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Sample records for molecular shape amphiphiles

  1. Polymeric amphiphile branching leads to rare nanodisc shaped planar self-assemblies.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaozhong; Omar, Leila; Le, Thi Bich Hang; Tetley, Laurence; Bolton, Katherine; Chooi, Kar Wai; Wang, Wei; Uchegbu, Ijeoma F

    2008-09-16

    Self-assembly is fundamental to the biological function of cells and the fabrication of nanomaterials. However, the origin of the shape of various self-assemblies, such as the shape of cells, is not altogether clear. Polymeric, oligomeric, or low molecular weight amphiphiles are a rich source of nanomaterials, and controlling their self-assembly is the route to tailored nanosystems with specific functionalities. Here, we provide direct evidence that a particular molecular architecture, polymeric branching, leads to a rare form of self-assembly, the planar nanodisc. Cholesterol containing self-assemblies formed from amphiphilic linear or branched cetyl poly(ethylenimine) (Mn approximately 1000 Da) or amphiphilic cetyl poly(propylenimine) dendrimer derivatives (Mn approximately 2000 Da) show that branching, by reducing the hydrophilic headgroup area, alters the shape of the self-assemblies transforming closed 60 nm spherical bilayer vesicles to rare 50 nm x 10 nm planar bilayer discs. Increasing the hydrophilic headgroup area, by the inclusion of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) moieties into the amphiphilic headgroup, transforms the planar discs to 100 nm spherical bilayer vesicles. This study provides insight into the key role played by molecular shape on molecular self-organization into rare nanodiscs.

  2. Shape Recovery with Concomitant Mechanical Strengthening of Amphiphilic Shape Memory Polymers in Warm Water

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Ben; DeBartolo, Janae E.; Song, Jie

    2017-01-26

    Maintaining adequate or enhancing mechanical properties of shape memory polymers (SMPs) after shape recovery in an aqueous environment are greatly desired for biomedical applications of SMPs as self-fitting tissue scaffolds or minimally invasive surgical implants. Here we report stable temporary shape fixing and facile shape recovery of biodegradable triblock amphiphilic SMPs containing a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) center block and flanking poly(lactic acid) or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) blocks in warm water, accompanied with concomitant enhanced mechanical strengths. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses revealed that the unique stiffening of the amphiphilic SMPs upon hydrationmore » was due to hydration-driven microphase separation and PEG crystallization. We further demonstrated that the chemical composition of degradable blocks in these SMPs could be tailored to affect the persistence of hydration-induced stiffening upon subsequent dehydration. These properties combined open new horizons for these amphiphilic SMPs for smart weight-bearing in vivo applications (e.g. as self-fitting intervertebral discs). In conclusion, this study also provides a new material design strategy to strengthen polymers in aqueous environment in general.« less

  3. Fabrication of Propeller-Shaped Supra-amphiphile for Construction of Enzyme-Responsive Fluorescent Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Liu, Kaerdun; Han, Yuchun; Tang, Ben Zhong; Huang, Jianbin; Yan, Yun

    2016-10-04

    Propeller-shaped molecules have been recognized to display fantastic AIE (aggregation induced emission), but they can hardly self-assemble into nanostructures. Herein, we for the first time report that ionic complexation between a water-soluble tetrapheneyl derivative and an enzyme substrate in aqueous media produces a propeller-shaped supra-amphiphile that self-assembles into enzyme responsive fluorescent vesicles. The supra-amphiphile was fabricated upon complexation between a water-soluble propeller-shaped AIE luminogen TPE-BPA and myristoylcholine chloride (MChCl) in aqueous media. MChCl filled in the intramolecular voids of propeller-shaped TPE-BPA upon supra-amphiphile formation, which endows the supra-amphiphile superior self-assembling ability to the component molecules thus leading to the formation of fluorescent vesicles. Because MChCl is the substrate of cholinesterases, the vesicles dissemble in the presence of cholinesterases, and the fluorescent intensity can be correlated to the level of enzymes. The resulting fluorescent vesicles may be used to recognize the site of Alzheimer's disease, to encapsulate the enzyme inhibitor, and to release the inhibitor at the disease site.

  4. Theoretical study on substituent and solvent effects for nanocubes formed with gear-shaped amphiphile molecules.

    PubMed

    Mashiko, T; Hiraoka, S; Nagashima, U; Tachikawa, M

    2017-01-04

    Gear-shaped amphiphile molecules (1) recently synthesized by Hiraoka et al. self-assemble into a hexameric structure, nanocubes (1 6 ), in 25% aqueous methanol due to a solvophobic effect. Here we have carried out molecular dynamic simulations to elucidate the stability of these hexameric capsules (1 6 and 2 6 ) in water, 25% aqueous methanol, and methanol. In all solvents, the 1 6 nanocubes are maintained for all trajectories. On the other hand, 2 6 was found to collapse for one trajectory in water and seven trajectories in 25% aqueous methanol. In a pure methanol solvent, 2 6 was found to collapse for all trajectories. The number of collapsed trajectories of 2 6 increased with the amount of methanol in the solvent. We therefore focused on the structure of the π-π stacking between pyridyl groups and the CH-π interactions between the methyl and pyridyl groups within the nanocube. Our study clearly shows the role played by the methanol solvent molecules in the assembly of the nanocube in terms of the substituent and solvent effects at the molecular level, and that these substituent and solvent effects are important for the self-assembly of the nanocubes.

  5. Self-assembly of a triangle-shaped, hexaplatinum-incorporated, supramolecular amphiphile in solution and at interfaces.

    PubMed

    Maran, Umamageswaran; Britt, David; Fox, Christopher B; Harris, Joel M; Orendt, Anita M; Conley, Hiram; Davis, Robert; Hlady, Vladamir; Stang, Peter J

    2009-08-24

    The self-assembly and characterization of a novel supramolecular amphiphile built from a new 60 degree amphiphilic precursor that incorporates hydrophilic platinum(II) metals and hydrophobic dioctadecyloxy chains is reported. The amphiphilic macrocycle and its precursor compound have been characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS, and other standard techniques. The coacervate morphology of the amphiphile at the liquid-liquid interface has been studied by using confocal optical microscopy and in situ Raman spectroscopy. The self-assembly of the amphiphilic macrocycle at the air-water interface has been investigated through Langmuir-trough techniques. The study indicates the possible formation of surface micelle-like aggregates. The disparity between the experimental molecular areas and those derived from molecular models support the idea of aggregation. AFM images of the surface aggregates show the formation of a flat topology with arbitrary ridgelike patterns. Reasonable molecular-packing arrangements are proposed to explain the molecular organization within the observed structures.

  6. Effects of X-shaped reduction-sensitive amphiphilic block copolymer on drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Haijun; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of X-shaped amphiphilic block copolymers on delivery of docetaxel (DTX) and the reduction-sensitive property on drug release, a novel reduction-sensitive amphiphilic copolymer, (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 with a Gemini-like X-shape, was successfully synthesized. The formation of nanomicelles was proved with respect to the blue shift of the emission fluorescence as well as the fluorescent intensity increase of coumarin 6-loaded particles. The X-shaped polymers exhibited a smaller critical micelle concentration value and possessed higher micellar stability in comparison with those of linear ones. The size of X-shaped (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 polymer nanomicelles (XNMs) was much smaller than that of nanomicelles prepared with linear polymers. The reduction sensitivity of polymers was confirmed by the increase of micellar sizes as well as the in vitro drug release profile of DTX-loaded XNMs (DTX/XNMs). Cytotoxicity assays in vitro revealed that the blank XNMs were nontoxic against A2780 cells up to a concentration of 50 µg/mL, displaying good biocompatibility. DTX/XNMs were more toxic against A2780 cells than other formulations in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Cellular uptake assay displayed a higher intracellular drug delivery efficiency of XNMs than that of nanomicelles prepared with linear polymers. Besides, the promotion of tubulin polymerization induced by DTX was visualized by immunofluorescence analysis, and the acceleration of apoptotic process against A2780 cells was also imaged using a fluorescent staining method. Therefore, this X-shaped reduction-sensitive (PLGA)2-SS-4-arm-PEG2000 copolymer could effectively improve the micellar stability and significantly enhance the therapeutic efficacy of DTX by increasing the cellular uptake and selectively accelerating the drug release inside cancer cells.

  7. Flat-on ambipolar triphenylamine/C60 nano-stacks formed from the self-organization of a pyramid-sphere-shaped amphiphile.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-Wei; Huang, Chi-Feng; Wu, Kuan-Yi; Wu, San-Lien; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheng, Yen-Ju; Wang, Chien-Lung

    2016-04-21

    A giant amphiphile, which is constructed with an amorphous nano-pyramid (triphenylamine, TPA) and a crystalline nano-sphere (C 60 ), was synthesized. Structural characterization indicates that this pyramid-sphere-shaped amphiphile ( TPA-C 60 ) forms a solvent-induced ordered phase, in which the two constituent units self-assemble into alternating stacks of two-dimensional (2D) TPA and C 60 nano-sheets. Due to the complexity of the molecular structure and the amorphous nature of the nano-pyramid, phase formation was driven by intermolecular C 60 -C 60 interactions and the ordered phase could not be reformed from the TPA-C 60 melt. Oriented crystal arrays of TPA-C 60 , which contain flat-on TPA/C 60 nano-stacks, can be obtained via a PDMS-assisted crystallization (PAC) technique. The flat-on dual-channel supramolecular structure of TPA-C 60 delivered ambipolar and balanced charge-transport characteristics with an average μ e of 2.11 × 10 -4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and μ h of 3.37 × 10 -4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . The anisotropic charge-transport ability of the pyramid-sphere-shaped amphiphile was further understood based on the lattice structure and the lattice orientation of TPA-C 60 revealed from electron diffraction analyses.

  8. Fabrication of supramolecular star-shaped amphiphilic copolymers for ROS-triggered drug release.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Cai; Peng, Jinlei; Cong, Yong; Dai, Xianyin; Zhang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Sijie; Zhang, Xianshuo; Ma, Liwei; Wang, Baoyan; Wei, Hua

    2018-03-15

    Star-shaped copolymers with branched structures can form unimolecular micelles with better stability than the micelles self-assembled from conventional linear copolymers. However, the synthesis of star-shaped copolymers with precisely controlled degree of branching (DB) suffers from complicated sequential polymerizations and multi-step purification procedures, as well as repeated optimizations of polymer compositions. The use of a supramolecular host-guest pair as the block junction would significantly simplify the preparation. Moreover, the star-shaped copolymer-based unimolecular micelle provides an elegant solution to the tradeoff between extracellular stability and intracellular high therapeutic efficacy if the association/dissociation of the supramolecular host-guest joint can be triggered by the biologically relevant stimuli. For this purpose, in this study, a panel of supramolecular star-shaped amphiphilic block copolymers with 9, 12, and 18 arms were designed and fabricated by host-guest complexations between the ring-opening polymerization (ROP)-synthesized star-shaped poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with 3, 4, and 6 arms end-capped with ferrocene (Fc) (PCL-Fc) and the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP)-produced 3-arm poly(oligo ethylene glycol) methacrylates (POEGMA) with different degrees of polymerization (DPs) of 24, 30, 47 initiated by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) (3Br-β-CD-POEGMA). The effect of DB and polymer composition on the self-assembled properties of the five star-shaped copolymers was investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and fluorescence spectrometery. Interestingly, the micelles self-assembled from 12-arm star-shaped copolymers exhibited greater stability than the 9- and 18-arm formulations. The potential of the resulting supramolecular star-shaped amphiphilic copolymers as drug carriers was evaluated by an in vitro drug release study, which confirmed the ROS-triggered accelerated drug

  9. Micelle-induced versatile performance of amphiphilic intramolecular charge-transfer fluorescent molecular sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaobing; Qian, Xuhong; Qian, Junhong; Xu, Yufang

    2007-01-01

    A series of amphiphilic intramolecular charge-transfer fluorescent molecular sensors AS1-3, equipped with a rod-shaped hydrophobic 2-phenylbenzoxazole fluorophore and a hydrophilic tetraamide Hg(2+)-ion receptor, have been prepared. These sensor molecules could be incorporated into the hydrophobic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle, which is confirmed by the clear spectral blue shift and emission enhancement observed at the critical micelle concentration of SDS. Systematic examination of the sensor-Hg(2+) complexation, by using both UV/visible and fluorescence spectroscopy, indicates that SDS significantly modulates both the binding event and signal transformation of these sensor molecules. The potential advantages are fourfold: 1) SDS substantially increases the Hg(2+)-ion association constant and results in an amplified sensitivity. 2) SDS initiates spectral features which facilitate Hg(2+)-ion analysis, for example, in addition to the strengthened fluorescence of the free sensors AS1-3, the original "on-off" response of AS2 toward the Hg(2+) ion is transformed into a self-calibrated two-wavelength ratiometric signal, while for AS3, Hg(2+)-ion complexation in the presence of SDS results in a 180 nm blue shift, which is preferred to the 51 nm spectral shift obtained without SDS. 3) Thermoreversible tuning of the dynamic detection range is realized. 4) Highly specific Hg(2+)-ion identification could be achieved by using the SDS-induced fingerprint emission (358 nm) of the AS2-Hg(2+) complex. Altogether, this work demonstrates a convenient and powerful strategy that remarkably elevates the performance of a given fluorescent molecular sensor. It also implies that for a specific utilization, much attention should be paid to the microenvironment in which the sensor resides, as the behavior of the sensor might be different from that in the bulk solution.

  10. Super-resolution microscopy reveals structural diversity in molecular exchange among peptide amphiphile nanofibres

    DOE PAGES

    da Silva, Ricardo M. P.; van der Zwaag, Daan; Albertazzi, Lorenzo; ...

    2016-05-19

    The dynamic behaviour of supramolecular systems is an important dimension of their potential functions. Here, we report on the use of stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy to study the molecular exchange of peptide amphiphile nanofibres, supramolecular systems known to have important biomedical functions. Solutions of nanofibres labelled with different dyes (Cy3 and Cy5) were mixed, and the distribution of dyes inserting into initially single-colour nanofibres was quantified using correlative image analysis. Our observations are consistent with an exchange mechanism involving monomers or small clusters of molecules inserting randomly into a fibre. Different exchange rates are observed within the same fibre, suggestingmore » that local cohesive structures exist on the basis of beta-sheet discontinuous domains. The results reported here show that peptide amphiphile supramolecular systems can be dynamic and that their intermolecular interactions affect exchange patterns. Lastly, this information can be used to generate useful aggregate morphologies for improved biomedical function.« less

  11. In vitro evaluation of anticancer nanomedicines based on doxorubicin and amphiphilic Y-shaped copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Di; Ding, Jian Xun; Tang, Zhao Hui; Sun, Hai; Zhuang, Xiu Li; Xu, Jing Zhe; Chen, Xue Si

    2012-01-01

    Four monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide)2 (mPEG-P( LA-co-GA)2) copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide and glycolide with double hydroxyl functionalized mPEG (mPEG-(OH)2) as macroinitiator and stannous octoate as catalyst. The copolymers self-assembled into nanoscale micellar/vesicular aggregations in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline anticancer drug, was loaded into the micellar/vesicular nanoparticles, yielding micellar/vesicular nanomedicines. The in vitro release behaviors could be adjusted by content of hydrophobic polyester and pH of the release medium. In vitro cell experiments showed that the intracellular DOX release could be adjusted by content of P(LA-co-GA), and the nanomedicines displayed effective proliferation inhibition against Henrietta Lacks’s cells with different culture times. Hemolysis tests indicated that the copolymers were hemocompatible, and the presence of copolymers could reduce the hemolysis ratio of DOX significantly. These results suggested that the novel anticancer nanomedicines based on DOX and amphiphilic Y-shaped copolymers were attractive candidates as tumor tissular and intracellular targeting drug delivery systems in vivo, with enhanced stability during circulation and accelerated drug release at the target sites. PMID:22701317

  12. Organization of Amphiphilic Molecular Disks with Branched Hydrophilic Tails and Hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myongsoo; Kim, Jung-Woo; Yoo, Yong-Sik; Peleshanko, Sergey; Larson, Kirsten; Vaknin, David; Markutsya, Sergei; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2002-03-01

    Amphiphilic branched discotics consisting of the aromatic core and oligoethers as the branched peripheral chains have been characterized in bulk and monolayer states. The discotics based on di-branched oligoether side chains have been observed to self-organize into an ordered hexagonal columnar structure within liquid crystalline (LC) phases. The tetrabranched molecule showed only an isotropic liquid. The LC molecules with di-branched tails have been observed to form stable monolayers on the water surface in contrast to the tetra-branched tails. We suggest a crab-like molecular conformation and cluster-segregated monolayers with six-fold symmetry of face-on packing on a solid surface.

  13. Solubilization of poorly water-soluble compounds using amphiphilic phospholipid polymers with different molecular architectures.

    PubMed

    Mu, Mingwei; Konno, Tomohiro; Inoue, Yuuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2017-10-01

    To achieve stable and effective solubilization of poorly water-soluble bioactive compounds, water-soluble and amphiphilic polymers composed of hydrophilic 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) units and hydrophobic n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) units were prepared. MPC polymers having different molecular architectures, such as random-type monomer unit sequences and block-type sequences, formed polymer aggregates when they were dissolved in aqueous media. The structure of the random-type polymer aggregate was loose and flexible. On the other hand, the block-type polymer formed polymeric micelles, which were composed of very stable hydrophobic poly(BMA) cores and hydrophilic poly(MPC) shells. The solubilization of a poorly water-soluble bioactive compound, paclitaxel (PTX), in the polymer aggregates was observed, however, solubilizing efficiency and stability were strongly depended on the polymer architecture; in other words, PTX stayed in the poly(BMA) core of the polymer micelle formed by the block-type polymer even when plasma protein was present in the aqueous medium. On the other hand, when the random-type polymer was used, PTX was transferred from the polymer aggregate to the protein. We conclude that water-soluble and amphiphilic MPC polymers are good candidates as solubilizers for poorly water-soluble bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Amphiphilic cyclodextrin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Varan, Gamze; Varan, Cem; Erdoğar, Nazlı; Hıncal, A Atilla; Bilensoy, Erem

    2017-10-15

    Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides obtained by enzymatic digestion of starch. The α-, β- and γ- cyclodextrins contain respectively 6, 7 and 8 glucopyranose units, with primary and secondary hydroxyl groups located on the narrow and wider rims of a truncated cone shape structure. Such structure is that of a hydrophobic inner cavity with a hydrophilic outer surface allowing to interact with a wide range of molecules like ions, protein and oligonucleotides to form inclusion complexes. Many cyclodextrin applications in the pharmaceutical area have been widely described in the literature due to their low toxicity and low immunogenicity. The most important is to increase the solubility of hydrophobic drugs in water. Chemically modified cyclodextrin derivatives have been synthesized to enhance their properties and more specifically their pharmacological activity. Among these, amphiphilic derivatives were designed to build organized molecular structures, through selfassembling systems or by incorporation in lipid membranes, expected to improve the vectorization in the organism of the drug-containing cyclodextrin cavities. These derivatives can form a variety of supramolecular structures such as micelles, vesicles and nanoparticles. The purpose of this review is to summarize applications of amphiphilic cyclodextrins in different areas of drug delivery, particularly in protein and peptide drug delivery and gene delivery. The article highlights important amphiphilic cyclodextrin applications in the design of novel delivery systems like nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of amphiphilic graft copolymer molecules at a water/air interface.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Philip M; Wilson, Mark R

    2004-11-01

    Fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of amphiphilic graft copolymer molecules have been performed at a range of surface concentrations at a water/air interface. These simulations are compared to experimental results from a corresponding system over a similar range of surface concentrations. Neutron reflectivity data calculated from the simulation trajectories agrees well with experimentally acquired profiles. In particular, excellent agreement in neutron reflectivity is found for lower surface concentration simulations. A simulation of a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chain in aqueous solution has also been performed. This simulation allows the conformational behavior of the free PEO chain and those tethered to the interface in the previous simulations to be compared. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Amphiphilic graft copolymer based on poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) with low molecular weight polyethylenimine for efficient gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaopin; Xiao, Jisheng; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhiwen; Mao, Shirui; Li, Yaping

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods A new amphiphilic comb-shaped copolymer (SP) was synthesized by conjugating poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) with low molecular weight polyethyleneimine for gene delivery. Fourier transform infrared spectrum, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and gel permeation chromatography were used to characterize the graft copolymer. Results The buffering capability of SP was similar to that of polyethyleneimine within the endosomal pH range. The copolymer could condense DNA effectively to form complexes with a positive charge (13–30 mV) and a small particle size (130–200 nm) at N/P ratios between 5 and 20, and protect DNA from degradation by DNase I. In addition, SP showed much lower cytotoxicity than polyethyleneimine 25,000. Importantly, the gene transfection activity and cellular uptake of SP-DNA complexes were all markedly higher than that of complexes of polyethyleneimine 25,000 and DNA in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cell lines. Conclusion This work highlights the promise of SP as a safe and efficient synthetic vector for DNA delivery. PMID:23028224

  17. Shape-Based Virtual Screening with Volumetric Aligned Molecular Shapes

    PubMed Central

    Koes, David Ryan; Camacho, Carlos J.

    2014-01-01

    Shape-based virtual screening is an established and effective method for identifying small molecules that are similar in shape and function to a reference ligand. We describe a new method of shape-based virtual screening, volumetric aligned molecular shapes (VAMS). VAMS uses efficient data structures to encode and search molecular shapes. We demonstrate that VAMS is an effective method for shape-based virtual screening and that it can be successfully used as a pre-filter to accelerate more computationally demanding search algorithms. Unique to VAMS is a novel minimum/maximum shape constraint query for precisely specifying the desired molecular shape. Shape constraint searches in VAMS are particularly efficient and millions of shapes can be searched in a fraction of a second. We compare the performance of VAMS with two other shape-based virtual screening algorithms a benchmark of 102 protein targets consisting of more than 32 million molecular shapes and find that VAMS provides a competitive trade-off between run-time performance and virtual screening performance. PMID:25049193

  18. Amphiphilic interactions of ionic liquids with lipid biomembranes: a molecular simulation study.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Brian; Shah, Jindal K; Zhu, Yingxi; Maginn, Edward J

    2014-11-21

    Current bottlenecks in the large-scale commercial use of many ionic liquids (ILs) include their high costs, low biodegradability, and often unknown toxicities. As a proactive effort to better understand the molecular mechanisms of ionic liquid toxicities, the work herein presents a comprehensive molecular simulation study on the interactions of 1-n-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ILs with a phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid bilayer. We explore the effects of increasing alkyl chain length (n = 4, 8, and 12) in the cation and anion hydrophobicity on the interactions with the lipid bilayer. Bulk atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed at millimolar (mM) IL concentrations show spontaneous insertion of cations into the lipid bilayer regardless of the alkyl chain length and a favorable orientational preference once a cation is inserted. Cations also exhibit the ability to "flip" inside the lipid bilayer (as is common for amphiphiles) if partially inserted with an unfavorable orientation. Moreover, structural analysis of the lipid bilayer show that cationic insertion induces roughening of the bilayer surface, which may be a precursor to bilayer disruption. To overcome the limitation in the timescale of our simulations, free energies for a single IL cation and anion insertion have been determined based on potential of mean force calculations. These results show a decrease in free energy in response to both short and long alkyl chain IL cation insertion, and likewise for a single hydrophobic anion insertion, but an increase in free energy for the insertion of a hydrophilic chloride anion. Both bulk MD simulations and free energy calculations suggest that toxicity mechanisms toward biological systems are likely caused by ILs behaving as ionic surfactants. [Yoo et al., Soft Matter, 2014].

  19. Fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy together with molecular simulations reveal amphiphilic characteristics of a Burkholderia biofilm exopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kuttel, Michelle M; Cescutti, Paola; Distefano, Marco; Rizzo, Roberto

    2017-06-30

    Biofilms are a collective mode of bacterial life in which a self-produced matrix confines cells in close proximity to each other. Biofilms confer many advantages, including protection from chemicals (including antibiotics), entrapment of useful extracellular enzymes and nutrients, as well as opportunities for efficient recycling of molecules from dead cells. Biofilm matrices are aqueous gel-like structures composed of polysaccharides, proteins, and DNA stabilized by intermolecular interactions that may include non-polar connections. Recently, polysaccharides extracted from biofilms produced by species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex were shown to possess clusters of rhamnose, a 6-deoxy sugar with non-polar characteristics. Molecular dynamics simulations are well suited to characterizing the structure and dynamics of polysaccharides, but only relatively few such studies exist of their interaction with non-polar molecules. Here we report an investigation into the hydrophobic properties of the exopolysaccharide produced by Burkholderia multivorans strain C1576. Fluorescence experiments with two hydrophobic fluorescent probes established that this polysaccharide complexes hydrophobic species, and NMR experiments confirmed these interactions. Molecular simulations to model the hydrodynamics of the polysaccharide and the interaction with guest species revealed a very flexible, amphiphilic carbohydrate chain that has frequent dynamic interactions with apolar molecules; both hexane and a long-chain fatty acid belonging to the quorum-sensing system of B. multivorans were tested. A possible role of the non-polar domains of the exopolysaccharide in facilitating the diffusion of aliphatic species toward specific targets within the biofilm aqueous matrix is proposed. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Modeling the tetraphenylalanine-PEG hybrid amphiphile: from DFT calculations on the peptide to molecular dynamics simulations on the conjugate.

    PubMed

    Zanuy, David; Hamley, Ian W; Alemán, Carlos

    2011-07-21

    The conformational properties of the hybrid amphiphile formed by the conjugation of a hydrophobic peptide with four phenylalanine (Phe) residues and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol), have been investigated using quantum mechanical calculations and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The intrinsic conformational preferences of the peptide were examined using the building-up search procedure combined with B3LYP/6-31G(d) geometry optimizations, which led to the identification of 78, 78, and 92 minimum energy structures for the peptides containing one, two, and four Phe residues. These peptides tend to adopt regular organizations involving turn-like motifs that define ribbon or helical-like arrangements. Furthermore, calculations indicate that backbone···side chain interactions involving the N-H of the amide groups and the π clouds of the aromatic rings play a crucial role in Phe-containing peptides. On the other hand, MD simulations on the complete amphiphile in aqueous solution showed that the polymer fragment rapidly unfolds maximizing the contacts with the polar solvent, even though the hydrophobic peptide reduce the number of waters of hydration with respect to an individual polymer chain of equivalent molecular weight. In spite of the small effect of the peptide in the hydrodynamic properties of the polymer, we conclude that the two counterparts of the amphiphile tend to organize as independent modules.

  1. Molecular dynamics study of a nanotube-binding amphiphilic helical peptide at different water/hydrophobic interfaces.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chi-Cheng; Dieckmann, Gregg R; Nielsen, Steven O

    2008-12-25

    Many potential applications of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) require that they be isolated from one another. This may be accomplished through covalent or noncovalent SWNT functionalization. The noncovalent approach preserves the intrinsic electrical, optical, and mechanical properties of SWNTs and can be achieved by dispersing SWNTs in aqueous solution using surfactants, polymers, or biomacromolecules like DNA or polypeptides. The designed amphiphilic helical peptide nano-1, which contains hydrophobic valine and aromatic phenylalanine residues for interaction with SWNTs and glutamic acid and lysine residues for water solubility, has been shown to debundle and disperse SWNTs, although the details of the peptide-SWNT interactions await elucidation. Here we use fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the nano-1 peptide at three different water/hydrophobic interfaces: water/oil, water/graphite, and water/SWNT. The amphiphilic nature of the peptide is characterized by its secondary structure, peptide-water hydrogen bonding, and peptide-hydrophobic surface van der Waals energy. We show that nano-1 has reduced amphiphilic character at the water/oil interface because the peptide helix penetrates into the hydrophobic phase. The peptide alpha-helix cannot match its hydrophobic face to the rigid planar graphite surface without partially unfolding. In contrast, nano-1 can curve on the SWNT surface in an alpha-helical conformation to simultaneously maximize its hydrophobic contacts with the SWNT and its hydrogen bonds with water. The molecular insight into the peptide conformation at the various hydrophobic surfaces provides guidelines for future peptide design.

  2. Synthesis of amphiphilic tadpole-shaped linear-cyclic diblock copolymers via ring-opening polymerization directly initiating from cyclic precursors and their application as drug nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xuejuan; Liu, Tao; Liu, Shiyong

    2011-04-11

    We report on the facile synthesis of well-defined amphiphilic and thermoresponsive tadpole-shaped linear-cyclic diblock copolymers via ring-opening polymerization (ROP) directly initiating from cyclic precursors, their self-assembling behavior in aqueous solution, and the application of micellar assemblies as controlled release drug nanocarriers. Starting from a trifunctional core molecule containing alkynyl, hydroxyl, and bromine moieties, alkynyl-(OH)-Br, macrocyclic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (c-PNIPAM) bearing a single hydroxyl functionality was prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), the subsequent end group transformation into azide functionality, and finally the intramacromolecular ring closure reaction via click chemistry. The target amphiphilic tadpole-shaped linear-cyclic diblock copolymer, (c-PNIPAM)-b-PCL, was then synthesized via the ROP of ε-caprolactone (CL) by directly initiating from the cyclic precursor. In aqueous solution at 20 °C, (c-PNIPAM)-b-PCL self-assembles into spherical micelles consisting of hydrophobic PCL cores and well-solvated coronas of cyclic PNIPAM segments. For comparison, linear diblock copolymer with comparable molecular weight and composition, (l-PNIPAM)-b-PCL, was also synthesized. It was found that the thermoresponsive coronas of micelles self-assembled from (c-PNIPAM)-b-PCL exhibit thermoinduced collapse and aggregation at a lower critical thermal phase transition temperature (T(c)) compared with those of (l-PNIPAM)-b-PCL. Temperature-dependent drug release profiles from the two types of micelles of (c-PNIPAM)-b-PCL and (l-PNIPAM)-b-PCL loaded with doxorubicin (Dox) were measured, and the underlying mechanism for the observed difference in releasing properties was proposed. Moreover, MTT assays revealed that micelles of (c-PNIPAM)-b-PCL are almost noncytotoxic up to a concentration of 1.0 g/L, whereas at the same polymer concentration, micelles loaded with Dox lead to ∼60% cell death. Overall, chain

  3. Self-assembled morphologies of an amphiphilic Y-shaped weak polyelectrolyte in a thin film.

    PubMed

    Mu, Dan; Li, Jian-Quan; Feng, Sheng-Yu

    2017-11-29

    Different from the self-assembly of neutral polymers, polyelectrolytes self-assemble into smaller aggregates with a more loosely assembled structure, which results from the repulsive forces acting between similar electrical compositions with the introduction of ions. The Y-shaped weak polyelectrolytes self-assemble into a core-shell type cylindrical structure with a hexagonal arrangement in a thin film, whose thickness is smaller than the gyration radius of the polymer chain. The corresponding formation mechanism consists of enrichment of the same components, adjustment of the shape of the aggregate, and the subsequent separation into individual aggregates. With the increase in the thickness of the thin film until it exceeds the gyration radius of the polymer chain, combined with the greater freedom of movement along the direction of thin film thickness, the self-assembled structure changes into a micellar structure. Under confinement, the repulsive force to the polymeric components is weakened by the repulsive forces among polyelectrolyte components with like charges, and this helps in generating aggregates with more uniform size and density distribution. In particular, when the repulsive force between the walls and the core forming components is greater than that between the walls and the shell forming components, such asymmetric confinement produces a crossed-cylindrical structure with nearly perpendicular arrangement of two cylinder arrays. Similarly, a novel three-crossed cylinder morphology is self-assembled upon removal of confinement.

  4. Molecular Packing of Amphiphilic Nanosheets Resolved by X-ray Scattering

    SciT

    Harutyunyan, Boris; Dannenhoffer, Adam; Kewalramani, Sumit

    2016-12-29

    Molecular packing in light harvesting 2D assemblies of photocatalytic materials is a critical factor for solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency. However, structure–function correlations have yet to be fully established. This is partly due to the difficulties in extracting the molecular arrangements from the complex 3D powder averaged diffraction patterns of 2D lattices, obtained via in situ wide-angle X-ray scattering. Here, we develop a scattering theory formalism and couple it with a simple geometrical model for the molecular shape of chromophore 9-methoxy-N-(sodium hexanoate)perylene-3,4-dicarboximide (MeO-PMI) used in our study. This generally applicable method fully reproduces the measured diffraction pattern including the asymmetric line shapesmore » for the Bragg reflections and yields the molecular packing arrangement within a 2D crystal structure with a remarkable degree of detail. We find an approximate edge-centered herringbone structure for the PMI fused aromatic rings and ordering of the carboxypentyl chains above and below the nanosheets. Such a packing arrangement differs from the more symmetric face-to-face orientation of the unsubstituted PMI rings. This structural difference is correlated to our measurement of the reduced catalytic performance of MeO-PMI nanosheets as compared to the mesoscopically similar unsubstituted PMI assemblies.« less

  5. Control over Structure and Function of Peptide Amphiphile Supramolecular Assemblies through Molecular Design and Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantakitti, Faifan

    Supramolecular chemistry is a powerful tool to create a material of a defined structure with tunable properties. This strategy has led to catalytically active, bioactive, and environment-responsive materials, among others, that are valuable in applications ranging from sensor technology to energy and medicine. Supramolecular polymers formed by peptide amphiphiles (PAs) have been especially relevant in tissue regeneration due to their ability to form biocompatible structures and mimic many important signaling molecules in biology. These supramolecular polymers can form nanofibers that create networks which mimic natural extracellular matrices. PA materials have been shown to induce growth of blood vessels, bone, cartilage, and nervous tissue, among others. The work described in this thesis not only studied the relationship between molecular structure and functions of PA assemblies, but also uncovered a powerful link between the energy landscape of their supramolecular self-assembly and the ability of PA materials to interact with cells. In chapter 2, it is argued that fabricating fibrous nanostructures with defined mechanical properties and decoration with bioactive molecules is not sufficient to create a material that can effectively communicate with cells. By systemically placing the fibronectin-derived RGDS epitope at increasing distances from the surface of PA nanofibers through a linker of one to five glycine residues, integrin-mediated RGDS signaling was enhanced. The results suggested that the spatial presentation of an epitope on PA nanofibers strongly influences the bioactivity of the PA substrates. In further improving functionality of a PA-based scaffold to effectively direct cell growth and differentiation, chapter 3 explored the use of a cell microcarrier to compartmentalize and simultaneously tune insoluble and soluble signals in a single matrix. PA nanofibers were incorporated at the surface of the microcarrier in order to promote cell adhesion, while

  6. Theranostic Unimolecular Micelles Based on Brush-Shaped Amphiphilic Block Copolymers for Tumor-Targeted Drug Delivery and Positron Emission Tomography Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Brush-shaped amphiphilic block copolymers were conjugated with a monoclonal antibody against CD105 (i.e., TRC105) and a macrocyclic chelator for 64Cu-labeling to generate multifunctional theranostic unimolecular micelles. The backbone of the brush-shaped amphiphilic block copolymer was poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and the side chains were poly(l-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLLA-PEG). The doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded unimolecular micelles showed a pH-dependent drug release profile and a uniform size distribution. A significantly higher cellular uptake of TRC105-conjugated micelles was observed in CD105-positive human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) than nontargeted micelles due to CD105-mediated endocytosis. In contrast, similar and extremely low cellular uptake of both targeted and nontargeted micelles was observed in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells (CD105-negative). The difference between the in vivo tumor accumulation of 64Cu-labeled TRC105-conjugated micelles and that of nontargeted micelles was studied in 4T1 murine breast tumor-bearing mice, by serial positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and validated by biodistribution studies. These multifunctional unimolecular micelles offer pH-responsive drug release, noninvasive PET imaging capability, together with both passive and active tumor-targeting abilities, thus making them a desirable nanoplatform for cancer theranostics. PMID:24628452

  7. Model Amphiphilic Block Copolymers with Tailored Molecular Weight and Composition in PDMS-Based Films to Limit Soft Biofouling

    SciT

    Wenning, Brandon M.; Martinelli, Elisa; Mieszkin, Sophie

    A set of controlled surface composition films was produced utilizing amphiphilic block copolymers dispersed in a cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) network. These block copolymers contained oligo(ethylene glycol) (PEGMA) and fluoroalkyl (AF6) side chains in selected ratios and molecular weights to control surface chemistry including antifouling and fouling-release performance. Such properties were assessed by carrying out assays using two algae, the green macroalga Ulva linza (favors attachment to polar surfaces) and the unicellular diatom Navicula incerta (favors attachment to nonpolar surfaces). All films performed well against U. linza and exhibited high removal of attached sporelings (young plants) under an applied shear stress, withmore » the lower molecular weight block copolymers being the best performing in the set. The composition ratios from 50:50 to 60:40 of the AF6/PEGMA side groups were shown to be more effective, with several films exhibiting spontaneous removal of the sporelings. The cells of N. incerta were also removed from several coating compositions. All films were characterized by surface techniques including captive bubble contact angle, atomic force microscopy, and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to correlate surface chemistry and morphology with biological performance.« less

  8. Molecular simulations of self-assembly processes of amphiphiles in dilute solutions: the challenge for quantitative modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusufi, Arben

    2013-11-01

    We report on two recent developments in molecular simulations of self-assembly processes of amphiphilic solutions. We focus on the determination of micelle formation of ionic surfactants which exhibit the archetype of self-assembling compounds in solution. The first approach is centred on the challenge in predicting micellisation properties through explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations. Even with a coarse-grained (CG) approach and the use of highly optimised software packages run on graphics processing unit hardware, it remains in many cases computationally infeasible to directly extract the critical micelle concentration (cmc). However, combined with a recently presented theoretical mean-field model this task becomes resolved. An alternative approach to study self-assembly is through implicit solvent modelling of the surfactants. Here we review some latest results and present new ones regarding capabilities of such a modelling approach in determining the cmc, and the aggregate structures in the dilute regime, that is currently not accessible through explicit solvent simulations, neither through atomistic nor through CG approaches. A special focus is put on surfactant concentration effects and surfactant correlations quantified by scattering intensities that are compared to recently published small-angle X-ray scattering data.

  9. Tipping the Scale from Disorder to Alpha-helix: Folding of Amphiphilic Peptides in the Presence of Macroscopic and Molecular Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Dalgicdir, Cahit; Globisch, Christoph; Peter, Christine; Sayar, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Secondary amphiphilicity is inherent to the secondary structural elements of proteins. By forming energetically favorable contacts with each other these amphiphilic building blocks give rise to the formation of a tertiary structure. Small proteins and peptides, on the other hand, are usually too short to form multiple structural elements and cannot stabilize them internally. Therefore, these molecules are often found to be structurally ambiguous up to the point of a large degree of intrinsic disorder in solution. Consequently, their conformational preference is particularly susceptible to environmental conditions such as pH, salts, or presence of interfaces. In this study we use molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the conformational behavior of two synthetic peptides, LKKLLKLLKKLLKL (LK) and EAALAEALAEALAE (EALA), with built-in secondary amphiphilicity upon forming an alpha-helix. We use these model peptides to systematically study their aggregation and the influence of macroscopic and molecular interfaces on their conformational preferences. We show that the peptides are neither random coils in bulk water nor fully formed alpha helices, but adopt multiple conformations and secondary structure elements with short lifetimes. These provide a basis for conformation-selection and population-shift upon environmental changes. Differences in these peptides’ response to macroscopic and molecular interfaces (presented by an aggregation partner) can be linked to their inherent alpha-helical tendencies in bulk water. We find that the peptides’ aggregation behavior is also strongly affected by presence or absence of an interface, and rather subtly depends on their surface charge and hydrophobicity. PMID:26295346

  10. Tipping the Scale from Disorder to Alpha-helix: Folding of Amphiphilic Peptides in the Presence of Macroscopic and Molecular Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Dalgicdir, Cahit; Globisch, Christoph; Peter, Christine; Sayar, Mehmet

    2015-08-01

    Secondary amphiphilicity is inherent to the secondary structural elements of proteins. By forming energetically favorable contacts with each other these amphiphilic building blocks give rise to the formation of a tertiary structure. Small proteins and peptides, on the other hand, are usually too short to form multiple structural elements and cannot stabilize them internally. Therefore, these molecules are often found to be structurally ambiguous up to the point of a large degree of intrinsic disorder in solution. Consequently, their conformational preference is particularly susceptible to environmental conditions such as pH, salts, or presence of interfaces. In this study we use molecular dynamics simulations to analyze the conformational behavior of two synthetic peptides, LKKLLKLLKKLLKL (LK) and EAALAEALAEALAE (EALA), with built-in secondary amphiphilicity upon forming an alpha-helix. We use these model peptides to systematically study their aggregation and the influence of macroscopic and molecular interfaces on their conformational preferences. We show that the peptides are neither random coils in bulk water nor fully formed alpha helices, but adopt multiple conformations and secondary structure elements with short lifetimes. These provide a basis for conformation-selection and population-shift upon environmental changes. Differences in these peptides' response to macroscopic and molecular interfaces (presented by an aggregation partner) can be linked to their inherent alpha-helical tendencies in bulk water. We find that the peptides' aggregation behavior is also strongly affected by presence or absence of an interface, and rather subtly depends on their surface charge and hydrophobicity.

  11. Amphiphilic lipid derivatives of 3'-hydroxyurea-deoxythymidine: preparation, properties, molecular self-assembly, simulation and in vitro anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Qi, Shuo; Jin, Yiguang; Yao, Weishang; Zhang, Sa; Zhao, Jingyu

    2014-11-01

    Lipid derivatives of nucleoside analogs and their nanoassemblies have become the research hotspot due to their unique function in cancer therapy. Six lipid derivatives of 3'-hydroxyurea-deoxythymidine were prepared with zidovudine as the raw material. The 5'-substituted lipid chains in the derivatives were from the various fatty acids including octanoic acid, decanoic acid, dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid corresponding to the derivatives OHT, DHT, DDHT, TDHT, HDHT and ODHT. The amphiphilic derivatives formed Langmuir monolayers at the air/water interface with different surface pressure-molecular area isotherms depending on the length of lipid chains. The nanoassemblies of OHT, DHT, DDHT, TDHT and HDHT and the nanoscale precipitates of ODHT were obtained after we injected their tetrahydrofuran solutions doped with hydrophilic long chained polymers into water. Electron microscopy showed that the morphology of nanoassemblies may be vesicles or nanotubes depending on the length of lipid chains. The shorter the lipid chains were, the softer the nanoassemblies. Computer simulation supported the experimental results. The nanoassemblies and the nanoscale precipitates showed much higher anticancer effects on SW620 cells than the parent drug hydroxyurea. The nanostructures of the derivatives are promising anticancer nanomedicines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-angiogenic activity and antitumor efficacy of amphiphilic twin drug from ursolic acid and low molecular weight heparin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wenming; Zohra Dahmani, Fatima; Zhang, Juan; Xiong, Hui; Wu, Yuanyuan; Yin, Lifang; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

    2017-02-01

    Heparin, a potential blood anti-coagulant, is also known for its binding ability to several angiogenic factors through electrostatic interactions due to its polyanionic character. However, the clinical application of heparin for cancer treatment is limited by several drawbacks, such as unsatisfactory therapeutic effects and severe anticoagulant activity that could induce hemorrhaging. Herein, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was conjugated to ursolic acid (UA), which is also an angiogenesis inhibitor, by binding the amine group of aminoethyl-UA (UA-NH2) with the carboxylic groups of LMWH. The resulting LMWH-UA conjugate as an amphiphilic twin drug showed reduced anticoagulant activity and could also self-assemble into nanomicelles with a mean particle size ranging from 200-250 nm. An in vitro endothelial tubular formation assay and an in vivo Matrigel plug assay were performed to verify the anti-angiogenic potential of LMWH-UA. Meanwhile, the in vivo antitumor effect of LMWH-UA was also evaluated using a B16F10 mouse melanoma model. LMWH-UA nanomicelles were shown to inhibit angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the i.v. administration of LMWH-UA to the B16F10 tumor-bearing mice resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth as compared to the free drug solutions. These findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of LMWH-UA as a new therapeutic remedy for cancer therapy.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of membrane deformation induced by amphiphilic helices of Epsin, Sar1p, and Arf1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen-Lu

    2018-03-01

    The N-terminal amphiphilic helices of proteins Epsin, Sar1p, and Arf1 play a critical role in initiating membrane deformation. The interactions of these amphiphilic helices with the lipid membranes are investigated in this study by combining the all-atom and coarse-grained simulations. In the all-atom simulations, the amphiphilic helices of Epsin and Sar1p are found to have a shallower insertion depth into the membrane than the amphiphilic helix of Arf1, but remarkably, the amphiphilic helices of Epsin and Sar1p induce higher asymmetry in the lipid packing between the two monolayers of the membrane. The insertion depth of amphiphilic helix into the membrane is determined not only by the overall hydrophobicity but also by the specific distributions of polar and non-polar residues along the helix. To directly compare their ability to deform the membrane, the coarse-grained simulations are performed to investigate the membrane deformation under the insertion of multiple helices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91427302 and 11474155).

  14. The role of electrostatics and temperature on morphological transitions of hydrogel nanostructures self-assembled by peptide amphiphiles via molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Fu, Iris W; Markegard, Cade B; Chu, Brian K; Nguyen, Hung D

    2013-10-01

    Smart biomaterials that are self-assembled from peptide amphiphiles (PA) are known to undergo morphological transitions in response to specific physiological stimuli. The design of such customizable hydrogels is of significant interest due to their potential applications in tissue engineering, biomedical imaging, and drug delivery. Using a novel coarse-grained peptide/polymer model, which has been validated by comparison of equilibrium conformations from atomistic simulations, large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are performed to examine the spontaneous self-assembly process. Starting from initial random configurations, these simulations result in the formation of nanostructures of various sizes and shapes as a function of the electrostatics and temperature. At optimal conditions, the self-assembly mechanism for the formation of cylindrical nanofibers is deciphered involving a series of steps: (1) PA molecules quickly undergo micellization whose driving force is the hydrophobic interactions between alkyl tails; (2) neighboring peptide residues within a micelle engage in a slow ordering process that leads to the formation of β-sheets exposing the hydrophobic core; (3) spherical micelles merge together through an end-to-end mechanism to form cylindrical nanofibers that exhibit high structural fidelity to the proposed structure based on experimental data. As the temperature and electrostatics vary, PA molecules undergo alternative kinetic mechanisms, resulting in the formation of a wide spectrum of nanostructures. A phase diagram in the electrostatics-temperature plane is constructed delineating regions of morphological transitions in response to external stimuli. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. How the spontaneous insertion of amphiphilic imidazolium-based cations changes biological membranes: a molecular simulation study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Geraldine S; Jaenicke, Stephan; Klähn, Marco

    2015-11-21

    The insertion of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium cations (OMIM(+)) from a diluted aqueous ionic liquid (IL) solution into a model of a bacterial cell membrane is investigated. Subsequently, the mutual interactions of cations inside the membrane and their combined effect on membrane properties are derived. The ionic liquid solution and the membrane model are simulated using molecular dynamics in combination with empirical force fields. A high propensity of OMIM(+) for membrane insertion is observed, with a cation concentration at equilibrium inside the membrane 47 times larger than in the solvent. Once inserted, cations exhibit a weak effective attraction inside the membrane at a distance of 1.3 nm. At this free energy minimum, negatively charged phosphates of the phospholipids are sandwiched between two OMIM(+) to form energetically favorable OMIM(+)-phosphate-OMIM(+) types of coordination. The cation-cation association free energy is 5.9 kJ mol(-1), whereas the activation barrier for dissociation is 10.1 kJ mol(-1). Subsequently, OMIM(+) are inserted into the leaflet of the membrane bilayer that represents the extracellular side. The cations are evenly distributed with mutual cation distances according to the found optimum distance of 1.3 nm. Because of the short length of the cation alkyl chains compared to lipid fatty acids, voids are generated in the hydrophobic core of the membrane. These voids disorder the fatty acids, because they enable fatty acids to curl into these empty spaces and also cause a thinning of the membrane by 0.6 nm. Additionally, the membrane density increases at its center. The presence of OMIM(+) in the membrane facilitates the permeation of small molecules such as ammonia through the membrane, which is chosen as a model case for small polar solutes. The permeability coefficient of the membrane with respect to ammonia increases substantially by a factor of seven. This increase is caused by a reduction of the involved free energy barriers

  16. How molecular motors shape the flagellar beat

    PubMed Central

    Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H.; Hilfinger, Andreas; Howard, Jonathon; Jülicher, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Cilia and eukaryotic flagella are slender cellular appendages whose regular beating propels cells and microorganisms through aqueous media. The beat is an oscillating pattern of propagating bends generated by dynein motor proteins. A key open question is how the activity of the motors is coordinated in space and time. To elucidate the nature of this coordination we inferred the mechanical properties of the motors by analyzing the shape of beating sperm: Steadily beating bull sperm were imaged and their shapes were measured with high precision using a Fourier averaging technique. Comparing our experimental data with wave forms calculated for different scenarios of motor coordination we found that only the scenario of interdoublet sliding regulating motor activity gives rise to satisfactory fits. We propose that the microscopic origin of such “sliding control” is the load dependent detachment rate of motors. Agreement between observed and calculated wave forms was obtained only if significant sliding between microtubules occurred at the base. This suggests a novel mechanism by which changes in basal compliance could reverse the direction of beat propagation. We conclude that the flagellar beat patterns are determined by an interplay of the basal properties of the axoneme and the mechanical feedback of dynein motors. PMID:19404446

  17. Self-Assembly Behavior of Amphiphilic Janus Dendrimers in Water: A Combined Experimental and Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulation Approach.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-García, Mariana E; Márquez-Miranda, Valeria; Araya-Durán, Ingrid; Valencia-Gallegos, Jesús A; González-Nilo, Fernando D

    2018-04-21

    Amphiphilic Janus dendrimers (JDs) are repetitively branched molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic components that self-assemble in water to form a variety of morphologies, including vesicles analogous to liposomes with potential pharmaceutical and medical application. To date, the self-assembly of JDs has not been fully investigated thus it is important to gain insight into its mechanism and dependence on JDs’ molecular structure. In this study, the aggregation behavior in water of a second-generation bis-MPA JD was evaluated using experimental and computational methods. Dispersions of JDs in water were carried out using the thin-film hydration and ethanol injection methods. Resulting assemblies were characterized by dynamic light scattering, confocal microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CG-MD) simulation was performed to study the mechanism of JDs aggregation. The obtaining of assemblies in water with no interdigitated bilayers was confirmed by the experimental characterization and CG-MD simulation. Assemblies with dendrimersome characteristics were obtained using the ethanol injection method. The results of this study establish a relationship between the molecular structure of the JD and the properties of its aggregates in water. Thus, our findings could be relevant for the design of novel JDs with tailored assemblies suitable for drug delivery systems.

  18. Effect of molecular shape on rotation under severe confinement

    DOE PAGES

    Dhiman, Indu; Bhowmik, Debsindhu; Shrestha, Utsab R.; ...

    2018-01-31

    Orientational structure and dynamics of molecules is known to be affected by confinement in space comparable in size to the molecule itself. ZSM-5 with porous channels of ≈0.55 nm is such a porous medium, which offers a strict spatial confinement on low molecular weight hydrocarbons. An important factor that determines these properties is the shape of the confined molecules. In this work, we employed molecular dynamics simulation to study the orientational structure and dynamics of four molecules that differ in shape but have similar kinetic diameters and moments of inertia, confined in ZSM-5. The effect of molecular shape on themore » orientational structure and dynamics of propane, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde and acetone in ZSM-5 is studied by means of probing the differences in the orientational distribution of molecules in the ZSM-5 channels, and extracting time scales of the decay of correlation functions related to rotational motion. Orientational correlation functions of all the four molecules exhibit two regimes of rotational motion. While the short time regime represents free rotation of the molecules before they collide with the pore walls, the long time orientational jumps driven by inter-channel migrations give rise to a very slow varying second regime. Of the molecules studied, orientational structure and dynamics of propane is found to be least affected by confinement under ZSM-5, whereas charge and shape asymmetry of other molecules makes their interchannel migration-driven rotation slow. The time scales involved in the rotational motion for the molecules studied are compared with similar studies reported in literature. Lastly, this study reveals the important role that molecular shape plays in the behavior of confined molecules.« less

  19. Effect of molecular shape on rotation under severe confinement

    SciT

    Dhiman, Indu; Bhowmik, Debsindhu; Shrestha, Utsab R.

    Orientational structure and dynamics of molecules is known to be affected by confinement in space comparable in size to the molecule itself. ZSM-5 with porous channels of ≈0.55 nm is such a porous medium, which offers a strict spatial confinement on low molecular weight hydrocarbons. An important factor that determines these properties is the shape of the confined molecules. In this work, we employed molecular dynamics simulation to study the orientational structure and dynamics of four molecules that differ in shape but have similar kinetic diameters and moments of inertia, confined in ZSM-5. The effect of molecular shape on themore » orientational structure and dynamics of propane, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde and acetone in ZSM-5 is studied by means of probing the differences in the orientational distribution of molecules in the ZSM-5 channels, and extracting time scales of the decay of correlation functions related to rotational motion. Orientational correlation functions of all the four molecules exhibit two regimes of rotational motion. While the short time regime represents free rotation of the molecules before they collide with the pore walls, the long time orientational jumps driven by inter-channel migrations give rise to a very slow varying second regime. Of the molecules studied, orientational structure and dynamics of propane is found to be least affected by confinement under ZSM-5, whereas charge and shape asymmetry of other molecules makes their interchannel migration-driven rotation slow. The time scales involved in the rotational motion for the molecules studied are compared with similar studies reported in literature. Lastly, this study reveals the important role that molecular shape plays in the behavior of confined molecules.« less

  20. Lipase polystyrene giant amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Velonia, Kelly; Rowan, Alan E; Nolte, Roeland J M

    2002-04-24

    A new type of giant amphiphilic molecule has been synthesized by covalently connecting a lipase enzyme headgroup to a maleimide-functionalized polystyrene tail (40 repeat units). The resulting biohybrid forms catalytic micellar rods in water.

  1. Spontaneous formation of nanometer scale tubular vesicles in aqueous mixtures of lipid and block copolymer amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seng Koon; Wong, Andrew S W; de Hoog, Hans-Peter M; Rangamani, Padmini; Parikh, Atul N; Nallani, Madhavan; Sandin, Sara; Liedberg, Bo

    2017-02-08

    Many common amphiphiles self-assemble in water to produce heterogeneous populations of discrete and symmetric but polydisperse and multilamellar vesicles isolating the encapsulated aqueous core from the surrounding bulk. But when mixtures of amphiphiles of vastly different elastic properties co-assemble, their non-uniform molecular organization can stabilize lower symmetries and produce novel shapes. Here, using high resolution electron cryomicroscopy and tomography, we identify the spontaneous formation of a membrane morphology consisting of unilamellar tubular vesicles in dilute aqueous solutions of binary mixtures of two different amphiphiles of vastly different origins. Our results show that aqueous phase mixtures of a fluid-phase phospholipid and an amphiphilic block copolymer spontaneously assume a bimodal polymorphic character in a composition dependent manner: over a broad range of compositions (15-85 mol% polymer component), a tubular morphology co-exists with spherical vesicles. Strikingly, in the vicinity of equimolar compositions, an exclusively tubular morphology (L t ; diameter, ∼15 nm; length, >1 μm; core, ∼2.0 nm; wall, ∼5-6 nm) emerges in an apparent steady state. Theory suggests that the spontaneous stabilization of cylindrical vesicles, unaided by extraneous forces, requires a significant spontaneous bilayer curvature, which in turn necessitates a strongly asymmetric membrane composition. We confirm that such dramatic compositional asymmetry is indeed produced spontaneously in aqueous mixtures of a lipid and polymer through two independent biochemical assays - (1) reduction in the quenching of fluorophore-labeled lipids and (2) inhibition in the activity of externally added lipid-hydrolyzing phospholipase A2, resulting in a significant enrichment of the polymer component in the outer leaflet. Taken together, these results illustrate the coupling of the membrane shape with local composition through spontaneous curvature generation under

  2. Supramolecular Packing Controls H 2 Photocatalysis in Chromophore Amphiphile Hydrogels

    DOE PAGES

    Weingarten, Adam S.; Kazantsev, Roman V.; Palmer, Liam C.; ...

    2015-11-21

    Light harvesting supramolecular assemblies are potentially useful structures as components of solar-to-fuel conversion materials. The development of these functional constructs requires an understanding of optimal packing modes for chromophores. Here, we investigated assembly in water and the photocatalytic function of perylene monoimide chromophore amphiphiles with different alkyl linker lengths separating their hydrophobic core and the hydrophilic carboxylate headgroup. We found that these chromophore amphiphiles (CAs) self-assemble into charged nanostructures of increasing aspect ratio as the linker length is increased. The addition of salt to screen the charged nanostructures induced the formation of hydrogels and led to internal crystallization within somemore » of the nanostructures. For linker lengths up to seven methylenes, the CAs were found to pack into 2D crystalline unit cells within ribbon-shaped nanostructures, whereas the nine methylene CAs assembled into long nanofibers without crystalline molecular packing. At the same time, the different molecular packing arrangements after charge screening led to different absorbance spectra, despite the identical electronic properties of all PMI amphiphiles. While the crystalline CAs formed electronically coupled H-aggregates, only CAs with intermediate linker lengths showed evidence of high intermolecular orbital overlap. Photocatalytic hydrogen production using a nickel-based catalyst was observed in all hydrogels, with the highest turnovers observed for CA gels having intermediate linker lengths. Lastly, we conclude that the improved photocatalytic performance of the hydrogels formed by supramolecular assemblies of the intermediate linker CA molecules likely arises from improved exciton splitting efficiencies due to their higher orbital overlap.« less

  3. Supramolecular Packing Controls H 2 Photocatalysis in Chromophore Amphiphile Hydrogels

    SciT

    Weingarten, Adam S.; Kazantsev, Roman V.; Palmer, Liam C.

    2015-11-21

    Light harvesting supramolecular assemblies are potentially useful structures as components of solar-to-fuel conversion materials. The development of these functional constructs requires an understanding of optimal packing modes for chromophores. We investigated here assembly in water and the photocatalytic function of perylene monoimide chromophore amphiphiles with different alkyl linker lengths separating their hydrophobic core and the hydrophilic carboxylate headgroup. We found that these chromophore amphiphiles (CAs) self-assemble into charged nanostructures of increasing aspect ratio as the linker length is increased. The addition of salt to screen the charged nanostructures induced the formation of hydrogels and led to internal crystallization within somemore » of the nanostructures. For linker lengths up to seven methylenes, the CAs were found to pack into 2D crystalline unit cells within ribbon-shaped nanostructures, whereas the nine methylene CAs assembled into long nanofibers without crystalline molecular packing. At the same time, the different molecular packing arrangements after charge screening led to different absorbance spectra, despite the identical electronic properties of all PMI amphiphiles. While the crystalline CAs formed electronically coupled H-aggregates, only CAs with intermediate linker lengths showed evidence of high intermolecular orbital overlap. Photocatalytic hydrogen production using a nickel-based catalyst was observed in all hydrogels, with the highest turnovers observed for CA gels having intermediate linker lengths. We conclude that the improved photocatalytic performance of the hydrogels formed by supramolecular assemblies of the intermediate linker CA molecules likely arises from improved exciton splitting efficiencies due to their higher orbital overlap.« less

  4. Examination of the solution behaviors of the giant inorganic-organic amphiphilic hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baofang

    Presently, the self-assembly behaviors of traditional small surfactants and amphiphilic block copolymers are fairly well understood. In comparison, rather little is known about the self-assembly behaviors of the giant inorganic-organic amphiphilic hybrids in solution. It remains a wide open field to explore. Giant inorganic-organic amphiphilic hybrids, consisting of nanoscale inorganic clusters and organic functional groups, represent a novel class of functional hybrid materials. They have unique physical and chemical properties and potential applications in catalysis, electronic, optics, magnetic materials, medicine and biology. Therefore, as emerging building blocks, they have promising prospects in the advanced materials. In this PhD work, several representative giant inorganic-organic amphiphilic hybrids (triangular-shaped polyoxometalate (POM)-containing inorganic/organic amphiphilic hybrids, POM-containing fluorosurfactants hybrids, POM-containing peptide hybrids POM-peptide hybrids and polyhedral oligometric silsesquioxane (POSS)-polystyrene (PS) are chosen for studying their self-assembly behaviors in solution. Based on the knowledge of the physical chemistry, colloid and polymer science, we focus on the mechanism of the self-assembly process, and the morphology control of the supramolecular structures through the internal and external conditions, such as the composition of the giant amphiphilies, molecular architectures, solvent nature, temperature, concentration, and extrally added salts. It is found that the counterion-meditated interactions dominate the self-assembly of triangular-shaped hybrids in acetone/water mixed solutions, due to the highly dominant hydrophilic portions; the solvent-swelling effect, instead of the charge effect, dominates the whole self-assembly process of the POM-containing fluorosurfactants; the analogy between small surfactants and giant amphiphiles POSS-PS allows a rough assessment of the possible morphologies of the

  5. The effect of molecular shape on oligomerization of hydrophobic drugs: Molecular simulations of ciprofloxacin and nutlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianguo; Beuerman, Roger; Verma, Chandra

    2018-03-01

    Molecular aggregation plays a significant role in modulating the solubility, permeability, and bioactivity of drugs. The propensity to aggregate depends on hydrophobicity and on molecular shape. Molecular dynamics simulations coupled with enhanced sampling methods are used to explore the early stages of oligomerization of two drug molecules which have a strong aggregation propensity, but with contrasting molecule shapes: the antibiotic ciprofloxacin and the anticancer drug Nutlin-3A. The planar shape of ciprofloxacin induces the formation of stable oligomers at all cluster sizes. The aggregation of ciprofloxacin is driven by two-body interactions, and transferring one ciprofloxacin molecule to an existing cluster involves the desolvation of two faces and the concomitant hydrophobic interactions between the two faces; thus, the corresponding free energy of oligomerization weakly depends on the oligomer size. By contrast, Nutlin-3A has a star-shape and hence can only form stable oligomers when the cluster size is greater than 8. Free energy simulations further confirmed that the free energy of oligomer formation for Nutlin-3A becomes more favorable as the oligomer becomes larger. The aggregation of star-shaped Nutlin-3A results from many-body interactions and hence the free energy of cluster formation is strongly dependent on the size. The findings of this study provide atomistic insights into how molecular shape modulates the aggregation behavior of molecules and may be factored into the design of drugs or nano-particles.

  6. PubChem3D: Shape compatibility filtering using molecular shape quadrupoles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background PubChem provides a 3-D neighboring relationship, which involves finding the maximal shape overlap between two static compound 3-D conformations, a computationally intensive step. It is highly desirable to avoid this overlap computation, especially if it can be determined with certainty that a conformer pair cannot meet the criteria to be a 3-D neighbor. As such, PubChem employs a series of pre-filters, based on the concept of volume, to remove approximately 65% of all conformer neighbor pairs prior to shape overlap optimization. Given that molecular volume, a somewhat vague concept, is rather effective, it leads one to wonder: can the existing PubChem 3-D neighboring relationship, which consists of billions of shape similar conformer pairs from tens of millions of unique small molecules, be used to identify additional shape descriptor relationships? Or, put more specifically, can one place an upper bound on shape similarity using other "fuzzy" shape-like concepts like length, width, and height? Results Using a basis set of 4.18 billion 3-D neighbor pairs identified from single conformer per compound neighboring of 17.1 million molecules, shape descriptors were computed for all conformers. These steric shape descriptors included several forms of molecular volume and shape quadrupoles, which essentially embody the length, width, and height of a conformer. For a given 3-D neighbor conformer pair, the volume and each quadrupole component (Qx, Qy, and Qz) were binned and their frequency of occurrence was examined. Per molecular volume type, this effectively produced three different maps, one per quadrupole component (Qx, Qy, and Qz), of allowed values for the similarity metric, shape Tanimoto (ST) ≥ 0.8. The efficiency of these relationships (in terms of true positive, true negative, false positive and false negative) as a function of ST threshold was determined in a test run of 13.2 billion conformer pairs not previously considered by the 3-D neighbor set

  7. Structure and energetics of model amphiphilic molecules at the water liquid-vapor interface - A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Benjamin, Ilan

    1993-01-01

    A molecular dynamics study of adsorption of p-n-pentylphenol at infinite dilution at the water liquid-vapor interface is reported. The calculated free energy of adsorption is -8.8 +/- 0.7 kcal/mol, in good agreement with the experimental value of -7.3 kcal/mol. The transition between the interfacial region and the bulk solution is sharp and well-defined by energetic, conformational, and orientational criteria. At the water surface, the phenol head group is mostly immersed in aqueous solvent. The most frequent orientation of the hydrocarbon tail is parallel to the interface, due to dispersion interactions with the water surface. This arrangement of the phenol ring and the alkyl chain requires that the chain exhibits a kink. As the polar head group is being moved into the solvent, the chain length increases and the tail becomes increasingly aligned toward the surface normal, such that the nonpolar part of the molecule exposed to water is minimized. The same effect was achieved when phenol was replaced by a more polar head group, phenolate.

  8. Stimuli Responsive Amphiphilic Assemblies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-18

    Enzyme- Sensitive, Amphiphilic- Dendrimer -Based Nanoparticles through Photochemical Crosslinking, Chemistry - A European Journal, (10 2011): 0. doi...17, 2012 (Organizers: R. P. Singh) 8th International Dendrimer Symposium (IDS-8), Madrid, Spain, June 23-27, 2013 (Organizers: Dr. M’Angeles

  9. Disassembly Control of Saccharide-Based Amphiphiles Driven by Electrostatic Repulsion.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Taihei; Kokado, Kenta; Sada, Kazuki

    2017-03-14

    According to the design of disassembly using electrostatic repulsion, novel amphiphiles consisting of a lipophilic ion part and a hydrophilic saccharide part were synthesized via the facile copper-catalyzed click reaction, and their molecular assemblies in water and chloroform were studied. The amphiphiles exhibited a molecular orientation opposite to that of the conventional amphiphiles in each case. ζ Potential measurements indicated that the lipophilic ion part is exposed outside in chloroform. The size of a solvophobic part in the amphiphiles dominates the size of an assembling structure; that is, in water, these amphiphiles tethering different lengths of the saccharide part exhibited almost identical assembling size, whereas in chloroform, the size depends on the length of the saccharide part in the amphiphiles.

  10. Influence of Molecular Shape on Molecular Orientation and Stability of Vapor-Deposited Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Diane M.; Johnson, Noah D.; Ediger, M. D.

    Physical vapor deposition is commonly used to prepare active layers in organic electronics. Recently, it has been shown that molecular orientation and packing can be tuned by changing the substrate temperature during deposition, while still producing macroscopically homogeneous films. These amorphous materials can be highly anisotropic when prepared with low substrate temperatures, and they can exhibit exceptional kinetic stability; films retain their favorable packing when heated to high temperatures. Here, we study the influence of molecular shape on molecular orientation and stability. We investigate disc-shaped molecules, such as TCTA and m-MTDATA, nearly spherical molecules, such as Alq3, and linear molecules covering a broad range of aspect ratios, such as p-TTP and BSB-Cz. Disc-shaped molecules have preferential horizontal orientation when deposited at low substrate temperatures, and their orientation can be tuned by changing the substrate temperature. Alq3 forms stable, amorphous films that are optically isotropic when vapor deposited over a broad range of substrate temperatures. This work may guide the choice of material and deposition conditions for vapor-deposited films used in organic electronics and allow for more efficient devices to be fabricated.

  11. Temperature-Induced Phase Separation in Molecular Assembly of Nanotubes Comprising Amphiphilic Polypeptide with Poly( N-Ethyl Glycine) in Water by a Hydrophilic-Region Driven Type Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Tetsuya; Itagaki, Toru; Uji, Hirotaka; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2018-06-20

    Two kinds of amphiphilic polypeptides having different types of hydrophilic polypeptoids, poly(sarcosine)-b-(L-Leu-Aib)6 (ML12) and poly(N-ethyl glycine)-b-(L-Leu-Aib)6 (EL12), were self-assembled via two paths to phase-separated nanotubes. One path was via sticking ML12 nanotubes with EL12 nanotubes, and the other was a preparation from a mixture of ML12 and EL12 in solution. In either case, nanotubes showed temperature-induced phase separation along the long axis, which was observed by two methods of labeling one phase with gold nanoparticles and fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the components. The phase-separation was ascribed to aggregation of poly(N-ethyl glycine) blocks over the cloud point temperature. The addition of 5% trifluoroethanol was needed for the phase separation, because the tight association of the helices in the hydrophobic region should be loosened to allow lateral diffusion of the components to be separated. The phase-separation in molecular assemblies in water based on the hydrophilic-region driven type mechanism therefore requires sophisticated balances of association forces exerting among the hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions of the amphiphilic polypeptoids.

  12. Preparation and characterization of amphiphilic triblock terpolymer-based nanofibers as antifouling biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngjin; Cho, Daehwan; Park, Jay Hoon; Frey, Margaret W; Ober, Christopher K; Joo, Yong Lak

    2012-05-14

    Antifouling surfaces are critical for the good performance of functional materials in various applications including water filtration, medical implants, and biosensors. In this study, we synthesized amphiphilic triblock terpolymers (tri-BCPs, coded as KB) and fabricated amphiphilic nanofibers by electrospinning of solutions prepared by mixing the KB with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) polymer. The resulting fibers with amphiphilic polymer groups exhibited superior antifouling performance to the fibers without such groups. The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the amphiphilic fibers was about 10-fold less than that on the control surfaces from PLA and PET fibers. With the increase of the KB content in the amphiphilic fibers, the resistance to adsorption of BSA was increased. BSA was released more easily from the surface of the amphiphilic fibers than from the surface of hydrophobic PLA or PET fibers. We have also investigated the structural conformation of KB in fibers before and after annealing by contact angle measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulation to probe the effect of amphiphilic chain conformation on antifouling. The results reveal that the amphiphilic KB was evenly distributed within as-spun hybrid fibers, while migrated toward the core from the fiber surface during thermal treatment, leading to the reduction in antifouling. This suggests that the antifouling effect of the amphiphilic fibers is greatly influenced by the arrangement of amphiphilic groups in the fibers.

  13. Molecular Orientation in Two Component Vapor-Deposited Glasses: Effect of Substrate Temperature and Molecular Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Charles; Jiang, Jing; Walters, Diane; Ediger, Mark

    Vapor-deposited glasses are widely investigated for use in organic electronics including the emitting layers of OLED devices. These materials, while macroscopically homogenous, have anisotropic packing and molecular orientation. By controlling this orientation, outcoupling efficiency can be increased by aligning the transition dipole moment of the light-emitting molecules parallel to the substrate. Light-emitting molecules are typically dispersed in a host matrix, as such, it is imperative to understand molecular orientation in two-component systems. In this study we examine two-component vapor-deposited films and the orientations of the constituent molecules using spectroscopic ellipsometry, UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. The role of temperature, composition and molecular shape as it effects molecular orientation is examined for mixtures of DSA-Ph in Alq3 and in TPD. Deposition temperature relative to the glass transition temperature of the two-component mixture is the primary controlling factor for molecular orientation. In mixtures of DSA-Ph in Alq3, the linear DSA-Ph has a horizontal orientation at low temperatures and slight vertical orientation maximized at 0.96Tg,mixture, analogous to one-component films.

  14. Shuttlecock-Shaped Molecular Rectifier: Asymmetric Electron Transport Coupled with Controlled Molecular Motion.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Taekhee; Lansac, Yves; Jang, Yun Hee

    2017-07-12

    A fullerene derivative with five hydroxyphenyl groups attached around a pentagon, (4-HOC 6 H 4 ) 5 HC 60 (1), has shown an asymmetric current-voltage (I-V) curve in a conducting atomic force microscopy experiment on gold. Such molecular rectification has been ascribed to the asymmetric distribution of frontier molecular orbitals over its shuttlecock-shaped structure. Our nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) indeed exhibit an asymmetric I-V curve for 1 standing up between two Au(111) electrodes, but the resulting rectification ratio (RR ∼ 3) is insufficient to explain the wide range of RR observed in experiments performed under a high bias voltage. Therefore, we formulate a hypothesis that high RR (>10) may come from molecular orientation switching induced by a strong electric field applied between two electrodes. Indeed, molecular dynamics simulations of a self-assembled monolayer of 1 on Au(111) show that the orientation of 1 can be switched between standing-up and lying-on-the-side configurations in a manner to align its molecular dipole moment with the direction of the applied electric field. The DFT-NEGF calculations taking into account such field-induced reorientation between up and side configurations indeed yield RR of ∼13, which agrees well with the experimental value obtained under a high bias voltage.

