Science.gov

Sample records for molecular biological aspects

  1. Glycoprotein Biochemistry (Biosynthesis)--A Vehicle for Teaching Many Aspects of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Clair R.; Smith, Christopher A.

    1990-01-01

    Information about the biosynthesis of the carbohydrate portions or glycans of glycoproteins is presented. The teaching of glycosylation can be used to develop and emphasize many general aspects of biosynthesis, in addition to explaining specific biochemical and molecular biological features associated with producing the oligosaccharide portions of…

  2. Milk proteins-derived bioactive peptides in dairy products: molecular, biological and methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    Dziuba, Bartłomiej; Dziuba, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are one of the primary components of the food, both in terms of nutrition and function. They are main source of amino acids, essential for synthesis of proteins, and also source of energy. Additionally, many proteins exhibit specific biological activities, which may have effect on functional or pro-health properties of food products. These proteins and their hydrolysis products, peptides, may influence the properties of food and human organism. The number of commercially available food products containing bioactive peptides is very low, apart from that milk proteins are their rich source. It could be supposed that number of available products with declared activity will rise in near future because of observed strong uptrend on interest in such products. Molecular and biological properties of milk proteins, as precursors of bioactive peptides was characterised in the work. Therefore, the strategy of research and obtaining of such peptides both in laboratory and industrial scale, as well as the range of their commercial application, was presented. Several examples of research efforts presenting high potential to develop new products containing bioactive peptides from milk proteins and predetermined as nutraceuticals was described.

  3. Molecular biology of development

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, E.H.; Firtel, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This book is a compilation of papers presented at a symposium on the molecular biology of development. Topics discussed include: cytoplasmic localizations and pattern formations, gene expression during oogenesis and early development, developmental expression of gene families molecular aspects of plant development and transformation in whole organisms and cells.

  4. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Particular aspects in the cytogenetics and molecular biology of salivary gland tumours – current review of reports

    PubMed Central

    Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are a group of lesions whose heterogeneity of biological and pathological features is widely reflected in the molecular aspect. This is demonstrated by an increasing number of studies in the field of genetics of these tumours. The aim of this study was to collect the most significant scientific reports on the cytogenetic and molecular data concerning these tumours, which might facilitate the identification of potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets. The analysis covered 71 papers included in the PubMed database. We focused on the most common tumours, such as pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin tumour, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and others. The aim of this study is to present current knowledge about widely explored genotypic alterations (such as PLAG1 gene in pleomorphic adenoma or MECT1 gene in mucoepidermoid carcinoma), and also about rare markers, like Mena or SOX10 protein, which might also be associated with tumourigenesis and carcinogenesis of these tumours. PMID:27688723

  6. [FOXP2 and the molecular biology of language: new evidence. I. Phenotypic aspects and animal models].

    PubMed

    Benítez-Burraco, A

    FOXP2 is the first gene linked to a hereditary variant of specific language impairment and seems to code for a transcriptional repressor that intervenes in the regulation of development and the functioning of certain thalamic-cortical-striatal circuits. In the last three years significant progress has been made in the analysis of the structural and functional properties of the gene. The most notable advances have been made in the genotypic and phenotypic characterisation of new alterations in its sequencing in human beings; the determination in vivo of the functional properties of the mutated proteins generated from said variants; the cloning and characterisation of new orthologues of the gene; the generation of the first knockout and knockdown organisms for it; and a more precise molecular characterisation of the biological role played by the orthologues corresponding to species that are also capable of learning the articulatory patterns of the vocalisations they use to communicate. The latest clinical evidence and that obtained from analysing animal models generated to date appear to suggest the presence of a 'sensory-motor disorder' as the central deficit behind the different phenotypes associated to the different mutations of the gene in the human species, the functionality of the gene FOXP2 during development of the embryo and during the adult phase, its involvement in the development and functioning of the thalamic-cortical-striatal circuits associated to motor planning, sequential behaviour and procedural learning, and significant old age, in developmental terms, of a part of the neuroanatomical substrate that is involved in processing linguistic stimuli in our species.

  7. Penicillium marneffei Infection and Recent Advances in the Epidemiology and Molecular Biology Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Vanittanakom, Nongnuch; Cooper, Chester R.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Sirisanthana, Thira

    2006-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei infection is an important emerging public health problem, especially among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in the areas of endemicity in southeast Asia, India, and China. Within these regions, P. marneffei infection is regarded as an AIDS-defining illness, and the severity of the disease depends on the immunological status of the infected individual. Early diagnosis by serologic and molecular assay-based methods have been developed and are proving to be important in diagnosing infection. The occurrence of natural reservoirs and the molecular epidemiology of P. marneffei have been studied; however, the natural history and mode of transmission of the organism remain unclear. Soil exposure, especially during the rainy season, has been suggested to be a critical risk factor. Using a highly discriminatory molecular technique, multilocus microsatellite typing, to characterize this fungus, several isolates from bamboo rats and humans were shown to share identical multilocus genotypes. These data suggest either that transmission of P. marneffei may occur from rodents to humans or that rodents and humans are coinfected from common environmental sources. These putative natural cycles of P. marneffei infection need further investigation. Studies on the fungal genetics of P. marneffei have been focused on the characterization of genetic determinants that may play important roles in asexual development, mycelial-to-yeast phase transition, and the expression of antigenic determinants. Molecular studies have identified several genes involved in germination, hyphal development, conidiogenesis, and yeast cell polarity. A number of functionally important genes, such as the malate synthase- and catalase-peroxidase protein-encoding genes, have been identified as being upregulated in the yeast phase. Future investigations pertaining to the roles of these genes in host-fungus interactions may provide the key knowledge to understanding the

  8. Molecular and biological aspects of early germ cell development in interspecies hybrids between chickens and pheasants.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok Jin; Sohn, Sea Hwan; Kang, Kyung Soo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Lee, Seul Ki; Choi, Jin Won; Han, Jae Yong

    2011-03-01

    Interspecific hybrids provide insights into fundamental genetic principles, and may prove useful for biotechnological applications and as tools for the conservation of endangered species. In the present study, interspecies hybrids were generated between the Korean ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and the White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). We determined whether these hybrids were good recipients for the production of germline chimeric birds. PCR-based species-specific amplification and karyotype analyses showed that the hybrids inherited genetic material from both parents. Evaluation of biological function indicated that the growth rates of hybrids during the exponential phase (body weight/week) were similar to those of the pheasant but not the chicken, and that the incubation period for hatching was significantly different from that of both parents. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) of hybrids reacted with a pheasant PGC-specific antibody and circulated normally in blood vessels. The peak time of hybrid PGC migration was equivalent to that of the pheasant. In late embryonic stages, germ cells were detected by the QCR1 antibody on 15 d male gonads and were normally localized in the seminiferous cords. We examined the migration ability and developmental localization of exogenous PGCs transferred into the blood vessels of 63 h hybrid embryos. Donor-derived PGCs reacted with a donor-specific antibody were detected on 7 d gonads and the seminiferous tubules of hatchlings. Therefore, germ cell transfer into developing embryos of an interspecies hybrid can be efficiently used for the conservation of threatened animals and endangered species, and many biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular biology of potyviruses.

    PubMed

    Revers, Frédéric; García, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Potyvirus is the largest genus of plant viruses causing significant losses in a wide range of crops. Potyviruses are aphid transmitted in a nonpersistent manner and some of them are also seed transmitted. As important pathogens, potyviruses are much more studied than other plant viruses belonging to other genera and their study covers many aspects of plant virology, such as functional characterization of viral proteins, molecular interaction with hosts and vectors, structure, taxonomy, evolution, epidemiology, and diagnosis. Biotechnological applications of potyviruses are also being explored. During this last decade, substantial advances have been made in the understanding of the molecular biology of these viruses and the functions of their various proteins. After a general presentation on the family Potyviridae and the potyviral proteins, we present an update of the knowledge on potyvirus multiplication, movement, and transmission and on potyvirus/plant compatible interactions including pathogenicity and symptom determinants. We end the review providing information on biotechnological applications of potyviruses.

  10. Preparation, Purification, and Secondary Structure Determination of Bacillus Circulans Xylanase. A Molecular Laboratory Incorporating Aspects of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Biophysical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Sal; Gentile, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    A project module designed for biochemistry or cellular and molecular biology student which involves determining the secondary structure of Bacillus circulans xylanase (BCX) by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy under conditions that compromise its stabilizing intramolecular forces is described. The lab model enhanced students knowledge of the…

  11. Preparation, Purification, and Secondary Structure Determination of Bacillus Circulans Xylanase. A Molecular Laboratory Incorporating Aspects of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Biophysical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Sal; Gentile, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    A project module designed for biochemistry or cellular and molecular biology student which involves determining the secondary structure of Bacillus circulans xylanase (BCX) by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy under conditions that compromise its stabilizing intramolecular forces is described. The lab model enhanced students knowledge of the…

  12. [Biological aspects of pancreatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Tonel, E; Carbone, A; Scirelli, T; Bellone, G; Emanuelli, G

    2005-04-01

    Pancreatic ductal carcinoma still is an aggressive disease with a fatal prognosis due to late diagnosis and resistance to pharmacological and surgical treatments. Molecular investigations of pancreatic cancer are complicated by the restricted accessibility of the organ for biopsies. However, recent studies have indicated that pancreatic cancer is a multi-stage process resulting from the accumulation of genetic changes in the somatic DNA of normal cells. These molecular alterations, including overexpression of receptor-ligand systems, oncogene activation and loss of tumour suppressor genes, leads to a profound disturbance in cell cycle regulation and continuous growth. The molecular findings are now integrated in a pancreatic tumour progression model, with genetically and morphological defined precursor lesions. However, it remains unclear whether the initial target cells of this cancer develop from ductal or acinar cells. This review will present recent emerging questions on the biology of pancreatic cancer with particular emphasis on the cell origin and tumour microenvironment.

  13. Theoretical aspects of Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Mariano; Palombo, Alessandro; Cucina, Alessandra

    2013-05-01

    The natural world consists of hierarchical levels of complexity that range from subatomic particles and molecules to ecosystems and beyond. This implies that, in order to explain the features and behavior of a whole system, a theory might be required that would operate at the corresponding hierarchical level, i.e. where self-organization processes take place. In the past, biological research has focused on questions that could be answered by a reductionist program of genetics. The organism (and its development) was considered an epiphenomenona of its genes. However, a profound rethinking of the biological paradigm is now underway and it is likely that such a process will lead to a conceptual revolution emerging from the ashes of reductionism. This revolution implies the search for general principles on which a cogent theory of biology might rely. Because much of the logic of living systems is located at higher levels, it is imperative to focus on them. Indeed, both evolution and physiology work on these levels. Thus, by no means Systems Biology could be considered a 'simple' 'gradual' extension of Molecular Biology.

  14. Systemic aspects of biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Arber, Werner

    2009-11-01

    In recent years molecular mechanisms and natural strategies have been explored that spontaneously generate genetic variations at low rates without seriously affecting genetic stability at the level of populations. Thereby acquired knowledge suggests systemic aspects of evolutionary interdependences both in the past and in future evolutionary developments. The natural strategy of DNA acquisition by horizontal gene transfer interconnects different branches of the tree of evolution at random times. This makes in principle the entire global gene pool of the biosphere available to any kinds of living beings for their further evolutionary development. The relevance of this knowledge for risk assessments of genetically engineered organisms is discussed.

  15. Acute Chagas outbreaks: molecular and biological features of Trypanosoma cruzi isolates, and clinical aspects of acute cases in Santander, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Martha Lucía; Leal, Sandra; Mantilla, Julio César; Molina-Berríos, Alfredo; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo; Solari, Aldo; Escobar, Patricia; González Rugeles, Clara Isabel

    2015-11-26

    Outbreaks of acute Chagas disease associated with oral transmission are easily detected nowadays with trained health personnel in areas of low endemicity, or in which the vector transmission has been interrupted. Given the biological and genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the high morbidity, mortality, and the observed therapeutic failure, new characteristics of these outbreaks need to be addressed at different levels, both in Trypanosoma cruzi as in patient response. The aim of this work was to evaluate the patient's features involved in six outbreaks of acute Chagas disease which occurred in Santander, Colombia, and the characteristics of Trypanosoma cruzi clones isolated from these patients, to establish the potential relationship between the etiologic agent features with host behavior. The clinical, pathological and epidemiological aspects of outbreaks were analyzed. In addition, Trypanosoma cruzi clones were biologically characterized both in vitro and in vivo, and the susceptibility to the classical trypanocidal drugs nifurtimox and benznidazole was evaluated. Trypanosoma cruzi clones were genotyped by means of mini-exon intergenic spacer and cytochrome b genes sequencing. All clones were DTU I, and based on the mini-exon intergenic spacer, belong to two genotypes: G2 related with sub-urban, and G11 with rural outbreaks. Girón outbreak clones with higher susceptibility to drugs presented G2 genotype and C/T transition in Cyt b. The outbreaks affected mainly young population (±25.9 years), and the mortality rate was 10 %. The cardiac tissue showed intense inflammatory infiltrate, myocardial necrosis and abundant amastigote nests. However, although the gastrointestinal tissue was congestive, no inflammation or parasites were observed. Although all clones belong to DTU I, two intra-DTU genotypes were found with the sequencing of the mini-exon intergenic spacer, however there is no strict correlation between genetic groups, the cycles of the parasite or

  16. Functional Aspects of Biological Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneppen, Kim

    2007-03-01

    We discuss biological networks with respect to 1) relative positioning and importance of high degree nodes, 2) function and signaling, 3) logic and dynamics of regulation. Visually the soft modularity of many real world networks can be characterized in terms of number of high and low degrees nodes positioned relative to each other in a landscape analogue with mountains (high-degree nodes) and valleys (low-degree nodes). In these terms biological networks looks like rugged landscapes with separated peaks, hub proteins, which each are roughly as essential as any of the individual proteins on the periphery of the hub. Within each sup-domain of a molecular network one can often identify dynamical feedback mechanisms that falls into combinations of positive and negative feedback circuits. We will illustrate this with examples taken from phage regulation and bacterial uptake and regulation of small molecules. In particular we find that a double negative regulation often are replaced by a single positive link in unrelated organisms with same functional requirements. Overall we argue that network topology primarily reflects functional constraints. References: S. Maslov and K. Sneppen. ``Computational architecture of the yeast regulatory network." Phys. Biol. 2:94 (2005) A. Trusina et al. ``Functional alignment of regulatory networks: A study of temerate phages". Plos Computational Biology 1:7 (2005). J.B. Axelsen et al. ``Degree Landscapes in Scale-Free Networks" physics/0512075 (2005). A. Trusina et al. ``Hierarchy and Anti-Hierarchy in Real and Scale Free networks." PRL 92:178702 (2004) S. Semsey et al. ``Genetic Regulation of Fluxes: Iron Homeostasis of Escherichia coli". (2006) q-bio.MN/0609042

  17. Papillomaviruses: Molecular and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Howley, P.M.; Broker, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains nine sections, each consisting of several papers. The section headings are : Papillomaviruses and Human Genital Tract Diseases;Papillomaviruses and Human Cutaneous Diseases, Papillomaviruses and Human Oral and Laryngeal Diseases;Therapeutic Approaches to Papillomavirus Infections;Animal Papillomaviruses;Molecular Biology;Transcription, Replication, and Genome Organization;Epithelial Cell Culture;Papillomavirus Transformation;and Viral Vectors.

  18. Molecular biology in physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, S.; Gargus, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    The aim of this symposium on molecular biology in physiology was to introduce molecular biology to physiologists who had relatively little exposure to the new developments in this field, so that they can become conversant on this topic and contribute to the advancement of physiology by incorporating molecular biological approaches as a part of their research arsenal. This report is a review of the symposium, which consisted of two four-part sessions. Each session had four papers. After the discussion of the basic concepts, terminology, and methodology used in molecular biology, it was shown how these basic principles have been applied to the study of the genes encoding two membrane proteins that have important transport functions (band 3 and ATPase). The second half of the symposium consisted of papers on the state-of-the-art developments in the application of molecular biology to the studies of the atrial natriuretic factor and renin genes, adenylate cyclase-coupled adrenergic receptors, acetylcholine receptors and sodium channel, and long-term and short-term memories. The ultimate goal is that these examples will provide an impetus for the opening of new frontiers of research in physiology by taking advantage of the tools developed from recent advances in molecular biology.

  19. Biological aspects of gender disorders.

    PubMed

    Corsello, S M; Di Donna, V; Senes, P; Luotto, V; Ricciato, M P; Paragliola, R M; Pontecorvi, A

    2011-12-01

    The scientific community is very interested in the biological aspects of gender disorders and sexual orientation. There are different levels to define an individual's sex: chromosomal, gonadic, and phenotypic sex. Concerning the psychological sex, men and women are different by virtue of their own gender identity, which means they recognize themselves as belonging to a determinate sex. They are different also as a result of their own role identity, a set of behaviors, tendencies, and cognitive and emotional attitudes, commonly defined as "male" and "female". Transsexuality is a disorder characterized by the development of a gender identity opposed to phenotypic sex, whereas homosexuality is not a disturbance of gender identity but only of sexual attraction, expressing sexual orientation towards people of the same sex. We started from a critical review of literature on genetic and hormonal mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation. We re-examined the neuro-anatomic and functional differences between men and women, with special reference to their role in psychosexual differentiation and to their possible implication in the genesis of homosexuality and identity gender disorders. Homosexuality and transsexuality are conditions without a well defined etiology. Although the influence of educational and environmental factors in humans is undeniable, it seems that organic neurohormonal prenatal and postnatal factors might contribute in a determinant way in the development of these two conditions. This "organicistic neurohormal theory" might find support in the study of particular situations in which the human fetus is exposed to an abnormal hormonal environment in utero.

  20. Biological Molecular Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzyński, Michał

    2007-11-01

    Like small molecules taking part in usual chemical reactions, biological molecular machines perform their functions owing to thermal fluctuations and the only difference consists in more complex and specially organized internal dynamics. It is this dynamics that determines processes of free energy transduction in molecular machines. The case of the actomyosin motor is considered in some detail.

  1. Molecular biology for the pediatric surgeon.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, S C; Caty, M G; Glick, P L

    1999-06-01

    Molecular biology is leading a revolution in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of disease and will continue to do so. Medicine in the future will require a greater understanding of this field and its methods by medical practitioners. This report reviews the basic aspects of the field including recombinant DNA methods. Of particular importance is how molecular biology will impact pediatric surgeons. Accordingly, the final section of this report briefly reviews the molecular biology of three diseases commonly treated by pediatric surgeons.

  2. Fatty acids from lipids of marine organisms: molecular biodiversity, roles as biomarkers, biologically active compounds, and economical aspects.

    PubMed

    Bergé, Jean-Pascal; Barnathan, Gilles

    2005-01-01

    Because of their characteristic living environments, marine organisms produce a variety of lipids. Fatty acids constitute the essential part of triglycerides and wax esters, which are the major components of fats and oils. Nevertheless, phospholipids and glycolipids have considerable importance and will be taken into account, especially the latter compounds that excite increasing interest regarding their promising biological activities. Thus, in addition to the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, a great number of various fatty acids occur in marine organisms, e.g. saturated, mono- and diunsaturated, branched, halogenated, hydroxylated, methoxylated, non-methylene-interrupted. Various unprecedented chemical structures of fatty acids, and lipid-containing fatty acids, have recently been discovered, especially from the most primitive animals such as sponges and gorgonians. This review of marine lipidology deals with recent advances in the field of fatty acids since the end of the 1990s. Different approaches will be followed, mainly developing biomarkers of trophic chains in marine ecosystems and of chemotaxonomic interest, reporting new structures, especially those with biological activities or biosynthetic interest. An important part of this review will be devoted to the major PUFA, their relevance to health and nutrition, their biosynthesis, their sources (usual and promising) and market.

  3. Molecular Models in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Richard E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes types of molecular models (ball-and-stick, framework, and space-filling) and evaluates commercially available kits. Gives instructions for constructive models from polystyrene balls and pipe-cleaners. Models are useful for class demonstrations although not sufficiently accurate for research use. Illustrations show biologically important…

  4. Molecular Models in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Richard E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes types of molecular models (ball-and-stick, framework, and space-filling) and evaluates commercially available kits. Gives instructions for constructive models from polystyrene balls and pipe-cleaners. Models are useful for class demonstrations although not sufficiently accurate for research use. Illustrations show biologically important…

  5. Flower senescence: some molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Shahri, Waseem; Tahir, Inayatullah

    2014-02-01

    Some molecular aspects of flower senescence have been reviewed. The isolation, identification and characterization of different genes from various flowers (mainly from petals) associated with senescence have been discussed. The isolated genes were divided into different groups. A large proportion of genes have been found to be upregulated during flower senescence while some genes were also found to be downregulated indicating that there exists a complex interplay between the expression patterns of various genes. The genes involved in petal expansion are found to be upregulated during normal flower development from anthesis to open flower stage, but XTH (Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase hydrolase) is found to be involved in petal expansion as well as abscission. Cysteine proteases or the genes encoding cysteine proteases (assigned a central role in protein degradation) have been identified from various flower systems, but no cysteine protease has been identified from senescing Mirabilis jalapa flowers. In addition to proteases, the genes encoding ubiquitin (exhibiting proteasomal degradation by 26S proteasomes) have also been identified suggesting the two alternate pathways for protein degradation. Genes encoding specific nucleases have also been identified, but they displayed an early increase in transcript abundance before the senescence symptoms become evident and characterize the involvement of PCD during flower senescence. A range of transcription factors are described and their possible role in flower senescence has been discussed. A detailed description of genes involved in ethylene synthesis and the components involved in ethylene signaling have been presented.

  6. [FOXP2 and the molecular biology of language: new evidence. II. Molecular aspects and implications for the ontogenesis and phylogeny of language].

    PubMed

    Benítez-Burraco, A

    FOXP2 is the first gene linked to a hereditary variant of specific language impairment and seems to code for a transcriptional repressor that intervenes in the regulation of the development and the functioning of certain thalamic-cortical-striatal circuits. In the last three years, significant progress has been made in the determination of the structural and functional properties of the gene. These advances essentially have to do with the precise analysis of the most important structural motifs of the protein that it codes for and the main parameters that determine its interaction with DNA. They also concern the determination of the functional and behavioural properties in vivo of the main isoforms of the FOXP2 protein, the exact determination of the pattern of expression of new orthologues of the gene, and the identification of the different target genes for factor FOXP2. This new evidence suggests that protein FOXP2 protein has a high degree of versatility in vivo when it comes to binding to DNA; that its different isoforms are biologically functional; and that the FOXP2 gene is functional during embryonic development and during the adult phase. It also suggests that it is involved in the development and/or functioning of the thalamic-cortical-striatal circuits associated to motor planning, sequential behaviour and procedural learning (a significant saving in developmental terms of the regulatory mechanism in which the gene is involved), as well as the accuracy of the models of linguistic processing that consider language to be, to a large extent, the result of an interaction between certain cortical and subcortical structures.

  7. Molecular biology references.

    PubMed

    2003-05-01

    Many of the units in this manual describe methods and techniques for the cloning, expression, and structural analysis of neural genes and proteins. We assume that users of these protocols have at least some introductory background in recombinant DNA technology (or are working with a collaborator who does); therefore, we have not provided comprehensive coverage of all of these topics, but rather have concentrated on presenting selected techniques that will be of the most interest and use to the general neuroscience laboratory. More comprehensive coverage of these topics can be found in Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (CPMB), which is extensively cross-referenced throughout this manual. These cross-references are summarized in this appendix.

  8. Physiological and molecular aspects of cobalamin transport.

    PubMed

    Fedosov, Sergey N

    2012-01-01

    Minute doses of a complex cofactor cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B12) are essential for metabolism. The nutritional chain for humans includes: (1) production of Cbl by bacteria in the intestinal tract of herbivores; (2) accumulation of the absorbed Cbl in animal tissues; (3) consumption of food of animal origin. Most biological sources contain both Cbl and its analogues, i.e. Cbl-resembling compounds physiologically inactive in animal cells. Selective assimilation of the true vitamin requires an interplay between three transporting proteins - haptocorrin (HC), intrinsic factor (IF), transcobalamin (TC) - and several receptors. HC is present in many biological fluids, including gastric juice, where it assists in disposal of analogues. Gastric IF selectively binds dietary Cbl and enters the intestinal cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Absorbed Cbl is transmitted to TC and delivered to the tissues with blood flow. The complex transport system guarantees a very efficient uptake of the vitamin, but failure at any link causes Cbl-deficiency. Early detection of a negative B12 balance is highly desirable to prevent irreversible neurological damages, anaemia and death in aggravated cases. The review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of cobalamin transport with emphasis on interaction of corrinoids with the specific proteins and protein-receptor recognition. The last section briefly describes practical aspects of recent basic research concerning early detection of B12-related disorders, medical application of Cbl-conjugates, and purification of corrinoids from biological samples.

  9. Molecular Biology of Nitrogen Fixation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanmugam, K. T.; Valentine, Raymond C.

    1975-01-01

    Reports that as a result of our increasing knowledge of the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation it might eventually be possible to increase the biological production of nitrogenous fertilizer from atmospheric nitrogen. (GS)

  10. Molecular Biology of Nitrogen Fixation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanmugam, K. T.; Valentine, Raymond C.

    1975-01-01

    Reports that as a result of our increasing knowledge of the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation it might eventually be possible to increase the biological production of nitrogenous fertilizer from atmospheric nitrogen. (GS)

  11. Data warehousing in molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Schönbach, C; Kowalski-Saunders, P; Brusic, V

    2000-05-01

    In the business and healthcare sectors data warehousing has provided effective solutions for information usage and knowledge discovery from databases. However, data warehousing applications in the biological research and development (R&D) sector are lagging far behind. The fuzziness and complexity of biological data represent a major challenge in data warehousing for molecular biology. By combining experiences in other domains with our findings from building a model database, we have defined the requirements for data warehousing in molecular biology.

  12. Molecular biology of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mannarino, Elmo; Pirro, Matteo

    2008-01-01

    The traditional view of atherosclerosis as a pathological lipid deposition within the artery wall has been redefined by a more complex concept of an ongoing inflammatory disease. The atherosclerotic process is initiated when cardiovascular risk factors, through a chemical, mechanical or immunological insult, activate and/or injury the endothelium, thus contributing to endothelial dysfunction and fragmentation. This triggers a cascade of inflammatory reactions, in which monocytes, macrophages, T lymphocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells actively participate. Particularly, atherosclerotic lesions have been seen to have increased expression of T helper-1 cells together with increased levels of the T helper-1 related pro-inflammatory cytokines. Along with pro-inflammatory cytokines, other molecular factors involved in atherosclerosis appearance, progression and complication include chemokines, growth factors, vasoactive substances, enzymes, apoptosis signals and many others. Many of these molecular factors are both involved as possible markers of the atherosclerotic disease activity and burden, but may also play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the disease. In recent years, the discovery of progenitor cells of myeloid origin has offered the prospect of merging the most recent theories on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis with the evolving concept of a role of these progenitor cells in the repair of the injured vessel wall and the neovascularisation of ischemic tissues. This review summarizes current knowledge about the biology of atherosclerosis with emphasis on the mechanisms of endothelial damage and repair and on the concept that the turnover and replacement of endothelial cells is a major determinant in the maintenance of vascular integrity. PMID:22460847

  13. [MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BRUCELLA PERSISTENCE].

    PubMed

    Kulakov Yu K

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a dangerous zoonotic disease of animals and humans caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, which are able to survive, multiply, and persist in host cells. The review is devoted to the Brucella species persistence connected to the molecular mechanisms of escape from innate and adaptive immunity of the host and active interaction of effector proteins of the type IV secretion system with the host's signaling pathways. Understanding of the molecular mechanisms used by Brucella for the intracellular persistence in the host organism can allow us to develop new and effective means for the prevention and treatment of chronic brucellosis infection.

  14. Molecular Mechanism of Biological Proton Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Pomes, R.

    1998-09-01

    Proton transport across lipid membranes is a fundamental aspect of biological energy transduction (metabolism). This function is mediated by a Grotthuss mechanism involving proton hopping along hydrogen-bonded networks embedded in membrane-spanning proteins. Using molecular simulations, the authors have explored the structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties giving rise to long-range proton translocation in hydrogen-bonded networks involving water molecules, or water wires, which are emerging as ubiquitous H{sup +}-transport devices in biological systems.

  15. Associative Memory Biological and Mathematical Aspects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-29

    was unable to store new information in long term memory. Yet previous long term memory (stored prior to the surgery) remained intact [II]. Thus...theories, IWO describing the hippocampus as a source encoder necessary for long term storage received i credibility. ""𔃽 ."-’ 9...W-0199 15 ASSOCIATIVE MEORY BIOLOGICAL AND MTHEATICL ASPECTS 1/1(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST F TECH LEXINGTON LINCOLN LAB "EGGERS 29 DEC 8? TR-799 ESO-TR

  16. Singlet molecular oxygen generated by biological hydroperoxides.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Sayuri; Martinez, Glaucia R; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-10-05

    The chemistry behind the phenomenon of ultra-weak photon emission has been subject of considerable interest for decades. Great progress has been made on the understanding of the chemical generation of electronically excited states that are involved in these processes. Proposed mechanisms implicated the production of excited carbonyl species and singlet molecular oxygen in the mechanism of generation of chemiluminescence in biological system. In particular, attention has been focused on the potential generation of singlet molecular oxygen in the recombination reaction of peroxyl radicals by the Russell mechanism. In the last ten years, our group has demonstrated the generation of singlet molecular oxygen from reactions involving the decomposition of biologically relevant hydroperoxides, especially from lipid hydroperoxides in the presence of metal ions, peroxynitrite, HOCl and cytochrome c. In this review we will discuss details on the chemical aspects related to the mechanism of singlet molecular oxygen generation from different biological hydroperoxides.

  17. Molecular aspects of renal senescence.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Roland; Susnik, Nathan; Melk, Anette

    2015-08-01

    The aging kidney undergoes profound changes that lead to a reduction in stress resistance and impaired repair capacity. In order to improve the outcome of acute and chronic kidney damage, it is instrumental to understand the mechanisms that cause these changes. Cellular senescence has emerged as an important cellular process that contributes to age-associated kidney changes and chronic kidney disease progression. New mechanistic insights into excessive intracellular glucose, advanced glycation end products and endoplasmatic reticulum stress further support the importance of cellular senescence in the development of diabetic nephropathy. As telomere length of leukocytic DNA is increasingly used as a biomarker to estimate senescence in clinical cohort studies, this review also summarizes the literature on telomere length with respect to the kidney and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of this methodology. Furthermore, novel findings on the relationships among telomeres, senescence and autophagy are discussed. Cellular senescence contributes to the decline in renal function during aging and defective regeneration in kidney diseases. Further insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms of senescence will establish a basis for preventive strategies that improve renal stress resistance and regenerative capacity.

  18. Alport syndrome. Molecular genetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Jens Michael

    2009-08-01

    for 47% of all mutations and 89% if the missense mutations. Frame-shift mutations accounted for 17% of the mutations, splice site mutations for 13%, nonsense mutations for 11%, in-frame deletions for 4%, and larger structural rearrangements for 6%. In addition, 5 different non-pathogenic sequence variations, polymorphisms and mutations of unknown effect on the phenotype, were found. Nineteen of the mutations are new and have not previously been published, and 55 of the mutations have exclusively been detected in this material. Two of the mutations (3%) are de novo mutations, and it has been possible to trace the mutation back in six of the families, and to determine the parental origin of the mutation in these six families. The origin of the mutation was found to be paternal in 4 of the families (67%), and maternal in 2 of the families (33%). We have demonstrated a highly efficient and sensitive molecular diagnostic approach for analysing the COL4A5 gene in putative AS cases. Based on the present results and the litterature, an algorithm for molecular genetic analysis of the COL4A5 gene is suggested. The overall mutation detection rate was found to be 53%. The mutation detection rate was 72% in patients fulfilling >or= 3 of the clinical criteria for AS, and 82% in families clearly demonstrating X-linked inheritance. No COL4A5 mutation could be detected in 63 (47%) of the families. X-linked inheritance could be excluded in seven of these families solely based on a pedigree analysis, and a diagnosis of Epstein syndrome was established in one of the patients by MYH9 mutation analysis. We found that the underlying COL4A5 mutation, truncating or non-truncating, can significantly predict the age at ESRD in male patients. Truncating mutations, comprising nonsense mutations, frame-shifts, and larger structural rearrangements, were found to cause a juvenile form of the disease with a mean age at ESRD of 21.6 years, compared to 33.1 years in patients with a non

  19. Teaching Molecular Biology with Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Rebecca; Jameson, David

    1984-01-01

    Describes a series of computer programs that use simulation and gaming techniques to present the basic principles of the central dogma of molecular genetics, mutation, and the genetic code. A history of discoveries in molecular biology is presented and the evolution of these computer assisted instructional programs is described. (MBR)

  20. Teaching Molecular Biology with Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Rebecca; Jameson, David

    1984-01-01

    Describes a series of computer programs that use simulation and gaming techniques to present the basic principles of the central dogma of molecular genetics, mutation, and the genetic code. A history of discoveries in molecular biology is presented and the evolution of these computer assisted instructional programs is described. (MBR)

  1. Molecular biomimetics: nanotechnology through biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarikaya, Mehmet; Tamerler, Candan; Jen, Alex K.-Y.; Schulten, Klaus; Baneyx, François

    2003-09-01

    Proteins, through their unique and specific interactions with other macromolecules and inorganics, control structures and functions of all biological hard and soft tissues in organisms. Molecular biomimetics is an emerging field in which hybrid technologies are developed by using the tools of molecular biology and nanotechnology. Taking lessons from biology, polypeptides can now be genetically engineered to specifically bind to selected inorganic compounds for applications in nano- and biotechnology. This review discusses combinatorial biological protocols, that is, bacterial cell surface and phage-display technologies, in the selection of short sequences that have affinity to (noble) metals, semiconducting oxides and other technological compounds. These genetically engineered proteins for inorganics (GEPIs) can be used in the assembly of functional nanostructures. Based on the three fundamental principles of molecular recognition, self-assembly and DNA manipulation, we highlight successful uses of GEPI in nanotechnology.

  2. Biological and biomimetic molecular machines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tony J; Juluri, Bala K

    2008-02-01

    The evolution of life facilitates the creation of biological molecular machines. In these so-called 'nanomachines,' nature elegantly shows that when precisely organized and assembled, simple molecular mechanical components can link motions efficiently from the nanometer scale to the macroscopic world, and achieve complex functions such as powering skeletal muscles, synthesizing ATP and producing DNA/RNA. Inspired by nature, researchers are creating artifical molecular machines with tailored structures and properties, with the aim of realizing man-made active nanosystems that operate with the same efficiency and complexity as biological nanomachines. It is anticipated that in the not-too-distant future, unique applications of biological and biomimetic molecular machines will emerge in areas such as biochemical instrumentation and nanomedicine.

  3. Molecular Biology of Archaebacteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-31

    elucidate at the molecular level some of the features that make archaebacteria unique and distinguish them from eubacteria and eucaryotes. Three types...regulate translation of the mRNA by a mechanism similar to that employed in eubacteria . Thus halophilic archaebacteria retain the same gene order and...possibly also the same regulatory mechanism for controlling ribosomal protein synthesis that is found in eubacteria . Ribosomal protein structure: The

  4. Molecular biology of hearing

    PubMed Central

    Stöver, Timo; Diensthuber, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is our most sensitive sensory organ and can be subdivided into three functional units: organ of Corti, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion. The appropriate stimulus for the organ of hearing is sound, which travels through the external auditory canal to the middle ear where it is transmitted to the inner ear. The inner ear houses the hair cells, the sensory cells of hearing. The inner hair cells are capable of mechanotransduction, the transformation of mechanical force into an electrical signal, which is the basic principle of hearing. The stria vascularis generates the endocochlear potential and maintains the ionic homeostasis of the endolymph. The dendrites of the spiral ganglion form synaptic contacts with the hair cells. The spiral ganglion is composed of neurons that transmit the electrical signals from the cochlea to the central nervous system. In recent years there has been significant progress in research on the molecular basis of hearing. An increasing number of genes and proteins related to hearing are being identified and characterized. The growing knowledge of these genes contributes not only to greater appreciation of the mechanism of hearing but also to a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of hereditary hearing loss. This basic research is a prerequisite for the development of molecular diagnostics and novel therapies for hearing loss. PMID:22558056

  5. Molecular aspects of viviparous reproductive biology of the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans morsitans): Regulation of yolk and milk gland protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Guz, Nurper; Strickler-Dinglasan, Patricia; Aksoy, Serap

    2006-01-01

    Tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) viviparous reproductive physiology remains to be explored at the molecular level. Adult females carry their young in utero for the duration of embryonic and larval development, all the while supplying their offspring with nutrients in the form of a “milk” substance secreted from a modified accessory gland. Flies give birth to fully developed third instar larvae that pupariate shortly after birth. Here, we describe the spatial and temporal expression dynamics of two reproduction-associated genes and their products synthesized during the first and second gonotrophic cycles. The proteins studied include a putative yolk protein, Glossina morsitans morsitans yolk protein 1 (GmmYP1) and the major protein found in tsetse “milk” secretions (Glossina morsitans morsitans milk gland protein, GmmMGP). Developmental stage and tissue-specific expression of GmmYP1 show its presence exclusively in the reproductive tract of the fly during oogenesis, suggesting that GmmYP1 acts as a vitellogenic protein. Transcripts for GmmMGP are present only in the milk gland tissue and increase in coordination with the process of larvigenesis. Similarly, GmmMGP can be detected at the onset of larvigenesis in the milk gland, and is present during the full duration of pregnancy. Expression of GmmMGP is restricted to the adult stage and is not detected in the immature developmental stages. These phenomena indicate that the protein is transferred from mother to larvae as nourishment during its development. These results demonstrate that both GmmYP1 and GmmMGP are involved in tsetse reproductive biology, the former associated with the process of oogenesis and the latter with larvigenesis. PMID:17046784

  6. Molecular biology of sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, M C

    1996-07-01

    There has been a virtual explosion of information relating to the biology of sarcomas with which we as orthopaedists deal. Much more is yet to be learned. These findings will teach us more about the etiology of these tumors. More important, the findings will alter the way in which these tumors are treated. It is unlikely that we will continue to treat osteosarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma patients with currently available drug regimens and surgery or make treatment decisions based on the histologic classification of tumors we know today. If we are to remain active in the management of these patients we must be aware of the findings as they occur. That will ensure both that we remain the primary caretakers of these patients, and that we will continue to be stimulated intellectually by these intriguing scientific investigations.

  7. [Molecular Pathological Aspects in Visceral Surgery].

    PubMed

    Unger, T; Sändig, I; Wittekind, C

    2016-04-01

    New insights gained in the field of molecular medicine have led to fundamental progress in the diagnosis and treatment of tumour patients. Individualised treatment has been essentially facilitated by molecular diagnostics, which, by identifying and interpreting characteristic genetic alterations (biomarkers) in single cells and tissues, provide specific information to confirm the diagnosis and support the treatment of numerous diseases. Particularly with regard to the use of new targeted drugs, which often require the presence or absence of specific target structures or genetic alterations to induce response, the molecular pathological determination of predictive biomarkers plays an increasing role and helps clinicians to decide on optimal therapies for individual patients. The aim of this review is to highlight general aspects of molecular tumour pathology for relevant tumour entities and to present available targeted therapies.

  8. Clinical and molecular aspects of malaria fever.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Miranda S; Gerald, Noel; McCutchan, Thomas F; Aravind, L; Kumar, Sanjai

    2011-10-01

    Although clinically benign, malaria fever is thought to have significant relevance in terms of parasite growth and survival and its virulence which in turn may alter the clinical course of illness. In this article, the historical literature is reviewed, providing some evolutionary perspective on the genesis and biological relevance of malaria fever, and the available molecular data on the febrile-temperature-inducible parasite factors that may contribute towards the regulation of parasite density and alteration of virulence in the host is also discussed. The potential molecular mechanisms that could be responsible for the induction and regulation of cyclical malaria fevers caused by different species of Plasmodium are also discussed.

  9. Measurement Frontiers in Molecular Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laderman, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    Developments of molecular measurements and manipulations have long enabled forefront research in evolution, genetics, biological development and its dysfunction, and the impact of external factors on the behavior of cells. Measurement remains at the heart of exciting and challenging basic and applied problems in molecular and cell biology. Methods to precisely determine the identity and abundance of particular molecules amongst a complex mixture of similar and dissimilar types require the successful design and integration of multiple steps involving biochemical manipulations, separations, physical probing, and data processing. Accordingly, today's most powerful methods for characterizing life at the molecular level depend on coordinated advances in applied physics, biochemistry, chemistry, computer science, and engineering. This is well illustrated by recent approaches to the measurement of DNA, RNA, proteins, and intact cells. Such successes underlie well founded visions of how molecular biology can further assist in answering compelling scientific questions and in enabling the development of remarkable advances in human health. These visions, in turn, are motivating the interdisciplinary creation of even more comprehensive measurements. As a further and closely related consequence, they are motivating innovations in the conceptual and practical approaches to organizing and visualizing large, complex sets of interrelated experimental results and distilling from those data compelling, informative conclusions.

  10. Molecular aspects of bile formation and cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Arrese, Marco; Trauner, Michael

    2003-12-01

    Recent insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control the function and regulation of hepatobiliary transport have led to a greater understanding of the physiological significance of bile secretion. Individual carriers for bile acids and other organic anions in both liver and intestine have now been cloned from several species. In addition, complex networks of signals that regulate key enzymes and membrane transporters located in cells that participate in the metabolism or transport of biliary constituents are being unraveled. This knowledge has major implications for the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver diseases. Here, we review recent information on molecular aspects of hepatobiliary secretory function and its regulation in cholestasis. Potential implications of this knowledge for the design of new therapies of cholestatic disorders are also discussed.

  11. Chemical and molecular biological aspects of alkylhydrazine-induced carcinogenesis in human cells in vitro. Revised. Final report 1 July 1980-30 September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Witiak, D.T.

    1984-04-01

    The syntheses for 1,1-(methyl-14C)-dimethylhydrazine, 1,2-(methyl-14C)-dimethylhydrazine, and the important metabolite of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, namely, 14C-methylazoxymethanol as an acetate derivative are described. Materials for high specific activity were employed to (1) Investigate early events in carcinogenesis; (2) Study DNA modification and damage; and (3) Probe effects of anticarcinogen benzamide, on molecular perturbation of DNA by methylazoxymethanol acetate.

  12. Spatial Aspects in Biological System Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Resat, Haluk; Costa, Michelle N.; Shankaran, Harish

    2011-01-30

    Mathematical models of the dynamical properties of biological systems aim to improve our understanding of the studied system with the ultimate goal of being able to predict system responses in the absence of experimentation. Despite the enormous advances that have been made in biological modeling and simulation, the inherently multiscale character of biological systems and the stochasticity of biological processes continue to present significant computational and conceptual challenges. Biological systems often consist of well-organized structural hierarchies, which inevitably lead to multiscale problems. This chapter introduces and discusses the advantages and shortcomings of several simulation methods that are being used by the scientific community to investigate the spatio-temporal properties of model biological systems. We first describe the foundations of the methods and then describe their relevance and possible application areas with illustrative examples from our own research. Possible ways to address the encountered computational difficulties are also discussed.

  13. Spatial Aspects in Biological System Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Resat, Haluk; Costa, Michelle N.; Shankaran, Harish

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models of the dynamical properties of biological systems aim to improve our understanding of the studied system with the ultimate goal of being able to predict system responses in the absence of experimentation. Despite the enormous advances that have been made in biological modeling and simulation, the inherently multiscale character of biological systems and the stochasticity of biological processes continue to present significant computational and conceptual challenges. Biological systems often consist of well-organized structural hierarchies, which inevitably lead to multiscale problems. This chapter introduces and discusses the advantages and shortcomings of several simulation methods that are being used by the scientific community to investigate the spatiotemporal properties of model biological systems. We first describe the foundations of the methods and then describe their relevance and possible application areas with illustrative examples from our own research. Possible ways to address the encountered computational difficulties are also discussed. PMID:21187236

  14. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  15. Molecular biology of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, A; Rodríguez Braun, E; Pérez Fidalgo, A; Chirivella González, I

    2007-04-01

    Despite its decreasing incidence overall, gastric cancer is still a challenging disease. Therapy is based mainly upon surgical resection when the tumour remains localised in the stomach. Conventional chemotherapy may play a role in treating micrometastatic disease and is effective as palliative therapy for recurrent or advanced disease. However, the knowledge of molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer pathogenesis is still in its infancy and the contribution of molecular biology to the development of new targeted therapies in gastric cancer is far behind other more common cancers such as breast, colon or lung. This review will focus first on the difference of two well defined types of gastric cancer: intestinal and diffuse. A discussion of the cell of origin of gastric cancer with some intriguing data implicating bone marrow derived cells will follow, and a comprehensive review of different genetic alterations detected in gastric cancer, underlining those that may have clinical, therapeutic or prognostic implications.

  16. Ginger and its health claims: molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, M Tauseef

    2011-05-01

    Recent research has rejuvenated centuries-old traditional herbs to cure various ailments by using modern tools like diet-based therapy and other regimens. Ginger is one of the classic examples of an herb used for not only culinary preparations but also for unique therapeutic significance owing to its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory potential. The pungent fractions of ginger, namely gingerols, shogaols, paradols, and volatile constituents like sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes, are mainly attributed to the health-enhancing perspectives of ginger. This review elucidates the health claims of ginger and the molecular aspects and targets, with special reference to anticancer perspectives, immunonutrition, antioxidant potential, and cardiovascular cure. The molecular targets involved in chemoprevention like the inhibition of NF-κB activation via impairing nuclear translocation, suppresses cIAP1 expression, increases caspase-3/7 activation, arrests cell cycle in G2 + M phases, up-regulates Cytochrome-c, Apaf-1, activates PI3K/Akt/I kappaB kinases IKK, suppresses cell proliferation, and inducts apoptosis and chromatin condensation. Similarly, facts are presented regarding the anti-inflammatory response of ginger components and molecular targets including inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis and suppression of 5-lipoxygenase. Furthermore, inhibition of phosphorylation of three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) are also discussed. The role of ginger in reducing the extent of cardiovascular disorders, diabetes mellitus, and digestive problems has also been described in detail. Although, current review articles summarized the literature pertaining to ginger and its components. However, authors are still of the view that further research should be immediately carried out for meticulousness.

  17. Photoactive molecules for applications in molecular imaging and cell biology.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qing; Xing, Bengang

    2010-08-01

    Photoactive technology has proven successful for non-invasive regulation of biological activities and processes in living cells. With the light-directed generation of biomaterials or signals, mechanisms in cell biology can be investigated at the molecular level with spatial and temporal resolution. In this tutorial review, we aim to introduce the important applications of photoactive molecules for elucidating cell biology on aspects of protein engineering, fluorescence labelling, gene regulation and cell physiological functions.

  18. The molecular biology of ilarviruses.

    PubMed

    Pallas, Vicente; Aparicio, Frederic; Herranz, Mari C; Sanchez-Navarro, Jesus A; Scott, Simon W

    2013-01-01

    Ilarviruses were among the first 16 groups of plant viruses approved by ICTV. Like Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), bromoviruses, and cucumoviruses they are isometric viruses and possess a single-stranded, tripartite RNA genome. However, unlike these other three groups, ilarviruses were recognized as being recalcitrant subjects for research (their ready lability is reflected in the sigla used to create the group name) and were renowned as unpromising subjects for the production of antisera. However, it was recognized that they shared properties with AMV when the phenomenon of genome activation, in which the coat protein (CP) of the virus is required to be present to initiate infection, was demonstrated to cross group boundaries. The CP of AMV could activate the genome of an ilarvirus and vice versa. Development of the molecular information for ilarviruses lagged behind the knowledge available for the more extensively studied AMV, bromoviruses, and cucumoviruses. In the past 20 years, genomic data for most known ilarviruses have been developed facilitating their detection and allowing the factors involved in the molecular biology of the genus to be investigated. Much information has been obtained using Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and the more extensively studied AMV. A relationship between some ilarviruses and the cucumoviruses has been defined with the recognition that members of both genera encode a 2b protein involved in RNA silencing and long distance viral movement. Here, we present a review of the current knowledge of both the taxonomy and the molecular biology of this genus of agronomically and horticulturally important viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular and cell biology aspects of plague

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Guy R.

    2000-01-01

    A 70-kb virulence plasmid (sometimes called pYV) enables Yersinia spp. to survive and multiply in the lymphoid tissues of their host. It encodes the Yop virulon, a system consisting of secreted proteins called Yops and their dedicated type III secretion apparatus called Ysc. The Ysc apparatus forms a channel composed of 29 proteins. Of these, 10 have counterparts in almost every type III system. Secretion of some Yops requires the assistance, in the bacterial cytosol, of small individual chaperones called the Syc proteins. These chaperones act as bodyguards or secretion pilots for their partner Yop. Yop proteins fall into two categories. Some are intracellular effectors, whereas the others are “translocators” needed to deliver the effectors across the eukaryotic plasma membrane, into eukaryotic cells. The translocators (YopB, YopD, LcrV) form a pore of 16–23 Å in the eukaryotic cell plasma membrane. The effector Yops are YopE, YopH, YpkA/YopO, YopP/YopJ, YopM, and YopT. YopH is a powerful phosphotyrosine phosphatase playing an antiphagocytic role by dephosphorylating several focal adhesion proteins. YopE and YopT contribute to antiphagocytic effects by inactivating GTPases controlling cytoskeleton dynamics. YopP/YopJ plays an anti-inflammatory role by preventing the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. It also induces rapid apoptosis of macrophages. Less is known about the role of the phosphoserine kinase YopO/YpkA and YopM. PMID:10922034

  20. [Molecular biology aspects of Hodgkin's disease].

    PubMed

    Macák, J

    1998-06-01

    Immunohistological methods did not elucidate the etiology and pathogenesis of Hodgkin's disease. In "classical" cases the immunophenotype is based on evidence of three markers: CD30+, CD15+, CD20-. Despite the use of more recent methodical approaches a considerable percentage of Hodgkin and RS cells with CD15 antibody is negative. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays an important part in the development of malignant disease and at the same time a number of nuclear antigens can be detected: EBNA-1, EBNA-2, EBNA-3a,-3b,-3c,LP. Also latent membrane proteins LMP-1, -2a, -2b and two small ribonucleic acids described as EBER-1, EBER-2. Bcl-2 protein was detected in the majority of malignant lymphomas which reduces its value in differential diagnostic reflections. In Hodgkin and RS cells its positivity is not due to translocation or other disorders of the cell genoma. In these cells the expression of mRNA for bcl-2 is much more constant. Most probably there is no cooperation of bcl-2 and p53. Co-expression of the two genes was found only in a small percentage of patients with m.Hodgkin. The varied morphological picture in particular in the mixed type of m. Hodgkin is most probably associated with the formation and release of cytokines, factors which stimulate cell colonies (IL-3, GM-CSF, G-CSF, M-CSF). Non-tumourous cells chemotactically attracted to sites of tumour cells release further cytokines e.g. TGF-beta, IL-1, Il-2, which participate in the overall morphological appearance of the lesion.

  1. [Beauvericin: chemical and biological aspects and occurrence].

    PubMed

    Klarić, Maja Segvić; Pepeljnjak, Stjepan

    2005-12-01

    Beauvericin (BEA) is a cyclic hexadepsipeptide produced by Beauveria bassiana, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Paecilomyces tenuipes, Polyporus sulphurous, and a variety of Fusarium species. This mycotoxin shows antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, and apoptotic activity. It is the most potent specific inhibitor of cholesterol acyltransferase and possesses ionophoric properties. BEA increases ion permeability in biological membranes by forming a complex with essential cations (Ca2+, Na+, K+), which may affect the ionic homeostasis. BEA has been frequently found in maize samples in Europe, USA and Africa and co-contamination with other Fusarium toxins such as fumonisins, and moniliformin was also found. There is only one report of BEA occurrence and co-occurrence with fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2 and ochratoxin A in Croatia. Biological activity of BEA may increase the toxicity of other mycotoxins that co-occur with BEA in food. The role of BEA in the development of human and animal mycotoxicosis is still unknown.

  2. [The biological aspects of chromatin diminution].

    PubMed

    Akif'ev, A P; Grishanin, A K

    1993-01-01

    The chromatine diminution (CD), first discovered by Boveri (1887) in ascarids, represents programmed elimination of a part of genetic material in the nuclei of the somatic cells in cyclops and ascarids, and in the protist macronuclei. The CD can be considered as a macromutation sharply changing chromosomal structure, though minimally effecting the phenotype. The analysis of CD is of significance for discussing mechanisms of origin of chromosomal organization, transformation of genome molecular structure in eucaryote evolution, role of the extra DNA.

  3. BIOLOGICAL FORMATION OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN.

    PubMed

    GRAY, C T; GEST, H

    1965-04-09

    From a general standpoint, the formation of molecular hydrogen can be considered a device for disposal of electrons released in metabolic oxidations. We presume that this means of performing anaerobic oxidations is of ancient origin and that the hydrogen-evolving system of strict anaerobes represents a primitive form of cytochrome oxidase, which in aerobes effects the terminal step of respiration, namely the disposal of electrons by combination with molecular oxygen. We further assume that the original pattern of reactions leading to H(2) production has become modified in various ways (with respect to both mechanisms and functions) during the course of biochemical evolution, and we believe that this point of view suggests profitable approaches for clarifying a number of problems in the intermediary metabolism of microorganisms which produce or utilize H(2). Of special general importance in this connection is the basic problem of defining more precisely the fundamental elements in the regulatory control of anaerobic energy metabolism. Among the more specific aspects awaiting further elucidation are: the relations between formation of H(2) and use of H(2) as a primary reductant for biosynthetic purposes; the various forms of direct and indirect interactions between hydrogenase and N(2) reduction systems; and the transitional stages between anaerobic and aerobic energy-metabolism patterns of facultative organisms.

  4. Strontium: Part II. Chemistry, Biological Aspects and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, G. C.; Johnson, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews basic information on the Chemistry of strontium and its compounds. Explains biological aspects of strontium and its pharmaceutical applications. Highlights industrial application of strontium and its components. (ML)

  5. Molecular characteristics versus biological activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Smith, Manning A.; Willeford, Bennett R.

