION AUTHORITY AND HAZARDOUS WASTE SURVEY AT

  12. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Wastewater Inputs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intro to wastewater inputs associated with urbanization, overview of combined sewer overflows, overview of how wastewater inputs can contribute to enrichment or eutrophication, overview of how wastewater inputs can affect reproduction by stream fauna.

  13. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  14. Outsource water/wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Tedesco, J.A.; Cichon, E.J.

    1997-08-01

    For some operating facilities, outsourcing water/wastewater management offers an economical way to receive and use high-quality water and maintain effluent treatment services. As high-volume water users, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) companies daily use, consume and discard large quantities of water and wastewater. To remain competitive and to reduce daily operating costs, HPI companies have farmed out services. Water management is a possible plant function that can be administrated by a third party. Outsourcing the utilities area allows operators to focus and allocate resources on their core profit-generating products. It is an opportunity to try new technologies without risking capital. Before signing the contract, facilities should carefully scrutinize the benefits--financial, environmental, etc.--and actual costs from outsourcing their water management.

  15. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  16. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... GGG, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options for Wastewater...

  17. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  18. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  19. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  20. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... GGG, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options for Wastewater...

  1. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  2. Wastewater treatment using ferrous sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Boetskaya, K.P.; Ioffe, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of industrial wastewater with coagulants is used extensively in the thorough removal of emulsified tars and oils. The central plant laboratory at the Zhdanov Coke Works conducted investigations of the treatment of wastewater, subsequently used for quenching coke, with ferrous sulfate. Laboratory tests and subsequent industrial tests demonstrated the efficiency of the method. In order to further intensify the wastewater treatment process we conducted laboratory tests with the addition of certain quantities of other coagulation reagents, for example polyacrylamide (PAA) and caustic soda, in addition to the ferrous sulfate. The combined use of polyacrylamide and ferrous sulfate permits instant coagulation of the sludge and very rapid (5 to 10 min) clarification of the water. In addition, in this case the degree of purification of the water is less dependent on the initial concentration of impurities. The purification is also improved when caustic soda is added, raising the pH. From the data it is apparent that an identical degree of purification of the water may be achieved either by increasing the consumption of ferrous sulfate, or by adding PAA or NaOH. During industrial tests of the purification of wastewater with ferrous sulfate, we also investigated the resulting sludge. The use of ferrous sulfate causes a significant increase in its quantity (by a factor of 1.5 to 1.8) and in its oil content (by a factor of 2 to 2.5). The water content in the sludge decreases. The sludge (in the quantity of 0.6% of the charge) may be added to the coking charge.

  3. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  4. Separation of Tritium from Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-25

    A proprietary tritium loading bed developed by Molecular Separations, Inc (MSI) has been shown to selectively load tritiated water as waters of hydration at near ambient temperatures. Tests conducted with a 126 {micro}C{sub 1} tritium/liter water standard mixture showed reductions to 25 {micro}C{sub 1}/L utilizing two, 2-meter long columns in series. Demonstration tests with Hanford Site wastewater samples indicate an approximate tritium concentration reduction from 0.3 {micro}C{sub 1}/L to 0.07 {micro}C{sub 1}/L for a series of two, 2-meter long stationary column beds Further reduction to less than 0.02 {micro}C{sub 1}/L, the current drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL), is projected with additional bed media in series. Tritium can be removed from the loaded beds with a modest temperature increase and the beds can be reused Results of initial tests are presented and a moving bed process for treating large quantities of wastewaters is proposed. The moving bed separation process appears promising to treat existing large quantities of wastewater at various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The enriched tritium stream can be grouted for waste disposition. The separations system has also been shown to reduce tritium concentrations in nuclear reactor cooling water to levels that allow reuse. Energy requirements to reconstitute the loading beds and waste disposal costs for this process appear modest.

  5. Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Treatment Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Douglas D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment: (1) operators, training, and certification; (2) solutions to operating problems; (3) collection systems; (4) operations manuals; (5) wastewater treatment facility case histories; (5) land application; and (6) treatment of industrial wastes. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. MANUAL - CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Constructed wetlands are man-made wastewater treatment systems. They usually have one or more cells less than 1 meter deep and are planted with aquatic greenery. Water outlet structures control the flow of wastewater through the system to keep detention times and water levels at ...

  7. Ferrous and Sulfide Treatment of Electroplating Wastewater.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    chromium contaminants and the precipitation of heavy metal contaminants from contaminated electroplating wastewater. The wastewater is first adjusted...to a pH of from about 8 to 10 and then treated with sodium sulfide to provide sulfide ions to effect precipitation of heavy metal contaminants followed

  8. Chlorine Disinfection of Blended Municipal Wastewater Effluents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blending is a practice used in the wastewater industry to manage wet weather events when the influx of storm water to municipal treatment facilities could compromise the hydraulic capacity of the facility’s biological treatment system. To prevent this, wastewater is treated thro...

  9. A Technology of Wastewater Sludge Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizatulin, R. A.; Senkus, V. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Baldanova, A. S.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2016-04-01

    At many communities, industrial and agricultural enterprises, treatment and recycling of wastewater sludge is an urgent task as the sludge is poured and stored in sludge banks for many years and thus worsens the ecology and living conditions of the region. The article suggests a new technology of wastewater sludge treatment using water-soluble binder and heat treatment in microwave ovens.

  10. Persistence of Ebola Virus in Sterilized Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the ongoing 2014/2015 Ebola virus outbreak, significant questions regarding the appropriate handling of Ebola virus-contaminated liquid waste remain, including the persistence of Ebola virus in wastewater. To address these uncertainties, we evaluated the persistence of Ebola virus spiked in sterilized domestic sewage. The viral titer decreased approximately 99% within the first test day from an initial viral titer of 106 TCID50 mL–1; however, it could not be determined if this initial rapid decrease was due to aggregation or inactivation of the viral particles. The subsequent viral titer decrease was less rapid, and infectious Ebola virus particles persisted for all 8 days of the test. The inactivation constant (k) was determined to be −1.08 (2.1 days for a 90% viral titer decrease). Due to experimental conditions, we believe these results to be an upper bound for Ebola virus persistence in wastewater. Wastewater composition is inherently heterogeneous; subsequently, we caution that interpretation of these results should be made within a holistic assessment, including the effects of wastewater composition, dilution, and potential exposure routes within wastewater infrastructure. While it remains unknown if Ebola virus may be transmitted via wastewater, these data demonstrate a potential exposure route to infectious Ebola virus via wastewater and emphasize the value of a precautionary approach to wastewater handling in an epidemic response. PMID:26523283

  11. Wastewater temperature decrease in pressure sewers.

    PubMed

    Sallanko, Jarmo; Pekkala, Mari

    2008-12-01

    The centralization of wastewater treatment in large central treatment plants and the connection of sparsely populated areas to sewerage systems have increased the time wastewater is retained in sewers. These retention times lead to a decrease in wastewater temperature and affect wastewater treatment, especially the removal of nitrogen. In this study, temperature changes in long transfer sewers were examined. The temperature change was greatest at the end of winter and in the front part of the sewer. Temperature changes in the front parts of the sewers ranged from 0.16 to 0.27 degree C/km, and in the end parts from 0.02 to 0.10 degree C/km. When expressed in terms of the retention time for wastewater in the sewer, the temperature changes ranged from 0.12 to 0.17 degree C per retention hour.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide pollution in wastewater treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    AlDhowalia, K.H. )

    1987-01-01

    The hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) found in wastewater collection systems and wastewater treatment facilities results from the bacterial reduction of the sulfate ion (SO{sub 4}). Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that occurs both in the sewer atmosphere and as a dissolved gas in the wastewater. When raw wastewater first enters the wastewater treatment facility by gravity most of the hydrogen sulfide is in the gaseous phase and will escape into the atmosphere at the inlet structures. Also some of the dissolved hydrogen sulfide will be released at points of turbulance such as at drops in flow, flumes, or aeration chambers. Several factors can cause excessive hydrogen sulfide concentrations in a sewerage system. These include septic sewage, long flow times in the sewerage system, high temperatures, flat sewer grades, and poor ventilation. These factors are discussed in this paper.

  13. Experimental Oily Wastewater Separation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-28

    simulants, and bilgewater demonstrated the 0017 1A T3 IOOOpp Rovs 69Is eu.,sIT4 Unclassified $*Ccu1fV Cf.ANOPOCAr,0U Of tM#$ 0444 fftf em -- nd...Oxyphotolysls Reactor Assembly 0 (From Shipboard Installation) .... ............ 4-3 4-3. 1200-Watt UV Lamp Stabilizer, Enclosure for 550-Watt and 700-Watt...steel reactor assembly where the dissolved components in the oily wastewater are oxidized with ozone in the presence of UV radiation. During the

  14. 7 CFR 3201.98 - Wastewater systems coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wastewater systems coatings. 3201.98 Section 3201.98... Designated Items § 3201.98 Wastewater systems coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings that protect wastewater... procurement preference for qualifying biobased wastewater systems coatings. By that date, Federal...

  15. 40 CFR 63.147 - Process wastewater provisions-recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.147 Process wastewater provisions—recordkeeping. (a) The owner or operator transferring a Group 1 wastewater stream...

  16. 7 CFR 3201.98 - Wastewater systems coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wastewater systems coatings. 3201.98 Section 3201.98... Designated Items § 3201.98 Wastewater systems coatings. (a) Definition. Coatings that protect wastewater... procurement preference for qualifying biobased wastewater systems coatings. By that date, Federal...

  17. Mitigating ammonia nitrogen deficiency in dairy wastewaters for algae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qian; Zhou, Wenguang; Min, Min; Ma, Xiaochen; Ma, Yiwei; Chen, Paul; Zheng, Hongli; Doan, Yen T T; Liu, Hui; Chen, Chi; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Ruan, Roger

    2016-02-01

    This study demonstrated that the limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewater was the ammonia nitrogen deficiency. Dairy wastewaters were mixed with a slaughterhouse wastewater that has much higher ammonia nitrogen content. The results showed the mixing wastewaters improved the nutrient profiles and biomass yield at low cost. Algae grown on mixed wastewaters contained high protein (55.98-66.91%) and oil content (19.10-20.81%) and can be exploited to produce animal feed and biofuel. Furthermore, algae grown on mixed wastewater significantly reduced nutrient contents remained in the wastewater after treatment. By mitigating limiting factor to algae growth on dairy wastewaters, the key issue of low biomass yield of algae grown on dairy wastewaters was resolved and the wastewater nutrient removal efficiency was significantly improved by this study.

  18. The Levels of Trace Elements in Honey and Molasses Samples That Were Determined by ICP-OES After Microwave Digestion Method.

    PubMed

    Altundag, Huseyin; Bina, Emel; Altıntıg, Esra

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is determining the amount of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in samples of molasses and honey which were gathered from the Sakarya and Istanbul regions. In this study, trace elements in 8 honey and 20 molasses samples with different botanic features were evaluated. The sample preparation phase was performed via wet decomposition method and microwave digestion system. The accuracy of the method was checked by the standard reference material; tea leaves (INCY-TL-1) and NIST-SRM 1515-apple. The concentrations of essential trace elements (TEs) were observed in the range of 1.61 ± 0.01-287.03 ± 1.07; 0.21 ± 0.01-11.04 ± 0.12; 0.35 ± 0.03-21.71 ± 0.02 and 1.19 ± 0.01-60.90 ± 1.09 μg g(-1) for iron, copper, manganese and zinc ions, respectively, while the toxic element contents were observed in the range of 0.82 ± 0.17-3.06 ± 0.03; 0.04 ± 0.05-1.96 ± 0.03 and 0.62 ± 0.01-120.52 ± 0.10 μg g(-1) for lead, nickel and aluminum ions, respectively. The concentrations of basic TEs iron, copper, manganese and zinc were determined as 3.87 ± 0.04-16.76 ± 0.06; 0.45 ± 0.03-2.15 ± 0.01; 0.13 ± 0.01-15.02 ± 0.14 and 0.80 ± 0.09-12.03 ± 0.19 for honey samples. Also, toxic metal, lead, nickel and aluminum values in the honey samples were determined as 1.21 ± 0.12-2.46 ± 0.21; 0.28 ± 0.14-0.88 ± 0.43 and 2.11 ± 0.02-8.04 ± 0.08. A comparison between gathered data and literature values has performed and it is determined that such findings are suitable with the literature.

  19. Integrated stratigraphy and 40Ar/39Ar chronology of the early to middle Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse in western Bavaria (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Hayfaa Abdul; Böhme, Madelaine; Rocholl, Alexander; Prieto, Jerome; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Bachtadse, Valerian; Ulbig, Albert

    2010-12-01

    A detailed integrated stratigraphic study (biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy) was carried out on five sections from the western part of the Bavarian Upper Freshwater Molasse of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB), greatly improving the chronostratigraphy of these sediments. The sections belong to the lithostratigraphic units Limnische Untere Serie (UL) and Fluviatile Untere Serie (UF) and contain 19 (mostly new) small-mammal bearing levels, significantly refining the local biostratigraphy. Radiometric ages obtained from glass shards from tuff horizons are used together with the biostratigraphic information for constructing and confirming the magnetostratigraphic correlation of the studied sections to the Astronomical Tuned Time Scale (ANTS04; Lourens et al. in Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press, 2004). This correlation implies that the UL lithostratigraphic unit corresponds to the latest Ottnangian and the Early Karpatian, whereas the UF corresponds to the Karpatian and the Early Badenian. This indicates that the Brackish- to Freshwater Molasse transition already occurred during the late Ottnangian. The pre-Riesian hiatus occurred in the latest Karpatian and lower Early Badenian in Eastern Bavaria and Bohemia and in the Late Karpatian and earliest Badenian in Western Bavaria. The geochemical and Ar-Ar data of volcanic ashes suggest that highly evolved silicic magmas from a single volcano or volcanic center, characterized by a uniform Nd isotopic composition, erupted repetitively over the course of at least 1.6 Myr. Three phases of eruptive activity were identified at 16.1 ± 0.2 Ma (Zahling-2), 15.6 ± 0.4 Ma (Krumbad), and 14.5 ± 0.2 Ma (Heilsberg, Hegau). The correlation of the local biostratigraphic zonation to the ANTS04 enables further the characterization of both the Ottnangian-Karpatian and Karpatian-Badenian boundaries in the NAFB by small-mammal biostratigraphy. According to these results the Ottnangian-Karpatian boundary is

  20. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, A.

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  1. Effects of wastewater on forested wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Cycling nutrient-enriched wastewater from holding ponds through natural, forested wetlands is a practice that municipal waste treatment managers are considering as a viable option for disposing of wastewater. In this wastewater cycling process, sewer effluent that has been circulated through aerated ponds is discharged into neighboring wetland systems. To understand how wastewater cycling affects forest and species productivity, researchers at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center conducted dendroecological investigations in a swamp system and in a bog system that have been exposed to wastewater effluent for many decades. Dendroecology involves the study of forest changes over time as interpreted from tree rings. Tree-ring chronologies describe the pattern and history of growth suppression and release that can be associated with aging and disturbances such as hurricanes, floods, and fires. But because of limited monitoring, little is known about the potential for long-term effects on forested wetlands as a result of wastewater flooding. USGS researchers used tree rings to detect the effect of wastewater cycling on tree growth. Scientists expected to find that tree-ring width would be increased as a result of added nutrients.

  2. Electrocoagulation of wastewater from almond industry.

    PubMed

    Valero, David; Ortiz, Juan M; García, Vicente; Expósito, Eduardo; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    This work was carried out to study the treatment of almond industry wastewater by the electrocoagulation process. First of all, laboratory scale experiments were conducted in order to determine the effects of relevant wastewater characteristics such as conductivity and pH, as well as the process variables such as anode material, current density and operating time on the removal efficiencies of the total organic carbon (TOC) and the most representative analytical parameters. Next, the wastewater treatment process was scaled up to pre-industrial size using the best experimental conditions and parameters obtained at laboratory scale. Finally, economic parameters such as chemicals, energy consumption and sludge generation have been discussed.