  15. New Amphiphilic Neamine Derivatives Active against Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Their Interactions with Lipopolysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Sautrey, Guillaume; Zimmermann, Louis; Deleu, Magali; Delbar, Alicia; Souza Machado, Luiza; Jeannot, Katy; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Buyck, Julien M.; Decout, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    The development of novel antimicrobial agents is urgently required to curb the widespread emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria like colistin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We previously synthesized a series of amphiphilic neamine derivatives active against bacterial membranes, among which 3′,6-di-O-[(2″-naphthyl)propyl]neamine (3′,6-di2NP), 3′,6-di-O-[(2″-naphthyl)butyl]neamine (3′,6-di2NB), and 3′,6-di-O-nonylneamine (3′,6-diNn) showed high levels of activity and low levels of cytotoxicity (L. Zimmermann et al., J. Med. Chem. 56:7691–7705, 2013). We have now further characterized the activity of these derivatives against colistin-resistant P. aeruginosa and studied their mode of action; specifically, we characterized their ability to interact with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to alter the bacterial outer membrane (OM). The three amphiphilic neamine derivatives were active against clinical colistin-resistant strains (MICs, about 2 to 8 μg/ml), The most active one (3′,6-diNn) was bactericidal at its MIC and inhibited biofilm formation at 2-fold its MIC. They cooperatively bound to LPSs, increasing the outer membrane permeability. Grafting long and linear alkyl chains (nonyl) optimized binding to LPS and outer membrane permeabilization. The effects of amphiphilic neamine derivatives on LPS micelles suggest changes in the cross-bridging of lipopolysaccharides and disordering in the hydrophobic core of the micelles. The molecular shape of the 3′,6-dialkyl neamine derivatives induced by the nature of the grafted hydrophobic moieties (naphthylalkyl instead of alkyl) and the flexibility of the hydrophobic moiety are critical for their fluidifying effect and their ability to displace cations bridging LPS. Results from this work could be exploited for the development of new amphiphilic neamine derivatives active against colistin-resistant P. aeruginosa. PMID:24867965

  16. Competitive Binding of Natural Amphiphiles with Graphene Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Radic, Slaven; Geitner, Nicholas K.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Chen, Pengyu; Ke, Pu Chun; Ding, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the transformation of graphene derivatives by natural amphiphiles is essential for elucidating the biological and environmental implications of this emerging class of engineered nanomaterials. Using rapid discrete-molecular-dynamics simulations, we examined the binding of graphene and graphene oxide with peptides, fatty acids, and cellulose, and complemented our simulations by experimental studies of Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Specifically, we established a connection between the differential binding and the conformational flexibility, molecular geometry, and hydrocarbon content of the amphiphiles. Importantly, our dynamics simulations revealed a Vroman-like competitive binding of the amphiphiles for the graphene oxide substrate. This study provides a mechanistic basis for addressing the transformation, evolution, transport, biocompatibility, and toxicity of graphene derivatives in living systems and the natural environment. PMID:23881402

  17. Competitive Binding of Natural Amphiphiles with Graphene Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radic, Slaven; Geitner, Nicholas K.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Chen, Pengyu; Ke, Pu Chun; Ding, Feng

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the transformation of graphene derivatives by natural amphiphiles is essential for elucidating the biological and environmental implications of this emerging class of engineered nanomaterials. Using rapid discrete-molecular-dynamics simulations, we examined the binding of graphene and graphene oxide with peptides, fatty acids, and cellulose, and complemented our simulations by experimental studies of Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Specifically, we established a connection between the differential binding and the conformational flexibility, molecular geometry, and hydrocarbon content of the amphiphiles. Importantly, our dynamics simulations revealed a Vroman-like competitive binding of the amphiphiles for the graphene oxide substrate. This study provides a mechanistic basis for addressing the transformation, evolution, transport, biocompatibility, and toxicity of graphene derivatives in living systems and the natural environment.

  18. Self-assembly of crystalline nanotubes from monodisperse amphiphilic diblock copolypeptoid tiles

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Jing; Jiang, Xi; Lund, Reidar; ...

    2016-03-28

    The folding and assembly of sequence-defined polymers into precisely ordered nanostructures promises a class of well-defined biomimetic architectures with specific function. Amphiphilic diblock copolymers are known to self-assemble in water to form a variety of nanostructured morphologies including spheres, disks, cylinders, and vesicles. In all of these cases, the predominant driving force for assembly is the formation of a hydrophobic core that excludes water, whereas the hydrophilic blocks are solvated and extend into the aqueous phase. However, such polymer systems typically have broad molar mass distributions and lack the purity and sequence-defined structure often associated with biologically derived polymers. Here,more » we demonstrate that purified, monodisperse amphiphilic diblock copolypeptoids, with chemically distinct domains that are congruent in size and shape, can behave like molecular tile units that spontaneously assemble into hollow, crystalline nanotubes in water. The nanotubes consist of stacked, porous crystalline rings, and are held together primarily by side-chain van der Waals interactions. The peptoid nanotubes form without a central hydrophobic core, chirality, a hydrogen bond network, and electrostatic or π-π interactions. These results demonstrate the remarkable structure-directing influence of n-alkane and ethyleneoxy side chains in polymer self-assembly. More broadly, this work suggests that flexible, low-molecular-weight sequence-defined polymers can serve as molecular tile units that can assemble into precision supramolecular architectures.« less

  19. Self-assembly of crystalline nanotubes from monodisperse amphiphilic diblock copolypeptoid tiles

    SciT

    Sun, Jing; Jiang, Xi; Lund, Reidar

    The folding and assembly of sequence-defined polymers into precisely ordered nanostructures promises a class of well-defined biomimetic architectures with specific function. Amphiphilic diblock copolymers are known to self-assemble in water to form a variety of nanostructured morphologies including spheres, disks, cylinders, and vesicles. In all of these cases, the predominant driving force for assembly is the formation of a hydrophobic core that excludes water, whereas the hydrophilic blocks are solvated and extend into the aqueous phase. However, such polymer systems typically have broad molar mass distributions and lack the purity and sequence-defined structure often associated with biologically derived polymers. Here,more » we demonstrate that purified, monodisperse amphiphilic diblock copolypeptoids, with chemically distinct domains that are congruent in size and shape, can behave like molecular tile units that spontaneously assemble into hollow, crystalline nanotubes in water. The nanotubes consist of stacked, porous crystalline rings, and are held together primarily by side-chain van der Waals interactions. The peptoid nanotubes form without a central hydrophobic core, chirality, a hydrogen bond network, and electrostatic or π-π interactions. These results demonstrate the remarkable structure-directing influence of n-alkane and ethyleneoxy side chains in polymer self-assembly. More broadly, this work suggests that flexible, low-molecular-weight sequence-defined polymers can serve as molecular tile units that can assemble into precision supramolecular architectures.« less

  20. Synthesis and self-assembly of amphiphilic polymeric microparticles.

    PubMed

    Dendukuri, Dhananjay; Hatton, T Alan; Doyle, Patrick S

    2007-04-10

    We report the synthesis and self-assembly of amphiphilic, nonspherical, polymeric microparticles. Wedge-shaped particles bearing segregated hydrophilic and hydrophobic sections were synthesized in a microfludic channel by polymerizing across laminar coflowing streams of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers using continuous flow lithography (CFL). Particle monodispersity was characterized by measuring both the size of the particles formed and the extent of amphiphilicity. The coefficient of variation (COV) was found to be less than 2.5% in all measured dimensions. Particle structure was further characterized by measuring the curvature of the interface between the sections and the extent of cross-linking using FTIR spectroscopy. The amphiphilic particles were allowed to self-assemble in water or at water-oil interfaces. In water, the geometry of the particles enabled the formation of micelle-like structures, while in emulsions, the particles migrated to the oil-water interface and oriented themselves to minimize their surface energy.

  1. Amphiphilic chitosan derivatives as carrier agents for rotenone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamari, Azlan; Aljafree, Nurul Farhana Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, the feasibility of amphiphilic chitosan derivatives, namely oleoyl carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMCs), N,N-dimethylhexadecyl carboxymethyl chitosan (DCMCs) and deoxycholic acid carboxymethyl chitosan (DACMCs) as carrier agents for rotenone in water-insoluble pesticide formulations was investigated. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer, CHN-O Elemental Analyser (CHN-O) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were used to characterise amphiphilic chitosan derivatives. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of amphiphilic chitosan derivatives was determined using a Fluorescence Spectrometer. A High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the ability of OCMCs, DCMCs and DACMCs to load and release rotenone in an in vitro system. Based on TEM analysis, results have shown that amphiphilic chitosan derivatives formed self-assembly and exhibited spherical shape. The CMC values determined for OCMCs, DCMCs and DACMCs were 0.093, 0.098 and 0.468 mg/mL, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) values for the materials were more than 97.0%, meanwhile the loading capacity (LC) values were greater than 0.90%. OCMCs, DCMCs and DACMCs micelles exhibited an excellent ability to control the release of rotenone, of which 90.0% of rotenone was released within 40 to 52 h. In conclusion, OCMCs, DCMCs and DACMCs possess several key features to act as effective carrier agents for rotenone. Overall, amphiphilic chitosan derivatives produced in this study were successfully increased the solubility of rotenone by 49.0 times higher than free rotenone.

  2. TRIANGLE-SHAPED DC CORONA DISCHARGE DEVICE FOR MOLECULAR DECOMPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the evaluation of electrostatic DC corona discharge devices for the application of molecular decomposition. A point-to-plane geometry corona device with a rectangular cross section demonstrated low decomposition efficiencies in earlier experimental work. The n...

  3. Dynamic stability of nano-fibers self-assembled from short amphiphilic A6D peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoofard, Narges; Maghsoodi, Fahimeh

    2018-04-01

    Self-assembly of A6D amphiphilic peptides in explicit water is studied by using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. It is observed that the self-assembly of randomly distributed A6D peptides leads to the formation of a network of nano-fibers. Two other simulations with cylindrical nano-fibers as the initial configuration show the dynamic stability of the self-assembled nano-fibers. As a striking feature, notable fluctuations occur along the axes of the nano-fibers. Depending on the number of peptides per unit length of the nano-fiber, flat-shaped bulges or spiral shapes along the nano-fiber axis are observed at the fluctuations. Analysis of the particle distribution around the nano-fiber indicates that the hydrophobic core and the hydrophilic shell of the nano-structure are preserved in both simulations. The size of the deformations and their correlation times are different in the two simulations. This study gives new insights into the dynamics of the self-assembled nano-structures of short amphiphilic peptides.

  4. Dynamic stability of nano-fibers self-assembled from short amphiphilic A6D peptides.

    PubMed

    Nikoofard, Narges; Maghsoodi, Fahimeh

    2018-04-07

    Self-assembly of A 6 D amphiphilic peptides in explicit water is studied by using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. It is observed that the self-assembly of randomly distributed A 6 D peptides leads to the formation of a network of nano-fibers. Two other simulations with cylindrical nano-fibers as the initial configuration show the dynamic stability of the self-assembled nano-fibers. As a striking feature, notable fluctuations occur along the axes of the nano-fibers. Depending on the number of peptides per unit length of the nano-fiber, flat-shaped bulges or spiral shapes along the nano-fiber axis are observed at the fluctuations. Analysis of the particle distribution around the nano-fiber indicates that the hydrophobic core and the hydrophilic shell of the nano-structure are preserved in both simulations. The size of the deformations and their correlation times are different in the two simulations. This study gives new insights into the dynamics of the self-assembled nano-structures of short amphiphilic peptides.

  5. Molecular mechanisms controlling pavement cell shape in Arabidopsis leaves.

    PubMed

    Qian, Pingping; Hou, Suiwen; Guo, Guangqin

    2009-08-01

    Pavement cells have an interlocking jigsaw puzzle-shaped leaf surface pattern. Twenty-three genes involved in the pavement cell morphogenesis were discovered until now. The mutations of these genes through various means lead to pavement cell shape defects, such as loss or lack of interdigitation, the reduction of lobing, gaps between lobe and neck regions in pavement cells, and distorted trichomes. These phenotypes are affected by the organization of microtubules and microfilaments. Microtubule bands are considered corresponding with the neck regions of the cell, while lobe formation depends on patches of microfilaments. The pathway of Rho of plant (ROP) GTPase signaling cascades regulates overall activity of the cytoskeleton in pavement cells. Some other proteins, in addition to the ROPs, SCAR/WAVE, and ARP2/3 complexes, are also involved in the pavement cell morphogenesis.

  6. Study of Molecular-Shape Selectivity of Zeolites by Gas Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Pei-Yu; Chuang, Yao-Yuan; Ho, Grace Hsiuying; Chuang, Shiow-Huey; Tsai, Tseng-Chang; Lee, Chi-Young; Tsai, Shang-Tien; Huang, Jun-Fu

    2008-01-01

    A sorption experiment using a gas chromatograph is described that can help students understand the "molecular-shape selectivity" behavior of zeolites in the subnano regime. Hexane isomers are used as probe molecules to demonstrate the sorption phenomena. In the experiment, a zeolite adsorbs certain hexane isomers with molecular sizes smaller than…

  7. Structure-triboproperty in biobased amphiphiles

    Vegetable oils and their derivatives are amphiphilic and display a number of properties critical to their application in tribological processes. Among such properties are: viscosity, viscosity index, oxidation stability, cold flow, boundary friction, etc. The properties of these biobased amphiphiles...

  8. Influence of Molecular Shape on the Thermal Stability and Molecular Orientation of Vapor-Deposited Organic Semiconductors

    SciT

    Walters, Diane M; Antony, Lucas; de Pablo, Juan

    High thermal stability and anisotropic molecular orientation enhance the performance of vapor-deposited organic semiconductors, but controlling these properties is a challenge in amorphous materials. To understand the influence of molecular shape on these properties, vapor-deposited glasses of three disk-shaped molecules were prepared. For all three systems, enhanced thermal stability is observed for glasses prepared over a wide range of substrate temperatures and anisotropic molecular orientation is observed at lower substrate temperatures. For two of the disk-shaped molecules, atomistic simulations of thin films were also performed and anisotropic molecular orientation was observed at the equilibrium liquid surface. We find that themore » structure and thermal stability of these vapor-deposited glasses results from high surface mobility and partial equilibration toward the structure of the equilibrium liquid surface during the deposition process. For the three molecules studied, molecular shape is a dominant factor in determining the anisotropy of vapor-deposited glasses.« less

  9. Amphiphiles for protein solubilization and stabilization

    DOEpatents

    Gellman, Samuel Helmer; Chae, Pil Seok; Laible, Philip D.; Wander, Marc J.

    2012-09-11

    The invention provides amphiphiles for manipulating membrane proteins. The amphiphiles can feature carbohydrate-derived hydrophilic groups and branchpoints in the hydrophilic moiety and/or in a lipophilic moiety. Such amphiphiles are useful as detergents for solubilization and stabilization of membrane proteins, including photosynthetic protein superassemblies obtained from bacterial membranes.

  10. Amphiphiles for protein solubilization and stabilization

    DOEpatents

    Gellman, Samuel Helmer; Chae, Pil Seok; Laible, Phillip D; Wander, Marc J

    2014-11-04

    The invention provides amphiphiles for manipulating membrane proteins. The amphiphiles can feature carbohydrate-derived hydrophilic groups and branchpoints in the hydrophilic moiety and/or in a lipophilic moiety. Such amphiphiles are useful as detergents for solubilization and stabilization of membrane proteins, including photosynthetic protein superassemblies obtained from bacterial membranes.

  11. InN island shape and its dependence on growth condition of molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Y. G.; Xie, M. H.; Liu, Y.; Ng, Y. F.; Wu, H. S.; Tong, S. Y.

    2003-12-01

    During molecular-beam epitaxy of InN films on GaN(0001) surface, three-dimensional (3D) islands are observed following an initial wetting layer formation. Depending on deposition condition, the 3D islands take different shapes. Pyramidal islands form when excess nitrogen fluxes are used, whereas pillar-shaped islands are obtained when excess indium fluxes are employed. The pillar-shaped islands are identified to represent the equilibrium shape, whereas the pyramidal ones are limited by kinetics. As the size of islands increases, their aspect ratio shows a decreasing trend, which is attributed to a gradual relaxation of strain in the layer by defects.

  12. Self-assembling amphiphilic peptides†

    PubMed Central

    Dehsorkhi, Ashkan; Castelletto, Valeria; Hamley, Ian W

    2014-01-01

    The self-assembly of several classes of amphiphilic peptides is reviewed, and selected applications are discussed. We discuss recent work on the self-assembly of lipopeptides, surfactant-like peptides and amyloid peptides derived from the amyloid-β peptide. The influence of environmental variables such as pH and temperature on aggregate nanostructure is discussed. Enzyme-induced remodelling due to peptide cleavage and nanostructure control through photocleavage or photo-cross-linking are also considered. Lastly, selected applications of amphiphilic peptides in biomedicine and materials science are outlined. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24729276

  13. Serotonin neuron development: shaping molecular and structural identities.

    PubMed

    Deneris, Evan; Gaspar, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    The continuing fascination with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) as a nervous system chemical messenger began with its discovery in the brains of mammals in 1953. Among the many reasons for this decades-long interest is that the small numbers of neurons that make 5-HT influence the excitability of neural circuits in nearly every region of the brain and spinal cord. A further reason is that 5-HT dysfunction has been linked to a range of psychiatric and neurological disorders many of which have a neurodevelopmental component. This has led to intense interest in understanding 5-HT neuron development with the aim of determining whether early alterations in their generation lead to brain disease susceptibility. Here, we present an overview of the neuroanatomical organization of vertebrate 5-HT neurons, their neurogenesis, and prodigious axonal architectures, which enables the expansive reach of 5-HT neuromodulation in the central nervous system. We review recent findings that have revealed the molecular basis for the tremendous diversity of 5-HT neuron subtypes, the impact of environmental factors on 5-HT neuron development, and how 5-HT axons are topographically organized through disparate signaling pathways. We summarize studies of the gene regulatory networks that control the differentiation, maturation, and maintenance of 5-HT neurons. These studies show that the regulatory factors controlling acquisition of 5-HT-type transmitter identity continue to play critical roles in the functional maturation and the maintenance of 5-HT neurons. New insights are presented into how continuously expressed 5-HT regulatory factors control 5-HT neurons at different stages of life and how the regulatory networks themselves are maintained. WIREs Dev Biol 2018, 7:e301. doi: 10.1002/wdev.301 This article is categorized under: Nervous System Development > Vertebrates: General Principles Gene Expression and Transcriptional Hierarchies > Gene Networks and Genomics Gene Expression and

  14. SABRE: ligand/structure-based virtual screening approach using consensus molecular-shape pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ning-Ning; Hamza, Adel

    2014-01-27

    We present an efficient and rational ligand/structure shape-based virtual screening approach combining our previous ligand shape-based similarity SABRE (shape-approach-based routines enhanced) and the 3D shape of the receptor binding site. Our approach exploits the pharmacological preferences of a number of known active ligands to take advantage of the structural diversities and chemical similarities, using a linear combination of weighted molecular shape density. Furthermore, the algorithm generates a consensus molecular-shape pattern recognition that is used to filter and place the candidate structure into the binding pocket. The descriptor pool used to construct the consensus molecular-shape pattern consists of four dimensional (4D) fingerprints generated from the distribution of conformer states available to a molecule and the 3D shapes of a set of active ligands computed using SABRE software. The virtual screening efficiency of SABRE was validated using the Database of Useful Decoys (DUD) and the filtered version (WOMBAT) of 10 DUD targets. The ligand/structure shape-based similarity SABRE algorithm outperforms several other widely used virtual screening methods which uses the data fusion of multiscreening tools (2D and 3D fingerprints) and demonstrates a superior early retrieval rate of active compounds (EF(0.1%) = 69.0% and EF(1%) = 98.7%) from a large size of ligand database (∼95,000 structures). Therefore, our developed similarity approach can be of particular use for identifying active compounds that are similar to reference molecules and predicting activity against other targets (chemogenomics). An academic license of the SABRE program is available on request.

  15. SHAPEMOL: Modelling molecular line emission in protoplanetary and planetary nebulae with SHAPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santander-García, M.; Bujarrabal, V.; Steffen, W.; Koning, N.

    2014-04-01

    Modern instrumentation in radioastronomy constitutes a valuable tool for studying the Universe: ALMA will reach unprecedented sensitivities and spatial resolution, while Herschel/HIFI has opened a new window for probing molecular warm gas (˜50-1000 K). On the other hand, the SHAPE software has emerged in the last few years as the standard tool for determining the morphology and velocity field of different kinds of gaseous emission nebulae via spatio-kinematical modelling. Standard SHAPE implements radiative transfer solving, but it is only available for atomic species and not for molecules. Being aware of the growing importance of the development of tools for easying the analyses of molecular data from new era observatories, we introduce the computer code shapemol, a plug-in for SHAPE v5.0 with which we intend to fill the so far empty molecular niche. Shapemol enables spatio-kinematic modeling with accurate non-LTE calculations of line excitation and radiative transfer in molecular species. This code has been succesfully tested in the study of the excitation conditions of the molecular envelope of the young planetary nebula NGC 7027 using data from Herschel/HIFI and IRAM 30m. Currently, it allows radiative transfer solving in the 12CO and 13CO J=1-0 to J=17-16 lines. Shapemol, used along SHAPE, allows to easily generate synthetic maps to test against interferometric observations, as well as synthetic line profiles to match single-dish observations.

  16. Behavior of atypical amphiphilic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, John

    1997-08-01

    The physical behavior of several atypical amphiphilic molecules was studied in various environments including micelles, model bilayer membranes, and emulsions. The molecules under investigation were nor-chenodeoxycholic acid (nor-CDCA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), sphingosine (Sp), sphingosine hydrochloride (SpċHCl), and tetrahydrolipstatin (THL). The bile acids, nor-CDCA and UDCA, were studied using 13C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ([13C) -NMR) in micelles of taurocholate and in bilayers of phosphatidylcholine. The pK a values of the bile acids in each environment were determined by [13C) -NMR and are as follows: 6.08 ±.03 for nor-CDCA and 6.27 ±.01 for UDCA in micelles, and 7.04 ± 12 for nor-CDCA and 6.89 ±.05 for UDCA in vesicles. Using line shape analysis, the transbilayer movement rate at 36oC for nor-CDCA and UDCA was calculated to be 580 sec--1 and 409 sec-1, respectively. [13C) -NMR titration of Sp gave pK a values of 9.09 ±.02 in micelles and 9.69 ±.21 in bilayers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction were used to establish the Spċwater and SpċHClċwater phase diagrams. Anhydrous and hydrated samples ranging from 5- 90% water were analyzed. The DSC thermograms traced out the transition temperatures of each molecule while the X- ray diffraction patterns revealed their chain and crystalline lattice packing structures. In general, sphingosine exists as a hydrated crystal with β packing phase below 43oC and melts into an Lα phase. Sphingosine hydrochloride, however, exists as a gel phase (L_beta or /beta/sp') below 42oC that swells to 61% hydration. At low water concentrations (0-64%), a lamellar liquid crystal phase (L_alpha) is formed above the chain melting transition of 42oC. At medium concentration (65%), a Hexagonal I phase is present, and at high water concentrations (66-90%), a micellar phase is present. THL, a specific inhibitor of lipases, was analyzed with [ 13C) -NMR to study its behavior in various environments

  17. Manipulation of Molecular Weight Distribution Shape as a New Strategy to Control Processing Parameters.

    PubMed

    Nadgorny, Milena; Gentekos, Dillon T; Xiao, Zeyun; Singleton, S Parker; Fors, Brett P; Connal, Luke A

    2017-10-01

    Molecular weight and dispersity (Ð) influence physical and rheological properties of polymers, which are of significant importance in polymer processing technologies. However, these parameters provide only partial information about the precise composition of polymers, which is reflected by the shape and symmetry of molecular weight distribution (MWD). In this work, the effect of MWD symmetry on thermal and rheological properties of polymers with identical molecular weights and Ð is demonstrated. Remarkably, when the MWD is skewed to higher molecular weight, a higher glass transition temperature (T g ), increased stiffness, increased thermal stability, and higher apparent viscosities are observed. These observed differences are attributed to the chain length composition of the polymers, easily controlled by the synthetic strategy. This work demonstrates a versatile approach to engineer the properties of polymers using controlled synthesis to skew the shape of MWD. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. SHAPEMOL: the companion to SHAPE in the molecular era of ALMA and HERSCHEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santander-García, M.; Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.

    2013-05-01

    Modern instrumentation in radioastronomy constitutes a valuable tool for studying the Universe: ALMA will reach unprecedented sensitivities and spatial resolution, while Herschel/HIFI has opened a new window (most of the sub-mm and far infrared ranges are only accessible from space) for probing molecular warm gas (˜50-1000 K), complementing ground-based telescopes, which are better suited to study molecular molecular gas with temperatures under ˜100 K. On the other hand, the SHAPE software has emerged in the last few years as the standard tool for determinging the morphology and velocity field of different kinds of gaseous nebulae (mainly planetary nebulae, protoplanetary nebulae and nebulae around massive stars, although it can also be applied to H II regions and molecular clouds) via spatio-kinematical modelling. Standard SHAPE implements radiative transfer solving, but it is only available for atomic species and not for molecules. Being aware of the growing importance of the development of tools for easying the analyses of molecular data from new era observatories, we introduce the computer code shapemol, a plug-in for SHAPE with which we intend to fill the so far empty molecular niche. shapemol enables spatio-kinematic modeling with accurate non-LTE calculations of line excitation and radiative transfer in molecular species. This code has been succesfully tested in the study of the excitation conditions of the molecular envelope of the planetary nebula NGC 7027 using data from Herschel/HIFI and IRAM 30m. Currently, it allows radiative transfer solving in the ^{12}CO and ^{13}CO J=1-0 to J=17-16 lines. shapemol, used along SHAPE, allows to easily generate synthetic maps to test against interferometric observations, as well as synthetic line profiles to match single-dish observations.

  19. Influence of temperature on the rhombic shape of paracetamol molecular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, A. P.; Rubets, V. P.; Antipov, V. V.

    2017-04-01

    The method of differential scanning ellipsometry has been used to study the influence of heating on the rhombic shape of paracetamol molecular crystals. Rhombic molecular paracetamol crystals have been synthesized in vacuum from the vapor phase of paracetamol as a result of complex transformation, which includes a second-order transition that gives rise to a pretransition phase. It has been found that these crystals contain monoclinic nuclei, which favor the form I-to-form II polymorphic transformation during heating.

  20. Benchmarking of HPCC: A novel 3D molecular representation combining shape and pharmacophoric descriptors for efficient molecular similarity assessments.

    PubMed

    Karaboga, Arnaud S; Petronin, Florent; Marchetti, Gino; Souchet, Michel; Maigret, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    Since 3D molecular shape is an important determinant of biological activity, designing accurate 3D molecular representations is still of high interest. Several chemoinformatic approaches have been developed to try to describe accurate molecular shapes. Here, we present a novel 3D molecular description, namely harmonic pharma chemistry coefficient (HPCC), combining a ligand-centric pharmacophoric description projected onto a spherical harmonic based shape of a ligand. The performance of HPCC was evaluated by comparison to the standard ROCS software in a ligand-based virtual screening (VS) approach using the publicly available directory of useful decoys (DUD) data set comprising over 100,000 compounds distributed across 40 protein targets. Our results were analyzed using commonly reported statistics such as the area under the curve (AUC) and normalized sum of logarithms of ranks (NSLR) metrics. Overall, our HPCC 3D method is globally as efficient as the state-of-the-art ROCS software in terms of enrichment and slightly better for more than half of the DUD targets. Since it is largely admitted that VS results depend strongly on the nature of the protein families, we believe that the present HPCC solution is of interest over the current ligand-based VS methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations Reveal an Interplay between SHAPE Reagent Binding and RNA Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Mlýnský, Vojtěch; Bussi, Giovanni

    2018-01-18

    The function of RNA molecules usually depends on their overall fold and on the presence of specific structural motifs. Chemical probing methods are routinely used in combination with nearest-neighbor models to determine RNA secondary structure. Among the available methods, SHAPE is relevant due to its capability to probe all RNA nucleotides and the possibility to be used in vivo. However, the structural determinants for SHAPE reactivity and its mechanism of reaction are still unclear. Here molecular dynamics simulations and enhanced sampling techniques are used to predict the accessibility of nucleotide analogs and larger RNA structural motifs to SHAPE reagents. We show that local RNA reconformations are crucial in allowing reagents to reach the 2'-OH group of a particular nucleotide and that sugar pucker is a major structural factor influencing SHAPE reactivity.

  2. Amphiphile-Induced Reorganization of Nematic Liquid Crystals at Aqueous Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Amin; Ramezani-Dakhel, Hadi; Pendery, Joel; Abbott, Nicholas; de Pablo, Juan; Juan de Pablo Team, Prof; Nicholas Abbott Collaboration, Prof

    Recent studies have shown that ordering transitions in 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) molecules can be triggered by the self-assembly of specific amphiphiles near a flat aqueous-LC interface. In the absence of adsorbed amphiphiles, LC molecules adopt a parallel orientation at the aqueous interface. Self-assembly of amphiphile molecules at the LC-aqueous interface triggers a spontaneous reorientation of the LC at the aqueous interface. A number of observations indicate that the hydrophilic headgroup of the surfactant has marginal effect on the orientation of 5CB whereas the aliphatic tail structure, length, and conformation greatly affect the ordering of the LC. The structural reorganization of liquid crystals at aqueous interfaces has been primarily ascribed to a weakening of the surface anchoring strength induced by amphiphile molecules. Such explanations, however, have only been supported by a posteriorimicroscopic observations. The underlying mechanism of such an ordering transition and the effect of amphiphile structure remain poorly understood. Here, we study the nature of molecular interactions between amphiphiles, 5CB, and water to understand the mechanism of ordering transitions using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations.

  3. Adsorption of different amphiphilic molecules onto polystyrene latices.

    PubMed

    Jódar-Reyes, A B; Ortega-Vinuesa, J L; Martín-Rodríguez, A

    2005-02-15

    In order to know the influence of the surface characteristics and the chain properties on the adsorption of amphiphilic molecules onto polystyrene latex, a set of experiments to study the adsorption of ionic surfactants, nonionic surfactants and an amphiphilic synthetic peptide on different latex dispersions was performed. The adsorbed amount versus the equilibrium surfactant concentration was determined. The main adsorption mechanism was the hydrophobic attraction between the nonpolar tail of the molecule and the hydrophobic regions of the latex surface. This attraction overcame the electrostatic repulsion between chains and latex surface with identical charge sign. However, the electrostatic interactions chain-surface and chain-chain also played a role. General patterns for the adsorption of ionic chains on charged latex surfaces could be established. Regarding the shape, the isotherms presented different plateaus corresponding to electrostatic effects and conformational changes. The surfactant size also affects the adsorption results: the higher the hydrophilic moiety in the surfactant molecule the lower the adsorbed amount.

  4. Drug-polymer interactions at water-crystal interfaces and implications for crystallization inhibition: molecular dynamics simulations of amphiphilic block copolymer interactions with tolazamide crystals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi; Olsen, Kenneth W

    2015-07-01

    A diblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA), modulates the crystal growth of tolazamide (TLZ), resulting in a crystal morphology change from needles to plates in aqueous media. To understand this crystal surface drug-polymer interaction, we conducted molecular dynamics simulations on crystal surfaces of TLZ in water containing PEG-b-PLA. A 130-ns simulation of the polymer in a large water box was run before initiating 50 ns simulations with each of the crystal surfaces. The simulations demonstrated differentiated drug-polymer interactions that are consistent with experimental studies. Interaction of PEG-b-PLA with the (001) face occurred more rapidly (≤10 ns) and strongly (total interaction energy of -121.1 kJ/mol/monomer) than that with the (010) face (∼35 ns, -85.4 kJ/mol/monomer). There was little interaction with the (100) face. Hydrophobic and van der Waals (VDW) interactions were the dominant forces, accounting for more than 90% of total interaction energies. It suggests that polymers capable of forming strong hydrophobic and VDW interactions might be more effective in inhibiting crystallization of poorly water-soluble and hydrophobic drugs in aqueous media (such as gastrointestinal fluid) than those with hydrogen-bonding capacities. Such in-depth analysis and understanding facilitate the rational selection of polymers in designing supersaturation-based enabling formulations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Molecular chirality and domain shapes in lipid monolayers on aqueous surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Peter; Lösche, Mathias

    2000-11-01

    The shapes of domain boundaries in the mesoscopic phase separation of phospholipids in aqueous surface monolayers are analyzed with particular attention to the influence of molecular chirality. We have calculated equilibrium shapes of such boundaries, and show that the concept of spontaneous curvature-derived from an effective pair potential between the chiral molecules-yields an adequate description of the contribution of chirality to the total energy of the system. For enantiomeric dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine in pure monolayers, and in mixtures with impurities that adsorb preferentially at the (one-dimensional) boundary line between the isotropic and anisotropic fluid phases, such as cyanobiphenyl (5CB), a total energy term that includes line tension, electrostatic dipole-dipole interaction, and spontaneous curvature is sufficient to describe the shapes of well-separated domain boundaries in full detail. As soon as interdomain distances fall below the domain sizes upon compression of a monolayer, fluctuations take over in determining its detailed structural morphology. Using Minkowski measures for the well-studied dimyristoyl phosphatidic acid (DMPA)/cholesterol system, we show that calculations accounting for line tension, electrostatic repulsion, and molecular chirality yield boundary shapes that are of the same topology as the experimentally observed structures. At a fixed molecular area in the phase coexistence region, the DMPA/cholesterol system undergoes an exponential decay of the line tension λ with decreasing subphase temperature T.

  6. On the Symmetry of Molecular Flows Through the Pipe of an Arbitrary Shape (I) Diffusive Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusumoto, Yoshiro

    Molecular gas flows through the pipe of an arbitrary shape is mathematically considered based on a diffusive reflection model. To avoid a perpetual motion, the magnitude of the molecular flow rate must remain invariant under the exchange of inlet and outlet pressures. For this flow symmetry, the cosine law reflection at the pipe wall was found to be sufficient and necessary, on the assumption that the molecular flux is conserved in a collision with the wall. It was also shown that a spontaneous flow occurs in a hemispherical apparatus, if the reflection obeys the n-th power of cosine law with n other than unity. This apparatus could work as a molecular pump with no moving parts.

  7. Molecular Modeling of Lipid Membrane Curvature Induction by a Peptide: More than Simply Shape

    PubMed Central

    Sodt, Alexander J.; Pastor, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of an amphipathic helix embedded in a lipid bilayer indicate that it will induce substantial positive curvature (e.g., a tube of diameter 20 nm at 16% surface coverage). The induction is twice that of a continuum model prediction that only considers the shape of the inclusion. The discrepancy is explained in terms of the additional presence of specific interactions described only by the molecular model. The conclusion that molecular shape alone is insufficient to quantitatively model curvature is supported by contrasting molecular and continuum models of lipids with large and small headgroups (choline and ethanolamine, respectively), and of the removal of a lipid tail (modeling a lyso-lipid). For the molecular model, curvature propensity is analyzed by computing the derivative of the free energy with respect to bending. The continuum model predicts that the inclusion will soften the bilayer near the headgroup region, an effect that may weaken curvature induction. The all-atom predictions are consistent with experimental observations of the degree of tubulation by amphipathic helices and variation of the free energy of binding to liposomes. PMID:24806928

  8. Coarse-grained simulation of molecular mechanisms of recovery in thermally activated shape-memory polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abberton, Brendan C.; Liu, Wing Kam; Keten, Sinan

    2013-12-01

    Thermally actuated shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are capable of being programmed into a temporary shape and then recovering their permanent reference shape upon exposure to heat, which facilitates a phase transition that allows dramatic increase in molecular mobility. Experimental, analytical, and computational studies have established empirical relations of the thermomechanical behavior of SMPs that have been instrumental in device design. However, the underlying mechanisms of the recovery behavior and dependence on polymer microstructure remain to be fully understood for copolymer systems. This presents an opportunity for bottom-up studies through molecular modeling; however, the limited time-scales of atomistic simulations prohibit the study of key performance metrics pertaining to recovery. In order to elucidate the effects of phase fraction, recovery temperature, and deformation temperature on shape recovery, here we investigate the shape-memory behavior in a copolymer model with coarse-grained potentials using a two-phase molecular model that reproduces physical crosslinking. Our simulation protocol allows observation of upwards of 90% strain recovery in some cases, at time-scales that are on the order of the timescale of the relevant relaxation mechanism (stress relaxation in the unentangled soft-phase). Partial disintegration of the glassy phase during mechanical deformation is found to contribute to irrecoverable strain. Temperature dependence of the recovery indicates nearly full elastic recovery above the trigger temperature, which is near the glass-transition temperature of the rubbery switching matrix. We find that the trigger temperature is also directly correlated with the deformation temperature, indicating that deformation temperature influences the recovery temperatures required to obtain a given amount of shape recovery, until the plateau regions overlap above the transition region. Increasing the fraction of glassy phase results in higher strain

  9. Prebiotic Lipidic Amphiphiles and Condensing Agents on the Early Earth

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Michele; Strazewski, Peter

    2016-01-01

    It is still uncertain how the first minimal cellular systems evolved to the complexity required for life to begin, but it is obvious that the role of amphiphilic compounds in the origin of life is one of huge relevance. Over the last four decades a number of studies have demonstrated how amphiphilic molecules can be synthesized under plausibly prebiotic conditions. The majority of these experiments also gave evidence for the ability of so formed amphiphiles to assemble in closed membranes of vesicles that, in principle, could have compartmented first biological processes on early Earth, including the emergence of self-replicating systems. For a competitive selection of the best performing molecular replicators to become operative, some kind of bounded units capable of harboring them are indispensable. Without the competition between dynamic populations of different compartments, life itself could not be distinguished from an otherwise disparate array or network of molecular interactions. In this review, we describe experiments that demonstrate how different prebiotically-available building blocks can become precursors of phospholipids that form vesicles. We discuss the experimental conditions that resemble plausibly those of the early Earth (or elsewhere) and consider the analytical methods that were used to characterize synthetic products. Two brief sections focus on phosphorylating agents, catalysts and coupling agents with particular attention given to their geochemical context. In Section 5, we describe how condensing agents such as cyanamide and urea can promote the abiotic synthesis of phospholipids. We conclude the review by reflecting on future studies of phospholipid compartments, particularly, on evolvable chemical systems that include giant vesicles composed of different lipidic amphiphiles. PMID:27043635

  10. Gadolinium-Functionalized Peptide Amphiphile Micelles for Multimodal Imaging of Atherosclerotic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally are cardiovascular diseases, and nanomedicine can provide many improvements including disease-specific targeting, early detection, and local delivery of diagnostic agents. To this end, we designed fibrin-binding, peptide amphiphile micelles (PAMs), achieved by incorporating the targeting peptide cysteine-arginine-glutamic acid-lysine-alanine (CREKA), with two types of amphiphilic molecules containing the gadoliniuim (Gd) chelator diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), DTPA-bis(stearylamide)(Gd), and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[(poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG))-2000]-DTPA(Gd) (DSPE-PEG2000-DTPA(Gd)). The material characteristics of the resulting nanoparticle diagnostic probes, clot-binding properties in vitro, and contrast enhancement and safety for dual, optical imaging–magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were evaluated in the atherosclerotic mouse model. Transmission electron micrographs showed a homogenous population of spherical micelles for formulations containing DSPE-PEG2000-DTPA(Gd), whereas both spherical and cylindrical micelles were formed upon mixing DTPA-BSA(Gd) and CREKA amphiphiles. Clot-binding assays confirmed DSPE-PEG2000-DTPA(Gd)-based CREKA micelles targeted clots over 8-fold higher than nontargeting (NT) counterpart micelles, whereas no difference was found between CREKA and NT, DTPA-BSA(Gd) micelles. However, in vivo MRI and optical imaging studies of the aortas and hearts showed fibrin specificity was conferred by the peptide ligand without much difference between the nanoparticle formulations or shapes. Biodistribution studies confirmed that all micelles were cleared through both the reticuloendothelial system and renal clearance, and histology showed no signs of necrosis. In summary, these studies demonstrate the successful synthesis, and the molecular imaging capabilities of two types of CREKA-Gd PAMs for atherosclerosis. Moreover, we demonstrate the differences in

  11. A Direct, Quantitative Connection between Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Vibrational Probe Line Shapes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rosalind J; Blasiak, Bartosz; Cho, Minhaeng; Layfield, Joshua P; Londergan, Casey H

    2018-05-17

    A quantitative connection between molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational spectroscopy of probe-labeled systems would enable direct translation of experimental data into structural and dynamical information. To constitute this connection, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed for two SCN probe sites (solvent-exposed and buried) in a calmodulin-target peptide complex. Two frequency calculation approaches with substantial nonelectrostatic components, a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM)-based technique and a solvatochromic fragment potential (SolEFP) approach, were used to simulate the infrared probe line shapes. While QM/MM results disagreed with experiment, SolEFP results matched experimental frequencies and line shapes and revealed the physical and dynamic bases for the observed spectroscopic behavior. The main determinant of the CN probe frequency is the exchange repulsion between the probe and its local structural neighbors, and there is a clear dynamic explanation for the relatively broad probe line shape observed at the "buried" probe site. This methodology should be widely applicable to vibrational probes in many environments.

  12. Configuration control on the shape memory stiffness of molecularly imprinted polymer for specific uptake of creatinine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Qian Yee; Zolkeflay, Muhammad Helmi; Low, Siew Chun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, sol-gel processing was proposed to prepare a creatinine (Cre)-imprinted molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). The intermolecular interaction constituted by the cross-linkers, i.e., 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid (AMPS) and aluminium ion (Al3+), was studied and compared in order to form a confined matrix that promises the effectiveness of molecular imprinting. In view of the shape recognition, the hydrogen bonded Cre-AMPS did not demonstrate good recognition of Cre, with Cre binding found only at 5.70 ± 0.15 mg g-1 of MIP. Whilst, MIP cross-linked using Al3+ was able to attain an excellent Cre adsorption capacity of 19.48 ± 0.64 mg g-1 of MIP via the stronger ionic interaction of Cre-Al3+. Based on the Scatchard analysis, a higher Cre concentration in testing solution required greater driving force to resolve the binding resistance of Cre molecules, so as to have a precise Cre binding with shape factor. The molecular recognition ability of Cre-MIP in present work was shape-specific for Cre as compared to its structural analogue, 2-pyrrolidinone (2-pyr), by an ideal selectivity coefficient of 6.57 ± 0.10. In overall, this study has come up with a practical approach on the preparation of MIP for the detection of renal dysfunction by point-of-care Cre testing.

  13. Animal Hairs as Water-stimulated Shape Memory Materials: Mechanism and Structural Networks in Molecular Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xueliang; Hu, Jinlian

    2016-01-01

    Animal hairs consisting of α-keratin biopolymers existing broadly in nature may be responsive to water for recovery to the innate shape from their fixed deformation, thus possess smart behavior, namely shape memory effect (SME). In this article, three typical animal hair fibers were first time investigated for their water-stimulated SME, and therefrom to identify the corresponding net-points and switches in their molecular and morphological structures. Experimentally, the SME manifested a good stability of high shape fixation ratio and reasonable recovery rate after many cycles of deformation programming under water stimulation. The effects of hydration on hair lateral size, recovery kinetics, dynamic mechanical behaviors and structural components (crystal, disulfide and hydrogen bonds) were then systematically studied. SME mechanisms were explored based on the variations of structural components in molecular assemblies of such smart fibers. A hybrid structural network model with single-switch and twin-net-points was thereafter proposed to interpret the water-stimulated shape memory mechanism of animal hairs. This original work is expected to provide inspiration for exploring other natural materials to reveal their smart functions and natural laws in animals including human as well as making more remarkable synthetic smart materials. PMID:27230823

  14. Animal Hairs as Water-stimulated Shape Memory Materials: Mechanism and Structural Networks in Molecular Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xueliang; Hu, Jinlian

    2016-05-01

    Animal hairs consisting of α-keratin biopolymers existing broadly in nature may be responsive to water for recovery to the innate shape from their fixed deformation, thus possess smart behavior, namely shape memory effect (SME). In this article, three typical animal hair fibers were first time investigated for their water-stimulated SME, and therefrom to identify the corresponding net-points and switches in their molecular and morphological structures. Experimentally, the SME manifested a good stability of high shape fixation ratio and reasonable recovery rate after many cycles of deformation programming under water stimulation. The effects of hydration on hair lateral size, recovery kinetics, dynamic mechanical behaviors and structural components (crystal, disulfide and hydrogen bonds) were then systematically studied. SME mechanisms were explored based on the variations of structural components in molecular assemblies of such smart fibers. A hybrid structural network model with single-switch and twin-net-points was thereafter proposed to interpret the water-stimulated shape memory mechanism of animal hairs. This original work is expected to provide inspiration for exploring other natural materials to reveal their smart functions and natural laws in animals including human as well as making more remarkable synthetic smart materials.

  15. From Vesicles to Protocells: The Roles of Amphiphilic Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Yuka; Imai, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    It is very challenging to construct protocells from molecular assemblies. An important step in this challenge is the achievement of vesicle dynamics that are relevant to cellular functions, such as membrane trafficking and self-reproduction, using amphiphilic molecules. Soft matter physics will play an important role in the development of vesicles that have these functions. Here, we show that simple binary phospholipid vesicles have the potential to reproduce the relevant functions of adhesion, pore formation and self-reproduction of vesicles, by coupling the lipid geometries (spontaneous curvatures) and the phase separation. This achievement will elucidate the pathway from molecular assembly to cellular life. PMID:25738256

  16. Templated Formation of Luminescent Virus-like Particles by Tailor-Made Pt(II) Amphiphiles

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) have been created from luminescent Pt(II) complex amphiphiles, able to form supramolecular structures in water solutions, that can be encapsulated or act as templates of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid proteins. By virtue of a bottom-up molecular design, icosahedral and nonicosahedral (rod-like) VLPs have been constructed through diverse pathways, and a relationship between the molecular structure of the complexes and the shape and size of the VLPs has been observed. A deep insight into the mechanism for the templated formation of the differently shaped VLPs was achieved, by electron microscopy measurements (TEM and STEM) and bulk analysis (FPLC, DLS, photophysical investigations). Interestingly, the obtained VLPs can be visualized by their intense emission at room temperature, generated by the self-assembly of the Pt(II) complexes. The encapsulation of the luminescent species is further verified by their higher emission quantum yields inside the VLPs, which is due to the confinement effect of the protein cage. These hybrid materials demonstrate the potential of tailor-made supramolecular systems able to control the assembly of biological building blocks. PMID:29357236

  17. Templated Formation of Luminescent Virus-like Particles by Tailor-Made Pt(II) Amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Stephan; Yang, Liulin; Biedermann, Frank; Wang, Di; Kübel, Christian; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; De Cola, Luisa

    2018-02-14

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) have been created from luminescent Pt(II) complex amphiphiles, able to form supramolecular structures in water solutions, that can be encapsulated or act as templates of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid proteins. By virtue of a bottom-up molecular design, icosahedral and nonicosahedral (rod-like) VLPs have been constructed through diverse pathways, and a relationship between the molecular structure of the complexes and the shape and size of the VLPs has been observed. A deep insight into the mechanism for the templated formation of the differently shaped VLPs was achieved, by electron microscopy measurements (TEM and STEM) and bulk analysis (FPLC, DLS, photophysical investigations). Interestingly, the obtained VLPs can be visualized by their intense emission at room temperature, generated by the self-assembly of the Pt(II) complexes. The encapsulation of the luminescent species is further verified by their higher emission quantum yields inside the VLPs, which is due to the confinement effect of the protein cage. These hybrid materials demonstrate the potential of tailor-made supramolecular systems able to control the assembly of biological building blocks.

  18. Proteomic analysis of amphiphilic proteins of hexaploid wheat kernels.

    PubMed

    Amiour, Nardjis; Merlino, Marielle; Leroy, Philippe; Branlard, Gérard

    2002-06-01

    Wheat proteins and specially gluten proteins have been well studied and are closely associated with baking products. Amphiphilic proteins (proteins that are soluble using nonionic detergent Triton X-114 ) also play an important role in wheat quality. Some of them, like puroindolines, are lipid binding proteins, and are strongly linked to dough foaming properties and to fine crumb texture. However many amphiphilic proteins are still unknown and both their physiological and technological functions remain to be analysed. In order to explore these proteins, proteomic analysis was carried out using 81 F9 lines, progeny obtained from an interspecific cross "W7984"x"Opata", and already used to built a map of more than 2000 molecular markers (International Triticeae Mapping Initiative, ITMImap). Two-dimensional electrophoresis (immobilized pH gradient (pH 6-11)x sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) was performed on amphiphilic proteins with three to five replicates for each line. Silver stained gels were analysed using Melanie 3 software. Genetic determinism was carried out on 170 spots segregating between the two parental hexaploïd wheats. Many of these spots were mapped on different chromosomes of the ITMImap. Spots of interest were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight and some of them were partly sequenced using electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. This proteomic approach provided some very useful information about some proteic components linked to bread wheat quality and particularly to kernel hardness.

  19. Spider-web amphiphiles as artificial lipid clusters: design, synthesis, and accommodation of lipid components at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Urakawa, Toshihiro; Michiue, Atsuo; Kikuchi, Jun-ichi

    2004-08-03

    As a novel category of two-dimensional lipid clusters, dendrimers having an amphiphilic structure in every unit were synthesized and labeled "spider-web amphiphiles". Amphiphilic units based on a Lys-Lys-Glu tripeptide with hydrophobic tails at the C-terminal and a polar head at the N-terminal are dendrically connected through stepwise peptide coupling. This structural design allowed us to separately introduce the polar head and hydrophobic tails. Accordingly, we demonstrated the synthesis of the spider-web amphiphile series in three combinations: acetyl head/C16 chain, acetyl head/C18 chain, and ammonium head/C16 chain. All the spider-web amphiphiles were synthesized in satisfactory yields, and characterized by 1H NMR, MALDI-TOFMS, GPC, and elemental analyses. Surface pressure (pi)-molecular area (A) isotherms showed the formation of expanded monolayers except for the C18-chain amphiphile at 10 degrees C, for which the molecular area in the condensed phase is consistent with the cross-sectional area assigned for all the alkyl chains. In all the spider-web amphiphiles, the molecular areas at a given pressure in the expanded phase increased in proportion to the number of units, indicating that alkyl chains freely fill the inner space of the dendritic core. The mixing of octadecanoic acid with the spider-web amphiphiles at the air-water interface induced condensation of the molecular area. From the molecular area analysis, the inclusion of the octadecanoic acid bears a stoichiometric characteristic; i.e., the number of captured octadecanoic acids in the spider-web amphiphile roughly agrees with the number of branching points in the spider-web amphiphile.

  20. Amphiphilic cationic peptides mediate cell adhesion to plastic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rideout, D C; Lambert, M; Kendall, D A; Moe, G R; Osterman, D G; Tao, H P; Weinstein, I B; Kaiser, E T

    1985-09-01

    Four amphiphilic peptides, each with net charges of +2 or more at neutrality and molecular weights under 4 kilodaltons, were found to mediate the adhesion of normal rat kidney fibroblasts to polystyrene surfaces. Two of these peptides, a model for calcitonin (peptide 1, MCT) and melittin (peptide 2, MEL), form amphiphilic alpha-helical structures at aqueous/nonpolar interfaces. The other two, a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone model (peptide 3, LHM) and a platelet factor model (peptide 4, MPF) form beta-strand structures in amphiphilic environments. Although it contains only 10 residues, LHM mediated adhesion to surfaces coated with solutions containing as little as 10 pmoles/ml of peptide. All four of these peptides were capable of forming monolayers at air-buffer interfaces with collapse pressures greater than 20 dynes/cm. None of these four peptides contains the tetrapeptide sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser, which has been associated with fibronectin-mediated cell adhesion. Ten polypeptides that also lacked the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser but were nonamphiphilic and/or had net charges less than +2 at neutrality were all incapable of mediating cell adhesion (Pierschbacher and Ruoslahti, 1984). The morphologies of NRK cells spread on polystyrene coated with peptide LHM resemble the morphologies on fibronectin-coated surfaces, whereas cells spread on surfaces coated with MCT or MEL exhibit strikingly different morphologies. The adhesiveness of MCT, MEL, LHM, and MPF implies that many amphiphilic cationic peptides could prove useful as well defined adhesive substrata for cell culture and for studies of the mechanism of cell adhesion.

  1. Core-level spectra and molecular deformation in adsorption: V-shaped pentacene on Al(001)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, He; Brivio, Gian Paolo; Floreano, Luca; Fratesi, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Summary By first-principle simulations we study the effects of molecular deformation on the electronic and spectroscopic properties as it occurs for pentacene adsorbed on the most stable site of Al(001). The rationale for the particular V-shaped deformed structure is discussed and understood. The molecule–surface bond is made evident by mapping the charge redistribution. Upon X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) from the molecule, the bond with the surface is destabilized by the electron density rearrangement to screen the core hole. This destabilization depends on the ionized carbon atom, inducing a narrowing of the XPS spectrum with respect to the molecules adsorbed hypothetically undistorted, in full agreement to experiments. When looking instead at the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra, individual contributions from the non-equivalent C atoms provide evidence of the molecular orbital filling, hybridization, and interchange induced by distortion. The alteration of the C–C bond lengths due to the V-shaped bending decreases by a factor of two the azimuthal dichroism of NEXAFS spectra, i.e., the energy splitting of the sigma resonances measured along the two in-plane molecular axes. PMID:26734516

  2. Amphiphilic Soft Janus Particles as Interfacial Stabilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenda; Niu, Sunny; Sosa, Chris; Prud'Homme, Robert; Priestley, Rodney; Priestley Polymer Group Team; Prud'homme Research Group Team

    Janus particles, which incorporate two or more ``faces'' with different chemical functionality, have attracted great attention in scientific research. Amphiphilic Janus particles have two faces with distinctly different hydrophobicity. This can be thought of as colloidal surfactants. Theoretical studies on the stabilization of emulsions using Janus particles have confirmed higher efficiency. Herein we synthesize the narrow distributed amphiphilic polymeric Janus particles via Precipitation-Induced Self-Assembly (PISA). The efficiency of the amphiphilic Janus particles are tested on different oil/water systems. Biocompatible polymers can also be used on this strategy and may potentially have wide application for food emulsion, cosmetics and personal products.

  3. Spin filter and molecular switch based on bowtie-shaped graphene nanoflake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jun; Wu, Fengmin; Li, Jingbo

    2012-11-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of bowtie-shaped graphene nanoflake (BGNF) are investigated from first principles calculations. The eigen states of ferromagnetic (FM) BGNF near Fermi level are found to be delocalized over the whole flake, whereas those of antiferromagnetic (AFM) BGNF are localized in one side. The different characters result in different transport properties for FM and AFM BGNFs. FM BGNF exhibits perfect spin filtering effect and can serve as a spin filter. Moreover, the conductance of BGNF is much larger in FM state than in AFM state, thus BGNF can serve as a molecular switch. These results suggest that BGNF is a good candidate for future nanoelectronics.

  4. An improved quasistatic line-shape theory: The effects of molecular motion on the line wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    A theory is presented for the modification of the line-shape functions and absorption coefficient due to the breakdown of the quasistatic approximation. This breakdown arises from the effects of molecular motion and increases the absorption in the near wings. Numerical calculations for the high-frequency wing of the nu(sub 3) band of CO2 broadened by Ar are reported and it is shown that these effects are significant near the bandhead. The importance of such corrections in other spectral regions and for other systems is discussed briefly.

  5. Oligometastatic prostate cancer: shaping the definition with molecular imaging and an improved understanding of tumor biology.

    PubMed

    Joice, Gregory A; Rowe, Steven P; Pienta, Kenneth J; Gorin, Michael A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss how novel imaging modalities and molecular markers are shaping the definition of oligometastatic prostate cancer. To effectively classify a patient as having oligometastatic prostate cancer, diagnostic tests must be sensitive enough to detect subtle sites of metastatic disease. Conventional imaging modalities can readily detect widespread polymetastatic disease but do not have the sensitivity necessary to reliably classify patients as oligometastatic. Molecular imaging using both metabolic- and molecularly-targeted radiotracers has demonstrated great promise in aiding in our ability to define the oligometastatic state. Perhaps the most promising data to date have been generated with radiotracers targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen. In addition, early studies are beginning to define biologic markers in the oligometastatic state that may be indicative of disease with minimal metastatic potential. Recent developments in molecular imaging have allowed for improved detection of metastatic prostate cancer allowing for more accurate staging of patients with oligometastatic disease. Future development of biologic markers may assist in defining the oligometastatic state and determining prognosis.

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Geminized Amphiphilic Cationic Homopolymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Xuefeng; Yu, Danfeng; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Guang; Cui, Yingxian; Sun, Keji; Wang, Jinben; Yan, Haike

    2015-12-22

    The current study is aimed at investigating the effect of cationic charge density and hydrophobicity on the antibacterial and hemolytic activities. Two kinds of cationic surfmers, containing single or double hydrophobic tails (octyl chains or benzyl groups), and the corresponding homopolymers were synthesized. The antimicrobial activity of these candidate antibacterials was studied by microbial growth inhibition assays against Escherichia coli, and hemolysis activity was carried out using human red blood cells. It was interestingly found that the homopolymers were much more effective in antibacterial property than their corresponding monomers. Furthermore, the geminized homopolymers had significantly higher antibacterial activity than that of their counterparts but with single amphiphilic side chains in each repeated unit. Geminized homopolymers, with high positive charge density and moderate hydrophobicity (such as benzyl groups), combine both advantages of efficient antibacterial property and prominently high selectivity. To further explain the antibacterial performance of the novel polymer series, the molecular interaction mechanism is proposed according to experimental data which shows that these specimens are likely to kill microbes by disrupting bacterial membranes, leading them unlikely to induce resistance.

  7. Sombrero-shaped plasmonic nanoparticles with molecular-level sensitivity and multifunctionality.

    PubMed

    Wi, Jung-Sub; Barnard, Edward S; Wilson, Robert J; Zhang, Mingliang; Tang, Mary; Brongersma, Mark L; Wang, Shan X

    2011-08-23

    We demonstrate top-down synthesis of monodisperse plasmonic nanoparticles designed to contain internal Raman hot spots. Our Raman-active nanoparticles are fabricated using nanoimprint lithography and thin-film deposition and are composed of novel internal structures with sublithographic dimensions: a disk-shaped Ag core, a Petri-dish-shaped SiO(2) base whose inner surface is coated with Ag film, and a sub-10 nm scale circular gap between the core and the base. Confocal Raman measurements and electromagnetic simulations show that Raman hot spots appear at the inside perimeter of individual nanoparticles and serve as the source of a 1000-fold improvement of minimum molecular detection level that enables detection of signals from a few molecules near hot spots. A multimodality version of these nanoparticles, which includes the functionality offered by magnetic multilayers, is also demonstrated. These results illustrate the potential of direct fabrication for creating exotic monodisperse nanoparticles, which combine engineered internal nanostructures and multilayer composite materials, for use in nanoparticle-based molecular imaging and detection. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. High hydrostatic pressure specifically affects molecular dynamics and shape of low-density lipoprotein particles

    PubMed Central

    Golub, M.; Lehofer, B.; Martinez, N.; Ollivier, J.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Prassl, R.; Peters, J.

    2017-01-01

    Lipid composition of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and its physicochemical characteristics are relevant for proper functioning of lipid transport in the blood circulation. To explore dynamical and structural features of LDL particles with either a normal or a triglyceride-rich lipid composition we combined coherent and incoherent neutron scattering methods. The investigations were carried out under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), which is a versatile tool to study the physicochemical behavior of biomolecules in solution at a molecular level. Within both neutron techniques we applied HHP to probe the shape and degree of freedom of the possible motions (within the time windows of 15 and 100 ps) and consequently the flexibility of LDL particles. We found that HHP does not change the types of motion in LDL, but influences the portion of motions participating. Contrary to our assumption that lipoprotein particles, like membranes, are highly sensitive to pressure we determined that LDL copes surprisingly well with high pressure conditions, although the lipid composition, particularly the triglyceride content of the particles, impacts the molecular dynamics and shape arrangement of LDL under pressure. PMID:28382948

  9. Exploiting Molecular Weight Distribution Shape to Tune Domain Spacing in Block Copolymer Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Gentekos, Dillon T; Jia, Junteng; Tirado, Erika S; Barteau, Katherine P; Smilgies, Detlef-M; DiStasio, Robert A; Fors, Brett P

    2018-04-04

    We report a method for tuning the domain spacing ( D sp ) of self-assembled block copolymer thin films of poly(styrene- block-methyl methacrylate) (PS- b-PMMA) over a large range of lamellar periods. By modifying the molecular weight distribution (MWD) shape (including both the breadth and skew) of the PS block via temporal control of polymer chain initiation in anionic polymerization, we observe increases of up to 41% in D sp for polymers with the same overall molecular weight ( M n ≈ 125 kg mol -1 ) without significantly changing the overall morphology or chemical composition of the final material. In conjunction with our experimental efforts, we have utilized concepts from population statistics and least-squares analysis to develop a model for predicting D sp based on the first three moments of the MWDs. This statistical model reproduces experimental D sp values with high fidelity (with mean absolute errors of 1.2 nm or 1.8%) and provides novel physical insight into the individual and collective roles played by the MWD moments in determining this property of interest. This work demonstrates that both MWD breadth and skew have a profound influence over D sp , thereby providing an experimental and conceptual platform for exploiting MWD shape as a simple and modular handle for fine-tuning D sp in block copolymer thin films.

  10. High hydrostatic pressure specifically affects molecular dynamics and shape of low-density lipoprotein particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, M.; Lehofer, B.; Martinez, N.; Ollivier, J.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Prassl, R.; Peters, J.

    2017-04-01

    Lipid composition of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and its physicochemical characteristics are relevant for proper functioning of lipid transport in the blood circulation. To explore dynamical and structural features of LDL particles with either a normal or a triglyceride-rich lipid composition we combined coherent and incoherent neutron scattering methods. The investigations were carried out under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), which is a versatile tool to study the physicochemical behavior of biomolecules in solution at a molecular level. Within both neutron techniques we applied HHP to probe the shape and degree of freedom of the possible motions (within the time windows of 15 and 100 ps) and consequently the flexibility of LDL particles. We found that HHP does not change the types of motion in LDL, but influences the portion of motions participating. Contrary to our assumption that lipoprotein particles, like membranes, are highly sensitive to pressure we determined that LDL copes surprisingly well with high pressure conditions, although the lipid composition, particularly the triglyceride content of the particles, impacts the molecular dynamics and shape arrangement of LDL under pressure.

  11. Dynamics of water in the amphiphilic pore of amyloid β fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GhattyVenkataKrishna, Pavan K.; Mostofian, Barmak

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimers disease related amyloid peptide, Aβ, forms a fibrillar structure through aggregation. The aggregate is stabilized by a salt bridge that is responsible for the formation of an amphiphilic pore that can accommodate water molecules. None of the reported structures of Aβ, however, contain water. We present results from molecular dynamics simulations on dimeric Aβ fibrils solvated in water. Water penetrates and fills the amphiphilic pore increasing its volume. We observe a thick wire of water that is translationally and rotationally stiff in comparison to bulk water and may be essential for the stabilization of the amyloid Aβ protein.

  12. Influence of molecular shape, conformability, net surface charge, and tissue interaction on transscleral macromolecular diffusion.

    PubMed

    Srikantha, Nishanthan; Mourad, Fatma; Suhling, Klaus; Elsaid, Naba; Levitt, James; Chung, Pei Hua; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Jackson, Timothy L

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of molecular shape, conformability, net surface charge and tissue interaction on transscleral diffusion. Unfixed, porcine sclera was clamped in an Ussing chamber. Fluorophore-labelled neutral albumin, neutral dextran, or neutral ficoll were placed in one hemi-chamber and the rate of transscleral diffusion was measured over 24 h using a spectrophotometer. Experiments were repeated using dextrans and ficoll with positive or negative net surface charges. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) was undertaken to compare transscleral diffusion with diffusion through a solution. All molecules were 70 kDa. With FRAP, the diffusion coefficient (D) of neutral molecules was highest for albumin, followed by ficoll, then dextran (p < 0.0001). Positive dextrans diffused fastest, followed by negative, then neutral dextrans (p = 0.0004). Neutral ficoll diffused the fastest, followed by positive then negative ficoll (p = 0.5865). For the neutral molecules, transscleral D was highest for albumin, followed by dextran, then ficoll (p < 0.0001). D was highest for negative ficoll, followed by neutral, then positive ficoll (p < 0.0001). By contrast, D was highest for positive dextran, followed by neutral, then negative dextran (p = 0.0021). In conclusion, diffusion in free solution does not predict transscleral diffusion and the molecular-tissue interaction is important. Molecular size, shape, and charge may all markedly influence transscleral diffusion, as may conformability to a lesser degree, but their effects may be diametrically opposed in different molecules, and their influence on diffusion is more complex than previously thought. Each variable cannot be considered in isolation, and the interplay of all these variables needs to be tested, when selecting or designing drugs for transscleral delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-Assembly of Natural and Synthetic Drug Amphiphiles into Discrete Supramolecular Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Lye Lin; LaComb, Michelle; Schwarz, Kelly; Cheetham, Andrew G.; Lin, Yi-an; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Molecular assembly provides an effective approach to construct discrete supramolecular nanostructures of various sizes and shapes in a simple manner. One important technological application of the resulting nanostructures is their potential use as anticancer drug carriers to facilitate targeted delivery to tumour sites and consequently to improve clinical outcomes. In this carrier-assisted delivery strategy, anticancer drugs have been almost exclusively considered as the cargo to be carried and delivered, and their potential as molecular building blocks has been largely ignored. In this discussion, we report the use of anticancer drugs as molecular building units to create discrete supramolecular nanostructures that contain a high and quantitative drug loading and also have the potential for self-delivery. We first show the direct assembly of two amphiphilic drug molecules (methotrexate and folic acid) into discrete nanostructures. Our results reveal that folic acid exhibits rich self-assembly behaviours via Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding in various solvent conditions, whereas methotrexate was unable to assemble into any well-defined nanostructures under the same conditions, despite its similar chemical structures. Considering the low water solubility of most anticancer drugs, hydrophilic segments must be conjugated to the drug in order to bestow the necessary amphiphilicity. We have demonstrated this for camptothecin through the attachment of β-sheet-forming peptides with overall hydrophilicity. We found that the intermolecular interactions among camptothecin segments and those among β-sheet peptides act together to define the formation of stable one-dimensional nanostructures in dilute solutions, giving rise to nanotubes or nanofibers depending upon the processing conditions used. These results lead us to believe that self-assembly of drugs into discrete nanostructures not only offers an innovative way to craft self-delivering anticancer drugs, but also extends the

  14. Structure and membrane affinity of a suite of amphiphilic siderophores produced by a marine bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Jennifer S.; Carter-Franklin, Jayme N.; Mann, Elizabeth L.; Martin, Jessica D.; Haygood, Margo G.; Butler, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Iron concentrations in the ocean are low enough to limit the growth of marine microorganisms, which raises questions about the molecular mechanisms these organisms use to acquire iron. Marine bacteria have been shown to produce siderophores to facilitate iron(III) uptake. We describe the structures of a suite of amphiphilic siderophores, named the amphibactins, which are produced by a nearshore isolate, γ Proteobacterium, Vibrio sp. R-10. Each amphibactin has the same Tris-hydroxamate-containing peptidic headgroup composed of three ornithine residues and one serine residue but differs in the acyl appendage, which ranges from C-14 to C-18 and varies in the degree of saturation and hydroxylation. Although amphiphilic siderophores are relatively rare, cell-associated amphiphilic siderophores are even less common. We find that the amphibactins are cell-associated siderophores. As a result of the variation in the nature of the fatty acid appendage and the cellular location of the amphibactins, the membrane partitioning of these siderophores was investigated. The physiological mixture of amphibactins had a range of membrane affinities (3.8 × 103 to 8.3 × 102 M−1) that are larger overall than other amphiphilic siderophores, likely accounting for their cell association. This cell association is likely an important defense against siderophore diffusion in the oceanic environment. The phylogenetic affiliation of Vibrio sp. R-10 is discussed, as well as the observed predominance of amphiphilic siderophores produced by marine bacteria in contrast to those produced by terrestrial bacteria. PMID:12651947

  15. Molecular dynamics studies of polyethylene oxide and polyethylene glycol: hydrodynamic radius and shape anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwankyu; Venable, Richard M; Mackerell, Alexander D; Pastor, Richard W

    2008-08-01

    A revision (C35r) to the CHARMM ether force field is shown to reproduce experimentally observed conformational populations of dimethoxyethane. Molecular dynamics simulations of 9, 18, 27, and 36-mers of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and 27-mers of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in water based on C35r yield a persistence length lambda = 3.7 A, in quantitative agreement with experimentally obtained values of 3.7 A for PEO and 3.8 A for PEG; agreement with experimental values for hydrodynamic radii of comparably sized PEG is also excellent. The exponent upsilon relating the radius of gyration and molecular weight (R(g) proportional, variantM(w)(upsilon)) of PEO from the simulations equals 0.515 +/- 0.023, consistent with experimental observations that low molecular weight PEG behaves as an ideal chain. The shape anisotropy of hydrated PEO is 2.59:1.44:1.00. The dimension of the middle length for each of the polymers nearly equals the hydrodynamic radius R(h)obtained from diffusion measurements in solution. This explains the correspondence of R(h) and R(p), the pore radius of membrane channels: a polymer such as PEG diffuses with its long axis parallel to the membrane channel, and passes through the channel without substantial distortion.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of maltose-based amphiphiles as supramolecular hydrogelators.

    PubMed

    Clemente, María J; Fitremann, Juliette; Mauzac, Monique; Serrano, José L; Oriol, Luis

    2011-12-20

    Low molecular mass amphiphilic glycolipids have been prepared by linking a maltose polar head and a hydrophobic linear chain either by amidation or copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne [3 + 2] cycloaddition. The liquid crystalline properties of these amphiphilic materials have been characterized. The influence of the chemical structure of these glycolipids on the gelation properties in water has also been studied. Glycolipids obtained by the click coupling of the two components give rise to stable hydrogels at room temperature. The fibrillar structure of supramolecular hydrogels obtained by the self-assembly of these gelators have been characterized by electron microscopy. Fibers showed some torsion, which could be related with a chiral supramolecular arrangement of amphiphiles, as confirmed by circular dichroism (CD). The sol-gel transition temperature was also determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and NMR. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Magnetic amphiphilic hybrid carbon nanotubes containing N-doped and undoped sections: powerful tensioactive nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purceno, Aluir D.; Machado, Bruno F.; Teixeira, Ana Paula C.; Medeiros, Tayline V.; Benyounes, Anas; Beausoleil, Julien; Menezes, Helvecio C.; Cardeal, Zenilda L.; Lago, Rochel M.; Serp, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and a metal-catalyzed aqueous oxidation of heptanol with molecular oxygen.In this work, unique amphiphilic magnetic hybrid carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are synthesized and used as tensioactive nanostructures in different applications. These CNTs interact very well with aqueous media due to the hydrophilic N-doped section, whereas the undoped hydrophobic one has strong affinity for organic molecules. The amphiphilic character combined with the magnetic properties of these CNTs opens the door to completely new and exciting applications in adsorption science and catalysis. These amphiphilic N-doped CNTs can also be used as powerful tensioactive emulsification structures. They can emulsify water/organic mixtures and by a simple magnetic separation the emulsion can be easily broken. We demonstrate the application of these CNTs in the efficient adsorption of various molecules, in addition to promoting biphasic processes in three different reactions, i.e. transesterification of soybean oil, quinoline extractive oxidation with H2O2 and

  18. Size and shape of soil humic acids estimated by viscosity and molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Kawahigashi, Masayuki; Sumida, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2005-04-15

    Ultrafiltration fractions of three soil humic acids were characterized by viscometry and high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) in order to estimate shapes and hydrodynamic sizes. Intrinsic viscosities under given solute/solvent/temperature conditions were obtained by extrapolating the concentration dependence of reduced viscosities to zero concentration. Molecular mass (weight average molecular weight (M (w)) and number average molecular weight (M (n))) and hydrodynamic radius (R(H)) were determined by HPSEC using pullulan as calibrant. Values of M (w) and M (n) ranged from 15 to 118 x 10(3) and from 9 to 50 x 10(3) (g mol(-1)), respectively. Polydispersity, as indicated by M (w)/M (n), increased with increasing filter size from 1.5 to 2.4. The hydrodynamic radii (R(H)) ranged between 2.2 and 6.4 nm. For each humic acid, M (w) and [eta] were related. Mark-Houwink coefficients calculated on the basis of the M (w)-[eta] relationships suggested restricted flexible chains for two of the humic acids and a branched structure for the third humic acid. Those structures probably behave as hydrated sphere colloids in a good solvent. Hydrodynamic radii of fractions calculated from [eta] using Einstein's equation, which is applicable to hydrated sphere colloids, ranged from 2.2 to 7.1 nm. These dimensions are fit to the size of nanospaces on and between clay minerals and micropores in soil particle aggregates. On the other hand, the good agreement of R(H) values obtained by applying Einstein's equation with those directly determined by HPSEC suggests that pullulan is a suitable calibrant for estimation of molecular mass and size of humic acids by HPSEC.

  19. The Physiological Molecular Shape of Spectrin: A Compact Supercoil Resembling a Chinese Finger Trap.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeffrey W; Bullitt, Esther; Sriswasdi, Sira; Harper, Sandra; Speicher, David W; McKnight, C James

    2015-06-01

    The primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of spectrin are reasonably well defined, but the structural basis for the known dramatic molecular shape change, whereby the molecular length can increase three-fold, is not understood. In this study, we combine previously reported biochemical and high-resolution crystallographic data with structural mass spectroscopy and electron microscopic data to derive a detailed, experimentally-supported quaternary structure of the spectrin heterotetramer. In addition to explaining spectrin's physiological resting length of ~55-65 nm, our model provides a mechanism by which spectrin is able to undergo a seamless three-fold extension while remaining a linear filament, an experimentally observed property. According to the proposed model, spectrin's quaternary structure and mechanism of extension is similar to a Chinese Finger Trap: at shorter molecular lengths spectrin is a hollow cylinder that extends by increasing the pitch of each spectrin repeat, which decreases the internal diameter. We validated our model with electron microscopy, which demonstrated that, as predicted, spectrin is hollow at its biological resting length of ~55-65 nm. The model is further supported by zero-length chemical crosslink data indicative of an approximately 90 degree bend between adjacent spectrin repeats. The domain-domain interactions in our model are entirely consistent with those present in the prototypical linear antiparallel heterotetramer as well as recently reported inter-strand chemical crosslinks. The model is consistent with all known physical properties of spectrin, and upon full extension our Chinese Finger Trap Model reduces to the ~180-200 nm molecular model currently in common use.

