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Sample records for molecule inhibitor qlt0267

  1. Validating the use of a luciferase labeled breast cancer cell line, MDA435LCC6, as a means to monitor tumor progression and to assess the therapeutic activity of an established anticancer drug, docetaxel (Dt) alone or in combination with the ILK inhibitor, QLT0267

    PubMed Central

    Anantha, Malathi; Warburton, Corinna; Waterhouse, Dawn; Yan, Hong; Yang, Young-joo; Strut, Dita; Osooly, Maryam; Masin, Dana; Bally, Marcel B

    2011-01-01

    A significant issue in drug efficacy studies is animal study design. Here we hypothesize that when evaluating new or existing therapeutics for the treatment of cancer, the location of disease burden will influence drug efficacy. To study this, female NCr nude mice were inoculated with luciferase-positive human breast cancer cells (LCC6WT-luc) orthotopically (o.t.), intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intracardiacly (i.c.) to create localized, ascites or disseminated disease, respectively. Tumor development was monitored using bioluminescence imaging. Docetaxel (Dt) pharmacokinetics and distribution to sites of tumor growth were determined. Disease progression was followed in animals treated with Dt alone and in combination with QLT0267, an integrin linked kinase inhibitor. Tumor related morbidity was most rapid when cells were inoculated i.c., where disease progression was observed in brain, ovaries, adrenal glands and lungs. Dt pharmacokinetics were comparable regardless of the model used (mean plasma AUC0–24 hrs 482.6 ng/ml*hr), however, Dt levels were lowest in those tissues developing disease following i.c. cell injection. Treatment with low dose Dt (5 mg/kg) increased overall survival and reduced tumor cell growth in all three models but the activity was greatest in mice with orthotopic tumors. Higher doses of Dt (15 mg/kg) was able to prolong survival in animals bearing i.p. tumors but not i.c. tumors. Addition of QLT0267 provided no added benefit above Dt alone in the disseminated model. These studies highlight a need for more comprehensive in vivo efficacy studies designed to assess multiple disease models and multiple endpoints, focusing analysis of drug parameters on the most chemoresistant disease. PMID:21358264

  2. Recent development of small molecule glutaminase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Song, Minsoo; Kim, Soong-Hyun; Im, Chun Young; Hwang, Hee-Jong

    2018-05-24

    Glutaminase (GLS) which is responsible for the conversion of glutamine to glutamate plays vital role in up-regulating cell metabolism for tumor cell growth, and is considered as a valuable therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Based on this important function of glutaminase in cancer, several GLS inhibitors have been developed from both academia and industries. Most importantly, Calithera Biosciences Inc. is actively developing glutaminase inhibitor CB-839 for the treatment of various cancers in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials at present. In this review, it is discussed about recent efforts to develop small molecule glutaminase inhibitors targeting glutamine metabolism both in the preclinical and clinical studies. In particular, more emphasis is placed on CB-839 since it is the only small molecule GLS inhibitor being studied in clinical setting. Inhibition mechanism is discussed based on x-ray structure study of thiadiazole derivatives as well. Finally, recent medicinal chemistry efforts to develop a new class of GLS inhibitors are given herein in the hope of providing useful information for GLS inhibitors of the next generation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Small molecule inhibitors of anthrax edema factor.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Guan-Sheng; Kim, Seongjin; Moayeri, Mahtab; Thai, April; Cregar-Hernandez, Lynne; McKasson, Linda; O'Malley, Sean; Leppla, Stephen H; Johnson, Alan T

    2018-01-15

    Anthrax is a highly lethal disease caused by the Gram-(+) bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Edema toxin (ET) is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of disease in humans exposed to B. anthracis. ET is a bipartite toxin composed of two proteins secreted by the vegetative bacteria, edema factor (EF) and protective antigen (PA). Our work towards identifying a small molecule inhibitor of anthrax edema factor is the subject of this letter. First we demonstrate that the small molecule probe 5'-Fluorosulfonylbenzoyl 5'-adenosine (FSBA) reacts irreversibly with EF and blocks enzymatic activity. We then show that the adenosine portion of FSBA can be replaced to provide more drug-like molecules which are up to 1000-fold more potent against EF relative to FSBA, display low cross reactivity when tested against a panel of kinases, and are nanomolar inhibitors of EF in a cell-based assay of cAMP production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Urea Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Esteva-Font, Cristina; Cil, Onur; Anderson, Marc O.; Li, Fei; Li, Min; Lei, Tianluo; Ren, Huiwen; Yang, Baoxue

    2015-01-01

    Urea transporter (UT) proteins, which include isoforms of UT-A in kidney tubule epithelia and UT-B in vasa recta endothelia and erythrocytes, facilitate urinary concentrating function. Inhibitors of urea transporter function have potential clinical applications as sodium-sparing diuretics, or ‘urearetics,’ in edema from different etiologies, such as congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, as well as in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). High-throughput screening of drug-like small molecules has identified UT-A and UT-B inhibitors with nanomolar potency. Inhibitors have been identified with different UT-A versus UT-B selectivity profiles and putative binding sites on UT proteins. Studies in rodent models support the utility of UT inhibitors in reducing urinary concentration, though testing in clinically relevant animal models of edema has not yet been done. PMID:25298345

  5. Multivalent small molecule pan-RAS inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Matthew E.; Kaplan, Anna; Chambers, Jennifer M.; Stokes, Michael E.; Bos, Pieter H.; Zask, Arie; Zhang, Yan; Sanchez-Martin, Marta; Badgley, Michael A.; Huang, Christine S.; Tran, Timothy H.; Akkiraju, Hemanth; Brown, Lewis M.; Nandakumar, Renu; Cremers, Serge; Yang, Wan S.; Tong, Liang; Olive, Kenneth P.; Ferrando, Adolfo; Stockwell, Brent R.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Design of small molecules that disrupt protein-protein interactions, including the interaction of RAS proteins and their effectors, have potential use as chemical probes and therapeutic agents. We describe here the synthesis and testing of potential small molecule pan-RAS ligands, which were designed to interact with adjacent sites on the surface of oncogenic KRAS. One compound, termed 3144, was found to bind to RAS proteins using microscale thermophoresis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry, and to exhibit lethality in cells partially dependent on expression of RAS proteins. This compound was metabolically stable in liver microsomes and displayed anti-tumor activity in xenograft mouse cancer models. These findings suggest that pan-RAS inhibition may be an effective therapeutic strategy for some cancers, and that structure-based design of small molecules targeting multiple adjacent sites to create multivalent inhibitors may be effective for some proteins. PMID:28235199

  6. Small Molecule Inhibitors of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hao; Qian, Kun; Ho, Meng-Chiao; Zheng, Y. George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arginine methylation is an abundant posttranslational modification occurring in mammalian cells and catalyzed by protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). Misregulation and aberrant expression of PRMTs are associated with various disease states, notably cancer. PRMTs are prominent therapeutic targets in drug discovery. Areas covered The authors provide an updated review of the research on the development of chemical modulators for PRMTs. Great efforts are seen in screening and designing potent and selective PRMT inhibitors, and a number of micromolar and submicromolar inhibitors have been obtained for key PRMT enzymes such as PRMT1, CARM1, and PRMT5. The authors provide a focus on their chemical structures, mechanism of action, and pharmacological activities. Pros and cons of each type of inhibitors are also discussed. Expert opinion Several key challenging issues exist in PRMT inhibitor discovery. Structural mechanisms of many PRMT inhibitors remain unclear. There lacks consistency in potency data due to divergence of assay methods and conditions. Physiologically relevant cellular assays are warranted. Substantial engagements are needed to investigate pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the new PRMT inhibitors in pertinent disease models. Discovery and evaluation of potent, isoform-selective, cell-permeable and in vivo-active PRMT modulators will continue to be an active arena of research in years ahead. PMID:26789238

  7. A new small molecule inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Filipa; Gane, Paul; Hampden-Smith, Kathryn; Allerston, Charles K.; Garthwaite, John; Selwood, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a haem containing enzyme that regulates cardiovascular homeostasis and multiple mechanisms in the central and peripheral nervous system. Commonly used inhibitors of sGC activity act through oxidation of the haem moiety, however they also bind haemoglobin and this limits their bioavailability for in vivo studies. We have discovered a new class of small molecule inhibitors of sGC and have characterised a compound designated D12 (compound 10) which binds to the catalytic domain of the enzyme with a KD of 11 μM in a SPR assay. PMID:26264842

  8. Small molecule deubiquitinase inhibitors promote macrophage anti-infective capacity.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Marie-Eve; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta J; Showalter, Hollis D; Donato, Nicholas J; Wobus, Christiane E; O'Riordan, Mary X D

    2014-01-01

    The global spread of anti-microbial resistance requires urgent attention, and diverse alternative strategies have been suggested to address this public health concern. Host-directed immunomodulatory therapies represent one approach that could reduce selection for resistant bacterial strains. Recently, the small molecule deubiquitinase inhibitor WP1130 was reported as a potential anti-infective drug against important human food-borne pathogens, notably Listeria monocytogenes and noroviruses. Utilization of WP1130 itself is limited due to poor solubility, but given the potential of this new compound, we initiated an iterative rational design approach to synthesize new derivatives with increased solubility that retained anti-infective activity. Here, we test a small library of novel synthetic molecules based on the structure of the parent compound, WP1130, for anti-infective activity in vitro. Our studies identify a promising candidate, compound 9, which reduced intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes at concentrations that caused minimal cellular toxicity. Compound 9 itself had no bactericidal activity and only modestly slowed Listeria growth rate in liquid broth culture, suggesting that this drug acts as an anti-infective compound by modulating host-cell function. Moreover, this new compound also showed anti-infective activity against murine norovirus (MNV-1) and human norovirus, using the Norwalk virus replicon system. This small molecule inhibitor may provide a chemical platform for further development of therapeutic deubiquitinase inhibitors with broad-spectrum anti-infective activity.

  9. Screening for small molecule inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Kortagere, Sandhya

    2012-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, the agent that causes toxoplasmosis, is an opportunistic parasite that infects many mammalian species. It is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes severe congenital neurological and ocular disease mostly in immunocompromised humans. The current regimen of therapy includes only a few medications that often lead to hypersensitivity and toxicity. In addition, there are no vaccines available to prevent the transmission of this agent. Therefore, safer and more effective medicines to treat toxoplasmosis are urgently needed. The author presents in silico and in vitro strategies that are currently used to screen for novel targets and unique chemotypes against T. gondii. Furthermore, this review highlights the screening technologies and characterization of some novel targets and new chemical entities that could be developed into highly efficacious treatments for toxoplasmosis. A number of diverse methods are being used to design inhibitors against T. gondii. These include ligand-based methods, in which drugs that have been shown to be efficacious against other Apicomplexa parasites can be repurposed to identify lead molecules against T. gondii. In addition, structure-based methods use currently available repertoire of structural information in various databases to rationally design small-molecule inhibitors of T. gondii. Whereas the screening methods have their advantages and limitations, a combination of methods is ideally suited to design small-molecule inhibitors of complex parasites such as T. gondii.

  10. Small Molecule Deubiquitinase Inhibitors Promote Macrophage Anti-Infective Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Charbonneau, Marie-Eve; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta J.; Showalter, Hollis D.; Donato, Nicholas J.; Wobus, Christiane E.; O’Riordan, Mary X. D.

    2014-01-01

    The global spread of anti-microbial resistance requires urgent attention, and diverse alternative strategies have been suggested to address this public health concern. Host-directed immunomodulatory therapies represent one approach that could reduce selection for resistant bacterial strains. Recently, the small molecule deubiquitinase inhibitor WP1130 was reported as a potential anti-infective drug against important human food-borne pathogens, notably Listeria monocytogenes and noroviruses. Utilization of WP1130 itself is limited due to poor solubility, but given the potential of this new compound, we initiated an iterative rational design approach to synthesize new derivatives with increased solubility that retained anti-infective activity. Here, we test a small library of novel synthetic molecules based on the structure of the parent compound, WP1130, for anti-infective activity in vitro. Our studies identify a promising candidate, compound 9, which reduced intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes at concentrations that caused minimal cellular toxicity. Compound 9 itself had no bactericidal activity and only modestly slowed Listeria growth rate in liquid broth culture, suggesting that this drug acts as an anti-infective compound by modulating host-cell function. Moreover, this new compound also showed anti-infective activity against murine norovirus (MNV-1) and human norovirus, using the Norwalk virus replicon system. This small molecule inhibitor may provide a chemical platform for further development of therapeutic deubiquitinase inhibitors with broad-spectrum anti-infective activity. PMID:25093325

  11. Novel Small Molecule Entry Inhibitors of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arnab; Mills, Debra M.; Mitchell, Daniel; Ndungo, Esther; Williams, John D.; Herbert, Andrew S.; Dye, John M.; Moir, Donald T.; Chandran, Kartik; Patterson, Jean L.; Rong, Lijun; Bowlin, Terry L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The current Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak has highlighted the troubling absence of available antivirals or vaccines to treat infected patients and stop the spread of EBOV. The EBOV glycoprotein (GP) plays critical roles in the early stage of virus infection, including receptor binding and membrane fusion, making it a potential target for the development of anti-EBOV drugs. We report the identification of 2 novel EBOV inhibitors targeting viral entry. Methods. To identify small molecule inhibitors of EBOV entry, we carried out a cell-based high-throughput screening using human immunodeficiency virus–based pseudotyped viruses expressing EBOV-GP. Two compounds were identified, and mechanism-of-action studies were performed using immunoflourescence, AlphaLISA, and enzymatic assays for cathepsin B inhibition. Results. We report the identification of 2 novel entry inhibitors. These inhibitors (1) inhibit EBOV infection (50% inhibitory concentration, approximately 0.28 and approximately 10 µmol/L) at a late stage of entry, (2) induce Niemann-Pick C phenotype, and (3) inhibit GP–Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein interaction. Conclusions. We have identified 2 novel EBOV inhibitors, MBX2254 and MBX2270, that can serve as starting points for the development of an anti-EBOV therapeutic agent. Our findings also highlight the importance of NPC1-GP interaction in EBOV entry and the attractiveness of NPC1 as an antifiloviral therapeutic target. PMID:26206510

  12. Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Inhibitors: Small-Molecule Mercaptoacetamide Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Moe, Scott T.; Thompson, Andrew B.; Smith, Genessa M.; Fredenburg, Ross A.; Stein, Ross L.; Jacobson, Alan R

    2009-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin elicits its paralytic activity through a zinc-dependant metalloprotease that cleaves proteins involved in neurotransmitter release. Currently, no drugs are available to reverse the effects of botulinum intoxication. Herein we report the design of a novel series of mercaptoacetamide small-molecule inhibitors active against botulinum neurotoxin serotype A. These analogs show low micromolar inhibitory activity against the isolated enzyme. Structure-activity relationship studies for a series of mercaptoacetamide analogs of 5-amino-3-phenylpyrazole reveal components essential for potent inhibitory activity. PMID:19329331

  13. The future of small molecule inhibitors in lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gerecitano, John

    2009-09-01

    For the many patients with lymphoma that has relapsed after and/or has become refractory to existing treatments, the development of novel therapeutics is imperative. Investigation into intracellular processes that are dysregulated during lymphomagenesis has uncovered several new potential targets for anticancer agents. Although monoclonal antibodies and other immunotherapeutics have led to dramatic advances in the treatment of patients with lymphoma, the parallel development of small molecule inhibitors has been equally exciting. These agents, whose small size allows direct entry into tumor cells, can target distinct proteins or complexes, thereby disrupting molecular processes on which neoplastic cells depend for survival and growth. This review surveys the published literature on many of these new targeted molecules, focusing on some of the most promising agents for which phase 2 data currently exist. It also explores the potential for incorporating these agents into broader multidrug regimens.

  14. USP7 small-molecule inhibitors interfere with ubiquitin binding.

    PubMed

    Kategaya, Lorna; Di Lello, Paola; Rougé, Lionel; Pastor, Richard; Clark, Kevin R; Drummond, Jason; Kleinheinz, Tracy; Lin, Eva; Upton, John-Paul; Prakash, Sumit; Heideker, Johanna; McCleland, Mark; Ritorto, Maria Stella; Alessi, Dario R; Trost, Matthias; Bainbridge, Travis W; Kwok, Michael C M; Ma, Taylur P; Stiffler, Zachary; Brasher, Bradley; Tang, Yinyan; Jaishankar, Priyadarshini; Hearn, Brian R; Renslo, Adam R; Arkin, Michelle R; Cohen, Frederick; Yu, Kebing; Peale, Frank; Gnad, Florian; Chang, Matthew T; Klijn, Christiaan; Blackwood, Elizabeth; Martin, Scott E; Forrest, William F; Ernst, James A; Ndubaku, Chudi; Wang, Xiaojing; Beresini, Maureen H; Tsui, Vickie; Schwerdtfeger, Carsten; Blake, Robert A; Murray, Jeremy; Maurer, Till; Wertz, Ingrid E

    2017-10-26

    The ubiquitin system regulates essential cellular processes in eukaryotes. Ubiquitin is ligated to substrate proteins as monomers or chains and the topology of ubiquitin modifications regulates substrate interactions with specific proteins. Thus ubiquitination directs a variety of substrate fates including proteasomal degradation. Deubiquitinase enzymes cleave ubiquitin from substrates and are implicated in disease; for example, ubiquitin-specific protease-7 (USP7) regulates stability of the p53 tumour suppressor and other proteins critical for tumour cell survival. However, developing selective deubiquitinase inhibitors has been challenging and no co-crystal structures have been solved with small-molecule inhibitors. Here, using nuclear magnetic resonance-based screening and structure-based design, we describe the development of selective USP7 inhibitors GNE-6640 and GNE-6776. These compounds induce tumour cell death and enhance cytotoxicity with chemotherapeutic agents and targeted compounds, including PIM kinase inhibitors. Structural studies reveal that GNE-6640 and GNE-6776 non-covalently target USP7 12 Å distant from the catalytic cysteine. The compounds attenuate ubiquitin binding and thus inhibit USP7 deubiquitinase activity. GNE-6640 and GNE-6776 interact with acidic residues that mediate hydrogen-bond interactions with the ubiquitin Lys48 side chain, suggesting that USP7 preferentially interacts with and cleaves ubiquitin moieties that have free Lys48 side chains. We investigated this idea by engineering di-ubiquitin chains containing differential proximal and distal isotopic labels and measuring USP7 binding by nuclear magnetic resonance. This preferential binding protracted the depolymerization kinetics of Lys48-linked ubiquitin chains relative to Lys63-linked chains. In summary, engineering compounds that inhibit USP7 activity by attenuating ubiquitin binding suggests opportunities for developing other deubiquitinase inhibitors and may be a strategy

  15. Capping of Aβ42 Oligomers by Small Molecule Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aβ42 peptides associate into soluble oligomers and protofibrils in the process of forming the amyloid fibrils associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The oligomers have been reported to be more toxic to neurons than fibrils, and have been targeted by a wide range of small molecule and peptide inhibitors. With single touch atomic force microscopy (AFM), we show that monomeric Aβ42 forms two distinct types of oligomers, low molecular weight (MW) oligomers with heights of 1–2 nm and high MW oligomers with heights of 3–5 nm. In both cases, the oligomers are disc-shaped with diameters of ∼10–15 nm. The similar diameters suggest that the low MW species stack to form the high MW oligomers. The ability of Aβ42 inhibitors to interact with these oligomers is probed using atomic force microscopy and NMR spectroscopy. We show that curcumin and resveratrol bind to the N-terminus (residues 5–20) of Aβ42 monomers and cap the height of the oligomers that are formed at 1–2 nm. A second class of inhibitors, which includes sulindac sulfide and indomethacin, exhibit very weak interactions across the Aβ42 sequence and do not block the formation of the high MW oligomers. The correlation between N-terminal interactions and capping of the height of the Aβ oligomers provides insights into the mechanism of inhibition and the pathway of Aβ aggregation. PMID:25422864

  16. Small Molecule Inhibitors Target the Tissue Transglutaminase and Fibronectin Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yakubov, Bakhtiyor; Chen, Lan; Belkin, Alexey M.; Zhang, Sheng; Chelladurai, Bhadrani; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Matei, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) mediates protein crosslinking through generation of ε−(γ-glutamyl) lysine isopeptide bonds and promotes cell adhesion through interaction with fibronectin (FN) and integrins. Cell adhesion to the peritoneal matrix regulated by TG2 facilitates ovarian cancer dissemination. Therefore, disruption of the TG2-FN complex by small molecules may inhibit cell adhesion and metastasis. A novel high throughput screening (HTS) assay based on AlphaLISA™ technology was developed to measure the formation of a complex between His-TG2 and the biotinylated FN fragment that binds TG2 and to discover small molecules that inhibit this protein-protein interaction. Several hits were identified from 10,000 compounds screened. The top candidates selected based on >70% inhibition of the TG2/FN complex formation were confirmed by using ELISA and bioassays measuring cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and proliferation. In conclusion, the AlphaLISA bead format assay measuring the TG2-FN interaction is robust and suitable for HTS of small molecules. One compound identified from the screen (TG53) potently inhibited ovarian cancer cell adhesion to FN, cell migration, and invasion and could be further developed as a potential inhibitor for ovarian cancer dissemination. PMID:24586660

  17. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the SOX18 Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Frank; Overman, Jeroen; Moustaqil, Mehdi; Mamidyala, Sreeman; Salim, Angela; Narasimhan, Kamesh; Prokoph, Nina; Robertson, Avril A B; Lua, Linda; Alexandrov, Kirill; Koopman, Peter; Capon, Robert J; Sierecki, Emma; Gambin, Yann; Jauch, Ralf; Cooper, Matthew A; Zuegg, Johannes; Francois, Mathias

    2017-03-16

    Pharmacological modulation of transcription factors (TFs) has only met little success over the past four decades. This is mostly due to standard drug discovery approaches centered on blocking protein/DNA binding or interfering with post-translational modifications. Recent advances in the field of TF biology have revealed a central role of protein-protein interaction in their mode of action. In an attempt to modulate the activity of SOX18 TF, a known regulator of vascular growth in development and disease, we screened a marine extract library for potential small-molecule inhibitors. We identified two compounds, which inspired a series of synthetic SOX18 inhibitors, able to interfere with the SOX18 HMG DNA-binding domain, and to disrupt HMG-dependent protein-protein interaction with RBPJ. These compounds also perturbed SOX18 transcriptional activity in a cell-based reporter gene system. This approach may prove useful in developing a new class of anti-angiogenic compounds based on the inhibition of TF activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Small molecule inhibitors of HCV replication from Pomegranate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, B. Uma; Mullick, Ranajoy; Kumar, Anuj; Sudha, Govindarajan; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Das, Saumitra

    2014-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the causative agent of end-stage liver disease. Recent advances in the last decade in anti HCV treatment strategies have dramatically increased the viral clearance rate. However, several limitations are still associated, which warrant a great need of novel, safe and selective drugs against HCV infection. Towards this objective, we explored highly potent and selective small molecule inhibitors, the ellagitannins, from the crude extract of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit peel. The pure compounds, punicalagin, punicalin, and ellagic acid isolated from the extract specifically blocked the HCV NS3/4A protease activity in vitro. Structural analysis using computational approach also showed that ligand molecules interact with the catalytic and substrate binding residues of NS3/4A protease, leading to inhibition of the enzyme activity. Further, punicalagin and punicalin significantly reduced the HCV replication in cell culture system. More importantly, these compounds are well tolerated ex vivo and`no observed adverse effect level' (NOAEL) was established upto an acute dose of 5000 mg/kg in BALB/c mice. Additionally, pharmacokinetics study showed that the compounds are bioavailable. Taken together, our study provides a proof-of-concept approach for the potential use of antiviral and non-toxic principle ellagitannins from pomegranate in prevention and control of HCV induced complications.

  19. Recent development of ATP-competitive small molecule phosphatidylinostitol-3-kinase inhibitors as anticancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Wan, Wen-zhu; Li, Yan; Zhou, Guan-lian; Liu, Xin-guang

    2017-01-01

    Phosphatidylinostitol-3-kinase (PI3K) is the potential anticancer target in the PI3K/Akt/ mTOR pathway. Here we reviewed the ATP-competitive small molecule PI3K inhibitors in the past few years, including the pan Class I PI3K inhibitors, the isoform-specific PI3K inhibitors and/or the PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitors. PMID:27769061

  20. Novel dual small-molecule HIV inhibitors: scaffolds and discovery strategies.

    PubMed

    Song, Anran; Yu, Haiqing; Wang, Changyuan; Zhu, Xingqi; Liu, Kexin; Ma, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Searching for safe and effective treatments for HIV infection is still a great challenge worldwide in spite of the 27 marketed anti-HIV drugs and the powerful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). As a promising prospect for generation of new HIV therapy drugs, multiple ligands (MDLs) were greatly focused on recently due to their lower toxicity, simplified dosing and patient adherence than single-target drugs. Till now, by disrupting two active sites or steps of HIV replications, a number of HIV dual inhibitors, such as CD4-gssucap120 inhibitors, CXCR4-gp20 inhibitors, RT-CXCR4 inhibitors, RT-protease inhibitors, RT-integrase inhibitors, and RTassociated functions inhibitors have been identified. Generally, these dual inhibitors were discovered mainly through screening approaches and design strategies. Of these compounds, the molecules bearing small skeletons exhibited strong anti-HIV activity and aroused great attention recently. Reviewing the progress of the dual small-molecule HIV inhibitors from the point of view of their scaffolds and discovery strategies will provide valuable information for producing more effective anti-HIV drugs. In this regard, novel dual small-molecule HIV inhibitors were illustrated, and their discovery paradigms as the major contents were also summarized in this manuscript.

  1. Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis Topoisomerase I by Small-Molecule Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Godbole, Adwait Anand; Ahmed, Wareed; Bhat, Rajeshwari Subray; Bradley, Erin K.; Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    We describe inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis topoisomerase I (MttopoI), an essential mycobacterial enzyme, by two related compounds, imipramine and norclomipramine, of which imipramine is clinically used as an antidepressant. These molecules showed growth inhibition of both Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis cells. The mechanism of action of these two molecules was investigated by analyzing the individual steps of the topoisomerase I (topoI) reaction cycle. The compounds stimulated cleavage, thereby perturbing the cleavage-religation equilibrium. Consequently, these molecules inhibited the growth of the cells overexpressing topoI at a low MIC. Docking of the molecules on the MttopoI model suggested that they bind near the metal binding site of the enzyme. The DNA relaxation activity of the metal binding mutants harboring mutations in the DxDxE motif was differentially affected by the molecules, suggesting that the metal coordinating residues contribute to the interaction of the enzyme with the drug. Taken together, the results highlight the potential of these small molecules, which poison the M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis topoisomerase I, as leads for the development of improved molecules to combat mycobacterial infections. Moreover, targeting metal coordination in topoisomerases might be a general strategy to develop new lead molecules. PMID:25534741

  2. Methodologies for Studying B. subtilis Biofilms as a Model for Characterizing Small Molecule Biofilm Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Tabitha; Kartvelishvily, Elena; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana

    2016-10-09

    This work assesses different methodologies to study the impact of small molecule biofilm inhibitors, such as D-amino acids, on the development and resilience of Bacillus subtilis biofilms. First, methods are presented that select for small molecule inhibitors with biofilm-specific targets in order to separate the effect of the small molecule inhibitors on planktonic growth from their effect on biofilm formation. Next, we focus on how inoculation conditions affect the sensitivity of multicellular, floating B. subtilis cultures to small molecule inhibitors. The results suggest that discrepancies in the reported effects of such inhibitors such as D-amino acids are due to inconsistent pre-culture conditions. Furthermore, a recently developed protocol is described for evaluating the contribution of small molecule treatments towards biofilm resistance to antibacterial substances. Lastly, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques are presented to analyze the three-dimensional spatial arrangement of cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix in a B. subtilis biofilm. SEM facilitates insight into the three-dimensional biofilm architecture and the matrix texture. A combination of the methods described here can greatly assist the study of biofilm development in the presence and absence of biofilm inhibitors, and shed light on the mechanism of action of these inhibitors.

  3. Adsorption Mechanism of Inhibitor and Guest Molecules on the Surface of Gas Hydrates.

    PubMed

    Yagasaki, Takuma; Matsumoto, Masakazu; Tanaka, Hideki

    2015-09-23

    The adsorption of guest and kinetic inhibitor molecules on the surface of methane hydrate is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. We calculate the free energy profile for transferring a solute molecule from bulk water to the hydrate surface for various molecules. Spherical solutes with a diameter of ∼0.5 nm are significantly stabilized at the hydrate surface, whereas smaller and larger solutes exhibit lower adsorption affinity than the solutes of intermediate size. The range of the attractive force is subnanoscale, implying that this force has no effect on the macroscopic mass transfer of guest molecules in crystal growth processes of gas hydrates. We also examine the adsorption mechanism of a kinetic hydrate inhibitor. It is found that a monomer of the kinetic hydrate inhibitor is strongly adsorbed on the hydrate surface. However, the hydrogen bonding between the amide group of the inhibitor and water molecules on the hydrate surface, which was believed to be the driving force for the adsorption, makes no contribution to the adsorption affinity. The preferential adsorption of both the kinetic inhibitor and the spherical molecules to the surface is mainly due to the entropic stabilization arising from the presence of cavities at the hydrate surface. The dependence of surface affinity on the size of adsorbed molecules is also explained by this mechanism.

  4. Small Molecule Inhibitors That Selectively Block Dengue Virus Methyltransferase*

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Siew Pheng; Sonntag, Louis Sebastian; Noble, Christian; Nilar, Shahul H.; Ng, Ru Hui; Zou, Gang; Monaghan, Paul; Chung, Ka Yan; Dong, Hongping; Liu, Boping; Bodenreider, Christophe; Lee, Gladys; Ding, Mei; Chan, Wai Ling; Wang, Gang; Jian, Yap Li; Chao, Alexander Theodore; Lescar, Julien; Yin, Zheng; Vedananda, T. R.; Keller, Thomas H.; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2011-01-01

    Crystal structure analysis of Flavivirus methyltransferases uncovered a flavivirus-conserved cavity located next to the binding site for its cofactor, S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM). Chemical derivatization of S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH), the product inhibitor of the methylation reaction, with substituents that extend into the identified cavity, generated inhibitors that showed improved and selective activity against dengue virus methyltransferase (MTase), but not related human enzymes. Crystal structure of dengue virus MTase with a bound SAH derivative revealed that its N6-substituent bound in this cavity and induced conformation changes in residues lining the pocket. These findings demonstrate that one of the major hurdles for the development of methyltransferase-based therapeutics, namely selectivity for disease-related methyltransferases, can be overcome. PMID:21147775

  5. PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors for Immuno-oncology: From Antibodies to Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Geng, Qiaohong; Jiao, Peifu; Jin, Peng; Su, Gaoxing; Dong, Jinlong; Yan, Bing

    2018-02-12

    The recent regulatory approvals of immune checkpoint protein inhibitors, such as ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab ushered a new era in cancer therapy. These inhibitors do not attack tumor cells directly but instead mobilize the immune system to re-recognize and eradicate tumors, which endows them with unique advantages including durable clinical responses and substantial clinical benefits. PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, a pillar of immune checkpoint protein inhibitors, have demonstrated unprecedented clinical efficacy in more than 20 cancer types. Besides monoclonal antibodies, diverse PD- 1/PD-L1 inhibiting candidates, such as peptides, small molecules have formed a powerful collection of weapons to fight cancer. The goal of this review is to summarize and discuss the current PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors including candidates under clinical development, their molecular interactions with PD-1 or PD-L1, the disclosed structureactivity relationships of peptides and small molecules as inhibitors. Current PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors under clinical development are exclusively dominated by antibodies. The molecular interactions of therapeutic antibodies with PD-1 or PD-L1 have been gradually elucidated for the design of novel inhibitors. Various peptides and traditional small molecules have been investigated in preclinical model to discover novel PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Peptides and small molecules may play an important role in immuno-oncology because they may bind to multiple immune checkpoint proteins via rational design, opening opportunity for a new generation of novel PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. A small molecule fusion inhibitor of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Poh, Mee Kian; Yip, Andy; Zhang, Summer; Priestle, John P; Ma, Ngai Ling; Smit, Jolanda M; Wilschut, Jan; Shi, Pei-Yong; Wenk, Markus R; Schul, Wouter

    2009-12-01

    The dengue virus envelope protein plays an essential role in viral entry by mediating fusion between the viral and host membranes. The crystal structure of the envelope protein shows a pocket (located at a "hinge" between Domains I and II) that can be occupied by ligand n-octyl-beta-D-glucoside (betaOG). Compounds blocking the betaOG pocket are thought to interfere with conformational changes in the envelope protein that are essential for fusion. Two fusion assays were developed to examine the anti-fusion activities of compounds. The first assay measures the cellular internalization of propidium iodide upon membrane fusion. The second assay measures the protease activity of trypsin upon fusion between dengue virions and trypsin-containing liposomes. We performed an in silico virtual screening for small molecules that can potentially bind to the betaOG pocket and tested these candidate molecules in the two fusion assays. We identified one compound that inhibits dengue fusion in both assays with an IC(50) of 6.8 microM and reduces viral titers with an EC(50) of 9.8 microM. Time-of-addition experiments showed that the compound was only active when present during viral infection but not when added 1h later, in agreement with a mechanism of action through fusion inhibition.

  7. Small Molecule Inhibitors in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: From the Bench to the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, Muneera; DiPersio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) will eventually develop refractory or relapsed disease. In the absence of standard therapy for this population, there is currently an urgent unmet need for novel therapeutic agents. Targeted therapy with small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) represents a new therapeutic intervention that has been successful for the treatment of multiple tumors (e.g., gastrointestinal stromal tumors, chronic myelogenous leukemia). Hence, there has been great interest in generating selective small molecule inhibitors targeting critical pathways of proliferation and survival in AML. This review highlights a selective group of intriguing therapeutic agents and their presumed targets in both preclinical models and in early human clinical trials. PMID:25025370

  8. New Small-Molecule Inhibitors Effectively Blocking Picornavirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Ford Siltz, Lauren A.; Viktorova, Ekaterina G.; Zhang, Ben; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Dragunsky, Eugenia; Chumakov, Konstantin; Isaacs, Lyle

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Few drugs targeting picornaviruses are available, making the discovery of antivirals a high priority. Here, we identified and characterized three compounds from a library of kinase inhibitors that block replication of poliovirus, coxsackievirus B3, and encephalomyocarditis virus. Using an in vitro translation-replication system, we showed that these drugs inhibit different stages of the poliovirus life cycle. A4(1) inhibited both the formation and functioning of the replication complexes, while E5(1) and E7(2) were most effective during the formation but not the functioning step. Neither of the compounds significantly inhibited VPg uridylylation. Poliovirus resistant to E7(2) had a G5318A mutation in the 3A protein. This mutation was previously found to confer resistance to enviroxime-like compounds, which target a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KIIIβ)-dependent step in viral replication. Analysis of host protein recruitment showed that E7(2) reduced the amount of GBF1 on the replication complexes; however, the level of PI4KIIIβ remained intact. E7(2) as well as another enviroxime-like compound, GW5074, interfered with viral polyprotein processing affecting both 3C- and 2A-dependent cleavages, and the resistant G5318A mutation partially rescued this defect. Moreover, E7(2) induced abnormal recruitment to membranes of the viral proteins; thus, enviroxime-like compounds likely severely compromise the interaction of the viral polyprotein with membranes. A4(1) demonstrated partial protection from paralysis in a murine model of poliomyelitis. Multiple attempts to isolate resistant mutants in the presence of A4(1) or E5(1) were unsuccessful, showing that effective broad-spectrum antivirals could be developed on the basis of these compounds. IMPORTANCE Diverse picornaviruses can trigger multiple human maladies, yet currently, only hepatitis A virus and poliovirus can be controlled with vaccination. The development of antipicornavirus therapeutics is

  9. Development of Small-molecule HIV Entry Inhibitors Specifically Targeting gp120 or gp41

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Yu, Fei; Cai, Lifeng; Debnath, Asim K.; Jiang, Shibo

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) glycoprotein surface subunit gp120 and transmembrane subunit gp41 play important roles in HIV-1 entry, thus serving as key targets for the development of HIV-1 entry inhibitors. T20 peptide (enfuvirtide) is the first U.S. FDA-approved HIV entry inhibitor; however, its clinical application is limited by the lack of oral availability. Here, we have described the structure and function of the HIV-1 gp120 and gp41 subunits and reviewed advancements in the development of small-molecule HIV entry inhibitors specifically targeting these two Env glycoproteins. We then compared the advantages and disadvantages of different categories of HIV entry inhibitor candidates and further predicted the future trend of HIV entry inhibitor development. PMID:26324044

  10. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and Autophagy*

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Thomas; Daugaard, Mads; Jäättelä, Marja

    2011-01-01

    Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a lysosomal catabolic pathway that controls cellular homeostasis and survival. It has recently emerged as an attractive target for the treatment of a variety of degenerative diseases and cancer. The targeting of autophagy has, however, been hampered by the lack of specific small molecule inhibitors. Thus, we screened two small molecule kinase inhibitor libraries for inhibitors of rapamycin-induced autophagic flux. The three most potent inhibitors identified conferred profound inhibition of autophagic flux by inhibiting the formation of autophagosomes. Notably, the autophagy inhibitory effects of all three compounds were independent of their established kinase targets, i.e. ataxia telangiectasia mutated for KU55933, protein kinase C for Gö6976, and Janus kinase 3 for Jak3 inhibitor VI. Instead, we identified phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) as a direct target of KU55933 and Gö6976. Importantly, and in contrast to the currently available inhibitors of autophagosome formation (e.g. 3-methyladenine), none of the three compounds inhibited the cell survival promoting class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt signaling at the concentrations required for effective autophagy inhibition. Accordingly, they proved to be valuable tools for investigations of autophagy-associated cell death and survival. Employing KU55399, we demonstrated that autophagy protects amino acid-starved cells against both apoptosis and necroptosis. Taken together, our data introduce new possibilities for the experimental study of autophagy and can form a basis for the development of clinically relevant autophagy inhibitors. PMID:21930714

  11. Promiscuity and selectivity of small-molecule inhibitors across TAM receptor tyrosine kinases in pediatric leukemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mao-Hua; Chen, Shi-Bing; Yu, Juan; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Jing

    2017-08-01

    The TAM receptor tyrosine kinase family member Mer has been recognized as an attractive therapeutic target for pediatric leukemia. Beside Mer the family contains other two kinases, namely, Tyro3 and Axl, which are highly homologues with Mer and thus most existing small-molecule inhibitors show moderate or high promiscuity across the three kinases. Here, the structural basis and energetic property of selective binding of small-molecule inhibitors to the three kinases were investigated at molecular level. It is found that the selectivity is primarily determined by the size, shape and configuration of kinase's ATP-binding site; the Mer and Axl possess a small, closed active pocket as compared to the bulky, open pocket of Tyro3. The location and conformation of active-site residues of Mer and Axl are highly consistent, suggesting that small-molecule inhibitors generally have a low Mer-over-Axl selectivity and a high Mer-over-Tyro3 selectivity. We demonstrated that the difference in ATP binding potency to the three kinases is also responsible for inhibitor selectivity. We also found that the long-range interactions and allosteric effect arising from rest of the kinase's active site can indirectly influence inhibitor binding and selectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving the representation of peptide-like inhibitor and antibiotic molecules in the Protein Data Bank

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Shuchismita; Dimitropoulos, Dimitris; Feng, Zukang; Persikova, Irina; Sen, Sanchayita; Shao, Chenghua; Westbrook, John; Young, Jasmine; Zhuravleva, Marina A; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Berman, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    With the accumulation of a large number and variety of molecules in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) comes the need on occasion to review and improve their representation. The Worldwide PDB (wwPDB) partners have periodically updated various aspects of structural data representation to improve the integrity and consistency of the archive. The remediation effort described here was focused on improving the representation of peptide-like inhibitor and antibiotic molecules so that they can be easily identified and analyzed. Peptide-like inhibitors or antibiotics were identified in over 1000 PDB entries, systematically reviewed and represented either as peptides with polymer sequence or as single components. For the majority of the single-component molecules, their peptide-like composition was captured in a new representation, called the subcomponent sequence. A novel concept called “group” was developed for representing complex peptide-like antibiotics and inhibitors that are composed of multiple polymer and nonpolymer components. In addition, a reference dictionary was developed with detailed information about these peptide-like molecules to aid in their annotation, identification and analysis. Based on the experience gained in this remediation, guidelines, procedures, and tools were developed to annotate new depositions containing peptide-like inhibitors and antibiotics accurately and consistently. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 101: 659–668, 2014. PMID:24173824

  13. Small-molecule kinase inhibitors provide insight into Mps1 cell cycle function.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Nicholas; Jelluma, Nannette; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Soundararajan, Meera; Manak, Michael S; Kwon, Mijung; Choi, Hwan Geun; Sim, Taebo; Deveraux, Quinn L; Rottmann, Sabine; Pellman, David; Shah, Jagesh V; Kops, Geert J P L; Knapp, Stefan; Gray, Nathanael S

    2010-05-01

    Mps1, a dual-specificity kinase, is required for the proper functioning of the spindle assembly checkpoint and for the maintenance of chromosomal stability. As Mps1 function has been implicated in numerous phases of the cell cycle, the development of a potent, selective small-molecule inhibitor of Mps1 should facilitate dissection of Mps1-related biology. We describe the cellular effects and Mps1 cocrystal structures of new, selective small-molecule inhibitors of Mps1. Consistent with RNAi studies, chemical inhibition of Mps1 leads to defects in Mad1 and Mad2 establishment at unattached kinetochores, decreased Aurora B kinase activity, premature mitotic exit and gross aneuploidy, without any evidence of centrosome duplication defects. However, in U2OS cells having extra centrosomes (an abnormality found in some cancers), Mps1 inhibition increases the frequency of multipolar mitoses. Lastly, Mps1 inhibitor treatment resulted in a decrease in cancer cell viability.

  14. Synthetic Small Molecule Inhibitors of Hh Signaling As Anti-Cancer Chemotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Maschinot, C.A.; Pace, J.R.; Hadden, M.K.

    2016-01-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) pathway is a developmental signaling pathway that is essential to the proper embryonic development of many vertebrate systems. Dysregulation of Hh signaling has been implicated as a causative factor in the development and progression of several forms of human cancer. As such, the development of small molecule inhibitors of Hh signaling as potential anti-cancer chemotherapeutics has been a major area of research interest in both academics and industry over the past ten years. Through these efforts, synthetic small molecules that target multiple components of the Hh pathway have been identified and advanced to preclinical or clinical development. The goal of this review is to provide an update on the current status of several synthetic small molecule Hh pathway inhibitors and explore the potential of several recently disclosed inhibitory scaffolds. PMID:26310919

  15. Molecular Dynamics simulations of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins and identification of potential small molecule inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Jayanthi; Anishetty, Sharmila

    2014-05-01

    Chemotherapeutic resistance due to over expression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) XIAP, survivin and livin has been observed in various cancers. In the current study, Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for all three IAPs and a common ligand binding scaffold was identified. Further, a novel sequence based motif specific to these IAPs was designed. SMAC is an endogenous inhibitor of IAPs. Screening of ChemBank for compounds similar to lead SMAC-non-peptidomimetics yielded a cemadotin related compound NCIMech_000654. Cemadotin is a derivative of natural anti-tumor peptide dolastatin-15; hence these compounds were docked against all three IAPs. Based on our analysis, we propose that NCIMech_000654/dolastatin-15/cemadotin derivatives may be investigated for their potential in inhibiting XIAP, survivin and livin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hot spot-based design of small-molecule inhibitors for protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxing; Wisniewski, John A; Ji, Haitao

    2014-06-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are important targets for the development of chemical probes and therapeutic agents. From the initial discovery of the existence of hot spots at PPI interfaces, it has been proposed that hot spots might provide the key for developing small-molecule PPI inhibitors. However, there has been no review on the ways in which the knowledge of hot spots can be used to achieve inhibitor design, nor critical examination of successful examples. This Digest discusses the characteristics of hot spots and the identification of druggable hot spot pockets. An analysis of four examples of hot spot-based design reveals the importance of this strategy in discovering potent and selective PPI inhibitors. A general procedure for hot spot-based design of PPI inhibitors is outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure-Activity Relationships of Small Molecule Autotaxin Inhibitors with a Discrete Binding Mode.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa M; Keune, Willem-Jan; Castagna, Diana; Young, Louise C; Duffy, Emma L; Potjewyd, Frances; Salgado-Polo, Fernando; Engel García, Paloma; Semaan, Dima; Pritchard, John M; Perrakis, Anastassis; Macdonald, Simon J F; Jamieson, Craig; Watson, Allan J B

    2017-01-26

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to the bioactive lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and choline. The ATX-LPA signaling pathway is implicated in cell survival, migration, and proliferation; thus, the inhibition of ATX is a recognized therapeutic target for a number of diseases including fibrotic diseases, cancer, and inflammation, among others. Many of the developed synthetic inhibitors for ATX have resembled the lipid chemotype of the native ligand; however, a small number of inhibitors have been described that deviate from this common scaffold. Herein, we report the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of a previously reported small molecule ATX inhibitor. We show through enzyme kinetics studies that analogues of this chemotype are noncompetitive inhibitors, and by using a crystal structure with ATX we confirm the discrete binding mode.

  18. Computational insights into the interaction of small molecule inhibitors with HRI kinase domain.

    PubMed

    Palrecha, Sourabh; Lakade, Dushant; Kulkarni, Abhijeet; Pal, Jayanta K; Joshi, Manali

    2018-05-07

    The Heme-Regulated Inhibitor (HRI) kinase regulates globin synthesis in a heme-dependent manner in reticulocytes and erythroid cells in bone marrow. Inhibitors of HRI have been proposed to lead to an increased amount of haemoglobin, benefitting anaemia patients. A series of indeno[1,2-c]pyrazoles were discovered to be the first known in vitro inhibitors of HRI. However, the structural mechanism of inhibition is yet to be understood. The aim of this study was to unravel the binding mechanism of these inhibitors using molecular dynamic simulations and docking. The docking scores were observed to correlate well with experimentally determined pIC 50 values. The inhibitors were observed to bind in the ATP-binding site forming hydrogen bonds with the hinge region and van der Waals interactions with non-polar residues in the binding site. Further, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were performed to correlate the structural features of the inhibitors with their biological activity. The developed QSAR models were found to be statistically significant in terms of internal and external predictabilities. The presence of chlorine atoms and the hydroxymethyl groups were found to correlate with higher activity. The identified binding modes and the descriptors can support future rational identification of more potent and selective small molecule inhibitors for this kinase which are of therapeutic importance in the context of various human pathological disorders.

  19. Approved and Experimental Small-Molecule Oncology Kinase Inhibitor Drugs: A Mid-2016 Overview.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter M

    2017-03-01

    Kinase inhibitor research is a comparatively recent branch of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology and the first small-molecule kinase inhibitor, imatinib, was approved for clinical use only 15 years ago. Since then, 33 more kinase inhibitor drugs have received regulatory approval for the treatment of a variety of cancers and the volume of reports on the discovery and development of kinase inhibitors has increased to an extent where it is now difficult-even for those working in the field-easily to keep an overview of the compounds that are being developed, as currently there are 231 such compounds, targeting 38 different protein and lipid kinases (not counting isoforms), in clinical use or under clinical investigation. The purpose of this review is thus to provide an overview of the biomedical rationales for the kinases being targeted on the one hand, and the design principles, as well as chemical, pharmacological, pharmaceutical, and toxicological kinase inhibitor properties, on the other hand. Two issues that are especially important in kinase inhibitor research, target selectivity and drug resistance, as well as the underlying structural concepts, are discussed in general terms and in the context of relevant kinases and their inhibitors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Small molecule inhibitors block Gas6-inducible TAM activation and tumorigenicity.

    PubMed

    Kimani, Stanley G; Kumar, Sushil; Bansal, Nitu; Singh, Kamalendra; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Comollo, Thomas; Peng, Youyi; Kotenko, Sergei V; Sarafianos, Stefan G; Bertino, Joseph R; Welsh, William J; Birge, Raymond B

    2017-03-08

    TAM receptors (Tyro-3, Axl, and Mertk) are a family of three homologous type I receptor tyrosine kinases that are implicated in several human malignancies. Overexpression of TAMs and their major ligand Growth arrest-specific factor 6 (Gas6) is associated with more aggressive staging of cancers, poorer predicted patient survival, acquired drug resistance and metastasis. Here we describe small molecule inhibitors (RU-301 and RU-302) that target the extracellular domain of Axl at the interface of the Ig-1 ectodomain of Axl and the Lg-1 of Gas6. These inhibitors effectively block Gas6-inducible Axl receptor activation with low micromolar IC 50s in cell-based reporter assays, inhibit Gas6-inducible motility in Axl-expressing cell lines, and suppress H1299 lung cancer tumor growth in a mouse xenograft NOD-SCIDγ model. Furthermore, using homology models and biochemical verifications, we show that RU301 and 302 also inhibit Gas6 inducible activation of Mertk and Tyro3 suggesting they can act as pan-TAM inhibitors that block the interface between the TAM Ig1 ectodomain and the Gas6 Lg domain. Together, these observations establish that small molecules that bind to the interface between TAM Ig1 domain and Gas6 Lg1 domain can inhibit TAM activation, and support the further development of small molecule Gas6-TAM interaction inhibitors as a novel class of cancer therapeutics.

  1. Small-molecule inhibitors of APE1 DNA repair function: an overview.

    PubMed

    Al-Safi, Rasha I; Odde, Srinivas; Shabaik, Yumna; Neamati, Nouri

    2012-01-01

    APE1 is a multifaceted protein that orchestrates multiple activities in the cell, one of which is the preservation of genomic integrity; a vital process that takes place in the context of the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Studies have implicated APE1 in rendering cancerous cells less vulnerable to the effects of DNA-damaging agents that are commonly used for the treatment of cancer. Furthermore, suppression of APE1 expression in cancer cell lines is accompanied by the potentiation of the activity of cytotoxic agents. As a result, major efforts have been directed towards the identification of small-molecule inhibitors of this DNA-repair enzyme. Herein, we review all patented small-molecule APE1 inhibitors reported prior to 2011. Unfortunately, the potency and selectivity of many of the reported inhibitors were not disclosed by the original authors, and at present it is unclear if APE1 is a bona fide target for many of the purported inhibitors. Moreover, cellular activity and toxicity of many inhibitors remain to be established. Since this is the first comprehensive review of small molecule APE1 inhibitors, we present all compounds reported to inhibit APE1 activity with an IC50 value ≤ 25 μM. Efforts towards a careful validation and optimization of these compounds are warranted. Furthermore, we explore potential allosteric drug-binding sites on the protein as an alternative approach for modulating the activity of this multifunctional protein. In addition, we give an overview of APE2, as well as other APE1 homologues in some disease-causing pathogens. Finally, given the universal importance of DNA repair, as well as the considerable conservation of repair proteins across all living organisms, we propose targeting the AP endonuclease activity of pathogens by the compounds discussed in this review, thereby expanding their therapeutic potential and application.

  2. Structural insights into binding of small molecule inhibitors to Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinić, Marko; Zloh, Mire; Erić, Slavica

    2014-11-01

    Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) is a SET domain protein lysine methyltransferase (PKMT) which has recently emerged as a chemically tractable and therapeutically promising epigenetic target, evidenced by the discovery and characterization of potent and highly selective EZH2 inhibitors. However, no experimental structures of the inhibitors co-crystallized to EZH2 have been resolved, and the structural basis for their activity and selectivity remains unknown. Considering the need to minimize cross-reactivity between prospective PKMT inhibitors, much can be learned from understanding the molecular basis for selective inhibition of EZH2. Thus, to elucidate the binding of small-molecule inhibitors to EZH2, we have developed a model of its fully-formed cofactor binding site and used it to carry out molecular dynamics simulations of protein-ligand complexes, followed by molecular mechanics/generalized born surface area calculations. The obtained results are in good agreement with biochemical inhibition data and reflect the structure-activity relationships of known ligands. Our findings suggest that the variable and flexible post-SET domain plays an important role in inhibitor binding, allowing possibly distinct binding modes of inhibitors with only small variations in their structure. Insights from this study present a good basis for design of novel and optimization of existing compounds targeting the cofactor binding site of EZH2.

  3. Pre-clinical evaluation of small molecule LOXL2 inhibitors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Joan; Lucas, Morghan C.; Leonte, Lidia E.; Garcia-Montolio, Marc; Singh, Lukram Babloo; Findlay, Alison D.; Deodhar, Mandar; Foot, Jonathan S.; Jarolimek, Wolfgang; Timpson, Paul; Erler, Janine T.; Cox, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    Lysyl Oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), a member of the lysyl oxidase family of amine oxidases is known to be important in normal tissue development and homeostasis, as well as the onset and progression of solid tumors. Here we tested the anti-tumor properties of two generations of novel small molecule LOXL2 inhibitor in the MDA-MB-231 human model of breast cancer. We confirmed a functional role for LOXL2 activity in the progression of primary breast cancer. Inhibition of LOXL2 activity inhibited the growth of primary tumors and reduced primary tumor angiogenesis. Dual inhibition of LOXL2 and LOX showed a greater effect and also led to a lower overall metastatic burden in the lung and liver. Our data provides the first evidence to support a role for LOXL2 specific small molecule inhibitors as a potential therapy in breast cancer. PMID:28199967

  4. New small-molecule inhibitor class targeting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virion maturation.

    PubMed

    Blair, Wade S; Cao, Joan; Fok-Seang, Juin; Griffin, Paul; Isaacson, Jason; Jackson, R Lynn; Murray, Edward; Patick, Amy K; Peng, Qinghai; Perros, Manos; Pickford, Chris; Wu, Hua; Butler, Scott L

    2009-12-01

    A new small-molecule inhibitor class that targets virion maturation was identified from a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antiviral screen. PF-46396, a representative molecule, exhibits antiviral activity against HIV-1 laboratory strains and clinical isolates in T-cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PF-46396 specifically inhibits the processing of capsid (CA)/spacer peptide 1 (SP1) (p25), resulting in the accumulation of CA/SP1 (p25) precursor proteins and blocked maturation of the viral core particle. Viral variants resistant to PF-46396 contain a single amino acid substitution in HIV-1 CA sequences (CAI201V), distal to the CA/SP1 cleavage site in the primary structure, which we demonstrate is sufficient to confer significant resistance to PF-46396 and 3-O-(3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl) betulinic acid (DSB), a previously described maturation inhibitor. Conversely, a single amino substitution in SP1 (SP1A1V), which was previously associated with DSB in vitro resistance, was sufficient to confer resistance to DSB and PF-46396. Further, the CAI201V substitution restored CA/SP1 processing in HIV-1-infected cells treated with PF-46396 or DSB. Our results demonstrate that PF-46396 acts through a mechanism that is similar to DSB to inhibit the maturation of HIV-1 virions. To our knowledge, PF-46396 represents the first small-molecule HIV-1 maturation inhibitor that is distinct in chemical class from betulinic acid-derived maturation inhibitors (e.g., DSB), demonstrating that molecules of diverse chemical classes can inhibit this mechanism.