  3. An organic acid-tolerant HAA1-overexpression mutant of an industrial bioethanol strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application to the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Takuya; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Ogawa, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Shima, Jun

    2013-12-30

    Bacterial contamination is known as a major cause of the reduction in ethanol yield during bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acetate is an effective agent for the prevention of bacterial contamination, but it negatively affects the fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae. We have proposed that the combined use of organic acids including acetate and lactate and yeast strains tolerant to organic acids may be effective for the elimination of principally lactic acid bacterial (LAB) contamination. In a previous study employing laboratory S. cerevisiae strains, we showed that overexpression of the HAA1 gene, which encodes a transcriptional activator, could be a useful molecular breeding method for acetate-tolerant yeast strains. In the present study, we constructed a HAA1-overexpressing diploid strain (MATa/α, named ER HAA1-OP) derived from the industrial bioethanol strain Ethanol Red (ER). ER HAA1-OP showed tolerance not only to acetate but also to lactate, and this tolerance was dependent on the increased expression of HAA1 gene. The ethanol production ability of ER HAA1-OP was almost equivalent to that of the parent strain during the bioethanol production process from sugarcane molasses in the absence of acetate. The addition of acetate at 0.5% (w/v, pH 4.5) inhibited the fermentation ability of the parent strain, but such an inhibition was not observed in the ethanol production process using ER HAA1-OP.

  4. Comparison of two mathematical models for correlating the organic matter removal efficiency with hydraulic retention time in a hybrid anaerobic baffled reactor treating molasses.

    PubMed

    Ghaniyari-Benis, S; Martín, A; Borja, R; Martín, M A; Hedayat, N

    2012-03-01

    A modelling of the anaerobic digestion process of molasses was conducted in a 70-L multistage anaerobic biofilm reactor or hybrid anaerobic baffled reactor with six compartments at an operating temperature of 26 °C. Five hydraulic retention times (6, 16, 24, 72 and 120 h) were studied at a constant influent COD concentration of 10,000 mg/L. Two different kinetic models (one was based on a dispersion model with first-order kinetics for substrate consumption and the other based on a modification of the Young equation) were evaluated and compared to predict the organic matter removal efficiency or fractional conversion. The first-order kinetic constant obtained with the dispersion model was 0.28 h(-1), the Peclet dispersion number being 45, with a mean relative error of 2%. The model based on the Young equation predicted the behaviour of the reactor more accurately showing deviations lower than 10% between the theoretical and experimental values of the fractional conversion, the mean relative error being 0.9% in this case.

  5. Effect of pH, aeration and sucrose feeding on the invertase activity of intact S. cerevisiae cells grown in sugarcane blackstrap molasses.

    PubMed

    Vitolo, M; Duranti, M A; Pellegrim, M B

    1995-08-01

    S. cerevisiae was grown in a blackstrap molasses containing medium in batch and fed-batch cultures. The following parameters were varied: pH (from 4.0 to 6.5), dissolved oxygen (DO) (from 0 to 5.0 mg O2 L-1) and sucrose feeding rate. When glucose concentration (S) was higher than 0.5 g L-1 a reduction in the specific invertase activity of intact cells (v) and an oscillatory behavior of v values during fermentation were observed. Both the invertase reduction and the oscillatory behavior of v values could be related to the glucose inhibitory effect on invertase biosynthesis. The best culture conditions for attaining S. cerevisiae cells suitable for invertase production were: temperature = 30 degrees C; pH = 5.0; DO = 3.3 mg O2 L-1; (S) = 0.5 g L-1 and sucrose added into the fermenter according to the equations: (V-Vo) = t2/16 or (V - Vo) = (Vf - Vo).(e0.6t-1)/10.

  6. Study of Sugarcane Pieces as Yeast Supports for Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Juice and Molasses Using Newly Isolated Yeast from Toddy Sap

    PubMed Central

    Satyanarayana, Botcha; Balakrishnan, Kesavapillai; Raghava Rao, Tamanam; Seshagiri Rao, Gudapaty

    2012-01-01

    A repeated batch fermentation system was used to produce ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (NCIM 3640) immobilized on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) pieces. For comparison free cells were also used to produce ethanol by repeated batch fermentation. Scanning electron microscopy evidently showed that cell immobilization resulted in firm adsorption of the yeast cells within subsurface cavities, capillary flow through the vessels of the vascular bundle structure, and attachment of the yeast to the surface of the sugarcane pieces. Repeated batch fermentations using sugarcane supported biocatalyst were successfully carried out for at least ten times without any significant loss in ethanol production from sugarcane juice and molasses. The number of cells attached to the support increased during the fermentation process, and fewer yeast cells leaked into fermentation broth. Ethanol concentrations (about 72.65~76.28 g/L in an average value) and ethanol productivities (about 2.27~2.36 g/L/hr in an average value) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in all fermentations (0.9~3.25 g/L) with conversions ranging from 98.03~99.43%, showing efficiency 91.57~95.43 and operational stability of biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. The results of the work pertaining to the use of sugarcane as immobilized yeast support could be promising for industrial fermentations. PMID:22783132

  7. The 3K Blackbody Radiation, 'Stored' & 'Frozen' Light, 'Viscous Optical Molasses' as Effects of the Electron Positron Lattice (EPOLA) Structure of Our "Vacuum" Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhony, Menahem

    2002-05-01

    In the EPOLA model of space [1] the mysterious 3K blackbody radiation of the sky is due to random thermal vibrations of the electrons and positrons, bound in the epola. They also cause the zero-point motion of helium atoms, a Brownian Motion analog. The temperature T of our epola region is therefore 3K. In space regions with more hot stars, more nuclear activity, T is higher and they may create the mystery of gray matter. Epola regions below 3K are observed as mysterious dark matter. The gray and dark matter regions are considered to constitute 90 percent of the mass of the universe. The 1997 Nobel Prize winners' "Optical Molasses" at micro-K T's are also explained by the epola model, as well as the 'stored', 'frozen' light effects, observed in 1999-2001. References: 1. M.Simhony, Invitation to the Natural Physics of Matter, Space, and Radiation, World Scientific, 1994 (292 pp), ISBN 981-02-1649-1. See the website: www.word1.co.il/physics .

  8. Effects of ethanol, molasses and Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation quality, in vitro digestibility and aerobic stability of total mixed ration silages in the Tibetan plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xianjun; Wen, Aiyou; Wang, Jian; Guo, Gang; Desta, Seare T; Shao, Tao

    2016-05-01

    In Tibet, it is common practice to make and relocate total mixed ration (TMR) silages before feeding due to the uneven distribution of forages temporally and spatially. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (L), molasses (M) or ethanol (E) on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of local adaptive TMR silage. After 45 days of ensiling, pH and ammonia nitrogen in inoculated TMR silages were significantly lower than control. During the first 6 days of the aerobic exposure test, a small fluctuation in lactic acid concentration for all TMR silages was observed, and then silages with ethanol continued this trend, while lactic acid in silage without ethanol sharply decreased until the end of the aerobic exposure period. Meanwhile, pH gradually increased along the aerobic exposure; silages treated with ethanol showed lower pH after 9 days of aerobic exposure. The population of yeast gradually increased during 6 days of aerobic exposure, after that an accelerated rise was observed in TMR silages without ethanol. The combinational beneficial effect of L. plantarum and ethanol was found in combined addition of ethanol and Lactobacillus plantarum silages (EL), indicated by intermediate fermentation quality and higher aerobic stability.

  9. Continuous Ethanol Fermentation of Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomasses, Waste Biomasses, Molasses and Syrup Using the Anaerobic, Thermophilic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter italicus Pentocrobe 411

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Rasmus Lund; Jensen, Karen Møller; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellosic ethanol production is now at a stage where commercial or semi-commercial plants are coming online and, provided cost effective production can be achieved, lignocellulosic ethanol will become an important part of the world bio economy. However, challenges are still to be overcome throughout the process and particularly for the fermentation of the complex sugar mixtures resulting from the hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Here we describe the continuous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose from non-detoxified pretreated wheat straw, birch, corn cob, sugar cane bagasse, cardboard, mixed bio waste, oil palm empty fruit bunch and frond, sugar cane syrup and sugar cane molasses using the anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter Pentocrobe 411. All fermentations resulted in close to maximum theoretical ethanol yields of 0.47–0.49 g/g (based on glucose, xylose, and arabinose), volumetric ethanol productivities of 1.2–2.7 g/L/h and a total sugar conversion of 90–99% including glucose, xylose and arabinose. The results solidify the potential of Thermoanaerobacter strains as candidates for lignocellulose bioconversion. PMID:26295944

  10. Optimization of anaerobically digested distillery molasses spent wash decolorization using soil as inoculum in the absence of additional carbon and nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Adikane, H V; Dange, M N; Selvakumari, K

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve maximum decolorization of molasses spent wash (MSW) in absence of any additional carbon or nitrogen source using soil as inoculum. Soil samples were collected from the MSW disposal site. Colored soil samples exhibited higher pH, sugar and protein as compare to less colored samples. A decolorization of 69% was obtained using 10% (w/v) soil and 12.5% (v/v) MSW after 7 days incubation. Optimized parameters including days--6 days, pH--6, MSW--12.5% and soil concentration--40%, were obtained for maximum decolorization. A decolorization of 81% was achieved using 10% soil and 12.5% MSW after 18 days incubation in absence of any media supplement. Nearly 12% reduction in decolorization activity of the soil sample was observed over a period of 12 months when stored at 6 degrees C. It could be concluded that the decolorization of MSW might be achieved using soil as inoculum without addition of chemical amendments.

  11. Continuous Ethanol Fermentation of Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomasses, Waste Biomasses, Molasses and Syrup Using the Anaerobic, Thermophilic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter italicus Pentocrobe 411.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Rasmus Lund; Jensen, Karen Møller; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellosic ethanol production is now at a stage where commercial or semi-commercial plants are coming online and, provided cost effective production can be achieved, lignocellulosic ethanol will become an important part of the world bio economy. However, challenges are still to be overcome throughout the process and particularly for the fermentation of the complex sugar mixtures resulting from the hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Here we describe the continuous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose from non-detoxified pretreated wheat straw, birch, corn cob, sugar cane bagasse, cardboard, mixed bio waste, oil palm empty fruit bunch and frond, sugar cane syrup and sugar cane molasses using the anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter Pentocrobe 411. All fermentations resulted in close to maximum theoretical ethanol yields of 0.47-0.49 g/g (based on glucose, xylose, and arabinose), volumetric ethanol productivities of 1.2-2.7 g/L/h and a total sugar conversion of 90-99% including glucose, xylose and arabinose. The results solidify the potential of Thermoanaerobacter strains as candidates for lignocellulose bioconversion.

  12. An organic acid-tolerant HAA1-overexpression mutant of an industrial bioethanol strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application to the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial contamination is known as a major cause of the reduction in ethanol yield during bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acetate is an effective agent for the prevention of bacterial contamination, but it negatively affects the fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae. We have proposed that the combined use of organic acids including acetate and lactate and yeast strains tolerant to organic acids may be effective for the elimination of principally lactic acid bacterial (LAB) contamination. In a previous study employing laboratory S. cerevisiae strains, we showed that overexpression of the HAA1 gene, which encodes a transcriptional activator, could be a useful molecular breeding method for acetate-tolerant yeast strains. In the present study, we constructed a HAA1-overexpressing diploid strain (MATa/α, named ER HAA1-OP) derived from the industrial bioethanol strain Ethanol Red (ER). ER HAA1-OP showed tolerance not only to acetate but also to lactate, and this tolerance was dependent on the increased expression of HAA1 gene. The ethanol production ability of ER HAA1-OP was almost equivalent to that of the parent strain during the bioethanol production process from sugarcane molasses in the absence of acetate. The addition of acetate at 0.5% (w/v, pH 4.5) inhibited the fermentation ability of the parent strain, but such an inhibition was not observed in the ethanol production process using ER HAA1-OP. PMID:24373204

  13. Decolorization and treatment of Kokuto-shochu distillery wastewater by the combination treatment involving biodecolorization and biotreatment by Penicillium oxalicum d, physical decolorization by ozonation and treatment by activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Tanaka, Miki; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2010-11-01

    Kokuto-shochu is a traditional Japanese distilled liquor made from brown sugar. Kokuto-shochu distillery wastewater (KDW) contains high concentrations of organic compounds and brown pigments (called molasses pigments) which are hardly decolorized by general biological wastewater treatment. A fungus, Penicillium oxalicum d, which we isolated in a previous study, decolorizes 47% of the color from KDW without the addition of any nutrients. P. oxalicum d decolorizes KDW by absorbing the pigments into its mycelia. Here we describe a KDW treatment system that combines biodecolorization and biotreatment by P. oxalicum d with treatment by activated sludge and physical decolorization by ozonation. Adding HClO to suppress bacterial growth and replacing fresh seed sludge at regular intervals helped to maintain the dominance and decolorization ability of P. oxalicum d. In a laboratory-scale demonstration, 48 cycles (12 days) achieved a decolorization ratio of 90% and removed more than 97% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) and dissolved total phosphorus (DTP). A major feature of our system is that it uses only 6% of the water used in an activated sludge-ozonation system.

  14. Wastewater services for small communities.

    PubMed

    Gray, S; Booker, N

    2003-01-01

    Connection to centralised regional sewage systems has been too expensive for small-dispersed communities, and these townships have traditionally been serviced by on-site septic tank systems. The conventional on-site system in Australia has consisted of an anaerobic holding tank followed by adsorption trenches. This technique relies heavily on the uptake of nutrients by plants for effective removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the effluent, and is very seasonal in its efficiency. Hence, as these small communities have grown in size, the environmental effects of the septic tank discharges have become a problem. In locations throughout Australia, such as rural Victoria and along the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, septic tanks as being replaced with the transport of sewage to regional treatment plants. For some isolated communities, this can mean spending 20,000 dollars-40,000 dollars/household, as opposed to more common connection prices of 7,000 dollars/household. This paper explores some alternative options that might be suitable for these small communities, and attempts to identify solutions that provide acceptable environmental outcomes at lower cost. The types of alternative systems that are assessed in the paper include local treatment systems, separate blackwater and greywater collection and treatment systems both with and without non-potable water recycling, a small township scale treatment plant compared to either existing septic tank systems or pumping to a remote regional treatment facility. The work demonstrated the benefits of a scenario analysis approach for the assessment of a range of alternative systems. It demonstrated that some of the alternatives systems can achieve better than 90% reductions in the discharge of nutrients to the environment at significantly lower cost than removing the wastewater to a remote regional treatment plant. These concepts allow wastewater to be retained within a community allowing for local reuse of treated effluent.

  15. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  16. Charlo Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0022551, the Consolidated Charlo-Lake County Water & Sewer District is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Lake County, Montana to an unnamed swale that runs to Dublin Gulch.

  17. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Sewage Works, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This article summarizes in tabular form the U.S. and Canadian programs for classification of water and wastewater treatment plant personnel. Included are main characteristics of the programs, educational and experience requirements, and indications of requirement substitutions. (CS)

  18. Towards practical implementation of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rozendal, René A; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Rabaey, Korneel; Keller, Jurg; Buisman, Cees J N

    2008-08-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), are generally regarded as a promising future technology for the production of energy from organic material present in wastewaters. The current densities that can be generated with laboratory BESs now approach levels that come close to the requirements for practical applications. However, full-scale implementation of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment is not straightforward because certain microbiological, technological and economic challenges need to be resolved that have not previously been encountered in any other wastewater treatment system. Here, we identify these challenges, provide an overview of their implications for the feasibility of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment and explore the opportunities for future BESs.

  19. Wastewater Disinfectants: Many Called--Few Chosen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Gives a comparative study of disinfectants used to rid wastewater of pathogens. Concentrates on the effects of chlorine and ozone, with some mention of ultra-violet irradiation, bromine chloride, and chlorine dioxide. (MA)

  20. SCIENCE BRIEF: REHABILITATION OF WASTEWATER COLLECTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    System rehabilitation is the application of infrastructure repair, renewal and replacement technologies in order to reinstate functionality of a wastewater system or subsystem. The proper balance of the repair, renewal, and replacement depends on the condition assessment, the lif...

  1. Woodcock Home Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030554, the Salish and Kootenai Housing Authority is authorized to discharge from its Woodcock Home Addition Wastewater Treatment Facility in Lake County, Montana, to a swale draining to Middle Crow Creek.