    1967-01-01

    The molecular characteristics of mononitrophenols containing halogens not only play a key role in their biological activity but provide a novel example of selective toxicity among vertebrate animals. It has been reported that efforts to control the parasitic sea lamprey in the Great Lakes are directed at present to the applications of a selective toxicant to streams inhabited by lamprey larvae. Since 1961, the larvicide that has been used almost exclusively in the control program has been 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM). However, this is only one of about 15 closely related compounds, all halogen-containing mononitrophenols, that display a selectively toxic action upon lampreys. Although not all of the halogenated mononitrophenols are selectively toxic to lampreys (in fact, fewer than half of those tested), no other group of related compounds has displayed any useful larvicidal activity except for the substituted nitrosalicylanilides.

  6. Ricin Toxicity: Clinical and Molecular Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Hamid, Fatemeh; Etemad, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinuscommunis L (CB) contain ricin toxin (RT), one of the most poisonous naturally-occurring substances known. Ricin toxin, a water-soluble glycoprotein that does not partition into the oil extract, is a ribosome-inactivating toxin composed of two chains, labeled A and B. Severity of the toxicity varies depending on the route of exposure to the toxin. Inhalational is the most toxic route, followed by oral ingestion. Orally-ingested RT accumulates in the liver and spleen but other cells are also affected. The main clinical manifestations are also related to the administration route. Oral ingestion of CB or RT results in abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and various types of gastrointestinal bleeding that leading to volume depletion, hypovolemic shock, and renal failure. Inhalation of the toxin presents with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, diffuse necrotizing pneumonia, interstitial and alveolar inflammation, and edema. Local injection of RT induces indurations at the injection site, swelling of regional lymph nodes, hypotension, and death. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to detect RT in animal tissues and fluids. Ricinine, an alkaloid of CB, can be detected in rat urine within 48 h of RT exposure. Supportive care is the basic treatment and standard biowarfare decontamination protocols are used for RT intoxication. Dexamethasone and difluoromethylornithine might be effective treatments. This review examines the clinical and molecular aspects of ricin toxicity. PMID:27536698

  7. Aspects of the biology of Galaxias maculatus.

    PubMed

    Laurenson, L J B; French, R P; Jones, P; Ierodiaconou, D; Gray, S; Versace, V L; Rattray, A; Brown, S; Monk, J

    2012-08-01

    The biology of three landlocked and a riverine population of Galaxias maculatus were examined in western Victoria, Australia. All systems supported reproducing populations of these fish, including Lake Corangamite which had salinities that on occasion reached 82. Spawning sites in Lake Corangamite were located in adjacent tributaries and not in the main lake as was the case for other populations. The smallest fish were found in the fresh water Lake Purrumbete and the largest in the hypersaline Lake Corangamite. The size at which 50% of the population attained sexual maturity varied across sites, with fish maturing at a smaller size in Lake Purrumbete, followed by the Merri River, Lake Bullen Merri and Lake Corangamite. Condition was higher in the freshwater Lake Purrumbete and there was no relationship between condition and temperature, conductivity, turbidity and pH; but there was a positive relationship between condition and dissolved oxygen. Length frequency analysis suggested that the majority of fishes live for a year. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Biological messiness vs. biological genius: Mechanistic aspects and roles of protein promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Atkins, William M

    2015-07-01

    In contrast to the traditional biological paradigms focused on 'specificity', recent research and theoretical efforts have focused on functional 'promiscuity' exhibited by proteins and enzymes in many biological settings, including enzymatic detoxication, steroid biochemistry, signal transduction and immune responses. In addition, divergent evolutionary processes are apparently facilitated by random mutations that yield promiscuous enzyme intermediates. The intermediates, in turn, provide opportunities for further evolution to optimize new functions from existing protein scaffolds. In some cases, promiscuity may simply represent the inherent plasticity of proteins resulting from their polymeric nature with distributed conformational ensembles. Enzymes or proteins that bind or metabolize noncognate substrates create 'messiness' or noise in the systems they contribute to. With our increasing awareness of the frequency of these promiscuous behaviors it becomes interesting and important to understand the molecular bases for promiscuous behavior and to distinguish between evolutionarily selected promiscuity and evolutionarily tolerated messiness. This review provides an overview of current understanding of these aspects of protein biochemistry and enzymology.

  9. Molecular biology of weed control.

    PubMed

    Gressel, J

    2000-01-01

    The vast commercial effort to utilize chemical and molecular tools to solve weed control problems has had a major impact on the basic biological sciences as well as benefits to agriculture, and the first generation of transgenic products has been successful, while somewhat crude. More sophisticated products are envisaged and expected. Biotechnologically-derived herbicide-resistant crops have been a considerable benefit, yet in some cases there is a risk that the same useful transgenes may introgress into related weeds, specifically the weeds that are hardest to control without such transgenic crops. Biotechnology can also be used to mitigate the risks. Molecular tools should be considered for weed control without the use of, or with less chemicals, whether by enhancing crop competitiveness with weeds for light, nutrients and water, or via allelochemicals. Biocontrol agents may become more effective as well as more safe when rendered hypervirulent yet non-spreading by biotechnology. There might be ways to disperse deleterious transposons throughout weed populations, obviating the need to modify the crops.

  10. History of the molecular biology of cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed

    Stinski, Mark F

    2014-01-01

    The history of the molecular biology of cytomegaloviruses from the purification of the virus and the viral DNA to the cloning and expression of the viral genes is reviewed. A key genetic element of cytomegalovirus (the CMV promoter) contributed to our understanding of eukaryotic cell molecular biology and to the development of lifesaving therapeutic proteins. The study of the molecular biology of cytomegaloviruses also contributed to the development of antivirals to control the viral infection.

  11. Human hair pigmentation--biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Tobin, D J

    2008-08-01

    Skin and hair colour contribute significantly to our overall visual appearance and to social/sexual communication. Despite their shared origins in the embryologic neural crest, the hair follicle and epidermal pigmentary units occupy distinct, although open, cutaneous compartments. They can be distinguished principally on the basis of the former's stringent coupling to the hair growth cycle compared with the latter's continuous melanogenesis. The biosynthesis of melanin and its subsequent transfer from melanocyte to hair bulb keratinocytes depend on the availability of melanin precursors and on a raft of signal transduction pathways that are both highly complex and commonly redundant. These signalling pathways can be both dependent and independent of receptors, act through auto-, para- or intracrine mechanisms and can be modified by hormonal signals. Despite many shared features, follicular melanocytes appear to be more sensitive than epidermal melanocytes to ageing influences. This can be seen most dramatically in hair greying/canities and this is likely to reflect significant differences in the epidermal and follicular microenvironments. The hair follicle pigmentary unit may also serve as an important environmental sensor, whereby hair pigment contributes to the rapid excretion of heavy metals, chemicals and toxins from the body by their selective binding to melanin; rendering the hair fibre a useful barometer of exposures. The recent availability of advanced cell culture methodologies for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture should provide the research tools necessary to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. In the longer term, it may be feasible to develop hair colour modifiers of a biological nature to accompany those based on chemicals.

  12. Molecular biology of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Wendy A; Lam, David C L; O'Toole, Sandra A; Minna, John D

    2013-10-01

    Lung cancers are characterised by abundant genetic diversity with relatively few recurrent mutations occurring at high frequency. However, the genetic alterations often affect a common group of oncogenic signalling pathways. There have been vast improvements in our understanding of the molecular biology that underpins lung cancer in recent years and this has led to a revolution in the diagnosis and treatment of lung adenocarcinomas (ADC) based on the genotype of an individual's tumour. New technologies are identifying key and potentially targetable genetic aberrations not only in adenocarcinoma but also in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung. Lung cancer mutations have been identified in v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), BRAF and the parallel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway oncogenes and more recently in MEK and HER2 while structural rearrangements in ALK, ROS1 and possibly rearranged during transfection (RET) provide new therapeutic targets. Amplification is another mechanism of activation of oncogenes such as MET in adenocarcinoma, fibroblastgrowth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) in SCC. Intriguingly, many of these genetic alternations are associated with smoking status and with particular racial and gender differences, which may provide insight into the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and role of host factors in lung cancer development and progression. The role of tumour suppressor genes is increasingly recognised with aberrations reported in TP53, PTEN, RB1, LKB11 and p16/CDKN2A. Identification of biologically significant genetic alterations in lung cancer that lead to activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumour suppressor genes has the potential to provide further therapeutic opportunities. It is hoped that these discoveries may make a major contribution to improving outcome for patients with this poor prognosis disease.

  13. Monod and the spirit of molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Morange, Michel

    2015-06-01

    The founders of molecular biology shared views on the place of biology within science, as well as on the relations of molecular biology to Darwinism. Jacques Monod was no exception, but the study of his writings is particularly interesting because he expressed his point of view very clearly and pushed the implications of some of his choices further than most of his contemporaries. The spirit of molecular biology is no longer the same as in the 1960s but, interestingly, Monod anticipated some recent evolutions of this discipline.

  14. Molecular ferroelectrics: where electronics meet biology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiangyu; Liu, Yuanming; Zhang, Yanhang; Cai, Hong-Ling; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2013-01-01

    In the last several years, we have witnessed significant advances in molecular ferroelectrics, with ferroelectric properties of molecular crystals approaching those of barium titanate. In addition, ferroelectricity has been observed in biological systems, filling an important missing link in bioelectric phenomena. In this perspective, we will present short historical notes on ferroelectrics, followed by overview on the fundamentals of ferroelectricity. Latest development in molecular ferroelectrics and biological ferroelectricity will then be highlighted, and their implications and potential applications will be discussed. We close by noting molecular ferroelectric as an exciting frontier between electronics and biology, and a number of challenges ahead are also noted. PMID:24018952

  15. Molecular ferroelectrics: where electronics meet biology.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiangyu; Liu, Yuanming; Zhang, Yanhang; Cai, Hong-Ling; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2013-12-28

    In the last several years, we have witnessed significant advances in molecular ferroelectrics, with the ferroelectric properties of molecular crystals approaching those of barium titanate. In addition, ferroelectricity has been observed in biological systems, filling an important missing link in bioelectric phenomena. In this perspective, we will present short historical notes on ferroelectrics, followed by an overview of the fundamentals of ferroelectricity. The latest developments in molecular ferroelectrics and biological ferroelectricity will then be highlighted, and their implications and potential applications will be discussed. We close by noting molecular ferroelectric as an exciting frontier between electronics and biology, and a number of challenges ahead are also described.

  16. Molecular biology of microbial ureases.

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, H L; Island, M D; Hausinger, R P

    1995-01-01

    progress in our understanding of the molecular biology of microbial ureases is reviewed. PMID:7565414

  17. Photophysical aspects of molecular probes near nanostructured gold surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sujit Kumar; Pal, Tarasankar

    2009-05-28

    Highly ordered, self-organized assemblies of organic molecules at surfaces of metal particles with sizes in the nanometer regime have been a subject of immense interest in recent years. Amongst the metal nanoparticles, considering the nobility of gold, organic fluoroprobes have often been attached to the surfaces of gold nanoparticles to form an extended network for potential technological applications. These organic-inorganic hybrid nanoassemblies offer an efficient route for the patterning of surfaces with functional nanometer-scale architectures utilizing several non-covalent intermolecular bonding interactions, e.g., hydrogen bonding, coordination bonding, etc. There is a growing recognition of fluorescence spectroscopy to achieve a molecular level understanding of the physical and chemical aspects of the molecule-surface interactions. The fluorophore-bound gold nanoparticles provide a convenient way to examine the mechanistic details of various deactivation pathways of the photoexcited fluoroprobes, such as energy and electron transfer to the particles as well as different types of intermolecular interactions involved in producing the bottom-up assembly of tailored nanostructures with a wide variety of structures and properties. The understanding of electronic absorption and dynamics in nanoparticulate systems is essential before assembling them into devices, which is essentially the future goal of the use of nanostructured systems. It is, therefore, important to elucidate the particle size and distance dependence on the interaction between excited molecular probes and the gold nanoparticles. The potential impact of the derived nanopatterned surfaces ranges from applications in molecular electronics to selective sensors to diagnostic devices. The greatest promise of these systems lies in the potential to tune functional aspects of the supramolecular assemblies at surfaces by manipulation of the interactions governing the derivation of supramolecular function

  18. The History, Biology and Medical Aspects of Leprosy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    Presents information about the history, biology, and medical aspects of leprosy, including its description in historical documents, its cause and effects, statistics on its prevalence, and various attempts at treatment. Notes that leprosy is one of the few infectious diseases that, although treatable with medication, remains incurable. Contains 30…

  19. Biological Aspects of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Allan S.; Woodside, D. Blake

    1987-01-01

    Reviews biological factors relevant to the understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Considers the physical presentation of these disorders; the medical complications of starvation, binging, and purging; and the cognitive and behavioral effects of starvation. Reviews neurophysiological and neurochemical aspects of these illnesses and…

  20. Using Spreadsheets to Teach Aspects of Biology Involving Mathematical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Kevin; Nicholls, Mike; Ponsonby, David

    2004-01-01

    Some aspects of biology, for example the Hardy-Weinberg simulation of population genetics or modelling heat flow in lizards, have an undeniable mathematical basis. Students can find the level of mathematical skill required to deal with such concepts to be an insurmountable hurdle to understanding. If not used effectively, spreadsheet models…

  1. Biological Aspects of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Allan S.; Woodside, D. Blake

    1987-01-01

    Reviews biological factors relevant to the understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Considers the physical presentation of these disorders; the medical complications of starvation, binging, and purging; and the cognitive and behavioral effects of starvation. Reviews neurophysiological and neurochemical aspects of these illnesses and…

  2. The History, Biology and Medical Aspects of Leprosy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    Presents information about the history, biology, and medical aspects of leprosy, including its description in historical documents, its cause and effects, statistics on its prevalence, and various attempts at treatment. Notes that leprosy is one of the few infectious diseases that, although treatable with medication, remains incurable. Contains 30…

  3. Using Spreadsheets to Teach Aspects of Biology Involving Mathematical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Kevin; Nicholls, Mike; Ponsonby, David

    2004-01-01

    Some aspects of biology, for example the Hardy-Weinberg simulation of population genetics or modelling heat flow in lizards, have an undeniable mathematical basis. Students can find the level of mathematical skill required to deal with such concepts to be an insurmountable hurdle to understanding. If not used effectively, spreadsheet models…

  4. Homology in classical and molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Patterson, C

    1988-11-01

    Hypotheses of homology are the basis of comparative morphology and comparative molecular biology. The kinds of homologous and nonhomologous relations in classical and molecular biology are explored through the three tests that may be applied to a hypothesis of homology: congruence, conjunction, and similarity. The same three tests apply in molecular comparisons and in morphology, and in each field they differentiate eight kinds of relation. These various relations are discussed and compared. The unit or standard of comparison differs in morphology and in molecular biology; in morphology it is the adult or life cycle, but with molecules it is the haploid genome. In morphology the congruence test is decisive in separating homology and nonhomology, whereas with molecular sequence data similarity is the decisive test. Consequences of this difference are that the boundary between homology and nonhomology is not the same in molecular biology as in morphology, that homology and synapomorphy can be equated in morphology but not in all molecular comparisons, and that there is no detected molecular equivalent of convergence. Since molecular homology may reflect either species phylogeny or gene phylogeny, there are more kinds of homologous relation between molecular sequences than in morphology. The terms paraxenology and plerology are proposed for two of these kinds--respectively, the consequence of multiple xenology and of gene conversion.

  5. Molecular biology of lung cancer: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jill E; Minna, John D

    2011-12-01

    Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease clinically, biologically, histologically, and molecularly. Understanding the molecular causes of this heterogeneity, which might reflect changes occurring in different classes of epithelial cells or different molecular changes occurring in the same target lung epithelial cells, is the focus of current research. Identifying the genes and pathways involved, determining how they relate to the biological behavior of lung cancer, and their utility as diagnostic and therapeutic targets are important basic and translational research issues. This article reviews current information on the key molecular steps in lung cancer pathogenesis, their timing, and clinical implications. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment: A Concept Assessment for Upper-Division Molecular Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Brian A.; Wood, William B.; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring students' conceptual understandings has become increasingly important to biology faculty members involved in evaluating and improving departmental programs. We developed the Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment (MBCA) to gauge comprehension of fundamental concepts in molecular and cell biology and the ability to apply these concepts in…

  7. The Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment: A Concept Assessment for Upper-Division Molecular Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Brian A.; Wood, William B.; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring students' conceptual understandings has become increasingly important to biology faculty members involved in evaluating and improving departmental programs. We developed the Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment (MBCA) to gauge comprehension of fundamental concepts in molecular and cell biology and the ability to apply these concepts in…

  8. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.C.; Lippman, M.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  9. [Congenital fructose intolerance. New molecular aspects].

    PubMed

    Larsen, K; Adnanes, O; Aarskog, N K; Runde, I; Ogreid, D

    1994-11-20

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is a human autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency of aldolase B that results in an inability to metabolize fructose and related sugars. Molecular analyses have shown that most defects are caused by point mutations in critical regions of the aldolase B gene. We have performed PCR-based DNA analysis of members of two Norwegian families with hereditary fructose intolerance. The affected individuals from both families contained a point mutation (A149P) in exon 5 of the aldolase B gene. Molecular diagnosis of fructose intolerance is rapid and specific, and causes no inconvenience to the patient. It should be preferred to conventional fructose intolerance tests and visceral biopsy analyses.

  10. Integrating molecular biology into the veterinary curriculum.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Marion T; Sweeney, Torres

    2007-01-01

    The modern discipline of molecular biology is gaining increasing relevance in the field of veterinary medicine. This trend must be reflected in the curriculum if veterinarians are to capitalize on opportunities arising from this field and direct its development toward their own goals as a profession. This review outlines current applications of molecular-based technologies that are relevant to the veterinary profession. In addition, the current techniques and technologies employed within the field of molecular biology are discussed. Difficulties associated with teaching a subject such as molecular biology within a veterinary curriculum can be alleviated by effectively integrating molecular topics throughout the curriculum, pitching the subject at an appropriate depth, and employing varied teaching methods throughout.

  11. Biological messiness vs. biological genius: Mechanistic aspects and roles of protein promiscuity✩

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, William M.

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the traditional biological paradigms focused on ‘specificity’, recent research and theoretical efforts have focused on functional ‘promiscuity’ exhibited by proteins and enzymes in many biological settings, including enzymatic detoxication, steroid biochemistry, signal transduction and immune responses. In addition, divergent evolutionary processes are apparently facilitated by random mutations that yield promiscuous enzyme intermediates. The intermediates, in turn, provide opportunities for further evolution to optimize new functions from existing protein scaffolds. In some cases, promiscuity may simply represent the inherent plasticity of proteins resulting from their polymeric nature with distributed conformational ensembles. Enzymes or proteins that bind or metabolize noncognate substrates create ‘messiness’ or noise in the systems they contribute to. With our increasing awareness of the frequency of these promiscuous behaviors it becomes interesting and important to understand the molecular bases for promiscuous behavior and to distinguish between evolutionarily selected promiscuity and evolutionarily tolerated messiness. This review provides an overview of current understanding of these aspects of protein biochemistry and enzymology. PMID:25218442

  12. Molecular biology of nuclear autoantigens.

    PubMed

    Saitta, M R; Keene, J D

    1992-05-01

    This article provides a historical overview of the application of molecular and immunologic techniques to the analysis of autoantigenic structure and function, as well as to autoantibody recognition of protein and nucleic acid autoantigens. Examples presented here illustrate the role of autoantibodies as tools in the elucidation of the autoimmune components of cellular ribonucleoproteins. In turn, the subsequent molecular dissection of autoantigenic ribonucleoproteins has advanced understanding of autoantibody specificities. The nature of autoantibodies reactive with various proteins and nucleic acids will be the subject of the following articles in this issue. Taken together, these studies of antibody-antigen interactions that arise during the autoimmune response have revealed novel mechanisms of molecular recognition within the RNP autoantigens. These findings are of general importance for understanding basic cellular processes and have contributed to our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of immunoregulatory abnormalities that arise in autoimmune diseases.

  13. Seeing the Unseen: Molecular Visualization in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnan, Jeff; Taylor-Papp, Kim; Duran, Mesut

    2005-01-01

    In high school biology, students are challenged by many molecular concepts and structures. They meander through a number of molecular structures, some in macromolecular form: carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, nucleotides. Student difficulties arise in part from inability to visualize what they can't easily see. Students struggle moving from…

  14. Cytogenetic and molecular aspects of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Panani, Anna D; Roussos, Charis

    2006-07-28

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide and its pathogenesis is closely associated with tobacco smoking. Continuous exposure of smoking carcinogens results in the accumulation of several alterations of tumorigenesis related genes leading to neoplastic bronchial lesions. Lung cancer is divided in two main histological groups, non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) and small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs). It seems that lung tumorigenesis is a multistep process in which a number of genetic events including alterations of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been occurred. Cytogenetic abnormalities in lung cancer are very complex. However, a number of recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities have been identified. Many of these changes are common in both major histological groups of lung cancer while certain chromosomal abnormalities have been correlated with the stage or the grade of the tumors. In addition, several molecular alterations have been constantly found. Some of them are common in different histological subtypes of lung cancer and they appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. A good understanding of the underlying genetic changes of lung tumorigenesis will provide new perspectives for early diagnosis and screening of high-risk individuals. In addition, a number of genetical prognostic factors have been identified as possibly helpful parameters in the evaluation of lung cancer patients. Further research is required in order to systematically investigate genetical alterations in lung cancer contributing to improvement of lung cancer classification and staging and to development of new molecular targeted therapies.

  15. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer – Potential Future Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Pinker, Katja; Bogner, Wolfgang; Gruber, Stephan; Brader, Peter; Trattnig, Siegfried; Karanikas, Georgios; Helbich, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Molecular imaging aims to visualize and quantify biological, physiological, and pathological processes at cellular and molecular levels. Recently, molecular imaging has been introduced into breast cancer imaging. In this review, we will present a survey of the molecular imaging techniques that are either clinically available or are being introduced into clinical imaging. We will discuss nuclear imaging and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging as well as the combined application of molecular imaging in the assessment of breast lesions. In addition, we will briefly discuss other evolving molecular imaging techniques, such as phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging and sodium imaging. PMID:21673821

  16. Emerging molecular approaches in stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Jaishankar, Amritha; Vrana, Kent

    2009-04-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple adult cell types. Although substantial progress has been made over the last decade in understanding stem cell biology, recent technological advances in molecular and systems biology may hold the key to unraveling the mystery behind stem cell self-renewal and plasticity. The most notable of these advances is the ability to generate induced pluripotent cells from somatic cells. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of molecular similarities and differences among various stem cell types. Moreover, we survey the current state of systems biology and forecast future needs and direction in the stem cell field.

  17. [Glucotransporters: clinical, molecular and genetic aspects].

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Muñiz, Roberto de Jesús; Vargas-Guerrero, Belinda; Flores-Alvarado, Luis Javier; Gurrola-Díaz, Carmen Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation of glucose is the major source of obtaining cell energy, this process requires glucose transport into the cell. However, cell membranes are not permeable to polar molecules such as glucose; therefore its internalization is accomplished by transporter proteins coupled to the cell membrane. In eukaryotic cells, there are two types of carriers coupled to the membrane: 1) cotransporter Na+-glucose (SGLT) where Na+ ion provides motive power for the glucose´s internalization, and 2) the glucotransporters (GLUT) act by facilitated diffusion. This review will focus on the 14 GLUT so far described. Despite the structural homology of GLUT, different genetic alterations of each GLUT cause specific clinical entities. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the molecular and biochemical available information of each GLUT as well as the particular syndromes and pathologies related with GLUT´s alterations and their clinical approaches.

  18. Cellular and molecular aspects of Goodpasture syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alenzi, Faris Q; Salem, Mohamed L; Alenazi, Fawwaz A; Wyse, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    Goodpasture syndrome, a rare human autoimmune disorder, is characterized by the presence of pathogenic autoantibodies that react with the components of the glomerular basement membrane. The clinical condition of the Goodpasture syndrome is characterized by an acute necrotizing glomerulonephritis, often with accompanying pulmonary hemorrhage. Notably, the Goodpasture antigen has been localized to the noncollagenous domain of the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen. Additionally, human leukocyte antigen-DR2, and to a lesser extent human leukocyte antigen-DR4, have been identified as important restriction elements. The role of T cells in Goodpasture syndrome is indicated by the highly restricted specificity of the antibody response and the strong major histocompatibility complex class II association. In this review article, we briefly describe the latest views on the molecular and cellular themes of Goodpasture syndrome.

  19. Obesity: genetic, molecular, and environmental aspects.

    PubMed

    Barness, Lewis A; Opitz, John M; Gilbert-Barness, Enid

    2007-12-15

    Obesity has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. Obese children tend to become obese adults. The dramatic rise in pediatric obesity closely parallels the rapid increase in the prevalence of adult obesity. As overweight children become adults they face the multitude of health problems associated with obesity at younger ages. The morbidity and mortality associated with obesity continue to increase. Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable death. Complications of obesity include cardiovascular risks, hypertension, dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance, acanthosis nigricans, hepatic steatosis, premature puberty, hypogonadism and polycystic ovary syndrome, obstructive sleep disorder, orthopedic complications, cholelithiasis and pseudotumor cerebri. Genetic and molecular and environmental factors play an important role in the assessment and management of obesity.

  20. Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Rhabdovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Albertini, Aurélie A. V.; Baquero, Eduard; Ferlin, Anna; Gaudin, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses enter the cell via the endocytic pathway and subsequently fuse with a cellular membrane within the acidic environment of the endosome. Both receptor recognition and membrane fusion are mediated by a single transmembrane viral glycoprotein (G). Fusion is triggered via a low-pH induced structural rearrangement. G is an atypical fusion protein as there is a pH-dependent equilibrium between its pre- and post-fusion conformations. The elucidation of the atomic structures of these two conformations for the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G has revealed that it is different from the previously characterized class I and class II fusion proteins. In this review, the pre- and post-fusion VSV G structures are presented in detail demonstrating that G combines the features of the class I and class II fusion proteins. In addition to these similarities, these G structures also reveal some particularities that expand our understanding of the working of fusion machineries. Combined with data from recent studies that revealed the cellular aspects of the initial stages of rhabdovirus infection, all these data give an integrated view of the entry pathway of rhabdoviruses into their host cell. PMID:22355455

  1. Clinical and molecular aspects of severe malaria.

    PubMed

    Kirchgatter, Karin; Del Portillo, Hernando A

    2005-09-01

    The erythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium falciparum presents a particularity in relation to other Plasmodium species that infect man. Mature trophozoites and schizonts are sequestered from the peripheral circulation due to adhesion of infected erythrocytes to host endothelial cells. Modifications in the surface of infected erythrocytes, termed knobs, seem to facilitate adhesion to endothelium and other erythrocytes. Adhesion provides better maturation in the microaerophilic venous atmosphere and allows the parasite to escape clearance by the spleen which recognizes the erythrocytes loss of deformability. Adhesion to the endothelium, or cytoadherence, has an important role in the pathogenicity of the disease, causing occlusion of small vessels and contributing to failure of many organs. Cytoadherence can also describe adhesion of infected erythrocytes to uninfected erythrocytes, a phenomenon widely known as rosetting. Clinical aspects of severe malaria, as well as the host receptors and parasite ligands involved in cytoadherence and rosetting, are reviewed here. The erythrocyte membrane protein 1 of P. falciparum (PfEMP1) appears to be the principal adhesive ligand of infected erythrocytes and will be discussed in more detail. Understanding the role of host receptors and parasite ligands in the development of different clinical syndromes is urgently needed to identify vaccination targets in order to decrease the mortality rates of this disease.

  2. [Physical methods and molecular biology].

    PubMed

    Serdiuk, I N

    2009-01-01

    The review is devoted to the description of the current state of physical and chemical methods used for studying the structural and functional bases of living processes. Special attention is focused on the physical methods that have opened a new page in the research of the structure of biological macromolecules. They include primarily the methods of detecting and manipulating single molecules using optical and magnetic traps. New physical methods, such as two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and magnetic resonance microscopy are also analyzed briefly in the review. The path that physics and biology have passed for the latest 55 years shows that there is no single method providing all necessary information on macromolecules and their interactions. Each method provides its space-time view of the system. All physical methods are complementary. It is just complementarity that is the fundamental idea justifying the existence in practice of all physical methods, whose description is the aim of the review.

  3. Molecular biology of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zavoral, Miroslav; Minarikova, Petra; Zavada, Filip; Salek, Cyril; Minarik, Marek

    2011-01-01

    In spite of continuous research efforts directed at early detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer, the outlook for patients affected by the disease remains dismal. With most cases still being diagnosed at advanced stages, no improvement in survival prognosis is achieved with current diagnostic imaging approaches. In the absence of a dominant precancerous condition, several risk factors have been identified including family history, chronic pancreatitis, smoking, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain genetic disorders such as hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma, and Peutz–Jeghers and Lynch syndromes. Most pancreatic carcinomas, however, remain sporadic. Current progress in experimental molecular techniques has enabled detailed understanding of the molecular processes of pancreatic cancer development. According to the latest information, malignant pancreatic transformation involves multiple oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that are involved in a variety of signaling pathways. The most characteristic aberrations (somatic point mutations and allelic losses) affect oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes within RAS, AKT and Wnt signaling, and have a key role in transcription and proliferation, as well as systems that regulate the cell cycle (SMAD/DPC, CDKN2A/p16) and apoptosis (TP53). Understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms should promote development of new methodology for early diagnosis and facilitate improvement in current approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:21734801

  4. [Autism and language: some molecular aspects].

    PubMed

    Benítez-Burraco, A

    Autism is a cognitive disorder that includes among its distinguishing symptoms a deficit in the pragmatic component of language. Yet, it seems that there are certain subtypes where other deficiencies have been seen to affect the phonological, lexical, syntactical and morphological components of language. Linkage and association analyses aimed at identifying the genes that constitute causal or risk factors for the disorder have allowed researchers to identify certain loci that appear to be linked or associated to a statistically significant degree with autism endophenotypes of a linguistic nature. The target genes in this type of analysis play a number of different biological roles related with the development and functioning of the nervous system. On certain occasions, the loci thus identified coincide with others that had previously been linked to diverse language disorders (one paradigmatic case would be that of the chromosomal region 7q31 in relation to specific language disorder). This suggests that such disorders and autism might share a partially common genetic foundation that would account for the similarities observed between them at the phenotypic level.

  5. [Molecular-genetic aspects of congenital hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Lacka, Katarzyna; Ogrodowicz, Agnieszka

    2004-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism manifests a complex of symptoms caused by a total lack or significant deficiency of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in foetal life and in the first years of child's life. The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism is 1 per 3000-4000 newborns in the world and l per 4800 in Poland. There are two main causes of congenital hypothyroidism: defects of thyroid development (about 90%), defects of thyroid hormones biosynthesis (~10%), and the more seldom occurring defects of the TBG proteins (thyroxine binding globulin) or resistance. syndrome to thyroid hormones. Defects of thyroid gland development include ectopia, hypoplasia or complete lack of the thyroid (athyreosis). These defects are caused by immunological, factors, drugs as well as genetic factors such as: TSH receptor gene or thyroid transcription factors: PAX 8. TTF l, TTF 2, Pit 1, Prop 1. Defects of thyroid hormones biosynthesis are inherited as autosomal recessive. There are 5 main defects of thyroid hormones biosynthesis: iodide transport (mutation of hNIS gene), iodine oxygenation (mutation of TPO, THOX, PDS genes), the iodination of the tyrosine of thyroglobulin and their conjunction (the mutation of TPO TG, PDS genes), the hydrolysis of the T3 and T4 as well as deiodination. Searching molecular-genetic basis of congenital hypothyroidism may improve its diagnostics, make possible to introduce genetic examination among patients with congenital hypothyroidism and their family members and may make gene therapy possible in the future.

  6. Molecular and Clinical Aspects of Angelman Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dagli, A; Buiting, K; Williams, C A

    2012-04-01

    The Angelman syndrome is caused by disruption of the UBE3A gene and is clinically delineated by the combination of severe mental disability, seizures, absent speech, hypermotoric and ataxic movements, and certain remarkable behaviors. Those with the syndrome have a predisposition toward apparent happiness and paroxysms of laughter, and this finding helps distinguish Angelman syndrome from other conditions involving severe developmental handicap. Accurate diagnosis rests on a combination of clinical criteria and molecular and/or cytogenetic testing. Analysis of parent-specific DNA methylation imprints in the critical 15q11.2-q13 genomic region identifies 75-80% of all individuals with the syndrome, including those with cytogenetic deletions, imprinting center defects and paternal uniparental disomy. In the remaining group, UBE3A sequence analysis identifies an additional percentage of patients, but 5-10% will remain who appear to have the major clinical phenotypic features but do not have any identifiable genetic abnormalities. Genetic counseling for recurrence risk is complicated because multiple genetic mechanisms can disrupt the UBE3A gene, and there is also a unique inheritance pattern associated with UBE3A imprinting. Angelman syndrome is a prototypical developmental syndrome due to its remarkable behavioral phenotype and because UBE3A is so crucial to normal synaptic function and neural plasticity.

  7. Molecular and Clinical Aspects of Angelman Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dagli, A.; Buiting, K.; Williams, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Angelman syndrome is caused by disruption of the UBE3A gene and is clinically delineated by the combination of severe mental disability, seizures, absent speech, hypermotoric and ataxic movements, and certain remarkable behaviors. Those with the syndrome have a predisposition toward apparent happiness and paroxysms of laughter, and this finding helps distinguish Angelman syndrome from other conditions involving severe developmental handicap. Accurate diagnosis rests on a combination of clinical criteria and molecular and/or cytogenetic testing. Analysis of parent-specific DNA methylation imprints in the critical 15q11.2–q13 genomic region identifies 75–80% of all individuals with the syndrome, including those with cytogenetic deletions, imprinting center defects and paternal uniparental disomy. In the remaining group, UBE3A sequence analysis identifies an additional percentage of patients, but 5–10% will remain who appear to have the major clinical phenotypic features but do not have any identifiable genetic abnormalities. Genetic counseling for recurrence risk is complicated because multiple genetic mechanisms can disrupt the UBE3A gene, and there is also a unique inheritance pattern associated with UBE3A imprinting. Angelman syndrome is a prototypical developmental syndrome due to its remarkable behavioral phenotype and because UBE3A is so crucial to normal synaptic function and neural plasticity. PMID:22670133

  8. Molecular aspects of flower development in grasses.

    PubMed

    Ciaffi, Mario; Paolacci, Anna Rita; Tanzarella, Oronzo Antonio; Porceddu, Enrico

    2011-12-01

    The grass family (Poaceae) of the monocotyledons includes about 10,000 species and represents one of the most important taxa among angiosperms. Their flower morphology is remarkably different from those of other monocotyledons and higher eudicots. The peculiar floral structure of grasses is the floret, which contains carpels and stamens, like eudicots, but lacks petals and sepals. The reproductive organs are surrounded by two lodicules, which correspond to eudicot petals, and by a palea and lemma, whose correspondence to eudicot organs remains controversial. The molecular and genetic analysis of floral morphogenesis and organ specification, primarily performed in eudicot model species, led to the ABCDE model of flower development. Several genes required for floral development in grasses correspond to class A, B, C, D, and E genes of eudicots, but others appear to have unique and diversified functions. In this paper, we outline the present knowledge on the evolution and diversification of grass genes encoding MIKC-type MADS-box transcription factors, based on information derived from studies in rice, maize, and wheat. Moreover, we review recent advances in studying the genes involved in the control of flower development and the extent of structural and functional conservation of these genes between grasses and eudicots.

  9. Cell and molecular biology of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Ceresa, Brian P; Peterson, Joanne L

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been one of the most intensely studied cell surface receptors due to its well-established roles in developmental biology, tissue homeostasis, and cancer biology. The EGFR has been critical for creating paradigms for numerous aspects of cell biology, such as ligand binding, signal transduction, and membrane trafficking. Despite this history of discovery, there is a continual stream of evidence that only the surface has been scratched. New ways of receptor regulation continue to be identified, each of which is a potential molecular target for manipulating EGFR signaling and the resultant changes in cell and tissue biology. This chapter is an update on EGFR-mediated signaling, and describes some recent developments in the regulation of receptor biology.

  10. Molecular and Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Proteases†

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Mala B.; Tanksale, Aparna M.; Ghatge, Mohini S.; Deshpande, Vasanti V.

    1998-01-01

    diverse origins have been analyzed with the aim of studying their evolutionary relationships. Despite the extensive research on several aspects of proteases, there is a paucity of knowledge about the roles that govern the diverse specificity of these enzymes. Deciphering these secrets would enable us to exploit proteases for their applications in biotechnology. PMID:9729602

  11. Noonan Syndrome: Clinical Aspects and Molecular Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, M.; Zampino, G.; Gelb, B.D.

    2010-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a relatively common, clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous developmental disorder characterized by postnatally reduced growth, distinctive facial dysmorphism, cardiac defects and variable cognitive deficits. Other associated features include ectodermal and skeletal defects, cryptorchidism, lymphatic dysplasias, bleeding tendency, and, rarely, predisposition to hematologic malignancies during childhood. NS is caused by mutations in the PTPN11, SOS1, KRAS, RAF1, BRAF and MEK1 (MAP2K1) genes, accounting for approximately 70% of affected individuals. SHP2 (encoded by PTPN11), SOS1, BRAF, RAF1 and MEK1 positively contribute to RAS-MAPK signaling, and possess complex autoinhibitory mechanisms that are impaired by mutations. Similarly, reduced GTPase activity or increased guanine nucleotide release underlie the aberrant signal flow through the MAPK cascade promoted by most KRAS mutations. More recently, a single missense mutation in SHOC2, which encodes a cytoplasmic scaffold positively controlling RAF1 activation, has been discovered to cause a closely related phenotype previously termed Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair. This mutation promotes aberrantly acquired N-myristoylation of the protein, resulting in its constitutive targeting to the plasma membrane and dysregulated function. PTPN11, BRAF and RAF1 mutations also account for approximately 95% of LEOPARD syndrome, a condition which resembles NS phenotypically but is characterized by multiple lentigines dispersed throughout the body, café-au-lait spots, and a higher prevalence of electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, obstructive cardiomyopathy and sensorineural hearing deficits. These recent discoveries demonstrate that the substantial phenotypic variation characterizing NS and related conditions can be ascribed, in part, to the gene mutated and even the specific molecular lesion involved. PMID:20648242

  12. Salvia divinorum: toxicological aspects and analysis in human biological specimens.

    PubMed

    Margalho, Cláudia; Corte-Real, Francisco; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    The identification and quantitation of the main psychoactive component of Salvia divinorum (salvinorin A) in biological specimens are crucial in forensic and clinical toxicology. Despite all the efforts made, its uncontrolled abuse has increased quickly, exposing its users' health to serious risks both in the short and long term. The use of alternative biological matrices in toxicological analyzes can be advantageous as complementary postmortem samples, or in situations when neither blood nor urine can be collected; they may be useful tools in those determinations, providing important information about prior exposure. The aim of this article is to present a brief summary of legal aspects of Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A, including the methods used for the determination of the latter in biological matrices.

  13. Molecular and cellular aspects of erythropoietin and erythropoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, I.N.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 30 papers. Some of the titles are: The Molecular Biology of Erythropoietin and the Expression of its Gene; The Molecolar Biology of Erythropoietin; Retroviral Vectors for Gene Transfer and Expression in Haematopietic Cells; Monocyte-Macrophage Mediated Suppression of Erythoropoieis in Renal Anemaia; and Standards for the Assay of Eythropoietin.

  14. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption

    PubMed Central

    Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Guizzardi, Solange; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal Ca2+ absorption is a crucial physiological process for maintaining bone mineralization and Ca2+ homeostasis. It occurs through the transcellular and paracellular pathways. The first route comprises 3 steps: the entrance of Ca2+ across the brush border membranes (BBM) of enterocytes through epithelial Ca2+ channels TRPV6, TRPV5, and Cav1.3; Ca2+ movement from the BBM to the basolateral membranes by binding proteins with high Ca2+ affinity (such as CB9k); and Ca2+ extrusion into the blood. Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA1b) and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX1) are mainly involved in the exit of Ca2+ from enterocytes. A novel molecule, the 4.1R protein, seems to be a partner of PMCA1b, since both molecules co-localize and interact. The paracellular pathway consists of Ca2+ transport through transmembrane proteins of tight junction structures, such as claudins 2, 12, and 15. There is evidence of crosstalk between the transcellular and paracellular pathways in intestinal Ca2+ transport. When intestinal oxidative stress is triggered, there is a decrease in the expression of several molecules of both pathways that inhibit intestinal Ca2+ absorption. Normalization of redox status in the intestine with drugs such as quercetin, ursodeoxycholic acid, or melatonin return intestinal Ca2+ transport to control values. Calcitriol [1,25(OH)2D3] is the major controlling hormone of intestinal Ca2+ transport. It increases the gene and protein expression of most of the molecules involved in both pathways. PTH, thyroid hormones, estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, and glucocorticoids apparently also regulate Ca2+ transport by direct action, indirect mechanism mediated by the increase of renal 1,25(OH)2D3 production, or both. Different physiological conditions, such as growth, pregnancy, lactation, and aging, adjust intestinal Ca2+ absorption according to Ca2+ demands. Better knowledge of the molecular details of intestinal Ca2+ absorption could lead to the development of

  15. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Guizzardi, Solange; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2015-06-21

    Intestinal Ca(2+) absorption is a crucial physiological process for maintaining bone mineralization and Ca(2+) homeostasis. It occurs through the transcellular and paracellular pathways. The first route comprises 3 steps: the entrance of Ca(2+) across the brush border membranes (BBM) of enterocytes through epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV6, TRPV5, and Cav1.3; Ca(2+) movement from the BBM to the basolateral membranes by binding proteins with high Ca(2+) affinity (such as CB9k); and Ca(2+) extrusion into the blood. Plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA1b) and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX1) are mainly involved in the exit of Ca(2+) from enterocytes. A novel molecule, the 4.1R protein, seems to be a partner of PMCA1b, since both molecules co-localize and interact. The paracellular pathway consists of Ca(2+) transport through transmembrane proteins of tight junction structures, such as claudins 2, 12, and 15. There is evidence of crosstalk between the transcellular and paracellular pathways in intestinal Ca(2+) transport. When intestinal oxidative stress is triggered, there is a decrease in the expression of several molecules of both pathways that inhibit intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. Normalization of redox status in the intestine with drugs such as quercetin, ursodeoxycholic acid, or melatonin return intestinal Ca(2+) transport to control values. Calcitriol [1,25(OH)₂D₃] is the major controlling hormone of intestinal Ca(2+) transport. It increases the gene and protein expression of most of the molecules involved in both pathways. PTH, thyroid hormones, estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, and glucocorticoids apparently also regulate Ca(2+) transport by direct action, indirect mechanism mediated by the increase of renal 1,25(OH)₂D₃ production, or both. Different physiological conditions, such as growth, pregnancy, lactation, and aging, adjust intestinal Ca(2+) absorption according to Ca(2+) demands. Better knowledge of the molecular details of intestinal Ca(2

  16. [Molecular biology methods in immunohematology].

    PubMed

    Tournamille, C

    2013-05-01

    The molecular basis of almost all antigens of the 33 blood group systems are known. These knowledge and the advent of the PCR technology have allowed the DNA-based genotyping in order to predict the presence or absence of a blood group antigen on the cell membrane of red blood cells. DNA genotyping is required in cases where red blood cells patient cannot be used for serological typing either after a recent transfusion or because of the presence of autoantibodies on the red blood cells. Numerous DNA assays are available to detect any nucleotide polymorphism on the genes encoding blood group antigens. The technologies have improved to answer quickly to any case of transfusion emergency and to limit the risk of DNA contamination in a molecular diagnostic laboratory. Some technologies are ready for high-throughput blood group genotyping. They will be used in the future to obtain a fully typed blood group card of each donor but also to detect blood donors with rare phenotypes to register them to the Banque Nationale de Sang de Phénotype Rare (BNSPR).

  17. Biological networks 101: computational modeling for molecular biologists.

    PubMed

    Scholma, Jetse; Schivo, Stefano; Urquidi Camacho, Ricardo A; van de Pol, Jaco; Karperien, Marcel; Post, Janine N

    2014-01-01

    Computational modeling of biological networks permits the comprehensive analysis of cells and tissues to define molecular phenotypes and novel hypotheses. Although a large number of software tools have been developed, the versatility of these tools is limited by mathematical complexities that prevent their broad adoption and effective use by molecular biologists. This study clarifies the basic aspects of molecular modeling, how to convert data into useful input, as well as the number of time points and molecular parameters that should be considered for molecular regulatory models with both explanatory and predictive potential. We illustrate the necessary experimental preconditions for converting data into a computational model of network dynamics. This model requires neither a thorough background in mathematics nor precise data on intracellular concentrations, binding affinities or reaction kinetics. Finally, we show how an interactive model of crosstalk between signal transduction pathways in primary human articular chondrocytes allows insight into processes that regulate gene expression.

  18. Biological spectra analysis: Linking biological activity profiles to molecular structure

    PubMed Central

    Fliri, Anton F.; Loging, William T.; Thadeio, Peter F.; Volkmann, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Establishing quantitative relationships between molecular structure and broad biological effects has been a longstanding challenge in science. Currently, no method exists for forecasting broad biological activity profiles of medicinal agents even within narrow boundaries of structurally similar molecules. Starting from the premise that biological activity results from the capacity of small organic molecules to modulate the activity of the proteome, we set out to investigate whether descriptor sets could be developed for measuring and quantifying this molecular property. Using a 1,567-compound database, we show that percent inhibition values, determined at single high drug concentration in a battery of in vitro assays representing a cross section of the proteome, provide precise molecular property descriptors that identify the structure of molecules. When broad biological activity of molecules is represented in spectra form, organic molecules can be sorted by quantifying differences between biological spectra. Unlike traditional structure–activity relationship methods, sorting of molecules by using biospectra comparisons does not require knowledge of a molecule's putative drug targets. To illustrate this finding, we selected as starting point the biological activity spectra of clotrimazole and tioconazole because their putative target, lanosterol demethylase (CYP51), was not included in the bioassay array. Spectra similarity obtained through profile similarity measurements and hierarchical clustering provided an unbiased means for establishing quantitative relationships between chemical structures and biological activity spectra. This methodology, which we have termed biological spectra analysis, provides the capability not only of sorting molecules on the basis of biospectra similarity but also of predicting simultaneous interactions of new molecules with multiple proteins. PMID:15625110

  19. Cellular and molecular aspects of plant adaptation to microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth; Kozeko, Liudmyla

    2016-07-01

    Elucidation of the range and mechanisms of the biological effects of microgravity is one of the urgent fundamental tasks of space and gravitational biology. The absence of forbidding on plant growth and development in orbital flight allows studying different aspects of plant adaptation to this factor that is directly connected with development of the technologies of bioregenerative life-support systems. Microgravity belongs to the environmental factors which cause adaptive reactions at the cellular and molecular levels in the range of physiological responses in the framework of genetically determined program of ontogenesis. It is known that cells of a multicellular organism not only take part in reactions of the organism but also carry out processes that maintain their integrity. In light of these principles, the problem of identification of biochemical, physiological and structural patterns that can have adaptive significance at the cellular and molecular levels in real and simulated microgravity is considered. It is pointed that plant cell responses in microgravity and under clinorotation vary according to growth phase, physiological state, and taxonomic position of the object. At the same time, the responses have, to some degree, a similar character reflecting the changes in the cell organelle functional load. The maintenance of the plasmalemma fluidity at the certain level, an activation of both the antioxidant system and expression of HSP genes, especially HSP70, under increasing reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation intensity and alteration in protein homeostasis, are a strategic paradigm of rapid (primary) cell adaptation to microgravity. In this sense, biological membranes, especially plasmalemma, and their properties and functions may be considered as the most sensitive indicators of the influence of gravity or altered gravity on a cell. The plasmalemma lipid bilayer is a border between the cell internal content and environment, so it is a mediator

  20. Molecular biology of epilepsy genes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Charles A; Battaglia, Agatino

    2013-06-01

    Multifactorial inheritance is the most important model accounting for the genetic behavior of the common epilepsies. Important to this model is the concept that many cumulative or synergistic risk genes ultimately lead to a threshold effect. Sophisticated molecular testing indicates that the common epilepsies are very polygenic without evidence of any single gene having even a mild-to-modest risk effect. However, enrichment of copy number variants in cohorts of individuals with epilepsy indicates that certain structural changes in the genome can confer significant risk for epilepsy. The mechanisms whereby copy number variants confer this effect are not yet known. The study of epilepsy due to single gene defects however has helped clarify certain seizure mechanisms. For example, discoveries using animal models of SCN1A or ARX mutations implicate a predominant role for interneurons due to disturbed GABAergic function. It is hoped that future genetic and neurobiological studies will provide better insight into how multiple genes contribute to the common epilepsies.

  1. Oropouche Virus: Clinical, Epidemiological, and Molecular Aspects of a Neglected Orthobunyavirus

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Jorge Fernando; de Souza, William Marciel; Pinheiro, Francisco de Paula; Figueiredo, Mário Luiz; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Acrani, Gustavo Olszanski; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    Oropouche virus (OROV) is an important cause of arboviral illness in Latin American countries, more specifically in the Amazon region of Brazil, Venezuela and Peru, as well as in other countries such as Panama. In the past decades, the clinical, epidemiological, pathological, and molecular aspects of OROV have been published and provide the basis for a better understanding of this important human pathogen. Here, we describe the milestones in a comprehensive review of OROV epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular biology, including a description of the first isolation of the virus, the outbreaks during the past six decades, clinical aspects of OROV infection, diagnostic methods, genome and genetic traits, evolution, and viral dispersal. PMID:28167595

  2. Oropouche Virus: Clinical, Epidemiological, and Molecular Aspects of a Neglected Orthobunyavirus.

    PubMed

    Travassos da Rosa, Jorge Fernando; de Souza, William Marciel; Pinheiro, Francisco de Paula; Figueiredo, Mário Luiz; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Acrani, Gustavo Olszanski; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira

    2017-05-01

    AbstractOropouche virus (OROV) is an important cause of arboviral illness in Latin American countries, more specifically in the Amazon region of Brazil, Venezuela and Peru, as well as in other countries such as Panama. In the past decades, the clinical, epidemiological, pathological, and molecular aspects of OROV have been published and provide the basis for a better understanding of this important human pathogen. Here, we describe the milestones in a comprehensive review of OROV epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular biology, including a description of the first isolation of the virus, the outbreaks during the past six decades, clinical aspects of OROV infection, diagnostic methods, genome and genetic traits, evolution, and viral dispersal.

  3. Physics and the origins of molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Robin

    2006-08-01

    Bohr, Delbrück and Schrödinger were physicists who had important influences on biology in the second half of the twentieth century. They thought that future studies of the gene might reveal new principles or paradoxes, analogous to the wave/particle paradox of light propagation, or even new physical laws. This stimulated several physicists to enter the field of biology. Delbrück founded the bacteriophage group which provided one of the roots of molecular biology. Another was X-ray crystallography which led to the discovery of DNA structure. The strength and success of molecular biology came from the many interactions between geneticists, physicists, chemists and biochemists. It was also characterized by a powerful combination of theoretical and experimental approaches.

  4. Molecular plasmonics for biology and nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Kiraly, Brian; Weiss, Paul S; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    The optical excitation of surface plasmons in metal nanoparticles leads to nanoscale spatial confinement of electromagnetic fields. The confined electromagnetic fields can generate intense, localized thermal energy and large near-field optical forces. The interaction between these effects and nearby molecules has led to the emerging field known as molecular plasmonics. Recent advances in molecular plasmonics have enabled novel optical materials and devices with applications in biology and nanomedicine. In this article, we categorize three main types of interactions between molecules and surface plasmons: optical, thermal and mechanical. Within the scope of each type of interaction, we will review applications of molecular plasmonics in biology and nanomedicine. We include a wide range of applications that involve sensing, spectral analysis, imaging, delivery, manipulation and heating of molecules, biomolecules or cells using plasmonic effects. We also briefly describe the physical principles of molecular plasmonics and progress in the nanofabrication, surface functionalization and bioconjugation of metal nanoparticles. PMID:22630155

  5. Molecular plasmonics for biology and nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Kiraly, Brian; Weiss, Paul S; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-05-01

    The optical excitation of surface plasmons in metal nanoparticles leads to nanoscale spatial confinement of electromagnetic fields. The confined electromagnetic fields can generate intense, localized thermal energy and large near-field optical forces. The interaction between these effects and nearby molecules has led to the emerging field known as molecular plasmonics. Recent advances in molecular plasmonics have enabled novel optical materials and devices with applications in biology and nanomedicine. In this article, we categorize three main types of interactions between molecules and surface plasmons: optical, thermal and mechanical. Within the scope of each type of interaction, we will review applications of molecular plasmonics in biology and nanomedicine. We include a wide range of applications that involve sensing, spectral analysis, imaging, delivery, manipulation and heating of molecules, biomolecules or cells using plasmonic effects. We also briefly describe the physical principles of molecular plasmonics and progress in the nanofabrication, surface functionalization and bioconjugation of metal nanoparticles.

  6. Frontiers of NMR in Molecular Biology

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-25

    NMR spectroscopy is expanding the horizons of structural biology by determining the structures and describing the dynamics of blobular proteins in aqueous solution, as well as other classes of proteins including membrane proteins and the polypeptides that form the aggregates diagnostic of prion and amyloid diseases. Significant results are also emerging on DNA and RNA oligomers and their complexes with proteins. This meeting focused attention on key structural questions emanating from molecular biology and how NMR spectroscopy can be used to answer them.

  7. Dictyostelium discoideum: Molecular approaches to cell biology

    SciTech Connect

    Spudich, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The central point of this book is to present Dictyostelium as a valuable eukaryotic organism for those interested in molecular studies that require a combined biochemical, structural, and genetic approach. The book is not meant to be a comprehensive compilation of all methods involving Dictyostelium, but instead is a selective set of chapters that demonstrates the utility of the organism for molecular approaches to interesting cell biological problems.