  5. Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yoel Kloog RECIPIENT: Tel Aviv University TEL AVIV 69978 Israel REPORT DATE: October...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras- Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) display augmented activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and accordingly overexpression of active K-RAS in

  6. Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT... Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA); Farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS); T helper cells, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs); targeted synthetic DMARDs 16...active Ras was shown to reverse anergy and to restore IL-2 production. Importantly, T cells from patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) display

  7. Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Importantly, T cells from patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) display augmented activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and...analysis. The proposed project is highly relevant to the FY13 PRMRP topic area of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The short-term impact of our research will

  8. Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a...TERMS Ras GTPases; Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA); Farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS); T helper cells, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs...anergy and to restore IL-2 production. Importantly, T cells from patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) display augmented activation of the Ras

  9. Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Choline Kinase Identified by Fragment-Based Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Zech, Stephan G; Kohlmann, Anna; Zhou, Tianjun; Li, Feng; Squillace, Rachel M; Parillon, Lois E; Greenfield, Matthew T; Miller, David P; Qi, Jiwei; Thomas, R Mathew; Wang, Yihan; Xu, Yongjin; Miret, Juan J; Shakespeare, William C; Zhu, Xiaotian; Dalgarno, David C

    2016-01-28

    Choline kinase α (ChoKα) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of phospholipids and thereby plays key roles in regulation of cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, and human carcinogenesis. Since several inhibitors of ChoKα display antiproliferative activity in both cellular and animal models, this novel oncogene has recently gained interest as a promising small molecule target for cancer therapy. Here we summarize our efforts to further validate ChoKα as an oncogenic target and explore the activity of novel small molecule inhibitors of ChoKα. Starting from weakly binding fragments, we describe a structure based lead discovery approach, which resulted in novel highly potent inhibitors of ChoKα. In cancer cell lines, our lead compounds exhibit a dose-dependent decrease of phosphocholine, inhibition of cell growth, and induction of apoptosis at low micromolar concentrations. The druglike lead series presented here is optimizable for improvements in cellular potency, drug target residence time, and pharmacokinetic parameters. These inhibitors may be utilized not only to further validate ChoKα as antioncogenic target but also as novel chemical matter that may lead to antitumor agents that specifically interfere with cancer cell metabolism.

  10. Mechanism of Inhibition of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein by Small Molecule Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chirasani, Venkat R; Sankar, Revathi; Senapati, Sanjib

    2016-08-25

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates the bidirectional exchange of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides between high-density lipoproteins and low- or very low-density lipoproteins. Recent studies have shown that the impairment of lipid exchange processes of CETP can be an effective strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Understanding the molecular mechanism of CETP inhibition has, therefore, attracted tremendous attention in recent past. In this study, we explored the detailed mechanism of CETP inhibition by a series of recently reported small molecule inhibitors that are currently under preclinical testing. Our results from molecular dynamics simulations and protein-ligand docking studies suggest that the hydrophobic interactions between the CETP core tunnel residues and inhibitor moieties play a pivotal role, and physical occlusion of the CETP tunnel by these small molecules is the primary mechanism of CETP inhibition. Interestingly, bound inhibitors were found to increase the plasticity of CETP, which was explained by principal component analysis that showed a larger space of sampling of CETP C-domain due to inhibitor binding. The atomic-level details presented here could help accelerate the structure-based drug-discovery processes targeting CETP for CVD therapeutics.

  11. Small molecule inhibitors reveal PTK6 kinase is not an oncogenic driver in breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Gajiwala, Ketan S.; Cronin, Ciarán N.; Nagata, Asako; Johnson, Eric; Kraus, Michelle; Tatlock, John; Kania, Robert; Foley, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6, or BRK) is aberrantly expressed in breast cancers, and emerging as an oncogene that promotes tumor cell proliferation, migration and evasion. Both kinase-dependent and -independent functions of PTK6 in driving tumor growth have been described, therefore targeting PTK6 kinase activity by small molecule inhibitors as a therapeutic approach to treat cancers remains to be validated. In this study, we identified novel, potent and selective PTK6 kinase inhibitors as a means to investigate the role of PTK6 kinase activity in breast tumorigenesis. We report here the crystal structures of apo-PTK6 and inhibitor-bound PTK6 complexes, providing the structural basis for small molecule interaction with PTK6. The kinase inhibitors moderately suppress tumor cell growth in 2D and 3D cell cultures. However, the tumor cell growth inhibition shows neither correlation with the PTK6 kinase activity inhibition, nor the total or activated PTK6 protein levels in tumor cells, suggesting that the tumor cell growth is independent of PTK6 kinase activity. Furthermore, in engineered breast tumor cells overexpressing PTK6, the inhibition of PTK6 kinase activity does not parallel the inhibition of tumor cell growth with a >500-fold shift in compound potencies (IC50 values). Overall, these findings suggest that the kinase activity of PTK6 does not play a significant role in tumorigenesis, thus providing important evidence against PTK6 kinase as a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment. PMID:29879184

  12. Assessing subunit dependency of the Plasmodium proteasome using small molecule inhibitors and active site probes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; van der Linden, Wouter A; Verdoes, Martijn; Florea, Bogdan I; McAllister, Fiona E; Govindaswamy, Kavitha; Elias, Joshua E; Bhanot, Purnima; Overkleeft, Herman S; Bogyo, Matthew

    2014-08-15

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a potential pathway for therapeutic intervention for pathogens such as Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria. However, due to the essential nature of this proteolytic pathway, proteasome inhibitors must avoid inhibition of the host enzyme complex to prevent toxic side effects. The Plasmodium proteasome is poorly characterized, making rational design of inhibitors that induce selective parasite killing difficult. In this study, we developed a chemical probe that labels all catalytic sites of the Plasmodium proteasome. Using this probe, we identified several subunit selective small molecule inhibitors of the parasite enzyme complex. Treatment with an inhibitor that is specific for the β5 subunit during blood stage schizogony led to a dramatic decrease in parasite replication while short-term inhibition of the β2 subunit did not affect viability. Interestingly, coinhibition of both the β2 and β5 catalytic subunits resulted in enhanced parasite killing at all stages of the blood stage life cycle and reduced parasite levels in vivo to barely detectable levels. Parasite killing was achieved with overall low host toxicity, something that has not been possible with existing proteasome inhibitors. Our results highlight differences in the subunit dependency of the parasite and human proteasome, thus providing a strategy for development of potent antimalarial drugs with overall low host toxicity.

  13. Targeting of the MYCN Protein with Small Molecule c-MYC Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Inga; Larsson, Karin; Frenzel, Anna; Oliynyk, Ganna; Zirath, Hanna; Prochownik, Edward V.; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Henriksson, Marie Arsenian

    2014-01-01

    Members of the MYC family are the most frequently deregulated oncogenes in human cancer and are often correlated with aggressive disease and/or poorly differentiated tumors. Since patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma have a poor prognosis, targeting MYCN using small molecule inhibitors could represent a promising therapeutic approach. We have previously demonstrated that the small molecule 10058-F4, known to bind to the c-MYC bHLHZip dimerization domain and inhibiting the c-MYC/MAX interaction, also interferes with the MYCN/MAX dimerization in vitro and imparts anti-tumorigenic effects in neuroblastoma tumor models with MYCN overexpression. Our previous work also revealed that MYCN-inhibition leads to mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in accumulation of lipid droplets in neuroblastoma cells. To expand our understanding of how small molecules interfere with MYCN, we have now analyzed the direct binding of 10058-F4, as well as three of its analogs; #474, #764 and 10058-F4(7RH), one metabolite C-m/z 232, and a structurally unrelated c-MYC inhibitor 10074-G5, to the bHLHZip domain of MYCN. We also assessed their ability to induce apoptosis, neurite outgrowth and lipid accumulation in neuroblastoma cells. Interestingly, all c-MYC binding molecules tested also bind MYCN as assayed by surface plasmon resonance. Using a proximity ligation assay, we found reduced interaction between MYCN and MAX after treatment with all molecules except for the 10058-F4 metabolite C-m/z 232 and the non-binder 10058-F4(7RH). Importantly, 10074-G5 and 10058-F4 were the most efficient in inducing neuronal differentiation and lipid accumulation in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells. Together our data demonstrate MYCN-binding properties for a selection of small molecules, and provide functional information that could be of importance for future development of targeted therapies against MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma. PMID:24859015

  14. Selectivity by Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Protein Interactions Can Be Driven by Protein Surface Fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David K.; Karanicolas, John

    2015-01-01

    Small-molecules that inhibit interactions between specific pairs of proteins have long represented a promising avenue for therapeutic intervention in a variety of settings. Structural studies have shown that in many cases, the inhibitor-bound protein adopts a conformation that is distinct from its unbound and its protein-bound conformations. This plasticity of the protein surface presents a major challenge in predicting which members of a protein family will be inhibited by a given ligand. Here, we use biased simulations of Bcl-2-family proteins to generate ensembles of low-energy conformations that contain surface pockets suitable for small molecule binding. We find that the resulting conformational ensembles include surface pockets that mimic those observed in inhibitor-bound crystal structures. Next, we find that the ensembles generated using different members of this protein family are overlapping but distinct, and that the activity of a given compound against a particular family member (ligand selectivity) can be predicted from whether the corresponding ensemble samples a complementary surface pocket. Finally, we find that each ensemble includes certain surface pockets that are not shared by any other family member: while no inhibitors have yet been identified to take advantage of these pockets, we expect that chemical scaffolds complementing these “distinct” pockets will prove highly selective for their targets. The opportunity to achieve target selectivity within a protein family by exploiting differences in surface fluctuations represents a new paradigm that may facilitate design of family-selective small-molecule inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. PMID:25706586

  15. Small-molecule inhibitors of toxT expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Anthouard, Rebecca; DiRita, Victor J

    2013-08-06

    Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative bacterium, infects humans and causes cholera, a severe disease characterized by vomiting and diarrhea. These symptoms are primarily caused by cholera toxin (CT), whose production by V. cholerae is tightly regulated by the virulence cascade. In this study, we designed and carried out a high-throughput chemical genetic screen to identify inhibitors of the virulence cascade. We identified three compounds, which we named toxtazin A and toxtazin B and B', representing two novel classes of toxT transcription inhibitors. All three compounds reduce production of both CT and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), an important colonization factor. We present evidence that toxtazin A works at the level of the toxT promoter and that toxtazins B and B' work at the level of the tcpP promoter. Treatment with toxtazin B results in a 100-fold reduction in colonization in an infant mouse model of infection, though toxtazin A did not reduce colonization at the concentrations tested. These results add to the growing body of literature indicating that small-molecule inhibitors of virulence genes could be developed to treat infections, as alternatives to antibiotics become increasingly needed. V. cholerae caused more than 580,000 infections worldwide in 2011 alone (WHO, Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 87:289-304, 2012). Cholera is treated with an oral rehydration therapy consisting of water, glucose, and electrolytes. However, as V. cholerae is transmitted via contaminated water, treatment can be difficult for communities whose water source is contaminated. In this study, we address the need for new therapeutic approaches by targeting the production of the main virulence factor, cholera toxin (CT). The high-throughput screen presented here led to the identification of two novel classes of inhibitors of the virulence cascade in V. cholerae, toxtazin A and toxtazins B and B'. We demonstrate that (i) small-molecule inhibitors of virulence gene production can be

  16. Inhibiting AMPylation: A novel screen to identify the first small molecule inhibitors of protein AMPylation‡

    PubMed Central

    Lewallen, Daniel M.; Sreelatha, Anju; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Madoux, Franck; Chase, Peter; Griffin, Patrick R.; Orth, Kim; Hodder, Peter; Thompson, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic transfer of the AMP portion of ATP to substrate proteins has recently been described as an essential mechanism of bacterial infection for several pathogens. The first AMPylator to be discovered, VopS from Vibrio parahaemolyticus, catalyzes the transfer of AMP on to the host GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1. Modification of these proteins disrupts downstream signaling events, contributing to cell rounding and apoptosis, and recent studies have suggested that blocking AMPylation may be an effective route to stop infection. To date, however, no small molecule inhibitors have been discovered for any of the AMPylators. Therefore, we developed a fluorescence-polarization based high-throughput-screening assay and used it to discover the first inhibitors of protein AMPylation. Herein we report the discovery of the first small molecule VopS inhibitors (e.g. calmidazolium, GW7647 and MK886) with Kis ranging from 6–50 µM and upwards of 30-fold selectivity versus HYPE, the only known human AMPylator. PMID:24274060

  17. Inhibiting AMPylation: a novel screen to identify the first small molecule inhibitors of protein AMPylation.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, Daniel M; Sreelatha, Anju; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Madoux, Franck; Chase, Peter; Griffin, Patrick R; Orth, Kim; Hodder, Peter; Thompson, Paul R

    2014-02-21

    Enzymatic transfer of the AMP portion of ATP to substrate proteins has recently been described as an essential mechanism of bacterial infection for several pathogens. The first AMPylator to be discovered, VopS from Vibrio parahemolyticus, catalyzes the transfer of AMP onto the host GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1. Modification of these proteins disrupts downstream signaling events, contributing to cell rounding and apoptosis, and recent studies have suggested that blocking AMPylation may be an effective route to stop infection. To date, however, no small molecule inhibitors have been discovered for any of the AMPylators. Therefore, we developed a fluorescence-polarization-based high-throughput screening assay and used it to discover the first inhibitors of protein AMPylation. Herein we report the discovery of the first small molecule VopS inhibitors (e.g., calmidazolium, GW7647, and MK886) with Ki's ranging from 6 to 50 μM and upward of 30-fold selectivity versus HYPE, the only known human AMPylator.

  18. Advances in treating psoriasis in the elderly with small molecule inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cline, Abigail; Cardwell, Leah A; Feldman, Steven R

    2017-12-01

    Due to the chronic nature of psoriasis, the population of elderly psoriasis patients is increasing. However, many elderly psoriatic patients are not adequately treated because management is challenging as a result of comorbidities, polypharmacy, and progressive impairment of organ systems. Physicians may hesitate to use systemic or biologic agents in elderly psoriasis patients because of an increased risk of adverse events in this patient population. Small molecule medications are emerging as promising options for elderly patients with psoriasis and other inflammatory conditions. Areas covered: Here we review the efficacy, safety and tolerability of small molecule inhibitors apremilast, tofacitinib, ruxolitinib, baricitinib, and peficitinib in the treatment of psoriasis, with focus on their use in the elderly population. Expert opinion: Although small molecule inhibitors demonstrate efficacy in elderly patients with psoriasis, they will require larger head-to-head studies and post-marketing registries to evaluate their effectiveness and safety in specific patient populations. Apremilast, ruxolitinib, and peficitinib are effective agents with favorable side effect profiles; however, physicians should exercise caution when prescribing tofacitinib or baricitinib in elderly populations due to adverse events. The high cost of these drugs in the U.S. is likely to limit their use.

  19. Small-Molecule Inhibitors Targeting DNA Repair and DNA Repair Deficiency in Research and Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hengel, Sarah R; Spies, M Ashley; Spies, Maria

    2017-09-21

    To maintain stable genomes and to avoid cancer and aging, cells need to repair a multitude of deleterious DNA lesions, which arise constantly in every cell. Processes that support genome integrity in normal cells, however, allow cancer cells to develop resistance to radiation and DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics. Chemical inhibition of the key DNA repair proteins and pharmacologically induced synthetic lethality have become instrumental in both dissecting the complex DNA repair networks and as promising anticancer agents. The difficulty in capitalizing on synthetically lethal interactions in cancer cells is that many potential targets do not possess well-defined small-molecule binding determinates. In this review, we discuss several successful campaigns to identify and leverage small-molecule inhibitors of the DNA repair proteins, from PARP1, a paradigm case for clinically successful small-molecule inhibitors, to coveted new targets, such as RAD51 recombinase, RAD52 DNA repair protein, MRE11 nuclease, and WRN DNA helicase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the MDM2–p53 Protein–Protein Interaction (MDM2 Inhibitors) in Clinical Trials for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Design of small-molecule inhibitors (MDM2 inhibitors) to block the MDM2–p53 protein–protein interaction has been pursued as a new cancer therapeutic strategy. In recent years, potent, selective, and efficacious MDM2 inhibitors have been successfully obtained and seven such compounds have been advanced into early phase clinical trials for the treatment of human cancers. Here, we review the design, synthesis, properties, preclinical, and clinical studies of these clinical-stage MDM2 inhibitors. PMID:25396320

  1. Computer-assisted identification of novel small molecule inhibitors targeting GLUT1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zhining; Li, Xin; Sun, Rong; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiaoyun; Li, Xinru; Rong, Li; Shi, Zheng; Bao, Jinku

    2015-12-01

    Glucose transporters (GLUTs) are the main carriers of glucose that facilitate the diffusion of glucose in mammalian cells, especially GLUT1. Notably, GLUT1 is a rate-limiting transporter for glucose uptake, and its overexpression is a common characteristic in most cancers. Thus, the inhibition of GLUT1 by novel small compounds to lower glucose levels for cancer cells has become an emerging strategy. Herein, we employed high-throughput screening approaches to identify potential inhibitors against the sugar-binding site of GLUT1. Firstly, molecular docking screening was launched against the specs products, and three molecules (ZINC19909927, ZINC19908826, and ZINC19815451) were selected as candidate GLUT1 inhibitors for further analysis. Then, taking the initial ligand β-NG as a reference, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations and molecular mechanics/generalized born surface area (MM/GBSA) method were applied to evaluate the binding stability and affinity of the three candidates towards GLUT1. Finally, we found that ZINC19909927 might have the highest affinity to occupy the binding site of GLUT1. Meanwhile, energy decomposition analysis identified several residues located in substrate-binding site that might provide clues for future inhibitor discovery towards GLUT1. Taken together, these results in our study may provide valuable information for identifying new inhibitors targeting GLUT1-mediated glucose transport and metabolism for cancer therapeutics.

  2. Small molecule inhibitors of mesotrypsin from a structure-based docking screen

    DOE PAGES

    Kayode, Olumide; Huang, Zunnan; Soares, Alexei S.; ...

    2017-05-02

    PRSS3/mesotrypsin is an atypical isoform of trypsin, the upregulation of which has been implicated in promoting tumor progression. To date there are no mesotrypsin-selective pharmacological inhibitors which could serve as tools for deciphering the pathological role of this enzyme, and could potentially form the basis for novel therapeutic strategies targeting mesotrypsin. A virtual screen of the Natural Product Database (NPD) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Drug Database was conducted by high-throughput molecular docking utilizing crystal structures of mesotrypsin. Twelve high-scoring compounds were selected for testing based on lowest free energy docking scores, interaction with key mesotrypsin active sitemore » residues, and commercial availability. Diminazene (C1D22956468), along with two similar compounds presenting the bis-benzamidine substructure, was validated as a competitive inhibitor of mesotrypsin and other human trypsin isoforms. Diminazene is the most potent small molecule inhibitor of mesotrypsin reported to date with an inhibitory constant (K i) of 3.6±0.3 pM. Diminazene was subsequently co-crystalized with mesotrypsin and the crystal structure was solved and refined to 1.25 Å resolution. This high resolution crystal structure can now offer a foundation for structure-guided efforts to develop novel and potentially more selective mesotrypsin inhibitors based on similar molecular substructures.« less

  3. Small molecule inhibitors of mesotrypsin from a structure-based docking screen

    SciTech Connect

    Kayode, Olumide; Huang, Zunnan; Soares, Alexei S.

    PRSS3/mesotrypsin is an atypical isoform of trypsin, the upregulation of which has been implicated in promoting tumor progression. To date there are no mesotrypsin-selective pharmacological inhibitors which could serve as tools for deciphering the pathological role of this enzyme, and could potentially form the basis for novel therapeutic strategies targeting mesotrypsin. A virtual screen of the Natural Product Database (NPD) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Drug Database was conducted by high-throughput molecular docking utilizing crystal structures of mesotrypsin. Twelve high-scoring compounds were selected for testing based on lowest free energy docking scores, interaction with key mesotrypsin active sitemore » residues, and commercial availability. Diminazene (C1D22956468), along with two similar compounds presenting the bis-benzamidine substructure, was validated as a competitive inhibitor of mesotrypsin and other human trypsin isoforms. Diminazene is the most potent small molecule inhibitor of mesotrypsin reported to date with an inhibitory constant (K i) of 3.6±0.3 pM. Diminazene was subsequently co-crystalized with mesotrypsin and the crystal structure was solved and refined to 1.25 Å resolution. This high resolution crystal structure can now offer a foundation for structure-guided efforts to develop novel and potentially more selective mesotrypsin inhibitors based on similar molecular substructures.« less

  4. Small-molecule inhibitors of the receptor tyrosine kinases: promising tools for targeted cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad

    2014-08-08

    Chemotherapeutic and cytotoxic drugs are widely used in the treatment of cancer. In spite of the improvements in the life quality of patients, their effectiveness is compromised by several disadvantages. This represents a demand for developing new effective strategies with focusing on tumor cells and minimum side effects. Targeted cancer therapies and personalized medicine have been defined as a new type of emerging treatments. Small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) are among the most effective drugs for targeted cancer therapy. The growing number of approved SMIs of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) i.e., tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the clinical oncology imply the increasing attention and application of these therapeutic tools. Most of the current approved RTK-TKIs in preclinical and clinical settings are multi-targeted inhibitors with several side effects. Only a few specific/selective RTK-TKIs have been developed for the treatment of cancer patients. Specific/selective RTK-TKIs have shown less deleterious effects compared to multi-targeted inhibitors. This review intends to highlight the importance of specific/selective TKIs for future development with less side effects and more manageable agents. This article provides an overview of: (1) the characteristics and function of RTKs and TKIs; (2) the recent advances in the improvement of specific/selective RTK-TKIs in preclinical or clinical settings; and (3) emerging RTKs for targeted cancer therapies by TKIs.

  5. Identification of C3b-Binding Small-Molecule Complement Inhibitors Using Cheminformatics.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Brandon L; Skaff, D Andrew; Chatterjee, Arindam; Hanning, Anders; Walker, John K; Wyckoff, Gerald J; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2017-05-01

    The complement system is an elegantly regulated biochemical cascade formed by the collective molecular recognition properties and proteolytic activities of more than two dozen membrane-bound or serum proteins. Complement plays diverse roles in human physiology, such as acting as a sentry against invading microorganisms, priming of the adaptive immune response, and removal of immune complexes. However, dysregulation of complement can serve as a trigger for a wide range of human diseases, which include autoimmune, inflammatory, and degenerative conditions. Despite several potential advantages of modulating complement with small-molecule inhibitors, small-molecule drugs are highly underrepresented in the current complement-directed therapeutics pipeline. In this study, we have employed a cheminformatics drug discovery approach based on the extensive structural and functional knowledge available for the central proteolytic fragment of the cascade, C3b. Using parallel in silico screening methodologies, we identified 45 small molecules that putatively bind C3b near ligand-guided functional hot spots. Surface plasmon resonance experiments resulted in the validation of seven dose-dependent C3b-binding compounds. Competition-based biochemical assays demonstrated the ability of several C3b-binding compounds to interfere with binding of the original C3b ligand that guided their discovery. In vitro assays of complement function identified a single complement inhibitory compound, termed cmp-5, and mechanistic studies of the cmp-5 inhibitory mode revealed it acts at the level of C5 activation. This study has led to the identification of a promising new class of C3b-binding small-molecule complement inhibitors and, to our knowledge, provides the first demonstration of cheminformatics-based, complement-directed drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Identification of C3b-binding Small Molecule Complement Inhibitors Using Cheminformatics

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Brandon L.; Skaff, D. Andrew; Chatterjee, Arindam; Hanning, Anders; Walker, John K.; Wyckoff, Gerald J.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.

    2017-01-01

    The complement system is an elegantly regulated biochemical cascade formed by the collective molecular recognition properties and proteolytic activities of over two dozen membrane-bound or serum proteins. Complement plays diverse roles in human physiology which include acting as a sentry against invading microorganisms, priming of the adaptive immune response, and removal of immune complexes. However, dysregulation of complement can serve as a trigger for a wide range of human diseases which include autoimmune, inflammatory, and degenerative conditions. Despite several potential advantages of modulating complement with small molecule inhibitors, small molecule drugs are highly underrepresented in the current complement-directed therapeutics pipeline. In this study we have employed a cheminformatics drug discovery approach based on the extensive structural and functional knowledge available for the central proteolytic fragment of the cascade, C3b. Using parallel in silico screening methodologies we identified 45 small molecules which putatively bind C3b near ligand-guided functional hot-spots. Surface plasmon resonance experiments resulted in the validation of seven dose-dependent C3b-binding compounds. Competition-based biochemical assays demonstrated the ability of several C3b-binding compounds to interfere with binding of the original C3b ligand which guided their discovery. In vitro assays of complement function identified a single complement inhibitory compound, termed cmp-5, and mechanistic studies of the cmp-5 inhibitory mode revealed it acts at the level of C5 activation. This study has led to the identification of a promising new class of C3b-binding small molecule complement inhibitors, and to our knowledge, provides the first demonstration of cheminformatics-based complement-directed drug discovery. PMID:28298523

  7. A High Throughput Screening Assay System for the Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of gsp

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Nisan; Hu, Xin; Chen, Catherine Z.; Mathews Griner, Lesley A.; Zheng, Wei; Inglese, James; Austin, Christopher P.; Marugan, Juan J.; Southall, Noel; Neumann, Susanne; Northup, John K.; Ferrer, Marc; Collins, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Mis-sense mutations in the α-subunit of the G-protein, Gsα, cause fibrous dysplasia of bone/McCune-Albright syndrome. The biochemical outcome of these mutations is constitutively active Gsα and increased levels of cAMP. The aim of this study was to develop an assay system that would allow the identification of small molecule inhibitors specific for the mutant Gsα protein, the so-called gsp oncogene. Commercially available Chinese hamster ovary cells were stably transfected with either wild-type (WT) or mutant Gsα proteins (R201C and R201H). Stable cell lines with equivalent transfected Gsα protein expression that had relatively lower (WT) or higher (R201C and R201H) cAMP levels were generated. These cell lines were used to develop a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)–based cAMP assay in 1536-well microplate format for high throughput screening of small molecule libraries. A small molecule library of 343,768 compounds was screened to identify modulators of gsp activity. A total of 1,356 compounds with inhibitory activity were initially identified and reconfirmed when tested in concentration dose responses. Six hundred eighty-six molecules were selected for further analysis after removing cytotoxic compounds and those that were active in forskolin-induced WT cells. These molecules were grouped by potency, efficacy, and structural similarities to yield 22 clusters with more than 5 of structurally similar members and 144 singleton molecules. Seven chemotypes of the major clusters were identified for further testing and analyses. PMID:24667240

  8. Selective small-molecule inhibitors as chemical tools to define the roles of matrix metalloproteinases in disease.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Jayda E; Chang, Mayland

    2017-11-01

    The focus of this article is to highlight novel inhibitors and current examples where the use of selective small-molecule inhibitors has been critical in defining the roles of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in disease. Selective small-molecule inhibitors are surgical chemical tools that can inhibit the targeted enzyme; they are the method of choice to ascertain the roles of MMPs and complement studies with knockout animals. This strategy can identify targets for therapeutic development as exemplified by the use of selective small-molecule MMP inhibitors in diabetic wound healing, spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury, cancer metastasis, and viral infection. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Matrix Metalloproteinases edited by Rafael Fridman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 9-ING-41, a small-molecule glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor, is active in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ugolkov, Andrey V; Bondarenko, Gennadiy I; Dubrovskyi, Oleksii; Berbegall, Ana P; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa; O'Halloran, Thomas V; Hendrix, Mary J; Giles, Francis J; Mazar, Andrew P

    2018-05-25

    Advanced stage neuroblastoma is a very aggressive pediatric cancer with limited treatment options and a high mortality rate. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a potential therapeutic target in neuroblastoma. Using immunohistochemical staining, we observed positive GSK-3β expression in 67% of human neuroblastomas (34 of 51 cases). Chemically distinct GSK-3 inhibitors (AR-A014418, TDZD-8, and 9-ING-41) suppressed the growth of neuroblastoma cells, whereas 9-ING-41, a clinically relevant small-molecule GSK-3β inhibitor with broad-spectrum preclinical antitumor activity, being the most potent. Inhibition of GSK-3 resulted in a decreased expression of the antiapoptotic molecule XIAP and an increase in neuroblastoma cell apoptosis. Mouse xenograft studies showed that the combination of clinically relevant doses of CPT-11 and 9-ING-41 led to greater antitumor effect than was observed with either agent alone. These data support the inclusion of patients with advanced neuroblastoma in clinical studies of 9-ING-41, especially in combination with CPT-11.

  10. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of GSK-3: Structural Insights and Their Application to Alzheimer's Disease Models

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Thomas; Schmidt, Boris; Lo Monte, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The world health organization (WHO) estimated that 18 million people are struck by Alzheimer's disease (AD). The USA, France, Germany, and other countries launched major programmes targeting the identification of risk factors, the improvement of caretaking, and fundamental research aiming to postpone the onset of AD. The glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is implicated in multiple cellular processes and has been linked to the pathogenesis of several diseases including diabetes mellitus, cancer, and AD. Inhibition of GSK-3 leads to neuroprotective effects, decreased β-amyloid production, and a reduction in tau hyperphosphorylation, which are all associated with AD. Various classes of small molecule GSK-3 inhibitors have been published in patents and original publications. Herein, we present a comprehensive summary of small molecules reported to interact with GSK-3. We illustrate the interactions of the inhibitors with the active site. Furthermore, we refer to the biological characterisation in terms of activity and selectivity for GSK-3, elucidate in vivo studies and pre-/clinical trials. PMID:22888461

  11. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E via footprint similarity

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Yuchen; McGillick, Brian E.; Teng, Yu-Han Gary; ...

    2016-07-18

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are among the most poisonous substances known, and of the 7 serotypes (A–G) identified thus far at least 4 can cause death in humans. Here, the goal of this work was identification of inhibitors that specifically target the light chain catalytic site of the highly pathogenic but lesser-studied E serotype (BoNT/E). Large-scale computational screening, employing the program DOCK, was used to perform atomic-level docking of 1.4 million small molecules to prioritize those making favorable interactions with the BoNT/E site. In particular, ‘footprint similarity’ (FPS) scoring was used to identify compounds that could potentially mimic features on themore » known substrate tetrapeptide RIME. Among 92 compounds purchased and experimentally tested, compound C562-1101 emerged as the most promising hit with an apparent IC 50 value three-fold more potent than that of the first reported BoNT/E small molecule inhibitor NSC-77053. Additional analysis showed the predicted binding pose of C562-1101 was geometrically and energetically stable over an ensemble of structures generated by molecular dynamic simulations and that many of the intended interactions seen with RIME were maintained. Finally, several analogs were also computationally designed and predicted to have further molecular mimicry thereby demonstrating the potential utility of footprint-based scoring protocols to help guide hit refinement.« less

  12. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E via footprint similarity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuchen; McGillick, Brian E.; Teng, Yu-Han Gary

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are among the most poisonous substances known, and of the 7 serotypes (A–G) identified thus far at least 4 can cause death in humans. Here, the goal of this work was identification of inhibitors that specifically target the light chain catalytic site of the highly pathogenic but lesser-studied E serotype (BoNT/E). Large-scale computational screening, employing the program DOCK, was used to perform atomic-level docking of 1.4 million small molecules to prioritize those making favorable interactions with the BoNT/E site. In particular, ‘footprint similarity’ (FPS) scoring was used to identify compounds that could potentially mimic features on themore » known substrate tetrapeptide RIME. Among 92 compounds purchased and experimentally tested, compound C562-1101 emerged as the most promising hit with an apparent IC 50 value three-fold more potent than that of the first reported BoNT/E small molecule inhibitor NSC-77053. Additional analysis showed the predicted binding pose of C562-1101 was geometrically and energetically stable over an ensemble of structures generated by molecular dynamic simulations and that many of the intended interactions seen with RIME were maintained. Finally, several analogs were also computationally designed and predicted to have further molecular mimicry thereby demonstrating the potential utility of footprint-based scoring protocols to help guide hit refinement.« less

  13. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E via footprint similarity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuchen; McGillick, Brian E; Teng, Yu-Han Gary; Haranahalli, Krupanandan; Ojima, Iwao; Swaminathan, Subramanyam; Rizzo, Robert C

    2016-10-15

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are among the most poisonous substances known, and of the 7 serotypes (A-G) identified thus far at least 4 can cause death in humans. The goal of this work was identification of inhibitors that specifically target the light chain catalytic site of the highly pathogenic but lesser-studied E serotype (BoNT/E). Large-scale computational screening, employing the program DOCK, was used to perform atomic-level docking of 1.4 million small molecules to prioritize those making favorable interactions with the BoNT/E site. In particular, 'footprint similarity' (FPS) scoring was used to identify compounds that could potentially mimic features on the known substrate tetrapeptide RIME. Among 92 compounds purchased and experimentally tested, compound C562-1101 emerged as the most promising hit with an apparent IC 50 value three-fold more potent than that of the first reported BoNT/E small molecule inhibitor NSC-77053. Additional analysis showed the predicted binding pose of C562-1101 was geometrically and energetically stable over an ensemble of structures generated by molecular dynamic simulations and that many of the intended interactions seen with RIME were maintained. Several analogs were also computationally designed and predicted to have further molecular mimicry thereby demonstrating the potential utility of footprint-based scoring protocols to help guide hit refinement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of alsterpaullone as a novel small molecule inhibitor to target group 3 medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Faria, Claudia C; Agnihotri, Sameer; Mack, Stephen C; Golbourn, Brian J; Diaz, Roberto J; Olsen, Samantha; Bryant, Melissa; Bebenek, Matthew; Wang, Xin; Bertrand, Kelsey C; Kushida, Michelle; Head, Renee; Clark, Ian; Dirks, Peter; Smith, Christian A; Taylor, Michael D; Rutka, James T

    2015-08-28

    Advances in the molecular biology of medulloblastoma revealed four genetically and clinically distinct subgroups. Group 3 medulloblastomas are characterized by frequent amplifications of the oncogene MYC, a high incidence of metastasis, and poor prognosis despite aggressive therapy. We investigated several potential small molecule inhibitors to target Group 3 medulloblastomas based on gene expression data using an in silico drug screen. The Connectivity Map (C-MAP) analysis identified piperlongumine as the top candidate drug for non-WNT medulloblastomas and the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor alsterpaullone as the compound predicted to have specific antitumor activity against Group 3 medulloblastomas. To validate our findings we used these inhibitors against established Group 3 medulloblastoma cell lines. The C-MAP predicted drugs reduced cell proliferation in vitro and increased survival in Group 3 medulloblastoma xenografts. Alsterpaullone had the highest efficacy in Group 3 medulloblastoma cells. Genomic profiling of Group 3 medulloblastoma cells treated with alsterpaullone confirmed inhibition of cell cycle-related genes, and down-regulation of MYC. Our results demonstrate the preclinical efficacy of using a targeted therapy approach for Group 3 medulloblastomas. Specifically, we provide rationale for advancing alsterpaullone as a targeted therapy in Group 3 medulloblastoma.

  15. Statin and rottlerin small-molecule inhibitors restrict colon cancer progression and metastasis via MACC1.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Manisha; Kobelt, Dennis; Walther, Wolfgang; Voss, Cynthia; Smith, Janice; Specker, Edgar; Neuenschwander, Martin; Gohlke, Björn-Oliver; Dahlmann, Mathias; Radetzki, Silke; Preissner, Robert; von Kries, Jens Peter; Schlag, Peter Michael; Stein, Ulrike

    2017-06-01

    MACC1 (Metastasis Associated in Colon Cancer 1) is a key driver and prognostic biomarker for cancer progression and metastasis in a large variety of solid tumor types, particularly colorectal cancer (CRC). However, no MACC1 inhibitors have been identified yet. Therefore, we aimed to target MACC1 expression using a luciferase reporter-based high-throughput screening with the ChemBioNet library of more than 30,000 compounds. The small molecules lovastatin and rottlerin emerged as the most potent MACC1 transcriptional inhibitors. They remarkably inhibited MACC1 promoter activity and expression, resulting in reduced cell motility. Lovastatin impaired the binding of the transcription factors c-Jun and Sp1 to the MACC1 promoter, thereby inhibiting MACC1 transcription. Most importantly, in CRC-xenografted mice, lovastatin and rottlerin restricted MACC1 expression and liver metastasis. This is-to the best of our knowledge-the first identification of inhibitors restricting cancer progression and metastasis via the novel target MACC1. This drug repositioning might be of therapeutic value for CRC patients.

  16. Small molecule inhibitors of human adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (FABP4).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Zhu, Weiliang; Li, Yingxia

    2014-06-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is expressed in adipocytes and macrophages, and modulates inflammatory and metabolic response. Studies in FABP4-deficient mice have shown that this lipid carrier has a significant role within the field of metabolic syndrome, inflammation and atherosclerosis; thus, its inhibition may open up new opportunities to develop novel therapeutic agents. A number of potent small molecule inhibitors of FABP4 have been identified and found to have the potential to prevent and treat metabolic diseases such as type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Due to the ubiquity of endogenous fatty acids and the high intracellular concentration of FABP4, the inhibitors need to have significantly greater intrinsic potency than endogenous fatty acids. Furthermore, heart-type FABP (FABP3), which is expressed in both heart and skeletal muscle, is involved in active fatty acid metabolism where it transports fatty acids from the cell membrane to mitochondria for oxidation. However, FABP3 shares high overall sequence identity and similar 3D structure with FABP4, but has a potential problem with selectivity. In this review, we would like to analyze the main inhibitors that have appeared in the literature in the last decade, focusing on chemical structures, biological properties, selectivity and structure-activity relationships.

  17. Development of A Cell-Based Assay to Identify Small Molecule Inhibitors of FGF23 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Diener, Susanne; Schorpp, Kenji; Strom, Tim-Matthias; Hadian, Kamyar; Lorenz-Depiereux, Bettina

    2015-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived endocrine key regulator of phosphate homeostasis. It inhibits renal tubular phosphate reabsorption by activating receptor complexes composed of FGF receptor 1c (FGFR1c) and the co-receptor Klotho. As a major signaling pathway mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is employed. In this study, we established an FGF23-inducible cell model by stably expressing human Klotho in HEK293 cells (HEK293-KL cells) containing endogenous FGF receptors. To identify novel small molecule compounds that modulate FGF23/FGFR1c/Klotho signaling, we developed and optimized a cell-based assay that is suited for high-throughput screening. The assay monitors the phosphorylation of endogenous extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 in cellular lysates of HEK293-KL cells after induction with FGF23. This cell-based assay was highly robust (Z' factor >0.5) and the induction of the system is strictly dependent on the presence of FGF23. The inhibitor response curves generated using two known MAPK pathway inhibitors correlate well with data obtained by another assay format. This assay was further used to identify small molecule modulators of the FGF23 signaling cascade by screening the 1,280 food and drug administration-approved small molecule library of Prestwick Chemical. The primary hit rate was 2% and false positives were efficiently identified by retesting the hits in primary and secondary validation screening assays and in western blot analysis. Intriguingly, by using a basic FGF (bFGF)/FGFR counterscreening approach, one validated hit compound retained specificity toward FGF23 signaling, while bFGF signaling was not affected. Since increased plasma concentrations of FGF23 are the main cause of many hypophosphatemic disorders, a modulation of its effect could be a potential novel strategy for therapeutic intervention. Moreover, this strategy may be valuable for other disorders affecting phosphate homeostasis.

  18. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Small Molecule Inhibitors Induce a Distinct Pancreatic Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Rebecca I; Schutt, Leah K; Tarrant, Jacqueline M; McDowell, Michelle; Liu, Lichuan; Johnson, Adam R; Lewin-Koh, Sock-Cheng; Hedehus, Maj; Ross, Jed; Carano, Richard A D; Staflin, Karin; Zhong, Fiona; Crawford, James J; Zhong, Shelly; Reif, Karin; Katewa, Arna; Wong, Harvey; Young, Wendy B; Dambach, Donna M; Misner, Dinah L

    2017-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a member of the Tec family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases involved in B-cell and myeloid cell signaling. Small molecule inhibitors of BTK are being investigated for treatment of several hematologic cancers and autoimmune diseases. GDC-0853 ((S)-2-(3'-(hydroxymethyl)-1-methyl-5-((5-(2-methyl-4-(oxetan-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl)pyridin-2-yl)amino)-6-oxo-1,6-dihydro-[3,4'-bipyridin]-2'-yl)-7,7-dimethyl-3,4,7,8-tetrahydro-2H-cyclopenta[4,5]pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazin-1(6H)-one) is a selective and reversible oral small-molecule BTK inhibitor in development for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, administration of GDC-0853 and other structurally diverse BTK inhibitors for 7 days or longer caused pancreatic lesions consisting of multifocal islet-centered hemorrhage, inflammation, fibrosis, and pigment-laden macrophages with adjacent lobular exocrine acinar cell atrophy, degeneration, and inflammation. Similar findings were not observed in mice or dogs at much higher exposures. Hemorrhage in the peri-islet vasculature emerged between four and seven daily doses of GDC-0853 and was histologically similar to spontaneously occurring changes in aging SD rats. This suggests that GDC-0853 could exacerbate a background finding in younger animals. Glucose homeostasis was dysregulated following a glucose challenge; however, this occurred only after 28 days of administration and was not directly associated with onset or severity of pancreatic lesions. There were no changes in other common serum biomarkers assessing endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function. Additionally, these lesions were not readily detectable via Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. Our results indicate that pancreatic lesions in rats are likely a class effect of BTK inhibitors, which may exacerbate an islet-centered pathology that is unlikely to be relevant to humans. Copyright © 2016 by

  19. Structure-Function Correlation of G6, a Novel Small Molecule Inhibitor of Jak2

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Anurima; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Magis, Andrew; Kiss, Róbert; Polgár, Tímea; Baskin, Rebekah; Allan, Robert W.; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Reuther, Gary W.; Keserű, György M.; Bisht, Kirpal S.; Sayeski, Peter P.

    2010-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the Jak2 protein, such as V617F, cause aberrant Jak/STAT signaling and can lead to the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms. This discovery has led to the search for small molecule inhibitors that target Jak2. Using structure-based virtual screening, our group recently identified a novel small molecule inhibitor of Jak2 named G6. Here, we identified a structure-function correlation of this compound. Specifically, five derivative compounds of G6 having structural similarity to the original lead compound were obtained and analyzed for their ability to (i) inhibit Jak2-V617F-mediated cell growth, (ii) inhibit the levels of phospho-Jak2, phospho-STAT3, and phospho-STAT5; (iii) induce apoptosis in human erythroleukemia cells; and (iv) suppress pathologic cell growth of Jak2-V617F-expressing human bone marrow cells ex vivo. Additionally, we computationally examined the interactions of these compounds with the ATP-binding pocket of the Jak2 kinase domain. We found that the stilbenoid core-containing derivatives of G6 significantly inhibited Jak2-V617F-mediated cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. They also inhibited phosphorylation of Jak2, STAT3, and STAT5 proteins within cells, resulting in higher levels of apoptosis via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Finally, the stilbenoid derivatives inhibited the pathologic growth of Jak2-V617F-expressing human bone marrow cells ex vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that G6 has a stilbenoid core that is indispensable for maintaining its Jak2 inhibitory potential. PMID:20667821

  20. Chalcone-based small-molecule inhibitors attenuate malignant phenotype via targeting deubiquitinating enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Issaenko, Olga A.; Amerik, Alexander Yu

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is usurped by many if not all cancers to regulate their survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Bioflavonoids curcumin and chalcones exhibit anti-neoplastic selectivity through inhibition of the 26S proteasome-activity within the UPS. Here, we provide evidence for a novel mechanism of action of chalcone-based derivatives AM146, RA-9 and RA-14, which exert anticancer activity by targeting deubiquitinating enzymes (DUB) without affecting 20S proteasome catalytic-core activity. The presence of the α,β-unsaturated carbonyl group susceptible to nucleophilic attack from the sulfhydryl of cysteines in the active sites of DUB determines the capacity of novel small-molecules to act as cell-permeable, partly selective DUB inhibitors and induce rapid accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and deplete the pool of free ubiquitin. These chalcone-derivatives directly suppress activity of DUB UCH-L1, UCH-L3, USP2, USP5 and USP8, which are known to regulate the turnover and stability of key regulators of cell survival and proliferation. Inhibition of DUB-activity mediated by these compounds downregulates cell-cycle promoters, e.g., cyclin D1 and upregulates tumor suppressors p53, p27Kip1 and p16Ink4A. These changes are associated with arrest in S-G2/M, abrogated anchorage-dependent growth and onset of apoptosis in breast, ovarian and cervical cancer cells without noticeable alterations in primary human cells. Altogether, this work provides evidence of antitumor activity of novel chalcone-based derivatives mediated by their DUB-targeting capacity; supports the development of pharmaceuticals to directly target DUB as a most efficient strategy compared with proteasome inhibition and also provides a clear rationale for the clinical evaluation of these novel small-molecule DUB inhibitors. PMID:22510564

  1. Classification of small molecule protein kinase inhibitors based upon the structures of their drug-enzyme complexes.

    PubMed

    Roskoski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Because dysregulation and mutations of protein kinases play causal roles in human disease, this family of enzymes has become one of the most important drug targets over the past two decades. The X-ray crystal structures of 21 of the 27 FDA-approved small molecule inhibitors bound to their target protein kinases are depicted in this paper. The structure of the enzyme-bound antagonist complex is used in the classification of these inhibitors. Type I inhibitors bind to the active protein kinase conformation (DFG-Asp in, αC-helix in). Type I½ inhibitors bind to a DFG-Asp in inactive conformation while Type II inhibitors bind to a DFG-Asp out inactive conformation. Type I, I½, and type II inhibitors occupy part of the adenine binding pocket and form hydrogen bonds with the hinge region connecting the small and large lobes of the enzyme. Type III inhibitors bind next to the ATP-binding pocket and type IV inhibitors do not bind to the ATP or peptide substrate binding sites. Type III and IV inhibitors are allosteric in nature. Type V inhibitors bind to two different regions of the protein kinase domain and are therefore bivalent inhibitors. The type I-V inhibitors are reversible. In contrast, type VI inhibitors bind covalently to their target enzyme. Type I, I½, and II inhibitors are divided into A and B subtypes. The type A inhibitors bind in the front cleft, the back cleft, and near the gatekeeper residue, all of which occur within the region separating the small and large lobes of the protein kinase. The type B inhibitors bind in the front cleft and gate area but do not extend into the back cleft. An analysis of the limited available data indicates that type A inhibitors have a long residence time (minutes to hours) while the type B inhibitors have a short residence time (seconds to minutes). The catalytic spine includes residues from the small and large lobes and interacts with the adenine ring of ATP. Nearly all of the approved protein kinase inhibitors occupy the

  2. A novel small-molecule thienoquinolin urea transporter inhibitor acts as a potential diuretic.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Lei, Tianluo; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wang, Weiling; Sun, Yi; Chen, Jihui; Dong, Zixun; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Baoxue

    2013-06-01

    Urea transporters (UTs) are a family of membrane channel proteins that are specifically permeable to urea and play an important role in intrarenal urea recycling and in urine concentration. Using an erythrocyte osmotic lysis assay, we screened a small-molecule library for inhibitors of UT-facilitated urea transport. A novel class of thienoquinolin UT-B inhibitors were identified, of which PU-14 had potent inhibition activity on human, rabbit, rat, and mouse UT-B. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of PU-14 on rat UT-B-mediated urea transport was ∼0.8 μmol/l, and it did not affect urea transport in mouse erythrocytes lacking UT-B but inhibited UT-A-type urea transporters, with 36% inhibition at 4 μmol/l. PU-14 showed no significant cellular toxicity at concentrations up to its solubility limit of 80 μmol/l. Subcutaneous delivery of PU-14 (at 12.5, 50, and 100 mg/kg) to rats caused an increase of urine output and a decrease of the urine urea concentration and subsequent osmolality without electrolyte disturbances and liver or renal damages. This suggests that PU-14 has a diuretic effect by urea-selective diuresis. Thus, PU-14 or its analogs might be developed as a new diuretic to increase renal fluid clearance in diseases associated with water retention without causing electrolyte imbalance. PU-14 may establish 'chemical knockout' animal models to study the physiological functions of UTs.