  2. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: ZENOGEM™ WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zenon Environmental System's ZenoGem™ Wastewater Treatment Process treats aqueous media contaminated with volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds. This technology combines aerobic biological treatment to remove biodegradable organic compounds with ultrafiltration to separate res...

  3. Wastewater Treatment Evaluation, Mather AFB, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    Flov measurement. g. Poli.’ihing lagoons. h. Anaerobic Sludge Digestion. i. Sludge drying on sand beds. In this report, processes a... process . Solids (sludge) removed from the wastewater in the secondary clarifiers are pumped to the treatment facility influent channel upstream from...undetermined amount of wastewater to return, by gravity, to the recirculation pumps. The effluent from the two secondary clarifiers is combined at

  4. Micropollutants produced by disinfection of wastewater effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Lee, N.E.; Thompson, J.E.; Lewis, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent research conducted with the objective of determining some of the chemical mutagenic characteristics of nonvolatile micropollutants in treated wastewater effluents is summarized. The effluents from nine wastewater plants were examined relative to the chemical effects of the disinfectants chlorine, ozone, and uv light on nonvolatile organic constituents and the formation of mutagenic constituents during disinfection. Results indicate that disinfection by chlorine or ozone can lead to an increase in the number of mutagenic materials in the effluents. (JGB)

  5. Review of wastewater problems and wastewater-management planning in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, Walter G.

    1973-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay region has suffered adverse environmental effects related to the discharge of municipal-, industrial-, and agricultural- wastewater and storm-water runoff. Specific pollutional properties of theses discharges are not well understood in all cases although the toxic materials and aquatic-plant nutrients (biostimulants) found in municipal and industrial waterwater are considered to be a major cause of regional water-quality problems. Other water-quality problems in the region are commonly attributed to pesticides found in agricultural wastewater and potentially pathogenic bacteria in municipal-wastewater discharges and in storm-water runoff. The geographical distribution and magnitude of wastewater discharges in the bay region, particularly those from municipalities and industries, is largely a function of population, economic growth, and urban development. As might be expected, the total volume of wastewater has increased in a trend paralleling this growth and development. More significant, perhaps, is the fact that the total volume parameters such as BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), biostimulant concentrations, and toxicity, has increased despite large expenditures on new and improved municipal- and industrial-wastewater-treatment plants. Also, pollutant loadings from other major source, such as agriculture and storm-water runoff, have increased. At the time of writing (1972), many Federal, State, regional, and local agencies are engaged in a comprehensive wastewater-management-planning effort for the entire bay region. Initial objectives of this planning effort are: (1) the consolidation and coordination of loosely integrated wastewater-management facilities and (2) the elimination of wastewater discharges to ecologically sensitive areas, such as fresh-water streams and shallow extremities of San Francisco Bay. There has been some investigation of potential long-range wastewater-management alternatives based upon disposal in deep water in the

  6. Wastewater heat recovery method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  7. Presence of Pharmaceuticals in Groundwater Down Gradient from Wastewater Lagoons Receiving Partially Treated Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater can contain traces of the pharmaceutical compounds that are used within a given household or community. These chemicals can act as markers of the wastewater, and their presence can help determine potential sources of contamination of water resources. For this study, gr...

  8. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks. 63.133 Section 63.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and...

  9. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks. 63.133 Section 63.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and...

  10. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks. 63.133 Section 63.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and...

  11. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks. 63.133 Section 63.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and...

  12. 40 CFR 63.133 - Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-wastewater tanks. 63.133 Section 63.133 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and...

  13. Increasing wastewater system performance--the importance of interactions between sewerage and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Langeveld, J G; Clemens, F H L R; van der Graaf, J H J M

    2002-01-01

    The necessity to assess sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as integral parts of the wastewater system has been well known for several years and discussed in many conferences. Until recently, sewer systems and WWTPs were improved (or optimised) separately or independently, which resulted in suboptimal solutions. Nowadays, in The Netherlands as well as in other European countries, a trend can be recognised towards more integral solutions. Nevertheless, due to a lack of knowledge on the interactions between the sewer systems and the WWTPs the implementation of this way of thinking in practice takes a long time. This paper describes the results of two cases in which the interactions between sewerage and wastewater treatment are incorporated within the optimisation of a wastewater system. The first case illustrates the importance of taking the interactions into account, while the second case shows how to deal with the interactions within a wastewater system optimisation study. It is concluded that the combination of total wastewater system analysis, incorporating the interactions within the wastewater system, with efficient search algorithms is expected to be very valuable in future wastewater system optimisation studies.

  14. A California Winery Wastewater Survey: Assessing the Salinity Challenge for Wastewater Reuse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing scarcity of water and tighter regulations for discharge make onsite wastewater reuse an attractive prospect for the California wine industry. This study reports winery wastewater (WW) data from eighteen Northern California (Northern CA) wineries. The current study provides a baseline ...

  15. OCCURRENCE OF PATHOGENS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND THEIR SURVIVAL DURING WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathogens can enter municipal wastewaters from several sources including homes, hospitals and slaughter houses. They are identified, typical levels found in sludges are given along with infectious doses, and their survival on crops and in the soil presented. As wastewater is clea...

  16. Wastewater garden--a system to treat wastewater with environmental benefits to community.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jaya

    2008-01-01

    Many communities and villages around the world face serious problems with lack of sanitation especially in disposing of the wastewater-black water and grey water from the houses, or wash outs from animal rearing sheds. Across the world diverting wastewater to the surroundings or to the public spaces are not uncommon. This is responsible for contaminating drinking water sources causing health risks and environmental degradation as they become the breeding grounds of mosquitoes and pathogens. Lack of collection and treatment facilities or broken down sewage systems noticed throughout the developing world are associated with this situation. Diverting the wastewater to trees and vegetable gardens was historically a common practice. However the modern world has an array of problems associated with such disposal such as generation of large quantity of wastewater, unavailability of space for onsite disposal or treatment and increase in population. This paper considers the wastewater garden as a means for wastewater treatment and to improve the vegetation and biodiversity of rural areas. This can also be implemented in urban areas in association with parks and open spaces. This also highlights environmental safety in relation to the nutrient, pathogen and heavy metal content of the wastewater. The possibilities of different types of integration and technology that can be adopted for wastewater gardens are also discussed.

  17. Prevalence and fate of Giardia cysts in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Nasser, A M; Vaizel-Ohayon, D; Aharoni, A; Revhun, M

    2012-09-01

    The present study was conducted to review factors affecting the prevalence and concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater. The removal and inactivation efficiency of Giardia by wastewater treatment technologies was also reviewed. Data published for the prevalence of Giardia in wastewater and the removal by wastewater treatment plants was reviewed. Giardia cysts are highly prevalent in wastewater in various parts of the world, which may reflect the infection rate in the population. In 23 of 30 (76.6%) studies, all of the tested raw wastewater samples were positive for Giardia cysts at concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 100 000 cysts l(-1). The concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater was not affected by the geographical region or the socio-economic status of the community. Discharge of raw wastewater or the application of raw wastewater for irrigation may result in Giardia transmission. Activated sludge treatment resulted in a one to two orders of magnitude reduction in Giardia, whereas a stabilization pond with a high retention time removed up to 100% of the cysts from wastewater. High-rate sand filtration, ultrafiltration and UV disinfection were reported as the most efficient wastewater treatment methods for removal and disinfection of Giardia cysts. Wastewater treatment may not totally prevent the environmental transmission of Giardia cysts. The reviewed data show that a combination of wastewater treatment methods may results in efficient removal of Giardia cysts and prevent their environmental transmission.

  18. Carbon and nitrogen removal from glucose-glycine melanoidins solution as a model of distillery wastewater by catalytic wet air oxidation.

    PubMed

    Phuong Thu, Le; Michèle, Besson

    2016-06-05

    Sugarcane molasses distillery wastewater contains melanoidins, which are dark brown recalcitrant nitrogenous polymer compounds. Studies were carried out in batch mode to evaluate Pt and Ru supported catalysts in the Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation (CWAO) process of a synthetic melanoidins solution, prepared by stoichiometric reaction of glucose with glycine. The addition of a catalyst slightly improved TOC removal compared with the non-catalytic reaction, and especially promoted the conversion of ammonium produced from organically-bound nitrogen in melanoidins to molecular nitrogen and nitrate. The selectivity to N2 attained 89% in the presence of the Pt catalysts in the reaction conditions used (TOC=2200mgL(-1), TN=280mgL(-1), 0.5g catalyst loaded with 3% metal, 210°C, 70bar total air pressure). To avoid leaching of the active metal by organically-bound nitrogen, the reaction was very efficiently performed in a two-step reaction consisting in WAO to convert nitrogen into ammonium, before the introduction of a catalyst.

  19. Fluorescence spectroscopy for wastewater monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Carstea, Elfrida M; Bridgeman, John; Baker, Andy; Reynolds, Darren M

    2016-05-15

    Wastewater quality is usually assessed using physical, chemical and microbiological tests, which are not suitable for online monitoring, provide unreliable results, or use hazardous chemicals. Hence, there is an urgent need to find a rapid and effective method for the evaluation of water quality in natural and engineered systems and for providing an early warning of pollution events. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been shown to be a valuable technique to characterize and monitor wastewater in surface waters for tracking sources of pollution, and in treatment works for process control and optimization. This paper reviews the current progress in applying fluorescence to assess wastewater quality. Studies have shown that, in general, wastewater presents higher fluorescence intensity compared to natural waters for the components associated with peak T (living and dead cellular material and their exudates) and peak C (microbially reprocessed organic matter). Furthermore, peak T fluorescence is significantly reduced after the biological treatment process and peak C is almost completely removed after the chlorination and reverse osmosis stages. Thus, simple fluorometers with appropriate wavelength selectivity, particularly for peaks T and C could be used for online monitoring in wastewater treatment works. This review also shows that care should be taken in any attempt to identify wastewater pollution sources due to potential overlapping fluorophores. Correlations between fluorescence intensity and water quality parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total organic carbon (TOC) have been developed and dilution of samples, typically up to ×10, has been shown to be useful to limit inner filter effect. It has been concluded that the following research gaps need to be filled: lack of studies on the on-line application of fluorescence spectroscopy in wastewater treatment works and lack of data processing tools suitable for rapid correction and extraction of

  20. The effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on nutrient intake, digestibility and finishing performance of lambs fed a diet based on dried molasses sugar beet-pulp.

    PubMed

    Payandeh, S; Kafilzadeh, F

    2007-12-15

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SC47) on finishing performance, digestibility, some blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of male lambs fed a diet based on dried Molasses Sugar Beet-Pulp (MSBP). Eighteen Sanjabi male lambs (20.95 +/- 2.7 kg initial body weight and 3 month of age) were used in a completely randomized design. Animals were assigned to one of the two dietary treatments (with or without yeast). Digestibility and nitrogen balance experiment was carried out using six mature rams on finishing diet with and without yeast. Serum metabolites were determined in samples taken from lambs at the end of finishing period. Dry matter digestibility of finishing diet was significantly increased by yeast addition. However, yeast did not have any significant effect on apparent digestibility of OM, NDF, CP and energy. Nitrogen retention was also not affected by yeast addition. Yeast resulted in a significant increase in the average daily gain, dry matter and organic matter intake. However, feed conversion ratio was not significantly affected by addition of yeast. The concentration of the serum metabolites including glucose, urea, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorous and cratinine were not affected significantly by yeast supplementation, but triglyceride concentrations increased significantly when yeast was fed. Addition of yeast to the diet did not have any significant effect on the carcass characteristics. Results of this study suggest that feeding saccharomyces cerevisiae with a diet based on MSBP can improve the performance of fattening lambs without any change in carcass characteristics or cuts.

  1. Interactive effects of molasses by homofermentative and heterofermentative inoculants on fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation, nutritive value and aerobic stability of wilted alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) silage.

    PubMed

    Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Taghizadeh, A; Kargar, S; Yang, W Z

    2014-04-01

    The effect of adding molasses (0, UM or 50 g/kg on DM basis, M) and two types of inoculant including homofermentative (HO) and a combination of homofermentative and propionate-producing bacterial (HOPAB) inoculants on silage fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation and aerobic stability of pre-bloom, wilted alfalfa (AS) was determined in laboratory silos. The HOPAB inoculant was more effective than HO in reducing the alfalfa silage pH but increased propionate content in the absence of M (p < 0.05). Inoculation of HOPAB reduced (p < 0.01) acid detergent fibre (ADF) and increased (p < 0.01) lactate to acetate ratio compared with uninoculated AS. Acetate concentration was lower (p < 0.01) in HOPAB-inoculated than other AS. This difference was more pronounced in M-added AS (inoculants × M interaction, p = 0.01). Both inoculants reduced (p < 0.01) ammonia-N content in AS added with M, whereas only HOPAB decreased (p < 0.01) ammonia-N concentration in silage without M. Inoculants increased (p < 0.01) B2 fraction in AS with M addition but had no effect on AS without M. Treating silages with HO-UM increased (p < 0.05) C fraction (acid-detergent insoluble-N) but HOPAB decreased C fraction at two levels of M. Treating alfalfa crop with M and HOPAB improved aerobic stability by increasing the concentration of acetate and propionate of AS respectively. Adding M tended (p < 0.10) to increase short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cumulative gas production (CGP). HOPAB alone increased DM disappearance at 24 h post-incubation and effective degradability assuming outflow rate of 8%/h relative to untreated AS (p < 0.05). It was concluded that adding M had no pronounced effects on AS fermentation quality, but increased aerobic stability. HOPAB-inoculated AS with no addition of M improved fermentation quality and increased DM degradability compared with HO.

  2. Smithfield, Rhode Island Wastewater Treatment Plant Recognized for Excellence

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Smithfield, R.I. Wastewater Treatment Plant was recently honored with a 2015 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Excellence Award by the US Environmental Protection Agency's New England regional office.

  3. EPA Survey Shows $271 Billion Needed for Nations Wastewater Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today released a survey showing that $271 billion is needed to maintain and improve the nation's wastewater infrastructure, including the pipes that carry wastewater to treatment plants, th

  4. Balance in Training for Latin American Water and Wastewater Utilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carefoot, Neil F.

    1977-01-01

    Using a Peru case study, this article examines the problem of training imbalance for water and wastewater operators. Guidelines towards achieving adequate training for all water and wastewater personnel are suggested. (Author/MA)

  5. Union Township Wastewater Treatment Plant - Union Charter Township

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA proposes to reissue a NPDES permit,treated wastewater discharges from the Union Township Wastewater Treatment Plant near Isabella Indian Reservation located in Union Charter Township, Michigan (Isabella County)

  6. Current Status of On-Site Wastewater Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Charles L.

    1978-01-01

    Wastewater management is becoming an important environmental issue nationally. This article reports the history and current status of wastewater management. Regulatory programs are discussed with specific state examples. Needs assessment is also included. (MA)

  7. IMPROVING INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS RELIABILITY TO ENHANCE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable development includes the recovery of resources from industrial manufacturing processes. One valuable resource that can often be purified and reused is process wastewater. Typically, pollutants are removed from process wastewater using physical, chemical, and biologica...

  8. USEPA Research on Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  9. A new approach to implementing decentralized wastewater treatment concepts.

    PubMed

    van Afferden, Manfred; Cardona, Jaime A; Lee, Mi-Yong; Subah, Ali; Müller, Roland A

    2015-01-01

    Planners and decision-makers in the wastewater sector are often confronted with the problem of identifying adequate development strategies and most suitable finance schemes for decentralized wastewater infrastructure. This paper research has focused on providing an approach in support of such decision-making. It is based on basic principles that stand for an integrated perspective towards sustainable wastewater management. We operationalize these principles by means of a geographic information system (GIS)-based approach 'Assessment of Local Lowest-Cost Wastewater Solutions'--ALLOWS. The main product of ALLOWS is the identification of cost-effective local wastewater management solutions for any given demographic and physical context. By using universally available input data the tool allows decision-makers to compare different wastewater solutions for any given wastewater situation. This paper introduces the ALLOWS-GIS tool. Its application and functionality are illustrated by assessing different wastewater solutions for two neighboring communities in rural Jordan.