  8. Biological (Molecular and Cellular) Markers of Toxicity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-15

    other mammals (Farber, 1987). Therefore, if we are to understand in any depth the processes by which environnental chemicals exhibit genotoxicity ... effectiveness to detect and quantitate biological responses at the molecular level to the action of genotoxic agenst. Particular emphasis was placed on the...Task 3. The short-term responses of the molecular markers as suitable biomarkers to estimate exposure and predict cellular effects to genotoxic

  9. Molecular Biology and Physiology of Methanogenic Archaebacteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-27

    study the biochemistry, genetics , and molecular biology of the thermophilic autotroph Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. DNA from antimetabolite...pH 7) [6]. A putatively anabolic enzyme converted to a catabolic role would be of interest. IV. Prospects. A basis for progress in the genetics and...which will be pursued and described. New molecular techniques, such as additive transformation, can be applied to our genetic system. 11 Our

  10. Piezosurgery applied to implant dentistry: clinical and biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cassiano Costa Silva; Gealh, Walter Cristiano; Meorin-Nogueira, Lamis; Garcia-Júnior, Idelmo Rangel; Okamoto, Roberta

    2014-07-01

    Piezosurgery is a new and modern technique of bone surgery in implantology. Selective cutting is possible for different ultrasonic frequencies acting only in hard tissues (mineralized), saving vital anatomical structures. With the piezoelectric osteotomy technique, receptor site preparation for implants, autogenous bone graft acquistition (particles and blocks), osteotomy for alveolar bone crest expansion, maxillary sinus lifting, and dental implant removal can be performed accurately and safely, providing excellent clinical and biological results, especially for osteocyte viability. The aim of this review was, through literature review, to present clinical applications of piezosurgery in implant dentistry and outline their advantages and disadvantages over conventional surgical systems. Moreover, this study addressed the biological aspects related to piezosurgery that differentiate it from those of bone tissue approaches. Overall, piezosurgery enables critical operations in simple and fully executable procedures; and effectively, areas that are difficult to access have less risk of soft tissue and neurovascular tissue damage via piezosurgery.

  11. Book review: Baculovirus Molecular Biology, Second Edition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The application of cell culture and molecular biology methodologies to the study of baculoviruses has resulted in an explosion of information on this group of insect pathogens. The quantity of the corresponding literature on baculoviruses has reached a level difficult for any one researcher to mast...

  12. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of Bacteriophage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onodera, Kazukiyo

    The development of the molecular biology of bacteriophage such as T4, lambda and filamentous phages was described and the process that the fundamental knowledge obtained in this field has subsequently led us to the technology of phage display was introduced.

  13. Rabies vaccine. Developments employing molecular biology methods.

    PubMed

    Paolazzi, C C; Pérez, O; De Filippo, J

    1999-04-01

    Rabies vaccines produced by means of molecular biology are described. Recombinant vaccines employing either viruses as vectors (vaccinia, adenovirus, poxvirus, baculovirus, plant viruses) or a plasmid vector carrying the rabies virus glycoprotein gene are discussed. Synthetic peptide technology directed to rabies vaccine production is also presented.

  14. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP). Project 1: Objectives completed and data previously submitted with 2004 report. Data published this past year...molecular aberrations associated with endometrial carcinogenesis and the biologic mechanisms underlying the protective effect of oral contraceptive (OC...not been altered appreciably. Despite the known protective effect of oral contraceptives , little has been learned regarding the underlying mechanism

  15. Molecular profiles to biology and pathways: a systems biology approach.

    PubMed

    Van Laere, Steven; Dirix, Luc; Vermeulen, Peter

    2016-06-16

    Interpreting molecular profiles in a biological context requires specialized analysis strategies. Initially, lists of relevant genes were screened to identify enriched concepts associated with pathways or specific molecular processes. However, the shortcoming of interpreting gene lists by using predefined sets of genes has resulted in the development of novel methods that heavily rely on network-based concepts. These algorithms have the advantage that they allow a more holistic view of the signaling properties of the condition under study as well as that they are suitable for integrating different data types like gene expression, gene mutation, and even histological parameters.

  16. Informational Aspects of Isotopic Diversity in Biology and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2004-10-01

    Use of stable and radioactive isotopes in biology and medicine is intensive, yet informational aspects of isotopes as such are largely neglected (A.A.Berezin, J.Theor.Biol.,1992). Classical distinguishability (``labelability'') of isotopes allows for pattern generation dynamics. Quantum mechanically advantages of isotopicity (diversity of stable isotopes) arise from (almost perfect) degeneracy of various isotopic configurations; this in turn allows for isotopic sweeps (hoppings) by resonance neutron tunneling (Eccles mechanism). Isotopic variations of de Broglie wavelength affect quantum tunneling, diffusivity, magnetic interactions (e.g. by Lorentz force), etc. Ergodicity principle (all isoenergetic states are eventually accessed) implies possibility of fast scanning of library of morphogenetic patterns (cf metaphors of universal ``Platonic'' Library of Patterns: e.g. J.L.Borges, R.Sheldrake) with subsequent Darwinian reinforcement (e.g. by targeted mutations) of evolutionary advantageous patterns and structures. Isotopic shifts in organisms, from viruses and protozoa to mammalians, (e.g. DNA with enriched or depleted C-13) are tools to elucidate possible informational (e.g. Shannon entropy) role of isotopicity in genetic (e.g. evolutionary and morphological), dynamical (e.g. physiological and neurological) as well as medical (e.g. carcinogenesis, aging) aspects of biology and medicine.

  17. [Endophenotypes: the molecular biology point of view].

    PubMed

    Belzeaux, R; Ibrahim, E C; Cermolacce, M; Fakra, E; Azorin, J M

    2012-12-01

    Endophenotypes are proposed for a better understanding of the molecular substrate underlying psychiatric disorders vulnerability. In this review, we discuss key points of the definition of endophenotypes from the molecular biology point of view. First, we examine the concept of heritability of endophenotype, which does not directly explain the molecular mechanisms responsible for the studied disorder Indeed, we discuss the necessity to better decipher the functional role of polymorphisms associated to endophenotypes, especially if those endophenotypes would be assigned a clinical and biological value. The complexity of endophenotypes definition and use in psychiatric research is also illustrated by the complexity of the human genome organization and gene networks as well as by the gene x environment interactions and also the possible existence of phenocopies.

  18. Application of molecular modeling to biological processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrey, Alfred H.; Famini, George R.; Wick, Charles

    1993-07-01

    Detailed understanding of the molecular basis for biological processes is now available through computational modeling techniques. Advances in computational algorithms and technology allow applications to large biological macromolecules and permits the study of such problems as binding mechanisms, chemical reactivity, structural and conformational effects, and simulations of molecular motions. Recent crystallographic data provides access to detailed structural information that allows analysis and comparison of various computational techniques. Preliminary semiempirical studies on N-acetylneuraminic acid are presented as an example of computational studies on binding mechanisms. N-acetylneuraminic acid is a substituted carbohydrate, which is a recognition site for binding of proteins (i.e., cholera toxin). These calculations provide some insight into electronic effects on bin in a crystal complex and the effect of the molecular charge on hydrogen bonding the crystal complex.

  19. Molecular aspects of adaptation to extreme cold environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finegold, Leonard

    1986-01-01

    Some of the various strategies adopted by living organisms for survival at low temperatures are discussed from the molecular and membrane points of view. Two examples of connections between biological cold adaptation and the molecular level are considered: (1) antifreeze proteins in fish from cold sea water and (2) the fluidity characteristics of cell membranes in a wide variety of organisms. Emphasis is placed on the occurrence of s-phases.

  20. Molecular biology of thermosensory transduction in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Ichiro; Mori, Ikue

    2015-10-01

    As the environmental temperature prominently influences diverse biological aspects of the animals, thermosensation and the subsequent information processing in the nervous system has attracted much attention in biology. Thermotaxis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an ideal behavioral paradigm by which to address the molecular mechanism underlying thermosensory transduction. Molecular genetic analysis in combination with other physiological and behavioral studies revealed that sensation of ambient temperature is mediated mainly by cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling in thermosensory neurons. The information of the previously perceived temperature is also stored within the thermosensory neurons, and the consequence of the comparison between the past and the present temperature is conveyed to the downstream interneurons to further regulate the motor-circuits that encode the locomotion.

  1. Biological and Clinical Aspects of Lanthanide Coordination Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sudhindra N.; M., Indira Devi; Shukla, Ram S.

    2004-01-01

    The coordinating chemistry of lanthanides, relevant to the biological, biochemical and medical aspects, makes a significant contribution to understanding the basis of application of lanthanides, particularly in biological and medical systems. The importance of the applications of lanthanides, as an excellent diagnostic and prognostic probe in clinical diagnostics, and an anticancer material, is remarkably increasing. Lanthanide complexes based X-ray contrast imaging and lanthanide chelates based contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are being excessively used in radiological analysis in our body systems. The most important property of the chelating agents, in lanthanide chelate complex, is its ability to alter the behaviour of lanthanide ion with which it binds in biological systems, and the chelation markedly modifies the biodistribution and excretion profile of the lanthanide ions. The chelating agents, especially aminopoly carboxylic acids, being hydrophilic, increase the proportion of their complex excreted from complexed lanthanide ion form biological systems. Lanthanide polyamino carboxylate-chelate complexes are used as contrast enhancing agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Conjugation of antibodies and other tissue specific molecules to lanthanide chelates has led to a new type of specific MRI contrast agents and their conjugated MRI contrast agents with improved relaxivity, functioning in the body similar to drugs. Many specific features of contrast agent assisted MRI make it particularly effective for musculoskeletal and cerebrospinal imaging. Lanthanide-chelate contrast agents are effectively used in clinical diagnostic investigations involving cerebrospinal diseases and in evaluation of central nervous system. Chelated lanthanide complexes shift reagent aided 23Na NMR spectroscopic analysis is used in cellular, tissue and whole organ systems. PMID:18365075

  2. Molecular knots in biology and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Nicole C. H.; Jackson, Sophie E.

    2015-09-01

    Knots and entanglements are ubiquitous. Beyond their aesthetic appeal, these fascinating topological entities can be either useful or cumbersome. In recent decades, the importance and prevalence of molecular knots have been increasingly recognised by scientists from different disciplines. In this review, we provide an overview on the various molecular knots found in naturally occurring biological systems (DNA, RNA and proteins), and those created by synthetic chemists. We discuss the current knowledge in these fields, including recent developments in experimental and, in some cases, computational studies which are beginning to shed light into the complex interplay between the structure, formation and properties of these topologically intricate molecules.

  3. Molecular biology of the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    This book examines new methods of molecular biology that are providing valuable insights into the human brain, the genes that govern its assembly and function, and the many genetic defects that cause neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's, Cri du Chat syndrome, Huntington's disease, and bipolar depression disorder. In addition, the book reviews techniques in molecular neurobiological research, including the use of affinity reagents, chimeric receptors, and site-directed mutagenesis in localizing the ion channel and cholinergic binding site, and the application of somatic cell genetics in isolating specific chromosomes or chromosomal segments.

  4. Aspects of molecular diagnostics and therapy in obstetrics and gynecology.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Matthias W; Strick, Reiner; Strissel, Pamela L; Fasching, Peter A; Oppelt, Peter; Pöhls, Uwe D; Malur, Sabine U; Ackermann, Sven

    2003-05-01

    Scientific progress and information relating to the theoretical and clinical work being carried out in the field of obstetrics and gynecology has dramatically increased due to recent developments in molecular biology. Molecular obstetrics and gynecology is therefore the link between the different sections in obstetrics and gynecology. At present, the molecular understanding of cellular pathways is much greater than that of the direct integration of molecular diagnostics and therapy in routine clinical practice. The use of molecular diagnostics, such as preimplantation diagnostics or predictive genetic testing, still has technical problems as well as novel, and to date unclear, social, ethical and legal implications. To date, the technical elements of molecular therapy have not yet fulfilled their expectations. In the broad spectrum of obstetrics and gynecology, new molecular discoveries are influenced not only by technical but also by socioeconomic and political considerations. These include, for example, free access to genetic testing, patents for genes and the financial monopoly over molecular medication. Society must propose rules for the potential integration of the knowledge of molecular obstetrics and gynecology into the daily care of those seeking aid or advice.

  5. Chitosan: some pharmaceutical and biological aspects--an update.

    PubMed

    Singla, A K; Chawla, M

    2001-08-01

    Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide, is being widely used as a pharmaceutical excipient. It is obtained by the partial deacetylation of chitin, the second most abundant natural polymer. Chitosan comprises a series of polymers varying in their degree of deacetylation, molecular weight, viscosity, pKa etc. The presence of a number of amino groups permit chitosan to chemically react with anionic systems, thereby resulting in alteration of physicochemical characteristics of such combinations. Chitosan has found wide applicability in conventional pharmaceutical devices as a potential formulation excipient, some of which include binding, disintegrating and tablet coating properties. The polymer has also been investigated as a potential adjuvant for swellable controlled drug delivery systems. Use of chitosan in novel drug delivery as mucoadhesive, gene and peptide drug administration via the oral route as well as its absorption enhancing effects have been explored by a number of researchers. Chitosan exhibits myriad biological actions, namely hypocholesterolemic, antimicrobial and wound healing properties. Low toxicity coupled with wide applicability makes it a promising candidate not only for the purpose of drug delivery for a host of drug moieties (antiinflammatories, peptides etc.) but also as a biologically active agent. It is the endeavour of the present review to provide an insight into the biological and pharmaceutical profile of chitosan. Various investigations carried out recently are reported, although references to research performed on chitosan prior to the recent reviews have also been included, where appropriate.

  6. Molecular neurodegeneration: basic biology and disease pathways.

    PubMed

    Vassar, Robert; Zheng, Hui

    2014-09-23

    The field of neurodegeneration research has been advancing rapidly over the past few years, and has provided intriguing new insights into the normal physiological functions and pathogenic roles of a wide range of molecules associated with several devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Huntington's disease, and Down syndrome. Recent developments have also facilitated initial efforts to translate preclinical discoveries toward novel therapeutic approaches and clinical trials in humans. These recent developments are reviewed in the current Review Series on "Molecular Neurodegeneration: Basic Biology and Disease Pathways" in a number of state-of-the-art manuscripts that cover themes presented at the Third International Conference on Molecular Neurodegeneration: "Basic biology and disease pathways" held in Cannes, France, September, 2013.

  7. 2012 PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JULY 15-20, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, Michael

    2013-07-20

    The 2012 Gordon Conference on Plant Molecular Biology will present cutting-edge research on molecular aspects of plant growth and development, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries in molecular mechanisms involved with plant signaling systems. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics in plant molecular biology including hormone receptors and early events in hormone signaling, plant perception of and response to plant pathogen and symbionts, as well as technological and biological aspects of epigenomics particularly as it relates to signaling systems that regulate plant growth and development. Genomic approaches to plant signaling will be emphasized, including genomic profiling technologies for quantifying various biological subsystems, such as the epigenome, transcriptome, phosphorylome, and metabolome. The meeting will include an important session devoted to answering the question, "What are the biological and technological limits of plant breeding/genetics, and how can they be solved"?

  8. MECHANISTIC AND BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HELICASE ACTION ON DAMAGED DNA

    PubMed Central

    Suhasini, Avvaru N.; Brosh, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Helicases catalytically unwind structured nucleic acids in a nucleoside-triphosphate-dependent and directionally specific manner, and are essential for virtually all aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. ATPase-driven helicases which translocate along nucleic acids play a role in damage recognition or unwinding of a DNA tract containing the lesion. Although classical biochemical experiments provided evidence that bulky covalent adducts inhibit DNA unwinding catalyzed by certain DNA helicases in a strand-specific manner (i.e. , block to DNA unwinding restricted to adduct residence in the strand the helicase translocates), recent studies suggest more complex arrangements that may depend on the helicase under study, its assembly in a protein complex, and the type of structural DNA perturbation. Moreover, base and sugar phosphate backbone modifications exert effects on DNA helicases that suggest specialized tracking mechanisms. As a component of the replication stress response, the single-stranded DNA binding protein Replication Protein A (RPA) may serve to enable eukaryotic DNA helicases to overcome certain base lesions. Helicases play important roles in DNA damage signaling which also involve their partnership with RPA. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of mechanistic and biological aspects of helicase action on damaged DNA. PMID:20574162

  9. 2004 Reversible Associations in Structure & Molecular Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Eisenstein Nancy Ryan Gray

    2005-03-23

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2004 Gordon Research Conference on Reversible Associations in Structure & Molecular Biology was held at Four Points Sheraton, CA, 1/25-30/2004. The Conference was well attended with 82 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students.

  10. International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB)

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Debra; Hibbs, Matthew; Kall, Lukas; Komandurglayavilli, Ravikumar; Mahony, Shaun; Marinescu, Voichita; Mayrose, Itay; Minin, Vladimir; Neeman, Yossef; Nimrod, Guy; Novotny, Marian; Opiyo, Stephen; Portugaly, Elon; Sadka, Tali; Sakabe, Noboru; Sarkar, Indra; Schaub, Marc; Shafer, Paul; Shmygelska, Olena; Singer, Gregory; Song, Yun; Soumyaroop, Bhattacharya; Stadler, Michael; Strope, Pooja; Su, Rong; Tabach, Yuval; Tae, Hongseok; Taylor, Todd; Terribilini, Michael; Thomas, Asha; Tran, Nam; Tseng, Tsai-Tien; Vashist, Akshay; Vijaya, Parthiban; Wang, Kai; Wang, Ting; Wei, Lai; Woo, Yong; Wu, Chunlei; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro; Yan, Changhui; Yang, Jack; Yang, Mary; Ye, Ping; Zhang, Miao

    2009-12-29

    The Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB) conference has provided a general forum for disseminating the latest developments in bioinformatics on an annual basis for the past 13 years. ISMB is a multidisciplinary conference that brings together scientists from computer science, molecular biology, mathematics and statistics. The goal of the ISMB meeting is to bring together biologists and computational scientists in a focus on actual biological problems, i.e., not simply theoretical calculations. The combined focus on "intelligent systems" and actual biological data makes ISMB a unique and highly important meeting, and 13 years of experience in holding the conference has resulted in a consistently well organized, well attended, and highly respected annual conference. The ISMB 2005 meeting was held June 25-29, 2005 at the Renaissance Center in Detroit, Michigan. The meeting attracted over 1,730 attendees. The science presented was exceptional, and in the course of the five-day meeting, 56 scientific papers, 710 posters, 47 Oral Abstracts, 76 Software demonstrations, and 14 tutorials were presented. The attendees represented a broad spectrum of backgrounds with 7% from commercial companies, over 28% qualifying for student registration, and 41 countries were represented at the conference, emphasizing its important international aspect. The ISMB conference is especially important because the cultures of computer science and biology are so disparate. ISMB, as a full-scale technical conference with refereed proceedings that have been indexed by both MEDLINE and Current Contents since 1996, bridges this cultural gap.

  11. New intracellular and molecular aspects in pathophysiology of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ziapour, Payman; Shadifar, Mohammad; Vaillancourt, Cathy; Ahmadi, Ali; Jafari-Sabet, Majid; Ataee, Amin

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancy in the world and the second cancer-related death, many molecular and genetic aspects of this disease have been cleared as chromosomal instability and the role of some key proteins as WNT/β catenin, trypsin and others. Also recently the role of folate turnover and some neurotransmitters as serotonin were also considered. The scope of this review is to describe some details about new molecular pathways suggested for occurrence or progress of this disease. PMID:24834156

  12. Molecular biology research in neuropsychiatry: India's contribution.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Ramesh, B N; Vasudevaraju, P; Rao, K S J

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders represent the second largest cause of morbidity worldwide. These disorders have complex etiology and patho-physiology. The major lacunae in the biology of the psychiatric disorders include genomics, biomarkers and drug discovery, for the early detection of the disease, and have great application in the clinical management of disease. Indian psychiatrists and scientists played a significant role in filling the gaps. The present annotation provides in depth information related to research contributions on the molecular biology research in neuropsychiatric disorders in India. There is a great need for further research in this direction as to understand the genetic association of the neuropsychiatric disorders; molecular biology has a tremendous role to play. The alterations in gene expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction and depression. The development of transgenic neuropsychiatric animal models is of great thrust areas. No studies from India in this direction. Biomarkers in neuropsychiatric disorders are of great help to the clinicians for the early diagnosis of the disorders. The studies related to gene-environment interactions, DNA instability, oxidative stress are less studied in neuropsychiatric disorders and making efforts in this direction will lead to pioneers in these areas of research in India. In conclusion, we provided an insight for future research direction in molecular understanding of neuropsychiatry disorders.

  13. Molecular and functional aspects of menstruation in the macaque.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Robert M; Slayden, Ov D

    2012-12-01

    Much of our understanding of the molecular control of menstruation arises from laboratory models that experimentally recapitulate some, but not all, aspects of uterine bleeding observed in women. These models include: in vitro culture of endometrial explants or isolated endometrial cells, transplantation of human endometrial tissue into immunodeficient mice and the induction of endometrial breakdown in appropriately pretreated mice. Each of these models has contributed to our understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms of menstruation, but nonhuman primates, especially macaques, are the animal model of choice for evaluating therapies for menstrual disorders. In this chapter we review some basic aspects of menstruation, with special emphasis on the macaque model and its relevance to the clinical issues of irregular and heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB).

  14. Molecular Aspects of Head and Neck Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Rocco, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis In spite of a rapidly expanding understanding of head and neck tumor biology as well as optimization of radiation, chemotherapy, and surgical treatment modalities, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains a major cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality. Although our biologic understanding of these tumors had largely been limited to pathways driving proliferation, survival, and differentiation, the identification of HPV as a major driver of HNSCC, specifically oropharyngeal SCC, as well as recent genomic sequencing analyses of HNSCC has dramatically influenced our understanding of the underlying biology behind carcinogenesis, and in part, our approach to therapy. In particular, we are at a major molecular and clinical crossroads with an explosion of promising diagnostic and therapeutic agents that hold great promise. Here, we summarize our current understanding of HNSCC biology, including a review of recent sequencing analyses, and identify promising areas for potential diagnostic and therapeutic agents. PMID:26568543

  15. Discovering the intelligence in molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Uberbacher, E

    1995-12-01

    The Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems in Molecular Biology was truly an outstanding event. Computational methods in molecular biology have reached a new level of maturity and utility, resulting in many high-impact applications. The success of this meeting bodes well for the rapid and continuing development of computational methods, intelligent systems and information-based approaches for the biosciences. The basic technology, originally most often applied to 'feasibility' problems, is now dealing effectively with the most difficult real-world problems. Significant progress has been made in understanding protein-structure information, structural classification, and how functional information and the relevant features of active-site geometry can be gleaned from structures by automated computational approaches. The value and limits of homology-based methods, and the ability to classify proteins by structure in the absence of homology, have reached a new level of sophistication. New methods for covariation analysis in the folding of large structures such as RNAs have shown remarkably good results, indicating the long-term potential to understand very complicated molecules and multimolecular complexes using computational means. Novel methods, such as HMMs, context-free grammars and the uses of mutual information theory, have taken center stage as highly valuable tools in our quest to represent and characterize biological information. A focus on creative uses of intelligent systems technologies and the trend toward biological application will undoubtedly continue and grow at the 1996 ISMB meeting in St Louis.

  16. A complex systems approach to computational molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    Lapedes, A. |

    1993-09-01

    We report on the containing research program at Santa Fe Institute that applies complex systems methodology to computational molecular biology. Two aspects are stressed here are the use of co-evolving adaptive neutral networks for determining predictable protein structure classifications, and the use of information theory to elucidate protein structure and function. A ``snapshot`` of the current state of research in these two topics is presented, representing the present state of two major research thrusts in the program of Genetic Data and Sequence Analysis at the Santa Fe Institute.

  17. Applications of molecular biology and genetics in endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Peter

    2007-09-01

    To review the growing impact of molecular biology and genetics on clinical endocrinology. Medical literature, databases, and Web sites describing genetics and genomic medicine with relevance for clinical endocrinology were reviewed. Many monogenic disorders can now be explained at the molecular level and the diagnosis can be established through mutational analysis. The ability to establish a molecular diagnosis is relevant for carrier detection and genetic counseling. In contrast to the significant advances in monogenic disorders, the current knowledge about the genetic components contributing to the pathogenesis of complex disorders is still relatively modest and is a major focus of current research efforts. Molecular biology already has an important impact on therapy in endocrine disorders. A broad spectrum of recombinant peptides and proteins are used in daily practice, eg, insulin and insulin analogues. Moreover, the increasingly detailed understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of cancer is leading to the development of novel and more specific inhibitors. While genetic testing has many advantages, it is important that physicians and patients are aware of potential limitations. They include, among others, technical limitations and allelic and nonallelic heterogeneity. These limitations need to be discussed in detail with patients and relatives, and it is often useful to involve a genetic counselor before obtaining informed consent by the individuals undergoing testing. Molecular biology and genetics play an increasingly important role for the diagnosis and therapy of endocrine disorders. Challenges for the future include the elucidation of the genetic components contributing to complex disorders, eg, diabetes mellitus type 2, and the development of cheaper and comprehensive DNA sequencing technologies. Lastly, it is important that there is continuing attention directed towards the ethical, social, and legal aspects surrounding genetic medicine.

  18. A comparative cellular and molecular biology of longevity database.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jeffrey A; Liang, Ping; Luo, Xuemei; Page, Melissa M; Gallagher, Emily J; Christoff, Casey A; Robb, Ellen L

    2013-10-01

    Discovering key cellular and molecular traits that promote longevity is a major goal of aging and longevity research. One experimental strategy is to determine which traits have been selected during the evolution of longevity in naturally long-lived animal species. This comparative approach has been applied to lifespan research for nearly four decades, yielding hundreds of datasets describing aspects of cell and molecular biology hypothesized to relate to animal longevity. Here, we introduce a Comparative Cellular and Molecular Biology of Longevity Database, available at ( http://genomics.brocku.ca/ccmbl/ ), as a compendium of comparative cell and molecular data presented in the context of longevity. This open access database will facilitate the meta-analysis of amalgamated datasets using standardized maximum lifespan (MLSP) data (from AnAge). The first edition contains over 800 data records describing experimental measurements of cellular stress resistance, reactive oxygen species metabolism, membrane composition, protein homeostasis, and genome homeostasis as they relate to vertebrate species MLSP. The purpose of this review is to introduce the database and briefly demonstrate its use in the meta-analysis of combined datasets.

  19. 2011 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism, & Molecular Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Keneth Stedman

    2011-08-05

    Archaea, one of three major evolutionary lineages of life, are a fascinating and diverse group of microbes with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of the 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology' GRC conference expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting new paradigms in archaeal metabolism, genome function and systems biology; information processing; evolution and the tree of life; the ecology and diversity of archaea and their viruses. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple a field with a rich history in high quality research with new scientific findings in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  20. 2009 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism & Molecular Biology GRC

    SciTech Connect

    Furlow, Julie Maupin-

    2009-07-26

    Archaea, one of three major evolutionary lineages of life, are a fascinating and diverse group of microbes with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of the 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology' GRC conference expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting new paradigms in archaeal metabolism, genome function and systems biology; information processing; evolution and the tree of life; the ecology and diversity of archaea and their viruses; and industrial applications. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple a field with a rich history in high quality research with new scientific findings in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  1. The Molecular Biology of Brain Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Toms, Steven A.; Weil, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis to the central nervous system (CNS) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic cancers. Various crucial interactions between the brain environment and tumor cells take place during the development of the cancer at its new location. The rapid expansion in molecular biology and genetics has advanced our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms involved, from invasion to final colonization of new organ tissues. Understanding the various events occurring at each stage should enable targeted drug delivery and individualized treatments for patients, with better outcomes and fewer side effects. This paper summarizes the principal molecular and genetic mechanisms that underlie the development of brain metastasis (BrM). PMID:22481931

  2. Molecular Biological Methods in Environmental Engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guocai; Wei, Li; Chang, Chein-Chi; Zhang, Yuhua; Wei, Dong

    2016-10-01

    Bacteria, acting as catalysts, perform the function of degrading pollutants. Molecular biological techniques play an important role in research on the community analysis, the composition and the functions of complex microbial communities. The development of secondary high-throughput pyrosequencing techiniques enhances the understanding of the composition of the microbial community. The literatures of 2015 indicated that 16S rDNA gene as genetic tag is still the important method for bacteria identification and classification. 454 high throughput sequencing and Illumina MiSeq sequencing have been the primary and widely recognized methods to analyze the microbial. This review will provide environmental engineers and microbiologists an overview of important advancements in molecular techniques and highlight the application of these methods in diverse environments.

  3. Genetics and molecular biology of hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Major strides in the molecular biology of essential hypertension are currently underway. This has tended to obscure the fact that a number of inherited disorders associated with low blood pressure exist and that these diseases may have milder and underrecognized phenotypes that contribute importantly to blood pressure variation in the general population. This review highlights some of the gene products that, if abnormal, could cause hypotension in some individuals. Diseases due to abnormalities in the catecholamine enzymes are discussed in detail. It is likely that genetic abnormalities with hypotensive phenotypes will be as interesting and diverse as those that give rise to hypertensive disorders.

  4. Genetics and molecular biology of hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Major strides in the molecular biology of essential hypertension are currently underway. This has tended to obscure the fact that a number of inherited disorders associated with low blood pressure exist and that these diseases may have milder and underrecognized phenotypes that contribute importantly to blood pressure variation in the general population. This review highlights some of the gene products that, if abnormal, could cause hypotension in some individuals. Diseases due to abnormalities in the catecholamine enzymes are discussed in detail. It is likely that genetic abnormalities with hypotensive phenotypes will be as interesting and diverse as those that give rise to hypertensive disorders.

  5. 2007 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Imke Schroeder Nancy Ryan Gray

    2008-09-18

    The Archaea are a fascinating and diverse group of prokaryotic organisms with deep roots overlapping those of eukaryotes. The focus of this GRC conference, 'Archaea: Ecology Metabolism & Molecular Biology', expands on a number of emerging topics highlighting the evolution and composition of microbial communities and novel archaeal species, their impact on the environment, archaeal metabolism, and research that stems from sequence analysis of archaeal genomes. The strength of this conference lies in its ability to couple reputable areas with new scientific topics in an atmosphere of stimulating exchange. This conference remains an excellent opportunity for younger scientists to interact with world experts in this field.

  6. Research Applications of Proteolytic Enzymes in Molecular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Mótyán, János András; Tóth, Ferenc; Tőzsér, József

    2013-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes (also termed peptidases, proteases and proteinases) are capable of hydrolyzing peptide bonds in proteins. They can be found in all living organisms, from viruses to animals and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have great medical and pharmaceutical importance due to their key role in biological processes and in the life-cycle of many pathogens. Proteases are extensively applied enzymes in several sectors of industry and biotechnology, furthermore, numerous research applications require their use, including production of Klenow fragments, peptide synthesis, digestion of unwanted proteins during nucleic acid purification, cell culturing and tissue dissociation, preparation of recombinant antibody fragments for research, diagnostics and therapy, exploration of the structure-function relationships by structural studies, removal of affinity tags from fusion proteins in recombinant protein techniques, peptide sequencing and proteolytic digestion of proteins in proteomics. The aim of this paper is to review the molecular biological aspects of proteolytic enzymes and summarize their applications in the life sciences. PMID:24970197

  7. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron in the gut: molecular aspects of their interaction.

    PubMed

    Zocco, M A; Ainora, M E; Gasbarrini, G; Gasbarrini, A

    2007-08-01

    The gut microflora can be considered a metabolically active organ composed of a vast and complex community of microorganisms that has an important role in the stability and functional activity of the intestinal ecosystem. Recently, thanks to microarray technology, a global screening of the microflora's regulated genes has allowed the analysis of the complex bacteria-host interplay. In particular, most of our knowledge comes from studies on Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a prominent member of the intestinal microflora of mice and humans. The results of published studies have revealed that Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron modulate the expression of a large quantity of genes implicated in different aspect of host physiology. This review aims to illustrate the specific contributions of this intestinal microorganism in three important aspects of host physiology: mucosal barrier reinforcement, immune system modulation and nutrients metabolism. In particular, we focus on recent insights about the molecular mechanisms by which Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron help the host in these important functions.

  8. The human glucocorticoid receptor: molecular basis of biologic function.

    PubMed

    Nicolaides, Nicolas C; Galata, Zoi; Kino, Tomoshige; Chrousos, George P; Charmandari, Evangelia

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of the subfamily of steroid hormone receptors has enhanced our understanding of how a set of hormonally derived lipophilic ligands controls cellular and molecular functions to influence development and help achieve homeostasis. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR), the first member of this subfamily, is a ubiquitously expressed intracellular protein, which functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates the expression of glucocorticoid-responsive genes. The effector domains of the GR mediate transcriptional activation by recruiting coregulatory multi-subunit complexes that remodel chromatin, target initiation sites, and stabilize the RNA-polymerase II machinery for repeated rounds of transcription of target genes. This review summarizes the basic aspects of the structure and actions of the human (h) GR, and the molecular basis of its biologic functions.

  9. The Human Glucocorticoid Receptor: Molecular Basis of Biologic Function

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaides, Nicolas C.; Galata, Zoi; Kino, Tomoshige; Chrousos, George P.; Charmandari, Evangelia

    2009-01-01

    The characterization of the subfamily of steroid hormone receptors has enhanced our understanding of how a set of hormonally derived lipophilic ligands controls cellular and molecular functions to influence development and help achieve homeostasis. The glucocorticopid receptor (GR), the first member of this subfamily, is a ubiquitously expressed intracellular protein, which functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates the expression of glucocorticoid-responsive genes. The effector domains of the GR mediate transcriptional activation by recruiting coregulatory multi-subunit complexes that remodel chromatin, target initiation sites, and stabilize the RNA polymerase II machinery for repeated rounds of transcription of target genes. This review summarizes the basic aspects of the structure and of the human (h) GR, and the molecular basis of its biologic function. PMID:19818358

  10. Rhabdomyosarcoma: Advances in Molecular and Cellular Biology.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Guo, Wei; Shen, Jacson K; Mankin, Henry J; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue malignancy in childhood and adolescence. The two major histological subtypes of RMS are alveolar RMS, driven by the fusion protein PAX3-FKHR or PAX7-FKHR, and embryonic RMS, which is usually genetically heterogeneous. The prognosis of RMS has improved in the past several decades due to multidisciplinary care. However, in recent years, the treatment of patients with metastatic or refractory RMS has reached a plateau. Thus, to improve the survival rate of RMS patients and their overall well-being, further understanding of the molecular and cellular biology of RMS and identification of novel therapeutic targets are imperative. In this review, we describe the most recent discoveries in the molecular and cellular biology of RMS, including alterations in oncogenic pathways, miRNA (miR), in vivo models, stem cells, and important signal transduction cascades implicated in the development and progression of RMS. Furthermore, we discuss novel potential targeted therapies that may improve the current treatment of RMS.

  11. The chemical and biological aspects of fluoroquinolones: reality and dreams.

    PubMed

    Bhanot, S K; Singh, M; Chatterjee, N R

    2001-03-01

    A vast array of fluoroquinolones having excellent broad-spectrum activity form an invaluable part of the present anti-infective armory of the clinicians. A number of these compounds are today's blockbusters of the antibacterial market due to their therapeutic efficacy having tolerable side effects and thus challenging the predominance of well established beta-lactam antibiotics which are becoming more prone to the resistant pathogenic bacteria. Since the discovery of nalidixic acid the development of fluoroquinolones has experienced an exponential growth and is being continued with more vigor to obtain better drugs having multifunctional action. This article attempts to review the current developments of the chemical and biological aspects of fluoroquinolones in a chronological manner touching upon their antibacterial properties based on the structure activity relationship while pointing out to their mode of action. It also provides an insight into a variety of approaches resulting in elegant manipulations of their basic skeleton and some breakthroughs in their synthetic strategies of a few widely used drugs, which had helped in accelerating their market growth as well as continuing research for newer fluoroquinolones. Since the mode of action of fluoroquinolones being different from beta-lactams and their transportation to the target site is slow several dual action quinolonyl-beta-lactams (Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Penems, Cephems, Carbapenams etc.) have come as a major breakthrough among the hybrid antibiotics. While focusing on the multifunctional activities of such compounds, this review briefly points out to the current trends in various techniques for de novo drug design and development of newer therapeutic molecules, which hold future promises in combating the fight against drug resistant bacteria as it still remains to be won.

  12. Surgical aspects and biological considerations of arteriovenous fistula placement.

    PubMed

    Achneck, Hardean E; Sileshi, Bantayehu; Li, Madison; Partington, Erin J; Peterson, David A; Lawson, Jeffrey H

    2010-01-01

    Since the Fistula First Initiative was formulated in 2003, providers and payers have increasingly emphasized the need to create more arteriovenous fistulae. To maximize the chances of successful fistula maturation, a thorough understanding of the biology and surgical aspects of fistula placement are essential. A functional endothelium in the target vessels is the prerequisite for the adaptive remodeling of the vessel wall, which has to take place after fistula formation. Mechanoreceptors of the endothelium sense the increase in shear stress and, through a variety of activated signaling cascades, induce the necessary changes and vasodilation of the respective vessels. The successful fistula placement starts with a thorough preoperative evaluation, which focuses on protecting the target vessels and avoiding intravenous catheters and devices. Intraoperatively, the risk of endothelial dysfunction and hyperplasia is further minimized through an atraumatic dissection with minimal manipulation of the vein and artery. The surgical technique should also focus on decreasing the vessel compliance mismatch and avoiding an inflammatory response secondary to hematoma formation. Postoperatively, the fistula must be diligently monitored for the complications of thrombosis, postoperative steal syndrome, neuropathy, aneurysm formation, infection, and high-output cardiac failure. Early recognition of a problem is the key to saving an otherwise doomed fistula. An armamentarium of percutaneous techniques is available to the access surgeon to treat the most common causes of failed access formation. However, in some cases a surgical revision of the access site through patch angioplasty, a jump graft, and graft interposition is necessary to create a fistula which can be successfully used for hemodialysis.

  13. Molecular biology of the peptide hormone families.

    PubMed

    Pearson, R K; Anderson, B; Dixon, J E

    1993-12-01

    The application of recombinant molecular biology has lead to remarkable advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of cell function in general and of the polarized GI endocrine cell in particular. This article focuses on some of the advances made towards determining the contribution of peptide hormone gene regulation to the regulation of physiological events in the GI tract. Application of these techniques to other subcellular processes involved in peptide hormone physiology such as subcellular trafficing in the regulated secretory pathway and post-translational processing have been equally impressive. For example, many of the key enzymes in the peptide hormone processing cascade have been cloned and are being studied at a molecular level. We have focused this article on the SS and gastrin peptides because of their known physiologic importance and interactions, and the depth of analysis accomplished to date. Studies using SS and gastrin as models have established principals that cover the spectrum of luminal regulation of gene activity to the identification of a single amino acid residue responsible for cAMP induction of SS gene expression. Many genes in the GI endocrine system have been cloned and the article by Dr. Habener (elsewhere in this issue) discusses progress made in understanding the complex regulation of the glucagon gene. We anticipate similar advances in studies of cholecystokinin, secretin, motilin, VIP, pancreatic polypeptide, and neuropeptide Y, whose genes have been cloned and initially characterized. Finally, as outlined in this article, the mechanisms of regulation of a specific gene often differ between sites of expression, even within the GI tract. Direct studies of the subcellular mechanisms regulating gene expression and other processes in GI endocrine cells await novel methods to maintain and propagate these cells. These studies will almost certainly involve new and creative uses of recombinant molecular biology.

  14. [Von Willebrand disease. Molecular biology and diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zamora, Edgar; Zavala-Hernández, Cesar; Quintana-González, Sandra; Reyes-Maldonado, Elba

    2015-01-01

    Von Willebrand disease is the most common inherited disorder of the coagulation proteins in humans. There are three types: 1, 2A, 2B, 2N, 2M and 3. It is associated with mutations on chromosome 12 in the region p13.2, encoding the von Willebrand factor (VWF), which is synthesized in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes. The VWF gene has been characterised using molecular biology techniques, which have acquired an important role in diagnosis von Willebrand disease, as well as in the investigation of alterations in other genes, which may be involved in regulating the synthesis, processing, and secretion of VWF. However, there are still no strategies to integrate the molecular biology diagnostic tests available. Analysis of VWF multimers is a methodology that meets the characteristics for diagnosis, but it is not easy to standardise. Considering that even in tertiary centres in our country, von Willebrand patients do not have a definitive diagnosis, it is necessary to implement these methodologies to study and improve diagnosis. Von Willebrand disease is highly heterogeneous due to the molecular mechanisms that produce the various clinical and laboratory phenotypes. In Mexico there are few studies related to this disease; therefore it is essential to conduct a comprehensive study including clinical, basic, and special testing laboratory tests, in order to establish a correct diagnosis, develop new therapeutic approaches, and offer the appropriate medical care and genetic counselling. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular Imaging in Synthetic Biology, and Synthetic Biology in Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Gilad, Assaf A; Shapiro, Mikhail G

    2017-02-17

    Biomedical synthetic biology is an emerging field in which cells are engineered at the genetic level to carry out novel functions with relevance to biomedical and industrial applications. This approach promises new treatments, imaging tools, and diagnostics for diseases ranging from gastrointestinal inflammatory syndromes to cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. As these cellular technologies undergo pre-clinical and clinical development, it is becoming essential to monitor their location and function in vivo, necessitating appropriate molecular imaging strategies, and therefore, we have created an interest group within the World Molecular Imaging Society focusing on synthetic biology and reporter gene technologies. Here, we highlight recent advances in biomedical synthetic biology, including bacterial therapy, immunotherapy, and regenerative medicine. We then discuss emerging molecular imaging approaches to facilitate in vivo applications, focusing on reporter genes for noninvasive modalities such as magnetic resonance, ultrasound, photoacoustic imaging, bioluminescence, and radionuclear imaging. Because reporter genes can be incorporated directly into engineered genetic circuits, they are particularly well suited to imaging synthetic biological constructs, and developing them provides opportunities for creative molecular and genetic engineering.

  16. The molecular biology capstone assessment: a concept assessment for upper-division molecular biology students.

    PubMed

    Couch, Brian A; Wood, William B; Knight, Jennifer K

    2015-03-02

    Measuring students' conceptual understandings has become increasingly important to biology faculty members involved in evaluating and improving departmental programs. We developed the Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment (MBCA) to gauge comprehension of fundamental concepts in molecular and cell biology and the ability to apply these concepts in novel scenarios. Targeted at graduating students, the MBCA consists of 18 multiple-true/false (T/F) questions. Each question consists of a narrative stem followed by four T/F statements, which allows a more detailed assessment of student understanding than the traditional multiple-choice format. Questions were iteratively developed with extensive faculty and student feedback, including validation through faculty reviews and response validation through student interviews. The final assessment was taken online by 504 students in upper-division courses at seven institutions. Data from this administration indicate that the MBCA has acceptable levels of internal reliability (α=0.80) and test-retest stability (r=0.93). Students achieved a wide range of scores with a 67% overall average. Performance results suggest that students have an incomplete understanding of many molecular biology concepts and continue to hold incorrect conceptions previously documented among introductory-level students. By pinpointing areas of conceptual difficulty, the MBCA can provide faculty members with guidance for improving undergraduate biology programs.

  17. The Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment: A Concept Assessment for Upper-Division Molecular Biology Students

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Brian A.; Wood, William B.; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring students’ conceptual understandings has become increasingly important to biology faculty members involved in evaluating and improving departmental programs. We developed the Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment (MBCA) to gauge comprehension of fundamental concepts in molecular and cell biology and the ability to apply these concepts in novel scenarios. Targeted at graduating students, the MBCA consists of 18 multiple-true/false (T/F) questions. Each question consists of a narrative stem followed by four T/F statements, which allows a more detailed assessment of student understanding than the traditional multiple-choice format. Questions were iteratively developed with extensive faculty and student feedback, including validation through faculty reviews and response validation through student interviews. The final assessment was taken online by 504 students in upper-division courses at seven institutions. Data from this administration indicate that the MBCA has acceptable levels of internal reliability (α = 0.80) and test–retest stability (r = 0.93). Students achieved a wide range of scores with a 67% overall average. Performance results suggest that students have an incomplete understanding of many molecular biology concepts and continue to hold incorrect conceptions previously documented among introductory-level students. By pinpointing areas of conceptual difficulty, the MBCA can provide faculty members with guidance for improving undergraduate biology programs. PMID:25713098

  18. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies.

  19. [Molecular biology of von Willebrand disease].

    PubMed

    Melo-Nava, Brenda; Peñaloza, Rosenda

    2007-01-01

    Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) is a large multimeric glycoprotein expressed in the megakaryocytes and endothelial cells of all vertebrates. It participates fundamentally in the primary and secondary hemostasis because it induces the adhesion of platelets to vascular subendothelium and promotes aggregation of platelets when blood vessels and capillaries are damaged. In addition, VWF links to factor VIII which avoids its proteolysis. The deficiency or the inadequate synthesis of the VWF causes von Willebrand disease (VWD), which is the most common hereditary bleeding disorder in humans principally from mucous and cutaneous sites. VWD is difficult to detect with accuracy due to interrelation among VWF with different components of hemostasis, although it is performed by different tests of haemostatic system, and the basic mechanisms in VWD are herein emphasized. The diagnosis of VWD is difficult due to the heterogeneous manifestation of the disease, which also complicates its classification. This article focuses on the molecular aspects of the disease and discusses their possible clinical implications.

  20. Molecular aspects of stress-gene regulation during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Spaceflight-associated stress has been the topic of investigation since the first terrestrial organisms were exposed to this unique environment. Organisms that evolved under the selection pressures of earth-normal environments can perceive spaceflight as a stress, either directly because gravity influences an intrinsic biological process, or indirectly because of secondary effects imparted by spaceflight upon environmental conditions. Different organisms and even different organs within an organism adapt to a spaceflight environment with a diversity of tactics. Plants are keenly sensitive to gravity for directed development, and are also sensitive to other stresses associated with closed-system spaceflight environments. Within the past decade, the tools of molecular biology have begun to provide a sophisticated evaluation of spaceflight-associated stress and the genetic responses that accompany metabolic adaptation to spaceflight.

  1. Molecular aspects of stress-gene regulation during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Ferl, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Spaceflight-associated stress has been the topic of investigation since the first terrestrial organisms were exposed to this unique environment. Organisms that evolved under the selection pressures of earth-normal environments can perceive spaceflight as a stress, either directly because gravity influences an intrinsic biological process, or indirectly because of secondary effects imparted by spaceflight upon environmental conditions. Different organisms and even different organs within an organism adapt to a spaceflight environment with a diversity of tactics. Plants are keenly sensitive to gravity for directed development, and are also sensitive to other stresses associated with closed-system spaceflight environments. Within the past decade, the tools of molecular biology have begun to provide a sophisticated evaluation of spaceflight-associated stress and the genetic responses that accompany metabolic adaptation to spaceflight.

  2. Ins and outs of systems biology vis-à-vis molecular biology: continuation or clear cut?

    PubMed

    De Backer, Philippe; De Waele, Danny; Van Speybroeck, Linda

    2010-03-01

    The comprehension of living organisms in all their complexity poses a major challenge to the biological sciences. Recently, systems biology has been proposed as a new candidate in the development of such a comprehension. The main objective of this paper is to address what systems biology is and how it is practised. To this end, the basic tools of a systems biological approach are explored and illustrated. In addition, it is questioned whether systems biology 'revolutionizes' molecular biology and 'transcends' its assumed reductionism. The strength of this claim appears to depend on how molecular and systems biology are characterised and on how reductionism is interpreted. Doing credit to molecular biology and to methodological reductionism, it is argued that the distinction between molecular and systems biology is gradual rather than sharp. As such, the classical challenge in biology to manage, interpret and integrate biological data into functional wholes is further intensified by systems biology's use of modelling and bioinformatics, and by its scale enlargement.

  3. Pathologic and molecular aspects of soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Bogdan

    2003-04-01

    This article retains the conventional approach to the classification of soft tissue sarcomas, dividing them into several major histogenetic categories based on their overall microscopic appearance, tissue differentiation pattern, and biologic potential. The author advocates a multimodal approach, in which four distinctive data sets--clinical, radiographic, microscopic, and, in some cases, molecular--are considered to establish the diagnosis and treatment plan. Such step-wise analysis is more likely to lead to consistency and accuracy as compared with an intuitive approach based on fragmentary data. The author describes individual lesions of soft tissue as clinicopathologic entities and believes that they can be more accurately diagnosed and appropriately treated with the help of data generated by a multidisciplinary team. In addition, this article emphasizes the need to use emerging molecular techniques that can provide important clues for both diagnosis and prognosis.

  4. Safety aspects in biotechnology. Classifications and safety precautions for handling of biological agents.

    PubMed

    Frommer, W; Krämer, P

    1990-07-01

    The term "biotechnology" is today used much more widely than 10 years ago. According to the modern definition, biotechnology represents the "conveyor belt" which brings advances in the fields of molecular biology, cell biology, molecular genetics, microbiology, biochemistry and process engineering, etc., into the areas of application. It is attempted to indicate the development of safety standards concerning biotechnology. This development is in a state of flux, and the finding that the risks in handling r-DNA organisms are not larger than those arising when handling the known pathogens is becoming more accepted. Accordingly, these r-DNA organisms can also be classified into the known risk groups I-IV and handled under the corresponding safety conditions according to this classification: In the laboratory under the laboratory safety measures L1-L4 described in the BMFT-Guidelines or guidelines for occupational health and hygiene (UVV Biotechnologie) and on a process scale under the process safety measures described in the OECD report. The discussion of aspects on waste disposal, education/training and public perception in the field of biological safety completes the report.

  5. Teaching Molecular Biological Techniques in a Research Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiller, John W.; Coggins, T. Chad

    2006-01-01

    Molecular biological methods, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis, are now commonly taught to students in introductory biology courses at the college and even high school levels. This often includes hands-on experience with one or more molecular techniques as part of a general biology laboratory. To assure that most…

  6. Teaching Molecular Biological Techniques in a Research Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiller, John W.; Coggins, T. Chad

    2006-01-01

    Molecular biological methods, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis, are now commonly taught to students in introductory biology courses at the college and even high school levels. This often includes hands-on experience with one or more molecular techniques as part of a general biology laboratory. To assure that most…

  7. A National Comparison of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Capstone Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguanno, Ann; Mertz, Pamela; Martin, Debra; Bell, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the increasingly integrative nature of the molecular life sciences, the "American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" (ASBMB) recommends that Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) programs develop curricula based on concepts, content, topics, and expected student outcomes, rather than courses. To that end,…

  8. A National Comparison of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Capstone Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguanno, Ann; Mertz, Pamela; Martin, Debra; Bell, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the increasingly integrative nature of the molecular life sciences, the "American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" (ASBMB) recommends that Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) programs develop curricula based on concepts, content, topics, and expected student outcomes, rather than courses. To that end,…

  9. The emerging molecular biology toolbox for the study of long noncoding RNA biology.

    PubMed

    Fok, Ezio T; Scholefield, Janine; Fanucchi, Stephanie; Mhlanga, Musa M

    2017-10-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in many biological processes. However, due to the unique nature of lncRNAs and the consequential difficulties associated with their characterization, there is a growing disparity between the rate at which lncRNAs are being discovered and the assignment of biological function to these transcripts. Here we present a molecular biology toolbox equipped to help dissect aspects of lncRNA biology and reveal functionality. We outline an approach that begins with a broad survey of genome-wide, high-throughput datasets to identify potential lncRNA candidates and then narrow the focus on specific methods that are well suited to interrogate the transcripts of interest more closely. This involves the use of imaging-based strategies to validate these candidates and observe the behaviors of these transcripts at single molecule resolution in individual cells. We also describe the use of gene editing tools and interactome capture techniques to interrogate functionality and infer mechanism, respectively. With the emergence of lncRNAs as important molecules in healthy and diseased cellular function, it remains crucial to deepen our understanding of their biology.

  10. Molecular biology of cantharidin in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Rolf; Kahl, Stefan; Boechzelt, Herbert; Bauer, Rudolf; Kaina, Bernd; Efferth, Thomas

    2007-07-04

    Herbal medicine is one of the forms of traditional medical practice. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and traditional Vietnamese medicine (TVM) are well-known for their long-standing tradition of herbal medicine. Secreted by many species of blister beetle, most notably by the 'Spanish fly' (Lytta vesicatoria), cantharidin inhibits protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1, PP2A). Blister beetle has been used in Asian traditional medicine to treat Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) infections and associated warts, and is now also used for cancer treatment. A combination of both genomic and postgenomic techniques was used in our studies to identify candidate genes affecting sensitivity or resistance to cantharidin. Cantharidin was not found to be related to multidrug resistance phenotype, suggesting its potential usefulness for the treatment of refractory tumors. Oxidative stress response genes diminish the activity of cantharidin by inducing DNA strand breaks which may be subject to base excision repair and induce apoptosis in a p53- and Bcl2-dependent manner. Cantharidin is one of many natural products used in traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Vietnamese medicine for cancer treatment. Combined methods of pharmaceutical biology and molecular biology can help elucidate modes of action of these natural products.

  11. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, L.R.

    1990-10-01

    The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of the small aquarium fish, Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes), as a predictor of potential genotoxicity following exposure to carcinogens. This will be accomplished by quantitatively investigating the early molecular events associated with genotoxicity of various tissues of Medaka subsequent to exposure of the organism to several known carcinogens, such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Because of the often long latent period between initial contact with certain chemical and physical agents in our environment and subsequent expression of deleterious health or ecological impact, the development of sensitive methods for detecting and estimating early exposure is needed so that necessary interventions can ensue. A promising biological endpoint for detecting early exposure to damaging chemicals is the interaction of these compounds with cellular macromolecules such as Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA). This biological endpoint assumes significance because it can be one of the critical early events leading eventually to adverse effects (neoplasia) in the exposed organism.

  12. 2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Sussman

    2010-07-23

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on epigenetics and proteomics/metabolomics. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines, will foster the exchange of ideas and enable participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner. In particular, this conference plays a key role in enabling students and postdocs (the next generation of research leaders) to mingle with pioneers in multiple areas of plant science.

  13. Energy Aspects of Thermal Molecular Switching: Molecular Thermal Hysteresis of Helicene Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Masanori; Kushida, Yo; Yamaguchi, Masahiko

    2015-07-20

    Molecular switching is a phenomenon by which a molecule reversibly changes its structure and state in response to external stimuli or energy. Herein, molecular switching is discussed from thermodynamic and kinetic aspects in terms of energy supply with an emphasis on the thermal switching exhibited by helicene oligomers. It includes the inversion of relative thermodynamic stability induced by temperature changes and molecular thermal hysteresis in a closed system. The thermal phenomenon associated with the oligomers involves population/concentration changes between metastable states under nonequilibrium thermodynamic control.