  3. Targeting DDX3 with a small molecule inhibitor for lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Bol, Guus M; Vesuna, Farhad; Xie, Min; Zeng, Jing; Aziz, Khaled; Gandhi, Nishant; Levine, Anne; Irving, Ashley; Korz, Dorian; Tantravedi, Saritha; Heerma van Voss, Marise R; Gabrielson, Kathleen; Bordt, Evan A; Polster, Brian M; Cope, Leslie; van der Groep, Petra; Kondaskar, Atul; Rudek, Michelle A; Hosmane, Ramachandra S; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J; Tran, Phuoc T; Raman, Venu

    2015-05-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide and is a focus for developing targeted therapies due to its refractory nature to current treatment. We identified a RNA helicase, DDX3, which is overexpressed in many cancer types including lung cancer and is associated with lower survival in lung cancer patients. We designed a first-in-class small molecule inhibitor, RK-33, which binds to DDX3 and abrogates its activity. Inhibition of DDX3 by RK-33 caused G1 cell cycle arrest, induced apoptosis, and promoted radiation sensitization in DDX3-overexpressing cells. Importantly, RK-33 in combination with radiation induced tumor regression in multiple mouse models of lung cancer. Mechanistically, loss of DDX3 function either by shRNA or by RK-33 impaired Wnt signaling through disruption of the DDX3-β-catenin axis and inhibited non-homologous end joining-the major DNA repair pathway in mammalian somatic cells. Overall, inhibition of DDX3 by RK-33 promotes tumor regression, thus providing a compelling argument to develop DDX3 inhibitors for lung cancer therapy. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  4. Small-molecule MAPK inhibitors restore radioiodine incorporation in mouse thyroid cancers with conditional BRAF activation

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Debyani; Santos, Elmer; Ryder, Mabel; Knauf, Jeffrey A.; Liao, Xiao-Hui; West, Brian L.; Bollag, Gideon; Kolesnick, Richard; Thin, Tin Htwe; Rosen, Neal; Zanzonico, Pat; Larson, Steven M.; Refetoff, Samuel; Ghossein, Ronald; Fagin, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced human thyroid cancers, particularly those that are refractory to treatment with radioiodine (RAI), have a high prevalence of BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) mutations. However, the degree to which these cancers are dependent on BRAF expression is still unclear. To address this question, we generated mice expressing one of the most commonly detected BRAF mutations in human papillary thyroid carcinomas (BRAFV600E) in thyroid follicular cells in a doxycycline-inducible (dox-inducible) manner. Upon dox induction of BRAFV600E, the mice developed highly penetrant and poorly differentiated thyroid tumors. Discontinuation of dox extinguished BRAFV600E expression and reestablished thyroid follicular architecture and normal thyroid histology. Switching on BRAFV600E rapidly induced hypothyroidism and virtually abolished thyroid-specific gene expression and RAI incorporation, all of which were restored to near basal levels upon discontinuation of dox. Treatment of mice with these cancers with small molecule inhibitors of either MEK or mutant BRAF reduced their proliferative index and partially restored thyroid-specific gene expression. Strikingly, treatment with the MAPK pathway inhibitors rendered the tumor cells susceptible to a therapeutic dose of RAI. Our data show that thyroid tumors carrying BRAFV600E mutations are exquisitely dependent on the oncoprotein for viability and that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of its expression or activity is associated with tumor regression and restoration of RAI uptake in vivo in mice. These findings have potentially significant clinical ramifications. PMID:22105174

  5. Targeting DDX3 with a small molecule inhibitor for lung cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bol, Guus M; Vesuna, Farhad; Xie, Min; Zeng, Jing; Aziz, Khaled; Gandhi, Nishant; Levine, Anne; Irving, Ashley; Korz, Dorian; Tantravedi, Saritha; Heerma van Voss, Marise R; Gabrielson, Kathleen; Bordt, Evan A; Polster, Brian M; Cope, Leslie; van der Groep, Petra; Kondaskar, Atul; Rudek, Michelle A; Hosmane, Ramachandra S; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J; Tran, Phuoc T; Raman, Venu

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide and is a focus for developing targeted therapies due to its refractory nature to current treatment. We identified a RNA helicase, DDX3, which is overexpressed in many cancer types including lung cancer and is associated with lower survival in lung cancer patients. We designed a first-in-class small molecule inhibitor, RK-33, which binds to DDX3 and abrogates its activity. Inhibition of DDX3 by RK-33 caused G1 cell cycle arrest, induced apoptosis, and promoted radiation sensitization in DDX3-overexpressing cells. Importantly, RK-33 in combination with radiation induced tumor regression in multiple mouse models of lung cancer. Mechanistically, loss of DDX3 function either by shRNA or by RK-33 impaired Wnt signaling through disruption of the DDX3–β-catenin axis and inhibited non-homologous end joining—the major DNA repair pathway in mammalian somatic cells. Overall, inhibition of DDX3 by RK-33 promotes tumor regression, thus providing a compelling argument to develop DDX3 inhibitors for lung cancer therapy. PMID:25820276

  6. Screening for Small Molecule Inhibitors of Statin-Induced APP C-terminal Toxic Fragment Production

    PubMed Central

    Poksay, Karen S.; Sheffler, Douglas J.; Spilman, Patricia; Campagna, Jesus; Jagodzinska, Barbara; Descamps, Olivier; Gorostiza, Olivia; Matalis, Alex; Mullenix, Michael; Bredesen, Dale E.; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.; John, Varghese

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal and synaptic loss. One process that could contribute to this loss is the intracellular caspase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in release of the toxic C-terminal 31-amino acid peptide APP-C31 along with the production of APPΔC31, full-length APP minus the C-terminal 31 amino acids. We previously found that a mutation in APP that prevents this caspase cleavage ameliorated synaptic loss and cognitive impairment in a murine AD model. Thus, inhibition of this cleavage is a reasonable target for new therapeutic development. In order to identify small molecules that inhibit the generation of APP-C31, we first used an APPΔC31 cleavage site-specific antibody to develop an AlphaLISA to screen several chemical compound libraries for the level of N-terminal fragment production. This antibody was also used to develop an ELISA for validation studies. In both high throughput screening (HTS) and validation testing, the ability of compounds to inhibit simvastatin- (HTS) or cerivastatin- (validation studies) induced caspase cleavage at the APP-D720 cleavage site was determined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with wildtype (wt) human APP (CHO-7W). Several compounds, as well as control pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh, inhibited APPΔC31 production (measured fragment) and rescued cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The effective compounds fell into several classes including SERCA inhibitors, inhibitors of Wnt signaling, and calcium channel antagonists. Further studies are underway to evaluate the efficacy of lead compounds – identified here using cells and tissues expressing wt human APP – in mouse models of AD expressing mutated human APP, as well as to identify additional compounds and determine the mechanisms by which they exert their effects. PMID:28261092

  7. Design and Synthesis of Novel Small-molecule Inhibitors of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mooring, Suazette Reid; Jin, Hui; Devi, Narra S.; Jabbar, Adnan A.; Kaluz, Stefan; Liu, Yuan; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Wang, Binghe

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia, a reduction in partial oxygen pressure, is a salient property of solid tumors. Hypoxia drives malignant progression and metastasis in tumors and participates in tumor resistance to radio- and chemotherapies. Hypoxia activates the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcription factors, which induce target genes that regulate adaptive biological processes such as anaerobic metabolism, cell motility and angiogenesis. Clinical evidence has demonstrated that expression of HIF-1 is strongly associated with poor patient prognosis and activation of HIF-1 contributes to malignant behavior and therapeutic resistance. Consequently, HIF-1 has become an important therapeutic target for inhibition by small molecules. Herein, we describe the design and synthesis of small molecules that inhibit the HIF-1 signaling pathway. Many of these compounds exhibit inhibitory activity in the nanomolar range. Separate mechanistic studies indicate that these inhibitors do not alter HIF-1 levels, but interfere with the HIF-1α/HIF-1β/p300/CBP complex formation by interacting with p300 and CBP. PMID:22032632

  8. Multiple spatially related pharmacophores define small molecule inhibitors of OLIG2 in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ying; Babic, Ivan; Nurmemmedov, Elmar; Pastorino, Sandra; Jiang, Pengfei; Calligaris, David; Agar, Nathalie; Scadeng, Miriam; Pingle, Sandeep C.; Wrasidlo, Wolfgang; Makale, Milan T.; Kesari, Santosh

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are a major class of protein signaling molecules that play key cellular roles in cancers such as the highly lethal brain cancer—glioblastoma (GBM). However, the development of specific TF inhibitors has proved difficult owing to expansive protein-protein interfaces and the absence of hydrophobic pockets. We uniquely defined the dimerization surface as an expansive parental pharmacophore comprised of several regional daughter pharmacophores. We targeted the OLIG2 TF which is essential for GBM survival and growth, we hypothesized that small molecules able to fit each subpharmacophore would inhibit OLIG2 activation. The most active compound was OLIG2 selective, it entered the brain, and it exhibited potent anti-GBM activity in cell-based assays and in pre-clinical mouse orthotopic models. These data suggest that (1) our multiple pharmacophore approach warrants further investigation, and (2) our most potent compounds merit detailed pharmacodynamic, biophysical, and mechanistic characterization for potential preclinical development as GBM therapeutics. PMID:26517684

  9. Discovery of novel small molecule inhibitors of cardiac hypertrophy using high throughput, high content imaging

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Brian G.; Stratton, Matthew S.; Bowers, Samantha; Cavasin, Maria A.; Demos-Davies, Kimberley M.; Susano, Isidro; McKinsey, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cardiac hypertrophy is maladaptive and contributes to the pathogenesis of heart failure. The objective of this study was to identify small molecule inhibitors of pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. High content screening was performed with primary neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) cultured on 96-well plates and treated with a library of 3241 distinct small molecules. Non-toxic hit compounds that blocked hypertrophy in response to phenylephrine (PE) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) were identified based on their ability to reduce cell size and inhibit expression of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), which is a biomarker of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Many of the hit compounds are existing drugs that have not previously been evaluated for benefit in the setting of cardiovascular disease. One such compound, the anti-malarial drug artesunate, blocked left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and improved cardiac function in adult mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). These findings demonstrate that phenotypic screening with primary cardiomyocytes can be used to discover anti-hypertrophic lead compounds for heart failure drug discovery. Using annotated libraries of compounds with known selectivity profiles, this screening methodology also facilitates chemical biological dissection of signaling networks that control pathological growth of the heart. PMID:27130278

  10. Small Molecule Ice Recrystallization Inhibitors Enable Freezing of Human Red Blood Cells with Reduced Glycerol Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Capicciotti, Chantelle J.; Kurach, Jayme D. R.; Turner, Tracey R.; Mancini, Ross S.; Acker, Jason P.; Ben, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    In North America, red blood cells (RBCs) are cryopreserved in a clinical setting using high glycerol concentrations (40% w/v) with slow cooling rates (~1°C/min) prior to storage at −80°C, while European protocols use reduced glycerol concentrations with rapid freezing rates. After thawing and prior to transfusion, glycerol must be removed to avoid intravascular hemolysis. This is a time consuming process requiring specialized equipment. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) such as β-PMP-Glc and β-pBrPh-Glc have the ability to prevent ice recrystallization, a process that contributes to cellular injury and decreased cell viability after cryopreservation. Herein, we report that addition of 110 mM β-PMP-Glc or 30 mM β-pBrPh-Glc to a 15% glycerol solution increases post-thaw RBC integrity by 30-50% using slow cooling rates and emphasize the potential of small molecule IRIs for the preservation of cells. PMID:25851700

  11. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors enable freezing of human red blood cells with reduced glycerol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Capicciotti, Chantelle J; Kurach, Jayme D R; Turner, Tracey R; Mancini, Ross S; Acker, Jason P; Ben, Robert N

    2015-04-08

    In North America, red blood cells (RBCs) are cryopreserved in a clinical setting using high glycerol concentrations (40% w/v) with slow cooling rates (~1°C/min) prior to storage at -80°C, while European protocols use reduced glycerol concentrations with rapid freezing rates. After thawing and prior to transfusion, glycerol must be removed to avoid intravascular hemolysis. This is a time consuming process requiring specialized equipment. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) such as β-PMP-Glc and β-pBrPh-Glc have the ability to prevent ice recrystallization, a process that contributes to cellular injury and decreased cell viability after cryopreservation. Herein, we report that addition of 110 mM β-PMP-Glc or 30 mM β-pBrPh-Glc to a 15% glycerol solution increases post-thaw RBC integrity by 30-50% using slow cooling rates and emphasize the potential of small molecule IRIs for the preservation of cells.

  12. Toxicity evaluation of convection-enhanced delivery of small-molecule kinase inhibitors in naïve mouse brainstem.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiping; Ho, Sharon L; Singh, Ranjodh; Pisapia, David J; Souweidane, Mark M

    2015-04-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are inoperable and lethal high-grade gliomas lacking definitive therapy. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and its downstream signaling molecules are the most commonly overexpressed oncogenes in DIPG. This study tested the effective concentration of PDGFR pathway inhibitors in cell culture and then toxicity of these small-molecule kinase inhibitors delivered to the mouse brainstem via convection-enhanced delivery (CED) for potential clinical application. Effective concentrations of small-molecule kinase inhibitors were first established in cell culture from a mouse brainstem glioma model. Sixteen mice underwent CED, a local drug delivery technique, of saline or of single and multidrug combinations of dasatinib (2 M), everolimus (20 M), and perifosine (0.63 mM) in the pons. Animals were kept alive for 3 days following the completion of infusion. No animals displayed any immediate or delayed neurological deficits postoperatively. Histological analysis revealed edema, microgliosis, acute inflammation, and/or axonal injury in the experimental animals consistent with mild acute drug toxicity. Brainstem CED of small-molecule kinase inhibitors in the mouse did not cause serious acute toxicities. Future studies will be necessary to evaluate longer-term safety to prepare for potential clinical application.

  13. Defining RNA-Small Molecule Affinity Landscapes Enables Design of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of an Oncogenic Noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Luo, Yiling; Tran, Tuan; Haniff, Hafeez S; Nakai, Yoshio; Fallahi, Mohammad; Martinez, Gustavo J; Childs-Disney, Jessica L; Disney, Matthew D

    2017-03-22

    RNA drug targets are pervasive in cells, but methods to design small molecules that target them are sparse. Herein, we report a general approach to score the affinity and selectivity of RNA motif-small molecule interactions identified via selection. Named High Throughput Structure-Activity Relationships Through Sequencing (HiT-StARTS), HiT-StARTS is statistical in nature and compares input nucleic acid sequences to selected library members that bind a ligand via high throughput sequencing. The approach allowed facile definition of the fitness landscape of hundreds of thousands of RNA motif-small molecule binding partners. These results were mined against folded RNAs in the human transcriptome and identified an avid interaction between a small molecule and the Dicer nuclease-processing site in the oncogenic microRNA (miR)-18a hairpin precursor, which is a member of the miR-17-92 cluster. Application of the small molecule, Targapremir-18a, to prostate cancer cells inhibited production of miR-18a from the cluster, de-repressed serine/threonine protein kinase 4 protein (STK4), and triggered apoptosis. Profiling the cellular targets of Targapremir-18a via Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull Down (Chem-CLIP), a covalent small molecule-RNA cellular profiling approach, and other studies showed specific binding of the compound to the miR-18a precursor, revealing broadly applicable factors that govern small molecule drugging of noncoding RNAs.

  14. Discovering Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeted to Ligand-Stimulated RAGE-DIAPH1 Signaling Transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jinhong

    The receptor of advanced glycation end product (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules, which plays an important role in immune responses. Full-length RAGE includes three extracellular immunoglobulin domains, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain. It is a pattern recognition receptor that can bind diverse ligands. NMR spectroscopy and x-ray crystallization studies of the extracellular domains of RAGE indicate that RAGE ligands bind by distinct charge- and hydrophobicity-dependent mechanisms. It is found that calgranulin binding to the C1C2 domain or AGEs binding to the V domain activates extracellular signaling, which triggers interactions of the RAGE cytoplasmic tail (ctRAGE) with intracellular effector, such as diaphanous 1 (DIAPH1), to initiate signal transduction cascades. ctRAGE is essential for RAGE-ligand-mediated signal transduction and consequent modulation of gene expression and cellular properties. RAGE is over-expressed in diseased tissues of most RAGE-associated pathogenic conditions, such as complications of Alzheimer's diseases, diabetes, vascular diseases, inflammation, cancers and neurodegeneration. They are the major diseases affecting a large population worldwide. RAGE can function as a biomarker or drug target for these diseases. The cytoplasmic tail of RAGE can be used as a drug target to inhibit RAGE-induced intracellular signaling by small molecule inhibitors to treat RAGE-associated diseases. We developed a high throughput screening assay with which we probed a small molecule library of 58,000 compounds to find that 777 small molecules displayed 50% inhibition and 97 compounds demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of the binding of ctRAGE-DIAPH1. Eventually, there were 13 compounds which displayed dose-dependent inhibition of ctRAGE binding to DIAPH1 and direct binding to ctRAGE analyzed by 15N HSQC-NMR and native tryptophan fluorescence titration experiments; thus, they were

  15. From genome to drug lead: identification of a small-molecule inhibitor of the SARS virus.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Andrea J; Shindo, Nice; Taggart, Barbara; Park, Jewn-Giew; Pang, Yuan-Ping

    2006-02-15

    Virtual screening, a fast, computational approach to identify drug leads [Perola, E.; Xu, K.; Kollmeyer, T. M.; Kaufmann, S. H.; Prendergast, F. G. J. Med. Chem.2000, 43, 401; Miller, M. A. Nat. Rev. Drug Disc.2002, 1 220], is limited by a known challenge in crystallographically determining flexible regions of proteins. This approach has not been able to identify active inhibitors of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) using solely the crystal structures of a SARS-CoV cysteine proteinase with a flexible loop in the active site [Yang, H. T.; Yang, M. J.; Ding, Y.; Liu, Y. W.; Lou, Z. Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2003, 100, 13190; Jenwitheesuk, E.; Samudrala, R. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.2003, 13, 3989; Rajnarayanan, R. V.; Dakshanamurthy, S.; Pattabiraman, N. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.2004, 321, 370; Du, Q.; Wang, S.; Wei, D.; Sirois, S.; Chou, K. Anal. Biochem.2005, 337, 262; Du, Q.; Wang, S.; Zhu, Y.; Wei, D.; Guo, H. Peptides2004, 25, 1857; Lee, V.; Wittayanarakul, K.; Remsungenen, T.; Parasuk, V.; Sompornpisut, P. Science (Asia)2003, 29, 181; Toney, J.; Navas-Martin, S.; Weiss, S.; Koeller, A. J. Med. Chem.2004, 47, 1079; Zhang, X. W.; Yap, Y. L. Bioorg. Med. Chem.2004, 12, 2517]. This article demonstrates a genome-to-drug-lead approach that uses terascale computing to model flexible regions of proteins, thus permitting the utilization of genetic information to identify drug leads expeditiously. A small-molecule inhibitor of SARS-CoV, exhibiting an effective concentration (EC50) of 23 microM in cell-based assays, was identified through virtual screening against a computer-predicted model of the cysteine proteinase. Screening against two crystal structures of the same proteinase failed to identify the 23-microM inhibitor. This study suggests that terascale computing can complement crystallography, broaden the scope of virtual screening, and accelerate the development of therapeutics to treat emerging infectious diseases

  16. Defining RNA–Small Molecule Affinity Landscapes Enables Design of a Small Molecule Inhibitor of an Oncogenic Noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    RNA drug targets are pervasive in cells, but methods to design small molecules that target them are sparse. Herein, we report a general approach to score the affinity and selectivity of RNA motif–small molecule interactions identified via selection. Named High Throughput Structure–Activity Relationships Through Sequencing (HiT-StARTS), HiT-StARTS is statistical in nature and compares input nucleic acid sequences to selected library members that bind a ligand via high throughput sequencing. The approach allowed facile definition of the fitness landscape of hundreds of thousands of RNA motif–small molecule binding partners. These results were mined against folded RNAs in the human transcriptome and identified an avid interaction between a small molecule and the Dicer nuclease-processing site in the oncogenic microRNA (miR)-18a hairpin precursor, which is a member of the miR-17-92 cluster. Application of the small molecule, Targapremir-18a, to prostate cancer cells inhibited production of miR-18a from the cluster, de-repressed serine/threonine protein kinase 4 protein (STK4), and triggered apoptosis. Profiling the cellular targets of Targapremir-18a via Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull Down (Chem-CLIP), a covalent small molecule–RNA cellular profiling approach, and other studies showed specific binding of the compound to the miR-18a precursor, revealing broadly applicable factors that govern small molecule drugging of noncoding RNAs. PMID:28386598

  17. Characterization of Two Classes of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Arp2/3 Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Nolen, B.; Tomasevic, N; Russell, A

    2009-01-01

    Polymerization of actin filaments directed by the actin-related protein (Arp)2/3 complex supports many types of cellular movements. However, questions remain regarding the relative contributions of Arp2/3 complex versus other mechanisms of actin filament nucleation to processes such as path finding by neuronal growth cones; this is because of the lack of simple methods to inhibit Arp2/3 complex reversibly in living cells. Here we describe two classes of small molecules that bind to different sites on the Arp2/3 complex and inhibit its ability to nucleate actin filaments. CK-0944636 binds between Arp2 and Arp3, where it appears to block movement of Arp2more » and Arp3 into their active conformation. CK-0993548 inserts into the hydrophobic core of Arp3 and alters its conformation. Both classes of compounds inhibit formation of actin filament comet tails by Listeria and podosomes by monocytes. Two inhibitors with different mechanisms of action provide a powerful approach for studying the Arp2/3 complex in living cells.« less

  18. Reversal of β cell de-differentiation by a small molecule inhibitor of the TGFβ pathway

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Barak; Roose, Adam N; Barrandon, Ornella; Maehr, René; Arvanites, Anthony C; Davidow, Lance S; Davis, Jeffrey C; Peterson, Quinn P; Rubin, Lee L; Melton, Douglas A

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction or death of pancreatic β cells underlies both types of diabetes. This functional decline begins with β cell stress and de-differentiation. Current drugs for type 2 diabetes (T2D) lower blood glucose levels but they do not directly alleviate β cell stress nor prevent, let alone reverse, β cell de-differentiation. We show here that Urocortin 3 (Ucn3), a marker for mature β cells, is down-regulated in the early stages of T2D in mice and when β cells are stressed in vitro. Using an insulin expression-coupled lineage tracer, with Ucn3 as a reporter for the mature β cell state, we screen for factors that reverse β cell de-differentiation. We find that a small molecule inhibitor of TGFβ receptor I (Alk5) protects cells from the loss of key β cell transcription factors and restores a mature β cell identity even after exposure to prolonged and severe diabetes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02809.001 PMID:25233132

  19. Skp1 in lung cancer: clinical significance and therapeutic efficacy of its small molecule inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Chun; Zhang, Jian; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Zhi-Liang; Gao, Qin-Lei; Yang, Li-Na; Cheng, Yong-Xian; Tao, Sheng-Ce; Liu, Jinsong; Zhou, Guang-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Skp1 is an essential adaptor protein of the Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein complex and is able to stabilize the conformation of some ubiquitin E3 ligases. However, the role Skp1 plays during tumorigenesis remains unclear and Skp1-targeting agent is lacking. Here we showed that Skp1 was overexpressed in 36/64 (56.3%) of non-small cell lung cancers, and elevated Skp1 was associated with poor prognosis. By structure-based high-throughput virtual screening, we found some Skp1-targeting molecules including a natural compound 6-O-angeloylplenolin (6-OAP). 6-OAP bound Skp1 at sites critical to Skp1-Skp2 interaction, leading to dissociation and proteolysis of oncogenic E3 ligases NIPA, Skp2, and β-TRCP, and accumulation of their substrates Cyclin B1, P27 and E-Cadherin. 6-OAP induced prometaphase arrest and exerted potent anti-lung cancer activity in two murine models and showed low adverse effect. These results indicate that Skp1 is critical to lung cancer pathogenesis, and Skp1 inhibitor inactivates crucial oncogenic E3 ligases and exhibits significant therapeutic potentials. PMID:26474281

  20. A small-molecule inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Coll, Rebecca C; Robertson, Avril A B; Chae, Jae Jin; Higgins, Sarah C; Muñoz-Planillo, Raúl; Inserra, Marco C; Vetter, Irina; Dungan, Lara S; Monks, Brian G; Stutz, Andrea; Croker, Daniel E; Butler, Mark S; Haneklaus, Moritz; Sutton, Caroline E; Núñez, Gabriel; Latz, Eicke; Kastner, Daniel L; Mills, Kingston H G; Masters, Seth L; Schroder, Kate; Cooper, Matthew A; O'Neill, Luke A J

    2015-03-01

    The NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a component of the inflammatory process, and its aberrant activation is pathogenic in inherited disorders such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) and complex diseases such as multiple sclerosis, type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. We describe the development of MCC950, a potent, selective, small-molecule inhibitor of NLRP3. MCC950 blocked canonical and noncanonical NLRP3 activation at nanomolar concentrations. MCC950 specifically inhibited activation of NLRP3 but not the AIM2, NLRC4 or NLRP1 inflammasomes. MCC950 reduced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in vivo and attenuated the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a disease model of multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, MCC950 treatment rescued neonatal lethality in a mouse model of CAPS and was active in ex vivo samples from individuals with Muckle-Wells syndrome. MCC950 is thus a potential therapeutic for NLRP3-associated syndromes, including autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and a tool for further study of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human health and disease.

  1. Differential action of small molecule HER kinase inhibitors on receptor heterodimerization: therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, M; Pandiella, A

    2012-07-01

    Deregulation of ErbB/HER receptor tyrosine kinases has been linked to several types of cancer. The mechanism of activation of these receptors includes establishment of receptor dimers. Here, we have analyzed the action of different small molecule HER tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) on HER receptor dimerization. Breast cancer cell lines were treated with distinct TKIs and the formation of HER2-HER3 dimers was analyzed by coimmunoprecipitation and western blot or by Förster resonance energy transfer assays. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity was analyzed by measuring the release of lactate dehydrogenase and cell viability. Lapatinib and neratinib interfered with ligand-induced dimerization of HER receptors; while pelitinib, gefitinib, canertinib or erlotinib did not. Moreover, lapatinib and neratinib were able to disrupt previously formed receptor dimers. Structural analyses allowed the elucidation of the mechanism by which some TKIs prevent the formation of HER receptor dimers, while others do not. Experiments aimed at defining the functional importance of dimerization indicated that TKIs that impeded dimerization prevented down-regulation of HER2 receptors, and favored the action of trastuzumab. We postulate that TKIs that prevent dimerization and down-regulation of HER2 may augment the antitumoral action of trastuzumab, and this mechanism of action should be considered in the treatment of HER2 positive tumors which combine TKIs with antireceptor antibodies. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  2. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase: role in cancer pathogenesis and small-molecule inhibitor development for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Thomas R; Slavish, Jake; George, Rani E; Look, A Thomas; Xue, Liquan; Jiang, Qin; Cui, Xiaoli; Rentrop, Walter B; Morris, Stephan W

    2009-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a receptor tyrosine kinase in the insulin receptor superfamily, was initially identified in constitutively activated oncogenic fusion forms – the most common being nucleophosmin-ALK – in anaplastic large-cell lymphomas, and subsequent studies have identified ALK fusions in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, systemic histiocytosis, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors, esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and non-small-cell lung carcinomas. More recently, genomic DNA amplification and protein overexpression, as well as activating point mutations, of ALK have been described in neuroblastomas. In addition to those cancers for which a causative role for aberrant ALK activity is well validated, more circumstantial links implicate the full-length, normal ALK receptor in the genesis of other malignancies – including glioblastoma and breast cancer – via a mechanism of receptor activation involving autocrine and/or paracrine growth loops with the reported ALK ligands, pleiotrophin and midkine. This review summarizes normal ALK biology, the confirmed and putative roles of ALK in the development of human cancers and efforts to target ALK using small-molecule kinase inhibitors. PMID:19275511

  3. Pyrrole-Based Macrocyclic Small-Molecule Inhibitors That Target Oocyte Maturation.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, Pethaiah; Lee, So-Rim; Jeong, Seung-Min; Kwon, Jeong-Woo; Takei, Toshiki; Asahina, Yuya; Bang, Geul; Kim, Seongnyeon; Ahn, Mija; Ryu, Eun Kyung; Kim, Hak Nam; Nam, Ki-Yub; Shin, Song Yub; Hojo, Hironobu; Namgoong, Suk; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Bang, Jeong Kyu

    2017-04-20

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) plays crucial roles in various stages of oocyte maturation. Recently, we reported that the peptidomimetic compound AB103-8, which targets the polo box domain (PBD) of PLK1, affects oocyte meiotic maturation and the resumption of meiosis. However, to overcome the drawbacks of peptidic compounds, we designed and synthesized a series of pyrrole-based small-molecule inhibitors and tested them for their effects on the rates of porcine oocyte maturation. Among them, the macrocyclic compound (E/Z)-3-(2,16-dioxo-19-(4-phenylbutyl)-3,19-diazabicyclo[15.2.1]icosa-1(20),6,17-trien-3-yl)propyl dihydrogen phosphate (4) showed the highest inhibitory activity with enhanced inhibition against embryonic blastocyst formation. Furthermore, the addition of this compound to culture media efficiently blocked the maturation of porcine and mouse oocytes, indicating its ability to penetrate the zona pellucida and cell membrane. We investigated mouse oocytes treated with compound 4, and the resulting impairment of spindle formation confirmed PLK1 inhibition. Finally, molecular modeling studies with PLK1 PBD also confirmed the presence of significant interactions between compound 4 and PLK1 PBD binding pocket residues, including those in the phosphate, tyrosine-rich, and pyrrolidine binding pockets. Collectively, these results suggest that the macrocyclic compound 4 may serve as a promising template for the development of novel contraceptive agents. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Targeting superficial or nodular Basal cell carcinoma with topically formulated small molecule inhibitor of smoothened.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tracy; Tang, Jean Y; Li, Dongwei; Reich, Mike; Callahan, Christopher A; Fu, Ling; Yauch, Robert L; Wang, Frank; Kotkow, Karen; Chang, Kris S; Shpall, Elana; Wu, Angela; Rubin, Lee L; Marsters, James C; Epstein, Ervin H; Caro, Ivor; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2011-05-15

    Inappropriate activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in skin is critical for the development of basal cell carcinomas (BCC). We have investigated the anti-BCC efficacy of topically-applied CUR61414, an inhibitor of the Hh signal transduction molecule Smoothened. In preclinical studies, we used a depilatory model to evaluate the ability of topical formulations of CUR61414 to repress Hh responsive cells found at the base of hair follicles in normal skin. We also tested the in vivo effects of topical CUR61414 on murine BCCs developed in Ptch1 (+/-) K14-CreER2 p53 fl/fl mice. In a phase I clinical study, we evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a multidose regimen of CUR61414 (0.09%, 0.35%, 1.1%, and 3.1%) applied topically to human superficial or nodular BCCs for up to 28 days. In mice, topical CUR61414 significantly inhibited skin Hh signaling, blocked the induction of hair follicle anagen, and shrank existing BCCs. However, we observed no clinical activity of this formulation in human superficial or nodular BCCs in a phase I clinical study. Our data highlight some of the challenges of translating preclinical experience into successful human results for a topical anticancer agent. ©2011 AACR.

  5. Small molecule inhibitors of Late SV40 Factor (LSF) abrogate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): Evaluation using an endogenous HCC model.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Devaraja; Siddiq, Ayesha; Willoughby, Jennifer L S; Biagi, Jessica M; Christadore, Lisa M; Yunes, Sarah A; Gredler, Rachel; Jariwala, Nidhi; Robertson, Chadia L; Akiel, Maaged A; Shen, Xue-Ning; Subler, Mark A; Windle, Jolene J; Schaus, Scott E; Fisher, Paul B; Hansen, Ulla; Sarkar, Devanand

    2015-09-22

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal malignancy with high mortality and poor prognosis. Oncogenic transcription factor Late SV40 Factor (LSF) plays an important role in promoting HCC. A small molecule inhibitor of LSF, Factor Quinolinone Inhibitor 1 (FQI1), significantly inhibited human HCC xenografts in nude mice without harming normal cells. Here we evaluated the efficacy of FQI1 and another inhibitor, FQI2, in inhibiting endogenous hepatocarcinogenesis. HCC was induced in a transgenic mouse with hepatocyte-specific overexpression of c-myc (Alb/c-myc) by injecting N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) followed by FQI1 or FQI2 treatment after tumor development. LSF inhibitors markedly decreased tumor burden in Alb/c-myc mice with a corresponding decrease in proliferation and angiogenesis. Interestingly, in vitro treatment of human HCC cells with LSF inhibitors resulted in mitotic arrest with an accompanying increase in CyclinB1. Inhibition of CyclinB1 induction by Cycloheximide or CDK1 activity by Roscovitine significantly prevented FQI-induced mitotic arrest. A significant induction of apoptosis was also observed upon treatment with FQI. These effects of LSF inhibition, mitotic arrest and induction of apoptosis by FQI1s provide multiple avenues by which these inhibitors eliminate HCC cells. LSF inhibitors might be highly potent and effective therapeutics for HCC either alone or in combination with currently existing therapies.

  6. Suppression of complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor in vascular endothelial activation by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 action

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haimou; Qin, Gangjian; Liang, Gang

    Increased expression of adhesion molecules by activated endothelium is a critical feature of vascular inflammation associated with the several diseases such as endotoxin shock and sepsis/septic shock. Our data demonstrated complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor (C1INH) prevents endothelial cell injury. We hypothesized that C1INH has the ability of an anti-endothelial activation associated with suppression of expression of adhesion molecule(s). C1INH blocked leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayer in both static assay and flow conditions. In inflammatory condition, C1INH reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression associated with its cytoplasmic mRNA destabilization and nuclear transcription level. Studies exploring the underlying mechanismmore » of C1INH-mediated suppression in VCAM-1 expression were related to reduction of NF-{kappa}B activation and nuclear translocation in an I{kappa}B{alpha}-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects were associated with reduction of inhibitor I{kappa}B kinase activity and stabilization of the NF-{kappa}B inhibitor I{kappa}B. These findings indicate a novel role for C1INH in inhibition of vascular endothelial activation. These observations could provide the basis for new therapeutic application of C1INH to target inflammatory processes in different pathologic situations.« less

  7. Multimodal effects of small molecule ROCK and LIMK inhibitors on mitosis, and their implication as anti-leukemia agents.

    PubMed

    Oku, Yusuke; Tareyanagi, Chiaki; Takaya, Shinichi; Osaka, Sayaka; Ujiie, Haruki; Yoshida, Kentaro; Nishiya, Naoyuki; Uehara, Yoshimasa

    2014-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation is vital for cell viability. Many cancer cells show chromosome instability (CIN) due to aberrant expression of the genes involved in chromosome segregation. The induction of massive chromosome segregation errors in such cancer cells by small molecule inhibitors is an emerging strategy to kill these cells selectively. Here we screened and characterized small molecule inhibitors which cause mitotic chromosome segregation errors to target cancer cell growth. We screened about 300 chemicals with known targets, and found that Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitors bypassed the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which delays anaphase onset until proper kinetochore-microtubule interactions are established. We investigated how ROCK inhibitors affect chromosome segregation, and found that they induced microtubule-dependent centrosome fragmentation. Knockdown of ROCK1 and ROCK2 revealed their additive roles in centrosome integrity. Pharmacological inhibition of LIMK also induced centrosome fragmentation similar to that by ROCK inhibitors. Inhibition of ROCK or LIMK hyper-stabilized mitotic spindles and impaired Aurora-A activation. These results suggested that ROCK and LIMK are directly or indirectly involved in microtubule dynamics and activation of Aurora-A. Furthermore, inhibition of ROCK or LIMK suppressed T cell leukemia growth in vitro, but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells. They induced centrosome fragmentation and apoptosis in T cell leukemia cells. These results suggested that ROCK and LIMK can be a potential target for anti-cancer drugs.

  8. Effects of 31 FDA approved small-molecule kinase inhibitors on isolated rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Salminen, Alec; Yang, Xi; Luo, Yong; Wu, Qiangen; White, Matthew; Greenhaw, James; Ren, Lijun; Bryant, Matthew; Salminen, William; Papoian, Thomas; Mattes, William; Shi, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    The FDA has approved 31 small-molecule kinase inhibitors (KIs) for human use as of November 2016, with six having black box warnings for hepatotoxicity (BBW-H) in product labeling. The precise mechanisms and risk factors for KI-induced hepatotoxicity are poorly understood. Here, the 31 KIs were tested in isolated rat liver mitochondria, an in vitro system recently proposed to be a useful tool to predict drug-induced hepatotoxicity in humans. The KIs were incubated with mitochondria or submitochondrial particles at concentrations ranging from therapeutic maximal blood concentrations (Cmax) levels to 100-fold Cmax levels. Ten endpoints were measured, including oxygen consumption rate, inner membrane potential, cytochrome c release, swelling, reactive oxygen species, and individual respiratory chain complex (I-V) activities. Of the 31 KIs examined only three including sorafenib, regorafenib and pazopanib, all of which are hepatotoxic, caused significant mitochondrial toxicity at concentrations equal to the Cmax, indicating that mitochondrial toxicity likely contributes to the pathogenesis of hepatotoxicity associated with these KIs. At concentrations equal to 100-fold Cmax, 18 KIs were found to be toxic to mitochondria, and among six KIs with BBW-H, mitochondrial injury was induced by regorafenib, lapatinib, idelalisib, and pazopanib, but not ponatinib, or sunitinib. Mitochondrial liability at 100-fold Cmax had a positive predictive power (PPV) of 72% and negative predictive power (NPV) of 33% in predicting human KI hepatotoxicity as defined by product labeling, with the sensitivity and specificity being 62% and 44%, respectively. Similar predictive power was obtained using the criterion of Cmax ≥1.1 µM or daily dose ≥100 mg. Mitochondrial liability at 1-2.5-fold Cmax showed a 100% PPV and specificity, though the NPV and sensitivity were 32% and 14%, respectively. These data provide novel mechanistic insights into KI hepatotoxicity and indicate that

  9. Small-Molecule Inhibitor of the Shigella flexneri Master Virulence Regulator VirF

    PubMed Central

    Koppolu, Veerendra; Osaka, Ichie; Skredenske, Jeff M.; Kettle, Bria; Hefty, P. Scott; Li, Jiaqin

    2013-01-01

    VirF is an AraC family transcriptional activator that is required for the expression of virulence genes associated with invasion and cell-to-cell spread by Shigella flexneri, including multiple components of the type three secretion system (T3SS) machinery and effectors. We tested a small-molecule compound, SE-1 (formerly designated OSSL_051168), which we had identified as an effective inhibitor of the AraC family proteins RhaS and RhaR, for its ability to inhibit VirF. Cell-based reporter gene assays with Escherichia coli and Shigella, as well as in vitro DNA binding assays with purified VirF, demonstrated that SE-1 inhibited DNA binding and transcription activation (likely by blocking DNA binding) by VirF. Analysis of mRNA levels using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) further demonstrated that SE-1 reduced the expression of the VirF-dependent virulence genes icsA, virB, icsB, and ipaB in Shigella. We also performed eukaryotic cell invasion assays and found that SE-1 reduced invasion by Shigella. The effect of SE-1 on invasion required preincubation of Shigella with SE-1, in agreement with the hypothesis that SE-1 inhibited the expression of VirF-activated genes required for the formation of the T3SS apparatus and invasion. We found that the same concentrations of SE-1 had no detectable effects on the growth or metabolism of the bacterial cells or the eukaryotic host cells, respectively, indicating that the inhibition of invasion was not due to general toxicity. Overall, SE-1 appears to inhibit transcription activation by VirF, exhibits selectivity toward AraC family proteins, and has the potential to be developed into a novel antibacterial agent. PMID:24002059

  10. Small molecule inhibitors of the annexin A2 heterotetramer prevent human papillomavirus type 16 infection.

    PubMed

    Woodham, Andrew W; Taylor, Julia R; Jimenez, Andrew I; Skeate, Joseph G; Schmidt, Thomas; Brand, Heike E; Da Silva, Diane M; Kast, W Martin

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection leads to the development of several human cancers that cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. HPV type 16 (HPV16) is the most common of the cancer-causing genotypes and gains entry to the basal cells of the epithelium through a non-canonical endocytic pathway that involves the annexin A2/S100A10 heterotetramer (A2t). A2t is composed of two annexin A2 monomers bound to an S100A10 dimer and this interaction is a potential target to block HPV16 infection. Here, recently identified small molecule inhibitors of A2t (A2ti) were investigated for their ability to prevent HPV16 infection in vitro. A2ti were added to HeLa cells in increasing concentrations prior to the addition of HPV16. Cytotoxicity was evaluated via trypan blue exclusion. HPV16 pseudovirion infection and fluorescently labelled HPV16 capsid internalization was measured with flow cytometry. A2ti blocked HPV16 infection by 100% without substantial cellular toxicity or reduction in cell growth. Furthermore, A2ti blocked HPV16 entry into epithelial cells by 65%, indicating that the observed inhibition of HPV16 infection is in part due to a block in entry and that non-infectious entry may occur in the absence of A2t binding. These results demonstrate that targeting A2t may be an effective strategy to prevent HPV16 infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Diuresis and reduced urinary osmolality in rats produced by small-molecule UT-A-selective urea transport inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Esteva-Font, Cristina; Cil, Onur; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Su, Tao; Lee, Sujin; Anderson, Marc O; Verkman, A S

    2014-09-01

    Urea transport (UT) proteins of the UT-A class are expressed in epithelial cells in kidney tubules, where they are required for the formation of a concentrated urine by countercurrent multiplication. Here, using a recently developed high-throughput assay to identify UT-A inhibitors, a screen of 50,000 synthetic small molecules identified UT-A inhibitors of aryl-thiazole, γ-sultambenzosulfonamide, aminocarbonitrile butene, and 4-isoxazolamide chemical classes. Structure-activity analysis identified compounds that inhibited UT-A selectively by a noncompetitive mechanism with IC50 down to ∼1 μM. Molecular modeling identified putative inhibitor binding sites on rat UT-A. To test compound efficacy in rats, formulations and administration procedures were established to give therapeutic inhibitor concentrations in blood and urine. We found that intravenous administration of an indole thiazole or a γ-sultambenzosulfonamide at 20 mg/kg increased urine output by 3-5-fold and reduced urine osmolality by ∼2-fold compared to vehicle control rats, even under conditions of maximum antidiuresis produced by 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP). The diuresis was reversible and showed urea > salt excretion. The results provide proof of concept for the diuretic action of UT-A-selective inhibitors. UT-A inhibitors are first in their class salt-sparing diuretics with potential clinical indications in volume-overload edemas and high-vasopressin-associated hyponatremias. © FASEB.

  12. High-Throughput Flow Cytometry Identifies Small-Molecule Inhibitors for Drug Repurposing in T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Perez, Dominique R; Nickl, Christian K; Waller, Anna; Delgado-Martin, Cristina; Woods, Travis; Sharma, Nitesh D; Hermiston, Michelle L; Loh, Mignon L; Hunger, Stephen P; Winter, Stuart S; Chigaev, Alexandre; Edwards, Bruce; Sklar, Larry A; Matlawska-Wasowska, Ksenia

    2018-05-01

    Kinase inhibitors have dramatically increased patient survival in a multitude of cancers, including hematological malignancies. However, kinase inhibitors have not yet been integrated into current clinical trials for patients with T-cell-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). In this study, we used a high-throughput flow cytometry (HTFC) approach to test a collection of small-molecule inhibitors, including 26 FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors in a panel of T-ALL cell lines and patient-derived xenografts. Because hypoxia is known to cause resistance to chemotherapy, we developed a synthetic niche that mimics the low oxygen levels found in leukemic bone marrow to evaluate the effects of hypoxia on the tested inhibitors. Drug sensitivity screening was performed using the Agilent BioCel automated liquid handling system integrated with the HyperCyt HT flow cytometry platform, and the uptake of propidium iodide was used as an indication of cell viability. The HTFC dose-response testing identified several compounds that were efficacious in both normal and hypoxic conditions. This study shows that some clinically approved kinase inhibitors target T-ALL in the hypoxic niche of the bone marrow.

  13. Dye-Binding Assays for Evaluation of the Effects of Small Molecule Inhibitors on Amyloid (Aβ) Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Dye-binding assays, such as those utilizing Congo red and thioflavin T, are among the most widely used tools to probe the aggregation of amyloidogenic biomolecules and for the evaluation of small molecule inhibitors of amyloid aggregation and fibrillization. A number of recent reports have indicated that these dye-binding assays could be prone to false positive effects when assessing inhibitors’ potential toward Aβ peptides, species involved in Alzheimer’s disease. Specifically, this review focuses on the application of thioflavin T for determining the efficiency of small molecule inhibitors of Aβ aggregation and addresses potential reasons that might be associated with the false positive effects in an effort to increase reliability of dye-binding assays. PMID:23173064

  14. [Crystal structure of SMU.2055 protein from Streptococcus mutans and its small molecule inhibitors design and selection].

    PubMed

    Xiaodan, Chen; Xiurong, Zhan; Xinyu, Wu; Chunyan, Zhao; Wanghong, Zhao

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the three-dimensional crystal structure of SMU.2055 protein, a putative acetyltransferase from the major caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The design and selection of the structure-based small molecule inhibitors are also studied. The three-dimensional crystal structure of SMU.2055 protein was obtained by structural genomics research methods of gene cloning and expression, protein purification with Ni²⁺-chelating affinity chromatography, crystal screening, and X-ray diffraction data collection. An inhibitor virtual model matching with its target protein structure was set up using computer-aided drug design methods, virtual screening and fine docking, and Libdock and Autodock procedures. The crystal of SMU.2055 protein was obtained, and its three-dimensional crystal structure was analyzed. This crystal was diffracted to a resolution of 0.23 nm. It belongs to orthorhombic space group C222(1), with unit cell parameters of a = 9.20 nm, b = 9.46 nm, and c = 19.39 nm. The asymmetric unit contained four molecules, with a solvent content of 56.7%. Moreover, five small molecule compounds, whose structure matched with that of the target protein in high degree, were designed and selected. Protein crystallography research of S. mutans SMU.2055 helps to understand the structures and functions of proteins from S. mutans at the atomic level. These five compounds may be considered as effective inhibitors to SMU.2055. The virtual model of small molecule inhibitors we built will lay a foundation to the anticaries research based on the crystal structure of proteins.

  15. Small molecule non-peptide inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E: Structure-activity relationship and a pharmacophore model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gyanendra; Agarwal, Rakhi; Swaminathan, Subramanyam

    2016-09-15

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most poisonous biological substance known to humans. They cause flaccid paralysis by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we report a number of small molecule non-peptide inhibitors of BoNT serotype E. The structure-activity relationship and a pharmacophore model are presented. Although non-peptidic in nature, these inhibitors mimic key features of the uncleavable substrate peptide Arg-Ile-Met-Glu (RIME) of the SNAP-25 protein. Among the compounds tested, most of the potent inhibitors bear a zinc-chelating moiety connected to a hydrophobic and aromatic moiety through a carboxyl or amide linker. All of them show low micromolar IC50 values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Small molecule non-peptide inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E: Structure–activity relationship and a pharmacophore model

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, Gyanendra; Agarwal, Rakhi; Swaminathan, Subramanyam

    2016-06-18

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most poisonous biological substance known to humans. They cause flaccid paralysis by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we report a number of small molecule non-peptide inhibitors of BoNT serotype E. In addition, the structure–activity relationship and a pharmacophore model are presented. Although non-peptidic in nature, these inhibitors mimic key features of the uncleavable substrate peptide Arg-Ile-Met-Glu (RIME) of the SNAP-25 protein. Among the compounds tested, most of the potent inhibitors bear a zinc-chelating moiety connected to a hydrophobic and aromatic moiety through a carboxyl or amide linker. All of themmore » show low micromolar IC 50 values.« less

  17. Discovery of selective small-molecule HDAC6 inhibitor for overcoming proteasome inhibitor resistance in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Hideshima, Teru; Paranal, Ronald M.; Tang, Weiping; Greenberg, Edward; West, Nathan; Colling, Meaghan E.; Estiu, Guillermina; Mazitschek, Ralph; Perry, Jennifer A.; Ohguchi, Hiroto; Cottini, Francesca; Mimura, Naoya; Görgün, Güllü; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Richardson, Paul G.; Carrasco, Ruben D.; Wiest, Olaf; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Bradner, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) has proven clinically susceptible to modulation of pathways of protein homeostasis. Blockade of proteasomal degradation of polyubiquitinated misfolded proteins by the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) achieves responses and prolongs survival in MM, but long-term treatment with BTZ leads to drug-resistant relapse in most patients. In a proof-of-concept study, we previously demonstrated that blocking aggresomal breakdown of polyubiquitinated misfolded proteins with the histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) inhibitor tubacin enhances BTZ-induced cytotoxicity in MM cells in vitro. However, these foundational studies were limited by the pharmacologic liabilities of tubacin as a chemical probe with only in vitro utility. Emerging from a focused library synthesis, a potent, selective, and bioavailable HDAC6 inhibitor, WT161, was created to study the mechanism of action of HDAC6 inhibition in MM alone and in combination with BTZ. WT161 in combination with BTZ triggers significant accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and cell stress, followed by caspase activation and apoptosis. More importantly, this combination treatment was effective in BTZ-resistant cells and in the presence of bone marrow stromal cells, which have been shown to mediate MM cell drug resistance. The activity of WT161 was confirmed in our human MM cell xenograft mouse model and established the framework for clinical trials of the combination treatment to improve patient outcomes in MM. PMID:27799547

  18. Discovery and Validation of a New Class of Small Molecule Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Matthew D.; Jia, Hongpeng; Eyer, Benjamin; Good, Misty; Guerriero, Christopher J.; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Afrazi, Amin; Prindle, Thomas; Ma, Congrong; Branca, Maria; Ozolek, John; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.; Wipf, Peter; Hackam, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Many inflammatory diseases may be linked to pathologically elevated signaling via the receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). There has thus been great interest in the discovery of TLR4 inhibitors as potential anti-inflammatory agents. Recently, the structure of TLR4 bound to the inhibitor E5564 was solved, raising the possibility that novel TLR4 inhibitors that target the E5564-binding domain could be designed. We utilized a similarity search algorithm in conjunction with a limited screening approach of small molecule libraries to identify compounds that bind to the E5564 site and inhibit TLR4. Our lead compound, C34, is a 2-acetamidopyranoside (MW 389) with the formula C17H27NO9, which inhibited TLR4 in enterocytes and macrophages in vitro, and reduced systemic inflammation in mouse models of endotoxemia and necrotizing enterocolitis. Molecular docking of C34 to the hydrophobic internal pocket of the TLR4 co-receptor MD-2 demonstrated a tight fit, embedding the pyran ring deep inside the pocket. Strikingly, C34 inhibited LPS signaling ex-vivo in human ileum that was resected from infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. These findings identify C34 and the β-anomeric cyclohexyl analog C35 as novel leads for small molecule TLR4 inhibitors that have potential therapeutic benefit for TLR4-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:23776545

  19. Electrostatic Similarities between Protein and Small Molecule Ligands Facilitate the Design of Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kam Y. J.

    2013-01-01

    One of the underlying principles in drug discovery is that a biologically active compound is complimentary in shape and molecular recognition features to its receptor. This principle infers that molecules binding to the same receptor may share some common features. Here, we have investigated whether the electrostatic similarity can be used for the discovery of small molecule protein-protein interaction inhibitors (SMPPIIs). We have developed a method that can be used to evaluate the similarity of electrostatic potentials between small molecules and known protein ligands. This method was implemented in a software called EleKit. Analyses of all available (at the time of research) SMPPII structures indicate that SMPPIIs bear some similarities of electrostatic potential with the ligand proteins of the same receptor. This is especially true for the more polar SMPPIIs. Retrospective analysis of several successful SMPPIIs has shown the applicability of EleKit in the design of new SMPPIIs. PMID:24130741

  20. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of the Chikungunya virus nsP1 RNA capping enzyme.

    PubMed

    Feibelman, Kristen M; Fuller, Benjamin P; Li, Linfeng; LaBarbera, Daniel V; Geiss, Brian J

    2018-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus. Alphaviruses are positive strand RNA viruses that require a 5' cap structure to direct translation of the viral polyprotein and prevent degradation of the viral RNA genome by host cell nucleases. Formation of the 5' RNA cap is orchestrated by the viral protein nsP1, which binds GTP and provides the N-7 methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase activities that are necessary for cap formation. Viruses with aberrant nsP1 activity are unable to replicate effectively suggesting that nsP1 is a promising target for antiviral drug discovery. Given the absence of commercially available antiviral therapies for CHIKV, it is imperative to identify compounds that could be developed as potential therapeutics. This study details a high-throughput screen of 3051 compounds from libraries containing FDA-approved drugs, natural products, and known bioactives against CHIKV nsP1 using a fluorescence polarization-based GTP competition assay. Several small molecule hits from this screen were able to compete with GTP for the CHIKV nsP1 GTP binding site at low molar concentrations. Compounds were also evaluated with an orthogonal assay that measured the ability of nsP1 to perform the guanylation step of the capping reaction in the presence of inhibitor. In addition, live virus assays with CHIKV and closely related alphavirus, Sindbis virus, were used in conjunction with cell toxicity assays to determine the antiviral activity of compounds in cell culture. The naturally derived compound lobaric acid was found to inhibit CHIKV nsP1 GTP binding and guanylation as well as attenuate viral growth in vitro at both 24 hpi and 48 hpi in hamster BHK21 and human Huh 7 cell lines. These data indicate that development of lobaric acid and further exploration of CHIKV nsP1 as a drug target may aid in the progress of anti-alphaviral drug development strategies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Structure of a small-molecule inhibitor complexed with GlmU from Haemophilus influenzae reveals an allosteric binding site

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalkin, Igor; Lightle, Sandra; Narasimhan, Lakshmi

    2008-04-02

    N-Acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GlmU) is an essential enzyme in aminosugars metabolism and an attractive target for antibiotic drug discovery. GlmU catalyzes the formation of uridine-diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), an important precursor in the peptidoglycan and lipopolisaccharide biosynthesis in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Here we disclose a 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a synthetic small-molecule inhibitor of GlmU from Haemophilus influenzae (hiGlmU). The compound was identified through a high-throughput screening (HTS) configured to detect inhibitors that target the uridyltransferase active site of hiGlmU. The original HTS hit exhibited a modest micromolar potency (IC{sub 50} - 18 {mu}M in a racemic mixture) againstmore » hiGlmU and no activity against Staphylococcus aureus GlmU (saGlmU). The determined crystal structure indicated that the inhibitor occupies an allosteric site adjacent to the GlcNAc-1-P substrate-binding region. Analysis of the mechanistic model of the uridyltransferase reaction suggests that the binding of this allosteric inhibitor prevents structural rearrangements that are required for the enzymatic reaction, thus providing a basis for structure-guided design of a new class of mechanism-based inhibitors of GlmU.« less

  2. Evaluation of EML4-ALK Fusion Proteins in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Small Molecule Inhibitors12

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongjun; Ye, Xiaofen; Liu, Jinfeng; Zha, Jiping; Pei, Lin

    2011-01-01

    The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene resulting from an inversion within chromosome 2p occurs in approximately 5% of non-small cell lung cancer and is mutually exclusive with Ras and EGFR mutations. In this study, we have used a potent and selective ALK small molecule inhibitor, NPV-TAE684, to assess the oncogenic role of EML4-ALK in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We show here that TAE684 inhibits proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and tumor regression in two NSCLC models that harbor EML4-ALK fusions. TAE684 inhibits EML4-ALK activation and its downstream signaling including ERK, AKT, and STAT3. We used microarray analysis to carry out targeted pathway studies of gene expression changes in H2228 NSCLC xenograft model after TAE684 treatment and identified a gene signature of EML4-ALK inhibition. The gene signature represents 1210 known human genes, and the top biologic processes represented by these genes are cell cycle, DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and cell death. We also compared the effect of TAE684 with PF2341066, a c-Met and ALK small molecule inhibitor currently in clinical trial in cancers harboring ALK fusions, and demonstrated that TAE684 is a much more potent inhibitor of EML4-ALK. Our data demonstrate that EML4-ALK plays an important role in the pathogenesis of a subset of NSCLC and provides insight into the mechanism of EML4-ALK inhibition by a small molecule inhibitor. PMID:21245935

  3. Anti-obesity effects of 3-hydroxychromone derivative, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooho; Yang, Woo Kyeom; Song, Ji Ho; Ra, Young Min; Jeong, Jin-Hyun; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Kim, Sung-Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2013-04-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) plays a central role in cellular energy metabolism, and dysregulation of GSK-3 activity is implicated in a variety of metabolic disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Hence, GSK-3 has emerged as an attractive target molecule for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Therefore, this research focused on identification and characterization of a novel small-molecule GSK-3 inhibitor. Compound 1a, a structure based on 3-hydroxychromone bearing isothiazolidine-1,1-dione, was identified from chemical library as a highly potent GSK-3 inhibitor. An in vitro kinase assay utilizing a panel of kinases demonstrated that compound 1a strongly inhibits GSK-3β. The potential effects of compound 1a on the inactivation of GSK-3 were confirmed in human liver HepG2 and human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. Stabilization of glycogen synthase and β-catenin, which are direct targets of GSK-3, by compound 1a was assessed in comparison with two other GSK-3 inhibitors: LiCl and SB-415286. In mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, compound 1a markedly blocked adipocyte differentiation. Consistently, intraperitoneal administration of compound 1a to diet-induced obese mice significantly ameliorated their key symptoms such as body weight gain, increased adiposity, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis due to the marked reduction of whole-body lipid level. In vitro and in vivo effects were accompanied by upregulation of β-catenin stability and downregulation of the expression of several critical genes related to lipid metabolism. From these results, it can be concluded that compound 1a, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of GSK-3, has potential as a new class of therapeutic agent for obesity treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A High-Throughput Screen Reveals New Small-Molecule Activators and Inhibitors of Pantothenate Kinases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pantothenate kinase (PanK) is a regulatory enzyme that controls coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. The association of PanK with neurodegeneration and diabetes suggests that chemical modifiers of PanK activity may be useful therapeutics. We performed a high throughput screen of >520000 compounds from the St. Jude compound library and identified new potent PanK inhibitors and activators with chemically tractable scaffolds. The HTS identified PanK inhibitors exemplified by the detailed characterization of a tricyclic compound (7) and a preliminary SAR. Biophysical studies reveal that the PanK inhibitor acts by binding to the ATP–enzyme complex. PMID:25569308

  5. Small-molecule inhibitors of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein/StarD2 identified by high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Wagle, Neil; Xian, Jun; Shishova, Ekaterina Y; Wei, Jie; Glicksman, Marcie A; Cuny, Gregory D; Stein, Ross L; Cohen, David E

    2008-12-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP, also referred to as StarD2) is a highly specific intracellular lipid-binding protein that catalyzes the transfer of phosphatidylcholines between membranes in vitro. Recent studies have suggested that PC-TP in vivo functions to regulate fatty acid and glucose metabolism, possibly via interactions with selected other proteins. To begin to address the relationship between activity in vitro and biological function, we undertook a high-throughput screen to identify small-molecule inhibitors of the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity of PC-TP. After adapting a fluorescence quench assay to measure phosphatidylcholine transfer activity, we screened 114,752 compounds of a small-molecule library. The high-throughput screen identified 14 potential PC-TP inhibitors. Of these, 6 compounds exhibited characteristics consistent with specific inhibition of PC-TP activity, with IC(50) values that ranged from 4.1 to 95.0muM under conditions of the in vitro assay. These compounds should serve as valuable reagents to elucidate the biological function of PC-TP. Because mice with homozygous disruption of the PC-TP gene (Pctp) are sensitized to insulin action and relatively resistant to the development of atherosclerosis, these inhibitors may also prove to be of value in the management of diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Pancreatic Effects of a Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Small-molecule Inhibitor in Rats Are Strain-dependent.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, Manoj; Cornwell, Paul D; Sorden, Steven D; Elwell, Michael R; Russell, Natalie R; Pritt, Michael L; Vahle, John L

    2018-01-01

    Inhibitors of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) are under development as potential therapies for various autoimmune diseases. In repeat-dose toxicity studies, small-molecule BTK inhibitors (BTKi) have been reported to cause a constellation of histologic effects at the pancreatic endocrine-exocrine interface in male rats; however, similar findings were not reported in other species. Since the BTKi-induced pancreatic effect is morphologically similar to well-documented spontaneous changes (predominantly characterized by insular/peri-insular hemorrhage, pigment deposition, chronic inflammation, and fibrosis) that are known to vary by rat strain, we investigated potential strain-dependent differences in the pancreatic effects of a small-molecule BTKi, LY3337641. Following 13 weeks of LY3337641 treatment, Crl:CD(SD) rats were most sensitive, Crl:WI(Han) rats were of intermediate sensitivity, and Hsd:SD rats were least sensitive. These strain differences appear to be related to differences in rate of weight gain across strains and sexes; however, a definitive mechanism was not determined. This study demonstrated that BTKi-induced pancreatic effects were highly dependent on rat strain and correlated with differences in the incidence and severity of the spontaneous background change. When considered with the lack of pancreas effects in nonrat species, these changes in rats are unlikely predictive of similar changes in humans administered a BTK inhibitor.