  10. Biotreatment of oil shale wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, J B; Daughton, C G; Jones, B M; Langlois, G W

    1983-04-01

    Aerobic bacterial oxidation was evaluated for nine wastewaters from surface, modified in-situ, true in-situ, and simulated in-situ retorting processes: Oxy-6 gas condensate, Rio Blanco sour water, and Oxy-6, 150-Ton, TOSCO HSP, S-55, Omega-9, Geokinetics-9, and Paraho retort waters. Extensive acclimations for competent microbiota were completed after several months of serial enrichments using each water as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy. Each water was diluted prior to biotreatment with an equal volume of inorganic orthophosphate buffer that contained essential trace elements. Preliminary experiments have indicated that losses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) via volatilization could be extensive (e.g., up to one third); such losses could easily be mistaken for biologically mediated removal. Biodegradation was therefore assessed in screw-capped shake-flasks that contained sufficient headspace to ensure aerobic conditions. Biological removals of DOC ranged from 9% for Oxy-6 gas condensate to 49% for Oxy-6 retort water. Sample fractionation by a reverse-phase separation method indicated that the majority of the mineralized DOC resided in the hydrophilic fraction (HpF); this supported the hypothesis that compounds in this polar fraction were more easily biodegraded than those in the lipophilic fraction (LpF). Total removal of DOC from any water did not exceed the amount of carbon in the HpF.

  11. Coal fired powerhouse wastewater pressure filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Savannah River Site`s permit for construction of an industrial wastewater treatment facility to remove solids from the boiler blow-down and wet ash scrubber effluent of the A-Area coal fired powerhouse was rejected. Conventional clarification technology would not remove arsenic from the combined effluent sufficient to achieve human health criteria in the small receiving surface stream. Treatability studies demonstrated that an existing facility, which will no longer be needed for metal finishing wastewater, can very efficiently process the powerhouse wastewater to less than 35 {mu}g/L arsenic. Use of cationic and anionic polymers to flocculate both the wastewater and filter aid solids formed a ``bridged cake`` with exceptionally low resistance to flow. This will double the capacity of the Oberlin pressure filters with the Tyvek T-980 sub micron filter media. The affects of high sheer agitation and high temperature in the raw wastewater on the filtration process were also studied and adequate controls were demonstrated.

  12. Wilsonville wastewater sampling program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-10-01

    As part of its contrast to design, build and operate the SRC-1 Demonstration Plant in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) was required to collect and evaluate data related to wastewater streams and wastewater treatment procedures at the SRC-1 Pilot Plant facility. The pilot plant is located at Wilsonville, Alabama and is operated by Catalytic, Inc. under the direction of Southern Company Services. The plant is funded in part by the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE. ICRC contracted with Catalytic, Inc. to conduct wastewater sampling. Tasks 1 through 5 included sampling and analysis of various wastewater sources and points of different steps in the biological treatment facility at the plant. The sampling program ran from May 1 to July 31, 1982. Also included in the sampling program was the generation and analysis of leachate from SRC product using standard laboratory leaching procedures. For Task 6, available plant wastewater data covering the period from February 1978 to December 1981 was analyzed to gain information that might be useful for a demonstration plant design basis. This report contains a tabulation of the analytical data, a summary tabulation of the historical operating data that was evaluated and comments concerning the data. The procedures used during the sampling program are also documented.

  13. Control of wastewater using multivariate control chart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, Jaka; Fatimah, Is; Prabowo, Rino Galang

    2017-03-01

    Wastewater treatment is a crucial process in industry cause untreated or improper treatment of wastewater may leads some problems affecting to the other parts of environmental aspects. For many kinds of wastewater treatments, the parameters of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and the Total Suspend Solid (TSS) are usual parameters to be controlled as a standard. In this paper, the application of multivariate Hotteling T2 Individual was reported to control wastewater treatment. By using wastewater treatment data from PT. ICBP, east Java branch, while the fulfillment of quality standards are based on East Java Governor Regulation No. 72 Year 2013 on Standards of Quality of Waste Water Industry and / or Other Business Activities. The obtained results are COD and TSS has a correlation with BOD values with the correlation coefficient higher than 50%, and it is is also found that influence of the COD and TSS to BOD values are 82% and 1.9% respectively. Based on Multivariate control chart Individual T2 Hotteling, it is found that BOD-COD and BOD-TSS are each one subgroup that are outside the control limits. Thus, it can be said there is a process that is not multivariate controlled, but univariately the variables of BOD, COD and TSS are within specification (standard quality) that has been determined.

  14. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jałowiecki, Łukasz; Chojniak, Joanna Małgorzata; Dorgeloh, Elmar; Hegedusova, Berta; Ejhed, Helene; Magnér, Jörgen; Płaza, Grażyna Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A), trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B), and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C). High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA) showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters. PMID:26807728

  15. The impacts of cyanobacteria on pulp-and-paper wastewater toxicity and biodegradation of wastewater contaminants.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, A E; Nalewajko, C; Fulthorpe, R R

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of cyanobacteria from pulp-and-paper waste-treatment systems on biological toxicity removal and biodegradation of certain wastewater contaminants. In field and batch studies, using the Microtox assay, cyanobacterial biomass and final wastewater toxicity were significantly correlated. In softwood-based wastewater, a decrease in toxicity was negatively correlated with cyanobacterial biomass, but the correlation was positive in hardwood-based wastewater. In the softwood-based wastewater, toxicity remained higher in the light than it was in the dark, whereas in hardwood-based wastewater, toxicity was lower in the light than it was in the dark. All of these results were light-dependent, suggesting that the photosynthetic growth of cyanobacteria is required to induce significant effects. When grown in mixed cultures with bacterial degraders, cyanobacteria from pulp-and-paper waste-treatment systems generally impeded the biodegradation of the wastewater contaminants phenol and dichloroacetate (DCA). However, there was one case where the cyanobacterium Phormidium insigne improved the bacterial degradation of DCA. Doubling inorganic nutrient concentrations did not improve phenol or DCA biodegradation in the majority of cases, indicating that nutrient competition is not a major factor. These data suggest that cyanobacteria play an important role during the biological treatment of contaminants, and, hence, toxicity removal in pulp-and-paper waste-treatment systems.

  16. Winery wastewater treatment by constructed wetlands and the use of treated wastewater for cash crop production.

    PubMed

    Mulidzi, A R

    2007-01-01

    A 45 m long, 4 m wide and 1 m deep wetland was constructed at Goudini in 2002 to treat distillery and winery effluent. After the plants were fully established, the wastewater with an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 14,000 mg/l was introduced to the wetland system at a rate of 4,050 litres per day. After treatment, wastewater at the outlet had an average COD of 500 mg/l, indicating more than 90% COD removal. After treatment, the wastewater was used to irrigate cash crops as part of poverty alleviation for farm workers. The experiment consisted of four treatment: clean irrigation water with fertilizer applied (B1); clean irrigation water without fertilizer applied (B2); wastewater irrigation with fertilizer applied (B3); and wastewater irrigation without fertilizer applied (B4). These were replicated seven times. Cabbage was cultivated as a cash crop. The results indicated that cabbage could be irrigated with winery wastewater treated by wetlands. The study found that there was significant difference between treatments that were fertilized compared with those that were not fertilized. The results indicated that wastewater irrigation improved the nutritional status of the soil.

  17. 40 CFR 63.132 - Process wastewater provisions-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-general... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.132 Process wastewater provisions—general. (a) Existing sources. This paragraph specifies the requirements applicable...

  18. 40 CFR 63.135 - Process wastewater provisions-containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.135 Process wastewater provisions—containers. (a) For each container that receives, manages, or treats a Group...

  19. 40 CFR 63.105 - Maintenance wastewater requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance wastewater requirements... Manufacturing Industry § 63.105 Maintenance wastewater requirements. (a) Each owner or operator of a source... for maintenance wastewaters containing those organic HAP's listed in table 9 of subpart G of this...

  20. 40 CFR 63.135 - Process wastewater provisions-containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.135 Process wastewater provisions—containers. (a) For each container that receives, manages, or treats a Group...

  1. 40 CFR 63.135 - Process wastewater provisions-containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.135 Process wastewater provisions—containers. (a) For each container that receives, manages, or treats a Group...

  2. 40 CFR 63.105 - Maintenance wastewater requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance wastewater requirements. 63... § 63.105 Maintenance wastewater requirements. (a) Each owner or operator of a source subject to this... wastewaters containing those organic HAP's listed in table 9 of subpart G of this part. (b) The owner...

  3. 40 CFR 63.132 - Process wastewater provisions-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-general... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.132 Process wastewater provisions—general. (a) Existing sources. This paragraph specifies the requirements applicable...

  4. 40 CFR 63.135 - Process wastewater provisions-containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.135 Process wastewater provisions—containers. (a) For each container that receives, manages, or treats a Group...

  5. 40 CFR 63.132 - Process wastewater provisions-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-general... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.132 Process wastewater provisions—general. (a) Existing sources. This paragraph specifies the requirements applicable...

  6. 40 CFR 63.132 - Process wastewater provisions-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-general... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.132 Process wastewater provisions—general. (a) Existing sources. This paragraph specifies the requirements applicable...

  7. 40 CFR 63.146 - Process wastewater provisions-reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.146 Process wastewater provisions—reporting. (a) For each waste management unit, treatment process, or control...

  8. 40 CFR 63.135 - Process wastewater provisions-containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.135 Process wastewater provisions—containers. (a) For each container that receives, manages, or treats a Group...

  9. Developing a Program for Water/Wastewater Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Ivan E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a water/wastewater technician program that provides: (1) entry-level skills for individuals seeking employment as water/wastewater technicians, (2) upgrading courses for operators and technicians already employed, and (3) instruction for those who are preparing for Colorado state water/wastewater certification. (LRA)

  10. 40 CFR 63.105 - Maintenance wastewater requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance wastewater requirements. 63... § 63.105 Maintenance wastewater requirements. (a) Each owner or operator of a source subject to this... wastewaters containing those organic HAP's listed in table 9 of subpart G of this part. (b) The owner...

  11. 40 CFR 63.105 - Maintenance wastewater requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance wastewater requirements... Manufacturing Industry § 63.105 Maintenance wastewater requirements. (a) Each owner or operator of a source... for maintenance wastewaters containing those organic HAP's listed in table 9 of subpart G of this...

  12. 40 CFR 63.105 - Maintenance wastewater requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintenance wastewater requirements... Manufacturing Industry § 63.105 Maintenance wastewater requirements. (a) Each owner or operator of a source... for maintenance wastewaters containing those organic HAP's listed in table 9 of subpart G of this...

  13. 40 CFR 63.132 - Process wastewater provisions-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Process wastewater provisions-general... Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.132 Process wastewater provisions—general. (a) Existing sources. This paragraph specifies the requirements applicable...

  14. Treatment of Aquaculture Wastewater Using Floating Vegetated Mats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed for treating aquaculture wastewater. The goal is to improve wastewater quality sufficiently for it to be recycled to production ponds. One potential method for improving aquaculture wastewater is to use floating vegetation in treatment tanks. Alternatively, potential exists for ...

  15. Coke dust enhances coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Rozwadowski, Andrzej; Burmistrz, Michał; Karcz, Aleksander

    2014-12-01

    Coke plant wastewater contain many toxic pollutants. Despite physico-chemical and biological treatment this specific type of wastewater has a significant impact on environment and human health. This article presents results of research on industrial adsorptive coke plant wastewater treatment. As a sorbent the coke dust, dozen times less expensive than pulverized activated carbon, was used. Treatment was conducted in three scenarios: adsorptive after full treatment with coke dust at 15 g L(-1), biological treatment enhanced with coke dust at 0.3-0.5 g L(-1) and addition of coke dust at 0.3 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment. The enhanced biological treatment proved the most effective. It allowed additional removal of 147-178 mg COD kg(-1) of coke dust.

  16. Wastewater purification in the potato starch industry

    SciTech Connect

    Wijbenga, D.J.; Meiberg, J.B.M.; Brunt, K.

    1984-01-01

    Deproteinized and protein-containing wastewater from the potato starch industry was purified by anaerobic digestion followed by aerobic treatment. Inhibition of methanation by NH3 in concentrated deproteinized wastewater can be prevented by lowering the pH. SO32- was removed by reduction in an acidification-reactor. SO42- reduction was hydraulic retention time-dependent during acidification. Further elimination of SO42- can take place in the CH4 reactor. With both deproteinized and protein-containing wastewater, high CH4 production rates were obtained (more than or equal to 26 kg COD/cubic m-day). Aerobic treatment of the anaerobic effluent resulted in extensive deodorization and concomitant elimination of BOD and PO4(-3).

  17. Fibre Optic Sensors for Selected Wastewater Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Su Sin; Abdul Aziz, A. R.; Harun, Sulaiman W.

    2013-01-01

    Demand for online and real-time measurements techniques to meet environmental regulation and treatment compliance are increasing. However the conventional techniques, which involve scheduled sampling and chemical analysis can be expensive and time consuming. Therefore cheaper and faster alternatives to monitor wastewater characteristics are required as alternatives to conventional methods. This paper reviews existing conventional techniques and optical and fibre optic sensors to determine selected wastewater characteristics which are colour, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). The review confirms that with appropriate configuration, calibration and fibre features the parameters can be determined with accuracy comparable to conventional method. With more research in this area, the potential for using FOS for online and real-time measurement of more wastewater parameters for various types of industrial effluent are promising. PMID:23881131

  18. Simultaneous stack gas scrubbing wastewater purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Variations of a process for removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and using it to treat municipal waste water are described. The once-through system lowers the pH of the scrubbing water from minor depressions to a pH of about 2.5 under certain conditions. A recycle system uses iron for catalytic oxidation of sulfurous acid to sulfuric acid allowing very large amounts of sulfur dioxide to be absorbed in a small portion of water. The partial recycle system uses municipal wastewater and iron as a scrubbing medium, followed by neutralization of the wastewater with lime to produce an iron hydroxide precipitation which, when removed, produces tertiary quality treated wastewater. The SO2 scrubber is described, test results are analyzed, and a preliminary capital cost estimate for the three processes is included.

  19. Aquatic Plants and Wastewater Treatment (an Overview)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1986-01-01

    The technology for using water hyacinth to upgrade domestic sewage effluent from lagoons and other wastewater treatment facilities to secondary and advanced secondary standards has been sufficiently developed to be used where the climate is warm year round. The technology of using emergent plants such as bulrush combined with duckweed is also sufficiently developed to make this a viable wastewater treatment alternative. This system is suited for both temperate and semi-tropical areas found throughout most of the U.S. The newest technology in artificial marsh wastewater treatment involves the use of emergent plant roots in conjunction with high surface area rock filters. Smaller land areas are required for these systems because of the increased concentration of microorganisms associated with the rock and plant root surfaces. Approximately 75 percent less land area is required for the plant-rock system than is required for a strict artificial wetland to achieve the same level of treatment.

  20. Determination of total solutes in synfuel wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.R.; Bonomo, F.S.

    1984-03-01

    Efforts to investigate both lyophilization and the measurement of colligative properties as an indication of total solute content are described. The objective of the work described is to develop a method for measuring total dissolved material in retort wastewaters which is simple and rugged enough to be performed in a field laboratory in support of pollution control tests. The analysis should also be rapid enough to provide timely and pertinent data to the pollution control plant operator. To be of most value, the technique developed also should be applicable to other synfuel wastewaters, most of which contain similar major components as oil shale retort waters. 4 references, 1 table.

  1. Consortium of institutes for decentralized wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.W.

    1998-07-01

    The Consortium of Institutes for Decentralized Wastewater Treatment is a group of thirteen (and expanding) North American colleges and universities that formed with the goal of helping to protect public health and maintain a sustainable environment. To accomplish this goal, academicians work closely with private sector partners from industry, manufacturing, consulting, regulatory agencies, and citizen/community groups to transfer research-based information into education and training programs for decentralized wastewater treatment. This document will focus on the mission, organizational structure, and recent grant activities of the Consortium.

  2. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol production from cane molasses using Clostridium beijerinckii mutant obtained by combined low-energy ion beam implantation and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induction.