  14. Myeloproliferative neoplasms: Current molecular biology and genetics.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Kolsoum

    2016-02-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal disorders characterized by increased production of mature blood cells. Philadelphia chromosome-negative MPNs (Ph-MPNs) consist of polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). A number of stem cell derived mutations have been identified in the past 10 years. These findings showed that JAK2V617F, as a diagnostic marker involving JAK2 exon 14 with a high frequency, is the best molecular characterization of Ph-MPNs. Somatic mutations in an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, named calreticulin (CALR), is the second most common mutation in patients with ET and PMF after JAK2 V617F mutation. Discovery of CALR mutations led to the increased molecular diagnostic of ET and PMF up to 90%. It has been shown that JAK2V617F is not the unique event in disease pathogenesis. Some other genes' location such as TET oncogene family member 2 (TET2), additional sex combs-like 1 (ASXL1), casitas B-lineage lymphoma proto-oncogene (CBL), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/IDH2), IKAROS family zinc finger 1 (IKZF1), DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A), suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), tumor protein p53 (TP53), runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) and high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) have also identified to be involved in MPNs phenotypes. Here, current molecular biology and genetic mechanisms involved in MNPs with a focus on the aforementioned factors is presented.

  15. Genetics and molecular biology of deafness. Update.

    PubMed

    Grundfast, K M; Siparsky, N; Chuong, D

    2000-12-01

    This article discusses the latest research in the molecular biology and genetics of hearing impairment and its importance to otolaryngologists. Recent research has led to the discovery of many of the genes and gene products that are responsible for hereditary hearing impairment. State mandated screening of newborn infants for hearing loss ensures that a large number of hearing-impaired children will be detected at a very early age. Additionally, these children often will be referred to the otolaryngologist for evaluation of the hearing impairment. It is the otolaryngologist who must gather a detailed family history and perform a thorough physical examination to fully assess the cause of the hearing impairment. In taking the family history, it is important to note that the diagnosis of a hereditary hearing impairment often involves the evaluation of a large-sized family that has a history of hearing disorders. A history of an affected individual in a small family does not necessarily support a diagnosis of hearing impairment in later affected offspring because of the small sample size. Often, a hearing impairment that is part of a syndrome may not be detected because the physical findings associated with a syndrome are subtle in a young infant. For example, the white forelock seen in patients with Waardenburg's syndrome type I cannot be visualized in the infant who lacks hair. Additionally, some patients with syndromic hearing impairment do not present with physical findings, but rather they exhibit abnormal laboratory studies. Additional points to remember include the following: As infectious iatrogenic causes of hearing impairment decrease, the relative incidence of hereditary hearing impairment will increase. Hereditary hearing impairment can present as an isolated finding, or in association with a number of anomalies recognizable as a syndrome. The study of genetics and molecular biology has led to the identification of genes associated with hearing impairment

  16. Third international congress of plant molecular biology: Molecular biology of plant growth and development

    SciTech Connect

    Hallick, R.B.

    1995-02-01

    The Congress was held October 6-11, 1991 in Tucson with approximately 3000 scientists attending and over 300 oral presentations and 1800 posters. Plant molecular biology is one of the most rapidly developing areas of the biological sciences. Recent advances in the ability to isolate genes, to study their expression, and to create transgenic plants have had a major impact on our understanding of the many fundamental plant processes. In addition, new approaches have been created to improve plants for agricultural purposes. This is a book of presentation and posters from the conference.

  17. Molecular aspects of cyclophilins mediating therapeutic actions of their ligands.

    PubMed

    Galat, Andrzej; Bua, Jacqueline

    2010-10-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive cyclic peptide that binds with a high affinity to 18 kDa human cyclophilin-A (hCyPA). CsA and its several natural derivatives have some pharmacological potential in treatment of diverse immune disorders. More than 20 paralogues of CyPA are expressed in the human body while expression levels and functions of numerous ORFs encoding cyclophilin-like sequences remain unknown. Certain derivatives of CsA devoid of immunosuppressive activity may have some potential in treatments of Alzheimer diseases, Hepatitis C and HIV infections, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, congenital muscular dystrophy, asthma and various parasitic infections. Here, we discuss structural and functional aspects of the human cyclophilins and their interaction with various intra-cellular targets that can be under the control of CsA or its complexes with diverse cyclophilins that are selectively expressed in different cellular compartments. Some molecular aspects of the cyclophilins expressed in parasites invading humans and causing diseases were also analyzed.

  18. Molecular Aspects of Bone Resorption in β-Thalassemia Major

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Najmaldin; Abroun, Saeid; Salari, Fatemeh; Rahim, Fakher; Shahjahani, Mohammad; Javad, Mohammadi-Asl

    2015-01-01

    β-thalassemia is the most common single gene disorder worldwide, in which hemoglobin β-chain production is decreased. Today, the life expectancy of thalassemic patients is increased because of a variety of treatment methods; however treatment related complications have also increased. The most common side effect is osteoporosis, which usually occurs in early adulthood as a consequence of increased bone resorption. Increased bone resorption mainly results from factors such as delayed puberty, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, ineffective hematopoiesis as well as hyperplasia of the bone marrow, parathyroid gland dysfunction, toxic effect of iron on osteoblasts, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. These factors disrupt the balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts by interfering with various molecular mechanisms and result in decreased bone density. Given the high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in thalassemic patients and complexity of their development process, the goal of this review is to evaluate the molecular aspects involved in osteopenia and osteoporosis in thalassemic patients, which may be useful for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26199898

  19. [Progress in molecular biology of a semi-mangrove, Millettia pinnata].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianzi; Zhang, Wanke; Huang, Rongfeng; Zheng, Yizhi

    2015-04-01

    Millettia pinnata L. is a leguminous tree with great potential in biodiesel applications and also a typical semi-mangrove. In this review, we presented several aspects about the recent research progress in molecular biology of M. pinnata. We descrived several types of molecular markers used to assess the genetic diversity and phylogeny of this species, genome and transcriptome analyses based on high-throughput sequencing platform accomplished for this species, and several gene and genomic sequences of this species isolated for further research. Finally, based on the current research progress, we proposed some orientations for future molecular biology research on M. pinnata.

  20. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology, Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Judith

    2012-06-22

    The Gordon Research Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology was held at Holderness School, Holderness New Hampshire, June 17 - 22, 2012. The 2012 Gordon Conference on Cellular and Molecular Fungal Biology (CMFB) will present the latest, cutting-edge research on the exciting and growing field of molecular and cellular aspects of fungal biology. Topics will range from yeast to filamentous fungi, from model systems to economically important organisms, and from saprophytes and commensals to pathogens of plants and animals. The CMFB conference will feature a wide range of topics including systems biology, cell biology and morphogenesis, organismal interactions, genome organisation and regulation, pathogenesis, energy metabolism, biomass production and population genomics. The Conference was well-attended with 136 participants. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  1. Molecular aspects of nitrogen mobilization and recycling in trees.

    PubMed

    Cantón, Francisco R; Suárez, María Fernanda; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2005-01-01

    Plants have developed a variety of molecular strategies to use limiting nutrients with a maximum efficiency. N assimilated into biomolecules can be released in the form of ammonium by plant metabolic activities in various physiological processes such as photorespiration, the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids or the mobilization of stored reserves. Thus, efficient reassimilation mechanisms are required to reincorporate liberated ammonium into metabolism and maintain N plant economy. Although the biochemistry and molecular biology of ammonium recycling in annual herbaceous plants has been previously reported, the recent advances in woody plants need to be reviewed. Moreover, it is important to point out that N recycling is quantitatively massive during some of these metabolic processes in trees, including seed germination, the onset of dormancy and resumption of active growth or the biosynthesis of lignin that takes place during wood formation. Therefore, woody plants constitute an excellent system as a model to study N mobilization and recycling. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of different physiological processes in woody perennials that challenge the overall plant N economy by releasing important amounts of inorganic N in the form of ammonium.

  2. Molecular biology of breast tumors and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Gustavo; Belletti, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Great scientific, economical, and organizational efforts are in place to understand the causes of onset, identify the critical molecular players of progression, and define new lines of intervention providing more benefits and less toxicity. These efforts have certainly not been vain, since overall survival, especially in specific subsets of breast cancer, has greatly improved during the last decades. At present, breast cancer patients' treatment and care have reached a high standard of quality, and currently one of the most urgent needs resides in the necessity to better distinguish the tumors that need to be more aggressively treated and identify the best therapeutic option tailored to each patient. This objective will be achievable only if the information clarifying the biology of breast cancer can be successfully transferred to the clinic. A common effort by scientists and clinicians toward this integration and toward the use of multidisciplinary approaches will be necessary to reach this important goal.

  3. [The molecular biology of hepatitis C virus].

    PubMed

    Koutsoudakis, George; Forns, Xavier; Pérez-Del-Pulgar, Sofía

    2013-04-01

    Since the discovery of the hepatitis C virus (HCV), a plethora of experimental models have evolved, allowing the virus's life cycle and the pathogenesis of associated liver diseases to be investigated. These models range from inoculation of cultured cells with serum from patients with hepatitis C to the use of surrogate models for the study of specific stages of the HCV life cycle: retroviral pseudoparticles for the study of HCV entry, replicons for the study of HCV replication, and the HCV cell culture model, which reproduces the entire life cycle (replication and production of infectious particles). The use of these tools has been and remains crucial to identify potential therapeutic targets in the different stages of the virus's life cycle and to screen new antiviral drugs. A clear example is the recent approval of two viral protease inhibitors (boceprevir and telaprevir) in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. This review analyzes the advances made in the molecular biology of HCV and highlights possible candidates as therapeutic targets for the treatment of HCV infection.

  4. 2003 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Richard F. Shand

    2004-09-21

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2003 Archaea: Ecology, Metabolism and Molecular Biology was held at Proctor Academy, Andover, NH from August 3-8, 2003. The Conference was well-attended with 150 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, ''free time'' was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field. I want to personally thank you for your support of this Conference. As you know, in the interest of promoting the presentation of unpublished and frontier-breaking research, Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings. If you wish any further details, please feel free to contact me. Thank you, Dr. Richard F. Shand, 2003 Conference Chair.

  5. Diagnosis of Dermatophytosis Using Molecular Biology.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Julie; Monod, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Identification of fungi in dermatological samples using PCR is reliable and provides significantly improved results in comparison with cultures. It is possible to identify the infectious agent when negative results are obtained from cultures. In addition, identification of the infectious agent can be obtained in 1 day. Conventional and real-time PCR methods used for direct fungus identification in collected samples vary by DNA extraction methods, targeted DNA and primers, and the way of analysing the PCR products. The choice of a unique method in a laboratory is complicated because the results expected from skin and hair sample analysis are different from those expected in cases of onychomycosis. In skin and hair samples, one dermatophyte among about a dozen possible species has to be identified. In onychomycosis, the infectious agents are mainly Trichophyton rubrum and, to a lesser extent, Trichophyton interdigitale, but also moulds insensitive to oral treatments used for dermatophytes, which renders fungal identification mandatory. The benefits obtained with the use of PCR methods for routine analysis of dermatological samples have to be put in balance with the relative importance of getting a result in a short time, the price of molecular biology reagents and equipment, and especially the time spent conducting laboratory manipulations.

  6. Zika virus genome biology and molecular pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anyou; Thurmond, Stephanie; Islas, Leonel; Hui, Kingyung; Hai, Rong

    2017-03-22

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging RNA virus in the widespread Flavivirus genus. Recently, ZIKV has rapidly spread around the world and has been implicated in human disease, including neurological disorders, triggering public and scientific attention. Understanding how ZIKV causes disease is the highest priority, yet little is known about this virus. Here we examine the currently published data from ZIKV studies to provide the latest understanding of ZIKV genome biology and molecular pathogenesis. The ZIKV genome evolved rapidly from the Flavivirus genus and diverged from the members of this genus, even within the dengue virus cluster to which ZIKV belongs. Genome variations and divergences also exist among ZIKV strains/isolates. These genome divergences might account for the uniqueness of Zika disease. ZIKV infection activates not only the antiviral immune response but also the pro-inflammatory responses associated with disease symptoms. Strikingly, ZIKV activates protein complexes that are functionally associated with disease process, such as glial cell activation and proliferation (for example, Toll-like receptors), apoptosis and cell death, and inflammation. The activation of these complexes may critically contribute to Zika disease. The novel insights into ZIKV genome divergence and disease mechanisms summarized in this review will help accelerate the development of anti-ZIKV strategies.

  7. A Diagnostic Assessment for Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Jia; Wood, William B.; Martin, Jennifer M.; Guild, Nancy A.; Vicens, Quentin; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and validated a tool for assessing understanding of a selection of fundamental concepts and basic knowledge in undergraduate introductory molecular and cell biology, focusing on areas in which students often have misconceptions. This multiple-choice Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) instrument is designed…

  8. [New concepts in molecular biology applied to traslational research].

    PubMed

    Mengual, Lourdes

    2013-06-01

    This chapter intends to introduce the new concepts that have been established in molecular biology over the last years and are being applied in translational research. The chapter is divided in four big blocks, which treat the molecular biology concepts and techniques in relation to DNA, RNA, proteins and metabolites, respectively. Moreover, we give examples of translational application of these new methodologies described.

  9. A Diagnostic Assessment for Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Jia; Wood, William B.; Martin, Jennifer M.; Guild, Nancy A.; Vicens, Quentin; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and validated a tool for assessing understanding of a selection of fundamental concepts and basic knowledge in undergraduate introductory molecular and cell biology, focusing on areas in which students often have misconceptions. This multiple-choice Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) instrument is designed…

  10. Molecular biology and the pediatric surgeon: definitions and basic methodology.

    PubMed

    Tagge, E P; Tagge, D U; Chandler, J C; Pitre, B R; Haddad, G; Frankel, A E; Willingham, M C; Garvin, A J; Papas, T S

    1996-08-01

    Molecular biology techniques and their application are becoming increasingly important to the practicing clinician. This article reviews the basics of DNA chemistry and highlights important molecular biology techniques. It will provide a guide for the pediatric surgeon as she/he attempts to integrate this field into everyday practice.

  11. Digital Learning Material for Model Building in Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Janssen, Fred; Hartog, Rob; Bisseling, Ton

    2005-01-01

    Building models to describe processes forms an essential part of molecular biology research. However, in molecular biology curricula little attention is generally being paid to the development of this skill. In order to provide students the opportunity to improve their model building skills, we decided to develop a number of digital cases about…

  12. Commentary: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Educators Launch National Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Cheryl; Bell, Ellis; Johnson, Margaret; Mattos, Carla; Sears, Duane; White, Harold B.

    2010-01-01

    The American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) has launched an National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded 5 year project to support biochemistry and molecular biology educators learning what and how students learn. As a part of this initiative, hundreds of life scientists will plan and develop a rich central resource for…

  13. Commentary: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Educators Launch National Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Cheryl; Bell, Ellis; Johnson, Margaret; Mattos, Carla; Sears, Duane; White, Harold B.

    2010-01-01

    The American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) has launched an National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded 5 year project to support biochemistry and molecular biology educators learning what and how students learn. As a part of this initiative, hundreds of life scientists will plan and develop a rich central resource for…

  14. Digital Learning Material for Model Building in Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Janssen, Fred; Hartog, Rob; Bisseling, Ton

    2005-01-01

    Building models to describe processes forms an essential part of molecular biology research. However, in molecular biology curricula little attention is generally being paid to the development of this skill. In order to provide students the opportunity to improve their model building skills, we decided to develop a number of digital cases about…

  15. Biologic and Genetics Aspects of Chagas Disease at Endemic Areas

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Marilanda Ferreira; Silistino-Souza, Rosana; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; de Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela; Silva, Ana Elizabete

    2012-01-01

    The etiologic agent of Chagas Disease is the Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted through blood-sucking insect vectors of the Triatominae subfamily, representing one of the most serious public health concerns in Latin America. There are geographic variations in the prevalence of clinical forms and morbidity of Chagas disease, likely due to genetic variation of the T. cruzi and the host genetic and environmental features. Increasing evidence has supported that inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are responsible for the generation of the inflammatory infiltrate and tissue damage. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms, protein expression levels, and genomic imbalances are associated with disease progression. This paper discusses these key aspects. Large surveys were carried out in Brazil and served as baseline for definition of the control measures adopted. However, Chagas disease is still active, and aspects such as host-parasite interactions, genetic mechanisms of cellular interaction, genetic variability, and tropism need further investigations in the attempt to eradicate the disease. PMID:22529863

  16. Aspects of the political economy of development and synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Wellhausen, Rachel; Mukunda, Gautam

    2009-12-01

    What implications might synthetic biology's potential as a wholly new method of production have for the world economy, particularly developing countries? Theories of political economy predict that synthetic biology can shift terms of trade and displace producers in developing countries. Governments, however, retain the ability to mitigate negative changes through social safety nets and to foster adaptation to some changes through research, education and investment. We consider the effects the synthetic production of otherwise naturally derived molecules are likely to have on trade and investment, particularly in developing countries. Both rubber in Malaysia and indigo dyes in India provide historical examples of natural molecules that faced market dislocations from synthetic competitors. Natural rubber was able to maintain significant market share, while natural indigo vanished from world markets. These cases demonstrate the two extremes of the impact synthetic biology might have on naturally derived products. If developing countries can cushion the pain of technological changes by providing producers support as they retool or exit, the harmful effects of synthetic biology can be mitigated while its benefits can still be captured.

  17. BRAIN DAMAGE IN CHILDREN, THE BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL ASPECTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BIRCH, HERBERT G., ED.

    PAPERS AND DISCUSSION SUMMARIES ARE PRESENTED FROM A CONFERENCE ON THE BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS OF CHILDHOOD BRAIN DAMAGE, HELD AT THE CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL OF PHILADELPHIA IN NOVEMBER 1962. A VARIETY OF DISCIPLINES IS REPRESENTED, AND THE FOLLOWING TOPICS ARE CONSIDERED--(1) "THE PROBLEM OF 'BRAIN DAMAGE' IN CHILDREN" BY HERBERT G. BIRCH, (2)…

  18. BRAIN DAMAGE IN CHILDREN, THE BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL ASPECTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BIRCH, HERBERT G., ED.

    PAPERS AND DISCUSSION SUMMARIES ARE PRESENTED FROM A CONFERENCE ON THE BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS OF CHILDHOOD BRAIN DAMAGE, HELD AT THE CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL OF PHILADELPHIA IN NOVEMBER 1962. A VARIETY OF DISCIPLINES IS REPRESENTED, AND THE FOLLOWING TOPICS ARE CONSIDERED--(1) "THE PROBLEM OF 'BRAIN DAMAGE' IN CHILDREN" BY HERBERT G. BIRCH, (2)…

  19. Bibliometric analysis of original molecular biology research in anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, K; Girard, T; Kindler, C H

    2004-10-01

    Molecular biology has expanded the horizons of anaesthesia during the last 20 years and has led to an increase of basic science articles that are published in the specialised anaesthetic journals or originate in anaesthetic institutions. We searched for and analysed the specific features, such as year of publication, publishing journal, and country of origin, of all such molecular biology articles stored in the MEDLINE database during the period 1986-2002. We identified 1265 original articles that used molecular biology techniques; 223 (18%) of these articles were published in anaesthetic journals and 1042 (82%) articles in 556 other biomedical journals. While in the late 1980s only a few molecular biology articles were published each year by anaesthetic institutions, worldwide this number reached approximately 200 basic science articles by the end of 2002. The USA clearly dominates the field of anaesthesia with respect to molecular biology research with 839 (66%) such articles.

  20. Molecular Biology and Pathogenicity of Mycoplasmas

    PubMed Central

    Razin, Shmuel; Yogev, David; Naot, Yehudith

    1998-01-01

    The recent sequencing of the entire genomes of Mycoplasma genitalium and M. pneumoniae has attracted considerable attention to the molecular biology of mycoplasmas, the smallest self-replicating organisms. It appears that we are now much closer to the goal of defining, in molecular terms, the entire machinery of a self-replicating cell. Comparative genomics based on comparison of the genomic makeup of mycoplasmal genomes with those of other bacteria, has opened new ways of looking at the evolutionary history of the mycoplasmas. There is now solid genetic support for the hypothesis that mycoplasmas have evolved as a branch of gram-positive bacteria by a process of reductive evolution. During this process, the mycoplasmas lost considerable portions of their ancestors’ chromosomes but retained the genes essential for life. Thus, the mycoplasmal genomes carry a high percentage of conserved genes, greatly facilitating gene annotation. The significant genome compaction that occurred in mycoplasmas was made possible by adopting a parasitic mode of life. The supply of nutrients from their hosts apparently enabled mycoplasmas to lose, during evolution, the genes for many assimilative processes. During their evolution and adaptation to a parasitic mode of life, the mycoplasmas have developed various genetic systems providing a highly plastic set of variable surface proteins to evade the host immune system. The uniqueness of the mycoplasmal systems is manifested by the presence of highly mutable modules combined with an ability to expand the antigenic repertoire by generating structural alternatives, all compressed into limited genomic sequences. In the absence of a cell wall and a periplasmic space, the majority of surface variable antigens in mycoplasmas are lipoproteins. Apart from providing specific antimycoplasmal defense, the host immune system is also involved in the development of pathogenic lesions and exacerbation of mycoplasma induced diseases. Mycoplasmas are

  1. Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Dyssynchrony and Resynchronization

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Jonathan A.; Kass, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Dyssynchronous contraction of the ventricle, arising from electrical activation delays, significantly worsens morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF) patients. Approximately one third of HF patients have cardiac dyssynchrony and are candidates for the pacemaker therapy Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT), which uses bi-ventricular pacing to recoordinate contraction. The initial understanding of both dyssynchrony and CRT was in terms of global mechanics and hemodynamics, but lack of clinical benefit in a sizable sub-group of recipients who appear otherwise appropriate has challenged this paradigm. Using large animal models and some human data, a framework of complex molecular and cellular mechanisms of cardiac dyssynchrony and CRT is emerging. Heart failure with dyssynchrony exhibits depressed myocyte and myofilament function, calcium handling, survival signaling, interstitial remolding, altered mitochondrial function, bioenergetics, myocyte structure, and other defects. Many of these are improved by CRT, and in a manner that seems unique to this treatment. Here we review current understanding of these cellular and sub-cellular mechanisms, making the case that these aspects are key to improving CRT utilization, as well as translating its benefits to a wider heart failure population. PMID:26596804

  2. Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses in Xenotransplantation—Molecular Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kimsa, Magdalena C.; Strzalka-Mrozik, Barbara; Kimsa, Malgorzata W.; Gola, Joanna; Nicholson, Peter; Lopata, Krzysztof; Mazurek, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the shortage of organs and other tissues for use in human transplantation, xenotransplantation procedures with material taken from pigs have come under increased consideration. However, there are unclear consequences of the potential transmission of porcine pathogens to humans. Of particular concern are porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs). Three subtypes of PERV have been identified, of which PERV-A and PERV-B have the ability to infect human cells in vitro. The PERV-C subtype does not show this ability but recombinant PERV-A/C forms have demonstrated infectivity in human cells. In view of the risk presented by these observations, the International Xenotransplantation Association recently indicated the existence of four strategies to prevent transmission of PERVs. This article focuses on the molecular aspects of PERV infection in xenotransplantation and reviews the techniques available for the detection of PERV DNA, RNA, reverse transcriptase activity and proteins, and anti-PERV antibodies to enable carrying out these recommendations. These methods could be used to evaluate the risk of PERV transmission in human recipients, enhance the effectiveness and reliability of monitoring procedures, and stimulate discussion on the development of improved, more sensitive methods for the detection of PERVs in the future. PMID:24828841

  3. The molecular biology in wound healing & non-healing wound.

    PubMed

    Qing, Chun

    2017-08-01

    The development of molecular biology and other new biotechnologies helps us to recognize the wound healing and non-healing wound of skin in the past 30 years. This review mainly focuses on the molecular biology of many cytokines (including growth factors) and other molecular factors such as extracellular matrix (ECM) on wound healing. The molecular biology in cell movement such as epidermal cells in wound healing was also discussed. Moreover many common chronic wounds such as pressure ulcers, leg ulcers, diabetic foot wounds, venous stasis ulcers, etc. usually deteriorate into non-healing wounds. Therefore the molecular biology such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and other molecular factors in diabetes non-healing wounds were also reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.; Zupancic, T.J.; Kittle, J.D. Jr.; Baker, B.; Palmer, D.T.; Traunero, C.G.; Wyza, R.E.; Schweitzer, A.; Conkle, H.N. ); Chakravarty, L.; Tuovinen, O.H. )

    1992-10-08

    Progress is reported in understanding Thiobacillus molecular biology, specifically in the area of vector development. At the initiation of this program, the basic elements needed for performing genetic engineering in T. ferrooxidans were either not yet developed. Improved techniques are described which will make it easier to construct and analyze the genetic structure and metabolism of recombinant T. ferrooxidans. The metabolism of the model organic sulfur compound dibenzothiophene (DBT) by certain heterotrophic bacteria was confirmed and characterized. Techniques were developed to analyze the metabolites of DBT, so that individual 4S pathway metabolites could be distinguished. These techniques are expected to be valuable when engineering organic sulfur metabolism in Thiobacillus. Strain isolation techniques were used to develop pure cultures of T. ferrooxidans seven of which were assessed as potential recombinant hosts. The mixotrophic strain T. coprinus was also characterized for potential use as an electroporation host. A family of related Thiobacillus plasmids was discovered in the seven strains of P. ferrooxidans mentioned above. One of these plasmids, pTFI91, was cloned into a pUC-based plasmid vector, allowing it to propagate in E. coli. A key portion of the cloned plasmid was sequenced. This segment, which is conserved in all of the related plasmids characterized, contains the vegetative origin of DNA replication, and fortuitously, a novel insertion sequence, designated IS3091. The sequence of the DNA origin revealed that these Thiobacillus plasmids represent a unique class of replicons not previously described. The potentially useful insertion sequence IS3091 was identified as a new member of a previously undefined family of insertion sequences which include the E. coli element IS30.

  5. Some aspects of the biological effects of space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, T. K.; Ozheredov, V. A.; Syutkina, E. V.; Rogoza, A. N.

    2008-02-01

    Space weather hazards have been well-studied during the past few decades, mainly in connection with effects on technical systems. The biological effects of solar and geomagnetic activity have been largely ignored because the amplitudes of the electromagnetic fields (EMF) are small, typically one to several hundreds of nanoteslas. This is much weaker than electromagnetic noise of anthropogenic origin and about 10 orders of magnitude less than the characteristic energies of biochemical reactions. During the past 20 years, however, more careful consideration has been given to possible nonthermal mechanisms of interaction of biological systems with weak (<1 mT) low-frequency EMF, which are unavoidably present in the environment, and some progress has been made towards understanding how an interaction can occur.

  6. Unique biological aspects of radiation hazards: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, P.

    1983-01-01

    The biological effects of HZE (high-Z energetic) particle radiation are discussed as they relate to the hazards of deep-space flight. The properties of HZE particles, generally defined as particles with atomic number 2 or greater and energy above 50 MeV/nucleon, are discussed, and the inapplicability of most common radiobiological measures, including rad doses and relative biological effectiveness, to HZE particles is pointed out. The microlesion concept is then presented as a meaningful measure of radiation damage due to HZE particles, and examples of studied microlesions are presented. A critical level for a microlesion event is suggested that corresponds to an ionization level with a high probability of inactivating the nucleus of a struck cell, and it is noted that HZE particles appear less effective in cell killing than gamma radiation. Future directions for studies of the effects of HZE particles on structures of the eye, development, the nervous system and carcinogenesis are indicated. 21 references.

  7. Jump-starting life? Fundamental aspects of synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    What is life and how could it originate? This question lies at the core of understanding the cell as the smallest living unit. Although we are witnessing a golden era of the life sciences, we are ironically still far from giving a convincing answer to this question. In this short article, I argue why synthetic biology in conjunction with the quantitative sciences may provide us with new concepts and tools to address it. PMID:26323686

  8. Unique biological aspects of radiation hazards--an overview.

    PubMed

    Todd, P

    1983-01-01

    Low orbit, geostationary, and deep-space flights differ from one another with respect to particle radiation environment, participating population size, mission duration, and biological risks other than radiation. It is proposed that all of these factors be considered in the setting of safety standards and, in particular, that the rem-dose concept is applicable only to radiations having low and intermediate linear energy transfer (electrons, protons, and helium ions), whereas the incidence of microlesions is a more meaningful indicator of the hazard due to higher-Z, high energy (HZE) particles. A microlesion is the biological injury inflicted in a specific tissue by a single HZE particle, and it is still in need of quantitative biological definition for specific mammalian tissues. If for example, a microlesion is taken as due to a HZE particle track 10 cell diameters long with LET > 200 KeV/micrometer in its core and > 25 rad dose in its penumbra at a distance of 10 micrometers, then the microlesion dose rate in geostationary orbit, for example, is about 9,000 microlesions per cm3 of tissue per month.

  9. Unique biological aspects of radiation hazards - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Paul

    Low orbit, geostationary, and deep-space flights differ from one another with respect to particle radiation environment, participating population size, mission duration, and biological risks other than radiation. It is proposed that all of these factors be considered in the setting of safety standards and, in particular, that the rem-dose concept is applicable only to radiations having low and intermediate linear energy transfer (electrons, protons, and helium ions), whereas the incidence of microlesions is a more meaningful indicator of the hazard due to higher-Z, high energy (HZE) particles. A microlesion is the biological injury inflicted in a specific tissue by a single HZE particle, and it is still in need of quantitative biological definition for specific mammalian tissues. If for example, a microlesion is taken as due to a HZE particle track 10 cell diameters long with LET > 200 KeV/μm in its core and > 25 rad dose in its penumbra at a distance of 10 μm, then the microlesion dose rate in geostationary orbit, for example, is about 9,000 microlesions per cm3 of tissue per month.

  10. Molecular codes in biological and chemical reaction networks.

    PubMed

    Görlich, Dennis; Dittrich, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Shannon's theory of communication has been very successfully applied for the analysis of biological information. However, the theory neglects semantic and pragmatic aspects and thus cannot directly be applied to distinguish between (bio-) chemical systems able to process "meaningful" information from those that do not. Here, we present a formal method to assess a system's semantic capacity by analyzing a reaction network's capability to implement molecular codes. We analyzed models of chemical systems (martian atmosphere chemistry and various combustion chemistries), biochemical systems (gene expression, gene translation, and phosphorylation signaling cascades), an artificial chemistry, and random reaction networks. Our study suggests that different chemical systems possess different semantic capacities. No semantic capacity was found in the model of the martian atmosphere chemistry, the studied combustion chemistries, and highly connected random networks, i.e. with these chemistries molecular codes cannot be implemented. High semantic capacity was found in the studied biochemical systems and in random reaction networks where the number of second order reactions is twice the number of species. We conclude that our approach can be applied to evaluate the information processing capabilities of a chemical system and may thus be a useful tool to understand the origin and evolution of meaningful information, e.g. in the context of the origin of life.

  11. Paper-based chemical and biological sensors: Engineering aspects.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Snober; Bui, Minh-Phuong Ngoc; Abbas, Abdennour

    2016-03-15

    Remarkable efforts have been dedicated to paper-based chemosensors and biosensors over the last few years, mainly driven by the promise of reaching the best trade-off between performance, affordability and simplicity. Because of the low-cost and rapid prototyping of these sensors, recent research has been focused on providing affordable diagnostic devices to the developing world. The recent progress in sensitivity, multi-functionality and integration of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs), increasingly suggests that this technology is not only attractive in resource-limited environments but it also represents a serious challenger to silicon, glass and polymer-based biosensors. This review discusses the design, chemistry and engineering aspects of these developments, with a focus on the past few years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Choosing the right molecular genetic markers for studying biodiversity: from molecular evolution to practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Chenuil, Anne; Anne, Chenuil

    2006-05-01

    The use of molecular genetic markers (MGMs) has become widespread among evolutionary biologists, and the methods of analysis of genetic data improve rapidly, yet an organized framework in which scientists can work is lacking. Elements of molecular evolution are summarized to explain the origin of variation at the DNA level, its measures, and the relationships linking genetic variability to the biological parameters of the studied organisms. MGM are defined by two components: the DNA region(s) screened, and the technique used to reveal its variation. Criteria of choice belong to three categories: (1) the level of variability, (2) the nature of the information (e.g. dominance vs. codominance, ploidy, ... ) which must be determined according to the biological question and (3) some practical criteria which mainly depend on the equipment of the laboratory and experience of the scientist. A three-step procedure is proposed for drawing up MGMs suitable to answer given biological questions, and compiled data are organized to guide the choice at each step: (1) choice, determined by the biological question, of the level of variability and of the criteria of the nature of information, (2) choice of the DNA region and (3) choice of the technique.

  13. Biological and Chemical Aspects of Natural Biflavonoids from Plants: a Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Gontijo, Vanessa Silva; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Viegas, Claudio

    2016-11-04

    Biflavonoids belong to a subclass of the plant flavonoids family and are limited to several species in the plant kingdom. In the literature, biflavonoids are extensively reported for their pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, inhibitory activity against phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and antiprotozoal activity. These activities have been discovered from the small number of biflavonoid structures that have been investigated, although the natural biflavonoids library is likely to be large. In addition, many medicinal properties and traditional uses of plants are attributed to the presence of bioflavonoids among their secondary metabolites. Structurally, biflavonoids are polyphenol compounds comprised by two identical or non-identical flavonflavonoid units joined in a symmetrical or unsymmetrical manner through an alkyl or an alkoxy-based linker of varying length. Due to their chemical and biological importance, several biopropesctive phytochemical studies and chemical approaches using coupling and molecular rearrangement strategies have been developed to identify and synthesize new bioactive biflavonoids. In this brief review, we present some basic structural aspects for classification and nomenclature of bioflavonoids and a compilation of the literature data published in the last 7 years, concerning the discovery of new natural biflavonoids of plant origin and their pharmacological and biological properties.

  14. Central Equipment Facility for Molecular Marine Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-07

    used. Projects supported include marine symbiosis (Haygood, Felback), cell biology (Vacquier), pressure adaptation in marine bacteria (Bartlett), population genetics and evolution of marine organisms (Perrin, Newman).

  15. Brugada Syndrome: Clinical, Genetic, Molecular, Cellular, and Ionic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Antzelevitch, Charles; Patocskai, Bence

    2016-01-01

    Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited cardiac arrhythmia syndrome first described as a new clinical entity in 1992. Electrocardiographically characterized by distinct coved type ST segment elevation in the right-precordial leads, the syndrome is associated with a high risk for sudden cardiac death in young adults, and less frequently in infants and children. The electrocardiographic manifestations of BrS are often concealed and may be unmasked or aggravated by sodium channel blockers, a febrile state, vagotonic agents, as well as by tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the most widely accepted approach to therapy. Pharmacologic therapy is designed to produce an inward shift in the balance of currents active during the early phases of the right ventricular action potential (AP) and can be used to abort electrical storms or as an adjunct or alternative to device therapy when use of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator is not possible. Isoproterenol, cilostazol, and milrinone boost calcium channel current and drugs like quinidine, bepridil, and the Chinese herb extract Wenxin Keli inhibit the transient outward current, acting to diminish the AP notch and thus to suppress the substrate and trigger for ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Radiofrequency ablation of the right ventricular outflow tract epicardium of patients with BrS has recently been shown to reduce arrhythmia vulnerability and the electrocardiographic manifestation of the disease, presumably by destroying the cells with more prominent AP notch. This review provides an overview of the clinical, genetic, molecular, and cellular aspects of BrS as well as the approach to therapy.

  16. Brugada Syndrome. Clinical, Genetic, Molecular, Cellular and Ionic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Antzelevitch, Charles; Patocskai, Bence

    2015-01-01

    The Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited cardiac arrhythmia syndrome first described as a new clinical entity in 1992. Electrocardiographically characterized by distinct coved type ST segment elevation in the right precordial leads, the syndrome is associated with a high risk for sudden cardiac death in young adults, and less frequently in infants and children. The ECG manifestations of the BrS are often concealed and may be unmasked or aggravated by sodium channel blockers, a febrile state, vagotonic agents, as well as by tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the most widely accepted approach to therapy. Pharmacological therapy is designed to produce an inward shift in the balance of currents active during the early phases of the right ventricular action potential and can be used to abort electrical storms or as an adjunct or alternative to device therapy when use of an ICD is not possible. Isoproterenol, cilostazol and milrinone boost calcium channel current and drugs like quinidine, bepridil and the Chinese herb extract Wenxin Keli inhibit the transient outward current, acting to diminish the action potential (AP) notch and thus to suppress the substrate and trigger for VT/VF. Radiofrequency ablation of the right ventricular outflow tract epicardium of BrS patients has recently been shown to reduce arrhythmia-vulnerability and the ECG-manifestation of the disease, presumably by destroying the cells with more prominent AP notch. This review provides an overview of the clinical, genetic, molecular and cellular aspects of the BrS as well as the approach to therapy. PMID:26671757

  17. Fundamental approaches in molecular biology for communication sciences and disorders.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Rebecca S; Jetté, Marie E; King, Suzanne N; Schaser, Allison; Thibeault, Susan L

    2012-08-01

    This contemporary tutorial will introduce general principles of molecular biology, common deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and protein assays and their relevance in the field of communication sciences and disorders. Over the past 2 decades, knowledge of the molecular pathophysiology of human disease has increased at a remarkable pace. Most of this progress can be attributed to concomitant advances in basic molecular biology and, specifically, the development of an ever-expanding armamentarium of technologies for analysis of DNA, RNA, and protein structure and function. Details of these methodologies, their limitations, and examples from the communication sciences and disorders literature are presented. Results/Conclusions The use of molecular biology techniques in the fields of speech, language, and hearing sciences is increasing, facilitating the need for an understanding of molecular biology fundamentals and common experimental assays.

  18. Immunoregulation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Biological Aspects and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Manrreza, Marta E.; Montesinos, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiation into mesenchymal lineages and that can be isolated from various tissues and easily cultivated in vitro. Currently, MSCs are of considerable interest because of the biological characteristics that confer high potential applicability in the clinical treatment of many diseases. Specifically, because of their high immunoregulatory capacity, MSCs are used as tools in cellular therapies for clinical protocols involving immune system alterations. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge about the capacity of MSCs for the immunoregulation of immunocompetent cells and emphasize the effects of MSCs on T cells, principal effectors of the immune response, and the immunosuppressive effects mediated by the secretion of soluble factors and membrane molecules. We also describe the mechanisms of MSC immunoregulatory modulation and the participation of MSCs as immune response regulators in several autoimmune diseases, and we emphasize the clinical application in graft versus host disease (GVHD). PMID:25961059

  19. [Dermatological aspects in the risk of biological warfare].

    PubMed

    Carsuzaa, F; Boyé, T; Debord, T; Guennoc, B; Fournier, B; Cavallo, J-D

    2005-01-29

    The possible cutaneous manifestations of infectious biological warfare are multiple and vary depending on the agent used. An ulcerous and/or necrotic syndrome and/or regional lymphadenitis syndrome are possible with anthrax, tularaemia, bubonic plague and emission of trichotecene mycotoxins. A vesiculo-pustular syndrome with fever is provoked by smallpox, melioidosis and glanders. A purpural and/or haemorrhagic syndrome is seen during haemorrhagic fever viruses and septicaemic plague. These cutaneous manifestations are excellent markers that orient and alert when they occur in a context of a situation at risk, when several cases are observed in a usually non-exposed population and with extra-dermatological syndromes. They permit the early initiation of treatment.

  20. Planetary Biology and Microbial Ecology: Molecular Ecology and the Global Nitrogen cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealson, Molly Stone (Editor); Nealson, Kenneth H. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Planetary Biology and Molecular Ecology's summer 1991 program, which was held at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. The purpose of the interdisciplinary PBME program is to integrate, via lectures and laboratory work, the contributions of university and NASA scientists and student interns. The goals of the 1991 program were to examine several aspects of the biogeochemistry of the nitrogen cycle and to teach the application of modern methods of molecular genetics to field studies of organisms. Descriptions of the laboratory projects and protocols and abstracts and references of the lectures are presented.

  1. Caveolae, lipid droplets, and adipose tissue biology: pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sally

    2013-09-01

    Adipocytes are specialized cells that function to store energy in the form of lipids, predominantly triglycerides (TGs), and as a regulatory system contributing to metabolic homoeostasis through the production and secretion of hormones and cytokines. The regulation of lipid homeostasis by adipose tissue is an important aspect of whole-body metabolism. Owing to the central nature of adipose tissue in lipid metabolism, dysregulation has wide-ranging effects, contributing to disorders as diverse as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. Excess lipids are stored in specialized organelles called lipid droplets (LDs). The surface of the lipid droplet can be considered a highly regulated membrane domain that both protects the contents of the LD from unregulated lipolysis and the cell from the cytotoxic effects of elevated free fatty acids. The surface of the LD is coated with a variety of regulatory proteins, either resident or transiently associated, including enzymes involved in the breakdown of TG, lipid transport proteins, and cofactors. Recent studies have begun to unravel the range of LD-associated proteins and to define their functional significance. Importantly, the involvement of LD proteins in pathophysiological disorders is beginning to be understood. This review will outline recent advances in defining the diversity of LD-associated proteins and their links to metabolic disorders including the integral membrane protein, caveolin-1 (CAV1). Analysis of the role of CAV1 in adipose tissue has highlighted the interconnectedness between the regulation of lipid storage and the function of the adipocyte plasma membrane.

  2. Circulatory bubble dynamics: from physical to biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Virginie; Tang, Meng-Xing; Balestra, Costantino; Eckersley, Robert J; Karapantsios, Thodoris D

    2014-04-01

    Bubbles can form in the body during or after decompression from pressure exposures such as those undergone by scuba divers, astronauts, caisson and tunnel workers. Bubble growth and detachment physics then becomes significant in predicting and controlling the probability of these bubbles causing mechanical problems by blocking vessels, displacing tissues, or inducing an inflammatory cascade if they persist for too long in the body before being dissolved. By contrast to decompression induced bubbles whose site of initial formation and exact composition are debated, there are other instances of bubbles in the bloodstream which are well-defined. Gas emboli unwillingly introduced during surgical procedures and ultrasound microbubbles injected for use as contrast or drug delivery agents are therefore also discussed. After presenting the different ways that bubbles can end up in the human bloodstream, the general mathematical formalism related to the physics of bubble growth and detachment from decompression is reviewed. Bubble behavior in the bloodstream is then discussed, including bubble dissolution in blood, bubble rheology and biological interactions for the different cases of bubble and blood composition considered.

  3. Biological aspects of a Brazilian strain of Entamoeba dispar.

    PubMed

    Furst, C; Gomes, M A; Tafuri, W L; Silva, E F

    2002-02-01

    A strain of Entamoeba dispar was characterized by clinical diagnosis, serological and electrophoretical isoenzyme analysis and by the polymorphism of a 482 bp genomic fragment analysis. The pathogenesis and virulence of this strain was investigated considering the experimental infection in hamster livers in association with the original intestinal microbiota. Liver lesions were observed in hamsters experimentally infected with trophozoites from xenic cultures, but not from the monoxenic cultures. Moreover, clones obtained from re-isolated strain Wil1R1 showed a distinct biological behavior. In fact, animals inoculated with Wil1R1ClB3 showed an intense acute inflammatory reaction with destructive focal hepatic lesions. These lesions were characterized as amebic abscesses. The association between bacteria and ameba has been fairly well studied because it affects the pathogenicity of the amebas and has important therapeutic implications. In this study, we demonstrated that E. dispar in association with the original microbiota is able to produce lesions in hamster liver in spite of its having been considered to be non-pathogenic in the hamster model. Based on these results we suggest that diagnosis of amebiasis needs to be made with more care and that clinical and therapeutical procedures need to be revised.

  4. [Biological and social aspects of migration of the Andes population].

    PubMed

    Baker, P T

    1977-01-01

    The effect of migration on the biology of human populations is almost unknown. While some studies of populations moving from areas which are poor and without medical care clearly show that movement into more prosperous areas improves general health, these studies fail to show the specific effects of changing physical environments. In the present study migrants from the altiplano of Southern Peru to the adjacent low altitude zones were examined. The data were compared to similar data on migrants from low altitude areas and native low altitude people. Preliminary analysis of the information collected suggested the following: 1. Adult women increase slightly their completed fertility when they move from high to low altitude. Child spacing is particularly decreased but birth sex ratios are not affected. 2. Highland migrants at low altitude produce larger newborns than they do at high altitude and these infants grow more rapidly than high altitude infants. 3. Migrants from high to low altitude suffer more respiratory symptoms than low altitude migrants or lowland natives. 4. Although highland migrants quickly adopt low altitude life styles and diets they do not show the age increases in blood pressure or high levels of serum cholesterol common in lowland natives. On the basis of these findings it is concluded that migration may have some detrimental effects on human health and physical fitness. However, more importantly they show that the specific physical environment in which an individual develops has a significant effect on the health fitness of a migrant to a new environment.

  5. Assessment of knowledge of participants on basic molecular biology techniques after 5-day intensive molecular biology training workshops in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Yisau, J I; Adagbada, A O; Bamidele, T; Fowora, M; Brai, B I C; Adebesin, O; Bamidele, M; Fesobi, T; Nwaokorie, F O; Ajayi, A; Smith, S I

    2017-02-01

    The deployment of molecular biology techniques for diagnosis and research in Nigeria is faced with a number of challenges, including the cost of equipment and reagents coupled with the dearth of personnel skilled in the procedures and handling of equipment. Short molecular biology training workshops were conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), to improve the knowledge and skills of laboratory personnel and academics in health, research, and educational facilities. Five-day molecular biology workshops were conducted annually between 2011 and 2014, with participants drawn from health, research facilities, and the academia. The courses consisted of theoretical and practical sessions. The impact of the workshops on knowledge and skill acquisition was evaluated by pre- and post-tests which consisted of 25 multiple choice and other questions. Sixty-five participants took part in the workshops. The mean knowledge of molecular biology as evaluated by the pre- and post-test assessments were 8.4 (95% CI 7.6-9.1) and 13.0 (95 CI 11.9-14.1), respectively. The mean post-test score was significantly greater than the mean pre-test score (p < 0.0001). The five-day molecular biology workshop significantly increased the knowledge and skills of participants in molecular biology techniques. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017.

  6. 1-Dimensional nanoparticles - A brief critical review on biological, medical, and toxicological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, B. M.; Ali, N.; Basturea, G.; Comsa, G. I.; Materon, L. A.; Chipara, M.

    2013-06-01

    A critical review of the biological and medical effects of one dimensional nanoparticles is presented. The review focuses on the toxicity of carbon nanotubes - a subject under strong debate and discusses briefly the most important concepts. It is tentatively suggested that the huge aspect ratio and the high Young modulus of carbon nanotubes are playing an important role in the biological, medical, and toxicological aspects of carbon nanotubes despite their low intrinsic biochemical activity. The most suitable biomedical model for the biological and medical effects of carbon nanotubes is described by the so-called impaling mode which appears to be qualitatively consistent with partial phagocytosis.

  7. CD163 and Inflammation: Biological, Diagnostic, and Therapeutic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Etzerodt, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The hemoglobin (Hb) scavenger receptor, CD163, is a macrophage-specific protein and the upregulated expression of this receptor is one of the major changes in the macrophage switch to alternative activated phenotypes in inflammation. Accordingly, a high CD163 expression in macrophages is a characteristic of tissues responding to inflammation. The scavenging of the oxidative and proinflammatory Hb leading to stimulation of the heme-oxygenase-1 and production of anti-inflammatory heme metabolites indicates that CD163 thereby indirectly contributes to the anti-inflammatory response. Recent Advances: In addition to this biological role in inflammation, CD163 is a potential inflammation biomarker and a therapeutic target. The biomarker form of CD163 is the soluble plasma CD163 that arises from the increased shedding of CD163 mediated by the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) cleaving enzyme. This explains that a steadily increasing literature documents that the plasma level of soluble CD163 is increased in a large spectrum of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. The nonshed membrane form of CD163 in macrophages constitutes a target for drugs to be directed to macrophages in inflammation. This approach has been used in an animal inflammation model to highly increase the apparent therapeutic index of anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid drug that was coupled to an anti-CD163 antibody. Furthermore, other recent animal data, which indirectly involve CD163 in macrophages, demonstrate that injections of haptoglobin attenuate Hb-induced damages after blood transfusion. Critical Issues and Future Directions: The diagnostic and therapeutic properties of CD163 await further clinical studies and regulatory approval before implementation in the clinic. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2352–2363. PMID:22900885

  8. CD163 and inflammation: biological, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Etzerodt, Anders; Moestrup, Søren K

    2013-06-10

    The hemoglobin (Hb) scavenger receptor, CD163, is a macrophage-specific protein and the upregulated expression of this receptor is one of the major changes in the macrophage switch to alternative activated phenotypes in inflammation. Accordingly, a high CD163 expression in macrophages is a characteristic of tissues responding to inflammation. The scavenging of the oxidative and proinflammatory Hb leading to stimulation of the heme-oxygenase-1 and production of anti-inflammatory heme metabolites indicates that CD163 thereby indirectly contributes to the anti-inflammatory response. In addition to this biological role in inflammation, CD163 is a potential inflammation biomarker and a therapeutic target. The biomarker form of CD163 is the soluble plasma CD163 that arises from the increased shedding of CD163 mediated by the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) cleaving enzyme. This explains that a steadily increasing literature documents that the plasma level of soluble CD163 is increased in a large spectrum of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. The nonshed membrane form of CD163 in macrophages constitutes a target for drugs to be directed to macrophages in inflammation. This approach has been used in an animal inflammation model to highly increase the apparent therapeutic index of anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid drug that was coupled to an anti-CD163 antibody. Furthermore, other recent animal data, which indirectly involve CD163 in macrophages, demonstrate that injections of haptoglobin attenuate Hb-induced damages after blood transfusion. The diagnostic and therapeutic properties of CD163 await further clinical studies and regulatory approval before implementation in the clinic.

  9. Structural Biology and Molecular Applications Research

    Cancer.gov

    Part of NCI's Division of Cancer Biology's research portfolio, research and development in this area focuses on enabling technologies, models, and methodologies to support basic and applied cancer research.

  10. Computer Analogies: Teaching Molecular Biology and Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Stanley; McArthur, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that computer science analogies can aid the understanding of gene expression, including the storage of genetic information on chromosomes. Presents a matrix of biology and computer science concepts. (DDR)

  11. Cell and molecular biology of Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This document contains only the abstracts of 92 presentations on the biology of Chlamydomonas. Topics include gene transformations, gene regulation, biosynthetic pathways, cell surfaces, circadian clocks, and the development and structure of the flagellar apparatus. (TEM)

  12. Cell and molecular mechanics of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, G.; Suresh, S.

    2003-11-01

    Living cells can sense mechanical forces and convert them into biological responses. Similarly, biological and biochemical signals are known to influence the abilities of cells to sense, generate and bear mechanical forces. Studies into the mechanics of single cells, subcellular components and biological molecules have rapidly evolved during the past decade with significant implications for biotechnology and human health. This progress has been facilitated by new capabilities for measuring forces and displacements with piconewton and nanometre resolutions, respectively, and by improvements in bio-imaging. Details of mechanical, chemical and biological interactions in cells remain elusive. However, the mechanical deformation of proteins and nucleic acids may provide key insights for understanding the changes in cellular structure, response and function under force, and offer new opportunities for the diagnosis and treatment of disease. This review discusses some basic features of the deformation of single cells and biomolecules, and examines opportunities for further research.

  13. Computer Analogies: Teaching Molecular Biology and Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Stanley; McArthur, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that computer science analogies can aid the understanding of gene expression, including the storage of genetic information on chromosomes. Presents a matrix of biology and computer science concepts. (DDR)

  14. STM studies of single molecules: molecular orbital aspects.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong; Hou, J G

    2011-03-14

    As a fundamental and frequently referred concept in modern chemistry, the molecular orbital plays a vital role in the science of single molecules, which has become an active field in recent years. For the study of single molecules, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been proven to be a powerful scientific technique. Utilizing specific distribution of the molecular orbitals at spatial, energy, and spin scales, STM can explore many properties of single molecule systems, such as geometrical configuration, electronic structure, magnetic polarization, and so on. Various interactions between the substrate and adsorbed molecules are also understood in terms of the molecular orbitals. Molecular engineering methods, such as mode-selective chemistry based on the molecular orbitals, and resonance tunneling between the molecular orbitals of the molecular sample and STM tip, have stimulated new advances of single molecule science.

  15. Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of lipid translocation in biological membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Frickenhaus, S; Heinrich, R

    1999-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the lipid translocation in cellular bilayer membranes is presented. We focus on an integrative model of active and passive transport processes determining the asymmetrical distribution of the major lipid components between the monolayers. The active translocation of the aminophospholipids phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine is mathematically described by kinetic equations resulting from a realistic ATP-dependent transport mechanism. Concerning the passive transport of the aminophospholipids as well as of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol, two different approaches are used. The first treatment makes use of thermodynamic flux-force relationships. Relevant forces are transversal concentration differences of the lipids as well as differences in the mechanical states of the monolayers due to lateral compressions. Both forces, originating primarily from the operation of an aminophospholipid translocase, are expressed as functions of the lipid compositions of the two monolayers. In the case of mechanical forces, lipid-specific parameters such as different molecular surface areas and compression force constants are taken into account. Using invariance principles, it is shown how the phenomenological coefficients depend on the total lipid amounts. In a second approach, passive transport is analyzed in terms of kinetic mechanisms of carrier-mediated translocation, where mechanical effects are incorporated into the translocation rate constants. The thermodynamic as well as the kinetic approach are applied to simulate the time-dependent redistribution of the lipid components in human red blood cells. In the thermodynamic model the steady-state asymmetrical lipid distribution of erythrocyte membranes is simulated well under certain parameter restrictions: 1) the time scales of uncoupled passive transbilayer movement must be different among the lipid species; 2) positive cross-couplings of the passive lipid fluxes are

  16. Molecular biology techniques and applications for ocean sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehr, J. P.; Hewson, I.; Moisander, P.

    2009-05-01

    The study of marine microorganisms using molecular biological techniques is now widespread in the ocean sciences. These techniques target nucleic acids which record the evolutionary history of microbes, and encode for processes which are active in the ocean today. Molecular techniques can form the basis of remote instrumentation sensing technologies for marine microbial diversity and ecological function. Here we review some of the most commonly used molecular biological techniques. These techniques include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcriptase PCR, quantitative PCR, whole assemblage "fingerprinting" approaches (based on nucleic acid sequence or length heterogeneity), oligonucleotide microarrays, and high-throughput shotgun sequencing of whole genomes and gene transcripts, which can be used to answer biological, ecological, evolutionary and biogeochemical questions in the ocean sciences. Moreover, molecular biological approaches may be deployed on ocean sensor platforms and hold promise for tracking of organisms or processes of interest in near-real time.