  7. Call for Action: Invasive Fungal Infections Associated With Ibrutinib and Other Small Molecule Kinase Inhibitors Targeting Immune Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Chamilos, Georgios; Lionakis, Michail S; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2018-01-06

    Opportunistic infections caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii, Cryptococcus neoformans, and ubiquitous airborne filamentous fungi have been recently reported in patients with hematological cancers historically considered at low risk for invasive fungal infections (IFIs), after receipt of the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib. The spectrum and severity of IFIs often observed in these patients implies the presence of a complex immunodeficiency that may not be solely attributed to mere inhibition of Bruton tyrosine kinase. In view of the surge in development of small molecule kinase inhibitors for treatment of malignant and autoimmune diseases, it is possible that there would be an emergence of IFIs associated with the effects of these molecules on the immune system. Preclinical assessment of the immunosuppressive effects of kinase inhibitors and human studies aimed at improving patient risk stratification for development of IFIs could lead to prevention, earlier diagnosis, and better outcomes in affected patients. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Chemical methodology as a source of small-molecule checkpoint inhibitors and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) modulators.

    PubMed

    Huryn, Donna M; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Brummond, Kay M; Chambers, Peter G; Eyer, Benjamin; Ireland, Alex W; Kawasumi, Masaoki; Laporte, Matthew G; Lloyd, Kayla; Manteau, Baptiste; Nghiem, Paul; Quade, Bettina; Seguin, Sandlin P; Wipf, Peter

    2011-04-26

    Unique chemical methodology enables the synthesis of innovative and diverse scaffolds and chemotypes and allows access to previously unexplored "chemical space." Compound collections based on such new synthetic methods can provide small-molecule probes of proteins and/or pathways whose functions are not fully understood. We describe the identification, characterization, and evolution of two such probes. In one example, a pathway-based screen for DNA damage checkpoint inhibitors identified a compound, MARPIN (ATM and ATR pathway inhibitor) that sensitizes p53-deficient cells to DNA-damaging agents. Modification of the small molecule and generation of an immobilized probe were used to selectively bind putative protein target(s) responsible for the observed activity. The second example describes a focused library approach that relied on tandem multicomponent reaction methodologies to afford a series of modulators of the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) molecular chaperone. The synthesis of libraries based on the structure of MAL3-101 generated a collection of chemotypes, each modulating Hsp70 function, but exhibiting divergent pharmacological activities. For example, probes that compromise the replication of a disease-associated polyomavirus were identified. These projects highlight the importance of chemical methodology development as a source of small-molecule probes and as a drug discovery starting point.

  9. Chemical methodology as a source of small-molecule checkpoint inhibitors and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) modulators

    PubMed Central

    Huryn, Donna M.; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.; Brummond, Kay M.; Chambers, Peter G.; Eyer, Benjamin; Ireland, Alex W.; Kawasumi, Masaoki; LaPorte, Matthew G.; Lloyd, Kayla; Manteau, Baptiste; Nghiem, Paul; Quade, Bettina; Seguin, Sandlin P.; Wipf, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Unique chemical methodology enables the synthesis of innovative and diverse scaffolds and chemotypes and allows access to previously unexplored “chemical space.” Compound collections based on such new synthetic methods can provide small-molecule probes of proteins and/or pathways whose functions are not fully understood. We describe the identification, characterization, and evolution of two such probes. In one example, a pathway-based screen for DNA damage checkpoint inhibitors identified a compound, MARPIN (ATM and ATR pathway inhibitor) that sensitizes p53-deficient cells to DNA-damaging agents. Modification of the small molecule and generation of an immobilized probe were used to selectively bind putative protein target(s) responsible for the observed activity. The second example describes a focused library approach that relied on tandem multicomponent reaction methodologies to afford a series of modulators of the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) molecular chaperone. The synthesis of libraries based on the structure of MAL3-101 generated a collection of chemotypes, each modulating Hsp70 function, but exhibiting divergent pharmacological activities. For example, probes that compromise the replication of a disease-associated polyomavirus were identified. These projects highlight the importance of chemical methodology development as a source of small-molecule probes and as a drug discovery starting point. PMID:21502524

  10. Promiscuous Actions of Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Protein Kinase D-Class IIa HDAC Axis in Striated Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Douglas D.; Harrison, Brooke C.; Horn, Todd R.; Stratton, Matthew S.; Ferguson, Bradley S.; Wempe, Michael F.; McKinsey, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    PKD-mediated phosphorylation of class IIa HDACs frees the MEF2 transcription factor to activate genes that govern muscle differentiation and growth. Studies of the regulation and function of this signaling axis have involved MC1568 and Gö-6976, which are small molecule inhibitors of class IIa HDAC and PKD catalytic activity, respectively. We describe unanticipated effects of these compounds. MC1568 failed to inhibit class IIa HDAC catalytic activity in vitro, and exerted divergent effects on skeletal muscle differentiation compared to a bona fide inhibitor of these HDACs. In cardiomyocytes, Gö-6976 triggered calcium signaling and activated stress-inducible kinases. Based on these findings, caution is warranted when employing MC1568 and Gö-6976 as pharmacological tool compounds to assess functions of class IIa HDACs and PKD. PMID:25816750

  11. A Target-Based High Throughput Screen Yields Trypanosoma brucei Hexokinase Small Molecule Inhibitors with Antiparasitic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sharlow, Elizabeth R.; Lyda, Todd A.; Dodson, Heidi C.; Mustata, Gabriela; Morris, Meredith T.; Leimgruber, Stephanie S.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Close, David; Lazo, John S.; Morris, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei utilizes glycolysis exclusively for ATP production during infection of the mammalian host. The first step in this metabolic pathway is mediated by hexokinase (TbHK), an enzyme essential to the parasite that transfers the γ-phospho of ATP to a hexose. Here we describe the identification and confirmation of novel small molecule inhibitors of bacterially expressed TbHK1, one of two TbHKs expressed by T. brucei, using a high throughput screening assay. Methodology/Principal Findings Exploiting optimized high throughput screening assay procedures, we interrogated 220,233 unique compounds and identified 239 active compounds from which ten small molecules were further characterized. Computation chemical cluster analyses indicated that six compounds were structurally related while the remaining four compounds were classified as unrelated or singletons. All ten compounds were ∼20-17,000-fold more potent than lonidamine, a previously identified TbHK1 inhibitor. Seven compounds inhibited T. brucei blood stage form parasite growth (0.03≤EC50<3 µM) with parasite specificity of the compounds being demonstrated using insect stage T. brucei parasites, Leishmania promastigotes, and mammalian cell lines. Analysis of two structurally related compounds, ebselen and SID 17387000, revealed that both were mixed inhibitors of TbHK1 with respect to ATP. Additionally, both compounds inhibited parasite lysate-derived HK activity. None of the compounds displayed structural similarity to known hexokinase inhibitors or human African trypanosomiasis therapeutics. Conclusions/Significance The novel chemotypes identified here could represent leads for future therapeutic development against the African trypanosome. PMID:20405000

  12. Small molecule kinase inhibitors for LRRK2 and their application to Parkinson's disease models.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Thomas; Lo Monte, Fabio; Göring, Stefan; Okala Amombo, Ghislaine Marlyse; Schmidt, Boris

    2012-03-21

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Several single gene mutations have been linked to this disease. Mutations in the gene encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) indicate LRRK2 as promising therapeutic target for the treatment of PD. LRRK2 mutations were observed in sporadic as well as familial PD patients and have been investigated intensively. LRRK2 is a large and complex protein, with multiple enzymatic and protein-interaction domains, each of which is effected by mutations. The most common mutation in PD patients is G2019S. Several LRRK2 inhibitors have been reported already, although the crystal structure of LRRK2 has not yet been determined. This review provides a summary of known LRRK2 inhibitors and will discuss recent in vitro and in vivo results of these inhibitors.

  13. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of cytokinesis and single cell wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew G.; Sider, Jenny R.; Verbrugghe, Koen; Fenteany, Gabriel; von Dassow, George; Bement, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Screening of small molecule libraries offers the potential to identify compounds that inhibit specific biological processes and, ultimately, to identify macromolecules that are important players in such processes. To date, however, most screens of small molecule libraries have focused on identification of compounds that inhibit known proteins or particular steps in a given process, and have emphasized automated primary screens. Here we have used “low tech” in vivo primary screens to identify small molecules that inhibit both cytokinesis and single cell wound repair, two complex cellular processes that possess many common features. The “diversity set”, an ordered array of 1990 compounds available from the National Cancer Institute, was screened in parallel to identify compounds that inhibit cytokinesis in D. excentricus (sand dollar) embryos and single cell wound repair in X. laevis (frog) oocytes. Two small molecules were thus identified: Sph1 and Sph2. Sph1 reduces Rho activation in wound repair and suppresses formation of the spindle midzone during cytokinesis. Sph2 also reduces Rho activation in wound repair and may inhibit cytokinesis by blocking membrane fusion. The results identify two small molecules of interest for analysis of wound repair and cytokinesis, reveal that these processes are more similar than often realized and reveal the potential power of low tech screens of small molecule libraries for analysis of complex cellular processes. PMID:23125193

  14. Structural Basis of Wee Kinases Functionality and Inactivation by Diverse Small Molecule Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin-Yi; Cuellar, Rebecca A; Berndt, Norbert; Lee, Hee Eun; Olesen, Sanne H; Martin, Mathew P; Jensen, Jeffrey T; Georg, Gunda I; Schönbrunn, Ernst

    2017-09-28

    Members of the Wee family of kinases negatively regulate the cell cycle via phosphorylation of CDK1 and are considered potential drug targets. Herein, we investigated the structure-function relationship of human Wee1, Wee2, and Myt1 (PKMYT1). Purified recombinant full-length proteins and kinase domain constructs differed substantially in phosphorylation states and catalytic competency, suggesting complex mechanisms of activation. A series of crystal structures reveal unique features that distinguish Wee1 and Wee2 from Myt1 and establish the structural basis of differential inhibition by the widely used Wee1 inhibitor MK-1775. Kinome profiling and cellular studies demonstrate that, in addition to Wee1 and Wee2, MK-1775 is an equally potent inhibitor of the polo-like kinase PLK1. Several previously unrecognized inhibitors of Wee kinases were discovered and characterized. Combined, the data provide a comprehensive view on the catalytic and structural properties of Wee kinases and a framework for the rational design of novel inhibitors thereof.

  15. Novel small molecule inhibitors of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Richard I; Wu, James M; Polokoff, Mark A; Kochanny, Monica J; Dinter, Harald; Zhu, Daguang; Biroc, Sandra L; Alicke, Bruno; Bryant, Judi; Yuan, Shendong; Buckman, Brad O; Lentz, Dao; Ferrer, Mike; Whitlow, Marc; Adler, Marc; Finster, Silke; Chang, Zheng; Arnaiz, Damian O

    2005-05-20

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1)/Akt signaling pathway plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, and tumor angiogenesis and represents a promising target for anticancer drugs. Here, we describe three potent PDK1 inhibitors, BX-795, BX-912, and BX-320 (IC(50) = 11-30 nm) and their initial biological characterization. The inhibitors blocked PDK1/Akt signaling in tumor cells and inhibited the anchorage-dependent growth of a variety of tumor cell lines in culture or induced apoptosis. A number of cancer cell lines with elevated Akt activity were >30-fold more sensitive to growth inhibition by PDK1 inhibitors in soft agar than on tissue culture plastic, consistent with the cell survival function of the PDK1/Akt signaling pathway, which is particularly important for unattached cells. BX-320 inhibited the growth of LOX melanoma tumors in the lungs of nude mice after injection of tumor cells into the tail vein. The effect of BX-320 on cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo indicates that PDK1 inhibitors may have clinical utility as anticancer agents.

  16. Novel small molecule epithelial sodium channel inhibitors as potential therapeutics in cystic fibrosis - a patent evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schoenberger, Matthias; Althaus, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Novel molecular platforms for epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) modulators are claimed in the following six patents: WO2012035158(A1); WO2009074575(A2); WO2011028740(A1); WO2009150137(A2); WO2011079087(A1); WO2008135557(A1). These ENaC inhibitors may be used in blocking transepithelial sodium and consequently water absorption across airway epithelia. This may result in airway rehydration and enhanced mucociliary clearance in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. All inhibitors resemble the classical ENaC blocker amiloride but follow different strategies to increase structural diversity in a sterically tolerant region. These substitutions can be modified to i) enhance potency of ENaC inhibition; ii) reduce epithelial permeability; and iii) broaden applicability in order to be used as potential drugs for CF therapy. Most of the claims and patent data are supported by the currently available literature. The patents deliver a solid chemical basis for a variety of chemical modifications of the ENaC inhibitor amiloride. These modifications may result in the development of a novel, applicable ENaC inhibitors which may have lasting effects on diseased airways and may achieve airway rehydration and enhanced mucociliary clearance in CF lung disease.

  17. Recent patents in the discovery of small molecule inhibitors of JAK3.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lawrence J

    2010-05-01

    Protein kinase enzymes have become increasingly important as the target of many disease modification drug discovery programs. Disruption of JAK3 function results in quantitative and qualitative deficiencies in both B- and T-cell compartments of the immune system of JAK3 deficient mice and development of severe combined immunodeficiency in humans with the JAK3 genetic aberration. JAK3 plays a specific role in immune function and lymphoid development and it only resides in the hematopoietic system, thus the rationale for selective targeting. Inhibitors of JAK3 have shown utility in many different autoimmune disorders, including allograft rejection during transplantation, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and allergic and asthmatic diseases. These inhibitors are making their way into clinical trials with profound effects, thus, validating the target and strategy. A review that covers around 90 patents and patent applications made in the last 10 years in the area involving JAK3 inhibitors is provided. Specifically, what this content will provide is the genus, highlighted compounds of particular interest, filing organization and some biological measure of these compounds as inhibitors of this protein kinase or none if it is not provided. Some information from original research articles appearing in peer reviewed literature is provided, but this article is not a review of the literature. Furthermore, an overview of the current clinical status and future outcomes of this field is provided as summary. A strong understanding for the current state of the art in patents dealing with inhibitors of JAK3 including genus and species designations, potential commercial interest of this target in the pharmaceutical community, depth of coverage by numbers of examples and selected proof of action against the target. Also, a brief understanding of the biology and pharmacology involved in the processes involving the research, discovery, characterization

  18. Use of mRNA expression signatures to discover small molecule inhibitors of skeletal muscle atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Christopher M.; Ebert, Scott M.; Dyle, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Here, we discuss a recently developed experimental strategy for discovering small molecules with potential to prevent and treat skeletal muscle atrophy. Recent findings Muscle atrophy involves and requires widespread changes in skeletal muscle gene expression, which generate complex but measurable patterns of positive and negative changes in skeletal muscle mRNA levels (a.k.a. mRNA expression signatures of muscle atrophy). Many bioactive small molecules generate their own characteristic mRNA expression signatures, and by identifying small molecules whose signatures approximate mirror images of muscle atrophy signatures, one may identify small molecules with potential to prevent and/or reverse muscle atrophy. Unlike a conventional drug discovery approach, this strategy does not rely on a predefined molecular target but rather exploits the complexity of muscle atrophy to identify small molecules that counter the entire spectrum of pathological changes in atrophic muscle. We discuss how this strategy has been used to identify two natural compounds, ursolic acid and tomatidine, that reduce muscle atrophy and improve skeletal muscle function. Summary Discovery strategies based on mRNA expression signatures can elucidate new approaches for preserving and restoring muscle mass and function. PMID:25807353

  19. Use of mRNA expression signatures to discover small molecule inhibitors of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Christopher M; Ebert, Scott M; Dyle, Michael C

    2015-05-01

    Here, we discuss a recently developed experimental strategy for discovering small molecules with potential to prevent and treat skeletal muscle atrophy. Muscle atrophy involves and requires widespread changes in skeletal muscle gene expression, which generate complex but measurable patterns of positive and negative changes in skeletal muscle mRNA levels (a.k.a. mRNA expression signatures of muscle atrophy). Many bioactive small molecules generate their own characteristic mRNA expression signatures, and by identifying small molecules whose signatures approximate mirror images of muscle atrophy signatures, one may identify small molecules with potential to prevent and/or reverse muscle atrophy. Unlike a conventional drug discovery approach, this strategy does not rely on a predefined molecular target but rather exploits the complexity of muscle atrophy to identify small molecules that counter the entire spectrum of pathological changes in atrophic muscle. We discuss how this strategy has been used to identify two natural compounds, ursolic acid and tomatidine, that reduce muscle atrophy and improve skeletal muscle function. Discovery strategies based on mRNA expression signatures can elucidate new approaches for preserving and restoring muscle mass and function.

  20. The small molecule Mek1/2 inhibitor U0126 disrupts the chordamesoderm to notochord transition in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Thomas A; Cavodeassi, Florencia; Erdélyi, Ferenc; Szabó, Gábor; Lele, Zsolt

    2008-04-17

    Key molecules involved in notochord differentiation and function have been identified through genetic analysis in zebrafish and mice, but MEK1 and 2 have so far not been implicated in this process due to early lethality (Mek1-/-) and functional redundancy (Mek2-/-) in the knockout animals. Here, we reveal a potential role for Mek1/2 during notochord development by using the small molecule Mek1/2 inhibitor U0126 which blocks phosphorylation of the Mek1/2 target gene Erk1/2 in vivo. Applying the inhibitor from early gastrulation until the 18-somite stage produces a specific and consistent phenotype with lack of dark pigmentation, shorter tail and an abnormal, undulated notochord. Using morphological analysis, in situ hybridization, immunhistochemistry, TUNEL staining and electron microscopy, we demonstrate that in treated embryos the chordamesoderm to notochord transition is disrupted and identify disorganization in the medial layer of the perinotochordal basement mebrane as the probable cause of the undulations and bulges in the notochord. We also examined and excluded FGF as the upstream signal during this process. Using the small chemical U0126, we have established a novel link between MAPK-signaling and notochord differentiation. Our phenotypic analysis suggests a potential connection between the MAPK-pathway, the COPI-mediated intracellular transport and/or the copper-dependent posttranslational regulatory processes during notochord differentiation.

  1. Efficacy of a Mer and Flt3 tyrosine kinase small molecule inhibitor, UNC1666, in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Sherick, Alisa B.; Zhang, Weihe; Menachof, Kelly K.; Hill, Amanda A.; Rinella, Sean; Kirkpatrick, Gregory; Page, Lauren S.; Stashko, Michael A.; Jordan, Craig T.; Wei, Qi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Dehui; DeRyckere, Deborah; Wang, Xiaodong; Frye, Stephen; Earp, H. Shelton; Graham, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    Mer and Flt3 receptor tyrosine kinases have been implicated as therapeutic targets in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this manuscript we describe UNC1666, a novel ATP-competitive small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which potently diminishes Mer and Flt3 phosphorylation in AML. Treatment with UNC1666 mediated biochemical and functional effects in AML cell lines expressing Mer or Flt3 internal tandem duplication (ITD), including decreased phosphorylation of Mer, Flt3 and downstream effectors Stat, Akt and Erk, induction of apoptosis in up to 98% of cells, and reduction of colony formation by greater than 90%, compared to treatment with vehicle. These effects were dose-dependent, with inhibition of downstream signaling and functional effects correlating with the degree of Mer or Flt3 kinase inhibition. Treatment of primary AML patient samples expressing Mer and/or Flt3-ITD with UNC1666 also inhibited Mer and Flt3 intracellular signaling, induced apoptosis, and inhibited colony formation. In summary, UNC1666 is a novel potent small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that decreases oncogenic signaling and myeloblast survival, thereby validating dual Mer/Flt3 inhibition as an attractive treatment strategy for AML. PMID:25762638

  2. Discovery of a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Interleukin 15: Pharmacophore-Based Virtual Screening and Hit Optimization.

    PubMed

    Quéméner, Agnès; Maillasson, Mike; Arzel, Laurence; Sicard, Benoit; Vomiandry, Romy; Mortier, Erwan; Dubreuil, Didier; Jacques, Yannick; Lebreton, Jacques; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique

    2017-07-27

    Interleukin (IL)-15 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which is structurally close to IL-2 and shares with it the IL-2 β and γ receptor (R) subunits. By promoting the activation and proliferation of NK, NK-T, and CD8+ T cells, IL-15 plays important roles in innate and adaptative immunity. Moreover, the association of high levels of IL-15 expression with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases has led to the development of various antagonistic approaches targeting IL-15. This study is an original approach aimed at discovering small-molecule inhibitors impeding IL-15/IL-15R interaction. A pharmacophore and docking-based virtual screening of compound libraries led to the selection of 240 high-scoring compounds, 36 of which were found to bind IL-15, to inhibit the binding of IL-15 to the IL-2Rβ chain or the proliferation of IL-15-dependent cells or both. One of them was selected as a hit and optimized by a structure-activity relationship approach, leading to the first small-molecule IL-15 inhibitor with sub-micromolar activity.

  3. In silico approaches and proportional odds model towards identifying selective ADAM17 inhibitors from anti-inflammatory natural molecules.

    PubMed

    Borah, Pallab Kumar; Chakraborty, Sourav; Jha, Anupam N; Rajkhowa, Sanchaita; Duary, Raj Kumar

    2016-11-01

    ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17) is an attractive target for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. We aimed to identify selective inhibitors of ADAM17 against matrix metalloproteinase enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-13, and MMP-16) which have substantial structural similarity. Target proteins were docked with 29 anti-inflammatory natural molecule ligands and a known selective inhibitor IK682. The ligands were screened based on Lipinski rules, interaction with the ADAM17 active site cavity, and then ranked using the proportional odds model multinomial logistic regression. Silymarin was the most selective inhibitor of ADAM17 exhibiting H-bonding with Glu 406, Gly 349, Glu 398, Asn 447, Tyr 433, and Lys 432. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out for 10ns. The root mean square deviation (RMSD), root mean squared fluctuations (RMSF), radius of gyration (Rg), solvent accessible surface area (SASA), and H-bonding indicated the induced metastability. A comparison of the principal component analysis revealed that the silymarin complex also explored lesser region compared to IK682 complex. A control study on ADAM17 protein (2OI0) is included. These observations present silymarin (widely present in plants such as milk thistle (Silybum maianum), wild artichokes (Cynara cardunculus), turmeric (Curcuma longa) roots, coriander (Coriandrum sativum) seeds, etc.) as a promising natural template for development of ADAM17 selective drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a small-molecule screening method for inhibitors of cellular response to myostatin and activin A.

    PubMed

    Cash, Jennifer N; Angerman, Elizabeth B; Kirby, R Jason; Merck, Lisa; Seibel, William L; Wortman, Matthew D; Papoian, Ruben; Nelson, Sandra; Thompson, Thomas B

    2013-08-01

    Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family of secreted ligands, is a strong negative regulator of muscle growth. As such, therapeutic inhibitors of myostatin are actively being investigated for their potential in the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases such as muscular dystrophy and sarcopenia. Here, we sought to develop a high-throughput screening (HTS) method for small-molecule inhibitors that target myostatin. We created a HEK293 stable cell line that expresses the (CAGA)12-luciferase reporter construct and robustly responds to signaling of certain classes of TGF-β family ligands. After optimization and miniaturization of the assay to a 384-well format, we successfully screened a library of compounds for inhibition of myostatin and the closely related activin A. Selection of some of the tested compounds was directed by in silico screening against myostatin, which led to an enrichment of target hits as compared with random selection. Altogether, we present an HTS method that will be useful for screening potential inhibitors of not only myostatin but also many other ligands of the TGF-β family.

  5. More powerful virus inhibitors from structure-based analysis of HEV71 capsid-binding molecules

    PubMed Central

    Spyrou, John A. B.; Kelly, James; Ren, Jingshan; Grimes, Jonathan; Puerstinger, Gerhard; Stonehouse, Nicola; Walter, Thomas S.; Hu, Zhongyu; Wang, Junzhi; Li, Xuemei; Peng, Wei; Rowlands, David; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Rao, Zihe; Stuart, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (HEV71) epidemics amongst children and infants result mainly in mild symptoms, however, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, infection can be fatal. At present no therapies are available. We have used structural analysis of the complete virus to guide the design of HEV71 inhibitors. Analysis of complexes with four 3-(-4-pyridyl)-2-imidazolidinone derivatives with varying anti-HEV71 activities, pinpointed key structure-activity correlates. We then identified additional potentially beneficial substitutions, developed methods to reliably triage compounds by quantum mechanics-enhanced ligand docking, and synthesized two candidates. Structural analysis and in vitro assays confirmed the predicted binding modes and their ability to block viral infection. One ligand (IC50 = 25 pM) is an order of magnitude more potent than the best previously reported inhibitor, and is also more soluble. Our approach may be useful in the design of effective drugs for enterovirus infections. PMID:24509833

  6. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Reduces Brain Amyloid-β Load and Improves Memory in an Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Hasina; Huang, Wen-Tan; van Groen, Thomas; Kuo, Hui-Chien; Miyata, Toshio; Liu, Rui-Ming

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major cause of dementia in the elderly with no effective treatment. Accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in the brain is a pathological hallmark of AD and is believed to be a central disease-causing and disease-promoting event. In a previous study, we showed that deletion of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), a primary inhibitor of tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators (tPA and uPA), significantly reduced brain Aβ load in APP/PS1 mice, an animal model of familial AD. In this study, we further show that oral administration of TM5275, a small molecule inhibitor of PAI-1, for a period of 6 weeks, inhibits the activity of PAI-1 and increases the activities of tPA and uPA as well as plasmin, which is associated with a reduction of Aβ load in the hippocampus and cortex and improvement of learning/memory function in APP/PS1 mice. Protein abundance of low density lipoprotein related protein-1 (LRP-1), a multi ligand endocytotic receptor involved in transporting Aβ out of the brain, as well as plasma Aβ42 are increased, whereas the expression and processing of full-length amyloid-β protein precursor is not affected by TM5275 treatment in APP/PS1 mice. In vitro studies further show that PAI-1 increases, whereas TM5275 reduces, Aβ40 level in the culture medium of SHSY5Y-APP neuroblastoma cells. Collectively, our data suggest that TM5275 improves memory function of APP/PS1 mice, probably by reducing brain Aβ accumulation through increasing plasmin-mediated degradation and LRP-1-mediated efflux of Aβ in the brain.

  7. Isolation of a small molecule inhibitor of DNA base excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudan, Srinivasan; Smart, Fiona; Shrimpton, Paul; Parsons, Jason L.; Gardiner, Laurence; Houlbrook, Sue; Talbot, Denis C.; Hammonds, Timothy; Freemont, Paul A.; Sternberg, Michael J. E.; Dianov, Grigory L.; Hickson, Ian D.

    2005-01-01

    The base excision repair (BER) pathway is essential for the removal of DNA bases damaged by alkylation or oxidation. A key step in BER is the processing of an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site intermediate by an AP endonuclease. The major AP endonuclease in human cells (APE1, also termed HAP1 and Ref-1) accounts for >95% of the total AP endonuclease activity, and is essential for the protection of cells against the toxic effects of several classes of DNA damaging agents. Moreover, APE1 overexpression has been linked to radio- and chemo-resistance in human tumors. Using a newly developed high-throughput screen, several chemical inhibitors of APE1 have been isolated. Amongst these, CRT0044876 was identified as a potent and selective APE1 inhibitor. CRT0044876 inhibits the AP endonuclease, 3′-phosphodiesterase and 3′-phosphatase activities of APE1 at low micromolar concentrations, and is a specific inhibitor of the exonuclease III family of enzymes to which APE1 belongs. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, CRT0044876 potentiates the cytotoxicity of several DNA base-targeting compounds. This enhancement of cytotoxicity is associated with an accumulation of unrepaired AP sites. In silico modeling studies suggest that CRT0044876 binds to the active site of APE1. These studies provide both a novel reagent for probing APE1 function in human cells, and a rational basis for the development of APE1-targeting drugs for antitumor therapy. PMID:16113242

  8. Antiinfective therapy with a small molecule inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus sortase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Hongchuan; Zhu, Kongkai; Gong, Shouzhe; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Wang, Ya-Ting; Li, Jiafei; Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Ruihan; Zhou, Lu; Lan, Lefu; Jiang, Hualiang; Schneewind, Olaf; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Cai-Guang

    2014-09-16

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most frequent cause of hospital-acquired infection, which manifests as surgical site infections, bacteremia, and sepsis. Due to drug-resistance, prophylaxis of MRSA infection with antibiotics frequently fails or incites nosocomial diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection. Sortase A is a transpeptidase that anchors surface proteins in the envelope of S. aureus, and sortase mutants are unable to cause bacteremia or sepsis in mice. Here we used virtual screening and optimization of inhibitor structure to identify 3-(4-pyridinyl)-6-(2-sodiumsulfonatephenyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole and related compounds, which block sortase activity in vitro and in vivo. Sortase inhibitors do not affect in vitro staphylococcal growth yet protect mice against lethal S. aureus bacteremia. Thus, sortase inhibitors may be useful as antiinfective therapy to prevent hospital-acquired S. aureus infection in high-risk patients without the side effects of antibiotics.

  9. Identification of Small Molecule Translesion Synthesis Inhibitors That Target the Rev1-CT/RIR Protein-Protein Interaction.

    PubMed

    Sail, Vibhavari; Rizzo, Alessandro A; Chatterjee, Nimrat; Dash, Radha C; Ozen, Zuleyha; Walker, Graham C; Korzhnev, Dmitry M; Hadden, M Kyle

    2017-07-21

    Translesion synthesis (TLS) is an important mechanism through which proliferating cells tolerate DNA damage during replication. The mutagenic Rev1/Polζ-dependent branch of TLS helps cancer cells survive first-line genotoxic chemotherapy and introduces mutations that can contribute to the acquired resistance so often observed with standard anticancer regimens. As such, inhibition of Rev1/Polζ-dependent TLS has recently emerged as a strategy to enhance the efficacy of first-line chemotherapy and reduce the acquisition of chemoresistance by decreasing tumor mutation rate. The TLS DNA polymerase Rev1 serves as an integral scaffolding protein that mediates the assembly of the active multiprotein TLS complexes. Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between the C-terminal domain of Rev1 (Rev1-CT) and the Rev1-interacting region (RIR) of other TLS DNA polymerases play an essential role in regulating TLS activity. To probe whether disrupting the Rev1-CT/RIR PPI is a valid approach for developing a new class of targeted anticancer agents, we designed a fluorescence polarization-based assay that was utilized in a pilot screen for small molecule inhibitors of this PPI. Two small molecule scaffolds that disrupt this interaction were identified, and secondary validation assays confirmed that compound 5 binds to Rev1-CT at the RIR interface. Finally, survival and mutagenesis assays in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells treated with cisplatin and ultraviolet light indicate that these compounds inhibit mutagenic Rev1/Polζ-dependent TLS in cells, validating the Rev1-CT/RIR PPI for future anticancer drug discovery and identifying the first small molecule inhibitors of TLS that target Rev1-CT.

  10. Discovery of a small-molecule inhibitor of Dvl-CXXC5 interaction by computational approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Songling; Choi, Jiwon; Jin, Xuemei; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Yun, Ji-Hye; Lee, Weontae; Choi, Kang-Yell; No, Kyoung Tai

    2018-05-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a significant role in the control of osteoblastogenesis and bone formation. CXXC finger protein 5 (CXXC5) has been recently identified as a negative feedback regulator of osteoblast differentiation through a specific interaction with Dishevelled (Dvl) protein. It was reported that targeting the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction could be a novel anabolic therapeutic target for osteoporosis. In this study, complex structure of Dvl PDZ domain and CXXC5 peptide was simulated with molecular dynamics (MD). Based on the structural analysis of binding modes of MD-simulated Dvl PDZ domain with CXXC5 peptide and crystal Dvl PDZ domain with synthetic peptide-ligands, we generated two different pharmacophore models and applied pharmacophore-based virtual screening to discover potent inhibitors of the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction for the anabolic therapy of osteoporosis. Analysis of 16 compounds selected by means of a virtual screening protocol yielded four compounds that effectively disrupted the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction in the fluorescence polarization assay. Potential compounds were validated by fluorescence spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. We successfully identified a highly potent inhibitor, BMD4722, which directly binds to the Dvl PDZ domain and disrupts the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction. Overall, CXXC5-Dvl PDZ domain complex based pharmacophore combined with various traditional and simple computational methods is a promising approach for the development of modulators targeting the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction, and the potent inhibitor BMD4722 could serve as a starting point to discover or design more potent and specific the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction disruptors.

  11. Discovery of a small-molecule inhibitor of Dvl-CXXC5 interaction by computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Ma, Songling; Choi, Jiwon; Jin, Xuemei; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Yun, Ji-Hye; Lee, Weontae; Choi, Kang-Yell; No, Kyoung Tai

    2018-05-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a significant role in the control of osteoblastogenesis and bone formation. CXXC finger protein 5 (CXXC5) has been recently identified as a negative feedback regulator of osteoblast differentiation through a specific interaction with Dishevelled (Dvl) protein. It was reported that targeting the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction could be a novel anabolic therapeutic target for osteoporosis. In this study, complex structure of Dvl PDZ domain and CXXC5 peptide was simulated with molecular dynamics (MD). Based on the structural analysis of binding modes of MD-simulated Dvl PDZ domain with CXXC5 peptide and crystal Dvl PDZ domain with synthetic peptide-ligands, we generated two different pharmacophore models and applied pharmacophore-based virtual screening to discover potent inhibitors of the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction for the anabolic therapy of osteoporosis. Analysis of 16 compounds selected by means of a virtual screening protocol yielded four compounds that effectively disrupted the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction in the fluorescence polarization assay. Potential compounds were validated by fluorescence spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. We successfully identified a highly potent inhibitor, BMD4722, which directly binds to the Dvl PDZ domain and disrupts the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction. Overall, CXXC5-Dvl PDZ domain complex based pharmacophore combined with various traditional and simple computational methods is a promising approach for the development of modulators targeting the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction, and the potent inhibitor BMD4722 could serve as a starting point to discover or design more potent and specific the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction disruptors.

  12. Ebselen, a Small-Molecule Capsid Inhibitor of HIV-1 Replication.

    PubMed

    Thenin-Houssier, Suzie; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S; Pedro-Rosa, Laura; Brady, Angela; Richard, Audrey; Konnick, Briana; Opp, Silvana; Buffone, Cindy; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Kota, Smitha; Billack, Blase; Pietka-Ottlik, Magdalena; Tellinghuisen, Timothy; Choe, Hyeryun; Spicer, Timothy; Scampavia, Louis; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Kojetin, Douglas J; Valente, Susana T

    2016-04-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid plays crucial roles in HIV-1 replication and thus represents an excellent drug target. We developed a high-throughput screening method based on a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (HTS-TR-FRET) assay, using the C-terminal domain (CTD) of HIV-1 capsid to identify inhibitors of capsid dimerization. This assay was used to screen a library of pharmacologically active compounds, composed of 1,280in vivo-active drugs, and identified ebselen [2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one], an organoselenium compound, as an inhibitor of HIV-1 capsid CTD dimerization. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis confirmed the direct interaction of ebselen with the HIV-1 capsid CTD and dimer dissociation when ebselen is in 2-fold molar excess. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry revealed that ebselen covalently binds the HIV-1 capsid CTD, likely via a selenylsulfide linkage with Cys198 and Cys218. This compound presents anti-HIV activity in single and multiple rounds of infection in permissive cell lines as well as in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Ebselen inhibits early viral postentry events of the HIV-1 life cycle by impairing the incoming capsid uncoating process. This compound also blocks infection of other retroviruses, such as Moloney murine leukemia virus and simian immunodeficiency virus, but displays no inhibitory activity against hepatitis C and influenza viruses. This study reports the use of TR-FRET screening to successfully identify a novel capsid inhibitor, ebselen, validating HIV-1 capsid as a promising target for drug development. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Discovery of a small-molecule inhibitor of Dvl-CXXC5 interaction by computational approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Songling; Choi, Jiwon; Jin, Xuemei; Kim, Hyun-Yi; Yun, Ji-Hye; Lee, Weontae; Choi, Kang-Yell; No, Kyoung Tai

    2018-04-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a significant role in the control of osteoblastogenesis and bone formation. CXXC finger protein 5 (CXXC5) has been recently identified as a negative feedback regulator of osteoblast differentiation through a specific interaction with Dishevelled (Dvl) protein. It was reported that targeting the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction could be a novel anabolic therapeutic target for osteoporosis. In this study, complex structure of Dvl PDZ domain and CXXC5 peptide was simulated with molecular dynamics (MD). Based on the structural analysis of binding modes of MD-simulated Dvl PDZ domain with CXXC5 peptide and crystal Dvl PDZ domain with synthetic peptide-ligands, we generated two different pharmacophore models and applied pharmacophore-based virtual screening to discover potent inhibitors of the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction for the anabolic therapy of osteoporosis. Analysis of 16 compounds selected by means of a virtual screening protocol yielded four compounds that effectively disrupted the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction in the fluorescence polarization assay. Potential compounds were validated by fluorescence spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. We successfully identified a highly potent inhibitor, BMD4722, which directly binds to the Dvl PDZ domain and disrupts the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction. Overall, CXXC5-Dvl PDZ domain complex based pharmacophore combined with various traditional and simple computational methods is a promising approach for the development of modulators targeting the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction, and the potent inhibitor BMD4722 could serve as a starting point to discover or design more potent and specific the Dvl-CXXC5 interaction disruptors.

  14. Small Molecule Inhibitors of ERG and ETV1 in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    A small molecule blocking oncogenic protein EWS -FLI1 interaction with RNA helicase A inhibits growth of Ewing’s sarcoma . Nature medicine. 2009;15...Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and...Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0399 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Colm Morrissey 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  15. Small Molecule Inhibitors of Drug Resistant Forms of HIV-1 Integrase | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers at the National Cancer Institute discovered small-molecule compounds containing 1-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,8-naphthyridine moieties whose activity against HIV-1 integrase mutants confer resistance to currently approved INSTIs. Preliminary rodent efficacy, metabolic, and pharmacokinetic studies have been completed by the NCI researchers. The National Cancer Institute seeks partners to commercialize this class of compounds through licensing or co-development.

  16. Small molecule inhibitors of Ca 2+-S100B reveal two protein conformations

    DOE PAGES

    Cavalier, Michael C.; Ansari, Mohd. Imran; Pierce, Adam D.; ...

    2016-01-04

    The drug pentamidine inhibits calcium-dependent complex formation with p53 ( CaS100B·p53) in malignant melanoma (MM) and restores p53 tumor suppressor activity in vivo. However, off-target effects associated with this drug were problematic in MM patients. Structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies were therefore completed in this study with 23 pentamidine analogues, and X-ray structures of CaS100B·inhibitor complexes revealed that the C-terminus of S100B adopts two different conformations, with location of Phe87 and Phe88 being the distinguishing feature and termed the “FF-gate”. For symmetric pentamidine analogues ( CaS100B· 5a, CaS100B· 6b) a channel between sites 1 and 2 on S100B was occluded bymore » residue Phe88, but for an asymmetric pentamidine analogue ( CaS100B· 17), this same channel was open. Finally, the CaS100B· 17 structure illustrates, for the first time, a pentamidine analog capable of binding the “open” form of the “FF-gate” and provides a means to block all three “hot spots” on CaS100B, which will impact next generation CaS100B·p53 inhibitor design.« less

  17. A small-molecule allosteric inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis tryptophan synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Wellington, Samantha; Nag, Partha P.; Michalska, Karolina

    New antibiotics with novel targets are greatly needed. Bacteria have numerous essential functions, but only a small fraction of such processes—primarily those involved in macromolecular synthesis—are inhibited by current drugs. Targeting metabolic enzymes has been the focus of recent interest, but effective inhibitors have been difficult to identify. We describe a synthetic azetidine derivative, BRD4592, that kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) through allosteric inhibition of tryptophan synthase (TrpAB), a previously untargeted, highly allosterically regulated enzyme. BRD4592 binds at the TrpAB a–b-subunit interface and affects multiple steps in the enzyme’s overall reaction, resulting in inhibition not easily overcome by changes in metabolicmore » environment. We show that TrpAB is required for the survival of Mtb and Mycobacterium marinum in vivo and that this requirement may be independent of an adaptive immune response. This work highlights the effectiveness of allosteric inhibition for targeting proteins that are naturally highly dynamic and that are essential in vivo, despite their apparent dispensability under in vitro conditions, and suggests a framework for the discovery of a next generation of allosteric inhibitors.« less

  18. A small-molecule allosteric inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis tryptophan synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Wellington, Samantha; Nag, Partha P.; Michalska, Karolina

    New antibiotics with novel targets are greatly needed. Bacteria have numerous essential functions, but only a small fraction of such processes—primarily those involved in macromolecular synthesis—are inhibited by current drugs. Targeting metabolic enzymes has been the focus of recent interest, but effective inhibitors have been difficult to identify. We describe a synthetic azetidine derivative, BRD4592, that kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) through allosteric inhibition of tryptophan synthase (TrpAB), a previously untargeted, highly allosterically regulated enzyme. BRD4592 binds at the TrpAB α–β-subunit interface and affects multiple steps in the enzyme's overall reaction, resulting in inhibition not easily overcome by changes in metabolicmore » environment. We show that TrpAB is required for the survival of Mtb and Mycobacterium marinum in vivo and that this requirement may be independent of an adaptive immune response. This work highlights the effectiveness of allosteric inhibition for targeting proteins that are naturally highly dynamic and that are essential in vivo, despite their apparent dispensability under in vitro conditions, and suggests a framework for the discovery of a next generation of allosteric inhibitors.« less

  19. Combined QSAR and molecule docking studies on predicting P-glycoprotein inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen; Mei, Hu; Chao, Li; Liu, Tengfei; Pan, Xianchao; Shu, Mao; Yang, Li

    2013-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter. The over expression of P-gp leads to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), which is a major obstacle to effective treatment of cancer. Thus, designing effective P-gp inhibitors has an extremely important role in the overcoming MDR. In this paper, both ligand-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) and receptor-based molecular docking are used to predict P-gp inhibitors. The results show that each method achieves good prediction performance. According to the results of tenfold cross-validation, an optimal linear SVM model with only three descriptors is established on 857 training samples, of which the overall accuracy (Acc), sensitivity, specificity, and Matthews correlation coefficient are 0.840, 0.873, 0.813, and 0.683, respectively. The SVM model is further validated by 418 test samples with the overall Acc of 0.868. Based on a homology model of human P-gp established, Surflex-dock is also performed to give binding free energy-based evaluations with the overall accuracies of 0.823 for the test set. Furthermore, a consensus evaluation is also performed by using these two methods. Both QSAR and molecular docking studies indicate that molecular volume, hydrophobicity and aromaticity are three dominant factors influencing the inhibitory activities.

  20. Small molecule inhibitors of Ca 2+-S100B reveal two protein conformations

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalier, Michael C.; Ansari, Mohd. Imran; Pierce, Adam D.

    The drug pentamidine inhibits calcium-dependent complex formation with p53 ( CaS100B·p53) in malignant melanoma (MM) and restores p53 tumor suppressor activity in vivo. However, off-target effects associated with this drug were problematic in MM patients. Structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies were therefore completed in this study with 23 pentamidine analogues, and X-ray structures of CaS100B·inhibitor complexes revealed that the C-terminus of S100B adopts two different conformations, with location of Phe87 and Phe88 being the distinguishing feature and termed the “FF-gate”. For symmetric pentamidine analogues ( CaS100B· 5a, CaS100B· 6b) a channel between sites 1 and 2 on S100B was occluded bymore » residue Phe88, but for an asymmetric pentamidine analogue ( CaS100B· 17), this same channel was open. Finally, the CaS100B· 17 structure illustrates, for the first time, a pentamidine analog capable of binding the “open” form of the “FF-gate” and provides a means to block all three “hot spots” on CaS100B, which will impact next generation CaS100B·p53 inhibitor design.« less

  1. Efficacy of an inhibitor of adhesion molecule expression (GI270384X) in the treatment of experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Panés, Julián; Aceituno, Montserrat; Gil, Fèlix; Miquel, Rosa; Piqué, Josep M; Salas, Azucena; McLean, Peter

    2007-10-01

    Modulation of adhesion molecule expression or function is regarded as a promising therapy for inflammatory conditions. This study evaluates the effects of an inhibitor of adhesion molecule expression (GI270384X) in two experimental models of colitis. Colitis of different severity was induced in C57BL/6J mice by administering 1, 2, or 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). GI270384X (3, 10, or 25 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) was administered as pretreatment or started 3 days after colitis induction. In IL-10-deficient mice, the highest dose was given for 2 wk. The clinical course of colitis, pathological changes, serum inflammatory biomarkers, expression of adhesion molecules, and leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in colonic venules were measured in mice treated with vehicle or with active drug. In the most severe forms of colitis (2% and 3% DSS and IL-10-deficient mice), the magnitude of colonic inflammation was not modified by treatment with GI270384X. In a less severe form of colitis (1% DSS), GI270384X treatment dose dependently ameliorated the clinical signs of colitis, colonic pathological changes, and serum levels of biomarkers (IL-6 and serum amyloid A). Administration of 25 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) GI270384X abrogated upregulation of ICAM-1 in the inflamed colon but had no effect on VCAM-1 or E-selectin expression. This was associated with a significant reduction in number of rolling and firmly adherent leukocytes in colonic venules. These results indicate that GI270384X is effective in the treatment of experimental colitis of moderate severity. Reduced adhesion molecule expression and leukocyte recruitment to the inflamed intestine contribute to this beneficial effect.

  2. Small Molecule Inhibitors of ERG and ETV1 in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Kong Y, Merchant M, Schlottmann S , Barber-Rotenberg JS, Yuan L, et al. A small molecule blocking oncogenic protein EWS -FLI1 interaction with RNA helicase...A inhibits growth of Ewing’s sarcoma . Nature medicine. 2009;15:750-6. 15. Rahim S , Beauchamp EM, Kong Y, Brown ML, Toretsky JA, Uren A. YK-4-279...The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be construed as an official Department of the

  3. Small Molecule Inhibitors of ERG and ETV1 in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    2012; 3: 172-182. The racemic compound has 8.7 fold (8.88 uM/1.02 uM) therapeutic window (comparing IC50 of Ewing cells to non- Ewing Cells). The S ...molecule blocking oncogenic protein EWS -FLI1 interaction with RNA helicase A inhibits growth of Ewing’s sarcoma . Nature medicine. 2009;15:750-6. 15...those of the author( s ) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other

  4. Treatment of Endocrine-Resistant Breast Cancer with a Small Molecule c-Myc Inhibitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    al. Small-molecule inhibition of BRD4 as a new potent approach to eliminate leukemic stem- and progenitor cells in acute myeloid leukemia AML... myeloid leukemia [21-23]. Based on our results, we tested whether JQ1 can suppress ERα expression. As shown in Figure 2G, treatment of MCF7 cells with...Oncotarget 2012; 3:1588-1599. 23 Zuber J, Shi J, Wang E, et al. RNAi screen identifies Brd4 as a therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukaemia. Nature

  5. Identification of a selective small molecule inhibitor of breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Germain, Andrew R; Carmody, Leigh C; Morgan, Barbara; Fernandez, Cristina; Forbeck, Erin; Lewis, Timothy A; Nag, Partha P; Ting, Amal; VerPlank, Lynn; Feng, Yuxiong; Perez, Jose R; Dandapani, Sivaraman; Palmer, Michelle; Lander, Eric S; Gupta, Piyush B; Schreiber, Stuart L; Munoz, Benito

    2012-05-15

    A high-throughput screen (HTS) with the National Institute of Health-Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (NIH-MLSMR) compound collection identified a class of acyl hydrazones to be selectively lethal to breast cancer stem cell (CSC) enriched populations. Medicinal chemistry efforts were undertaken to optimize potency and selectivity of this class of compounds. The optimized compound was declared as a probe (ML239) with the NIH Molecular Libraries Program and displayed greater than 20-fold selective inhibition of the breast CSC-like cell line (HMLE_sh_Ecad) over the isogenic control line (HMLE_sh_GFP). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cinnamides as selective small-molecule inhibitors of a cellular model of breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Germain, Andrew R; Carmody, Leigh C; Nag, Partha P; Morgan, Barbara; Verplank, Lynn; Fernandez, Cristina; Donckele, Etienne; Feng, Yuxiong; Perez, Jose R; Dandapani, Sivaraman; Palmer, Michelle; Lander, Eric S; Gupta, Piyush B; Schreiber, Stuart L; Munoz, Benito

    2013-03-15

    A high-throughput screen (HTS) was conducted against stably propagated cancer stem cell (CSC)-enriched populations using a library of 300,718 compounds from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR). A cinnamide analog displayed greater than 20-fold selective inhibition of the breast CSC-like cell line (HMLE_sh_Ecad) over the isogenic control cell line (HMLE_sh_eGFP). Herein, we report structure-activity relationships of this class of cinnamides for selective lethality towards CSC-enriched populations. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. State-of-the-art of small molecule inhibitors of the TAM family: the point of view of the chemist.

    PubMed

    Baladi, Tom; Abet, Valentina; Piguel, Sandrine

    2015-11-13

    The TAM family of tyrosine kinases receptors (Tyro3, Axl and Mer) is implicated in cancer development, autoimmune reactions and viral infection and is therefore emerging as an effective and attractive therapeutic target. To date, only a few small molecules have been intentionally designed to block the TAM kinases, while most of the inhibitors were developed for blocking different protein kinases and then identified through selectivity profile studies. This minireview will examine in terms of chemical structure the different compounds able to act on either one, two or three TAM kinases with details about structure-activity relationships, drug-metabolism and pharmacokinetics properties where they exist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. From indole to pyrrole, furan, thiophene and pyridine: Search for novel small molecule inhibitors of bacterial transcription initiation complex formation.

    PubMed

    Thach, Oscar; Mielczarek, Marcin; Ma, Cong; Kutty, Samuel K; Yang, Xiao; Black, David StC; Griffith, Renate; Lewis, Peter J; Kumar, Naresh

    2016-03-15

    The search for small molecules capable of inhibiting transcription initiation in bacteria has resulted in the synthesis of N,N'-disubstituted hydrazines and imine-carbohydrazides comprised of indole, pyridine, pyrrole, furan and thiophene using the respective trichloroacetyl derivatives, carbohydrazides and aldehydes. Replacement of the indole moiety by smaller heterocycles linked by CONHNC linkers afforded a broad variety of compounds efficiently targeting the RNA polymerase-σ(70)/σ(A) interaction as determined by ELISA and exhibiting increased inhibition of the growth of Escherichia coli compared to Bacillus subtilis in culture. The structural features of the synthesized transcription initiation inhibitors needed for antibacterial activity were identified employing molecular modelling and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Small molecule inhibitors of ERCC1-XPF protein-protein interaction synergize alkylating agents in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jordheim, Lars Petter; Barakat, Khaled H; Heinrich-Balard, Laurence; Matera, Eva-Laure; Cros-Perrial, Emeline; Bouledrak, Karima; El Sabeh, Rana; Perez-Pineiro, Rolando; Wishart, David S; Cohen, Richard; Tuszynski, Jack; Dumontet, Charles

    2013-07-01

    The benefit of cancer chemotherapy based on alkylating agents is limited because of the action of DNA repair enzymes, which mitigate the damage induced by these agents. The interaction between the proteins ERCC1 and XPF involves two major components of the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Here, novel inhibitors of this interaction were identified by virtual screening based on available structures with use of the National Cancer Institute diversity set and a panel of DrugBank small molecules. Subsequently, experimental validation of the in silico screening was undertaken. Top hits were evaluated on A549 and HCT116 cancer cells. In particular, the compound labeled NSC 130813 [4-[(6-chloro-2-methoxy-9-acridinyl)amino]-2-[(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl

  10. Identification of a Pyridoxine-Derived Small-Molecule Inhibitor Targeting Dengue Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Tao; Colby-Germinario, Susan P; Hassounah, Said; Quashie, Peter K; Han, Yingshan; Oliveira, Maureen; Stranix, Brent R; Wainberg, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity of the dengue virus (DENV) NS5 protein is an attractive target for drug design. Here, we report the identification of a novel class of inhibitor (i.e., an active-site metal ion chelator) that acts against DENV RdRp activity. DENV RdRp utilizes a two-metal-ion mechanism of catalysis; therefore, we constructed a small library of compounds, through mechanism-based drug design, aimed at chelating divalent metal ions in the catalytic site of DENV RdRp. We now describe a pyridoxine-derived small-molecule inhibitor that targets DENV RdRp and show that 5-benzenesulfonylmethyl-3-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid hydroxyamide (termed DMB220) inhibited the RdRp activity of DENV serotypes 1 to 4 at low micromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s of 5 to 6.7 μM) in an enzymatic assay. The antiviral activity of DMB220 against DENV infection was also verified in a cell-based assay and showed a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of <3 μM. Enzyme assays proved that DMB220 was competitive with nucleotide incorporation. DMB220 did not inhibit the enzymatic activity of recombinant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and showed only weak inhibition of HIV-1 integrase strand transfer activity, indicating high specificity for DENV RdRp. S600T substitution in the DENV RdRp, which was previously shown to confer resistance to nucleoside analogue inhibitors (NI), conferred 3-fold hypersusceptibility to DMB220, and enzymatic analyses showed that this hypersusceptibility may arise from the decreased binding/incorporation efficiency of the natural NTP substrate without significantly impacting inhibitor binding. Thus, metal ion chelation at the active site of DENV RdRp represents a viable anti-DENV strategy, and DMB220 is the first of a new class of DENV inhibitor. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Effect of small-molecule modification on single-cell pharmacokinetics of PARP inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Greg M; Reiner, Thomas; Yang, Katherine S; Kohler, Rainer H; Weissleder, Ralph

    2014-04-01

    The heterogeneous delivery of drugs in tumors is an established process contributing to variability in treatment outcome. Despite the general acceptance of variable delivery, the study of the underlying causes is challenging, given the complex tumor microenvironment including intra- and intertumor heterogeneity. The difficulty in studying this distribution is even more significant for small-molecule drugs where radiolabeled compounds or mass spectrometry detection lack the spatial and temporal resolution required to quantify the kinetics of drug distribution in vivo. In this work, we take advantage of the synthesis of fluorescent drug conjugates that retain their target binding but are designed with different physiochemical and thus pharmacokinetic properties. Using these probes, we followed the drug distribution in cell culture and tumor xenografts with temporal resolution of seconds and subcellular spatial resolution. These measurements, including in vivo permeability of small-molecule drugs, can be used directly in predictive pharmacokinetic models for the design of therapeutics and companion imaging agents as demonstrated by a finite element model.