    PubMed

    Li, Han-guang; Luo, Wei; Gu, Qiu-ya; Wang, Qiang; Hu, Wen-jun; Yu, Xiao-bin

    2013-06-01

    In order to obtain mutant strains showing higher solvent tolerance and butanol production than those of wild-type strains, the butanol-producing strain Clostridium beijerinckii L175 was subjected to mutagenesis using a combined method of low-energy ion beam implantation and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induction. With this effort, mutant strain MUT3 was isolated. When it was used for butanol fermentation in P2 medium, the production of butanol was 15.8±0.7 g/L 46% higher than the wild-type strain. Furthermore, after optimization of butanol production from cane molasses with MUT3, the maximum butanol production of 14.9±0.5 g/L were obtained in crew-capped bottles. When ABE production by MUT3 was carried out in a bioreactor, the production of butanol and total solvent were 15.1±0.8 g/L and 22.1±0.9 g/L, respectively. The remarkable butanol production and solvent tolerance of MUT3 make it promising for butanol production from cane molasses.

  3. Isolation and identification of pathogenic microorganisms at wastewater-irrigated fields: ratios in air and wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Teltsch, B.; Kedmi, S.; Bonnet, L.; Borenzstajn-Rotem, Y.; Katzenelson, E.

    1980-06-01

    Samples of air and corresponding wastewater samples were taken at wastewater spray-irrigated fields. The concentrations of salmonellae and enteroviruses present in these samples were determined and compared with those of coliforms, and the ratios between them were calculated. The most common Salmonella serotype in the air was Salmonella ohio, whereas in the wastewater, Salmonella anatum was the most common. Enteroviruses isolated and identified were poliovirus, echovirus, and coxsackievirus type B. From the ratios of salmonellas to coliforms and enteroviruses to coliforms in the air, as compared to these ratios in the wastewater, it was concluded that the suitability of coliforms as an indication of airborne contamination caused by spray irrigation is questionable.

  4. Wastewater reclamation and reuse in China: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping; Zhang, Weiling; Fan, Yupeng; Jiao, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    The growing water stress both in terms of water scarcity and quality deterioration promotes the development of reclaimed water as a new water resource use. This paper reviewed wastewater reuse practices in China, and the opportunities and challenges of expanding reclaimed water use were analyzed. Rapid urbanization with the increasing of water demand and wastewater discharge provides an opportunity for wastewater reuse. The vast amount of wastewater discharge and low reclaimed water production mean that wastewater reuse still has a great potential in China. Many environmental and economic benefits and successful reclamation technologies also provide opportunities for wastewater reuse. In addition, the overall strategy in China is also encouraging for wastewater reuse. In the beginning stage of wastewater reclamation and reuse, there are many significant challenges to expand wastewater reuse in China including slow pace in adopting urban wastewater reuse programs, the establishment of integrated water resources management framework and guidelines for wastewater reuse programs, incoherent water quality requirements, the limited commercial development of reclaimed water and the strengthening of public awareness and cooperation among stakeholders.

  5. Effects of concentrated separator by-product (desugared molasses) on intake, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and microbial efficiency in beef steers fed grass hay.

    PubMed

    Shellito, S M; Ward, M A; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Caton, J S

    2006-06-01

    Concentrated separator by-product (CSB) is produced when beet molasses goes through an industrial desugaring process. To investigate the nutritional value of CSB as a supplement for grass hay diets (12.5% CP; DM basis), 4 ruminally and duodenally cannulated beef steers (332 +/- 2.3 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were intake level: ad libitum (AL) vs. restricted (RE; 1.25% of BW, DM basis) and dietary CSB addition (0 vs. 10%; DM basis). Experimental periods were 21 d in length, with the last 7 d used for collections. By design, intakes of both DM and OM (g/kg of BW) were greater (P < 0.01; 18.8 vs. 13.1 +/- 0.69 and 16.8 vs. 11.7 +/- 0.62, respectively) for animals consuming AL compared with RE diets. Main effect means for intake were not affected by CSB (P = 0.59). However, within AL-fed steers, CSB tended (P = 0.12) to improve DMI (6,018 vs. 6,585 +/- 185 g for 0 and 10% CSB, respectively). Feeding CSB resulted in similar total tract DM and OM digestion compared with controls (P = 0.50 and 0.87, respectively). There were no effects of CSB on apparent total tract NDF (P = 0.27) or ADF (P = 0.35) digestion; however, apparent N absorption increased (P = 0.10) with CSB addition. Total tract NDF, ADF, or N digestion coefficients were not different between AL- and RE-fed steers. Nitrogen intake (P = 0.02), total duodenal N flow (P = 0.02), and feed N escaping to the small intestine (P = 0.02) were increased with CSB addition. Microbial efficiency was unaffected by treatment (P = 0.17). Supplementation with CSB increased the rate of DM disappearance (P = 0.001; 4.9 vs. 6.9 +/- 0.33 %/h). Restricted intake increased the rate of in situ DM disappearance (P = 0.03; 6.4 vs. 5.3 +/- 0.33 %/h) compared with AL-fed steers. Ruminal DM fill was greater (P = 0.01) in AL compared with RE. Total VFA concentrations were greater (P = 0.04) for CSB compared with controls; however, ammonia concentrations were reduced (P

  6. Disinfection of septic tank and cesspool wastewater with peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Savolainen, Ritva

    2003-08-01

    Wastewaters of private household septic tanks and cesspools have been treated with peracetic acid (1-2 g L(-1)). Adding 1 g L(-1) peracetic acid to wastewaters was easy and has been found to be effective in destroying enteric indicator microorganisms. The careful mixing of peracetic acid and wastewater was found to be important. Winter periods with frozen soil, ice and snow did not constitute extra problems. The bad smell of these wastewaters almost totally disappeared during the treatment. When wastewaters treated with peracetic acid were emptied into animal slurry tanks, hygienization still continued in the mixture of animal slurry and the wastewaters. These wastewaters could thus be released into agricultural soil without risk of microbiological pollution to groundwaters.

  7. The impact of advanced wastewater treatment technologies and wastewater strength on the energy consumption of large wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Timothy

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process often requiring the use of advanced treatment technologies. Stricter effluent standards have resulted in an increase in the number of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with advanced treatment over time. Accordingly, associated energy consumption has also increased. Concerns about lowering operating costs for WWTPs and reducing associated greenhouse gas generation present an incentive to investigate energy use in WWTPs. This research investigated the impact of wastewater strength and the introduction of advanced treatment technologies, to replace traditional technologies on energy use to treat wastewater in WWTPs. Major unit processes were designed for a 100 MGD plant and variables controlling energy were identified and used to compute energy consumption. Except for primary clarification and plate and frame press dewatering, energy consumption computed using fundamental equations are within values in the literature. Results show that energy consumption for dissolved air flotation thickeners, centrifuges, gravity thickeners, and aeration basins are heavily influence by wastewater strength. Secondary treatment and tertiary treatment require a significant amount of energy. Secondary treatment requires 104 times the energy of preliminary treatment, 17 times the energy of solids processing, and 2.5 times the energy of tertiary treatment. Secondary treatment requires 41 times the energy of preliminary treatment, and 7 times the energy of solids processing. The results of this research provide a means of estimating energy consumption in the design and operation phase of a WWTP. By using the fundamental equations and methodology presented, alternative technologies can be compared or targeted for future energy savings implementation. Limitations of the methodology include design assumptions having to be made carefully, as well as assumptions of motor and equipment efficiencies.

  8. Biological removal of antiandrogenic activity in gray wastewater and coking wastewater by membrane reactor process.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Cong; Bao, Chenjun; Liu, Rui

    2015-07-01

    A recombinant human androgen receptor yeast assay was applied to investigate the occurrence of antiandrogens as well as the mechanism for their removal during gray wastewater and coking wastewater treatment. The membrane reactor (MBR) system for gray wastewater treatment could remove 88.0% of antiandrogenic activity exerted by weakly polar extracts and 97.3% of that by moderately strong polar extracts, but only 32.5% of that contributed by strong polar extracts. Biodegradation by microorganisms in the MBR contributed to 95.9% of the total removal. After the treatment, the concentration of antiandrogenic activity in the effluent was still 1.05 μg flutamide equivalence (FEQ)/L, 36.2% of which was due to strong polar extracts. In the anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor, and membrane reactor system for coking wastewater treatment, the antiandrogenic activity of raw coking wastewater was 78.6 mg FEQ/L, and the effluent of the treatment system had only 0.34 mg FEQ/L. The antiandrogenic activity mainly existed in the medium strong polar and strong polar extracts. Biodegradation by microorganisms contributed to at least 89.2% of the total antiandrogenic activity removal in the system. Biodegradation was the main removal mechanism of antiandrogenic activity in both the wastewater treatment systems.

  9. Physics for Water and Wastewater Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koundakjian, Philip

    This physics course covers the following main subject areas: (1) liquids; (2) pressure; (3) liquid flow; (4) temperature and heat; and (5) electric currents. The prerequisites for understanding this material are basic algebra and geometry. The lessons are composed mostly of sample problems and calculations that water and wastewater operators have…

  10. Wastewater Collection System Toolbox | Eliminating Sanitary ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    Communities across the United States are working to find cost-effective, long-term approaches to managing their aging wastewater infrastructure and preventing the problems that lead to sanitary sewer overflows. The Toolbox is an effort by EPA New England to provide examples of programs and educational efforts from New England and beyond.

  11. Denitrification enzyme activity in swine wastewater lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are typically used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these anaerobic lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple in their physical, chemical, and biological processes, they are actually very sophisticated. Recent reports of high levels of di-nitrogen emissions and h...

  12. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a...)(10)(iii) of this section clarify the organic HAP that an owner or operator shall consider when... requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.149 that pertain solely and exclusively to organic HAP listed on table...

  13. Treatment of dairy wastewater by water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Munavalli, G R; Saler, P S

    2009-01-01

    The present study addresses potential of water hyacinth for treating small-scale dairy wastewater to satisfy effluent standards for disposal into public sewers. The batch experiments were conducted on dairy wastewater using reactor with water hyacinth and without water hyacinth. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was varied from 507 mg/L to 4,672 mg/L and the maximum Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) adopted was 8 days. The loss of water due to evapo-transpiration and evaporation was also measured. The water hyacinth system performed better when initial COD concentration was maintained less than 1,672 mg/L for six days HRT. The performance of water hyacinth system was more effective than reference by 30% to 45% for COD removal. However, water hyacinth had no significant impact in reducing Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The evapo-transpiration loss was almost double than the evaporation loss. The first order reaction kinetics was applicable and reaction rate parameters were estimated for various organic strengths of wastewater. The reaction rate parameters for water hyacinth system were three times higher than a system without water hyacinth and also found to vary with initial COD values. Water hyacinth can be adopted to treat dairy wastewater from small-scale dairy effectively for disposal into public sewers.

  14. Stormwater and Wastewater Infrastructure Monitoring Test Bed

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing application of stormwater and wastewater management in urban and urbanizing environments is increasing the demand for monitoring technologies and systems that can provide reliable performance data, in real-time or near real-time, for operation and maintenance decision...

  15. Wetlands -- our natural partners in wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This video documents research in Michigan and Florida, where swamps, peatlands, marshes, and bogs (wetlands) are being used for advanced (third and final stage) wastewater treatment. Through interviews with biologists, researchers, users, city officials, and engineering firms involved with these experimental projects, one begins to discover the financial and environmental advantages of this type of treatment over dry land treatment.

  16. Wetlands -- our natural partners in wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This video documents research in Michigan and Florida, where swamps, peatlands, marshes, and bogs (wetlands) are being used for advanced (third and final stage) wastewater treatment. Through interviews with biologists, researchers, users, city officials, and engineering firms involved with these experimental projects, one begins to discover the financial and environmental advantages of this type of treatment over dry land treatment.

  17. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... paragraph (a)(4) of this section. An owner or operator may transfer wastewater to a treatment operation not... paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section and with the treatment requirements in paragraph (g) of this... the treatment provisions specified in paragraph (a)(5) of this section. (iii) Comply with...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... paragraph (a)(4) of this section. An owner or operator may transfer wastewater to a treatment operation not... paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section and with the treatment requirements in paragraph (g) of this... the treatment provisions specified in paragraph (a)(5) of this section. (iii) Comply with...

  19. Wastewater Sampling Methodologies and Flow Measurement Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Daniel J.; Keffer, William J.

    This document provides a ready source of information about water/wastewater sampling activities using various commercial sampling and flow measurement devices. The report consolidates the findings and summarizes the activities, experiences, sampling methods, and field measurement techniques conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),…

  20. Polynuclear azaarenes in wood preservative wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.; Giam, C.S.

    1984-05-01

    Polynuclear azaarenes in a creosote-pentachlorophenol wood preservative wastewater were analyzed. The total concentration of azaarenes was determined to be 1300 mg kg/sup -1/. Potential adverse effects of these compounds on environmental quality and health suggest a need to develop analytical protocols for measuing azaarenes in hazardous wastes.

  1. Biological treatment of a seafood processing wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Mines, R.O. Jr.; Robertson, R.R. II

    1998-07-01

    The seafood industry in Tampa is a multi-million dollar-per-year industry which heavily impacts the environment with large volumes of wastewater containing high concentrations of suspended solids and nitrogen. A 10 liter per day, bench-scale, wastewater treatment facility was designed, constructed, and operated for approximately eight (8) months to collect treat ability data on a seafood-processing wastewater. The bench-scale reactor consisted of a single-sludge, extended aeration, modified Ludzack-Ettinger (MLE) process for biologically removing carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from the wastewater. Influent and effluent data collected on the system included: chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen (TN), pH, total phosphorus (TP), dissolved oxygen (DO), alkalinity, and temperature. All analyses were performed in accordance with Standard Methods (1992). Typical influent characteristics were: 900--4,000 mg/L COD, 45--110 mg/L TKN, 150--2,000 mg/L TSS, and 40--80 mg/L TP. Solids residence time (SRT) served as the primary control parameter with average STR's of 4.5, 6.4, 8.5, and 30.9 days observed during the study. The following biokinetic constants were determined from the data: a yield coefficient (Y) of 0.49 mg TSS/mg COD and an endogenous decay coefficient (k{sub e}) of 0.11 days{sup {minus}1}.

  2. Humic substance formation during wastewater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L. ); Hildmann-Smed, R.; Filip, Z.K. , Langen . Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene); Jenssen, P.D. . Centre for Soil and Environmental Research)

    1991-01-01

    Soil infiltration of wastewater effluents is a widely practiced method of treatment and disposal/reuse throughout the world. Renovation of the wastewater results from a wide variety of complex physicochemical and biological processes. One set of processes is speculated to involve the accumulation of organic matter by filtration and sorption followed by formation of humic substances. This humic substance formation can effect the performance of soil treatment systems by contributing to soil pore clogging and reduction in hydraulic capacity, and by yielding reactive substances and an enhancement of purification processes. While there has been a wealth of research into the nature and genesis of humic substances in terrestrial environments, there has been limited research of humic substance formation during soil infiltration of wastewater. The purpose of the research reported herein was to determine if humic substances can form under conditions typical of those present during wastewater infiltration into natural soil systems. This work was conducted during 1989 to 1990 as a collaborative effort between the Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, located in Aas, Norway and the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene located in Langen, West Germany. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Electrochemical removal of dyes from textile wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrich, K.D. )

    1988-09-01

    There are many technologies available for treating wastewater from the textile industry. Included are (1) biological treatment, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) carbon absorption, (4) ultrafiltration, and (5) oxidation with ozone. The main drawback of these technologies is that they generally lack the broad scope of treatment efficiency required to reduce all types of pollutants present in textile wastewater. However, when one approach does look promising, its capital costs or operating costs often become prohibitive when applied to the large water needs common to this industry. It has recently been shown that an electrochemical technology developed in the 1970s by Andco Environmental Processes, Inc. effectively removes many of the contaminants including toxic dye species and heavy metals along with significant BOD and COD reduction across many types of textile wastewater and dye species. The removal of dyes and other pollutants in textile wastewater can be accomplished very efficiently with the electrochemical process. Actual operating data, along with actual water samples, will be presented along with economics and operating characteristics of this type of a system. Additional considerations such as removal of other components such as BOD and COD, theoretical interpretations, and the possibility of water reuse will also be discussed.