  20. Electrostatically Tuned Self-Assembly of Branched Amphiphilic Peptides

    DOE PAGES

    Ting, Christina L.; Frischknecht, Amalie L.; Stevens, Mark J.; ...

    2014-06-19

    Electrostatics plays an important role in the self-assembly of amphiphilic peptides. To develop a molecular understanding of the role of the electrostatic interactions, we develop a coarse-grained model peptide and apply self-consistent field theory to investigate the peptide assembly into a variety of aggregate nanostructures. We find that the presence and distribution of charged groups on the hydrophilic branches of the peptide can modify the molecular configuration from extended to collapsed. This change in molecular configuration influences the packing into spherical micelles, cylindrical micelles (nanofibers), or planar bilayers. The effects of charge distribution therefore has important implications for the designmore » and utility of functional materials based on peptides.« less

  1. Rational Design of Pathogen-Mimicking Amphiphilic Materials as Nanoadjuvants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulery, Bret D.; Petersen, Latrisha K.; Phanse, Yashdeep; Kong, Chang Sun; Broderick, Scott R.; Kumar, Devender; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E.; Carrillo-Conde, Brenda; Rajan, Krishna; Wannemuehler, Michael J.; Bellaire, Bryan H.; Metzger, Dennis W.; Narasimhan, Balaji

    2011-12-01

    An opportunity exists today for cross-cutting research utilizing advances in materials science, immunology, microbial pathogenesis, and computational analysis to effectively design the next generation of adjuvants and vaccines. This study integrates these advances into a bottom-up approach for the molecular design of nanoadjuvants capable of mimicking the immune response induced by a natural infection but without the toxic side effects. Biodegradable amphiphilic polyanhydrides possess the unique ability to mimic pathogens and pathogen associated molecular patterns with respect to persisting within and activating immune cells, respectively. The molecular properties responsible for the pathogen-mimicking abilities of these materials have been identified. The value of using polyanhydride nanovaccines was demonstrated by the induction of long-lived protection against a lethal challenge of Yersinia pestis following a single administration ten months earlier. This approach has the tantalizing potential to catalyze the development of next generation vaccines against diseases caused by emerging and re-emerging pathogens.

  2. 3D hydrophobic moment vectors as a tool to characterize the surface polarity of amphiphilic peptides.

    PubMed

    Reißer, Sabine; Strandberg, Erik; Steinbrecher, Thomas; Ulrich, Anne S

    2014-06-03

    The interaction of membranes with peptides and proteins is largely determined by their amphiphilic character. Hydrophobic moments of helical segments are commonly derived from their two-dimensional helical wheel projections, and the same is true for β-sheets. However, to the best of our knowledge, there exists no method to describe structures in three dimensions or molecules with irregular shape. Here, we define the hydrophobic moment of a molecule as a vector in three dimensions by evaluating the surface distribution of all hydrophilic and lipophilic regions over any given shape. The electrostatic potential on the molecular surface is calculated based on the atomic point charges. The resulting hydrophobic moment vector is specific for the instantaneous conformation, and it takes into account all structural characteristics of the molecule, e.g., partial unfolding, bending, and side-chain torsion angles. Extended all-atom molecular dynamics simulations are then used to calculate the equilibrium hydrophobic moments for two antimicrobial peptides, gramicidin S and PGLa, under different conditions. We show that their effective hydrophobic moment vectors reflect the distribution of polar and nonpolar patches on the molecular surface and the calculated electrostatic surface potential. A comparison of simulations in solution and in lipid membranes shows how the peptides undergo internal conformational rearrangement upon binding to the bilayer surface. A good correlation with solid-state NMR data indicates that the hydrophobic moment vector can be used to predict the membrane binding geometry of peptides. This method is available as a web application on http://www.ibg.kit.edu/HM/. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A molecular heterojunction of zinc phthalocyanine and peanut-shaped fullerene polymer: A density functional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Kousei; Ohno, Kaoru; Noda, Yusuke; Ono, Shota; Kuwahara, Riichi; Takashima, Akito; Nakaya, Masato; Onoe, Jun

    2017-10-01

    We have performed first-principles density functional calculations of a molecular heterojunction of a zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) molecule and a peanut-shaped fullerene polymer (PSFP) made from several coalesced cross-linked C60 molecules. The PSFP has many isomers and all have both spatially localized (near ZnPc) and metallic conducting levels. Here we consider four typical isomers. From the resulting electronic structure, we discuss the applicability of these isomers to organic photovoltaics (OPV), electrodes, and light harvesting materials. If one of the isomers called T3, which has the largest energy gap, is used together with ZnPc for OPV, this system shows more than 20% energy conversion efficiency.

  4. Molecular surface representation using 3D Zernike descriptors for protein shape comparison and docking.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Daisuke; Sael, Lee; Chikhi, Rayan; Esquivel-Rodriguez, Juan

    2011-09-01

    The tertiary structures of proteins have been solved in an increasing pace in recent years. To capitalize the enormous efforts paid for accumulating the structure data, efficient and effective computational methods need to be developed for comparing, searching, and investigating interactions of protein structures. We introduce the 3D Zernike descriptor (3DZD), an emerging technique to describe molecular surfaces. The 3DZD is a series expansion of mathematical three-dimensional function, and thus a tertiary structure is represented compactly by a vector of coefficients of terms in the series. A strong advantage of the 3DZD is that it is invariant to rotation of target object to be represented. These two characteristics of the 3DZD allow rapid comparison of surface shapes, which is sufficient for real-time structure database screening. In this article, we review various applications of the 3DZD, which have been recently proposed.

  5. Molecular dynamic simulations of N2-broadened methane line shapes and comparison with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Tuong; Doménech, José-Luis; Lepère, Muriel; Tran, Ha

    2017-03-01

    Absorption spectra of methane transitions broadened by nitrogen have been calculated for the first time using classical molecular dynamic simulations. For that, the time evolution of the auto-correlation function of the dipole moment vector, assumed along a C-H axis, was computed using an accurate site-site intermolecular potential for CH4-N2. Quaternion coordinates were used to treat the rotation of the molecules. A requantization procedure was applied to the classical rotation and spectra were then derived as the Fourier-Laplace transform of the auto-correlation function. These computed spectra were compared with experimental ones recorded with a tunable diode laser and a difference-frequency laser spectrometer. Specifically, nine isolated methane lines broadened by nitrogen, belonging to various vibrational bands and having rotational quantum numbers J from 0 to 9, were measured at room temperature and at several pressures from 20 to 945 mbar. Comparisons between measured and calculated spectra were made through their fits using the Voigt profile. The results show that ab initio calculated spectra reproduce with very high fidelity non-Voigt effects on the measurements and that classical molecular dynamic simulations can be used to predict spectral shapes of isolated lines of methane perturbed by nitrogen.

  6. On the emergence of molecular structure from atomic shape in the 1/r2 harmonium model.

    PubMed

    Müller-Herold, Ulrich

    2006-01-07

    The formal similarity of the three-body Hamiltonians for helium and the hydrogen molecule ion is used to demonstrate the unfolding of a rotating dumbbell-like proton distribution from a (1s)2-type electron distribution by smooth variation of the particles' masses in the 1/r2 harmonium model. The 1/r2 harmonium is an exactly solvable modification of the harmonium model (also known as Hooke's law atom) where the attraction between different particles is harmonic and the repulsion between the two equal particles is given by a 1/r2 potential. The dumbbell-like molecular structure appears as an expression of increasing spatial correlation due to increasing mass. It gradually appears in the one-density distribution of the two equal particles if their mass exceeds a critical value depending on the mass of the third particle. For large mass of the equal particles, their one-density distribution approaches an asymptotic form derived from the Born-Oppenheimer treatment of H2+ in the 1/r2 harmonium model. Below the critical value, the one density is a spherical, Gaussian-type atomic density distribution with a maximum at the center of mass. The topological transition at the critical value separates molecular structure and atomic shape as two qualitatively different manifestations of spatial structure.

  7. V-Shaped Molecular Configuration of Wax Esters of Jojoba Oil in a Langmuir Film Model.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Benjamín; Martini, M Florencia; Pickholz, Mónica; Perillo, María A

    2018-06-19

    The aim of the present work was to understand the interfacial properties of a complex mixture of wax esters (WEs) obtained from Jojoba oil (JO). Previously, on the basis of molecular area measurements, a hairpin structure was proposed as the hypothetical configuration of WEs, allowing their organization as compressible monolayers at the air-water interface. In the present work, we contributed with further experimental evidence by combining surface pressure (π), surface potential (Δ V), and PM-IRRAS measurements of JO monolayers and molecular dynamic simulations (MD) on a modified JO model. WEs were self-assembled in Langmuir films. Compression isotherms exhibited π lift-off at 100 Å 2 /molecule mean molecular area ( A lift-off ) and a collapse point at π c ≈ 2.2 mN/m and A c ≈ 77 Å 2 /molecule. The Δ V profile reflected two dipolar reorganizations, with one of them at A > A lift-off due to the release of loosely bound water molecules and another one at A c < A < A lift-off possibly due to reorientations of a more tightly bound water population. This was consistent with the maximal SP value that was calculated according to a model that considered two populations of oriented water and was very close to the experimental value. The orientation of the ester group that was assumed in that calculation was coherent with the PM-IRRAS behavior of the carbonyl group with the C═O oriented toward the water and the C-O oriented parallel to the surface and was in accordance with their orientational angles (∼45 and ∼90°, respectively) determined by MD simulations. Taken together, the present results confirm a V shape rather than a hairpin configuration of WEs at the air-water interface.

  8. Association, intrinsic shape, and molecular recognition: Elucidating DNA biophysics through coarse-grained simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Gordon Samuel

    DNA is of central importance in biology as it is responsible for carrying, copying, and translating the genetic code into the building blocks that comprise life. In order to accomplish these tasks, the DNA molecule must be versatile and robust. Indeed, the underlying molecular interactions that allow DNA to execute these tasks are complex and their origins are only beginning to be understood. While experiments are able to elucidate many key biophysical phenomena, there remain many unanswered questions. Molecular simulation is able to shed light on phenomena at the molecular scale and provide information that is missing from experimental views of DNA behavior. In this dissertation I use state-of-the-art coarse-grained DNA models to address two key problems. In the first, metadynamics calculations are employed to uncover the free energy surface of two complimentary DNA strands. This free energy surface takes on the appearance of a hybridization funnel and reveals candidates for intermediate states in the hybridization of short DNA oligomers. Such short oligomers are important building blocks for DNA-driven self-assembly and the mechanism of hybridization in this regime is not well understood. The second problem is that of nucleosome formation. Nucleosomes are the fundamental subunit of genome compaction in the nucleus of a cell. As such, nucleosomes are a key epigenetic factor and affect gene expression and the ability of DNA-binding proteins to locate and bind to the appropriate position in the genome. However, the factors that drive nucleosome positioning are not well understood. While DNA sequence is known to affect nucleosome formation, the mechanism by which it does so has not been established and a number of hypotheses explaining this sequence-dependence exist in the literature. I demonstrate that DNA shape dominates this process with contributions arising from both intrinsic DNA curvature as well as DNA-protein interactions driven by sequence

  9. Design, Synthesis, and Self-Assembly of Well-Defined Hybrid Materials Including Polymer Amphiphiles and Giant Tetrahedra Molecules Based on Poss Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mingjun

    "Bottom-up" techniques-based self-assembly are always attracting people's interests since this technology provides relatively low economic cost and fast route to construct organized structures at different scales. Considering unprecedented benefits from polymer materials, self-assemblies utilizing polymer building blocks have been extensively studied to achieve diverse hierarchical structures and various attractive properties. However, precise controls of chemical primary structures and compositions and exact constructions of hierarchal ordered structures in synthetic polymers are far from being fully appreciated. In this dissertation, a novel approach has been utilized to construct diverse well-defined nano-building blocks, giant molecules, via conjugating different, and functionalized molecular nanoparticles (MNPs) which are shape- and volume-persistent nano-objects with precise molecular structure and specific symmetry. The representative examples of the three basic categories of giant molecules, "giant polyhedra", "giant surfactants", and "giant shape amphiphiles" were discussed in details. First, a class of precisely defined, nanosized giant tetrahedra was constructed by placing different polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) molecular nanoparticles at the vertices of a rigid tetrahedral framework. Designed symmetry breaking of these giant tetrahedra introduces accurate positional interactions and results in diverse selectively assembled, highly ordered supramolecular lattices including a Frank-Kasper (FK) A15 phase. The FK and quasicrystal phases are originally identified in metal alloys and only sporadically observed in soft matters. It remains unclear how to correlate their stability with the chemical composition and molecular topology in the self-assembling systems. We then for this purpose designed and studied the self-assembly phase transition sequences of four series of hybrid giant surfactants based on hydrophilic POSS cages tethered with one to

  10. Electrostatically Driven Assembly of Charged Amphiphiles Forming Crystallized Membranes, Vesicles and Nanofiber Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Cheuk Yui Curtis

    Charged amphiphilic molecules can self-assemble into a large variety of objects including membranes, vesicles and fibers. These micro to nano-scale structures have been drawing increasing attention due to their broad applications, especially in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this dissertation, three self-assembled systems were investigated: +3/-1 self-assembled catanionic membranes, +2/-1 self-assembled catanionic membranes and +1 self-assembled nanofibers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with synchrotron small and wide angle x-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) were used to characterize the coassembled structures from the mesoscopic to nanometer scale. We designed a system of +3 and -1 ionic amphiphiles that coassemble into crystalline ionic bilayer vesicles with large variety of geometries that resemble polyhedral cellular crystalline shells and archaea wall envelopes. The degree of ionization of the amphiphiles and their intermolecular electrostatic interactions can be controlled by varying pH. The molecular packing of these membranes showed a hexagonal to rectangular-C to hexagonal phase transition with increasing pH, resulting in significant changes to the membrane morphology. A similar mixture of +2 and -1 ionic amphiphiles was also investigated. In addition to varying pH, which controls the headgroup attractions, we also adjust the tail length of the amphiphiles to control the van der Waals interactions between the tails. A 2D phase diagram was developed to show how pH and tail length can be used to control the intermolecular packing within the membranes. Another system of self-assembled nanofiber network formed by positively charged amphiphiles was also studied. These highly charged fibers repel each other and are packed in hexagonal lattice with lattice constant at least eight times of the fiber diameter. The d-spacing and the crystal structure can be controlled by varying the solution concentration and temperature.

  11. Tough Amphiphilic Gels for Antifouling Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villada, Laura M.

    Biofouling is the attachment of unwanted organisms on a surface, and it is influenced by a host of variables including the chemistry of the material as well as both the surface and bulk properties, and controlling and understanding the effect of these properties is critical for the development of effective materials to combat biofouling. All surfaces that are submerged in water are subject to the rapid colonization of a wide range of marine organisms. Marine biofouling decreases fuel efficiency, costing the Navy millions of dollars in penalty, as well as having drastic environmental effects. Previous prevention of biofouling in marine systems has been accomplished by the administration of biocides and toxic coatings. In recent years, increased concerns about the impacts of these hazardous compounds into marine ecosystems has spurred efforts to develop cost effective, non-toxic, and durable anti-fouling coatings. Hydrogels, hydrophilic crosslinked networks, are being used to modify silicone marine coatings and have demonstrated potential at combatting biofouling. Understanding the impact of amphiphilic materials, i.e. their structure and properties, on biofouling is of great importance in order to address the need in the industry. In this study, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (HEMA) crosslinked networks were tailored to investigate the influence of their surface and bulk properties on biofouling. Previous research utilizing HEMA-siloxane gels suggested a relationship between molecular weight between crosslinks, M c, and the attachment of soft fouling sporelings of the green algae U. linza and adsorption of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the initial thrust of this dissertation was aimed at resolving this relationship. Gel composition was modified by varying the siloxane crosslinking agent and the siloxane hydrophobic monomer concentrations. The gels exhibited an increase in elastic modulus from 0.17 to 8.55 MPa that coincided with an increasing

  12. pH and Amphiphilic Structure Direct Supramolecular Behavior in Biofunctional Assemblies

    DOE PAGES

    Moyer, Tyson J.; Finbloom, Joel A.; Chen, Feng; ...

    2014-10-13

    Supramolecular self-assembly offers promising new ways to control nanostructure morphology and respond to external stimuli. A pH-sensitive self-assembled system was developed to both control nanostructure shape and respond to the acidic microenvironment of tumors using self-assembling peptide amphiphiles (PAs). Here, by incorporating an oligo-histidine H 6 sequence, we developed two PAs that self-assembled into distinct morphologies on the nanoscale, either as nanofibers or spherical micelles, based on the incorporation of the aliphatic tail on the N-terminus or near the C-terminus, respectively. Both cylinder and sphere-forming PAs demonstrated reversible disassembly between pH 6.0 and 6.5 upon protonation of the histidine residuesmore » in acidic solutions. These PAs were then characterized and assessed for their potential to encapsulate hydrophobic chemotherapies. The H 6-based nanofiber assemblies encapsulated camptothecin (CPT) with up to 60% efficiency, a 7-fold increase in CPT encapsulation relative to spherical micelles. Additionally, pH-sensitive nanofibers showed improved tumor accumulation over both spherical micelles and nanofibers that did not change morphologies in acidic environments. We have demonstrated that the morphological transitions upon changes in pH of supramolecular nanostructures affect drug encapsulation and tumor accumulation. Lastly, our findings also suggest that these supramolecular events can be tuned by molecular design to improve the pharmacologic properties of nanomedicines.« less

  13. Molecular Dynamics Studies of Polyethylene Oxide and Polyethylene Glycol: Hydrodynamic Radius and Shape Anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwankyu; Venable, Richard M.; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Pastor, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    A revision (C35r) to the CHARMM ether force field is shown to reproduce experimentally observed conformational populations of dimethoxyethane. Molecular dynamics simulations of 9, 18, 27, and 36-mers of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and 27-mers of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in water based on C35r yield a persistence length λ = 3.7 Å, in quantitative agreement with experimentally obtained values of 3.7 Å for PEO and 3.8 Å for PEG; agreement with experimental values for hydrodynamic radii of comparably sized PEG is also excellent. The exponent υ relating the radius of gyration and molecular weight (\\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}R_{{\\mathrm{g}}}{\\propto}M_{{\\mathrm{w}}}^{{\\upsilon}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}) of PEO from the simulations equals 0.515 ± 0.023, consistent with experimental observations that low molecular weight PEG behaves as an ideal chain. The shape anisotropy of hydrated PEO is 2.59:1.44:1.00. The dimension of the middle length for each of the polymers nearly equals the hydrodynamic radius \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}R_{{\\mathrm{h}}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}obtained from diffusion measurements in solution. This explains the correspondence of \\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{pmc} \\usepackage[Euler]{upgreek} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin

  14. Chiral signs of TPPS co-assemblies with chiral gelators: role of molecular and supramolecular chirality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuling; Zhang, Li; Yang, Dong; Li, Tiesheng; Liu, Minghua

    2016-10-13

    A dianionic tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS) self-assembled into J-aggregates when it co-assembled with a chiral cationic amphiphile via supramolecular gelation. The chiral signs of TPPS J aggregates followed the supramolecular chirality of amphiphilic assemblies rather than the molecular chirality of the amphiphile.

  15. The influence of amphiphilic additional agents on the morphology and photoluminescence properties of calcium carbonate phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Yongren; Kang, Ming; Liu, Min; Wang, Feng; Chen, Kexu; Sun, Rong

    2017-06-01

    In order to investigate the effect of amphiphilic additional agents on the morphology (particle shape, particle size and particle size distribution) and photoluminescence performance of calcium carbonate phosphor, the phosphors AA-CaCO3:Eu3+ (AA = glycerol or sodium dodecyl sulfate) were synthesized by the microwave-assisted co-precipitation method using glycerol (Gly) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as amphiphilic additional agents (AA), respectively. The phase structure, morphology and luminescent properties of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, laser diffraction particle size analyzer and Fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The results showed that the phase structure and morphology of AA-CaCO3:Eu3+ changed along with different types and amount of amphiphilic additional agents evidently. The particle size of Gly-CaCO3 decreased to 1.383 µm when the volume ratio reached 8:2 (Gly:H2O). Photoluminescence (PL) spectra show that all the AA-CaCO3:Eu3+ phosphors exhibit strong red emission peak originating from electric-dipole transition 5D0 → 7F2 (614 nm) of Eu3+ ions and the amphiphilic molecules (Gly and SDS) had a huge influence on photoluminescence intensity.

  16. Silver baits for the "miraculous draught" of amphiphilic lanthanide helicates.

    PubMed

    Terazzi, Emmanuel; Guénée, Laure; Varin, Johan; Bocquet, Bernard; Lemonnier, Jean-François; Emery, Daniel; Mareda, Jiri; Piguet, Claude

    2011-01-03

    The axial connection of flexible thioalkyls chains of variable length (n=1-12) within the segmental bis-tridentate 2-benzimidazole-8-hydroxyquinoline ligands [L12(Cn) -2 H](2-) provides amphiphilic receptors designed for the synthesis of neutral dinuclear lanthanides helicates. However, the stoichiometric mixing of metals and ligands in basic media only yields intricate mixtures of poorly soluble aggregates. The addition of Ag(I) in solution restores classical helicate architectures for n=3, with the quantitative formation of the discrete D(3) -symmetrical [Ln(2) Ag2(L12(C3) -2 H)(3) ](2+) complexes at millimolar concentration (Ln=La, Eu, Lu). The X-ray crystal structure supports the formation of [La(2) Ag(2) (L12(C3) -2 H)(3) ][OTf](2) , which exists in the solid state as infinite linear polymers bridged by S-Ag-S bonds. In contrast, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the gas phase and in solution confirm the experimental diffusion measurements, which imply the formation of discrete molecular entities in these media, in which the sulfur atoms of each lipophilic ligand are rapidly exchanged within the Ag(I) coordination sphere. Turned as a predictive tool, MD suggests that this Ag(I) templating effect is efficient only for n=1-3, while for n>3 very loose interactions occur between Ag(I) and the thioalkyl residues. The subsequent experimental demonstration that only 25 % of the total ligand speciation contributes to the formation of [Ln(2) Ag(2) (L12(C12) -2 H)(3) ](2+) in solution puts the bases for a rational approach for the design of amphiphilic helical complexes with predetermined molecular interfaces. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Direct investigation of the vectorization properties of amphiphilic cyclodextrins in phospholipid films.

    PubMed

    Javierre, Isabelle; Nedyalkov, Mickael; Petkova, Vera; Benattar, Jean Jacques; Weisse, Sandrine; Auzély-Velty, Rachel; Djedaïni-Pilard, Florence; Perly, Bruno

    2002-10-01

    Recently, new cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesized and shown to exhibit strong amphiphilic properties. In this paper, we study the action of these new amphiphilic cyclodextrins on phospholipids. Mixed phospholipid/cyclodextrin derivative films were prepared and studied using X-ray reflectivity for various phospholipid/cyclodextrin ratios. A molar ratio of 3 provides a highly stable film the molecular structure of which has been investigated in detail. The cholesterol tail of the cyclodextrin molecule was found to be anchored into the phospholipid film. The cyclodextrin moieties exposed to the aqueous medium are prone to the addition of the guest molecule Dosulepin, making them of high interest for drug delivery. For this purpose and as an example of a potential application, this cyclodextrin molecular carrier property is also addressed to this complex film architecture.

  18. The structure and properties of a simple model mixture of amphiphilic molecules and ions at a solid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizio, O.; Sokołowski, S.; Sokołowska, Z.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate microscopic structure, adsorption, and electric properties of a mixture that consists of amphiphilic molecules and charged hard spheres in contact with uncharged or charged solid surfaces. The amphiphilic molecules are modeled as spheres composed of attractive and repulsive parts. The electrolyte component of the mixture is considered in the framework of the restricted primitive model (RPM). The system is studied using a density functional theory that combines fundamental measure theory for hard sphere mixtures, weighted density approach for inhomogeneous charged hard spheres, and a mean-field approximation to describe anisotropic interactions. Our principal focus is in exploring the effects brought by the presence of ions on the distribution of amphiphilic particles at the wall, as well as the effects of amphiphilic molecules on the electric double layer formed at solid surface. In particular, we have found that under certain thermodynamic conditions a long-range translational and orientational order can develop. The presence of amphiphiles produces changes of the shape of the differential capacitance from symmetric or non-symmetric bell-like to camel-like. Moreover, for some systems the value of the potential of the zero charge is non-zero, in contrast to the RPM at a charged surface.

  19. Shape-designed single-polymer micelles: a proof-of-concept simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moths, Brian; Witten, Thomas A.

    Much effort has been directed towards self-assembling nanostructures. Strong, local interactions between specific building blocks often determine these structures (e.g., globular proteins). We seek to produce designed structures that are instead determined by collective effects of weak interactions (e.g., surfactant self-assembly). Such structures may reversibly change conformation or disassemble in response to changing solvent conditions, and, being soft, have potential to adapt to fluctuating or unknown application-imposed shape requirements. Concretely, we aim to realize such a structure in the form of a single polymer micelle--an amphiphilic polymer exhibiting a condensed, phase-segregated conformation when immersed in solvent. Connecting all amphiphiles into a single chain provides geometric constraints controlling the surface curvature profile, thus dictating a non-trivial shape. We present 2D Monte Carlo simulation results demonstrating the feasibility of such soft, shape-designed micelles. Preliminary results demonstrate a stable concave ``dimple'' in a micelle composed of a single A-B multiblock linear copolymer. We discuss both current limitations on shape robustness and effects of block asymmetry, block molecular weights and overall chain length on micelle shape. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation's MRSEC Program under Award Number DMR-1420709.

  20. Application of α-amylase as a novel biodemulsifier for destabilizing amphiphilic polymer-flooding produced liquid treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiatong; Wu, Hairong; Lu, Yao; Ma, Tao; Li, Zhe; Xu, Derong; Kang, Wanli; Bai, Baojun

    2018-07-01

    The performance and de-emulsification mechanism of α-amylase, a novel environmental friendly biodemulsifier in petroleum industry, was investigated at room temperature. The effects of α-amylase on the viscosity of amphiphilic polymer solution and de-emulsification rate were studied by changing the concentration of α-amylase, temperature and salinity. Polymer molecular weight, Zeta potential, interfacial film strength and interfacial tension were measured to investigate the de-emulsification mechanism of α-amylase. The results show that α-amylase is an efficient biodemulsifier to increase the de-emulsification rate of amphiphilic polymer emulsions. Hydrolysis of α-amylase to amphiphilic polymers destroys the structure of the amphiphilic polymer, thereby reduces the viscosity and the interfacial film strength of the system. Once de-emulsification is completed, the lower layer, i.e. the emulsified layer, will be clear. Thus, α-amylase can be applied as an effective de-emulsifier for amphiphilic polymer-stabilized O/W emulsion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Three-Dimensional Biologically Relevant Spectrum (BRS-3D): Shape Similarity Profile Based on PDB Ligands as Molecular Descriptors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ben; Kuang, Zheng-Kun; Feng, Shi-Yu; Wang, Dong; He, Song-Bing; Kong, De-Xin

    2016-11-17

    The crystallized ligands in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) can be treated as the inverse shapes of the active sites of corresponding proteins. Therefore, the shape similarity between a molecule and PDB ligands indicated the possibility of the molecule to bind with the targets. In this paper, we proposed a shape similarity profile that can be used as a molecular descriptor for ligand-based virtual screening. First, through three-dimensional (3D) structural clustering, 300 diverse ligands were extracted from the druggable protein-ligand database, sc-PDB. Then, each of the molecules under scrutiny was flexibly superimposed onto the 300 ligands. Superimpositions were scored by shape overlap and property similarity, producing a 300 dimensional similarity array termed the "Three-Dimensional Biologically Relevant Spectrum (BRS-3D)". Finally, quantitative or discriminant models were developed with the 300 dimensional descriptor using machine learning methods (support vector machine). The effectiveness of this approach was evaluated using 42 benchmark data sets from the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligand library and the GPCR decoy database (GLL/GDD). We compared the performance of BRS-3D with other 2D and 3D state-of-the-art molecular descriptors. The results showed that models built with BRS-3D performed best for most GLL/GDD data sets. We also applied BRS-3D in histone deacetylase 1 inhibitors screening and GPCR subtype selectivity prediction. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed.

  2. A Peptide Amphiphile Organogelator of Polar Organic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Charlotte K; Martin, Adam D; Easton, Christopher J; Thordarson, Pall

    2017-03-03

    A peptide amphiphile is reported, that gelates a range of polar organic solvents including acetonitrile/water, N,N-dimethylformamide and acetone, in a process dictated by β-sheet interactions and facilitated by the presence of an alkyl chain. Similarities with previously reported peptide amphiphile hydrogelators indicate analogous underlying mechanisms of gelation and structure-property relationships, suggesting that peptide amphiphile organogel design may be predictably based on hydrogel precedents.

  3. A Peptide Amphiphile Organogelator of Polar Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, Charlotte K.; Martin, Adam D.; Easton, Christopher J.; Thordarson, Pall

    2017-01-01

    A peptide amphiphile is reported, that gelates a range of polar organic solvents including acetonitrile/water, N,N-dimethylformamide and acetone, in a process dictated by β-sheet interactions and facilitated by the presence of an alkyl chain. Similarities with previously reported peptide amphiphile hydrogelators indicate analogous underlying mechanisms of gelation and structure-property relationships, suggesting that peptide amphiphile organogel design may be predictably based on hydrogel precedents. PMID:28255169

  4. Cylindrical micelles of a POSS amphiphilic dendrimer as nano-reactors for polymerization.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jing-Ting; Yeh, Tso-Fan; Samuel, Ashok Zachariah; Huang, Yi-Fan; Sie, Jyun-Hao; Wu, Kuan-Yi; Peng, Chi-How; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O; Wang, Chien-Lung

    2018-02-15

    A low generation amphiphilic dendrimer, POSS-AD, which has a POSS core and eight amphiphilic arms, was synthesized and used as a nano-reactor to produce well-defined polymer nano-cylinders. Confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), Raman and NMR spectrometry, monodispersed cylindrical micelles that contain a hydrophilic cavity with a diameter of 2.09 nm and a length of 4.26 nm were produced via co-assembling POSS-AD with hydrophilic liquids, such as H 2 O and HEMA in hydrophobic solvents. Taking the HEMA/POSS-AD cylindrical micelles as nano-reactors, polymerization of HEMA within the micelles results in polymer nano-cylinders (POSS-ADNPs) with a diameter of 2.24 nm and a length of 5.02 nm. The study confirmed that despite the inability to maintain specific shape in solution, low generation dendrimers form well-defined nano-containers or nano-reactors, which relies on co-assembling with hydrophilic guest molecules. These nano-reactors are robust enough to maintain their shape during the polymerization of the guest molecules. Polymer nano-cylinders with dimensions less than 10 nm can thus be produced from the HEMA/POSS-AD micelles. Since the chemical structure of low-generation dendrimers and the contents of the co-assembled nano-reactors can be easily adjusted, the concept holds the potential for the further developments of low-generation amphiphilic dendrimers.

  5. Synthesis and Application of a New Amphiphilic Antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Hanaa M; Arafat, Shaker M; Basuny, Amany M; Shattory, Y El-

    2017-11-01

    A new amphiphilic antioxidant (tannyl stearate) derived from reaction of tannic acid with stearic acid was synthesized in order to improve tannic acid solubility in lipid materials. This reaction gives many products having different degree of esterification (tannyl mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta……stearate) which were separated using silica gel column chromatography and tentative identification was carried out using thin layer chromatography (TLC). The intrinsic viscosities (η) were used to differentiate between the different molecular weight of the produced esters 1) . Tannyl penta stearate is assumed to be the most suitable amphiphilic antioxidant derivative, where those derivatives with less degree of esterification would be less soluble in fat, and those of higher degree of esterification would exhaust more hydroxyl group that cause decreases of antioxidant activity. The structure of tannyl penta stearate was approved depending on its chemical analysis and spectral data (IR, H 1 NMR,). The emulsification power of tannyl penta stearate was then determined according to method described by El-Sukkary et al. 2) , in order to prove its amphiphilic property. Then tannyl penta stearate was tested for its antioxidant and radical scavenging activities in three different manners, those are, lipid oxidation in sunflower oil using Rancimat, (DPPH) free radical scavenging and total antioxidant activity. {Pure tannic acid (T), butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) were used as reference antioxidant radical saving compounds}. Then tannyl penta stearate was added to sunflower oil, frying process was carried out and all physicochemical parameters of the oil were considered, and compared to other reference antioxidant in order to study the effect of this new antioxidant toward oil stability. Acute oral toxicity of the tannyl penta stearate was carried out using albino mice of 21-25 g body weight to determine its safety according to the method

  6. Nanoassemblies from amphiphilic cytarabine prodrug for leukemia targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhao, Dujuan; He, Wenxiu; Zhang, Huiyuan; Li, Zhonghao; Luan, Yuxia

    2017-02-01

    The anti-leukemia effect of cytarabine (Ara-C) is severely restricted by its high hydrophilic properties and rapid plasma degradation. Herein, a novel amphiphilic small molecular prodrug of Ara-C was developed by coupling a short aliphatic chain, hexanoic acid (HA) to 4-NH 2 of the parent drug. Based on the amphiphilic nature, the resulting bioconjugate (HA-Ara) could spontaneously self-assemble into stable spherical nanoassemblies (NAs) with an extremely high drug loading (∼71wt%). Moreover, folate receptor (FR)-targeting NAs with high grafting efficient folic acid - bovine serum albumin (FA-BSA) conjugate immobilized on the surface (NAs/FA-BSA) was prepared. The results of MTT assays on FR-positive K562 cells and FR-negative A549 cells demonstrated higher cytotoxicity of HA-Ara NAs than the native drug. Especially, the IC 50 values revealed that NAs/FA-BSA was 3 and 2-fold effective than non-targeted NAs after 24 and 48h treatment with K562 cells, respectively indicating FR-mediated enhanced anti-tumor efficacy. In vitro cellular uptake, larger accumulation of HA-Ara NAs were observed in comparative with the free FITC and the results further confirmed the selective uptake of NAs/FA-BSA in folate receptor enriched cancer cells. Above all, self-assembled HA-Ara NAs exhibited potential superiority for Ara-C delivery and FA-modified NAs would be an excellent candidate for targeting leukemia therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tailoring peptide amphiphiles and their assemblies for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Brian

    Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are molecules composed of a peptide conjugated to a hydrophobic moiety, commonly a fatty acid. They closely resemble the structure of naturally occurring lipopeptides, produced by microbes as signaling and antimicrobial agents. The amphiphilic nature of PAs in concert with the large number of discovered functional peptides inspired scientists to exploit this molecular architecture for producing synthetic self-assembled bioactive materials. PA assemblies are sought after for a wide breadth of applications including disease therapy, regenerative medicine, and catalysis. However, with PAs, the peptide chemistry is a double-edged sword. The peptide component contributes significantly to both the activity and self-assembly. The physiochemical properties of different PAs lead to unique aggregation stability and morphological characteristics which are unpredictable, a priori. Therefore it is challenging to design bioactive PAs and control their self-assembly, simultaneously. This limitation slows the development of PAs for medical use. In this dissertation, methods to control the self-assembly of PAs and the effects of acylating a functional peptide will be discussed. In one part, efforts to direct the self-assembly of PAs into small spherical aggregates, a morphology infrequently observed, will be described. In another section, a strategy to control the stability of PA assemblies will be discussed. In the last section, a pH-responsive membrane perturbing peptide was modified with fatty acid tails and the properties of the resulting PAs will be presented. This dissertation provides some fundamental insight for the use and design of PA self-assemblies.

  8. The effect of amphiphilic siloxane oligomers on fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Emily C; Xie, Yan; Loli, Bree; Dargaville, Tim R; Leavesley, David I; George, Graeme A; Upton, Zee

    2010-11-01

    The formation of hypertrophic scars (HSF) is a frequent medical outcome of wound repair and often requires further therapy with treatments such as silicone gel sheets (SGS) or apoptosis-inducing agents, including bleomycin. Although widely used, knowledge regarding SGS and their mode of action is limited. Preliminary research has shown that small amounts of amphiphilic silicone present in SGS have the ability to move into skin during treatment. We demonstrate herein that a commercially available analogue of these amphiphilic siloxane species, the rake copolymer GP226, decreases collagen synthesis on exposure to cultures of fibroblasts derived from HSF. By size exclusion chromatography, GP226 was found to be a mixture of siloxane species, containing five fractions of different molecular weight. By studies of collagen production, cell viability and proliferation, it was revealed that a low molecular weight fraction (fraction IV) was the most active, reducing the number of viable cells present after treatment and thereby reducing collagen production as a result. On exposure of fraction IV to human keratinocytes, viability and proliferation were also significantly affected. HSF undergoing apoptosis after application of fraction IV were also detected via real-time microscopy and by using the TUNEL assay. Taken together, these data suggests that these amphiphilic siloxanes could be potential non-invasive substitutes to apoptotic-inducing chemical agents that are currently used as scar treatments.

  9. A theoretical study of colloidal forces near an amphiphilic polymer brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianzhong

    2011-03-01

    Polymer-based ``non-stick'' coatings are promising as the next generation of effective, environmentally-friendly marine antifouling systems that minimize nonspecific adsorption of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). However, design and development of such systems are impeded by the poor knowledge of polymer-mediated interactions of biomacromolecules with the protected substrate. In this work, a polymer density functional theory (DFT) is used to predict the potential of mean force between spherical biomacromolecules and amphiphilic copolymer brushes within a coarse-grained model that captures essential nonspecific interactions such as the molecular excluded volume effects and the hydrophobic energies. The relevance of theoretical results for practical control of the EPS adsorption is discussed in terms of the efficiency of different brush configurations to prevent biofouling. It is shown that the most effective antifouling surface may be accomplished by using amphiphilic brushes with a long hydrophilic backbone and a hydrophobic end at moderate grafting density.

  10. gWEGA: GPU-accelerated WEGA for molecular superposition and shape comparison.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xin; Li, Jiabo; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2014-06-05

    Virtual screening of a large chemical library for drug lead identification requires searching/superimposing a large number of three-dimensional (3D) chemical structures. This article reports a graphic processing unit (GPU)-accelerated weighted Gaussian algorithm (gWEGA) that expedites shape or shape-feature similarity score-based virtual screening. With 86 GPU nodes (each node has one GPU card), gWEGA can screen 110 million conformations derived from an entire ZINC drug-like database with diverse antidiabetic agents as query structures within 2 s (i.e., screening more than 55 million conformations per second). The rapid screening speed was accomplished through the massive parallelization on multiple GPU nodes and rapid prescreening of 3D structures (based on their shape descriptors and pharmacophore feature compositions). Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Glucose-neopentyl glycol (GNG) amphiphiles for membrane protein study.

    PubMed

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rana, Rohini R; Gotfryd, Kamil; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Kruse, Andrew C; Cho, Kyung Ho; Capaldi, Stefano; Carlsson, Emil; Kobilka, Brian; Loland, Claus J; Gether, Ulrik; Banerjee, Surajit; Byrne, Bernadette; Lee, John K; Gellman, Samuel H

    2013-03-21

    The development of a new class of surfactants for membrane protein manipulation, "GNG amphiphiles", is reported. These amphiphiles display promising behavior for membrane proteins, as demonstrated recently by the high resolution structure of a sodium-pumping pyrophosphatase reported by Kellosalo et al. (Science, 2012, 337, 473).

  12. Freezing-induced self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albouy, P. A.; Deville, S.; Fulkar, A.; Hakouk, K.; Impéror-Clerc, M.; Klotz, M.; Liu, Q.; Marcellini, M.; Perez, J.

    The self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules usually takes place in a liquid phase, near room temperature. Here, using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments performed in real time, we show that freezing of aqueous solutions of copolymer amphiphilic molecules can induce self-assembly below 0{\\deg}C.

  13. Freezing-induced self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules.

    PubMed

    Albouy, P A; Deville, S; Fulkar, A; Hakouk, K; Impéror-Clerc, M; Klotz, M; Liu, Q; Marcellini, M; Perez, J

    2017-03-01

    The self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules usually takes place in a liquid phase, near room temperature. Here, using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments performed in real time, we show that freezing of aqueous solutions of copolymer amphiphilic molecules can induce self-assembly below 0 °C.

  14. Fragrance compounds and amphiphilic association structures.

    PubMed

    Friberg, S E

    1998-05-01

    Fragrance formulations have traditionally been based on alcohol as the solvent, but the recent legal restrictions on volatile organic solvents have prompted the industry to change to aqueous solubilized systems. The article reviews the fundamental factors in the application of such systems evaluating the influence by different amphiphilic association structures on the vapor pressure of fragrance compounds. This information is subsequently used to estimate the variation of fragrance compound vapor pressures during evaporation. The results reveal that the vapor pressure versus time variation is improved compared to solvent-based formulations.

  15. Brownian dynamics simulation of amphiphilic block copolymers with different tail lengths, comparison with theory and comicelles.

    PubMed

    Hafezi, Mohammad-Javad; Sharif, Farhad

    2015-11-01

    Study on the effect of amphiphilic copolymers structure on their self assembly is an interesting subject, with important applications in the area of drug delivery and biological system treatments. Brownian dynamics simulations were performed to study self-assembly of the linear amphiphilic block copolymers with the same hydrophilic head, but hydrophobic tails of different lengths. Critical micelle concentration (CMC), gyration radius distribution, micelle size distribution, density profiles of micelles, shape anisotropy, and dynamics of micellization were investigated as a function of tail length. Simulation results were compared with predictions from theory and simulation for mixed systems of block copolymers with long and short hydrophobic tail, reported in our previous work. Interestingly, the equilibrium structural and dynamic parameters of pure and mixed block copolymers were similarly dependant on the intrinsic/apparent hydrophobic block length. Log (CMC) was, however; proportional to the tail length and had a different behavior compared to the mixed system. The power law scaling relation of equilibrium structural parameters for amphiphilic block copolymers predicts the same dependence for similar hydrophobic tail lengths, but the power law prediction of CMC is different, which is due to its simplifying assumptions as discussed here. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Precisely Size-Tunable Monodisperse Hairy Plasmonic Nanoparticles via Amphiphilic Star-Like Block Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yihuang; Yoon, Young Jun; Pang, Xinchang; He, Yanjie; Jung, Jaehan; Feng, Chaowei; Zhang, Guangzhao; Lin, Zhiqun

    2016-12-01

    In situ precision synthesis of monodisperse hairy plasmonic nanoparticles with tailored dimensions and compositions by capitalizing on amphiphilic star-like diblock copolymers as nanoreactors are reported. Such hairy plasmonic nanoparticles comprise uniform noble metal nanoparticles intimately and perpetually capped by hydrophobic polymer chains (i.e., "hairs") with even length. Interestingly, amphiphilic star-like diblock copolymer nanoreactors retain the spherical shape under reaction conditions, and the diameter of the resulting plasmonic nanoparticles and the thickness of polymer chains situated on the surface of the nanoparticle can be readily and precisely tailored. These hairy nanoparticles can be regarded as hard/soft core/shell nanoparticles. Notably, the polymer "hairs" are directly and permanently tethered to the noble metal nanoparticle surface, thereby preventing the aggregation of nanoparticles and rendering their dissolution in nonpolar solvents and the homogeneous distribution in polymer matrices with long-term stability. This amphiphilic star-like block copolymer nanoreactor-based strategy is viable and robust and conceptually enables the design and synthesis of a rich variety of hairy functional nanoparticles with new horizons for fundamental research on self-assembly and technological applications in plasmonics, catalysis, energy conversion and storage, bioimaging, and biosensors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Isentropic expansion and related thermodynamic properties of non-ionic amphiphile-water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Reis, João Carlos R; Douhéret, Gérard; Davis, Michael I; Fjellanger, Inger Johanne; Høiland, Harald

    2008-01-28

    A concise thermodynamic formalism is developed for the molar isentropic thermal expansion, ES,m = ( partial differential Vm/ partial differential T)(Sm,x), and the ideal and excess quantities for the molar, apparent molar and partial molar isentropic expansions of binary liquid mixtures. Ultrasound speeds were determined by means of the pulse-echo-overlap method in aqueous mixtures of 2-methylpropan-2-ol at 298.15 K over the entire composition range. These data complement selected extensive literature data on density, isobaric heat capacity and ultrasound speed for 9 amphiphile (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, 2-methylpropan-2-ol, ethane-1,2-diol, 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol)-water binary systems, which form the basis of tables listing molar and excess molar isobaric expansions and heat capacities, and molar and excess molar isentropic compressions and expansions at 298.15 K and at 65 fixed mole fractions spanning the entire composition range and fine-grained in the water-rich region. The dependence on composition of these 9 systems is graphically depicted for the excess molar isobaric and isentropic expansions and for the excess partial molar isobaric and isentropic expansions of the amphiphile. The analysis shows that isentropic thermal expansion properties give a much stronger response to amphiphile-water molecular interactions than do their isobaric counterparts. Depending on the pair property-system, the maximum excess molar isentropic value is generally twenty- to a hundred-fold greater than the corresponding maximum isobaric value, and occurs at a lower mole fraction of the amphiphile. Values at infinite dilution of the 9 amphiphiles in water are given for the excess partial molar isobaric heat capacity, isentropic compression, isobaric expansion and isentropic expansion. These values are interpreted in terms of the changes occurring when amphiphile molecules cluster into an oligomeric form. Present results are discussed

  18. Statistical thermodynamics of amphiphile chains in micelles

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shaul, A.; Szleifer, I.; Gelbart, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    The probability distribution of amphiphile chain conformations in micelles of different geometries is derived through maximization of their packing entropy. A lattice model, first suggested by Dill and Flory, is used to represent the possible chain conformations in the micellar core. The polar heads of the chains are assumed to be anchored to the micellar surface, with the other chain segments occupying all lattice sites in the interior of the micelle. This “volume-filling” requirement, the connectivity of the chains, and the geometry of the micelle define constraints on the possible probability distributions of chain conformations. The actual distribution is derived by maximizing the chain's entropy subject to these constraints; “reversals” of the chains back towards the micellar surface are explicitly included. Results are presented for amphiphiles organized in planar bilayers and in cylindrical and spherical micelles of different sizes. It is found that, for all three geometries, the bond order parameters decrease as a function of the bond distance from the polar head, in accordance with recent experimental data. The entropy differences associated with geometrical changes are shown to be significant, suggesting thereby the need to include curvature (environmental)-dependent “tail” contributions in statistical thermodynamic treatments of micellization. PMID:16593492

  19. Biomimetic surface coatings from modular amphiphilic proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, James; Wan, Fan; Fischer, Stephen; Dick, Scott

    2010-03-01

    Recombinant DNA methods have been used to develop a library of diblock protein polymers for creating designer biofunctional interfaces. These proteins are composed of a surface-active, amphiphilic block joined to a disordered, water soluble block with an end terminal bioactive domain. The amphiphilic block has a strong affinity for many synthetic polymer surfaces, providing a facile means of imparting biological functionality to otherwise bio-neutral materials through physical self-assembly. We have incorporated a series of bioactive end domains into this diblock motif, including sequences that encode specific cell binding and signaling functions of extracellular matrix constituents (e.g. RGD and YIGSR). In this talk, we show that these diblock constructs self-assemble into biofunctional surface coatings on several model synthetic polymer materials. We demonstrate that surface adsorption of the proteins has minimal impacts on the presentation of the bioactive domains in the soluble block, and through the use of microscopic and cell proliferation assays, we show that the resulting biofunctional interfaces are capable of inducing appropriate cellular responses in a variety of human cell types.

  20. Aqueous Foam Stabilized by Tricationic Amphiphilic Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heerschap, Seth; Marafino, John; McKenna, Kristin; Caran, Kevin; Feitosa, Klebert; Kevin Caran's Research Group Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    The unique surface properties of amphiphilic molecules have made them widely used in applications where foaming, emulsifying or coating processes are needed. The development of novel architectures with multi-cephalic/tailed molecules have enhanced their anti-bacterial activity in connection with tail length and the nature of the head group. Here we report on the foamability of two triple head double, tail cationic surfactants (M-1,14,14, M-P, 14,14) and a triple head single tail cationic surfactant (M-1,1,14) and compare them with commercially available single headed, single tailed anionic and cationic surfactants (SDS,CTAB and DTAB). The results show that bubble rupture rate decrease with the length of the carbon chain irrespective of head structure. The growth rate of bubbles with short tailed surfactants (SDS) and longer, single tailed tricationic surfactants (M-1,1,14) was shown to be twice as high as those with longer tailed surfactants (CTAB, M-P,14,14, M-1,14,14). This fact was related to the size variation of bubbles, where the foams made with short tail surfactants exhibited higher polydispersivity than those with short tails. This suggests that foams with tricationic amphiphilics are closed linked to their tail length and generally insensitive to their head structure.

  1. Second-order quadrupolar line shapes under molecular dynamics: An additional transition in the extremely fast regime.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ivan; Wu, Gang; Gan, Zhehong

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for probing molecular dynamics. For the classic case of two-site exchange, NMR spectra go through the transition from exchange broadening through coalescence and then motional narrowing as the exchange rate increases passing through the difference between the resonance frequencies of the two sites. For central-transition spectra of half-integer quadrupolar nuclei in solids, line shape change due to molecular dynamics occurs in two stages. The first stage occurs when the exchange rate is comparable to the second-order quadrupolar interaction. The second spectral transition comes at a faster exchange rate which approaches the Larmor frequency and generally reduces the isotropic quadrupolar shift. Such a two-stage transition phenomenon is unique to half-integer quadrupolar nuclei. A quantum mechanical formalism in full Liouville space is presented to explain the physical origin of the two-stage phenomenon and for use in spectral simulations. Variable-temperature 17 O NMR of solid NaNO 3 in which the NO 3 - ion undergoes 3-fold jumps confirms the two-stage transition process. The spectra of NaNO 3 acquired in the temperature range of 173-413K agree well with simulations using the quantum mechanical formalism. The rate constants for the 3-fold NO 3 - ion jumps span eight orders of magnitude (10 2 -10 10 s -1 ) covering both transitions of the dynamic 17 O line shape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Amphiphilic Polycarbonates from Carborane-Installed Cyclic Carbonates as Potential Agents for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hejian; Wei, Xing; Zhou, Dongfang; Qi, Yanxin; Xie, Zhigang; Chen, Xuesi; Jing, Xiabin; Huang, Yubin

    2016-09-21

    Carboranes with rich boron content have showed significant applications in the field of boron neutron capture therapy. Biodegradable derivatives of carborane-conjugated polymers with well-defined structure and tunable loading of boron atoms are far less explored. Herein, a new family of amphiphilic carborane-conjugated polycarbonates was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of a carborane-installed cyclic carbonate monomer. Catalyzed by TBD from a poly(ethylene glycol) macroinitiator, the polymerization proceeded to relatively high conversions (>65%), with low polydispersity in a certain range of molecular weight. The boron content was readily tuned by the feed ratio of the monomer and initiator. The resultant amphiphilic polycarbonates self-assembled in water into spherical nanoparticles of different sizes depending on the hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic ratio. It was demonstrated that larger nanoparticles (PN150) were more easily subjected to protein adsorption and captured by the liver, and smaller nanoparticles (PN50) were more likely to enter cancer cells and accumulate at the tumor site. PN50 with thermal neutron irradiation exhibited the highest therapeutic efficacy in vivo. The new synthetic method utilizing amphiphilic biodegradable boron-enriched polymers is useful for developing more-selective and -effective boron delivery systems for BNCT.

  3. Self-assembly of discrete metal complexes in aqueous solution via block copolypeptide amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, Keita; Masaki, Yoshitaka; Koga, Yuko; Deming, Timothy J

    2013-01-21

    The integration of discrete metal complexes has been attracting significant interest due to the potential of these materials for soft metal-metal interactions and supramolecular assembly. Additionally, block copolypeptide amphiphiles have been investigated concerning their capacity for self-assembly into structures such as nanoparticles, nanosheets and nanofibers. In this study, we combined these two concepts by investigating the self-assembly of discrete metal complexes in aqueous solution using block copolypeptides. Normally, discrete metal complexes such as [Au(CN)(2)]-, when molecularly dispersed in water, cannot interact with one another. Our results demonstrated, however, that the addition of block copolypeptide amphiphiles such as K(183)L(19) to [Au(CN)(2)]- solutions induced one-dimensional integration of the discrete metal complex, resulting in photoluminescence originating from multinuclear complexes with metal-metal interactions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a fibrous nanostructure with lengths and widths of approximately 100 and 20 nm, respectively, which grew to form advanced nanoarchitectures, including those resembling the weave patterns of Waraji (traditional Japanese straw sandals). This concept of combining block copolypeptide amphiphiles with discrete coordination compounds allows the design of flexible and functional supramolecular coordination systems in water.

  4. Driving forces for adsorption of amphiphilic peptides to the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Engin, Ozge; Villa, Alessandra; Sayar, Mehmet; Hess, Berk

    2010-09-02

    We have studied the partitioning of amphiphilic peptides at the air-water interface. The free energy of adsorption from bulk to interface was calculated by determining the potential of mean force via atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. To this end a method is introduced to restrain or constrain the center of mass of a group of molecules in a periodic system. The model amphiphilic peptides are composed of alternating valine and asparagine residues. The decomposition of the free energy difference between the bulk and interface is studied for different peptide block lengths. Our analysis revealed that for short amphiphilic peptides the surface driving force dominantly stems from the dehydration of hydrophobic side chains. The only opposing force is associated with the loss of orientational freedom of the peptide at the interface. For the peptides studied, the free energy difference scales linearly with the size of the molecule, since the peptides mainly adopt extended conformations both in bulk and at the interface. The free energy difference depends strongly on the water model, which can be rationalized through the hydration thermodynamics of hydrophobic solutes. Finally, we measured the reduction of the surface tension associated with complete coverage of the interface with peptides.

  5. Physical deposition behavior of stiff amphiphilic polyelectrolytes in an external electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dongmei; Zuo, Chuncheng; Cao, Qianqian; Chen, Hongli

    2017-08-01

    Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study the physical deposition behavior of stiff amphiphilic polyelectrolytes (APEs) in an external electric field. The effects of chain stiffness, the charge distribution of a hydrophilic block, and electric field strength are investigated. Amphiphilic multilayers, which consist of a monolayer of adsorbed hydrophilic monomers (HLMs), a hydrophobic layer, and another hydrophilic layer, are formed in a selective solvent. All cases exhibit locally ordered hydrophilic monolayers. Two kinds of hydrophobic micelles are distinguished based on local structures. Stripe and network hydrophobic patterns are formed in individual cases. Increasing the chain stiffness decreases the thickness of the deposited layer, the lateral size of the hydrophobic micelles, and the amount of deposition. Increasing the number of positively charged HLMs in a single chain has the same effect as increasing chain stiffness. Moreover, when applied normally to the substrate, the electric field compresses the deposited structures and increases the amount of deposition by pulling more PEs toward the substrate. A stronger electric field also facilitates the formation of a thinner and more ordered hydrophilic adsorption layer. These estimates help us explore how to tailor patterned nano-surfaces, nano-interfaces, or amphiphilic nanostructures by physically depositing semi-flexible APEs which is of crucial importance in physical sciences, life sciences and nanotechnology.

  6. Lipid tail protrusions initiate spontaneous insertion of charged, amphiphilic nanoparticles into lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lehn, Reid; Ricci, Maria; Carney, Randy; Voitchovsky, Kislon; Stellacci, Francesco; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2014-03-01

    Vesicle fusion is a primary mechanism used to mediate the uptake and trafficking of materials both into and between cells. The pathway of vesicle fusion involves the formation of a lipid stalk in which the hydrophobic core regions of two closely associated bilayers merge. The transition state for stalk formation requires the transient protrusion of hydrophobic lipid tails into solvent; favorable contact between these hydrophobic tails then drives stalk creation. In this work, we use unbiased atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to show that lipid tail protrusions can also induce the insertion of charged, amphiphilic nanoparticles (NPs) into lipid bilayers. As in the case of vesicle fusion, the rate-limiting step for NP-bilayer fusion is the stochastic protrusion of aliphatic lipid tails into solvent and into contact with hydrophobic material in the amphiphilic NP monolayer. We confirm our predictions with experiments on supported lipid bilayers. The strong agreement between simulation and experiments indicates that the pre-stalk transition associated with vesicle fusion may be a general mechanism for the insertion of amphiphilic nano-objects that could be prominent in biological systems given the widespread use of NPs in applications ranging from drug delivery to biosensing.

  7. Constructing a molecular theory of self-assembly: Interplay of ideas from surfactants and block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Ramanathan

    2017-06-01

    Low molecular weight surfactants and high molecular weight block copolymers display analogous self-assembly behavior in solutions and at interfaces, generating nanoscale structures of different shapes. Understanding the link between the molecular structure of these amphiphiles and their self-assembly behavior has been the goal of theoretical studies. Despite the analogies between surfactants and block copolymers, models predicting their self-assembly behavior have evolved independent of one another, each overlooking the molecular feature considered critical to the other. In this review, we focus on the interplay of ideas pertaining to surfactants and block copolymers in three areas of self-assembly. First, we show how improved free energy models have evolved by applying ideas from surfactants to block copolymers and vice versa, giving rise to a unitary theoretical framework and better predictive capabilities for both classes of amphiphiles. Second we show that even though molecular packing arguments are often used to explain aggregate shape transitions resulting from self-assembly, the molecular packing considerations are more relevant in the case of surfactants whereas free energy criteria are relevant for block copolymers. Third, we show that even though the surfactant and block copolymer aggregates are small nanostructures, the size differences between them is significant enough to make the interfacial effects control the solubilization of molecules in surfactant micelles while the bulk interactions control the solubilization in block copolymer micelles. Finally, we conclude by identifying recent theoretical progress in adapting the micelle model to a wide variety of self-assembly phenomena and the challenges to modeling posed by emerging novel classes of amphiphiles with complex biological, inorganic or nanoparticle moieties. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Amphiphilic Cyclodextrin Derivatives for Targeted Drug Delivery to Tumors.

    PubMed

    Erdogar, Nazlı; Varan, Gamze; Bilensoy, Erem

    2017-01-01

    Villiers has extensively studied cyclodextrins, a family of macrocyclic oligosaccharides linked by α-1,4 glycosidic bonds, in different fields since their discovery in 1891. The unique structure enabling inclusion complexation for natural cyclodextrins and cyclodextrin derivatives make them attractive for novel drug delivery systems. Cyclodextrins can be modified with long aliphatic chains to render an amphiphilic property and these different amphiphilic cyclodextrins are able to form nanoparticles without surfactants. In the literature, several different amphiphilic cyclodextrins are reported and applied to drug delivery and targeting especially to tumors. Specificly, folateconjugated amphiphilic cyclodextrin derivatives are used for active tumor targeting of poorly water soluble drugs and improve the efficacy and safety of therapeutic agents. On the other hand, effect of positive surface charge has also been under research in the recent years. Polycationic amphiphilic cyclodextrins have shown promise towards forming small complexes with negatively charged molecules such as drugs or plasmid DNA. Polycationic amphiphilic cyclodextrins enhance interaction with cell membrane due to their net positive surface charge. The scope of this review is to describe potential uses and pharmaceutical applications of tumor-targeted amphiphilic cyclodextrins, with focus on folate-conjugated cyclodextrin derivatives and polycationic cyclodextrin derivatives both studied by our group at Hacettepe University. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Molecular motions that shape the cardiac action potential: Insights from voltage clamp fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wandi; Varga, Zoltan; Silva, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    Very recently, voltage-clamp fluorometry (VCF) protocols have been developed to observe the membrane proteins responsible for carrying the ventricular ionic currents that form the action potential (AP), including those carried by the cardiac Na(+) channel, NaV1.5, the L-type Ca(2+) channel, CaV1.2, the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, and the rapid and slow components of the delayed rectifier, KV11.1 and KV7.1. This development is significant, because VCF enables simultaneous observation of ionic current kinetics with conformational changes occurring within specific channel domains. The ability gained from VCF, to connect nanoscale molecular movement to ion channel function has revealed how the voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) control ion flux through channel pores, mechanisms of post-translational regulation and the molecular pathology of inherited mutations. In the future, we expect that this data will be of great use for the creation of multi-scale computational AP models that explicitly represent ion channel conformations, connecting molecular, cell and tissue electrophysiology. Here, we review the VCF protocol, recent results, and discuss potential future developments, including potential use of these experimental findings to create novel computational models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pair Potential That Reproduces the Shape of Isochrones in Molecular Liquids.

    PubMed

    Veldhorst, Arno A; Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2016-08-18

    Many liquids have curves (isomorphs) in their phase diagrams along which structure, dynamics, and some thermodynamic quantities are invariant in reduced units. A substantial part of their phase diagrams is thus effectively one dimensional. The shapes of these isomorphs are described by a material-dependent function of density, h(ρ), which for real liquids is well approximated by a power law, ρ(γ). However, in simulations, a power law is not adequate when density changes are large; typical models, such as Lennard-Jones liquids, show that γ(ρ) ≡ d ln h(ρ)/d ln ρ is a decreasing function of density. This article presents results from computer simulations using a new pair potential that diverges at a nonzero distance and can be tuned to give a more realistic shape of γ(ρ). Our results indicate that the finite size of molecules is an important factor to take into account when modeling liquids over a large density range.

  11. Tetraether bolaform amphiphiles as models of archaebacterial membrane lipids: Synthesis, differential scanning calorimetry, and monolayer studies

    SciT

    Kim, J.M.; Thompson, D.H.

    Four racemic tetraether lipids containing a single 1,[omega]-polymethylene chain ([omega] = 16, 20) bridging two glycerophosphate headgroups (bolaform amphiphiles) have been synthesized. These materials have been characterized at the air-water interface by monolayer balance methods and in buffered solution by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and negative stain transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Molecular areas in excess of 100 [angstrom][sup 2]/molecule at 40 mN/m[sup 2] were observed for all bolaamphiphiles studied, suggesting a U-shaped molecular conformation that places both phosphate headgroups in the water subphase. Aqueous dispersions of these lipids have thermal and morphological properties that depend on molecular structure and solutionmore » pH. Phase transition temperatures (T[sub c]) of the structural isomers, 2,2[prime]-di-O-decyl-1, 1[prime]-O-eicosamethylene-rac-diglycero-3,3[prime]-diphosphate (PS20) and 1,1[prime]-di-O-decyl-2,2[prime]-O-eicosamethylene-3,3[prime]-diphosphate (SS20), were 49 and 38 [degrees]C, respectively, at pH 2.5. A reduction in the observed T[sub c] of [approximately] 14 [degrees]C occurred when the pH was raised to 8.1. The closely related structural analogue, 1,1[prime]-O-eicosamethylene-2-O-eicosyl-rac-diglycero-3,2[prime], 3[prime]-diphosphate (PA20), has a T[sub c] 85 [degrees]C. No phase transition was observed above 5 [degrees]C for 2,2[prime]-O-dioctyl-1,1 [prime]-O-hexadecylmethylene-rac-diglycero-3, 3[prime]-disphosphoric acid (PS16). Multilamellar structures with hydrocarbon-region spacings of 24-30 [angstrom] and overall lengths approaching 0.3 [mu]m were observed by negative stain electron microscopy. The observed lamellae distance is in good agreement with the membrane thickness expected for a bolaamphiphile in its all-anti conformation. 56 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.« less

  12. Shaping a screening file for maximal lead discovery efficiency and effectiveness: elimination of molecular redundancy.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Gregory A; Bell, Andrew S; Boehm, Markus; Everett, Jeremy R; Gonzales, Rosalia; Hepworth, David; Klug-McLeod, Jacquelyn L; Lanfear, Jeremy; Loesel, Jens; Mathias, John; Wood, Terence P

    2012-11-26

    High Throughput Screening (HTS) is a successful strategy for finding hits and leads that have the opportunity to be converted into drugs. In this paper we highlight novel computational methods used to select compounds to build a new screening file at Pfizer and the analytical methods we used to assess their quality. We also introduce the novel concept of molecular redundancy to help decide on the density of compounds required in any region of chemical space in order to be confident of running successful HTS campaigns.

  13. Self-assembly of peptide-amphiphile nanofibers: the roles of hydrogen bonding and amphiphilic packing.

    PubMed

    Paramonov, Sergey E; Jun, Ho-Wook; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D

    2006-06-07

    The role of hydrogen bonding and amphiphilic packing in the self-assembly of peptide-amphiphiles (PAs) was investigated using a series of 26 PA derivatives, including 19 N-methylated variants and 7 alanine mutants. These were studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy, a variety of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies, rheology, and vitreous ice cryo-transmission electron microscopy. From these studies, we have been able to determine which amino acids are critical for the self-assembly of PAs into nanofibers, why the nanofiber is favored over other possible nanostructures, the orientation of hydrogen bonding with respect to the nanofiber axis, and the constraints placed upon the portion of the peptide most intimately associated with the biological environment. Furthermore, by selectively eliminating key hydrogen bonds, we are able to completely change the nanostructure resulting from self-assembly in addition to modifying the macroscopic mechanical properties associated with the assembled gel. This study helps to clarify the mechanism of self-assembly for peptide amphiphiles and will thereby help in the design of future generations of PAs.

  14. Aggregation of p-Sulfonatocalixarene-Based Amphiphiles and Supra-Amphiphiles

    PubMed Central

    Basilio, Nuno; Francisco, Vitor; Garcia-Rio, Luis

    2013-01-01

    p-Sulfonatocalixarenes are a special class of water soluble macrocyclic molecules made of 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate units linked by methylene bridges. One of the main features of these compounds relies on their ability to form inclusion complexes with cationic and neutral species. This feature, together with their water solubility and apparent biological compatibility, had enabled them to emerge as one the most important host receptors in supramolecular chemistry. Attachment of hydrophobic alkyl chains to these compounds leads to the formation of macrocyclic host molecules with amphiphilic properties. Like other oligomeric surfactants, these compounds present improved performance with respect to their monomeric counterparts. In addition, they hold their recognition abilities and present several structural features that depend on the size of the macrocycle and on the length of the alkyl chain, such as preorganization, flexibility and adopted conformations, which make these molecules very interesting to study structure-aggregation relationships. Moreover, the recognition abilities of p-sulfonatocalixarenes enable them to be applied in the design of amphiphiles constructed from non-covalent, rather than covalent, bonds (supramolecular amphiphiles). In this review, we summarize the developments made on the design and synthesis of p-sulfonatocalixarenes-based surfactants, the characterization of their self-assembly properties and on how their structure affects these properties. PMID:23380960

  15. Subtle balance of tropoelastin molecular shape and flexibility regulates dynamics and hierarchical assembly.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Giselle C; Tarakanova, Anna; Baldock, Clair; Wise, Steven G; Buehler, Markus J; Weiss, Anthony S

    2016-02-01

    The assembly of the tropoelastin monomer into elastin is vital for conferring elasticity on blood vessels, skin, and lungs. Tropoelastin has dual needs for flexibility and structure in self-assembly. We explore the structure-dynamics-function interplay, consider the duality of molecular order and disorder, and identify equally significant functional contributions by local and global structures. To study these organizational stratifications, we perturb a key hinge region by expressing an exon that is universally spliced out in human tropoelastins. We find a herniated nanostructure with a displaced C terminus and explain by molecular modeling that flexible helices are replaced with substantial β sheets. We see atypical higher-order cross-linking and inefficient assembly into discontinuous, thick elastic fibers. We explain this dysfunction by correlating local and global structural effects with changes in the molecule's assembly dynamics. This work has general implications for our understanding of elastomeric proteins, which balance disordered regions with defined structural modules at multiple scales for functional assembly.

  16. Molecular sieve catalysts for the regioselective and shape- selective oxyfunctionalization of alkanes in air.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J M; Raja, R; Sankar, G; Bell, R G

    2001-03-01

    Framework-substituted, molecular-sieve, aluminophosphate, microporous solids are the centerpieces of a new approach to the aerobic oxyfunctionalization of saturated hydrocarbons. The sieves, and the few percent of the Al(III) sites within them that are replaced by catalytically active, transition-metal ions in high oxidation states (Co(III), Mn(III), Fe(III)), are designed so as to allow free access of oxygen in to and out of the interior of these high-area solids. Certain metal-substituted, molecular sieves permit only end-on approach of linear alkanes to the active centers, thereby favoring enhanced reactivity of the terminal methyl groups. By optimizing cage dimension, with respect to that of the hydrocarbon reactant, as well as adjusting the average separation of active centers within a cage, and by choosing the sieve with the appropriate pore aperture, highly selective conversions such as n-hexane to hexanoic acid or adipic acid, and cyclohexane to cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, or adipic acid, may be effected at low temperature, heterogeneously in air.

  17. Vaccine Adjuvant Incorporation Strategy Dictates Peptide Amphiphile Micelle Immunostimulatory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Kramer, Jake S; Smith, Josiah D; Allen, Brittany N; Leeper, Caitlin N; Li, Xiaolei; Morton, Logan D; Gallazzi, Fabio; Ulery, Bret D

    2018-06-01

    Current vaccine research has shifted from traditional vaccines (i.e., whole-killed or live-attenuated) to subunit vaccines (i.e., protein, peptide, or DNA) as the latter is much safer due to delivering only the bioactive components necessary to produce a desirable immune response. Unfortunately, subunit vaccines are very weak immunogens requiring delivery vehicles and the addition of immunostimulatory molecules termed adjuvants to convey protective immunity. An interesting type of delivery vehicle is peptide amphiphile micelles (PAMs), unique biomaterials where the vaccine is part of the nanomaterial itself. Due to the modularity of PAMs, they can be readily modified to deliver both vaccine antigens and adjuvants within a singular construct. Through the co-delivery of a model antigenic epitope (Ovalbumin 319-340 -OVA BT ) and a known molecular adjuvant (e.g., 2,3-dipalmitoyl-S-glyceryl cysteine-Pam 2 C), greater insight into the mechanisms by which PAMs can exert immunostimulatory effects was gained. It was found that specific combinations of antigen and adjuvant can significantly alter vaccine immunogenicity both in vitro and in vivo. These results inform fundamental design rules that can be leveraged to fabricate optimal PAM-based vaccine formulations for future disease-specific applications. Graphical Abstract.

  18. Inhibition of cardiac inward rectifier currents by cationic amphiphilic drugs.

    PubMed

    van der Heyden, M A G; Stary-Weinzinger, A; Sanchez-Chapula, J A

    2013-09-01

    Cardiac inward rectifier channels belong to three different classes of the KIR channel protein family. The KIR2.x proteins generate the classical inward rectifier current, IK1, while KIR3 and KIR6 members are responsible for the acetylcholine responsive and ATP sensitive inward rectifier currents IKAch and IKATP, respectively. Aberrant function of these channels has been correlated with severe cardiac arrhythmias, indicating their significant contribution to normal cardiac electrophysiology. A common feature of inward rectifier channels is their dependence on the lipid phosphatidyl-4,5-bisphospate (PIP2) interaction for functional activity. Cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs) are one of the largest classes of pharmaceutical compounds. Several widely used CADs have been associated with inward rectifier current disturbances, and recent evidence points to interference of the channel-PIP2 interaction as the underlying mechanism of action. Here, we will review how six of these well known drugs, used for treatment in various different conditions, interfere in cardiac inward rectifier functioning. In contrast, KIR channel inhibition by the anionic anesthetic thiopental is achieved by a different mechanism of channel-PIP2 interference. We will discuss the latest basic science insights of functional inward rectifier current characteristics, recently derived KIR channel structures and specific PIP2-receptor interactions at the molecular level and provide insight in how these drugs interfere in the structure-function relationships.

  19. Crystal structure of Clostridium botulinum whole hemagglutinin reveals a huge triskelion-shaped molecular complex.

    PubMed

    Amatsu, Sho; Sugawara, Yo; Matsumura, Takuhiro; Kitadokoro, Kengo; Fujinaga, Yukako

    2013-12-06

    Clostridium botulinum HA is a component of the large botulinum neurotoxin complex and is critical for its oral toxicity. HA plays multiple roles in toxin penetration in the gastrointestinal tract, including protection from the digestive environment, binding to the intestinal mucosal surface, and disruption of the epithelial barrier. At least two properties of HA contribute to these roles: the sugar-binding activity and the barrier-disrupting activity that depends on E-cadherin binding of HA. HA consists of three different proteins, HA1, HA2, and HA3, whose structures have been partially solved and are made up mainly of β-strands. Here, we demonstrate structural and functional reconstitution of whole HA and present the complete structure of HA of serotype B determined by x-ray crystallography at 3.5 Å resolution. This structure reveals whole HA to be a huge triskelion-shaped molecule. Our results suggest that whole HA is functionally and structurally separable into two parts: HA1, involved in recognition of cell-surface carbohydrates, and HA2-HA3, involved in paracellular barrier disruption by E-cadherin binding.