  12. Effect of Small Molecule Modification on Single Cell Pharmacokinetics of PARP Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Greg M.; Reiner, Thomas; Yang, Katherine S; Kohler, Rainer; Weissleder, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The heterogeneous delivery of drugs in tumors is an established process contributing to variability in treatment outcome. Despite the general acceptance of variable delivery, the study of the underlying causes is challenging given the complex tumor microenvironment including intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity. The difficulty in studying this distribution is even more significant for small molecule drugs where radiolabeled compounds or mass spectrometry detection lack the spatial and temporal resolution required to quantify the kinetics of drug distribution in vivo. In this work, we take advantage of the synthesis of fluorescent drug conjugates that retain their target binding but are designed with different physiochemical and thus pharmacokinetic properties. Using these probes, we followed the drug distribution in cell culture and tumor xenografts with temporal resolution of seconds and subcellular spatial resolution. These measurements, including in vivo permeability of small molecule drugs, can be used directly in predictive pharmacokinetic models for the design of therapeutics and companion imaging agents as demonstrated by a finite element model. PMID:24552776

  13. Identification of a small molecule yeast TORC1 inhibitor with a multiplex screen based on flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Young, Susan M; Allen, Chris; Seeber, Andrew; Péli-Gulli, Marie-Pierre; Panchaud, Nicolas; Waller, Anna; Ursu, Oleg; Yao, Tuanli; Golden, Jennifer E; Strouse, J Jacob; Carter, Mark B; Kang, Huining; Bologa, Cristian G; Foutz, Terry D; Edwards, Bruce S; Peterson, Blake R; Aubé, Jeffrey; Werner-Washburne, Margaret; Loewith, Robbie J; De Virgilio, Claudio; Sklar, Larry A

    2012-04-20

    TOR (target of rapamycin) is a serine/threonine kinase, evolutionarily conserved from yeast to human, which functions as a fundamental controller of cell growth. The moderate clinical benefit of rapamycin in mTOR-based therapy of many cancers favors the development of new TOR inhibitors. Here we report a high-throughput flow cytometry multiplexed screen using five GFP-tagged yeast clones that represent the readouts of four branches of the TORC1 signaling pathway in budding yeast. Each GFP-tagged clone was differentially color-coded, and the GFP signal of each clone was measured simultaneously by flow cytometry, which allows rapid prioritization of compounds that likely act through direct modulation of TORC1 or proximal signaling components. A total of 255 compounds were confirmed in dose-response analysis to alter GFP expression in one or more clones. To validate the concept of the high-throughput screen, we have characterized CID 3528206, a small molecule most likely to act on TORC1 as it alters GFP expression in all five GFP clones in a manner analogous to that of rapamycin. We have shown that CID 3528206 inhibited yeast cell growth and that CID 3528206 inhibited TORC1 activity both in vitro and in vivo with EC(50)'s of 150 nM and 3.9 μM, respectively. The results of microarray analysis and yeast GFP collection screen further support the notion that CID 3528206 and rapamycin modulate similar cellular pathways. Together, these results indicate that the HTS has identified a potentially useful small molecule for further development of TOR inhibitors.

  14. Rapid identification of Keap1-Nrf2 small-molecule inhibitors through structure-based virtual screening and hit-based substructure search.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Chunlin; Narayanapillai, Sreekanth; Zhang, Wannian; Sham, Yuk Yin; Xing, Chengguo

    2014-02-13

    In this study, rapid structure-based virtual screening and hit-based substructure search were utilized to identify small molecules that disrupt the interaction of Keap1-Nrf2. Special emphasis was placed toward maximizing the exploration of chemical diversity of the initial hits while economically establishing informative structure-activity relationship (SAR) of novel scaffolds. Our most potent noncovalent inhibitor exhibits three times improved cellular activation in Nrf2 activation than the most active noncovalent Keap1 inhibitor known to date.

  15. Identification of a small molecule inhibitor of Ebola virus genome replication and transcription using in silico screening.

    PubMed

    Easton, Victoria; McPhillie, Martin; Garcia-Dorival, Isabel; Barr, John N; Edwards, Thomas A; Foster, Richard; Fishwick, Colin; Harris, Mark

    2018-06-02

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a severe haemorrhagic fever in humans and has a mortality rate over 50%. With no licensed drug treatments available, EBOV poses a significant threat. Investigations into possible therapeutics have been severely hampered by the classification of EBOV as a BSL4 pathogen. Here, we describe a drug discovery pathway combining in silico screening of compounds predicted to bind to a hydrophobic pocket on the nucleoprotein (NP); with a robust and rapid EBOV minigenome assay for inhibitor validation at BSL2. One compound (MCCB4) was efficacious (EC 50 4.8 μM), exhibited low cytotoxicity (CC 50  > 100 μM) and was specific, with no effect on either a T7 RNA polymerase driven firefly luciferase or a Bunyamwera virus minigenome. Further investigations revealed that this small molecule inhibitor was able to outcompete established replication complexes, an essential aspect for a potential EBOV treatment. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A small molecule deubiquitinase inhibitor increases localization of inducible nitric oxide synthase to the macrophage phagosome and enhances bacterial killing.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, Kristin M; Perry, Jeffrey W; Wobus, Christiane E; Donato, Nicholas J; Showalter, Hollis D; Kapuria, Vaibhav; O'Riordan, Mary X D

    2011-12-01

    Macrophages are key mediators of antimicrobial defense and innate immunity. Innate intracellular defense mechanisms can be rapidly regulated at the posttranslational level by the coordinated addition and removal of ubiquitin by ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases (DUBs). While ubiquitin ligases have been extensively studied, the contribution of DUBs to macrophage innate immune function is incompletely defined. We therefore employed a small molecule DUB inhibitor, WP1130, to probe the role of DUBs in the macrophage response to bacterial infection. Treatment of activated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) with WP1130 significantly augmented killing of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. WP1130 also induced killing of phagosome-restricted bacteria, implicating a bactericidal mechanism associated with the phagosome, such as the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). WP1130 had a minimal antimicrobial effect in macrophages lacking iNOS, indicating that iNOS is an effector mechanism for WP1130-mediated bacterial killing. Although overall iNOS levels were not notably different, we found that WP1130 significantly increased colocalization of iNOS with the Listeria-containing phagosome during infection. Taken together, our data indicate that the deubiquitinase inhibitor WP1130 increases bacterial killing in macrophages by enhancing iNOS localization to the phagosome and suggest a potential role for ubiquitin regulation in iNOS trafficking.

  17. Recent advances in the development of dual VEGFR and c-Met small molecule inhibitors as anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Xiangdong; Jiang, Yingnan; Guo, Mingrui; Zhang, Shouyue; Li, Jingjing; He, Jun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Jinhui; Ouyang, Liang

    2016-01-27

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) is a very important receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that can induce angiogenesis, increase cell growth and metastasis, reduce apoptosis, alter cytoskeletal function, and affect other biologic changes. Moreover, it is identified to be deregulated in varieties of human cancers. Therefore, VEGFR turn out to be a remarkable target of significant types of anticancer drugs in clinical trials. On the other side, c-Met is the receptor of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and a receptor tyrosine kinase. Previous studies have shown that c-Met elicits many different signaling pathways mediating cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival. Furthermore, the correlation between aberrant signaling of the HGF/c-Met pathway and aggressive tumor growth, poor prognosis in cancer patients has been established. Recent reports had shown that c-Met/HGF and VEGFR/VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) can act synergistically in the progression of many diseases. They were also found to be over expressed in many human cancers. Thus, in a variety of malignancies, VEGFR and c-Met receptor tyrosine kinases have acted as therapeutic targets. With the development of molecular biology techniques, further understanding of the human tumor disease pathogenesis and interrelated signaling pathways known to tumor cells, using a single target inhibitors have been difficult to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. At this point, with respect to the combination of two inhibitors, a single compound which is able to inhibit both VEGFR and c-Met may put forward the advantage of raising anticancer activity. With the strong interest in these compounds, this review represents a renewal of previous works on the development of dual VEGFR and c-Met small molecule inhibitors as novel anti-cancer agents. Newly collection derivatives have been mainly describing in their biological profiles and chemical structures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson

  18. Chemical screening identifies filastatin, a small molecule inhibitor of Candida albicans adhesion, morphogenesis, and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fazly, Ahmed; Jain, Charu; Dehner, Amie C; Issi, Luca; Lilly, Elizabeth A; Ali, Akbar; Cao, Hong; Fidel, Paul L; Rao, Reeta P; Kaufman, Paul D

    2013-08-13

    Infection by pathogenic fungi, such as Candida albicans, begins with adhesion to host cells or implanted medical devices followed by biofilm formation. By high-throughput phenotypic screening of small molecules, we identified compounds that inhibit adhesion of C. albicans to polystyrene. Our lead candidate compound also inhibits binding of C. albicans to cultured human epithelial cells, the yeast-to-hyphal morphological transition, induction of the hyphal-specific HWP1 promoter, biofilm formation on silicone elastomers, and pathogenesis in a nematode infection model as well as alters fungal morphology in a mouse mucosal infection assay. We term this compound filastatin based on its strong inhibition of filamentation, and we use chemical genetic experiments to show that it acts downstream of multiple signaling pathways. These studies show that high-throughput functional assays targeting fungal adhesion can provide chemical probes for study of multiple aspects of fungal pathogenesis.

  19. Chemical screening identifies filastatin, a small molecule inhibitor of Candida albicans adhesion, morphogenesis, and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fazly, Ahmed; Jain, Charu; Dehner, Amie C.; Issi, Luca; Lilly, Elizabeth A.; Ali, Akbar; Cao, Hong; Fidel, Paul L.; P. Rao, Reeta; Kaufman, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Infection by pathogenic fungi, such as Candida albicans, begins with adhesion to host cells or implanted medical devices followed by biofilm formation. By high-throughput phenotypic screening of small molecules, we identified compounds that inhibit adhesion of C. albicans to polystyrene. Our lead candidate compound also inhibits binding of C. albicans to cultured human epithelial cells, the yeast-to-hyphal morphological transition, induction of the hyphal-specific HWP1 promoter, biofilm formation on silicone elastomers, and pathogenesis in a nematode infection model as well as alters fungal morphology in a mouse mucosal infection assay. We term this compound filastatin based on its strong inhibition of filamentation, and we use chemical genetic experiments to show that it acts downstream of multiple signaling pathways. These studies show that high-throughput functional assays targeting fungal adhesion can provide chemical probes for study of multiple aspects of fungal pathogenesis. PMID:23904484

  20. Inhibitors of adhesion molecules expression; the synthesis and pharmacological properties of 10H-pyrazino[2,3-b][1,4]benzothiazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Toshihiko; Clark, Richard S J; Ohi, Norihito; Kawahara, Tetsuya; Akamatsu, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Fumihiro; Kamada, Atsushi; Okano, Kazuo; Yokohama, Hiromitsu; Muramoto, Kenzo; Ohkuro, Masayoshi; Takenaka, Osamu; Kobayashi, Seiichi

    2002-07-01

    During a search for novel, orally-active inhibitors of upregulation of adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), we found a new series of 10H-pyrazino[2,3-b][1,4]benzothiazine derivatives to be potent ICAM-1 inhibitors. Of these compounds, N-[1-(10H-Pyrazino[2,3-b][1,4]benzothiazin-8-ylmethyl)piperidin-4-yl]-N',N'-dimethylsulfamide 7p showed the potent oral inhibitory activities against neutrophil migration in a murine interleukin-1 (IL-1) induced paw inflammation model. The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of these amide derivatives are described.

  1. Development of small-molecule immune checkpoint inhibitors of PD-1/PD-L1 as a new therapeutic strategy for tumour immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Kui; Tian, Hongqi

    2018-02-20

    Cancer immunotherapy has been increasingly utilised to treat advanced malignancies. The signalling network of immune checkpoints has attracted considerable attention. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are revolutionising the treatment options and expectations for patients with cancer. The reported clinical success of targeting the T-cell immune checkpoint receptors PD-1/PD-L1 has demonstrated the importance of immune modulation. Indeed, antibodies binding to PD-1 or PD-L1 have shown remarkable efficacy. However, antibody drugs have many disadvantages, such as their production cost, stability, and immunogenicity and, therefore, small-molecule inhibitors of PD-1 and its ligand PD-L1 are being introduced. Small-molecule inhibitors could offer inherent advantages in terms of pharmacokinetics and druggability, thereby providing additional methods for cancer treatment and achieving better therapeutic effects. In this review, we first discuss how PD-1/PD-L1-targeting inhibitors modulate the relationship between immune cells and tumour cells in tumour immunotherapy. Second, we discuss how the immunomodulatory potential of these inhibitors can be exploited via rational combinations with immunotherapy and targeted therapy. Third, this review is the first to summarise the current clinical and preclinical evidence regarding small-molecule inhibitors of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint, considering features and responses related to the tumours and to the host immune system.

  2. Small molecule dual-inhibitors of TRPV4 and TRPA1 for attenuation of inflammation and pain

    PubMed Central

    Kanju, Patrick; Chen, Yong; Lee, Whasil; Yeo, Michele; Lee, Suk Hee; Romac, Joelle; Shahid, Rafiq; Fan, Ping; Gooden, David M.; Simon, Sidney A.; Spasojevic, Ivan; Mook, Robert A.; Liddle, Rodger A.; Guilak, Farshid; Liedtke, Wolfgang B.

    2016-01-01

    TRPV4 ion channels represent osmo-mechano-TRP channels with pleiotropic function and wide-spread expression. One of the critical functions of TRPV4 in this spectrum is its involvement in pain and inflammation. However, few small-molecule inhibitors of TRPV4 are available. Here we developed TRPV4-inhibitory molecules based on modifications of a known TRPV4-selective tool-compound, GSK205. We not only increased TRPV4-inhibitory potency, but surprisingly also generated two compounds that potently co-inhibit TRPA1, known to function as chemical sensor of noxious and irritant signaling. We demonstrate TRPV4 inhibition by these compounds in primary cells with known TRPV4 expression - articular chondrocytes and astrocytes. Importantly, our novel compounds attenuate pain behavior in a trigeminal irritant pain model that is known to rely on TRPV4 and TRPA1. Furthermore, our novel dual-channel blocker inhibited inflammation and pain-associated behavior in a model of acute pancreatitis – known to also rely on TRPV4 and TRPA1. Our results illustrate proof of a novel concept inherent in our prototype compounds of a drug that targets two functionally-related TRP channels, and thus can be used to combat isoforms of pain and inflammation in-vivo that involve more than one TRP channel. This approach could provide a novel paradigm for treating other relevant health conditions. PMID:27247148

  3. A small molecule inhibitor for ATPase activity of Hsp70 and Hsc70 enhances the immune response to protein antigens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Zhang, Haiying; Lee, Bo Ryeong; Kwon, Young-Guen; Ha, Sang-Jun; Shin, Injae

    2015-12-01

    The ATPase activities of Hsp70 and Hsc70 are known to be responsible for regulation of various biological processes. However, little is known about the roles of Hsp70 and Hsc70 in modulation of immune responses to antigens. In the present study, we investigated the effect of apoptozole (Az), a small molecule inhibitor of Hsp70 and Hsc70, on immune responses to protein antigens. The results show that mice administered with both protein antigen and Az produce more antibodies than those treated with antigen alone, showing that Az enhances immune responses to administered antigens. Treatment of mice with Az elicits production of antibodies with a high IgG2c/IgG1 ratio and stimulates the release of Th1 and Th2-type cytokines, suggesting that Az activates the Th1 and Th2 immune responses. The observations made in the present study suggest that inhibition of Hsp70 and Hsc70 activities could be a novel strategy designing small molecule-based adjuvants in protein vaccines.

  4. Targeting cell division: Small-molecule inhibitors of FtsZ GTPase perturb cytokinetic ring assembly and induce bacterial lethality

    PubMed Central

    Margalit, Danielle N.; Romberg, Laura; Mets, Rebecca B.; Hebert, Alan M.; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Kirschner, Marc W.; RayChaudhuri, Debabrata

    2004-01-01

    FtsZ, the ancestral homolog of eukaryotic tubulins, is a GTPase that assembles into a cytokinetic ring structure essential for cell division in prokaryotic cells. Similar to tubulin, purified FtsZ polymerizes into dynamic protofilaments in the presence of GTP; polymer assembly is accompanied by GTP hydrolysis. We used a high-throughput protein-based chemical screen to identify small molecules that target assembly-dependent GTPase activity of FtsZ. Here, we report the identification of five structurally diverse compounds, named Zantrins, which inhibit FtsZ GTPase either by destabilizing the FtsZ protofilaments or by inducing filament hyperstability through increased lateral association. These two classes of FtsZ inhibitors are reminiscent of the antitubulin drugs colchicine and Taxol, respectively. We also show that Zantrins perturb FtsZ ring assembly in Escherichia coli cells and cause lethality to a variety of bacteria in broth cultures, indicating that FtsZ antagonists may serve as chemical leads for the development of new broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. Our results illustrate the utility of small-molecule chemical probes to study FtsZ polymerization dynamics and the feasibility of FtsZ as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:15289600

  5. Small-molecule type III secretion system inhibitors block assembly of the Shigella type III secreton.

    PubMed

    Veenendaal, Andreas K J; Sundin, Charlotta; Blocker, Ariel J

    2009-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are essential virulence devices for many gram-negative bacteria that are pathogenic for plants, animals, and humans. They serve to translocate virulence effector proteins directly into eukaryotic host cells. T3SSs are composed of a large cytoplasmic bulb and a transmembrane region into which a needle is embedded, protruding above the bacterial surface. The emerging antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens urges the development of novel strategies to fight bacterial infections. Therapeutics that rather than kill bacteria only attenuate their virulence may reduce the frequency or progress of resistance emergence. Recently, a group of salicylidene acylhydrazides were identified as inhibitors of T3SSs in Yersinia, Chlamydia, and Salmonella species. Here we show that these are also effective on the T3SS of Shigella flexneri, where they block all related forms of protein secretion so far known, as well as the epithelial cell invasion and induction of macrophage apoptosis usually demonstrated by this bacterium. Furthermore, we show the first evidence for the detrimental effect of these compounds on T3SS needle assembly, as demonstrated by increased numbers of T3S apparatuses without needles or with shorter needles. Therefore, the compounds generate a phenocopy of T3SS export apparatus mutants but with incomplete penetrance. We discuss why this would be sufficient to almost completely block the later secretion of effector proteins and how this begins to narrow the search for the molecular target of these compounds.

  6. Therapeutic strategies for metabolic diseases: Small-molecule diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Naik, Ravi; Obiang-Obounou, Brice W; Kim, Minkyoung; Choi, Yongseok; Lee, Hyun Sun; Lee, Kyeong

    2014-11-01

    Metabolic diseases such as atherogenic dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, obesity, and type II diabetes are emerging as major global health problems. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is responsible for catalyzing the final reaction in the glycerol phosphate pathway of triglycerol synthesis. It has two isoforms, DGAT-1 and DGAT-2, which are widely expressed and present in white adipose tissue. DGAT-1 is most highly expressed in the small intestine, whereas DGAT-2 is primarily expressed in the liver. Therefore, the selective inhibition of DGAT-1 has become an attractive target with growing potential for the treatment of obesity and type II diabetes. Furthermore, DGAT-2 has been suggested as a new target for the treatment of DGAT-2-related liver diseases including hepatic steatosis, hepatic injury, and fibrosis. In view the discovery of drugs that target DGAT, herein we attempt to provide insight into the scope and further reasons for optimization of DGAT inhibitors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. C-terminal peptides of tissue factor pathway inhibitor are novel host defense molecules.

    PubMed

    Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Kasetty, Gopinath; Mörgelin, Matthias; Rydengård, Victoria; Albiger, Barbara; Lundqvist, Katarina; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2010-09-03

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) inhibits tissue factor-induced coagulation, but may, via its C terminus, also modulate cell surface, heparin, and lipopolysaccharide interactions as well as participate in growth inhibition. Here we show that C-terminal TFPI peptide sequences are antimicrobial against the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as the fungi Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Fluorescence studies of peptide-treated bacteria, paired with analysis of peptide effects on liposomes, showed that the peptides exerted membrane-breaking effects similar to those seen for the "classic" human antimicrobial peptide LL-37. The killing of E. coli, but not P. aeruginosa, by the C-terminal peptide GGLIKTKRKRKKQRVKIAYEEIFVKNM (GGL27), was enhanced in human plasma and largely abolished in heat-inactivated plasma, a phenomenon linked to generation of antimicrobial C3a and activation of the classic pathway of complement activation. Furthermore, GGL27 displayed anti-endotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model of LPS shock. Importantly, TFPI was found to be expressed in the basal layers of normal epidermis, and was markedly up-regulated in acute skin wounds as well as wound edges of chronic leg ulcers. Furthermore, C-terminal fragments of TFPI were associated with bacteria present in human chronic leg ulcers. These findings suggest a new role for TFPI in cutaneous defense against infections.

  8. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors mitigate red blood cell lysis during freezing, transient warming and thawing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briard, Jennie G.; Poisson, Jessica S.; Turner, Tracey R.; Capicciotti, Chantelle J.; Acker, Jason P.; Ben, Robert N.

    2016-03-01

    During cryopreservation, ice recrystallization is a major cause of cellular damage. Conventional cryoprotectants such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol function by a number of different mechanisms but do not mitigate or control ice recrystallization at concentrations utilized in cryopreservation procedures. In North America, cryopreservation of human red blood cells (RBCs) utilizes high concentrations of glycerol. RBC units frozen under these conditions must be subjected to a time-consuming deglycerolization process after thawing in order to remove the glycerol to <1% prior to transfusion thus limiting the use of frozen RBC units in emergency situations. We have identified several low molecular mass ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) that are effective cryoprotectants for human RBCs, resulting in 70-80% intact RBCs using only 15% glycerol and slow freezing rates. These compounds are capable of reducing the average ice crystal size of extracellular ice relative to a 15% glycerol control validating the positive correlation between a reduction in ice crystal size and increased post-thaw recovery of RBCs. The most potent IRI from this study is also capable of protecting frozen RBCs against the large temperature fluctuations associated with transient warming.

  9. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors mitigate red blood cell lysis during freezing, transient warming and thawing

    PubMed Central

    Briard, Jennie G.; Poisson, Jessica S.; Turner, Tracey R.; Capicciotti, Chantelle J.; Acker, Jason P.; Ben, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    During cryopreservation, ice recrystallization is a major cause of cellular damage. Conventional cryoprotectants such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol function by a number of different mechanisms but do not mitigate or control ice recrystallization at concentrations utilized in cryopreservation procedures. In North America, cryopreservation of human red blood cells (RBCs) utilizes high concentrations of glycerol. RBC units frozen under these conditions must be subjected to a time-consuming deglycerolization process after thawing in order to remove the glycerol to <1% prior to transfusion thus limiting the use of frozen RBC units in emergency situations. We have identified several low molecular mass ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) that are effective cryoprotectants for human RBCs, resulting in 70–80% intact RBCs using only 15% glycerol and slow freezing rates. These compounds are capable of reducing the average ice crystal size of extracellular ice relative to a 15% glycerol control validating the positive correlation between a reduction in ice crystal size and increased post-thaw recovery of RBCs. The most potent IRI from this study is also capable of protecting frozen RBCs against the large temperature fluctuations associated with transient warming. PMID:27021850

  10. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors mitigate red blood cell lysis during freezing, transient warming and thawing.

    PubMed

    Briard, Jennie G; Poisson, Jessica S; Turner, Tracey R; Capicciotti, Chantelle J; Acker, Jason P; Ben, Robert N

    2016-03-29

    During cryopreservation, ice recrystallization is a major cause of cellular damage. Conventional cryoprotectants such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol function by a number of different mechanisms but do not mitigate or control ice recrystallization at concentrations utilized in cryopreservation procedures. In North America, cryopreservation of human red blood cells (RBCs) utilizes high concentrations of glycerol. RBC units frozen under these conditions must be subjected to a time-consuming deglycerolization process after thawing in order to remove the glycerol to <1% prior to transfusion thus limiting the use of frozen RBC units in emergency situations. We have identified several low molecular mass ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) that are effective cryoprotectants for human RBCs, resulting in 70-80% intact RBCs using only 15% glycerol and slow freezing rates. These compounds are capable of reducing the average ice crystal size of extracellular ice relative to a 15% glycerol control validating the positive correlation between a reduction in ice crystal size and increased post-thaw recovery of RBCs. The most potent IRI from this study is also capable of protecting frozen RBCs against the large temperature fluctuations associated with transient warming.

  11. Small molecule inhibitors reveal Niemann-Pick C1 is essential for Ebola virus infection.

    PubMed

    Côté, Marceline; Misasi, John; Ren, Tao; Bruchez, Anna; Lee, Kyungae; Filone, Claire Marie; Hensley, Lisa; Li, Qi; Ory, Daniel; Chandran, Kartik; Cunningham, James

    2011-08-24

    Ebola virus (EboV) is a highly pathogenic enveloped virus that causes outbreaks of zoonotic infection in Africa. The clinical symptoms are manifestations of the massive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to infection and in many outbreaks, mortality exceeds 75%. The unpredictable onset, ease of transmission, rapid progression of disease, high mortality and lack of effective vaccine or therapy have created a high level of public concern about EboV. Here we report the identification of a novel benzylpiperazine adamantane diamide-derived compound that inhibits EboV infection. Using mutant cell lines and informative derivatives of the lead compound, we show that the target of the inhibitor is the endosomal membrane protein Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). We find that NPC1 is essential for infection, that it binds to the virus glycoprotein (GP), and that antiviral compounds interfere with GP binding to NPC1. Combined with the results of previous studies of GP structure and function, our findings support a model of EboV infection in which cleavage of the GP1 subunit by endosomal cathepsin proteases removes heavily glycosylated domains to expose the amino-terminal domain, which is a ligand for NPC1 and regulates membrane fusion by the GP2 subunit. Thus, NPC1 is essential for EboV entry and a target for antiviral therapy.

  12. Small molecule inhibitors of ER α-glucosidases are active against multiple hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinhong; Warren, Travis K; Zhao, Xuesen; Gill, Tina; Guo, Fang; Wang, Lijuan; Comunale, Mary Ann; Du, Yanming; Alonzi, Dominic S; Yu, Wenquan; Ye, Hong; Liu, Fei; Guo, Ju-Tao; Mehta, Anand; Cuconati, Andrea; Butters, Terry D; Bavari, Sina; Xu, Xiaodong; Block, Timothy M

    2013-06-01

    Host cellular endoplasmic reticulum α-glucosidases I and II are essential for the maturation of viral glycosylated envelope proteins that use the calnexin mediated folding pathway. Inhibition of these glycan processing enzymes leads to the misfolding and degradation of these viral glycoproteins and subsequent reduction in virion secretion. We previously reported that, CM-10-18, an imino sugar α-glucosidase inhibitor, efficiently protected the lethality of dengue virus infection of mice. In the current study, through an extensive structure-activity relationship study, we have identified three CM-10-18 derivatives that demonstrated superior in vitro antiviral activity against representative viruses from four viral families causing hemorrhagic fever. Moreover, the three novel imino sugars significantly reduced the mortality of two of the most pathogenic hemorrhagic fever viruses, Marburg virus and Ebola virus, in mice. Our study thus proves the concept that imino sugars are promising drug candidates for the management of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by variety of viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacokinetic drivers of toxicity for basic molecules: Strategy to lower pKa results in decreased tissue exposure and toxicity for a small molecule Met inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Dolores, E-mail: diaz.dolores@gene.com; Ford, Kevin A.; Hartley, Dylan P.

    Several toxicities are clearly driven by free drug concentrations in plasma, such as toxicities related to on-target exaggerated pharmacology or off-target pharmacological activity associated with receptors, enzymes or ion channels. However, there are examples in which organ toxicities appear to correlate better with total drug concentrations in the target tissues, rather than with free drug concentrations in plasma. Here we present a case study in which a small molecule Met inhibitor, GEN-203, with significant liver and bone marrow toxicity in preclinical species was modified with the intention of increasing the safety margin. GEN-203 is a lipophilic weak base as demonstratedmore » by its physicochemical and structural properties: high LogD (distribution coefficient) (4.3) and high measured pKa (7.45) due to the basic amine (N-ethyl-3-fluoro-4-aminopiperidine). The physicochemical properties of GEN-203 were hypothesized to drive the high distribution of this compound to tissues as evidenced by a moderately-high volume of distribution (Vd > 3 l/kg) in mouse and subsequent toxicities of the compound. Specifically, the basicity of GEN-203 was decreased through addition of a second fluorine in the 3-position of the aminopiperidine to yield GEN-890 (N-ethyl-3,3-difluoro-4-aminopiperidine), which decreased the volume of distribution of the compound in mouse (Vd = 1.0 l/kg), decreased its tissue drug concentrations and led to decreased toxicity in mice. This strategy suggests that when toxicity is driven by tissue drug concentrations, optimization of the physicochemical parameters that drive tissue distribution can result in decreased drug concentrations in tissues, resulting in lower toxicity and improved safety margins. -- Highlights: ► Lower pKa for a small molecule: reduced tissue drug levels and toxicity. ► New analysis tools to assess electrostatic effects and ionization are presented. ► Chemical and PK drivers of toxicity can be leveraged to improve safety.« less

  14. New approaches to the treatment of inflammatory disorders small molecule inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Peifer, Christian; Wagner, Gerd; Laufer, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has recently been enriched by the successful launch of the anti-cytokine biologicals Etanercept (tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-p75 Fc fusion protein), Infliximab (chimeric anti-human TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody), Adalimumab (recombinant human anti-human TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody) and Anakinra (recombinant form of human interleukin 1beta (IL-1) receptor antagonist). The success of these novel treatments has impressively demonstrated the clinical benefit that can be gained from therapeutic intervention in cytokine signalling, highlighting the central role of proinflammatory cytokine systems like IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha to be validated targets. However, all of the anti-cytokine biologicals available to date are proteins, and therefore suffering to a varying degree from the general disadvantages associated with protein drugs. Therefore, small molecular, orally active anti-cytokine agents, which target specific pathways of proinflammatory cytokines, would offer an attractive alternative to anti-cytokine biologicals. A number of molecular targets have been identified for the development of such small molecular agents but p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase occupies a central role in the regulation of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha signalling network at both the transcriptional and translational level. Since the mid-1990s, an immense number of inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase has been characterised in vitro, and to date several compounds have been advanced into clinical trials. This review will highlight the correlation between effective inhibition of p38 MAP kinase at the molecular target and cellular activity in functional assays of cytokine, particularly TNF-alpha and IL-1beta production. SAR will be discussed regarding activity at the enzyme target, but also with regard to properties required for efficient in vitro and in vivo activity.

  15. A small molecule inhibitor of Rheb selectively targets mTORC1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Sarah J; Narayan, Sridhar; Molz, Lisa; Berstler, Lauren A; Kang, Seong A; Vlasuk, George P; Saiah, Eddine

    2018-02-07

    The small G-protein Rheb activates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in response to growth factor signals. mTORC1 is a master regulator of cellular growth and metabolism; aberrant mTORC1 signaling is associated with fibrotic, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases, cancers, and rare disorders. Point mutations in the Rheb switch II domain impair its ability to activate mTORC1. Here, we report the discovery of a small molecule (NR1) that binds Rheb in the switch II domain and selectively blocks mTORC1 signaling. NR1 potently inhibits mTORC1 driven phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (S6K1) but does not inhibit phosphorylation of AKT or ERK. In contrast to rapamycin, NR1 does not cause inhibition of mTORC2 upon prolonged treatment. Furthermore, NR1 potently and selectively inhibits mTORC1 in mouse kidney and muscle in vivo. The data presented herein suggest that pharmacological inhibition of Rheb is an effective approach for selective inhibition of mTORC1 with therapeutic potential.

  16. Small molecule inhibitor of lipoteichoic acid synthesis is an antibiotic for Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Stefan G.; Elli, Derek; Kim, Hwan Keun; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Sorg, Joseph A.; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    The current epidemic of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria requires the discovery of new drug targets and the development of new therapeutics. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall polymer of Gram-positive bacteria, consists of 1,3-polyglycerol-phosphate linked to glycolipid. LTA synthase (LtaS) polymerizes polyglycerol-phosphate from phosphatidylglycerol, a reaction that is essential for the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. We screened small molecule libraries for compounds inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus but not of Gram-negative bacteria. Compound 1771 [2-oxo-2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylamino)ethyl 2-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-1-ylacetate] blocked phosphatidylglycerol binding to LtaS and inhibited LTA synthesis in S. aureus and in Escherichia coli expressing ltaS. Compound 1771 inhibited the growth of antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria and prolonged the survival of mice with lethal S. aureus challenge, validating LtaS as a target for the development of antibiotics. PMID:23401520

  17. Discovery of Small-Molecule Nonfluorescent Inhibitors of Fluorogen-Fluorogen Activating Protein Binding Pair.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Stauffer, Shaun R; Stanfield, Robyn L; Tapia, Phillip H; Ursu, Oleg; Fisher, Gregory W; Szent-Gyorgyi, Christopher; Evangelisti, Annette; Waller, Anna; Strouse, J Jacob; Carter, Mark B; Bologa, Cristian; Gouveia, Kristine; Poslusney, Mike; Waggoner, Alan S; Lindsley, Craig W; Jarvik, Jonathan W; Sklar, Larry A

    2016-01-01

    A new class of biosensors, fluorogen activating proteins (FAPs), has been successfully used to track receptor trafficking in live cells. Unlike the traditional fluorescent proteins (FPs), FAPs do not fluoresce unless bound to their specific small-molecule fluorogens, and thus FAP-based assays are highly sensitive. Application of the FAP-based assay for protein trafficking in high-throughput flow cytometry resulted in the discovery of a new class of compounds that interferes with the binding between fluorogens and FAP, thus blocking the fluorescence signal. These compounds are high-affinity, nonfluorescent analogs of fluorogens with little or no toxicity to the tested cells and no apparent interference with the normal function of FAP-tagged receptors. The most potent compound among these, N,4-dimethyl-N-(2-oxo-2-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)benzenesulfonamide (ML342), has been investigated in detail. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that ML342 competes with the fluorogen, sulfonated thiazole orange coupled to diethylene glycol diamine (TO1-2p), for the same binding site on a FAP, AM2.2. Kinetic analysis shows that the FAP-fluorogen interaction is more complex than a homogeneous one-site binding process, with multiple conformational states of the fluorogen and/or the FAP, and possible dimerization of the FAP moiety involved in the process. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  18. Small-molecule inhibitors of FGFR, integrins and FAK selectively decrease L1CAM-stimulated glioblastoma cell motility and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Hannah J; Galileo, Deni S

    2016-06-01

    The cell adhesion/recognition protein L1CAM (L1; CD171) has previously been shown to act through integrin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling pathways to increase the motility and proliferation of glioblastoma cells in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Here, we investigated the effects of clinically relevant small-molecule inhibitors of the integrin, FAK and FGFR signaling pathways on glioblastoma-derived cells to determine their effectiveness and selectivity for diminishing L1-mediated stimulation. The effects of the FGFR inhibitor PD173074, the FAK inhibitors PF431396 and Y15 and the αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin inhibitor cilengitide were assessed in L1-positive and L1-negative variants of the human glioblastoma-derived cell lines T98G and U-118 MG. Their motility and proliferation were quantified using time-lapse microscopy and DNA content/cell cycle analyses, respectively. The application of all four inhibitors resulted in reductions in L1-mediated motility and proliferation rates of L1-positive glioblastoma-derived cells, down to the level of L1-negative cells when used at nanomolar concentrations, whereas no or much smaller reductions in these rates were obtained in L1-negative cells. In addition, we found that single inhibitor treatment resulted in maximum effects (i.e., combinations of FAK or integrin inhibitors with the FGFR inhibitor were rarely more effective). These results suggest that FAK may act as a point of convergence between the integrin and FGFR signaling pathways stimulated by L1 in these cells. We here show for the first time that small-molecule inhibitors of FGFR, integrins and FAK effectively and selectively abolish L1-stimulated migration and proliferation of glioblastoma-derived cells. Our results suggest that these inhibitors have the potential to reduce the aggressiveness of high-grade gliomas expressing L1.

  19. Characterization of the biological activity of a potent small molecule Hec1 inhibitor TAI-1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hec1 (NDC80) is an integral part of the kinetochore and is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, making it an attractive molecular target for the design of novel anticancer therapeutics. A highly potent first-in-class compound targeting Hec1, TAI-1, was identified and is characterized in this study to determine its potential as an anticancer agent for clinical utility. Methods The in vitro potency, cancer cell specificity, synergy activity, and markers for response of TAI-1 were evaluated with cell lines. Mechanism of action was confirmed with western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. The in vivo potency of TAI-1 was evaluated in three xenograft models in mice. Preliminary toxicity was evaluated in mice. Specificity to the target was tested with a kinase panel. Cardiac safety was evaluated with hERG assay. Clinical correlation was performed with human gene database. Results TAI-1 showed strong potency across a broad spectrum of tumor cells. TAI-1 disrupted Hec1-Nek2 protein interaction, led to Nek2 degradation, induced significant chromosomal misalignment in metaphase, and induced apoptotic cell death. TAI-1 was effective orally in in vivo animal models of triple negative breast cancer, colon cancer and liver cancer. Preliminary toxicity shows no effect on the body weights, organ weights, and blood indices at efficacious doses. TAI-1 shows high specificity to cancer cells and to target and had no effect on the cardiac channel hERG. TAI-1 is synergistic with doxorubicin, topotecan and paclitaxel in leukemia, breast and liver cancer cells. Sensitivity to TAI-1 was associated with the status of RB and P53 gene. Knockdown of RB and P53 in cancer cells increased sensitivity to TAI-1. Hec1-overexpressing molecular subtypes of human lung cancer were identified. Conclusions The excellent potency, safety and synergistic profiles of this potent first-in-class Hec1-targeted small molecule TAI-1 show its potential for clinically utility in anti

  20. A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Human DNA Polymerase η Potentiates the Effects of Cisplatin in Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Maroof K; Maddukuri, Leena; Ketkar, Amit; Penthala, Narsimha R; Reed, Megan R; Eddy, Sarah; Crooks, Peter A; Eoff, Robert L

    2018-02-20

    Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) performed by human DNA polymerase eta (hpol η) allows tolerance of damage from cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP or cisplatin). We have developed hpol η inhibitors derived from N-aryl-substituted indole barbituric acid (IBA), indole thiobarbituric acid (ITBA), and indole quinuclidine scaffolds and identified 5-((5-chloro-1-(naphthalen-2-ylmethyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione (PNR-7-02), an ITBA derivative that inhibited hpol η activity with an IC 50 value of 8 μM and exhibited 5-10-fold specificity for hpol η over replicative pols. We conclude from kinetic analyses, chemical footprinting assays, and molecular docking that PNR-7-02 binds to a site on the little finger domain and interferes with the proper orientation of template DNA to inhibit hpol η. A synergistic increase in CDDP toxicity was observed in hpol η-proficient cells co-treated with PNR-7-02 (combination index values = 0.4-0.6). Increased γH2AX formation accompanied treatment of hpol η-proficient cells with CDDP and PNR-7-02. Importantly, PNR-7-02 did not impact the effect of CDDP on cell viability or γH2AX in hpol η-deficient cells. In summary, we observed hpol η-dependent effects on DNA damage/replication stress and sensitivity to CDDP in cells treated with PNR-7-02. The ability to employ a small-molecule inhibitor of hpol η to improve the cytotoxic effect of CDDP may aid in the development of more effective chemotherapeutic strategies.

  1. Small-molecule inhibitors of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 and related processes: A historic approach and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Sven Marcel; Wiese, Michael

    2018-05-29

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport protein. This efflux pump uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to export structurally diverse antineoplastic agents in human cancers. The upregulation of MRP1 (either inherent or acquired) is one major reason for the occurrence of the phenomenon called multidrug resistance (MDR). MDR is characterized by a reduced outcome of chemotherapy due to the active intracellular clearance of cytostatic drugs below the necessary effect concentration. Much effort has been made to overcome MDR, which implied high-throughput screenings of already known pharmacological and natural compounds, modification of intrinsic substrates, as well as design and synthesis of new inhibitors. This review is meant not only to summarize the most recent results over the past 10 years, but also to highlight major achievements regarding reversal of MRP1-mediated MDR, from the time of its discovery until today. The focus lies on small-molecule compounds that feature either direct MRP1 inhibition/transport blockage, toxicity against MRP1-overexpressing cells, inhibition/modification of intracellular processes necessary for MRP1 function, or modification of MRP1-related metabolic and genomic mechanisms. Considering all aspects, this review might be useful to (re)consider possible strategies to overcome MRP1-mediated MDR. Furthermore, it may be the basis for developing new, even better, highly potent, less toxic, and selective (as well as broad-spectrum) MRP1 inhibitors that will enter clinical evaluations in different malignancies and finally conduce to overcome MDR in general. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Selective and membrane-permeable small molecule inhibitors of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase reverse high fat diet-induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Neelakantan, Harshini; Vance, Virginia; Wetzel, Michael D; Wang, Hua-Yu Leo; McHardy, Stanton F; Finnerty, Celeste C; Hommel, Jonathan D; Watowich, Stanley J

    2018-01-01

    There is a critical need for new mechanism-of-action drugs that reduce the burden of obesity and associated chronic metabolic comorbidities. A potentially novel target to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes is nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase (NNMT), a cytosolic enzyme with newly identified roles in cellular metabolism and energy homeostasis. To validate NNMT as an anti-obesity drug target, we investigated the permeability, selectivity, mechanistic, and physiological properties of a series of small molecule NNMT inhibitors. Membrane permeability of NNMT inhibitors was characterized using parallel artificial membrane permeability and Caco-2 cell assays. Selectivity was tested against structurally-related methyltransferases and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) salvage pathway enzymes. Effects of NNMT inhibitors on lipogenesis and intracellular levels of metabolites, including NNMT reaction product 1-methylnicotianamide (1-MNA) were evaluated in cultured adipocytes. Effects of a potent NNMT inhibitor on obesity measures and plasma lipid were assessed in diet-induced obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Methylquinolinium scaffolds with primary amine substitutions displayed high permeability from passive and active transport across membranes. Importantly, methylquinolinium analogues displayed high selectivity, not inhibiting related SAM-dependent methyltransferases or enzymes in the NAD + salvage pathway. NNMT inhibitors reduced intracellular 1-MNA, increased intracellular NAD + and S-(5'-adenosyl)-l-methionine (SAM), and suppressed lipogenesis in adipocytes. Treatment of diet-induced obese mice systemically with a potent NNMT inhibitor significantly reduced body weight and white adipose mass, decreased adipocyte size, and lowered plasma total cholesterol levels. Notably, administration of NNMT inhibitors did not impact total food intake nor produce any observable adverse effects. These results support development of small molecule NNMT inhibitors as therapeutics to

  3. High-throughput screening (HTS) and hit validation to identify small molecule inhibitors with activity against NS3/4A proteases from multiple hepatitis C virus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun; Zhu, Tian; Patel, Kavankumar; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Truong, Lena; Hevener, Kirk E; Gatuz, Joseph L; Subramanya, Gitanjali; Jeong, Hyun-Young; Uprichard, Susan L; Johnson, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Development of drug-resistant mutations has been a major problem with all currently developed Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NS3/4A inhibitors, including the two FDA approved drugs, significantly reducing the efficacy of these inhibitors. The high incidence of drug-resistance mutations and the limited utility of these inhibitors against only genotype 1 highlight the need for novel, broad-spectrum HCV therapies. Here we used high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify low molecular weight inhibitors against NS3/4A from multiple genotypes. A total of 40,967 compounds from four structurally diverse molecular libraries were screened by HTS using fluorescence-based enzymatic assays, followed by an orthogonal binding analysis using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to eliminate false positives. A novel small molecule compound was identified with an IC50 value of 2.2 µM against the NS3/4A from genotype 1b. Mode of inhibition analysis subsequently confirmed this compound to be a competitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate, indicating direct binding to the protease active site, rather than to the allosteric binding pocket that was discovered to be the binding site of a few recently discovered small molecule inhibitors. This newly discovered inhibitor also showed promising inhibitory activity against the NS3/4As from three other HCV genotypes, as well as five common drug-resistant mutants of genotype 1b NS3/4A. The inhibitor was selective for NS3 from multiple HCV genotypes over two human serine proteases, and a whole cell lysate assay confirmed inhibitory activity in the cellular environment. This compound provides a lead for further development of potentially broader spectrum inhibitors.

  4. Dye-binding assays for evaluation of the effects of small molecule inhibitors on amyloid (aβ) self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Jameson, Laramie P; Smith, Nicholas W; Dzyuba, Sergei V

    2012-11-21

    Dye-binding assays, such as those utilizing Congo red and thioflavin T, are among the most widely used tools to probe the aggregation of amyloidogenic biomolecules and for the evaluation of small molecule inhibitors of amyloid aggregation and fibrillization. A number of recent reports have indicated that these dye-binding assays could be prone to false positive effects when assessing inhibitors' potential toward Aβ peptides, species involved in Alzheimer's disease. Specifically, this review focuses on the application of thioflavin T for determining the efficiency of small molecule inhibitors of Aβ aggregation and addresses potential reasons that might be associated with the false positive effects in an effort to increase reliability of dye-binding assays.

  5. Fragment-Based Optimization of Small Molecule CXCL12 Inhibitors for Antagonizing the CXCL12/CXCR4 Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Ziarek, Joshua J.; Liu, Yan; Smith, Emmanuel; Zhang, Guolin; Peterson, Francis C.; Chen, Jun; Yu, Yongping; Chen, Yu; Volkman, Brian F.; Li, Rongshi

    2013-01-01

    The chemokine CXCL12 and its G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) CXCR4 are high-priority clinical targets because of their involvement in metastatic cancers (also implicated in autoimmune disease and cardiovascular disease). Because chemokines interact with two distinct sites to bind and activate their receptors, both the GPCRs and chemokines are potential targets for small molecule inhibition. A number of chemokines have been validated as targets for drug development, but virtually all drug discovery efforts focus on the GPCRs. However, all CXCR4 receptor antagonists with the exception of MSX-122 have failed in clinical trials due to unmanageable toxicities, emphasizing the need for alternative strategies to interfere with CXCL12/CXCR4-guided metastatic homing. Although targeting the relatively featureless surface of CXCL12 was presumed to be challenging, focusing efforts at the sulfotyrosine (sY) binding pockets proved successful for procuring initial hits. Using a hybrid structure-based in silico/NMR screening strategy, we recently identified a ligand that occludes the receptor recognition site. From this initial hit, we designed a small fragment library containing only nine tetrazole derivatives using a fragment-based and bioisostere approach to target the sY binding sites of CXCL12. Compound binding modes and affinities were studied by 2D NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, molecular docking and cell-based functional assays. Our results demonstrate that the sY binding sites are conducive to the development of high affinity inhibitors with better ligand efficiency (LE) than typical protein-protein interaction inhibitors (LE ≤ 0.24). Our novel tetrazole-based fragment 18 was identified to bind the sY21 site with a Kd of 24 μM (LE = 0.30). Optimization of 18 yielded compound 25 which specifically inhibits CXCL12-induced migration with an improvement in potency over the initial hit 9. The fragment from this library that exhibited the highest affinity and

  6. Sequence specific peptidomimetic molecules inhibitors of a protein-protein interaction at the helix 1 level of c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Nieddu, Erika; Melchiori, A; Pescarolo, M P; Bagnasco, L; Biasotti, B; Licheri, B; Malacarne, D; Tortolina, L; Castagnino, N; Pasa, S; Cimoli, G; Avignolo, C; Ponassi, R; Balbi, C; Patrone, E; D'arrigo, C; Barboro, P; Vasile, F; Orecchia, P; Carnemolla, B; Damonte, G; Millo, E; Palomba, D; Fassina, G; Mazzei, M; Parodi, S

    2005-04-01

    Our work is focused in the broad area of strategies and efforts to inhibit protein-protein interactions. The possible strategies in this field are definitely much more varied than in the case of ATP-pocket inhibitors. In our previous work (10), we reported that a retro-inverso (RI) form of Helix1 (H1) of c-Myc, linked to an RI-internalization sequence arising from the third alpha-helix of Antennapedia (Int) was endowed with an antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity toward the cancer cell lines MCF-7 and HCT-116. The activity apparently was dependent upon the presence of the Myc motif. In this work, by ala-scan mapping of the H1 portion of our molecules with D-aa, we found two amino acids necessary for antiproliferative activity: D-Lys in 4 and D-Arg in 5 (numbers refer to L-forms). In the natural hetero-dimer, these two side chains project to the outside of the four alpha-helix bundle. Moreover, we were able to obtain three peptides more active than the original lead. They strongly reduced cell proliferation and survival (RI-Int-VV-H1-E2A,S6A,F8A; RI-Int-VV-H1-S6A,F8A,R11A; RI-Int-VV-H1-S6A,F8A,Q13A): after 8 days at 10 muM total cell number was approximately 1% of the number of cells initially seeded. In these more potent molecules, the ablated side chains project to the inside in the corresponding natural four alpha-helix bundle. In the present work, we also investigated the behavior of our molecules at the biochemical level. Using both a circular dichroism (CD) and a fluorescence anisotropy approach, we noted that side chains projecting at the interior of the four alpha-helix bundle are needed for inducing the partial unfolding of Myc-H2, without an opening of the leucine zipper. Side chains projecting at the outside are not required for this biochemical effect. However, antiproliferative activity had the opposite requirements: side chains projecting at the outside of the bundle were essential, and, on the contrary, ablation of one side chain at a time

  7. Small-molecule inhibitors suppress the expression of both type III secretion and amylovoran biosynthesis genes in Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Korban, Schuyler S; Pusey, P Lawrence; Elofsson, Michael; Sundin, George W; Zhao, Youfu

    2014-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran are two essential pathogenicity factors in Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of the serious bacterial disease fire blight. In this study, small molecules that inhibit T3SS gene expression in E. amylovora under hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity)-inducing conditions were identified and characterized using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. These compounds belong to salicylidene acylhydrazides and also inhibit amylovoran production. Microarray analysis of E. amylovora treated with compounds 3 and 9 identified a total of 588 significantly differentially expressed genes. Among them, 95 and 78 genes were activated and suppressed by both compounds, respectively, when compared with the dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) control. The expression of the majority of T3SS genes in E. amylovora, including hrpL and the avrRpt2 effector gene, was suppressed by both compounds. Compound 3 also suppressed the expression of amylovoran precursor and biosynthesis genes. However, both compounds induced significantly the expression of glycogen biosynthesis genes and siderophore biosynthesis, regulatory and transport genes. Furthermore, many membrane, lipoprotein and exported protein-encoding genes were also activated by both compounds. Similar expression patterns were observed for compounds 1, 2 and 4. Using crab apple flower as a model, compound 3 was capable of reducing disease development in pistils. These results suggest a common inhibition mechanism shared by salicylidene acylhydrazides and indicate that small-molecule inhibitors that disable T3SS function could be explored to control fire blight disease. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  8. HIV Aspartic Peptidase Inhibitors Modulate Surface Molecules and Enzyme Activities Involved with Physiopathological Events in Fonsecaea pedrosoi

    PubMed Central

    Palmeira, Vanila F.; Alviano, Daniela S.; Braga-Silva, Lys A.; Goulart, Fátima R. V.; Granato, Marcela Q.; Rozental, Sonia; Alviano, Celuta S.; Santos, André L. S.; Kneipp, Lucimar F.

    2017-01-01

    Fonsecaea pedrosoi is the main etiological agent of chromoblastomycosis, a recalcitrant disease that is extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, new chemotherapeutics to combat this fungal infection are urgently needed. Although aspartic peptidase inhibitors (PIs) currently used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shown anti-F. pedrosoi activity their exact mechanisms of action have not been elucidated. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of four HIV-PIs on crucial virulence attributes expressed by F. pedrosoi conidial cells, including surface molecules and secreted enzymes, both of which are directly involved in the disease development. In all the experiments, conidia were treated with indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir (100 μM) for 24 h, and then fungal cells were used to evaluate the effects of HIV-PIs on different virulence attributes expressed by F. pedrosoi. In comparison to untreated controls, exposure of F. pedrosoi cells to HIV-PIs caused (i) reduction on the conidial granularity; (ii) irreversible surface ultrastructural alterations, such as shedding of electron dense and amorphous material from the cell wall, undulations/invaginations of the plasma membrane with and withdrawal of this membrane from the cell wall; (iii) a decrease in both mannose-rich glycoconjugates and melanin molecules and an increase in glucosylceramides on the conidial surface; (iv) inhibition of ergosterol and lanosterol production; (v) reduction in the secretion of aspartic peptidase, esterase and phospholipase; (vi) significant reduction in the viability of non-pigmented conidia compared to pigmented ones. In summary, HIV-PIs are efficient drugs with an ability to block crucial biological processes of F. pedrosoi and can be seriously considered as potential compounds for the development of new chromoblastomycosis chemotherapeutics. PMID:28579986

  9. HIV Aspartic Peptidase Inhibitors Modulate Surface Molecules and Enzyme Activities Involved with Physiopathological Events in Fonsecaea pedrosoi.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Vanila F; Alviano, Daniela S; Braga-Silva, Lys A; Goulart, Fátima R V; Granato, Marcela Q; Rozental, Sonia; Alviano, Celuta S; Santos, André L S; Kneipp, Lucimar F

    2017-01-01

    Fonsecaea pedrosoi is the main etiological agent of chromoblastomycosis, a recalcitrant disease that is extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, new chemotherapeutics to combat this fungal infection are urgently needed. Although aspartic peptidase inhibitors (PIs) currently used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shown anti- F. pedrosoi activity their exact mechanisms of action have not been elucidated. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of four HIV-PIs on crucial virulence attributes expressed by F. pedrosoi conidial cells, including surface molecules and secreted enzymes, both of which are directly involved in the disease development. In all the experiments, conidia were treated with indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir (100 μM) for 24 h, and then fungal cells were used to evaluate the effects of HIV-PIs on different virulence attributes expressed by F. pedrosoi . In comparison to untreated controls, exposure of F. pedrosoi cells to HIV-PIs caused (i) reduction on the conidial granularity; (ii) irreversible surface ultrastructural alterations, such as shedding of electron dense and amorphous material from the cell wall, undulations/invaginations of the plasma membrane with and withdrawal of this membrane from the cell wall; (iii) a decrease in both mannose-rich glycoconjugates and melanin molecules and an increase in glucosylceramides on the conidial surface; (iv) inhibition of ergosterol and lanosterol production; (v) reduction in the secretion of aspartic peptidase, esterase and phospholipase; (vi) significant reduction in the viability of non-pigmented conidia compared to pigmented ones. In summary, HIV-PIs are efficient drugs with an ability to block crucial biological processes of F. pedrosoi and can be seriously considered as potential compounds for the development of new chromoblastomycosis chemotherapeutics.