  4. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity assessment of industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Masood, Farhana; Malik, Abdul

    2013-10-01

    The genotoxicity of industrial wastewaters from Jajmau (Kanpur), was carried out by Ames Salmonella/microsome test, DNA repair-defective mutants, and Allium cepa anaphase-telophase test. Test samples showed maximum response with TA98 strain with and without metabolic activation. Amberlite resins concentrated wastewater samples were found to be more mutagenic as compared to those of liquid-liquid extracts (hexane and dichloromethane extracts). The damage in the DNA repair defective mutants in the presence of Amberlite resins concentrated water samples were found to be higher to that of liquid-liquid-extracted water samples at the dose level of 20 μl/ml culture. Among all the mutants, polA exhibited maximum decline with test samples. Mitotic index (MI) of root tip meristematic cells of A. cepa treated with 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 % (v/v) wastewaters were significantly lower than the control. Complementary to the lower levels of MI, the wastewaters showed higher chromosomal aberration levels in all cases investigated.

  5. CHLORINE DISINFECTION OF BLENDED WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS I

    EPA Science Inventory

    During wet weather events collected water can exceed the capacity of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and alternate flow management techniques must be employed. One technique is to treat influent flows through primary clarification and limit the flow to the secondary treatmen...

  6. CHLORINE DISINFECTION OF BLENDED WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During wet weather events collected water can exceed the capacity of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and alternate flow management techniques must be employed. One technique is to treat influent flows through primary clarification and limit the flow to the secondary treatmen...

  7. Denitrifying bioreactor clogging potential during wastewater treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemoheterotrophic denitrification technologies using woodchips as a solid carbon source (i.e., woodchip bioreactors) have been widely trialed for treatment of diffuse-source agricultural nitrogen pollution. There is growing interest in the use of this simple, relatively low-cost biological wastewat...

  8. Programmed Training for Water/Wastewater Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This manual is aimed at the water and wastewater technician who has the responsibility for monitoring the water environment. The televised programmed training stresses the interaction of three components: the program production and operation; group leaders; and operators, including distribution and collection system personnel. The academic…

  9. Yellowtail Dam Wastewater Treatment Facility NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0022993, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located at the Yellowtail Dam Field Office in Big Horn County, Montana, to the Yellowtail Afterbay Reservoir/Bighorn River.

  10. Beneficial Biofilms: Wastewater and Other Industrial Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the use of beneficial biofilms for the production of industrial chemicals such as ethanol, butanol, lactic acid, acetic acid/vinegar, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. It also emphasizes application of biofilm reactors for treatment of dairy industry wastewater, oily sea water...

  11. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Gikas, Petros

    2016-06-14

    Energy requirement for wastewater treatment is of major concern, lately. This is not only due to the increasing cost of electrical energy, but also due to the effects to the carbon footprint of the treatment process. Conventional activated sludge process for municipal wastewater treatment may consume up to 60% of the total plant power requirements for the aeration of the biological tank. One way to deal with high energy demand is by eliminating aeration needs, as possible. The proposed process is based on enhanced primary solids removal, based on advanced microsieving and filtration processes, by using a proprietary rotating fabric belt MicroScreen (pore size: 100-300 μm) followed by a proprietary Continuous Backwash Upflow Media Filter or cloth media filter. About 80-90% reduction in TSS and 60-70% reduction in BOD5 has been achieved by treating raw municipal wastewater with the above process. Then the partially treated wastewater is fed to a combination low height trickling filters, combined with encapsulated denitrification, for the removal of the remaining BOD and nitrogen. The biosolids produced by the microsieve and the filtration backwash concentrate are fed to an auger press and are dewatered to about 55% solids. The biosolids are then partially thermally dried (to about 80% solids) and conveyed to a gasifier, for the co-production of thermal (which is partly used for biosolids drying) and electrical energy, through syngas combustion in a co-generation engine. Alternatively, biosolids may undergo anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas and then electric energy. The energy requirements for complete wastewater treatment, per volume of inlet raw wastewater, have been calculated to 0.057 kWh/m(3), (or 0.087 kWh/m(3), if UV disinfection has been selected), which is about 85% below the electric energy needs of conventional activated sludge process. The potential for net electric energy production through gasification/co-generation, per volume of

  12. Biokinetic study for SRC-I wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    Biooxidation is an important part of the overall wastewater treatment system for the proposed SRC-I Demonstration Plant in Newman, Kentucky. After the completion of a Baseline Design for the plant in April 1982, various refinements were evaluated. One of these was the inclusion of a process for phenol recovery from four sour-water streams. As part of this evaluation, an extensive laboratory treatability study was conducted on wastewaters both with and without this phenol recovery step. The purpose of the study was to compare the results of different treatment schemes on different wastewaters and did not include the development of the kinetic coefficients that govern the biooxidation process. Additional treatability testing documented herein, has been performed to establish the kinetic coefficients for biooxidation of the SRC-I wastewaters. This will provide a rational basis for any subsequent changes in design. The wastewater feed used in this study was process recycle water from the Fort Lewis, Washington, pilot plant. Prior to biooxidation, it was pretreated by solvent extraction for removal of phenolics and by steam stripping for removal of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Two, 2-stage bench scale bioreactors were operated for approximately eight months, during which time they were stabilized at various steady-state conditions. Kinetic coefficients were evaluated according to the Lawrence and McCarty model, based on BOD, COD, and TOC. Nitrification, oxygen utilization, and solids settling velocities were also studied. The results showed that BOD is a poor basis for the model mainly because almost all BOD/sub 5/ was removed at all steady-state conditions. Also, the model was more accurate for steady-state conditions of lower solids retention times. The bulk of both organic and ammonia reductions occurred in the first stage reactors.

  13. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  14. Two stage anaerobic baffled reactors for bio-hydrogen production from municipal food waste.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, A; Salem, A; El-Qelish, M

    2011-09-01

    A two-step anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR-1 and ABR-2) for H2 production from municipal food waste (MFW) was investigated at a temperature of 26 °C. In ABR-1, the average yield of H2 at an HRT of 26 h and OLR of 58 kg COD/m3 d was 250 ml H2/g VS removed. As unexpected; the H2 production in the ABR-2 was further increased up to 370 ml H2/gVS removed at a HRT of 26 h and OLR of 35 kg COD/m3 d. The total H2 yield in the two-step process was estimated to be 4.9 mol H2/mol hexose. The major part of H2 production in the ABR-1 was due to the conversion of COD(particulate) (36%). In the ABR-2 the H2 yield was mainly due to the conversion of COD in the soluble form (76%). Based on these results MFW could be ideal substrate for H2 production in a two-step ABR processes.

  15. Tracking bio-hydrogen-mediated production of commodity chemicals from carbon dioxide and renewable electricity.

    PubMed

    Puig, Sebastià; Ganigué, Ramon; Batlle-Vilanova, Pau; Balaguer, M Dolors; Bañeras, Lluís; Colprim, Jesús

    2017-03-01

    This study reveals that reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to commodity chemicals can be functionally compartmentalized in bioelectrochemical systems. In the present example, a syntrophic consortium composed by H2-producers (Rhodobacter sp.) in the biofilm is combined with carboxidotrophic Clostridium species, mainly found in the bulk liquid. The performance of these H2-mediated electricity-driven systems could be tracked by the activity of a biological H2 sensory protein identified at cathode potentials between -0.2V and -0.3V vs SHE. This seems to point out that such signal is not strain specific, but could be detected in any organism containing hydrogenases. Thus, the findings of this work open the door to the development of a biosensor application or soft sensors for monitoring such systems.

  16. Carbon nanofiber mesoporous films: efficient platforms for bio-hydrogen oxidation in biofuel cells.

    PubMed

    de Poulpiquet, Anne; Marques-Knopf, Helena; Wernert, Véronique; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie Thérèse; Gadiou, Roger; Lojou, Elisabeth

    2014-01-28

    The discovery of oxygen and carbon monoxide tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenases was the first necessary step toward the definition of a novel generation of hydrogen fed biofuel cells. The next important milestone is now to identify and overcome bottlenecks limiting the current densities, hence the power densities. In the present work we report for the first time a comprehensive study of herringbone carbon nanofiber mesoporous films as platforms for enhanced biooxidation of hydrogen. The 3D network allows mediatorless hydrogen oxidation by the membrane-bound hydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. We investigate the key physico-chemical parameters that enhance the catalytic efficiency, including surface chemistry and hierarchical porosity of the biohybrid film. We also emphasize that the catalytic current is limited by mass transport inside the mesoporous carbon nanofiber film. Provided hydrogen is supplied inside the carbon film, the combination of the hierarchical porosity of the carbon nanofiber film with the hydrophobicity of the treated carbon material results in very high efficiency of the bioelectrode. By optimization of the whole procedure, current densities as high as 4.5 mA cm(-2) are reached with a turnover frequency of 48 s(-1). This current density is almost 100 times higher than when hydrogenase is simply adsorbed at a bare graphite electrode, and more than 5 times higher than the average of the previous reported current densities at carbon nanotube modified electrodes, suggesting that carbon nanofibers can be efficiently used in future sustainable H2/O2 biofuel cells.

  17. The Autonomous House: A Bio-Hydrogen Based Energy Self-Sufficient Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shang-Yuan; Chu, Chen-Yeon; Cheng, Ming-jen; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an “autonomous house” emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses’ two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2) autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment. PMID:19440531

  18. The autonomous house: a bio-hydrogen based energy self-sufficient approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shang-Yuan; Chu, Chen-Yeon; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2009-04-01

    In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an "autonomous house" emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses' two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2) autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment.

  19. Wastewater treatment as an energy production plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samela, Daniel A.

    The objective of this research was to investigate the potential for net energy production at a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). Historically, wastewater treatment plants have been designed with the emphasis on process reliability and redundancy; efficient utilization of energy has not received equal consideration. With growing demands for energy and increased budgetary pressures in funding wastewater treatment plant costs, methods of reducing energy consumption and operating costs were explored in a new and novel direction pointed towards energy production rather than energy consumption. To estimate the potential for net energy production, a quantitative analysis was performed using a mathematical model which integrates the various unit operations to evaluate the overall plant energy balance. Secondary treatment performance analysis is included to ensure that the energy evaluation is consistent with plant treatment needs. Secondary treatment performance was conducted for activated sludge, trickling filters and RBCs. The equations for the mathematical model were developed independently for each unit operation by writing mass balance equations around the process units. The process units evaluated included those for preliminary treatment, primary treatment, secondary treatment, disinfection, and sludge treatment. Based on an analysis of both energy reduction and energy recovery methods, it was shown that net energy production at a secondary WWTP is possible utilizing technologies available today. Such technologies include those utilized for plant operations, as well as for energy recovery. The operation of fuel cells using digester gas represents one of the most significant new opportunities for energy recovery at wastewater facilities. The analysis predicts that a trickling filter WWTP utilizing commercial phosphoric acid fuel cells to recover energy from digester gas can provide for facility energy needs and have both electrical and thermal energy available for

  20. CO₂-neutral wastewater treatment plants or robust, climate-friendly wastewater management? A systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Tove A

    2015-12-15

    CO2-neutral wastewater treatment plants can be obtained by improving the recovery of internal wastewater energy resources (COD, nutrients, energy) and reducing energy demand as well as direct emissions of the greenhouse gases N2O and CH4. Climate-friendly wastewater management also includes the management of the heat resource, which is most efficiently recovered at the household level, and robust wastewater management must be able to cope with a possible resulting temperature decrease. At the treatment plant there is a substantial energy optimization potential, both from improving electromechanical devices and sludge treatment as well as through the implementation of more energy-efficient processes like the mainstream anammox process or nutrient recovery from urine. Whether CO2 neutrality can be achieved depends not only on the actual net electricity production, but also on the type of electricity replaced: the cleaner the marginal electricity the more difficult to compensate for the direct emissions, which can be substantial, depending on the stability of the biological processes. It is possible to combine heat recovery at the household scale and nutrient recovery from urine, which both have a large potential to improve the climate friendliness of wastewater management.

  1. Effects of ionizing radiation on struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tak-Hyun; Nam, Yun-Ku; Joo Lim, Seung

    2014-04-01

    Livestock wastewater is generally very difficult to be treated by conventional wastewater treatment techniques because it contains high-strength organics (COD), ammonium (NH4+), phosphate (PO43-) and suspended solids. Struvite crystallization has been recently studied for the simultaneous removal of NH4+ and PO43-. In this study, gamma ray irradiation was carried out prior to struvite crystallization of the anaerobically digested livestock wastewater. The effects of gamma ray irradiation on the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater were investigated. As a result, gamma ray irradiation can decrease the concentration of COD, NH4+ and PO43- contained in the livestock wastewater. This results in not only an enhancement of the struvite crystallization efficiency but also a decrease in the chemical demands for the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater.

  2. On the use of flow-storage repartitions derived from artificial tracer tests for geothermal reservoir characterization in the Malm-Molasse basin: a theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi, Dina Silvia; Osaigbovo Enomayo, Augustine; Mohsin, Rizwan; Karmakar, Shyamal; Ghergut, Julia; Sauter, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Flow-storage repartition (FSR) analysis (Shook 2003) is a versatile tool for characterizing subsurface flow and transport systems. FSR can be derived from measured signals of inter-well tracer tests, if certain requirements are met - basically, the same as required for equivalence between fluid residence time distribution (RTD) and a measured inter-well tracer signal (pre-processed and de-convolved if necessary). Nominally, a FSR is derived from a RTD as a trajectory in normalized {1st, 0th}-order statistical moment space; more intuitively, as a parametric plot of 0th-order against 1st-order statistical moments of RTD truncated at time t, with t as a parameter running from the first tracer input to the latest available tracer sampling; 0th-order moments being normalized by the total tracer recovery, and 1st-order moments by the mean RT. Fracture-dominated systems plot in the upper left (high F , low S) region of FSR diagrams; a homogeneous single-continuum with no dispersion (infinite Peclet number) displays a straight line from {F ,S}={0,0} to {F ,S}={1,1}. This analysis tool appears particularly attractive for characterizing markedly-heterogeneous, porous-fissured-fractured (partly karstified) formations like those targeted by geothermal exploration in the Malm-Molasse basin in Southern Germany, and especially for quantifying flow and transport contributions from contrasting facies types ('reef' versus 'bedded'). However, tracer tests conducted in such systems with inter-well distances of some hundreds of metres (as required by economic considerations on geothermal reservoir sizing) face the problem of very long residence times - and thus the need to deal with incomplete (truncated) signals. For the geothermal well triplet at the Sauerlach site near Munich, tracer peak arrival times exceeding 2 years have been predicted, and signal tails decreasing by less than 50% over >10 years, which puts great uncertainty on the (extrapolation-based) normalizing factors

  3. Coupling of Algal Biofuel Production with Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area. PMID:24982930

  4. Shale-oil-wastewater treatment by evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamiya, W.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental studies were performed to assess the feasibility of using evaporation to treat oil shale retort water. Retort wastewaters from an in situ shale oil site near Vernal, Utah, were used in this study. This wastewater has a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 7000 mg/L, total organic carbon (TOC) of 2000 mg/L, and ammonia concentrations of 1600 mg/L. Data for this study were collected from a bench-model evaporator with a 95 L/day capacity. Preliminary results show that reductions of 90% in COD, 89% in TOC, and 97% in ammonia were possible. Preliminary tests indicated that a concentration factor of 20 is optimum for operating at a desirable boiling point rise and suspended solids level in the evaporator sump. At a concentration factor of 20, the concentrated volume requiring disposal would be only 5% of the original water volume, so disposal costs would decrease proportionally.

  5. Co-combusting municipal and wastewater solids

    SciTech Connect

    Kunio Nojuchi )

    1992-12-01

    In the face of difficulties securing adequate landfill sites, Kyoto City, Japan, built an incineration system to co-combust its municipal refuse and wastewater solids. The system consists of two plants: the Ishida Wastewater Treatment Plant and the Higashi Incineration Plant (see Diagram). The merits of the co-combustion system lie in the heat content of the solids. The Higashi plant's design incineration capacity is 400 Mg/d, which can produce 135,456 kWh/d. Sixty-two percent of the steam produced by solids incineration is used for electrical power generation at Higashi and 25% is used at Ishida. The power supplied to Ishida meets 92% of the electrical consumption needs of the plant, of which 16% is used to dry and dewater solids.