  20. Dielectric Boundary Force in Molecular Solvation with the Poisson–Boltzmann Free Energy: A Shape Derivative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Zhengfang

    2013-01-01

    In an implicit-solvent description of molecular solvation, the electrostatic free energy is given through the electrostatic potential. This potential solves a boundary-value problem of the Poisson–Boltzmann equation in which the dielectric coefficient changes across the solute-solvent interface—the dielectric boundary. The dielectric boundary force acting on such a boundary is the negative first variation of the electrostatic free energy with respect to the location change of the boundary. In this work, the concept of shape derivative is used to define such variations and formulas of the dielectric boundary force are derived. It is shown that such a force is always in the direction toward the charged solute molecules. PMID:24058212

  1. One ligand in dual roles: self-assembly of a bis-rhomboidal-shaped, three-dimensional molecular wheel.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaocun; Li, Xiaopeng; Guo, Kai; Wang, Jing; Huang, Mingjun; Wang, Jin-Liang; Xie, Ting-Zheng; Moorefield, Charles N; Cheng, Stephen Z D; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Newkome, George R

    2014-10-06

    A facile high yield, self-assembly process that leads to a terpyridine-based, three-dimensional, bis-rhomboidal-shaped, molecular wheel is reported. The desired coordination-driven supramolecular wheel involves eight structurally distorted tristerpyridine (tpy) ligands possessing a 60° angle between the adjacent tpy units and twelve Zn(2+) ions. The tpy ligand plays dual roles in the self-assembly process: two are staggered at 180° to create the internal hub, while six produce the external rim. The wheel can be readily generated by mixing the tpy ligand and Zn(2+) in a stoichiometric ratio of 2:3; full characterization is provided by ESI-MS, NMR spectroscopy, and TEM imaging. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Equilibrium shift in solution: molecular shape recognition and precipitation of a synthetic double helix using helicene-grafted silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Masamichi; Ichinose, Wataru; Yamaguchi, Masahiko

    2014-01-27

    Chiral silica nanoparticles (70 nm) grafted with (P)-helicene recognized the molecular shape of double helix and random coil (P)-ethynylhelicene oligomers in solution. A mixture of the (P)-nanoparticles and double helix precipitated much faster than a mixture of the (P)-nanoparticles and random coil, and the precipitate contained only the double helix. The mixture of the (P)-nanoparticles and (P)-ethynylhelicene pentamer reversibly dispersed in trifluoromethylbenzene upon heating at 70 °C and precipitated upon cooling at 25 °C. When a 10:90 equilibrium mixture of the double helix and random coil in solution was treated with the (P)-nanoparticles, the double helix was precipitated in 53% yield and was accompanied by equilibrium shift. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules in organic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Shih-Huang

    2007-12-01

    Amphiphilic molecules are well-known for their ability to self-assemble in water to form structures such as micelles and vesicles. In comparison, much less is known about amphiphilic self-assembly in nonpolar organic liquids. Such "reverse" self assembly can produce many of the counterparts to structures found in water. In this dissertation, we focus on the formation and dynamics of such reverse structures. We seek to obtain fundamental insight into the driving forces for reverse self-assembly processes. Three specific types of reverse structures are studied: (a) reverse wormlike micelles, i.e., long, flexible micellar chains; (b) reverse vesicles, i.e., hollow containers enclosed by reverse bilayers; and (c) organogel networks. While our focus is on the fundamentals, we note that reverse structures can be useful in a variety of applications ranging from drug delivery, controlled release, hosts for enzymatic reactions, and templates for nanomaterials synthesis. In the first part of this study, we describe a new route for forming reverse wormlike micelles in nonpolar organic liquids. This route involves the addition of trace amounts of a bile salt to solutions of the phospholipid, lecithin. We show that bile salts, due to their unique "facially amphiphilic" structure, can promote the aggregation of lecithin molecules into these reverse micellar chains. The resulting samples are viscoelastic and show interesting rheological properties. Unusual trends are seen in the temperature dependence of their rheology, which indicates the importance of hydrogen-bonding interactions in the formation of these micelles. Another remarkable feature of their rheology is the presence of strain-stiffening, where the material becomes stiffer at high deformations. Strain-stiffening has been seen before for elastic gels of biopolymers; here, we demonstrate the same properties for viscoelastic micellar solutions. The second reverse aggregate we deal with is the reverse vesicle. We present a

  4. From molecular to macroscopic engineering: shaping hydrogen-bonded organic nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Yoosaf, K; Llanes-Pallas, Anna; Marangoni, Tomas; Belbakra, Abdelhalim; Marega, Riccardo; Botek, Edith; Champagne, Benoît; Bonifazi, Davide; Armaroli, Nicola

    2011-03-07

    The self-assembly and self-organization behavior of chromophoric acetylenic scaffolds bearing 2,6-bis(acetylamino)pyridine (1, 2) or uracyl-type (3-9) terminal groups has been investigated by photophysical and microscopic methods. Systematic absorption and luminescence studies show that 1 and 2, thanks to a combination of solvophilic/solvophobic forces and π-π stacking interactions, undergo self-organization in apolar solvents (i.e., cyclohexane) and form spherical nanoparticles, as evidenced by wide-field optical microscopy, TEM, and AFM analysis. For the longer molecular module, 2, a more uniform size distribution is found (80-200 nm) compared to 1 (20-1000 nm). Temperature scans in the range 283-353 K show that the self-organized nanoparticles are reversibly formed and destroyed, being stable at lower temperatures. Molecular modules 1 and 2 were then thoroughly mixed with the complementary triply hydrogen-bonding units 3-9. Depending on the specific geometrical structure of 3-9, different nanostructures are evidenced by microscopic investigations. Combination of modules 1 or 2 with 3, which bears only one terminal uracyl unit, leads to the formation of vesicular structures; instead, when 1 is combined with bis-uracyl derivative 4 or 5, a structural evolution from nanoparticles to nanowires is observed. The length of the wires obtained by mixing 1 and 4 or 1 and 5 can be controlled by addition of 3, which prompts transformation of the wires into shorter rods. The replacement of linear system 5 with the related angular modules 6 and 7 enables formation of helical nanostructures, unambiguously evidenced by AFM. Finally, thermally induced self-assembly was studied in parallel with modules 8 and 9, in which the uracyl recognition sites are protected with tert-butyloxycarbonyl (BOC) groups. This strategy allows further control of the self-assembly/self-organization process by temperature, since the BOC group is completely removed on heating. Microscopy studies

  5. GaN nanowires with pentagon shape cross-section by ammonia-source molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Yong; Leung, Benjamin; Li, Qiming; ...

    2015-07-14

    In this study, ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH 3-MBE) was used to grow catalyst-assisted GaN nanowires on (11¯02) r-plane sapphire substrates. Dislocation free [112¯0] oriented nanowires are formed with pentagon shape cross-section, instead of the usual triangular shape facet configuration. Specifically, the cross-section is the result of the additional two nonpolar {101¯0} side facets, which appear due to a decrease in relative growth rate of the {101¯0} facets to the {101¯1} and {101¯1} facets under the growth regime in NH 3-MBE. Compared to GaN nanowires grown by Ni-catalyzed metal–organic chemical vapor deposition, the NH 3-MBE grown GaN nanowires show moremore » than an order of magnitude increase in band-edge to yellow luminescence intensity ratio, as measured by cathodoluminescence, indicating improved microstructural and optical properties.« less

  6. A two-dimensional spectrum analysis for sedimentation velocity experiments of mixtures with heterogeneity in molecular weight and shape.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Emre; Cao, Weiming; Demeler, Borries

    2010-02-01

    We report a model-independent analysis approach for fitting sedimentation velocity data which permits simultaneous determination of shape and molecular weight distributions for mono- and polydisperse solutions of macromolecules. Our approach allows for heterogeneity in the frictional domain, providing a more faithful description of the experimental data for cases where frictional ratios are not identical for all components. Because of increased accuracy in the frictional properties of each component, our method also provides more reliable molecular weight distributions in the general case. The method is based on a fine grained two-dimensional grid search over s and f/f (0), where the grid is a linear combination of whole boundary models represented by finite element solutions of the Lamm equation with sedimentation and diffusion parameters corresponding to the grid points. A Monte Carlo approach is used to characterize confidence limits for the determined solutes. Computational algorithms addressing the very large memory needs for a fine grained search are discussed. The method is suitable for globally fitting multi-speed experiments, and constraints based on prior knowledge about the experimental system can be imposed. Time- and radially invariant noise can be eliminated. Serial and parallel implementations of the method are presented. We demonstrate with simulated and experimental data of known composition that our method provides superior accuracy and lower variance fits to experimental data compared to other methods in use today, and show that it can be used to identify modes of aggregation and slow polymerization.

  7. Is ultra-violet radiation the main force shaping molecular evolution of varicella-zoster virus?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Varicella (chickenpox) exhibits a characteristic epidemiological pattern which is associated with climate. In general, primary infections in tropical regions are comparatively less frequent among children than in temperate regions. This peculiarity regarding varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection among certain age groups in tropical regions results in increased susceptibility during adulthood in these regions. Moreover, this disease shows a cyclic behavior in which the number of cases increases significantly during winter and spring. This observation further supports the participation of environmental factors in global epidemiology of chickenpox. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this distinctive disease behavior are not understood completely. In a recent publication, Philip S. Rice has put forward an interesting hypothesis suggesting that ultra-violet (UV) radiation is the major environmental factor driving the molecular evolution of VZV. Discussion While we welcomed the attempt to explain the mechanisms controlling VZV transmission and distribution, we argue that Rice's hypothesis takes lightly the circulation of the so called "temperate VZV genotypes" in tropical regions and, to certain degree, overlooks the predominance of such lineages in certain non-temperate areas. Here, we further discuss and present new information about the overwhelming dominance of temperate VZV genotypes in Mexico regardless of geographical location and climate. Summary UV radiation does not satisfactorily explain the distribution of VZV genotypes in different tropical and temperate regions of Mexico. Additionally, the cyclic behavior of varicella does not shown significant differences between regions with different climates in the country. More studies should be conducted to identify the factors directly involved in viral spreading. A better understanding of the modes of transmissions exploited by VZV and their effect on viral fitness is likely to facilitate

  8. Molecular specificity, convergence and constraint shape adaptive evolution in nutrient-poor environments.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jungeui; Gresham, David

    2014-01-01

    One of the central goals of evolutionary biology is to explain and predict the molecular basis of adaptive evolution. We studied the evolution of genetic networks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) populations propagated for more than 200 generations in different nitrogen-limiting conditions. We find that rapid adaptive evolution in nitrogen-poor environments is dominated by the de novo generation and selection of copy number variants (CNVs), a large fraction of which contain genes encoding specific nitrogen transporters including PUT4, DUR3 and DAL4. The large fitness increases associated with these alleles limits the genetic heterogeneity of adapting populations even in environments with multiple nitrogen sources. Complete identification of acquired point mutations, in individual lineages and entire populations, identified heterogeneity at the level of genetic loci but common themes at the level of functional modules, including genes controlling phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate metabolism and vacuole biogenesis. Adaptive strategies shared with other nutrient-limited environments point to selection of genetic variation in the TORC1 and Ras/PKA signaling pathways as a general mechanism underlying improved growth in nutrient-limited environments. Within a single population we observed the repeated independent selection of a multi-locus genotype, comprised of the functionally related genes GAT1, MEP2 and LST4. By studying the fitness of individual alleles, and their combination, as well as the evolutionary history of the evolving population, we find that the order in which these mutations are acquired is constrained by epistasis. The identification of repeatedly selected variation at functionally related loci that interact epistatically suggests that gene network polymorphisms (GNPs) may be a frequent outcome of adaptive evolution. Our results provide insight into the mechanistic basis by which cells adapt to nutrient-limited environments and suggest that

  9. Polydispersity-Driven Block Copolymer Amphiphile Self-Assembly into Prolate-Spheroid Micelles

    SciT

    Schmitt, Andrew L.; Repollet-Pedrosa, Milton H.; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K.

    The aqueous self-assembly behavior of polydisperse poly(ethylene oxide-b-1,4-butadiene-b-ethylene oxide) (OBO) macromolecular triblock amphiphiles is examined to discern the implications of continuous polydispersity in the hydrophobic block on the resulting aqueous micellar morphologies of otherwise monodisperse polymer surfactants. The chain length polydispersity and implicit composition polydispersity of these samples furnishes a distribution of preferred interfacial curvatures, resulting in dilute aqueous block copolymer dispersions exhibiting coexisting spherical and rod-like micelles with vesicles in a single sample with a O weight fraction, w{sub O}, of 0.18. At higher w{sub O} = 0.51-0.68, the peak in the interfacial curvature distribution shifts and we observemore » the formation of only American football-shaped micelles. We rationalize the formation of these anisotropically shaped aggregates based on the intrinsic distribution of preferred curvatures adopted by the polydisperse copolymer amphiphiles and on the relief of core block chain stretching by chain-length-dependent intramicellar segregation.« less

  10. Engineering single-polymer micelle shape using nonuniform spontaneous surface curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moths, Brian; Witten, T. A.

    2018-03-01

    Conventional micelles, composed of simple amphiphiles, exhibit only a few standard morphologies, each characterized by its mean surface curvature set by the amphiphiles. Here we demonstrate a rational design scheme to construct micelles of more general shape from polymeric amphiphiles. We replace the many amphiphiles of a conventional micelle by a single flexible, linear, block copolymer chain containing two incompatible species arranged in multiple alternating segments. With suitable segment lengths, the chain exhibits a condensed spherical configuration in solution, similar to conventional micelles. Our design scheme posits that further shapes are attained by altering the segment lengths. As a first study of the power of this scheme, we demonstrate the capacity to produce long-lived micelles of horseshoe form using conventional bead-spring simulations in two dimensions. Modest changes in the segment lengths produce smooth changes in the micelle's shape and stability.

  11. 3D mouse shape reconstruction based on phase-shifting algorithm for fluorescence molecular tomography imaging system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Dianwen; Baikejiang, Reheman; Li, Changqing

    2015-11-10

    This work introduces a fast, low-cost, robust method based on fringe pattern and phase shifting to obtain three-dimensional (3D) mouse surface geometry for fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) imaging. We used two pico projector/webcam pairs to project and capture fringe patterns from different views. We first calibrated the pico projectors and the webcams to obtain their system parameters. Each pico projector/webcam pair had its own coordinate system. We used a cylindrical calibration bar to calculate the transformation matrix between these two coordinate systems. After that, the pico projectors projected nine fringe patterns with a phase-shifting step of 2π/9 onto the surface of a mouse-shaped phantom. The deformed fringe patterns were captured by the corresponding webcam respectively, and then were used to construct two phase maps, which were further converted to two 3D surfaces composed of scattered points. The two 3D point clouds were further merged into one with the transformation matrix. The surface extraction process took less than 30 seconds. Finally, we applied the Digiwarp method to warp a standard Digimouse into the measured surface. The proposed method can reconstruct the surface of a mouse-sized object with an accuracy of 0.5 mm, which we believe is sufficient to obtain a finite element mesh for FMT imaging. We performed an FMT experiment using a mouse-shaped phantom with one embedded fluorescence capillary target. With the warped finite element mesh, we successfully reconstructed the target, which validated our surface extraction approach.

  12. Catanionic mixtures forming gemini-like amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hideki; Okabe, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Koji; Sakai, Kenichi; Abe, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    The properties of aqueous mixtures of cationic species with alkyl dicarboxylic acid compounds have been studied. The cationic compounds used in this study were tertiary amine-type N-methyl-N-(2,3-dioxypropyl)hexadecylamine (C16amine) and quaternary ammonium-type N,N-dimethyl-N-(2,3-dioxypropyl)hexadecylammonium chloride (C16Q). The alkyl dicarboxylic acid compounds used were HOOC(CH(2))(10)COOH (C12H) and its sodium salt (C12Na). Three aqueous mixtures were examined in this study: (System I) C16amine + C12H, (System II) C16Q + C12Na, and (System III) C16Q + C12H. The solution pH was set at 12 for System III. The combination of (1)H-NMR and mass spectroscopy data has suggested that a stoichiometric complex is formed in the aqueous solutions at a mole fraction of C12H (or C12Na) = 0.33. Here, the C12H (or C12Na) molecule added to the system bridges two cationic molecules, like a spacer of gemini surfactants. In fact, the static surface tensiometry has demonstrated that the stoichiometric complex behaves as gemini-like amphiphiles in aqueous solutions. Our current study offers a possible way for easily preparing gemini surfactant systems.

  13. Nonionic amphiphile nanoarchitectonics: self-assembly into micelles and lyotropic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Strzelczyk, Karolina Maria; Goswami Shrestha, Rekha; Ichikawa, Kotoko; Aramaki, Kenji; Hill, Jonathan P.; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    Amphiphiles, molecules that possess both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties, are architecturally simple molecules that can spontaneously self-assemble into complex hierarchical structures from lower to higher dimensions either in the bulk phase or at an interface. Recent developments in multifunctional nanostructure design using the advanced concept of nanoarchitectonics utilize this simple process of assembly. Amphiphilic self-assemblies involving lipids or proteins mimic the structure of biological systems, thus highlighting the necessity of a fundamental physical understanding of amphiphilic self-assembly towards a realization of the complex mechanisms operating in nature. Herein, we describe self-assembled microstructures of biocompatible and biodegradable tetraglycerol lauryl ether (C12G4) nonionic surfactant in an aqueous solvent system. Temperature-composition analyses of equilibrium phases identified by using small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) provide strong evidence of various spontaneously self-assembled mesostructures, such as normal micelles (Wm), hexagonal liquid crystal (H1), and reverse micelles (Om). In contrast to conventional poly(oxyethylene) nonionic surfactants, C12G4 did not exhibit the clouding phenomenon at higher temperatures (phase separation was not observed up to 100 °C), demonstrating the greater thermal stability of the self-assembled mesophases. Generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) evaluation of the SAXS data confirmed the formation of core-shell-type spherical micelles with a maximum dimension ca. 8.7 nm. The shape and size of the C12G4 micelles remained apparently unchanged over a wide range of concentrations (up to 20%), but intermicellar interactions increased and could be described by the Percus-Yevick (PY) theory (after Carnahan and Starling), which provides a very accurate analytical expression for the osmotic pressure of a monodisperse hard sphere.

  14. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) as a characterization technique for nanostructured self-assembled amphiphile systems.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aurelia W; Pascual-Izarra, Carlos; Pas, Steven J; Hill, Anita J; Boyd, Ben J; Drummond, Calum J

    2009-01-08

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) has potential as a novel rapid characterization method for self-assembly amphiphile systems; however, a lack of systematic correlation of PALS parameters with structural attributes has limited its more widespread application. In this study, using the well-characterized phytantriol/water and the phytantriol/vitamin E acetate/water self-assembly amphiphile systems, the impact of systematic structural changes controlled by changes in composition and temperature on PALS parameters has been studied. The PALS parameters (orthopositronium (oPs) lifetime and intensity signatures) were shown to be sensitive to the molecular packing and mobility of the self-assembled lipid molecules in various lyotropic liquid crystalline phases, enabling differentiation between liquid crystalline structures. The oPs lifetime, related to the molecular packing and mobility, is correlated with rheological properties of the individual mesophases. The oPs lifetime links the lipid chain packing and mobility in the various mesophases to resultant macroscopic properties, such as permeability, which is critical for the use of these mesophase structures as diffusion-controlled release matrices for active liposoluble compounds.

  15. Photoactive layer based on T-shaped benzimidazole dyes used for solar cell: from photoelectric properties to molecular design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Beibei; Li, Yuanzuo; Song, Peng; Ma, Fengcai; Sun, Mengtao

    2017-03-01

    Three benzimidazole-based organic dyes, possessing the same triphenylamine donors and cyanoacrylic acid acceptors with the bithiophene π-bridges combined in different nuclear positions of benzimidazole, were investigated in the utility of dye-sensitizer solar cells. The structure, molecular orbital and energy, absorption spectra and some important parameters (such as light harvesting efficiency (LHE), electron injection driving force, the electron injection time, chemical reactivity parameters, vertical dipole moment as well as interaction models of dye-I2) were obtained according to Newns-Anderson model and DFT calculation. The process and strength of charge transfer and separation were visualized with charge different density and index of spatial extent (S, D and Δq). Current work paid attention to the new T-shaped dyes to reveal the relation between the structure and photoelectric performance. Furthermore, nine dyes (substitution of alkyl chains and π-bridges) have been designed and characterized to screen promising sensitizer candidates with excellent photo-electronic properties.

  16. Pulmonary Surfactant Model Systems Catch the Specific Interaction of an Amphiphilic Peptide with Anionic Phospholipid

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Lee, Sannamu; Shibata, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    Interfacial behavior was studied in pulmonary surfactant model systems containing an amphiphilic α-helical peptide (Hel 13-5), which consists of 13 hydrophobic and five hydrophilic amino acid residues. Fully saturated phospholipids of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) were utilized to understand specific interactions between anionic DPPG and cationic Hel 13-5 for pulmonary functions. Surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) and surface potential (ΔV)-A isotherms of DPPG/Hel 13-5 and DPPC/DPPG (4:1, mol/mol)/Hel 13-5 preparations were measured to obtain basic information on the phase behavior under compression and expansion processes. The interaction leads to a variation in squeeze-out surface pressures against a mole fraction of Hel 13-5, where Hel 13-5 is eliminated from the surface on compression. The phase behavior was visualized by means of Brewster angle microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. At low surface pressures, the formation of differently ordered domains in size and shape is induced by electrostatic interactions. The domains independently grow upon compression to high surface pressures, especially in the DPPG/Hel 13-5 system. Under the further compression process, protrusion masses are formed in AFM images in the vicinity of squeeze-out pressures. The protrusion masses, which are attributed to the squeezed-out Hel 13-5, grow larger in lateral size with increasing DPPG content in phospholipid compositions. During subsequent expansion up to 35 mN m−1, the protrusions retain their height and lateral diameter for the DPPG/Hel 13-5 system, whereas the protrusions become smaller for the DPPC/Hel 13-5 and DPPC/DPPG/Hel 13-5 systems due to a reentrance of the ejected Hel 13-5 into the surface. In this work we detected for the first time, to our knowledge, a remarkably large hysteresis loop for cyclic ΔV-A isotherms of the binary DPPG/Hel 13-5 preparation. This exciting phenomenon

  17. Membrane insertion for the detection of lipopolysaccharides: Exploring the dynamics of amphiphile-in-lipid assays

    SciT

    Stromberg, Loreen R.; Hengartner, Nicolas W.; Swingle, Kirstie L.

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is an important cause of foodborne illness, with cases attributable to beef, fresh produce and other sources. Many serotypes of the pathogen cause disease, and differentiating one serotype from another requires specific identification of the O antigen located on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecule. The amphiphilic structure of LPS poses a challenge when using classical detection methods, which do not take into account its lipoglycan biochemistry. Typically, detection of LPS requires heat or chemical treatment of samples and relies on bioactivity assays for the conserved lipid A portion of the molecule. Our goal was to develop assaysmore » to facilitate the direct and discriminative detection of the entire LPS molecule and its O antigen in complex matrices using minimal sample processing. To perform serogroup identification of LPS, we used a method called membrane insertion on a waveguide biosensor, and tested three serogroups of LPS. The membrane insertion technique allows for the hydrophobic association of LPS with a lipid bilayer, where the exposed O antigen can be targeted for specific detection. Samples of beef lysate were spiked with LPS to perform O antigen specific detection of LPS from E. coli O157. To validate assay performance, we evaluated the biophysical interactions of LPS with lipid bilayers both in- and outside of a flow cell using fluorescence microscopy and fluorescently doped lipids. Our results indicate that membrane insertion allows for the qualitative and reliable identification of amphiphilic LPS in complex samples like beef homogenates. In addition, we also demonstrated that LPS-induced hole formation does not occur under the conditions of the membrane insertion assays. Together, these findings describe for the first time the serogroup-specific detection of amphiphilic LPS in complex samples using a membrane insertion assay, and highlight the importance of LPS molecular conformations in detection

  18. Novel Redox-Responsive Amphiphilic Copolymer Micelles for Drug Delivery: Synthesis and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jungeun; Maurya, Abhijeet; Shariat-Madar, Zia; Murthy, S Narasimha; Jo, Seongbong

    2015-11-01

    A novel redox-responsive amphiphilic polymer was synthesized with bioreductive trimethyl-locked quinone propionic acid for a potential triggered drug delivery application. The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize the redox-responsive amphiphilic block copolymer micelles containing pendant bioreductive quinone propionic acid (QPA) switches. The redox-responsive hydrophobic block (polyQPA), synthesized from QPA-serinol and adipoyl chloride, was end-capped with methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) of molecular weight 750 (mPEG750) to achieve a redox-responsive amphiphilic block copolymer, polyQPA-mPEG750. PolyQPA-mPEG750 was able to self-assemble as micelles to show a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 0.039% w/v (0.39 mg/ml, 0.107 mM) determined by a dye solubilization method using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The mean diameter of polymeric micelles was found to be 27.50 nm (PI = 0.064) by dynamic light scattering. Furthermore, redox-triggered destabilization of the polymeric micelles was confirmed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and particle size measurements in a simulated redox state. PolyQPA-mPEG750 underwent triggered reduction to shed pendant redox-responsive QPA groups and its polymeric micelles were swollen to be dissembled in the presence of a reducing agent, thereby enabling the release of loaded model drug, paclitaxel. The redox-responsive polyQPA-mPEG750 polymer micelles would be useful as a drug delivery system allowing triggered drug release in an altered redox state such as tumor microenvironments with an altered redox potential and/or redox enzyme upregulation.

  19. Membrane insertion for the detection of lipopolysaccharides: Exploring the dynamics of amphiphile-in-lipid assays

    DOE PAGES

    Stromberg, Loreen R.; Hengartner, Nicolas W.; Swingle, Kirstie L.; ...

    2016-05-26

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is an important cause of foodborne illness, with cases attributable to beef, fresh produce and other sources. Many serotypes of the pathogen cause disease, and differentiating one serotype from another requires specific identification of the O antigen located on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecule. The amphiphilic structure of LPS poses a challenge when using classical detection methods, which do not take into account its lipoglycan biochemistry. Typically, detection of LPS requires heat or chemical treatment of samples and relies on bioactivity assays for the conserved lipid A portion of the molecule. Our goal was to develop assaysmore » to facilitate the direct and discriminative detection of the entire LPS molecule and its O antigen in complex matrices using minimal sample processing. To perform serogroup identification of LPS, we used a method called membrane insertion on a waveguide biosensor, and tested three serogroups of LPS. The membrane insertion technique allows for the hydrophobic association of LPS with a lipid bilayer, where the exposed O antigen can be targeted for specific detection. Samples of beef lysate were spiked with LPS to perform O antigen specific detection of LPS from E. coli O157. To validate assay performance, we evaluated the biophysical interactions of LPS with lipid bilayers both in- and outside of a flow cell using fluorescence microscopy and fluorescently doped lipids. Our results indicate that membrane insertion allows for the qualitative and reliable identification of amphiphilic LPS in complex samples like beef homogenates. In addition, we also demonstrated that LPS-induced hole formation does not occur under the conditions of the membrane insertion assays. Together, these findings describe for the first time the serogroup-specific detection of amphiphilic LPS in complex samples using a membrane insertion assay, and highlight the importance of LPS molecular conformations in detection

  20. Langmuir-Blodgett Thin Films of Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chi Kin; Wang, Cheng-Yin; Oosterhout, Stefan D; Zheng, Zilong; Yi, Xueping; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; So, Franky; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Toney, Michael F; Kippelen, Bernard; Reynolds, John R

    2018-04-11

    We report on two π-conjugated donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) molecules of amphiphilic nature, aiming to promote intermolecular ordering and carrier mobility in organic electronic devices. Diketopyrrolopyrrole was selected as the acceptor moiety that was disubstituted with nonpolar and polar functional groups, thereby providing the amphiphilic structures. This structural design resulted in materials with a strong intermolecular order in the solid state, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of ordered mono- and multilayers were transferred onto glass and silicon substrates, with layer quality, coverage, and intermolecular order controlled by layer compression pressure on the LB trough. Organic field-effect transistors and organic photovoltaics devices with active layers consisting of the amphiphilic conjugated D-A-D-type molecules were constructed to demonstrate that the LB technique is an effective layer-by-layer deposition approach to fabricate self-assembled, ordered thin films.

  1. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in melts of amphiphilic polyesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasylyev, S.; Damm, C.; Segets, D.; Hanisch, M.; Taccardi, N.; Wasserscheid, P.; Peukert, W.

    2013-03-01

    The current work presents a one-step procedure for the synthesis of amphiphilic silver nanoparticles suitable for production of silver-filled polymeric materials. This solvent free synthesis via reduction of Tollens’ reagent as silver precursor in melts of amphiphilic polyesters consisting of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) blocks and hydrophobic alkyl chains allows the production of silver nanoparticles without any by-product formation. This makes them especially interesting for the production of medical devices with antimicrobial properties. In this article the influences of the chain length of the hydrophobic block in the amphiphilic polyesters and the process temperature on the particle size distribution (PSD) and the stability of the particles against agglomeration are discussed. According to the results of spectroscopic and viscosimetric investigations the silver precursor is reduced to elemental silver nanoparticles by a single electron transfer process from the poly(ethylene glycol) chain to the silver ion.

  2. Modular Design Features of a Peptide Amphiphile Micelle Vaccine Platform and Their Impact on an Immune Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, John Christopher

    Inducing a strong and specific immune response is the hallmark of a successful vaccine. Nanoparticles have emerged as promising vaccine delivery devices to discover and elicit immune responses. Modular platforms are attractive for their engineerability and broad potential applications. Fine-tuning a nanoparticle vaccine to create an immune response with specific antibody and other cellular responses is influenced by many factors such as shape, size and composition. Peptide amphiphile micelles are a unique biomaterials platform that can function as a modular vaccine delivery system, enabling control over many of these important factors. Peptide amphiphiles (PAs) consist of a hydrophilic peptide antigen conjugated to a hydrophobic lipid tail. The PAs then self-assemble into micelles, with the micelle characteristics determined by the chemical composition of the PA and micelle preparation methods. PA micelles contain a large design space, so it is important to have a basic understanding of how each design feature can affect the platform's interaction with the immune system. In this dissertation, the structure, composition, and biodistribution properties of PA micelles are evaluated for their ability to impact an immune response against a Group A Streptococcus B cell antigen (J8). Through structural design and physical characterization, micelles are shown to self-assemble into either short rod-like or long cylindrical shapes. Analyzing these shape effects on the immune response showed that cylindrical micelles induced higher antibody titers than rod-like micelles, providing evidence that the cylindrical micelle shape is important to induce immune responses and a possible mechanism of action. Shape was also seen to impact the activation profile of dendritic cells, B cells and T cells. Assembly into cylindrical micelles also stabilizes the secondary structure of peptide antigens, which may impact the immune response raised. In composition, the hydrophobic

  3. Cooperation of Amphiphilicity and Crystallization for Regulating the Self-Assembly of Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) Copolymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Cao, Yuanyuan; Song, Jiaqi; Xie, Zhigang; Wang, Yapei

    2016-09-20

    Tuning the amphiphilicity of block copolymers has been extensively exploited to manipulate the morphological transition of aggregates. The introduction of crystallizable moieties into the amphiphilic copolymers also offers increasing possibilities for regulating self-assembled structures. In this work, we demonstrate a detailed investigation of the self-assembly behavior of amphiphilic poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLLA) diblock copolymers with the assistance of a common solvent in aqueous solution. With a given length of the PEG block, the molecular weight of the PLA block has great effect on the morphologies of self-assembled nanoaggregates as a result of varying molecular amphiphilicity and polymer crystallization. Common solvents including N,N-dimethylformamide, dioxane, and tetrahydrofuran involved in the early stage of self-assembly led to the change in chain configuration, which further influences the self-assembly of block copolymers. This study expanded the scope of PLA-based copolymers and proposed a possible mechanism of the sphere-to-lozenge and platelet-to-cylinder morphological transitions.

  4. Block versus Random Amphiphilic Glycopolymer Nanopaticles as Glucose-Responsive Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qianqian; Zhang, Tianqi; An, Jinxia; Wu, Zhongming; Zhao, Yu; Dai, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xinge; Li, Chaoxing

    2015-10-12

    To explore the effect of polymer structure on their self-assembled aggregates and their unique characteristics, this study was devoted to developing a series of amphiphilic block and random phenylboronic acid-based glycopolymers by RAFT polymerization. The amphiphilic glycopolymers were successfully self-assembled into spherically shaped nanoparticles with narrow size distribution in aqueous solution. For block and random copolymers with similar monomer compositions, block copolymer nanoparticles exhibited a more regular transmittance change with the increasing glucose level, while a more evident variation of size and quicker decreasing tendency in I/I0 behavior in different glucose media were observed for random copolymer nanoparticles. Cell viability of all the polymer nanoparticles investigated by MTT assay was higher than 80%, indicating that both block and random copolymers had good cytocompatibility. Insulin could be encapsulated into both nanoparticles, and insulin release rate for random glycopolymer was slightly quicker than that for the block ones. We speculate that different chain conformations between block and random glycopolymers play an important role in self-assembled nanoaggregates and underlying glucose-sensitive behavior.

  5. A generic, geometric cocalibration method for a combined system of fluorescence molecular tomography and microcomputed tomography with arbitrarily shaped objects

    SciT

    Fu Jianwei; Yang Xiaoquan; Wang Kan

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: A combined system of fluorescence molecular tomography and microcomputed tomography (FMT and mCT) can provide molecular and anatomical information of small animals in a single study with intrinsically coregistered images. The anatomical information provided by the mCT subsystem is commonly used as a reference to locate the fluorophore distribution or as a priori structural information to improve the performance of FMT. Therefore, the transformation between the coordinate systems of the subsystem needs to be determined in advanced. Methods: A cocalibration method for the combined system of FMT and mCT is proposed. First, linear models are adopted to describe themore » galvano mirrors and the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera in the FMT subsystem. Second, the position and orientation of the galvano mirrors are determined with the input voltages of the galvano mirrors and the markers, whose positions are predetermined. The position, orientation and normalized pixel size of the CCD camera are obtained by analysing the projections of a point-like marker at different positions. Finally, the orientation and position of sources and the corresponding relationship between the detectors and their projections on the image plane are predicted. Because the positions of the markers are acquired with mCT, the registration of the FMT and mCT could be realized by direct image fusion. Results: The accuracy and consistency of this method in the presence of noise is evaluated by computer simulation. Next, a practical implementation for an experimental FMT and mCT system is carried out and validated. The maximum prediction error of the source positions on the surface of a cylindrical phantom is within 0.375 mm and that of the projections of a point-like marker is within 0.629 pixel. Finally, imaging experiments of the fluorophore distribution in a cylindrical phantom and a phantom with a complex shape demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Conclusions: This

  6. Shape-Selective Syntheses of Gold and Copper Nanostructures: Insights From Density-Functional Theory and Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shih-Hsien

    Density-functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) were used to resolve the origins of shape-selective syntheses of {111}-faceted Au nanostructures mediated by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as well as {100}-faceted Cu nanostructures mediated by hex- adecylamine(HDA) seen in experiment. For the work in PVP on Au surfaces, the hexagonal reconstruction of Au(100) was considered. DFT results indicate that the Au(111) surface covered by the PVP segment, 2-pyrrolidone (2P), has a lower surface energy than the 2P- covered (5 x 1) Au(100)-hex surface, and that PVP may exhibit a binding affinity for Au(111) comparable to or greater than (5 x 1) Au(100)-hex. With MD, it is shown that the PVP-covered Au(111) surface has a lower surface energy than the PVP-covered (5 x 1) Au(100)-hex surface, and that the atactic PVP isosamer chains have a binding affinity for Au(111) comparable to (5 x 1) Au(100)-hex. Also, the (5 x 1) Au(100)-hex surface may have a higher flux of Au atoms than the Au(111) surface. Therefore, the Au(111) surface would be thermodynamically and kinetically favored in PVP-mediated syntheses, leading to {111}-faceted Au nanostructures. For the work in HDA on Cu surfaces, DFT results show that the HDA-covered Cu(100) surface has a slightly higher surface energy than the HDA- covered Cu(111) surface. However, HDA has a significant binding preference on Cu(100) over Cu(111). Therefore, the Cu(100) surface would be kinetically favored in HDA-mediated syn- theses, leading to {100}-faceted Cu nanostructures. Further, a metal-organic many-body (MOMB) force field for HDA-Cu interactions was developed based on the DFT work, and the force field was used to resolve the HDA binding patterns on Cu(100) at molecular level. With MD, it is found that decylamine (DA) may be used as an effective capping agent in the synthesis of {100}-faceted Cu nanostructures since DA as well as HDA are organized on Cu surfaces and have the same binding preference on Cu(100) over Cu(111

  7. A generic, geometric cocalibration method for a combined system of fluorescence molecular tomography and microcomputed tomography with arbitrarily shaped objects.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianwei; Yang, Xiaoquan; Wang, Kan; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2011-12-01

    A combined system of fluorescence molecular tomography and microcomputed tomography (FMT&mCT) can provide molecular and anatomical information of small animals in a single study with intrinsically coregistered images. The anatomical information provided by the mCT subsystem is commonly used as a reference to locate the fluorophore distribution or as a priori structural information to improve the performance of FMT. Therefore, the transformation between the coordinate systems of the subsystem needs to be determined in advanced. A cocalibration method for the combined system of FMT&mCT is proposed. First, linear models are adopted to describe the galvano mirrors and the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera in the FMT subsystem. Second, the position and orientation of the galvano mirrors are determined with the input voltages of the galvano mirrors and the markers, whose positions are predetermined. The position, orientation and normalized pixel size of the CCD camera are obtained by analysing the projections of a point-like marker at different positions. Finally, the orientation and position of sources and the corresponding relationship between the detectors and their projections on the image plane are predicted. Because the positions of the markers are acquired with mCT, the registration of the FMT and mCT could be realized by direct image fusion. The accuracy and consistency of this method in the presence of noise is evaluated by computer simulation. Next, a practical implementation for an experimental FMT&mCT system is carried out and validated. The maximum prediction error of the source positions on the surface of a cylindrical phantom is within 0.375 mm and that of the projections of a point-like marker is within 0.629 pixel. Finally, imaging experiments of the fluorophore distribution in a cylindrical phantom and a phantom with a complex shape demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. This method is universal in FMT&mCT, which could be performed with no

  8. Supramolecular Disassembly of Facially Amphiphilic Dendrimer Assemblies in Response to Physical, Chemical, and Biological Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Supramolecular assemblies formed from spontaneous self-assembly of amphiphilic macromolecules are explored as biomimetic architectures and for applications in areas such as sensing, drug delivery, and diagnostics. Macromolecular assemblies are usually preferred, compared with their simpler small molecule counterparts, due to their low critical aggregate concentrations (CAC) and high thermodynamic stability. This Account focuses on the structural and functional aspects of assemblies formed from dendrimers, specifically facially amphiphilic dendrons that form micelle or inverse micelle type supramolecular assemblies depending on the nature of the solvent medium. The micelle type assemblies formed from facially amphiphilic dendrons sequester hydrophobic guest molecules in their interiors. The stability of these assemblies is dependent on the relative compatibility of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic functionalities with water, often referred to as hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB). Disruption of the HLB, using an external stimulus, could lead to disassembly of the aggregates, which can then be utilized to cause an actuation event, such as guest molecule release. Studying these possibilities has led to (i) a robust and general strategy for stimulus-induced disassembly and molecular release and (ii) the introduction of a new approach to protein-responsive supramolecular disassembly. The latter strategy provides a particularly novel avenue for impacting biomedical applications. Most of the stimuli-sensitive supramolecular assemblies have been designed to be responsive to factors such pH, temperature, and redox conditions. The reason for this interest stems from the fact that certain disease microenvironments have aberrations in these factors. However, these variations are the secondary imbalances in biology. Imbalances in protein activity are the primary reasons for most, if not all, human pathology. There have been no robust strategies in stimulus

  9. Fliposomes: pH-triggered conformational flip of new trans-2-aminocyclohexanol-based amphiphiles causes instant cargo release in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zheng, Yu; Samoshina, Nataliya M; Franz, Andreas H; Guo, Xin; Samoshin, Vyacheslav V

    2012-12-01

    A new type of pH-sensitive liposomes (fliposomes) was designed based on the amphiphiles that are able to perform a pH-triggered conformational flip (flipids). This flip disrupts the liposome membrane and causes rapid release of the liposome cargo, specifically in response to lowered pH. The flipids (1) and (2) are equipped with a trans-2-aminocyclohexanol conformational switch. pH-sensitive fliposomes containing one or both of these flipids, as well as POPC and PEG ceramide, were constructed and characterized. These compositions were stable at 4°C and pH 7.4 for several months. Fliposomes loaded with ANTS/DPX performed an unusually quick content release within a few seconds at pH below 8.5 (in case of 2) and 6.0 (in case of 1). This difference in pH sensitivity demonstrates a potential for the custom design of flipids by variation of the amino group to target areas with specific pH values. The pH titration curves for the fliposome leakage parallel the curves for the acid-induced conformational flip of 1 and 2 studied by ¹H NMR. A plausible mechanism of pH sensitivity starts with an acid-triggered conformational flip of 1 or 2, which changes the molecular size and shape, shortens the lipid tails, and perturbs the liposome membrane, resulting in the content leakage.

  10. An Observation of Diamond-Shaped Particle Structure in a Soya Phosphatidylcohline and Bacteriorhodopsin Composite Langmuir Blodgett Film Fabricated by Multilayer Molecular Thin Film Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujiuchi, Y.; Makino, Y.

    A composite film of soya phosphatidylcohline (soya PC) and bacteriorhodopsin (BR) was fabricated by the multilayer molecular thin film method using fatty acid and lipid on a quartz substrate. Direct Force Microscopy (DFM), UV absorption spectra and IR absorption spectra of the film were characterized on the detail of surface structure of the film. The DFM data revealed that many rhombus (diamond-shaped) particles were observed in the film. The spectroscopic data exhibited the yield of M-intermediate of BR in the film. On our modelling of molecular configuration indicate that the coexistence of the strong inter-molecular interaction and the strong inter-molecular interaction between BR trimmers attributed to form the particles.

  11. Peptides at the Interface: Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Designer Peptides and Their Membrane Interaction Propensity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembling amphiphilic designer peptides have been successfully applied as nanomaterials in biomedical applications. Understanding molecular interactions at the peptide–membrane interface is crucial, since interactions at this site often determine (in)compatibility. The present study aims to elucidate how model membrane systems of different complexity (in particular single-component phospholipid bilayers and lipoproteins) respond to the presence of amphiphilic designer peptides. We focused on two short anionic peptides, V4WD2 and A6YD, which are structurally similar but showed a different self-assembly behavior. A6YD self-assembled into high aspect ratio nanofibers at low peptide concentrations, as evidenced by synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy. These supramolecular assemblies coexisted with membranes without remarkable interference. In contrast, V4WD2 formed only loosely associated assemblies over a large concentration regime, and the peptide promoted concentration-dependent disorder on the membrane arrangement. Perturbation effects were observed on both membrane systems although most likely induced by different modes of action. These results suggest that membrane activity critically depends on the peptide’s inherent ability to form highly cohesive supramolecular structures. PMID:27741400

  12. Sodium effect on self-organization of amphiphilic carboxylates: formation of structured micelles and superlattices.

    PubMed

    Rosenlehner, Karin; Schade, Boris; Böttcher, Christoph; Jäger, Christof M; Clark, Timothy; Heinemann, Frank W; Hirsch, Andreas

    2010-08-16

    Not only the self-aggregation of dendritic polycarboxylates into structurally persistent micelles, but also that of the micelles themselves into superlattices is controlled by alkali-metal counterions and shows a pronounced sodium effect. Our combined experimental and computational work has revealed the formation of superlattices for the first time. The behavior of a variety of amphiphilic carboxylates and the different effects of the alkali cations Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) have been investigated by conductivity measurements, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations. Together, these show that sodium salts of the amphiphiles give the most stable micelles, followed by lithium and potassium. Our results suggest that ion multiplets in bridging positions, rather than contact ion pairs, are responsible for the enhanced stability and the formation of hexagonally ordered superlattices with sodium counterions. Potassium ions do not form such ion multiplets and cannot therefore induce aggregation of the micelles. This sodium effect has far-reaching consequences for a large number of biological and technical systems and sheds new light on the origin of specific-ion effects.

  13. Superior Antifouling Performance of a Zwitterionic Peptide Compared to an Amphiphilic, Non-Ionic Peptide.

    PubMed

    Ye, Huijun; Wang, Libing; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; Liu, Boshi; Qi, Wei; He, Zhimin

    2015-10-14

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of amphiphilic and zwitterionic structures on the resistance of protein adsorption to peptide self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and gain insight into the associated antifouling mechanism. Two kinds of cysteine-terminated heptapeptides were studied. One peptide had alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues with an amphiphilic sequence of CYSYSYS. The other peptide (CRERERE) was zwitterionic. Both peptides were covalently attached onto gold substrates via gold-thiol bond formation. Surface plasmon resonance analysis results showed that both peptide SAMs had ultralow or low protein adsorption amounts of 1.97-11.78 ng/cm2 in the presence of single proteins. The zwitterionic peptide showed relatively higher antifouling ability with single proteins and natural complex protein media. We performed molecular dynamics simulations to understand their respective antifouling behaviors. The results indicated that strong surface hydration of peptide SAMs contributes to fouling resistance by impeding interactions with proteins. Compared to the CYSYSYS peptide, more water molecules were predicted to form hydrogen-bonding interactions with the zwitterionic CRERERE peptide, which is in agreement with the antifouling test results. These findings reveal a clear relation between peptide structures and resistance to protein adsorption, facilitating the development of novel peptide-containing antifouling materials.

  14. Lipid membrane-assisted condensation and assembly of amphiphilic Janus particles

    DOE PAGES

    Chambers, Mariah; Mallory, Stewart Anthony; Malone, Heather; ...

    2016-01-01

    Amphiphilic Janus particles self-assemble into complex metastructures, but little is known about how their assembly might be modified by weak interactions with a nearby biological membrane surface. Here, we report an integrated experimental and molecular dynamics simulation study to investigate the self-assembly of amphiphilic Janus particles on a lipid membrane. We created an experimental system in which Janus particles are allowed to self-assemble in the same medium where zwitterionic lipids form giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Janus particles spontaneously concentrated on the inner leaflet of the GUVs. They exhibited biased orientation and heterogeneous rotational dynamics as revealed by single particle rotationalmore » tracking. The combined experimental and simulation results show that Janus particles concentrate on the lipid membranes due to weak particle–lipid attraction, whereas the biased orientation of particles is driven predominantly by inter-particle interactions. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the potential of using lipid membranes to influence the self-assembly of Janus particles.« less

  15. Preparation and Investigation of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers/Fullerene Nanocomposites as Nanocarriers for Hydrophobic Drug.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qinggang; Chu, Yanyan; Bie, Min; Wang, Zihao; Xu, Xiaoyan

    2017-02-16

    Biopolymer/inorganic material nanocomposites have attracted increasing interest as nanocarriers for delivering drugs owing to the combined advantages of both biopolymer and inorganic materials. Here, amphiphilic block copolymer/fullerene nanocomposites were prepared as nanocarriers for hydrophobic drug by incorporation of C60 in the core of methoxy polyethylene glycol-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (MPEG-PDLLA) micelles. The structure and morphology of MPEG-PDLLA/C60 nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. It was found that the moderate amount of spherical C60 incorporated in the MPEG-PDLLA micelles may cause an increase in the molecular chain space of PDLLA segments in the vicinity of C60 and, thus, produce a larger cargo space to increase drug entrapment and accelerate the drug release from nanocomposites. Furthermore, sufficient additions of C60 perhaps resulted in an aggregation of C60 within the micelles that decreased the drug entrapment and produced a steric hindrance for DOX released from the nanocomposites. The results obtained provide fundamental insights into the understanding of the role of C60 in adjusting the drug loading and release of amphiphilic copolymer micelles and further demonstrate the future potential of the MPEG-PDLLA/C60 nanocomposites used as nanocarriers for controlled drug-delivery applications.

  16. Nano-Assemblies of Modified Cyclodextrins and Their Complexes with Guest Molecules: Incorporation in Nanostructured Membranes and Amphiphile Nanoarchitectonics Design

    PubMed Central

    Zerkoune, Leïla; Angelova, Angelina; Lesieur, Sylviane

    2014-01-01

    A variety of cyclodextrin-based molecular structures, with substitutions of either primary or secondary faces of the natural oligosaccharide macrocycles of α-, β-, or γ-cyclodextrins, have been designed towards innovative applications of self-assembled cyclodextrin nanomaterials. Amphiphilic cyclodextrins have been obtained by chemical or enzymatic modifications of their macrocycles using phospholipidyl, peptidolipidyl, cholesteryl, and oligo(ethylene oxide) anchors as well as variable numbers of grafted hydrophobic hydrocarbon or fluorinated chains. These novel compounds may self-assemble in an aqueous medium into different types of supramolecular nanoassemblies (vesicles, micelles, nanorods, nanospheres, and other kinds of nanoparticles and liquid crystalline structures). This review discusses the supramolecular nanoarchitectures, which can be formed by amphiphilic cyclodextrin derivatives in mixtures with other molecules (phospholipids, surfactants, and olygonucleotides). Biomedical applications are foreseen for nanoencapsulation of drug molecules in the hydrophobic interchain volumes and nanocavities of the amphiphilic cyclodextrins (serving as drug carriers or pharmaceutical excipients), anticancer phototherapy, gene delivery, as well as for protection of instable active ingredients through inclusion complexation in nanostructured media. PMID:28344245

  17. Hydrophobicity and thermodynamic response for aqueous solutions of amphiphiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemánková, Katerina; Troncoso, Jacobo; Cerdeiriña, Claudio A.; Romaní, Luis; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2016-06-01

    The anomalous behavior of aqueous solutions of amphiphiles in the water-rich region is analyzed via a phenomenological approach that utilizes the isobaric heat capacity Cp as an experimental probe. We report extensive data for solutions of 14 amphiphiles as a function of temperature at atmospheric pressure. Beyond that, Cp data but also isobaric thermal expansivities and isothermal compressibilities for three solutions of tert-butanol as a function of both temperature and pressure are presented. Results rule out the possibility that the observed phenomenology is associated with the anomalous thermodynamics of pure water. Indeed, our Cp data, quantitatively consistent with recent spectroscopic analyses, suggest that water-mediated interactions between the nonpolar parts of amphiphiles are at the origin of anomalies, with the effects of such "hydrophobic aggregation" being observed at mole fractions as small as 0.01. Physicochemical details like the size, the electronic charge distribution and the geometry of amphiphile molecules as well as third-order derivatives of the Gibbs energy and the associated Koga lines support the above claims while they further contribute to characterizing the role of hydrophobicity in these phenomena. Progress with a view to gain a deeper, more concrete understanding remains.

  18. Detection of Lipid and Amphiphilic Biomarkers for Disease Diagnostics

    DOE PAGES

    Kubicek-Sutherland, Jessica Z.; Vu, Dung M.; Mendez, Heather M.; ...

    2017-07-04

    Rapid diagnosis is crucial to effectively treating any disease. Biological markers, or biomarkers, have been widely used to diagnose a variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases. The detection of biomarkers in patient samples can also provide valuable information regarding progression and prognosis. Interestingly, many such biomarkers are composed of lipids, and are amphiphilic in biochemistry, which leads them to be often sequestered by host carriers. Such sequestration enhances the difficulty of developing sensitive and accurate sensors for these targets. Many of the physiologically relevant molecules involved in pathogenesis and disease are indeed amphiphilic. This chemical property is likely essential formore » their biological function, but also makes them challenging to detect and quantify in vitro. In order to understand pathogenesis and disease progression while developing effective diagnostics, it is important to account for the biochemistry of lipid and amphiphilic biomarkers when creating novel techniques for the quantitative measurement of these targets. Here, we review techniques and methods used to detect lipid and amphiphilic biomarkers associated with disease, as well as their feasibility for use as diagnostic targets, highlighting the significance of their biochemical properties in the design and execution of laboratory and diagnostic strategies. Furthermore, the biochemistry of biological molecules is clearly relevant to their physiological function, and calling out the need for consideration of this feature in their study, and use as vaccine, diagnostic and therapeutic targets is the overarching motivation for this review.« less

  19. Pulmonary and generalized lysosomal storage induced by amphiphilic drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Hruban, Z

    1984-01-01

    Administration of amphiphilic drugs to experimental animals causes formation of myelinoid bodies in many cell types, accumulation of foamy macrophages in pulmonary alveoli and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. These changes are the result of an interaction between the drugs and phospholipids which leads to an alteration in physicochemical properties of the phospholipids. Impairment of the digestion of altered pulmonary secretions in phagosomes of macrophages results in accumulation of foam cells in pulmonary alveoli. Impairment of the metabolism of altered phospholipids removed by autophagy induces an accumulation of myelinoid bodies. The administration of amphiphilic compounds thus causes pulmonary intra-alveolar histiocytosis which is a part of a drug-induced lysosomal storage or generalized lipidosis. The accumulation of drug-lipid complexes in myelinoid bodies and in pulmonary foam cells may lead to alteration of cellular functioning and to clinical disease. Currently over 50 amphiphilic drugs are known. Unique pharmacological properties necessitate clinical use of some of these drugs. The occurrence and severity of potential clinical side effects depend on the nature of each drug, dosage and duration of treatment, simultaneous administration of other drugs and foods, individual metabolic pattern of the patient and other factors. Further studies on factors preventing and potentiating adverse effects of amphiphilic drugs are indicated. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:6376111

  20. Detection of Lipid and Amphiphilic Biomarkers for Disease Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Dung M.; Mendez, Heather M.; Jakhar, Shailja; Mukundan, Harshini

    2017-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis is crucial to effectively treating any disease. Biological markers, or biomarkers, have been widely used to diagnose a variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases. The detection of biomarkers in patient samples can also provide valuable information regarding progression and prognosis. Interestingly, many such biomarkers are composed of lipids, and are amphiphilic in biochemistry, which leads them to be often sequestered by host carriers. Such sequestration enhances the difficulty of developing sensitive and accurate sensors for these targets. Many of the physiologically relevant molecules involved in pathogenesis and disease are indeed amphiphilic. This chemical property is likely essential for their biological function, but also makes them challenging to detect and quantify in vitro. In order to understand pathogenesis and disease progression while developing effective diagnostics, it is important to account for the biochemistry of lipid and amphiphilic biomarkers when creating novel techniques for the quantitative measurement of these targets. Here, we review techniques and methods used to detect lipid and amphiphilic biomarkers associated with disease, as well as their feasibility for use as diagnostic targets, highlighting the significance of their biochemical properties in the design and execution of laboratory and diagnostic strategies. The biochemistry of biological molecules is clearly relevant to their physiological function, and calling out the need for consideration of this feature in their study, and use as vaccine, diagnostic and therapeutic targets is the overarching motivation for this review. PMID:28677660

  1. Detection of Lipid and Amphiphilic Biomarkers for Disease Diagnostics

    SciT

    Kubicek-Sutherland, Jessica Z.; Vu, Dung M.; Mendez, Heather M.

    Rapid diagnosis is crucial to effectively treating any disease. Biological markers, or biomarkers, have been widely used to diagnose a variety of infectious and non-infectious diseases. The detection of biomarkers in patient samples can also provide valuable information regarding progression and prognosis. Interestingly, many such biomarkers are composed of lipids, and are amphiphilic in biochemistry, which leads them to be often sequestered by host carriers. Such sequestration enhances the difficulty of developing sensitive and accurate sensors for these targets. Many of the physiologically relevant molecules involved in pathogenesis and disease are indeed amphiphilic. This chemical property is likely essential formore » their biological function, but also makes them challenging to detect and quantify in vitro. In order to understand pathogenesis and disease progression while developing effective diagnostics, it is important to account for the biochemistry of lipid and amphiphilic biomarkers when creating novel techniques for the quantitative measurement of these targets. Here, we review techniques and methods used to detect lipid and amphiphilic biomarkers associated with disease, as well as their feasibility for use as diagnostic targets, highlighting the significance of their biochemical properties in the design and execution of laboratory and diagnostic strategies. Furthermore, the biochemistry of biological molecules is clearly relevant to their physiological function, and calling out the need for consideration of this feature in their study, and use as vaccine, diagnostic and therapeutic targets is the overarching motivation for this review.« less

  2. Elastohydrodynamics of farm-based blends comprising amphiphilic oils

    Vegetable oils contain non-polar hydrocarbon chains and polar ester groups (and possibly also other functional groups such as hydroxyl groups in castor oil). The presence of polar and non-polar groups within the same molecule gives vegetable oil amphiphilic character. The density, refractive index, ...

  3. Reinforcement of latex rubber by the incorporation of amphiphilic particles

    Latex rubbers are fabricated from latex suspensions. During the fabrication process, latex particles are bound together while water is removed from the suspension. This report shows that the mechanical properties of latex rubbers can be improved by incorporating a small amount of amphiphilic submicr...

  4. Effects of perfluorinated amphiphiles on backward swimming in Paramecium caudatum

    SciT

    Matsubara, Eriko; Harada, Kouji; Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo 1028472

    2006-01-13

    PFOS and PFOA are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. We investigated the effects of fluorochemicals on calcium currents in Paramecium caudatum using its behavioral changes. Negatively charged amphiphiles prolonged backward swimming (BWS) of Paramecium. PFOS significantly prolonged BWS, while PFOA was less potent (EC{sub 5}: 29.8 {+-} 4.1 and 424.1 {+-} 124.0 {mu}M, respectively). The BWS prolongation was blocked by cadmium, indicating that the cellular calcium conductance had been modified. The positively charged amphiphile FOSAPrTMA shortened BWS (EC{sub 5}: 19.1 {+-} 17.3). Nonionic amphiphiles did not affect BWS. The longer-chain perfluorinated carboxylates PFNA and PFDA were more potent than PFOAmore » (EC{sub 5}: 98.7 {+-} 20.1 and 60.4 {+-} 10.1 {mu}M, respectively). However, 1,8-perfluorooctanedioic acid and 1,10-perfluorodecanedioic acid did not prolong BWS. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and BWS prolongation for negatively charged amphiphiles showed a clear correlation (r {sup 2} = 0.8008, p < 0.001). In summary, several perfluorochemicals and PFOS and PFOA had similar effects in Paramecium, while chain length, CMC, and electric charge were major determinants of BWS duration.« less

  5. Design of polymer conjugated 3-helix micelles as nanocarriers with tunable shapes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dan; DeBenedictis, Elizabeth P; Lund, Reidar; Keten, Sinan

    2016-11-24

    Amphiphilic peptide-polymer conjugates have the ability to form stable nanoscale micelles, which show great promise for drug delivery and other applications. A recent design has utilized the end-conjugation of alkyl chains to 3-helix coiled coils to achieve amphiphilicity, combined with the side-chain conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to tune micelle size through entropic confinement forces. Here we investigate this phenomenon in depth, using coarse-grained dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations in an explicit solvent and micelle theory. We analyze the conformations of PEG chains conjugated to three different positions on 3-helix bundle peptides to ascertain the degree of confinement upon assembly, as well as the ordering of the subunits making up the micelle. We discover that the micelle size and stability is dictated by a competition between the entropy of PEG chain conformations in the assembled state, as well as intermolecular cross-interactions among PEG chains that promote cohesion between neighboring conjugates. Our analyses build on the role of PEG molecular weight and conjugation site and lead to computational phase diagrams that can be used to design 3-helix micelles. This work opens pathways for the design of multifunctional micelles with tunable size, shape and stability.

  6. CO{sub 2} isolated line shapes by classical molecular dynamics simulations: Influence of the intermolecular potential and comparison with new measurements

    SciT

    Larcher, G.; Tran, H., E-mail: ha.tran@lisa.u-pec.fr; Schwell, M.

    2014-02-28

    Room temperature absorption spectra of various transitions of pure CO{sub 2} have been measured in a broad pressure range using a tunable diode-laser and a cavity ring-down spectrometer, respectively, in the 1.6 μm and 0.8 μm regions. Their spectral shapes have been calculated by requantized classical molecular dynamics simulations. From the time-dependent auto-correlation function of the molecular dipole, including Doppler and collisional effects, spectral shapes are directly computed without the use of any adjusted parameter. Analysis of the spectra calculated using three different anisotropic intermolecular potentials shows that the shapes of pure CO{sub 2} lines, in terms of both themore » Lorentz widths and non-Voigt effects, slightly depend on the used potential. Comparisons between these ab initio calculations and the measured spectra show satisfactory agreement for all considered transitions (from J = 6 to J = 46). They also show that non-Voigt effects on the shape of CO{sub 2} transitions are almost independent of the rotational quantum number of the considered lines.« less

  7. Entropic effects, shape, and size of mixed micelles formed by copolymers with complex architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogirou, Andreas; Gergidis, Leonidas N.; Moultos, Othonas; Vlahos, Costas

    2015-11-01

    The entropic effects in the comicellization behavior of amphiphilic A B copolymers differing in the chain size of solvophilic A parts were studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, mixtures of miktoarm star copolymers differing in the molecular weight of solvophilic arms were investigated. We found that the critical micelle concentration values show a positive deviation from the analytical predictions of the molecular theory of comicellization for chemically identical copolymers. This can be attributed to the effective interactions between copolymers originated from the arm size asymmetry. The effective interactions induce a very small decrease in the aggregation number of preferential micelles triggering the nonrandom mixing between the solvophilic moieties in the corona. Additionally, in order to specify how the chain architecture affects the size distribution and the shape of mixed micelles we studied star-shaped, H-shaped, and homo-linked-rings-linear mixtures. In the first case the individual constituents form micelles with preferential and wide aggregation numbers and in the latter case the individual constituents form wormlike and spherical micelles.

  8. Entropic effects, shape, and size of mixed micelles formed by copolymers with complex architectures.

    PubMed

    Kalogirou, Andreas; Gergidis, Leonidas N; Moultos, Othonas; Vlahos, Costas

    2015-11-01

    The entropic effects in the comicellization behavior of amphiphilic AB copolymers differing in the chain size of solvophilic A parts were studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, mixtures of miktoarm star copolymers differing in the molecular weight of solvophilic arms were investigated. We found that the critical micelle concentration values show a positive deviation from the analytical predictions of the molecular theory of comicellization for chemically identical copolymers. This can be attributed to the effective interactions between copolymers originated from the arm size asymmetry. The effective interactions induce a very small decrease in the aggregation number of preferential micelles triggering the nonrandom mixing between the solvophilic moieties in the corona. Additionally, in order to specify how the chain architecture affects the size distribution and the shape of mixed micelles we studied star-shaped, H-shaped, and homo-linked-rings-linear mixtures. In the first case the individual constituents form micelles with preferential and wide aggregation numbers and in the latter case the individual constituents form wormlike and spherical micelles.

  9. Molecular discriminators using single wall carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Tamoghna; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr; Ranjan Ray, Nihar; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2012-09-01

    The interaction between single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and amphiphilic molecules has been studied in a solid phase. SWNTs are allowed to interact with different amphiphilic probes (e.g. lipids) in a narrow capillary interface. Contact between strong hydrophobic and amphiphilic interfaces leads to a molecular restructuring of the lipids at the interface. The geometry of the diffusion front and the rate and the extent of diffusion of the interface are dependent on the structure of the lipid at the interface. Lecithin having a linear tail showed greater mobility of the interface as compared to a branched tail lipid like dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, indicating the hydrophobic interaction between single wall carbon nanotube core and the hydrophobic tail of the lipid. Solid phase interactions between SWNT and lipids can thus become a very simple but efficient means of discriminating amphiphilic molecules in general and lipids in particular.

  10. Interplay between alkyl chain asymmetry and cholesterol addition in the rigid ion pair amphiphile bilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fong-yin; Chiu, Chi-cheng

    2017-01-01

    Ion pair amphiphile (IPA), a molecular complex composed of a pair of cationic and anionic surfactants, has been proposed as a novel phospholipid substitute. Controlling the physical stability of IPA vesicles is important for its application developments such as cosmetic and drug deliveries. To investigate the effects of IPA alkyl chain combinations and the cholesterol additive on the structural and mechanical properties of IPA vesicular bilayers, we conducted a series of molecular dynamics studies on the hexadecyltrimethylammonium-dodecylsulfate (HTMA-DS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium-hexadecylsulfate (DTMA-HS) IPA bilayers with cholesterol. We found that both IPA bilayers are in the gel phase at 298 K, consistent with experimental observations. Compared with the HTMA-DS system, the DTMA-HS bilayer has more disordered alkyl chains in the hydrophobic region. When adding cholesterol, it induces alkyl chain ordering around its rigid sterol ring. Yet, cholesterol increases the molecular areas for all species and disturbs the molecular packing near the hydrophilic region and the bilayer core. Cholesterol also promotes the alkyl chain mismatch between the IPA moieties, especially for the DTMA-HS bilayer. The combined effects lead to non-monotonically enhancement of the membrane mechanical moduli for both IPA-cholesterol systems. Furthermore, cholesterol can form H-bonds with the alkylsulfate and thus enhance the contribution of alkylsulfate to the overall mechanical moduli. Combined results provide valuable molecular insights into the roles of each IPA component and the cholesterol on modulating the IPA bilayer properties.

  11. Physico-chemical properties of hydrophilic and amphiphilic crosslinked systems that influence biological responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiasi, Angel

    The effect of physical, chemical, and biological cues on the behavior of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and attachment of marine organisms was investigated. Both hydrophilic and amphiphilic crosslinked polymer networks with varying chemical and mechanical properties were used to direct biological responses. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogels were fabricated with tunable mechanical properties by varying the di-functional monomer concentration in the feed composition. Amphiphilic hydrogels composed of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 1,3-bis(3-methacryloxypropyl)tetrakis(trimethylsiloxy)disiloxane (MPTSDS), and tris(trimethylsiloxy)-3-methacryloxypropylsilane (TRIS) were copolymerized using ultraviolet (UV) light and a photo-initiator. Hydrogels prepared with varying concentration of di-functional monomer, MPTSDS, exhibited an order of magnitude difference in elastic moduli. Not only were the bulk material properties influenced by the crosslinking agent concentration in the feed composition, but the surface properties (i.e., contact angle and hysteresis) were influenced as well. Modulus (E) has been reported to be positively correlated with the settlement of marine organisms. However, this was not the case for the amphiphilic gels tested against biomolecules and marine organisms. Stiffer gels inhibited fouling of proteins and marine organism, Ulva linza, to a greater extent than the softer gels. Furthermore, the network structure, in regards to the molecular weight between crosslinks Mc, was found to have a greater influence on fouling. A strong correlation was observed between protein adsorption and Mc of the amphiphilic crosslinked networks compared to just the modulus and surface energy (Upsilon) alone. A higher correlation was also obtained between Mc and Ulva sporeling biomass than between sporeling biomass and elastic modulus E, exhibiting R² value of 0.98 and 0.38, respectively. The percent removal of sporeling biomass growth was shown to be

  12. Amphiphilic Ferrocene-Containing PEG Block Copolymers as Micellar Nanocarriers and Smart Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Arda; Wald, Sarah; Louage, Benoit; De Geest, Bruno G; Landfester, Katharina; Wurm, Frederik R

    2017-01-10

    An important and usually the only function of most surfactants in heterophase systems is stabilizing one phase in another, for example, droplets or particles in water. Surfactants with additional chemical or physical handles are promising in controlling the colloidal properties by external stimuli. The redox stimulus is an attractive feature; however, to date only a few ionic redox-responsive surfactants have been reported. Herein, the first nonionic and noncytotoxic ferrocene-containing block copolymers are prepared, carrying a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain and multiple ferrocenes in the hydrophobic segment. These amphiphiles were studied as redox-sensitive surfactants that destabilize particles as obtained in miniemulsion polymerization. Because of the nonionic nature of such PEG-based copolymers, they can stabilize nanoparticles even after the addition of ions, whereas particles stabilized with ionic surfactants would be destabilized by the addition of salt. The redox-active surfactants were prepared by the anionic ring-opening polymerization of ferrocenyl glycidyl ether, with PEG monomethyl ether as the macroinitiator. The resultant block copolymers with molecular weights (M n ) between 3600 and 8600 g mol -1 and narrow molecular weight distributions (M w /M n = 1.04-1.10) were investigated via 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance and diffusion ordered spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the block copolymers were used as building blocks for redox-responsive micelles and as redox-responsive surfactants in radical polymerization in miniemulsion to stabilize model polystyrene nanoparticles. Oxidation of iron to the ferrocenium species converted the amphiphilic block copolymers into double hydrophilic macromolecules, which led to the destabilization of the nanoparticles. This destabilization of nanoparticle dispersions may be useful for the formation of

  13. Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Dendrimers: The Role of Generation and Alkyl Chain Length in siRNA Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Miranda, Valeria; Araya-Durán, Ingrid; Camarada, María Belén; Comer, Jeffrey; Valencia-Gallegos, Jesús A.; González-Nilo, Fernando Danilo

    2016-01-01

    An ideal nucleic-acid transfection system should combine the physical and chemical characteristics of cationic lipids and linear polymers to decrease cytotoxicity and uptake limitations. Previous research described new types of carriers termed amphiphilic dendrimers (ADs), which are based on polyamidoamine dendrimers (PAMAM). These ADs display the cell membrane affinity advantage of lipids and preserve the high affinity for DNA possessed by cationic dendrimers. These lipid/dendrimer hybrids consist of a low-generation, hydrophilic dendron (G2, G1, or G0) bonded to a hydrophobic tail. The G2-18C AD was reported to be an efficient siRNA vector with significant gene silencing. However, shorter tail ADs (G2-15C and G2-13C) and lower generation (G0 and G1) dendrimers failed as transfection carriers. To date, the self-assembly phenomenon of this class of amphiphilic dendrimers has not been molecularly explored using molecular simulation methods. To gain insight into these systems, the present study used coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to describe how ADs are able to self-assemble into an aggregate, and, specifically, how tail length and generation play a key role in this event. Finally, explanations are given for the better efficiency of G2/18-C as gene carrier in terms of binding of siRNA. This knowledge could be relevant for the design of novel, safer ADs with well-optimized affinity for siRNA. PMID:27377641

  14. Tuning the Direction of Intramolecular Charge Transfer and the Nature of the Fluorescent State in a T-Shaped Molecular Dyad.

    PubMed

    Felouat, Abdellah; D'Aléo, Anthony; Charaf-Eddin, Azzam; Jacquemin, Denis; Le Guennic, Boris; Kim, Eunsun; Lee, Kwang Jin; Woo, Jae Heun; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Wu, Jeong Weon; Fages, Frédéric

    2015-06-18

    Controlling photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer at the molecular scale is key to the development of molecular devices for nanooptoelectronics. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, electronic characterization, and photophysical properties of two electron donor-acceptor molecular systems that consist of tolane and BF2-containing curcuminoid chromophoric subunits connected in a T-shaped arrangement. The two π-conjugated segments intersect at the electron acceptor dioxaborine core. From steady-state electronic absorption and fluorescence emission, we find that the photophysics of the dialkylamino-substituted analogue is governed by the occurrence of two closely lying excited states. From DFT calculations, we show that excitation in either of these two states results in a distinct shift of the electron density, whether it occurs along the curcuminoid or tolane moiety. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy confirmed these findings. As a consequence, the nature of the emitting state and the photophysical properties are strongly dependent on solvent polarity. Moreover, these characteristics can also be switched by protonation or complexation at the nitrogen atom of the amino group. These features set new approaches toward the construction of a three-terminal molecular system in which the lateral branch would transduce a change of electronic state and ultimately control charge transport in a molecular-scale device.

  15. Preparation and self-folding of amphiphilic DNA origami.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Dianming; Dong, Yuanchen; Xin, Ling; Sun, Yawei; Yang, Zhongqiang; Liu, Dongsheng

    2015-03-01

    Amphiphilic DNA origami is prepared by dressing multiple hydrophobic molecules on a rectangular single layer DNA origami, which is then folded or coupled in sandwich-like structures with two outer DNA origami layer and one inner hydrophobic molecules layer. The preference to form different kinds of structures could be tailored by rational design of DNA origami. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Role of amphiphilic molecule on liquid crystal phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Kaustabh; Roy, Madhusudan; Datta, Alokmay

    2013-02-01

    We have studied the effect of an amphiphilic fatty acid, Stearic Acid (StA), on the phases, wetting and polarization properties of the liquid crystalline substance N-(4-Methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline (MBBA), through Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Optical Polarization Microscopy. Metastable and mesophases disappear for a MBBA:StA = 1:5 mixture. This mixture wets Si(111) and dewets Si(100) surfaces while pure MBBA dewets both. Films of this mixture also show better polarization than the pure sample.