  10. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of ERCC1-XPF that inhibit DNA repair and potentiate cisplatin efficacy in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sanjeevani; Heyza, Joshua; Zhang, Hao; Kalman-Maltese, Vivian; Tillison, Kristin; Floyd, Ashley M.; Chalfin, Elaine M.; Bepler, Gerold; Patrick, Steve M.

    2016-01-01

    ERCC1-XPF heterodimer is a 5′-3′ structure-specific endonuclease which is essential in multiple DNA repair pathways in mammalian cells. ERCC1-XPF (ERCC1-ERCC4) repairs cisplatin-DNA intrastrand adducts and interstrand crosslinks and its specific inhibition has been shown to enhance cisplatin cytotoxicity in cancer cells. In this study, we describe a high throughput screen (HTS) used to identify small molecules that inhibit the endonuclease activity of ERCC1-XPF. Primary screens identified two compounds that inhibit ERCC1-XPF activity in the nanomolar range. These compounds were validated in secondary screens against two other non-related endonucleases to ensure specificity. Results from these screens were validated using an in vitro gel-based nuclease assay. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) further show that these compounds do not inhibit the binding of purified ERCC1-XPF to DNA. Next, in lung cancer cells these compounds potentiated cisplatin cytotoxicity and inhibited DNA repair. Structure activity relationship (SAR) studies identified related compounds for one of the original Hits, which also potentiated cisplatin cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Excitingly, dosing with NSC16168 compound potentiated cisplatin antitumor activity in a lung cancer xenograft model. Further development of ERCC1-XPF DNA repair inhibitors is expected to sensitize cancer cells to DNA damage-based chemotherapy. PMID:27650543

  11. An ubiquitin-binding molecule can work as an inhibitor of ubiquitin processing enzymes and ubiquitin receptors.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh; Ho, Minh; Ghosh, Ambarnil; Kim, Truc; Yun, Sun Il; Lee, Seung Seo; Kim, Kyeong Kyu

    2016-10-07

    The ubiquitin pathway plays a critical role in regulating diverse biological processes, and its dysregulation is associated with various diseases. Therefore, it is important to have a tool that can control the ubiquitin pathway in order to improve understanding of this pathway and to develop therapeutics against relevant diseases. We found that Chicago Sky Blue 6B binds directly to the β-groove, a major interacting surface of ubiquitin. Hence, it could successfully inhibit the enzymatic activity of ubiquitin processing enzymes and the binding of ubiquitin to the CXCR4, a cell surface ubiquitin receptor. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this ubiquitin binding chemical could effectively suppress the ubiquitin induced cancer cell migration by blocking ubiquitin-CXCR4 interaction. Current results suggest that ubiquitin binding molecules can be developed as inhibitors of ubiquitin-protein interactions, which will have the value not only in unveiling the biological role of ubiquitin but also in treating related diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel Aryl Substituted Pyrazoles as Small Molecule Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 CYP121A1: Synthesis and Antimycobacterial Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Three series of biarylpyrazole imidazole and triazoles are described, which vary in the linker between the biaryl pyrazole and imidazole/triazole group. The imidazole and triazole series with the short −CH2– linker displayed promising antimycobacterial activity, with the imidazole–CH2– series (7) showing low MIC values (6.25–25 μg/mL), which was also influenced by lipophilicity. Extending the linker to −C(O)NH(CH2)2– resulted in a loss of antimycobacterial activity. The binding affinity of the compounds with CYP121A1 was determined by UV–visible optical titrations with KD values of 2.63, 35.6, and 290 μM, respectively, for the tightest binding compounds 7e, 8b, and 13d from their respective series. Both binding affinity assays and docking studies of the CYP121A1 inhibitors suggest type II indirect binding through interstitial water molecules, with key binding residues Thr77, Val78, Val82, Val83, Met86, Ser237, Gln385, and Arg386, comparable with the binding interactions observed with fluconazole and the natural substrate dicyclotyrosine. PMID:29185746

  13. Inhibition of Stat3 by a Small Molecule Inhibitor Slows Vision Loss in a Rat Model of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Vanlandingham, Phillip A.; Nuno, Didier J.; Quiambao, Alexander B.; Phelps, Eric; Wassel, Ronald A.; Ma, Jian-Xing; Farjo, Krysten M.; Farjo, Rafal A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of vision loss. Previous studies have shown signaling pathways mediated by Stat3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) play a primary role in diabetic retinopathy progression. This study tested CLT-005, a small molecule inhibitor of Stat3, for its dose-dependent therapeutic effects on vision loss in a rat model of diabetic retinopathy. Methods Brown Norway rats were administered streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes. CLT-005 was administered daily by oral gavage for 16 weeks at concentrations of 125, 250, or 500 mg/kg, respectively, beginning 4 days post streptozotocin administration. Systemic and ocular drug concentration was quantified with mass spectrometry. Visual function was monitored at 2-week intervals from 6 to 16 weeks using optokinetic tracking to measure visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. The presence and severity of cataracts was visually monitored and correlated to visual acuity. The transcription and translation of multiple angiogenic factors and inflammatory cytokines were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Multiplex immunoassay. Results Streptozotocin-diabetic rats sustain progressive vision loss over 16 weeks, and this loss in visual function is rescued in a dose-dependent manner by CLT-005. This positive therapeutic effect correlates to the positive effects of CLT-005 on vascular leakage and the presence of inflammatory cytokines in the retina. Conclusions The present study indicates that Stat3 inhibition has strong therapeutic potential for the treatment of vision loss in diabetic retinopathy. PMID:28395025

  14. Caspase vinyl sulfone small molecule inhibitors prevent axonal degeneration in human neurons and reverse cognitive impairment in Caspase-6-overexpressing mice.

    PubMed

    Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Noël, Anastasia; Lecrux, Clotilde; Tubeleviciute-Aydin, Agne; Hamel, Edith; Ahlfors, Jan-Eric; LeBlanc, Andrea C

    2017-02-28

    The activation of the aspartate-specific cysteinyl protease, Caspase-6, is proposed as an early pathogenic event of Alzheimer disease (AD) and Huntington's disease. Caspase-6 inhibitors could be useful against these neurodegenerative diseases but most Caspase-6 inhibitors have been exclusively studied in vitro or show acute liver toxicity in humans. Here, we assessed vinyl sulfone small molecule peptide caspase inhibitors for potential use in vivo. The IC 50 of NWL vinyl sulfone small molecule caspase inhibitors were determined on Caspase-1 to 10, and Caspase-6-transfected human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. Inhibition of Caspase-6-mediated axonal degeneration was assessed in serum-deprived or amyloid precursor protein-transfected primary human CNS neurons. Cellular toxicity was measured by phase contrast microscopy, mitochondrial and lactate dehydrogenase colorimetric activity assays, or flow cytometry. Caspase inhibition was measured by fluorogenic activity assays, fluorescence microscopy, and western blot analyses. The effect of inhibitors on age-dependent cognitive deficits in Caspase-6 transgenic mice was assessed by the novel object recognition task. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry assessed the blood-brain barrier permeability of inhibitors in Caspase-6 mice. Vinyl sulfone NWL-117 caspase inhibitor has a higher selectivity against Caspase-6, -4, -8, -9, and -10 whereas NWL-154 has higher selectivity against Caspase-6, -8, and -10. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of NWL-117 and NWL-154 is 192 nM and 100 nM against Caspase-6 in vitro, and 4.82 μM and 3.63 μM in Caspase-6-transfected HCT116 cells, respectively. NWL inhibitors are not toxic to HCT116 cells or to human primary neurons. NWL-117 and NWL-154 inhibit serum deprivation-induced Caspase-6 activity and prevent amyloid precursor protein-mediated neurite degeneration in human primary CNS neurons. NWL-117 crosses the blood brain barrier and reverses age

  15. Prospecting for Novel Plant-Derived Molecules of Rauvolfia serpentina as Inhibitors of Aldose Reductase, a Potent Drug Target for Diabetes and Its Complications

    PubMed Central

    Pathania, Shivalika; Randhawa, Vinay; Bagler, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Aldose Reductase (AR) is implicated in the development of secondary complications of diabetes, providing an interesting target for therapeutic intervention. Extracts of Rauvolfia serpentina, a medicinal plant endemic to the Himalayan mountain range, have been known to be effective in alleviating diabetes and its complications. In this study, we aim to prospect for novel plant-derived inhibitors from R. serpentina and to understand structural basis of their interactions. An extensive library of R. serpentina molecules was compiled and computationally screened for inhibitory action against AR. The stability of complexes, with docked leads, was verified using molecular dynamics simulations. Two structurally distinct plant-derived leads were identified as inhibitors: indobine and indobinine. Further, using these two leads as templates, 16 more leads were identified through ligand-based screening of their structural analogs, from a small molecules database. Thus, we obtained plant-derived indole alkaloids, and their structural analogs, as potential AR inhibitors from a manually curated dataset of R. serpentina molecules. Indole alkaloids reported herein, as a novel structural class unreported hitherto, may provide better insights for designing potential AR inhibitors with improved efficacy and fewer side effects. PMID:23613832

  16. Prospecting for novel plant-derived molecules of Rauvolfia serpentina as inhibitors of Aldose Reductase, a potent drug target for diabetes and its complications.

    PubMed

    Pathania, Shivalika; Randhawa, Vinay; Bagler, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Aldose Reductase (AR) is implicated in the development of secondary complications of diabetes, providing an interesting target for therapeutic intervention. Extracts of Rauvolfia serpentina, a medicinal plant endemic to the Himalayan mountain range, have been known to be effective in alleviating diabetes and its complications. In this study, we aim to prospect for novel plant-derived inhibitors from R. serpentina and to understand structural basis of their interactions. An extensive library of R. serpentina molecules was compiled and computationally screened for inhibitory action against AR. The stability of complexes, with docked leads, was verified using molecular dynamics simulations. Two structurally distinct plant-derived leads were identified as inhibitors: indobine and indobinine. Further, using these two leads as templates, 16 more leads were identified through ligand-based screening of their structural analogs, from a small molecules database. Thus, we obtained plant-derived indole alkaloids, and their structural analogs, as potential AR inhibitors from a manually curated dataset of R. serpentina molecules. Indole alkaloids reported herein, as a novel structural class unreported hitherto, may provide better insights for designing potential AR inhibitors with improved efficacy and fewer side effects.

  17. Development of small-molecule inhibitors of the group I p21-activated kinases, emerging therapeutic targets in cancer.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chunling; Maksimoska, Jasna; Marmorstein, Ronen; Kissil, Joseph L

    2010-09-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs), immediate downstream effectors of the small G-proteins of the Rac/cdc42 family, are critical mediators of signaling pathways regulating cellular behaviors and as such, have been implicated in pathological conditions including cancer. Recent studies have validated the requirement for PAKs in promoting tumorigenesis in breast carcinoma and neurofibromatosis. Thus, there has been considerable interest in the development of inhibitors to the PAKs, as biological markers and leads for the development of therapeutics. While initial approaches were based on screening for competitive organic inhibitors, more recent efforts have focused on the identification of allosteric inhibitors, organometallic ATP-competitive inhibitors and the use of PAK1/inhibitor crystal structures for inhibitor optimization. This has led to the identification of highly selective and potent inhibitors, which will serve as a basis for further development of inhibitors for therapeutic applications. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Challenges and Perspectives on the Development of Small-Molecule EGFR Inhibitors against T790M-Mediated Resistance in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhendong; Ge, Yang; Wang, Changyuan; Huang, Shanshan; Shu, Xiaohong; Liu, Kexin; Zhou, Youwen; Ma, Xiaodong

    2016-07-28

    Because of the development of drug-resistance mutations, particularly the "gatekeeper" threonine(790)-to-methionine(790) (T790M) mutation in the ATP-binding pocket of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the current generation of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors lost their clinical efficacy. Recently, a large number of small-molecule inhibitors with striking inhibitory potency against EGFR mutants with the T790M change have been identified. In particular, the inhibitors rociletinib and osimertinib, which can selectively target both sensitizing mutations and the T790M resistance while sparing the wild-type (WT) form of the receptor, have been designated as breakthrough therapies in the treatment of mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by the U.S. FDA in 2014. We hope that this review on the small-molecule EGFR T790M inhibitors, along with their discovery strategies, will assist in the design of future T790M-containing EGFR inhibitors with high levels of selectivity over WT EGFR, broad kinase selectivity, and desirable physicochemical properties.

  19. A novel small molecule inhibitor of MDM2-p53 (APG-115) enhances radiosensitivity of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hanjie; Yan, Xianglei; Luo, Qiuyun; Yuan, Luping; Li, Baoxia; Pan, Wentao; Zhang, Lin; Chen, Haibo; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yubin; Zhai, Yifan; Qiu, Miao-Zhen; Yang, Da-Jun

    2018-05-02

    Gastric cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. Radiation alone or combined with chemotherapy plays important role in locally advanced and metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma. MDM2-p53 interaction and downstream signaling affect cellular response to DNA damage which leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Therefore, restoring p53 function by inhibiting its interaction with MDM2 is a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer. APG-115 is a novel small molecule inhibitor which blocks the interaction of MDM2 and p53. In this study, we investigated that the radiosensitivity of APG-115 in gastric adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo. The role of APG-115 in six gastric cancer cells viability in vitro was determined by CCK-8 assay. The expression level of MDM2, p21, PUMA and BAX in AGS and MKN45 cell lines was measured via real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The function of treatment groups on cell cycle and cell apoptosis were detected through Flow Cytometry assay. Clonogenic assays were used to measure the radiosensitivity of APG-115 in p53 wild type gastric cancer cell lines. Western blot was conducted to detect the protein expressions of mdm2-p53 signal pathway. Xenograft models in nude mice were established to explore the radiosensitivity role of APG-115 in gastric cancer cells in vivo. We found that radiosensitization by APG-115 occurred in p53 wild-type gastric cancer cells. Increasing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest was observed after administration of APG-115 and radiation. Radiosensitivity of APG-115 was mainly dependent on MDM2-p53 signal pathway. In vivo, APG-115 combined with radiation decreased xenograft tumor growth much more significantly than either single treatment. Moreover, the number of proliferating cells (Ki-67) significantly decreased in combination group compared with single treatment group. In summary, we found that combination of MDM2-p53 inhibitor (APG-115) and radiotherapy can enhance antitumor effect both in vitro and in vivo. This

  20. Targeting MET kinase with the small-molecule inhibitor amuvatinib induces cytotoxicity in primary myeloma cells and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    the cellular level MET/HGF pathway inclines with myeloma disease progression. Amuvatinib, a small molecule MET kinase inhibitor, is effective in inducing growth inhibition and cell death in myeloma cell lines as well as primary malignant plasma cells. These cytostatic and cytotoxic effects were associated with an impact on MET/HGF pathway. PMID:24326130

  1. Crystal Structures of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Bound to the Carbamate Inhibitor URB597: Discovery of a Deacylating Water Molecule and Insight into Enzyme Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Mileni, Mauro; Kamtekar, Satwik; Wood, David C.; Benson, Timothy E.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2010-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system regulates a wide range of physiological processes including pain, inflammation, and cognitive/emotional states. URB597 is one of the best characterized covalent inhibitors of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Here, we report the structure of the FAAH-URB597 complex at 2.3 Å resolution. The structure provides insights into mechanistic details of enzyme inactivation and experimental evidence of a previously uncharacterized active site water molecule that likely is involved in substrate deacylation. This water molecule is part of an extensive hydrogen-bonding network, and is coordinated indirectly to residues lining the cytosolic port of the enzyme. In order to corroborate our hypothesis concerning the role of this water molecule in FAAH’s catalytic mechanism, we determined the structure of FAAH conjugated to a urea-based inhibitor, PF-3845, to a higher resolution (2.4 Å) than previously reported. The higher resolution structure confirms the presence of the water molecule in a virtually identical location in the active site. Examination of the structures of serine hydrolases that are non-homologous to FAAH, such as elastase, trypsin, or chymotrypsin, shows a similarly positioned hydrolytic water molecule and suggest a functional convergence between the amidase signature enzymes and serine proteases. PMID:20493882

  2. Crystal structure of fatty acid amide hydrolase bound to the carbamate inhibitor URB597: discovery of a deacylating water molecule and insight into enzyme inactivation.

    PubMed

    Mileni, Mauro; Kamtekar, Satwik; Wood, David C; Benson, Timothy E; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Stevens, Raymond C

    2010-07-23

    The endocannabinoid system regulates a wide range of physiological processes including pain, inflammation, and cognitive/emotional states. URB597 is one of the best characterized covalent inhibitors of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Here, we report the structure of the FAAH-URB597 complex at 2.3 A resolution. The structure provides insights into mechanistic details of enzyme inactivation and experimental evidence of a previously uncharacterized active site water molecule that likely is involved in substrate deacylation. This water molecule is part of an extensive hydrogen-bonding network and is coordinated indirectly to residues lining the cytosolic port of the enzyme. In order to corroborate our hypothesis concerning the role of this water molecule in FAAH's catalytic mechanism, we determined the structure of FAAH conjugated to a urea-based inhibitor, PF-3845, to a higher resolution (2.4 A) than previously reported. The higher-resolution structure confirms the presence of the water molecule in a virtually identical location in the active site. Examination of the structures of serine hydrolases that are non-homologous to FAAH, such as elastase, trypsin, or chymotrypsin, shows a similarly positioned hydrolytic water molecule and suggests a functional convergence between the amidase signature enzymes and serine proteases. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Discovery of non-peptidic small molecule inhibitors of cyclophilin D as neuroprotective agents in Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Insun; Londhe, Ashwini M.; Lim, Ji Woong; Park, Beoung-Geon; Jung, Seo Yun; Lee, Jae Yeol; Lim, Sang Min; No, Kyoung Tai; Lee, Jiyoun; Pae, Ae Nim

    2017-10-01

    Cyclophilin D (CypD) is a mitochondria-specific cyclophilin that is known to play a pivotal role in the formation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP).The formation and opening of the mPTP disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis, cause mitochondrial dysfunction and eventually lead to cell death. Several recent studies have found that CypD promotes the formation of the mPTP upon binding to β amyloid (Aβ) peptides inside brain mitochondria, suggesting that neuronal CypD has a potential to be a promising therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we generated an energy-based pharmacophore model by using the crystal structure of CypD—cyclosporine A (CsA) complex and performed virtual screening of ChemDiv database, which yielded forty-five potential hit compounds with novel scaffolds. We further tested those compounds using mitochondrial functional assays in neuronal cells and identified fifteen compounds with excellent protective effects against Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. To validate whether these effects derived from binding to CypD, we performed surface plasmon resonance (SPR)—based direct binding assays with selected compounds and discovered compound 29 was found to have the equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) value of 88.2 nM. This binding affinity value and biological activity correspond well with our predicted binding mode. We believe that this study offers new insights into the rational design of small molecule CypD inhibitors, and provides a promising lead for future therapeutic development.

  4. Multifunctional Effects of a Small-Molecule STAT3 Inhibitor on NASH and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwang Hwa; Yoo, Wonbeak; Stevenson, Heather L; Deshpande, Dipti; Shen, Hong; Gagea, Mihai; Yoo, Suk-Young; Wang, Jing; Eckols, T Kris; Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Tweardy, David J; Beretta, Laura

    2017-09-15

    Purpose: The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing in the United States, and liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is becoming an important risk for hepatocellular carcinoma, and most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have underlying liver cirrhosis and compromised liver function, which limit treatment options. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat hepatocellular carcinoma in the context of NASH and cirrhosis are urgently needed. Experimental Design: Constitutive activation of STAT3 is frequently detected in hepatocellular carcinoma tumors. STAT3 signaling plays a pivotal role in hepatocellular carcinoma survival, growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. We identified C188-9, a novel small-molecule STAT3 inhibitor using computer-aided rational drug design. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of C188-9 for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment and prevention. Results: C188-9 showed antitumor activity in vitro in three hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. In mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of Pten (Hep Pten - mice), C188-9 treatment blocked hepatocellular carcinoma tumor growth, reduced tumor development, and reduced liver steatosis, inflammation, and bile ductular reactions, resulting in improvement of the pathological lesions of NASH. Remarkably, C188-9 also greatly reduced liver injury in these mice as measured by serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine transaminase levels. Analysis of gene expression showed that C188-9 treatment of Hep Pten - mice resulted in inhibition of signaling pathways downstream of STAT3, STAT1, TREM-1, and Toll-like receptors. In contrast, C188-9 treatment increased liver specification and differentiation gene pathways. Conclusions: Our results suggest that C188-9 should be evaluated further for the treatment and/or prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 23(18); 5537-46. ©2017 AACR

  5. Ultra-High-Throughput Structure-Based Virtual Screening for Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David K.; Karanicolas, John

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions play important roles in virtually all cellular processes, making them enticing targets for modulation by small-molecule therapeutics: specific examples have been well validated in diseases ranging from cancer and autoimmune disorders, to bacterial and viral infections. Despite several notable successes, however, overall these remain a very challenging target class. Protein interaction sites are especially challenging for computational approaches, because the target protein surface often undergoes a conformational change to enable ligand binding: this confounds traditional approaches for virtual screening. Through previous studies, we demonstrated that biased “pocket optimization” simulations could be used to build collections of low-energy pocket-containing conformations, starting from an unbound protein structure. Here, we demonstrate that these pockets can further be used to identify ligands that complement the protein surface. To do so, we first build from a given pocket its “exemplar”: a perfect, but non-physical, pseudo-ligand that would optimally match the shape and chemical features of the pocket. In our previous studies, we used these exemplars to quantitatively compare protein surface pockets to one another. Here, we now introduce this exemplar as a template for pharmacophore-based screening of chemical libraries. Through a series of benchmark experiments, we demonstrate that this approach exhibits comparable performance as traditional docking methods for identifying known inhibitors acting at protein interaction sites. However, because this approach is predicated on ligand/exemplar overlays, and thus does not require explicit calculation of protein-ligand interactions, exemplar screening provides a tremendous speed advantage over docking: 6 million compounds can be screened in about 15 minutes on a single 16-core, dual-GPU computer. The extreme speed at which large compound libraries can be traversed easily enables

  6. An interaction map of small-molecule kinase inhibitors with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutants in ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ai, Xinghao; Shen, Shengping; Shen, Lan; Lu, Shun

    2015-05-01

    Human anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has become a well-established target for the treatment of ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we have profiled seven small-molecule inhibitors, including 2 that are approved drugs, against a panel of clinically relevant mutations in ALK tyrosine kinase (TK) domain, aiming at a comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanism and biological implication underlying inhibitor response to ALK TK mutation. We find that (i) the gatekeeper mutation L1196M causes crizotinib resistance by simultaneously increasing and decreasing the binding affinities of, respectively, ATP and inhibitor to ALK, whereas the secondary mutation C1156Y, which is located far away from the ATP-binding site of ALK TK domain, causes the resistance by inducing marked allosteric effect on the site, (ii) the 2nd and 3rd generation kinase inhibitors exhibit relatively high sensitivity towards ALK mutants as compared to 1st generation inhibitors, (iii) the pan-kinase inhibitor staurosporine is insensitive for most mutations due to its high structural compatibility, and (iv) ATP affinity to ALK is generally reduced upon most clinically relevant mutations. Furthermore, we also identify six novel mutation-inhibitor pairs that are potentially associated with drug resistance. In addition, the G1202R and C1156Y mutations are expected to generally cause resistance for many existing inhibitors, since they can address significant effect on the geometric shape and physicochemical property of ALK active pocket. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  7. New tools for carbohydrate sulphation analysis: Heparan Sulphate 2- O -sulphotransferase (HS2ST) is a target for small molecule protein kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Dominic P; Li, Yong; Ramakrishnan, Krithika; Barsukov, Igor L; Yates, Edwin A; Eyers, Claire E; Papy-Garcia, Dulcé; Chantepie, Sandrine; Pagadala, Vijayakanth; Lu, Jian; Wells, Carrow; Drewry, David H; Zuercher, William J; Berry, Neil G; Fernig, David G; Eyers, Patrick A

    2018-06-22

    Sulphation of carbohydrate residues occurs on a variety of glycans destined for secretion, and this modification is essential for efficient matrix-based signal transduction. Heparan sulphate (HS) glycosaminoglycans control physiological functions ranging from blood coagulation to cell proliferation. HS biosynthesis involves membrane-bound Golgi sulphotransferases, including heparan sulphate 2- O -sulphotransferase (HS2ST), which transfers sulphate from the co-factor PAPS (3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulphate) to the 2- O  position of a-L-iduronate in the maturing polysaccharide chain. The current lack of simple non-radioactive enzyme assays that can be used to quantify the levels of carbohydrate sulphation hampers kinetic analysis of this process and the discovery of HS2ST inhibitors.  In this paper, we describe a new procedure for thermal shift analysis of purified HS2ST. Using this approach, we quantify HS2ST-catalyzed oligosaccharide sulphation using a novel synthetic fluorescent substrate and screen the Published Kinase Inhibitor Set (PKIS), to evaluate compounds that inhibit catalysis. We report the susceptibility of HS2ST to a variety of cell permeable compounds in vitro , including polyanionic polar molecules, the protein kinase inhibitor rottlerin and oxindole-based RAF kinase inhibitors. In a related study, published back-to-back with this article, we demonstrate that Tyrosyl Protein Sulpho Tranferases (TPSTs) are also inhibited by a variety of protein kinase inhibitors. We propose that appropriately validated small molecule compounds could become new tools for rapid inhibition of glycan (and protein) sulphation in cells, and that protein kinase inhibitors might be repurposed or redesigned for the specific inhibition of HS2ST. ©2018 The Author(s).

  8. Design and synthesis of a series of serine derivatives as small molecule inhibitors of the SARS coronavirus 3CL protease.

    PubMed

    Konno, Hiroyuki; Wakabayashi, Masaki; Takanuma, Daiki; Saito, Yota; Akaji, Kenichi

    2016-03-15

    Synthesis of serine derivatives having the essential functional groups for the inhibitor of SARS 3CL protease and evaluation of their inhibitory activities using SARS 3CL R188I mutant protease are described. The lead compounds, functionalized serine derivatives, were designed based on the tetrapeptide aldehyde and Bai's cinnamoly inhibitor, and additionally performed with simulation on GOLD softwear. Structure activity relationship studies of the candidate compounds were given reasonable inhibitors ent-3 and ent-7k against SARS 3CL R188I mutant protease. These inhibitors showed protease selectivity and no cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Flight of a cytidine deaminase complex with an imperfect transition state analogue inhibitor: mass spectrometric evidence for the presence of a trapped water molecule.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Gottfried K; Zhou, Li; Snider, Mark J; Chen, Xian; Wolfenden, Richard

    2012-08-14

    Cytidine deaminase (CDA) binds the inhibitor zebularine as its 3,4-hydrate (K(d) ~ 10(-12) M), capturing all but ~5.6 kcal/mol of the free energy of binding expected of an ideal transition state analogue (K(tx) ~ 10(-16) M). On the basis of its entropic origin, that shortfall was tentatively ascribed to the trapping of a water molecule in the enzyme-inhibitor complex, as had been observed earlier for product uridine [Snider, M. J., and Wolfenden, R. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 11364-11371]. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) of CDA nebularized in the presence of saturating 5-fluorozebularine reveals peaks corresponding to the masses of E(2)Zn(2)W(2) (dimeric Zn-CDA with two water molecules), E(2)Zn(2)W(2)Fz, and E(2)Zn(2)W(2)Fz(2), where Fz represents the 3,4-hydrate of 5-fluorozebularine. In the absence of an inhibitor, E(2)Zn(2) is the only dimeric species detected, with no additional water molecules. Experiments conducted in H(2)(18)O indicate that the added mass W represents a trapped water molecule rather than an isobaric ammonium ion. This appears to represent the first identification of an enzyme-bound water molecule at a subunit interface (active site) using FTICR-MS. The presence of a 5-fluoro group appears to retard the decomposition of the inhibitory complex kinetically in the vapor phase, as no additional dimeric complexes (other than E(2)Zn(2)) are observed when zebularine is used in place of 5-fluorozebularine. Substrate competition assays show that in solution zebularine is released from CDA (k(off) > 0.14 s(-1)) much more rapidly than is 5-fluorozebularine (k(off) = 0.014 s(-1)), despite the greater thermodynamic stability of the zebularine complex.

  10. Identification and characterization of small molecule inhibitors of the calcium-dependent S100B-p53 tumor suppressor interaction.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Joseph; Chen, Ijen; Gitti, Rossi; Baldisseri, Donna M; Pan, Yongping; Udan, Ryan; Carrier, France; MacKerell, Alexander D; Weber, David J

    2004-10-07

    The binding of S100B to p53 down-regulates wild-type p53 tumor suppressor activity in cancer cells such as malignant melanoma, so a search for small molecules that bind S100B and prevent S100B-p53 complex formation was undertaken. Chemical databases were computationally searched for potential inhibitors of S100B, and 60 compounds were selected for testing on the basis of energy scoring, commercial availability, and chemical similarity clustering. Seven of these compounds bound to S100B as determined by steady state fluorescence spectroscopy (1.0 microM < or = K(D) < or = 120 microM) and five inhibited the growth of primary malignant melanoma cells (C8146A) at comparable concentrations (1.0 microM < or = IC(50) < or = 50 microM). Additionally, saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments confirmed binding and qualitatively identified protons from the small molecule at the small molecule-S100B interface. Heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) NMR titrations indicate that these compounds interact with the p53 binding site on S100B. An NMR-docked model of one such inhibitor, pentamidine, bound to Ca(2+)-loaded S100B was calculated using intermolecular NOE data between S100B and the drug, and indicates that pentamidine binds into the p53 binding site on S100B defined by helices 3 and 4 and loop 2 (termed the hinge region).

  11. DMH1, a Highly Selective Small Molecule BMP Inhibitor Promotes Neurogenesis of hiPSCs: Comparison of PAX6 and SOX1 Expression during Neural Induction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Recent successes in deriving human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) allow for the possibility of studying human neurons derived from patients with neurological diseases. Concomitant inhibition of the BMP and TGF-β1 branches of the TGF-β signaling pathways by the endogenous antagonist, Noggin, and the small molecule SB431542, respectively, induces efficient neuralization of hiPSCs, a method known as dual-SMAD inhibition. The use of small molecule inhibitors instead of their endogenous counterparts has several advantages including lower cost, consistent activity, and the maintenance of xeno-free culture conditions. We tested the efficacy of DMH1, a highly selective small molecule BMP-inhibitor for its potential to replace Noggin in the neuralization of hiPSCs. We compare Noggin and DMH1-induced neuralization of hiPSCs by measuring protein and mRNA levels of pluripotency and neural precursor markers over a period of seven days. The regulation of five of the six markers assessed was indistinguishable in the presence of concentrations of Noggin or DMH1 that have been shown to effectively inhibit BMP signaling in other systems. We observed that by varying the DMH1 or Noggin concentration, we could selectively modulate the number of SOX1 expressing cells, whereas PAX6, another neural precursor marker, remained the same. The level and timing of SOX1 expression have been shown to affect neural induction as well as neural lineage. Our observations, therefore, suggest that BMP-inhibitor concentrations need to be carefully monitored to ensure appropriate expression levels of all transcription factors necessary for the induction of a particular neuronal lineage. We further demonstrate that DMH1-induced neural progenitors can be differentiated into β3-tubulin expressing neurons, a subset of which also express tyrosine hydroxylase. Thus, the combined use of DMH1, a highly specific BMP-pathway inhibitor, and SB431542, a TGF-β1-pathway specific inhibitor, provides us

  12. Discovery of a small-molecule HIV-1 integrase inhibitor-binding site | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The lowest energy-binding conformation of an inhibitor bound to the dimeric interface of HIV-1 integrase core domain. The yellow region represents a unique allosteric binding site identified by affinity labeling and mass spectrometry and validated through mutagenesis. This site can provide a potential platform for the rational design of inhibitors selective for disruption of

  13. Piperidine carboxylic acid derivatives of 10H-pyrazino[2,3-b][1,4]benzothiazine as orally-active adhesion molecule inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Toshihiko; Clark, Richard S J; Ohi, Norihito; Ozaki, Fumihiro; Kawahara, Tetsuya; Kamada, Atsushi; Okano, Kazuo; Yokohama, Hiromitsu; Ohkuro, Masayoshi; Muramoto, Kenzo; Takenaka, Osamu; Kobayashi, Seiichi

    2004-06-01

    Novel piperidine carboxylic acid derivatives of 10H-pyrazino[2,3-b][1,4]benzothiazine were prepared and evaluated for their inhibitory activity on the upregulation of adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Replacement of the methanesulfonyl group on the piperidine ring of previously prepared derivatives with a carboxylic acid-containing moiety resulted in a number of potent adhesion molecule inhibitors. Of these, (anti) [3-(10H-pyrazino[2,3-b][1,4]benzothiazin-8-yl)methyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]non-9-yl]acetic acid 2q (ER-49890), showed the most potent oral inhibitory activities against neutrophil migration in an interleukin-1 (IL-1) induced paw inflammation model using mice, and leukocyte accumulation in a carrageenan pleurisy model in the rat, and therapeutic effect on collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

  14. Small-molecule inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A (NS5A): a patent review (2010-2015).

    PubMed

    Ivanenkov, Yan A; Aladinskiy, Vladimir A; Bushkov, Nikolay A; Ayginin, Andrey A; Majouga, Alexander G; Ivachtchenko, Alexandre V

    2017-04-01

    Non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein has achieved a considerable attention as an attractive target for the treatment of hepatitis C (HCV). A number of novel NS5A inhibitors have been reported to date. Several drugs having favorable ADME properties and mild side effects were launched into the pharmaceutical market. For instance, daclatasvir was launched in 2014, elbasvir is currently undergoing registration, ledipasvir was launched in 2014 as a fixed-dose combination with sofosbuvir (NS5B inhibitor). Areas covered: Thomson integrity database and SciFinder database were used as a valuable source to collect the patents on small-molecule NS5A inhibitors. All the structures were ranked by the date of priority. Patent holder and antiviral activity for each scaffold claimed were summarized and presented in a convenient manner. A particular focus was placed on the best-in-class bis-pyrrolidine-containing NS5A inhibitors. Expert opinion: Several first generation NS5A inhibitors have recently progressed into advanced clinical trials and showed superior efficacy in reducing viral load in infected subjects. Therapy schemes of using these agents in combination with other established antiviral drugs with complementary mechanisms of action can address the emergence of resistance and poor therapeutic outcome frequently attributed to antiviral drugs.

  15. Discovery of small molecule inhibitors of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by targeting β-catenin/Tcf4 interactions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Maocai; Li, Guanqun; An, Jing

    2017-06-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway typically shows aberrant activation in various cancer cells, especially colorectal cancer cells. This signaling pathway regulates the expression of a variety of tumor-related proteins, including c-myc and cyclin D1, and plays essential roles in tumorigenesis and in the development of many cancers. Small molecules that block the interactions between β-catenin and Tcf4, a downstream stage of activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, could efficiently cut off this signal transduction and thereby act as a novel class of anticancer drugs. This paper reviews the currently reported inhibitors that target β-catenin/Tcf4 interactions, focusing on the discovery approaches taken in the design of these inhibitors and their bioactivities. A brief perspective is then shared on the future discovery and development of this class of inhibitors. Impact statement This mini-review summarized the current knowledge of inhibitors of interactions of beta-catenin/Tcf4 published to date according to their discovery approaches, and discussed their in vitro and in vivo activities, selectivities, and pharmacokinetic properties. Several reviews presently available now in this field describe modulators of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, but are generally focused on the bioactivities of these inhibitors. By contrast, this review focused on the drug discovery approaches taken in identifying these types of inhibitors and provided our perspective on further strategies for future drug discoveries. This review also integrated many recently published and important works on highly selective inhibitors as well as rational drug design. We believe that the findings and strategies summarized in this review have broad implications and will be of interest throughout the biochemical and pharmaceutical research community.

  16. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Comparison of chlorthalidone, indapamide, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide X-ray crystal structures in adducts with isozyme II, when several water molecules make the difference.

    PubMed

    Temperini, Claudia; Cecchi, Alessandro; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2009-02-01

    Thiazide and high ceiling diuretics were recently shown to inhibit all mammalian isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) with a very different profile as compared to classical inhibitors, such as acetazolamide, methazolamide, and ethoxzolamide. Some of these structurally related compounds have a very different behavior against the widespread isozyme CA II, with chlorthalidone, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide being efficient inhibitors against CA II (K(I)s of 65-138 nM), whereas indapamide is a much weaker one (K(I) of 2520 nM). Furthermore, some of these diuretics are quite efficient (low nanomolar) inhibitors of other isoforms, for example, chlorthalidone against hCA VB, VII, IX, and XIII; indapamide against CA VII, IX, XII, and XIII, trichloromethiazide against CA VII and IX, and furosemide against CA I and XIV. Examining the four X-ray crystal structures of their CA II adducts, we observed several (2-3) active site water molecules interacting with the chlorthalidone, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide scaffolds which may be responsible for this important difference of activity. Indeed, indapamide bound to CA II has no interactions with active site water molecules. Chlorthalidone bound within the CA II active site is in an enolic (lactimic) tautomeric form, with the enolic OH also participating in two strong hydrogen bonds with Asn67 and a water molecule. The newly evidenced binding modes of these diuretics may be exploited for designing better CA II inhibitors as well as compounds with selectivity/affinity for various isoforms with medicinal chemistry applications.

  17. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Assay for Discovery of Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Methyl-CpG Binding Domain Protein 2.

    PubMed

    Wyhs, Nicolas; Walker, David; Giovinazzo, Hugh; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Nelson, William G

    2014-08-01

    Methylated DNA binding proteins such as Methyl-CpG Binding Domain Protein 2 (MBD2) can transduce DNA methylation alterations into a repressive signal by recruiting transcriptional co-repressor complexes. Interfering with MBD2 could lead to reactivation of tumor suppressor genes and therefore represents an attractive strategy for epigenetic therapy. We developed and compared fluorescence polarization (FP) and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET)-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to identify small-molecule inhibitors of the interaction between the methyl binding domain of MBD2 (MBD2-MBD) and methylated DNA. Although both assays performed well in 96-well format, the TR-FRET assay (Z' factor = 0.58) emerged as a superior screening strategy compared with FP (Z' factor = 0.08) when evaluated in an HTS 384-well plate format. Using TR-FRET, we screened the Sigma LOPAC library for MBD2-MBD inhibitors and identified four compounds that also validated in a dose-response series. This included two known DNA intercalators (mitoxantrone and idarubicin) among two other inhibitory compounds (NF449 and aurintricarboxylic acid). All four compounds also inhibited the binding of SP-1, a transcription factor with a GC-rich binding sequence, to a methylated oligonucleotide, demonstrating that the activity was nonspecific. Our results provide proof of principle for using TR-FRET-based HTS to identify small-molecule inhibitors of MBD2 and other DNA-protein interactions. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  18. Integrating computational and chemical biology tools in the discovery of antiangiogenic small molecule ligands of FGF2 derived from endogenous inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Foglieni, Chiara; Pagano, Katiuscia; Lessi, Marco; Bugatti, Antonella; Moroni, Elisabetta; Pinessi, Denise; Resovi, Andrea; Ribatti, Domenico; Bertini, Sabrina; Ragona, Laura; Bellina, Fabio; Rusnati, Marco; Colombo, Giorgio; Taraboletti, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    The FGFs/FGFRs system is a recognized actionable target for therapeutic approaches aimed at inhibiting tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. We previously identified a non-peptidic compound (SM27) that retains the structural and functional properties of the FGF2-binding sequence of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a major endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis. Here we identified new small molecule inhibitors of FGF2 based on the initial lead. A similarity-based screening of small molecule libraries, followed by docking calculations and experimental studies, allowed selecting 7 bi-naphthalenic compounds that bound FGF2 inhibiting its binding to both heparan sulfate proteoglycans and FGFR-1. The compounds inhibit FGF2 activity in in vitro and ex vivo models of angiogenesis, with improved potency over SM27. Comparative analysis of the selected hits, complemented by NMR and biochemical analysis of 4 newly synthesized functionalized phenylamino-substituted naphthalenes, allowed identifying the minimal stereochemical requirements to improve the design of naphthalene sulfonates as FGF2 inhibitors. PMID:27000667

  19. Human HDAC isoform selectivity achieved via exploitation of the acetate release channel with structurally unique small molecule inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, Lewis; Dobler, Markus R.; Radetich, Branko

    2013-11-20

    Herein we report the discovery of a family of novel yet simple, amino-acid derived class I HDAC inhibitors that demonstrate isoform selectivity via access to the internal acetate release channel. Isoform selectivity criteria is discussed on the basis of X-ray crystallography and molecular modeling of these novel inhibitors bound to HDAC8, potentially revealing insights into the mechanism of enzymatic function through novel structural features revealed at the atomic level.

  20. High-Affinity Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Menin-Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) Interaction Closely Mimic a Natural Protein-Protein Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    He, Shihan; Senter, Timothy J.; Pollock, Jonathan

    2014-10-02

    The protein–protein interaction (PPI) between menin and mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) plays a critical role in acute leukemias, and inhibition of this interaction represents a new potential therapeutic strategy for MLL leukemias. We report development of a novel class of small-molecule inhibitors of the menin–MLL interaction, the hydroxy- and aminomethylpiperidine compounds, which originated from HTS of ~288000 small molecules. We determined menin–inhibitor co-crystal structures and found that these compounds closely mimic all key interactions of MLL with menin. Extensive crystallography studies combined with structure-based design were applied for optimization of these compounds, resulting in MIV-6R, which inhibits the menin–MLL interactionmore » with IC 50 = 56 nM. Treatment with MIV-6 demonstrated strong and selective effects in MLL leukemia cells, validating specific mechanism of action. Our studies provide novel and attractive scaffold as a new potential therapeutic approach for MLL leukemias and demonstrate an example of PPI amenable to inhibition by small molecules.« less

  1. Small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of platelet-derived growth factor signaling (SU9518) modifies radiation response in fibroblasts and endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minglun; Ping, Gong; Plathow, Christian; Trinh, Thuy; Lipson, Kenneth E; Hauser, Kai; Krempien, Robert; Debus, Juergen; Abdollahi, Amir; Huber, Peter E

    2006-01-01

    Background Several small receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKI) have entered clinical cancer trials alone and in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The inhibitory spectrum of these compounds is often not restricted to a single target. For example Imatinib/Gleevec (primarily a bcr/abl kinase inhibitor) or SU11248 (mainly a VEGFR inhibitor) are also potent inhibitors of PDGFR and other kinases. We showed previously that PDGF signaling inhibition attenuates radiation-induced lung fibrosis in a mouse model. Here we investigate effects of SU9518, a PDGFR inhibitor combined with ionizing radiation in human primary fibroblasts and endothelial cells in vitro, with a view on utilizing RTKI for antifibrotic therapy. Methods Protein levels of PDGFR-α/-β and phosphorylated PDGFR in fibroblasts were analyzed using western and immunocytochemistry assays. Functional proliferation and clonogenic assays were performed (i) to assess PDGFR-mediated survival and proliferation in fibroblasts and endothelial cells after SU9518 (small molecule inhibitor of PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase); (ii) to test the potency und selectivity of the PDGF RTK inhibitor after stimulation with PDGF isoforms (-AB, -AA, -BB) and VEGF+bFGF. In order to simulate in vivo conditions and to understand the role of radiation-induced paracrine PDGF secretion, co-culture models consisting of fibroblasts and endothelial cells were employed. Results In fibroblasts, radiation markedly activated PDGF signaling as detected by enhanced PDGFR phosphorylation which was potently inhibited by SU9518. In fibroblast clonogenic assay, SU9518 reduced PDGF stimulated fibroblast survival by 57%. Likewise, SU9518 potently inhibited fibroblast and endothelial cell proliferation. In the co-culture model, radiation of endothelial cells and fibroblast cells substantially stimulated proliferation of non irradiated fibroblasts and vice versa. Importantly, the RTK inhibitor significantly inhibited this paracrine radiation

  2. Fragment-based discovery of a new family of non-peptidic small-molecule cyclophilin inhibitors with potent antiviral activities

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed-Belkacem, Abdelhakim; Colliandre, Lionel; Ahnou, Nazim; Nevers, Quentin; Gelin, Muriel; Bessin, Yannick; Brillet, Rozenn; Cala, Olivier; Douguet, Dominique; Bourguet, William; Krimm, Isabelle; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Guichou, Jean- François

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIase) that catalyse the interconversion of the peptide bond at proline residues. Several cyclophilins play a pivotal role in the life cycle of a number of viruses. The existing cyclophilin inhibitors, all derived from cyclosporine A or sanglifehrin A, have disadvantages, including their size, potential for side effects unrelated to cyclophilin inhibition and drug–drug interactions, unclear antiviral spectrum and manufacturing issues. Here we use a fragment-based drug discovery approach using nucleic magnetic resonance, X-ray crystallography and structure-based compound optimization to generate a new family of non-peptidic, small-molecule cyclophilin inhibitors with potent in vitro PPIase inhibitory activity and antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus and coronaviruses. This family of compounds has the potential for broad-spectrum, high-barrier-to-resistance treatment of viral infections. PMID:27652979

  3. The small molecule inhibitor YK-4-279 disrupts mitotic progression of neuroblastoma cells, overcomes drug resistance and synergizes with inhibitors of mitosis.

    PubMed

    Kollareddy, Madhu; Sherrard, Alice; Park, Ji Hyun; Szemes, Marianna; Gallacher, Kelli; Melegh, Zsombor; Oltean, Sebastian; Michaelis, Martin; Cinatl, Jindrich; Kaidi, Abderrahmane; Malik, Karim

    2017-09-10

    Neuroblastoma is a biologically and clinically heterogeneous pediatric malignancy that includes a high-risk subset for which new therapeutic agents are urgently required. As well as MYCN amplification, activating point mutations of ALK and NRAS are associated with high-risk and relapsing neuroblastoma. As both ALK and RAS signal through the MEK/ERK pathway, we sought to evaluate two previously reported inhibitors of ETS-related transcription factors, which are transcriptional mediators of the Ras-MEK/ERK pathway in other cancers. Here we show that YK-4-279 suppressed growth and triggered apoptosis in nine neuroblastoma cell lines, while BRD32048, another ETV1 inhibitor, was ineffective. These results suggest that YK-4-279 acts independently of ETS-related transcription factors. Further analysis reveals that YK-4-279 induces mitotic arrest in prometaphase, resulting in subsequent cell death. Mechanistically, we show that YK-4-279 inhibits the formation of kinetochore microtubules, with treated cells showing a broad range of abnormalities including multipolar, fragmented and unseparated spindles, together leading to disrupted progression through mitosis. Notably, YK-4-279 does not affect microtubule acetylation, unlike the conventional mitotic poisons paclitaxel and vincristine. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that YK-4-279 overcomes vincristine-induced resistance in two neuroblastoma cell-line models. Furthermore, combinations of YK-4-279 with vincristine, paclitaxel or the Aurora kinase A inhibitor MLN8237/Alisertib show strong synergy, particularly at low doses. Thus, YK-4-279 could potentially be used as a single-agent or in combination therapies for the treatment of high-risk and relapsing neuroblastoma, as well as other cancers. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. PI-273, a Substrate-Competitive, Specific Small-Molecule Inhibitor of PI4KIIα, Inhibits the Growth of Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiangmei; Gao, Zhen; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Lunfeng; Qiao, Xinhua; Zhao, Yingying; Ding, Hong; Zhang, Panpan; Lu, Junyan; Liu, Jia; Jiang, Hualiang; Luo, Cheng; Chen, Chang

    2017-11-15

    While phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4KIIα) has been identified as a potential target for antitumor therapy, the clinical applications of PI4KIIα are limited by a lack of specific inhibitors. Here we report the first small-molecule inhibitor (SMI) of human PI4KIIα. Docking-based and ligand-based virtual screening strategies were first employed to identify promising hits, followed by two rounds of kinase activity inhibition validation. 2-(3-(4-Chlorobenzoyl)thioureido)-4-ethyl-5-methylthiophene-3-carboxamide (PI-273) exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect on PI4KIIα kinase activity (IC 50 = 0.47 μmol/L) and suppressed cell proliferation. Surface plasmon resonance and thermal shift assays indicated that PI-273 interacted directly with PI4KIIα. Kinetic analysis identified PI-273 as a reversible competitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate phosphatidylinositol (PI), which contrasted with most other PI kinase inhibitors that bind the ATP binding site. PI-273 reduced PI4P content, cell viability, and AKT signaling in wild-type MCF-7 cells, but not in PI4KIIα knockout MCF-7 cells, indicating that PI-273 is highly selective for PI4KIIα. Mutant analysis revealed a role of palmitoylation insertion in the selectivity of PI-273 for PI4KIIα. In addition, PI-273 treatment retarded cell proliferation by blocking cells in G 2 -M, inducing cell apoptosis and suppressing colony-forming ability. Importantly, PI-273 significantly inhibited MCF-7 cell-induced breast tumor growth without toxicity. PI-273 is the first substrate-competitive, subtype-specific inhibitor of PI4KIIα, the use of which will facilitate evaluations of PI4KIIα as a cancer therapeutic target. Cancer Res; 77(22); 6253-66. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Generation of a Selective Small Molecule Inhibitor of the CBP/p300 Bromodomain for Leukemia Therapy.