  6. L AREA WASTEWATER STORAGE DRUM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P; Cynthia Foreman, C; Zane Nelson, Z; David Hathcock, D; Dennis Vinson, D

    2007-11-30

    This report documents the determination of the cause of pressurization that led to bulging deformation of a 55 gallon wastewater drum stored in L-Area. Drum samples were sent to SRNL for evaluation. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  7. Coupling of algal biofuel production with wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Neha Chamoli; Panwar, Amit; Bisht, Tara Singh; Tamta, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae have gained enormous consideration from scientific community worldwide emerging as a viable feedstock for a renewable energy source virtually being carbon neutral, high lipid content, and comparatively more advantageous to other sources of biofuels. Although microalgae are seen as a valuable source in majority part of the world for production of biofuels and bioproducts, still they are unable to accomplish sustainable large-scale algal biofuel production. Wastewater has organic and inorganic supplements required for algal growth. The coupling of microalgae with wastewater is an effective way of waste remediation and a cost-effective microalgal biofuel production. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the possibilities and current scenario regarding coupling of microalgal cultivation with biofuel production emphasizing recent progress in this area.

  8. Use advanced methods to treat wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M. )

    1994-08-01

    Common sense guidelines offer plausible, progressive techniques to treat wastewater. Because current and pending local, state and federal regulations are ratcheting lower effluent discharge limits, familiar treatment methods, such as biological, don't meet new restrictions. Now operating facilities must combine traditional methods with advanced remedial options such as thermal, physical, electro and chemical treatments. these new techniques remove organics, metals, nonhazardous dissolved salts, etc., but carry higher operating and installation costs. Due to tighter effluent restrictions and pending zero-discharge initiatives, managers of operating facilities must know and understand the complexity, composition and contaminant concentration of their wastewaters. No one-size-fits-all solution exists. However, guidelines can simplify decision making and help operators nominate the most effective and economical strategy to handle their waste situation. The paper describes the common treatment and the importance of alternatives, then describes biological, electro, physical, thermal, and chemical treatments.

  9. Phytoremediation of domestic wastewater using Eichhornia crassipes.

    PubMed

    Valipour, Alireza; Raman, V Kalyan; Ghole, V S

    2011-04-01

    Safe, economic and effective treatment of domestic wastewater is the biggest challenge the world experienced in modern times. Phytoremediation studies were undertaken in a laboratory scale using shallow pond water hyacinth (Echhornia crassipes) system and analytical data was collected before and after treatment. The studies also include microbial flora present in the system by isolating and identifying the microorganisms. At optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 21 h, approximately 81% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 91% biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 16% total dissolved solids (TDS), 70% total suspended solids (TSS), 4% Chlorides, 74% ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), 41% phosphate (PO4-P), 96% most probable number (MPN) and 98% total viable count (TVC) reduction was achieved in shallow pond water hyacinth system. The shallow pond water hyacinth system shows better treatment efficiency compared to conventional water hyacinth system. The process indicates a possibility of development of a substantially effective shallow pond water hyacinth system for domestic wastewater treatment.

  10. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1 : 2 (effluent : biomass) at 200 rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 162 mg/L, and 190 mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

  11. Wastewater and Hazardous Waste Survey, England AFB Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Background 1 A. Wastewater System 2 B. England AFB Wastewater Discharge Limitations 2 C. Characteristic Hazardous Waste Regulations 3 1II. Procedures 4 A...Conservation and Recovery Act, or the Louisiana State Hazardous Waste Regulations . The wastewater survey was conducted by 1 Lt Robert A. Tetla, 2Lt Charles W...34Hazardous Waste Abatement Plan, England Air Force Base, Louisiana," 1987. 0 12. State of Louisiana Hazardous Waste Regulations 13. RCRA Interim

  12. Ball Powder Production Wastewater Biodegradation Support Studies - With Nitroglycerine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    aerobic biological oxidation wastewater treatment technologies, extended aeration and sequencing batch reactor ( SBR ). Near the conclusion of the initial...ability of both extended aeration and SBR systems to produce a treated wastewater capable of meeting anticipated National Pollutant Discharge...nitrogen 5 averaged a much higher 57 ppm. The phosphorous level in the raw wastewater was, on average, 1 ppm which does not meet the requirement

  13. Thermal emissivity of leaves from trees cultivated using processed wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Drakatos, P.A.; Kalavrouziotis, I.K.; Skuras, D.G.; Drakatos, S.P.

    1997-07-01

    Wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plans were discharged on experimental plantations of the species Nerium oleander, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus tremula. An emissiometer was used to measure the thermal emissitivity of the leaves of the different species. Comparison of thermal emissitivity between control and treatment leaves showed significant differences. There are clear indications that, land disposal of wastewater and sludge affects emissivity of different plant-species.

  14. [Treatment of drilling wastewater from oil field by using yeast].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanming; Yang, Min; Zheng, Shaokui; Zhou, Xiangyu; Shen, Zhemin

    2002-09-01

    Two strains of yeast, namely Wickerhamiella domercqii and Candida boidinii, were acquired through screening from soil samples contaminated by drilling wastewater. A TOC removal of 40.5% was acquired when the mixture of the two yeast strains was used for drilling wastewater treatment, a little higher than that with activated sludge acclimated with wastewater (35.2%). Some organic compounds in the fraction of molecular weight above 60,000 were found to be biodegradable.

  15. Lagoons and oxidation ponds. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A review of the literature on waste stabilization pond systems is presented. Factors such as wastewater temperature, and levels of heavy metals that affect the stability of the lagoons and oxidation ponds, and methods to upgrade stabilization pond effluent to meet state and federal effluent requirements are discussed. Model simulations utilized to predict the treatment efficiency of various waste stabilization pond geometries, and inlet and outlet configurations are reviewed. (KRM)

  16. Shale gas wastewater management under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Alexander Y; Duncan, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an optimization framework for evaluating different wastewater treatment/disposal options for water management during hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. This framework takes into account both cost-effectiveness and system uncertainty. HF has enabled rapid development of shale gas resources. However, wastewater management has been one of the most contentious and widely publicized issues in shale gas production. The flowback and produced water (known as FP water) generated by HF may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because this wastewater usually contains many toxic chemicals and high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS). Various treatment/disposal options are available for FP water management, such as underground injection, hazardous wastewater treatment plants, and/or reuse. In order to cost-effectively plan FP water management practices, including allocating FP water to different options and planning treatment facility capacity expansion, an optimization model named UO-FPW is developed in this study. The UO-FPW model can handle the uncertain information expressed in the form of fuzzy membership functions and probability density functions in the modeling parameters. The UO-FPW model is applied to a representative hypothetical case study to demonstrate its applicability in practice. The modeling results reflect the tradeoffs between economic objective (i.e., minimizing total-system cost) and system reliability (i.e., risk of violating fuzzy and/or random constraints, and meeting FP water treatment/disposal requirements). Using the developed optimization model, decision makers can make and adjust appropriate FP water management strategies through refining the values of feasibility degrees for fuzzy constraints and the probability levels for random constraints if the solutions are not satisfactory. The optimization model can be easily integrated into decision support systems for shale oil/gas lifecycle

  17. Biosorption of nanoparticles to heterotrophic wastewater biomass.

    PubMed

    Kiser, Mehlika A; Ryu, Hodon; Jang, Hyunyoung; Hristovski, Kiril; Westerhoff, Paul

    2010-07-01

    Sorption to activated sludge is a major removal mechanism for pollutants, including manufactured nanoparticles (NPs), in conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants. The objectives of this work were to (1) image sorption of fluorescent NPs to wastewater biomass; (2) quantify and compare biosorption of different types of NPs exposed to wastewater biomass; (3) quantify the effects of natural organic matter (NOM), extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), surfactants, and salt on NP biosorption; and (4) explore how different surface functionalities for fullerenes affect biosorption. Batch sorption isotherm experiments were conducted with activated sludge as sorbent and a total of eight types of NPs as sorbates. Epifluorescence images clearly show the biosorption of fluorescent silica NPs; the greater the concentration of NPs exposed to biomass, the greater the quantity of NPs that biosorb. Furthermore, biosorption removes different types of NPs from water to different extents. Upon exposure to 400 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS) of wastewater biomass, 97% of silver nanoparticles were removed, probably in part by aggregation and sedimentation, whereas biosorption was predominantly responsible for the removal of 88% of aqueous fullerenes, 39% of functionalized silver NPs, 23% of nanoscale titanium dioxide, and 13% of fullerol NPs. Of the NP types investigated, only aq-nC(60) showed a change in the degree of removal when the NP suspension was equilibrated with NOM or when EPS was extracted from the biomass. Further study of carbonaceous NPs showed that different surface functionalities affect biosorption. Thus, the production and transformations in NP surface properties will be key factors in determining their fate in the environment.

  18. 'Bugs' used to treat FGD wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2009-09-15

    Tough regulation of heavy metals may justify a bioreactor approach in addition to chemical treatment of FGD wastewater. Two of Duke Energy' coal-fired plants, Belews Creek and Allen (in North Carolina) have installed new biological reactor systems to increase selenium removal to levels not achievable by existing scrubber waste water systems. The ABMet system removes nitrate and selenium in a single step. Progress Energy has installed the system at Roxboro and Mayo Stations, also in North Carolina. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  19. Ion exchange extraction of heavy metals from wastewater sludges.

    PubMed

    Al-Enezi, G; Hamoda, M F; Fawzi, N

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals are common contaminants of some industrial wastewater. They find their way to municipal wastewaters due to industrial discharges into the sewerage system or through household chemicals. The most common heavy metals found in wastewaters are lead, copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, mercury, arsenic, and chromium. Such metals are toxic and pose serious threats to the environment and public health. In recent years, the ion exchange process has been increasingly used for the removal of heavy metals or the recovery of precious metals. It is a versatile separation process with the potential for broad applications in the water and wastewater treatment field. This article summarizes the results obtained from a laboratory study on the removal of heavy metals from municipal wastewater sludges obtained from Ardhiya plant in Kuwait. Data on heavy metal content of the wastewater and sludge samples collected from the plant are presented. The results obtained from laboratory experiments using a commercially available ion exchange resin to remove heavy metals from sludge were discussed. A technique was developed to solubilize such heavy metals from the sludge for subsequent treatment by the ion exchange process. The results showed high efficiency of extraction, almost 99.9%, of heavy metals in the concentration range bound in wastewater effluents and sludges. Selective removal of heavy metals from a contaminated wastewater/sludge combines the benefits of being economically prudent and providing the possibility of reuse/recycle of the treated wastewater effluents and sludges.

  20. Determination of the internal chemical energy of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, E S; Curtis, T P; Dolfing, J

    2011-01-15

    The wastewater industry is facing a paradigm shift, learning to view domestic wastewater not as a waste stream which needs to be disposed of but as a resource from which to generate energy. The extent of that resource is a strategically important question. The only previous published measurement of the internal chemical energy of wastewater measured 6.3 kJ/L. It has long been assumed that the energy content in wastewater relates directly to chemical oxygen demand (COD). However there is no standard relationship between COD and energy content. In this study a new methodology of preparing samples for measuring the internal chemical energy in wastewater is developed, and an analysis is made between this and the COD measurements taken. The mixed wastewater examined, using freeze-drying of samples to minimize loss of volatiles, had 16.8 kJ/L, while the domestic wastewater tested had 7.6 kJ/L nearly 20% higher than previously estimated. The size of the resource that wastewater presents is clearly both complex and variable but is likely to be significantly greater than previously thought. A systematic evaluation of the energy contained in wastewaters is warranted.

  1. Resilience Mitigation Financing for Water and Wastewater Utilities Webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Resilience Mitigation Financing for Water and Wastewater Utilities webinar focuses on tools and financing resources to conduct resilience planning and to mitigate impacts before a disaster strikes.

  2. Biological treatment of shrimp production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Raj

    2009-07-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in consumer demand for shrimp, which has resulted in its worldwide aquaculture production. In the United States, the stringent enforcement of environmental regulations encourages shrimp farmers to develop new technologies, such as recirculating raceway systems. This is a zero-water exchange system capable of producing high-density shrimp yields. The system also produces wastewater characterized by high levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and organic carbon, which make waste management costs prohibitive. Shrimp farmers have a great need for a waste management method that is effective and economical. One such method is the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). A SBR is a variation of the activated sludge biological treatment process. This process uses multiple steps in the same reactor to take the place of multiple reactors in a conventional treatment system. The SBR accomplishes equalization, aeration, and clarification in a timed sequence in a single reactor system. This is achieved through reactor operation in sequences, which includes fill, react, settle, decant, and idle. A laboratory scale SBR was successfully operated using shrimp aquaculture wastewater. The wastewater contained high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. By operating the reactors sequentially, namely, aerobic and anoxic modes, nitrification and denitrification were achieved as well as removal of carbon. Ammonia in the waste was nitrified within 4 days. The denitrification of nitrate was achieved by the anoxic process, and 100% removal of nitrate was observed within 15 days of reactor operation.

  3. Cheese whey wastewater: characterization and treatment.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fátima; Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier

    2013-02-15

    Cheese whey wastewater (CWW) is a strong organic and saline effluent whose characterization and treatment have not been sufficiently addressed. CWW composition is highly variable due to raw milk used, the fraction of non valorized cheese whey and the amount of cleaning water used. Cheese whey wastewater generation is roughly four times the volume of processed milk. This research tries to conduct an exhaustive compilation of CWW characterization and a comparative study between the different features of CWW, cheese whey (CW), second cheese whey (SCW) and dairy industry effluents. Different CWW existing treatments have also been critically analyzed. The advantages and drawbacks in aerobic/anaerobic processes have been evaluated. The benefits of physicochemical pre-stages (i.e. precipitation, coagulation-flocculation) in biological aerobic systems are assessed. Pre-treatments based on coagulation or basic precipitation might allow the application of aerobic biodegradation treatments with no dilution requirements. Chemical precipitation with lime or NaOH produces a clean wastewater and a sludge rich in organic matter, N and P. Their use in agriculture may lead to the implementation of Zero discharge systems.

  4. Electrolysis-enhanced anaerobic digestion of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, B; Mehta, P; Bourque, J-S; Guiot, S R

    2011-05-01

    This study demonstrates enhanced methane production from wastewater in laboratory-scale anaerobic reactors equipped with electrodes for water electrolysis. The electrodes were installed in the reactor sludge bed and a voltage of 2.8-3.5 V was applied resulting in a continuous supply of oxygen and hydrogen. The oxygen created micro-aerobic conditions, which facilitated hydrolysis of synthetic wastewater and reduced the release of hydrogen sulfide to the biogas. A portion of the hydrogen produced electrolytically escaped to the biogas improving its combustion properties, while another part was converted to methane by hydrogenotrophic methanogens, increasing the net methane production. The presence of oxygen in the biogas was minimized by limiting the applied voltage. At a volumetric energy consumption of 0.2-0.3 Wh/L(R), successful treatment of both low and high strength synthetic wastewaters was demonstrated. Methane production was increased by 10-25% and reactor stability was improved in comparison to a conventional anaerobic reactor.

  5. Stability and removal of spironolactone from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Saleh; Khamis, Mustafa; Nir, Shlomo; Lelario, Filomena; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino A; Karaman, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    Stability and removal of spironolactone (SP) from wastewater produced at Al-Quds University Campus were investigated. Kinetic studies on both pure water and wastewater coming from secondary treatment (activated sludge) demonstrated that the potassium-sparing diuretic (water pill), spironolactone, underwent degradation to its hydrolytic derivative, canrenone, in both media. The first-order hydrolysis rate of SP in activated sludge at 25°C (3.80 × 10(-5) s(-1)) was about 49-fold larger than in pure water (7.4 × 10(-7) s(-1)). The overall performance of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) installed in the University Campus was assessed showing that more than 90% of spiked SP was removed together with its newly identified metabolites. In order to look for a technology to supplement or replace ultra-filtration membranes, the effectiveness of adsorption and filtration by micelle-clay filters for removing SP was tested in comparison with activated charcoal. Batch adsorption in aqueous suspensions was well described by Langmuir isotherms, showing a better removal by the micelle-clay material. Filtration of SP water solutions by columns filled with a mixture of sand and a micelle-clay complex showed complete removal of the drug at concentrations higher than in sand/activated-charcoal filled filters.