  17. Tuning Amphiphilicity of Particles for Controllable Pickering Emulsion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Yapei

    2016-01-01

    Pickering emulsions with the use of particles as emulsifiers have been extensively used in scientific research and industrial production due to their edge in biocompatibility and stability compared with traditional emulsions. The control over Pickering emulsion stability and type plays a significant role in these applications. Among the present methods to build controllable Pickering emulsions, tuning the amphiphilicity of particles is comparatively effective and has attracted enormous attention. In this review, we highlight some recent advances in tuning the amphiphilicity of particles for controlling the stability and type of Pickering emulsions. The amphiphilicity of three types of particles including rigid particles, soft particles, and Janus particles are tailored by means of different mechanisms and discussed here in detail. The stabilization-destabilization interconversion and phase inversion of Pickering emulsions have been successfully achieved by changing the surface properties of these particles. This article provides a comprehensive review of controllable Pickering emulsions, which is expected to stimulate inspiration for designing and preparing novel Pickering emulsions, and ultimately directing the preparation of functional materials. PMID:28774029

  18. Amphiphilic Polyurethane Hydrogels as Smart Carriers for Acidic Hydrophobic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Lucas P; Trinca, Rafael B; Isabel Felisberti, Maria

    2018-05-14

    Amphiphilic hydrogels are widely reported as systems with great potential for controlled drug release. Nevertheless, the majority of studies make use of functionalization or attachment of drugs to the polymer chains. In this study, we propose a strategy of combining amphiphilic polyurethanes with pH-responsive drugs to develop smart drug carriers. While the amphiphilic character of the polymer imparts an efficient load of hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, the drug's characteristics determine the selectivity of the medium delivery. Drug loading and release behavior as well as hydrolytic degradation of chemically crosslinked polyurethane hydrogels based on PEG and PCL-triol (PU (polyurethane) hydrogels) synthesized by an easy one-pot route were studied. PU hydrogels have been shown to successfully load the hydrophobic acidic drug sodium diclofenac, reaching a partition coefficient of 8 between the most hydrophobic PU and diclofenac/ethanol solutions. Moreover, an oral administration simulation was conducted by changing the environment from an acidic to a neutral medium. PU hydrogels release less than 5 % of the drug in an acidic medium; however, in a PBS pH 7.4 solution, diclofenac is delivered in a sustained fashion for up to 40 hours, achieving 80% of cumulative release. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Langmuir–Blodgett Thin Films of Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Amphiphiles

    DOE PAGES

    Lo, Chi Kin; Wang, Cheng -Yin; Oosterhout, Stefan D.; ...

    2018-03-30

    Here, we report on two π-conjugated donor–acceptor–donor (D–A–D) molecules of amphiphilic nature, aiming to promote intermolecular ordering and carrier mobility in organic electronic devices. Diketopyrrolopyrrole was selected as the acceptor moiety that was disubstituted with nonpolar and polar functional groups, thereby providing the amphiphilic structures. This structural design resulted in materials with a strong intermolecular order in the solid state, which was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy. Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of ordered mono- and multilayers were transferred onto glass and silicon substrates, with layer quality, coverage, and intermolecular order controlled by layer compression pressure on themore » LB trough. Organic field-effect transistors and organic photovoltaics devices with active layers consisting of the amphiphilic conjugated D–A–D-type molecules were constructed to demonstrate that the LB technique is an effective layer-by-layer deposition approach to fabricate self-assembled, ordered thin films.« less

  20. Theory of Passive Polymer Translocation Through Amphiphilic Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Marco; Bathmann, Jasper; Baulin, Vladimir; Sommer, Jens-Uwe; ITN-SNAL''Smart Nano-ObjectsAlteration of Lipid-Bilayers''Team

    We propose a theoretical framework for examining the translocation of flexible polymers through amphiphilic membranes: A generic model for monomer-membrane interactions is formulated and the Edwards equation is employed for calculating the free energy landscape of a polymer in a membrane environment. By the example of homopolymers it is demonstrated that polymer adsorption and the symmetry of conformations with respect to the membrane's mid-plane trigger passive polymer translocation in a narrow window of polymer hydrophobicity. We demonstrate that globular conformations can be taken into account by means of a screening of the external potential, which leads to excellent agreement of predicted translocation times with dynamic lattice Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The work opens a theoretical road-map on how to design translocating flexible polymers by referring to universal phenomena only: adsorption and conformational symmetry. As confirmed by MC simulations on amphiphilic polymers, promising candidates of translocating polymers in practice are short-block amphiphilic copolymers, which in the limit of small block sizes resemble homopolymers on a coarse grained level. We gratefully thank the European Union's funding of the Initial Training Network SNAL (Grant agreement no. 608184) under the 7th Framework Programme.

  1. Ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy with atomic or molecular dark resonances: Exact steady-state line shapes and asymptotic profiles in the adiabatic pulsed regime

    SciT

    Zanon-Willette, Thomas; Clercq, Emeric de; Arimondo, Ennio

    2011-12-15

    Exact and asymptotic line shape expressions are derived from the semiclassical density matrix representation describing a set of closed three-level {Lambda} atomic or molecular states including decoherences, relaxation rates, and light shifts. An accurate analysis of the exact steady-state dark-resonance profile describing the Autler-Townes doublet, the electromagnetically induced transparency or coherent population trapping resonance, and the Fano-Feshbach line shape leads to the linewidth expression of the two-photon Raman transition and frequency shifts associated to the clock transition. From an adiabatic analysis of the dynamical optical Bloch equations in the weak field limit, a pumping time required to efficiently trap amore » large number of atoms into a coherent superposition of long-lived states is established. For a highly asymmetrical configuration with different decay channels, a strong two-photon resonance based on a lower states population inversion is established when the driving continuous-wave laser fields are greatly unbalanced. When time separated resonant two-photon pulses are applied in the adiabatic pulsed regime for atomic or molecular clock engineering, where the first pulse is long enough to reach a coherent steady-state preparation and the second pulse is very short to avoid repumping into a new dark state, dark-resonance fringes mixing continuous-wave line shape properties and coherent Ramsey oscillations are created. Those fringes allow interrogation schemes bypassing the power broadening effect. Frequency shifts affecting the central clock fringe computed from asymptotic profiles and related to the Raman decoherence process exhibit nonlinear shapes with the three-level observable used for quantum measurement. We point out that different observables experience different shifts on the lower-state clock transition.« less

  2. Molecular and supramolecular control of the work function of an inorganic electrode with self-assembled monolayer of umbrella-shaped fullerene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lacher, Sebastian; Matsuo, Yutaka; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2011-10-26

    The surface properties of inorganic substrates can be altered by coating with organic molecules, which may result in the improvement of the properties suitable for electronic or biological applications. This article reports a systematic experimental study on the influence of the molecular and supramolecular properties of umbrella-shaped penta(organo)[60]fullerene derivatives, and on the work function and the water contact angle of indium-tin oxide (ITO) and gold surfaces. We could relate these macroscopic characteristics to single-molecular level properties, such as ionization potential and molecular dipole. The results led us to conclude that the formation of a SAM of a polar compound generates an electronic field through intermolecular interaction of the molecular charges, and this field makes the overall dipole of the SAM much smaller than the one expected from the simple sum of the dipoles of all molecules in the SAM. This effect, which was called depolarization and previously discussed theoretically, is now quantitatively probed by experiments. The important physical properties in surface science such as work function, ionization potential, and water contact angles have been mutually correlated at the level of molecular structures and molecular orientations on the substrate surface. We also found that the SAMs on ITO and gold operate under the same principle except that the "push-back" effect operates specifically for gold. The study also illustrates the ability of the photoelectron yield spectroscopy technique to rapidly measure the work function of a SAM-covered substrate and the ionization potential value of a molecule on the surface.

  3. Effects of molecular chirality on self-assembly and switching in liquid crystals at the cross-over between rod-like and bent shapes.

    PubMed

    Ocak, Hale; Poppe, Marco; Bilgin-Eran, Belkız; Karanlık, Gürkan; Prehm, Marko; Tschierske, Carsten

    2016-09-21

    A bent-core compound derived from a 4-cyanoresorcinol core unit with two terephthalate based rod-like wings and carrying chiral 3,7-dimethyloctyloxy side chains has been synthesized in racemic and enantiomerically pure form and characterized by polarizing microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electro-optical investigations to study the influence of molecular chirality on the superstructural chirality and polar order in lamellar liquid crystalline phases. Herein we demonstrate that the coupling of molecular chirality with superstructural layer chirality in SmCsPF domain phases (forming energetically distinct diastereomeric pairs) can fix the tilt direction and thus stabilize synpolar order, leading to bistable ferroelectric switching in the SmC* phases of the (S)-enantiomer, whereas tristable modes determine the switching of the racemate. Moreover, the mechanism of electric field induced molecular reorganization changes from a rotation around the molecular long axis in the racemate to a rotation on the tilt-cone for the (S)-enantiomer. At high temperature the enantiomer behaves like a rod-like molecule with a chirality induced ferroelectric SmC* phase and an electroclinic effect in the SmA'* phase. At reduced temperature sterically induced polarization, due to the bent molecular shape, becomes dominating, leading to much higher polarization values, thus providing access to high polarization ferroelectric materials with weakly bent compounds having only "weakly chiral" stereogenic units. Moreover, the field induced alignment of the SmCsPF(()*()) domains gives rise to a special kind of electroclinic effect appearing even in the absence of molecular chirality. Comparison with related compounds indicates that the strongest effects of chirality appear for weakly bent molecules with a relatively short coherence length of polar order, whereas for smectic phases with long range polar order the effects of the interlayer interfaces can override

  4. Screening nylon-3 polymers, a new class of cationic amphiphiles, for siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Nadithe, Venkatareddy; Liu, Runhui; Killinger, Bryan A; Movassaghian, Sara; Kim, Na Hyung; Moszczynska, Anna B; Masters, Kristyn S; Gellman, Samuel H; Merkel, Olivia M

    2015-02-02

    Amphiphilic nucleic acid carriers have attracted strong interest. Three groups of nylon-3 copolymers (poly-β-peptides) possessing different cationic/hydrophobic content were evaluated as siRNA delivery agents in this study. Their ability to condense siRNA was determined in SYBR Gold assays. Their cytotoxicity was tested by MTT assays, their efficiency of delivering Alexa Fluor-488-labeled siRNA intracellularly in the presence and absence of uptake inhibitors was assessed by flow cytometry, and their transfection efficacies were studied by luciferase knockdown in a cell line stably expressing luciferase (H1299/Luc). Endosomal release was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy and colocalization with lysotracker. All polymers efficiently condensed siRNA at nitrogen-to-phosphate (N/P) ratios of 5 or lower, as reflected in hydrodynamic diameters smaller than that at N/P 1. Although several formulations had negative zeta potentials at N/P 1, G2C and G2D polyplexes yielded >80% uptake in H1299/Luc cells, as determined by flow cytometry. Luciferase knockdown (20-65%) was observed after transfection with polyplexes made of the high molecular weight polymers that were the most hydrophobic. The ability of nylon-3 polymers to deliver siRNA intracellularly even at negative zeta potential implies that they mediate transport across cell membranes based on their amphiphilicity. The cellular uptake route was determined to strongly depend on the presence of cholesterol in the cell membrane. These polymers are, therefore, very promising for siRNA delivery at reduced surface charge and toxicity. Our study identified nylon-3 formulations at low N/P ratios for effective gene knockdown, indicating that nylon-3 polymers are a new, promising type of gene delivery agent.

  5. Screening Nylon-3 Polymers, a New Class of Cationic Amphiphiles, for siRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Amphiphilic nucleic acid carriers have attracted strong interest. Three groups of nylon-3 copolymers (poly-β-peptides) possessing different cationic/hydrophobic content were evaluated as siRNA delivery agents in this study. Their ability to condense siRNA was determined in SYBR Gold assays. Their cytotoxicity was tested by MTT assays, their efficiency of delivering Alexa Fluor-488-labeled siRNA intracellularly in the presence and absence of uptake inhibitors was assessed by flow cytometry, and their transfection efficacies were studied by luciferase knockdown in a cell line stably expressing luciferase (H1299/Luc). Endosomal release was determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy and colocalization with lysotracker. All polymers efficiently condensed siRNA at nitrogen-to-phosphate (N/P) ratios of 5 or lower, as reflected in hydrodynamic diameters smaller than that at N/P 1. Although several formulations had negative zeta potentials at N/P 1, G2C and G2D polyplexes yielded >80% uptake in H1299/Luc cells, as determined by flow cytometry. Luciferase knockdown (20–65%) was observed after transfection with polyplexes made of the high molecular weight polymers that were the most hydrophobic. The ability of nylon-3 polymers to deliver siRNA intracellularly even at negative zeta potential implies that they mediate transport across cell membranes based on their amphiphilicity. The cellular uptake route was determined to strongly depend on the presence of cholesterol in the cell membrane. These polymers are, therefore, very promising for siRNA delivery at reduced surface charge and toxicity. Our study identified nylon-3 formulations at low N/P ratios for effective gene knockdown, indicating that nylon-3 polymers are a new, promising type of gene delivery agent. PMID:25437915

  6. Adsorption, folding, and packing of an amphiphilic peptide at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Engin, Ozge; Sayar, Mehmet

    2012-02-23

    Peptide oligomers play an essential role as model compounds for identifying key motifs in protein structure formation and protein aggregation. Here, we present our results, based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations, on adsorption, folding, and packing within a surface monolayer of an amphiphilic peptide at the air/water interface. Experimental results suggest that these molecules spontaneously form ordered monolayers at the interface, adopting a β-hairpin-like structure within the surface layer. Our results reveal that the β-hairpin structure can be observed both in bulk and at the air/water interface. However, the presence of an interface leads to ideal partitioning of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues, and therefore reduces the conformational space for the molecule and increases the stability of the hairpin structure. We obtained the adsorption free energy of a single β-hairpin at the air/water interface, and analyzed the enthalpic and entropic contributions. The adsorption process is favored by two main factors: (1) Free-energy reduction due to desolvation of the hydrophobic side chains of the peptide and release of the water molecules which form a cage around these hydrophobic groups in bulk water. (2) Reduction of the total air/water contact area at the interface upon adsorption of the peptide amphiphile. By performing mutations on the original molecule, we demonstrated the relative role of key design features of the peptide. Finally, by analyzing the potential of mean force among two peptides at the interface, we investigated possible packing mechanisms for these molecules within the surface monolayer. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  7. Structure and reactions in some amphiphilic association systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rong

    1999-06-01

    The partial determinations of phase diagrams for some typical surfactants, such as SDS, CTAB and Triton X-100, give the basic aggregated states of the surfactant systems. In the micellar solutions, the diffusion coefficients of some surfactant association systems are determined by the cyclic voltammetry without any probe and used to describe the phase structure. (1) The first CMC, which represents the formation of spherical micelles, and the second CMC, which represents the transformation from spherical to rod-like micelles, are measured. The first and the second CMC are 8.0 x 10-3 mol. L -1 and 5.6 x 10-3 mol. L-1 for SDS, 8.9 x 10-4 mol. L-1 and 2.1 x 10-2 mol. L-1 for CTAB, and 3.2 x 10 -4 mol. L-1 and 1.3 x 10-3 mol. L-1 for Triton X-100, respectively. (2) The addition of polar additives, such as ethanol and benzyl alcohol (BA) in SDS micelles, or hexanol in Triton X-100 micelles, increases the diffusion coefficients and diffusion activation energy, decreases the micropolarity of the micelles with different shape, and causes the transformation from rod-like micelles to spherical ones or from spherical micelles to bicontinuous structure. (3) The isotropic region, which connects to the water comer in the phase diagram, is probably not an area of a single O/W structure, but an area with three different structures---the rod structure, spherical structure and the bicontinuous one. In the lyotropic liquid crystalline phase, the measurements of the small angle X-ray diffraction indicate that the structure parameters, such as interlayer spacing and water penetration, are related to the compositions of the surfactant association systems. The lamellar liquid crystal has a high water penetration but the hexagonal liquid crystal only has a water penetration about 0.05. Some surfactant association systems have been applied in the hydrotrope action of vitamin C (VC) and preparation of nanoparticles, respectively. Vitamin C (VC) can be used as hydrotrope agent in the cationic

  8. Self-assembled cationic amphiphiles as antimicrobial peptides mimics: Role of hydrophobicity, linkage type, and assembly state.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingyue; Algburi, Ammar; Wang, Ning; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Oh, Drym O; Chikindas, Michael; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2017-02-01

    Inspired by high promise using naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to treat infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, cationic amphiphiles (CAms) were strategically designed as synthetic mimics to overcome associated limitations, including high manufacture cost and low metabolic stability. CAms with facially amphiphilic conformation were expected to demonstrate membrane-lytic properties and thus reduce tendency of resistance development. By systematically tuning the hydrophobicity, CAms with optimized compositions exhibited potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity (with minimum inhibitory concentrations in low μg/mL range) as well as negligible hemolytic activity. Electron microscope images revealed the morphological and ultrastructure changes of bacterial membranes induced by CAm treatment and validated their membrane-disrupting mechanism. Additionally, an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation was employed to understand the CAm-membrane interaction on molecular level. This study shows that these CAms can serve as viable scaffolds for designing next generation of AMP mimics as antimicrobial alternatives to combat drug-resistant pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Photo-switching of a non-ionic azobenzene amphiphile in Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films.

    PubMed

    Piosik, Emilia; Kotkowiak, Michał; Korbecka, Izabela; Galewski, Zbigniew; Martyński, Tomasz

    2017-08-30

    The concept of programmable and reconfigurable soft matter has emerged in science in the last few decades and can be realized by photoisomerization of azobenzene derivatives. This possibility results in great application potential of these compounds in optical storage devices, molecular junctions of electronic devices, command layers of liquid crystal displays or holographic gratings. In this paper, we present the results of a study on the organization and isomerization of the non-ionic and amphiphilic methyl 4-[(E)-2-[4-(nonyloxy)phenyl]diazen-1-yl]benzoate (LCA) in a 2D layer architecture of Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films supported by spectroscopic studies on LCA chloroform solutions. Our investigation has shown a significantly different molecular organization of LCA depending on the ratio of trans and cis isomers in the monolayers. Taking advantage of a relatively low packing density and aggregation strength in the cis-LCA monolayer, we demonstrated the reversible isomerization in the LB film initially formed of LCA molecules in the cis form, while in the trans-LCA monolayer this effect was not observed. Our approach allows the formation of a switchable monolayer made of the amphiphilic LCA showing liquid crystalline properties without introducing an ionic group into the molecule structure, mixing with another compound or changing the subphase pH to provide free space for the molecules' isomerization.

  10. NMR and molecular dynamics study of the size, shape, and composition of reverse micelles in a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/n-hexane/pentanol/water microemulsion.

    PubMed

    Mills, Amanda J; Wilkie, John; Britton, Melanie M

    2014-09-11

    The size, shape, and composition of reverse micelles (RMs) in a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)/pentanol/n-hexane/water microemulsion were investigated using pulsed gradient stimulated echo (PGSTE) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements and molecular modeling. PGSTE data were collected at observation times (Δ) of 10, 40, and 450 ms. At long observation times, CTAB and pentanol exhibited single diffusion coefficients. However, at short (Δ ≤ 40 ms) observation times both CTAB and pentanol exhibited slow and fast diffusion coefficients. These NMR data indicate that both CTAB and pentanol molecules reside in different environments within the microemulsion and that there is exchange between regions on the millisecond time scale. Molecular dynamic simulations of the CTAB RM, in a solvent box containing n-hexane and pentanol, produced an ellipsoid shaped RM. Using structural parameters from these simulations and the Stokes-Einstein relation, the structure factor and dimensions of the reverse micelle were determined. Analysis of the composition of the interphase also showed that there was a variation in the ratio of surfactant to cosurfactant molecules depending on the curvature of the interphase.

  11. Micellar Surfactant Association in the Presence of a Glucoside-based Amphiphile Detected via High-Throughput Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    SciT

    Stanic, Vesna; Broadbent, Charlotte; DiMasi, Elaine

    2016-11-14

    The interactions of mixtures of anionic and amphoteric surfactants with sugar amphiphiles were studied via high throughput small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The sugar amphiphile was composed of Caprate, Caprylate, and Oleate mixed ester of methyl glucoside, MeGCCO. Optimal surfactant interactions are sought which have desirable physical properties, which must be identified in a cost effective manner that can access the large phase space of possible molecular combinations. X-ray scattering patterns obtained via high throughput SAXS can probe a combinatorial sample space and reveal the incorporation of MeGCCO into the micelles and the molecular associations between surfactant molecules. Such datamore » make it possible to efficiently assess the effects of the new amphiphiles in the formulation. A specific finding of this study is that formulations containing comparatively monodisperse and homogeneous surfactant mixtures can be reliably tuned by addition of NaCl, which swells the surfactant micelles with a monotonic dependence on salt concentration. In contrast, the presence of multiple different surfactants destroys clear correlations with NaCl concentration, even in otherwise similar series of formulations.« less

  12. Gd-DTPA-Dopamine-Bisphytanyl Amphiphile: Synthesis, Characterisation and Relaxation Parameters of the Nanoassemblies and Their Potential as MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhishek; Willis, Scott A; Waddington, Lynne J; Stait-Gardner, Tim; de Campo, Liliana; Hwang, Dennis W; Kirby, Nigel; Price, William S; Moghaddam, Minoo J

    2015-09-28

    Here, a new amphiphilic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent, a Gd(III)-chelated diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid conjugated to two branched alkyl chains via a dopamine spacer, Gd-DTPA-dopamine-bisphytanyl (Gd-DTPA-Dop-Phy), which is readily capable of self-assembling into liposomal nanoassemblies upon dispersion in an aqueous solution, is reported. In vitro relaxivities of the dispersions were found to be much higher than Magnevist, a commercially available contrast agent, at 0.47 T but comparable at 9.40 T. Analysis of variable temperature (17)O NMR transverse relaxation measurements revealed the water exchange of the nanoassemblies to be faster than that previously reported for paramagnetic liposomes. Molecular reorientation dynamics were probed by (1)H NMRD profiles using a classical inner and outer sphere relaxation model and a Lipari-Szabo "model-free" approach. High payloads of Gd(III) ions in the liposomal nanoassemblies made solely from the Gd-DTPA-Dop-Phy amphiphiles, in combination with slow molecular reorientation and fast water exchange makes this novel amphiphile a suitable candidate to be investigated as an advanced MRI contrast agent. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Specific binding of large aggregates of amphiphilic molecules to the respective antibodies.

    PubMed

    Nabok, Alexei; Tsargorodskaya, Anna; Holloway, Alan; Starodub, Nikolay F; Demchenko, Anna

    2007-07-31

    The Binding of nonylphenol to respective antibodies immobilized on solid substrates was studied with the methods of total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) and QCM (quartz crystal microbalance) impedance spectroscopy. The binding reaction was proved to be highly specific having an association constant of KA=1.6x10(6) mol(-1) L and resulted in an increase in both the adsorbed layer thickness of 23 nm and the added mass of 18.3 microg/cm2 at saturation. The obtained responses of both TIRE and QCM methods are substantially higher than anticipated for the immune binding of single molecules of nonylphenol. The mechanism of binding of large aggregates of nonylphenol was suggested instead. Modeling of the micelle of amphiphilic nonylphenol molecules in aqueous solutions yielded a micelle size of about 38 nm. The mechanism of binding of large molecular aggregates to respective antibodies can be extended to other hydrophobic low-molecular-weight toxins such as T-2 mycotoxin. The formation of large molecular aggregates of nonylphenol and T-2 mycotoxin molecules on the surface was proved by the AFM study.

  14. Synthesis of Well-defined Amphiphilic Block Copolymers by Organotellurium-Mediated Living Radical Polymerization (TERP).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Changez, Mohammad; Murthy, C N; Yamago, Shigeru; Lee, Jae-Suk

    2011-10-04

    Low-molecular weight amphiphilic diblock copolymers, polystyrene-block-poly (2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP), and (P2VP-b-PS) with different block ratios were synthesized for the first time via organotellurium-mediated living radical polymerization (TERP). For both the homo- and block copolymerizations, good agreement between the theoretical, and experimental molecular weights was found with nearly 100% yield in every case. The molecular weight distribution for all the samples ranged between 1.10 and 1.24, which is well below the theoretical lower limit of 1.50 for a conventional free radical polymerization. Furthermore, a very simple approach to producing highly dense arrays of titania nanoparticles (TiO2 ) is presented using a site-selective reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide within the P2VP domains of micellar film of P2VP-b-PS in toluene through the sol-gel method. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Inclusion Complexes of a New Family of Non-Ionic Amphiphilic Dendrocalix[4]arene and Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs Naproxen and Ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid; Badshah, Syed Lal; Ahmad, Nasir; Rashid, Haroon Ur; Mabkhot, Yahia

    2017-05-11

    The inclusion complexes of a new family of nonionic amphiphilic calix[4]arenes with the anti-inflammatory hydrophobic drugs naproxen (NAP) and ibuprofen (IBP) were investigated. The effects of the alkyl chain's length and the inner core of calix[4]arenes on the interaction of the two drugs with the calix[4]arenes were explored. The inclusion complexes of Amphiphiles 1a - c with NAP and IBP increased the solubility of these drugs in aqueous media. The interaction of 1a - c with the drugs in aqueous media was investigated through fluorescence, molecular modeling, and ¹H-NMR analysis. TEM studies further supported the formation of inclusion complexes. The length of lipophilic alkyl chains and the intrinsic cyclic nature of cailx[4]arene derivatives 1a - c were found to have a significant impact on the solubility of NAP and IBP in pure water.

  16. Programed dynamical ordering in self-organization processes of a nanocube: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Harada, Ryuhei; Mashiko, Takako; Tachikawa, Masanori; Hiraoka, Shuichi; Shigeta, Yasuteru

    2018-04-04

    Self-organization processes of a gear-shaped amphiphile molecule (1) to form a hexameric structure (nanocube, 16) were inferred from sequential dissociation processes by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our MD study unveiled that programed dynamic ordering exists in the dissociation processes of 16. According to the dissociation processes, it is proposed that triple π-stacking among three 3-pyridyl groups and other weak molecular interactions such as CH-π and van der Waals interactions, some of which arise from the solvophobic effect, were sequentially formed in stable and transient oligomeric states in the self-organization processes, i.e.12, 13, 14, and 15. By subsequent analyses on structural stabilities, it was found that 13 and 14 are stable intermediate oligomers, whereas 12 and 15 are transient ones. Thus, the formation of 13 from three monomers and of 16 from 14 and two monomers via corresponding transients is time consuming in the self-assembly process.

  17. Barbell-shaped stir bar sorptive extraction using dummy template molecularly imprinted polymer coatings for analysis of bisphenol A in water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruimei; Feng, Feng; Chen, Guolin; Liu, Zhimin; Xu, Zhigang

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the development of a novel dummy template molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-coated barbell-shaped stir bar. The MIP stir bar coatings were prepared by using 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)butane (BPB), 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenylmethane (BPF), 4-tert-butylphenol (PTBP), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA) as dummy templates using a capillary in situ polymerization method. Uniform coatings can be prepared controllably. The method is simple, easy, and reproducible. The barbell-shaped stir bar was developed by using medical silicone tubes as wheels. The wheels could be removed and reinstalled when necessary; therefore, the barbell-shaped stir bar was easy to disassemble and reassemble. The novel MIP-coated stir bar showed good selectivity for the target analyte, bisphenol A (BPA). The established method is selective and sensitive with a lower detection limit for BPA of 0.003 μg/L. The dummy template MIP-coated stir bar is suitable for trace BPA analysis in real environmental water samples without template leakage. The novel stir bar can be used at least 100 times.

  18. The Influence of Anion Shape on the Electrical Double Layer Microstructure and Capacitance of Ionic Liquids-Based Supercapacitors by Molecular Simulations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Li, Song; Feng, Guang

    2017-02-16

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. In this work, we investigate the effects of different supercapacitor models and anion shape on the electrical double layers (EDLs) of two different RTILs: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([Emim][Tf₂N]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(cyano)pyrrolide ([Emim][CNPyr]) by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The EDL microstructure is represented by number densities of cations and anions, and the potential drop near neutral and charged electrodes reveal that the supercapacitor model with a single electrode has the same EDL structure as the model with two opposite electrodes. Nevertheless, the employment of the one-electrode model without tuning the bulk density of RTILs is more time-saving in contrast to the two-electrode one. With the one-electrode model, our simulation demonstrated that the shapes of anions significantly imposed effects on the microstructure of EDLs. The EDL differential capacitance vs. potential (C-V) curves of [Emim][CNPyr] electrolyte exhibit higher differential capacitance at positive potentials. The modeling study provides microscopic insight into the EDLs structure of RTILs with different anion shapes.

  19. Shaping the Atomic-Scale Geometries of Electrodes to Control Optical and Electrical Performance of Molecular Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhikai; Liu, Ran; Mayer, Dirk; Coppola, Maristella; Sun, Lu; Kim, Youngsang; Wang, Chuankui; Ni, Lifa; Chen, Xing; Wang, Maoning; Li, Zongliang; Lee, Takhee; Xiang, Dong

    2018-04-01

    A straightforward method to generate both atomic-scale sharp and atomic-scale planar electrodes is reported. The atomic-scale sharp electrodes are generated by precisely stretching a suspended nanowire, while the atomic-scale planar electrodes are obtained via mechanically controllable interelectrodes compression followed by a thermal-driven atom migration process. Notably, the gap size between the electrodes can be precisely controlled at subangstrom accuracy with this method. These two types of electrodes are subsequently employed to investigate the properties of single molecular junctions. It is found, for the first time, that the conductance of the amine-linked molecular junctions can be enhanced ≈50% as the atomic-scale sharp electrodes are used. However, the atomic-scale planar electrodes show great advantages to enhance the sensitivity of Raman scattering upon the variation of nanogap size. The underlying mechanisms for these two interesting observations are clarified with the help of density functional theory calculation and finite-element method simulation. These findings not only provide a strategy to control the electron transport through the molecule junction, but also pave a way to modulate the optical response as well as to improve the stability of single molecular devices via the rational design of electrodes geometries. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Composition and method for self-assembly and mineralization of peptide-amphiphiles

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel I [Chicago, IL; Beniash, Elia [Newton, MA; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D [Pearland, TX

    2012-02-28

    The present invention is directed to a composition useful for making homogeneously mineralized self assembled peptide-amphiphile nanofibers and nanofiber gels. The composition is generally a solution comprised of a positively or negatively charged peptide-amphiphile and a like signed ion from the mineral. Mixing this solution with a second solution containing a dissolved counter-ion of the mineral and/or a second oppositely charged peptide amphiphile, results in the rapid self assembly of the peptide-amphiphiles into a nanofiber gel and templated mineralization of the ions. Templated mineralization of the initially dissolved mineral cations and anions in the mixture occurs with preferential orientation of the mineral crystals along the fiber surfaces within the nanofiber gel. One advantage of the present invention is that it results in homogenous growth of the mineral throughout the nanofiber gel. Another advantage of the present invention is that the nanofiber gel formation and mineralization reactions occur in a single mixing step and under substantially neutral or physiological pH conditions. These homogeneous nanostructured composite materials are useful for medical applications especially the regeneration of damaged bone in mammals. This invention is directed to the synthesis of peptide-amphiphiles with more than one amphiphilic moment and to supramolecular compositions comprised of such multi-dimensional peptide-amphiphiles. Supramolecular compositions can be formed by self assembly of multi-dimensional peptide-amphiphiles by mixing them with a solution comprising a monovalent cation.

  1. Composition and method for self-assembly and mineralization of peptide amphiphiles

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel I [Chicago, IL; Beniash, Elia [Newton, MA; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D [Houston, TX

    2009-06-30

    The present invention is directed to a composition useful for making homogeneously mineralized self assembled peptide-amphiphile nanofibers and nanofiber gels. The composition is generally a solution comprised of a positively or negatively charged peptide-amphiphile and a like signed ion from the mineral. Mixing this solution with a second solution containing a dissolved counter-ion of the mineral and/or a second oppositely charged peptide amphiphile, results in the rapid self assembly of the peptide-amphiphiles into a nanofiber gel and templated mineralization of the ions. Templated mineralization of the initially dissolved mineral cations and anions in the mixture occurs with preferential orientation of the mineral crystals along the fiber surfaces within the nanofiber gel. One advantage of the present invention is that it results in homogenous growth of the mineral throughout the nanofiber gel. Another advantage of the present invention is that the nanofiber gel formation and mineralization reactions occur in a single mixing step and under substantially neutral or physiological pH conditions. These homogeneous nanostructured composite materials are useful for medical applications especially the regeneration of damaged bone in mammals. This invention is directed to the synthesis of peptide-amphiphiles with more than one amphiphilic moment and to supramolecular compositions comprised of such multi-dimensional peptide-amphiphiles. Supramolecular compositions can be formed by self assembly of multi-dimensional peptide-amphiphiles by mixing them with a solution comprising a monovalent cation.

  2. Hemifluorinated maltose-neopentyl glycol (HF-MNG) amphiphiles for membrane protein stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2013-03-04

    SOAP OPERA: Fluorinated amphiphile F4-MNG confers greater stability on Rhodobacter capsulatus superassembly relative to conventional detergents and nonfluorinated MNGs. Such amphiphiles are attractive as tools for membrane science because of their ease of preparation and structure variation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Self-assembly of peptide-amphiphile nanofibers under physiological conditions

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel I [Chicago, IL; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D [Pearland, TX; Beniash, Elia [Auburndale, MA

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides a method of promoting neuron growth and development by contacting cells with a peptide amphiphile molecule in an aqueous solution in the presence of a metal ion. According to the method, the peptide amphiphile forms a cylindrical micellar nanofiber composed of beta-sheets, which promote neuron growth and development.

  4. Preparation and Investigation of Foaming Amphiphilic Fluorinated Nanoparticles for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Keliang; Wang, Gang; Lu, Chunjing; Pei, Cuiying; Wang, Ying

    2017-12-08

    Amphiphilic nanoparticles have attracted increasing interest as Pickering emulsifiers owing to the combined advantages of both traditional surfactants and homogeneous particles. Here, foaming amphiphilic fluorinated nanoparticles were prepared for enhanced oil recovery by the toposelective surface modification method. The structure and properties of amphiphilic nanoparticles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, a laser diffraction method, fluorescence microscopy, a pendant drop tensiometer, and foamscan. It was found that the amphiphilic fluorinated nanoparticles exhibited significant interfacial activity at the air-water interface and generated stabilized aqueous foams against coalescence and drainage even in the absence of surfactants. When the particle concentration reached 0.6 wt %, the adsorption of the amphiphilic nanoparticles at the interface was saturated and the equilibrium surface tension dropped to around 32.7 mN/m. When the particle concentration reached 0.4 wt %, the Gibbs stability criterion was fulfilled. The amphiphilic nanoparticles foam system has a better plugging capacity and enhanced oil recovery capacity. The results obtained provide fundamental insights into the understanding of the self-assembly behavior and foam properties of amphiphilic fluorinated nanoparticles and further demonstrate the future potential of the amphiphilic nanoparticles used as colloid surfactants for enhanced oil recovery applications.

  5. Preparation and Investigation of Foaming Amphiphilic Fluorinated Nanoparticles for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Keliang; Lu, Chunjing; Pei, Cuiying; Wang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Amphiphilic nanoparticles have attracted increasing interest as Pickering emulsifiers owing to the combined advantages of both traditional surfactants and homogeneous particles. Here, foaming amphiphilic fluorinated nanoparticles were prepared for enhanced oil recovery by the toposelective surface modification method. The structure and properties of amphiphilic nanoparticles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, a laser diffraction method, fluorescence microscopy, a pendant drop tensiometer, and foamscan. It was found that the amphiphilic fluorinated nanoparticles exhibited significant interfacial activity at the air–water interface and generated stabilized aqueous foams against coalescence and drainage even in the absence of surfactants. When the particle concentration reached 0.6 wt %, the adsorption of the amphiphilic nanoparticles at the interface was saturated and the equilibrium surface tension dropped to around 32.7 mN/m. When the particle concentration reached 0.4 wt %, the Gibbs stability criterion was fulfilled. The amphiphilic nanoparticles foam system has a better plugging capacity and enhanced oil recovery capacity. The results obtained provide fundamental insights into the understanding of the self-assembly behavior and foam properties of amphiphilic fluorinated nanoparticles and further demonstrate the future potential of the amphiphilic nanoparticles used as colloid surfactants for enhanced oil recovery applications. PMID:29292747

  6. Self-Assembly of Phosphate Amphiphiles in Mixtures of Prebiotically Plausible Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Albertsen, A.N.; Duffy, C.D.; Sutherland, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The spontaneous formation of closed bilayer structures from prebiotically plausible amphiphiles is an essential requirement for the emergence of early cells on prebiotic Earth. The sources of amphiphiles could have been both endo- and exogenous (accretion of meteorite carbonaceous material or interstellar dust particles). Among all prebiotic possible amphiphile candidates, those containing phosphate are the least investigated species because their self-assembly occurs in a seemingly too narrow range of conditions. The self-assembly of simple phosphate amphiphiles should, however, be of great interest, as contemporary membranes predominantly contain phospholipids. In contrast to common expectations, we show that these amphiphiles can be easily synthesized under prebiotically plausible environmental conditions and can efficiently form bilayer structures in the presence of various co-surfactants across a large range of pH values. Vesiculation was even observed in crude reaction mixtures that contained 1-decanol as the amphiphile precursor. The two best co-surfactants promoted vesicle formation over the entire pH range in aqueous solutions. Expanding the pH range where bilayer membranes self-assemble and remain intact is a prerequisite for the emergence of early cell-like compartments and their preservation under fluctuating environmental conditions. These mixed bilayers also retained small charged solutes, such as dyes. These results demonstrate that alkyl phosphate amphiphiles might have played a significant role as early compartment building blocks. Key Words: Vesicles—Alkyl phosphate—Prebiotic synthesis—Amphiphile mixtures. Astrobiology 14, 462–472. PMID:24885934

  7. Influence of Size and Shape of Silica Supports on the Sol⁻Gel Surface Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Selective Adsorption of Gossypol.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Keke; Wang, Lulu; Zhang, Yagang; Jiang, Yingfang; Zhang, Letao; Yasin, Akram

    2018-05-11

    The influence of various silica gel supports with different shapes and sizes on the recognition properties of surface molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) was investigated. MIPs for selective recognition and adsorption of gossypol were synthesized via the sol⁻gel process with a surface imprinting technique on silica gel substrates. 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) were chosen as the functional monomer and the cross-linker. The morphology and structure of the gossypol-MIPs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a standard Brunauer⁻Emett⁻Teller (BET) analysis. Results indicated that the surface imprinted polymer layer facilitated the removal and rebinding of the template, and thus, achieved fast binding kinetics. Compared with the MIPs prepared on irregularly shaped silica with a broad particle size distribution, the MIPs using regularly-shaped silica of uniform size showed higher imprinting factor (IF), and the MIP made with a relatively larger sized (60 μm) spherical silica, demonstrated higher adsorption capacity compared to the MIPs made with smaller sized, spherical silica. The MIP prepared with 60 μm spherically shaped silica, featured a fast adsorption kinetic of 10 min, and a saturated adsorption capacity of 204 mg·g −1 . The gossypol-MIP had higher selectivity (IF = 2.20) for gossypol over its structurally-similar analogs ellagic acid (IF = 1.13) and quercetin (IF = 1.20). The adsorption data of the MIP correlated well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Freundlich isotherm model, which implied that chemical adsorption dominated, and that multilayer adsorption occurred. Furthermore, the MIP exhibited an excellent regeneration performance, and the adsorption capacity of the MIP for gossypol only decreased by 6% after six reused cycles, indicating good application potential for selective adsorption of gossypol.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of star-shaped oligo(ethylene glycol) with tyrosine derived moieties under variation of their molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Julich-Gruner, Konstanze K; Roch, Toralf; Ma, Nan; Neffe, Axel T; Lendlein, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Desamino tyrosine (DAT) and desamino tyrosyl tyrosine (DATT) can be used to functionalize the end groups of water soluble polymers. The phenolic groups may enable physical interactions by π- π interaction and hydrogen bonds, which might lead to the formation of a hydrogel by physical crosslinking. However, using star-shaped oligo(ethylene glycols) (sOEG) with a molecular weight of 5 kDa for functionalization with DAT or DATT resulted in the formation of surfactants and not in hydrogels.As the molecular weight of the sOEG polymer chain can have an influence on forming physical cross links, DAT(T)-fuctionalization of sOEGs with higher molecular weight was investigated, the polymers were structurally characterized and for their mechanical properties were evaluated by rheological measurements.Aqueous solutions of DAT(T)-sOEGs with 10 and 20 kDa showed lower storage and loss moduli compared to unfunctionalized sOEGs indicating also the formation of surfactants. Cell-based assays showed that all sOEG solutions did not impair cell viability and were free of endotoxins, which could otherwise induce uncontrolled immune responses.Conclusively, our data suggested that the sOEG solutions have surface active properties without inducing unwanted cellular responses, which is required e.g. in pharmaceutical applications to solubilize hydophobic substances.

  9. Differential thermodynamic signature of carbon nanomaterials using amphiphilic micellar probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Tamoghna; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr

    2018-04-01

    The thermodynamic signature of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (rG-O) using amphiphilic micellar probe has been explored. The study reveals an intricate correlation between nano-surface topology and calorimetric profile of SWCNTs, MWCNTs and rG-O. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) is found to be sensitive to the topological diversity of nanomaterials. The study explores a thermodynamic approach to characterize the nano-surface topology of SWCNTs, MWCNTs and graphene surface.

  10. Self-assembly of active amphiphilic Janus particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallory, S. A.; Alarcon, F.; Cacciuto, A.; Valeriani, C.

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we study the phenomenology of a two dimensional dilute suspension of active amphiphilic Janus particles. We analyze how the morphology of the aggregates emerging from their self-assembly depends on the strength and the direction of the active forces. We systematically explore and contrast the phenomenologies resulting from particles with a range of attractive patch coverages. Finally, we illustrate how the geometry of the colloids and the directionality of their interactions can be used to control the physical properties of the assembled active aggregates and suggest possible strategies to exploit self-propulsion as a tunable driving force for self-assembly.

  11. Chelating DTPA amphiphiles: ion-tunable self-assembly structures and gadolinium complexes.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Minoo J; de Campo, Liliana; Kirby, Nigel; Drummond, Calum J

    2012-10-05

    A series of chelating amphiphiles and their gadolinium (Gd(III)) metal complexes have been synthesized and studied with respect to their neat and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior. These amphiphiles have the ability to form ion-tunable self-assembly nanostructures and their associated Gd(III) complexes have potential as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement agents. The amphiphiles are composed of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) chelates conjugated to one or two oleyl chain(s) (DTPA-MO and DTPA-BO), or isoprenoid-type chain(s) of phytanyl (DTPA-MP and DTPA-BP). The thermal phase behavior of the neat amphiphiles was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and cross polarizing optical microscopy (POM). Self-assembly of neat amphiphiles and their associated Gd complexes, as well as their lyotropic phase behavior in water and sodium acetate solutions of different ionic strengths, were examined by POM and small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS). All neat amphiphiles exhibited lamellar structures. The non-complexed amphiphiles showed a variety of lyotropic phases depending on the number and nature of the hydrophobic chain in addition to the ionic state of the hydration. Upon hydration with increased Na-acetate concentration and the subtle changes in the effective headgroup size, the interfacial curvature of the amphiphile increased, altering the lyotropic liquid crystalline structures towards higher order mesophases such as the gyroid (Ia3d) bicontinuous cubic phase. The chelation of Gd with the DTPA amphiphiles resulted in lamellar crystalline structures for all the neat amphiphiles. Upon hydration with water, the Gd-complexed mono-conjugates formed micellar or vesicular self-assemblies, whilst the bis-conjugates transformed only partially into lyotropic liquid crystalline mesophases.

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of amphiphilic peptides as nanostructures and drug delivery tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayeh, Naser Ali

    us to explore requirements for generating peptides with optimized drug encapsulation and to establish correlations between the structure of peptides with their drug entrapment properties. Thus, the general objective of this dissertation was to design and evaluate additional cyclic or amphiphilic peptides as nanostructures, compare their efficiency in delivery of small molecules with the previously reported cyclic peptides containing tryptophan and arginine residues. This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter 1. MANUSCRIPT (published in Current Organic Chemistry 2014). The objective of this work was to design amphiphilic linear and cyclic peptides containing hydrophobic tryptophan W residues that were linked through a triazole ring to positively charged arginine R and lysine (K) residues. The peptides were synthesized through click chemistry between hydrophobic peptides containing alkyne and positively charged peptides containing azide groups. Characterization of their structures like solubility, CD, TEM, cytotoxicity were investigated. The conjugates were showed minimal cytotoxicity at two cell lines. The secondary structures of both peptides were similar to a distorted α-helix as shown by CD spectroscopy. TEM imaging also showed that linear-linear (WG(triazole-KR-NH2))3 and cyclic-linear [WG(triazole-KR-NH2)]3 peptides formed nano-sized structures. Chapter 2. MANUSCRIPT I (Submitted to Journal of Molecular Modeling). In this work, we investigated the structural and dynamical aspects of cyclic-linear peptide ([WG(triazole-KR-NH2)] 3 and linear-linear peptide (WG(triazole-KR-NH2))3) formed nanostructures compared to a drug delivery system with [WR]4. While [WR]4 was found to be an efficient molecular transporter for small molecule drugs, such as lamivudine and dasatinib, cyclic-linear peptide ([WG(triazole-KR-NH2)]3 was inefficient. Molecular modeling was used to explain the differential behavior of these peptides. We showed how the morphology of these

  13. Propeller-shaped acceptors for high-performance non-fullerene solar cells: Importance of the rigidity of molecular geometry

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Qinghe; Zhao, Donglin; Yang, Jinghui; ...

    2017-01-06

    This study describes the synthesis and application of βTPB6 and βTPB6-C as electron acceptors for organic solar cells. Compound βTPB6 contains four covalently bonded PDIs with a BDT-Th core at the β-position. The free rotation of PDIs renders βTPB6 with varying molecular geometries. The cyclization of βTPB6 yields βTPB6-C with high rigidity of the molecular geometry and enlarged conjugated skeleton. The inverted solar cells based on βTPB6-C and PTB7-Th as the donor polymer exhibited the highest efficiency of 7.69% with V oc of 0.92 V, J sc of 14.9 mAcm –2, and FF of 0.56, which is 31% higher thanmore » that for βTPB6 based devices. The larger fraction of βTPB6-C and PTB7-Th than that of βTPB6:PTB7-Th in a blend film takes a face-on orientation packing pattern for π-systems that benefits the charge transport and hence higher PCE value than that for βTPB6:PTB7-Th. It was also found that a proper DIO:DPE additive further enhances this trend, which results in an increase of the PCE value for βTPB6-C:PTB7-Th while decreasing the PCE value for βTPB6:PTB7-Th.« less

  14. Propeller-shaped acceptors for high-performance non-fullerene solar cells: Importance of the rigidity of molecular geometry

    SciT

    Wu, Qinghe; Zhao, Donglin; Yang, Jinghui

    This study describes the synthesis and application of βTPB6 and βTPB6-C as electron acceptors for organic solar cells. Compound βTPB6 contains four covalently bonded PDIs with a BDT-Th core at the β-position. The free rotation of PDIs renders βTPB6 with varying molecular geometries. The cyclization of βTPB6 yields βTPB6-C with high rigidity of the molecular geometry and enlarged conjugated skeleton. The inverted solar cells based on βTPB6-C and PTB7-Th as the donor polymer exhibited the highest efficiency of 7.69% with V oc of 0.92 V, J sc of 14.9 mAcm –2, and FF of 0.56, which is 31% higher thanmore » that for βTPB6 based devices. The larger fraction of βTPB6-C and PTB7-Th than that of βTPB6:PTB7-Th in a blend film takes a face-on orientation packing pattern for π-systems that benefits the charge transport and hence higher PCE value than that for βTPB6:PTB7-Th. It was also found that a proper DIO:DPE additive further enhances this trend, which results in an increase of the PCE value for βTPB6-C:PTB7-Th while decreasing the PCE value for βTPB6:PTB7-Th.« less

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of propane in slit shaped silica nano-pores: direct comparison with quasielastic neutron scattering experiments.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Siddharth; Le, Thu; Striolo, Alberto; Cole, David

    2017-12-13

    Molecular motion under confinement has important implications for a variety of applications including gas recovery and catalysis. Propane confined in mesoporous silica aerogel as studied using quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) showed anomalous pressure dependence in its diffusion coefficient (J. Phys. Chem. C, 2015, 119, 18188). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are often employed to complement the information obtained from QENS experiments. Here, we report an MD simulation study to probe the anomalous pressure dependence of propane diffusion in silica aerogel. Comparison is attempted based on the self-diffusion coefficients and on the time scales of the decay of the simulated intermediate scattering functions. While the self-diffusion coefficients obtained from the simulated mean squared displacement profiles do not exhibit the anomalous pressure dependence observed in the experiments, the time scales of the decay of the intermediate scattering functions calculated from the simulation data match the corresponding quantities obtained in the QENS experiment and thus confirm the anomalous pressure dependence of the diffusion coefficient. The origin of the anomaly in pressure dependence lies in the presence of an adsorbed layer of propane molecules that seems to dominate the confined propane dynamics at low pressure, thereby lowering the diffusion coefficient. Further, time scales for rotational motion obtained from the simulations explain the absence of rotational contribution to the QENS spectra in the experiments. In particular, the rotational motion of the simulated propane molecules is found to exhibit large angular jumps at lower pressure. The present MD simulation work thus reveals important new insights into the origin of anomalous pressure dependence of propane diffusivity in silica mesopores and supplements the information obtained experimentally by QENS data.

  16. Amyloid fibrillation and cytotoxicity of insulin are inhibited by the amphiphilic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Steven S-S; Liu, Kuan-Nan; Han, Tzu-Chiang

    2010-06-01

    Amyloid fibrils have been associated with at least 25 different degenerative diseases. The 51-residue polypeptide hormone insulin, which is associated with type II diabetes, has been shown to self-assemble to form amyloid fibrils in vitro. With bovine insulin as a model, the research presented here explores the effects of two amphiphilic surfactants (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (di-C7-PC) and 1,2-diheptanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (di-C7-PC)) on the in vitro fibrillation process of bovine insulin at pH 2.0 and 55 degrees C. We demonstrated that insulin fibrillation may be inhibited by both surfactants in a dose-dependent fashion. The best inhibition of fibril formation is observed when insulin is incubated with 4mM di-C7-PC. Moreover, the addition of either surfactant at the concentrations studied attenuated insulin fibril-induced cytotoxicity in both PC12 and SH-SY5Y cell lines. The results from this work may contribute to the understanding of the molecular factors affecting amyloid fibrillation and the molecular mechanism(s) of the interactions between the membrane and amyloid proteins. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The dynamics of multimer formation of the amphiphilic hydrophobin protein HFBII.

    PubMed

    Grunér, M S; Paananen, A; Szilvay, G R; Linder, M B

    2017-07-01

    Hydrophobins are surface-active proteins produced by filamentous fungi. They have amphiphilic structures and form multimers in aqueous solution to shield their hydrophobic regions. The proteins rearrange at interfaces and self-assemble into films that can show a very high degree of structural order. Little is known on dynamics of multimer interactions in solution and how this is affected by other components. In this work we examine the multimer dynamics by stopped-flow fluorescence measurements and Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) using the class II hydrophobin HFBII. The half-life of exchange in the multimer state was 0.9s at 22°C with an activation energy of 92kJ/mol. The multimer exchange process of HFBII was shown to be significantly affected by the closely related HFBI hydrophobin, lowering both activation energy and half-life for exchange. Lower molecular weight surfactants interacted in very selective ways, but other surface active proteins did not influence the rates of exchange. The results indicate that the multimer formation is driven by specific molecular interactions that distinguish different hydrophobins from each other. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. eF-seek: prediction of the functional sites of proteins by searching for similar electrostatic potential and molecular surface shape.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kengo; Murakami, Yoichi; Nakamura, Haruki

    2007-07-01

    We have developed a method to predict ligand-binding sites in a new protein structure by searching for similar binding sites in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The similarities are measured according to the shapes of the molecular surfaces and their electrostatic potentials. A new web server, eF-seek, provides an interface to our search method. It simply requires a coordinate file in the PDB format, and generates a prediction result as a virtual complex structure, with the putative ligands in a PDB format file as the output. In addition, the predicted interacting interface is displayed to facilitate the examination of the virtual complex structure on our own applet viewer with the web browser (URL: http://eF-site.hgc.jp/eF-seek).

  19. Hydration and conformational equilibria of simple hydrophobic and amphiphilic solutes.

    PubMed Central

    Ashbaugh, H S; Kaler, E W; Paulaitis, M E

    1998-01-01

    We consider whether the continuum model of hydration optimized to reproduce vacuum-to-water transfer free energies simultaneously describes the hydration free energy contributions to conformational equilibria of the same solutes in water. To this end, transfer and conformational free energies of idealized hydrophobic and amphiphilic solutes in water are calculated from explicit water simulations and compared to continuum model predictions. As benchmark hydrophobic solutes, we examine the hydration of linear alkanes from methane through hexane. Amphiphilic solutes were created by adding a charge of +/-1e to a terminal methyl group of butane. We find that phenomenological continuum parameters fit to transfer free energies are significantly different from those fit to conformational free energies of our model solutes. This difference is attributed to continuum model parameters that depend on solute conformation in water, and leads to effective values for the free energy/surface area coefficient and Born radii that best describe conformational equilibrium. In light of these results, we believe that continuum models of hydration optimized to fit transfer free energies do not accurately capture the balance between hydrophobic and electrostatic contributions that determines the solute conformational state in aqueous solution. PMID:9675177

  20. Association and dissociation of an aqueous amphiphile at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bowron, D T; Finney, J L

    2007-08-23

    The hydrophobic interaction is often thought to increase with increasing temperature. Although there is good experimental evidence for decreased aqueous solubility and increased clustering of both nonpolar and amphiphilic molecules as temperature is increased, the detailed nature of the changes in intermolecular interactions with temperature remain unknown. By use of isotope substitution neutron scattering difference measurements on a 0.04 mole fraction solution of tert-butanol in water as the solute clustering passes through a temperature maximum, the changes in local intermolecular structures are examined. Although, as expected, the solute molecules cluster through increased contact between their nonpolar head groups with the exclusion of water, the detailed geometry of the mutual interactions changes as temperature increases. As the clustering breaks up with further temperature increase, the local structures formed do not mirror those that were found in the low-temperature dispersed system: the disassembly process is not the reverse of assembly. The clusters formed by the solute head groups are reminiscent of structures that are found in systems of spherical molecules, modulated by the additional constraint of near-maximal hydrogen bonding between the polar tails of the alcohol and the solvent water. Although the overall temperature behavior is qualitatively what would be expected of a hydrophobically driven system, the way the system resolves the competing interactions and their different temperature dependencies is complex, suggesting it could be misleading to think of the aggregation of aqueous amphiphiles solely in terms of a hydrophobic driving force.

  1. Discovery of a novel and potent class of F. tularensis enoyl-reductase (FabI) inhibitors by molecular shape and electrostatic matching

    PubMed Central

    Hevener, Kirk E.; Mehboob, Shahila; Su, Pin-Chih; Truong, Kent; Boci, Teuta; Deng, Jiangping; Ghassemi, Mahmood; Cook, James L.; Johnson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase, FabI, is a key enzyme in the bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (FAS II). FabI is an NADH-dependent oxidoreductase that acts to reduce enoyl-ACP substrates in a final step of the pathway. The absence of this enzyme in humans makes it an attractive target for the development of new antibacterial agents. FabI is known to be unresponsive to structure-based design efforts due to a high degree of induced fit and a mobile flexible loop encompassing the active site. Here we discuss the development, validation, and careful application of a ligand-based virtual screen used for the identification of novel inhibitors of the Francisella tularensis FabI target. In this study, four known classes of FabI inhibitors were used as templates for virtual screens that involved molecular shape and electrostatic matching. The program ROCS was used to search a high-throughput screening library for compounds that matched any of the four molecular shape queries. Matching compounds were further refined using the program EON, which compares and scores compounds by matching electrostatic properties. Using these techniques, 50 compounds were selected, ordered, and tested. The tested compounds possessed novel chemical scaffolds when compared to the input query compounds. Several hits with low micromolar activity were identified and follow-up scaffold-based searches resulted in the identification of a lead series with sub-micromolar enzyme inhibition, high ligand efficiency, and a novel scaffold. Additionally, one of the most active compounds showed promising whole-cell antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative species, including the target pathogen. The results of a preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis are presented. PMID:22098466

  2. Long-stem shaped multifunctional molecular beacon for highly sensitive nucleic acids determination via intramolecular and intermolecular interactions based strand displacement amplification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianguo; Zheng, Tingting; Le, Jingqing; Jia, Lee

    2017-11-20

    Occurrence and application of oligonucleotide probes have promoted great progress in the biochemical analysis field due to their unique biological and chemical properties. In this work, a long-stem shaped multifunctional molecular beacon (LS-MMB) that is responsive to a cancer-related gene, p53, is well-prepared. By designing the probe with long-paired bases at its two ends and short-paired bases between the middle region and the 3' end, the LS-MMB is intelligently endowed with the ability to recognize the target analyte, serve as the polymerization primer/template, and signal the hybridization event synchronously, which is distinctly advantageous over the traditional molecular beacons (MBs). Moreover, it is excitingly found that the LS-MMB can be employed to exert intramolecular and intermolecular interactions for strand displacement amplification (SDA) without the involvement of any assistant probes; this therapy results in a really easy and rapid sensing system that provides an extremely low background noise and high target output signal. In this case, an excellent sensitivity and specificity to detect target gene down to picomolar level and resolution to even one nucleotide variation are achieved, respectively. In addition, the application potential for real genomic DNA analysis is realized. We envision that the probe of LS-MMB can act as a universal platform for biosensing and biomedical research.

  3. Searching for low percolation thresholds within amphiphilic polymer membranes: The effect of side chain branching

    SciT

    Dorenbos, G., E-mail: dorenbos@ny.thn.ne.jp

    Percolation thresholds for solvent diffusion within hydrated model polymeric membranes are derived from dissipative particle dynamics in combination with Monte Carlo (MC) tracer diffusion calculations. The polymer backbones are composed of hydrophobic A beads to which at regular intervals Y-shaped side chains are attached. Each side chain is composed of eight A beads and contains two identical branches that are each terminated with a pendant hydrophilic C bead. Four types of side chains are considered for which the two branches (each represented as [C], [AC], [AAC], or [AAAC]) are splitting off from the 8th, 6th, 4th, or 2nd A bead,more » respectively. Water diffusion through the phase separated water containing pore networks is deduced from MC tracer diffusion calculations. The percolation threshold for the architectures containing the [C] and [AC] branches is at a water volume fraction of ∼0.07 and 0.08, respectively. These are much lower than those derived earlier for linear architectures of various side chain length and side chain distributions. Control of side chain architecture is thus a very interesting design parameter to decrease the percolation threshold for solvent and proton transports within flexible amphiphilic polymer membranes.« less

  4. RGD based peptide amphiphiles as drug carriers for cancer targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraf, Poonam S.

    Specific interactions of ligands with receptors is one of the approaches for active targeting of anticancer drugs to cancer cells. Over expression of integrin receptors is a physiological manifestation in several cancers and is associated with cancer progression and metastasis, which makes it an attractive target for cancer chemotherapy. The peptide sequence for this integrin recognition is the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). Self-assembly offers a unique way of presenting ligands to target receptors for recognition and binding. This study focuses on development of integrin specific peptide amphiphile self-assemblies as carriers for targeted delivery of paclitaxel to αvbeta 3 integrin overexpressing cancers. Amphiphiles composed of conjugates of different analogs of RGD (linear, cyclic or glycosylated) and aliphatic fatty acid with or without 8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctanoic acid (ADA) as linker were synthesized and characterized. The amphiphiles exhibited Critical Micellar Concentration in the range of 7-30 μM. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed the formation of spherical micelles in the size range of 10-40 nm. Forster Resonance Energy Transfer studies revealed entrapment of hydrophobic dyes within a tight micellar core and provided information regarding the cargo exchange within micelles. The RGD micelles exhibited competitive binding with 55% displacement of a bound fluorescent probe by the cyclic RGD micelles. The internalization of fluorescein isothiocynate (FITC) loaded RGD micelles was significantly higher in A2058 melanoma cells compared to free FITC within 20 minutes of incubation at 37°C. The same micelles showed significantly lower internalization at 4°C and on pretreatment with 0.45M sucrose confirming endocytotic uptake of the RGD micellar carriers. The IC50 of paclitaxel in A2058 melanoma cells was lower when treated within RGD micelles as compared to treatment of free drug. On the other hand, IC50 values increased by 2 to 9 fold for micellar treatment

  5. Synthesis and properties of amphiphilic hyperbranched polyethers as pigment dispersant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Q.; Zhou, Y. J.; Long, S. J.; Liu, Y. G.; Li, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    Hyperbranched polymers possess prominent properties such as low viscosity, good solubility, high rheological property, environmental non-toxic, and so on, which have potential applications in coatings. In this study, the amphiphilic hyperbranched polyethers (AHPs) consisting of hydrophobic hyperbranched polyethers core and hydrophilic poly (ethylene glycol) arms with different degree of branching (DB) under various reaction temperatures was prepared by the cation ring-opening polymerization. Their structures were characterized by IR, 13CNMR and GPC. Their dispersion properties for pigment particles were investigated. The AHP47 with 0.47 DB was found to have good dispersion properties for Yellow HGR. This work would provide experimental data and theoretical foundation for the application of hyperbranched polyethers in environmental protection coating.

  6. Amphiphilic block copolymer membrane for vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Sylvia, James M.; Jacob, Monsy M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    2013-11-01

    An amphiphilic block copolymer comprised of hydrophobic polyaryletherketone (PAEK) and hydrophilic sulfonated polyaryletherketone (SPAEK) blocks has been synthesized and characterized. A membrane prepared from the block copolymer is used as the separator in a single cell vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). The proton conductivity, mechanical property, VO2+ permeability and single VRB cell performance of this block copolymer membrane are investigated and compared to Nafion™ 117. The block copolymer membrane showed significantly improved vanadium ion selectivity, higher mechanical strength and lower conductivity than Nafion™ 117. The VRB containing the block copolymer membrane exhibits higher coulombic efficiency and similar energy efficiency compared to a VRB using Nafion™ 117. The better vanadium ion selectivity of the block copolymer membrane has led to a much smaller capacity loss during 50 charge-discharge cycles for the VRB.

  7. Modulation of Cyclodextrin Particle Amphiphilic Properties to Stabilize Pickering Emulsion.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yongkang; Luo, Zhigang; Lu, Xuanxuan; Peng, Xichun

    2018-01-10

    Cyclodextrins have been proven to form complexes with linear oil molecules and stabilize emulsions. Amphiphilic properties of cyclodextrin particles were modulated through esterification reaction between β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and octadecenyl succinic anhydride (ODSA) under alkaline conditions. ODS-β-CD particles with degree of substitution (DS) of 0.003, 0.011, and 0.019 were obtained. The introduced hydrophobic long chain that was linked within β-CD cavity led to the change of ODS-β-CD in terms of morphological structure, surface charge density, size, and contact angle, upon which the properties and stability of the emulsions stabilized by ODS-β-CD were highly dependent. The average diameter of ODS-β-CD particles ranged from 449 to 1484 nm. With the DS increased from 0.003 to 0.019, the contact angle and absolute zeta potential value of these ODS-β-CD particles improved from 25.7° to 47.3° and 48.1 to 62.8 mV, respectively. The cage structure of β-CD crystals was transformed to channel structure, then further to amorphous structure after introduction of the octadecenyl succinylation chain. ODS-β-CD particles exhibited higher emulsifying ability compared to β-CD. The resulting Pickering emulsions formed by ODS-β-CD particles were more stable during storage. This study investigates the ability of these ODS-β-CD particles to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions with respect to their amphiphilic character and structural properties.

  8. Non-Surface Activity of Cationic Amphiphilic Diblock Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan Nayak, Rati; Yamada, Tasuku; Matsuoka, Hideki

    2011-09-01

    Cationic amphiphilic diblock copolymers containing quaternized poly (2-vinylpyridine) chain as a hydrophilic segment (PIp-b-PNMe2VP) were synthesized by living anionic polymerization. By IR measurement, we confirmed the quaternization of the polymer (PIp-b-PNMe2VP), and determined the degree of quaternization by conductometric titration. The surface tension experiment showed that the polymers are non-surface active in nature. The foam formation of the polymer solutions was also investigated with or without added salt. Almost no foam formation behavior was observed without added salt, while a little foam was observed in the presence of 1M NaCl. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the diblock copolymers with 3 different chain lengths was measured by the static light scattering method. The cmc values obtained in this study were much lower than the values obtained for anionic non-surface active diblock polymers studied previously. The hydrodynamic radii of the polymer micelle increased slightly in the presence of 1 M NaCl. The transmission electron microscopic images revealed spherical micelles in pure water. In the presence of salt, the cmc values increased as was the case for anionic polymers, which is unlike conventional surfactant systems but consistent with non-surface active anionic block copolymers. The microviscosity of the micelle core was evaluated using Coumarin-153 as a fluorescent anisotropy probe using steady-sate fluorescence depolarization. Non-surface activity has been proved to be universal for ionic amphiphilic block copolymers both for anionic and cationic. Hence, the origin of non-surface activity is not the charged state of water surface itself, but should be an image charge repulsion at the air/water interface.

  9. Influence of velocity effects on the shape of N2 (and air) broadened H2O lines revisited with classical molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, N. H.; Tran, H.; Gamache, R. R.; Bermejo, D.; Domenech, J.-L.

    2012-08-01

    The modeling of the shape of H2O lines perturbed by N2 (and air) using the Keilson-Storer (KS) kernel for collision-induced velocity changes is revisited with classical molecular dynamics simulations (CMDS). The latter have been performed for a large number of molecules starting from intermolecular-potential surfaces. Contrary to the assumption made in a previous study [H. Tran, D. Bermejo, J.-L. Domenech, P. Joubert, R. R. Gamache, and J.-M. Hartmann, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 108, 126 (2007)], 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.03.009, the results of these CMDS show that the velocity-orientation and -modulus changes statistically occur at the same time scale. This validates the use of a single memory parameter in the Keilson-Storer kernel to describe both the velocity-orientation and -modulus changes. The CMDS results also show that velocity- and rotational state-changing collisions are statistically partially correlated. A partially correlated speed-dependent Keilson-Storer model has thus been used to describe the line-shape. For this, the velocity changes KS kernel parameters have been directly determined from CMDS, while the speed-dependent broadening and shifting coefficients have been calculated with a semi-classical approach. Comparisons between calculated spectra and measurements of several lines of H2O broadened by N2 (and air) in the ν3 and 2ν1 + ν2 + ν3 bands for a wide range of pressure show very satisfactory agreement. The evolution of non-Voigt effects from Doppler to collisional regimes is also presented and discussed.

  10. Smart Nanofibers Self-Assembled from Dumbbell-Shaped Rod Amphiphiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    using JEOL-JEM 2100. MALDI-TOF-MS was performed on a Bruker Microflex LRF20 using α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHCA) as matrix. Preparative high...and 4,4’-biphenyl diboronic acid (28.8 mg, 0.12 mmol) were dissolved in degassed THF (25 ml). Degassed 2 M aqueous Na2CO3 (25 ml) was added to the

  11. Micellar and Structural Stability of Nanoscale Amphiphilic Polymers: Implications for Anti-atherosclerotic Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingyue; Li, Qi; Welsh, William J.; Moghe, Prabhas V.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of mortality in developed countries, is characterized by the buildup of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) within the vascular intima, unregulated oxLDL uptake by macrophages, and ensuing formation of arterial plaque. Amphiphilic polymers (AMPs) comprised of a branched hydrophobic domain and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tail have shown promising anti-atherogenic effects through direct inhibition of oxLDL uptake by macrophages. In this study, five AMPs with controlled variations were evaluated for their micellar and structural stability in the presence of serum and lipase, respectively, to develop underlying structure-atheroprotective activity relations. In parallel, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the AMP conformational preferences within an aqueous environment. Notably, AMPs with ether linkages between the hydrophobic arms and sugar backbones demonstrated enhanced degradation stability and storage stability, and also elicited enhanced anti-atherogenic bioactivity. Additionally, AMPs with increased hydrophobicity elicited increased atheroprotective bioactivity in the presence of serum. These studies provide key insights for designing more serum-stable polymeric micelles as prospective cardiovascular nanotherapies. PMID:26828687

  12. Amphiphilic conjunct of methyl cellulose and well-defined polyvinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Congming; Xia, Cunping

    2013-01-01

    Tailor-made conjunct of methyl cellulose (MC) and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) was synthesized through the combination of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and thiol-ene click reaction. MC was firstly transferred into unsaturated MC (UMC), and then covalently connected with well-defined PVAc obtained by RAFT polymerization of vinyl acetate. The structure of the conjunct polymer (MCV) was confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). Well-defined MCV was amphiphilic and able to self-assemble into size controllable micelles, which was verified with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and size distribution analysis. It was found that the mean diameters of the micelles in aqueous solution were 105.6, 96.0 and 75.9 nm when the number average molecular weights of PVAc segments of MCV were 49,300, 32,500 and 18,200, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Micellar and structural stability of nanoscale amphiphilic polymers: Implications for anti-atherosclerotic bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingyue; Li, Qi; Welsh, William J; Moghe, Prabhas V; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2016-04-01

    Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of mortality in developed countries, is characterized by the buildup of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) within the vascular intima, unregulated oxLDL uptake by macrophages, and ensuing formation of arterial plaque. Amphiphilic polymers (AMPs) comprised of a branched hydrophobic domain and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tail have shown promising anti-atherogenic effects through direct inhibition of oxLDL uptake by macrophages. In this study, five AMPs with controlled variations were evaluated for their micellar and structural stability in the presence of serum and lipase, respectively, to develop underlying structure-atheroprotective activity relations. In parallel, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the AMP conformational preferences within an aqueous environment. Notably, AMPs with ether linkages between the hydrophobic arms and sugar backbones demonstrated enhanced degradation stability and storage stability, and also elicited enhanced anti-atherogenic bioactivity. Additionally, AMPs with increased hydrophobicity elicited increased atheroprotective bioactivity in the presence of serum. These studies provide key insights for designing more serum-stable polymeric micelles as prospective cardiovascular nanotherapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Force and time-dependent self-assembly, disruption and recovery of supramolecular peptide amphiphile nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum Dikecoglu, F.; Topal, Ahmet E.; Ozkan, Alper D.; Deniz Tekin, E.; Tekinay, Ayse B.; Guler, Mustafa O.; Dana, Aykutlu

    2018-07-01

    Biological feedback mechanisms exert precise control over the initiation and termination of molecular self-assembly in response to environmental stimuli, while minimizing the formation and propagation of defects through self-repair processes. Peptide amphiphile (PA) molecules can self-assemble at physiological conditions to form supramolecular nanostructures that structurally and functionally resemble the nanofibrous proteins of the extracellular matrix, and their ability to reconfigure themselves in response to external stimuli is crucial for the design of intelligent biomaterials systems. Here, we investigated real-time self-assembly, deformation, and recovery of PA nanofibers in aqueous solution by using a force-stabilizing double-pass scanning atomic force microscopy imaging method to disrupt the self-assembled peptide nanofibers in a force-dependent manner. We demonstrate that nanofiber damage occurs at tip-sample interaction forces exceeding 1 nN, and the damaged fibers subsequently recover when the tip pressure is reduced. Nanofiber ends occasionally fail to reconnect following breakage and continue to grow as two individual nanofibers. Energy minimization calculations of nanofibers with increasing cross-sectional ellipticity (corresponding to varying levels of tip-induced fiber deformation) support our observations, with high-ellipticity nanofibers exhibiting lower stability compared to their non-deformed counterparts. Consequently, tip-mediated mechanical forces can provide an effective means of altering nanofiber integrity and visualizing the self-recovery of PA assemblies.

  15. Amphiphilic semiconducting polymer as multifunctional nanocarrier for fluorescence/photoacoustic imaging guided chemo-photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuyan; Cui, Dong; Fang, Yuan; Zhen, Xu; Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Pramanik, Manojit; Ding, Dan; Pu, Kanyi

    2017-11-01

    Chemo-photothermal nanotheranostics has the advantage of synergistic therapeutic effect, providing opportunities for optimized cancer therapy. However, current chemo-photothermal nanotheranostic systems generally comprise more than three components, encountering the potential issues of unstable nanostructures and unexpected conflicts in optical and biophysical properties among different components. We herein synthesize an amphiphilic semiconducting polymer (PEG-PCB) and utilize it as a multifunctional nanocarrier to simplify chemo-photothermal nanotheranostics. PEG-PCB has a semiconducting backbone that not only serves as the diagnostic component for near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and photoacoustic (PA) imaging, but also acts as the therapeutic agent for photothermal therapy. In addition, the hydrophobic backbone of PEG-PCB provides strong hydrophobic and π-π interactions with the aromatic anticancer drug such as doxorubicin for drug encapsulation and delivery. Such a trifunctionality of PEG-PCB eventually results in a greatly simplified nanotheranostic system with only two components but multimodal imaging and therapeutic capacities, permitting effective NIR fluorescence/PA imaging guided chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer in living mice. Our study thus provides a molecular engineering approach to integrate essential properties into one polymer for multimodal nanotheranostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acid-Labile Amphiphilic PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO Copolymers: Degradable Poloxamer Analogs.