    PubMed

    Picaud, Sarah; Fedorov, Oleg; Thanasopoulou, Angeliki; Leonards, Katharina; Jones, Katherine; Meier, Julia; Olzscha, Heidi; Monteiro, Octovia; Martin, Sarah; Philpott, Martin; Tumber, Anthony; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Yapp, Clarence; Wells, Christopher; Che, Ka Hing; Bannister, Andrew; Robson, Samuel; Kumar, Umesh; Parr, Nigel; Lee, Kevin; Lugo, Dave; Jeffrey, Philip; Taylor, Simon; Vecellio, Matteo L; Bountra, Chas; Brennan, Paul E; O'Mahony, Alison; Velichko, Sharlene; Müller, Susanne; Hay, Duncan; Daniels, Danette L; Urh, Marjeta; La Thangue, Nicholas B; Kouzarides, Tony; Prinjha, Rab; Schwaller, Jürg; Knapp, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    The histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 are involved in recurrent leukemia-associated chromosomal translocations and are key regulators of cell growth. Therefore, efforts to generate inhibitors of CBP/p300 are of clinical value. We developed a specific and potent acetyl-lysine competitive protein-protein interaction inhibitor, I-CBP112, that targets the CBP/p300 bromodomains. Exposure of human and mouse leukemic cell lines to I-CBP112 resulted in substantially impaired colony formation and induced cellular differentiation without significant cytotoxicity. I-CBP112 significantly reduced the leukemia-initiating potential of MLL-AF9(+) acute myeloid leukemia cells in a dose-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, I-CBP112 increased the cytotoxic activity of BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 as well as doxorubicin. Collectively, we report the development and preclinical evaluation of a novel, potent inhibitor targeting CBP/p300 bromodomains that impairs aberrant self-renewal of leukemic cells. The synergistic effects of I-CBP112 and current standard therapy (doxorubicin) as well as emerging treatment strategies (BET inhibition) provide new opportunities for combinatorial treatment of leukemia and potentially other cancers. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Generation of a selective small molecule inhibitor of the CBP/p300 bromodomain for leukemia therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Katherine; Meier, Julia; Olzscha, Heidi; Monteiro, Octovia; Martin, Sarah; Philpott, Martin; Tumber, Anthony; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Yapp, Clarence; Wells, Christopher; Che, Ka Hing; Bannister, Andrew; Robson, Samuel; Kumar, Umesh; Parr, Nigel; Lee, Kevin; Lugo, Dave; Jeffrey, Philip; Taylor, Simon; Vecellio, Matteo L.; Bountra, Chas; Brennan, Paul E.; O’Mahony, Alison; Velichko, Sharlene; Müller, Susanne; Hay, Duncan; Daniels, Danette L.; Urh, Marjeta; La Thangue, Nicholas B.; Kouzarides, Tony; Prinjha, Rab; Schwaller, Jürg; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 are involved in recurrent leukemia-associated chromosomal translocations and are key regulators of cell growth. Therefore, efforts to generate inhibitors of CBP/p300 are of clinical value. We developed a specific and potent acetyl-lysine competitive protein-protein interaction inhibitor, I-CBP112, that targets the CBP/p300 bromodomains. Exposure of human and mouse leukemic cell lines to I-CBP112 resulted in substantially impaired colony formation and induced cellular differentiation without significant cytotoxicity. I-CBP112 significantly reduced the leukemia-initiating potential of MLL-AF9+ AML cells in a dose-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, I-CBP112 increased the cytotoxic activity of BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 as well as doxorubicin. Collectively we report the development and preclinical evaluation of a novel, potent inhibitor targeting CBP/p300 bromodomains that impairs aberrant self-renewal of leukemic cells. The synergistic effects of I-CBP112 and current standard therapy (doxorubicin) as well as emerging treatment strategies (BET inhibition) provide new opportunities for combinatorial treatment of leukemia and potentially other cancers. PMID:26552700

  7. Diverse Small Molecule Inhibitors of Human Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease APE1 Identified from a Screen of a Large Public Collection

    PubMed Central

    Dorjsuren, Dorjbal; Kim, Daemyung; Vyjayanti, Vaddadi N.; Maloney, David J.; Jadhav, Ajit; Wilson, David M.; Simeonov, Anton

    2012-01-01

    The major human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 plays a pivotal role in the repair of base damage via participation in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway. Increased activity of APE1, often observed in tumor cells, is thought to contribute to resistance to various anticancer drugs, whereas down-regulation of APE1 sensitizes cells to DNA damaging agents. Thus, inhibiting APE1 repair endonuclease function in cancer cells is considered a promising strategy to overcome therapeutic agent resistance. Despite ongoing efforts, inhibitors of APE1 with adequate drug-like properties have yet to be discovered. Using a kinetic fluorescence assay, we conducted a fully-automated high-throughput screen (HTS) of the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR), as well as additional public collections, with each compound tested as a 7-concentration series in a 4 µL reaction volume. Actives identified from the screen were subjected to a panel of confirmatory and counterscreen tests. Several active molecules were identified that inhibited APE1 in two independent assay formats and exhibited potentiation of the genotoxic effect of methyl methanesulfonate with a concomitant increase in AP sites, a hallmark of intracellular APE1 inhibition; a number of these chemotypes could be good starting points for further medicinal chemistry optimization. To our knowledge, this represents the largest-scale HTS to identify inhibitors of APE1, and provides a key first step in the development of novel agents targeting BER for cancer treatment. PMID:23110144

  8. Forces and Dynamics of Glucose and Inhibitor Binding to Sodium Glucose Co-transporter SGLT1 Studied by Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Neundlinger, Isabel; Puntheeranurak, Theeraporn; Wildling, Linda; Rankl, Christian; Wang, Lai-Xi; Gruber, Hermann J.; Kinne, Rolf K. H.; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Single molecule force spectroscopy was employed to investigate the dynamics of the sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT1) upon substrate and inhibitor binding on the single molecule level. CHO cells stably expressing rbSGLT1 were probed by using atomic force microscopy tips carrying either thioglucose, 2′-aminoethyl β-d-glucopyranoside, or aminophlorizin. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains of different length and varying end groups were used as tether. Experiments were performed at 10, 25 and 37 °C to address different conformational states of SGLT1. Unbinding forces between ligands and SGLT1 were recorded at different loading rates by changing the retraction velocity, yielding binding probability, width of energy barrier of the binding pocket, and the kinetic off rate constant of the binding reaction. With increasing temperature, width of energy barrier and average life time increased for the interaction of SGLT1 with thioglucose (coupled via acrylamide to a long PEG) but decreased for aminophlorizin binding. The former indicates that in the membrane-bound SGLT1 the pathway to sugar translocation involves several steps with different temperature sensitivity. The latter suggests that also the aglucon binding sites for transport inhibitors have specific, temperature-sensitive conformations. PMID:24962566

  9. Small molecule kinase inhibitor LRRK2-IN-1 demonstrates potent activity against colorectal and pancreatic cancer through inhibition of doublecortin-like kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is emerging as a tumor specific stem cell marker in colorectal and pancreatic cancer. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of inhibiting DCLK1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) as well as genetically targeting the DCLK1+ cell for deletion. However, the effects of inhibiting DCLK1 kinase activity have not been studied directly. Therefore, we assessed the effects of inhibiting DCLK1 kinase activity using the novel small molecule kinase inhibitor, LRRK2-IN-1, which demonstrates significant affinity for DCLK1. Results Here we report that LRRK2-IN-1 demonstrates potent anti-cancer activity including inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion as well as induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Additionally we found that it regulates stemness, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and oncogenic targets on the molecular level. Moreover, we show that LRRK2-IN-1 suppresses DCLK1 kinase activity and downstream DCLK1 effector c-MYC, and demonstrate that DCLK1 kinase activity is a significant factor in resistance to LRRK2-IN-1. Conclusions Given DCLK1’s tumor stem cell marker status, a strong understanding of its biological role and interactions in gastrointestinal tumors may lead to discoveries that improve patient outcomes. The results of this study suggest that small molecule inhibitors of DCLK1 kinase should be further investigated as they may hold promise as anti-tumor stem cell drugs. PMID:24885928

  10. A small-molecule inhibitor of NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) protects liver from toxin-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and injury.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaomeng; Li, Xinzhi; Jia, Linna; Chen, Deheng; Hou, Hai; Rui, Liangyou; Zhao, Yujun; Chen, Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Potent and selective chemical probes are valuable tools for discovery of novel treatments for human diseases. NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) is a key trigger in the development of liver injury and fibrosis. Whether inhibition of NIK activity by chemical probes ameliorates liver inflammation and injury is largely unknown. In this study, a small-molecule inhibitor of NIK, B022, was found to be a potent and selective chemical probe for liver inflammation and injury. B022 inhibited the NIK signaling pathway, including NIK-induced p100-to-p52 processing and inflammatory gene expression, both in vitro and in vivo Furthermore, in vivo administration of B022 protected against not only NIK but also CCl 4 -induced liver inflammation and injury. Our data suggest that inhibition of NIK is a novel strategy for treatment of liver inflammation, oxidative stress, and injury.-Ren, X., Li, X., Jia, L., Chen, D., Hou, H., Rui, L., Zhao, Y., Chen, Z. A small-molecule inhibitor of NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) protects liver from toxin-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and injury. © FASEB.

  11. Diverse small molecule inhibitors of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 identified from a screen of a large public collection.

    PubMed

    Dorjsuren, Dorjbal; Kim, Daemyung; Vyjayanti, Vaddadi N; Maloney, David J; Jadhav, Ajit; Wilson, David M; Simeonov, Anton

    2012-01-01

    The major human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 plays a pivotal role in the repair of base damage via participation in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway. Increased activity of APE1, often observed in tumor cells, is thought to contribute to resistance to various anticancer drugs, whereas down-regulation of APE1 sensitizes cells to DNA damaging agents. Thus, inhibiting APE1 repair endonuclease function in cancer cells is considered a promising strategy to overcome therapeutic agent resistance. Despite ongoing efforts, inhibitors of APE1 with adequate drug-like properties have yet to be discovered. Using a kinetic fluorescence assay, we conducted a fully-automated high-throughput screen (HTS) of the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR), as well as additional public collections, with each compound tested as a 7-concentration series in a 4 µL reaction volume. Actives identified from the screen were subjected to a panel of confirmatory and counterscreen tests. Several active molecules were identified that inhibited APE1 in two independent assay formats and exhibited potentiation of the genotoxic effect of methyl methanesulfonate with a concomitant increase in AP sites, a hallmark of intracellular APE1 inhibition; a number of these chemotypes could be good starting points for further medicinal chemistry optimization. To our knowledge, this represents the largest-scale HTS to identify inhibitors of APE1, and provides a key first step in the development of novel agents targeting BER for cancer treatment.

  12. Significant blockade of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases by MGCD516 (Sitravatinib), a novel small molecule inhibitor, shows potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical models of sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Parag P; Ivy, Kathryn S; Musi, Elgilda; de Stanchina, Elisa; Schwartz, Gary K

    2016-01-26

    Sarcomas are rare but highly aggressive mesenchymal tumors with a median survival of 10-18 months for metastatic disease. Mutation and/or overexpression of many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including c-Met, PDGFR, c-Kit and IGF1-R drive defective signaling pathways in sarcomas. MGCD516 (Sitravatinib) is a novel small molecule inhibitor targeting multiple RTKs involved in driving sarcoma cell growth. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of MGCD516 both in vitro and in mouse xenograft models in vivo. MGCD516 treatment resulted in significant blockade of phosphorylation of potential driver RTKs and induced potent anti-proliferative effects in vitro. Furthermore, MGCD516 treatment of tumor xenografts in vivo resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth. Efficacy of MGCD516 was superior to imatinib and crizotinib, two other well-studied multi-kinase inhibitors with overlapping target specificities, both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report describing MGCD516 as a potent multi-kinase inhibitor in different models of sarcoma, superior to imatinib and crizotinib. Results from this study showing blockade of multiple driver signaling pathways provides a rationale for further clinical development of MGCD516 for the treatment of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma.

  13. Significant blockade of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases by MGCD516 (Sitravatinib), a novel small molecule inhibitor, shows potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical models of sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Musi, Elgilda; de Stanchina, Elisa; Schwartz, Gary K.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcomas are rare but highly aggressive mesenchymal tumors with a median survival of 10–18 months for metastatic disease. Mutation and/or overexpression of many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including c-Met, PDGFR, c-Kit and IGF1-R drive defective signaling pathways in sarcomas. MGCD516 (Sitravatinib) is a novel small molecule inhibitor targeting multiple RTKs involved in driving sarcoma cell growth. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of MGCD516 both in vitro and in mouse xenograft models in vivo. MGCD516 treatment resulted in significant blockade of phosphorylation of potential driver RTKs and induced potent anti-proliferative effects in vitro. Furthermore, MGCD516 treatment of tumor xenografts in vivo resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth. Efficacy of MGCD516 was superior to imatinib and crizotinib, two other well-studied multi-kinase inhibitors with overlapping target specificities, both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report describing MGCD516 as a potent multi-kinase inhibitor in different models of sarcoma, superior to imatinib and crizotinib. Results from this study showing blockade of multiple driver signaling pathways provides a rationale for further clinical development of MGCD516 for the treatment of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma. PMID:26675259

  14. A Rapid Phenotypic Whole Cell Screening Approach for the Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors that Counter Beta-lactamase Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Collia, Deanna; Bannister, Thomas D.; Tan, Hao; Jin, Shouguang; Langaee, Taimour; Shumate, Justin; Scampavia, Louis; Spicer, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen which is prevalent in hospitals and continues to develop resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. Historically, β-lactam antibiotics have been the first line of therapeutic defense. However, the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of P. aeruginosa, such as AmpC β-lactamase overproducing mutants, limits the effectiveness of current antibiotics. Among AmpC hyper producing clinical isolates, inactivation of AmpG, which is essential for the expression of AmpC, increases bacterial sensitivity to β-lactam antibiotics. We hypothesize that inhibition of AmpG activity will enhance the efficacy of β-lactams against P. aeruginosa. Here, using a highly drug resistant AmpC inducible laboratory strain PAO1, we describe an ultra-high throughput whole cell turbidity assay designed to identify small molecule inhibitors of the AmpG. We screened 645K compounds to identify compounds with the ability to inhibit bacterial growth in the presence of Cefoxitin; an AmpC inducer, and identified 2,663 inhibitors which were also tested in the absence of Cefoxitin to determine AmpG specificity. The Z′ and S:B were robust at 0.87 ± 0.05 and 2.2 ± 0.2, respectively. Through a series of secondary and tertiary studies, including a novel luciferase based counterscreen, we ultimately identified 8 potential AmpG specific inhibitors. PMID:28850797

  15. Structure Guided Chemical Modifications of Propylthiouracil Reveal Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Cytochrome b5 Reductase 3 That Increase Nitric Oxide Bioavailability*

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Md. Mizanur; Reinders, Fabio G.; Koes, David; Nguyen, Anh T.; Mutchler, Stephanie M.; Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Alvarez, Roger A.; Miller, Megan P.; Cheng, Dongmei; Chen, Bill B.; Jackson, Edwin K.; Camacho, Carlos J.; Straub, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    NADH cytochrome b5 reductase 3 (CYB5R3) is critical for reductive reactions such as fatty acid elongation, cholesterol biosynthesis, drug metabolism, and methemoglobin reduction. Although the physiological and metabolic importance of CYB5R3 has been established in hepatocytes and erythrocytes, emerging investigations suggest that CYB5R3 is critical for nitric oxide signaling and vascular function. However, advancement toward fully understanding CYB5R3 function has been limited due to a lack of potent small molecule inhibitors. Because of this restriction, we modeled the binding mode of propylthiouracil, a weak inhibitor of CYB5R3 (IC50 = ∼275 μm), and used it as a guide to predict thiouracil-biased inhibitors from the set of commercially available compounds in the ZINC database. Using this approach, we validated two new potent derivatives of propylthiouracil, ZINC05626394 (IC50 = 10.81 μm) and ZINC39395747 (IC50 = 9.14 μm), both of which inhibit CYB5R3 activity in cultured cells. Moreover, we found that ZINC39395747 significantly increased NO bioavailability in renal vascular cells, augmented renal blood flow, and decreased systemic blood pressure in response to vasoconstrictors in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These compounds will serve as a new tool to examine the biological functions of CYB5R3 in physiology and disease and also as a platform for new drug development. PMID:26001785

  16. Small-molecule inhibitors of FABP4/5 ameliorate dyslipidemia but not insulin resistance in mice with diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Hong; Cheng, Cliff C.; Kowalski, Timothy J.; Pang, Ling; Shan, Lixin; Chuang, Cheng-Chi; Jackson, James; Rojas-Triana, Alberto; Bober, Loretta; Liu, Li; Voigt, Johannes; Orth, Peter; Yang, Xianshu; Shipps, Gerald W.; Hedrick, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) and FABP5 are two closely related FA binding proteins expressed primarily in adipose tissue and/or macrophages. The small-molecule FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403 was previously reported to improve insulin sensitivity in leptin-deficient Lepob/Lepob (ob/ob) mice. However, this compound was not extensively characterized in the more physiologically relevant animal model of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Here, we report the discovery and characterization of a novel series of FABP4/5 dual inhibitors represented by Compounds 1–3. Compared with BMS309403, the compounds had significant in vitro potency toward both FABP4 and FABP5. In cell-based assays, Compounds 2 and 3 were more potent than BMS309403 to inhibit lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in primary human adipocytes. They also inhibited MCP-1 release from THP-1 macrophages as well as from primary human macrophages. When chronically administered to DIO mice, BMS309403 and Compound 3 reduced plasma triglyceride and free FA levels. Compound 3 reduced plasma free FAs at a lower dose level than BMS309403. However, no significant change was observed in insulin, glucose, or glucose tolerance. Our results indicate that the FABP4/5 inhibitors ameliorate dyslipidemia but not insulin resistance in DIO mice. PMID:21296956

  17. Small-molecule inhibitors of FABP4/5 ameliorate dyslipidemia but not insulin resistance in mice with diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hong; Cheng, Cliff C; Kowalski, Timothy J; Pang, Ling; Shan, Lixin; Chuang, Cheng-Chi; Jackson, James; Rojas-Triana, Alberto; Bober, Loretta; Liu, Li; Voigt, Johannes; Orth, Peter; Yang, Xianshu; Shipps, Gerald W; Hedrick, Joseph A

    2011-04-01

    Fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) and FABP5 are two closely related FA binding proteins expressed primarily in adipose tissue and/or macrophages. The small-molecule FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403 was previously reported to improve insulin sensitivity in leptin-deficient Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) (ob/ob) mice. However, this compound was not extensively characterized in the more physiologically relevant animal model of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Here, we report the discovery and characterization of a novel series of FABP4/5 dual inhibitors represented by Compounds 1-3. Compared with BMS309403, the compounds had significant in vitro potency toward both FABP4 and FABP5. In cell-based assays, Compounds 2 and 3 were more potent than BMS309403 to inhibit lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in primary human adipocytes. They also inhibited MCP-1 release from THP-1 macrophages as well as from primary human macrophages. When chronically administered to DIO mice, BMS309403 and Compound 3 reduced plasma triglyceride and free FA levels. Compound 3 reduced plasma free FAs at a lower dose level than BMS309403. However, no significant change was observed in insulin, glucose, or glucose tolerance. Our results indicate that the FABP4/5 inhibitors ameliorate dyslipidemia but not insulin resistance in DIO mice.

  18. A Rapid Phenotypic Whole-Cell Screening Approach for the Identification of Small-Molecule Inhibitors That Counter β-Lactamase Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Collia, Deanna; Bannister, Thomas D; Tan, Hao; Jin, Shouguang; Langaee, Taimour; Shumate, Justin; Scampavia, Louis; Spicer, Timothy P

    2018-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that is prevalent in hospitals and continues to develop resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. Historically, β-lactam antibiotics have been the first line of therapeutic defense. However, the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of P. aeruginosa, such as AmpC β-lactamase overproducing mutants, limits the effectiveness of current antibiotics. Among AmpC hyperproducing clinical isolates, inactivation of AmpG, which is essential for the expression of AmpC, increases bacterial sensitivity to β-lactam antibiotics. We hypothesize that inhibition of AmpG activity will enhance the efficacy of β-lactams against P. aeruginosa. Here, using a highly drug-resistant AmpC-inducible laboratory strain PAO1, we describe an ultra-high-throughput whole-cell turbidity assay designed to identify small-molecule inhibitors of the AmpG. We screened 645,000 compounds to identify compounds with the ability to inhibit bacterial growth in the presence of cefoxitin, an AmpC inducer, and identified 2663 inhibitors that were also tested in the absence of cefoxitin to determine AmpG specificity. The Z' and signal-to-background ratio were robust at 0.87 ± 0.05 and 2.2 ± 0.2, respectively. Through a series of secondary and tertiary studies, including a novel luciferase-based counterscreen, we ultimately identified eight potential AmpG-specific inhibitors.

  19. Small-molecule factor D inhibitors selectively block the alternative pathway of complement in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xuan; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Thanassi, Jane A; Yang, Guangwei; Baines, Andrea C; Podos, Steven D; Huang, Yongqing; Huang, Mingjun; Brodsky, Robert A

    2017-03-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome are diseases of excess activation of the alternative pathway of complement that are treated with eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the terminal complement component C5. Eculizumab must be administered intravenously, and moreover some patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria on eculizumab have symptomatic extravascular hemolysis, indicating an unmet need for additional therapeutic approaches. We report the activity of two novel small-molecule inhibitors of the alternative pathway component Factor D using in vitro correlates of both paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Both compounds bind human Factor D with high affinity and effectively inhibit its proteolytic activity against purified Factor B in complex with C3b. When tested using the traditional Ham test with cells from paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria patients, the Factor D inhibitors significantly reduced complement-mediated hemolysis at concentrations as low as 0.01 μM. Additionally the compound ACH-4471 significantly decreased C3 fragment deposition on paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria erythrocytes, indicating a reduced potential relative to eculizumab for extravascular hemolysis. Using the recently described modified Ham test with serum from patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, the compounds reduced the alternative pathway-mediated killing of PIGA -null reagent cells, thus establishing their potential utility for this disease of alternative pathway of complement dysregulation and validating the modified Ham test as a system for pre-clinical drug development for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Finally, ACH-4471 blocked alternative pathway activity when administered orally to cynomolgus monkeys. In conclusion, the small-molecule Factor D inhibitors show potential as oral therapeutics for human diseases driven by the alternative pathway of complement

  20. WNT-C59, a Small-Molecule WNT Inhibitor, Efficiently Induces Anterior Cortex That Includes Cortical Motor Neurons From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Motono, Makoto; Ioroi, Yoshihiko; Ogura, Takenori; Takahashi, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The recapitulation of human neural development in a controlled, defined manner from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has considerable potential for studies of human neural development, circuit formation and function, and the construction of in vitro models of neurological diseases. The inhibition of Wnt signaling, often by the recombinant protein DKK1, is important for the induction of cortical neurons. Here, we report a novel differentiation method using a small-molecule WNT inhibitor, WNT-C59 (C59), to efficiently induce human anterior cortex. We compared two types of small molecules, C59 and XAV939 (XAV), as substitutes for DKK1 to induce cortical neurons from PSCs in serum-free embryoid body-like aggregate culture. DKK1 and XAV inhibited only the canonical pathway of Wnt signaling, whereas C59 inhibited both the canonical and noncanonical pathways. C59 efficiently induced CTIP2+/COUP-TF1- cells, which are characteristic of the cells found in the anterior cortex. In addition, when grafted into the cortex of adult mice, the C59-induced cells showed abundant axonal fiber extension toward the spinal cord. These results raise the possibility of C59 contributing to cell replacement therapy for motor neuron diseases or insults. For a cell therapy against damaged corticospinal tract caused by neurodegenerative diseases or insults, cortical motor neurons are needed. Currently, their induction from pluripotent stem cells is considered very promising; however, an efficient protocol to induce motor neurons is not available. For efficient induction of anterior cortex, where motor neurons are located, various WNT inhibitors were investigated. It was found that one of them could induce anterior cortical cells efficiently. In addition, when grafted into the cortex of adult mice, the induced cells showed more abundant axonal fiber extension toward spinal cord. These results raise the possibility that this inhibitor contributes to a cell-replacement therapy for motor neuron

  1. Characterization of three small molecule inhibitors of enterovirus 71 identified from screening of a library of natural products.

    PubMed

    Li, Guiming; Gao, Qianqian; Yuan, Shilin; Wang, Lili; Altmeyer, Ralf; Lan, Ke; Yin, Feifei; Zou, Gang

    2017-07-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection with EV-A71 is more often associated with neurological complications in children and is responsible for the majority of fatalities, but currently there is no approved antiviral therapy for treatment. Here, we identified auraptene, formononetin, and yangonin as effective inhibitors of EV-A71 infection in the low-micromolar range from screening of a natural product library. Among them, formononetin and yangonin selectively inhibited EV-A71 while auraptene could inhibit viruses within the enterovirus species A. Time of addition studies showed that all the three inhibitors inhibit both attachment and postattachment step of entry. We found mutations conferring the resistance to these inhibitors in the VP1 and VP4 capsid proteins and confirmed the target residues using a reverse genetic approach. Interestingly, auraptene- and formononetin-resistant viruses exhibit cross-resistance to other inhibitors while yangonin-resistant virus still remains susceptible to auraptene and formononetin. Moreover, auraptene and formononetin, but not yangonin protected EV-A71 against thermal inactivation, indicating a direct stabilizing effect of both compounds on virion capsid conformation. Finally, neither biochanin A (an analog of formononetin) nor DL-Kavain (an analog of yangonin) exhibited anti-EV-A71 activity, suggesting the structural elements required for anti-EV-A71 activity. Taken together, these compounds could become potential lead compounds for anti-EV-A71 drug development and also serve as tool compounds for studying virus entry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An RNAi-based chemical genetic screen identifies three small-molecule inhibitors of the Wnt/wingless signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gonsalves, Foster C.; Klein, Keren; Carson, Brittany B.; Katz, Shauna; Ekas, Laura A.; Evans, Steve; Nagourney, Robert; Cardozo, Timothy; Brown, Anthony M. C.; DasGupta, Ramanuj

    2011-01-01

    Misregulated β-catenin responsive transcription (CRT) has been implicated in the genesis of various malignancies, including colorectal carcinomas, and it is a key therapeutic target in combating various cancers. Despite significant effort, successful clinical implementation of CRT inhibitory therapeutics remains a challenging goal. This is, in part, because of the challenge of identifying inhibitory compounds that specifically modulate the nuclear transcriptional activity of β-catenin while not affecting its cytoskeletal function in stabilizing adherens junctions at the cell membrane. Here, we report an RNAi-based modifier screening strategy for the identification of CRT inhibitors. Our data provide support for the specificity of these inhibitory compounds in antagonizing the transcriptional function of nuclear β-catenin. We show that these inhibitors efficiently block Wnt/β-catenin–induced target genes and phenotypes in various mammalian and cancer cell lines. Importantly, these Wnt inhibitors are specifically cytotoxic to human colon tumor biopsy cultures as well as colon cancer cell lines that exhibit deregulated Wnt signaling. PMID:21393571

  3. Identification of novel small molecule inhibitors against NS2B/NS3 serine protease from Zika virus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyun; Ren, Jinhong; Nocadello, Salvatore

    Zika flavivirus infection during pregnancy appears to produce higher risk of microcephaly, and also causes multiple neurological problems such as Guillain–Barré syndrome. The Zika virus is now widespread in Central and South America, and is anticipated to become an increasing risk in the southern United States. With continuing global travel and the spread of the mosquito vector, the exposure is expected to accelerate, but there are no currently approved treatments against the Zika virus. The Zika NS2B/NS3 protease is an attractive drug target due to its essential role in viral replication. Our studies have identified several compounds with inhibitory activitymore » (IC50) and binding affinity (KD) of ~5–10 μM against the Zika NS2B-NS3 protease from testing 71 HCV NS3/NS4A inhibitors that were initially discovered by high-throughput screening of 40,967 compounds. Competition surface plasmon resonance studies and mechanism of inhibition analyses by enzyme kinetics subsequently determined the best compound to be a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 9.5 μM. We also determined the X-ray structure of the Zika NS2B-NS3 protease in a “pre-open conformation”, a conformation never observed before for any flavivirus proteases. This provides the foundation for new structure-based inhibitor design.« less

  4. Designing Second Generation Anti-Alzheimer Compounds as Inhibitors of Human Acetylcholinesterase: Computational Screening of Synthetic Molecules and Dietary Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Amat-ur-Rasool, Hafsa; Ahmed, Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a big cause of memory loss, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The disease leads to irreversible loss of neurons that result in reduced level of acetylcholine neurotransmitter (ACh). The reduction of ACh level impairs brain functioning. One aspect of AD therapy is to maintain ACh level up to a safe limit, by blocking acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme that is naturally responsible for its degradation. This research presents an in-silico screening and designing of hAChE inhibitors as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs. Molecular docking results of the database retrieved (synthetic chemicals and dietary phytochemicals) and self-drawn ligands were compared with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs against AD as controls. Furthermore, computational ADME studies were performed on the hits to assess their safety. Human AChE was found to be most approptiate target site as compared to commonly used Torpedo AChE. Among the tested dietry phytochemicals, berberastine, berberine, yohimbine, sanguinarine, elemol and naringenin are the worth mentioning phytochemicals as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs The synthetic leads were mostly dual binding site inhibitors with two binding subunits linked by a carbon chain i.e. second generation AD drugs. Fifteen new heterodimers were designed that were computationally more efficient inhibitors than previously reported compounds. Using computational methods, compounds present in online chemical databases can be screened to design more efficient and safer drugs against cognitive symptoms of AD. PMID:26325402

  5. Designing Second Generation Anti-Alzheimer Compounds as Inhibitors of Human Acetylcholinesterase: Computational Screening of Synthetic Molecules and Dietary Phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Amat-Ur-Rasool, Hafsa; Ahmed, Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a big cause of memory loss, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The disease leads to irreversible loss of neurons that result in reduced level of acetylcholine neurotransmitter (ACh). The reduction of ACh level impairs brain functioning. One aspect of AD therapy is to maintain ACh level up to a safe limit, by blocking acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme that is naturally responsible for its degradation. This research presents an in-silico screening and designing of hAChE inhibitors as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs. Molecular docking results of the database retrieved (synthetic chemicals and dietary phytochemicals) and self-drawn ligands were compared with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs against AD as controls. Furthermore, computational ADME studies were performed on the hits to assess their safety. Human AChE was found to be most approptiate target site as compared to commonly used Torpedo AChE. Among the tested dietry phytochemicals, berberastine, berberine, yohimbine, sanguinarine, elemol and naringenin are the worth mentioning phytochemicals as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs The synthetic leads were mostly dual binding site inhibitors with two binding subunits linked by a carbon chain i.e. second generation AD drugs. Fifteen new heterodimers were designed that were computationally more efficient inhibitors than previously reported compounds. Using computational methods, compounds present in online chemical databases can be screened to design more efficient and safer drugs against cognitive symptoms of AD.

  6. Inhibitor of PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway Small Molecule Promotes Motor Neuron Differentiation of Human Endometrial Stem Cells Cultured on Electrospun Biocomposite Polycaprolactone/Collagen Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Hoveizi, Elham; Yazdankhah, Meysam; Ai, Jafar; Khakbiz, Mehrdad; Faghihi, Faezeh; Tajerian, Roksana; Bayat, Neda

    2017-05-01

    Small molecules as useful chemical tools can affect cell differentiation and even change cell fate. It is demonstrated that LY294002, a small molecule inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signal pathway, can inhibit proliferation and promote neuronal differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the differentiation effect of Ly294002 small molecule on the human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs) into motor neuron-like cells on polycaprolactone (PCL)/collagen scaffolds. hEnSCs were cultured in a neurogenic inductive medium containing 1 μM LY294002 on the surface of PCL/collagen electrospun fibrous scaffolds. Cell attachment and viability of cells on scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazoyl-2-yl)2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The expression of neuron-specific markers was assayed by real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry analysis after 15 days post induction. Results showed that attachment and differentiation of hEnSCs into motor neuron-like cells on the scaffolds with Ly294002 small molecule were higher than that of the cells on tissue culture plates as control group. In conclusion, PCL/collagen electrospun scaffolds with Ly294002 have potential for being used in neural tissue engineering because of its bioactive and three-dimensional structure which enhances viability and differentiation of hEnSCs into neurons through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Thus, manipulation of this pathway by small molecules can enhance neural differentiation.

  7. Identification and biochemical characterization of small-molecule inhibitors of west nile virus serine protease by a high-throughput screen.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Niklaus H; Pattabiraman, Nagarajan; Ansarah-Sobrinho, Camilo; Viswanathan, Prasanth; Pierson, Theodore C; Padmanabhan, R

    2008-09-01

    West Nile virus and dengue virus are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause a large number of human infections each year. No vaccines or chemotherapeutics are currently available. These viruses encode a serine protease that is essential for polyprotein processing, a required step in the viral replication cycle. In this study, a high-throughput screening assay for the West Nile virus protease was employed to screen approximately 32,000 small-molecule compounds for identification of inhibitors. Lead inhibitor compounds with three distinct core chemical structures (1 to 3) were identified. In a secondary screening of selected compounds, two compounds, belonging to the 8-hydroxyquinoline family (compounds A and B) and containing core structure 1, were identified as potent inhibitors of the West Nile virus protease, with K(i) values of 3.2 +/- 0.3 microM and 3.4 +/- 0.6 microM, respectively. These compounds inhibited the dengue virus type 2 protease with K(i) values of 28.6 +/- 5.1 microM and 30.2 +/- 8.6 microM, respectively, showing some selectivity in the inhibition of these viral proteases. However, the compounds show no inhibition of cellular serine proteases, trypsin, or factor Xa. Kinetic analysis and molecular docking of compound B onto the known crystal structure of the West Nile virus protease indicate that the inhibitor binds in the substrate-binding cleft. Furthermore, compound B was capable of inhibiting West Nile virus RNA replication in cultured Vero cells (50% effective concentration, 1.4 +/- 0.4 microM; selectivity index, 100), presumably by inhibition of polyprotein processing.

  8. Small molecule R1498 as a well-tolerated and orally active kinase inhibitor for hepatocellular carcinoma and gastric cancer treatment via targeting angiogenesis and mitosis pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Xihan; Zhang, Meifang; Zhu, Liangcheng; Zhao, Rong; Xu, Danqing; Lin, Zhaohu; Liang, Chungen; Chen, Taiping; Chen, Li; Ren, Yi; Zhang, Joe; Qin, Ning; Zhang, Xiongwen

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinases play important roles in tumor development and progression. Lots of kinase inhibitors have entered into market and show promising clinical benefits. Here we report the discovery of a novel small molecule, well-tolerated, orally active kinase inhibitor, R1498, majorly targeting both angiogenic and mitotic pathways for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and gastric cancer (GC). A series of biochemical and cell-based assays indicated that the target kinase cluster of R1498 included Aurora kinases and VEGFR2 et al. R1498 showed moderate in vitro growth inhibition on a panel of tumor cells with IC50 of micromole range. The in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of R1498 was evaluated on a panel of GC and HCC xenografts in a parallel comparison with another multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. R1498 demonstrated superior efficacy and toxicity profile over sorafenib in all test models with >80% tumor growth inhibition and tumor regression in some xenogratfts. The therapeutic potential of R1498 was also highlighted by its efficacy on three human GC primary tumor derived xenograft models with 10-30% tumor regression rate. R1498 was shown to actively inhibit the Aurora A activity in vivo, and decrease the vascularization in tumors. Furthermore, R1498 presented good in vivo exposure and therapeutic window in the pharmacokinetic and dose range finding studies. Theses evidences indicate that R1498 is a potent, well-tolerated, orally active multitarget kinase inhibitor with a unique antiangiogenic and antiproliferative profile, and provide strong confidence for further development for HCC and GC therapy.

  9. Small Molecule R1498 as a Well-Tolerated and Orally Active Kinase Inhibitor for Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Gastric Cancer Treatment via Targeting Angiogenesis and Mitosis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Xihan; Zhang, Meifang; Zhu, Liangcheng; Zhao, Rong; Xu, Danqing; Lin, Zhaohu; Liang, Chungen; Chen, Taiping; Chen, Li; Ren, Yi; Zhang, Joe; Qin, Ning; Zhang, Xiongwen

    2013-01-01

    Protein kinases play important roles in tumor development and progression. Lots of kinase inhibitors have entered into market and show promising clinical benefits. Here we report the discovery of a novel small molecule, well-tolerated, orally active kinase inhibitor, R1498, majorly targeting both angiogenic and mitotic pathways for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and gastric cancer (GC). A series of biochemical and cell-based assays indicated that the target kinase cluster of R1498 included Aurora kinases and VEGFR2 et al. R1498 showed moderate in vitro growth inhibition on a panel of tumor cells with IC50 of micromole range. The in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of R1498 was evaluated on a panel of GC and HCC xenografts in a parallel comparison with another multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. R1498 demonstrated superior efficacy and toxicity profile over sorafenib in all test models with >80% tumor growth inhibition and tumor regression in some xenogratfts. The therapeutic potential of R1498 was also highlighted by its efficacy on three human GC primary tumor derived xenograft models with 10–30% tumor regression rate. R1498 was shown to actively inhibit the Aurora A activity in vivo, and decrease the vascularization in tumors. Furthermore, R1498 presented good in vivo exposure and therapeutic window in the pharmacokinetic and dose range finding studies. Theses evidences indicate that R1498 is a potent, well-tolerated, orally active multitarget kinase inhibitor with a unique antiangiogenic and antiproliferative profile, and provide strong confidence for further development for HCC and GC therapy. PMID:23755206

  10. Repurposing of Proton Pump Inhibitors as first identified small molecule inhibitors of endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase) for the treatment of NGLY1 deficiency, a rare genetic disease.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yiling; Might, Matthew; Vankayalapati, Hariprasad; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2017-07-01

    N-Glycanase deficiency, or NGLY1 deficiency, is an extremely rare human genetic disease. N-Glycanase, encoded by the gene NGLY1, is an important enzyme involved in protein deglycosylation of misfolded proteins. Deglycosylation of misfolded proteins precedes the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) process. NGLY1 patients produce little or no N-glycanase (Ngly1), and the symptoms include global developmental delay, frequent seizures, complex hyperkinetic movement disorder, difficulty in swallowing/aspiration, liver dysfunction, and a lack of tears. Unfortunately, there has not been any therapeutic option available for this rare disease so far. Recently, a proposed molecular mechanism for NGLY1 deficiency suggested that endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase) inhibitors may be promising therapeutics for NGLY1 patients. Herein, we performed structure-based virtual screening utilizing FDA-approved drug database on this ENGase target to enable repurposing of existing drugs. Several Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs), a series of substituted 1H-benzo [d] imidazole, and 1H-imidazo [4,5-b] pyridines, among other scaffolds, have been identified as potent ENGase inhibitors. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay was employed to assess the inhibition of ENGase activity by these PPIs. Our efforts led to the discovery of Rabeprazole Sodium as the most promising hit with an IC 50 of 4.47±0.44μM. This is the first report that describes the discovery of small molecule ENGase inhibitors, which can potentially be used for the treatment of human NGLY1 deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Small-molecule inhibitors of DNA damage-repair pathways: an approach to overcome tumor resistance to alkylating anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ajay; Gold, Barry

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in the future development of cancer therapeutics is the identification of biological targets and pathways, and the subsequent design of molecules to combat the drug-resistant cells hiding in virtually all cancers. This therapeutic approach is justified based upon the limited advances in cancer cures over the past 30 years, despite the development of many novel chemotherapies and earlier detection, which often fail due to drug resistance. Among the various targets to overcome tumor resistance are the DNA repair systems that can reverse the cytotoxicity of many clinically used DNA-damaging agents. Some progress has already been made but much remains to be done. We explore some components of the DNA-repair process, which are involved in repair of alkylation damage of DNA, as targets for the development of novel and effective molecules designed to improve the efficacy of existing anticancer drugs. PMID:22709253

  12. Solution and Gas-Phase H/D Exchange of Protein-Small-Molecule Complexes: Cex and Its Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yang; Terrier, Peran; Ding, Chuanfan; Douglas, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    The properties of noncovalent complexes of the enzyme exo-1,4-β-D-glycanase ("Cex") with three aza-sugar inhibitors, deoxynojirimycin (X2DNJ), isofagomine lactam (X2IL), and isofagomine (X2IF), have been studied with solution and gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange (H/Dx) and measurements of collision cross sections of gas-phase ions. In solution, complexes have lower H/Dx levels than free Cex because binding the inhibitors blocks some sites from H/Dx and reduces fluctuations of the protein. In mass spectra of complexes, abundant Cex ions are seen, which mostly are formed by dissociation of complexes in the ion sampling interface. Both complex ions and Cex ions formed from a solution containing complexes have lower cross sections than Cex ions from a solution of Cex alone. This suggests the Cex ions formed by dissociation "remember" their solution conformations. For a given charge, ions of the complexes have greater gas-phase H/Dx levels than ions of Cex. Unlike cross sections, H/Dx levels of the complexes do not correlate with the relative gas-phase binding strengths measured by MS/MS. Cex ions from solutions with or without inhibitors, which have different cross sections, show the same H/Dx level after 15 s, indicating the ions may fold or unfold on the seconds time scale of the H/Dx experiment. Thus, cross sections show that complexes have more compact conformations than free protein ions on the time scale of ca. 1 ms. The gas-phase H/Dx measurements show that at least some complexes retain different conformations from the Cex ions on a time scale of seconds.

  13. The role of small molecule Kit protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of neoplastic disorders.

    PubMed

    Roskoski, Robert

    2018-04-25

    The Kit proto-oncogene was found as a consequence of the discovery of the feline v-kit sarcoma oncogene. Stem cell factor (SCF) is the Kit ligand and it mediates Kit dimerization and activation. The Kit receptor contains an extracellular segment that is made up of five immunoglobulin-like domains (D1/2/3/4/5), a transmembrane segment, a juxtamembrane segment, a protein-tyrosine kinase domain that contains an insert of 77 amino acid residues, and a carboxyterminal tail. Activating somatic mutations in Kit have been documented in various neoplasms including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), mast cell overexpression (systemic mastocytosis), core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemias (AML), melanomas, and seminomas. In the case of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, most activating mutations occur in the juxtamembrane segment and these mutants are initially sensitive to imatinib. As with many targeted anticancer drugs, resistance to Kit antagonists occurs in about two years and is the result of secondary KIT mutations. An activation segment exon 17 D816V mutation is one of the more common resistance mutations in Kit and this mutant is resistant to imatinib and sorafenib. Type I protein kinase inhibitors interact with the active enzyme form with DFG-D of the proximal activation segment directed inward toward the active site (DFG-D in ). In contrast, type II inhibitors bind to their target with the DFG-D pointing away from the active site (DFG-D out ). Based upon the X-ray crystallographic structures, imatinib, sunitinib, and ponatinib are Type II Kit inhibitors. We used the Schrödinger induced fit docking protocol to model the interaction of midostaurin with Kit and the result indicates that it binds to the DFG-D in conformation of the receptor and is thus classified as type I inhibitor. This medication inhibits the notoriously resistant Kit D816V mutant and is approved for the treatment of systemic mastocytosis and is effective against tumors bearing the D816V

  14. Cheminformatics-aided discovery of small-molecule Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) dual inhibitors of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) and Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand (RANKL).

    PubMed

    Melagraki, Georgia; Ntougkos, Evangelos; Rinotas, Vagelis; Papaneophytou, Christos; Leonis, Georgios; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Kontopidis, George; Douni, Eleni; Afantitis, Antreas; Kollias, George

    2017-04-01

    We present an in silico drug discovery pipeline developed and applied for the identification and virtual screening of small-molecule Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) compounds that act as dual inhibitors of TNF and RANKL through the trimerization interface. The cheminformatics part of the pipeline was developed by combining structure-based with ligand-based modeling using the largest available set of known TNF inhibitors in the literature (2481 small molecules). To facilitate virtual screening, the consensus predictive model was made freely available at: http://enalos.insilicotox.com/TNFPubChem/. We thus generated a priority list of nine small molecules as candidates for direct TNF function inhibition. In vitro evaluation of these compounds led to the selection of two small molecules that act as potent direct inhibitors of TNF function, with IC50 values comparable to those of a previously-described direct inhibitor (SPD304), but with significantly reduced toxicity. These molecules were also identified as RANKL inhibitors and validated in vitro with respect to this second functionality. Direct binding of the two compounds was confirmed both for TNF and RANKL, as well as their ability to inhibit the biologically-active trimer forms. Molecular dynamics calculations were also carried out for the two small molecules in each protein to offer additional insight into the interactions that govern TNF and RANKL complex formation. To our knowledge, these compounds, namely T8 and T23, constitute the second and third published examples of dual small-molecule direct function inhibitors of TNF and RANKL, and could serve as lead compounds for the development of novel treatments for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  15. Secretion of alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor is impaired by amino acid deletion in a small region of the molecule.

    PubMed

    Toyota, S; Hirosawa, S; Aoki, N

    1994-02-01

    Alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor (alpha 2PI) deficiency Okinawa results from defective secretion of the inhibitor from the liver and appears to be a direct consequence of the deletion of Glu137 in the amino acid sequence of alpha 2PI. To examine the effects of replacing the amino acid occupying position 137 or deleting its neighboring amino acid on alpha 2PI secretion, we used oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis of alpha 2PI cDNA to change the codon specifying Glu137 or delete a codon specifying its neighboring amino acid. The effects were determined by pulse-chase experiments and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of media from transiently transfected COS-7 cells. Replacement of Glu137 with an amino acid other than Cys had little effect on alpha 2PI secretion. In contrast, deletion of an amino acid in a region spanning a sequence of less than 30 amino acids including positions 127 and 137 severely impaired the secretion. The results suggest that structural integrity of the region, rather than its component amino acids, is important for the intracellular transport and secretion of alpha 2PI.

  16. A small molecule inhibitor of mutant IDH2 rescues cardiomyopathy in a D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria type II mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Travins, Jeremy; Lin, Zhizhong; Si, Yaguang; Chen, Yue; Powe, Josh; Murray, Stuart; Zhu, Dongwei; Artin, Erin; Gross, Stefan; Santiago, Stephanie; Steadman, Mya; Kernytsky, Andrew; Straley, Kimberly; Lu, Chenming; Pop, Ana; Struys, Eduard A; Jansen, Erwin E W; Salomons, Gajja S; David, Muriel D; Quivoron, Cyril; Penard-Lacronique, Virginie; Regan, Karen S; Liu, Wei; Dang, Lenny; Yang, Hua; Silverman, Lee; Agresta, Samuel; Dorsch, Marion; Biller, Scott; Yen, Katharine; Cang, Yong; Su, Shin-San Michael; Jin, Shengfang

    2016-11-01

    D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D2HGA) type II is a rare neurometabolic disorder caused by germline gain-of-function mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), resulting in accumulation of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG). Patients exhibit a wide spectrum of symptoms including cardiomyopathy, epilepsy, developmental delay and limited life span. Currently, there are no effective therapeutic interventions. We generated a D2HGA type II mouse model by introducing the Idh2R140Q mutation at the native chromosomal locus. Idh2R140Q mice displayed significantly elevated 2HG levels and recapitulated multiple defects seen in patients. AGI-026, a potent, selective inhibitor of the human IDH2R140Q-mutant enzyme, suppressed 2HG production, rescued cardiomyopathy, and provided a survival benefit in Idh2R140Q mice; treatment withdrawal resulted in deterioration of cardiac function. We observed differential expression of multiple genes and metabolites that are associated with cardiomyopathy, which were largely reversed by AGI-026. These findings demonstrate the potential therapeutic benefit of an IDH2R140Q inhibitor in patients with D2HGA type II.

  17. Dual-Targeting Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus FMN Riboswitch Disrupt Riboflavin Homeostasis in an Infectious Setting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Mann, Paul A; Xiao, Li; Gill, Charles; Galgoci, Andrew M; Howe, John A; Villafania, Artjohn; Barbieri, Christopher M; Malinverni, Juliana C; Sher, Xinwei; Mayhood, Todd; McCurry, Megan D; Murgolo, Nicholas; Flattery, Amy; Mack, Matthias; Roemer, Terry

    2017-05-18

    Riboswitches are bacterial-specific, broadly conserved, non-coding RNA structural elements that control gene expression of numerous metabolic pathways and transport functions essential for cell growth. As such, riboswitch inhibitors represent a new class of potential antibacterial agents. Recently, we identified ribocil-C, a highly selective inhibitor of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitch that controls expression of de novo riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Here, we provide a mechanistic characterization of the antibacterial effects of ribocil-C as well as of roseoflavin (RoF), an antimetabolite analog of RF, among medically significant Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterococcus faecalis. We provide genetic, biophysical, computational, biochemical, and pharmacological evidence that ribocil-C and RoF specifically inhibit dual FMN riboswitches, separately controlling RF biosynthesis and uptake processes essential for MRSA growth and pathogenesis. Such a dual-targeting mechanism is specifically required to develop broad-spectrum Gram-positive antibacterial agents targeting RF metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular Probing of the HPV-16 E6 Protein Alpha Helix Binding Groove with Small Molecule Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Rietz, Anne; Petrov, Dino P.; Bartolowits, Matthew; DeSmet, Marsha; Davisson, V. Jo; Androphy, Elliot J.

    2016-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) HPV E6 protein has emerged as a central oncoprotein in HPV-associated cancers in which sustained expression is required for tumor progression. A majority of the E6 protein interactions within the human proteome use an alpha-helix groove interface for binding. The UBE3A/E6AP HECT domain ubiquitin ligase binds E6 at this helix-groove interface. This enables formation of a trimeric complex with p53, resulting in destruction of this tumor suppressor. While recent x-ray crystal structures are useful, examples of small molecule probes that can modulate protein interactions at this interface are limited. To develop insights useful for potential structure-based design of ligands for HPV E6, a series of 2,6-disubstituted benzopyranones were prepared and tested as competitive antagonists of E6-E6AP helix-groove interactions. These small molecule probes were used in both binding and functional assays to evaluate recognition features of the E6 protein. Evidence for an ionic functional group interaction within the helix groove was implicated by the structure-activity among the highest affinity ligands. The molecular topographies of these protein-ligand interactions were evaluated by comparing the binding and activities of single amino acid E6 mutants with the results of molecular dynamic simulations. A group of arginine residues that form a rim-cap over the E6 helix groove offer compensatory roles in binding and recognition of the small molecule probes. The flexibility and impact on the overall helix-groove shape dictated by these residues offer new insights for structure-based targeting of HPV E6. PMID:26915086

  19. I. Development of Metal-Mediated SPOT-Synthesis Methods for the Efficient Construction of Small-Molecule Macroarrays. II. Design and Synthesis of Novel Bacterial Biofilm Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Reto

    I. The use of small molecule probes to explore biological phenomena has become a valuable tool in chemical biology. As a result, methods that permit the rapid synthesis and biological evaluation of such compounds are highly sought-after. The small molecule macroarray represents one such approach for the synthesis and identification of novel bioactive agents. Macroarrays are readily constructed via the SPOT-synthesis technique on planar cellulose membranes, yielding spatially addressed libraries of ˜10-1000 unique compounds. We sought to expand the arsenal of chemical reactions compatible with this solid-phase platform, and developed highly efficient SPOT-synthesis protocols for the Mizoroki-Heck, Suzuki-Miyaura, and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. We demonstrated that these metal-mediated reactions can be implemented, either individually or sequentially, for the efficient construction of small molecules in high purity on rapid time scales. Utilizing these powerful C-C and C-N bond forming coupling reactions, we constructed a series of macroarrays based on novel stilbene, phenyl-naphthalene, and triazole scaliblds. Subsequent biological testing of the stilbene and phenyl-naphthalene libraries revealed several potent antagonists and agonists, respectively, of the quorum sensing (QS) receptor LuxR in Vibrio fischeri. II. Bacteria living within biofilms are notorious for their resistance to known antibiotic agents, and constitute a major human health threat. Methods to attenuate biofilm growth would have a significant impact on the management of bacterial infections. Despite intense research efforts, small molecules capable of either inhibiting or dispersing biolilms remain scarce. We utilized natural products with purported anti-biofilm or QS inhibitory activity as sources of structural insight to guide the synthesis of novel biofilm modulators with improved activities. These studies revealed 2-aminobenzimidazole derivatives as highly potent

  20. The Role of Histone Deacetylases in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Small-Molecule Inhibitors as a Potential Therapeutic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürli, Roland W.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Beaumont, Vahri

    Neurodegenerative disorders are devastating for patients and their social environment. Their etiology is poorly understood and complex. As a result, there is clearly an urgent need for therapeutic agents that slow down disease progress and alleviate symptoms. In this respect, interference with expression and function of multiple gene products at the epigenetic level has offered much promise, and histone deacetylases play a crucial role in these processes. This review presents an overview of the biological pathways in which these enzymes are involved and illustrates the complex network of proteins that governs their activity. An overview of small molecules that interfere with histone deacetylase function is provided.

  1. Generation of Epithelial Cell Populations from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Using a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Src Family Kinases.

    PubMed

    Selekman, Joshua A; Lian, Xiaojun; Palecek, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), under the right conditions, can be engineered to generate populations of any somatic cell type. Knowledge of what mechanisms govern differentiation towards a particular lineage is often quite useful for efficiently producing somatic cell populations from hPSCs. Here, we have outlined a strategy for deriving populations of simple epithelial cells, as well as more mature epidermal keratinocyte progenitors, from hPSCs by exploiting a mechanism previously shown to direct epithelial differentiation of hPSCs. Specifically, we describe how to direct epithelial differentiation of hPSCs using an Src family kinase inhibitor, SU6656, which has been shown to modulate β-catenin translocation to the cell membrane and thus promote epithelial differentiation. The differentiation platform outlined here produces cells with the ability to terminally differentiate to epidermal keratinocytes in culture through a stable simple epithelial cell intermediate that can be expanded in culture for numerous (>10) passages.

  2. Discovery of first-in-class reversible dual small molecule inhibitors against G9a and DNMTs in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    San José-Enériz, Edurne; Agirre, Xabier; Rabal, Obdulia; Vilas-Zornoza, Amaia; Sanchez-Arias, Juan A; Miranda, Estibaliz; Ugarte, Ana; Roa, Sergio; Paiva, Bruno; Estella-Hermoso de Mendoza, Ander; Alvarez, Rosa María; Casares, Noelia; Segura, Victor; Martín-Subero, José I; Ogi, François-Xavier; Soule, Pierre; Santiveri, Clara M; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Castellano, Giancarlo; de Barrena, Maite Garcia Fernandez; Rodriguez-Madoz, Juan Roberto; García-Barchino, Maria José; Lasarte, Juan Jose; Avila, Matias A; Martinez-Climent, Jose Angel; Oyarzabal, Julen; Prosper, Felipe

    2017-05-26

    The indisputable role of epigenetics in cancer and the fact that epigenetic alterations can be reversed have favoured development of epigenetic drugs. In this study, we design and synthesize potent novel, selective and reversible chemical probes that simultaneously inhibit the G9a and DNMTs methyltransferase activity. In vitro treatment of haematological neoplasia (acute myeloid leukaemia-AML, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia-ALL and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma-DLBCL) with the lead compound CM-272, inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis, inducing interferon-stimulated genes and immunogenic cell death. CM-272 significantly prolongs survival of AML, ALL and DLBCL xenogeneic models. Our results represent the discovery of first-in-class dual inhibitors of G9a/DNMTs and establish this chemical series as a promising therapeutic tool for unmet needs in haematological tumours.

  3. The role of small molecule platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitors in the treatment of neoplastic disorders.

    PubMed

    Roskoski, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was discovered as a serum-derived component necessary for the growth of smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and glial cells. The PDGF family is a product of four gene products and consists of five dimeric isoforms: PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB, PDGF-CC, PDGF-DD, and the PDGF-AB heterodimer. This growth factor family plays an essential role in embryonic development and in wound healing in the adult. These growth factors mediate their effects by binding to and activating their receptor protein-tyrosine kinases, which are encoded by two genes: PDGFRA and PDGFRB. The functional receptors consist of the PDGFRα/α and PDGFRβ/β homodimers and the PDGFRα/β heterodimer. Although PDGF signaling is most closely associated with mesenchymal cells, PDGFs and PDGF receptors are widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system. The PDGF receptors contain an extracellular domain that is made up of five immunoglobulin-like domains (Ig-d1/2/3/4/5), a transmembrane segment, a juxtamembrane segment, a protein-tyrosine kinase domain that contains an insert of about 100 amino acid residues, and a carboxyterminal tail. Although uncommon, activating mutations in the genes for PDGF or PDGF receptors have been documented in various neoplasms including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). In most neoplastic diseases, PDGF expression and action appear to involve the tumor stroma. Moreover, this family is pro-angiogenic. More than ten PDGFRα/β multikinase antagonists have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of several neoplastic disorders and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (www.brimr.org/PKI/PKIs.htm). Type I protein kinase inhibitors interact with the active enzyme form with DFG-D of the proximal activation segment directed inward toward the active site (DFG-D in ). In contrast, type II inhibitors bind to their target with the DFG-D pointing away from the active site (DFG-D out ). We used the Schr

  4. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Oxindole-Based Chalcones as Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Melanogenic Tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Sharad Kumar; Bansal, Sumit; Narkhede, Niteen; Guleria, Manju; Alex, Angel Treasa; Joseph, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The enzyme tyrosinase regulates melanogenesis and skin hyperpigmentation by converting L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) into dopaquinone, a key step in the melanin biosynthesis. The present work deals with design and synthesis of various oxindole-based chalcones as monophenolase and diphenolase activity inhibitors of tyrosinase. Among the screened compounds, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene moiety bearing chalcone (7) prepared by one pot reaction of oxindole and vanillin displayed the highest activity against tyrosinase with IC 50 s of 63.37 and 59.71 µM in monophenolase and diphenolase activity assays, respectively. In molecular docking studies, chalcone 7 also showed the highest binding affinity towards the enzyme tyrosinase while exhibiting the lowest estimated free energy of binding, among all the ligands docked.