  17. The extracellular matrix of plants: Molecular, cellular and developmental biology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    A symposium entitled ``The Extracellular Matrix of Plants: Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology was held in Tamarron, Colorado, March 15--21, 1996. The following topics were explored in addresses by 43 speakers: structure and biochemistry of cell walls; biochemistry, molecular biology and biosynthesis of lignin; secretory pathway and synthesis of glycoproteins; biosynthesis of matrix polysaccharides, callose and cellulose; role of the extracellular matrix in plant growth and development; plant cell walls in symbiosis and pathogenesis.

  18. Debaryomyces hansenii: A Model System for Marine Molecular Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-30

    System for Marine Molecular Biology PERIOD OF PERFORMANCE: June 1, 1990 to May 30, 1991 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: To establish Debaryomyces hansenii as a model...Analysis of 17s rRNA gene from the marine yeast Debaryomyces hansenii . In preparation for Current Genetics. TRAINING ACTIVITIES Two graduate students, one...Institution: University of California, Santa Barbara. Grant Title: Debaryomyces hansenii : A Model System for Marine Molecular Biology. Period of

  19. Luciferase Genes as Reporter Reactions: How to Use Them in Molecular Biology?

    PubMed

    Cevenini, L; Calabretta, M M; Calabria, D; Roda, A; Michelini, E

    2016-01-01

    : The latest advances in molecular biology have made available several biotechnological tools that take advantage of the high detectability and quantum efficiency of bioluminescence (BL), with an ever-increasing number of novel applications in environmental, pharmaceutical, food, and forensic fields. Indeed, BL proteins are being used to develop ultrasensitive binding assays and cell-based assays, thanks to their high detectability and to the availability of highly sensitive BL instruments. The appealing aspect of molecular biology tools relying on BL reactions is their general applicability in both in vitro assays, such as cell cultures or purified proteins, and in vivo settings, such as in whole-animal BL imaging. The aim of this chapter is to provide the reader with an overview of state-of-the-art bioluminescent tools based on luciferase genes, highlighting molecular biology strategies that have been applied so far, together with some selected examples.

  20. The challenges for molecular nutrition research 4: the "nutritional systems biology level".

    PubMed

    van Ommen, Ben; Cavallieri, Duccio; Roche, Helen M; Klein, Ulla I; Daniel, Hannelore

    2008-12-01

    Nutritional systems biology may be defined as the ultimate goal of molecular nutrition research, where all relevant aspects of regulation of metabolism in health and disease states at all levels of its complexity are taken into account to describe the molecular physiology of nutritional processes. The complexity spans from intracellular to inter-organ dynamics, and involves iterations between mathematical modelling and analysis employing all profiling methods and other biological read-outs. On the basis of such dynamic models we should be enabled to better understand how the nutritional status and nutritional challenges affect human metabolism and health. Although the achievement of this proposition may currently sound unrealistic, many initiatives in theoretical biology and biomedical sciences work on parts of the solution. This review provides examples and some recommendations for the molecular nutrition research arena to move onto the systems level.

  1. Anti-Adhesion Therapies in Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Molecular and Clinical Aspects.

    PubMed

    Zundler, Sebastian; Becker, Emily; Weidinger, Carl; Siegmund, Britta

    2017-01-01

    The number of biologicals for the therapy of immunologically mediated diseases is constantly growing. In contrast to other agents that were previously introduced in rheumatologic or dermatologic diseases and only later adopted for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), the field of IBD was ground breaking for the concept of anti-adhesion blockade. Anti-adhesion antibodies selectively target integrins controlling cell homing to the intestine, which leads to reduction of inflammatory infiltration to the gut in chronic intestinal inflammation. Currently, the anti-α4β7-antibody vedolizumab is successfully used for both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis worldwide. In this mini-review, we will summarize the fundamental basis of intestinal T cell homing and explain the molecular groundwork underlying current and potential future anti-adhesion therapies. Finally, we will comment on noteworthy clinical aspects of anti-adhesion therapy and give an outlook to the future of anti-integrin antibodies and inhibitors.

  2. The molecular biology of Bluetongue virus replication.

    PubMed

    Patel, Avnish; Roy, Polly

    2014-03-01

    The members of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family are arthropod-borne viruses which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. Bluetongue virus (BTV) which causes disease in livestock (sheep, goat, cattle) has been in the forefront of molecular studies for the last three decades and now represents the best understood orbivirus at a molecular and structural level. The complex nature of the virion structure has been well characterised at high resolution along with the definition of the virus encoded enzymes required for RNA replication; the ordered assembly of the capsid shell as well as the protein and genome sequestration required for it; and the role of host proteins in virus entry and virus release. More recent developments of Reverse Genetics and Cell-Free Assembly systems have allowed integration of the accumulated structural and molecular knowledge to be tested at meticulous level, yielding higher insight into basic molecular virology, from which the rational design of safe efficacious vaccines has been possible. This article is centred on the molecular dissection of BTV with a view to understanding the role of each protein in the virus replication cycle. These areas are important in themselves for BTV replication but they also indicate the pathways that related viruses, which includes viruses that are pathogenic to man and animals, might also use providing an informed starting point for intervention or prevention.

  3. Computer-Based Semantic Network in Molecular Biology: A Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callman, Joshua L.; And Others

    This paper analyzes the hardware and software features that would be desirable in a computer-based semantic network system for representing biology knowledge. It then describes in detail a prototype network of molecular biology knowledge that has been developed using Filevision software and a Macintosh computer. The prototype contains about 100…

  4. Computer-Based Semantic Network in Molecular Biology: A Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callman, Joshua L.; And Others

    This paper analyzes the hardware and software features that would be desirable in a computer-based semantic network system for representing biology knowledge. It then describes in detail a prototype network of molecular biology knowledge that has been developed using Filevision software and a Macintosh computer. The prototype contains about 100…

  5. Molecular biology of human muscle disease

    SciTech Connect

    Dunne, P.W.; Epstein, H.F. )

    1991-01-01

    The molecular revolution that is transforming the entire biomedical field has had far-reaching impact in its application to inherited human muscle disease. The gene for Duchenne muscular dystrophy was one of the first cloned without knowledge of the defective protein product. This success was based upon the availability of key chromosomal aberrations that provided molecular landmarks for the disease locus. Subsequent discoveries regarding the mode of expression for this gene, the structure and localization of its protein product dystrophin, and molecular diagnosis of affected and carrier individuals constitute a paradigm for investigation of human genetics. Finding the gene for myotonic muscular dystrophy is requiring the brute force approach of cloning several million bases of DNA, identifying expressed sequences, and characterizing candidate genes. The gene that causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has been found serendipitously to be one of the genetic markers on chromosome 14, the {beta} myosin heavy chain.

  6. [Application of molecular biological techniques in Taenia identification].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Liu, Hang; Yang, Yi-Mei

    2011-10-01

    The traditional identification of Taenia spp. based on morphological features of adult and cysticercus has difficulties in identifying the morphologically similar species. The recent development of molecular techniques provides more scientific ways for distinguishing Taenia species. This paper summarizes the application of molecular biological techniques in the identification of Taenia, such as analysis of DNA sequence, PCR-RFLP and LAMP.

  7. Fundamental Approaches in Molecular Biology for Communication Sciences and Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Rebecca S.; Jette, Marie E.; King, Suzanne N.; Schaser, Allison; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This contemporary tutorial will introduce general principles of molecular biology, common deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and protein assays and their relevance in the field of communication sciences and disorders. Method: Over the past 2 decades, knowledge of the molecular pathophysiology of human disease has…

  8. Fundamental Approaches in Molecular Biology for Communication Sciences and Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Rebecca S.; Jette, Marie E.; King, Suzanne N.; Schaser, Allison; Thibeault, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This contemporary tutorial will introduce general principles of molecular biology, common deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and protein assays and their relevance in the field of communication sciences and disorders. Method: Over the past 2 decades, knowledge of the molecular pathophysiology of human disease has…

  9. Concepts and Skills in the Biochemistry/Molecular Biology Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    Most colleges and universities throughout the world now offer a Biochemistry/Molecular Biology (BMB) lab course that is designed for undergraduate students in the molecular life sciences, chemistry, and related fields. To best serve our students, we must introduce them to the most current concepts, skills, and methods available. Suggestions for…

  10. Micropropagation, genetic engineering, and molecular biology of Populus

    Treesearch

    N. B. Klopfenstein; Y. W. Chun; M. -S. Kim; M. A. Ahuja; M. C. Dillon; R. C. Carman; L. G. Eskew

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-four Populus biotechnology chapters, written by 85 authors, are comprised in 5 sections: 1) in vitro culture (micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, protoplasts, somaclonal variation, and germplasm preservation); 2) transformation and foreign gene expression; 3) molecular biology (molecular/genetic characterization); 4) biotic and abiotic resistance (disease,...

  11. Using a Computer Animation to Teach High School Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotbain, Yosi; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Stavy, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    We present an active way to use a computer animation in secondary molecular genetics class. For this purpose we developed an activity booklet that helps students to work interactively with a computer animation which deals with abstract concepts and processes in molecular biology. The achievements of the experimental group were compared with those…

  12. The Macromolecular Concept and the Origins of Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olby, Robert

    1970-01-01

    Traces the origins of molecular biology to the work of 19th century biophysicists, ultrastructurists and collodial chemists. The development of the Aggregate Theory,and its overthrow by the Macromolecule Concept is described. Research in molecular genetics in the pre-second world war period, and the effects of the war on it, are briefly reviewed.…

  13. Using a Computer Animation to Teach High School Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotbain, Yosi; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Stavy, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    We present an active way to use a computer animation in secondary molecular genetics class. For this purpose we developed an activity booklet that helps students to work interactively with a computer animation which deals with abstract concepts and processes in molecular biology. The achievements of the experimental group were compared with those…

  14. [Aspects of molecular immunology and immunogenetics in autoimmune uveitis].

    PubMed

    Istrate, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Generally speaking, the uveitis comprises a relative complex group of autoimmune diseases or other autoimmune associated illness. Until now, a little from molecular and cellular mechanisms are known in the autoimmunity of uveitis. The uveitis may cause a visual handicap as well, leading even to blindness. This paper tries to bring into focus some of the molecular mechanisms and immunogenetic features of the disease.

  15. The molecular biology of meiosis in plants.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Raphaël; Mézard, Christine; Jenczewski, Eric; Macaisne, Nicolas; Grelon, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Meiosis is the cell division that reshuffles genetic information between generations. Recently, much progress has been made in understanding this process; in particular, the identification and functional analysis of more than 80 plant genes involved in meiosis have dramatically deepened our knowledge of this peculiar cell division. In this review, we provide an overview of advancements in the understanding of all aspects of plant meiosis, including recombination, chromosome synapsis, cell cycle control, chromosome distribution, and the challenge of polyploidy.

  16. Immunochemical methods in cell and molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, R.J.; Walker, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents immuno-chemical techniques for isolating and analysing a wide variety of biological products. CONTENTS: Introduction, Polyclonal Antiserum Production;Polyclonal Antiserum Processing;Uses of Polyclonal Antisera. Production and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies;Synthetic Petpides: A New Development in Protein Immunochemistry;and Technical Supplement.

  17. Methods in molecular biology: plant cytogenetics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cytogenetic studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of genetics, biology, reproduction, and evolution. From early studies in basic chromosome behavior the field has expanded enabling whole genome analysis to the manipulation of chromosomes and their organization. This book covers a ran...

  18. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II; Bielaga, B.A.

    1991-12-01

    The overall objective of this project was to use molecular genetics to develop strains of bacteria with enhanced ability to remove sulfur from coal, and to obtain data that will allow the performance and economics of a coal biodesulfurization process to be predicted. (VC)

  19. Molecular biology and cytopathology. Principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Fernando C; Vielh, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Some of the main applications of molecular techniques using cellular materials obtained from tumors by means of non-gynecological exfoliative cytology or fine-needle aspiration are briefly described in this review. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Bielaga, B.A.; Kilbane, J.J.

    1990-04-01

    The overall objectives of this project is to use Molecular Genetics to develop strains of bacteria (esp. Rhodococcus) with enhanced ability to remove sulfur from coal, and to obtain data that will allow the performance and economics of a coal biodesulfurization process to be predicted. 5 figs.

  1. The biological aspects of physiological anthropology with reference to its five keywords.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Koichi

    2005-05-01

    The methodology of physiological anthropology has been defined in the capacity of an independent academic field by five keywords: environmental adaptability, technological adaptability, physiological polymorphism, whole-body coordination and functional potentiality, clearly suggesting the direction of approach to human beings in the field of physiological anthropology. Recently, these keywords have attracted a great deal of attention from physiological anthropologists in Japan. Physiological anthropology is based on a biological framework. From the viewpoint of biology, it is essential to discuss the biological function of human behavior. In this brief conceptual manuscript, the biological aspects of physiological anthropology are discussed in relation to the five keywords.

  2. Genetics and molecular biology in laboratory medicine, 1963-2013.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, John B

    2013-01-01

    The past 50 years have seen many changes in laboratory medicine, either as causes or consequences of increases in productivity and expansion of the range of information which can be provided. The drivers and facilitators of change in relation to clinical applications of molecular biology included the need for diagnostic tools for genetic diseases and technical advances such as PCR and sequencing. However, molecular biology techniques have proved to have far wider applications, from detection of infectious agents to molecular characterization of tumors. Journals such as Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine play an important role in communication of these advances to the laboratory medicine community and in publishing evaluations of their practical value.

  3. The retinoblastoma gene is involved in multiple aspects of stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, U; Cipollaro, M; Giordano, A

    2006-08-28

    Genetic programs controlling self-renewal and multipotentiality of stem cells have overlapping pathways with cell cycle regulation. Components of cell cycle machinery can play a key role in regulating stem cell self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation and aging. Among the negative regulators of cell cycle progression, the RB family members play a prominent role in controlling several aspects of stem cell biology. Stem cells contribute to tissue homeostasis and must have molecular mechanisms that prevent senescence and hold 'stemness'. RB can induce senescence-associated changes in gene expression and its activity is downregulated in stem cells to preserve self-renewal. Several reports evidenced that RB could play a role in lineage specification of several types of stem cells. RB has a role in myogenesis as well as in cardiogenesis. These effects are not only related to its role in suppressing E2F-responsive genes but also to its ability to modulate the activity of tissue-specific transcription factors. RB is also involved in adipogenesis through a strict control of lineage commitment and differentiation of adipocytes as well in determining the switch between brown and white adipocytes. Also, hematopoietic progenitor cells utilize the RB pathway to modulate cell commitment and differentiation. In this review, we will also discuss the role of the other two RB family members: Rb2/p130 and p107 showing that they have both specific and overlapping functions with RB gene.

  4. Contemporary aspects of the biology and therapeutic regulation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Amanda J; Burnett, John R; Watts, Gerald F

    2015-01-02

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), the product of the MTTP gene, is essential for the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, but when defective causes abetalipoproteinemia. Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the inability to produce chylomicrons or very low-density lipoproteins, with the absence of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in the circulation. Knowledge of the molecular basis for abetalipoproteinemia has led to the development of therapies for dyslipidemia that inhibit MTP. Partial MTP inhibition using small molecule inhibitors, such as lomitapide, can effectively lower plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels, but is associated with gastrointestinal side effects and hepatic steatosis, whose long-term sequelae remain unclear; lomitapide has accordingly only been approved as a treatment for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Intestine-specific inhibitors of MTP decrease chylomicron biogenesis and improve insulin sensitivity in experimental animals and, while overcoming hepatic steatosis, may have significant gastrointestinal side effects that could limit their use in humans. We review contemporary aspects of the biology and therapeutic regulation of MTP and their significance for lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease.

  5. METHODS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: ASSAYING CHROMATIN SIRTUINS

    PubMed Central

    Silberman, Dafne M.; Sebastian, Carlos; Mostoslavsky, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Summary Most of the sirtuins’ nuclear substrates indentified so far are histones or other chromatin-associated proteins and, thus, it is of special relevance the development of good biochemical techniques to analyze the biology of these proteins in the context of chromatin. Here, we describe several of the chromatin-based techniques to identify sirtuins’ substrates, including a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocol, an acid-extraction protocol, and a nucleosomal immunoprecipitation protocol to analyze putative sirtuin chromatin interactors. PMID:24014405

  6. The nucleic acid revolution continues - will forensic biology become forensic molecular biology?

    PubMed

    Gunn, Peter; Walsh, Simon; Roux, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Molecular biology has evolved far beyond that which could have been predicted at the time DNA identity testing was established. Indeed we should now perhaps be referring to "forensic molecular biology." Aside from DNA's established role in identifying the "who" in crime investigations, other developments in medical and developmental molecular biology are now ripe for application to forensic challenges. The impact of DNA methylation and other post-fertilization DNA modifications, plus the emerging role of small RNAs in the control of gene expression, is re-writing our understanding of human biology. It is apparent that these emerging technologies will expand forensic molecular biology to allow for inferences about "when" a crime took place and "what" took place. However, just as the introduction of DNA identity testing engendered many challenges, so the expansion of molecular biology into these domains will raise again the issues of scientific validity, interpretation, probative value, and infringement of personal liberties. This Commentary ponders some of these emerging issues, and presents some ideas on how they will affect the conduct of forensic molecular biology in the foreseeable future.

  7. The nucleic acid revolution continues – will forensic biology become forensic molecular biology?

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Peter; Walsh, Simon; Roux, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Molecular biology has evolved far beyond that which could have been predicted at the time DNA identity testing was established. Indeed we should now perhaps be referring to “forensic molecular biology.” Aside from DNA’s established role in identifying the “who” in crime investigations, other developments in medical and developmental molecular biology are now ripe for application to forensic challenges. The impact of DNA methylation and other post-fertilization DNA modifications, plus the emerging role of small RNAs in the control of gene expression, is re-writing our understanding of human biology. It is apparent that these emerging technologies will expand forensic molecular biology to allow for inferences about “when” a crime took place and “what” took place. However, just as the introduction of DNA identity testing engendered many challenges, so the expansion of molecular biology into these domains will raise again the issues of scientific validity, interpretation, probative value, and infringement of personal liberties. This Commentary ponders some of these emerging issues, and presents some ideas on how they will affect the conduct of forensic molecular biology in the foreseeable future. PMID:24634675

  8. [Molecular biology for sarcoma: useful or necessary?].

    PubMed

    Neuville, Agnès; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Chibon, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors. Their diagnosis is based on morphology and immunohistochemical profile, with categories of tumors according to the type of tissue that they resemble. Nevertheless, for several tumors, cellular origin is unknown. Molecular analysis performed in recent years allowed, combining histophenotype and genomics, better classifying such sarcomas, individualizing new entities and grouping some tumors. Simple and recurrent genetic alterations, such as translocation, mutation, amplification, can be identified in one of two sarcomas and appear as new diagnostic markers. Their identification in specialized laboratories in molecular pathology of sarcomas is often useful and sometimes necessary for a good diagnosis, leading to a heavy and multidisciplinary multi-step treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of Molecular Modeling to Biological Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    informa- tion. DNA is the storehouse for the information that ultimately governs the synthesis of all biomolecules. It is generally found in the Watson ... Crick double helix . Breakthroughs in computer graphics and simulations have discovered that intercalation of flat aromatic rings is a major mechanism...for mutations.’ 0 Using molecular mechanics, docking studies show that molecules (e.g., acridine) can insert through the edge of the DNA helix . This

  10. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.

    1990-04-01

    The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of the small aquarium fish, Japanese Medaka, as a predictor of potential genotoxicity following exposure to carcinogens. This will be accomplished by quantitatively investigating the early molecular events associated with genotoxicity of various tissues of Medaka subsequent to exposure of the organism to several known carcinogens, such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. [The molecular biology of distraction osteogenesis].

    PubMed

    Boulétreau, P; Longaker, M T

    2004-02-01

    Distraction osteogenesis has become a mainstay in bone engineering and the recent application of this technique to the membranous craniofacial skeleton has significantly improved our armamentarium for reconstructive craniomaxillofacial procedures. However, if the biomechanical, histological and ultrastructural changes associated with distraction osteogenesis have been widely described, the molecular mechanisms governing the formation of new bone in the interfragmental gap of gradually distracted bone segments remain largely unclear. Recently, our laboratory has described a rat mandibular distraction model that provides an excellent environment for deciphering the molecular mechanisms that mediate distraction osteogenesis. In this Article, we present the hypotheses and current research that have furthered our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that govern distraction osteogenesis. Recent studies have implicated a growing number of cytokines that are intimately involved in the regulation of bone synthesis and turnover. The gene regulation of numerous cytokines (Transforming Growth Factor-B, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1, Fibroblast Growth Factor-2) during distraction osteogenesis have been best characterized and will be discussed in this text. We believe that novel systems like the rat model will facilitate our understanding of the biomolecular mechanisms that mediate membranous distraction osteogenesis and will ultimately guide the development of targeted-strategies designed to accelerate bone healing.

  12. The molecular biology of distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bouletreau, Pierre J; Warren, Stephen M; Longaker, Michael T

    2002-02-01

    Distraction osteogenesis has become a mainstay in bone tissue engineering and has significantly improved our armamentarium for reconstructive craniomaxillofacial procedures. However, although the biomechanical, histological, and ultrastructural changes associated with distraction osteogenesis have been widely described, the molecular mechanisms governing the formation of new bone in the interfragmental gap of gradually distracted bone segments remain largely unclear. Recently, a rat model of mandibular distraction was described that provides an excellent environment for deciphering the molecular mechanisms that mediate distraction osteogenesis. This article presents the hypotheses and current research that have furthered knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that govern distraction osteogenesis. Recent studies have implicated a growing number of cytokines that are intimately involved in the regulation of bone synthesis and turnover. The gene regulation of numerous cytokines (transforming growth factor-beta1, -beta2, -beta3, bone morphogenetic proteins, insulin-like growth factor-1, fibroblast growth factor-2) and extracellular matrix proteins (osteonectin, osteopontin) during distraction osteogenesis have been best characterized and are discussed in this article. It is believed that understanding the biomolecular mechanisms that mediate membranous distraction osteogenesis may guide the development of targeted strategies designed to improve distraction osteogenesis and accelerate bone healing.

  13. Surgical anatomy, radiological features, and molecular biology of the lumbar intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Ghannam, Malik; Jumah, Fareed; Mansour, Shaden; Samara, Amjad; Alkhdour, Saja; Alzuabi, Muayad A; Aker, Loai; Adeeb, Nimer; Massengale, Justin; Oskouian, Rod J; Shane Tubbs, R

    2017-03-01

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) is a joint unique in structure and functions. Lying between adjacent vertebrae, it provides both the primary support and the elasticity required for the spine to move stably. Various aspects of the IVD have long been studied by researchers seeking a better understanding of its dynamics, aging, and subsequent disorders. In this article, we review the surgical anatomy, imaging modalities, and molecular biology of the lumbar IVD. Clin. Anat. 30:251-266, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Aspects of HI behaviour in the birth of molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joncas, Gilles; Fortier, Pierre; Scholtys, Jeremy; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the processes related to the formation and evolution of molecular clouds is essential to our understanding of the interstellar medium (ISM) at large and of star formation. High galactic latitude clouds are ideal laboratories for studying the physics of the ISM as only turbulence, magnetic fields and the interstellar radiation field come into play. Using clues from UV H2 absorption lines and by comparing IRAS dust emission to HI column density from aperture synthesis observations obtained using the DRAO interferometer, we have probed the morphology and dynamics of 14 potential molecular sites (totaling 151 square degrees), in the hopes of identifying molecular clouds at different stages of evolution. Seven sites have confirmed molecular clouds. Most are new, four of which have been observed in CO using the Onsala 20m telescope. The HI line shows varying degrees of velocity shears very probably related to the age of the molecular site. Our newobservations will be presented. Simulations of turbulent HI fields have recently been acquired andwill be compared to our observations.

  15. Molecular biology strategies to detect residual disease.

    PubMed

    Garcés-Eisele, Javier

    2012-04-01

    The prognostic significance of minimal residual disease (MRD) has been demonstrated for a variety of hematologic malignancies. PCR based assays are among the most important methods for identifying MRD. They are aimed at detecting genetic abnormalities of residual leukemic cells with high specificity and sensitivity and represent an important diagnostic tool to assess the quality of therapeutic response, for clinical risk assessment, and for clinical management. In the present review technical aspects of different MRD detection methods are discussed which depend on the available targets regularly present in the respective leukemia type and subtype. As such fusion transcripts, gene mutations, and clonal rearrangements of antigen-receptor genes may be available for detection. Emphasis is given on discussing benefits and limitations of MRD detection and quantification in CML, AML and ALL.

  16. Asymmetry at the molecular level in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Louise N.

    2005-10-01

    Naturally occurring biological molecules are made of homochiral building blocks. Proteins are composed of L-amino acids (and not D-amino acids); nucleic acids such as DNA have D-ribose sugars (and not L-ribose sugars). It is not clear why nature selected a particular chirality. Selection could have occurred by chance or as a consequence of basic physical chemistry. Possible proposals, including the contribution of the parity violating the weak nuclear force, are discussed together with the mechanisms by which this very small contribution might be amplified. Homochirality of the amino acids has consequences for protein structure. Helices are right handed and beta sheets have a left-hand twist. When incorporated into the tertiary structure of a protein these chiralities limit the topologies of connections between helices and sheets. Polypeptides comprised of D-amino acids can be synthesized chemically and have been shown to adopt stable structures that are the mirror image of the naturally occurring L-amino acid polypeptides. Chirality is important in drug design. Three examples are discussed: penicillin; the CD4 antagonistic peptides; and thalidomide. The absolute hand of a biological structure can only be established by X-ray crystallographic methods using the technique of anomalous scattering.

  17. Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Amphibian Lens Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Jonathan J.; Tsonis, Panagiotis A.

    2012-01-01

    Lens regeneration among vertebrates is basically restricted to some amphibians. The most notable cases are the ones that occur in premetamorphic frogs and in adult newts. Frogs and newts regenerate their lens in very different ways. In frogs the lens is regenerated by transdifferentiation of the cornea and is limited only to a time before metamorphosis. On the other hand, regeneration in newts is mediated by transdifferentiation of the pigment epithelial cells of the dorsal iris and is possible in adult animals as well. Thus, the study of both systems could provide important information about the process. Molecular tools have been developed in frogs and recently also in newts. Thus, the process has been studied at the molecular and cellular levels. A synthesis describing both systems was long due. In this review we describe the process in both Xenopus and the newt. The known molecular mechanisms are described and compared. PMID:20638484

  18. The molecular biology of WHO grade I astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Marko, Nicholas F; Weil, Robert J

    2012-12-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) grade I astrocytomas include pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA). As technologies in pharmacologic neo-adjuvant therapy continue to progress and as molecular characteristics are progressively recognized as potential markers of both clinically significant tumor subtypes and response to therapy, interest in the biology of these tumors has surged. An updated review of the current knowledge of the molecular biology of these tumors is needed. We conducted a Medline search to identify published literature discussing the molecular biology of grade I astrocytomas. We then summarized this literature and discuss it in a logical framework through which the complex biology of these tumors can be clearly understood. A comprehensive review of the molecular biology of WHO grade I astrocytomas is presented. The past several years have seen rapid progress in the level of understanding of PA in particular, but the molecular literature regarding both PA and SEGA remains nebulous, ambiguous, and occasionally contradictory. In this review we provide a comprehensive discussion of the current understanding of the chromosomal, genomic, and epigenomic features of both PA and SEGA and provide a logical framework in which these data can be more readily understood.

  19. Systems biology of molecular chaperone networks.

    PubMed

    Csermely, Péter; Korcsmáros, Tamás; Kovács, István A; Szalay, Máté S; Soti, Csaba

    2008-01-01

    Molecular chaperones are not only fascinating molecular machines that help the folding, refolding, activation or assembly of other proteins, but also have a number of functions. These functions can be understood only by considering the emergent properties of cellular networks--and that of chaperones as special network constituents. As a notable example for the network-related roles of chaperones they may act as genetic buffers stabilizing the phenotype of various cells and organisms, and may serve as potential regulators of evolvability. Why are chaperones special in the context of cellular networks? Chaperones: (1) have weak links, i.e. low affinity, transient interactions with most of their partners; (2) connect hubs, i.e. act as 'masterminds' of the cell being close to several centre proteins with a lot of neighbours; and (3) are in the overlaps of network modules, which confers upon them a special regulatory role. Importantly, chaperones may uncouple or even quarantine modules of protein-protein interaction networks, signalling networks, genetic regulatory networks and membrane organelle networks during stress, which gives an additional chaperone-mediated protection for the cell at the network-level. Moreover, chaperones are essential to rebuild inter-modular contacts after stress by their low affinity, 'quasi-random' sampling of the potential interaction partners in different cellular modules. This opens the way to the chaperone-regulated modular evolution of cellular networks, and helps us to design novel therapeutic and anti-ageing strategies.

  20. Fluorescence probes of spectroscopic and dynamical aspects of molecular photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poliakoff, Erwin D.

    1988-11-01

    Studies were made of vibrationally resolved aspects of shape resonant excitation in the photoionization of N(2)0. This experiment was performed by generating dispersed fluorescence spectra from electronically excited photoions. These results are the first vibrationally resolved results on a polyatomic shape resonance. In vibrationally resolved measurements, different internuclear configurations are probed by sampling alternative vibrational levels of the ion. As a result, the continuum electron behavior can be mapped out most clearly, and the qualitative aspects of the electron ejection can be understood clearly. A central motivation for studying polyatomic shape resonances is that alternative vibrational modes may be explored, revealing facets that are nonexistent for diatomic systems, which are the only systems that have been characterized previously.

  1. Ordinary differential equations with applications in molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Ilea, M; Turnea, M; Rotariu, M

    2012-01-01

    Differential equations are of basic importance in molecular biology mathematics because many biological laws and relations appear mathematically in the form of a differential equation. In this article we presented some applications of mathematical models represented by ordinary differential equations in molecular biology. The vast majority of quantitative models in cell and molecular biology are formulated in terms of ordinary differential equations for the time evolution of concentrations of molecular species. Assuming that the diffusion in the cell is high enough to make the spatial distribution of molecules homogenous, these equations describe systems with many participating molecules of each kind. We propose an original mathematical model with small parameter for biological phospholipid pathway. All the equations system includes small parameter epsilon. The smallness of epsilon is relative to the size of the solution domain. If we reduce the size of the solution region the same small epsilon will result in a different condition number. It is clear that the solution for a smaller region is less difficult. We introduce the mathematical technique known as boundary function method for singular perturbation system. In this system, the small parameter is an asymptotic variable, different from the independent variable. In general, the solutions of such equations exhibit multiscale phenomena. Singularly perturbed problems form a special class of problems containing a small parameter which may tend to zero. Many molecular biology processes can be quantitatively characterized by ordinary differential equations. Mathematical cell biology is a very active and fast growing interdisciplinary area in which mathematical concepts, techniques, and models are applied to a variety of problems in developmental medicine and bioengineering. Among the different modeling approaches, ordinary differential equations (ODE) are particularly important and have led to significant advances

  2. Evolution of egg coats: linking molecular biology and ecology.

    PubMed

    Shu, Longfei; Suter, Marc J-F; Räsänen, Katja

    2015-08-01

    One central goal of evolutionary biology is to explain how biological diversity emerges and is maintained in nature. Given the complexity of the phenotype and the multifaceted nature of inheritance, modern evolutionary ecological studies rely heavily on the use of molecular tools. Here, we show how molecular tools help to gain insight into the role of egg coats (i.e. the extracellular structures surrounding eggs and embryos) in evolutionary diversification. Egg coats are maternally derived structures that have many biological functions from mediating fertilization to protecting the embryo from environmental hazards. They show great molecular, structural and functional diversity across species, but intraspecific variability and the role of ecology in egg coat evolution have largely been overlooked. Given that much of the variation that influences egg coat function is ultimately determined by their molecular phenotype, cutting-edge molecular tools (e.g. proteomics, glycomics and transcriptomics), combined with functional assays, are needed for rigorous inferences on their evolutionary ecology. Here, we identify key research areas and highlight emerging molecular techniques that can increase our understanding of the role of egg coats in the evolution of biological diversity, from adaptation to speciation.

  3. Overview of selected molecular biological databases

    SciTech Connect

    Rayl, K.D.; Gaasterland, T.

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the purpose, content, and design of a subset of the currently available biological databases, with an emphasis on protein databases. Databases included in this summary are 3D-ALI, Berlin RNA databank, Blocks, DSSP, EMBL Nucleotide Database, EMP, ENZYME, FSSP, GDB, GenBank, HSSP, LiMB, PDB, PIR, PKCDD, ProSite, and SWISS-PROT. The goal is to provide a starting point for researchers who wish to take advantage of the myriad available databases. Rather than providing a complete explanation of each database, we present its content and form by explaining the details of typical entries. Pointers to more complete ``user guides`` are included, along with general information on where to search for a new database.

  4. Cellular and molecular biology of neuronal dystonin.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, Andrew; Boyer, Justin G; Kothary, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal dystonin isoforms are giant cytoskeletal cross-linking proteins capable of interacting with actin and microtubule networks, protein complexes, membrane-bound organelles and cellular membranes. In the neuromuscular system, dystonin proteins are involved in maintaining cytoarchitecture integrity and have more recently been ascribed roles in other cellular processes such as organelle structure and intracellular transport. Loss of dystonin expression in mice results in a profound sensory ataxia termed dystonia musculorum (dt), which is attributed to the degeneration of sensory nerves. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the dystonin gene, the structure of encoded proteins, biological functions of neuronal dystonin isoforms, and known roles of dystonin in dt pathogenesis and human disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. pGLO Mutagenesis: A Laboratory Procedure in Molecular Biology for Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassiri, Eby A.

    2011-01-01

    A five-session laboratory project was designed to familiarize or increase the laboratory proficiency of biology students and others with techniques and instruments commonly used in molecular biology research laboratories and industries. In this project, the EZ-Tn5 transposon is used to generate and screen a large number of cells transformed with…

  6. pGLO Mutagenesis: A Laboratory Procedure in Molecular Biology for Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassiri, Eby A.

    2011-01-01

    A five-session laboratory project was designed to familiarize or increase the laboratory proficiency of biology students and others with techniques and instruments commonly used in molecular biology research laboratories and industries. In this project, the EZ-Tn5 transposon is used to generate and screen a large number of cells transformed with…

  7. Comparative molecular modelling of biologically active sterols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Mariusz; Mazerski, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Membrane sterols are targets for a clinically important antifungal agent - amphotericin B. The relatively specific antifungal action of the drug is based on a stronger interaction of amphotericin B with fungal ergosterol than with mammalian cholesterol. Conformational space occupied by six sterols has been defined using the molecular dynamics method to establish if the conformational features correspond to the preferential interaction of amphotericin B with ergosterol as compared with cholesterol. The compounds studied were chosen on the basis of structural features characteristic for cholesterol and ergosterol and on available experimental data on the ability to form complexes with the antibiotic. Statistical analysis of the data obtained has been performed. The results show similarity of the conformational spaces occupied by all the sterols tested. This suggests that the conformational differences of sterol molecules are not the major feature responsible for the differential sterol - drug affinity.

  8. Teaching molecular genetics: Chapter 1--Background principles and methods of molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Knoers, Nine V A M; Monnens, Leo A H

    2006-02-01

    In this first chapter of the series "Teaching molecular genetics," an introduction to molecular genetics is presented. We describe the structure of DNA and genes and explain in detail the central dogma of molecular biology, that is, the flow of genetic information from DNA via RNA to polypeptide (protein). In addition, several basic and frequently used general molecular tools, such as restriction enzymes, Southern blotting, DNA amplification and sequencing are discussed, in order to lay the foundations for the forthcoming chapters.

  9. Molecular and biological hallmarks of ageing.

    PubMed

    Aunan, J R; Watson, M M; Hagland, H R; Søreide, K

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is the inevitable time-dependent decline in physiological organ function that eventually leads to death. Age is a major risk factor for many of the most common medical conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. This study reviews currently known hallmarks of ageing and their clinical implications. A literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE was conducted covering the last decade. Average life expectancy has increased dramatically over the past century and is estimated to increase even further. Maximum longevity, however, appears unchanged, suggesting a universal limitation to the human organism. Understanding the underlying molecular processes of ageing and health decline may suggest interventions that, if used at an early age, can prevent, delay, alleviate or even reverse age-related diseases. Hallmarks of ageing can be grouped into three main categories. The primary hallmarks cause damage to cellular functions: genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations and loss of proteostasis. These are followed by antagonistic responses to such damage: deregulated nutrient sensing, altered mitochondrial function and cellular senescence. Finally, integrative hallmarks are possible culprits of the clinical phenotype (stem cell exhaustion and altered intercellular communication), which ultimately contribute to the clinical effects of ageing as seen in physiological loss of reserve, organ decline and reduced function. The sum of these molecular hallmarks produces the clinical picture of the elderly surgical patient: frailty, sarcopenia, anaemia, poor nutrition and a blunted immune response system. Improved understanding of the ageing processes may give rise to new biomarkers of risk or prognosis, novel treatment targets and translational approaches across disciplines that may improve outcomes. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The molecular biology of WHO grade II gliomas.

    PubMed

    Marko, Nicholas F; Weil, Robert J

    2013-02-01

    The WHO grading scheme for glial neoplasms assigns Grade II to 5 distinct tumors of astrocytic or oligodendroglial lineage: diffuse astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, oligoastrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and pilomyxoid astrocytoma. Although commonly referred to collectively as among the "low-grade gliomas," these 5 tumors represent molecularly and clinically unique entities. Each is the subject of active basic research aimed at developing a more complete understanding of its molecular biology, and the pace of such research continues to accelerate. Additionally, because managing and predicting the course of these tumors has historically proven challenging, translational research regarding Grade II gliomas continues in the hopes of identifying novel molecular features that can better inform diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies. Unfortunately, the basic and translational literature regarding the molecular biology of WHO Grade II gliomas remains nebulous. The authors' goal for this review was to present a comprehensive discussion of current knowledge regarding the molecular characteristics of these 5 WHO Grade II tumors on the chromosomal, genomic, and epigenomic levels. Additionally, they discuss the emerging evidence suggesting molecular differences between adult and pediatric Grade II gliomas. Finally, they present an overview of current strategies for using molecular data to classify low-grade gliomas into clinically relevant categories based on tumor biology.

  11. Plant synthetic biology for molecular engineering of signalling and development

    PubMed Central

    Nemhauser, Jennifer L.; Torii, Keiko U.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies of model plants in the past few decades have identified many key genes and pathways controlling development, metabolism and environmental responses. Recent technological and informatics advances have led to unprecedented volumes of data that may uncover underlying principles of plants as biological systems. The newly emerged discipline of synthetic biology and related molecular engineering approaches is built on this strong foundation. Today, plant regulatory pathways can be reconstituted in heterologous organisms to identify and manipulate parameters influencing signalling outputs. Moreover, regulatory circuits that include receptors, ligands, signal transduction components, epigenetic machinery and molecular motors can be engineered and introduced into plants to create novel traits in a predictive manner. Here, we provide a brief history of plant synthetic biology and significant recent examples of this approach, focusing on how knowledge generated by the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana has contributed to the rapid rise of this new discipline, and discuss potential future directions. PMID:27249346

  12. Molecular aspects of renal cell carcinoma: a review

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Hari; Huh, Jung-Sik; Rove, Kyle O; Crompton, Luiza; Koul, Sweaty; Meacham, Randall B; Kim, Fernando J

    2011-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a disease in which cancer cells form in the tubules of the kidney. RCC, the incidence of which is increasing annually, represents five percent of adult epithelial cancers. Clear cell carcinoma represents the most frequent histological subtype. RCC is characterized by a lack of early warning signs, diverse clinical manifestations. Incidentally detected tumors in asymptomatic individuals have been steadily increasing owing to the increased usage of various imaging technologies. Currently there are no recommendations for screening to detect and make an early diagnosis of renal cancer. But in recent years, the discovery of new molecular and cytogenetic markers has led to the recognition and classification of several novel subtypes of RCC, and the introduction of molecular-targeted therapy for advanced-stage RCC. We performed a literature review using PubMed and discuss current knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, treatment, and future research directions of RCC. PMID:21969126

  13. Molecular and genetic aspects of odontogenic tumors: a review

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Kavita; Chandra, Shaleen; Raj, Vineet; Fareed, Wamiq; Zafar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Odontogenic tumors contain a heterogeneous collection of lesions that are categorized from hamartomas to benign and malignant neoplasms of inconstant aggressiveness. Odontogenic tumors are usually extraordinary with assessed frequency of short of 0.5 cases/100,000 population for every year. The lesions such as odontogenic tumors are inferred from the components of the tooth-structuring contraption. They are discovered solely inside the maxillary and mandibular bones. This audit speaks to experiences and cooperation of the molecular and genetic variations connected to the development and movement of odontogenic tumors which incorporate oncogenes, tumor-silencer genes, APC gene, retinoblastoma genes, DNA repair genes, onco-viruses, development components, telomerase, cell cycle controllers, apoptosis-related elements, and regulators/conttrollers of tooth development. The reasonable and better understanding of the molecular components may prompt new ideas for their detection and administrating a better prognosis of odontogenic tumors. PMID:26221475

  14. Molecular approaches to epidemiology and clinical aspects of malaria.

    PubMed

    Brown, G V; Beck, H P; Molyneux, M; Marsh, K

    2000-10-01

    Malaria is a problem of global importance, responsible for 1-2 million deaths per year, mainly in African children, as well as considerable morbidity manifested as severe anaemia and encephalopathy in young children. Fundamental to the development of new tools for malaria control in humans is an increased understanding of key features of malaria infection, such as the diversity of outcome in different individuals, the understanding of different manifestations of the disease and of the mechanisms of immunity that allow clinical protection in the face of ongoing low-grade infection (concomitant immunity or premunition). Here, Graham Brown and colleagues review some of the ways in which molecular approaches might be used to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of malaria, as discussed at the Molecular Approaches to Malaria conference (MAM2000), Lorne, Australia, 2-5 February 2000.

  15. Wntless in Wnt secretion: molecular, cellular and genetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Das, Soumyashree; Yu, Shiyan; Sakamori, Ryotaro; Stypulkowski, Ewa; Gao, Nan

    2012-12-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, Wnt-triggered signal transduction pathways play fundamental roles in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Wnt proteins are modified as glycolipoproteins and are secreted into the extracellular environment as morphogens. Recent studies on the intracellular trafficking of Wnt proteins demonstrate multiple layers of regulation along its secretory pathway. These findings have propelled a great deal of interest among researchers to further investigate the molecular mechanisms that control the release of Wnts and hence the level of Wnt signaling. This review is dedicated to Wntless, a putative G-protein coupled receptor that transports Wnts intracellularly for secretion. Here, we highlight the conclusions drawn from the most recent cellular, molecular and genetic studies that affirm the role of Wntless in the secretion of Wnt proteins.

  16. Familial renal cell carcinoma: clinical and molecular genetic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Maher, E.R.; Yates, J.R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 2% of all human cancer, but familial cases are infrequent. Riches (1963) and Griffin et al. (1984) in a population-based case-control study found a family history of renal cell carcinoma in 2.4% of affected patients compared to 1.4% of controls. Nevertheless the importance of inherited tumours in clinical practice and medical research is disproportionate to their frequency. In clinical practice recognition of familial RCC can provide opportunities to prevent morbidity and mortality by appropriate screening. In medical research recent advances in molecular genetics offer the prospect of isolating the genes involved in the pathogenesis of familial RCC and of the more common sporadic cases. In this article we review the clinical and molecular genetics of inherited renal cell carcinoma (adenocarcinoma or hypernephroma). PMID:1997093

  17. Encapsulins: molecular biology of the shell.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Robert J; Cassidy-Amstutz, Caleb; Chaijarasphong, Thawatchai; Savage, David F

    2017-10-01

    Compartmentalization is both a fundamental principle of cellular organization and an emerging theme in prokaryotic biology. Work in the past few decades has shown that protein-based organelles called microcompartments enhance the function of encapsulated cargo proteins. More recently, the repertoire of known prokaryotic organelles has expanded beyond microcompartments to include a new class of smaller proteinaceous compartments, termed nanocompartments (also known as encapsulins). Nanocompartments are icosahedral capsids that are smaller and less complex than microcompartments. Encapsulins are formed by a single species of shell protein that self-assembles and typically encapsulates only one type of cargo protein. Significant progress has been made in understanding the structure of nanocompartment shells and the loading of cargo to the interior. Recent analysis has also demonstrated the prevalence of encapsulin genes throughout prokaryotic genomes and documented a large diversity of cargo proteins with a variety of novel functions, suggesting that nanocompartments play an important role in many microbes. Here we review the current understanding of encapsulin structure and function and highlight exciting open questions of physiological significance.

  18. Theoretical aspects of gas-phase molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Muckerman, J.T.

    1993-12-01

    Research in this program is focused on the development and application of time-dependent quantum mechanical and semiclassical methods for treating inelastic and reactive molecular collisions, and the photochemistry and photophysics of atoms and molecules in laser fields. Particular emphasis is placed on the development and application of grid methods based on discrete variable representations, on time-propagation methods, and, in systems with more that a few degrees of freedom, on the combined use of quantal wavepackets and classical trajectories.

  19. Molecular diagnosis of sepsis: New aspects and recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, L.; Hunfeld, K.-P.; Kost, G.

    2014-01-01

    By shortening the time to pathogen identification and allowing for detection of organisms missed by blood culture, new molecular methods may provide clinical benefits for the management of patients with sepsis. While a number of reviews on the diagnosis of sepsis have recently been published we here present up-to-date new developments including multiplex PCR, mass spectrometry and array techniques. We focus on those techniques that are commercially available and for which clinical studies have been performed and published. PMID:24678402

  20. Molecular aspects of anti-atherosclerotic effects of short peptides.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Lin'kova, N S; Evlashkina, E V; Durnova, A O; Kozlov, K L; Gutop, O E

    2014-11-01

    We studied molecular mechanisms of the vasoprotective effects of tripeptide T-38 and dipeptide RR-1. Short peptides T-38 and the RR-1 activate the processes of cell renewal in organotypic and dissociated cultures of vascular cells during aging by increasing the expression of Ki-67 and reducing the synthesis of p53 protein. T-38 and RR-1 reduce the synthesis of E-selectin, adhesion molecule involved in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.

  1. Collective aspects of singlet fission in molecular crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Teichen, Paul E.; Eaves, Joel D.

    2015-07-28

    We present a model to describe collective features of singlet fission in molecular crystals and analyze it using many-body theory. The model we develop allows excitonic states to delocalize over several chromophores which is consistent with the character of the excited states in many molecular crystals, such as the acenes, where singlet fission occurs. As singlet states become more delocalized and triplet states more localized, the rate of singlet fission increases. We also determine the conditions under which the two triplets resulting from fission are correlated. Using the Bethe Ansatz and an entanglement measure for indistinguishable bipartite systems, we calculate the triplet-triplet entanglement as a function of the biexciton interaction strength. The biexciton interaction can produce bound biexciton states and provides a source of entanglement between the two triplets even when the triplets are spatially well separated. Significant entanglement between the triplet pair occurs well below the threshold for bound pair formation. Our results paint a dynamical picture that helps to explain why fission has been observed to be more efficient in molecular crystals than in their covalent dimer analogues and have consequences for photovoltaic efficiency models that assume that the two triplets can be extracted independently.

  2. [Molecular biology of haemostasis: fibrinogen, factor XIII].

    PubMed

    Meyer, M

    2004-05-01

    Genetic defects of fibrinogen are caused by a broad spectrum of mutations in one of the three structural genes FGA, FGB and FGG. They result in complete or partial lack of plasma fibrinogen (a- or hypofibrinogenaemia) or in structural abnormalities affecting protein function (dysfibrinogenaemia). In contrast to afibrinogenaemia mainly caused by nonsense, frameshift, and splice site mutations resulting in substantially truncated polypeptide chains (mainly Aalpha), in hypo- and dysfibrinogenaemias missense mutations lead to the exchange of single amino acids as dominating underlying defect. In the cases with quantitative disorders, bleeding with various degrees of severity is generally observed. Dysfibrinogenaemia is associated with both bleeding or thrombosis or even a combination of haemorrhagic and thromboembolic symptoms. About one half of the dysfibrinogenaemic cases is clinically asymptomatic. The plasmatic factor XIII (FXIII) is a heterotetramer composed of two A and two B subunits encoded by two different genes. FXIII deficiency is associated with bleeding, wound dehiscence and recurrent spontaneous abortions. The most frequent form is caused by defects in the A subunit with a broad spectrum of underlying mutations. Defects of the B subunit are very rare and were molecularly elucidated in only a few cases.

  3. Cellular and Molecular Biology of Airway Mucins

    PubMed Central

    Lillehoj, Erik P.; Kato, Kosuke; Lu, Wenju; Kim, Kwang C.

    2017-01-01

    Airway mucus constitutes a thin layer of airway surface liquid with component macromolecules that covers the luminal surface of the respiratory tract. The major function of mucus is to protect the lungs through mucociliary clearance of inhaled foreign particles and noxious chemicals. Mucus is comprised of water, ions, mucin glycoproteins, and a variety of other macromolecules, some of which possess anti-microbial, anti-protease, and anti-oxidant activities. Mucins comprise the major protein component of mucus and exist as secreted and cell-associated glycoproteins. Secreted, gel-forming mucins are mainly responsible for the viscoelastic property of mucus, which is crucial for effective mucociliary clearance. Cell-associated mucins shield the epithelial surface from pathogens through their extracellular domains and regulate intracellular signaling through their cytoplasmic regions. However, neither the exact structures of mucin glycoproteins, nor the manner through which their expression is regulated, are completely understood. This chapter reviews what is currently known about the cellular and molecular properties of airway mucins. PMID:23445810

  4. Epidemiology and molecular biology of Barrett esophagus.

    PubMed

    Casson, Alan G; Williams, Lara; Guernsey, Duane L

    2005-01-01

    Over the past three decades, there has been a marked change in the epidemiology of esophageal malignancy, with an increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The reasons for this are largely unknown and remain controversial, but several lifestyle risk factors have been proposed, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It is hypothesized that chronic GERD results in acute mucosal injury, promotes cellular proliferation, and induces specialized columnar metaplasia (Barrett esophagus). Progression of Barrett esophagus to invasive adenocarcinoma is reflected histologically by the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. Dysplasia is widely regarded as the precursor of invasive cancer, and high-grade dysplasia in Barrett epithelium is frequently associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Although several molecular alterations have been described in Barrett esophagus, it is anticipated that relatively few will prove to be clinically useful. To date, biomarkers which currently appear to predict the progression of Barrett esophagus to invasive malignancy include aneuploidy, loss of heterozygosity of 17p (implicating the p53 tumor suppressor gene), and cyclin D1 protein overexpression, and with further validation, will most likely be incorporated into routine clinical practice. It is anticipated that models incorporating objective scores of sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors (ie, age, gender, body mass index), severity of reflux symptoms, endoscopic and histologic findings, and an assessment of a panel of biomarkers will be developed to further define subsets of patients with Barrett esophagus at increased risk for malignant progression, thereby permitting the development of more rational endoscopic surveillance and screening programs.

  5. A decade of molecular cell biology: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Asifa; Fuchs, Elaine; Mitchison, Tim; Shaw, Reuben J; St Johnston, Daniel; Strasser, Andreas; Taylor, Susan; Walczak, Claire; Zerial, Marino

    2011-09-23

    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology celebrated its 10-year anniversary during this past year with a series of specially commissioned articles. To complement this, here we have asked researchers from across the field for their insights into how molecular cell biology research has evolved during this past decade, the key concepts that have emerged and the most promising interfaces that have developed. Their comments highlight the broad impact that particular advances have had, some of the basic understanding that we still require, and the collaborative approaches that will be essential for driving the field forward.

  6. Molecular Biology of STLV-III and HTLV-IV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-22

    proviral clones to assess heterogeneity in a given virus population. The modifications to the standard Sanger method are: 1 . An increased primer-to...IIi AD-A228 929 il~t COP, A CONTRACT NO: DAND17-87-C-7187 TITLE: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF STLV-III AND HTLV -IV PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Joseph Sodroski...21702-5012 63105A 63105H29 AC 072 11. TITLE (Include Security Clasification) Molecular Biology of STLV-III and HTLV -IV 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Joseph

  7. Molecular Biology of STLV-III and HTLV-IV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-10

    AD-A228 948 DTIC FILE COpy AD C3NTRACT NO: DAMD17-87-C-7187 TITLE: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF STLV-III AND HTLV -IV PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Joseph Sodroski...NO.Frederick, Maryland 21702-5012 63105A 63105H29 AC 072 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Molecular Biology of STLV-III and HTLV -IV 12...FROM7/ 1 /88 TO6/-.10 891 1989 August 10 I 17 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES L1ISUBJECT TERMS (Co €ki ’ orrreve f tfnrcessar endfNiti" y b/ck

  8. Multispectral optical tweezers for molecular diagnostics of single biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Corey; Fardad, Shima; Sincore, Alex; Vangheluwe, Marie; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Optical trapping of single biological cells has become an established technique for controlling and studying fundamental behavior of single cells with their environment without having "many-body" interference. The development of such an instrument for optical diagnostics (including Raman and fluorescence for molecular diagnostics) via laser spectroscopy with either the "trapping" beam or secondary beams is still in progress. This paper shows the development of modular multi-spectral imaging optical tweezers combining Raman and Fluorescence diagnostics of biological cells.

  9. Molecular biology and genetic engineering in nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is a complex and tightly regulated process limited to a group of prokaryotic species known as diazotrophs. Among well-studied diazotrophs, Azotobacter vinelandii is the best studied for its convenience of aerobic growth, its high levels of nitrogenase expression, and its genetic tractability. This chapter includes protocols and strategies in the molecular biology and genetic engineering of A. vinelandii that have been used as valuable tools for advancing studies on the biosynthesis, mechanism, and regulation of nitrogen fixation.

  10. Where statistics and molecular microarray experiments biology meet.

    PubMed

    Kelmansky, Diana M

    2013-01-01

    This review chapter presents a statistical point of view to microarray experiments with the purpose of understanding the apparent contradictions that often appear in relation to their results. We give a brief introduction of molecular biology for nonspecialists. We describe microarray experiments from their construction and the biological principles the experiments rely on, to data acquisition and analysis. The role of epidemiological approaches and sample size considerations are also discussed.