    PubMed

    Worm, Matthias; Kang, Biao; Dingels, Carsten; Wurm, Frederik R; Frey, Holger

    2016-05-01

    Poly ((ethylene oxide)-b-(propylene oxide)-b-(ethylene oxide)) triblock copolymers commonly known as poloxamers or Pluronics constitute an important class of nonionic, biocompatible surfactants. Here, a method is reported to incorporate two acid-labile acetal moieties in the backbone of poloxamers to generate acid-cleavable nonionic surfactants. Poly(propylene oxide) is functionalized by means of an acetate-protected vinyl ether to introduce acetal units. Three cleavable PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers (Mn,total = 6600, 8000, 9150 g·mol(-1) ; Mn,PEO = 2200, 3600, 4750 g·mol(-1) ) have been synthesized using anionic ring-opening polymerization. The amphiphilic copolymers exhibit narrow molecular weight distributions (Ð = 1.06-1.08). Surface tension measurements reveal surface-active behavior in aqueous solution comparable to established noncleavable poloxamers. Complete hydrolysis of the labile junctions after acidic treatment is verified by size exclusion chromatography. The block copolymers have been employed as surfactants in a miniemulsion polymerization to generate polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles with mean diameters of ≈200 nm and narrow size distribution, as determined by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Acid-triggered precipitation facilitates removal of surfactant fragments from the nanoparticles, which simplifies purification and enables nanoparticle precipitation "on demand." © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Pyrene-Labeled Amphiphiles: Dynamic And Structural Probes Of Membranes And Lipoproteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pownall, Henry J.; Homan, Reynold; Massey, John B.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids and proteins are important functional and structural components of living organisms. Although proteins are frequently found as soluble components of plasma or the cell cytoplasm, many lipids are much less soluble and separate into complex assemblies that usually contain proteins. Cell membranes and plasma lipoproteins' are two important macro-molecular assemblies that contain both lipids and proteins. Cell membranes are composed of a variety of lipids and proteins that form an insoluble bilayer array that has relatively little curvature over distances of several nm. Plasma lipoproteins are different in that they are much smaller, water-soluble, and have highly curved surfaces. A model of a high density lipoprotein (HDL) is shown in Figure 1. This model (d - 10 nm) contains a surface of polar lipids and proteins that surrounds a small core of insoluble lipids, mostly triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. The low density (LDL) (d - 25 nm) and very low density (VLDL) (d 90 nm) lipoproteins have similar architectures, except the former has a cholesteryl ester core and the latter a core that is almost exclusively triglyceride (Figure 1). The surface proteins of HDL are amphiphilic and water soluble; the single protein of LDL is insoluble, whereas VLDL contains both soluble and insoluble proteins. The primary structures of all of these proteins are known.

  18. Force and time-dependent self-assembly, disruption and recovery of supramolecular peptide amphiphile nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Dikecoglu, F Begum; Topal, Ahmet E; Ozkan, Alper D; Tekin, E Deniz; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O; Dana, Aykutlu

    2018-07-13

    Biological feedback mechanisms exert precise control over the initiation and termination of molecular self-assembly in response to environmental stimuli, while minimizing the formation and propagation of defects through self-repair processes. Peptide amphiphile (PA) molecules can self-assemble at physiological conditions to form supramolecular nanostructures that structurally and functionally resemble the nanofibrous proteins of the extracellular matrix, and their ability to reconfigure themselves in response to external stimuli is crucial for the design of intelligent biomaterials systems. Here, we investigated real-time self-assembly, deformation, and recovery of PA nanofibers in aqueous solution by using a force-stabilizing double-pass scanning atomic force microscopy imaging method to disrupt the self-assembled peptide nanofibers in a force-dependent manner. We demonstrate that nanofiber damage occurs at tip-sample interaction forces exceeding 1 nN, and the damaged fibers subsequently recover when the tip pressure is reduced. Nanofiber ends occasionally fail to reconnect following breakage and continue to grow as two individual nanofibers. Energy minimization calculations of nanofibers with increasing cross-sectional ellipticity (corresponding to varying levels of tip-induced fiber deformation) support our observations, with high-ellipticity nanofibers exhibiting lower stability compared to their non-deformed counterparts. Consequently, tip-mediated mechanical forces can provide an effective means of altering nanofiber integrity and visualizing the self-recovery of PA assemblies.

  19. Facile preparation of an alternating copolymer-based high molecular shape-selective organic phase for reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Abul K; Noguchi, Hiroki; Rahman, Mohammed Mizanur; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka

    2018-06-22

    The synthesis of a new alternating copolymer-grafted silica phase is described for the separation of shape-constrained isomers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tocopherols in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Telomerization of the monomers (octadecyl acrylate and N-methylmaleimide) was carried out with a silane coupling agent; 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), and the telomer (T) was grafted onto porous silica surface to prepare the alternating copolymer-grafted silica phase (Sil-alt-T). The new hybrid material was characterized by elemental analyses, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy, and solid-state 13 C and 29 Si cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectroscopy. The results of 13 C CP/MAS NMR demonstrated that the alkyl chains of the grafted polymers in Sil-alt-T remained disordered, amorphous, and mobile represented by gauche conformational form. Separation abilities and molecular-shape selectivities of the prepared organic phase were evaluated by the separation of PAHs isomers and Standard Reference Material 869b, Column Selectivity Test Mixture for Liquid Chromatography, respectively and compared with commercially available octadecylsilylated silica (ODS) and C 30 columns as well as previously reported alternating copolymer-based column. The effectiveness of this phase is also demonstrated by the separation of tocopherol isomers. Oriented functional groups along the polymer main chains and cavity formations are investigated to be the driving force for better separation with multiple-interactions with the solutes. One of the advantages of the Sil-alt-T phase to that of the previously reported phase is the synthesis of the telomer first and then immobilized onto silica surface. In this case, the telomer was characterized easily with simple spectroscopic techniques and the molecular mass and polydispersity index of the telomer were determined by size exclusion

  20. Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles and related methods for growth factor delivery

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel I [Chicago, IL; Donners, Jack J. J. M.; Silva, Gabriel A [Chicago, IL; Behanna, Heather A [Chicago, IL; Anthony, Shawn G [New Stanton, PA

    2009-06-09

    Amphiphilic peptide compounds comprising one or more epitope sequences for binding interaction with one or more corresponding growth factors, micellar assemblies of such compounds and related methods of use.

  1. Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles and related methods for growth factor delivery

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel I [Chicago, IL; Donners, Jack J. J. M.; Silva, Gabriel A [Chicago, IL; Behanna, Heather A [Chicago, IL; Anthony, Shawn G [New Stanton, PA

    2012-03-20

    Amphiphilic peptide compounds comprising one or more epitope sequences for binding interaction with one or more corresponding growth factors, micellar assemblies of such compounds and related methods of use.

  2. Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles and related methods for growth factor delivery

    DOEpatents

    Stupp, Samuel I; Donners, Jack J.J.M.; Silva, Gabriel A; Behanna, Heather A; Anthony, Shawn G

    2013-11-12

    Amphiphilic peptide compounds comprising one or more epitope sequences for binding interaction with one or more corresponding growth factors, micellar assemblies of such compounds and related methods of use.

  3. Cancer Theranostic Nanoparticles Self-Assembled from Amphiphilic Small Molecules with Equilibrium Shift-Induced Renal Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuan; Mou, Quanbing; Sun, Mo; Yu, Chunyang; Li, Jianqi; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Nano drug delivery systems have emerged as promising candidates for cancer therapy, whereas their uncertainly complete elimination from the body within specific timescales restricts their clinical translation. Compared with hepatic clearance of nanoparticles, renal excretion of small molecules is preferred to minimize the agent-induced toxicity. Herein, we construct in vivo renal-clearable nanoparticles, which are self-assembled from amphiphilic small molecules holding the capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and chemotherapy. The assembled nanoparticles can accumulate in tumor tissues for their nano-characteristics, while the small molecules dismantled from the nanoparticles can be efficiently cleared by kidneys. The renal-clearable nanoparticles exhibit excellent tumor-inhibition performance as well as low side effects and negligible chronic toxicity. These results demonstrate a potential strategy for small molecular nano drug delivery systems with obvious anticancer effect and low-toxic metabolism pathway for clinical applications. PMID:27446502

  4. Exploring Conceptual Frameworks of Models of Atomic Structures and Periodic Variations, Chemical Bonding, and Molecular Shape and Polarity: A Comparison of Undergraduate General Chemistry Students with High and Low Levels of Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore students' conceptual frameworks of models of atomic structure and periodic variations, chemical bonding, and molecular shape and polarity, and how these conceptual frameworks influence their quality of explanations and ability to shift among chemical representations. This study employed a purposeful sampling…

  5. Preparation of plasmonic vesicles from amphiphilic gold nanocrystals grafted with polymer brushes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jibin; Huang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanovesicles contain multiple nanocrystals within a polymeric coating. The strong plasmonic coupling between adjacent nanoparticles in their vesicular shell makes ultrasensitive biosensing and bioimaging possible. In our laboratory, multifunctional plasmonic vesicles are assembled from amphiphilic gold nanocrystals (such as gold nanoparticles and gold nanorods) coated with mixed hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer brushes or amphiphilic diblock co-polymer brushes. To fulfill the different requirements of biomedical applications, different polymers that are either pH=responsive, photoactive or biodegradable can be used to form the hydrophobic brush, while the hydrophilicity is maintained by polyethylene glycol (PEG). This protocol covers the preparation, surface functionalization and self-assembly of amphiphilic gold nanocrystals grafted covalently with polymer brushes. The protocol can be completed within 2 d. The preparation of amphiphilic gold nanocrystals, coated with amphiphilic diblock polymer brushes using a ‘grafting to’ method or mixed hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer brushes using tandem ‘grafting to’ and ‘grafting from’ methods, is described. We also provide detailed procedures for the preparation and characterization of pH-responsive plasmonic gold nanovesicles from amphiphilic gold nanocrystals using a film-rehydration method that can be completed within ~3 d. PMID:27763624

  6. Detection of an amphiphilic biosample in a paper microchannel based on length.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Tzu; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2015-01-01

    We developed a simple method to achieve semiquantitative detection of an amphiphilic biosample through measuring the length of flow on a microfluidic analytical device (μPAD) based on paper. When an amphiphilic sample was dripped into a straight microchannel defined with a printed wax barrier (hydrophobic) on filter paper (hydrophilic), the length of flow was affected by the reciprocal effect between the sample, the filter-paper channel and the wax barrier. The flow length decreased with increasing concentration of an amphiphilic sample because of adsorption of the sample on the hydrophobic barrier. Measurement of the flow length enabled a determination of the concentration of the amphiphilic sample. The several tested samples included surfactants (Tween 20 and Triton X-100), oligonucleotides (DNA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), human albumin, nitrite, glucose and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The results show that the measurement of the flow length determined directly the concentration of an amphiphilic sample, whereas a non-amphiphilic sample was not amenable to this method. The proposed method features the advantages of small cost, simplicity, convenience, directness, rapidity (<5 min) and requirement of only a small volume (5 μL) of sample, with prospective applications in developing areas and sites near patients for testing at a point of care (POCT).

  7. Increased Degree of Unsaturation in the Lipid of Antifungal Cationic Amphiphiles Facilitates Selective Fungal Cell Disruption.

    PubMed

    Steinbuch, Kfir B; Benhamou, Raphael I; Levin, Lotan; Stein, Reuven; Fridman, Micha

    2018-05-11

    Antimicrobial cationic amphiphiles derived from aminoglycosides act through cell membrane permeabilization but have limited selectivity for microbial cell membranes. Herein, we report that an increased degree of unsaturation in the fatty acid segment of antifungal cationic amphiphiles derived from the aminoglycoside tobramycin significantly reduced toxicity to mammalian cells. A collection of tobramycin-derived cationic amphiphiles substituted with C 18 lipid chains varying in degree of unsaturation and double bond configuration were synthesized. All had potent activity against a panel of important fungal pathogens including strains with resistance to a variety of antifungal drugs. The tobramycin-derived cationic amphiphile substituted with linolenic acid with three cis double bonds (compound 6) was up to an order of magnitude less toxic to mammalian cells than cationic amphiphiles composed of lipids with a lower degree of unsaturation and than the fungal membrane disrupting drug amphotericin B. Compound 6 was 12-fold more selective (red blood cell hemolysis relative to antifungal activity) than compound 1, the derivative with a fully saturated lipid chain. Notably, compound 6 disrupted the membranes of fungal cells without affecting the viability of cocultured mammalian cells. This study demonstrates that the degree of unsaturation and the configuration of the double bond in lipids of cationic amphiphiles are important parameters that, if optimized, result in compounds with broad spectrum and potent antifungal activity as well as reduced toxicity toward mammalian cells.

  8. Comparative evaluation of polymeric and amphiphilic cyclodextrin nanoparticles for effective camptothecin delivery.

    PubMed

    Cirpanli, Yasemin; Bilensoy, Erem; Lale Doğan, A; Caliş, Sema

    2009-09-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) is a potent anticancer agent. The clinical application of CPT is restricted by poor water solubility and instability under physiological conditions. Solubilization and stabilization of CPT were realized through nanoparticulate systems of amphiphilic cyclodextrins, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL). Nanoparticles were prepared with nanoprecipitation technique, whereas cyclodextrin nanoparticles were prepared from preformed inclusion complexes of CPT with amphiphilic cyclodextrins. Polymeric nanoparticles, on the other hand, were loaded with CPT:HP-beta-CD inclusion complex to solubilize and stabilize the drug. Mean particle sizes were under 275 nm, and polydispersity indices were lower than 0.2 for all formulations. Drug-loading values were significantly higher for amphiphilic cyclodextrin nanoparticles when compared with those for PLGA and PCL nanoparticles. Nanoparticle formulations showed a significant controlled release profile extended up to 12 days for amphiphilic cyclodextrin nanoparticles and 48h for polymeric nanoparticles. Anticancer efficacy of the nanoparticles was evaluated in comparison with CPT solution in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells. Amphiphilic cyclodextrin nanoparticles showed higher anticancer efficacy than PLGA or PCL nanoparticles loaded with CPT and the CPT solution in DMSO. These results indicated that CPT-loaded amphiphilic cyclodextrin nanoparticles might provide a promising carrier system for the effective delivery of this anticancer drug having bioavailability problems.

  9. Amphiphilic polymer based on fluoroalkyl and PEG side chains for fouling release coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, W. W.; Wang, K.; Yu, X. Y.; Zhang, H. Q.; Lv, Z.; Gui, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Under static conditions, fouling release coating could not express good release property to marine organisms. Amphiphilic polymer with mixture of fluorinated monomer and short side group of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was synthesized. And also we studied the ability of amphiphilic polymer to influence the surface properties and how it controlled the adhesion of marine organisms to coated surfaces. By incorporating fluorinated monomer and PEG side chain into the polymer, the effect of incorporating both polar and non-polar groups on fouling-release coating could be studied. The dry surface was characterized by three-dimensional digital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the morphology of the amphiphilic fouling release coating showed just like flaky petal. The amphiphilic polymer in fouling release coating tended to reconstruct in water, and the ability was examined by static contact angle, which was smaller than the PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) fouling release coating. Also surface energy was calculated by three solvents, and surface energy of amphiphilic fouling release coating was higher than that of the PDMS fouling release coating. To understand more about its fouling release property, seawater exposure method was adopted in gulf of Qingdao port. Fewer diatoms Navicula were found in biofilm after using amphiphilic fouling release coating. In general, coating containing both PEG and fluorinated side chain possessed certain fouling release property.

  10. Modular synthesis of amphiphilic Janus glycodendrimers and their self-assembly into glycodendrimersomes and other complex architectures with bioactivity to biomedically relevant lectins.

    PubMed

    Percec, Virgil; Leowanawat, Pawaret; Sun, Hao-Jan; Kulikov, Oleg; Nusbaum, Christopher D; Tran, Tam M; Bertin, Annabelle; Wilson, Daniela A; Peterca, Mihai; Zhang, Shaodong; Kamat, Neha P; Vargo, Kevin; Moock, Diana; Johnston, Eric D; Hammer, Daniel A; Pochan, Darrin J; Chen, Yingchao; Chabre, Yoann M; Shiao, Tze C; Bergeron-Brlek, Milan; André, Sabine; Roy, René; Gabius, Hans-J; Heiney, Paul A

    2013-06-19

    The modular synthesis of 7 libraries containing 51 self-assembling amphiphilic Janus dendrimers with the monosaccharides D-mannose and D-galactose and the disaccharide D-lactose in their hydrophilic part is reported. These unprecedented sugar-containing dendrimers are named amphiphilic Janus glycodendrimers. Their self-assembly by simple injection of THF or ethanol solution into water or buffer and by hydration was analyzed by a combination of methods including dynamic light scattering, confocal microscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform analysis, and micropipet-aspiration experiments to assess mechanical properties. These libraries revealed a diversity of hard and soft assemblies, including unilamellar spherical, polygonal, and tubular vesicles denoted glycodendrimersomes, aggregates of Janus glycodendrimers and rodlike micelles named glycodendrimer aggregates and glycodendrimermicelles, cubosomes denoted glycodendrimercubosomes, and solid lamellae. These assemblies are stable over time in water and in buffer, exhibit narrow molecular-weight distribution, and display dimensions that are programmable by the concentration of the solution from which they are injected. This study elaborated the molecular principles leading to single-type soft glycodendrimersomes assembled from amphiphilic Janus glycodendrimers. The multivalency of glycodendrimersomes with different sizes and their ligand bioactivity were demonstrated by selective agglutination with a diversity of sugar-binding protein receptors such as the plant lectins concanavalin A and the highly toxic mistletoe Viscum album L. agglutinin, the bacterial lectin PA-IL from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and, of special biomedical relevance, human adhesion/growth-regulatory galectin-3 and galectin-4. These results demonstrated the candidacy of glycodendrimersomes as new mimics of biological membranes with programmable glycan ligand presentations, as supramolecular lectin blockers, vaccines, and

  11. Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: self-assemblies and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travelet, Christophe; Stemmelen, Mylène; Lapinte, Vincent; Dubreuil, Frédéric; Robin, Jean-Jacques; Borsali, Redouane

    2013-06-01

    The self-assembly in solution of original structures of amphiphilic partially natural copolymers based on polyoxazoline [more precisely poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (POx)] and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (linear, T-, and trident-structure) is investigated. The results show that such systems are found, using dynamic light scattering (DLS), to spontaneously self-organize into monomodal, narrow-size, and stable nanoparticles in aqueous medium. The obtained hydrodynamic diameters ( D h) range from 8.6 to 32.5 nm. Specifically, such size increases strongly with increasing natural block (i.e., lipophilic species) length due to higher hydrophobic interactions (from 10.1 nm for C19 to 19.2 nm for C57). Furthermore, increasing the polyoxazoline (i.e., hydrophilic block) length leads to a moderate linear increase of the D h-values. Therefore, the first-order size effect comes from the natural lipophilic block, whereas the characteristic size can be tuned more finely (i.e., in a second-order) by choosing appropriately the polyoxazoline length. The DLS results in terms of characteristic size are corroborated using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and also by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging where well-defined spherical and individual nanoparticles exhibit a very good mechanical resistance upon drying. Moreover, changing the lipophilic block architecture from linear to T-shape, while keeping the same molar mass, generates a branching and thus a shrinking by a factor of 2 of the nanoparticle volume, as observed by DLS. In this paper, it is clearly shown that the self-assemblies of amphiphilic block copolymer obtained from grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (sustainable renewable resources) as well as their tunability are of great interest for biomass valorization at the nanoscale level [continuation of the article by Stemmelen et al. (Polym Chem 4:1445-1458, 2013)].

  12. Amphiphile-induced heart muscle-cell (myocyte) injury: effects of intracellular fatty acid overload.

    PubMed

    Janero, D R; Burghardt, C; Feldman, D

    1988-10-01

    Lipid amphiphile toxicity may be an important contributor to myocardial injury, especially during ischemia/reperfusion. In order to investigate directly the potential biochemical and metabolic effects of amphiphile overload on the functioning heart muscle cell (myocyte), a novel model of nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA)-induced myocyte damage has been defined. The model uses intact, beating neonatal rat myocytes in primary monolayer culture as a study object and 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) as a nonmetabolizable fatty acid. Myocytes incubated with TOFA accumulated it as NEFA, and the consequent NEFA amphiphile overload elicited a variety of cellular defects (including decreased beating rate, depletion of high-energy stores and glycogen pools, and breakdown of myocyte membrane phospholipid) and culminated in cell death. The amphiphile-induced cellular pathology could be reversed by removing TOFA from the culture medium, which resulted in intracellular TOFA "wash-out." Although the development and severity of amphiphile-induced myocyte injury could be correlated with both the intracellular TOFA/NEFA content (i.e., the level of TOFA to which the cells were exposed) and the duration of this exposure, removal of amphiphile overload did not inevitably lead to myocyte recovery. TOFA had adverse effects on myocyte mitochondrial function in situ (decoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, impairing respiratory control) and on myocyte oxidative catabolism (transiently increasing fatty acid beta oxidation, citric acid cycle flux, and glucose oxidation). The amphiphile-induced bioenergetic abnormalities appeared to constitute a state of "metabolic anoxia" underlying the progression of myocyte injury to cell death. This anoxic state could be ameliorated to some extent, but not prevented, by carbohydrate catabolism.

  13. Transport and optical properties of c-axis oriented wedge shaped GaN nanowall network grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciT

    Bhasker, H. P.; Dhar, S.; Thakur, Varun

    2014-02-21

    The transport and optical properties of wedge-shaped nanowall network of GaN grown spontaneously on cplane sapphire substrate by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (PAMBE) show interesting behavior. The electron mobility at room temperature in these samples is found to be orders of magnitude higher than that of a continuous film. Our study reveals a strong correlation between the mobility and the band gap in these nanowall network samples. However, it is seen that when the thickness of the tips of the walls increases to an extent such that more than 70% of the film area is covered, it behaves close tomore » a flat sample. In the sample with lower surface coverage (≈40% and ≈60%), it was observed that the conductivity, mobility as well as the band gap increase with the decrease in the average tip width of the walls. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments show a strong and broad band edge emission with a large (as high as ≈ 90 meV) blue shift, compared to that of a continuous film, suggesting a confinement of carriers on the top edges of the nanowalls. The PL peak width remains wide at all temperatures suggesting the existence of a high density of tail states at the band edge, which is further supported by the photoconductivity result. The high conductivity and mobility observed in these samples is believed to be due to a “dissipation less” transport of carriers, which are localized at the top edges (edge states) of the nanowalls.« less

  14. Using Amphiphilic Copolymers and Nanoparticles to Organize Charged Biopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung Hyun; McConnell, Marla; Sun, Yujie; Goldman, Yale; Composto, Russell

    2009-03-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) on amphiphilic random copolymers control filamentous actin (F-actin) attachment. 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) coated silica NPs are selectively bonded to acrylic acid groups on the surface of a poly(styrene-r-acrylic acid) (PS-r-PAA) film. By changing the concentration of NPs in the medium, the surface density of positively charged anchors is tuned. Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, immobilization of F-actin is observed via electrostatic interaction with NPs at high NP coverages. Below a critical coverage, F-actin is weakly attached and undergoes thermal fluctuations near the surface. Another method to tune F-actin attachment is to use APTES to cross-link and create positive charge in PAA films. Here, the surface coverage of F-actin decreases as APTES concentration increases. This observation is attributed to an increase in surface roughness and hydrophobicity that reduces the effective surface sites that attract F-actin. In addition, in-situ G-actin polymerization to F-actin is observed on both the NP and cross-linked PAA templates.

  15. Supramolecular ribbons from amphiphilic trisamides self-assembly.

    PubMed

    García, Fátima; Buendía, Julia; Sánchez, Luis

    2011-08-05

    Two amphiphilic C(3)-symmetric OPE-based trisamides have been synthesized and their self-assembling features investigated in solution and on surface. Variable-temperature UV-vis experiments demonstrate the cooperative supramolecular polymerization of these trisamides that self-assemble by the operation of triple C═O···H-N H-bonding arrays between the amide functional groups and π-π stacking between the aromatic units. The helical organization of the aggregates has been demonstrated by circular dichroism at a concentration as low as 1 × 10(-4) M in acetonitrile. In the reported trisamides, the large hydrophobic aromatic core acts as a solvophobic module impeding the interaction between the polar TEG chains and the amide H-bonds. This strategy makes unnecessary the separation of the amide functional groups to the polar tri(ethylene glycol) chains by paraffinic fragments. Achiral trisamide 1 self-assembles into flat ribbon-like structures that experience an amplification of chirality by the addition of a small amount of chiral 2 that generates twisted stripes.

  16. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of novel amphiphilic aromatic amino alcohols.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Angelina M; Nascimento, Thiago; Ferreira, Bianca S; de Castro, Pedro P; Silva, Vânia L; Diniz, Claúdio G; Le Hyaric, Mireille

    2013-05-15

    We report in this work the preparation and in vitro antimicrobial evaluation of novel amphiphilic aromatic amino alcohols synthesized by reductive amination of 4-alkyloxybenzaldehyde with 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-propane-1,3-diol. The antibacterial activity was determined against four standard strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and 21 clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The antifungal activity was evaluated against four yeast (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis). The results obtained showed a strong positive correlation between the lipophilicity and the antibiotic activity of the tested compounds. The best activities were obtained against the Gram-positive bacteria (MIC=2-16μgml(-1)) for the five compounds bearing longer alkyl chains (4c-g; 8-14 carbons), which were also the most active against Candida (MIC=2-64μgml(-1)). Compound 4e exhibited the highest levels of inhibitory activity (MIC=2-16μgml(-1)) against clinical isolates of MRSA. A concentration of twice the MIC resulted in bactericidal activity of 4d against 19 of the 21 clinical isolates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modification of nanofibrillated cellulose using amphiphilic block-structured galactoglucomannans.

    PubMed

    Lozhechnikova, Alina; Dax, Daniel; Vartiainen, Jari; Willför, Stefan; Xu, Chunlin; Österberg, Monika

    2014-09-22

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and hemicelluloses have shown to be highly promising renewable components both as barrier materials and in novel biocomposites. However, the hydrophilic nature of these materials restricts their use in some applications. In this work, the usability of modified O-acetyl galactoglucomannan (GGM) for modification of NFC surface properties was studied. Four GGM-block-structured, amphiphilic derivatives were synthesized using either fatty acids or polydimethylsiloxane as hydrophobic tails. The adsorption of these GGM derivatives was consecutively examined in aqueous solution using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). It was found that the hydrophobic tails did not hinder adsorption of the GGM derivatives to cellulose, which was concluded to be due to the presence of the native GGM-block with high affinity to cellulose. The layer properties of the adsorbed block-co-polymers were discussed and evaluated. Self-standing NFC films were further prepared and coated with the GGM derivatives and the effect of the surface modification on wetting properties and oxygen permeability (OP) of the modified films was assessed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tailorable Exciton Transport in Doped Peptide–Amphiphile Assemblies

    SciT

    Solomon, Lee A.; Sykes, Matthew E.; Wu, Yimin A.

    Light-harvesting biomaterials are an attractive target in photovoltaics, photocatalysis, and artificial photosynthesis. Through peptide self-assembly, complex nanostructures can be engineered to study the role of chromophore organization during light absorption and energy transport. To this end, we demonstrate the one-dimensional transport of excitons along naturally occurring, light-harvesting, Zn-protoporphyrin IX chromophores within self-assembled peptide-amphiphile nanofibers. The internal structure of the nanofibers induces packing of the porphyrins into linear chains. We find that this peptide assembly can enable long-range exciton diffusion, yet it also induces the formation of excimers between adjacent molecules, which serve as exciton traps. Electronic coupling between neighboring porphyrinmore » molecules is confirmed by various spectroscopic methods. The exciton diffusion process is then probed through transient photoluminescence and absorption measurements and fit to a model for one-dimensional hopping. Because excimer formation impedes exciton hopping, increasing the interchromophore spacing allows for improved diffusivity, which we control through porphyrin doping levels. We show that diffusion lengths of over 60 nm are possible at low porphyrin doping, representing an order of magnitude improvement over the highest doping fractions.« less

  19. Amphiphilic Copolymers Shuttle Drugs Across the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Clemens-Hemmelmann, Mirjam; Kuffner, Christiane; Metz, Verena; Kircher, Linda; Schmitt, Ulrich; Hiemke, Christoph; Postina, Rolf; Zentel, Rudolf

    2016-05-01

    Medical treatment of diseases of the central nervous system requires transport of drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, it is extended previously in vitro experiments with a model compound to show that the non-water-soluble and brain-impermeable drug domperidone (DOM) itself can be enriched in the brain by use of an amphiphilic copolymer as a carrier. This carrier consists of poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide), statistically copolymerized with 10 mol% hydrophobic lauryl methacrylate, into whose micellar aggregates DOM is noncovalently absorbed. As tested in a BBB model efficient transport of DOM across, the BBB is achievable over a wide range of formulations, containing 0.8 to 35.5 wt% domperidone per copolymer. In neither case, the polymer itself is translocated across the BBB model. In vivo experiments in mice show that already 10 min after intraperitoneal injection of the polymer/domperidone (PolyDOM) formulation, domperidone can be detected in blood and in the brain. Highest serum and brain levels of domperidone are detected 40 min after injection. At that time point serum domperidone is increased 48-fold. Most importantly, domperidone is exclusively detectable in high amounts in the brain of PolyDOM injected mice and not in mice injected with bare domperidone. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Tailorable Exciton Transport in Doped Peptide-Amphiphile Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Lee A; Sykes, Matthew E; Wu, Yimin A; Schaller, Richard D; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Fry, H Christopher

    2017-09-26

    Light-harvesting biomaterials are an attractive target in photovoltaics, photocatalysis, and artificial photosynthesis. Through peptide self-assembly, complex nanostructures can be engineered to study the role of chromophore organization during light absorption and energy transport. To this end, we demonstrate the one-dimensional transport of excitons along naturally occurring, light-harvesting, Zn-protoporphyrin IX chromophores within self-assembled peptide-amphiphile nanofibers. The internal structure of the nanofibers induces packing of the porphyrins into linear chains. We find that this peptide assembly can enable long-range exciton diffusion, yet it also induces the formation of excimers between adjacent molecules, which serve as exciton traps. Electronic coupling between neighboring porphyrin molecules is confirmed by various spectroscopic methods. The exciton diffusion process is then probed through transient photoluminescence and absorption measurements and fit to a model for one-dimensional hopping. Because excimer formation impedes exciton hopping, increasing the interchromophore spacing allows for improved diffusivity, which we control through porphyrin doping levels. We show that diffusion lengths of over 60 nm are possible at low porphyrin doping, representing an order of magnitude improvement over the highest doping fractions.

  1. Amphiphilically modified chitosan cationic nanoparticles for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jie; Li, Wenfeng; Yu, Chang; Zhao, Chengguang; Jin, Langping; Zhou, Yili; Xu, Xuzhong; Dong, Siyang; Lu, Xincheng; Wang, Ouchen

    2013-12-01

    A series of amphiphilic N-(2-hydroxy)propyl-3-trimethylammonium-chitosan-cholic acid (HPTA-CHI-CA) polymers were synthesized by grafting cholic acid (CA) and glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride onto chitosan. The self-assembly behavior of HPTA-CHI-CA was studied by fluorescence technique. The polymers were able to self-assemble into NPs in phosphate buffered saline with a critical aggregation concentration (CAC) in the range of 66-26 mg/L and the CAC decreased with the increasing of the degree of substitution (DS) of CA. The size of cationic HPTA-CHI-CA NPs ranges from 170 to 220 nm (PDI < 0.2). It was found that doxorubicin (DOX) could be encapsulated into HPTA-CHI-CA NPs based on self-assembly. The drug loading content and efficiency varies depending on the DS of CA and feeding ratio of DOX to polymer. In vitro release studies suggested that DOX released slowly from HPTA-CHI-CA NPs without any burst initial release. Besides, the confocal microscopic measurements indicated that DOX-HPTA-CHI-CA NPs could easily be uptaken by breast cancer (MCF-7) cells and release DOX in cytoplasm. Anti-tumor efficacy results showed that DOX-HPTA-CHI-CA NPs have a significant activity of inhibition MCF-7 cells growth. These results suggest cationic HPTA-CHI-CA may have great potential for anticancer drug delivery.

  2. Electrophoretic coating of amphiphilic chitosan colloids on regulating cellular behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yen-Jen; Lo, Teng-Yuan; Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Liu, Dean-Mo

    2013-01-01

    In this communication, we report a facile nanotopographical control over a stainless steel surface via an electrophoretic deposition of colloidal amphiphilic chitosan for preferential growth, proliferation or migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Atomic force microscopy revealed that the colloidal surface exhibited a deposition time-dependent nanotopographical evolution, wherein two different nanotopographic textures indexed by ‘kurtosis’ (Rkur) value were easily designed, which were termed as ‘sharp’ (i.e. high peak-to-valley texture) surface and ‘flat’ (i.e. low peak-to-valley texture) surface. Cellular behaviour of VSMCs and HUVECs on both surfaces demonstrated topographically dependent morphogenesis, adherent responses and biochemical properties in comparison with bare stainless steel. The formation of a biofunctionalized surface upon a facile colloidal chitosan deposition envisions the potential application towards numerous biomedical devices, and this is especially promising for cardiovascular stents wherein a new surface with optimized texture can be designed and is expected to create an advantageous environment to stimulate HUVEC growth for improved healing performance. PMID:23804439

  3. Effect of Amphiphiles on the Rheology of Triglyceride Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Jyoti

    2014-11-01

    Networks of aggregated crystallites form the structural backbone of many products from the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Such materials are generally formulated by cooling a saturated solution to yield the desired solid fraction. Crystal nucleation and growth followed by aggregation leads to formation of a space percolating fractal-network. It is understood that microstructural hierarchy and particle-particle interactions determine material behavior during processing, storage and use. In this talk, rheology of suspensions of triglycerides (TAG, like tristearin) will be explored. TAGs exhibit a rich assortment of polymorphs and form suspensions that are evidently sensitive to surface modifying additives like surfactants and polymers. Here, a theoretical framework will be presented for suspensions containing TAG crystals interacting via pairwise potentials. The work builds on existing models of fractal aggregates to understand microstructure and its correlation with material rheology. Effect of amphiphilic additives is derived through variation of particle-particle interactions. Theoretical predictions for storage modulus will be compared against experimental observations and data from the literature and micro structural predictions against microscopy. Such a theory may serve as a step towards predicting short and long-term behavior of aggregated suspensions formulated via crystallization.

  4. Impact of amphiphilic molecules on the structure and stability of homogeneous sphingomyelin bilayer: Insights from atomistic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Pratibha; Kaur, Supreet; Sharma, Shobha; Kashyap, Hemant K.

    2018-04-01

    Modulation of lipid membrane properties due to the permeation of amphiphiles is an important biological process pertaining to many applications in the field of pharmaceutics, toxicology, and biotechnology. Sphingolipids are both structural and functional lipids that constitute an important component of mechanically stable and chemically resistant outer leaflets of plasma membranes. Here, we present an atomistic molecular dynamics simulation study to appreciate the concentration-dependent effects of small amphiphilic molecules, such as ethanol, acetone, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), on the structure and stability of a fully hydrated homogeneous N-palmitoyl-sphingomyelin (PSM) bilayer. The study reveals an increase in the lateral expansion of the bilayer along with disordering of the hydrophobic lipid tails on increasing the concentration of ethanol. At higher concentrations of ethanol, rupturing of the bilayer is quite evident through the analysis of partial electron density profiles and lipid tail order parameters. For ethanol containing systems, permeation of water molecules in the hydrophobic part of the bilayer is allowed through local defects made due to the entry of ethanol molecules via ethanol-ethanol and ethanol-PSM hydrogen bonds. Moreover, the extent of PSM-PSM hydrogen bonding decreases with increasing ethanol concentration. On the other hand, acetone and DMSO exhibit minimal effects on the stability of the PSM bilayer at their lower concentrations, but at higher concentrations they tend to enhance the stability of the bilayer. The simulated potential of mean force (PMF) profiles for the translocation of the three solutes studied reveal that the free-energy of transfer of an ethanol molecule across the PSM lipid head region is lower than that for acetone and DMSO molecules. However, highest free-energy rise in the core hydrophobic part of the bilayer is observed for the DMSO molecule, whereas the ethanol and acetone PMF profiles show a lower barrier in

  5. Poly(Acrylic Acid-b-Styrene) Amphiphilic Multiblock Copolymers as Building Blocks for the Assembly of Discrete Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Anna C.; Zhu, Jiahua; Pochan, Darrin J.; Jia, Xinqiao; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2011-01-01

    In order to expand the utility of current polymeric micellar systems, we have developed amphiphilic multiblock copolymers containing alternating blocks of poly(acrylic acid) and poly(styrene). Heterotelechelic poly(tert-butyl acrylate-b-styrene) diblock copolymers containing an α-alkyne and an ω-azide were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), allowing control over the molecular weight while maintaining narrow polydispersity indices. The multiblock copolymers were constructed by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition of azide-alkyne end functional diblock copolymers which were then characterized by 1H NMR, FT-IR and SEC. The tert-butyl moieties of the poly(tert-butyl acrylate-b-styrene) multiblock copolymers were easily removed to form the poly(acrylic acid-b-styrene) multiblock copolymer ((PAA-PS)9), which contained up to 9 diblock repeats. The amphiphilic multiblock (PAA-PS)9 (Mn = 73.3 kg/mol) was self-assembled by dissolution into tetrahydrofuran and extensive dialysis against deionized water for 4 days. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) for (PAA-PS)9 was determined by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene as a fluorescent probe and was found to be very low at 2 × 10-4 mg/mL. The (PAA-PS)9 multiblock was also analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrodynamic diameter of the particles was found to be 11 nm. Discrete spherical particles were observed by TEM with an average particle diameter of 14 nm. The poly(acrylic acid) periphery of the spherical particles should allow for future conjugation of biomolecules. PMID:21552373

  6. Amphiphilic Peptide Nanorods Based on Oligo-Phenylalanine as a Biocompatible Drug Carrier.

    PubMed

    Song, Su Jeong; Lee, Seulgi; Ryu, Kyoung-Seok; Choi, Joon Sig

    2017-09-20

    Peptide nanostructure has been widely explored for drug-delivery systems in recent studies. Peptides possess comparatively lower cytotoxicity and are more efficient than polymeric carriers. Here, we propose a peptide nanorod system, composed of an amphiphilic oligo-peptide RH 3 F 8 (Arg-His 3 -Phe 8 ), as a drug-delivery carrier. Arginine is an essential amino acid in typical cell-penetration peptides, and histidine induces endo- and lysosomal escape because of its proton sponge effect. Phenylalanine is introduced to provide rich hydrophobicity for stable self-assembly and drug encapsulation. The self-assembled structure of RH 3 F 8 showed nanorod-shaped morphology, positive surface charge, and retained formation in water for 35 days. RH 3 F 8 , labeled with Nile Red, showed high cellar uptake and accumulation in both cytoplasm and nucleus. The RH 3 F 8 nanorods demonstrated negligible cytotoxicity, as shown by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and hemolysis assays. To confirm the efficiency of drug delivery, curcumin was encapsulated in the RH 3 F 8 nanorod system (RH 3 F 8 -Cur). RH 3 F 8 -Cur showed high encapsulation efficiency (24.63%) under the conditions of 200 μM curcumin. The RH 3 F 8 -Cur retained nanoscale size and positive surface charge, similar to those of the empty RH 3 F 8 nanorods. RH 3 F 8 -Cur displayed a robust anticancer effect in HeLa and A549 cells, and inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells in a zebrafish model. These results indicate that the RH 3 F 8 nanorods may be a promising candidate for a safe and effective drug-delivery system.

  7. Covalent Functionalization of NiTi Surfaces with Bioactive Peptide Amphiphile Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Sargeant, Timothy D.; Rao, Mukti S.; Koh, Chung-Yan

    2009-01-01

    Surface modification enables the creation of bioactive implants using traditional material substrates without altering the mechanical properties of the bulk material. For applications such as bone plates and stents, it is desirable to modify the surface of metal alloy substrates to facilitate cellular attachment, proliferation, and possibly differentiation. In this work we present a general strategy for altering the surface chemistry of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi) in order to covalently attach self-assembled peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofibers with bioactive functions. Bioactivity in the systems studied here includes biological adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast and endothelial cell types. The optimized surface treatment creates a uniform TiO2 layer with low levels of Ni on the NiTi surface, which is subsequently covered with an aminopropylsilane coating using a novel, lower temperature vapor deposition method. This method produces an aminated surface suitable for covalent attachment of PA molecules containing terminal carboxylic acid groups. The functionalized NiTi surfaces have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). These techniques offer evidence that the treated metal surfaces consist primarily of TiO2 with very little Ni, and also confirm the presence of the aminopropylsilane overlayer. Self-assembled PA nanofibers presenting the biological peptide adhesion sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser are capable of covalently anchoring to the treated substrate, as demonstrated by spectrofluorimetry and AFM. Cell culture and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrate cellular adhesion, spreading, and proliferation on these functionalized metal surfaces. Furthermore, these experiments demonstrate that covalent attachment is crucial for creating robust PA nanofiber coatings, leading to confluent cell monolayers. PMID:18083225

  8. Aggregate morphologies of amphiphilic ABC triblock copolymer in dilute solution using self-consistent field theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Tang, Ping; Qiu, Feng; Yang, Yuliang

    2005-09-15

    The complex microstructures of amphiphilic ABC linear triblock copolymers in which one of the end blocks is relatively short and hydrophilic, and the other two blocks B and C are hydrophobic in a dilute solution, have been investigated by the real-space implementation of self-consistent field theory (SCFT) in two dimensions (2D). In contrast to diblock copolymers in solution, the aggregation of triblock copolymers are more complicated due to the presence of the second hydrophobic blocks and, hence, big ranges of parameter space controlling the morphology. By tailoring the hydrophobic degree and its difference between the blocks B and C, the various shapes of vesicles, circlelike and linelike micelles possibly corresponding to spherelike, and rodlike micelles in 3D, and especially, peanutlike micelles not found in diblock copolymers are observed. The transition from vesicles to circlelike micelles occurs with increasing the hydrophobicity of the blocks B and C, while the transition from circlelike micelles to linelike micelles or from the mixture of micelles and vesicles to the long linelike micelles takes place when the repulsive interaction of the end hydrophobic block C is stronger than that of the middle hydrophobic block B. Furthermore, it is favorable for dispersion of the block copolymer in the solvent into aggregates when the repulsion of the solvent to the end hydrophobic block is larger than that of the solvent to the middle hydrophobic block. Especially when the bulk block copolymers are in a weak segregation regime, the competition between the microphase separation and macrophase separation exists and the large compound micelle-like aggregates are found due to the macrophase separation with increasing the hydrophobic degree of blocks B and C, which is absent in diblock copolymer solution. The simulation results successfully reproduce the existing experimental ones.

  9. Sorting of amphiphile membrane components in curvature and composition gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Aiwei

    Phase and shape heterogeneities in biomembranes are of functional importance. However, it is difficult to elucidate the roles membrane heterogeneities play in maintaining cellular function due to the complexity of biomembranes. Therefore, investigations of phase behavior and composition/curvature coupling in lipid and polymer model membranes offer some advantages. In this thesis, phase properties in lipid and polymer giant vesicles were studied. Line tension at the fluid/fluid phase boundary of giant lipid unilamellar vesicles was determined directly by micropipette aspiration, and found to be composition-dependent. Dynamics of calcium-induced domains within polyanionic vesicles subject to chemical stimuli were investigated, which revealed the strength of molecular interaction and suggested applications in triggered delivery. In addition, curvature sorting of lipids and proteins was examined. Lipid membrane tethers were pulled from giant unilamellar vesicles using two micropipettes and a bead. Tether radius can be controlled and measured in this system. By examining fluorescence intensity of labeled molecules as a function of curvature, we found that DiI dyes (lipid analogues with spontaneous curvatures) had no curvature preference down to radii of 10 nm. Theoretical calculation predicted that the distribution of small lipids was dominated by entropy instead of bending energy. However protein Cholera toxin subunit B was efficiently sorted away from the high positive curvature due to its negative spontaneous curvature. Bending stiffness was determined to decrease as curvature increased in homogeneous membranes with ternary lipid mixtures near a critical consulate point, revealing the strong preferential intermolecular interactions of such mixtures. In addition, diffusion controlled domain growth was observed in tethers pulled from phase-separated vesicles, which provides a new dynamic sorting principle for lipids and proteins in curvature gradients.

  10. Phases and phase transition in insoluble and adsorbed monolayers of amide amphiphiles: Specific characteristics of the condensed phases.

    PubMed

    Vollhardt, D

    2015-08-01

    For understanding the role of amide containing amphiphiles in inherently complex biological processes, monolayers at the air-water interface are used as simple biomimetic model systems. The specific characteristics of the condensed phases and phase transition in insoluble and adsorbed monolayers of amide amphiphiles are surveyed to highlight the effect of the chemical structure of the amide amphiphiles on the interfacial interactions in model monolayers. The mesoscopic topography and/or two-dimensional lattice structures of selected amino acid amphiphiles, amphiphilic N-alkylaldonamide, amide amphiphiles with specific tailored headgroups, such as amide amphiphiles based on derivatized ethanolamine, e.g. acylethanolamines (NAEs) and N-,O-diacylethanolamines (DAEs) are presented. Special attention is devoted the dominance of N,O-diacylated ethanolamine in mixed amphiphilic acid amide monolayers. The evidence that a first order phase transition can occur in adsorption layers and that condensed phase domains of mesoscopic scale can be formed in adsorption layers was first obtained on the basis of the experimental characteristics of a tailored amide amphiphile. New thermodynamic and kinetic concepts for the theoretical description of the characteristics of amide amphiphile's monolayers were developed. In particular, the equation of state for Langmuir monolayers generalized for the case that one, two or more phase transitions occur, and the new theory for phase transition in adsorbed monolayers are experimentally confirmed at first by amide amphiphile monolayers. Despite the significant progress made towards the understanding the model systems, these model studies are still limited to transfer the gained knowledge to biological systems where the fundamental physical principles are operative in the same way. The study of biomimetic systems, as described in this review, is only a first step in this direction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Artificial muscle-like function from hierarchical supramolecular assembly of photoresponsive molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiawen; Leung, Franco King-Chi; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Kajitani, Takashi; Fukushima, Takanori; van der Giessen, Erik; Feringa, Ben L.

    2018-02-01

    A striking feature of living systems is their ability to produce motility by amplification of collective molecular motion from the nanoscale up to macroscopic dimensions. Some of nature's protein motors, such as myosin in muscle tissue, consist of a hierarchical supramolecular assembly of very large proteins, in which mechanical stress induces a coordinated movement. However, artificial molecular muscles have often relied on covalent polymer-based actuators. Here, we describe the macroscopic contractile muscle-like motion of a supramolecular system (comprising 95% water) formed by the hierarchical self-assembly of a photoresponsive amphiphilic molecular motor. The molecular motor first assembles into nanofibres, which further assemble into aligned bundles that make up centimetre-long strings. Irradiation induces rotary motion of the molecular motors, and propagation and accumulation of this motion lead to contraction of the fibres towards the light source. This system supports large-amplitude motion, fast response, precise control over shape, as well as weight-lifting experiments in water and air.

  12. Lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behaviour in amphiphile-protic ionic liquid systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengfei; Greaves, Tamar L; Fong, Celesta; Caruso, Rachel A; Drummond, Calum J

    2012-03-21

    Approximate partial phase diagrams for nine amphiphile-protic ionic liquid (PIL) systems have been determined by synchrotron source small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and cross polarised optical microscopy. The binary phase diagrams of some common cationic (hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, CTAC, and hexadecylpyridinium bromide, HDPB) and nonionic (polyoxyethylene (10) oleyl ether, Brij 97, and Pluronic block copolymer, P123) amphiphiles with the PILs, ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), ethanolammonium nitrate (EOAN) and diethanolammonium formate (DEOAF), have been studied. The phase diagrams were constructed for concentrations from 10 wt% to 80 wt% amphiphile, in the temperature range 25 °C to >100 °C. Lyotropic liquid crystalline phases (hexagonal, cubic and lamellar) were formed at high surfactant concentrations (typically >50 wt%), whereas at <40 wt%, only micelles or polydisperse crystals were present. With the exception of Brij 97, the thermal stability of the phases formed by these surfactants persisted to temperatures above 100 °C. The phase behaviour of amphiphile-PIL systems was interpreted by considering the PIL cohesive energy, liquid nanoscale order, polarity and ionicity. For comparison the phase behaviour of the four amphiphiles was also studied in water.

  13. Self-Assembled Amphiphilic Water Oxidation Catalysts: Control of O-O Bond Formation Pathways by Different Aggregation Patterns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing; Jiang, Xin; Guo, Qing; Lei, Tao; Zhang, Li-Ping; Chen, Bin; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2016-05-17

    The oxidation of water to molecular oxygen is the key step to realize water splitting from both biological and chemical perspective. In an effort to understand how water oxidation occurs on a molecular level, a large number of molecular catalysts have been synthesized to find an easy access to higher oxidation states as well as their capacity to make O-O bond. However, most of them function in a mixture of organic solvent and water and the O-O bond formation pathway is still a subject of intense debate. Herein, we design the first amphiphilic Ru-bda (H2 bda=2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid) water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) of formula [Ru(II) (bda)(4-OTEG-pyridine)2 ] (1, OTEG=OCH2 CH2 OCH2 CH2 OCH3 ) and [Ru(II) (bda)(PySO3 Na)2 ] (2, PySO3 (-) =pyridine-3-sulfonate), which possess good solubility in water. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), critical aggregation concentration (CAC) experiments and product analysis demonstrate that they enable to self-assemble in water and form the O-O bond through different routes even though they have the same bda(2-) backbone. This work illustrates for the first time that the O-O bond formation pathway can be regulated by the interaction of ancillary ligands at supramolecular level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Sphere-to-rod transition of non-surface-active amphiphilic diblock copolymer micelles: a small-angle neutron scattering study.

    PubMed

    Kaewsaiha, Ploysai; Matsumoto, Kozo; Matsuoka, Hideki

    2007-08-28

    Micellization behavior of amphiphilic diblock copolymers with strong acid groups, poly(hydrogenated isoprene)-block-poly(styrenesulfonate), was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). We have reported previously (Kaewsaiha, P.; Matsumoto, K.; Matsuoka, H. Langmuir 2005, 21, 9938) that this strongly ionic amphiphilic diblock copolymer shows almost no surface activity but forms micelles in water. In this study, the size, shape, and internal structures of the micelles formed by these unique copolymers in aqueous solution were duly investigated. The SANS data were well described by the theoretical form factor of a core-shell model and the Pedersen core-corona model. The micellar shape strongly depends on the hydrophobic chain length of the block copolymer. The polymer with the shortest hydrophobic chain was suggested to form spherical micelles, whereas the scattering curves of the longer hydrophobic chain polymers showed a q-1 dependence, reflecting the formation of rodlike micelles. Furthermore, the addition of salt at high concentration also induced the sphere-to-rod transition in micellar shape as a result of the shielding effect of electrostatic repulsion. The corona thickness was almost constant up to the critical salt concentration (around 0.2 M) and then decreased with further increases in salt concentration, which is in qualitatively agreement with existing theories. The spherical/rodlike micelle ratio was also constant up to the critical salt concentration and then decreased. The micelle size and shape of this unique polymer could be described by the common concept of the packing parameter, but the anomalously stable nature of the micelle (up to 1 M NaCl) is a special characteristic.

  15. Revisiting shape selectivity in liquid chromatography for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - six-ring and seven-ring Cata-condensed PAH isomers of molecular mass 328 Da and 378 Da.

    PubMed

    Oña-Ruales, Jorge O; Sander, Lane C; Wilson, Walter B; Wise, Stephen A

    2018-01-01

    The relationship of reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) retention on a polymeric C 18 stationary phase and the shape of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated for three-ring to seven-ring cata-condensed isomers. We report the first RPLC separation for six-ring and seven-ring cata-condensed PAH isomers. Correlations of LC retention and shape parameters (length-to-breath ratio, L/B and thickness, T) were investigated for 2 three-ring isomers (molecular mass 178 Da), 5 four-ring isomers (molecular mass 228 Da), 11 five-ring isomers (molecular mass 278 Da), 17 six-ring isomers (molecular mass 328 Da), and 20 seven-ring isomers (molecular mass 378 Da). Significant linear correlations were found for all isomer groups (r = 0.71 to 0.94). Nonplanarity of the PAH isomers was found to influence retention (i.e., nonplanar isomers eluting earlier than expected based on L/B) and linear correlations of retention vs. T for isomer groups containing nonplanar isomers were significant (r = 0.71 to 0.86). Graphical abstract.

  16. Formation of nanophases in epoxy thermosets containing amphiphilic block copolymers with linear and star-like topologies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Chongyin; Cong, Houluo; Li, Lei; Zheng, Sixun; Li, Xiuhong; Wang, Jie

    2013-07-11

    In this work, we investigated the effect of topological structures of block copolymers on the formation of the nanophase in epoxy thermosets containing amphiphilic block copolymers. Two block copolymers composed of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl acrylate) (PTFEA) blocks were synthesized to possess linear and star-shaped topologies. The star-shaped block copolymer composed a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) core and eight poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl acrylate) (PCL-b-PTFEA) diblock copolymer arms. Both block copolymers were synthesized via the combination of ring-opening polymerization and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer/macromolecular design via the interchange of xanthate (RAFT/MADIX) process; they were controlled to have identical compositions of copolymerization and lengths of blocks. Upon incorporating both block copolymers into epoxy thermosets, the spherical PTFEA nanophases were formed in all the cases. However, the sizes of PTFEA nanophases from the star-like block copolymer were significantly lower than those from the linear diblock copolymer. The difference in the nanostructures gave rise to the different glass transition behavior of the nanostructured thermosets. The dependence of PTFEA nanophases on the topologies of block copolymers is interpreted in terms of the conformation of the miscible subchain (viz. PCL) at the surface of PTFEA microdomains and the restriction of POSS cages on the demixing of the thermoset-philic block (viz. PCL).

  17. Hybrid bone implants: self-assembly of peptide amphiphile nanofibers within porous titanium.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, Timothy D; Guler, Mustafa O; Oppenheimer, Scott M; Mata, Alvaro; Satcher, Robert L; Dunand, David C; Stupp, Samuel I

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few decades there has been great interest in the use of orthopedic and dental implants that integrate into tissue by promoting bone ingrowth or bone adhesion, thereby eliminating the need for cement fixation. However, strategies to create bioactive implant surfaces to direct cellular activity and mineralization leading to osteointegration are lacking. We report here on a method to prepare a hybrid bone implant material consisting of a Ti-6Al-4V foam, whose 52% porosity is filled with a peptide amphiphile (PA) nanofiber matrix. These PA nanofibers can be highly bioactive by molecular design, and are used here as a strategy to transform an inert titanium foam into a potentially bioactive implant. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy, we show that PA molecules self-assemble into a nanofiber matrix within the pores of the metallic foam, fully occupying the foam's interconnected porosity. Furthermore, the method allows the encapsulation of cells within the bioactive matrix, and under appropriate conditions the nanofibers can nucleate mineralization of calcium phosphate phases with a Ca:P ratio that corresponds to that of hydroxyapatite. Cell encapsulation was quantified using a DNA measuring assay and qualitatively verified by SEM and confocal microscopy. An in vivo experiment was performed using a bone plug model in the diaphysis of the hind femurs of a Sprague Dawley rat and examined by histology to evaluate the performance of these hybrid systems after 4 weeks of implantation. Preliminary results demonstrate de novo bone formation around and inside the implant, vascularization around the implant, as well as the absence of a cytotoxic response. The PA-Ti hybrid strategy could be potentially tailored to initiate mineralization and direct a cellular response from the host tissue into porous implants to form new bone and thereby improve fixation, osteointegration, and long term stability of implants.

  18. Molecular aggregation of humic substances

    Wershaw, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) form molecular aggregates in solution and on mineral surfaces. Elucidation of the mechanism of formation of these aggregates is important for an understanding of the interactions of HS in soils arid natural waters. The HS are formed mainly by enzymatic depolymerization and oxidation of plant biopolymers. These reactions transform the aromatic and lipid plant components into amphiphilic molecules, that is, molecules that consist of separate hydrophobic (nonpolar) and hydrophilic (polar) parts. The nonpolar parts of the molecules are composed of relatively unaltered segments of plant polymers and the polar parts of carboxylic acid groups. These amphiphiles form membrane-like aggregates on mineral surfaces and micelle-like aggregates in solution. The exterior surfaces of these aggregates are hydrophilic, and the interiors constitute separate hydrophobic liquid-like phases.

  19. Tuning peptide amphiphile supramolecular structure for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashuck, Eugene Thomas, III

    The use of biomaterials in regenerative medicine has been an active area of research for more than a decade. Peptide amphiphiles, which are short peptide sequences coupled to alkyl tails, have been studied in the Stupp group since the beginning of the decade and been used for a variety of biomedical applications. Most of the work has focused on the bioactive epitopes places on the periphery of the PA molecules, but the interior amino acids, known as the beta-sheet region, give the PA nanofiber gel much of its mechanical strength. To study the important parameters in the beta-sheet region, six PA molecules were constructed to determine the influence of beta-sheet length and order of the amino acids in the beta-sheet. It was found that having beta-sheet forming amino acids near the center of the fiber improves PA gel stiffness, and that having extra amino acids that have preferences for other secondary structures, like alpha-helix decreased the gels stiffness. Using FTIR and circular dichroism it was found that the mechanical properties are influenced by the amount of twist in the beta-sheet, and PAs that have more twisted beta-sheets form weaker gels. The effect amino acid properties have on peptide amphiphile self-assembly where studied by synthesizining molecules with varying side group size and hydrophobicity. It was found that smaller amino acids lead to stiffer gels and when two amino acids had the same size the amino acid with the larger beta-sheet propensity lead to a stiffer gel. Furthermore, small changes in peptide structure were found to lead to big changes in nanostructure, as leucine and isoleucine, which have the same size but slightly different structures, form flat ribbons and cylindrical nanofibers, respectively. Phenylalanine and alanine were studied more indepth because they represent the effects of adding an aromatic group to amino acids in the beta-sheet regon. These phenylalanine PAs formed short, twisted ribbons when freshly dissolved in water

  20. Amphiphilic phase-transforming catalysts for transesterification of triglycerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaratna, Gayan Ivantha

    Heterogeneous catalytic reactions that involve immiscible liquid-phase reactants are challenging to conduct due to limitations associated with mass transport. Nevertheless, there are numerous reactions such as esterification, transesterification, etherification, and hydrolysis where two immiscible liquid reactants (such as polar and non-polar liquids) need to be brought into contact with a catalyst. With the intention of alleviating mass transport issues associated with such systems but affording the ability to separate the catalyst once the reaction is complete, the overall goal of this study is geared toward developing a catalyst that has emulsification properties as well as the ability to phase-transfer (from liquid-phase to solid-phase) while the reaction is ongoing and evaluating the effectiveness of such a catalytic process in a practical reaction. To elucidate this concept, the transesterification reaction was selected. Metal-alkoxides that possess acidic and basic properties (to catalyze the reaction), amphiphilic properties (to stabilize the alcohol/oil emulsion) and that can undergo condensation polymerization when heated (to separate as a solid subsequent to the completion of the reaction) were used to test the concept. Studies included elucidating the effect of metal sites and alkoxide sites and their concentration effects on transesterification reaction, effect of various metal alkoxide groups on the phase stability of the reactant system, and kinetic effects of the reaction system. The studies revealed that several transition-metal alkoxides, especially, titanium and yttrium based, responded positively to this reaction system. These alkoxides were able to be added to the reaction medium in liquid phase and were able to stabilize the alcohol/oil system. The alkoxides were selective to the transesterification reaction giving a range of ester yields (depending on the catalyst used). It was also observed that transition-metal alkoxides were able to be

  1. Biophysical mechanisms of endotoxin neutralization by cationic amphiphilic peptides.

    PubMed

    Kaconis, Yani; Kowalski, Ina; Howe, Jörg; Brauser, Annemarie; Richter, Walter; Razquin-Olazarán, Iosu; Iñigo-Pestaña, Melania; Garidel, Patrick; Rössle, Manfred; Martinez de Tejada, Guillermo; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2011-06-08

    Bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides (LPS)) are strong elicitors of the human immune system by interacting with serum and membrane proteins such as lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and CD14 with high specificity. At LPS concentrations as low as 0.3 ng/ml, such interactions may lead to severe pathophysiological effects, including sepsis and septic shock. One approach to inhibit an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction is the use of appropriate polycationic and amphiphilic antimicrobial peptides, here called synthetic anti-LPS peptides (SALPs). We designed various SALP structures and investigated their ability to inhibit LPS-induced cytokine secretion in vitro, their protective effect in a mouse model of sepsis, and their cytotoxicity in physiological human cells. Using a variety of biophysical techniques, we investigated selected SALPs with considerable differences in their biological responses to characterize and understand the mechanism of LPS inactivation by SALPs. Our investigations show that neutralization of LPS by peptides is associated with a fluidization of the LPS acyl chains, a strong exothermic Coulomb interaction between the two compounds, and a drastic change of the LPS aggregate type from cubic into multilamellar, with an increase in the aggregate sizes, inhibiting the binding of LBP and other mammalian proteins to the endotoxin. At the same time, peptide binding to phospholipids of human origin (e.g., phosphatidylcholine) does not cause essential structural changes, such as changes in membrane fluidity and bilayer structure. The absence of cytotoxicity is explained by the high specificity of the interaction of the peptides with LPS. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biophysical Mechanisms of Endotoxin Neutralization by Cationic Amphiphilic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kaconis, Yani; Kowalski, Ina; Howe, Jörg; Brauser, Annemarie; Richter, Walter; Razquin-Olazarán, Iosu; Iñigo-Pestaña, Melania; Garidel, Patrick; Rössle, Manfred; Martinez de Tejada, Guillermo; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides (LPS)) are strong elicitors of the human immune system by interacting with serum and membrane proteins such as lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and CD14 with high specificity. At LPS concentrations as low as 0.3 ng/ml, such interactions may lead to severe pathophysiological effects, including sepsis and septic shock. One approach to inhibit an uncontrolled inflammatory reaction is the use of appropriate polycationic and amphiphilic antimicrobial peptides, here called synthetic anti-LPS peptides (SALPs). We designed various SALP structures and investigated their ability to inhibit LPS-induced cytokine secretion in vitro, their protective effect in a mouse model of sepsis, and their cytotoxicity in physiological human cells. Using a variety of biophysical techniques, we investigated selected SALPs with considerable differences in their biological responses to characterize and understand the mechanism of LPS inactivation by SALPs. Our investigations show that neutralization of LPS by peptides is associated with a fluidization of the LPS acyl chains, a strong exothermic Coulomb interaction between the two compounds, and a drastic change of the LPS aggregate type from cubic into multilamellar, with an increase in the aggregate sizes, inhibiting the binding of LBP and other mammalian proteins to the endotoxin. At the same time, peptide binding to phospholipids of human origin (e.g., phosphatidylcholine) does not cause essential structural changes, such as changes in membrane fluidity and bilayer structure. The absence of cytotoxicity is explained by the high specificity of the interaction of the peptides with LPS. PMID:21641310

  3. Colloidosomes formed by nonpolar/polar/nonpolar nanoball amphiphiles

    SciT

    Chang, Hung-Yu; Sheng, Yu-Jane, E-mail: yjsheng@ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: hktsao@cc.ncu.edu.tw; Tu, Sheng-Hung

    2014-08-07

    Fullerene-based amphiphiles are able to form bilayer vesicles in aqueous solution. In this study, the self-assembly behavior of polymer-tethered nanoballs (NBs) with nonpolar/polar/nonpolar (n-p-n{sup ′}) motif in a selective solvent is investigated by dissipative particle dynamics. A model NB bears two hydrophobic polymeric arms (n{sup ′}-part) tethered on an extremely hydrophobic NB (n-part) with hydrophilic patch (p-part) patterned on its surface. Dependent on the hydrophobicity and length of tethered arms, three types of aggregates are exhibited, including NB vesicle, core-shell micelle, and segmented-worm. NB vesicles are developed for a wide range of hydrophobic arm lengths. The presence of tethered armsmore » perturbs the bilayer structure formed by NBs. The structural properties including the order parameter, membrane thickness, and area density of the inner leaflet decrease with increasing the arm length. These results indicate that for NBs with longer arms, the extent of interdigitation in the membrane rises so that the overcrowded arms in the inner corona are relaxed. The transport and mechanical properties are evaluated as well. As the arm length grows, the permeability increases significantly because the steric bulk of tethered arms loosens the packing of NBs. By contrast, the membrane tension decreases owing to the reduction of NB/solvent contacts by the polymer corona. Although fusion can reduce membrane tension, NB vesicles show strong resistance to fusion. Moreover, the size-dependent behavior observed in small liposomes is not significant for NB vesicles due to isotropic geometry of NB. Our simulation results are consistent with the experimental findings.« less

  4. Maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphiles for solubilization, stabilization and crystallization of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Rana, Rohini R; Gotfryd, Kamil; Chandra, Richa; Goren, Michael A; Kruse, Andrew C; Nurva, Shailika; Loland, Claus J; Pierre, Yves; Drew, David; Popot, Jean-Luc; Picot, Daniel; Fox, Brian G; Guan, Lan; Gether, Ulrik; Byrne, Bernadette; Kobilka, Brian; Gellman, Samuel H

    2010-12-01

    The understanding of integral membrane protein (IMP) structure and function is hampered by the difficulty of handling these proteins. Aqueous solubilization, necessary for many types of biophysical analysis, generally requires a detergent to shield the large lipophilic surfaces of native IMPs. Many proteins remain difficult to study owing to a lack of suitable detergents. We introduce a class of amphiphiles, each built around a central quaternary carbon atom derived from neopentyl glycol, with hydrophilic groups derived from maltose. Representatives of this maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphile family show favorable behavior relative to conventional detergents, as manifested in multiple membrane protein systems, leading to enhanced structural stability and successful crystallization. MNG amphiphiles are promising tools for membrane protein science because of the ease with which they may be prepared and the facility with which their structures may be varied.

  5. Maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphiles for solubilization, stabilization and crystallization of membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rasmussen, Søren G. F.; Rana, Rohini; Gotfryd, Kamil; Chandra, Richa; Goren, Michael A.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Nurva, Shailika; Loland, Claus J.; Pierre, Yves; Drew, David; Popot, Jean-Luc; Picot, Daniel; Fox, Brian G.; Guan, Lan; Gether, Ulrik; Byrne, Bernadette; Kobilka, Brian; Gellman, Samuel H.

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of integral membrane protein (IMP) structure and function is hampered by the difficulty of handling these proteins. Aqueous solubilization, necessary for many types of biophysical analysis, generally requires a detergent to shield the large lipophilic surfaces displayed by native IMPs. Many proteins remain difficult to study owing to a lack of suitable detergents. We introduce a class of amphiphiles, each of which is built around a central quaternary carbon atom derived from neopentyl glycol, with hydrophilic groups derived from maltose. Representatives of this maltose-neopentyl glycol (MNG) amphiphile family display favorable behavior relative to conventional detergents, as tested on multiple membrane protein systems, leading to enhanced structural stability and successful crystallization. MNG amphiphiles are promising tools for membrane protein science because of the ease with which they may be prepared and the facility with which their structures may be varied. PMID:21037590

  6. Tuneable enhancement of the salt and thermal stability of polymeric micelles by cyclized amphiphiles

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Tezuka, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic molecules provide better stability for their aggregates. Typically in nature, the unique cyclic cell membrane lipids allow thermophilic archaea to inhabit extreme conditions. By mimicking the biological design, the robustness of self-assembled synthetic nanostructures is expected to be improved. Here we report topology effects by cyclized polymeric amphiphiles against their linear counterparts, demonstrating a drastic enhancement in the thermal, as well as salt stability of self-assembled micelles. Furthermore, through coassembly of the linear and cyclic amphiphiles, the stability was successfully tuned for a wide range of temperatures and salt concentrations. The enhanced thermal/salt stability was exploited in a halogen exchange reaction to stimulate the catalytic activity. The mechanism for the enhancement was also investigated. These topology effects by the cyclic amphiphiles offer unprecedented opportunities in polymer materials design unattainable by traditional means. PMID:23481382

  7. Amphiphilic Polysaccharide Block Copolymers for pH-Responsive Micellar Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Breitenbach, Benjamin B; Schmid, Ira; Wich, Peter R

    2017-09-11

    A full polysaccharide amphiphilic block copolymer was prepared from end group-functionalized dextrans using copper-mediated azide-alkyne click chemistry. Sufficient modification of the reducing end in both blocks was achieved by microwave-enhanced reductive amination in a borate-buffer/methanol solvent system. The combination of a hydrophilic dextran block with a hydrophobic acetalated dextran block results in an amphiphilic structure that turns water-soluble upon acid treatment. The material has a low critical micelle concentration and self-assembles in water to spherical micellar nanoparticles. The formed nanoparticles have a narrow size distribution below 70 nm in diameter and disassemble in slightly acidic conditions. The amphiphilic polysaccharide system shows low toxicity and can stabilize the hydrophobic model drug curcumin in aqueous solutions over extended time periods.

  8. Preparation and properties of immobilized pectinase onto the amphiphilic PS-b-PAA diblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhongli; Bi, Shuxian

    2007-01-30

    Well-defined amphiphilic block copolymers poly(styrene-b-acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) with controlled block length were synthesized using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Pectinase enzyme was immobilized on the well-defined amphiphilic block copolymers PS-b-PAA. The carboxyl groups on the amphiphilic PS-b-PAA diblock copolymers present a very simple, mild, and time-saving process for enzyme immobilization. Various characteristics of immobilized pectinase such as the pH and temperature stability, thermal stability, and storage stability were valuated. Among them the pH optimum and temperature optimum of free and immobilized pectinase were found to be pH 6.0 and 65 degrees C.

  9. Sacrificial amphiphiles: Eco-friendly chemical herders as oil spill mitigation chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deeksha; Sarker, Bivas; Thadikaran, Keith; John, Vijay; Maldarelli, Charles; John, George

    2015-06-01

    Crude oil spills are a major threat to marine biota and the environment. When light crude oil spills on water, it forms a thin layer that is difficult to clean by any methods of oil spill response. Under these circumstances, a special type of amphiphile termed as "chemical herder" is sprayed onto the water surrounding the spilled oil. The amphiphile forms a monomolecular layer on the water surface, reducing the air-sea surface tension and causing the oil slick to retract into a thick mass that can be burnt in situ. The current best-known chemical herders are chemically stable and nonbiodegradable, and hence remain in the marine ecosystem for years. We architect an eco-friendly, sacrificial, and effective green herder derived from the plant-based small-molecule phytol, which is abundant in the marine environment, as an alternative to the current chemical herders. Phytol consists of a regularly branched chain of isoprene units that form the hydrophobe of the amphiphile; the chain is esterified to cationic groups to form the polar group. The ester linkage is proximal to an allyl bond in phytol, which facilitates the hydrolysis of the amphiphile after adsorption to the sea surface into the phytol hydrophobic tail, which along with the unhydrolyzed herder, remains on the surface to maintain herding action, and the cationic group, which dissolves into the water column. Eventual degradation of the phytol tail and dilution of the cation make these sacrificial amphiphiles eco-friendly. The herding behavior of phytol-based amphiphiles is evaluated as a function of time, temperature, and water salinity to examine their versatility under different conditions, ranging from ice-cold water to hot water. The green chemical herder retracted oil slicks by up to ~500, 700, and 2500% at 5°, 20°, and 35°C, respectively, during the first 10 min of the experiment, which is on a par with the current best chemical herders in practice.