  6. Adaptive Model of Wastewater Aeration Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sniders, Andris; Laizans, Aigars

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the methodology of oxygen transfer virtual simulation in a wastewater biological treatment process, using the MATLAB/SIMULINK technology. A self-tuning adaptive model of a wastewater aeration tank, as a non-stationary object, with variable time dependent sensitivity and inertia indexes, as the functions of input variable - air pneumatic supply capacity Lg(t) (m3/min), output variable - dissolved oxygen concentration C(t) (g/m3) and oxygen expenditure, as a load - q(t) (g/min), required for wastewater complete purification, is expounded. Virtual models, applying Laplace transforms and SIMULINK blocks library, are composed in order to compare the transient processes of dissolved oxygen concentration in the simplified stationary model with constant sensitivity and inertia coefficients, and in the non-stationary model with variable sensitivity and inertia indexes. The simulation block-diagram for non-stationary model adoption to the variable parameters is developed, using informative links from input variable Lg(t), from variable load q(t) and feedback from output variable C(t) as inputs of calculation modulus, allowing to instantly re-calculate the variable indexes during simulation time. Comparison of the simplified stationary model and the non-stationary model shows that the simulation results of oxygen transfer differ up to 50%.

  7. Biological treatment of winery wastewater: an overview.

    PubMed

    Andreottola, G; Foladori, P; Ziglio, G

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of winery wastewater can realised using several biological processes based both on aerobic or anaerobic systems using suspended biomass or biofilms. Several systems are currently offered by technology providers and current research envisages the availability of new promising technologies for winery wastewater treatment. The present paper intends to present a brief state of the art of the existing status and advances in biological treatment of winery wastewater in the last decade, considering both lab, pilot and full-scale studies. Advantages, drawbacks, applied organic loads, removal efficiency and emerging aspects of the main biological treatments were considered and compared. Nevertheless in most treatments the COD removal efficiency was around 90-95% (remaining COD is due to the un-biodegradable soluble fraction), the applied organic loads are very different depending on the applied technology, varying for an order of magnitude. Applied organic loads are higher in biofilm systems than in suspended biomass while anaerobic biofilm processes have the smaller footprint but in general a higher level of complexity.

  8. Nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment processes

    PubMed Central

    Law, Yingyu; Ye, Liu; Pan, Yuting; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from wastewater treatment plants vary substantially between plants, ranging from negligible to substantial (a few per cent of the total nitrogen load), probably because of different designs and operational conditions. In general, plants that achieve high levels of nitrogen removal emit less N2O, indicating that no compromise is required between high water quality and lower N2O emissions. N2O emissions primarily occur in aerated zones/compartments/periods owing to active stripping, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, rather than heterotrophic denitrifiers, are the main contributors. However, the detailed mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated, despite strong evidence suggesting that both nitrifier denitrification and the chemical breakdown of intermediates of hydroxylamine oxidation are probably involved. With increased understanding of the fundamental reactions responsible for N2O production in wastewater treatment systems and the conditions that stimulate their occurrence, reduction of N2O emissions from wastewater treatment systems through improved plant design and operation will be achieved in the near future. PMID:22451112

  9. Preparation of polyelectrolytes for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Radoiu, Marilena T; Martin, Diana I; Calinescu, Ioan; Iovu, Horia

    2004-01-02

    Liquid-phase polymerisation of acrylamide-acrylic acid to form polyelectrolytes used in wastewater cleaning was examined using accelerated electron beam and microwave irradiation methods. Polymerisation was carried out in aqueous solutions at temperatures approximately 60 degrees C. Monomers total concentration was established at 40% (36% acrylamide and 4% acrylic acid). Only using the features of simultaneous radiation-induction and microwave heating can result in the formation of linear polymer chains with good water solubility and low residual monomer concentration. The flocculation capacity of the obtained polymers was tested using two wastewaters, one sampled from a slaughterhouse and the other from a vegetable oil plant. Quality indicators such as total suspended matters (TSM), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and fat, oils and grease (FOG) were measured before and after the treatment with polymeric flocculants and compared with the results obtained in classical treatment with Al(2)(SO(4))(3). It was found that the combined treatment with polymers and Al(2)(SO(4))(3) increases the degree of purification of both wastewaters up to 99%.

  10. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The effect of CN- (CN-) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying wastewater enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes involved in nitrification. The nitrifying bioreactor was operated as a continuous reactor with a 24 h hydraulic retention time. The samples were exposed in batch vessels to cyanide for a period of 12 h. The concentrations of CN- used in the batch assays were 0.03, 0.06, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. There was considerable decrease in SOUR with increasing dosages of CN-. A decrease of more than 50% in nitrification activity was observed at 0.1 mg/L CN-. Based on the RT-qPCR data, there was notable reduction in the transcript levels of amoA and hao for increasing CN- dosage, which corresponded well with the ammonia oxidation activity measured via SOUR. The inhibitory effect of cyanide may be attributed to the affinity of cyanide to bind ferric heme proteins, which disrupt protein structure and function. The correspondence between the relative expression of functional genes and SOUR shown in this study demonstrates the efficacy of RNA based function-specific assays for better understanding of the effect of toxic compounds on nitrification activity in wastewater. Nitrification is the first step of nitrogen removal is wastewater, and it is susceptible to inhibition by many industrial chemical. We looked at

  11. Synergetic effect of copper-plating wastewater as a catalyst for the destruction of acrylonitrile wastewater in supercritical water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Ho; Lee, Hong-shik; Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jae-Duck; Lee, Youn-Woo

    2009-08-15

    A new supercritical water oxidation process for the simultaneous treatment of mixed wastewater containing wastewater from acrylonitrile manufacturing processes and copper-plating processes was investigated using a continuous tubular reactor system. Experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 400 to 600 degrees C and a pressure of 25 MPa. The residence time was fixed at 2s by changing the flow rates of feeds, depending on reaction temperature. The initial total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the wastewaters and the O(2) concentration at the reactor inlet were kept constant at 0.49 and 0.74 mol/L. It was confirmed that the copper-plating wastewater accelerated the TOC conversion of acrylonitrile wastewater from 17.6% to 67.3% at a temperature of 450 degrees C. Moreover, copper and copper oxide nanoparticles were generated in the process of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of mixed wastewater. 99.8% of copper in mixed wastewater was recovered as solid copper and copper oxides at a temperature of 600 degrees C, with their average sizes ranging from 150 to 160 nm. Our study showed that SCWO provides a synergetic effect for simultaneous treatment of acrylonitrile and copper-plating wastewater. During the reaction, the oxidation rate of acrylonitrile wastewater was enhanced due to the in situ formation of nano-catalysts of copper and/or copper oxides, while the exothermic decomposition of acrylonitrile wastewater supplied enough heat for the recovery of solid copper and copper oxides from copper-plating wastewater. The synergetic effect of wastewater treatment by the newly proposed SCWO process leads to full TOC conversion, color removal, detoxification, and odor elimination, as well as full recovery of copper.

  12. Changes in hormone and stress-inducing activities of municipal wastewater in a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wojnarowicz, Pola; Yang, Wenbo; Zhou, Hongde; Parker, Wayne J; Helbing, Caren C

    2014-12-01

    Conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants do not efficiently remove contaminants of emerging concern, and so are primary sources for contaminant release into the aquatic environment. Although these contaminants are present in effluents at ng-μg/L concentrations (i.e. microcontaminants), many compounds can act as endocrine disrupting compounds or stress-inducing agents at these levels. Chemical fate analyses indicate that additional levels of wastewater treatment reduce but do not always completely remove all microcontaminants. The removal of microcontaminants from wastewater does not necessarily correspond to a reduction in biological activity, as contaminant metabolites or byproducts may still be biologically active. To evaluate the efficacy of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants to remove biological activity, we examined the performance of a full scale conventional activated sludge municipal wastewater treatment plant located in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. We assessed reductions in levels of conventional wastewater parameters and thyroid hormone disrupting and stress-inducing activities in wastewater at three phases along the treatment train using a C-fin assay. Wastewater treatment was effective at reducing total suspended solids, chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, and stress-inducing bioactivity. However, only minimal reduction was observed in thyroid hormone disrupting activities. The present study underscores the importance of examining multiple chemical and biological endpoints in evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of wastewater treatment for removal of microcontaminants.

  13. Multispecies acute toxicity evaluation of wastewaters from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater-treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Yan, Bo; Wei, Chaohai; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2014-09-01

    Coking wastewater contributes approximately 5% of the total discharge volume of industrial wastewaters every year in China. The toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms is still unknown. The authors evaluated the toxicity of wastewater from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater treatment plant, South China, using 5 test species belonging to different trophic levels: luminous bacteria, green alga, a crustacean, duckweed, and zebrafish embryos. The raw influent displayed the highest toxicity to the test species, with toxic units ranging from 16.2 to 1176. The toxicity in the wastewater was then gradually removed by sequential primary treatment, biological fluidized-bed treatment, and secondary clarifier treatment. The toxic unit of the final effluent was reduced to 2.26 for the green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and to 0 for the other 4 organisms. Quantitative analysis of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and qualitative scanning by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the presence of a variety of pollutants in the coking wastewaters. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the toxicity in the coking wastewater was correlated to the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, volatile phenols, sulfide, metals (Cr, As, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Ni), and ΣPAHs. Based on the results, it is required to set a safety emission limit value for the discharge of coking wastewater to protect aquatic organisms in the receiving water bodies.

  14. Comparison between treatment of kitchen-sink wastewater and a mixture of kitchen-sink and washing-machine wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Huelgas, A; Nakajima, M; Nagata, H; Funamizu, N

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a submerged membrane bioreactor was used to treat 'higher-load' grey water: (a) kitchen-sink wastewater only, and (b) a mixture of kitchen-sink wastewater and washing-machine wastewater. For each type of wastewater, three systems operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were investigated. In the mixture of kitchen-sink wastewater and washing-machine wastewater, the reactor with a short HRT of four hours was stopped due to foaming. It has been observed that for both types of wastewater, an HRT of eight hours or longer can be used for the treatment. However, it has been observed that a higher COD in the permeate of the mixture can be obtained compared with that of the kitchen-sink wastewater only. This indicated that washing-machine wastewater has some component that is not easily biodegradable. The total linear akylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) removal was > 99% even at a concentration of 10-23 mg 1(-1).

  15. Electrochemical wastewater treatment directly powered by photovoltaic panels: electrooxidation of a dye-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Valero, David; Ortiz, Juan M; Expósito, Eduardo; Montiel, Vicente; Aldaz, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    Electrochemical technologies have proved to be useful for the treatment of wastewater, but to enhance their green characteristics it seems interesting to use a green electric energy such as that provided by photovoltaic (PV) cells, which are actually under active research to decrease the economic cost of solar kW. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of using an electrooxidation system directly powered by a photovoltaic array for the treatment of a wastewater. The experimental system used was an industrial electrochemical filter press reactor and a 40-module PV array. The influence on the degradation of a dye-containing solution (Remazol RB 133) of different experimental parameters such as the PV array and electrochemical reactor configurations has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the electrical configuration of the PV array has a strong influence on the optimal use of the electric energy generated. The optimum PV array configuration changes with the intensity of the solar irradiation, the conductivity of the solution, and the concentration of pollutant in the wastewater. A useful and effective methodology to adjust the EO-PV system operation conditions to the wastewater treatment is proposed.

  16. Occurrence and fate of heavy metals in large wastewater treatment plants treating municipal and industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Carletti, G; Fatone, F; Bolzonella, D; Cecchi, F; Carletti, G

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a detailed study on the occurrence and fate of heavy metals (plus As, Fe and Al) in five Italian large wastewater treatment plants treating municipal and industrial wastewaters. The study showed that some of the compounds (As, Hg and Cd) were present at trace levels, while others were dispersed in a broad range of concentrations and were sometimes under the detection limit. The occurrence followed the order Hg = As < Hg < Pb < Ni < Cu < Cr < Fe < Zn < Al. Metals were mainly present bound to particulate organic matter in municipal wastewaters while they were often present in soluble phase in industrial wastewaters. Some heavy metals, like Hg and Pb, showed clear correlations with Al and Fe, therefore the last could be used as control parameters. Metals were removed with good efficiency in the treatment works, with the order As < Cd = Cr = Zn < Pb < Hg < Ni = Al < Cu < Fe. Metals then concentrated in waste activated sludge and accumulated after sludge stabilisation because of volatile solids degradation, therefore some problems may arise with limit for agricultural application, in particular for Hg, Cd and Ni.

  17. Bioconversion of industrial wastewater and wastewater sludge into Bacillus thuringiensis based biopesticides in pilot fermentor.

    PubMed

    Yezza, A; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2006-10-01

    Starch industry wastewater (SWW), slaughterhouse wastewater (SHWW) and secondary sludges from three different wastewater treatment plants (Jonquière--JQS, Communauté Urbaine de Québec--CUQS and Black lake-BLS) were used as raw materials for the production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) based biopesticides in a pilot scale fermentor (100 L working volume). The slaughterhouse wastewater exhibited the lowest Bt growth and entomotoxcity (Tx) potential (measured against spruce budworm) due to low availability of carbon, nitrogen and other nutrients. Performance variation (growth, sporulation, proteolytic activity and Tx potential) within the three types of sludges was directly related to the availability of nitrogen and carbohydrates, which could change with sludge origin and methods employed for its generation. The Tx potential of Bt obtained in different secondary sludges (JQS: 12 x 10(9) SBU/L; CUQS: 13 x 10(9) SBU/L and BLS: 16 x 10(9) SBU/L) and SWW (18 x 10(9) SBU/L) was higher than the soybean based synthetic medium (10 x 10(9) SBU/L). The maximum protease activity was obtained in CUQ secondary sludge (4.1 IU/mL) due to its high complex protein concentration. Nevertheless, high carbohydrate concentration in SWW repressed enzyme production. The secondary sludges and SWW were found to be suitable raw materials for high potency Bt biopesticide production.

  18. Fate of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons in the wastewater from six textile dyeing wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xun-An; Wang, Jing-Yu; Li, Rui-Jing; Wen, Wei-Bin; Chen, Chang-Min; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Zuo-Yi; Liu, Jing-Yong

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence and removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene and isopropylbenzene (BTEXSI) from 6 textile dyeing wastewater treatment plants (TDWTPs) were investigated in this study. The practical capacities of the 6 representative plants, which used the activated sludge process, ranged from 1200 to 26000 m(3) d(-1). The results indicated that BTEXSI were ubiquitous in the raw textile dyeing wastewater, except for isopropylbenzene, and that toluene and xylenes were predominant in raw wastewaters (RWs). TDWTP-E was selected to study the residual BTEXSI at different stages. The total BTEXSI reduction on the aerobic process of TDWTP-E accounted for 82.2% of the entire process. The total BTEXSI concentrations from the final effluents (FEs) were observed to be below 1 μg L(-1), except for TDWTP-F (2.12 μg L(-1)). Volatilization and biodegradation rather than sludge sorption contributed significantly to BTEXSI removal in the treatment system. BTEXSI were not found to be the main contaminants in textile dyeing wastewater.

  19. Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

  20. Comparison of different wastewater treatments for removal of selected endocrine-disruptors from paper mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Balabanič, Damjan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Merayo, Noemí; Klemenčič, Aleksandra Krivograd; Blanco, Angeles

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing concern about chemical pollutants that have the ability to mimic hormones, the so-called endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). One of the main reasons for concern is the possible effect of EDCs on human health. EDCs may be released into the environment in different ways, and one of the most significant sources is industrial wastewater. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the treatment performance of different wastewater treatment procedures (biological treatment, filtration, advanced oxidation processes) for the reduction of chemical oxygen demand and seven selected EDCs (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, bisphenol A and nonylphenol) from wastewaters from a mill producing 100 % recycled paper. Two pilot plants were running in parallel and the following treatments were compared: (i) anaerobic biological treatment followed by aerobic biological treatment, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO), and (ii) anaerobic biological treatment followed by membrane bioreactor and RO. Moreover, at lab-scale, four different advanced oxidation processes (Fenton reaction, photo-Fenton reaction, photocatalysis with TiO(2), and ozonation) were applied. The results indicated that the concentrations of selected EDCs from paper mill wastewaters were effectively reduced (100 %) by both combinations of pilot plants and photo-Fenton oxidation (98 %), while Fenton process, photocatalysis with TiO(2) and ozonation were less effective (70 % to 90 %, respectively).