  11. Hepatitis B virus molecular biology and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, R. Jason; Bagga, Sumedha; Bouchard, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses need a host cell to provide a milieu favorable to viral replication. Consequently, viruses often adopt mechanisms to subvert host cellular signaling processes. While beneficial for the viral replication cycle, virus-induced deregulation of host cellular signaling processes can be detrimental to host cell physiology and can lead to virus-associated pathogenesis, including, for oncogenic viruses, cell transformation and cancer progression. Included among these oncogenic viruses is the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Despite the availability of an HBV vaccine, 350–500 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HBV, and a significant number of these chronically infected individuals will develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epidemiological studies indicate that chronic infection with HBV is the leading risk factor for the development of HCC. Globally, HCC is the second highest cause of cancer-associated deaths, underscoring the need for understanding mechanisms that regulate HBV replication and the development of HBV-associated HCC. HBV is the prototype member of the Hepadnaviridae family; members of this family of viruses have a narrow host range and predominately infect hepatocytes in their respective hosts. The extremely small and compact hepadnaviral genome, the unique arrangement of open reading frames, and a replication strategy utilizing reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate to generate the DNA genome are distinguishing features of the Hepadnaviridae. In this review, we provide a comprehensive description of HBV biology, summarize the model systems used for studying HBV infections, and highlight potential mechanisms that link a chronic HBV-infection to the development of HCC. For example, the HBV X protein (HBx), a key regulatory HBV protein that is important for HBV replication, is thought to play a cofactor role in the development of HBV-induced HCC, and we highlight the functions of HBx that may

  12. Human papillomavirus molecular biology and disease association

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Nagayasu; Griffin, Heather; Kranjec, Christian; Murakami, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have evolved over millions of years to propagate themselves in a range of different animal species including humans. Viruses that have co‐evolved slowly in this way typically cause chronic inapparent infections, with virion production in the absence of apparent disease. This is the case for many Beta and Gamma HPV types. The Alpha papillomavirus types have however evolved immunoevasion strategies that allow them to cause persistent visible papillomas. These viruses activate the cell cycle as the infected epithelial cell differentiates in order to create a replication competent environment that allows viral genome amplification and packaging into infectious particles. This is mediated by the viral E6, E7, and E5 proteins. High‐risk E6 and E7 proteins differ from their low‐risk counterparts however in being able to drive cell cycle entry in the upper epithelial layers and also to stimulate cell proliferation in the basal and parabasal layers. Deregulated expression of these cell cycle regulators underlies neoplasia and the eventual progression to cancer in individuals who cannot resolve high‐risk HPV infection. Most work to date has focused on the study of high‐risk HPV types such as HPV 16 and 18, which has led to an understanding of the molecular pathways subverted by these viruses. Such approaches will lead to the development of better strategies for disease treatment, including targeted antivirals and immunotherapeutics. Priorities are now focused toward understanding HPV neoplasias at sites other than the cervix (e.g. tonsils, other transformation zones) and toward understanding the mechanisms by which low‐risk HPV types can sometimes give rise to papillomatosis and under certain situations even cancers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25752814

  13. Chirality as a physical aspect of structure formation in biological macromolecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshko, E. V.; Tverdislov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    A novel regularity of hierarchical structures is found in the formation of chiral biological macromolecular systems. The formation of structures with alternating chirality (helical structures) serves as an instrument of stratification. The ability of a carbon atom to form chiral compounds is an important factor that determined the carbon basis of living systems on the Earth as well as their development through a series of chiral bifurcations. In the course of biological evolution, the helical structures became basic elements of the molecular machines in the cell. The discreteness of structural levels allowed the mechanical degrees of freedom formation in the molecular machines in the cell.

  14. Monogenec Arrhythmic Syndromes: From Molecular and Genetic Aspects to Bedside

    PubMed Central

    E.Z., Golukhova; O.I., Gromova; R.A., Shomahov; N.I., Bulaeva; L.A., Bockeria

    2016-01-01

    The abrupt cessation of effective cardiac function that is generally due to heart rhythm disorders can cause sudden and unexpected death at any age and is referred to as a syndrome called “sudden cardiac death” (SCD). Annually, about 400,000 cases of SCD occur in the United States alone. Less than 5% of the resuscitation techniques are effective. The prevalence of SCD in a population rises with age according to the prevalence of coronary artery disease, which is the most common cause of sudden cardiac arrest. However, there is a peak in SCD incidence for the age below 5 years, which is equal to 17 cases per 100,000 of the population. This peak is due to congenital monogenic arrhythmic canalopathies. Despite their relative rarity, these cases are obviously the most tragic. The immediate causes, or mechanisms, of SCD are comprehensive. Generally, it is arrhythmic death due to ventricular tachyarrythmias – sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF). Bradyarrhythmias and pulseless electrical activity account for no more than 40% of all registered cardiac arrests, and they are more often the outcome of the abovementioned arrhythmias. Our current understanding of the mechanisms responsible for SCD has emerged from decades of basic science investigation into the normal electrophysiology of the heart, the molecular physiology of cardiac ion channels, the fundamental cellular and tissue events associated with cardiac arrhythmias, and the molecular genetics of monogenic disorders of the heart rhythm (for example, the long QT syndrome). This review presents an overview of the molecular and genetic basis of SCD in the long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, and sudden cardiac death prevention strategies by modern techniques (including implantable cardioverter-defibrillator) PMID:27437140

  15. Universal aspects of the chemomechanical coupling for molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Lipowsky, R

    2000-11-13

    The directed movement of molecular motors is studied theoretically within a general class of nonuniform ratchet models in which the motor can attain M internal states and undergo transitions between these states at K spatial locations. The functional relationship between the motor velocity and the concentration of the fuel molecule is analyzed for arbitrary values of M and K. This relationship is found to exhibit universal features which depend on the number of unbalanced transitions per motor cycle arising from the enzymatic motor activity. This agrees with experimental results on dimeric kinesin and is predicted to apply to other cytoskeletal motors.

  16. ASPECT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Able to deploy within one hour of notification, EPA's Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) is the nation’s only airborne real-time chemical and radiological detection, infrared and photographic imagery platform.

  17. Andersen-Tawil syndrome: clinical and molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoai-Linh; Pieper, Gerard H; Wilders, Ronald

    2013-12-05

    Andersen–Tawil syndrome (ATS) is a rare hereditary multisystem disorder. Ventricular arrhythmias, periodic paralysis and dysmorphic features constitute the classic triad of ATS symptoms. The expressivity of these symptoms is, however, extremely variable, even within single ATS affected families, and not all ATS patients present with the full triad of symptoms. ATS patients may show a prolongation of the QT interval,which explains the classification as long QT syndrome type 7 (LQT7), and specific neurological or neurocognitive defects. In ATS type 1 (ATS1), the syndrome is associated with a loss-of-function mutation in the KCNJ2 gene,which encodes the Kir2.1 inward rectifier potassium channel. In ATS type 2 (ATS2), which does not differ from ATS1 in its clinical symptoms, the genetic defect is unknown. Consequently, ATS2 comprises all cases of ATS in which genetic testing did not reveal a mutation in KCNJ2. The loss-of-function mutations in KCNJ2 in ATS1 affect the excitability of both skeletal and cardiac muscle, which underlies the cardiac arrhythmias and periodic paralysis associated with ATS. Thus far, the molecular mechanism of the dysmorphic features is only poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the clinical symptoms, the underlying genetic and molecular defects, and the management and treatment of ATS.

  18. Amorphous drug delivery systems: molecular aspects, design, and performance.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Aditya Mohan; Gupta, Piyush; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2004-01-01

    The biopharmaceutical properties-especially the solubility and permeability-of a molecule contribute to its overall therapeutic efficacy. The newer tools of drug discovery have caused a shift in the properties of drug-like compounds, resulting in drugs with poor aqueous solubility and permeability, which offer delivery challenges, thus requiring considerable pharmaceutical manning. The modulation of solubility is a more viable option for enhancing bioavailability than permeability, because of the lack of "safe" approaches to enhance the latter. Solid-state manipulation in general, and amorphization in particular, are preferred ways of enhancing solubility and optimizing delivery of poorly soluble drugs. This review attempts to address the diverse issues pertaining to amorphous drug delivery systems. We discuss the various thermodynamic phenomenon such as glass transition, fragility, molecular mobility, devitrification kinetics, and molecular-level chemical interactions that contribute to the ease of formation, the solubility advantage, and the stability of amorphous drugs. The engineering of pharmaceutical alloys by solubilizing and stabilizing carriers, commonly termed solid dispersions, provide avenues for exploiting the benefits of amorphous systems. Carrier properties, mechanisms of drug release, and study of release kinetics help to improve the predictability of performance. The review also addresses the various barriers in the design of amorphous delivery systems, use of amorphous form in controlled release delivery systems, and their in vivo performance.

  19. Molecular biomimetics: GEPI-based biological routes to technology.

    PubMed

    Tamerler, Candan; Khatayevich, Dmitriy; Gungormus, Mustafa; Kacar, Turgay; Oren, E Emre; Hnilova, Marketa; Sarikaya, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    In nature, the viability of biological systems is sustained via specific interactions among the tens of thousands of proteins, the major building blocks of organisms from the simplest single-celled to the most complex multicellular species. Biomolecule-material interaction is accomplished with molecular specificity and efficiency leading to the formation of controlled structures and functions at all scales of dimensional hierarchy. Through evolution, Mother Nature developed molecular recognition by successive cycles of mutation and selection. Molecular specificity of probe-target interactions, e.g., ligand-receptor, antigen-antibody, is always based on specific peptide molecular recognition. Using biology as a guide, we can now understand, engineer, and control peptide-material interactions and exploit them as a new design tool for novel materials and systems. We adapted the protocols of combinatorially designed peptide libraries, via both cell surface or phage display methods; using these we select short peptides with specificity to a variety of practical materials. These genetically engineered peptides for inorganics (GEPI) are then studied experimentally to establish their binding kinetics and surface stability. The bound peptide structure and conformations are interrogated both experimentally and via modeling, and self-assembly characteristics are tested via atomic force microscopy. We further engineer the peptide binding and assembly characteristics using a computational biomimetics approach where bioinformatics based peptide-sequence similarity analysis is developed to design higher generation function-specific peptides. The molecular biomimetic approach opens up new avenues for the design and utilization of multifunctional molecular systems in a wide-range of applications from tissue engineering, disease diagnostics, and therapeutics to various areas of nanotechnology where integration is required among inorganic, organic and biological materials. Here, we

  20. Zsyntax: a formal language for molecular biology with projected applications in text mining and biological prediction.

    PubMed

    Boniolo, Giovanni; D'Agostino, Marcello; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo

    2010-03-03

    We propose a formal language that allows for transposing biological information precisely and rigorously into machine-readable information. This language, which we call Zsyntax (where Z stands for the Greek word zetaomegaeta, life), is grounded on a particular type of non-classical logic, and it can be used to write algorithms and computer programs. We present it as a first step towards a comprehensive formal language for molecular biology in which any biological process can be written and analyzed as a sort of logical "deduction". Moreover, we illustrate the potential value of this language, both in the field of text mining and in that of biological prediction.

  1. Biology, Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and the Role of Sorafenib.

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Miele, Luca; Oben, Jude; Grieco, Antonio; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2016-01-01

    Sorafenib is a small molecular inhibitor of intracellular tyrosine and serine/threonine protein kinases (VEGFR, PDGFR, CRAF and BRAF), and is thought also to induce autophagy, a chief mechanism influencing tumor growth. Sorafenib shows efficacy in the management of non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is refractory to other chemotherapeutic drugs. HCC represents a major end point of chronic liver diseases and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. In HCC patients Sorafenib increases overall survival compared to placebo. The most common chronic liver disease affecting up to 30% of the population in Western countries is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an intra-hepatic amassing of triglycerides deemed as the hepatic manifestation of insulin resistance and obesity. NAFLD encompasses a range of disorders with grades of liver damage varying from steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), hallmarked by hepatocellular injury/inflammation in the presence or not of fibrosis. NAFLD patients progress to NASH in 10% of cases, which may progress to cirrhosis and HCC. Recent exciting studies uncovered a potential therapeutic role for Sorafenib that goes beyond HCC, and extends to cirrhotic portal hypertensive syndrome during cirrhosis, and to selective anti-fibrotic effects mediated through direct inhibition of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC), the cellular mediators of intra-hepatic matrix deposition. The aim of this review is to concisely summarize our current knowledge of the biology, epidemiology and clinical aspects of HCC, as well as the previously under-appreciated therapeutic efficacy of Sorafenib beyond HCC. The review therefore utilizes data along the spectrum of liver diseases, including from experimental via pre-clinical to clinical.

  2. Apert and Crouzon syndromes-Cognitive development, brain abnormalities, and molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Marilyse B L; Maximino, Luciana P; Perosa, Gimol B; Abramides, Dagma V M; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Yacubian-Fernandes, Adriano

    2016-06-01

    Apert and Crouzon are the most common craniosynostosis syndromes associated with mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene. We conducted a study to examine the molecular biology, brain abnormalities, and cognitive development of individuals with these syndromes. A retrospective longitudinal review of 14 patients with Apert and Crouzon syndromes seen at the outpatient Craniofacial Surgery Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies in Brazil from January 1999 through August 2010 was performed. Patients between 11 and 36 years of age (mean 18.29 ± 5.80), received cognitive evaluations, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular DNA analyses. Eight patients with Apert syndrome (AS) had full scale intelligence quotients (FSIQs) that ranged from 47 to 108 (mean 76.9 ± 20.2), and structural brain abnormalities were identified in five of eight patients. Six patients presented with a gain-of-function mutation (p.Ser252Trp) in FGFR2 and FSIQs in those patients ranged from 47 to78 (mean 67.2 ± 10.7). One patient with a gain-of-function mutation (p.Pro253Arg) had a FSIQ of 108 and another patient with an atypical splice mutation (940-2A →G) had a FSIQ of 104. Six patients with Crouzon syndrome had with mutations in exons IIIa and IIIc of FGFR2 and their FSIQs ranged from 82 to 102 (mean 93.5 ± 6.7). These reveal that molecular aspects are another factor that can be considered in studies of global and cognitive development of patients with Apert and Crouzon syndrome (CS). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The healing potential of the periosteum molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Malizos, Konstantinos N; Papatheodorou, Loukia K

    2005-11-01

    The presence of pluripotential mesenchymal cells in the under surface of the periosteum in combination with growth factors regularly produced or released after injury, provide this unique tissue with an important role in the healing of bone and cartilage. The periosteum contributes in the secondary callus formation with cells and growth factors and should always be preserved and protected when surgery is performed for the management of a fracture. The current evidence about the cellular interactions, the stimulants and the signalling pathways related to osteogenesis and chondrogenesis is described. An essential knowledge of the basics related to the contribution of the periosteum in the healing of fractures, osteotomies, during the process of distraction osteogenesis and in some degree in the repair of cartilagenous defects, provides the surgeons with a better insight to understand the upcoming "biological" interventions in the management of skeletal injuries.

  4. Responses of plant seedlings to hypergravity: cellular and molecular aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoson, T.; Yoshioka, R.; Soga, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Takeba, G.

    Hypergravity produced by centrifugation has been used to analyze the responses of plant seedlings to gravity stimulus. Elongation growth of stem organs is suppressed by hypergravity, which can be recognized as a way for plants to resist gravitational force. The mechanisms inducing growth suppression under hypergravity conditions were analyzed at cellular and molecular levels. When growth was suppressed by hypergravity, a decrease in the cell wall extensibility was brought about in various plants. Hypergravity also induced a cell wall thickening and an increase in the molecular mass of the certain hemicellulosic polysaccharides. Both a decrease in the activities hydrolyzing such polysaccharides and an increase in the apoplast pH were involved in such changes in the cell wall constituents. Thus, the cell wall metabolism is greatly modified under hypergravity conditions, which causes a decrease in the cell wall extensibility, thereby inhibiting elongation growth in stem organs. On the other hand, to identify genes involved in hypergravity-induced growth suppression, changes in gene expression by hypergravity treatment were analyzed in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by differential display method. Sixty-two genes were expressed differentially: expression levels of 39 genes increased, whereas those of 23 genes decreased under hypergravity conditions. The expression of these genes was further analyzed using RT-PCR. One of genes upregulated by hypergravity encoded hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), which catalyzes a reaction producing mevalonic acid, a key precursor of hormones such as gibberellic acid and abscisic acid. The expression of HMGR gene increased within several hours after hypergravity treatment. Also, compactin, an inhibitor of HMGR activity, prevented hypergravity-induced growth suppression, suggesting that HMGR is involved in suppression of Arabidopsis hypocotyl growth by hypergravity. In addition, hypergravity increased the expression levels of CCR1 and

  5. Angelman syndrome: review of clinical and molecular aspects

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Lynne M

    2014-01-01

    “Angelman syndrome” (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder whose main features are intellectual disability, lack of speech, seizures, and a characteristic behavioral profile. The behavioral features of AS include a happy demeanor, easily provoked laughter, short attention span, hypermotoric behavior, mouthing of objects, sleep disturbance, and an affinity for water. Microcephaly and subtle dysmorphic features, as well as ataxia and other movement disturbances, are additional features seen in most affected individuals. AS is due to deficient expression of the ubiquitin protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene, which displays paternal imprinting. There are four molecular classes of AS, and some genotype–phenotype correlations have emerged. Much remains to be understood regarding how insufficiency of E6-AP, the protein product of UBE3A, results in the observed neurodevelopmental deficits. Studies of mouse models of AS have implicated UBE3A in experience-dependent synaptic remodeling. PMID:24876791

  6. Angelman syndrome: review of clinical and molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Bird, Lynne M

    2014-01-01

    "Angelman syndrome" (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder whose main features are intellectual disability, lack of speech, seizures, and a characteristic behavioral profile. The behavioral features of AS include a happy demeanor, easily provoked laughter, short attention span, hypermotoric behavior, mouthing of objects, sleep disturbance, and an affinity for water. Microcephaly and subtle dysmorphic features, as well as ataxia and other movement disturbances, are additional features seen in most affected individuals. AS is due to deficient expression of the ubiquitin protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene, which displays paternal imprinting. There are four molecular classes of AS, and some genotype-phenotype correlations have emerged. Much remains to be understood regarding how insufficiency of E6-AP, the protein product of UBE3A, results in the observed neurodevelopmental deficits. Studies of mouse models of AS have implicated UBE3A in experience-dependent synaptic remodeling.

  7. Molecular and cellular aspects of protein misfolding and disease.

    PubMed

    Herczenik, Eszter; Gebbink, Martijn F B G

    2008-07-01

    Proteins are essential elements for life. They are building blocks of all organisms and the operators of cellular functions. Humans produce a repertoire of at least 30,000 different proteins, each with a different role. Each protein has its own unique sequence and shape (native conformation) to fulfill its specific function. The appearance of incorrectly shaped (misfolded) proteins occurs on exposure to environmental changes. Protein misfolding and the subsequent aggregation is associated with various, often highly debilitating, diseases for which no sufficient cure is available yet. In the first part of this review we summarize the structural composition of proteins and the current knowledge of underlying forces that lead proteins to lose their native structure. In the second and third parts we describe the molecular and cellular mechanisms that are associated with protein misfolding in disease. Finally, in the last part we portray recent efforts to develop treatments for protein misfolding diseases.

  8. A Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Course for Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Novell, J. M.; Cid, E.; Gomis, R.; Barbera, A.; Guinovart, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a course for reinforcing the knowledge of biochemistry in secondary school science teachers. The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Barcelona designed a course to bring these teachers up to date with this discipline. In addition to updating their knowledge of biochemistry and molecular…

  9. A Streamlined Molecular Biology Module for Undergraduate Biochemistry Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, Gregory W.; Chihade, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis and other molecular biology techniques, including plasmid manipulation and restriction analysis, are commonly used tools in the biochemistry research laboratory. In redesigning our biochemistry lab curricula, we sought to integrate these techniques into a term-long, project-based course. In the module presented here,…

  10. A Streamlined Molecular Biology Module for Undergraduate Biochemistry Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muth, Gregory W.; Chihade, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis and other molecular biology techniques, including plasmid manipulation and restriction analysis, are commonly used tools in the biochemistry research laboratory. In redesigning our biochemistry lab curricula, we sought to integrate these techniques into a term-long, project-based course. In the module presented here,…

  11. Web Based Learning Support for Experimental Design in Molecular Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmsen, Tinri; Bisseling, Ton; Hartog, Rob

    An important learning goal of a molecular biology curriculum is a certain proficiency level in experimental design. Currently students are confronted with experimental approaches in textbooks, in lectures and in the laboratory. However, most students do not reach a satisfactory level of competence in the design of experimental approaches. This…

  12. An Inquiry-based Introduction to Molecular Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Foster

    2000-01-01

    Presents investigative approaches to teaching molecular biology. Emphasizes a deductive determination of the nature of nucleic acids visualized in a gel, and a comparison of different genomes. Asks why students should take it on faith that what they view on a gel is DNA. (SAH)

  13. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  14. Gene Concepts in Higher Education Cell and Molecular Biology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albuquerque, Pitombo Maiana; de Almeida, Ana Maria Rocha; El-Hani, Nino Charbel

    2008-01-01

    Despite being a landmark of 20th century biology, the "classical molecular gene concept," according to which a gene is a stretch of DNA encoding a functional product, which may be a single polypeptide or RNA molecule, has been recently challenged by a series of findings (e.g., split genes, alternative splicing, overlapping and nested…

  15. Assessing Practical Laboratory Skills in Undergraduate Molecular Biology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Lynne; Koenders, Annette; Gynnild, Vidar

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a new strategy of assessing laboratory skills in a molecular biology course to improve: student effort in preparation for and participation in laboratory work; valid evaluation of learning outcomes; and students' employment prospects through provision of evidence of their skills. Previously, assessment was based on written…

  16. A Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Course for Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Novell, J. M.; Cid, E.; Gomis, R.; Barbera, A.; Guinovart, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a course for reinforcing the knowledge of biochemistry in secondary school science teachers. The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Barcelona designed a course to bring these teachers up to date with this discipline. In addition to updating their knowledge of biochemistry and molecular…

  17. Proceedings: Second international conference on intelligent systems for molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, R.; Brutlag, D.; Karp, P.; Lathrop, R.; Searls, D.

    1994-12-31

    This volume provided full papers for presentations at the Second International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology held August 14-17, 1994 at Stanford University, Stanford, California. Each individual paper has been separately abstracted and indexed for the database.

  18. Progress in nucleic acid research and molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, W.E. . Biology Div.); Moldave, K. )

    1989-01-01

    This book contain the proceedings on progress in nucleic acid research and molecular biology. Topics covered include: polynucleotide-protein cross-links induced by ultraviolet light and their use for structural investigation of nucleoproteins; left-handed Z-DNA and genetic recombination, and structure and function of signal recognition particle RNA.

  19. Teaching Introductory Cell & Molecular Biology: A Historical and Empirical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Herbert B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the reorganized introductory cell and molecular biology lecture course at the State University of New York at Binghamton that was designed to address the issues of lack of active student participation and the stress put on memorization rather than analytical skills. Emphasizes teaching the subject historically and empirically…

  20. An Inquiry-based Introduction to Molecular Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Foster

    2000-01-01

    Presents investigative approaches to teaching molecular biology. Emphasizes a deductive determination of the nature of nucleic acids visualized in a gel, and a comparison of different genomes. Asks why students should take it on faith that what they view on a gel is DNA. (SAH)

  1. Assessing Practical Laboratory Skills in Undergraduate Molecular Biology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Lynne; Koenders, Annette; Gynnild, Vidar

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a new strategy of assessing laboratory skills in a molecular biology course to improve: student effort in preparation for and participation in laboratory work; valid evaluation of learning outcomes; and students' employment prospects through provision of evidence of their skills. Previously, assessment was based on written…

  2. Molecular and thermodynamic aspects of solubility advantage from solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Shyam Sunder; Kaushal, Aditya Mohan; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2007-01-01

    The solubility behavior of solid dispersions of two drugs with similar structures was studied. Valdecoxib (VLB) and etoricoxib (ETB) were used as model drugs, and their solid dispersions were prepared with 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20% w/w poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) by the quench cooling method. The interactions between the drug and polymer molecules were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The thermodynamic aspects of solubility behavior were studied by plotting van't Hoff plots. Both the drugs showed significant differences in their solubility behavior. In the case of VLB, solubility was found to increase significantly with increasing PVP concentration. ETB however did not show any significant solubility enhancement and was found to have decreased solubility at high PVP concentrations. H-bonding interactions were established between VLB and PVP molecules, while none were observed in ETB-PVP dispersions. Solution thermodynamics of amorphous and crystalline forms of both the drugs were studied by van't Hoff plots. The results obtained showed very high negative value of Gibbs free energy for VLB as compared to ETB, thus demonstrating high spontaneity of VLB solubilization. Entropy of amorphous VLB was found to be highly favorable, while being slightly unfavorable for ETB. From this study H-bonding interactions were found to play a major role in dictating the solubility behavior of these drugs from solid dispersions.

  3. Enhanced sampling techniques in molecular dynamics simulations of biological systems.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Rafael C; Melo, Marcelo C R; Schulten, Klaus

    2015-05-01

    Molecular dynamics has emerged as an important research methodology covering systems to the level of millions of atoms. However, insufficient sampling often limits its application. The limitation is due to rough energy landscapes, with many local minima separated by high-energy barriers, which govern the biomolecular motion. In the past few decades methods have been developed that address the sampling problem, such as replica-exchange molecular dynamics, metadynamics and simulated annealing. Here we present an overview over theses sampling methods in an attempt to shed light on which should be selected depending on the type of system property studied. Enhanced sampling methods have been employed for a broad range of biological systems and the choice of a suitable method is connected to biological and physical characteristics of the system, in particular system size. While metadynamics and replica-exchange molecular dynamics are the most adopted sampling methods to study biomolecular dynamics, simulated annealing is well suited to characterize very flexible systems. The use of annealing methods for a long time was restricted to simulation of small proteins; however, a variant of the method, generalized simulated annealing, can be employed at a relatively low computational cost to large macromolecular complexes. Molecular dynamics trajectories frequently do not reach all relevant conformational substates, for example those connected with biological function, a problem that can be addressed by employing enhanced sampling algorithms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Recent developments of molecular dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular Biology of Gallbladder Cancer: Potential Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Andrén-Sandberg, Åke

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a common malignancy of the biliary tract and involves the changes in multiple oncogenes and multiple genetic genes. Since over the past decade there has been an advance in the knowledge of the genetic basis of cancer, mainly as a result of the rapid progression of molecular technology; however, conventional therapeutic approaches have not had much impact on the course of this aggressive neoplasm. Knowledge of the molecular biology of GBC is rapidly growing. Genetic alterations in GBC include adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter ABCG8, membrane-bound enzyme ADAM-17 of multi-functional gene family, and other genes including p53, COX2, XPC, and RASSF1A. The advances in molecular biology have potential implications for the detection of this disease, using Synuclein-gamma, Syndecan-1, glycoprotein 72 (TAG-72), tumor endothelial marker 8 protein (TEM8) and TNF-alpha. The use of these molecular diagnostic methods is of clinical importance for the gene replacement therapy, genetic prodrug activation therapy, and antisense immunology technology for the treatment of malignancy. The author reviewed recent publications on PubMed, and summarized molecular biology of GBC, with an emphasis on features of potential clinical implications for diagnosis and management. PMID:23112962

  5. tRNA--the golden standard in molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Barciszewska, Mirosława Z; Perrigue, Patrick M; Barciszewski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) represent a major class of RNA molecules. Their primary function is to help decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence in order to synthesize protein and thus ensures the precise translation of genetic information that is imprinted in DNA. The discovery of tRNA in the late 1950's provided critical insight into a genetic machinery when little was known about the central dogma of molecular biology. In 1965, Robert Holley determined the first nucleotide sequence of alanine transfer RNA (tRNA(Ala)) which earned him the 1968 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Today, tRNA is one of the best described and characterized biological molecules. Here we review some of the key historical events in tRNA research which led to breakthrough discoveries and new developments in molecular biology.

  6. Molecular Aspects of Transport in Thin Films of Controlled Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Paul W. Bohn

    2009-04-16

    Our laboratory focuses on developing spatially localized chemistries which can produce structures of controlled architecture on the supermolecular length scale -- structures which allow us to control the motion of molecular species with high spatial resolution, ultimately on nanometer length scales. Specifically, nanocapillary array membranes (NCAMs) contain an array of nanometer diameter pores connecting vertically separated microfluidic channels. NCAMs can manipulate samples with sub-femtoliter characteristic volumes and attomole sample amounts and are opening the field of chemical analysis of mass-limited samples, because they are capable of digital control of fluid switching down to sub-attoliter volumes; extension of analytical “unit operations” down to sub-femtomole sample sizes; and exerting spatiotemporal control over fluid mixing to enable studies of reaction dynamics. Digital flow switching mediated by nanocapillary array membranes can be controlled by bias, ionic strength, or pore diameter and is being studied by observing the temporal characteristics of transport across a single nanopore in thin PMMA membranes. The control of flow via nanopore surface characteristics, charge density and functional group presentation, is being studied by coupled conductivity and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements. Reactive mixing experiments previously established low millisecond mixing times for NCAM-mediated fluid transfer, and this has been exploited to demonstrate capture of mass-limited target species by Au colloids. Voltage and thermally-activated polymer switches have been developed for active control of transport in NCAMs. Thermally-switchable and size-selective transport was achieved by grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes onto the exterior surface of a Au-coated polycarbonate track-etched membrane, while the voltage-gated properties of poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) were characterized dynamically. Electrophoretic separations have been

  7. [Molecular biology in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemias "smoldering"].

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Sartor, Chiara; Papayannidis, Cristina; Iacobucci, Ilaria; Paolini, Stefania; Clissa, Cristina; Ottaviani, Emanuela; Finelli, Carlo

    2014-03-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic disorders of the myeloid lineage characterized by peripheral cytopenias and frequent leukemic evolution. MDS differ for clinical presentation, disease behavior and progression and this is the reflection of remarkable variability at molecular level. To this moment disease diagnosis is still dependent on bone marrow morphology that, although high concordance rates among experts are reported, remains subjective. Karyotype analysis is mandatory but diagnosis may be difficult in presence of normal karyotype or non-informative cytogenetics. Standardized molecular markers are needed to better define diagnosis, prediction of disease progression and prognosis. Furthermore, a molecular biology analysis could provide an important therapeutic tool towards tailored therapy and new insights in the disease's biology.

  8. Membrane curvature in cell biology: An integration of molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jarsch, Iris K; Daste, Frederic; Gallop, Jennifer L

    2016-08-15

    Curving biological membranes establishes the complex architecture of the cell and mediates membrane traffic to control flux through subcellular compartments. Common molecular mechanisms for bending membranes are evident in different cell biological contexts across eukaryotic phyla. These mechanisms can be intrinsic to the membrane bilayer (either the lipid or protein components) or can be brought about by extrinsic factors, including the cytoskeleton. Here, we review examples of membrane curvature generation in animals, fungi, and plants. We showcase the molecular mechanisms involved and how they collaborate and go on to highlight contexts of curvature that are exciting areas of future research. Lessons from how membranes are bent in yeast and mammals give hints as to the molecular mechanisms we expect to see used by plants and protists.

  9. Cellular and Molecular Biological Approaches to Interpreting Ancient Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Dianne K.; Neubauer, Cajetan; Ricci, Jessica N.; Wu, Chia-Hung; Pearson, Ann

    2016-06-01

    Our ability to read the molecular fossil record has advanced significantly in the past decade. Improvements in biomarker sampling and quantification methods, expansion of molecular sequence databases, and the application of genetic and cellular biological tools to problems in biomarker research have enabled much of this progress. By way of example, we review how attempts to understand the biological function of 2-methylhopanoids in modern bacteria have changed our interpretation of what their molecular fossils tell us about the early history of life. They were once thought to be biomarkers of cyanobacteria and hence the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, but we now believe that 2-methylhopanoid biosynthetic capacity originated in the Alphaproteobacteria, that 2-methylhopanoids are regulated in response to stress, and that hopanoid 2-methylation enhances membrane rigidity. We present a new interpretation of 2-methylhopanes that bridges the gap between studies of the functions of 2-methylhopanoids and their patterns of occurrence in the rock record.

  10. Membrane curvature in cell biology: An integration of molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Daste, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Curving biological membranes establishes the complex architecture of the cell and mediates membrane traffic to control flux through subcellular compartments. Common molecular mechanisms for bending membranes are evident in different cell biological contexts across eukaryotic phyla. These mechanisms can be intrinsic to the membrane bilayer (either the lipid or protein components) or can be brought about by extrinsic factors, including the cytoskeleton. Here, we review examples of membrane curvature generation in animals, fungi, and plants. We showcase the molecular mechanisms involved and how they collaborate and go on to highlight contexts of curvature that are exciting areas of future research. Lessons from how membranes are bent in yeast and mammals give hints as to the molecular mechanisms we expect to see used by plants and protists. PMID:27528656

  11. Molecular studies of functional aspects of plant mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Siedow, J.N.

    1992-03-03

    The goal of this research is to characterize the mechanism by which a protein encoded by mitochondrial genome of cms-T maize (URF13) interacts with a family of the compounds produced by certain fungi (T-toxins) to permeabilize biological membranes. The research carried out during the current funding period has focused on the structure of URF13, and the results support the validity of the three-helix model of URF13 and provide direct evidence for the oligomeric nature of at least some of the URF13 molecules in the membrane. In addition, the toxin binding studies have provided insight into the dynamic nature of the T-toxin:URF13 interaction and the extent to which Asp-39 is crucial to the interaction that leads to membrane pore formation. Additional knowledge of the structure of URF13 is needed if the nature of the interaction between URF13 and T-toxin to produce a hydrophilic pore within the membrane is to ultimately be understood.

  12. Molecular studies of functional aspects of plant mitochondria. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Siedow, J.N.

    1992-03-03

    The goal of this research is to characterize the mechanism by which a protein encoded by mitochondrial genome of cms-T maize (URF13) interacts with a family of the compounds produced by certain fungi (T-toxins) to permeabilize biological membranes. The research carried out during the current funding period has focused on the structure of URF13, and the results support the validity of the three-helix model of URF13 and provide direct evidence for the oligomeric nature of at least some of the URF13 molecules in the membrane. In addition, the toxin binding studies have provided insight into the dynamic nature of the T-toxin:URF13 interaction and the extent to which Asp-39 is crucial to the interaction that leads to membrane pore formation. Additional knowledge of the structure of URF13 is needed if the nature of the interaction between URF13 and T-toxin to produce a hydrophilic pore within the membrane is to ultimately be understood.

  13. Biomining Microorganisms: Molecular Aspects and Applications in Biotechnology and Bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerez, Carlos A.

    The microbial solubilization of metals using chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms has successfully been used in industrial processes called biomining to extract metals such as copper, gold, uranium and others. The most studied leaching bacteria are from the genus Acidithiobacillus belonging to the Gram-negative γ-proteobacteria. Acidithiobacillus spp. obtain their energy from the oxidation of ferrous iron, elemental sulfur, or partially oxidized sulfur compounds. Other thermophilic archaeons capable of oxidizing sulfur and iron (II) have also been known for many years, and they are mainly from the genera Sulfolobus, Acidianus, Metallosphaera and Sulfurisphaera. Recently, some mesophilic iron (II)-oxidizing archaeons such as Ferroplasma acidiphilium and F. acidarmanus belonging to the Thermoplasmales have also been isolated and characterized. Recent studies of microorganisms consider them in their consortia, integrating fundamental biological knowledge with metagenomics, metaproteomics, and other data to obtain a global picture of how a microbial community functions. The understanding of microbial growth and activities in oxidizing metal ions will be useful for improving applied microbial biotechnologies such as biomining, bioshrouding, biomonitoring and bioremediation of metals in acidic environments.

  14. Nuclear receptors CAR and PXR: Molecular, functional, and biomedical aspects.

    PubMed

    di Masi, Alessandra; De Marinis, Elisabetta; Ascenzi, Paolo; Marino, Maria

    2009-10-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors sharing a common evolutionary history and having similar sequence features at the protein level. Selective ligand(s) for some NRs is not known, therefore these NRs have been named "orphan receptors". Whenever ligands have been recognized for any of the orphan receptor, it has been categorized and grouped as "adopted" orphan receptor. This group includes the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR). They function as sensors of toxic byproducts derived from endogenous metabolites and of exogenous chemicals, in order to enhance their elimination. This unique function of CAR and PXR sets them apart from the steroid hormone receptors. The broad response profile has established that CAR and PXR are xenobiotic sensors that coordinately regulate xenobiotic clearance in the liver and intestine via induction of genes involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. In the past few years, research has revealed new and mostly unsuspected roles for CAR and PXR in modulating hormone, lipid, and energy homeostasis as well as cancer and liver steatosis. The purpose of this review is to highlight the structural and molecular bases of CAR and PXR impact on human health, providing information on mechanisms through which diet, chemical exposure, and environment ultimately impact health and disease.

  15. [Williams syndrome: its clinical aspects and molecular bases].

    PubMed

    Antonell, A; Del Campo, M; Flores, R; Campuzano, V; Perez-Jurado, L A

    2006-01-07

    Williams syndrome is a developmental disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 7,500 newborns. Its phenotype is characterized by distinctive facial features, mild to moderate mental retardation and general cognitive deficits with a non-uniform profile, having problems in some areas (psychomotricity, visuospatial integration) and relative preservation of others (language, musicality), friendly personality, occasional hypercalcemia of infancy, and a vasculopathy with supravalvular aortic stenosis. Williams syndrome is caused by a submicroscopic deletion of 1.55 Mb in the chromosome band 7q11.23, which includes 26-28 genes. The mutational mechanism consists in a misalignment between regions of almost identical sequence and the subsequent unequal recombination. The reciprocal product of this rearrangement is the duplication of this region, causing a language specific disorder. Clinical-molecular correlations establishment through a good phenotypic characterization and the precise analysis of breakpoints in patients with atypical and typical deletions, altogether with the design of animal models and functional studies in vitro for the genes of the interval will be important to be able to determine the exact contribution of the genes to the phenotype, to know their pathogenesis and physiopathology, and to identify therapeutic methods.

  16. Molecular aspects of bovine cystic ovarian disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Hugo H; Marelli, Belkis E; Rey, Florencia; Amweg, Ayelen N; Díaz, Pablo U; Stangaferro, Matías L; Salvetti, Natalia R

    2015-06-01

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is one of the main causes of reproductive failure in cattle and causes severe economic loss to the dairy farm industry because it increases both days open in the post partum period and replacement rates due to infertility. This disease is the consequence of the failure of a mature follicle to ovulate at the time of ovulation in the estrous cycle. This review examines the evidence for the role of altered steroid and gonadotropin signaling systems and the proliferation/apoptosis balance in the ovary with cystic structures. This evidence suggests that changes in the expression of ovarian molecular components associated with these cellular mechanisms could play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of COD. The evidence also shows that gonadotropin receptor expression in bovine cystic follicles is altered, which suggests that changes in the signaling system of gonadotropins could play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of conditions characterized by altered ovulation, such as COD. Ovaries from animals with COD exhibit a disrupted steroid receptor pattern with modifications in the expression of coregulatory proteins. These changes in the pathways of endocrine action would trigger the changes in proliferation and apoptosis underlying the aberrant persistence of follicular cysts. Free Spanish abstract: A Spanish translation of this abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/149/6/R251/suppl/DC1. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  17. Biochemical and molecular aspects of spectral diagnosis in calcinosis cutis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan-Yang

    2014-03-11

    Calcinosis cutis (CC) is a type of calcinosis wherein insoluble compounds or salts deposited on the skin. Clinical diagnosis of CC is usually achieved through time consuming histopathological or immunohistochemical procedures, but it can only be empirically identified by experienced practitioners. The use of advanced vibrational spectroscopy has been recently shown to have great potential as a diagnostic technique for various diseased tissues because it analyses the chemical composition of diseased tissue rather than its anatomy and predicts disease progression. This review article includes a summary of the application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopic or microspectroscopic analysis for the rapid diagnosis and identification of the chemical composition of skin calcified deposits in patients with various CC symptoms. Both advanced techniques not only can detect the types of insoluble salts such as calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and monosodium urate, and β-carotene in the calcified deposits of human skin tissue but also can directly differentiate the carbonate substitution in the apatite structure of the skin calcified deposits. In particular, the combination of both vibrational techniques may provide complementary information to simultaneously assess the intact components of the calcified deposits. In the future, both FT-IR and Raman vibrational microspectroscopic techniques will become available tools to support the standard test techniques currently used in some clinical diagnoses. Molecular spectroscopy technique is rapidly changing disease diagnosis and management.

  18. Clinical, molecular, and pharmacological aspects of FMR1 related disorders.

    PubMed

    Pugin, A; Faundes, V; Santa María, L; Curotto, B; Aliaga, S; Salas, I; Soto, P; Bravo, P; Peña, M I; Alliende, M A

    2017-05-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability, is associated with a broad spectrum of disorders across different generations of a single family. This study reviews the clinical manifestations of fragile X-associated disorders as well as the spectrum of mutations of the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) and the neurobiology of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), and also provides an overview of the potential therapeutic targets and genetic counselling. This disorder is caused by expansion of the CGG repeat (>200 repeats) in the 5 prime untranslated region of FMR1, resulting in a deficit or absence of FMRP. FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the translation of several genes that are important in synaptic plasticity and dendritic maturation. It is believed that CGG repeat expansions in the premutation range (55 to 200 repeats) elicit an increase in mRNA levels of FMR1, which may cause neuronal toxicity. These changes manifest clinically as developmental problems such as autism and learning disabilities as well as neurodegenerative diseases including fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Advances in identifying the molecular basis of fragile X syndrome may help us understand the causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, and they will probably contribute to development of new and specific treatments. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. [Dicentric Y chromosomes. First part: cytogenetic and molecular aspects].

    PubMed

    Bouayed Abdelmoula, N; Amouri, A

    2005-01-01

    Dicentric Y chromosomes have been reviewed twice in 1994 by Hsu et al. and in 1995 by Tuck-Muller et al. who showed that dic(Y) are the most common Y structural abnormalities and that their influence on gonadal and somatic development is extremely variable. The prediction of their phenotypic consequences is often difficult because of the variety of genomic sequences concerned by duplications and deletions, because of the variable degrees of mosaicism (cell line 45,X in particular) and at the end, because of identification and analysis technical difficulties of the structure of the rearranged Y chromosome. The clinical specter of this cytogenetic abnormality is rather wide going from almost-normal or infertile males, to females with or without stigmas of Turner syndrome. Middle phenotypes consist of various degrees of genital ambiguities. However, clinical expression seems to be related to the genomic capital of the Y chromosome, mainly the Y genes involved in the control of the process of the determination of gonads (Yp) and spermatogenesis (Yq) as well as control of the growth and the skeletal development (Yp). Here, we report a third comprehensive review of the literature concerning dicentric Y chromosomes reported since 1994. In the light of previous reviews as well as the recent data of the genetic cartography of the Y chromosome, we try, in this first part, to determine characteristics of reported dicentric Y chromosomes as well as their chromosomal mechanics, their mitotic stability and finally their cytogenetic and molecular investigations.

  20. Clinical, Cellular, and Molecular Aspects in the Pathophysiology of Rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, Martin; Buddenkotte, Jörg; Aubert, Jerome; Sulk, Mathias; Novak, Pawel; Schwab, Verena D.; Mess, Christian; Cevikbas, Ferda; Rivier, Michel; Carlavan, Isabelle; Déret, Sophie; Rosignoli, Carine; Metze, Dieter; Luger, Thomas A.; Voegel, Johannes J.

    2013-01-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease of unknown etiology. Although described centuries ago, the pathophysiology of this disease is still poorly understood. Epidemiological studies indicate a genetic component, but a rosacea gene has not been identified yet. Four subtypes and several variants of rosacea have been described. It is still unclear whether these subtypes represent a “developmental march” of different stages or are merely part of a syndrome that develops independently but overlaps clinically. Clinical and histopathological characteristics of rosacea make it a fascinating “human disease model” for learning about the connection between the cutaneous vascular, nervous, and immune systems. Innate immune mechanisms and dysregulation of the neurovascular system are involved in rosacea initiation and perpetuation, although the complex network of primary induction and secondary reaction of neuroimmune communication is still unclear. Later, rosacea may result in fibrotic facial changes, suggesting a strong connection between chronic inflammatory processes and skin fibrosis development. This review highlights recent molecular (gene array) and cellular findings and aims to integrate the different body defense mechanisms into a modern concept of rosacea pathophysiology. PMID:22076321

  1. Molecular and karyological aspects of Batoidea (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchi) phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Lucia; Liguori, Innocenza; Costagliola, Domenico; Morescalchi, Maria A; Tinti, Fausto; Stingo, Vincenzo

    2007-03-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in elucidating the relationships within the Chondrichthyes, there is no agreement as it concerns the systematics of Batoidea, the most derived superorder among cartilaginous fishes, and many different interpretations exist. Our investigation provides the first assessment of relationships among the described batoid species using sequences from both mtDNA and nuclear genes as well as karyological morphology. Our work consists primarily in reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships of Batoidea by examining the mtDNA (16S) and nuclear gene (18S) sequences from 11 batoid species. The three analytical methods (NJ, MP and Bayesian analysis) grouped Rajiformes, Myliobatiformes and Rhinobatiformes. In these trees the two torpedoes diverge from the other batoid fishes. We also compare the molecular data with the available karyological evidence, which consist of the diploid number and the karyotype morphology of eight species belonging to the four orders examined. The results show that the karyological structure in the different species is generally consistent with the various phylogenetical trees, and that Torpediniformes confirm their unique genome organization.

  2. Sex chromosome changes in leukemia: cytogenetics and molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Shahrabi, Saeid; Khodadi, Elahe; Saba, Fakhredin; Shahjahani, Mohammad; Saki, Najmaldin

    2017-09-10

    Sex chromosome loss (SCL) can occur in older men as a physiological phenomenon or as an acquired abnormality in leukemia. Loss of chromosome Y and loss of chromosome X are acquired disorders that are mainly observed in patients over 80 years as well as in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. In this review, we examine the cytogenetic and molecular changes of sex chromosomes in leukemia. Relevant English language literature were searched and retrieved from PubMed search engine (1990-2016). The following keywords were used: 'Sex chromosomes', 'Leukemia' and 'Cytogenetics'. The loss of tumor suppressor genes along with these chromosomal abnormalities in the majority of malignant cells in bone marrow (BM) has raised the question whether this is an age-related phenomenon or has occurred as a result of clonal abnormality. On the other hand, the presence of these chromosomal abnormalities in a number of genetic diseases associated with leukemia leads to progression of malignancy, and their role in peripheral blood stem cell transplantation confirm the finding that these chromosomal abnormalities can play an important role in clonal abnormality. The presence of these abnormalities can cause genetic instability in BM and result in the development of a malignant clone and progression of the disease. In addition, the evaluation of SCL together with the genes involved in these chromosomes can contribute to predict the disease prognosis as well as monitoring of malignancy.

  3. Molecular layer interneurons of the cerebellum: developmental and morphological aspects.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Constantino

    2015-10-01

    During the past 25 years, our knowledge on the development of basket and stellate cells (molecular layer interneurons [MLIs]) has completely changed, not only regarding their origin from the ventricular zone, corresponding to the primitive cerebellar neuroepithelium, instead of the external granular layer, but above all by providing an almost complete account of the genetic regulations (transcription factors and other genes) involved in their differentiation and synaptogenesis. Moreover, it has been shown that MLIs' precursors (dividing neuroblasts) and not young postmitotic neurons, as in other germinal neuroepithelia, leave the germinative zone and migrate all along a complex and lengthy path throughout the presumptive cerebellar white matter, which provides suitable niches exerting epigenetic influences on their ultimate neuronal identities. Recent studies carried out on the anatomical-functional properties of adult MLIs emphasize the importance of these interneurons in regulating PC inhibition, and point out the crucial role played by electrical synaptic transmission between MLIs as well as ephaptic interactions between them and Purkinje cells at the pinceaux level, in the regulation of this inhibition.

  4. New aspects of molecular imaging in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ceci, Francesco; Castellucci, Paolo; Cerci, Juliano J; Fanti, Stefano

    2017-07-13

    Nowadays several new imaging modalities are available for investigating prostate cancer (PCa) such as magnet resonance imaging (MRI) in the form of whole body MRI and pelvic multiparametric MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) using choline as radiotracers. Nevertheless, these modalities proved sub-optimal accuracy for detecting PCa metastases, particularly in the recurrence setting. A new molecular probe targeting the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) has been recently developed for PET imaging. PSMA, the glutamate carboxypeptidase II, is a membrane bound metallo-peptidase over-expressed in PCa cells. It has been shown that PSMA based imaging offers higher tumor detection rate compared to choline PET/CT and radiological conventional imaging, especially at very low PSA levels during biochemical recurrence. In addition PSMA, as theranostics agent, allows both radiolabeling with diagnostic (e.g. 68Ga, 18F) or therapeutic nuclides (e.g. 177Lu, 225Ac). Initial results show that PSMA-targeted radioligand therapy can potentially delay disease progression in metastatic castrate-resistant PCa. Despite still investigational, the bombesin-based radiotracers and antagonist of gastrin releasing-peptide receptor (GRP) (RM2) and anti1-amino-3-18Ffluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (18F-FACBC) are emerging as possible alternatives for investigating PCa. Considering the wide diffusion of PCa in the Europe and the United States, the presence of these new diagnostic techniques able to detect the disease with high sensitivity and specificity might have a clinical impact on the management of patients. PET/CT imaging with new radiopharmaceuticals can implement the patient management identifying lesion(s) not detectable with conventional imaging procedures. In this review article will be discussed the most promising new PET radiopharmaceuticals (68Ga-PSMA-11, 18F-FACBC, 68Ga-RM2) available at the moment, focusing the attention on their accuracy and their impact on

  5. Computational molecular biology approaches to ligand-target interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lupieri, Paola; Nguyen, Chuong Ha Hung; Bafghi, Zhaleh Ghaemi; Giorgetti, Alejandro; Carloni, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Binding of small molecules to their targets triggers complex pathways. Computational approaches are keys for predictions of the molecular events involved in such cascades. Here we review current efforts at characterizing the molecular determinants in the largest membrane-bound receptor family, the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We focus on odorant receptors, which constitute more than half GPCRs. The work presented in this review uncovers structural and energetic aspects of components of the cellular cascade. Finally, a computational approach in the context of radioactive boron-based antitumoral therapies is briefly described. PMID:20119480

  6. Mechanistic modeling confronts the complexity of molecular cell biology.

    PubMed

    Phair, Robert D

    2014-11-05

    Mechanistic modeling has the potential to transform how cell biologists contend with the inescapable complexity of modern biology. I am a physiologist-electrical engineer-systems biologist who has been working at the level of cell biology for the past 24 years. This perspective aims 1) to convey why we build models, 2) to enumerate the major approaches to modeling and their philosophical differences, 3) to address some recurrent concerns raised by experimentalists, and then 4) to imagine a future in which teams of experimentalists and modelers build-and subject to exhaustive experimental tests-models covering the entire spectrum from molecular cell biology to human pathophysiology. There is, in my view, no technical obstacle to this future, but it will require some plasticity in the biological research mind-set.

  7. A diagnostic assessment for introductory molecular and cell biology.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jia; Wood, William B; Martin, Jennifer M; Guild, Nancy A; Vicens, Quentin; Knight, Jennifer K

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and validated a tool for assessing understanding of a selection of fundamental concepts and basic knowledge in undergraduate introductory molecular and cell biology, focusing on areas in which students often have misconceptions. This multiple-choice Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) instrument is designed for use as a pre- and posttest to measure student learning gains. To develop the assessment, we first worked with faculty to create a set of learning goals that targeted important concepts in the field and seemed likely to be emphasized by most instructors teaching these subjects. We interviewed students using open-ended questions to identify commonly held misconceptions, formulated multiple-choice questions that included these ideas as distracters, and reinterviewed students to establish validity of the instrument. The assessment was then evaluated by 25 biology experts and modified based on their suggestions. The complete revised assessment was administered to more than 1300 students at three institutions. Analysis of statistical parameters including item difficulty, item discrimination, and reliability provides evidence that the IMCA is a valid and reliable instrument with several potential uses in gauging student learning of key concepts in molecular and cell biology.

  8. A Diagnostic Assessment for Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Wood, William B.; Martin, Jennifer M.; Guild, Nancy A.; Vicens, Quentin; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and validated a tool for assessing understanding of a selection of fundamental concepts and basic knowledge in undergraduate introductory molecular and cell biology, focusing on areas in which students often have misconceptions. This multiple-choice Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) instrument is designed for use as a pre- and posttest to measure student learning gains. To develop the assessment, we first worked with faculty to create a set of learning goals that targeted important concepts in the field and seemed likely to be emphasized by most instructors teaching these subjects. We interviewed students using open-ended questions to identify commonly held misconceptions, formulated multiple-choice questions that included these ideas as distracters, and reinterviewed students to establish validity of the instrument. The assessment was then evaluated by 25 biology experts and modified based on their suggestions. The complete revised assessment was administered to more than 1300 students at three institutions. Analysis of statistical parameters including item difficulty, item discrimination, and reliability provides evidence that the IMCA is a valid and reliable instrument with several potential uses in gauging student learning of key concepts in molecular and cell biology. PMID:21123692

  9. The biochemistry and molecular biology of xenobiotic polymer degradation by microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Fusako

    2010-01-01

    Research on microbial degradation of xenobiotic polymers has been underway for more than 40 years. It has exploited a new field not only in applied microbiology but also in environmental microbiology, and has greatly contributed to polymer science by initiating the design of biodegradable polymers. Owing to the development of analytical tools and technology, molecular biological and biochemical advances have made it possible to prospect for degrading microorganisms in the environment and to determine the mechanisms involved in biodegradation when xenobiotic polymers are introduced into the environment and are exposed to microbial attack. In this review, the molecular biological and biochemical aspects of the microbial degradation of xenobiotic polymers are summarized, and possible applications of potent microorganisms, enzymes, and genes in environmental biotechnology are suggested.

  10. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.