  10. Sacrificial amphiphiles: Eco-friendly chemical herders as oil spill mitigation chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deeksha; Sarker, Bivas; Thadikaran, Keith; John, Vijay; Maldarelli, Charles; John, George

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil spills are a major threat to marine biota and the environment. When light crude oil spills on water, it forms a thin layer that is difficult to clean by any methods of oil spill response. Under these circumstances, a special type of amphiphile termed as “chemical herder” is sprayed onto the water surrounding the spilled oil. The amphiphile forms a monomolecular layer on the water surface, reducing the air–sea surface tension and causing the oil slick to retract into a thick mass that can be burnt in situ. The current best-known chemical herders are chemically stable and nonbiodegradable, and hence remain in the marine ecosystem for years. We architect an eco-friendly, sacrificial, and effective green herder derived from the plant-based small-molecule phytol, which is abundant in the marine environment, as an alternative to the current chemical herders. Phytol consists of a regularly branched chain of isoprene units that form the hydrophobe of the amphiphile; the chain is esterified to cationic groups to form the polar group. The ester linkage is proximal to an allyl bond in phytol, which facilitates the hydrolysis of the amphiphile after adsorption to the sea surface into the phytol hydrophobic tail, which along with the unhydrolyzed herder, remains on the surface to maintain herding action, and the cationic group, which dissolves into the water column. Eventual degradation of the phytol tail and dilution of the cation make these sacrificial amphiphiles eco-friendly. The herding behavior of phytol-based amphiphiles is evaluated as a function of time, temperature, and water salinity to examine their versatility under different conditions, ranging from ice-cold water to hot water. The green chemical herder retracted oil slicks by up to ~500, 700, and 2500% at 5°, 20°, and 35°C, respectively, during the first 10 min of the experiment, which is on a par with the current best chemical herders in practice. PMID:26601197

  11. Modulating the forces between self-assembling molecules to control the shape of vesicles and the mechanics and alignment of nanofiber networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Megan Ann

    One of the great challenges in supramolecular chemistry is the design of molecules that can self-assemble into functional aggregates with well-defined three-dimensional structures and bulk material properties. Since the self-assembly of nanostructures is greatly influenced by both the nature of the self-assembling components and the environmental conditions in which the components assemble, this work explores how changes in the molecular design and the environment affect the properties of self-assembled structures. We first explore how to control the mechanical properties of self-assembled fibrillar networks by changing environmental conditions. We report here on how changing pH, screening ions, and solution temperature affect the gelation, stiffness, and response to deformation of peptide amphiphile gels. Although the morphology of PA gels formed by charge neutralization and salt-mediated charge screening are similar by electron microscopy, rheological measurements indicate that the calcium-mediated ionic bridges in CaCl2-PA gels form stronger intra- and inter-fiber crosslinks than the hydrogen bonds formed by the protonated carboxylic acid residues in HCl-PA gels. In contrast, the structure of PA gels changes drastically when the PA solution is annealed prior to gel formation. Annealed PA solutions are birefringent and can form viscoelastic strings of aligned nanofibers when manually dragged across a thin film of CaCl2. These aligned arrays of PA nanofibers hold great promise in controlling the orientation of cells in three-dimensions. Separately, we applied the principles of molecular design to create buckled membrane nanostructures that mimic the shape of viruses. When oppositely charged amphiphilic molecules are mixed they can form vesicles with a periodic two-dimensional ionic lattice that opposes the membrane's natural curvature and can result in vesicle buckling. Our results demonstrate that a large +3 to -1 charge imbalance between the cationic and anionic

  12. The effect of amphiphilic polymers with a continuous amphiphilicity profile on the membrane properties in a bicontinuous microemulsions studied by neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemmer, Helge F. M.; Frielinghaus, Henrich; Allgaier, Jürgen; Ohl, Michael; Holderer, Olaf

    2017-06-01

    Microemulsion systems consisting of oil, water and surfactant have been studied with neutron scattering techniques. The amount of surfactant needed to form a microemulsion can be dramatically reduced by the addition of small amounts of amphiphilic block copolymers (boosting effect). Here, we studied the influence of block copolymers with gradually changing amphiphilicity from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS), neutron spin echo spectroscopy (NSE) and phase diagram measurements in combination give access to the elastic properties of the membrane. The underlying NSE experiments for this interpretation rely on smallest changes of the relaxation curves (of ca. 1% steps) for still small changes of the bending rigidity (of ca. 10% steps). This high reliability of the experiments conducted at the SNS-NSE displays the accuracy of the instrument itself and the latest developments of the evaluation software, which were necessary to interpret such tiny changes of the bending rigidity reliably.

  13. Resilient self-assembling hydrogels from block copolypeptide amphiphiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Andrew Paul

    The ability to produce well defined synthetic polypeptides has been greatly improved by the discovery of transition metal species that mediate the controlled polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs). These metal species create a living polymerization system by producing control over chain length, low polydispersities, and the ability to form complex block architectures. We have applied this system to the synthesis of block copolypeptide amphiphiles. Initial block copolymers synthesized were composed of hydrophilic, cationic poly(L-Lysine) combined with hydrophobic, alpha-helical poly(L-Leucine). These Lysine- block-Leucine copolypeptides were found to form stiff, clear hydrogels at low concentration (˜1 wt%) in low ionic strength water. Based on this unexpected result we used the flexibility of our transition metal polymerization chemistry to better understand the nature and mechanisms of gel formation in these materials. Systematic changes to the original Lysine-block-Leucine copolypeptides were made by altering overall chain size, relative block length, polyelectrolyte charge, and hydrophobic secondary structure. Rheological characterization revealed that the strength of these hydrogels was primarily dependent on degree of polymerization, relative block length, and a well ordered secondary structure in the hydrophobic segment. The Lysine-block-Leucine hydrogels were formed by direct addition of water to dry polypeptide material which swelled to homogeneously fill the entire volume of liquid with no special processing. CryoTEM showed a percolating cellular network at ˜100nm that appears to be comprised of both membranes and fibers. Larger length scales studied with Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy revealed a spontaneously formed microporous network with large (˜10mum) water rich voids. These hydrogels also displayed interesting mechanical properties including rapid recovery of solid like behavior after being sheared to a liquid and mechanical stability

  14. Amphiphilic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks using pulverized rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahidi, Nima

    Scrap rubber materials provide a significant challenge to either reuse or safe disposal. Every year, millions of tires are discarded to landfills in the United States, consuming a staggering amount of land space, creating a high risk for large fires, breeding mosquitoes that spread diseases, and wasting the planet's natural resources. This situation cannot be sustained. The challenge of reusing scrap rubber materials is mainly due to the crosslinked structure of vulcanized rubber that prevent them from melting and further processing for reuse. The most feasible recycling approach is believed to be a process in which the vulcanized rubber is first pulverized into a fine powder and then incorporated into new products. The production of fine rubber particles is generally accomplished through the use of a cryogenic process that is costly. Therefore, development of a cost effective technology that utilizes a large quantity of the scrap rubber materials to produce high value added materials is an essential element in maintaining a sustainable solution to rubber recycling. In this research, a cost effective pulverization process, solid state shear extrusion (SSSE), was modified and used for continuous pulverization of the rubber into fine particles. In the modified SSSE process, pulverization takes place at high compressive shear forces and a controlled temperature. Furthermore, an innovative particle modification process was developed to enhance the chemical structure and surface properties of the rubber particles for manufacturing of high value added products. Modification of rubber particles was accomplished through the polymerization of a hydrophilic monomer mixture within the intermolecular structure of the hydrophobic rubber particles. The resulting composite particles are considered as amphiphilic particulate phase semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (PPSIPNs). The modified rubber particles are water dispersible and suitable for use in a variety of aqueous media

  15. Self-assembling peptide amphiphile nanostructures for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukasene, Stephen

    The application of nanotechnology to cancer therapy shows great promise for reducing the burden of the disease. By virtue of their size, nanoscale objects preferentially accumulate in tumor tissue through an enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, to fully overcome the issues that limit current cancer treatments, viable nanostructures must also impart multifunctionality and be fully compatible with their biological surrounds. The self-assembling peptide amphiphile (PA) materials studied extensively in the Stupp Research Group form very biocompatible high aspect ratio nanostructures that meet these criteria. This thesis investigates the development of PA nanostructures designed to treat cancer. We first look to use the PA as a drug delivery vehicle by entrapping a small hydrophobic anti-cancer drug, camptothecin, in the core of the nanostructures. Using a solvent evaporation technique to load the drug into the PA nanofibers, we are able to improve the aqueous solubility of the molecule by nearly 30-fold. TEM and AFM studies show that entrapment of drug molecules does not disrupt the self-assembled morphology of the nanofiber. In vitro and in vivo studies are also conducted to demonstrate the bioactivity of the drug after its entrapment. As a potential platform for novel therapeutics, we next develop techniques for using light irradiation to trigger self-assembly inside the confined space of liposomes. We encapsulate PA monomers that assemble under acidic conditions along with a photoacid generator inside liposomes. Upon exposure to 254 nm light, the PA monomers self assemble inside the liposome to form nanostructures, which we observe through a quick freeze/deep etch technique that allows us to look inside the liposomes by SEM and TEM. Last of all, the development and discovery of epitopes for targeting PA nanostructures to tumors are explored. Using phage display technology we generate two groups of peptide sequences, one of which can potentially

  16. Glucose-Neopentyl Glycol (GNG) Amphiphiles for Membrane Protein Solubilization, Stabilization and Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Rohini R.; Gotfryd, Kamil; Rasmussen, Søren G. F.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Cho, Kyung Ho; Capaldi, Stefano; Carlsson, Emil; Kobilka, Brian; Loland, Claus J.; Gether, Ulrik; Banerjee, Surajit

    2012-01-01

    The development of a new class of surfactants for membrane protein manipulation, “GNG amphiphiles”, is reported. These amphiphiles display promising behavior for membrane proteins, as demonstrated recently by the high resolution structure of a sodium-pumping pyrophosphatase reported by Kellosalo et al. PMID:23165475

  17. In situ SERS detection of emulsifiers at lipid interfaces using label-free amphiphilic gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Driver, Michael; Winuprasith, Thunnalin; Zheng, Jinkai; McClements, David Julian; He, Lili

    2014-10-21

    Herein, we fabricated amphiphilic gold nanoparticles (GNPs) that can self-assemble at oil-water interfaces. We applied those GNPs for in situ SERS detection of emulsifier molecules within the interfacial region of oil in water (O/W) emulsion systems.

  18. The amphiphilic action of vasopressin and analogues on the plasma membrane of Amoeba proteus.

    PubMed

    Mayers, P; Couillard, P

    1990-10-01

    Arginine (AVP) and lysine vasopressin induce a weak but statistically significant increase in the water permeability of Amoeba proteus plasmalemma. Vasotocin and deaminovasopressin, which share the hydroosmotic properties of AVP on classical vertebrate systems, are without effects on Amoeba while SKF 101926, a synthetic AVP antagonist, is even more effective than the parent compound. Theophyllin and dibutyryl-cAMP do not affect AVP action on Amoeba. Lithium, oxytocin, and carbachol are also without effect. Thus, it is unlikely that either V2 (cAMP) or V1 (phosphatidylinositol choline) receptors are involved. A clear correlation has been found between the amphiphilic character of tested peptides and their effect on Amoeba water permeability. Classical amphiphilic peptides, melittin, mastoparan, and fragment 1-8 of alpha-neoendorphin, also increased water permeability in Amoeba. It is known that vasopressin can interact with artificial lipid membranes, increasing their permeability to water. We propose that amphiphilic members of the AVP family interact directly with the lipid phase of the Amoeba membrane. Their incorporation within the lipid bilayer may cause local disruptions or may create micellar water channels as shown for other amphiphilic proteins. Our observations provide a model for the early evolution of peptide hormone systems, preceding the appearance of specific membrane receptors and associated second messenger amplifying mechanisms.

  19. The influence of the structural orientation of amide linkers on the serum compatibility and lung transfection properties of cationic amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Srujan, Marepally; Chandrashekhar, Voshavar; Reddy, Rakesh C; Prabhakar, Rairala; Sreedhar, Bojja; Chaudhuri, Arabinda

    2011-08-01

    Understanding the structural parameters of cationic amphiphiles which can influence gene transfer efficiencies of cationic amphiphiles continues to remain important for designing efficient liposomal gene delivery reagents. Previously we demonstrated the influence of structural orientation of the ester linker (widely used in covalently tethering the polar head and the non-polar tails) in modulating in vitro gene transfer efficiencies of cationic amphiphiles. However, our previously described cationic amphiphiles with ester linkers failed to deliver genes under in vivo conditions. Herein we report on the development of a highly serum compatible cationic amphiphile with circulation stable amide linker which shows remarkable selectivity in transfecting mouse lung. We also demonstrate that reversing structural orientation of the amide linker adversely affects both serum compatibility and the lung selective gene transfer property. Dynamic laser light scattering and atomic force microscopic studies revealed smaller average hydrodynamic sizes of the liposomes of transfection efficient lipid than those for the liposomes of transfection incompetent analog (148 ± 1 nm vs 214 ± 4 nm). Average surface potential of the liposomes of transfection competent amphiphiles were found to be significantly higher than that for the liposomes of transfection incompetent analog (10.7 ± 5.4 mV vs 2.8 ± 1.3 mV, respectively). Findings in fluorescence resonance energy transfer and dye entrapment experiments support lower rigidity and higher biomembrane fusogenicity of the liposomes of the transfection efficient amphiphiles. Importantly, cationic lipoplexes of the novel amide-linker based amphiphile exhibited higher mouse lung selective gene transfer properties than DOTAP, one of the widely used commercially available liposomal lung transfection kits. In summary, the present findings demonstrate for the first time that amide linker structural orientation profoundly influences the serum

  20. Side Chain Degradable Cationic-Amphiphilic Polymers with Tunable Hydrophobicity Show in Vivo Activity.

    PubMed

    Uppu, Divakara S S M; Samaddar, Sandip; Hoque, Jiaul; Konai, Mohini M; Krishnamoorthy, Paramanandham; Shome, Bibek R; Haldar, Jayanta

    2016-09-12

    Cationic-amphiphilic antibacterial polymers with optimal amphiphilicity generally target the bacterial membranes instead of mammalian membranes. To date, this balance has been achieved by varying the cationic charge or side chain hydrophobicity in a variety of cationic-amphiphilic polymers. Optimal hydrophobicity of cationic-amphiphilic polymers has been considered as the governing factor for potent antibacterial activity yet minimal mammalian cell toxicity. However, the concomitant role of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity with constant cationic charge in the interactions of antibacterial polymers with bacterial membranes is not understood. Also, degradable polymers that result in nontoxic degradation byproducts offer promise as safe antibacterial agents. Here we show that amide- and ester (degradable)-bearing cationic-amphiphilic polymers with tunable side chain hydrophobicity can modulate antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that an amide polymer can be a potent antibacterial agent with lower hydrophobicity whereas the corresponding ester polymer needs a relatively higher hydrophobicity to be as effective as its amide counterpart. Our studies reveal that at higher hydrophobicities both amide and ester polymers have similar profiles of membrane-active antibacterial activity and mammalian cell toxicity. On the contrary, at lower hydrophobicities, amide and ester polymers are less cytotoxic, but the former have potent antibacterial and membrane activity compared to the latter. Incorporation of amide and ester moieties made these polymers side chain degradable, with amide polymers being more stable than the ester polymers. Further, the polymers are less toxic, and their degradation byproducts are nontoxic to mice. More importantly, the optimized amide polymer reduces the bacterial burden of burn wound infections in mice models. Our design introduces a new strategy of interplay between the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions

  1. Inverse hexagonal and cubic micellar lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behaviour of novel double chain sugar-based amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Feast, George C; Lepitre, Thomas; Tran, Nhiem; Conn, Charlotte E; Hutt, Oliver E; Mulet, Xavier; Drummond, Calum J; Savage, G Paul

    2017-03-01

    The lyotropic phase behaviour of a library of sugar-based amphiphiles was investigated using high-throughput small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Double unsaturated-chain monosaccharide amphiphiles formed inverse hexagonal and cubic micellar (Fd3m) lyotropic phases under excess water conditions. A galactose-oleyl amphiphile from the library was subsequently formulated into hexosome nanoparticles, which have potential uses as drug delivery vehicles. The nanoparticles were shown to be stable at elevated temperatures and non-cytotoxic up to at least 200μgmL -1 . Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antimicrobial Polymers Prepared by ROMP with Unprecedented Selectivity: A Molecular Construction Kit Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lienkamp, Karen; Madkour, Ahmad E.; Musante, Ashlan; Nelson, Christopher F.; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic Mimics of Antimicrobial Peptides (SMAMPs) imitate natural host-defense peptides, a vital component of the body’s immune system. This work presents a molecular construction kit that allows the easy and versatile synthesis of a broad variety of facially amphiphilic oxanorbornene-derived monomers. Their ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and deprotection provide several series of SMAMPs. Using amphiphilicity, monomer feed ratio, and molecular weight as parameters, polymers with 533 times higher selectivitiy (selecitviy = hemolytic concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration) for bacteria over mammalian cells were discovered. Some of these polymers were 50 times more selective for Gram-positive over Gram-negative bacteria while other polymers surprisingly showed the opposite preference. This kind of “double selectivity” (bacteria over mammalian and one bacterial type over another) is unprecedented in other polymer systems and is attributed to the monomer’s facial amphiphilicity. PMID:18593128

  3. Development of controlled release formulations of azadirachtin-A employing poly(ethylene glycol) based amphiphilic copolymers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, Najam A; Singh, Manish K; Singh, Mukesh K; Pandey, Alka; Pandey, Ravi P

    2010-05-01

    Controlled release (CR) formulations of azadirachtin-A, a bioactive constituent derived from the seed of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae), have been prepared using commercially available polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and laboratory synthesized poly ethylene glycol-based amphiphilic copolymers. Copolymers of polyethylene glycol and various dimethyl esters, which self assemble into nano micellar aggregates in aqueous media, have been synthesized. The kinetics of azadirachtin-A, release in water from the different formulations was studied. Release from the commercial polyethylene glycol (PEG) formulation was faster than the other CR formulations. The rate of release of encapsulated azadirachtin-A from nano micellar aggregates is reduced by increasing the molecular weight of PEG. The diffusion exponent (n value) of azadirachtin-A, in water ranged from 0.47 to 1.18 in the tested formulations. The release was diffusion controlled with a half release time (t(1/2)) of 3.05 to 42.80 days in water from different matrices. The results suggest that depending upon the polymer matrix used, the application rate of azadirachtin-A can be optimized to achieve insect control at the desired level and period.

  4. Amphiphilic graft copolymers from end-functionalized starches: synthesis, characterization, thin film preparation, and small molecule loading.

    PubMed

    Ryno, Lisa M; Reese, Cassandra; Tolan, McKenzie; O'Brien, Jeffrey; Short, Gabriel; Sorriano, Gerardo; Nettleton, Jason; Fulton, Kayleen; Iovine, Peter M

    2014-08-11

    End-functionalized macromolecular starch reagents, prepared by reductive amination, were grafted onto a urethane-linked polyester-based backbone using copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) chemistry to produce novel amphiphilic hybrid graft copolymers. These copolymers represent the first examples of materials where the pendant chains derived from starch biopolymers have been incorporated into a host polymer by a grafting-to approach. The graft copolymers were prepared in good yields (63-90%) with high grafting efficiencies (66-98%). Rigorous quantitative spectroscopic analyses of both the macromolecular building blocks and the final graft copolymers provide a comprehensive analytical toolbox for deciphering the reaction chemistry. Due to the modular nature of both the urethane-linked polyester synthesis and the postpolymerization modification, the starch content of these novel hybrid graft copolymers was easily tuned from 28-53% (w/w). The uptake of two low molecular weight guest molecules into the hybrid polymer thin films was also studied. It was found that binding of 1-naphthol and pterostilbene correlated linearly with amount of starch present in the hybrid polymer. The newly synthesized graft copolymers were highly processable and thermally stable, therefore, opening up significant opportunities in film and coating applications. These results represent a proof-of-concept system for not only the construction of starch-containing copolymers, but also the loading of these novel polymeric materials with active agents.

  5. Self-Healing Organic Fluorophore of Cyanine-Conjugated Amphiphilic Polypeptide for Near-Infrared Photostable Bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Tuanwei; Liu, Le; Jing, Titao; Ruan, Zheng; Yuan, Pan; Yan, Lifeng

    2018-05-02

    Photobleaching and biotoxicity are the main bottlenecks for organic fluorescent dyes applied in real-time dynamic monitoring of living cells. Here, an unnatural amino acid, 4-nitro-3-phenyl-l-alanine (NPA), was used as a scaffold to covalently link a near-infrared fluorophore Cy5.5 and an amphiphilic polypeptide, poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate]- block-poly[2-amino-N 4 -(2-diisopropylamino-ethyl)-l-aspartic acid] (P(OEGMA) 21 -P(Asp) 16 -iPr), was then conjugated for increasing the photostability and improving the biocompatibility simultaneously. The protective agent of NPA can service as an effective triplet state quenching by intramolecular electron transfer between Cy5.5 and NPA. The less sensitivity of the electron-transfer process for molecular oxygen makes it an ideal photostabilized strategy for fluorophores applied in live-cell imaging. Bonding to copolymer is a common way for hydrophobic dyes to expand their application in biomedical imaging and increase their functionality, depending on the delivery system. The results indicate that Cy5.5-NPA-linked polypeptide copolymer exhibited an enhanced photostability and an excellent biocompatibility, which means this scaffolding strategy has a potential application in fluorescence-guided surgery, lived-cell imaging, and super-resolution microscopy.

  6. A Cytosolic Amphiphilic α-Helix Controls the Activity of the Bile Acid-sensitive Ion Channel (BASIC).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Axel; Löhrer, Daniel; Alsop, Richard J; Lenzig, Pia; Oslender-Bujotzek, Adrienne; Wirtz, Monika; Rheinstädter, Maikel C; Gründer, Stefan; Wiemuth, Dominik

    2016-11-18

    The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the degenerin/epithelial Na + channel (Deg/ENaC) family of ion channels. It is mainly found in bile duct epithelial cells, the intestinal tract, and the cerebellum and is activated by alterations of its membrane environment. Bile acids, one class of putative physiological activators, exert their effect by changing membrane properties, leading to an opening of the channel. The physiological function of BASIC, however, is unknown. Deg/ENaC channels are characterized by a trimeric subunit composition. Each subunit is composed of two transmembrane segments, which are linked by a large extracellular domain. The termini of the channels protrude into the cytosol. Many Deg/ENaC channels contain regulatory domains and sequence motifs within their cytosolic domains. In this study, we show that BASIC contains an amphiphilic α-helical structure within its N-terminal domain. This α-helix binds to the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane and stabilizes a closed state. Truncation of this domain renders the channel hyperactive. Collectively, we identify a cytoplasmic domain, unique to BASIC, that controls channel activity via membrane interaction. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Coordination Polymer Gels with Modular Nanomorphologies, Tunable Emissions, and Stimuli-Responsive Behavior Based on an Amphiphilic Tripodal Gelator.

    PubMed

    Sutar, Papri; Maji, Tapas Kumar

    2017-08-21

    The recent upsurge in research on coordination polymer gels (CPGs) stems from their synthetic modularity, nanoscale processability, and versatile functionalities. Here we report self-assembly of an amphiphilic, tripodal low-molecular weight gelator (L) that consists of 4,4',4-[1,3,5-phenyl-tri(methoxy)]-tris-benzene core and 2,2':6',2″-terpyridyl termini, with different metal ions toward the formation of CPGs that show controllable nanomorphologies, tunable emission, and stimuli-responsive behaviors. L can also act as a selective chemosensor for Zn II with very low limit of detection (0.18 ppm) in aqueous medium. Coordination-driven self-assembly of L with Zn II in H 2 O/MeOH solvent mixture results in a coordination polymer hydrogel (ZnL) that exhibits sheet like morphology and charge-transfer emission. On the other hand, coordination of L with Tb III and Eu III in CHCl 3 /tetrahydrofuran solvent mixture results in green- and red-emissive CPGs, respectively, with nanotubular morphology. Moreover, precise stoichiometric control of L/Eu III /Tb III ratio leads to the formation of bimetallic CPGs that show emissions over a broad spectral range, including white-light-emission. We also explore the multistimuli responsive properties of the white-light-emitting CPG by exploiting the dynamics of Ln III -tpy coordination.

  8. Ultrasonication-enhanced gelation properties of a versatile amphiphilic formamidine-based gelator exhibiting both organogelation and hydrogelation abilities.

    PubMed

    Bachl, Jürgen; Sampedro, Diego; Mayr, Judith; Díaz Díaz, David

    2017-08-30

    We describe the preparation of a novel amphiphilic gelator built from a formamidine core, which is able to form a variety of physical organogels and hydrogels at concentrations ranging from 15 to 150 mg mL -1 . Interestingly, ultrasound treatment of isotropic solutions (i.e., gel-precursor) resulted in a remarkable enhancement of the gelation kinetics as well as the gelation scope and characteristic gel properties (e.g., critical gelation concentration, gel-to-sol transition temperature, viscoelastic moduli) in comparison to the heating-cooling protocol typically used to obtain supramolecular gels. Thermoreversibility, thixotropy, injectability and multistimuli responsiveness are some of the most relevant functionalities of these gels. Electron microscopy imaging revealed the formation of entangled networks made of fibers of nanometer diameters and micrometer lengths, with different morphological features depending on the solvent. Insights into the driving forces for molecular aggregations were obtained from FTIR, NMR, PXRD and computational studies. The results suggest a major stabilization of the fibers through additive N-HO hydrogen bonds, in combination with hydrophobic interactions, over π-π stacking interactions.

  9. Induced liquid-crystalline ordering in solutions of stiff and flexible amphiphilic macromolecules: Effect of mixture composition

    SciT

    Glagolev, Mikhail K.; Vasilevskaya, Valentina V., E-mail: vvvas@polly.phys.msu.ru; Khokhlov, Alexei R.

    Impact of mixture composition on self-organization in concentrated solutions of stiff helical and flexible macromolecules was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulation. The macromolecules were composed of identical amphiphilic monomer units but a fraction f of macromolecules had stiff helical backbones and the remaining chains were flexible. In poor solvents the compacted flexible macromolecules coexist with bundles or filament clusters from few intertwined stiff helical macromolecules. The increase of relative content f of helical macromolecules leads to increase of the length of helical clusters, to alignment of clusters with each other, and then to liquid-crystalline-like ordering along a singlemore » direction. The formation of filament clusters causes segregation of helical and flexible macromolecules and the alignment of the filaments induces effective liquid-like ordering of flexible macromolecules. A visual analysis and calculation of order parameter relaying the anisotropy of diffraction allow concluding that transition from disordered to liquid-crystalline state proceeds sharply at relatively low content of stiff components.« less

  10. Structural and Thermal Behavior of Meglumine-Based Supra-Amphiphiles in Bulk and Assembled in Water.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leonardo M B; Kurokawa, Suzy S S; Alonso, Jovan D; Cassimiro, Douglas Lopes; Souza, Ana Luiza Ribeiro de; Fonseca, Mariana; Sarmento, Victor Hugo V; Regasini, Luis Octávio; Ribeiro, Clóvis Augusto

    2016-11-15

    Supra-amphiphiles are a new class of building blocks that are fabricated by means of noncovalent forces. In this work, we studied the formation of supra-amphiphiles by combining hydrophilic meglumine (MEG) with hydrophobic maleated castor oils (MACO). Spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that ionic interactions are the main driving force in the fabrication of these materials. Subsequently, supra-amphiphile/water systems were examined for their structure and water behavior by polarized optical microscopy (POM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Micellar and lamellar liquid crystalline phases were observed. Finally, we observed that the supra-amphiphiles produced using an excess of MEG retain a large amount of water. As bound water plays an important role in biointerfacial interactions, we anticipate that these materials will display a pronounced potential for biomedical applications.

  11. Cesium cation templated selective synthesis of a "cone-shaped" sugar macrotricyclic cryptand: A dual anion-cation molecular recognition of potassium tartrate.

    PubMed

    Porwanski, S; Moretti, F; Dumarcay-Charbonnier, F; Marsura, A

    2016-05-01

    Cesium templated Staudinger-aza-Wittig tandem reaction (S.A.W.) has been used in the synthesis of a bis-diazacrown-bis-cellobiosyl-tetra-ureido cryptand. A novel macrotricyclic compound having a "cone-shaped" configuration was selectively obtained. Additionally, first results on potential recognition properties of the cryptand are also given. Copyright © 2015 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal switching of an amphiphilic self-assembly by a chemical fuel-driven conformational response† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, synthetic procedures and supporting figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc01730h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Jalani, Krishnendu; Dhiman, Shikha

    2017-01-01

    The spatial and temporal control of self-assemblies is the latest scientific hurdle in supramolecular chemistry which is inspired by the functioning of biological systems fueled by chemical signals. In this study, we work towards alleviating this scenario by employing a unique amphiphilic foldamer that operates under the effect of a chemical fuel. The conformational changes in the foldamer amplify into observable morphological changes in its amphiphilic assembly that are controlled by external molecular cues (fuel). We take advantage of this redox responsive foldamer to affect its conformation in a temporal manner by an enzymatic pathway. The temporal characteristics of the transient conformation/assembly can be modulated by varying the concentrations of the fuel and enzyme. We believe that such a design strategy can have positive consequences in designing molecular and supramolecular systems for future active, adaptive and autonomous materials. PMID:28989632

  13. Molecular structure of self-assembled chiral nanoribbons and nanotubules revealed in the hydrated state.

    PubMed

    Oda, Reiko; Artzner, Franck; Laguerre, Michel; Huc, Ivan

    2008-11-05

    A detailed molecular organization of racemic 16-2-16 tartrate self-assembled multi-bilayer ribbons in the hydrated state is proposed where 16-2-16 amphiphiles, tartrate ions, and water molecules are all accurately positioned by comparing experimental X-ray powder diffraction and diffraction patterns derived from modeling studies. X-ray diffuse scattering studies show that molecular organization is not fundamentally altered when comparing the flat ribbons of the racemate to chirally twisted or helical ribbons of the pure tartrate enantiomer. Essential features of the three-dimensional molecular organizations of these structures include interdigitation of alkyl chains within each bilayer and well-defined networks of ionic and hydrogen bonds between cations, anions, and water molecules between bilayers. The detailed study of diffraction patterns also indicated that the gemini headgroups are oriented parallel to the long edge of the ribbons. The structure thus possesses a high cohesion and good crystallinity, and for the first time, we could relate the packing of the chiral molecules to the expression of the chirality at a mesoscopic scale. The organization of the ribbons at the molecular level sheds light on a number of their macroscopic features. Among these are the reason why enantiomerically pure 16-2-16 tartrate forms ribbons that consist of exactly two bilayers, and a plausible mechanism by which a chirally twisted or helical shape may emerge from the packing of chiral tartrate ions. Importantly, the distinction between commonly observed helical and twisted morphologies could be related to a subtle symmetry breaking. These results demonstrate that accurately solving the molecular structure of self-assembled soft materials--a process rarely achieved--is within reach, that it is a valid approach to correlate molecular parameters to macroscopic properties, and thus that it offers opportunities to modulate properties through molecular design.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations on the effect of size and shape on the interactions between negative Au18(SR)14, Au102(SR)44 and Au144(SR)60 nanoparticles in physiological saline.

    PubMed

    Villareal, Oscar D; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Yu, Lili; Wambo, Thierry O

    2016-08-20

    Molecular dynamics simulations employing all-atom force fields have become a reliable way to study binding interactions quantitatively for a wide range of systems. In this work, we employ two recently developed methods for the calculation of dissociation constants K D between gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of different sizes in a near-physiological environment through the potential of mean force (PMF) formalism: the method of geometrical restraints developed by Woo et al. and formalized by Gumbart et al. and the method of hybrid Steered Molecular Dynamics (hSMD). Obtaining identical results (within the margin of error) from both approaches on the negatively charged Au 18 (SR) 14 NP, functionalized by the negatively charged 4-mercapto-benzoate (pMBA) ligand, we draw parallels between their energetic and entropic interactions. By applying the hSMD method on Au 102 (SR) 44 and Au 144 (SR) 60 , both of them near-spherical in shape and functionalized by pMBA, we study the effects of size and shape on the binding interactions. Au 18 binds weakly with K D = 13 mM as a result of two opposing effects: its large surface curvature hindering the formation of salt bridges, and its large ligand density on preferential orientations favoring their formation. On the other hand, Au 102 binds more strongly with K D = 30 μM and Au 144 binds the strongest with K D = 3.2 nM .

  15. Enhancing the protein resistance of silicone via surface-restructuring PEO-silane amphiphiles with variable PEO length

    PubMed Central

    Rufin, M. A.; Gruetzner, J. A.; Hurley, M. J.; Hawkins, M. L.; Raymond, E. S.; Raymond, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Silicones with superior protein resistance were produced by bulk-modification with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-silane amphiphiles that demonstrated a higher capacity to restructure to the surface-water interface versus conventional non-amphiphilic PEO-silanes. The PEO-silane amphiphiles were prepared with a single siloxane tether length but variable PEO segment lengths: α-(EtO)3Si(CH2)2-oligodimethylsiloxane13-block-poly(ethylene oxide)n-OCH3 (n = 3, 8, and 16). Conventional PEO-silane analogues (n = 3, 8 and 16) as well as a siloxane tether-silane (i.e. no PEO segment) were prepared as controls. When surface-grafted onto silicon wafer, PEO-silane amphiphiles produced surfaces that were more hydrophobic and thus more adherent towards fibrinogen versus the corresponding PEO-silane. However, when blended into a silicone, PEO-silane amphiphiles exhibited rapid restructuring to the surface-water interface and excellent protein resistance whereas the PEO-silanes did not. Silicones modified with PEO-silane amphiphiles of PEO segment lengths n = 8 and 16 achieved the highest protein resistance. PMID:26339488

  16. pH responsive micelle self-assembled from a new amphiphilic peptide as anti-tumor drug carrier.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ju; Wu, Wen-Lan; Xu, Xiao-Ding; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2014-02-01

    An acid-responsive amphiphilic peptide that contains KKGRGDS sequence in hydrophilic head and VVVVVV sequence in hydrophobic tail was designed and prepared. In neutral or basic medium, this amphiphilic peptide can self-assemble into micelles through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. If changing the solution pH to an acidic environment, the electrostatic repulsion interaction among the ionized lysine (K) residues will prevent the self-assembly of the amphiphilic peptide, leading to the dissociation of micelles. The anti-tumor drug of doxorubicin (DOX) was chosen and loaded into the self-assembled micelles of the amphiphilic peptide to investigate the influence of external pH change on the drug release behavior. As expected, the micelles show a sustained DOX release in neutral medium (pH 7.0) but fast release behavior in acidic medium (pH 5.0). When incubating these DOX-loaded micelles with HeLa and COS7 cells, due to the over-expression of integrins on cancer cells, the micelles can efficiently use the tumor-targeting function of RGD sequence to deliver the drug into HeLa cells. Combined with the low cytotoxicity of the amphiphilic peptide against both HeLa and COS7 cells, the amphiphilic peptide reported in this work may be promising in clinical application for targeted drug delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Collision Induced Velocity Changes from Molecular Dynamic Simulations. Application to the Spectral Shape of the Q(1) Raman Lines of H{_2}/H{_2}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, H.; Hartmann, J. M.

    2011-06-01

    Collision induced velocity changes for pure H{_2} have been computed from classical dynamic simulations. The results have been compared with the Keilson-Storer model from four different points of view. The first involves various autocorrelation functions associated with the velocity. The second and third give more detailed information, and are time evolutions of some conditional probabilities for changes of the velocity modulus and orientation and the collision kernels themselves. The fourth considers the evolutions, with density, of the half widths of the Q(1) lines of the isotropic Raman (1-0) fundamental band and of the (2-0) overtone quadrupole band. These spectroscopic data enable an indirect test of the models since velocity changes translate into line-shape modifications through the speed dependence of collisional parameters and the Dicke narrowing of the Doppler contribution to the profile. The results indicate that, while the KS approach gives a poor description of detailed velocity-to-velocty changes, it leads to accurate results for the correlation functions and spectral shapes, quantities related to large averages over the velocity. It is also shown that the use of collision kernels directly derived from MDS lead to an almost perfect prediction of all considered quantities (correlation functions, conditional probabilities, and spectral shapes). Finally, the results stress the need for very accurate calculations of line-broadening and -shifting coefficients from the intermolecular potential to obviate the need for experimental data and permit fully meaningful tests of the models. H. Tran, J.M. Hartmann J. Chem. Phys. 130, 094301, 2009.

  18. Converting One-Face α-Helix Mimetics into Amphiphilic α-Helix Mimetics as Potent Inhibitors of Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Oh, Misook; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Huisun; Im, Wonpil; Lim, Hyun-Suk

    2016-01-11

    Many biologically active α-helical peptides adopt amphiphilic helical structures that contain hydrophobic residues on one side and hydrophilic residues on the other side. Therefore, α-helix mimetics capable of mimicking such amphiphilic helical peptides should possess higher binding affinity and specificity to target proteins. Here we describe an efficient method for generating amphiphilic α-helix mimetics. One-face α-helix mimetics having hydrophobic side chains on one side was readily converted into amphiphilic α-helix mimetics by introducing appropriate charged residues on the opposite side. We also demonstrate that such two-face amphiphilic α-helix mimetics indeed show remarkably improved binding affinity to a target protein, compared to one-face hydrophobic α-helix mimetics. We believe that generating a large combinatorial library of these amphiphilic α-helix mimetics can be valuable for rapid discovery of highly potent and specific modulators of protein-protein interactions.

  19. Improved glucose-neopentyl glycol (GNG) amphiphiles for membrane protein solubilization and stabilization.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung Ho; Bae, Hyoung Eun; Das, Manabendra; Gellman, Samuel H; Chae, Pil Seok

    2014-02-01

    Membrane proteins are inherently amphipathic and undergo dynamic conformational changes for proper function within native membranes. Maintaining the functional structures of these biomacromolecules in aqueous media is necessary for structural studies but difficult to achieve with currently available tools, thus necessitating the development of novel agents with favorable properties. This study introduces several new glucose-neopentyl glycol (GNG) amphiphiles and reveals some agents that display favorable behaviors for the solubilization and stabilization of a large, multi-subunit membrane protein assembly. Furthermore, a detergent structure-property relationship that could serve as a useful guideline for the design of novel amphiphiles is discussed. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Investigation of antibacterial mode of action for traditional and amphiphilic aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Udumula, Venkatareddy; Ham, Young Wan; Fosso, Marina Y; Chan, Ka Yee; Rai, Ravi; Zhang, Jianjun; Li, Jie; Chang, Cheng-Wei Tom

    2013-03-15

    Aminoglycoside represents a class of versatile and broad spectrum antibacterial agents. In an effort to revive the antibacterial activity against aminoglycoside resistant bacteria, our laboratory has developed two new classes of aminoglycoside, pyranmycin and amphiphilic neomycin (NEOF004). The former resembles the traditional aminoglycoside, neomycin. The latter, albeit derived from neomycin, appears to exert antibacterial action via a different mode of action. In order to discern that these aminoglycoside derivatives have distinct antibacterial mode of action, RNA-binding affinity and fluorogenic dye were employed. These studies, together with our previous investigation, confirm that pyranmycin exhibit the traditional antibacterial mode of action of aminoglycosides by binding toward the bacterial rRNA. On the other hand, the amphiphilic neomycin, NEOF004 disrupts the bacterial cell wall. In a broader perspective, it verifies that structurally modified neomycin can exert different antibacterial mode of action leading to the revival of activity against aminoglycoside resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Amphiphilic graft polymer with reduction breakable main chain prepared via click polymerization and grafting onto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojin; Dai, Yu

    2018-06-01

    Amphiphilic graft polymer PSS- g-Pal/PEG with reduction breakable main chain was synthesized via click polymerization of dialkynyl (containing disulfide bond) and diazide (containing pendant diol) and one-pot grafting onto of hydrophobic palmitate (Pal) and hydrophilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PSS- g-Pal/PEG is able to form polymeric micelles by self-assembly in water via dialysis. Polymeric micelles are nano-sized spheres and the particle size is approximately 70 nm. Of note, polymeric micelles are reduction-responsive owing to the disulfide bonds in main chain of PSS- g-Pal/PEG. Therefore, polymeric micelles prepared from amphiphilic graft polymer PSS- g-Pal/PEG are able to fast release the drugs in the presence of the reducing agents such as DL-dithiothreitol (DTT).

  2. Mixing, diffusion, and percolation in binary supported membranes containing mixtures of lipids and amphiphilic block copolymers.

    PubMed

    Gettel, Douglas L; Sanborn, Jeremy; Patel, Mira A; de Hoog, Hans-Peter; Liedberg, Bo; Nallani, Madhavan; Parikh, Atul N

    2014-07-23

    Substrate-mediated fusion of small polymersomes, derived from mixtures of lipids and amphiphilic block copolymers, produces hybrid, supported planar bilayers at hydrophilic surfaces, monolayers at hydrophobic surfaces, and binary monolayer/bilayer patterns at amphiphilic surfaces, directly responding to local measures of (and variations in) surface free energy. Despite the large thickness mismatch in their hydrophobic cores, the hybrid membranes do not exhibit microscopic phase separation, reflecting irreversible adsorption and limited lateral reorganization of the polymer component. With increasing fluid-phase lipid fraction, these hybrid, supported membranes undergo a fluidity transition, producing a fully percolating fluid lipid phase beyond a critical area fraction, which matches the percolation threshold for the immobile point obstacles. This then suggests that polymer-lipid hybrid membranes might be useful models for studying obstructed diffusion, such as occurs in lipid membranes containing proteins.

  3. Self-assembly in densely grafted macromolecules with amphiphilic monomer units: diagram of states.

    PubMed

    Lazutin, A A; Vasilevskaya, V V; Khokhlov, A R

    2017-11-22

    By means of computer modelling, the self-organization of dense planar brushes of macromolecules with amphiphilic monomer units was addressed and their state diagram was constructed. The diagram of states includes the following regions: disordered position of monomer units with respect to each other, strands composed of a few polymer chains and lamellae with different domain spacing. The transformation of lamellae structures with different domain spacing occurred within the intermediate region and could proceed through the formation of so-called parking garage structures. The parking garage structure joins the lamellae with large (on the top of the brushes) and small (close to the grafted surface) domain spacing, which appears like a system of inclined locally parallel layers connected with each other by bridges. The parking garage structures were observed for incompatible A and B groups in selective solvents, which result in aggregation of the side B groups and dense packing of amphiphilic macromolecules in the restricted volume of the planar brushes.

  4. Removal of volatile organic compounds using amphiphilic cyclodextrin-coated polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Lumholdt, Ludmilla; Fourmentin, Sophie; Nielsen, Thorbjørn T; Larsen, Kim L

    2014-01-01

    Polypropylene nonwovens were functionalised using a self-assembled, amphiphilic cyclodextrin coating and the potential for water purification by removal of pollutants was studied. As benzene is one of the problematic compounds in the Water Framework Directive, six volatile organic compounds (benzene and five benzene-based substances) were chosen as model compounds. The compounds were tested as a mixture in order to provide a more realistic situation since the wastewater will be a complex mixture containing multiple pollutants. The volatile organic compounds are known to form stable inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins. Six different amphiphilic cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesised in order to elucidate whether or not the uptake abilities of the coating depend on the structure of the derivative. Headspace gas chromatography was used for quantification of the uptake exploiting the volatile nature of benzene and its derivatives. The capacity was shown to increase beyond the expected stoichiometries of guest-host complexes with ratios of up to 16:1.

  5. Evidence for dimer formation by an amphiphilic heptapeptide that mediates chloride and carboxyfluorescein release from liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Pajewski, Robert; Ferdani, Riccardo; Pajewska, Jolanta; Djedovič, Natasha; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Gokel, George W.

    2008-01-01

    Heptapeptides having dioctadecyl, N-terminal hydrocarbon chains insert in phospholipid bilayer membranes and form pores through which at least chloride ions pass. Although amphiphilic, these compounds do not typically form vesicles themselves. They insert in the bilayers of phospholipid vesicles and mediate the release of carboxyfluorescein. Hill analysis indicates that at least two molecules of the amphiphile are involved in pore formation. In CD2Cl2, dimer formation is detected by NMR chemical shift changes. The anion release activity of individual anion transporters is increased by linking them covalently at the C-terminus or, even more, by linking them at the N-terminus. Evidence is presented that either linked molecule releases chloride from liposomes more effectively and rapidly than the individual transporter molecule at a comparable concentration. PMID:15703797

  6. Coassembly of Lysozyme and Amphiphilic Biomolecules Driven by Unimer-Aggregate Equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yuanyuan; Ma, Xiaoteng; Cai, Yaqian; Liu, Li; Zhao, Hanying

    2018-04-12

    Synthesis and self-assembly of bioconjugates composed of proteins and synthetic molecules have been widely studied because of the potential applications in medicine, biotechnology, and nanotechnology. One of the challenging research studies in this area is to develop organic solvent-free approaches to the synthesis and self-assembly of amphiphilic bioconjugates. In this research, dialysis-assisted approach, a method based on unimer-aggregate equilibrium, was applied in the coassembly of lysozyme and conjugate of cholesterol and glutathione (Ch-GSH). In phosphate buffer solution, amphiphilic Ch-GSH conjugate self-assembles into vesicles, and the vesicle solution is dialyzed against lysozyme solution. Negatively charged Ch-GSH unimers produced in the unimer-vesicle exchange equilibrium, diffuse across the dialysis membrane and have electrostatic interaction with positively charged lysozyme, resulting in the formation of Ch-GSH-lysozyme bioconjugate. Above a critical concentration, the three-component bioconjugate molecules self-assemble into bioactive vesicles.

  7. Tetrazole amphiphile inducing growth of conducting polymers hierarchical nanostructures and their electromagnetic absorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Aming; Sun, Mengxiao; Zhang, Kun; Xia, Yilu; Wu, Fan

    2018-05-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) at nano scales endow materials with special optical, electrical, and magnetic properties. The crucial factor to construct and regulate the micro-structures of CPs is the inducing reagent, particular in its chemical structure, such active sites, self-assembling properties. In this paper, we design and synthesize an amphiphile bearing tetrazole moiety on its skeleton, and use this amphiphile as an inducing reagent to prepare and regulate the micro-structures of a series of CPs including polypyrrole, polyaniline, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and poly(p-phenylenediamine). Because of the unique electric properties of CPs and size effect, we next explored the electromagnetic absorption performances of these CPs nanostructures. A synergetic combination of electric loss and magnetic loss is used to explain the absorption mechanism of these CPs nano-structures.

  8. Protein resistance efficacy of PEO-silane amphiphiles: Dependence on PEO-segment length and concentration

    PubMed Central

    Rufin, Marc A.; Barry, Mikayla E.; Adair, Paige A.; Hawkins, Melissa L.; Raymond, Jeffery E.; Grunlan, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to modification with conventional PEO-silanes (i.e. no siloxane tether), silicones with dramatically enhanced protein resistance have been previously achieved via bulk-modification with poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO)-silane amphiphiles α-(EtO)3Si(CH2)2-oligodimethylsiloxane13-block-PEOn-OCH3 when n = 8 and 16 but not when n = 3. In this work, their efficacy was evaluated in terms of optimal PEO-segment length and minimum concentration required in silicone. For each PEO-silane amphiphile (n = 3, 8, and 16), five concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μmol per 1 g silicone) were evaluated. Efficacy was quantified in terms of the modified silicones’ abilities to undergo rapid, water-driven surface restructuring to form hydrophilic surfaces as well as resistance to fibrinogen adsorption. Only n = 8 and 16 were effective, with a lower minimum concentration in silicone required for n = 8 (10 μmol per 1 g silicone) versus n = 16 (25 μmol per 1 g silicone). Statement of Significance Silicone is commonly used for implantable medical devices, but its hydrophobic surface promotes protein adsorption which leads to thrombosis and infection. Typical methods to incorporate poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) into silicones have not been effective due to the poor migration of PEO to the surface-biological interface. In this work, PEO-silane amphiphiles – comprised of a siloxane tether (m = 13) and variable PEO segment lengths (n = 3, 8, 16) – were blended into silicone to improve its protein resistance. The efficacy of the amphiphiles was determined to be dependent on PEO length. With the intermediate PEO length (n = 8), water-driven surface restructuring and resulting protein resistance was achieved with a concentration of only 1.7 wt%. PMID:27090588

  9. Optical characterization of CdS nanoparticles embedded into the comb-type amphiphilic graft copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaycı, Özlem A.; Duygulu, Özgür; Hazer, Baki

    2013-01-01

    This study refers to the synthesis and characterization of a novel organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite material containing cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles. For this purpose, a series of polypropylene (PP)-g-polyethylene glycol (PEG), PP-g-PEG comb-type amphiphilic graft copolymers were synthesized. PEGs with Mn = 400, 2000, 3350, and 8000 Da were used and the graft copolymers obtained were coded as PPEG400, PPEG2000, PPEG3350, and PPEG8000. CdS nanoparticles were formed in tetrahydrofuran solution of PP-g-PEG amphiphilic comb-type copolymer by the reaction between aqueous solutions of Na2S and Cd(CH3COO)2 simultaneously. Micelle formation of PPEG2000 comb-type amphiphilic graft copolymer in both solvent/non-solvent (petroleum ether-THF) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical characteristics, size morphology, phase analysis, and dispersion of CdS nanoparticles embedded in PPEG400, PPEG2000, PPEG3350, and PPEG8000 comb-type amphiphilic graft copolymer micelles were determined by high resolution TEM (HRTEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and fluorescence emission spectroscopy techniques. The aggregate size of PPEG2000-CdS is between 10 and 50 nm; however, in the case of PPEG400-CdS, PPEG3350-CdS, and PPEG8000-CdS samples, it is up to approximately 100 nm. The size of CdS quantum dots in the aggregates for PPEG2000 and PPEG8000 samples was observed as 5 nm by HRTEM analysis, and this result was also supported by UV-vis absorbance spectra and fluorescence emission spectra.

  10. Antibacterial characteristics of newly developed amphiphilic lipids and DNA-lipid complexes against bacteria.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Y; Fukushima, T; Hayakawa, T; Takeuchi, H; Kaminishi, H; Miyazaki, K; Okahata, Y

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of newly developed amphiphilic lipids and DNA/lipid complexes against two types of oral bacteria and two types of hospital infection bacteria. Nine amphiphilic lipids were quantitatively prepared from the reaction of n-alkyl alcohol, alpha-amino acids, and p-toluenesulfonic acid. Nine DNA-lipid complexes were prepared by the simple mixing of DNA and amphiphilic lipids. The DNA-lipid complexes were insoluble in water. The antibacterial activity of lipids and DNA-lipid complexes against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated by the disk-diffusion method. Seven artificial lipids showed antibacterial behavior; in particular, the lipids prepared from n-decyl alcohol and glycine and from n-decyl alcohol and L-alanine showed antibacterial activity against the four bacterial strains used in this study. On the other hand, the lipids of glutamic acid derivatives did not show any antibacterial activity against the four bacteria strains except for the lipid with an n-octyl group. Five DNA-lipid complexes also had an antibacterial effect. The complex prepared from DNA and glycine decyl ester p-toluenesulfonic acid salt exhibited antibacterial activity against the four types of bacteria strains. In this study it was found that lipids and DNA-lipid complexes with a mono-decyl group or a mono-dodecyl group have more favorable antibacterial activity. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The search for new amphiphiles: synthesis of a modular, high-throughput library

    PubMed Central

    Feast, George C; Lepitre, Thomas; Mulet, Xavier; Conn, Charlotte E; Hutt, Oliver E

    2014-01-01

    Summary Amphiphilic compounds are used in a variety of applications due to their lyotropic liquid-crystalline phase formation, however only a limited number of compounds, in a potentially limitless field, are currently in use. A library of organic amphiphilic compounds was synthesised consisting of glucose, galactose, lactose, xylose and mannose head groups and double and triple-chain hydrophobic tails. A modular, high-throughput approach was developed, whereby head and tail components were conjugated using the copper-catalysed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. The tails were synthesised from two core alkyne-tethered intermediates, which were subsequently functionalised with hydrocarbon chains varying in length and degree of unsaturation and branching, while the five sugar head groups were selected with ranging substitution patterns and anomeric linkages. A library of 80 amphiphiles was subsequently produced, using a 24-vial array, with the majority formed in very good to excellent yields. A preliminary assessment of the liquid-crystalline phase behaviour is also presented. PMID:25161714

  12. The high-throughput synthesis and phase characterisation of amphiphiles: a sweet case study.

    PubMed

    Feast, George C; Hutt, Oliver E; Mulet, Xavier; Conn, Charlotte E; Drummond, Calum J; Savage, G Paul

    2014-03-03

    A new method for the discovery of amphiphiles by using high-throughput (HT) methods to synthesise and characterise a library of galactose- and glucose-containing amphiphilic compounds is presented. The copper-catalysed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) “click” reaction between azide-tethered simple sugars and alkyne-substituted hydrophobic tails was employed to synthesise a library of compounds with systematic variations in chain length and unsaturation in a 24-vial array format. The liquid–crystalline phase behaviour was characterised in a HT manner by using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SSAXS). The observed structural variation with respect to chain parameters, including chain length and degree of unsaturation, is discussed, as well as hydration effects and degree of hydrogen bonding between head groups. The validity of our HT screening approach was verified by resynthesising a short-chain glucose amphiphile. A separate phase analysis of this compound confirmed the presence of numerous lyotropic liquid–crystalline phases.

  13. The search for new amphiphiles: synthesis of a modular, high-throughput library.

    PubMed

    Feast, George C; Lepitre, Thomas; Mulet, Xavier; Conn, Charlotte E; Hutt, Oliver E; Savage, G Paul; Drummond, Calum J

    2014-01-01

    Amphiphilic compounds are used in a variety of applications due to their lyotropic liquid-crystalline phase formation, however only a limited number of compounds, in a potentially limitless field, are currently in use. A library of organic amphiphilic compounds was synthesised consisting of glucose, galactose, lactose, xylose and mannose head groups and double and triple-chain hydrophobic tails. A modular, high-throughput approach was developed, whereby head and tail components were conjugated using the copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. The tails were synthesised from two core alkyne-tethered intermediates, which were subsequently functionalised with hydrocarbon chains varying in length and degree of unsaturation and branching, while the five sugar head groups were selected with ranging substitution patterns and anomeric linkages. A library of 80 amphiphiles was subsequently produced, using a 24-vial array, with the majority formed in very good to excellent yields. A preliminary assessment of the liquid-crystalline phase behaviour is also presented.

  14. Orientational order in smectic liquid-crystalline phases of amphiphilic diols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesselmann, Frank; Germer, Roland; Saipa, Alexander

    2005-07-01

    The thermotropic smectic phases of amphiphilic 2-(trans-4-n-alkylcyclohexyl)-propane-1,3-diols were investigated by means of small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering and values of the smectic (bi-)layer spacing, the orientational order parameters ⟨P2⟩ and ⟨P4⟩, the orientational distribution function as well as the intralayer correlation length were extracted from the scattering profiles. The results for the octyl homolog indicate that these smectic phases combine a very high degree of smectic one-dimensional-translational order with remarkably low orientational order, the order parameter of which (⟨P2⟩≈0.56) is far below those values typically found in nonamphiphilic smectics. This combination, quite exceptional in thermotropic smectics, most likely originates from the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the terminal diol groups which seems to be the specific driving force in the formation of the thermotropic smectic structure in these amphiphiles and leads to a type of microphase segregation. Even in the absence of a solvent, the liquid-crystalline ordering of the amphiphilic mesogens comes close to the structure of the so-called neat soaps, found in lyotropic liquid crystals.

  15. Self-Assembled Nanocarriers Based on Amphiphilic Natural Polymers for Anti- Cancer Drug Delivery Applications.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Sally; Abdelmoneem, Mona; Abdelwakil, Mahmoud; Mabrouk, Moustafa Taha; Anwar, Doaa; Mohamed, Rania; Khattab, Sherine; Bekhit, Adnan; Elkhodairy, Kadria; Freag, May; Elzoghby, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Micellization provides numerous merits for the delivery of water insoluble anti-cancer therapeutic agents including a nanosized 'core-shell' drug delivery system. Recently, hydrophobically-modified polysaccharides and proteins are attracting much attention as micelle forming polymers to entrap poorly soluble anti-cancer drugs. By virtue of their small size, the self-assembled micelles can passively target tumor tissues via enhanced permeation and retention effect (EPR). Moreover, the amphiphilic micelles can be exploited for active-targeted drug delivery by attaching specific targeting ligands to the outer micellar hydrophilic surface. Here, we review the conjugation techniques, drug loading methods, physicochemical characteristics of the most important amphiphilic polysaccharides and proteins used as anti-cancer drug delivery systems. Attention focuses on the mechanisms of tumor-targeting and enhanced anti-tumor efficacy of the encapsulated drugs. This review will highlight the remarkable advances of hydrophobized polysaccharide and protein micelles and their potential applications as anti-cancer drug delivery nanosystems. Micellar nanocarriers fabricated from amphiphilic natural polymers hold great promise as vehicles for anti-cancer drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Tailoring the supramolecular structure of amphiphilic glycopolypeptide analogue toward liver targeted drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Wali, Aisha Roshan; Zhou, Jie; Ma, Shengnan; He, Yiyan; Yue, Dong; Tang, James Zhenggui; Gu, Zhongwei

    2017-06-15

    Amphiphilic glycopolypeptide analogues have harboured great importance in the development of targeted drug delivery systems. In this study, lactosylated pullulan-graft-arginine dendrons (LP-g-G3P) was synthesized using Huisgen azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between lactosylated pullulan and generation 3 arginine dendrons bearing Pbf and Boc groups on the periphery. Hydrophilic lactosylated pullulan was selected for amphiphilic modification, aiming at specific lectin recognition. Macromolecular structure of LP-g-G3P combined alkyl, aromatic, and peptide dendritic hydrophobic moieties and was able to self-assemble spontaneously into core-shell nanoarchitectures with small particle sizes and low polydispersity in the aqueous media, which was confirmed by CAC, DLS and TEM. Furthermore, the polyaromatic anticancer drug (doxorubicin, DOX) was selectively encapsulated in the hydrophobic core through multiple interactions with the dendrons, including π-π interactions, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Such multiple interactions had the merits of enhanced drug loading capacity (16.89±2.41%), good stability against dilution, and excellent sustained release property. The cell viability assay presented that LP-g-G3P nanoparticles had an excellent biocompatibility both in the normal and tumor cells. Moreover, LP-g-G3P/DOX nanoparticles could be effectively internalized into the hepatoma carcinoma cells and dramatically inhibited cell proliferation. Thus, this approach paves the way to develop amphiphilic and biofunctional glycopolypeptide-based drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of amorphous mesoporous silica using TEMPO-functionalized amphiphilic templates

    SciT

    Vries, Wilke de; Doerenkamp, Carsten; Zeng, Zhaoyang

    Inorganic–organic hybrid materials based on amorphous mesoporous silica containing organized nitroxide radicals within its mesopores have been prepared using the micellar self-assembly of TEOS solutions containing the nitroxide functionalized amphiphile (4-(N,N-dimethyl-N-hexadecylammonium)-2,2,6, 6-tetramethyl-piperidin-N-oxyl-iodide) (CAT-16). This template has been used both in its pure form and in various mixtures with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The samples have been characterized by chemical analysis, N{sub 2} sorption studies, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and various spectroscopic methods. While electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra indicate that the strength of the intermolecular spin–spin interactions can be controlled via the CAT-16/CTAB ratio, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data suggest thatmore » these interactions are too weak to facilitate cooperative magnetism. - Graphical abstract: The amphiphilic radical CAT-16 is used as a template for the synthesis of amorphous mesoporous silica. The resulting paramagnetic hybrid materials are characterized by BET, FTIR, NMR, EPR and magnetic susceptibility studies. - Highlights: • Amphiphilic CAT-16 as a template for mesoporous silica. • Comprehensive structural characterization by BET, FTIR; EPR and NMR. • Strength of radical-radical interactions tuable within CAT-16/CTAB mixtures.« less

  18. Design and application of cationic amphiphilic β-cyclodextrin derivatives as gene delivery vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Ning; Huan, Meng-Lei; Ma, Xi-Xi; Jing, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Xuan; Li, Chen; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Bang-Le

    2017-11-01

    The nano self-assembly profiles of amphiphilic gene delivery vectors could improve the density of local cationic head groups to promote their DNA condensation capability and enhance the interaction between cell membrane and hydrophobic tails, thus increasing cellular uptake and gene transfection. In this paper, two series of cationic amphiphilic β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivatives were designed and synthesized by using 6-mono-OTs-β-CD (1) as the precursor to construct amphiphilic gene vectors with different building blocks in a selective and controlled manner. The effect of different type and degree of cationic head groups on transfection and the endocytic mechanism of β-CD derivatives/DNA nanocomplexes were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the designed β-cyclodextrin derivatives were able to compact DNA to form stable nanocomplexes and exhibited low cytotoxicity. Among them, PEI-1 with PEI head group showed enhanced transfection activity, significantly higher than commercially available agent PEI25000 especially in the presence of serum, showing potential application prospects in clinical trials. Moreover, the endocytic uptake mechanism involved in the gene transfection of PEI-1 was mainly through caveolae-mediated endocytosis, which could avoid the lysosomal degradation of loaded gene, and had great importance for improving gene transfection activity.

  19. Design and application of cationic amphiphilic β-cyclodextrin derivatives as gene delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ning; Huan, Meng-Lei; Ma, Xi-Xi; Jing, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Xuan; Li, Chen; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Bang-Le

    2017-11-17

    The nano self-assembly profiles of amphiphilic gene delivery vectors could improve the density of local cationic head groups to promote their DNA condensation capability and enhance the interaction between cell membrane and hydrophobic tails, thus increasing cellular uptake and gene transfection. In this paper, two series of cationic amphiphilic β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivatives were designed and synthesized by using 6-mono-OTs-β-CD (1) as the precursor to construct amphiphilic gene vectors with different building blocks in a selective and controlled manner. The effect of different type and degree of cationic head groups on transfection and the endocytic mechanism of β-CD derivatives/DNA nanocomplexes were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the designed β-cyclodextrin derivatives were able to compact DNA to form stable nanocomplexes and exhibited low cytotoxicity. Among them, PEI-1 with PEI head group showed enhanced transfection activity, significantly higher than commercially available agent PEI25000 especially in the presence of serum, showing potential application prospects in clinical trials. Moreover, the endocytic uptake mechanism involved in the gene transfection of PEI-1 was mainly through caveolae-mediated endocytosis, which could avoid the lysosomal degradation of loaded gene, and had great importance for improving gene transfection activity.

  20. Thermodynamic and kinetic control of charged, amphiphilic triblock copolymer assembly via interaction with organic counterions in solvent mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Honggang

    2007-12-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers, consisting of at least two types of monomers with different affinity to the dissolving solvent(s), have been recognized as a molecular building unit for their chemical tunability and design flexibility. Amphiphilic block copolymers with a chargeable block have structural features of polyelectrolytes, block copolymers and surfactants. The combination of these different features offers great flexibility for developing novel assembled morphologies at the nanoscale and outstanding ability to control and manipulate those morphologies. The nanostructures, formed from the spontaneous association of amphiphilic block copolymer in selective solvents, show promise for applications in nanotechnology and pharmaceuticals, including drug delivery, tissue engineering and bio-imaging. A basic knowledge of their modes of self-assembly and their correspondence to application-related properties is just now being developed and poses a considerable scientific challenge. The goal of this dissertation is to investigate the associative behavior of charged, amphiphilic block copolymers in solvent mixtures while in the presence of organic counterions. Self-assembly of poly (acrylic acid)- block-poly (methyl acrylate)-block-polystyrene (PAA- b-PMA-b-PS) triblock copolymers produces nanodomains in THF/water solution specifically through the interaction with organic counterions (polyamines). These assembled structures can include classic micelles (spheres, cylinders and vesicles), but, more importantly, include non-classic micelles (disks, toroids, branched micelles and segmented micelles). Each micelle structure is stable and reproducible at different assembly conditions. The assembled micellar structures depend on not only solution components (thermodynamics) but also mixing procedure and consequent self-assembly pathway (kinetics). The key factors that determine the thermodynamic interactions that partially define the assembled structures and the kinetic

  1. Ionic liquids-water interfacial preparation of triangular Ag nanoplates and their shape-dependent antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weiwei; Yao, Kaisheng; Wang, Jianji; Yuan, Jiongliang

    2015-01-01

    As a class of green and designable solvents, ionic liquids (ILs) have been used extensively in inorganic synthesis. In those schemes, ILs were usually used as reaction media to replace water and organic solvents, and/or used as stabilizer and capping agents to act like an amphiphilic molecule or polymer. However, the unique properties of ILs were not fully utilized in the area of material preparation. In this study, a new protocol of "ILs-water interfacial synthesis" was developed and used for the preparation of Ag nanomaterials. Taking the advantage of tunable property of ILs-water interface, Ag nanomaterials with different morphology such as triangular nanoplates, polygonal nanoplates, and nanoparticles could be facilely obtained. Growth mechanism of the triangular Ag nanoplates has been investigated from structural characterization and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It was shown that growth of the nanoplates was under kinetic control mainly due to high viscosity and ionicity of the ILs. Furthermore, the antimicrobial performance of these Ag samples was tested to study the influence of shape of the Ag nanomaterials on the antimicrobial activity and the related antimicrobial mechanism. The results suggested that the efficient antimicrobial activity of the triangular Ag nanoplates was ascribed to their sharp corners and edges and large areas of active (111) crystal plane, which leads to the higher amount of leaching Ag(+) ion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. HPMA-based block copolymers promote differential drug delivery kinetics for hydrophobic and amphiphilic molecules.

    PubMed

    Tomcin, Stephanie; Kelsch, Annette; Staff, Roland H; Landfester, Katharina; Zentel, Rudolf; Mailänder, Volker

    2016-04-15

    We describe a method how polymeric nanoparticles stabilized with (2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA)-based block copolymers are used as drug delivery systems for a fast release of hydrophobic and a controlled release of an amphiphilic molecule. The versatile method of the miniemulsion solvent-evaporation technique was used to prepare polystyrene (PS) as well as poly-d/l-lactide (PDLLA) nanoparticles. Covalently bound or physically adsorbed fluorescent dyes labeled the particles' core and their block copolymer corona. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in combination with flow cytometry measurements were applied to demonstrate the burst release of a fluorescent hydrophobic drug model without the necessity of nanoparticle uptake. In addition, CLSM studies and quantitative calculations using the image processing program Volocity® show the intracellular detachment of the amphiphilic block copolymer from the particles' core after uptake. Our findings offer the possibility to combine the advantages of a fast release for hydrophobic and a controlled release for an amphiphilic molecule therefore pointing to the possibility to a 'multi-step and multi-site' targeting by one nanocarrier. We describe thoroughly how different components of a nanocarrier end up in cells. This enables different cargos of a nanocarrier having a consecutive release and delivery of distinct components. Most interestingly we demonstrate individual kinetics of distinct components of such a system: first the release of a fluorescent hydrophobic drug model at contact with the cell membrane without the necessity of nanoparticle uptake. Secondly, the intracellular detachment of the amphiphilic block copolymer from the particles' core after uptake occurs. This offers the possibility to combine the advantages of a fast release for a hydrophobic substance at the time of interaction of the nanoparticle with the cell surface and a controlled release for an amphiphilic molecule later on therefore

  3. Fabrication strategy for amphiphilic microcapsules with narrow size distribution by premix membrane emulsification.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yi; Wang, Yuxia; Wang, Lianyan; Hao, Dongxia; Ma, Guanghui

    2011-10-15

    Amphiphilic co-polymer, which can maintain the stability of proteins and increase the protein loading efficiency, is considered as an exploring-worthy biodegrade polymer for drug delivery. However, amphiphilic microcapsules prepared by conventional methods, such like mechanical stirring and spray-drying methods, exhibit broad size distributions due to its hydrophilic sequences, leading to poor reproducibility. In this study, we employed poly(monomethoxypoly ethylene glycol-co-D,L-lactide) (mPEG-PLA, PELA), one of common amphiphilic polymers, as model to focus on investigating the process parameters and mechanisms to prepare PELA microcapsules with narrow size distribution and regular sphericity by combining premix membrane emulsification and double emulsion technique. The coarse double emulsion with broad size distribution was repeatedly pressed through Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG) membrane with relatively high pressure to form the fine emulsion with narrow size distribution. Then, the microcapsules with narrow size distribution can be obtained by solvent extraction method. It was found that it was more difficult to obtain PELA microcapsules with narrow size distribution and smooth surface due to its amphiphilic property, compared with the cases of PLA and PLGA. The smooth surface morphology was found to be related to several factors including internal water phase with less volume, slower stirring rate during solidification and using ethyl acetate as oil phase. It was also found that mass ratio of hydrophilic mPEG, stabilizer PVA concentration in external water phase and transmembrane pressure played important role on the distribution of microcapsules size. The suitable preparation conditions were determined as follows: for the membrane with pore size of 2.8 μm, the mass ratio of PLA/mPEG was 19:1, volume ratio of W(1)/O was 1:10 and O/W(2) was 1:5, PVA concentration (w/v) was 1.0%, magnetic stirring rate during solidification was 60 rpm and 300 kPa was chosen as

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Supramolecular Anticancer Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Myungshim; Chakraborty, Kaushik; Loverde, Sharon M

    2018-06-25

    We report here on long-time all-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of functional supramolecular nanotubes composed by the self-assembly of peptide-drug amphiphiles (DAs). These DAs have been shown to possess an inherently high drug loading of the hydrophobic anticancer drug camptothecin. We probe the self-assembly mechanism from random with ∼0.4 μs molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we also computationally characterize the interfacial structure, directionality of π-π stacking, and water dynamics within several peptide-drug nanotubes with diameters consistent with the reported experimental nanotube diameter. Insight gained should inform the future design of these novel anticancer drug delivery systems.

  5. Enhancing Adsorption Capacity while Maintaining Specific Recognition Performance of Mesoporous Silica: A Novel Imprinting Strategy with Amphiphilic Ionic Liquid as Surfactant.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shichao; Li, Zhiling; Cheng, Yuan; Du, Chunbao; Gao, Junfeng; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Zhang, Nan; Li, Zhaotong; Chang, Ninghui; Hu, Xiaoling

    2018-06-21

    In order to facilitate the broad applications of molecular recognition materials in biomedical areas, it is critical to enhance their adsorption capacity while maintaining their excellent recognition performance. In this work, we designed and synthesized well-defined peptide-imprinted mesoporous silica (PIMS) for specific recognition of an immunostimulating hexapeptide from human casein (IHHC) by using amphiphilic ionic liquid as the surfactant to anchor IHHC via a combination of one step sol-gel method and docking oriented imprinting approach. Thereinto, theoretical calculation was employed to reveal the multiple binding interactions and dual-template configuration between amphiphilic ionic liquid and IHHC. The fabricated PIMS was characterized and an in-depth analysis of specific recognition mechanism was conducted. Results revealed that both adsorption and recognition capabilities of PIMS far exceeded that of the NIMS's. More significantly, the PIMS exhibited a superior binding capacity (60.5 mg g-1), which could increase 18.9% than the previous work. The corresponding imprinting factor and selectivity coefficient could reach up to 4.51 and 3.30, respectively. The PIMS also possessed lickety-split kinetic binding for IHHC, which the equilibrium time was only 10 min. All of these merits were due to the high surface area and the synergistic effect of multiple interactions (including hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking, ion-ion electrostatic interactions and van der Waals interactions, etc.) between PIMS and IHHC in imprinted sites. The present work suggests the potential application of PIMS for large-scale and high-effective separation of IHHC, which may lead to their broad applications in drug/gene deliver, biosensors, catalyst and so on. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  6. Non-surface activity and micellization behavior of cationic amphiphilic block copolymer synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer process.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arjun; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Matsuoka, Hideki; Saruwatari, Yoshiyuki

    2011-08-02

    Cationic amphiphilic diblock copolymers of poly(n-butylacrylate)-b-poly(3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)trimethylammonium chloride) (PBA-b-PMAPTAC) with various hydrophobic and hydrophilic chain lengths were synthesized by a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) process. Their molecular characteristics such as surface activity/nonactivity were investigated by surface tension measurements and foam formation observation. Their micelle formation behavior and micelle structure were investigated by fluorescence probe technique, static and dynamic light scattering (SLS and DLS), etc., as a function of hydrophilic and hydrophobic chain lengths. The block copolymers were found to be non-surface active because the surface tension of the aqueous solutions did not change with increasing polymer concentration. Critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the polymers could be determined by fluorescence and SLS measurements, which means that these polymers form micelles in bulk solution, although they were non-surface active. Above the cmc, the large blue shift of the emission maximum of N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) probe and the low micropolarity value of the pyrene probe in polymer solution indicate the core of the micelle is nonpolar in nature. Also, the high value of the relative intensity of the NPN probe and the fluorescence anisotropy of the 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) probe indicated that the core of the micelle is highly viscous in nature. DLS was used to measure the average hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the copolymer micelles. The copolymer with the longest PBA block had the poorest water solubility and consequently formed micelles with larger size while having a lower cmc. The "non-surface activity" was confirmed for cationic amphiphilic diblock copolymers in addition to anionic ones studied previously, indicating the universality of non-surface activity nature.

  7. Investigation of the role of hydrophilic chain length in amphiphilic perfluoropolyether/poly(ethylene glycol) networks: towards high-performance antifouling coatings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yapei; Pitet, Louis M; Finlay, John A; Brewer, Lenora H; Cone, Gemma; Betts, Douglas E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Wendt, Dean E; Hillmyer, Marc A; DeSimonea, Joseph M

    2011-01-01

    The facile preparation of amphiphilic network coatings having a hydrophobic dimethacryloxy-functionalized perfluoropolyether (PFPE-DMA; M(w) = 1500 g mol(-1)) crosslinked with hydrophilic monomethacryloxy functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) macromonomers (PEG-MA; M(w) = 300, 475, 1100 g mol(-1)), intended as non-toxic high-performance marine coatings exhibiting antifouling characteristics is demonstrated. The PFPE-DMA was found to be miscible with the PEG-MA. Photo-cured blends of these materials containing 10 wt% of PEG-MA oligomers did not swell significantly in water. PFPE-DMA crosslinked with the highest molecular weight PEG oligomer (ie PEG1100) deterred settlement (attachment) of algal cells and cypris larvae of barnacles compared to a PFPE control coating. Dynamic mechanical analysis of these networks revealed a flexible material. Preferential segregation of the PEG segments at the polymer/air interface resulted in enhanced antifouling performance. The cured amphiphilic PFPE/PEG films showed decreased advancing and receding contact angles with increasing PEG chain length. In particular, the PFPE/PEG1100 network had a much lower advancing contact angle than static contact angle, suggesting that the PEG1100 segments diffuse to the polymer/water interface quickly. The preferential interfacial aggregation of the larger PEG segments enables the coating surface to have a substantially enhanced resistance to settlement of spores of the green seaweed Ulva, cells of the diatom Navicula and cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite as well as low adhesion of sporelings (young plants) of Ulva, adhesion being lower than to a polydimethyl elastomer, Silastic T2.