    PubMed

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

    1990-04-01

    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Enhanced Sampling Techniques in Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Rafael C.; Melo, Marcelo C. R.; Schulten, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular Dynamics has emerged as an important research methodology covering systems to the level of millions of atoms. However, insufficient sampling often limits its application. The limitation is due to rough energy landscapes, with many local minima separated by high-energy barriers, which govern the biomolecular motion. Scope of review In the past few decades methods have been developed that address the sampling problem, such as replica-exchange molecular dynamics, metadynamics and simulated annealing. Here we present an overview over theses sampling methods in an attempt to shed light on which should be selected depending on the type of system property studied. Major Conclusions Enhanced sampling methods have been employed for a broad range of biological systems and the choice of a suitable method is connected to biological and physical characteristics of the system, in particular system size. While metadynamics and replica-exchange molecular dynamics are the most adopted sampling methods to study biomolecular dynamics, simulated annealing is well suited to characterize very flexible systems. The use of annealing methods for a long time was restricted to simulation of small proteins; however, a variant of the method, generalized simulated annealing, can be employed at a relatively low computational cost to large macromolecular complexes. General Significance Molecular dynamics trajectories frequently do not reach all relevant conformational substates, for example those connected with biological function, a problem that can be addressed by employing enhanced sampling algorithms. PMID:25450171

  12. Molecular biology: the key to personalised treatment in radiation oncology?

    PubMed

    Hirst, D G; Robson, T

    2010-09-01

    We know considerably more about what makes cells and tissues resistant or sensitive to radiation than we did 20 years ago. Novel techniques in molecular biology have made a major contribution to our understanding at the level of signalling pathways. Before the "New Biology" era, radioresponsiveness was defined in terms of physiological parameters designated as the five Rs. These are: repair, repopulation, reassortment, reoxygenation and radiosensitivity. Of these, only the role of hypoxia proved to be a robust predictive and prognostic marker, but radiotherapy regimens were nonetheless modified in terms of dose per fraction, fraction size and overall time, in ways that persist in clinical practice today. The first molecular techniques were applied to radiobiology about two decades ago and soon revealed the existence of genes/proteins that respond to and influence the cellular outcome of irradiation. The subsequent development of screening techniques using microarray technology has since revealed that a very large number of genes fall into this category. We can now obtain an adequately robust molecular signature, predicting for a radioresponsive phenotype using gene expression and proteomic approaches. In parallel with these developments, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) can now detect specific biological molecules such as haemoglobin and glucose, so revealing a 3D map of tumour blood flow and metabolism. The key to personalised radiotherapy will be to extend this capability to the proteins of the molecular signature that determine radiosensitivity.

  13. Molecular biology of the primitive neuroectodermal tumor: a review.

    PubMed

    Raffel, C

    1999-08-15

    In terms of its molecular biology and molecular genetics, medulloblastoma is the most thoroughly studied of the pediatric brain tumors. Alterations in chromosome 17, usually an isochromosome 17q, are the most common cytogenetic abnormalities. Similarly, deletion of the short arm of one 17 chromosome, the result of formation of an iso17q, is the most common molecular biological abnormality found. The gene or genes important in the development of medulloblastoma found on chromsome 17 have not yet been identified. Both a tumor suppressor gene and an oncogene have been identified that may play a role in the development of this tumor type. The Patched (PTC) tumor suppressor gene is inactivated in approximately 15% of medulloblatomas; this alteration may be specific to the desmoplastic variant. Oncogenic mutations in the beta-catenin gene are found in a small subset of medulloblastomas. Both of these genes play central roles in developmental pathways. Prognosis in this tumor type has been related to the level of expression of the neurotrophin receptor trkC. In this review, these and other molecular biological and genetic findings are discussed with respect to the development of medulloblastoma.

  14. Anti-Adhesion Therapies in Inflammatory Bowel Disease—Molecular and Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Zundler, Sebastian; Becker, Emily; Weidinger, Carl; Siegmund, Britta

    2017-01-01

    The number of biologicals for the therapy of immunologically mediated diseases is constantly growing. In contrast to other agents that were previously introduced in rheumatologic or dermatologic diseases and only later adopted for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), the field of IBD was ground breaking for the concept of anti-adhesion blockade. Anti-adhesion antibodies selectively target integrins controlling cell homing to the intestine, which leads to reduction of inflammatory infiltration to the gut in chronic intestinal inflammation. Currently, the anti-α4β7-antibody vedolizumab is successfully used for both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis worldwide. In this mini-review, we will summarize the fundamental basis of intestinal T cell homing and explain the molecular groundwork underlying current and potential future anti-adhesion therapies. Finally, we will comment on noteworthy clinical aspects of anti-adhesion therapy and give an outlook to the future of anti-integrin antibodies and inhibitors. PMID:28804488

  15. Concomitant MDS with isolated 5q deletion and MGUS: case report and review of molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Florian; Mossner, Maximilian; Jann, Johann-Christoph; Nowak, Daniel; Boch, Tobias; Müller, Nadine Zoe; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Metzgeroth, Georgia

    2017-03-01

    Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) have a higher risk for the development of concomitant primary cancers such as multiple myeloma (MM) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). We report the case of patient initially suffering from MGUS of the IgG lambda subtype for more than 10 yr, which evolved to MM and MDS with deletion (5q) with severe pancytopenia. Due to pancytopenia, he received dose-reduced treatment with lenalidomide and dexamethasone. He achieved an ongoing transfusion independency after about 1 month of treatment. Bone marrow taken 14 months after start of treatment showed a complete cytogenetic response of the del(5q) clone and a plasma cell infiltration below 5%. In contrast to the development of MM in MGUS patients, the subsequent occurrence of MDS after diagnosis of MGUS is infrequent. Moreover, the biological association of MDS with MGUS is not sufficiently understood, but the non-treatment-related occurrence supports the pathogenetic role of pre-existing alterations of stem cells. Here, we summarize data on concomitant MDS and MGUS/MM with particular emphasis on molecular aspects.

  16. Key aspects of the biology of snail-killing Sciomyzidae flies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, William L; Knutson, Lloyd V; Chapman, Eric G; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Williams, Christopher D; Foote, Benjamin A; Vala, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    The biology of snail-killing flies (Diptera: Sciomyzidae) has been studied intensively over the past half-century, especially over the past decade. Today, sciomyzids are biologically the best-known group of higher Diptera. The overarching research objectives are evaluation of sciomyzids as biocontrols of disease-carrying or agriculturally important snails and slugs and as a paradigm group for the study of the evolution of diverse feeding and associated behaviors in flies. We present reviews and analyses of some key features of particular scientific and societal interest, including behavioral and phenological groups; laboratory experimental studies on behavior and development; population biology, bioindicators, ecosystem service provision, and conservation; phylogenetics, molecular studies, and evolutionary biology; and biocontrol. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  17. The molecular biology of ear development - "Twenty years are nothing".

    PubMed

    Giraldez, Fernando; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Views of classical biological problems changed dramatically with the rise of molecular biology as a common framework. It was indeed the new language of life sciences. Molecular biology increasingly moved us towards a unified view of developmental genetics as ideas and techniques were imported to vertebrates from other biological systems where genetics was in a more advanced state. The ultimate advance has been the ability to actually perform genetic manipulations in vertebrate organisms that were almost unthinkable before. During the last two decades these technical advances entered into and affected the research on ear development. These events are still very recent and have been with us for no longer than two decades, which is the reason for the title of this article. This new scenario forms the basis of the current and productive work of many laboratories, and this is what this Special Issue of The International Journal of Developmental Biology wants to show, presenting a snapshot of insights at the beginning of the 21st Century. In this article, we give an overview of the topics that are addressed in this Ear Development Special Issue, and also we take the opportunity to informally dig into the genealogy of some of those topics, trying to link the current work with some classical work of the past.

  18. Molecular biology of pancreatic cancer: potential clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Sakorafas, G H; Tsiotos, G G

    2001-01-01

    The development of cancer involves the accumulation of genetic changes. Over the past decade there has a been spectacular advance in the knowledge of the genetic basis of cancer, mainly as a result of the rapid progression of molecular technology. Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers. Conventional therapeutic approaches have not had much impact on the course of this aggressive neoplasm. Knowledge of the molecular biology of pancreatic cancer has grown rapidly. Genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer include oncogene mutations (most commonly K-ras mutations), and tumour suppressor gene alterations (mainly p53, p16, DCC, etc.). These advances have potential implications for the management of this deadly disease. Identification of a hereditary genetic predisposition to pancreatic cancer has led to the formation of pancreatic cancer registries around the world, with voluntary screening of patients and siblings for the hereditary genetic defect. Asymptomatic population screening remains unrealistic, but the recognition of subpopulations at increased risk from pancreatic cancer, along with novel and sensitive detection techniques, means that targeted population screening is a step closer. Intensive research is performed in specialist laboratories to improve the diagnostic approach in patients with pancreatic cancer. The use of such molecular diagnostic methods is likely to expand. Molecular biology may also have a great impact on the treatment of pancreatic cancer, and many therapeutic approaches are being evaluated in clinical trials, including gene replacement therapy, genetic prodrug activation therapy, antisense immunology and peptide technology. The 'molecular age' has the promise of delivering still better results. This review summarises recent data relating to the molecular biology of pancreatic cancer, with emphasis on features that may be of clinical significance for diagnosis and/or therapy.

  19. Time scale of diffusion in molecular and cellular biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcman, D.; Schuss, Z.

    2014-05-01

    Diffusion is the driver of critical biological processes in cellular and molecular biology. The diverse temporal scales of cellular function are determined by vastly diverse spatial scales in most biophysical processes. The latter are due, among others, to small binding sites inside or on the cell membrane or to narrow passages between large cellular compartments. The great disparity in scales is at the root of the difficulty in quantifying cell function from molecular dynamics and from simulations. The coarse-grained time scale of cellular function is determined from molecular diffusion by the mean first passage time of molecular Brownian motion to a small targets or through narrow passages. The narrow escape theory (NET) concerns this issue. The NET is ubiquitous in molecular and cellular biology and is manifested, among others, in chemical reactions, in the calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient of receptors diffusing on a neuronal cell membrane strewn with obstacles, in the quantification of the early steps of viral trafficking, in the regulation of diffusion between the mother and daughter cells during cell division, and many other cases. Brownian trajectories can represent the motion of a molecule, a protein, an ion in solution, a receptor in a cell or on its membrane, and many other biochemical processes. The small target can represent a binding site or an ionic channel, a hidden active site embedded in a complex protein structure, a receptor for a neurotransmitter on the membrane of a neuron, and so on. The mean time to attach to a receptor or activator determines diffusion fluxes that are key regulators of cell function. This review describes physical models of various subcellular microdomains, in which the NET coarse-grains the molecular scale to a higher cellular-level, thus clarifying the role of cell geometry in determining subcellular function.

  20. New Tools and New Biology: Recent Miniaturized Systems for Molecular and Cellular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Hamon, Morgan; Hong, Jong Wook

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in applied physics and chemistry have led to the development of novel microfluidic systems. Microfluidic systems allow minute amounts of reagents to be processed using μm-scale channels and offer several advantages over conventional analytical devices for use in biological sciences: faster, more accurate and more reproducible analytical performance, reduced cell and reagent consumption, portability, and integration of functional components in a single chip. In this review, we introduce how microfluidics has been applied to biological sciences. We first present an overview of the fabrication of microfluidic systems and describe the distinct technologies available for biological research. We then present examples of microsystems used in biological sciences, focusing on applications in molecular and cellular biology. PMID:24305843

  1. Ventral aspect of the visual form pathway is not critical for the perception of biological motion.

    PubMed

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Lorenzi, Lauren J; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2015-01-27

    Identifying the movements of those around us is fundamental for many daily activities, such as recognizing actions, detecting predators, and interacting with others socially. A key question concerns the neurobiological substrates underlying biological motion perception. Although the ventral "form" visual cortex is standardly activated by biologically moving stimuli, whether these activations are functionally critical for biological motion perception or are epiphenomenal remains unknown. To address this question, we examined whether focal damage to regions of the ventral visual cortex, resulting in significant deficits in form perception, adversely affects biological motion perception. Six patients with damage to the ventral cortex were tested with sensitive point-light display paradigms. All patients were able to recognize unmasked point-light displays and their perceptual thresholds were not significantly different from those of three different control groups, one of which comprised brain-damaged patients with spared ventral cortex (n > 50). Importantly, these six patients performed significantly better than patients with damage to regions critical for biological motion perception. To assess the necessary contribution of different regions in the ventral pathway to biological motion perception, we complement the behavioral findings with a fine-grained comparison between the lesion location and extent, and the cortical regions standardly implicated in biological motion processing. This analysis revealed that the ventral aspects of the form pathway (e.g., fusiform regions, ventral extrastriate body area) are not critical for biological motion perception. We hypothesize that the role of these ventral regions is to provide enhanced multiview/posture representations of the moving person rather than to represent biological motion perception per se.

  2. Ventral aspect of the visual form pathway is not critical for the perception of biological motion

    PubMed Central

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the movements of those around us is fundamental for many daily activities, such as recognizing actions, detecting predators, and interacting with others socially. A key question concerns the neurobiological substrates underlying biological motion perception. Although the ventral “form” visual cortex is standardly activated by biologically moving stimuli, whether these activations are functionally critical for biological motion perception or are epiphenomenal remains unknown. To address this question, we examined whether focal damage to regions of the ventral visual cortex, resulting in significant deficits in form perception, adversely affects biological motion perception. Six patients with damage to the ventral cortex were tested with sensitive point-light display paradigms. All patients were able to recognize unmasked point-light displays and their perceptual thresholds were not significantly different from those of three different control groups, one of which comprised brain-damaged patients with spared ventral cortex (n > 50). Importantly, these six patients performed significantly better than patients with damage to regions critical for biological motion perception. To assess the necessary contribution of different regions in the ventral pathway to biological motion perception, we complement the behavioral findings with a fine-grained comparison between the lesion location and extent, and the cortical regions standardly implicated in biological motion processing. This analysis revealed that the ventral aspects of the form pathway (e.g., fusiform regions, ventral extrastriate body area) are not critical for biological motion perception. We hypothesize that the role of these ventral regions is to provide enhanced multiview/posture representations of the moving person rather than to represent biological motion perception per se. PMID:25583504

  3. Phenomenological and molecular models of biological proton transfers.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the main models describing the transfer of a proton in a molecular system are presented. Models valid when the intersite coupling is weak (non-adiabatic and electronically adiabatic regimes) and strong (adiabatic regime) are described. We distinguish molecular models in which the rate constant is obtained by considering explicitly various degrees of freedom of the system and simpler, phenomenological models built to account for the kinetic isotope effect. The relations between the various models are discussed. Their application to specific systems is illustrated by several studies reported in the literature, with a special emphasis on biological systems.

  4. Current dichotomy between traditional molecular biological and omic research in cancer biology and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, William C

    2015-12-10

    There is currently a split within the cancer research community between traditional molecular biological hypothesis-driven and the more recent "omic" forms or research. While the molecular biological approach employs the tried and true single alteration-single response formulations of experimentation, the omic employs broad-based assay or sample collection approaches that generate large volumes of data. How to integrate the benefits of these two approaches in an efficient and productive fashion remains an outstanding issue. Ideally, one would merge the understandability, exactness, simplicity, and testability of the molecular biological approach, with the larger amounts of data, simultaneous consideration of multiple alterations, consideration of genes both of known interest along with the novel, cross-sample comparisons among cell lines and patient samples, and consideration of directed questions while simultaneously gaining exposure to the novel provided by the omic approach. While at the current time integration of the two disciplines remains problematic, attempts to do so are ongoing, and will be necessary for the understanding of the large cell line screens including the Developmental Therapeutics Program's NCI-60, the Broad Institute's Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute's Cancer Genome Project, as well as the the Cancer Genome Atlas clinical samples project. Going forward there is significant benefit to be had from the integration of the molecular biological and the omic forms or research, with the desired goal being improved translational understanding and application.

  5. Grete Kellenberger-Gujer: Molecular biology research pioneer.

    PubMed

    Citi, Sandra; Berg, Douglas E

    2016-01-01

    Grete Kellenberger-Gujer was a Swiss molecular biologist who pioneered fundamental studies of bacteriophage in the mid-20(th) century at the University of Geneva. Her life and career stories are reviewed here, focusing on her fundamental contributions to our early understanding of phage biology via her insightful analyses of phenomena such as the lysogenic state of a temperate phage (λ), genetic recombination, radiation's in vivo consequences, and DNA restriction-modification; on her creative personality and interactions with peers; and how her academic advancement was affected by gender, societal conditions and cultural attitudes of the time. Her story is important scientifically, putting into perspective features of the scientific community from just before the molecular biology era started through its early years, and also sociologically, in illustrating the numerous "glass ceilings" that, especially then, often hampered the advancement of creative women.

  6. Grete Kellenberger-Gujer: Molecular biology research pioneer

    PubMed Central

    Citi, Sandra; Berg, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Grete Kellenberger-Gujer was a Swiss molecular biologist who pioneered fundamental studies of bacteriophage in the mid-20th century at the University of Geneva. Her life and career stories are reviewed here, focusing on her fundamental contributions to our early understanding of phage biology via her insightful analyses of phenomena such as the lysogenic state of a temperate phage (λ), genetic recombination, radiation's in vivo consequences, and DNA restriction-modification; on her creative personality and interactions with peers; and how her academic advancement was affected by gender, societal conditions and cultural attitudes of the time. Her story is important scientifically, putting into perspective features of the scientific community from just before the molecular biology era started through its early years, and also sociologically, in illustrating the numerous “glass ceilings” that, especially then, often hampered the advancement of creative women. PMID:27607140

  7. Molecular and cellular biology of small-bowel mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Paul A.; Walters, Julian R.F.

    2001-03-01

    Study of the molecular and cellular biology of the small-intestinal mucosa is providing insights into the remarkable properties of this unique tissue. With its structured pattern of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and its ability to adapt following exposure to luminal nutrients or injury from surgery or pathogens, it functions in a regulated but responsive manner. We review recent publications on factors affecting development, gene expression, cell turnover, and adaptation.

  8. In focus: molecular and cell biology research in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xuebiao; Li, Dangsheng; Pei, Gang

    2013-09-01

    An interactive, intellectual environment with good funding opportunities is essential for the development and success of basic research. The fast-growing economy and investment in science, together with a visionary plan, have attracted foreign scholars to work in China, motivated world-class Chinese scientists to return and strengthened the country's international collaborations. As a result, molecular and cell biology research in China has evolved rapidly over the past decade.

  9. Electron scattering from molecules and molecular aggregates of biological relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorfinkiel, Jimena D.; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2017-09-01

    In this Topical Review we survey the current state of the art in the study of low energy electron collisions with biologically relevant molecules and molecular clusters. We briefly describe the methods and techniques used in the investigation of these processes and summarise the results obtained so far for DNA constituents and their model compounds, amino acids, peptides and other biomolecules. The applications of the data obtained is briefly described as well as future required developments.

  10. Free molecular biological software available from the EMBL file server.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, R

    1990-04-01

    A new service provided by EMBL (EMBL Software File Server) is described that will make free molecular biology software available to anyone with computer network access. MS-DOS, Apple Macintosh and VAX/VMX are supported at the moment. The programs will be delivered by normal electronic mail; conversion mechanisms will transform binary files to ASCII to allow mail transfer. This service will also help authors to distribute their software conveniently.

  11. Rattlesnake Neurotoxin Structure, Mechanism of Action, Immunology and Molecular Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-10

    Aird, S. D., and Kaiser, I. I. (1988) Physiological and immunological properties of small myotoxins from -Zhe venom of the midget faded rattlesnake ...AD-A258 669 AD RATTLESNAKE NEUROTOXIN STRUCTURE, MECHANISM OF ACTION, IMMUNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY FINAL REPORT D TIC IVAN I. KAISER ELECTE S DEC...u m_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6 2 7 8 7 A I 6 2 7 8 7 A 8 7 7 I A A [ ~A 3 1 7 8 2 1 (u) Rattlesnake neurotoxin structure

  12. Rattlesnake Neurotoxin Structure, Mechanism of Action, Immunology and Molecular Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    from the venom of the midget faded . rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis concolor . Toxicon 2&, 319- 323. Rehm, H. and Betz, H. (1982) Binding of B...8217determined. It was shown to have great similarity to the basic subunits of related toxins from the venoms of the South American and midget faded ...AD-A228 003 CONTRACT NO.: DAMD17-89-C-9007 TITLE: RATTLESNAKE NEUROTOXIN STRUCTURE, MECHANISM OF ACTION, IMMUNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY PRINCIPAL

  13. Biological Moleculars: Have Most of Our Problems Already Been Solved?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James P.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Evolution has resulted in biological machinery that engineers have great reason to envy and at present can only poorly mimic. This is not just a curiosity as biological systems perform many functions that are desired industrial processes. Examples include photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, energy storage, low temperature chemical conversion, reproducible manufacture of chemical compounds, etc. The bases of biological machinery are the proteins and nucleic acids that comprise living organisms. Each molecule functions as a part of a biological machine. In many cases the molecule can be properly regarded as a stand alone machine of its own. Concepts and methods for harnessing the power of biological molecules exist but are often overlooked in the industrial world. Some are old and appear crude but are quite effective, e.g. the fermentation of grains and fruits. Currently, there is a revolution in progress regarding the harnessing biological processes. These include techniques such as genetic manipulation via polymerase chain reaction, forced evolution also known as evolution in a test tube, determination of molecular structure, and combinatorial chemistry. The following is a brief discussion on how these processes are performed and how they may relate to industrial and aerospace processes.

  14. Biological Moleculars: Have Most of Our Problems Already Been Solved?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James P.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Evolution has resulted in biological machinery that engineers have great reason to envy and at present can only poorly mimic. This is not just a curiosity as biological systems perform many functions that are desired industrial processes. Examples include photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, energy storage, low temperature chemical conversion, reproducible manufacture of chemical compounds, etc. The bases of biological machinery are the proteins and nucleic acids that comprise living organisms. Each molecule functions as a part of a biological machine. In many cases the molecule can be properly regarded as a stand alone machine of its own. Concepts and methods for harnessing the power of biological molecules exist but are often overlooked in the industrial world. Some are old and appear crude but are quite effective, e.g. the fermentation of grains and fruits. Currently, there is a revolution in progress regarding the harnessing biological processes. These include techniques such as genetic manipulation via polymerase chain reaction, forced evolution also known as evolution in a test tube, determination of molecular structure, and combinatorial chemistry. The following is a brief discussion on how these processes are performed and how they may relate to industrial and aerospace processes.

  15. Protocols, practices, and the reproduction of technique in molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael

    2002-06-01

    Protocols are one of the main organizational resources in molecular biology. They are written instructions that specify ingredients, equipment, and sequences of steps for making technical preparations. Some protocols are published in widely used manuals, while others are hand-written variants used by particular laboratories and individual technicians. It is widely understood, both in molecular biology and in social studies of science, that protocols do not describe exactly what practitioners do in the laboratory workplace. In social studies of science, the difference between protocols and the actual practices of doing them often is used to set up ironic contrasts between 'messy' laboratory practices and the appearance of technical order. Alternatively, in ethnomethodological studies of work, the difference is examined as a constitutive feature, both of the lived-work of doing technical projects, and of the administrative work of regulating and evaluating such projects. The present article takes its point of departure from ethnomethodology, and begins with a discussion of local problems with performing molecular biology protocols on specific occasions. The discussion then moves to particular cases in criminal law in which defense attorneys cross-examine forensic technicians and lab administrators. In these interrogations, the distinction between protocols and actual practices animates the dialogue and becomes consequential for judgments in the case at hand. The article concludes with a discussion of administrative science: the work of treating protocols and paper trails as proxies for actual 'scientific' practices.

  16. Physical and chemical mechanisms in molecular radiation biology

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, W.A.; Varma, M.N.

    1991-01-01

    Through its Radiological and Chemical Physics Program, the Department of Energy (DOE) has been a primary source of funding for research in radiation physics and radiochemistry, supporting a wide range of explorations of the link between physical, chemical and biological events. This book is a series of articles by authors working within this field, most of whom have been central to the DOE-sponsored research. The opening papers focus on radiological physics; the second section covers radiation chemistry in a discussion that extends from the initial energy transfer to the production of intermediate chemical species and DNA damage. The third section explores the link between the physical and chemical events and the production of biological effects. Finally the book closes with a series of papers on molecular radiation biology.

  17. A national comparison of biochemistry and molecular biology capstone experiences.

    PubMed

    Aguanno, Ann; Mertz, Pamela; Martin, Debra; Bell, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the increasingly integrative nature of the molecular life sciences, the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) recommends that Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (BMB) programs develop curricula based on concepts, content, topics, and expected student outcomes, rather than courses. To that end, ASBMB conducted a series of regional workshops to build a BMB Concept Inventory containing validated assessment tools, based on foundational and discipline-specific knowledge and essential skills, for the community to use. A culminating activity, which integrates the educational experience, is often part of undergraduate molecular life science programs. These "capstone" experiences are commonly defined as an attempt to measure student ability to synthesize and integrate acquired knowledge. However, the format, implementation, and approach to outcome assessment of these experiences are quite varied across the nation. Here we report the results of a nation-wide survey on BMB capstone experiences and discuss this in the context of published reports about capstones and the findings of the workshops driving the development of the BMB Concept Inventory. Both the survey results and the published reports reveal that, although capstone practices do vary, certain formats for the experience are used more frequently and similarities in learning objectives were identified. The use of rubrics to measure student learning is also regularly reported, but details about these assessment instruments are sparse in the literature and were not a focus of our survey. Finally, we outline commonalities in the current practice of capstones and suggest the next steps needed to elucidate best practices.

  18. Molecular biology in studies of oceanic primary production

    SciTech Connect

    LaRoche, J.; Falkowski, P.G. ); Geider, R. . Coll. of Marine Studies)

    1992-01-01

    Remote sensing and the use of moored in situ instrumentation has greatly improved our ability to measure phytoplankton chlorophyll and photosynthesis on global scales with high temporal resolution. However, the interpretation of these measurements and their significance with respect to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon relies on their relationship with physiological and biochemical processes in phytoplankton. For example, the use of satellite images of surface chlorophyll to estimate primary production is often based on the functional relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. A variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, nutrient availability affect the photosynthesis/irradiance (P vs I) relationship in phytoplankton. We present three examples showing how molecular biology can be used to provide basic insight into the factors controlling primary productivity at three different levels of complexity: 1. Studies of light intensity regulation in unicellular alga show how molecular biology can help understand the processing of environmental cues leading to the regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. 2. Probing of the photosynthetic apparatus using molecular techniques can be used to test existing mechanistic models derived from the interpretation of physiological and biophysical measurements. 3. Exploratory work on the expression of specific proteins during nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton may lead to the identification and production of molecular probes for field studies.

  19. Recent science and its exploration: the case of molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2009-03-01

    This paper is about the interaction and the intertwinement between history of science as a historical process and history of science as the historiography of this process, taking molecular biology as an example. In the first part, two historical shifts are briefly characterized that appear to have punctuated the emergence of molecular biology between the 1930s and the 1980s, one connected to a new generation of analytical apparatus, the other to properly molecular tools. The second part concentrates on the historiography of this development. Basically, it distinguishes three phases. The first phase was largely dominated by accounts of the actors themselves. The second coincided with the general 'practical turn' in history of science at large, and today's historical appropriations of the molecularization of the life sciences appear to be marked by the changing disciplinary status of the science under review. In a closing remark, an argument is made for differentiating between long-range, middle-range and short-range perspectives in dealing with the history of the sciences.

  20. Molecular biology in studies of oceanic primary production

    SciTech Connect

    LaRoche, J.; Falkowski, P.G.; Geider, R.

    1992-07-01

    Remote sensing and the use of moored in situ instrumentation has greatly improved our ability to measure phytoplankton chlorophyll and photosynthesis on global scales with high temporal resolution. However, the interpretation of these measurements and their significance with respect to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon relies on their relationship with physiological and biochemical processes in phytoplankton. For example, the use of satellite images of surface chlorophyll to estimate primary production is often based on the functional relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. A variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, nutrient availability affect the photosynthesis/irradiance (P vs I) relationship in phytoplankton. We present three examples showing how molecular biology can be used to provide basic insight into the factors controlling primary productivity at three different levels of complexity: 1. Studies of light intensity regulation in unicellular alga show how molecular biology can help understand the processing of environmental cues leading to the regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. 2. Probing of the photosynthetic apparatus using molecular techniques can be used to test existing mechanistic models derived from the interpretation of physiological and biophysical measurements. 3. Exploratory work on the expression of specific proteins during nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton may lead to the identification and production of molecular probes for field studies.

  1. Defining the molecular biology of inflammatory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Tarpin, Carole; Viens, Patrice; Bertucci, François

    2008-02-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, but aggressive form of breast cancer. Despite the progress related to the introduction of primary combination chemotherapy (CT) to the multimodality treatment regimen, the prognosis of IBC remains poor with long-term survival inferior to 50%. Until recently, IBC remained understudied at the molecular level. In the past 10 years, advances have been made in the molecular characterization of the disease. Recently, the use of experimental models and new high-throughput molecular profiling technologies have led to the identification of genes or pathways potentially involved in disease development, which might represent new clinically relevant targets. The aim of this review is to present and discuss what is known about the biology of this particularly aggressive form of breast cancer and to discuss how this knowledge could improve its management.

  2. Genomic Signal Processing: Predicting Basic Molecular Biological Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alter, Orly

    2005-03-01

    Advances in high-throughput technologies enable acquisition of different types of molecular biological data, monitoring the flow of biological information as DNA is transcribed to RNA, and RNA is translated to proteins, on a genomic scale. Future discovery in biology and medicine will come from the mathematical modeling of these data, which hold the key to fundamental understanding of life on the molecular level, as well as answers to questions regarding diagnosis, treatment and drug development. Recently we described data-driven models for genome-scale molecular biological data, which use singular value decomposition (SVD) and the comparative generalized SVD (GSVD). Now we describe an integrative data-driven model, which uses pseudoinverse projection (1). We also demonstrate the predictive power of these matrix algebra models (2). The integrative pseudoinverse projection model formulates any number of genome-scale molecular biological data sets in terms of one chosen set of data samples, or of profiles extracted mathematically from data samples, designated the ``basis'' set. The mathematical variables of this integrative model, the pseudoinverse correlation patterns that are uncovered in the data, represent independent processes and corresponding cellular states (such as observed genome-wide effects of known regulators or transcription factors, the biological components of the cellular machinery that generate the genomic signals, and measured samples in which these regulators or transcription factors are over- or underactive). Reconstruction of the data in the basis simulates experimental observation of only the cellular states manifest in the data that correspond to those of the basis. Classification of the data samples according to their reconstruction in the basis, rather than their overall measured profiles, maps the cellular states of the data onto those of the basis, and gives a global picture of the correlations and possibly also causal coordination of

  3. Zsyntax: A Formal Language for Molecular Biology with Projected Applications in Text Mining and Biological Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Boniolo, Giovanni; D'Agostino, Marcello; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We propose a formal language that allows for transposing biological information precisely and rigorously into machine-readable information. This language, which we call Zsyntax (where Z stands for the Greek word ζωή, life), is grounded on a particular type of non-classical logic, and it can be used to write algorithms and computer programs. We present it as a first step towards a comprehensive formal language for molecular biology in which any biological process can be written and analyzed as a sort of logical “deduction”. Moreover, we illustrate the potential value of this language, both in the field of text mining and in that of biological prediction. PMID:20209084

  4. Internal radiation therapy: a neglected aspect of nuclear medicine in the molecular era.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yansong

    2015-09-01

    With increasing evidence, internal radiation therapy, also known as brachytherapy, has become a neglected aspect of nuclear medicine in the molecular era. In this paper, recent developments regarding internal radiation therapy, including developments in radioiodine-131 ((131)I) and thyroid, radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and radiopharmaceuticals for bone metastases. Relevant differences and status of their applications in China were mentioned as well. These molecular mediated internal radiation therapies are gaining increasing importance by providing palliative and curative treatments for an increasing number of diseases and becoming one of the important parts of molecular nuclear medicine.

  5. [Molecular Biology on the Mechanisms of Autism Spectrum Disorder for Clinical Psychiatrists].

    PubMed

    Makinodan, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    While, in general, a certain number of clinical psychiatrists might not be familiar with molecular biology, the mechanisms of mental illnesses have been uncovered by molecular biology for decades. Among mental illnesses, even biological psychiatrists and neuroscientists have paid less attention to the biological treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia since ASD has been regarded as a developmental disorder that was seemingly untreatable. However, multifaceted methods of molecular biology have revealed the mechanisms that would lead to the medication of ASD. In this article, how molecular biology dissects the pathobiology of ASD is described in order to announce the possibilities of biological treatment for clinical psychiatrists.

  6. On the accurate molecular dynamics analysis of biological molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Takefumi

    2016-12-01

    As the evolution of computational technology has now enabled long molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, the evaluation of many physical properties shows improved convergence. Therefore, we can examine the detailed conditions of MD simulations and perform quantitative MD analyses. In this study, we address the quantitative and accuracy aspects of MD simulations using two example systems. First, it is found that several conditions of the MD simulations influence the area/lipid of the lipid bilayer. Second, we successfully detect the small but important differences in antibody motion between the antigen-bound and unbound states.

  7. A plea for more theory in molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Wolkenhauer, O; Mesarović, M; Wellstead, P

    2007-01-01

    The integrationist principles of systems theory have proven hugely successful in the physical sciences and engineering. It is an underlying assumption made in the systems approach to biology that they can also be used to understand biological phenomena at the level of an entire organism or organ. Within this holistic vision, the vast majority of systems biology research projects investigate phenomena at the level of the cell, with the belief that unifying principles established at the most basic level can establish a framework within which we may understand phenomena at higher levels of organization. In this spirit, and to use a celestial analogy, if a disease--effecting an organ or entire body--is our universe of discourse, then the cell is the star we gaze at. In building an understanding of disease and the effect of drugs, systems biology makes an implicit assumption about direct causal entailment between cell function and physiology. A skeptic might argue that this is about the same as trying to predict the world economy from observations made at a local supermarket. However, assuming for the moment that the money and hope we are investing in molecular biology, genomics, and systems biology is justified, how should this amazing intellectual achievement be possible? In this chapter we argue that an essential tool to progress is a systems theory that allows biological objects and their operational characteristics to be captured in a succinct yet general form. Armed with this conceptual framework, we construct mathematical representations of standard cellular and intercellular functions which can be integrated to describe more general processes of cell complexes, and potentially entire organs.

  8. Beyond nature and culture: a note on medicine in the age of molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Rheinberger, H J

    1995-01-01

    This paper is divided into two parts. In the first, I examine the relations among molecular biology, gene technology, and medicine, as well as some aspects of the consequences of these relations with respect to the human genome project. I argue that the prevailing momentum of early molecular biology resided in creating the technical means for an extracellular representation of intracellular configurations. As such, its medical impact was rather limited. With the advent of recombinant DNA technologies, a radical change of perspective ensued. The momentum of gene technology is based on the prospects of an intracellular representation of extracellular projects--the "rewriting" of life. Its medical impact is potentially unlimited. In the second part, I question the very opposition between nature and culture that implicitly underlies the notion of medicine as a "cultural system." I argue that both on a macroscopic level (global ecological changes) and on a microscopic level (genetic engineering), the "natural" and the "social" are no longer to be seen as ontologically different. In its uncanny oscillation between retrospection and foresight, between description and proclamation, and between assertion and hesitatiion, this essay translates an uneasiness that I have not been able to overcome while writing it. The essay conveys the tangled views of a hybrid author who himself cannot but oscillate between the perspectives of an actor in the field of molecular biology, a participant in the field of science studies, and a citizen.

  9. Support of the IMA summer program molecular biology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    1995-08-01

    The revolutionary progress in molecular biology within the last 30 years opens the way to full understanding of the molecular structures and mechanisms of living organisms. The mathematical sciences accompany and support much of the progress achieved by experiment and computation, as well as provide insight into geometric and topological properties of biomolecular structure and processes. The 4 week program at the IMA brought together biologists and mathematicians leading researchers, postdocs, and graduate students. It focused on genetic mapping and DNA sequencing, followed by biomolecular structure and dynamics. High-resolution linkage maps of genetic marker were discussed extensively in relation to the human genome project. The next level of DNA mapping is physical mapping, consisting of overlapping clones spanning the genome. These maps are extremely useful for genetic analysis. They provide the material for less redundant sequencing and for detailed searches for a gene among other things. This topic was also extensively studied by the participants. From there, the program moved to consider protein structure and dynamics; this is a broad field with a large array of interesting topics. It is of key importance in answering basic scientific questions about the nature of all living organisms, and has practical biomedical applications. The major subareas of structure prediction and classification, techniques and heuristics for the simulation of protein folding, and molecular dynamics provide a rich problem domain where mathematics can be helpful in analysis, modeling, and simulation. One of the important problems in molecular biology is the three-dimensional structure of proteins, DNA and RNA in the cell, and the relationship between structure and function. The program helped increased the understanding of the topology of cellular DNA, RNA and proteins and the various life-sustaining mechanisms used by the cell which modify this molecular topology.

  10. Towards molecular computers that operate in a biological environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahan, Maya; Gil, Binyamin; Adar, Rivka; Shapiro, Ehud

    2008-07-01

    important consequences when performed in a proper context. We envision that molecular computers that operate in a biological environment can be the basis of “smart drugs”, which are potent drugs that activate only if certain environmental conditions hold. These conditions could include abnormalities in the molecular composition of the biological environment that are indicative of a particular disease. Here we review the research direction that set this vision and attempts to realize it.

  11. Extracting evidence from forensic DNA analyses: future molecular biology directions.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; van Daal, Angela

    2009-04-01

    Molecular biology tools have enhanced the capability of the forensic scientist to characterize biological evidence to the point where it is feasible to analyze minute samples and achieve high levels of individualization. Even with the forensic DNA field's maturity, there still are a number of areas where improvements can be made. These include: enabling the typing of samples of limited quantity and quality; using genetic information and novel markers to provide investigative leads; enhancing automation with robotics, different chemistries, and better software tools; employing alternate platforms for typing DNA samples; developing integrated microfluidic/microfabrication devices to process DNA samples with higher throughput, faster turnaround times, lower risk of contamination, reduced labor, and less consumption of evidentiary samples; and exploiting high-throughput sequencing, particularly for attribution in microbial forensics cases. Knowledge gaps and new directions have been identified where molecular biology will likely guide the field of forensics. This review aims to provide a roadmap to guide those interested in contributing to the further development of forensic genetics.

  12. [Tools of molecular biology, what can be expected from them?].

    PubMed

    Delpech, M

    1993-01-01

    The techniques of molecular biology represent a new tool for research and diagnosis. They have been used routinely since the middle 80s. The first applications were mainly in hereditary diseases. These techniques investigated an information and not direct biological activity and so new strategies had to be developed. Two techniques have played key roles. They are Southern's method which enables the detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments in any individual within a few days, and the method of in vitro selective amplification (PCR) which is the equivalent of cloning a sequence of several hundred pairs of bases in any individual in less than 3 hours. In hereditary diseases, molecular biological techniques enable diagnosis of the genetic abnormality responsible for the condition, even when the defect is not known. To this end, two strategies are available. The first, and the most satisfactory, is the direct strategy of characterising the genetic defect itself. This is possible when the mutation is a major alteration of the DNA molecule such as a deletion, an insertion or a recombination or when the mutation is isolated and known. In other cases, an indirect approach may be used which consists of determining whether the subject has received normal or defective chromosomes from his or her parents. The identification of good or bad chromosomes is based on the study of DNA markers: polymorphism. The indirect strategy can only be used under certain conditions: presence of an index case, informativity of polymorphisms, complete family study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Naumovozyma castellii: an alternative model for budding yeast molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Karademir Andersson, Ahu; Cohn, Marita

    2017-03-01

    Naumovozyma castellii (Saccharomyces castellii) is a member of the budding yeast family Saccharomycetaceae. It has been extensively used as a model organism for telomere biology research and has gained increasing interest as a budding yeast model for functional analyses owing to its amenability to genetic modifications. Owing to the suitable phylogenetic distance to S. cerevisiae, the whole genome sequence of N. castellii has provided unique data for comparative genomic studies, and it played a key role in the establishment of the timing of the whole genome duplication and the evolutionary events that took place in the subsequent genomic evolution of the Saccharomyces lineage. Here we summarize the historical background of its establishment as a laboratory yeast species, and the development of genetic and molecular tools and strains. We review the research performed on N. castellii, focusing on areas where it has significantly contributed to the discovery of new features of molecular biology and to the advancement of our understanding of molecular evolution. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Dissecting the Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases through Network Biology.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Jose A; Bottero, Virginie; Potashkin, Judith A

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are rarely caused by a mutation in a single gene but rather influenced by a combination of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Emerging high-throughput technologies such as RNA sequencing have been instrumental in deciphering the molecular landscape of neurodegenerative diseases, however, the interpretation of such large amounts of data remains a challenge. Network biology has become a powerful platform to integrate multiple omics data to comprehensively explore the molecular networks in the context of health and disease. In this review article, we highlight recent advances in network biology approaches with an emphasis in brain-networks that have provided insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's diseases (HD). We discuss how integrative approaches using multi-omics data from different tissues have been valuable for identifying biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In addition, we discuss the challenges the field of network medicine faces toward the translation of network-based findings into clinically actionable tools for personalized medicine applications.

  15. Thermodynamic aspects of biopolymer functionality in biological systems, foods, and beverages.

    PubMed

    Tolstoguzov, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    Molecular mimicry and molecular symbiosis are proposed to be the main factors controlling thermodynamic activity and phase behavior of macromolecular compounds in foods, beverages, and chyme. Molecular mimicry implies a chemical resemblance of hydrophilic surfaces of globular proteins with their chemical information hidden in the hydrophobic interior and low excluded volume of the globules. The molecular mimicry contributes to the efficiency of enzymes. Molecular symbiosis means that interactions attraction or repulsion) between biopolymer molecules greatly differing in conformation (globular and rod-like) favor the biological efficiency of one of them at least. The symbiosis is based on excluded volume effects of macromolecules in mixed solutions. Association-dissociation of rod-like macromolecules can dictate thermodynamic activity of an enzyme in the mixed solution. Thermodynamic incompatibility is typical of food macromolecules, whose denaturation, association, complexing, and chemical modification reduce their mimicry and co-solubility. Foods are normally phase-separated systems with highly volume-occupied phases. The phase-separated nature of the gel-like chyme is important to the efficiency of digestion of mixed diets. Phase separation of biopolymer mixtures, presumably, underlies mechanisms of nonspecific immune defense. The phase behavior-functionality relationships is presented through concrete examples of some foods (such as milk products, low-fat spreads, ice cream, wheat and rye doughs, thermoplastic extrudates, etc.), beverages (tea and coffee), and chyme.

  16. Biodiversity: molecular biological domains, symbiosis and kingdom origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1992-01-01

    The number of extant species of organisms is estimated to be from fewer than 3 to more than 30 x 10(6) (May, 1992). Molecular biology, comparative genetics and ultrastructural analyses provide new insights into evolutionary relationships between these species, including increasingly precise ideas of how species and higher taxa have evolved from common ancestors. Accumulation of random mutations and large macromolecular sequence change in all organisms since the Proterozoic Eon has been importantly supplemented by acquisition of inherited genomes ('symbiogenesis'). Karyotypic alterations (polyploidization and karyotypic fissioning) have been added to these other mechanisms of species origin in plants and animals during the Phanerozoic Eon. The new evolution concepts (coupled with current rapid rates of species extinction and ignorance of the extent of biodiversity) prompted this analysis of the field of systematic biology and its role in the reorganization of extant species into higher taxa. Two superkingdoms (= Domains: Prokaryotae and Eukaryotae) and five kingdoms (Monera = Procaryotae or Bacteria; Protoctista: algae, amoebae, ciliates, foraminifera, oomycetes, slime molds, etc.; Mychota: 'true' fungi; Plantae: one phylum (division) of bryophytes and nine phyla of tracheophytes; and Animalia) are recognized. Two subkingdoms comprise the monera: the great diverse lineages are Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. The criteria for classification using molecular, ultrastructural and genetic data for this scheme are mentioned. For the first time since the nineteenth century, logical, technical definitions for each group are given with their time of appearance as inferred from the fossil record in the primary scientific literature. This classification scheme, which most closely reflects the evolutionary history, molecular biology, genetics and ultrastructure of extant life, requires changes in social organization of biologists, many of whom as botanists and zoologists, still

  17. Biodiversity: molecular biological domains, symbiosis and kingdom origins.

    PubMed

    Margulis, L

    1992-01-01

    The number of extant species of organisms is estimated to be from fewer than 3 to more than 30 x 10(6) (May, 1992). Molecular biology, comparative genetics and ultrastructural analyses provide new insights into evolutionary relationships between these species, including increasingly precise ideas of how species and higher taxa have evolved from common ancestors. Accumulation of random mutations and large macromolecular sequence change in all organisms since the Proterozoic Eon has been importantly supplemented by acquisition of inherited genomes ('symbiogenesis'). Karyotypic alterations (polyploidization and karyotypic fissioning) have been added to these other mechanisms of species origin in plants and animals during the Phanerozoic Eon. The new evolution concepts (coupled with current rapid rates of species extinction and ignorance of the extent of biodiversity) prompted this analysis of the field of systematic biology and its role in the reorganization of extant species into higher taxa. Two superkingdoms (= Domains: Prokaryotae and Eukaryotae) and five kingdoms (Monera = Procaryotae or Bacteria; Protoctista: algae, amoebae, ciliates, foraminifera, oomycetes, slime molds, etc.; Mychota: 'true' fungi; Plantae: one phylum (division) of bryophytes and nine phyla of tracheophytes; and Animalia) are recognized. Two subkingdoms comprise the monera: the great diverse lineages are Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. The criteria for classification using molecular, ultrastructural and genetic data for this scheme are mentioned. For the first time since the nineteenth century, logical, technical definitions for each group are given with their time of appearance as inferred from the fossil record in the primary scientific literature. This classification scheme, which most closely reflects the evolutionary history, molecular biology, genetics and ultrastructure of extant life, requires changes in social organization of biologists, many of whom as botanists and zoologists, still

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Biological Aging in Intervertebral Discs

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Nam V.; Hartman, Robert A.; Patil, Prashanti R.; Risbud, Makarand V.; Kletsas, Dimitris; Iatridis, James C.; Hoyland, Judith A.; Le Maitre, Christine L.; Sowa, Gwendolyn A.; Kang, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced age is the greatest risk factor for the majority of human ailments, including spine-related chronic disability and back pain, which stem from age-associated intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Given the rapid global rise in the aging population, understanding the biology of intervertebral disc aging in order to develop effective therapeutic interventions to combat the adverse effects of aging on disc health is now imperative. Fortunately, recent advances in aging research have begun to shed light on the basic biological process of aging. Here we review some of these insights and organize the complex process of disc aging into three different phases to guide research efforts to understand the biology of disc aging. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge and the recent progress made to elucidate specific molecular mechanisms underlying disc aging. In particular, studies over the last few years have uncovered cellular senescence and genomic instability as important drivers of disc aging. Supporting evidence comes from DNA repair-deficient animal models that show increased disc cellular senescence and accelerated disc aging. Additionally, stress-induced senescent cells have now been well documented to secrete catabolic factors, which can negatively impact the physiology of neighboring cells and ECM. These along with other molecular drivers of aging are reviewed in depth to shed crucial insights into the underlying mechanisms of age-related disc degeneration. We also highlight molecular targets for novel therapies and emerging candidate therapeutics that may mitigate age-associated IDD. PMID:26890203

  19. Biodiversity: molecular biological domains, symbiosis and kingdom origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1992-01-01

    The number of extant species of organisms is estimated to be from fewer than 3 to more than 30 x 10(6) (May, 1992). Molecular biology, comparative genetics and ultrastructural analyses provide new insights into evolutionary relationships between these species, including increasingly precise ideas of how species and higher taxa have evolved from common ancestors. Accumulation of random mutations and large macromolecular sequence change in all organisms since the Proterozoic Eon has been importantly supplemented by acquisition of inherited genomes ('symbiogenesis'). Karyotypic alterations (polyploidization and karyotypic fissioning) have been added to these other mechanisms of species origin in plants and animals during the Phanerozoic Eon. The new evolution concepts (coupled with current rapid rates of species extinction and ignorance of the extent of biodiversity) prompted this analysis of the field of systematic biology and its role in the reorganization of extant species into higher taxa. Two superkingdoms (= Domains: Prokaryotae and Eukaryotae) and five kingdoms (Monera = Procaryotae or Bacteria; Protoctista: algae, amoebae, ciliates, foraminifera, oomycetes, slime molds, etc.; Mychota: 'true' fungi; Plantae: one phylum (division) of bryophytes and nine phyla of tracheophytes; and Animalia) are recognized. Two subkingdoms comprise the monera: the great diverse lineages are Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. The criteria for classification using molecular, ultrastructural and genetic data for this scheme are mentioned. For the first time since the nineteenth century, logical, technical definitions for each group are given with their time of appearance as inferred from the fossil record in the primary scientific literature. This classification scheme, which most closely reflects the evolutionary history, molecular biology, genetics and ultrastructure of extant life, requires changes in social organization of biologists, many of whom as botanists and zoologists, still

  20. Deep-UV biological imaging by lanthanide ion molecular protection

    PubMed Central

    Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Fujita, Katsumasa; Smith, Nicholas Isaac; Kawata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Deep-UV (DUV) light is a sensitive probe for biological molecules such as nucleobases and aromatic amino acids due to specific absorption. However, the use of DUV light for imaging is limited because DUV can destroy or denature target molecules in a sample. Here we show that trivalent ions in the lanthanide group can suppress molecular photodegradation under DUV exposure, enabling a high signal-to-noise ratio and repetitive DUV imaging of nucleobases in cells. Underlying mechanisms of the photodegradation suppression can be excitation relaxation of the DUV-absorptive molecules due to energy transfer to the lanthanide ions, and/or avoiding ionization and reactions with surrounding molecules, including generation of reactive oxygen species, which can modify molecules that are otherwise transparent to DUV light. This approach, directly removing excited energy at the fundamental origin of cellular photodegradation, indicates an important first step towards the practical use of DUV imaging in a variety of biological applications. PMID:26819825

  1. Biological effects of high molecular weight lignin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pessala, Piia; Schultz, Eija; Kukkola, Jukka; Nakari, Tarja; Knuutinen, Juha; Herve, Sirpa; Paasivirta, Jaakko

    2010-10-01

    A number of high molecular weight (HMW) lignin derivatives possessing varied chemical properties were screened for their biological effects in order to obtain more information on the possible structural features of HMW lignin-related effects. The studied compounds were both commercial and in-house extracted lignin derivatives. Bioassays used include reverse electron transport (RET), Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. The studied lignin derivatives inhibited the in vitro systems and luminescence of V. fischeri bacteria to some extent-daphnids were not affected. It seems that, at least in the RET assay, certain pH-dependent functional groups in lignin may be of importance regarding the biological effects.

  2. Diagnosis of Whipple's disease using molecular biology techniques.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Ángel; Ojeda, Evelia; Muñagorri, Ana I; Gaminde, Eduardo; Bujanda, Luis; Larzabal, Mikel; Gil, Inés

    2011-04-01

    The diagnosis of Whipple's disease (WD) is based on the existence of clinical signs and symptoms compatible with the disease and in the presence of PAS-positive diastase-resistant granules in the macrophages of the small intestine. If there is suspicion of the disease but no histological findings or only isolated extraintestinal manifestations, species-specific PCR using different sequences of the T. whippleii genome from different tissue types and biological fluids is recommended.This study reports two cases: the first patient had diarrhea and the disease was suspected after an endoscopic examination of the ileum, while the second patient had multi-systemic manifestations,particularly abdominal, thoracic, and peripheral lymphadenopathies. In both cases, the diagnosis was confirmed using molecular biology techniques to samples from the small intestine or from a retroperineal lymph node, respectively.

  3. Teaching cell and molecular biology for gender equity.

    PubMed

    Sible, Jill C; Wilhelm, Dayna E; Lederman, Muriel

    2006-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, including cell biology, are characterized by the "leaky pipeline" syndrome in which, over time, women leave the discipline. The pipeline itself and the pond into which it empties may not be neutral. Explicating invisible norms, attitudes, and practices by integrating social studies of science into science education may be the necessary first step in helping female students persist in STEM disciplines. In 2003 and 2004, a sophomore Cell and Molecular Biology course at Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, VA) was taught integrating social studies of science with standard material. The course was successfully implemented, teaching students factual content while increasing awareness of the cultures of science and their self-confidence in engaging with the subject. Course evaluation data indicated that females in particular perceived greater gains in logical thinking and problem-solving abilities than females in a traditional cell biology course. Consistent with K-12 studies, males in this class were likely to view scientists as male only, whereas females viewed scientists as male and female. This pilot project demonstrates that social studies can be integrated successfully in a cell biology course. Longitudinal studies of this cohort of students will indicate whether this approach contributes to the retention of women in the field.

  4. Biologic Therapy and Novel Molecular Targets of Severe Asthma.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Amber N; Renz, Harald; Casale, Thomas B; Garn, Holger

    Treatment options for severe or uncontrolled asthma are increasing, especially pertaining to novel biologic therapies. The 2 primary asthma endotypes, T2 high and T2 low, are defined by the level of type 2 T helper and innate lymphoid cell activity and mediators. Most therapies for severe asthma target T2 high asthma, including the 3 biologics approved for use in the United States and Europe: omalizumb, mepolizumb, and reslizumab. Other biologics, with various molecular targets, are under investigation. Unfortunately, treatment options for T2 low asthma are limited. Although these therapies may improve asthma symptoms, exacerbation rates, and lung function parameters, they have not been shown to modify the disease process or provide lasting benefits after discontinuation. Biomarkers identified thus far to help guide individualized therapy in severe asthma are helpful, but imperfect discriminators for picking the best option for individual patients. This review will discuss the mechanisms of action, indications, and therapeutic effects of currently available and emerging biologics for the treatment of severe or uncontrolled asthma. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Teaching Cell and Molecular Biology for Gender Equity

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Dayna E.; Lederman, Muriel

    2006-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, including cell biology, are characterized by the “leaky pipeline” syndrome in which, over time, women leave the discipline. The pipeline itself and the pond into which it empties may not be neutral. Explicating invisible norms, attitudes, and practices by integrating social studies of science into science education may be the necessary first step in helping female students persist in STEM disciplines. In 2003 and 2004, a sophomore Cell and Molecular Biology course at Virginia Tech (Blacksburg, VA) was taught integrating social studies of science with standard material. The course was successfully implemented, teaching students factual content while increasing awareness of the cultures of science and their self-confidence in engaging with the subject. Course evaluation data indicated that females in particular perceived greater gains in logical thinking and problem-solving abilities than females in a traditional cell biology course. Consistent with K–12 studies, males in this class were likely to view scientists as male only, whereas females viewed scientists as male and female. This pilot project demonstrates that social studies can be integrated successfully in a cell biology course. Longitudinal studies of this cohort of students will indicate whether this approach contributes to the retention of women in the field. PMID:17012214

  6. Electrophoretic gel image analysis software for the molecular biology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Redman, T; Jacobs, T

    1991-06-01

    We present GelReader 1.0, a microcomputer program designed to make precision, digital analysis of one-dimensional electrophoretic gels accessible to the molecular biology laboratory of modest means. Images of electrophoretic gels are digitized via a desktop flatbed scanner from instant photographs, autoradiograms or chromogenically stained blotting media. GelReader is then invoked to locate lanes and bands and generate a report of molecular weights of unknowns, based on specified sets of standards. Frequently used standards can be stored in the program. Lanes and bands can be added or removed, based upon users' subjective preferences. A unique lane histogram feature facilitates precise manual addition of bands missed by the software. Image enhancement features include palette manipulation, histogram equalization, shadowing and magnification. The user interface strikes a balance between program autonomy and user intervention, in recognition of the variability in electrophoretic gel quality and users' analytical needs.

  7. Molecular Requirements for the Biological Activity of Ethylene 1

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Stanley P.; Burg, Ellen A.

    1967-01-01

    The molecular requirements for ethylene action were investigated using the pea straight growth test. Biological activity requires an unsaturated bond adjacent to a terminal carbon atom, is inversely related to molecular size, and is decreased by substitutions which lower the electron density in the unsaturated position. Evidence is presented that ethylene binds to a metal containing receptor site. CO2 is a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action, and prevents high concentrations of auxin (which stimulate ethylene formation) from retarding the elongation of etiolated pea stem sections. It is suggested that CO2 delays fruit ripening by displacing the ripening hormone, ethylene, from its receptor site. Binding of ethylene to the receptor site is also impeded when the O2 concentration is lowered, and this may explain why fruit ripening is delayed at low O2 tensions. PMID:16656478

  8. Medical and molecular biological application in the FELI

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, E.; Ogino, S.; Suzuki, T.

    1995-12-31

    Some of the user`s rooms of the FELI have been equipped for medical and molecular biological research. Main subjects are immunological reaction and cell fusion induced by IR FEL. We are beginning to do the preliminary irradiation experiments. The cultured T lymphocytes (Molt-4, human) are irradiated to FEL at wavelength 6.3{mu}m with the power density approximate 500mW/mm{sup 2} for 10 minutes, in the culture media (RPMI-1640) including 10% fetal bovine serum. Swelling and consequent collapse of the cells can be observed, probably due to abrasion of the cell membranes.

  9. Molecular genetics of glioblastomas: defining subtypes and understanding the biology.

    PubMed

    Renault, Ilana Zalcberg; Golgher, Denise

    2015-02-01

    Despite comprehensive therapy, which includes surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, the prognosis of glioblastoma multiforme is very poor. Diagnosed individuals present an average of 12 to 18 months of life. This article provides an overview of the molecular genetics of these tumors. Despite the overwhelming amount of data available, so far little has been translated into real benefits for the patient. Because this is such a complex topic, the goal is to point out the main alterations in the biological pathways that lead to tumor formation, and how this can contribute to the development of better therapies and clinical care.

  10. Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer in molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Sasmal, Dibyendu K; Pulido, Laura E; Kasal, Shan; Huang, Jun

    2016-12-08

    Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) is a powerful technique for studying the conformation dynamics and interactions of individual biomolecules. In this review, we describe the concept and principle of smFRET, illustrate general instrumentation and microscopy settings for experiments, and discuss the methods and algorithms for data analysis. Subsequently, we review applications of smFRET in protein conformational changes, ion channel open-close properties, receptor-ligand interactions, nucleic acid structure regulation, vesicle fusion, and force induced conformational dynamics. Finally, we discuss the main limitations of smFRET in molecular biology.

  11. Molecular biology, epidemiology, and the elusive nature of pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Tenner, Scott

    2015-03-05

    The myriad of presentations of pancreatitis can cause confusion and controversy among clinicians affecting the diagnosis, treatment, and research of patients with these disorders. Although the disease is best thought of as a spectrum with classic presentations, the underlying pathophysiologic reasons for the differences in manifestations remains unknown. In this issue of the Journal, LaRusch and colleagues provide an elegant study combining epidemiology and molecular biology to explain why some patients with pancreatitis develop fibrosis chronic pancreatitis. The implications of the findings add to the growing request to support large multidisciplinary, combined genetic, and epidemiologic studies in pancreatic disease.

  12. Mutants of Arabidopsis as tools for physiology and molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, C.R.; Artus, N.; Browse, J.; Caspar, T.; Estelle, M.; Haughn, G.; Kunst, L.; Martinez, J.; McCourt, P.; Moffatt, B.

    1986-04-01

    The authors discuss the importance of developing a facile system for genetic analysis in higher plants which can be used to approach problems specific to plant biology in much the same way that molecular genetic approaches have been used in other classes of organisms such as yeast and Drosophila. Toward this end, they have developed methods for the isolation and analysis of mutants of Arabidopsis with specific alterations in photosynthesis, photorespiration, starch metabolism, lipid metabolism, purine metabolism, amino acid metabolism and phytohormone responses. The utility of this collection of mutants for studying problems in physiology and biochemistry is illustrated with selected examples.

  13. Dictionary of microbiology and molecular biology. 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, P.; Sainsbury, D.

    1988-01-01

    A newly revised edition of the standard reference for microbiology and molecular biology. Includes a multitude of new terms and designations which, although widely used in the literature, are seldom defined outside the book or paper in which they first appeared. Also accounts for the changes in the meanings of older terms brought about by advances in knowledge. Definition of all terms reflects their actual usage in current journals and texts, and also given (where appropriate) are former meanings, alternative meanings, and synonyms. Includes terms from such fields as mycology, protozoology, virology, etc.

  14. How restriction enzymes became the workhorses of molecular biology

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Restriction enzymes have proved to be invaluable for the physical mapping of DNA. They offer unparalleled opportunities for diagnosing DNA sequence content and are used in fields as disparate as criminal forensics and basic research. In fact, without restriction enzymes, the biotechnology industry would certainly not have flourished as it has. The first experiments demonstrating the utility of restriction enzymes were carried out by Danna and Nathans and reported in 1971. This pioneering study set the stage for the modern practice of molecular biology in which restriction enzymes are ubiquitous tools, although they are often taken for granted. PMID:15840723

  15. Stress and breast cancer: from epidemiology to molecular biology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Stress exposure has been proposed to contribute to the etiology of breast cancer. However, the validity of this assertion and the possible mechanisms involved are not well established. Epidemiologic studies differ in their assessment of the relative contribution of stress to breast cancer risk, while physiological studies propose a clear connection but lack the knowledge of intracellular pathways involved. The present review aims to consolidate the findings from different fields of research (including epidemiology, physiology, and molecular biology) in order to present a comprehensive picture of what we know to date about the role of stress in breast cancer development. PMID:21575279

  16. Progress in nucleic acid research and molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, W.E.; Moldave, K.

    1988-01-01

    Complementary Use of Chemical Modification and Site-Directed Mutagenesis to Probe Structure-Activity Relationships in Enzymes. Mechanisms of the Antiviral Action of Inteferons. Modulation of Cellular Genes by Oncogenes. DNA Damage Produced by Ionizing Radiation in Mammalian Cells: Identities, Mechanisms of Formation, and Reparability. Human Ferritin Gene Expression. Molecular Biology of the Insulin Receptor. Cap-Binding Proteins of Eukaryotic Messenger RNA: Functions in Initiation and Control of Translation. Physical Monitoring of Meiotic and Mitotic Recombination in Yeast. Early Signals Underlying the Induction of the c-fos and c-myc Genes in Quiescent Fibroblasts: Studies with Bombesin and Other Growth Factors. Each chapter includes references.

  17. Building bridges between cellular and molecular structural biology.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Ardan; Brandt, Robert; Butcher, Sarah J; Collinson, Lucy; Gault, David; Grünewald, Kay; Hecksel, Corey; Huiskonen, Juha T; Iudin, Andrii; Jones, Martin L; Korir, Paul K; Koster, Abraham J; Lagerstedt, Ingvar; Lawson, Catherine L; Mastronarde, David; McCormick, Matthew; Parkinson, Helen; Rosenthal, Peter B; Saalfeld, Stephan; Saibil, Helen R; Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Solanes Valero, Irene; Subramaniam, Sriram; Swedlow, Jason R; Tudose, Ilinca; Winn, Martyn; Kleywegt, Gerard J

    2017-07-06

    The integration of cellular and molecular structural data is key to understanding the function of macromolecular assemblies and complexes in their in vivo context. Here we report on the outcomes of a workshop that discussed how to integrate structural data from a range of public archives. The workshop identified two main priorities: the development of tools and file formats to support segmentation (that is, the decomposition of a three-dimensional volume into regions that can be associated with defined objects), and the development of tools to support the annotation of biological structures.

  18. [Applications of molecular biology in the wine industry].

    PubMed

    Ramón, D; González-Candelas, L; Pérez-González, J A; González, R; Ventura, L; Sánchez-Torres, P; Vallés, S; Piñaga, F; Gallego, M V; Fernández-Espinar, M T

    1995-03-01

    Population dynamics of natural and inoculated industrial wine fermentations have been studied by using a simple molecular biology technique based on mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis profile. The predominance of the inoculated strain in the inoculated fermentations is obvious. A genetic transformation system has been developed for an industrial wine yeast strain named T73. By using this technique, different fungal hydrolases in this industrial strain have been expressed. Problems and benefits of the application of recombinant DNA techniques in wine yeast strains are also discussed here.

  19. Molecular Biology of Pediatric Hydrocephalus and Hydrocephalus-related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    YAMASAKI, Mami; KANEMURA, Yonehiro

    2015-01-01

    We are beginning to understand the molecular biology of hydrocephalus and its related diseases. X-linked hydrocephalus (XLH), holoprosencephaly (HPE), Dandy–Walker malformation (DWM), and neural tube defect (NTD) can all be discussed with respect to their available molecular genetics knowledge base and its clinical applications. XLH is single gene disorder caused by mutations in the neural cell adhesion molecule-encoding L1CAM (L1) gene. Our knowledge of the molecular basis of XLH is already being applied clinically in disease diagnosis, disease classification, and prenatal diagnosis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying XLH-related hydrocephalus still needs to be clarified. Sixteen causative genes for HPE have been identified, of which mutations are most often found in SHH, ZIC2, SIX3, and TGIF. Genetic interactions, gene complexity, and the wide variety of HPE phenotypes and genotypes are topics for future study. For DWM, two important loci, 3q24, which includes the FOXC1 gene, and 6q25.3, which includes the ZIC1 and ZIC4 genes, were recently identified as causative areas. The planar cell polarity (PCP) genes CELSR1, CELSR2, VANGL1, and VANGL2 have been implicated in NTD; these genes have roles in neural tube closure and ependymal ciliary movement. PMID:26227058

  20. [Molecular biology of biological clock--genetic regulation of circadian rhythm and sleep].

    PubMed

    Kume, Kazuhiko

    2006-07-01

    Circadian rhythm is a universal biological property functioning in most living species on the earth from bacteria and plants to animals. The molecular mechanisms creating this rhythm have recently been elucidated and the transcriptional feedback loop regulation of 'clock genes' is regarded as essential for all species studied so far. Both mammals and insects share the similar clock genes, which highlights the long conservation of circadian rhythm at the genetic level. Sleep and arousal cycles in mammals are known to be regulated by both homeostatic and circadian processes, but the genetic machinery for sleep regulation is still unclear. Recently, it has been reported that insects also have sleep-like behavior, and we showed that insects use dopamine as a regulator of their sleep/arousal cycling, which strongly suggests the similarity of arousal regulation between insects and mammals at the molecular level. In this review, these recent advancements of the molecular understanding of circadian rhythm and sleep/arousal regulation are outlined.

  1. Fundamental and functional aspects of mesoscopic architectures with examples in physics, cell biology, and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kalay, Ziya

    2011-08-01

    How small can a macroscopic object be made without losing its intended function? Obviously, the smallest possible size is determined by the size of an atom, but it is not so obvious how many atoms are required to assemble an object so small, and yet that performs the same function as its macroscopic counterpart. In this review, we are concerned with objects of intermediate nature, lying between the microscopic and the macroscopic world. In physics and chemistry literature, this regime in-between is often called mesoscopic, and is known to bear interesting and counterintuitive features. After a brief introduction to the concept of mesoscopic systems from the perspective of physics, we discuss the functional aspects of mesoscopic architectures in cell biology, and supramolecular chemistry through many examples from the literature. We argue that the biochemistry of the cell is largely regulated by mesoscopic functional architectures; however, the significance of mesoscopic phenomena seems to be quite underappreciated in biological sciences. With this motivation, one of our main purposes here is to emphasize the critical role that mesoscopic structures play in cell biology and biochemistry.

  2. The motivation for biological aggression is an inherent and common aspect of the human behavioural repertoire.

    PubMed

    Rózsa, Lajos

    2009-02-01

    According to a widespread opinion shared by the vast majority of historians, instances of aggression using pathogen weapons constitute extremely rare events in human history. Similarly, students of human behaviour tend to believe that their science plays no role in explaining this phenomenon, which is held to be exceptional and abnormal. Contrary to this dominant view, I argue that Hamiltonian spite - like Hamiltonian altruism - is an inherent part of the human behavioural repertoire and it includes the use of pathogens for spiteful purposes. This paradigm is supported by the following observations. The use of pathogens as weapons emerged far before the scientific understanding of the nature of infections and epidemics, though it has been underrepresented in written history ever since. It is also present in our expectations concerning the likely behaviour of an enemy and it is also a frequent component of threats. Several languages appear to bear linguistic references to our motivation for biological aggression in profanity. Finally, given that wartime epidemics kill people at a rate comparable to (or exceeding) that of mechanical weapons, all wars fought in recorded history incorporated an element of aggression through biological means. On the basis of these arguments, I claim that the motivation for biological aggression is an inherent and common aspect of past and present human behaviour.

  3. [Molecular and cellular biological analysis on cancer cachexia syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mukaiyama, T

    2001-07-01

    About half of patients with cancer will suffer from wasting syndrome, called cancer cachexia, which shows abnormality of homeostasis, nutrition, endocrine function, metabolism, immunity et al. This syndrome is characterized with anorexia and weight loss caused by degradation of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Progressive weight loss is responsible not only for a poor quality of life and poor response to anti-cancer drug, but also shorter survival time comparing patient without weight loss. Various factors have been found as mediators of this syndrome base on the development of immunology, biochemistry and molecular and cellular biology. These include several cytokines, proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF), lipid-mobilizing factor (LMF), apoptosis-inducing factor and another factors. Recentry, molecular biological analysis makes clear more detail mechanisms of cancer cachexia syndrome, for example, ubiqutin/proteasome pathway, activation of nuclear transcriptional factors and others. These progresses will contribute not only to establish new treatment but also to carry out "order-made palliative oncology" using DNA-chip and/or Protein-chip in near future.

  4. The role of molecular biology in veterinary parasitology.

    PubMed

    Prichard, R; Tait, A

    2001-07-12

    The tools of molecular biology are increasingly relevant to veterinary parasitology. The sequencing of the complete genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and other helminths and protozoa is allowing great advances in studying the biology, and improving diagnosis and control of parasites. Unique DNA sequences provide very high levels of specificity for the diagnosis and identification of parasite species and strains, and PCR allows extremely high levels of sensitivity. New techniques, such as the use of uniquely designed molecular beacons and DNA microarrays will eventually allow rapid screening for specific parasite genotypes and assist in diagnostic and epidemiological studies of veterinary parasites. The ability to use genome data to clone and sequence genes which when expressed will provide antigens for vaccine screening and receptors and enzymes for mechanism-based chemotherapy screening will increase our options for parasite control. In addition, DNA vaccines can have desirable characteristics, such as sustained stimulation of the host immune system compared with protein based vaccines. One of the greatest threats to parasite control has been the development of drug resistance in parasites. Our knowledge of the basis of drug resistance and our ability to monitor its development with highly sensitive and specific DNA-based assays for 'resistance'-alleles will help maintain the effectiveness of existing antiparasitic drugs and provide hope that we can maintain control of parasitic disease outbreaks.

  5. [Clinical, morphological and molecular biological characteristics of the aging eye].

    PubMed

    Böhm, M R R; Thomasen, H; Parnitzke, F; Steuhl, K-P

    2017-02-01

    The physiological aging of the eye is associated with loss of visual function. Age-related changes of the eye can result in ophthalmological diseases. The aim of this article is to display morphological, histological and molecular biological alterations of the aging eye. A web-based search and review of the literature for aging of the visual system including cornea, lens, vitreous humor, retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), choroidea and optic nerve were carried out. The most important results related to morphological, histological and molecular biological changes are summarized. Age-related, morphological alterations can be found in preretinal structures, e. g. cornea, lens and vitreous humor, as well as neuronal structures, such as the retina. In addition to negligible clinical signs of the aging eye, there are clinically relevant changes which can develop into pathological ophthalmological diseases. These transitions from age-related alterations to relevant ophthalmological diseases, e. g. age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma are continuous. An understanding of aging could provide predictive factors to detect the conversion of physiological aging into pathological conditions. The derivation of physiological markers or new approaches to detection and treatment of disease-related entities associated with the risk factor aging are desirable. Translational approaches in clinical and basic science are necessary to provide new therapeutic options for relevant ophthalmological diseases in the future.

  6. Ependymomas of the adult: molecular biology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rudà, Roberta; Gilbert, Mark; Soffietti, Riccardo

    2008-12-01

    To review state of art and relevant advances in the molecular biology and management of ependymomas of the adult. Ependymomas of the adult are uncommon neoplasms of the central nervous system, and may occur either in the brain or the spinal cord. Compared with intracranial ependymomas, spinal ependymomas are less frequent and exhibit a better prognosis. Studies performed on genetic changes in ependymoma provide some insight into the pathogenesis and prognostic markers and yield new therapeutic targets, particularly focused on signal transduction modulators. The majority of studies have shown a major impact of extent of resection; thus, a complete resection must be performed, whenever possible, at first surgery or at reoperation. Involved field radiotherapy is recommended for anaplastic or incompletely resected grade II tumors. Craniospinal irradiation is reserved for metastatic disease. Chemotherapy is not advocated as primary treatment, and is best utilized as salvage treatment for patients failing surgery and radiotherapy. Owing to the rarity of the disease, the literature regarding ependymomas in adults is scarce and limited to retrospective series. Thus, the level of evidence regarding therapeutic strategies is low and universally accepted guidelines are lacking. Molecular biology studies suggest some potential new therapeutic targets.

  7. Errant life, molecular biology, and biopower: Canguilhem, Jacob, and Foucault.

    PubMed

    Talcott, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the theoretical circumstances that urged Michel Foucault to analyse modern societies in terms of biopower. Georges Canguilhem's account of the relations between science and the living forms an essential starting point for Foucault's own later explorations, though the challenges posed by the molecular revolution in biology and François Jacob's history of it allowed Foucault to extend and transform Canguilhem's philosophy of error. Using archival research into his 1955-1956 course on "Science and Error," I show that, for Canguilhem, it is inauthentic to treat a living being as an error, even if living things are capable of making errors in the domain of knowledge. The emergent molecular biology in the 1960s posed a grave challenge, however, since it suggested that individuals could indeed be errors of genetic reproduction. The paper discusses how Canguilhem and Foucault each responded to this by examining, among other texts, their respective reviews of Jacob's The Logic of the Living. For Canguilhem this was an opportunity to reaffirm the creativity of life in the living individual, which is not a thing to be evaluated, but the source of values. For Foucault, drawing on Jacob's work, this was the opportunity to develop a transformed account of valuation by posing biopower as the DNA of society. Despite their disagreements, the paper examines these three authors as different iterations of a historical epistemology attuned to errancy, error, and experimentation.

  8. Holism and life manifestations: molecular and space-time biology.

    PubMed

    Krecek, J

    2010-01-01

    Appeals of philosophers to look for new concepts in sciences are being met with a weak response. Limited attention is paid to the relation between synthetic and analytic approach in solving problems of biology. An attempt is presented to open a discussion on a possible role of holism. The term "life manifestations" is used in accordance with phenomenology. Multicellular creatures maintain milieu intérieur to keep an aqueous milieu intracellulair in order to transform the energy of nutrients into the form utilizable for driving cellular life manifestations. Milieu intérieur enables to integrate this kind of manifestations into life manifestations of the whole multicellular creatures. The integration depends on a uniqueness and uniformity of the genome of cells, on their mutual recognition and adherence. The processes of ontogenetic development represent the natural mode of integration of cellular life manifestations. Functional systems of multicellular creatures are being established by organization of integrable cells using a wide range of developmental processes. Starting from the zygote division the new being displays all properties of a whole creature, although its life manifestations vary. Therefore, the whole organism is not only more than its parts, as supposed by holism, but also more than developmental stages of its life manifestations. Implicitly, the units of whole multicellular creature are rather molecular and developmental events than the cells per se. Holism, taking in mind the existence of molecular and space-time biology, could become a guide in looking for a new mode of the combination of analytical and synthetic reasoning in biology.

  9. Transmission electron microscopy in molecular structural biology: A historical survey.

    PubMed

    Harris, J Robin

    2015-09-01

    In this personal, historic account of macromolecular transmission electron microscopy (TEM), published data from the 1940s through to recent times is surveyed, within the context of the remarkable progress that has been achieved during this time period. The evolution of present day molecular structural biology is described in relation to the associated biological disciplines. The contribution of numerous electron microscope pioneers to the development of the subject is discussed. The principal techniques for TEM specimen preparation, thin sectioning, metal shadowing, negative staining and plunge-freezing (vitrification) of thin aqueous samples are described, with a selection of published images to emphasise the virtues of each method. The development of digital image analysis and 3D reconstruction is described in detail as applied to electron crystallography and reconstructions from helical structures, 2D membrane crystals as well as single particle 3D reconstruction of icosahedral viruses and macromolecules. The on-going development of new software, algorithms and approaches is highlighted before specific examples of the historical progress of the structural biology of proteins and viruses are presented.

  10. Embryonic stem cell biology: insights from molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Karim; Wu, Joseph C

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have therapeutic potential in disorders of cellular loss such as myocardial infarction, type I diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. ES cell biology in living subjects was largely poorly understood until incorporation of molecular imaging into the field. Reporter gene imaging works by integrating a reporter gene into ES cells and using a reporter probe to induce a signal detectable by normal imaging modalities. Reporter gene imaging allows for longitudinal tracking of ES cells within the same host for a prolonged period of time. This has advantages over postmortem immunohistochemistry and traditional imaging modalities. The advantages include expression of reporter gene is limited to viable cells, expression is conserved between generations of dividing cells, and expression can be linked to a specific population of cells. These advantages were especially useful in studying a dynamic cell population such as ES cells and proved useful in elucidating the biology of ES cells. Reporter gene imaging identified poor integration of differentiated ES cells transplanted into host tissue as well as delayed donor cell death as reasons for poor long-term survival in vivo. This imaging technology also confirmed that ES cells indeed have immunogenic properties that factor into cell survival and differentiation. Finally, reporter gene imaging improved our understanding of the neoplastic risk of undifferentiated ES cells in forming teratomas. Despite such advances, much remains to be understood about ES cell biology to translate this technology to the bedside, and reporter gene imaging will certainly play a key role in formulating this understanding.

  11. Review and application of group theory to molecular systems biology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we provide a review of selected mathematical ideas that can help us better understand the boundary between living and non-living systems. We focus on group theory and abstract algebra applied to molecular systems biology. Throughout this paper we briefly describe possible open problems. In connection with the genetic code we propose that it may be possible to use perturbation theory to explore the adjacent possibilities in the 64-dimensional space-time manifold of the evolving genome. With regards to algebraic graph theory, there are several minor open problems we discuss. In relation to network dynamics and groupoid formalism we suggest that the network graph might not be the main focus for understanding the phenotype but rather the phase space of the network dynamics. We show a simple case of a C6 network and its phase space network. We envision that the molecular network of a cell is actually a complex network of hypercycles and feedback circuits that could be better represented in a higher-dimensional space. We conjecture that targeting nodes in the molecular network that have key roles in the phase space, as revealed by analysis of the automorphism decomposition, might be a better way to drug discovery and treatment of cancer. PMID:21696623

  12. Review and application of group theory to molecular systems biology.

    PubMed

    Rietman, Edward A; Karp, Robert L; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2011-06-22

    In this paper we provide a review of selected mathematical ideas that can help us better understand the boundary between living and non-living systems. We focus on group theory and abstract algebra applied to molecular systems biology. Throughout this paper we briefly describe possible open problems. In connection with the genetic code we propose that it may be possible to use perturbation theory to explore the adjacent possibilities in the 64-dimensional space-time manifold of the evolving genome. With regards to algebraic graph theory, there are several minor open problems we discuss. In relation to network dynamics and groupoid formalism we suggest that the network graph might not be the main focus for understanding the phenotype but rather the phase space of the network dynamics. We show a simple case of a C6 network and its phase space network. We envision that the molecular network of a cell is actually a complex network of hypercycles and feedback circuits that could be better represented in a higher-dimensional space. We conjecture that targeting nodes in the molecular network that have key roles in the phase space, as revealed by analysis of the automorphism decomposition, might be a better way to drug discovery and treatment of cancer.

  13. Advances in the cellular and molecular biology of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Egginton, Stuart; Bicknell, Roy

    2011-12-01

    Capillaries have been recognized for over a century as one of the most important components in regulating tissue oxygen transport, and their formation or angiogenesis a pivotal element of tissue remodelling during development and adaptation. Clinical interest stems from observations that both excessive and inadequate vascular growth plays a major role in human diseases, and novel developments in treatments for cancer and eye disease increasingly rely on anti-angiogenic therapies. Although the discovery of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) provided the first clue for specificity of signalling in endothelial cell activation, understanding the integrative response that drives angiogenesis requires a much broader perspective. The Advances in the Cellular and Molecular Biology of Angiogenesis meeting brought together researchers at the forefront of this rapidly moving field to provide an update on current understanding, and the most recent insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms of vascular growth. The plenary lecture highlighted the integrative nature of the angiogenic process, whereas invited contributions from basic and clinician scientists described fundamental mechanisms and disease-associated issues of blood vessel formation, grouped under a number of themes to aid discussion. These articles will appeal to academic, clinical and pharmaceutical scientists interested in the molecular and cellular basis of angiogenesis, their modulation or dysfunction in human diseases, and application of these findings towards translational medicine.

  14. Detection of biological threats. A challenge for directed molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Valery A; Sorokulova, Iryna B

    2004-08-01

    The probe technique originated from early attempts of Anton van Leeuwenhoek to contrast microorganisms under the microscope using plant juices, successful staining of tubercle bacilli with synthetic dyes by Paul Ehrlich and discovery of a stain for differentiation of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by Hans Christian Gram. The technique relies on the principle that pathogens have unique structural features, which can be recognized by specifically labeled organic molecules. A hundred years of extensive screening efforts led to discovery of a limited assortment of organic probes that are used for identification and differentiation of bacteria. A new challenge--continuous monitoring of biological threats--requires long lasting molecular probes capable of tight specific binding of pathogens in unfavorable conditions. To respond to the challenge, probe technology is being revolutionized by utilizing methods of combinatorial chemistry, phage display and directed molecular evolution. This review describes how molecular evolution methods are applied for development of peptide, antibody and phage probes, and summarizes the author's own data on development of landscape phage probes against Salmonella typhimurium. The performance of the probes in detection of Salmonella is illustrated by a precipitation test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescent, optical and electron microscopy.

  15. Molecular biology of insect sodium channels and pyrethroid resistance.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ke; Du, Yuzhe; Rinkevich, Frank; Nomura, Yoshiko; Xu, Peng; Wang, Lingxin; Silver, Kristopher; Zhorov, Boris S

    2014-07-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the initiation and propagation of the action potential in neurons and other excitable cells. Because of their critical roles in electrical signaling, sodium channels are targets of a variety of naturally occurring and synthetic neurotoxins, including several classes of insecticides. This review is intended to provide an update on the molecular biology of insect sodium channels and the molecular mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. Although mammalian and insect sodium channels share fundamental topological and functional properties, most insect species carry only one sodium channel gene, compared to multiple sodium channel genes found in each mammalian species. Recent studies showed that two posttranscriptional mechanisms, alternative splicing and RNA editing, are involved in generating functional diversity of sodium channels in insects. More than 50 sodium channel mutations have been identified to be responsible for or associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids in various arthropod pests and disease vectors. Elucidation of molecular mechanism of kdr led to the identification of dual receptor sites of pyrethroids on insect sodium channels. Many of the kdr mutations appear to be located within or close to the two receptor sites. The accumulating knowledge of insect sodium channels and their interactions with insecticides provides a foundation for understanding the neurophysiology of sodium channels in vivo and the development of new and safer insecticides for effective control of arthropod pests and human disease vectors.

  16. Molecular Biology of Insect Sodium Channels and Pyrethroid Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ke; Du, Yuzhe; Rinkevich, Frank; Nomura, Yoshiko; Xu, Peng; Wang, Lingxin; Silver, Kristopher; Zhorov, Boris S.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the initiation and propagation of the action potential in neurons and other excitable cells. Because of their critical roles in electrical signaling, sodium channels are targets of a variety of naturally occurring and synthetic neurotoxins, including several classes of insecticides. This review is intended to provide an update on the molecular biology of insect sodium channels and the molecular mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. Although mammalian and insect sodium channels share fundamental topological and functional properties, most insect species carry only one sodium channel gene, compared to multiple sodium channel genes found in each mammalian species. Recent studies showed that two posttranscriptional mechanisms, alternative splicing and RNA editing, are involved in generating functional diversity of sodium channels in insects. More than 50 sodium channel mutations have been identified to be responsible for or associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids in various arthropod pests and disease vectors. Elucidation of molecular mechanism of kdr led to the identification of dual receptor sites of pyrethroids on insect sodium channels. Most of the kdr mutations appear to be located within or close to the two receptor sites. The accumulating knowledge of insect sodium channels and their interactions with insecticides provides a foundation for understanding the neurophysiology of sodium channels in vivo and the development of new and safer insecticides for effective control of arthropod pests and human disease vectors. PMID:24704279

  17. Recent advances in the genomic and molecular biology of Giardia.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pierres, M Guadalupe; Jex, Aaron R; Ansell, Brendan R E; Svärd, Staffan G

    2017-09-06

    Giardia duodenalis is the most common gastrointestinal protozoan parasite of humans and a significant contributor to the global burden of both diarrheal disease and post-infectious chronic disorders. Robust tools for analyzing gene function in this parasite have been developed and a range of genetic tools are now available. These together with public databases have provided insights on the function of different genes in Giardia. In this review we provide a current perspective on different molecular aspects of Giardia related to genomics, regulation of encystation, trophozoite transcriptional responses to physiological and xenobiotic (drug-induced) stress, and mechanisms of drug resistance. We also examine recent insights that have contributed to gain knowledge in the study of VSPs, antigenic variation, epigenetics, DNA repair and in the direct manipulation of gene function in Giardia, with a particular focus on the inducible Cre/loxP system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The physiology and molecular biology of sponge tissues.

    PubMed

    Leys, Sally P; Hill, April

    2012-01-01

    well as experimental work on choanocyte morphology and function. Special attention is given to pinacocyte epithelia, cell junctions, and the molecules present in sponge epithelia. Studies describing the role of the pinacoderm in sensing, coordination, and secretion are reviewed. A wealth of recent work describes gene presence and expression patterns in sponge tissues during development, and we review this in the context of the previous descriptions of sponge morphology and physiology. A final section addresses recent findings of genes involved in the immune response. This review is far from exhaustive but intends rather to revisit for non-specialists key aspects of sponge morphology and physiology in light of new molecular data as a means to better understand and interpret sponge form and function today. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants for strategies against metal and metalloid exposure

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of exposure to heavy metals/metalloid. Beneficial renal effects of some medications, such as chelation therapy depend at least partially on the ability to alleviate oxidative stress. The administration of various natural or synthetic antioxidants has been shown to be of benefit in the prevention and attenuation of metal induced biochemical alterations. These include vitamins, N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid, melatonin, dietary flavonoids and many others. Human studies are limited in this regard. Under certain conditions, surprisingly, the antioxidant supplements may exhibit pro-oxidant properties and even worsen metal induced toxic damage. To date, the evidence is insufficient to recommend antioxidant supplements in subject with exposure to metals. Prospective, controlled clinical trials on safety and effectiveness of different therapeutic antioxidant strategies either individually or in combination with chelating agent are indispensable. The present review focuses on structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants particularly related to their chelating properties. PMID:20716905

  20. Molecular biology of peptide pheromone production and reception in mice.

    PubMed

    Touhara, Kazushige

    2007-01-01

    Intraspecies communication via pheromones plays an important role in social and sexual behaviors, which are critical for survival and reproduction in many animal species. In mice, pheromonal signals are processed by the parallel action of two olfactory systems: the main olfactory system and the vomeronasal pathway. Pheromones are recognized by chemosensory receptors expressed in the main olfactory epithelium and by V1R- and V2R-type receptors expressed in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Mice take advantage of the chemical properties of both types of pheromones (i.e., volatile/nonvolatile) to precisely control the spatial and temporal transmission of their individual signals. The recent discovery of the exocrine gland-secreting peptide (ESP) family, which appears to encode a VNO-specific ligand repertoire, should open a new avenue to understanding peptide pheromone-mediated communication via the vomeronasal pathway in mice. In this chapter, I will review the current knowledge on genetic and molecular aspects of peptide pheromones and their receptors, by focusing primarily on the mouse VNO system. It is also an intriguing aspect to discuss peptide pheromones in the context of the evolutionary importance of species-specific chemical communication.

  1. Molecular Subgroup of Primary Prostate Cancer Presenting with Metastatic Biology.

    PubMed

    Walker, Steven M; Knight, Laura A; McCavigan, Andrena M; Logan, Gemma E; Berge, Viktor; Sherif, Amir; Pandha, Hardev; Warren, Anne Y; Davidson, Catherine; Uprichard, Adam; Blayney, Jaine K; Price, Bethanie; Jellema, Gera L; Steele, Christopher J; Svindland, Aud; McDade, Simon S; Eden, Christopher G; Foster, Chris; Mills, Ian G; Neal, David E; Mason, Malcolm D; Kay, Elaine W; Waugh, David J; Harkin, D Paul; Watson, R William; Clarke, Noel W; Kennedy, Richard D

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 4-25% of patients with early prostate cancer develop disease recurrence following radical prostatectomy. To identify a molecular subgroup of prostate cancers with metastatic potential at presentation resulting in a high risk of recurrence following radical prostatectomy. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was performed using gene expression data from 70 primary resections, 31 metastatic lymph nodes, and 25 normal prostate samples. Independent assay validation was performed using 322 radical prostatectomy samples from four sites with a mean follow-up of 50.3 months. Molecular subgroups were identified using unsupervised hierarchical clustering. A partial least squares approach was used to generate a gene expression assay. Relationships with outcome (time to biochemical and metastatic recurrence) were analysed using multivariable Cox regression and log-rank analysis. A molecular subgroup of primary prostate cancer with biology similar to metastatic disease was identified. A 70-transcript signature (metastatic assay) was developed and independently validated in the radical prostatectomy samples. Metastatic assay positive patients had increased risk of biochemical recurrence (multivariable hazard ratio [HR] 1.62 [1.13-2.33]; p=0.0092) and metastatic recurrence (multivariable HR=3.20 [1.76-5.80]; p=0.0001). A combined model with Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment post surgical (CAPRA-S) identified patients at an increased risk of biochemical and metastatic recurrence superior to either model alone (HR=2.67 [1.90-3.75]; p<0.0001 and HR=7.53 [4.13-13.73]; p<0.0001, respectively). The retrospective nature of the study is acknowledged as a potential limitation. The metastatic assay may identify a molecular subgroup of primary prostate cancers with metastatic potential. The metastatic assay may improve the ability to detect patients at risk of metastatic recurrence following radical prostatectomy. The impact of adjuvant therapies should be assessed in

  2. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer: translating molecular biology approaches into the clinical realm.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Grimm, Jan; F Donati, Olivio; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of prostate cancer has dramatically changed since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1980's. Most prostate cancers today are detected at early stages of the disease and are considered 'indolent'; however, some patients' prostate cancers demonstrate a more aggressive behaviour which leads to rapid progression and death. Increasing understanding of the biology underlying the heterogeneity that characterises this disease has led to a continuously evolving role of imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Functional and metabolic imaging techniques are gaining importance as the impact on the therapeutic paradigm has shifted from structural tumour detection alone to distinguishing patients with indolent tumours that can be managed conservatively (e.g., by active surveillance) from patients with more aggressive tumours that may require definitive treatment with surgery or radiation. In this review, we discuss advanced imaging techniques that allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions relevant to prostate cancer and their potential for translation to the clinical setting in the near future. The potential use of imaging to follow molecular events during drug therapy as well as the use of imaging agents for therapeutic purposes will also be discussed. • Advanced imaging techniques allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions in prostate cancer. • MRI/PET, optical and Cerenkov imaging facilitate the translation of molecular biology. • Multiple compounds targeting PSMA expression are currently undergoing clinical translation. • Other targets (e.g., PSA, prostate-stem cell antigen, GRPR) are in development.

  3. Oral flora in the age of molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Perea, Evelio J

    2004-01-01

    The present work describes the fundamental aspects of the molecular methods that are applied to oral microbiology: probes, PCR, multiple real time PCR, 16S rDNA, and proteomics. Likewise, it presents the results obtained by applying these methods to the study of the bacterial flora encountered inside the mouth. By identifying 16S rDNA, up to 132 known species and 215 new, unknown phylotypes have been detected inside patients s periodontal pockets. We are currently using a commercial system based on multiple PCR (genomic amplification), followed by reverse hybridization to detect the five species known to cause periodontal disease. We also summarize the findings derived from the application of proteomic techniques to the study of odontologic infections pathogenesis and from the use of molecular methods in the study of resistance to antimicrobial agents. Finally, it puts forth the problems that remain unsolved with respect to oral flora and the treatment of odontogenic infections. Traditional culture methods continue to be indispensable, as they make it possible to later work with the cultured microorganisms.

  4. Implementation and Assessment of a Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics Undergraduate Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Daphne Q. -D.; Higgs, David C.; Statham, Anne; Schleiter, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside has developed and implemented an innovative, multidisciplinary undergraduate curriculum in Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics (MBB). The objective of the MBB program is to give students a hands-on facility with molecular biology theories and laboratory techniques, an…

  5. Implementation and Assessment of a Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics Undergraduate Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Daphne Q. -D.; Higgs, David C.; Statham, Anne; Schleiter, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside has developed and implemented an innovative, multidisciplinary undergraduate curriculum in Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics (MBB). The objective of the MBB program is to give students a hands-on facility with molecular biology theories and laboratory techniques, an…

  6. Local and global aspects of biological motion perception in children born at very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Williamson, K E; Jakobson, L S; Saunders, D R; Troje, N F

    2015-01-01

    Biological motion perception can be assessed using a variety of tasks. In the present study, 8- to 11-year-old children born prematurely at very low birth weight (<1500 g) and matched, full-term controls completed tasks that required the extraction of local motion cues, the ability to perceptually group these cues to extract information about body structure, and the ability to carry out higher order processes required for action recognition and person identification. Preterm children exhibited difficulties in all 4 aspects of biological motion perception. However, intercorrelations between test scores were weak in both full-term and preterm children--a finding that supports the view that these processes are relatively independent. Preterm children also displayed more autistic-like traits than full-term peers. In preterm (but not full-term) children, these traits were negatively correlated with performance in the task requiring structure-from-motion processing, r(30) = -.36, p < .05), but positively correlated with the ability to extract identity, r(30) = .45, p < .05). These findings extend previous reports of vulnerability in systems involved in processing dynamic cues in preterm children and suggest that a core deficit in social perception/cognition may contribute to the development of the social and behavioral difficulties even in members of this population who are functioning within the normal range intellectually. The results could inform the development of screening, diagnostic, and intervention tools.

  7. [Leptospirosis-clinico-biological and therapeutical aspects-study of 256 cases].

    PubMed

    Luca, Mihaela Cătălina; Dorobăţ, Carmen; Corcaci, Carmen; Scurtu, Roxana; Luca, V; Mihalache, Doina

    2002-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zooantroponosis manifested as an infectious disease with a severe evolution, with liver and renal failure and hemorrhagic manifestation. The aim of this study was to present the clinico-biological investigation and the therapeutical aspects of 256 cases of leptospirosis admitted in the Infectious Diseases Hospital Iasi during 4 years (1998-2001). The diagnosis was based on the study of clinico-biological and therapeutical parameters (risk factors, fever, mialgia, headache, algic, eruptive, meningeal, hepatorenal, hemorrhagic syndromes with the serological evidence of the serotypes of leptospirosis); most of the cases were registered in 1998 (23% cases), in adults (31.2%) and male (75.22%). All the patients were serologic confirmed with leptospirosis (RAL and RFC), and L. icterohaemorhagiae was isolated most frequently. The standard anti-leptospirosis treatment was administered with favorable evolution; 6 deaths were registered from the severe forms of the disease. The leptospirosis is an emergent disease with the possibility of severe evolution in some forms, with liver and renal failure.

  8. Local and global aspects of biological motion perception in children born at very low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, K. E.; Jakobson, L. S.; Saunders, D. R.; Troje, N. F.

    2015-01-01

    Biological motion perception can be assessed using a variety of tasks. In the present study, 8- to 11-year-old children born prematurely at very low birth weight (<1500 g) and matched, full-term controls completed tasks that required the extraction of local motion cues, the ability to perceptually group these cues to extract information about body structure, and the ability to carry out higher order processes required for action recognition and person identification. Preterm children exhibited difficulties in all 4 aspects of biological motion perception. However, intercorrelations between test scores were weak in both full-term and preterm children—a finding that supports the view that these processes are relatively independent. Preterm children also displayed more autistic-like traits than full-term peers. In preterm (but not full-term) children, these traits were negatively correlated with performance in the task requiring structure-from-motion processing, r(30) = −.36, p < .05), but positively correlated with the ability to extract identity, r(30) = .45, p < .05). These findings extend previous reports of vulnerability in systems involved in processing dynamic cues in preterm children and suggest that a core deficit in social perception/cognition may contribute to the development of the social and behavioral difficulties even in members of this population who are functioning within the normal range intellectually. The results could inform the development of screening, diagnostic, and intervention tools. PMID:25103588

  9. Garage Demos: Using Physical Models to Illustrate Dynamic Aspects of Microscopic Biological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Roca, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Colorful PowerPoint presentations with detailed drawings, micrographs, and short animations have become the standard format for illustrating the fundamental features of cell biology in large introductory classes. In this essay, we describe a low-tech tool that can be included in a standard lecture to help students visualize, understand, and remember the dynamic aspects of microscopic cell biological processes. This approach involves use of common objects, including pipe insulation and a garden hose, to illustrate basic processes such as protein folding and cloning, hence the appellation “garage demos.” The demonstrations are short, minimizing displacement of course content, easy to make, and provide an avenue for increasing student–faculty interaction in a large lecture hall. Student feedback over the past 4 years has been overwhelmingly positive. In an anonymous postclass survey in 2007, 90% of the respondents rated garage demos as having been very or somewhat helpful for understanding course concepts. Direct measurements of learning gains on specific concepts illustrated by garage demos are the focus of an ongoing study. PMID:19487500

  10. Some aspects of breeding biology of the blue-winged teal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dane, C.W.

    1966-01-01

    The Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) was the subject of one of the first publications dealing with the breeding biology of a species of North American waterfowl (Bennett, 1938). Recent studies of the nesting chronology, clutch size, and incubation period of this species include the works of Hochbaum (1944), Sowls (1955), and Glover (1956). The present paper supplements information on these aspects of breeding biology.Field work was done during the summers of 1961, 1962, and 1963 at the Delta Waterfowl Research Station (15 miles north of Portage la Prairie, Manitoba) which is adjacent to the Delta marsh at the south edge of Lake Manitoba. The climate in the area is subhumid. The mean annual temperature is 45.3°F and the annual precipitation is 20.1 inches at Winnipeg (60 miles ESE of Delta). The spring warming trend is variable and influences the time of spring arrival and the start of nesting of waterfowl (Sowls, 1955) and, as will be shown, the temperature may also influence the nesting chronology once a species has begun to nest. The daily mean temperatures and the daily lows at Winnipeg for the springs of 192 and 1963 are graphed in Figures 1 and 2. Daily records kept by nan Multer at Delta show that the temperatures there are similar to those at Winnipeg.

  11. Obstructive renal injury: from fluid mechanics to molecular cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Ucero, Alvaro C; Gonçalves, Sara; Benito-Martin, Alberto; Santamaría, Beatriz; Ramos, Adrian M; Berzal, Sergio; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract obstruction is a frequent cause of renal impairment. The physiopathology of obstructive nephropathy has long been viewed as a mere mechanical problem. However, recent advances in cell and systems biology have disclosed a complex physiopathology involving a high number of molecular mediators of injury that lead to cellular processes of apoptotic cell death, cell injury leading to inflammation and resultant fibrosis. Functional studies in animal models of ureteral obstruction using a variety of techniques that include genetically modified animals have disclosed an important role for the renin-angiotensin system, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and other mediators of inflammation in this process. In addition, high throughput techniques such as proteomics and transcriptomics have identified potential biomarkers that may guide clinical decision-making. PMID:24198613

  12. Biomarkers of Aging: From Function to Molecular Biology.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Cameron-Smith, David; Wessner, Barbara; Franzke, Bernhard

    2016-06-02

    Aging is a major risk factor for most chronic diseases and functional impairments. Within a homogeneous age sample there is a considerable variation in the extent of disease and functional impairment risk, revealing a need for valid biomarkers to aid in characterizing the complex aging processes. The identification of biomarkers is further complicated by the diversity of biological living situations, lifestyle activities and medical treatments. Thus, there has been no identification of a single biomarker or gold standard tool that can monitor successful or healthy aging. Within this short review the current knowledge of putative biomarkers is presented, focusing on their application to the major physiological mechanisms affected by the aging process including physical capability, nutritional status, body composition, endocrine and immune function. This review emphasizes molecular and DNA-based biomarkers, as well as recent advances in other biomarkers such as microRNAs, bilirubin or advanced glycation end products.

  13. Biomarkers of Aging: From Function to Molecular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Cameron-Smith, David; Wessner, Barbara; Franzke, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for most chronic diseases and functional impairments. Within a homogeneous age sample there is a considerable variation in the extent of disease and functional impairment risk, revealing a need for valid biomarkers to aid in characterizing the complex aging processes. The identification of biomarkers is further complicated by the diversity of biological living situations, lifestyle activities and medical treatments. Thus, there has been no identification of a single biomarker or gold standard tool that can monitor successful or healthy aging. Within this short review the current knowledge of putative biomarkers is presented, focusing on their application to the major physiological mechanisms affected by the aging process including physical capability, nutritional status, body composition, endocrine and immune function. This review emphasizes molecular and DNA-based biomarkers, as well as recent advances in other biomarkers such as microRNAs, bilirubin or advanced glycation end products. PMID:27271660

  14. Obstructive renal injury: from fluid mechanics to molecular cell biology.

    PubMed

    Ucero, Alvaro C; Gonçalves, Sara; Benito-Martin, Alberto; Santamaría, Beatriz; Ramos, Adrian M; Berzal, Sergio; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto

    2010-04-22

    Urinary tract obstruction is a frequent cause of renal impairment. The physiopathology of obstructive nephropathy has long been viewed as a mere mechanical problem. However, recent advances in cell and systems biology have disclosed a complex physiopathology involving a high number of molecular mediators of injury that lead to cellular processes of apoptotic cell death, cell injury leading to inflammation and resultant fibrosis. Functional studies in animal models of ureteral obstruction using a variety of techniques that include genetically modified animals have disclosed an important role for the renin-angiotensin system, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and other mediators of inflammation in this process. In addition, high throughput techniques such as proteomics and transcriptomics have identified potential biomarkers that may guide clinical decision-making.

  15. Application of mitochondrial DNA polymorphism to meloidogyne molecular population biology.

    PubMed

    Hyman, B C; Whipple, L E

    1996-09-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have enabled the genotyping of individual nematodes, facilitating the analysis of genetic variability within and among plant-pathogenic nematode isolates. This review first describes representative examples of how RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, and DNA sequence analysis have been employed to describe populations of several phytonematodes, including the pinewood, burrowing, root-knot, and cyst nematodes. The second portion of this paper evaluates the utility of a size-variable mitochondrial DNA locus to examine the genetic structure of Meloidogyne isolates using two alternate methodologies, variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) and repeat associated poiymorphism (RAP) analysis. VNTR analysis has revealed genetic variation among individual nematodes, whereas RAP may provide useful markers for species and population differentiation.

  16. Molecular biological characterization of equine surfactant protein A.

    PubMed

    Hospes, R; Hospes, B I L; Reiss, I; Bostedt, H; Gortner, L

    2002-12-01

    In the following, we describe the isolation and sequencing of the equine surfactant protein A (Sp-A) as found in both the cDNA and the genomic DNA. We found a length of the cDNA sequence of 747 bp (base pairs), in translation into amino acids of 248. Compared with the known molecular biological facts about Sp-A in other species, the cDNA sequence obtained showed highest homology with that of sheep (85.01%). The genomic DNA of equine Sp-A, as in other species, includes three introns. There were no hints for the existence of two different Sp-A genes. These results should form the basis for a better understanding of respiratory failure in foals and adult horses, and also lead to further studies on this item.

  17. Vascular remodelling and molecular biology: new concepts and therapeutic possibilities.

    PubMed

    Agrotis, A; Bobik, A

    1996-05-01

    1. Over the past decade major advances in molecular cell biology have greatly increased our understanding of the way in which many growth factor genes are expressed and regulated. This knowledge is currently being translated into investigations of the cardiovascular system. 2. Two growth factor families appear to play particularly important roles, the fibroblast growth factors and the transforming growth factors-beta. These are multifunctional growth factors capable of remodelling the vasculature through their effects on cell migration, proliferation and matrix formation. 3. An understanding of their regulation, properties and nature of their receptors is providing novel insights into the physiology and pathobiology of the vasculature. It is also providing highly specific targets for future therapy.

  18. Molecular biology and inhibitors of hepatitis A virus.

    PubMed

    Debing, Yannick; Neyts, Johan; Thibaut, Hendrik Jan

    2014-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a faeco-orally transmitted picornavirus and is one of the main causes of acute hepatitis worldwide. An overview of the molecular biology of HAV is presented with an emphasis on recent findings. Immune evasion strategies and a possible correlation between HAV and atopy are discussed as well. Despite the availability of efficient vaccines, antiviral drugs targeting HAV are required to treat severe cases of fulminant hepatitis, contain outbreaks, and halt the potential spread of vaccine-escape variants. Additionally, such drugs could be used to shorten the period of illness and decrease associated economical costs. Several known inhibitors of HAV with various mechanisms of action will be discussed. Since none of these molecules is readily useable in the clinic and since the availability of an anti-HAV drug would be of clinical importance, increased efforts should be targeted toward discovery and development of such antivirals.

  19. Molecular synchronization, the Kai system, and biological oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubensky, David K.

    2008-03-01

    In most textbook examples, oscillations in cell biology are driven by the periodic creation and destruction of one or more chemical species. The past few years, however, have seen growing interest in a different sort of oscillator. In these systems, the total concentrations of the major protein components are constant, but the molecules move sequentially through a cycle of different states (e.g. covalent modifications). Macroscopic oscillations appear when the progress of the many individual molecules becomes synchronized. The recently-characterized cyanobacterial circadian clock provides a particularly elegant example of such molecular synchronization. Remarkably, with only the 3 proteins KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, a ˜24 hour oscillation in KaiC phosphorylation can be reconstituted in vitro. We can thus dissect this biochemical circuit in almost unprecedented detail. Here, we give an overview of the Kai system and its relationship to other oscillators. We begin with a review of the major experimental facts about the Kai system, emphasizing possible mechanisms to synchronize KaiC phosphorylation. We then examine in more detail models in which this synchronization occurs through sequestration of KaiA via differential affinity: KaiA, which stimulates KaiC phosphorylation, has a higher affinity for KaiC during certain stages of the phosphorylation cycle; as long as some KaiC molecules at these stages are present in the reaction mixture, they bind all the available KaiA, thereby preventing the other KaiC's from being phosphorylated and proceeding through the cycle. We also discuss the implications of this mechanism for phenomena such as temperature compensation. Finally, we suggest that, in light of lessons learned from the Kai system, a number of other biological oscillators can fruitfully be viewed as examples of molecular synchronization.

  20. [Etiologic diagnosis in meningitis and encephalitis molecular biology techniques].

    PubMed

    Conca, Natalia; Santolaya, María Elena; Farfan, Mauricio J; Cofré, Fernanda; Vergara, Alejandra; Salazar, Liliana; Torres, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The aetiological study of infections of the central nervous system has traditionally been performed using bacterial cultures and, more recently, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for herpes simplex virus (HSV). Bacterial cultures may not have good performance, especially in the context of patients who have received antibiotics prior to sampling, and a request for HSV only by PCR reduces the information to only one aetiological agent. The aim of this study is to determine the infectious causes of meningitis and encephalitis, using traditional microbiology and molecular biology to improve the aetiological diagnosis of these diseases. A prospective study was conducted on 19 patients with suspected meningitis, admitted to the Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital in Santiago, Chile, from March 1, 2011 to March 30, 2012. After obtaining informed consent, the CSF samples underwent cytochemical study, conventional culture, multiplex PCR for the major producing bacterial meningitis (N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae), real-time single PCR for HSV-1 and 2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6 and enterovirus. Clinical and epidemiological data were also collected from the clinical records. Of the 19 patients analysed, 2 were diagnosed by conventional methods and 7 by adding molecular biology (increase to 37%). Three patients had meningitis due to S. pneumoniae, one due to Enterobacter cloacae, 2 patients meningoencephalitis HSV-1, and one VZV meningitis. The addition of PCR to conventional diagnostic methods in CNS infections increases the probability of finding the causal agent. This allows a more adequate, timely and rational management of the disease. Copyright © 2014. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.