  8. Self-Assembling Peptide Amphiphiles for Therapeutic Delivery of Proteins, Drugs, and Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungsoo Seth

    Biomaterials are used to help regenerate or replace the structure and function of damaged tissues. In order to elicit desired therapeutic responses in vivo, biomaterials are often functionalized with bioactive agents, such as growth factors, small molecule drugs, or even stem cells. Therefore, the strategies used to incorporate these bioactive agents in the microstructures and nanostructures of biomaterials can strongly influence the their therapeutic efficacy. Using self-assembling peptide amphiphiles (PAs), this work has investigated supramolecular nanostructures with improved interaction with three types of therapeutic agents: bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) which promotes osteogenic differentiation and bone growth, anti-inflammatory drug naproxen which is used to treat osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis, and neural stem cells that could differentiate into neurons to treat neurodegenerative diseases. For BMP-2 delivery, two specific systems were investigated with affinity for BMP-2: 1) heparin-binding nanofibers that display the natural ligand of the osteogenic protein, and 2) nanofibers that display a synthetic peptide ligand discovered in our laboratory through phage display to directly bind BMP-2. Both systems promoted enhanced osteoblast differentiation of pluripotent C2C12 cells and augmented bone regeneration in two in vivo models, a rat critical-size femur defect model and spinal arthrodesis model. The thesis also describes the use of PA nanofibers to improve the delivery of the anti-inflammatory drug naproxen. To promote a controlled release, naproxen was chemically conjugated to the nanofiber surface via an ester bond that would only be cleaved by esterases, which are enzymes found naturally in the body. In the absence of esterases, the naproxen remained conjugated to the nanofibers and was non-bioactive. On the other hand, in the presence of esterases, naproxen was slowly released and inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity, an enzyme responsible

  9. The effects of chain length, embedded polar groups, pressure, and pore shape on structure and retention in reversed-phase liquid chromatography: molecular-level insights from Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Jake L; Siepmann, J Ilja; Schure, Mark R

    2009-03-20

    Particle-based simulations using the configurational-bias and Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo techniques are carried out to probe the effects of various chromatographic parameters on bonded-phase chain conformation, solvent penetration, and retention in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). Specifically, we investigate the effects due to the length of the bonded-phase chains (C(18), C(8), and C(1)), the inclusion of embedded polar groups (amide and ether) near the base of the bonded-phase chains, the column pressure (1, 400, and 1000 atm), and the pore shape (planar slit pore versus cylindrical pore with a 60A diameter). These simulations utilize a bonded-phase coverage of 2.9 micromol/m(2)and a mobile phase containing methanol at a molfraction of 33% (about 50% by volume). The simulations show that chain length, embedded polar groups, and pore shape significantly alter structural and retentive properties of the model RPLC system, whereas the column pressure has a relatively small effect. The simulation results are extensively compared to retention measurements. A molecular view of the RPLC retention mechanism emerges that is more complex than can be inferred from thermodynamic measurements.

  10. Autonomous model protocell division driven by molecular replication.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J W; Eghtesadi, S A; Points, L J; Liu, T; Cronin, L

    2017-08-10

    The coupling of compartmentalisation with molecular replication is thought to be crucial for the emergence of the first evolvable chemical systems. Minimal artificial replicators have been designed based on molecular recognition, inspired by the template copying of DNA, but none yet have been coupled to compartmentalisation. Here, we present an oil-in-water droplet system comprising an amphiphilic imine dissolved in chloroform that catalyses its own formation by bringing together a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic precursor, which leads to repeated droplet division. We demonstrate that the presence of the amphiphilic replicator, by lowering the interfacial tension between droplets of the reaction mixture and the aqueous phase, causes them to divide. Periodic sampling by a droplet-robot demonstrates that the extent of fission is increased as the reaction progresses, producing more compartments with increased self-replication. This bridges a divide, showing how replication at the molecular level can be used to drive macroscale droplet fission.Coupling compartmentalisation and molecular replication is essential for the development of evolving chemical systems. Here the authors show an oil-in-water droplet containing a self-replicating amphiphilic imine that can undergo repeated droplet division.

  11. From aggregative adsorption to surface depletion: Aqueous systems of C nE m amphiphiles at hydrophilic surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Rother, Gernot; Müter, Dirk; Bock, Henry; ...

    2017-03-27

    Adsorption of a short-chain nonionic amphiphile (C 6E 3) at the surface of mesoporous silica glass (CPG-10) was studied by a combination of adsorption measurements and mesoscale simulations. Adsorption measurements covering a wide composition range of the C 6E 3 + water system show that no adsorption occurs up to the critical micelle concentration (cmc), at which a sharp increase of adsorption is observed that is attributed to ad-micelle formation at the pore walls. Intriguingly, as the concentration is increased further, the surface excess of the amphiphile begins to decrease and eventually becomes negative, which corresponds to preferential adsorption ofmore » water rather than amphiphile at high amphiphile concentrations. The existence of such a surface-azeotropic point has not previously been reported in the surfactant adsorption field. Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations were performed to reveal the structural origin of this transition from aggregative adsorption to surface depletion. Finally, the simulations indicate that this transition can be attributed to the repulsive interaction between head groups, causing amphiphilic depletion in the region around the corona of the surface micelles.« less

  12. Large Femtosecond Two-Photon Absorption Cross-Sections of Fullerosome Vesicle Nanostructures Derived from Highly Photoresponsive Amphiphilic C60-Light-Harvesting Fluorene Dyad

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Nalla, Venkatram; Jeon, Seaho; Mamidala, Venkatesh; Ji, Wei; Tan, Loon-Seng; Cooper, Thomas; Chiang, Long Y.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated ultrafast femtosecond nonlinear optical (NLO) absorption characteristics of bilayered fullerosome vesicle nanostructures derived from molecular self-assembly of amphiphilic oligo(ethylene glycolated) C60-(light-harvesting diphenylaminofluorene antenna). Fullerene conjugates were designed to enhance photoresponse in a femtosecond time scale by applying an isomerizable periconjugation linker between the C60 cage and diphenylaminofluorene antenna subunit in an intramolecular contact distance of only < 3.0 Å. Morphology of C60(>DPAF-EG12C1)-based fullerosome nanovesicles in H2O was characterized to consist of a bilayered shell with a sphere diameter of 20–70 nm and a chromophore shell-width of 9.0–10 nm, fitting well with a head-to-head packing configuration of the molecular length. At the estimated effective nanovesicle concentration as low as 5.5 × 10−8 MV (molecular molar concentration of 5.0 × 10−4 M) in H2O, two-photon absorption (2PA) phenomena were found to be the dominating photophysical events showing a large molar concentration-insensitive 2PA cross-section value equivalent to 8500 GM in a form of nanovesicles, on average. The observed NLO characteristics led to a sharp trend of efficient light-transmittance intensity reduction at the input laser intensity above 100 GW/cm2. PMID:22022620

  13. Core–Shell Structure and Aggregation Number of Micelles Composed of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers and Amphiphilic Heterografted Polymer Brushes Determined by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    SciT

    Szymusiak, Magdalena; Kalkowski, Joseph; Luo, Hanying

    2017-08-31

    A large group of functional nanomaterials employed in biomedical applications, including targeted drug delivery, relies on amphiphilic polymers to encapsulate therapeutic payloads via self-assembly processes. Knowledge of the micelle structures will provide critical insights into design of polymeric drug delivery systems. Core–shell micelles composed of linear diblock copolymers poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL), poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA), as well as a heterografted brush consisting of a poly(glycidyl methacrylate) backbone with PEG and PLA branches (PGMA-g-PEG/PLA) were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements to gain structural information regarding the particle morphology, core–shell size, and aggregation number. Themore » structural information at this quasi-equilibrium state can also be used as a reference when studying the kinetics of polymer micellization.« less

  14. Core–Shell Structure and Aggregation Number of Micelles Composed of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers and Amphiphilic Heterografted Polymer Brushes Determined by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    SciT

    Szymusiak, Magdalena; Kalkowski, Joseph; Luo, Hanying

    2017-08-16

    A large group of functional nanomaterials employed in biomedical applications, including targeted drug delivery, relies on amphiphilic polymers to encapsulate therapeutic payloads via self-assembly processes. Knowledge of the micelle structures will provide critical insights into design of polymeric drug delivery systems. Core–shell micelles composed of linear diblock copolymers poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL), poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA), as well as a heterografted brush consisting of a poly(glycidyl methacrylate) backbone with PEG and PLA branches (PGMA-g-PEG/PLA) were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements to gain structural information regarding the particle morphology, core–shell size, and aggregation number. Themore » structural information at this quasi-equilibrium state can also be used as a reference when studying the kinetics of polymer micellization.« less

  15. Amphiphilic gold nanoparticles as modulators of lipid membrane fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Mukarram; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    The fusion of lipid membranes is central to biological functions like inter-cellular transport and signaling and is coordinated by proteins of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) superfamily. We utilize molecular dynamics simulations to demonstrate that gold nanoparticles functionalized with a mixed-monolayer of hydrophobic and hydrophilic alkanethiol ligands can act as synthetic analogues of these fusion proteins and mediate lipid membrane fusion by catalyzing the formation of a toroidal stalk between adjacent membranes and enabling the formation of a fusion pore upon influx of Ca2+ into the exterior solvent. The fusion pathway enabled by these synthetic nanostructures is analogous to the regulated fast fusion pathway observed during synaptic vesicle fusion; it therefore provides novel physical insights into this important biological process while also being relevant in a number of single-cell therapeutic applications. Computational resources from NSF XSEDE contract TG-DMR130042. Financial support from DOE CSGF fellowship DE-FG02-97ER25308.

  16. Direct simulation of amphiphilic nanoparticle mediated membrane interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Mukarram; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    Membrane fusion is a critical step in the transport of biological cargo through membrane-bound compartments like vesicles. Membrane proteins that alleviate energy barriers for initial stalk formation and eventual rupture of the hemifusion intermediate during fusion generally assist this process. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with a combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic alkanethiol ligands have recently been shown to induce membrane re-arrangements that are similar to those associated with these fusion proteins. In this work, we utilize molecular dynamics simulation to systematically design nanoparticles that exhibit targeted interactions with membranes. We introduce a method for rapidly parameterizing nanoparticle topology for the MARTINI biomolecular force field to permit long timescale simulation of their interactions with lipid bilayers. We leverage this model to investigate how ligand chemistry governs the nanoparticle's insertion efficacy and the perturbations it generates in the membrane environment. We further demonstrate through unbiased simulations that these nanoparticles can direct the fusion of lipid assemblies such as micelles and vesicles in a manner that mimics the function of biological fusion peptides and SNARE proteins.

  17. Self-assembly behavior of a linear-star supramolecular amphiphile based on host-guest complexation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Xing; Yang, Fei; Shen, Hong; You, Yezi; Wu, Decheng

    2014-11-04

    A star polymer, β-cyclodextrin-poly(l-lactide) (β-CD-PLLA), and a linear polymer, azobenzene-poly(ethylene glycol) (Azo-PEG), could self-assemble into a supramolecular amphiphilic copolymer (β-CD-PLLA@Azo-PEG) based on the host-guest interaction between β-CD and azobenzene moieties. This linear-star supramolecular amphiphilic copolymer further self-assembled into a variety of morphologies, including sphere-like micelle, carambola-like micelle, naan-like micelle, shuttle-like lamellae, tube-like fiber, and random curled-up lamellae, by tuning the length of hydrophilic or hydrophobic chains. The variation of morphology was closely related to the topological structure and block ratio of the supramolecular amphiphiles. These self-assembly structures could disassemble upon an ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation.

  18. Synthesis of Thermoresponsive Amphiphilic Polyurethane Gel as a New Cell Printing Material near Body Temperature.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Chun; Li, Suming; Hu, Shiaw-Guang; Chang, Wen-Chi; Jeng, U-Ser; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2015-12-23

    Waterborne polyurethane (PU) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diol and a second oligodiol containing amphiphilic blocks was synthesized in this study. The microstructure was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and rheological measurement of the PU dispersion. The surface hydrophilicity measurement, infrared spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, mechanical and thermal analyses were conducted in solid state. It was observed that the presence of a small amount of amphiphilic blocks in the soft segment resulted in significant changes in microstructure. When 90 mol % PCL diol and 10 mol % amphiphilic blocks of poly(l-lactide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PLLA-PEO) diol were used as the soft segment, the synthesized PU had a water contact angle of ∼24° and degree of crystallinity of ∼14%. The dispersion had a low viscosity below room temperature. As the temperature was raised to body temperature (37 °C), the dispersion rapidly (∼170 s) underwent sol-gel transition with excellent gel modulus (G' ≈ 6.5 kPa) in 20 min. PU dispersions with a solid content of 25-30% could be easily mixed with cells in sol state, extruded by a 3D printer, and deposited layer by layer as a gel. Cells remained alive and proliferating in the printed hydrogel scaffold. We expect that the development of novel thermoresponsive PU system can be used as smart injectable hydrogel and applied as a new type of bio-3D printing ink.

  19. Mobilization and biodegradation of 2-methylnaphthalene by amphiphilic polyurethane nano-particle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Bum; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Eun-ki

    2009-10-01

    Amphiphilic polyurethane (APU) nano-particle enhanced the mobilization of 2-methylnaphthalene (2-MNPT) in soil. Significant increase in the solubility of 2-MNPT was achieved. The molar solubilization ratio was 0.4 (mole 2-MNPT/mole APU). Simple precipitation of APU particle by 2 N CaCl(2) recovered 95% of APU particle and 92% of 2-MNPT simultaneously. Also, 2-MNPT, which was entrapped inside the APU particle, was directly degraded by Acinetobacter sp. as same efficiency as without APU particle. These results showed the potentials of APU particle in the mobilization and biodegradation of hydrophobic compounds from soil.

  20. Guest-Release Control in Enzyme-Sensitive, Amphiphilic-Dendrimer-Based Nanoparticles through Photochemical Crosslinking

    PubMed Central

    Raghupathi, Krishna R.; Azagarsamy, Malar A.; Thayumanavan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Stimuli sensitive, facially amphiphilic dendrimers have been synthesized and their enzyme-responsive nature has been determined with dual fluorescence responses of both covalently conjugated and non-covalently bound reporter units. These dual responses are correlated to ascertain the effect of enzymatic action on micellar aggregates and the consequential guest release. The release of the guest molecule is conveniently tuned by stabilizing the micellar aggregates through photochemical crosslinking of hydrophobic coumarin units. This photo-crosslinking is also utilized as a tool to investigate the mode of enzyme-substrate interaction in the context of aggregate-monomer equilibrium. PMID:21887830

  1. Self-Assembly of Peptide Amphiphiles Designed as Imaging Probes for 19F and Relaxation-Enhanced 1H imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preslar, Adam Truett

    This work incorporates whole-body imaging functionality into peptide amphiphile (PA) nanostructures used for regenerative medicine to facilitate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two strategies were employed: 1. Conjugation of gadolinium chelates to peptide nanostructures to monitor biomaterial degradation in vivo with MRI and inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) 2. Synthesis of perfluorinated moiety-bearing peptide amphiphiles for 19F-MRI. The Gd(III) chelate gadoteridol was conjugated by copper-catalyzed "click" chemistry to a series of PAs known to form cylindrical nanostructures. By fitting nuclear magnetic resonance dispersion (NMRD) profiles to the Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan (SBM) equations, it was observed that the water exchange parameter (tauM) depended on thermal annealing or calcium ion cross-linking. The sequence C16V 3A3E3G(Gd) exhibited an acceleration of nearly 100 ns after thermal annealing and calcium addition. These gadolinium-labeled PAs were used to track in vivo degradation of gels within the tibialis anterior muscle in a murine model. The half-life of biomaterial degradation was determined to be 13.5 days by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of Gd(III). Gel implants could be monitored by MRI for eight days before the signal dispersed due to implant degradation and dilution. Additionally, nanostructures incorporating highly fluorinated domains were investigated for use as MRI contrast agents. Short, perfluoroalkyane tails of seven or eight carbon atoms in length were grafted to PA sequences containing a V2A2 beta-sheet forming sequence. The V2A2 sequence is known to drive 1D nanostructure assembly. It was found that the sequences C7F13V2A 2E2 and C7F13V2A 2K3 formed 1D assemblies in water which transition from ribbon-like to cylindrical shape as pH increases from 4.5 to 8.0. Ribbon-like nanostructures had reduced magnetic resonance signal by T 2 relaxation quenching, whereas their cylindrical counterparts

  2. First-principles calculation of the optical properties of an amphiphilic cyanine dye aggregate.

    PubMed

    Haverkort, Frank; Stradomska, Anna; de Vries, Alex H; Knoester, Jasper

    2014-02-13

    Using a first-principles approach, we calculate electronic and optical properties of molecular aggregates of the dye amphi-pseudoisocyanine, whose structures we obtained from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the self-aggregation process. Using quantum chemistry methods, we translate the structural information into an effective time-dependent Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian for the dominant optical transitions in the aggregate. This Hamiltonian is used to calculate the absorption spectrum. Detailed analysis of the dynamic fluctuations in the molecular transition energies and intermolecular excitation transfer interactions in this Hamiltonian allows us to elucidate the origin of the relevant time scales; short time scales, on the order of up to a few hundreds of femtoseconds, result from internal motions of the dye molecules, while the longer (a few picosecond) time scales we ascribe to environmental motions. The absorption spectra of the aggregate structures obtained from MD feature a blue-shifted peak compared to that of the monomer; thus, our aggregates can be classified as H-aggregates, although considerable oscillator strength is carried by states along the entire exciton band. Comparison to the experimental absorption spectrum of amphi-PIC aggregates shows that the simulated line shape is too wide, pointing to too much disorder in the internal structure of the simulated aggregates.

  3. Application of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) to study the nanostructure in amphiphile self-assembly materials: phytantriol cubosomes and hexosomes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aurelia W; Fong, Celesta; Waddington, Lynne J; Hill, Anita J; Boyd, Ben J; Drummond, Calum J

    2015-01-21

    Self-assembled amphiphile nanostructures of colloidal dimensions such as cubosomes and hexosomes are of interest as delivery vectors in pharmaceutical and nanomedicine applications. Translation would be assisted through a better of understanding of the effects of drug loading on the internal nanostructure, and the relationship between this nanostructure and drug release profile. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is sensitive to local microviscosity and is used as an in situ molecular probe to examine the Q2 (cubosome) → H2 (hexosome) → L2 phase transitions of the pharmaceutically relevant phytantriol-water system in the presence of a model hydrophobic drug, vitamin E acetate (VitEA). It is shown that the ortho-positronium lifetime (τ) is sensitive to molecular packing and mobility and this has been correlated with the rheological properties of individual lyotropic liquid crystalline mesophases. Characteristic PALS lifetimes for L2 (τ4∼ 4 ns) ∼ H2 (τ4∼ 4 ns) > Q(2 Pn3m) (τ4∼ 2.2 ns) are observed for the phytantriol-water system, with the addition of VitEA yielding a gradual increase in τ from τ∼ 2.2 ns for cubosomes to τ∼ 3.5 ns for hexosomes. The dynamic chain packing at higher temperatures and in the L2 and H2 phases is qualitatively less "viscous", consistent with rheological measurements. This information offers increased understanding of the relationship between internal nanostructure and species permeability.

  4. Structural Diversity of Arthropod Biophotonic Nanostructures Spans Amphiphilic Phase-Space

    SciT

    Saranathan, Vinod Kumar; Seago, Ainsley E.; Sandy, Alec

    2015-05-04

    Many organisms, especially arthropods, produce vivid interference colors using diverse mesoscopic (100-350 nm) integumentary biophotonic nanostructures that are increasingly being investigated for technological applications. Despite a century of interest, precise structural knowledge of many biophotonic nanostructures and the mechanisms controlling their development remain tentative, when such knowledge can open novel biomimetic routes to facilely self-assemble tunable, multifunctional materials. Here, we use synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy to characterize the photonic nanostructure of 140 integumentary scales and setae from ~127 species of terrestrial arthropods in 85 genera from 5 orders. We report a rich nanostructural diversity, including triply periodicmore » bicontinuous networks, close-packed spheres, inverse columnar, perforated lamellar, and disordered spongelike morphologies, commonly observed as stable phases of amphiphilic surfactants, block copolymer, and lyotropic lipid-water systems. Diverse arthropod lineages appear to have independently evolved to utilize the self-assembly of infolding lipid-bilayer membranes to develop biophotonic nanostructures that span the phase-space of amphiphilic morphologies, but at optical length scales.« less

  5. Use of amphiphilic triblock copolymers for enhancing removal efficiency of organic pollutant from contaminated media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun Hyup; Lee, Byungsun; Son, Intae; Kim, Jae Hong; Kim, Chunho; Yoo, Ji Yong; Wu, Jong-Pyo; Kim, Younguk

    2015-11-01

    We have studied amphiphilic triblock copolymers poly(ethylene glycol)- b-poly(propylene glycol)- b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG- b-PPG- b-PEG) and poly(propylene glycol)- b-poly(ethylene glycol)- b-poly(propylene glycol) (PPG- b-PEG- b-PPG) as possible substitutes for sodium dodecyl sulfate as anionic surfactants for the removal of hydrophobic contaminants. The triblock copolymers were compared with sodium dodecyl sulfate in terms of their abilities to remove toluene as hydrophobic contaminant in fuel, and the effects of polymer structure, PEG content, and concentration were studied. The PEG- b-PPG- b-PEG copolymer containing two hydrophilic PEG blocks was more effective for the removal of hydrophobic contaminant at extremely high concentration. We also measured the removal capabilities of the triblock copolymers having various PEG contents and confirmed that removal capability was greatest at 10% PEG content regardless of polymer structure. As with sodium dodecyl sulfate, the removal efficiency of a copolymer has a positive correlation with its concentration. Finally, we proposed the amphiphilic triblock copolymer of PPG- b-PEG- b-PPG bearing 10% PEG content that proved to be the most effective substitute for sodium dodecyl sulfate.

  6. Hydration-Induced Phase Separation in Amphiphilic Polymer Matrices and its Influence on Voclosporin Release

    SciT

    Khan, I. John; Murthy, N. Sanjeeva; Kohn, Joachim

    2015-10-30

    Voclosporin is a highly potent, new cyclosporine -- a derivative that is currently in Phase 3 clinical trials in the USA as a potential treatment for inflammatory diseases of the eye. Voclosporin represents a number of very sparingly soluble drugs that are difficult to administer. It was selected as a model drug that is dispersed within amphiphilic polymer matrices, and investigated the changing morphology of the matrices using neutron and x-ray scattering during voclosporin release and polymer resorption. The hydrophobic segments of the amphiphilic polymer chain are comprised of desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester (DTE) and desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT), and the hydrophilic componentmore » is poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Water uptake in these matrices resulted in the phase separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains that are a few hundred Angstroms apart. These water-driven morphological changes influenced the release profile of voclosporin and facilitated a burst-free release from the polymer. No such morphological reorganization was observed in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), which exhibits an extended lag period, followed by a burst-like release of voclosporin when the polymer was degraded. An understanding of the effect of polymer composition on the hydration behavior is central to understanding and controlling the phase behavior and resorption characteristics of the matrix for achieving long-term controlled release of hydrophobic drugs such as voclosporin.« less

  7. Amphiphilic nanoparticles suppress droplet break-up in a concentrated emulsion flowing through a narrow constriction

    PubMed Central

    Gai, Ya; Kim, Minkyu; Pan, Ming; Tang, Sindy K. Y.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the break-up behavior of a concentrated emulsion comprising drops stabilized by amphiphilic silica nanoparticles flowing in a tapered microchannel. Such geometry is often used in serial droplet interrogation and sorting processes in droplet microfluidics applications. When exposed to high viscous stresses, drops can undergo break-up and compromise their physical integrity. As these drops are used as micro-reactors, such compromise leads to a loss in the accuracy of droplet-based assays. Here, we show droplet break-up is suppressed by replacing the fluoro-surfactant similar to the one commonly used in current droplet microfluidics applications with amphiphilic nanoparticles as droplet stabilizer. We identify parameters that influence the break-up of these drops and demonstrate that break-up probability increases with increasing capillary number and confinement, decreasing nanoparticle size, and is insensitive to viscosity ratio within the range tested. Practically, our results reveal two key advantages of nanoparticles with direct applications to droplet microfluidics. First, replacing surfactants with nanoparticles suppresses break-up and increases the throughput of the serial interrogation process to 3 times higher than that in surfactant system under similar flow conditions. Second, the insensitivity of break-up to droplet viscosity makes it possible to process samples having different composition and viscosities without having to change the channel and droplet geometry in order to maintain the same degree of break-up and corresponding assay accuracy. PMID:28652887

  8. Ionophores at work: Exploring the interaction of guanosine-based amphiphiles with phospholipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Giuseppe; Musumeci, Domenica; Koutsioubas, Alexandros; Paduano, Luigi; Montesarchio, Daniela; D'Errico, Gerardino

    2017-12-01

    An amphiphilic derivative of guanosine, carrying a myristoyl group at the 5'-position and two methoxy(triethylene glycol) appendages at the 2' and 3'-positions (1), endowed with high ionophoric activity, has been here studied in its interaction mode with a model lipid membrane along with its 5'-spin-labelled analogue 2, bearing the 5-doxyl-stearic in lieu of the myristic residue. Electron spin resonance spectra, carried out on the spin-labelled nucleolipid 2 in mixture with a DOPC/DOPG phospholipid bilayer, on one side, and on spin-labelled lipids mixed with 1, on the other, integrated with dynamic light scattering and neutron reflectivity measurements, allowed getting an in-depth picture of the effect of the ionophores on membrane structure, relevant to clarify the ion transport mechanism through lipid bilayers. Particularly, dehydration of lipid headgroups and lowering of both the local polarity and acyl chains order across the bilayer, due to the insertion of the oligo(ethylene glycol) chains in the bilayer hydrophobic core, have been found to be the main effects of the amphiphilic guanosines interaction with the membrane. These results furnish directions to rationally implement future ionophores design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Probing the amphiphile micellar to hexagonal phase transition using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aurelia W; Fong, Celesta; Hill, Anita J; Boyd, Ben J; Drummond, Calum J

    2013-07-15

    Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) has been utilised only sparingly for structural characterisation in self assembled materials. Inconsistencies in approaches to experimental configuration and data analysis between studies has complicated comparisons between studies, meaning that the technique has not provided a cohesive data set across the study of different self assembled systems that advance the technique towards an important tool in soft matter research. In the current work a systematic study was conducted using ionic and non-ionic micellar systems with increasing surfactant concentration to probe positron behaviour on changes between micellar phase structures, and data analysed using contemporary approaches to fit four component spectra. A characteristic orthopositronium lifetime (in the organic regions) of 3.5±0.2 ns was obtained for the hexagonal phase for surfactants with C12 alkyl chains. Chemical quenching of the positron species was also observed for systems with ionic amphiphiles. The application of PALS has also highlighted an inconsistency in the published phase diagram for the octa(ethylene oxide) monododecyl ether (C12EO8) system. These results provide new insight into how the physical properties of micellar systems can be related to PALS parameters and means that the PALS technique can be applied to other more complex self-assembled amphiphile systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Using amphiphilic nanostructures to enable long-range ensemble coalescence and surface rejuvenation in dropwise condensation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David M; Gupta, Maneesh K; Voevodin, Andrey A; Hunter, Chad N; Putnam, Shawn A; Tsukruk, Vladimir V; Fedorov, Andrei G

    2012-04-24

    Controlling coalescence events in a heterogeneous ensemble of condensing droplets on a surface is an outstanding fundamental challenge in surface and interfacial sciences, with a broad practical importance in applications ranging from thermal management of high-performance electronic devices to moisture management in high-humidity environments. Nature-inspired superhydrophobic surfaces have been actively explored to enhance heat and mass transfer rates by achieving favorable dynamics during dropwise condensation; however, the effectiveness of such chemically homogeneous surfaces has been limited because condensing droplets tend to form as pinned Wenzel drops rather than mobile Cassie ones. Here, we introduce an amphiphilic nanostructured surface, consisting of a hydrophilic base with hydrophobic tips, which promotes the periodic regeneration of nucleation sites for small droplets, thus rendering the surface self-rejuvenating. This unique amphiphilic nanointerface generates an arrangement of condensed Wenzel droplets that are fluidically linked by a wetted sublayer, promoting previously unobserved coalescence events where numerous droplets simultaneously merge, without direct contact. Such ensemble coalescences rapidly create fresh nucleation sites, thereby shifting the overall population toward smaller droplets and enhancing the rates of mass and heat transfer during condensation.

  11. Role of nano-range amphiphilic polymers in seed quality enhancement of soybean and imidacloprid retention capacity on seed coatings.

    PubMed

    Adak, Totan; Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, Najam A; Pandey, Sushil

    2016-10-01

    Nano-size and wide-range solubility of amphiphilic polymers (having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks) can improve uniformity in seed coatings. An investigation was carried out to assess the positive effect of amphiphilic polymers over hydrophilic or hydrophobic polymers as seed coating agents and pesticide carriers. Amphiphilic polymers with 127.5-354 nm micelle size were synthesized in the laboratory using polyethylene glycols and aliphatic di-acids. After 6 months of storage, germination of uncoated soybean seeds decreased drastically from 97.80 to 81.55%, while polymer-coated seeds showed 89.44-95.92% germination. Similarly, vigour index-1 was reduced from 3841.10 to 2813.06 for control seeds but ranged from 3375.59 to 3844.60 for polymer-coated seeds after 6 months. The developed imidacloprid formulations retained more pesticide on soybean seed coatings than did a commercial formulation (Gaucho(®) 600 FS). The time taken for 50% release of imidacloprid from seed coatings in water was 7.12-9.11 h for the developed formulations and 0.41 h for the commercial formulation. Nano-range amphiphilic polymers can be used to protect soybean seeds from ageing. Formulations as seed treatments may produce improved and sustained efficacy with minimum environmental contamination. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Recovery and redispersion of gold nanoparticles using the self-assembly of a pH sensitive zwitterionic amphiphile.

    PubMed

    Morita-Imura, Clara; Imura, Yoshiro; Kawai, Takeshi; Shindo, Hitoshi

    2014-11-04

    The pH-responsive self-assembly of zwitterionic amphiphile C16CA was expanded to the recovery of gold (Au) nanoparticles for environmentally friendly chemistry applications. Multilayered lamellae at pH ∼ 4 were successfully incorporated into nanoparticles by dispersion. Redispersion of nanoparticles was achieved under basic conditions by the transition of self-assembly.

  13. An amphiphilic, PK-PBAN analog is a selective pheromonotropic antagonist that penetrates the cuticle of a heliothine insect

    A linear pyrokinin(PK)/pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) lead antagonist was structurally modified to impart amphiphilic properties to enhance its ability to transmigrate the hydrophobic cuticle of noctuid moth species and yet retain aqueous solubility in the hemolymph to reach t...

  14. Extensive characterization of human tear fluid collected using different techniques unravels the presence of novel lipid amphiphiles1[S

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Sin Man; Tong, Louis; Duan, Xinrui; Petznick, Andrea; Wenk, Markus R.; Shui, Guanghou

    2014-01-01

    The tear film covers the anterior eye and the precise balance of its various constituting components is critical for maintaining ocular health. The composition of the tear film amphiphilic lipid sublayer, in particular, has largely remained a matter of contention due to the limiting concentrations of these lipid amphiphiles in tears that render their detection and accurate quantitation tedious. Using systematic and sensitive lipidomic approaches, we validated different tear collection techniques and report the most comprehensive human tear lipidome to date; comprising more than 600 lipid species from 17 major lipid classes. Our study confers novel insights to the compositional details of the existent tear film model, in particular the disputable amphiphilic lipid sublayer constituents, by demonstrating the presence of cholesteryl sulfate, O-acyl-ω-hydroxyfatty acids, and various sphingolipids and phospholipids in tears. The discovery and quantitation of the relative abundance of various tear lipid amphiphiles reported herein are expected to have a profound impact on the current understanding of the existent human tear film model. PMID:24287120

  15. The molecular shape and the field similarities as criteria to interpret SAR studies for fragment-based design of platinum(IV) anticancer agents. Correlation of physicochemical properties with cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Julia; Montaña, Ángel M

    2016-09-01

    Molecular shape similarity and field similarity have been used to interpret, in a qualitative way, the structure-activity relationships in a selected series of platinum(IV) complexes with anticancer activity. MM and QM calculations have been used to estimate the electron density, electrostatic potential maps, partial charges, dipolar moments and other parameters to correlate the stereo-electronic properties with the differential biological activity of complexes. Extended Electron Distribution (XED) field similarity has been also evaluated for the free 1,4-diamino carrier ligands, in a fragment-based drug design approach, comparing Connolly solvent excluded surface, hydrophobicity field surface, Van der Waals field surface, nucleophilicity field surface, electrophilicity field surface and the extended electron-distribution maxima field points. A consistency has been found when comparing the stereo-electronic properties of the studied series of platinum(IV) complexes and/or the free ligands evaluated and their in vitro anticancer activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, John; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the classification of shapes into broad natural categories such as "animal" or "leaf". We asked whether such coarse classifications can be achieved by a simple statistical classification of the shape skeleton. We surveyed databases of natural shapes, extracting shape skeletons and tabulating their…

  17. Molecular engineering of polymersome surface topology

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Pérez, Lorena; Messager, Lea; Gaitzsch, Jens; Joseph, Adrian; Sutto, Ludovico; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Biological systems exploit self-assembly to create complex structures whose arrangements are finely controlled from the molecular to mesoscopic level. We report an example of using fully synthetic systems that mimic two levels of self-assembly. We show the formation of vesicles using amphiphilic copolymers whose chemical nature is chosen to control both membrane formation and membrane-confined interactions. We report polymersomes with patterns that emerge by engineering interfacial tension within the polymersome surface. This allows the formation of domains whose topology is tailored by chemical synthesis, paving the avenue to complex supramolecular designs functionally similar to those found in viruses and trafficking vesicles. PMID:27152331

  18. Linear shaped charge

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of novel amphiphilic copolymer stearic acid-coupled F127 nanoparticles for nano-technology based drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qihe; Liang, Qing; Yu, Fei; Xu, Jian; Zhao, Qihua; Sun, Baiwang

    2011-12-01

    Pluronic, F127, amphiphilic block copolymers, are used for several applications, including drug delivery systems. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of F127 is about 0.26-0.8 wt% so that the utility of F127 in nano-technology based drug delivery system is limited since the nano-sized micelles could dissociate upon dilution. Herein, stearic acid (SA) was simply coupled to F127 between the carboxyl group of SA and the hydroxyl group of F127, which formed a novel copolymer named as SA-coupled F127, with significantly lower CMC. Above the CMC 6.9 × 10(-5)wt%, SA-coupled F127 self-assembled stable nanoparticles with Zeta potential -36 mV. Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded nanoparticles were made, with drug loading (DL) 5.7 wt% and Zeta potential -36 to -39 mV, and the nanoparticles exhibited distinct shape with the size distribution from 20 to 50 nm. DOX-loaded nanoparticles were relatively stable and exhibited DOX dependant cytotoxicity toward MCF-7 cells in vitro. These results suggest that SA-coupled F127 potentially could be applied as a nano-technology based drug delivery method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-assembled nanomicelles of amphiphilic clotrimazole glycyl-glycine analogue augmented drug delivery, apoptosis and restrained melanoma tumour progression.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Jyoti, Kiran; Baldi, Ashish; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Chandra, Ramesh; Madan, Jitender

    2018-08-01

    In present investigation, self-assembled nanomicelles of amphiphilic clotrimazole glycyl-glycine (CLT-GG-SANMs) analogue were customized for augmenting drug delivery, permeability and apoptosis in B16F1 mouse melanoma cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo following intratumoral (i.t.) route of administration. The mean particle size of CLT-GG-SANMs was measured to be 35.9 ± 3.4 nm in addition to zeta-potential of -17.1 ± 3.5 mV. The shape of CLT-GG-SANMs was visualized to be smooth and spherical as like nanoparticles. The critical micellar concentration (CMC) of CLT-GG-SANMs was estimated to be 17 μg/ml using DPH (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) as a UV probe. Modification of CLT to CLT-GG-SANMs induced the amorphization in therapeutic moiety. Next, CLT suspension released only 9.7% of the drug within 1 h under dissolution testing and further analysis up to 48 h did not display any remarkable effect on the drug release. On the other hand, CLT-GG-SANMs released 46.2% of the drug significantly (P < 0.01) higher than CLT suspension at 4 h. The IC 50 of CLT-GG-SANMs was measured to be 15.1-μM significantly (P < 0.05) lower than CLT suspension (IC 50  > 20 μM) in B16F1 cells. Western blotting and histopathological analysis also supported the superior therapeutic efficacy of CLT-GG-SANMs in terms of higher extent of apoptosis, tumour regression and exhibition of strong antioxidant potential against B16F1 cells induced tumour in C57BL6J mice. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo therapeutic efficacy analysis indicated that CLT-GG-SANMs may be a potential candidate for translating in to a clinically viable product. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Amphiphilic invertible polymers: Self-assembly into functional materials driven by environment polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hevus, Ivan

    Stimuli-responsive polymers adapt to environmental changes by adjusting their chain conformation in a fast and reversible way. Responsive polymeric materials have already found use in electronics, coatings industry, personal care, and bio-related areas. The current work aims at the development of novel responsive functional polymeric materials by manipulating environment-dependent self-assembly of a new class of responsive macromolecules strategically designed in this study,—amphiphilic invertible polymers (AIPs). Environment-dependent micellization and self-assembly of three different synthesized AIP types based on poly(ethylene glycol) as a hydrophilic fragment and varying hydrophobic constituents was demonstrated in polar and nonpolar solvents, as well as on the surfaces and interfaces. With increasing concentration, AIP micelles self-assemble into invertible micellar assemblies composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. Polarity-responsive properties of AIPs make invertible micellar assemblies functional in polar and nonpolar media including at interfaces. Thus, invertible micellar assemblies solubilize poorly soluble substances in their interior in polar and nonpolar solvents. In a polar aqueous medium, a novel stimuli-responsive mechanism of drug release based on response of AIP-based drug delivery system to polarity change upon contact with the target cell has been established using invertible micellar assemblies loaded with curcumin, a phytochemical drug. In a nonpolar medium, invertible micellar assemblies were applied simultaneously as nanoreactors and stabilizers for size-controlled synthesis of silver nanoparticles stable in both polar and nonpolar media. The developed amphiphilic nanosilver was subsequently used as seeds to promote anisotropic growth of CdSe semiconductor nanoparticles that have potential in different applications ranging from physics to medicine. Amphiphilic invertible polymers were shown to adsorb on the surface of silica

  2. Sugar-based amphiphilic polymers for biomedical applications: from nanocarriers to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gu, Li; Faig, Allison; Abdelhamid, Dalia; Uhrich, Kathryn

    2014-10-21

    Various therapeutics exhibit unfavorable physicochemical properties or stability issues that reduce their in vivo efficacy. Therefore, carriers able to overcome such challenges and deliver therapeutics to specific in vivo target sites are critically needed. For instance, anticancer drugs are hydrophobic and require carriers to solubilize them in aqueous environments, and gene-based therapies (e.g., siRNA or pDNA) require carriers to protect the anionic genes from enzymatic degradation during systemic circulation. Polymeric micelles, which are self-assemblies of amphiphilic polymers (APs), constitute one delivery vehicle class that has been investigated for many biomedical applications. Having a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic shell, polymeric micelles have been used as drug carriers. While traditional APs are typically comprised of nondegradable block copolymers, sugar-based amphiphilic polymers (SBAPs) synthesized by us are comprised of branched, sugar-based hydrophobic segments and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) chain. Similar to many amphiphilic polymers, SBAPs self-assemble into polymeric micelles. These nanoscale micelles have extremely low critical micelle concentrations offering stability against dilution, which occurs with systemic administration. In this Account, we illustrate applications of SBAPs for anticancer drug delivery via physical encapsulation within SBAP micelles and chemical conjugation to form SBAP prodrugs capable of micellization. Additionally, we show that SBAPs are excellent at stabilizing liposomal delivery systems. These SBAP-lipid complexes were developed to deliver hydrophobic anticancer therapeutics, achieving preferential uptake in cancer cells over normal cells. Furthermore, these complexes can be designed to electrostatically complex with gene therapies capable of transfection. Aside from serving as a nanocarrier, SBAPs have also demonstrated unique bioactivity in managing atherosclerosis, a major cause of cardiovascular

  3. Charge Inversion by Electrostatic Complexation: Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraudo, Jordi; Travesset, Alex

    2007-03-01

    Ions near interfaces play an important role in many biological and physico-chemical processes and exhibit a fascinating diverse range of phenomena. A relevant example is charge inversion, where interfacial charges attract counterions in excess of their own nominal charge, thus leading to an inversion of the sign of the interfacial charge. In this work, we argue that in the case of amphiphilic interfaces, charge inversion can be generated by complexation, that is, electrostatic complexes containing several counterions bound to amphiphilic molecules. The formation of these complexes require the presence at the interface of groups with conformational degrees of freedom with many electronegative atoms. We illustrate this mechanism by analyzing all atomic molecular dynamics simulations of a DMPA (Dimirystoil-Phosphatidic acid) phospholipid monolayer in contact with divalent counterions. The results are found to be in agreement with recent experimental results on Langmuir monolayers. We also discuss the implications for biological systems, as Phosphatidic acid is emerging as a key signaling phospholipid.

  4. Guanine-based amphiphiles: synthesis, ion transport properties and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Domenica; Irace, Carlo; Santamaria, Rita; Milano, Domenico; Tecilla, Paolo; Montesarchio, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    Novel amphiphilic guanine derivatives, here named Gua1 and Gua2, have been prepared through few, simple and efficient synthetic steps. In ion transport experiments through phospholipid bilayers, carried out to evaluate their ability to mediate H(+) transport, Gua2 showed high activity. When this compound was investigated for ion-selective transport activities, no major differences were observed in the behaviour with cations while, in the case of anions, selective activity was observed in the series I(-)>Br(-)>Cl(-)>F(-). The bioactivity of these guanine analogues has been evaluated on a panel of human tumour and non-tumour cell lines in preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity assays, showing a relevant antiproliferative profile for Gua2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Amphiphilic Fluorinated Polymer Nanoparticle Film Formation and Dissolved Oxygen Sensing Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yu; Zhu, Huie; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Miyashita, Tokuji; Mitsuishi, Masaya

    2016-04-01

    Fluorinated polymer nanoparticle films were prepared by dissolving amphiphilic fluorinated polymer, poly (N-1H, 1H-pentadecafluorooctylmethacrylamide) (pC7F15MAA) in two miscible solvents (AK-225 and acetic acid). A superhydrophobic and porous film was obtained by dropcasting the solution on substrates. With higher ratios of AK-225 to acetic acid, pC7F15MAA was densified around acetic acid droplets, leading to the formation of pC7F15MAA nanoparticles. The condition of the nanoparticle film preparation was investigated by varying the mixing ratio or total concentration. A highly sensitive dissolved oxygen sensor system was successfully prepared utilizing a smart surface of superhydrophobic and porous pC7F15MAA nanoparticle film. The sensitivity showed I0/I40 = 126 in the range of dissolved oxygen concentration of 0 ~ 40 mg L-1. The oxygen sensitivity was compared with that of previous reports.

  6. Blending of diblock and triblock copolypeptide amphiphiles yields cell penetrating vesicles with low toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, April R; Choe, Uh-Joo; Kamei, Daniel T; Deming, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    We prepared dual hydrophilic triblock copolypeptide vesicles that form both micron and nanometer scale vesicles in aqueous media. The incorporation of terminal homoarginine segments into methionine sulfoxide-based vesicles was found to significantly enhance their cellular uptake compared to a non-ionic control. We also demonstrated that diblock and triblock copolypeptides with similar hydrophobic domains were found to mix well and form vesicle populations with uniform compositions. Blending of amphiphiles in vesicle nanocarriers was found to impart these materials with many advantageous properties, including good cellular uptake while maintaining minimal toxicity, as well as biological responsiveness to promote vesicle disruption and release of encapsulated cargos. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Magneto-capillary dynamics of amphiphilic Janus particles at curved liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Fei, Wenjie; Driscoll, Michelle M; Chaikin, Paul M; Bishop, Kyle J M

    2018-05-11

    A homogeneous magnetic field can exert no net force on a colloidal particle. However, by coupling the particle's orientation to its position on a curved interface, even static homogeneous fields can be used to drive rapid particle motions. Here, we demonstrate this effect using magnetic Janus particles with amphiphilic surface chemistry adsorbed at the spherical interface of a water drop in decane. Application of a static homogeneous field drives particle motion to the drop equator where the particle's magnetic moment can align parallel to the field. As explained quantitatively by a simple model, the effective magnetic force on the particle scales linearly with the curvature of the interface. For particles adsorbed on small droplets such as those found in emulsions, these magneto-capillary forces can far exceed those due to magnetic field gradients in both magnitude and range. This mechanism may be useful in creating highly responsive emulsions and foams stabilized by magnetic particles.

  8. Responsive micellar films of amphiphilic block copolymer micelles: control on micelle opening and closing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiquan; He, Changcheng; Li, Fengbin; Tong, Ling; Liao, Xingzhi; Wang, Yong

    2010-06-01

    We reported the deliberate control on the micelle opening and closing of amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) micellar films by exposing them to selective solvents. We first treated the micellar films with polar solvents including ethanol and water (pH = 4, 8, and 12) that have different affinities to P2VP. We observed opening of the micelles in all the cases. Both the size of opened pores and the opening rate are dependent on the solvency of different solvents for P2VP. We then explored the closing behavior of the opened micelles using solvents having different affinities to PS. We found that the opened micelles were recovered to their initial closed micelle forms. The recovery was accompanied by a slow micelle disassociation process which gradually reduced the micelle size. The rates of the micelle closing and disassociation are also dependent on the solvency of different solvents for PS.

  9. Redox-sensitive dendrimersomes assembled from amphiphilic Janus dendrimers for siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiao-Jiao; Wang, Ze-Yu; Wang, Yu-Cai

    2018-06-14

    The development of delivery systems for small interfering RNA (siRNA) plays a key role in its clinical application. As the major delivery systems for siRNA, cationic polymer- or lipid-based vehicles are plagued by inherent issues. As proof of concept, a disulfide bond-containing amphiphilic Janus dendrimer (ssJD), which could be conveniently synthesized and readily scaled up with high reproducibility, was explored as a siRNA delivery system to circumvent these issues. The cationic hydrophilic head of this Janus dendrimer ensured strong and stable binding with negatively charged siRNA via electrostatic interactions, and the loaded siRNA was rapidly released from the obtained complexes under a redox environment. Therefore, after efficient internalization into tumor cells, redox-sensitive dendrimersome (RSDs)/siRNA exhibited significantly improved gene silencing efficacy.

  10. Reversible monolayer-to-crystalline phase transition in amphiphilic silsesquioxane at the air-water interface

    DOE PAGES

    Banerjee, R.; Sanyal, M. K.; Bera, M. K.; ...

    2015-02-17

    We report on the counter intuitive reversible crystallisation of two-dimensional monolayer of Trisilanolisobutyl Polyhedral Oligomeric SilSesquioxane (TBPOSS) on water surface using synchrotron x-ray scattering measurements. Amphiphilic TBPOSS form rugged monolayers and Grazing Incidence X-ray Scattering (GIXS) measurements reveal that the in-plane inter-particle correlation peaks, characteristic of two-dimensional system, observed before transition is replaced by intense localized spots after transition. The measured x-ray scattering data of the non-equilibrium crystalline phase on the air-water interface could be explained with a model that assumes periodic stacking of the TBPOSS dimers. These crystalline stacking relaxes upon decompression and the TBPOSS layer retains its initialmore » monolayer state. The existence of these crystals in compressed phase is confirmed by atomic force microscopy measurements by lifting the materials on a solid substrate.« less

  11. Synthesis, Amphiphilic Property and Thermal Stability of Novel Main-chain Poly(o-carborane-benzoxazines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoxue; Han, Guo; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaoa; Jiang, Shengling; Lyu, Yafei

    2017-10-01

    Five poly(o-carborane-benzoxazines) were synthesized via Mannich reaction of o-carborane bisphenol, paraformaldehyde, and diamine, and their structures were well characterized. Light transmission and 1H NMR in D2O confirmed that poly(o-carborane-benzoxazines) with PEG segments showed excellent water solubility and amphiphilic property. TGA analyses were conducted under nitrogen and air, and the results showed that the polymers own high initial decomposition temperatures owing to the shielding effect of carborane moiety on its adjacent aromatic structures. Besides, poly(o-carborane-benzoxazines) own high char yield at elevated temperatures, for the boron atom could combine with oxygen from the polymer structure or/and the air and be oxidized to form boron oxide, and thus the polymer weight is retained to a large extent. PEG segments had an adverse effect on the initial decomposition and char yield, and thus their concentration should be adjusted to control the polymer’s thermal stability.

  12. C60 Cheese Sticks: Supramolecular Architecture of an Amphiphilic Fullerene Pentapod.

    PubMed

    Samal, Monica; Acharya, Sandhyarani; Yi, Dong Kee; Lee, Jae-Suk; Samal, Shashadhar

    2015-09-01

    An amphiphillic fullerene pentaphenol derivative, C60(4-HOC6H4)5H, in an aprotic solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), spontaneously self-assembles to a hitherto unknown cheese stick-like (CS) structure. This fascinating structure is observed only for C60(4-HOC6H4)5H and only in dry NMP solvent. The reason for such unique self-assembly behavior is ascribed to solvating power typical of NMP. The CS structure is observed in a narrow concentration range of the solution. This indicates that there exists between the solute and the solvent an optimal interaction condition for CS to remain stable.

  13. Characterization of caprylocaproyl macrogolglycerides based microemulsion drug delivery vehicles for an amphiphilic drug.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Ljiljana; Primorac, Marija; Stupar, Mirjana; Krajisnik, Danina

    2004-03-01

    Microemulsion systems composed of water, isopropyl myristate, PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides (Labrasol), and polyglyceryl-6 dioleate (Plurol Oleique), were investigated as potential drug delivery vehicles for an amphiphilic model drug (diclofenac diethylamine). Pseudo-ternary phase diagram of the investigated system, at constant surfactant/cosurfactant mass ratio (Km 4:1) was constructed at room temperature by titration, and the oil-to-surfactant/cosurfactant mass ratios (O/SC) that exhibit the maximum in the solubilization of water were found. This allowed the investigation of the continuous structural inversion from water-in-oil to oil-in-water microemulsions on dilution with water phase. Furthermore, electrical conductivity (sigma) of the system at Km 1:4, and O/SC 0.250 was studied, and the percolation phenomenon was observed. Conductivity and apparent viscosity (eta') measurement results well described colloidal microstructure of the selected formulations, including gradual changes during their formation. Moreover, sigma, eta', and pH values of six selected microemulsion vehicles which differ in water phase volume fraction (phi(w)) at the selected Km and O/SC values, were measured. In order to investigate the influence of the amphiphilic drug on the vehicle microstructures, each system was formulated with 1.16% (w/w) diclofenac diethylamine. Electrical conductivity, and eta' of the investigated systems were strongly affected by drug incorporation. The obtained results suggest that diclofenac diethylamine interacts with the specific microstructure of the investigated vehicles, and that the different drug release kinetics from these microemulsions may be expected. The investigated microemulsions should be very interesting as new drug carrier systems for dermal application of diclofenac diethylamine.

  14. Amphiphilic polymeric micelle as pseudostationary phase in electrokinetic chromatography for analysis of eight corticosteroids in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojin; Ni, Xinjiong; Cao, Yuhua; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Cao, Guangqun

    2014-03-01

    Amphiphilic polymeric micelle, as a novel pseudostationary phase in EKC was used to determine eight kinds of corticosteroids namely hydrocortisone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone acetate, prednisone, cortisone acetate, prednisolone acetate, dexamethasone, and triamcinolone acetonide in cosmetics. Amphiphilic random copolymer poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (P(MMA-co-MAA)) was micellizated via neutralization in alkaline aqueous solution. The influences of the molar ratio of monomer MMA to MAA, the concentration of polymer and pH on the polymeric micelle microstructure and EKC performances were investigated. As molar ratio of MMA to MAA in P(MMA-co-MAA) increased, both CMC and environmental polarity of the inner core in polymeric micelle decreased dramatically. With increasing monomer ratio, the size of polymeric micelles increased firstly, and then decreased, finally increased again. ζ potential of the micelle had a slight decline trend. As increment of polymer concentration, the size of the polymeric micelle increased steadily. By optimizing the monomer ratio, the polymer concentration, and pH of the running buffer, as well as operation conditions such as separation voltage and temperature, the eight analytes could be separated within 16.5 min using 7.5 mg/mL polymer with the monomer ratio of 7:3 dissolved in pH 9.2 borax buffer as the running buffer. The method has been used for analysis of corticosteroids in cosmetic samples with simple extraction; the recoveries for eight analytes were between 85.9 and 106%. This method was of accuracy, repeatability, pretreatment simplicity, and could be applied to the quality control of cosmetics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Electrophysiological Assessment of a Peptide Amphiphile Nanofiber Nerve Graft for Facial Nerve Repair.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jacqueline J; McClendon, Mark T; Stephanopoulos, Nicholas; Álvarez, Zaida; Stupp, Samuel I; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2018-04-27

    Facial nerve injury can cause severe long-term physical and psychological morbidity. There are limited repair options for an acutely transected facial nerve not amenable to primary neurorrhaphy. We hypothesize that a peptide amphiphile nanofiber neurograft may provide the nanostructure necessary to guide organized neural regeneration. Five experimental groups were compared, animals with 1) an intact nerve, 2) following resection of a nerve segment, and following resection and immediate repair with either a 3) autograft (using the resected nerve segment), 4) neurograft, or 5) empty conduit. The buccal branch of the rat facial nerve was directly stimulated with charge balanced biphasic electrical current pulses at different current amplitudes while nerve compound action potentials (nCAPs) and electromygraphic (EMG) responses were recorded. After 8 weeks, the proximal buccal branch was surgically re-exposed and electrically evoked nCAPs were recorded for groups 1-5. As expected, the intact nerves required significantly lower current amplitudes to evoke an nCAP than those repaired with the neurograft and autograft nerves. For other electrophysiologic parameters such as latency and maximum nCAP, there was no significant difference between the intact, autograft and neurograft groups. The resected group had variable responses to electrical stimulation, and the empty tube group was electrically silent. Immunohistochemical analysis and TEM confirmed myelinated neural regeneration. This study demonstrates that the neuroregenerative capability of peptide amphiphile nanofiber neurografts is similar to the current clinical gold standard method of repair and holds potential as an off-the-shelf solution for facial reanimation and potentially peripheral nerve repair. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Folic acid-conjugated amphiphilic alternating copolymer as a new active tumor targeting drug delivery platform.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Szewczuk, Myron R; Malardier-Jugroot, Cecile

    2016-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery using polymeric nanostructures is an emerging cancer research area, engineered for safer, more efficient, and effective use of chemotherapeutic drugs. A pH-responsive, active targeting delivery system was designed using folic acid functionalized amphiphilic alternating copolymer poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (FA-DABA-SMA) via a biodegradable linker 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DABA). The polymeric template is pH responsive, forming amphiphilic nanostructures at pH 7, allowing the encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs on its interior. Moreover, the structure is stable only at neutral pH and collapses in the acidic tumor microenvironment, releasing drugs on-site from its core. The delivery vehicle is investigated using human pancreatic PANC-1 cancer cells and RAW-Blue™ mouse macrophage reporter cell line, both of which have overly expression of folic acid receptors. To trace the cellular uptake by both cell lines, curcumin was selected as a dye and drug mimic owing to its fluorescence nature and hydrophobic properties. Fluorescent microscopy of FA-DABA-SMA loaded with curcumin revealed a significant internalization of the dye by human pancreatic PANC-1 cancer cells compared to those with unfunctionalized polymers (SMA). Moreover, the FA-DABA-SMA polymers exhibit rodlike association specific to the cells. Both empty SMA and FA-DABA-SMA show little toxicity to PANC-1 cells as characterized by WST-1 cell proliferation assay. These results clearly indicate that FA-DABA-SMA polymers show potential as an active tumor targeting drug delivery system with the ability to internalize hydrophobic chemotherapeutics after they specifically attach to cancer cells.

  17. An effective dispersant for oil spills based on food-grade amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Athas, Jasmin C; Jun, Kelly; McCafferty, Caitlyn; Owoseni, Olasehinde; John, Vijay T; Raghavan, Srinivasa R

    2014-08-12

    Synthetic dispersants such as Corexit 9500A were used in large quantities (∼2 million gallons) to disperse the oil spilled in the ocean during the recent Deepwater Horizon event. These dispersant formulations contain a blend of surfactants in a base of organic solvent. Some concerns have been raised regarding the aquatic toxicity and environmental impact of these formulations. In an effort to create a safer dispersant, we have examined the ability of food-grade amphiphiles to disperse (emulsify) crude oil in seawater. Our studies show that an effective emulsifier is obtained by combining two such amphiphiles: lecithin (L), a phospholipid extracted from soybeans, and Tween 80 (T), a surfactant used in many food products including ice cream. Interestingly, we find that L/T blends show a synergistic effect, i.e., their combination is an effective emulsifier, but neither L or T is effective on its own. This synergy is maximized at a 60/40 weight ratio of L/T and is attributed to the following reasons: (i) L and T pack closely at the oil-water interface; (ii) L has a low tendency to desorb, which fortifies the interfacial film; and (iii) the large headgroup of T provides steric repulsions between the oil droplets and prevents their coalescence. A comparison of L/T with Corexit 9500A shows that the former leads to smaller oil droplets that remain stable to coalescence for a much longer time. The smaller size and stability of crude oil droplets are believed to be important to their dispersion and eventual microbial degradation in the ocean. Our findings suggest that L/T blends could potentially be a viable alternative for the dispersion of oil spills.

  18. Incorporation of amphiphilic ruthenium(II) ammine complexes into Langmuir-Blodgett thin films with switchable quadratic nonlinear optical behavior.

    PubMed

    Boubekeur-Lecaque, Leïla; Coe, Benjamin J; Harris, James A; Helliwell, Madeleine; Asselberghs, Inge; Clays, Koen; Foerier, Stijn; Verbiest, Thierry

    2011-12-19

    Nine nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores with pyridinium electron acceptors have been synthesized by complexing new proligands with {Ru(II)(NH(3))(5)}(2+) electron-donor centers. The presence of long alkyl/fluoroalkyl chain substituents imparts amphiphilic properties, and these cationic complexes have been characterized as their PF(6)(-) salts by using various techniques including electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Each complex shows three reversible/quasireversible redox processes; a Ru(III/II) oxidation and two ligand-based reductions. The energies of the intense visible d → π* metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) absorptions correlate to some extent with the ligand reduction potentials. (1)H NMR spectroscopy also provides insights into the relative electron-withdrawing strengths of the new ligands. Single crystal X-ray structures have been determined for two of the proligand salts and one complex salt, [Ru(II)(NH(3))(5)(4-C(16)H(33)PhQ(+))]Cl(3)·3.25H(2)O (PhQ(+) = N-phenyl-4,4'-bipyridinium), showing centrosymmetric packing structures in each case. The PF(6)(-) analogue of the latter complex has been used to deposit reproducibly high-quality, multilayered Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) thin films. These films show a strong second harmonic generation (SHG) response from a 1064 nm laser; their MLCT absorbance increases linearly with the number of layers (N) and I(2ω)/I(ω)(2) (I(2ω) = intensity at 532 nm; I(ω) = intensity at 1064 nm) scales quadratically with N, consistent with homogeneous deposition. LB films on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass show electrochemically induced switching of the SHG response, with a decrease in activity of about 50% on Ru(II) → Ru(III) oxidation. This effect is reversible, but reproducible over only a few cycles before the signal from the Ru(II) species diminishes. This work extrapolates our original solution studies (Coe, B. J. et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.1999, 38, 366) to the first demonstration of

  19. Up-regulation of CYP1A1 and phase II enzymes by 5-ring isomeric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in precision-cut rat hepatic slices: Importance of molecular shape.

    PubMed

    Pushparajah, Daphnee; Lewis, Dfv; Ioannides, Costas

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were two-fold: (a) to evaluate the role of molecular shape on the interaction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with the Ah receptor and CYP1A1 upregulation, and (b) to evaluate the potential of PAHs to induce epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase, two major enzymes involved in their metabolism. In order to achieve these objectives, precision-cut rat liver slices were incubated with a range of concentrations of seven 5-ring isomeric PAHs, namely benzo[c]chrysene, benzo[b]chrysene, benzo[g]chrysene, dibenzo[a,j]anthracene, dibenzo[a,c]anthracene, picene and pentacene, for 24h. All compounds, with the exception of pentacene, elevated the O-deethylation of ethoxyresorufin, an activity associated with CYP1A1; induction of this enzyme by the various PAHs correlated with their avidity for the Ah receptor. None of the PAHs studied increased epoxide hydrolase activity, monitored using benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide. Of the seven PAHs, only benzo[g]chrysene elevated glutathione S-transferase activity, measured using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene or 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole as substrates. No relationship could be established between length or length/width and interaction with the Ah receptor and CYP1A1 up-regulation indicating that other structural or electronic factors are likely to be more important. Finally, 5-ring PAHs are poor inducers of the epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase enzyme systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Design, synthesis, characterization, and OFET properties of amphiphilic heteroleptic tris(phthalocyaninato) europium(III) complexes. The effect of crown ether hydrophilic substituents.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yingning; Ma, Pan; Chen, Yanli; Zhang, Ying; Bian, Yongzhong; Li, Xiyou; Jiang, Jianzhuang; Ma, Changqin

    2009-01-05

    Two amphiphilic heteroleptic tris(phthalocyaninato) europium complexes with hydrophilic crown ether heads and hydrophobic octyloxy tails [Pc(mCn)(4)]Eu[Pc(mCn)(4)]Eu[Pc(OC(8)H(17))(8)] [m = 12, n = 4, H(2)Pc(12C4)(4) = 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-tetrakis(12-crown-4)phthalocyanine; m = 18, n = 6, H(2)Pc(18C6)(4) = 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-tetrakis(18-crown-6)phthalocyanine; H(2)Pc(OC(8)H(17))(8) = 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy)phthalocyanine] (1, 2) were designed and prepared from the reaction between homoleptic bis(phthalocyaninato) europium compound [Pc(mCn)(4)]Eu[Pc(mCn)(4)] (m = 12, n = 4; m = 18, n = 6) and metal-free H(2)Pc(OC(8)H(17))(8) in the presence of Eu(acac)(3).H(2)O (Hacac = acetylacetone) in boiling 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. These novel sandwich triple-decker complexes were characterized by a wide range of spectroscopic methods and electrochemically studied. With the help of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, these typical amphiphilic triple-decker complexes were fabricated into organic field effect transistors (OFET) with top contact configuration on bare SiO(2)/Si substrate, hexamethyldisilazane-treated SiO(2)/Si substrate, and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-treated SiO(2)/Si substrate, respectively. The device performance is revealed to be dependent on the species of crown ether substituents and substrate surface treatment. OFETs fabricated from the triple decker with 12-crown-4 hydrophilic substituents, 1, allow the hole transfer in the direction parallel to the aromatic phthalocyanine rings. In contrast, the devices of a triple-decker compound containing 18-crown-6 as hydrophilic heads, 2, transfer holes in a direction along the long axis of the assembly composed of face-to-face aggregated triple-decker molecules, revealing the effect of molecular structure, specifically the crown ether substituents on the film structure and OFET functional properties. The carrier mobility for hole as high as 0.33 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and current modulation of 7.91 x 10

  1. Multistimuli-Responsive Amphiphilic Poly(ester-urethane) Nanoassemblies Based on l-Tyrosine for Intracellular Drug Delivery to Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Aluri, Rajendra; Saxena, Sonashree; Joshi, Dheeraj Chandra; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2018-06-11

    Multistimuli-responsive l-tyrosine-based amphiphilic poly(ester-urethane) nanocarriers were designed and developed for the first time to administer anticancer drugs in cancer tissue environments via thermoresponsiveness and lysosomal enzymatic biodegradation from a single polymer platform. For this purpose, multifunctional l-tyrosine monomer was tailor-made with a PEGylated side chain at the phenolic position along with urethane and carboxylic ester functionalities. Under melt dual ester-urethane polycondensation, the tyrosine monomer reacted with diols to produce high molecular weight amphiphilic poly(ester-urethane)s. The polymers produced 100 ± 10 nm spherical nanoparticles in aqueous medium, and they exhibited thermoresponsiveness followed by phase transition from clear solution into a turbid solution in heating/cooling cycles. Variable temperature transmittance, dynamic light scattering, and 1 H NMR studies revealed that the polymer chains underwent reversible phase transition from coil-to-expanded chain conformation for exhibiting the thermoresponsive behavior. The lower critical solution temperature of the nanocarriers was found to correspond to cancer tissue temperature (at 42-44 °C), which was explored as an extracellular trigger (stimuli-1) for drug delivery through the disassembly process. The ester bond in the poly(ester-urethane) backbones readily underwent enzymatic biodegradation in the lysosomal compartments that served as intracellular stimuli (stimuli-2) to deliver drugs. Doxorubicin (DOX) and camptothecin (CPT) drug-loaded polymer nanocarriers were tested for cellular uptake and cytotoxicity studies in the normal WT-MEF cell line and cervical (HeLa) and breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines. In vitro drug release studies revealed that the polymer nanoparticles were stable under physiological conditions (37 °C, pH 7.4) and they exclusively underwent disassembly at cancer tissue temperature (at 42 °C) and biodegradation by lysosomal-esterase enzyme

  2. Structure Formation in Salt-Free Solutions of Amphiphilic Sulfonated Polyelectrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockstaller, Michael; Koehler, Werner

    2000-03-01

    Self-assembled systems have long attracted attention due to their practical importance in many technical and biological fields. Dodecyl-substituted poly(para-phenylen)sulfonates (abbreviated PPPS) are highly charged polyelectrolytes which in the uncharged state have been investigated extensively and an intrinsic persistence length of 15 nm has been reported. Due to their hydrophobic side chains, PPPS are compatible with water only as micellar aggregates and tend to form supramolecular structures even at concentrations as low as 10-5mol_mon.units/l. Because of the rodlike conformation of PPPS, this self-assembly leads to aggregates of anisotropic shape. Therefore, depolarized light scattering was employed to yield complementary information about structure and dynamics of these complex fluids. Aqueous solutions of PPPS at room temperature undergo a structural transition at a critical concentration of c_crit.=0.016 g/l. This transition is characterized by a strong increase of scattered intensity in forward direction and dynamic depolarized scattering. Above c_crit. the cylindrical micelles (L=310 nm, d=3.1 nm, N_radial=12) self assembly into large ellipsoidal clusters of size in the μ m range. Due to the strong increase of depolarized scattered intensity there has to be a preferential orientation of the micelles inside those clusters, which thus represent a lyotropic mesophase. By combining static and dynamic light scattering for the low q-range as well as small angle x-ray scattering for the higher q-range it is possible to determine size and shape of each aggregation step. Decreasing the molecular weight of the PPPS has profound influence on the micellar length and hence on c_crit. which is close to the overlap concentration (c ~ 1/L^3) allowing for the observation of the polyelectrolyte effect.

  3. Colloidal and antibacterial properties of novel triple-headed, double-tailed amphiphiles: exploring structure-activity relationships and synergistic mixtures.

    PubMed

    Marafino, John N; Gallagher, Tara M; Barragan, Jhosdyn; Volkers, Brandi L; LaDow, Jade E; Bonifer, Kyle; Fitzgerald, Gabriel; Floyd, Jason L; McKenna, Kristin; Minahan, Nicholas T; Walsh, Brenna; Seifert, Kyle; Caran, Kevin L

    2015-07-01

    Two novel series of tris-cationic, tripled-headed, double-tailed amphiphiles were synthesized and the effects of tail length and head group composition on the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), thermodynamic parameters, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against six bacterial strains were investigated. Synergistic antibacterial combinations of these amphiphiles were also identified. Amphiphiles in this study are composed of a benzene core with three benzylic ammonium bromide groups, two of which have alkyl chains, each 8-16 carbons in length. The third head group is a trimethylammonium or pyridinium. Log of critical aggregation concentration (log[CAC]) and heat of aggregation (ΔHagg) were both inversely proportional to the length of the linear hydrocarbon chains. Antibacterial activity increases with tail length until an optimal tail length of 12 carbons per chain, above which, activity decreased. The derivatives with two 12 carbon chains had the best antibacterial activity, killing all tested strains at concentrations of 1-2μM for Gram-positive and 4-16μM for Gram-negative bacteria. The identity of the third head group (trimethylammonium or pyridinium) had minimal effect on colloidal and antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of several binary combinations of amphiphiles from this study was higher than activity of individual amphiphiles, indicating that these combinations are synergistic. These amphiphiles show promise as novel antibacterial agents that could be used in a variety of applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dimensional control of supramolecular assemblies of diacetylene-derived peptide gemini amphiphile: from spherical micelles to foamlike networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Ehlers, Martin; Hu, Xiao-Yu; Zellermann, Elio; Schmuck, Carsten

    2018-05-22

    Peptide amphiphiles capable of assembling into multidimensional nanostructures have attracted much attention over the past decade due to their potential applications in materials science. Herein, a novel diacetylene-derived peptide gemini amphiphile with a fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group at the N-terminus is reported to hierarchically assemble into spherical micelles, one-dimensional nanorods, two-dimensional foamlike networks and lamellae. Solvent polarity shows a remarkable effect on the self-assembled structures by changing the balance of four weak noncovalent interactions (hydrogen-bonding, π-π stacking, hydrophobic interaction, and electrostatic repulsion). We also show the time-evolution not only from spherical micelles to helical nanofibers in aqueous solution, but also from branched wormlike micelles to foamlike networks in methanol solution. In this work, the presence of the Fmoc group plays a key role in the self-assembly process. This work provides an efficient strategy for precise morphological control, aiding the future development in materials science.

  5. Graphene oxide-enhanced sol-gel transition sensitivity and drug release performance of an amphiphilic copolymer-based nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Huawen; Wang, Xiaowen; Lee, Ka I; Ma, Kaikai; Hu, Hong; Xin, John H.

    2016-01-01

    We report the fabrication of a highly sensitive amphiphilic copolymer-based nanocomposite incorporating with graphene oxide (GO), which exhibited a low-intensity UV light-triggered sol-gel transition. Non-cytotoxicity was observed for the composite gels after the GO incorporation. Of particular interest were the microchannels that were formed spontaneously within the GO-incorporated UV-gel, which expedited sustained drug release. Therefore, the present highly UV-sensitive, non-cytotoxic amphiphilic copolymer-based composites is expected to provide enhanced photothermal therapy and chemotherapy by means of GO’s unique photothermal properties, as well as through efficient passive targeting resulting from the sol-gel transition characteristic of the copolymer-based system with improved sensitivity, which thus promises the enhanced treatment of patients with cancer and other diseases. PMID:27539298

  6. Ga(III) chelates of amphiphilic DOTA-based ligands: synthetic route and in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Fontes, André; Prata, M Isabel M; Geraldes, Carlos F G C; André, João P

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we report on a synthetic strategy using amphiphilic DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid)-based chelators bearing a variable-sized α-alkyl chain at one of the pendant acetate arms (from 6 to 14 carbon atoms), compatible with their covalent coupling to amine-bearing biomolecules. The amphiphilic behavior of the micelles-forming Ga(III) chelates (critical micellar concentration), their stability in blood serum and their lipophilicity (logP) were investigated. Biodistribution studies with the (67)Ga-labeled chelates were performed in Wistar rats, which showed a predominant liver uptake with almost no traces of the radiochelates in the body after 24 h. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Simple Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Amphiphilic Carbon Quantum Dots from A3/B2 Polyamidation Monomer Set.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yujin; Jo, Seongho; Chae, Ari; Kim, Young Kwang; Park, Jeong Eun; Lim, Donggun; Park, Sung Young; In, Insik

    2017-08-23

    Highly fluorescent and amphiphilic carbon quantum dots (CQDs) were prepared by microwave-assisted pyrolysis of citric acid and 4,7,10-trioxa-1,13-tridecanediamine (TTDDA), which functioned as an A 3 and B 2 polyamidation type monomer set. Gram quantities of fluorescent CQDs were easily obtained within 5 min of microwave heating using a household microwave oven. Because of the dual role of TTDDA, both as a constituting monomer and as a surface passivation agent, TTDDA-based CQDs showed a high fluorescence quantum yield of 29% and amphiphilic solubility in various polar and nonpolar solvents. These properties enable the wide application of TTDDA-based CQDs as nontoxic bioimaging agents, nanofillers for polymer composites, and down-converting layers for enhancing the efficiency of Si solar cells.

  8. Ion-specific weak adsorption of salts and water/octanol transfer free energy of a model amphiphilic hexapeptide.

    PubMed

    Déjugnat, Christophe; Dufrêche, Jean-François; Zemb, Thomas

    2011-04-21

    An amphiphilic hexapeptide has been used as a model to quantify how specific ion effects induced by addition of four salts tune the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance and induce temperature-dependant coacervate formation from aqueous solution. The hexapeptide chosen is present as a dimer with low transfer energy from water to octanol. Taking sodium chloride as the reference state in the Hofmeister scale, we identify water activity effects and therefore measure the free energy of transfer from water to octanol and separately the free energy associated to the adsorption of chaotropic ions or the desorption of kosmotropic ions for the same amphiphilic peptide. These effects have the same order of magnitude: therefore, both energies of solvation as well as transfer into octanol strongly depend on the nature of the electrolytes used to formulate any buffer. Model peptides could be used on separation processes based on criteria linked to "Hofmeister" but different from volume and valency.