  5. Structural Characterization of the Interaction of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor with a Small Molecule Allosteric Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kappert, Franziska; Sreeramulu, Sridhar; Jonker, Hendrik R A; Richter, Christian; Rogov, Vladimir V; Proschak, Ewgenij; Hargittay, Bruno; Saxena, Krishna; Schwalbe, Harald

    2018-06-04

    The interaction of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) with their fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are important in the signaling network of cell growth and development. SSR128129E (SSR), a ligand of small molecular weight with potential anti-cancer properties, acts allosterically on the extracellular domains of FGFRs. Up to now, the structural basis of SSR binding to the D3 domain of FGFR remained elusive. This work reports the structural characterization of the interaction of SSR with one specific receptor, FGFR3, by NMR spectroscopy. This information provides a basis for rational drug design for allosteric FGFR inhibitors. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Discovery of Novel Small-molecule Inhibitors of Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling with Anti-inflammatory and Anti-cancer Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shi, Lei; Soars, Shafer; Kamps, Joshua; Yin, Hang Hubert

    2018-06-05

    Excessive NF-κB activation contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. Small-molecule inhibitors of NF-κB signaling have significant therapeutic potential especially in treating inflammatory diseases and cancers. In this study, we performed a cell-based high-throughput screening to discover novel agents capable of inhibiting NF-κB signaling. Based on two hit scaffolds from the screening, we synthesized 69 derivatives to optimize the potency for inhibition of NF-κB activation, leading to successful discovery of the most potent compound Z9j with over 170-fold enhancement of inhibitory activity. Preliminary mechanistic studies revealed that Z9j inhibited NF-κB signaling via suppression of Src/Syk, PI3K/Akt and IKK/IκB pathways. This novel compound also demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities, warranting its further development as a potential multifunctional agent to treat inflammatory diseases and cancers.

  7. Small molecule inhibitors and CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis demonstrate that SMYD2 and SMYD3 activity are dispensable for autonomous cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Thomenius, Michael J; Totman, Jennifer; Harvey, Darren; Mitchell, Lorna H; Riera, Thomas V; Cosmopoulos, Kat; Grassian, Alexandra R; Klaus, Christine; Foley, Megan; Admirand, Elizabeth A; Jahic, Haris; Majer, Christina; Wigle, Tim; Jacques, Suzanne L; Gureasko, Jodi; Brach, Dorothy; Lingaraj, Trupti; West, Kip; Smith, Sherri; Rioux, Nathalie; Waters, Nigel J; Tang, Cuyue; Raimondi, Alejandra; Munchhof, Michael; Mills, James E; Ribich, Scott; Porter Scott, Margaret; Kuntz, Kevin W; Janzen, William P; Moyer, Mikel; Smith, Jesse J; Chesworth, Richard; Copeland, Robert A; Boriack-Sjodin, P Ann

    2018-01-01

    A key challenge in the development of precision medicine is defining the phenotypic consequences of pharmacological modulation of specific target macromolecules. To address this issue, a variety of genetic, molecular and chemical tools can be used. All of these approaches can produce misleading results if the specificity of the tools is not well understood and the proper controls are not performed. In this paper we illustrate these general themes by providing detailed studies of small molecule inhibitors of the enzymatic activity of two members of the SMYD branch of the protein lysine methyltransferases, SMYD2 and SMYD3. We show that tool compounds as well as CRISPR/Cas9 fail to reproduce many of the cell proliferation findings associated with SMYD2 and SMYD3 inhibition previously obtained with RNAi based approaches and with early stage chemical probes.

  8. Small molecule inhibitors and CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis demonstrate that SMYD2 and SMYD3 activity are dispensable for autonomous cancer cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Totman, Jennifer; Harvey, Darren; Mitchell, Lorna H.; Riera, Thomas V.; Cosmopoulos, Kat; Grassian, Alexandra R.; Klaus, Christine; Foley, Megan; Admirand, Elizabeth A.; Jahic, Haris; Majer, Christina; Wigle, Tim; Jacques, Suzanne L.; Gureasko, Jodi; Brach, Dorothy; Lingaraj, Trupti; West, Kip; Smith, Sherri; Rioux, Nathalie; Waters, Nigel J.; Tang, Cuyue; Raimondi, Alejandra; Munchhof, Michael; Mills, James E.; Ribich, Scott; Porter Scott, Margaret; Kuntz, Kevin W.; Janzen, William P.; Moyer, Mikel; Smith, Jesse J.; Chesworth, Richard; Copeland, Robert A.; Boriack-Sjodin, P. Ann

    2018-01-01

    A key challenge in the development of precision medicine is defining the phenotypic consequences of pharmacological modulation of specific target macromolecules. To address this issue, a variety of genetic, molecular and chemical tools can be used. All of these approaches can produce misleading results if the specificity of the tools is not well understood and the proper controls are not performed. In this paper we illustrate these general themes by providing detailed studies of small molecule inhibitors of the enzymatic activity of two members of the SMYD branch of the protein lysine methyltransferases, SMYD2 and SMYD3. We show that tool compounds as well as CRISPR/Cas9 fail to reproduce many of the cell proliferation findings associated with SMYD2 and SMYD3 inhibition previously obtained with RNAi based approaches and with early stage chemical probes. PMID:29856759

  9. Small-molecule inhibitors directly target CARD9 and mimic its protective variant in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Leshchiner, Elizaveta S; Rush, Jason S; Durney, Michael A; Cao, Zhifang; Dančík, Vlado; Chittick, Benjamin; Wu, Huixian; Petrone, Adam; Bittker, Joshua A; Phillips, Andrew; Perez, Jose R; Shamji, Alykhan F; Kaushik, Virendar K; Daly, Mark J; Graham, Daniel B; Schreiber, Stuart L; Xavier, Ramnik J

    2017-10-24

    Advances in human genetics have dramatically expanded our understanding of complex heritable diseases. Genome-wide association studies have identified an allelic series of CARD9 variants associated with increased risk of or protection from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The predisposing variant of CARD9 is associated with increased NF-κB-mediated cytokine production. Conversely, the protective variant lacks a functional C-terminal domain and is unable to recruit the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM62. Here, we used biochemical insights into CARD9 variant proteins to create a blueprint for IBD therapeutics and recapitulated the mechanism of the CARD9 protective variant using small molecules. We developed a multiplexed bead-based technology to screen compounds for disruption of the CARD9-TRIM62 interaction. We identified compounds that directly and selectively bind CARD9, disrupt TRIM62 recruitment, inhibit TRIM62-mediated ubiquitinylation of CARD9, and demonstrate cellular activity and selectivity in CARD9-dependent pathways. Taken together, small molecules targeting CARD9 illustrate a path toward improved IBD therapeutics. Published under the PNAS license.

  10. Identification of a coumarin-based antihistamine-like small molecule as an anti-filoviral entry inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Han; Schafer, Adam; Soloveva, Veronica; Gharaibeh, Dima; Kenny, Tara; Retterer, Cary; Zamani, Rouzbeh; Bavari, Sina; Peet, Norton P; Rong, Lijun

    2017-09-01

    Filoviruses, consisting of Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Cuevavirus, cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans with high mortality rates up to 90%. Currently, there is no approved vaccine or therapy available for the prevention and treatment of filovirus infection in humans. The recent 2013-2015 West African Ebola epidemic underscores the urgency to develop antiviral therapeutics against these infectious diseases. Our previous study showed that GPCR antagonists, particularly histamine receptor antagonists (antihistamines) inhibit Ebola and Marburg virus entry. In this study, we screened a library of 1220 small molecules with predicted antihistamine activity, identified multiple compounds with potent inhibitory activity against entry of both Ebola and Marburg viruses in human cancer cell lines, and confirmed their anti-Ebola activity in human primary cells. These small molecules target a late-stage of Ebola virus entry. Further structure-activity relationship studies around one compound (cp19) reveal the importance of the coumarin fused ring structure, especially the hydrophobic substituents at positions 3 and/or 4, for its antiviral activity, and this identified scaffold represents a favorable starting point for the rapid development of anti-filovirus therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A High-Throughput Screening Method for Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Aberrant Mutant SOD1 and Dynein Complex Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaohu; Seyb, Kathleen I.; Huang, Mickey; Schuman, Eli R.; Shi, Ping; Zhu, Haining; Glicksman, Marcie A.

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant protein-protein interactions are attractive drug targets in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases due to the common pathology of accumulation of protein aggregates. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, mutations in SOD1 cause the formation of aggregates and inclusions that may sequester other proteins and disrupt cellular processes. It has been demonstrated that mutant SOD1, but not wild-type SOD1, interacts with the axonal transport motor dynein and that this interaction contributes to motor neuron cell death, suggesting that disrupting this interaction may be a potential therapeutic target. However, it can be challenging to configure a high-throughput screening (HTS)–compatible assay to detect inhibitors of a protein-protein interaction. Here we describe the development and challenges of an HTS for small-molecule inhibitors of the mutant SOD1-dynein interaction. We demonstrate that the interaction can be formed by coexpressing the A4V mutant SOD1 and dynein intermediate complex in cells and that this interaction can be disrupted by compounds added to the cell lysates. Finally, we show that some of the compounds identified from a pilot screen to inhibit the protein-protein interaction with this method specifically disrupt the interaction between the dynein complex and mtSOD1 but not the dynein complex itself when applied to live cells. PMID:22140121

  12. General Method to Determine the Flux of Charged Molecules through Nanopores Applied to β-Lactamase Inhibitors and OmpF.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Ishan; Pira, Alessandro; Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Bodrenko, Igor; Benier, Lorraine; Ceccarelli, Matteo; Winterhalter, Mathias; Wagner, Richard

    2017-03-16

    A major challenge in the discovery of the new antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria is to achieve sufficiently fast permeation in order to avoid high doses causing toxic side effects. So far, suitable assays for quantifying the uptake of charged antibiotics into bacteria are lacking. We apply an electrophysiological zero-current assay using concentration gradients of β-lactamase inhibitors combined with single-channel conductance to quantify their flux rates through OmpF. Molecular dynamic simulations provide in addition details on the interactions between the nanopore wall and the charged solutes. In particular, the interaction barrier for three β-lactamase inhibitors is surprisingly as low as 3-5 kcal/mol and only slightly above the diffusion barrier of ions such as chloride. Within our macroscopic constant field model, we determine that at a zero-membrane potential a concentration gradient of 10 μM of avibactam, sulbactam, or tazobactam can create flux rates of roughly 620 molecules/s per OmpF trimer.

  13. Combined treatment of curcumin and small molecule inhibitors suppresses proliferation of A549 and H1299 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ping; Kuo, Li-Kuo; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a phenolic compound present in turmeric and is ingested daily in many parts of the world. Curcumin has been reported to cause inhibition on proliferation and induction of apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines, including non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC). However, the clinical application of curcumin is restricted by its low bioavailability. In this report, it was observed that combined treatment of a low dosage of curcumin (5-10 µM) with a low concentration (0.1-2.5 µM) of small molecule inhibitors, including AG1478, AG1024, PD173074, LY294002 and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) increased the growth inhibition in two human NSCLC cell lines: A549 and H1299 cells. The observation suggested that combined treatment of a low dosage of curcumin with inhibitors against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1R), fibroblast growth factors receptor (FGFR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) or NF-κB signaling pathway may be a potential adjuvant therapy beneficial to NSCLC patients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. An Overview of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 3CL Protease Inhibitors: Peptidomimetics and Small Molecule Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pillaiyar, Thanigaimalai; Manickam, Manoj; Namasivayam, Vigneshwaran; Hayashi, Yoshio; Jung, Sang-Hun

    2016-07-28

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a newly emerged coronavirus that infected more than 8000 individuals and resulted in more than 800 (10-15%) fatalities in 2003. The causative agent of SARS has been identified as a novel human coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and its viral protease, SARS-CoV 3CL(pro), has been shown to be essential for replication and has hence been recognized as a potent drug target for SARS infection. Currently, there is no effective treatment for this epidemic despite the intensive research that has been undertaken since 2003 (over 3500 publications). This perspective focuses on the status of various efficacious anti-SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) chemotherapies discovered during the last 12 years (2003-2015) from all sources, including laboratory synthetic methods, natural products, and virtual screening. We describe here mainly peptidomimetic and small molecule inhibitors of SARS-CoV 3CL(pro). Attempts have been made to provide a complete description of the structural features and binding modes of these inhibitors under many conditions.

  15. Emodin ameliorates high glucose induced-podocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transition in-vitro and in-vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingfang; Zheng, Li Yang; Xiao, Wenzhen; Gui, Dingkun; Wang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Niansong

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a potential pathway leading to podocyte depletion and proteinuria in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Here, we investigated the protective effects of Emodin (EMO) on high glucose (HG) induced-podocyte EMT in-vitro and in-vivo. Conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes were exposed to HG with 30 μg /ml of EMO and 1 μmol/ml of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) inhibitor QLT0267 for 24 h. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were treated with EMO at 20 mg· kg(-1)· d(-1) and QLT0267 at 10 mg· kg(-1)· w(-1) p.o., for 12 weeks. Albuminuria and blood glucose level were measured. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blotting and real-time PCR were used to detect expression of ILK, the epithelial marker of nephrin and the mesenchymal marker of desmin in-vitro and in-vivo. HG increased podocyte ILK and desmin expression while decreased nephrin expression. However, EMO significantly inhibited ILK and desmin expression and partially restored nephrin expression in HG-stimulated podocytes. These in-vitro observations were further confirmed in-vivo. Treatment with EMO for 12 weeks attenuated albuminuria, renal histopathology and podocyte foot process effacement in diabetic rats. EMO also repressed renal ILK and desmin expression, preserved nephrin expression, as well as ameliorated albuminuria in STZ-induced diabetic rats. EMO ameliorated glucose-induced EMT and subsequent podocyte dysfunction partly through ILK and desmin inhibition as well as nephrin upregulatiotion, which might provide a potential novel therapeutic option for DKD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Use of a small molecule cell cycle inhibitor to control cell growth and improve specific productivity and product quality of recombinant proteins in CHO cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhimei; Treiber, David; McCarter, John D; Fomina-Yadlin, Dina; Saleem, Ramsey A; McCoy, Rebecca E; Zhang, Yuling; Tharmalingam, Tharmala; Leith, Matthew; Follstad, Brian D; Dell, Brad; Grisim, Brent; Zupke, Craig; Heath, Carole; Morris, Arvia E; Reddy, Pranhitha

    2015-01-01

    The continued need to improve therapeutic recombinant protein productivity has led to ongoing assessment of appropriate strategies in the biopharmaceutical industry to establish robust processes with optimized critical variables, that is, viable cell density (VCD) and specific productivity (product per cell, qP). Even though high VCD is a positive factor for titer, uncontrolled proliferation beyond a certain cell mass is also undesirable. To enable efficient process development to achieve consistent and predictable growth arrest while maintaining VCD, as well as improving qP, without negative impacts on product quality from clone to clone, we identified an approach that directly targets the cell cycle G1-checkpoint by selectively inhibiting the function of cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) 4/6 with a small molecule compound. Results from studies on multiple recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines demonstrate that the selective inhibitor can mediate a complete and sustained G0/G1 arrest without impacting G2/M phase. Cell proliferation is consistently and rapidly controlled in all recombinant cell lines at one concentration of this inhibitor throughout the production processes with specific productivities increased up to 110 pg/cell/day. Additionally, the product quality attributes of the mAb, with regard to high molecular weight (HMW) and glycan profile, are not negatively impacted. In fact, high mannose is decreased after treatment, which is in contrast to other established growth control methods such as reducing culture temperature. Microarray analysis showed major differences in expression of regulatory genes of the glycosylation and cell cycle signaling pathways between these different growth control methods. Overall, our observations showed that cell cycle arrest by directly targeting CDK4/6 using selective inhibitor compound can be utilized consistently and rapidly to optimize process parameters, such as cell growth, qP, and glycosylation profile in

  17. The small-molecule kinase inhibitor D11 counteracts 17-AAG-mediated up-regulation of HSP70 in brain cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Susanne; Svenstrup, Tina H.

    2017-01-01

    Many types of cancer express high levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs) that are molecular chaperones regulating protein folding and stability ensuring protection of cells from potentially lethal stress. HSPs in cancer cells promote survival, growth and spreading even in situations of growth factors deprivation by associating with oncogenic proteins responsible for cell transformation. Hence, it is not surprising that the identification of potent inhibitors of HSPs, notably HSP90, has been the primary research focus, in recent years. Exposure of cancer cells to HSP90 inhibitors, including 17-AAG, has been shown to cause resistance to chemotherapeutic treatment mostly attributable to induction of the heat shock response and increased cellular levels of pro-survival chaperones. In this study, we show that treatment of glioblastoma cells with 17-AAG leads to HSP90 inhibition indicated by loss of stability of the EGFR client protein, and significant increase in HSP70 expression. Conversely, co-treatment with the small-molecule kinase inhibitor D11 leads to suppression of the heat shock response and inhibition of HSF1 transcriptional activity. Beside HSP70, Western blot and differential mRNA expression analysis reveal that combination treatment causes strong down-regulation of the small chaperone protein HSP27. Finally, we demonstrate that incubation of cells with both agents leads to enhanced cytotoxicity and significantly high levels of LC3-II suggesting autophagy induction. Taken together, results reported here support the notion that including D11 in future treatment regimens based on HSP90 inhibition can potentially overcome acquired resistance induced by the heat shock response in brain cancer cells. PMID:28542269

  18. The small molecule survivin inhibitor YM155 may be an effective treatment modality for colon cancer through increasing apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wan Lu, E-mail: lvvlchina@msn.cn; Lee, Mi-Ra, E-mail: mira1125@yonsei.ac.kr; Cho, Mee-Yon, E-mail: meeyon@yonsei.ac.kr

    Survivin has a known beneficial role in the survival of both cancer cells and normal cells. Therapies targeting survivin have been proposed as an alternative treatment modality for various tumors; however, finding the proper indication for this toxic therapy is critical for reducing unavoidable side effects. We recently observed that high survivin expression in CD133{sup +} cells is related to chemoresistance in Caco-2 colon cancer cells. However, the effect of survivin-targeted therapy on CD133{sup +} colon cancer is unknown. In this study, we investigated the roles of CD133 and survivin expression in colon cancer biology in vitro and comparatively analyzed themore » anticancer effects of survivin inhibitor on CD133{sup +} cells (ctrl-siRNA group) and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced CD133{sup −} cells (CD133-siRNA group) obtained from a single colon cancer cell line. CD133 knockdown via siRNA transfection did not change the tumorigenicity of cells, although in vitro survivin expression levels in CD133{sup +} cells were higher than those in siRNA-induced CD133{sup −} cells. The transfection procedure seemed to induce survivin expression. Notably, a significant number of CD133{sup −} cells (33.8%) was found in the cell colonies of the CD133-siRNA group. In the cell proliferation assay after treatment, YM155 and a combination of YM155 and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) proved to be far more effective than 5-FU alone. A significantly increased level of apoptosis was observed with increasing doses of YM155 in all groups. However, significant differences in therapeutic effect and apoptosis among the mock, ctrl-siRNA, and CD133-siRNA groups were not detected. Survivin inhibitor is an effective treatment modality for colon cancer; however, the role of CD133 and the use of survivin expression as a biomarker for this targeted therapy must be verified.« less

  19. Development and validation of a high-content bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay for small-molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 Nef dimerization.

    PubMed

    Poe, Jerrod A; Vollmer, Laura; Vogt, Andreas; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2014-04-01

    Nef is a human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) accessory factor essential for viral pathogenesis and AIDS progression. Many Nef functions require dimerization, and small molecules that block Nef dimerization may represent antiretroviral drug leads. Here we describe a cell-based assay for Nef dimerization inhibitors based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). Nef was fused to nonfluorescent, complementary fragments of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and coexpressed in the same cell population. Dimerization of Nef resulted in juxtaposition of the YFP fragments and reconstitution of the fluorophore. For automation, the Nef-YFP fusion proteins plus a monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP) reporter were expressed from a single vector, separated by picornavirus "2A" linker peptides to permit equivalent translation of all three proteins. Validation studies revealed a critical role for gating on the mRFP-positive subpopulation of transfected cells, as well as use of the mRFP signal to normalize the Nef-BiFC signal. Nef-BiFC/mRFP ratios resulting from cells expressing wild-type versus dimerization-defective Nef were very clearly separated, with Z factors consistently in the 0.6 to 0.7 range. A fully automated pilot screen of the National Cancer Institute Diversity Set III identified several hit compounds that reproducibly blocked Nef dimerization in the low micromolar range. This BiFC-based assay has the potential to identify cell-active small molecules that directly interfere with Nef dimerization and function.

  20. Enhanced SH3/Linker Interaction Overcomes Abl Kinase Activation by Gatekeeper and Myristic Acid Binding Pocket Mutations and Increases Sensitivity to Small Molecule Inhibitors*

    PubMed Central

    Panjarian, Shoghag; Iacob, Roxana E.; Chen, Shugui; Wales, Thomas E.; Engen, John R.; Smithgall, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Multidomain kinases such as c-Src and c-Abl are regulated by complex allosteric interactions involving their noncatalytic SH3 and SH2 domains. Here we show that enhancing natural allosteric control of kinase activity by SH3/linker engagement has long-range suppressive effects on the kinase activity of the c-Abl core. Surprisingly, enhanced SH3/linker interaction also dramatically sensitized the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia to small molecule inhibitors that target either the active site or the myristic acid binding pocket in the kinase domain C-lobe. Dynamics analyses using hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry revealed a remarkable allosteric network linking the SH3 domain, the myristic acid binding pocket, and the active site of the c-Abl core, providing a structural basis for the biological observations. These results suggest a rational strategy for enhanced drug targeting of Bcr-Abl and other multidomain kinase systems that use multiple small molecules to exploit natural mechanisms of kinase control. PMID:23303187

  1. Development and Validation of a High-Content Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation Assay for Small Molecule Inhibitors of HIV-1 Nef Dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Poe, Jerrod A.; Vollmer, Laura; Vogt, Andreas; Smithgall, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Nef is an HIV-1 accessory factor essential for viral pathogenesis and AIDS progression. Many Nef functions require dimerization, and small molecules that block Nef dimerization may represent antiretroviral drug leads. Here we describe a cell-based assay for Nef dimerization inhibitors based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). Nef was fused to non-fluorescent, complementary fragments of YFP and co-expressed in the same cell population. Dimerization of Nef resulted in juxtaposition of the YFP fragments and reconstitution of the fluorophore. For automation, the Nef-YFP fusion proteins plus an mRFP reporter were expressed from a single vector, separated by picornavirus ‘2A’ linker peptides to permit equivalent translation of all three proteins. Validation studies revealed a critical role for gating on the mRFP-positive subpopulation of transfected cells, as well as use of the mRFP signal to normalize the Nef-BiFC signal. Nef-BiFC/mRFP ratios resulting from cells expressing wild-type vs. dimerization-defective Nef were very clearly separated, with Z-factors consistently in the 0.6–0.7 range. A fully automated pilot screen of the NIH Diversity Set III identified several hit compounds that reproducibly blocked Nef dimerization in the low micromolar range. This BiFC-based assay has the potential to identify cell-active small molecules that directly interfere with Nef dimerization and function. PMID:24282155

  2. Gibbs Free Energy of Hydrolytic Water Molecule in Acyl-Enzyme Intermediates of a Serine Protease: A Potential Application for Computer-Aided Discovery of Mechanism-Based Reversible Covalent Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yosuke; Yamaotsu, Noriyuki; Hirono, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    In order to predict the potencies of mechanism-based reversible covalent inhibitors, the relationships between calculated Gibbs free energy of hydrolytic water molecule in acyl-trypsin intermediates and experimentally measured catalytic rate constants (k cat ) were investigated. After obtaining representative solution structures by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, hydration thermodynamics analyses using WaterMap™ were conducted. Consequently, we found for the first time that when Gibbs free energy of the hydrolytic water molecule was lower, logarithms of k cat were also lower. The hydrolytic water molecule with favorable Gibbs free energy may hydrolyze acylated serine slowly. Gibbs free energy of hydrolytic water molecule might be a useful descriptor for computer-aided discovery of mechanism-based reversible covalent inhibitors of hydrolytic enzymes.

  3. Small-Molecule Type III Secretion System Inhibitors Block Assembly of the Shigella Type III Secreton▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Veenendaal, Andreas K. J.; Sundin, Charlotta; Blocker, Ariel J.

    2009-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are essential virulence devices for many gram-negative bacteria that are pathogenic for plants, animals, and humans. They serve to translocate virulence effector proteins directly into eukaryotic host cells. T3SSs are composed of a large cytoplasmic bulb and a transmembrane region into which a needle is embedded, protruding above the bacterial surface. The emerging antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens urges the development of novel strategies to fight bacterial infections. Therapeutics that rather than kill bacteria only attenuate their virulence may reduce the frequency or progress of resistance emergence. Recently, a group of salicylidene acylhydrazides were identified as inhibitors of T3SSs in Yersinia, Chlamydia, and Salmonella species. Here we show that these are also effective on the T3SS of Shigella flexneri, where they block all related forms of protein secretion so far known, as well as the epithelial cell invasion and induction of macrophage apoptosis usually demonstrated by this bacterium. Furthermore, we show the first evidence for the detrimental effect of these compounds on T3SS needle assembly, as demonstrated by increased numbers of T3S apparatuses without needles or with shorter needles. Therefore, the compounds generate a phenocopy of T3SS export apparatus mutants but with incomplete penetrance. We discuss why this would be sufficient to almost completely block the later secretion of effector proteins and how this begins to narrow the search for the molecular target of these compounds. PMID:18996990

  4. An orally available, small-molecule polymerase inhibitor shows efficacy against a lethal morbillivirus infection in a large animal model.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Stefanie A; Yan, Dan; Hovingh, Elise S; Evers, Taylor J; Enkirch, Theresa; Reddy, G Prabhakar; Sun, Aiming; Saindane, Manohar T; Arrendale, Richard F; Painter, George; Liotta, Dennis C; Natchus, Michael G; von Messling, Veronika; Plemper, Richard K

    2014-04-16

    Measles virus is a highly infectious morbillivirus responsible for major morbidity and mortality in unvaccinated humans. The related, zoonotic canine distemper virus (CDV) induces morbillivirus disease in ferrets with 100% lethality. We report an orally available, shelf-stable pan-morbillivirus inhibitor that targets the viral RNA polymerase. Prophylactic oral treatment of ferrets infected intranasally with a lethal CDV dose reduced viremia and prolonged survival. Ferrets infected with the same dose of virus that received post-infection treatment at the onset of viremia showed low-grade viral loads, remained asymptomatic, and recovered from infection, whereas control animals succumbed to the disease. Animals that recovered also mounted a robust immune response and were protected against rechallenge with a lethal CDV dose. Drug-resistant viral recombinants were generated and found to be attenuated and transmission-impaired compared to the genetic parent virus. These findings may pioneer a path toward an effective morbillivirus therapy that could aid measles eradication by synergizing with vaccination to close gaps in herd immunity due to vaccine refusal.

  5. Probing the catalytic functions of Bub1 kinase using the small molecule inhibitors BAY-320 and BAY-524

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Anna P; von Schubert, Conrad; Cubizolles, Fabien; Siemeister, Gerhard; Hitchcock, Marion; Mengel, Anne; Schröder, Jens; Fernández-Montalván, Amaury; von Nussbaum, Franz; Mumberg, Dominik; Nigg, Erich A

    2016-01-01

    The kinase Bub1 functions in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and in chromosome congression, but the role of its catalytic activity remains controversial. Here, we use two novel Bub1 inhibitors, BAY-320 and BAY-524, to demonstrate potent Bub1 kinase inhibition both in vitro and in intact cells. Then, we compared the cellular phenotypes of Bub1 kinase inhibition in HeLa and RPE1 cells with those of protein depletion, indicative of catalytic or scaffolding functions, respectively. Bub1 inhibition affected chromosome association of Shugoshin and the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), without abolishing global Aurora B function. Consequently, inhibition of Bub1 kinase impaired chromosome arm resolution but exerted only minor effects on mitotic progression or SAC function. Importantly, BAY-320 and BAY-524 treatment sensitized cells to low doses of Paclitaxel, impairing both chromosome segregation and cell proliferation. These findings are relevant to our understanding of Bub1 kinase function and the prospects of targeting Bub1 for therapeutic applications. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12187.001 PMID:26885717

  6. Common Pharmacophore of Structurally Distinct Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Intracellular Retrograde Trafficking of Ribosome Inactivating Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shichao; Park, Jewn Giew; Kahn, Jennifer Nielsen; Tumer, Nilgun E.; Pang, Yuan-Ping

    2013-12-01

    We reported previously (+/-)-2-(5-methylthiophen-2-yl)-3-phenyl-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one [(+/-)-Retro-2cycl] as the chemical structure of Retro-2 that showed mouse protection against ricin, a notorious ribosome inactivating protein (RIP). Herein we report our chemical resolution of (+/-)-Retro-2cycl, analog synthesis, and cell-based evaluation showing that the two optically pure enantiomers and their achiral analog have nearly the same degree of cell protection against ricin as (+/-)-Retro-2cycl. We also report our computational studies explaining the lack of stereo preference and revealing a common pharmacophore of structurally distinct inhibitors of intracellular retrograde trafficking of RIPs. This pharmacophore comprises a central aromatic ring o-substituted by an aromatic ring and a moiety bearing an O or S atom attached to sp2 C atom(s). These results offer new insights into lead identification and optimization for RIP antidote development to minimize the global health threat caused by ribosome-inactivating proteins.

  7. Discovery of novel STAT3 small molecule inhibitors via in silico site-directed fragment-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenying; Xiao, Hui; Lin, Jiayuh; Li, Chenglong

    2013-06-13

    Constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been validated as an attractive therapeutic target for cancer therapy. To stop both STAT3 activation and dimerization, a viable strategy is to design inhibitors blocking its SH2 domain phosphotyrosine binding site that is responsible for both actions. A new fragment-based drug design (FBDD) strategy, in silico site-directed FBDD, was applied in this study. A designed novel compound, 5,8-dioxo-6-(pyridin-3-ylamino)-5,8-dihydronaphthalene-1-sulfonamide (LY5), was confirmed to bind to STAT3 SH2 by fluorescence polarization assay. In addition, four out of the five chosen compounds have IC50 values lower than 5 μM for the U2OS cancer cells. 8 (LY5) has an IC50 range in 0.5-1.4 μM in various cancer cell lines. 8 also suppresses tumor growth in an in vivo mouse model. This study has demonstrated the utility of this approach and could be used to other drug targets in general.

  8. Binding of a small molecule water channel inhibitor to aquaporin Z examined by solid-state MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Margaret; To, Janet; Yamazaki, Toshio; Nagashima, Toshio; Torres, Jaume; Pervushin, Konstantin

    2018-06-18

    Aquaporins are integral membrane proteins that facilitate water flow across biological membranes. Their involvement in multiple physiological functions and disease states has prompted intense research to discover water channel activity modulators. However, inhibitors found so far are weak and/or lack specificity. For organic compounds, which lack of high electron-dense atoms, the identification of binding sites is even more difficult. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) requires large amounts of the protein, and expression and purification of mammalian aquaporins in large quantities is a difficult task. However, since aquaporin Z (AqpZ) can be purified and expressed in good quantities and has a high similarity to human AQP1 (~ 40% identity), it can be used as a model for studying the structure and function of human aquaporins. In the present study, we have used solid-state MAS NMR to investigate the binding of a lead compound [1-(4-methylphenyl)1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione] to AqpZ, through mapping of chemical shift perturbations in the presence of the compound.

  9. A small-molecule inhibitor of the aberrant transcription factor CBFβ-SMMHC delays leukemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Illendula, Anuradha; Pulikkan, John A.; Zong, Hongliang; Grembecka, Jolanta; Xue, Liting; Sen, Siddhartha; Zhou, Yunpeng; Boulton, Adam; Kuntimaddi, Aravinda; Gao, Yan; Rajewski, Roger A.; Guzman, Monica L.; Castilla, Lucio H.; Bushweller, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common form of adult leukemia. The transcription factor fusion CBFβ-SMMHC (core binding factor β and the smooth-muscle myosin heavy chain), expressed in AML with the chromosome inversion inv(16)(p13q22), outcompetes wild-type CBFβ for binding to the transcription factor RUNX1, deregulates RUNX1 activity in hematopoiesis, and induces AML. Current inv(16) AML treatment with nonselective cytotoxic chemotherapy results in a good initial response but limited long-term survival. Here, we report the development of a protein-protein interaction inhibitor, AI-10-49, that selectively binds to CBFβ-SMMHC and disrupts its binding to RUNX1. AI-10-49 restores RUNX1 transcriptional activity, displays favorable pharmacokinetics, and delays leukemia progression in mice. Treatment of primary inv(16) AML patient blasts with AI-10-49 triggers selective cell death. These data suggest that direct inhibition of the oncogenic CBFβ-SMMHC fusion protein may be an effective therapeutic approach for inv(16) AML, and they provide support for transcription factor targeted therapy in other cancers. PMID:25678665

  10. Crystal Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv AldR (Rv2779c), a Regulator of the ald Gene: DNA BINDING AND IDENTIFICATION OF SMALL MOLECULE INHIBITORS.

    PubMed

    Dey, Abhishek; Shree, Sonal; Pandey, Sarvesh Kumar; Tripathi, Rama Pati; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2016-06-03

    Here we report the crystal structure of M. tuberculosis AldR (Rv2779c) showing that the N-terminal DNA-binding domains are swapped, forming a dimer, and four dimers are assembled into an octamer through crystal symmetry. The C-terminal domain is involved in oligomeric interactions that stabilize the oligomer, and it contains the effector-binding sites. The latter sites are 30-60% larger compared with homologs like MtbFFRP (Rv3291c) and can consequently accommodate larger molecules. MtbAldR binds to the region upstream to the ald gene that is highly up-regulated in nutrient-starved tuberculosis models and codes for l-alanine dehydrogenase (MtbAld; Rv2780). Further, the MtbAldR-DNA complex is inhibited upon binding of Ala, Tyr, Trp and Asp to the protein. Studies involving a ligand-binding site G131T mutant show that the mutant forms a DNA complex that cannot be inhibited by adding the amino acids. Comparative studies suggest that binding of the amino acids changes the relative spatial disposition of the DNA-binding domains and thereby disrupt the protein-DNA complex. Finally, we identified small molecules, including a tetrahydroquinoline carbonitrile derivative (S010-0261), that inhibit the MtbAldR-DNA complex. The latter molecules represent the very first inhibitors of a feast/famine regulatory protein from any source and set the stage for exploring MtbAldR as a potential anti-tuberculosis target. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of ETV1, YK-4-279, Prevents Prostate Cancer Growth and Metastasis in a Mouse Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Said; Minas, Tsion; Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Justvig, Sarah; Çelik, Haydar; Kont, Yasemin Saygideger; Han, Jenny; Kallarakal, Abraham T.; Kong, Yali; Rudek, Michelle A.; Brown, Milton L.; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Üren, Aykut

    2014-01-01

    Background The erythroblastosis virus E26 transforming sequences (ETS) family of transcription factors consists of a highly conserved group of genes that play important roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion. Chromosomal translocations fusing ETS factors to promoters of androgen responsive genes have been found in prostate cancers, including the most clinically aggressive forms. ERG and ETV1 are the most commonly translocated ETS proteins. Over-expression of these proteins in prostate cancer cells results in a more invasive phenotype. Inhibition of ETS activity by small molecule inhibitors may provide a novel method for the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Findings We recently demonstrated that the small molecule YK-4-279 inhibits biological activity of ETV1 in fusion-positive prostate cancer cells leading to decreased motility and invasion in-vitro. Here, we present data from an in-vivo mouse xenograft model. SCID-beige mice were subcutaneously implanted with fusion-positive LNCaP-luc-M6 and fusion-negative PC-3M-luc-C6 tumors. Animals were treated with YK-4-279, and its effects on primary tumor growth and lung metastasis were evaluated. YK-4-279 treatment resulted in decreased growth of the primary tumor only in LNCaP-luc-M6 cohort. When primary tumors were grown to comparable sizes, YK-4-279 inhibited tumor metastasis to the lungs. Expression of ETV1 target genes MMP7, FKBP10 and GLYATL2 were reduced in YK-4-279 treated animals. ETS fusion-negative PC-3M-luc-C6 xenografts were unresponsive to the compound. Furthermore, YK-4-279 is a chiral molecule that exists as a racemic mixture of R and S enantiomers. We established that (S)-YK-4-279 is the active enantiomer in prostate cancer cells. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that YK-4-279 is a potent inhibitor of ETV1 and inhibits both the primary tumor growth and metastasis of fusion positive prostate cancer xenografts. Therefore, YK-4-279 or similar compounds may be

  12. Small-molecule inhibitors at the PSD-95/nNOS interface protect against glutamate-induced neuronal atrophy in primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Doucet, M V; O'Toole, E; Connor, T; Harkin, A

    2015-08-20

    Glutamate and nitric oxide (NO) are important regulators of dendrite and axon development in the central nervous system. Excess glutamatergic stimulation is a feature of many pathological conditions and manifests in neuronal atrophy and shrinkage with eventual neurodegeneration and cell death. Here we demonstrate that treatment of cultured primary cortical rat neurons for 24h with glutamate (500μM) or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) (100-500μM) combined with glycine suppresses neurite outgrowth. A similar reduction of neurite outgrowth was observed with the NO precursor l-arginine and NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (100 and 300μM). The NMDA-receptor (NMDA-R) antagonists ketamine and MK-801 (10nM) counteracted the NMDA/glycine-induced reduction in neurite outgrowth and the neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) inhibitor 1-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] imidazole (TRIM) (100nM) counteracted both the NMDA/glycine and l-arginine-induced decreases in neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, targeting soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a downstream target of NO, with the sGC inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) (10μM) also protected against l-arginine-induced decreases in neurite outgrowth. Since the NMDA-R is functionally coupled to nNOS via the postsynaptic protein 95kDa (PSD-95), inhibitors of the PSD-95/nNOS interaction were tested for their ability to protect against glutamate-induced suppression in neurite outgrowth. Treatment with the small-molecule inhibitors of the PSD-95/nNOS interface 2-((1H-benzo[d] [1,2,3]triazol-5-ylamino) methyl)-4,6-dichlorophenol (IC87201) (10 and 100nM) and 4-(3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxy-benzylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (ZL-006) (10 and 100nM) attenuated NMDA/glycine-induced decreases in neurite outgrowth. These data support the hypothesis that targeting the NMDA-R/PSD-95/nNOS interaction downstream of NMDA-R promotes neurotrophic effects by preventing neurite shrinkage in response to excess glutamatergic stimulation. The PSD-95/n

  13. Preclinical characterization of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 small molecule inhibitors for primary and metastatic brain cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Assi, Hikmat H; Paran, Chris; VanderVeen, Nathan; Savakus, Jonathan; Doherty, Robert; Petruzzella, Emanuele; Hoeschele, James D; Appelman, Henry; Raptis, Leda; Mikkelsen, Tom; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2014-06-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been implicated as a hub for multiple oncogenic pathways. The constitutive activation of STAT3 is present in several cancers, including gliomas (GBMs), and is associated with poor therapeutic responses. Phosphorylation of STAT3 triggers its dimerization and nuclear transport, where it promotes the transcription of genes that stimulate tumor growth. In light of this role, inhibitors of the STAT3 pathway are attractive therapeutic targets for cancer. To this end, we evaluated the STAT3-inhibitory activities of three compounds (CPA-7 [trichloronitritodiammineplatinum(IV)], WP1066 [(S,E)-3-(6-bromopyridin-2-yl)-2-cyano-N-(1-phenylethyl)acrylamide, C17H14BrN3O], and ML116 [4-benzyl-1-{thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl}piperidine, C18H19N3S]) in cultured rodent and human glioma cells, including GBM cancer stem cells. Our results demonstrate a potent induction of growth arrest in GBM cells after drug treatment with a concomitant induction of cell death. Although these compounds were effective at inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation, they also displayed variable dose-dependent inhibition of STAT1, STAT5, and nuclear factor κ light-chain enhancer of activated B cells. The therapeutic efficacy of these compounds was further evaluated in peripheral and intracranial mouse tumor models. Whereas CPA-7 elicited regression of peripheral tumors, both melanoma and GBM, its efficacy was not evident when the tumors were implanted within the brain. Our data suggest poor permeability of this compound to tumors located within the central nervous system. WP1066 and ML116 exhibited poor in vivo efficacy. In summary, CPA-7 constitutes a powerful anticancer agent in models of peripheral solid cancers. Our data strongly support further development of CPA-7-derived compounds with increased permeability to enhance their efficacy in primary and metastatic brain tumors.

  14. Small-molecule histone methyltransferase inhibitors display rapid antimalarial activity against all blood stage forms in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Malmquist, Nicholas A.; Moss, Thomas A.; Mecheri, Salah; Scherf, Artur; Fuchter, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic factors such as histone methylation control the developmental progression of malaria parasites during the complex life cycle in the human host. We investigated Plasmodium falciparum histone lysine methyltransferases as a potential target class for the development of novel antimalarials. We synthesized a compound library based upon a known specific inhibitor (BIX-01294) of the human G9a histone methyltransferase. Two compounds, BIX-01294 and its derivative TM2-115, inhibited P. falciparum 3D7 parasites in culture with IC50 values of ∼100 nM, values at least 22-fold more potent than their apparent IC50 toward two human cell lines and one mouse cell line. These compounds irreversibly arrested parasite growth at all stages of the intraerythrocytic life cycle. Decrease in parasite viability (>40%) was seen after a 3-h incubation with 1 µM BIX-01294 and resulted in complete parasite killing after a 12-h incubation. Additionally, mice with patent Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain infection treated with a single dose (40 mg/kg) of TM2-115 had 18-fold reduced parasitemia the following day. Importantly, treatment of P. falciparum parasites in culture with BIX-01294 or TM2-115 resulted in significant reductions in histone H3K4me3 levels in a concentration-dependent and exposure time-dependent manner. Together, these results suggest that BIX-01294 and TM2-115 inhibit malaria parasite histone methyltransferases, resulting in rapid and irreversible parasite death. Our data position histone lysine methyltransferases as a previously unrecognized target class, and BIX-01294 as a promising lead compound, in a presently unexploited avenue for antimalarial drug discovery targeting multiple life-cycle stages. PMID:23011794

  15. Preclinical Characterization of PC786, an Inhaled Small-Molecule Respiratory Syncytial Virus L Protein Polymerase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Matthew; Brookes, Daniel; Kim, Young-In; Allen, Heather; Fordyce, Euan A. F.; Meals, Elizabeth A.; Colley, Thomas; Ciana, Claire-Lise; Parra, Guillaume F.; Sherbukhin, Vladimir; Stockwell, Jennifer A.; Thomas, Jennifer C.; Hunt, S. Fraser; Anderson-Dring, Lauren; Onions, Stuart T.; Cass, Lindsey; Murray, Peter J.; Strong, Pete; DeVincenzo, John P.; Rapeport, Garth

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children, attempts to develop an effective therapy have so far proved unsuccessful. Here we report the preclinical profiles of PC786, a potent nonnucleoside RSV L protein polymerase inhibitor, designed for inhalation treatment of RSV infection. PC786 demonstrated a potent and selective antiviral activity against laboratory-adapted or clinical isolates of RSV-A (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], <0.09 to 0.71 nM) and RSV-B (IC50, 1.3 to 50.6 nM), which were determined by inhibition of cytopathic effects in HEp-2 cells without causing detectable cytotoxicity. The underlying inhibition of virus replication was confirmed by PCR analysis. The effects of PC786 were largely unaffected by the multiplicity of infection (MOI) and were retained in the face of established RSV replication in a time-of-addition study. Persistent anti-RSV effects of PC786 were also demonstrated in human bronchial epithelial cells. In vivo intranasal once daily dosing with PC786 was able to reduce the virus load to undetectable levels in lung homogenates from RSV-infected mice and cotton rats. Treatment with escalating concentrations identified a dominant mutation in the L protein (Y1631H) in vitro. In addition, PC786 potently inhibited RSV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity in a cell-free enzyme assay and minigenome assay in HEp-2 cells (IC50, 2.1 and 0.5 nM, respectively). Thus, PC786 was shown to be a potent anti-RSV agent via inhibition of RdRp activity, making topical treatment with this compound a novel potential therapy for the treatment of human RSV infections. PMID:28652242

  16. Exploring the multifunctionality of thioflavin- and deferiprone-based molecules as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for potential application in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Telpoukhovskaia, Maria A; Patrick, Brian O; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Cristina; Orvig, Chris

    2013-04-05

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that affects millions of people worldwide. With no prevention or cure available, this progressive disease has a significant impact on society - dementia patients and their caretakers, healthcare systems, and the economy. Previously, we have reported initial developments of multifunctional drug candidates for AD based on two scaffolds - thioflavin-T and deferiprone. Individually, these molecules have shown several favorable functionalities, including dissociation of toxic amyloid-β aggregates, antioxidant and/or metal chelating ability that can pacify reactive oxygen species, plaque targeting, and blood-brain barrier penetration. In this work, the two scaffolds are augmented with a new functionality - acetylcholinesterase inhibition. This functionality is incorporated by derivatization with a carbamate group, which is the active group in some AD drugs currently in the market. We present the rationale for designing three novel compounds, their synthesis and characterization, including X-ray crystallographic data, and encouraging results from in vitro and computational acetylcholinesterase inhibition studies. Also, we evaluate the compounds as potential drug candidates by Lipinski's rules and cytotoxicity studies in a neuronal cell line. Overall, we demonstrate the feasibility of improving on two well established scaffolds, as well as show in vitro efficacy plus initial mode of action and biological compatibility data.

  17. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Chakrabarti, Manoj K.; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2015-01-01

    Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX) and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA) and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea) free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26540279

  18. In vivo analysis of insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor humanized monoclonal antibody MK-0646 and small molecule kinase inhibitor OSI-906 in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    LEIPHRAKPAM, PREMILA D.; AGARWAL, EKTA; MATHIESEN, MICHELLE; HAFERBIER, KATIE L.; BRATTAIN, MICHAEL G.; CHOWDHURY, SANJIB

    2014-01-01

    The development and characterization of effective anticancer drugs against colorectal cancer (CRC) is of urgent need since it is the second most common cause of cancer death. The study was designed to evaluate the effects of two IGF-1R antagonists, MK-0646, a recombinant fully humanized monoclonal antibody and OSI-906, a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor on CRC cells. Xenograft study was performed on IGF-1R-dependent CRC cell lines for analyzing the antitumor activity of MK-0646 and OSI-906. Tumor proliferation and apoptosis were assessed using Ki67 and TUNEL assays, respectively. We also performed in vitro characterization of MK-0646 and OSI-906 treatment on CRC cells to identify mechanisms associated with drug-induced cell death. Exposure of the GEO and CBS tumor xenografts to MK-0646 or OSI-906 led to a decrease in tumor growth. TUNEL analysis showed an increase of approximately 45–55% in apoptotic cells in both MK-0646 and OSI-906 treated tumor samples. We report the novel finding that treatment with IGF-1R antagonists led to downregulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) protein involved in cell survival and inhibition of cell death. In conclusion, IGF-1R antagonists (MK-0646 and OSI-906) demonstrated single agent inhibition of subcutaneous CRC xenograft growth. This was coupled to pro-apoptotic effects resulting in downregulation of XIAP and inhibition of cell survival. We report a novel mechanism by which MK-0646 and OSI-906 elicits cell death in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, these results indicate that MK-0646 and OSI-906 may be potential anticancer candidates for the treatment of patients with IGF-1R-dependent CRC. PMID:24173770

  19. Small Molecule Inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus RnpA Alter Cellular mRNA Turnover, Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity, and Attenuate Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Patrick D.; Kuechenmeister, Lisa J.; Anderson, Kelsi L.; Daily, Sonja; Beenken, Karen E.; Roux, Christelle M.; Reniere, Michelle L.; Lewis, Tami L.; Weiss, William J.; Pulse, Mark; Nguyen, Phung; Simecka, Jerry W.; Morrison, John M.; Sayood, Khalid; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Smeltzer, Mark S.; Skaar, Eric P.; Dunman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is estimated to cause more U.S. deaths annually than HIV/AIDS. The emergence of hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant strains has further amplified public health concern and accentuated the need for new classes of antibiotics. RNA degradation is a required cellular process that could be exploited for novel antimicrobial drug development. However, such discovery efforts have been hindered because components of the Gram-positive RNA turnover machinery are incompletely defined. In the current study we found that the essential S. aureus protein, RnpA, catalyzes rRNA and mRNA digestion in vitro. Exploiting this activity, high through-put and secondary screening assays identified a small molecule inhibitor of RnpA-mediated in vitro RNA degradation. This agent was shown to limit cellular mRNA degradation and exhibited antimicrobial activity against predominant methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) lineages circulating throughout the U.S., vancomycin intermediate susceptible S. aureus (VISA), vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA) and other Gram-positive bacterial pathogens with high RnpA amino acid conservation. We also found that this RnpA-inhibitor ameliorates disease in a systemic mouse infection model and has antimicrobial activity against biofilm-associated S. aureus. Taken together, these findings indicate that RnpA, either alone, as a component of the RNase P holoenzyme, and/or as a member of a more elaborate complex, may play a role in S. aureus RNA degradation and provide proof of principle for RNA catabolism-based antimicrobial therapy. PMID:21347352

  20. MLN8054, A Small Molecule Inhibitor of Aurora Kinase A, Sensitizes Androgen-Resistant Prostate Cancer to Radiation;Aurora kinase A; MLN8054; Prostate cancer; Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Moretti, Luigi; Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels; Niermann, Kenneth

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether MLN8054, an Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A) inhibitor causes radiosensitization in androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: In vitro studies consisted of culturing PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells and then immunoblotting Aurora A and phospho-Aurora A after radiation and/or nocodazole with MLN8054. Phases of the cell cycle were measured with flow cytometry. PC3 and DU145 cell lines were measured for survival after treatment with MLN8054 and radiation. Immunofluorescence measured {gamma}-H2AX in the PC3 and DU145 cells after treatment. In vivo studies looked at growth delay of PC3 tumor cells inmore » athymic nude mice. PC3 cells grew for 6 to 8 days in mice treated with radiation, MLN8054, or combined for 7 more days. Tumors were resected and fixed on paraffin and stained for von Willebrand factor, Ki67, and caspase-3. Results: In vitro inhibition of Aurora-A by MLN8054 sensitized prostate cancer cells, as determined by dose enhancement ratios in clonogenic assays. These effects were associated with sustained DNA double-strand breaks, as evidenced by increased immunofluorescence for {gamma}-H2AX and significant G2/M accumulation and polyploidy. In vivo, the addition of MLN8054 (30 mg/kg/day) to radiation in mouse prostate cancer xenografts (PC3 cells) significantly increased tumor growth delay and apoptosis (caspase-3 staining), with reduction in cell proliferation (Ki67 staining) and vascular density (von Willebrand factor staining). Conclusion: MLN8054, a novel small molecule Aurora-A inhibitor showed radiation sensitization in androgen-insensitive prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. This warrants the clinical development of MLN8054 with radiation for prostate cancer patients.« less

  1. In vivo analysis of insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor humanized monoclonal antibody MK-0646 and small molecule kinase inhibitor OSI-906 in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Leiphrakpam, Premila D; Agarwal, Ekta; Mathiesen, Michelle; Haferbier, Katie L; Brattain, Michael G; Chowdhury, Sanjib

    2014-01-01

    The development and characterization of effective anticancer drugs against colorectal cancer (CRC) is of urgent need since it is the second most common cause of cancer death. The study was designed to evaluate the effects of two IGF-1R antagonists, MK-0646, a recombinant fully humanized monoclonal antibody and OSI-906, a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor on CRC cells. Xenograft study was performed on IGF-1R-dependent CRC cell lines for analyzing the antitumor activity of MK-0646 and OSI-906. Tumor proliferation and apoptosis were assessed using Ki67 and TUNEL assays, respectively. We also performed in vitro characterization of MK-0646 and OSI-906 treatment on CRC cells to identify mechanisms associated with drug-induced cell death. Exposure of the GEO and CBS tumor xenografts to MK-0646 or OSI-906 led to a decrease in tumor growth. TUNEL analysis showed an increase of approximately 45-55% in apoptotic cells in both MK-0646 and OSI-906 treated tumor samples. We report the novel finding that treatment with IGF-1R antagonists led to downregulation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) protein involved in cell survival and inhibition of cell death. In conclusion, IGF-1R antagonists (MK-0646 and OSI-906) demonstrated single agent inhibition of subcutaneous CRC xenograft growth. This was coupled to pro-apoptotic effects resulting in downregulation of XIAP and inhibition of cell survival. We report a novel mechanism by which MK-0646 and OSI-906 elicits cell death in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, these results indicate that MK-0646 and OSI-906 may be potential anticancer candidates for the treatment of patients with IGF-1R-dependent CRC.

  2. Pore Polarity and Charge Determine Differential Block of Kir1.1 and Kir7.1 Potassium Channels by Small-Molecule Inhibitor VU590.

    PubMed

    Kharade, Sujay V; Sheehan, Jonathan H; Figueroa, Eric E; Meiler, Jens; Denton, Jerod S

    2017-09-01

    VU590 was the first publicly disclosed, submicromolar-affinity (IC 50 = 0.2 μ M), small-molecule inhibitor of the inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channel and diuretic target, Kir1.1. VU590 also inhibits Kir7.1 (IC 50 ∼ 8 μ M), and has been used to reveal new roles for Kir7.1 in regulation of myometrial contractility and melanocortin signaling. Here, we employed molecular modeling, mutagenesis, and patch clamp electrophysiology to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying VU590 inhibition of Kir1.1 and Kir7.1. Block of both channels is voltage- and K + -dependent, suggesting the VU590 binding site is located within the pore. Mutagenesis analysis in Kir1.1 revealed that asparagine 171 (N171) is the only pore-lining residue required for high-affinity block, and that substituting negatively charged residues (N171D, N171E) at this position dramatically weakens block. In contrast, substituting a negatively charged residue at the equivalent position in Kir7.1 enhances block by VU590, suggesting the VU590 binding mode is different. Interestingly, mutations of threonine 153 (T153) in Kir7.1 that reduce constrained polarity at this site (T153C, T153V, T153S) make wild-type and binding-site mutants (E149Q, A150S) more sensitive to block by VU590. The Kir7.1-T153C mutation enhances block by the structurally unrelated inhibitor VU714 but not by a higher-affinity analog ML418, suggesting that the polar side chain of T153 creates a barrier to low-affinity ligands that interact with E149 and A150. Reverse mutations in Kir1.1 suggest that this mechanism is conserved in other Kir channels. This study reveals a previously unappreciated role of membrane pore polarity in determination of Kir channel inhibitor pharmacology. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Scrutiny of the mechanism of small molecule inhibitor preventing conformational transition of amyloid-β42 monomer: insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Shuaib, Suniba; Goyal, Bhupesh

    2018-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by loss of intellectual functioning of brain and memory loss. According to amyloid cascade hypothesis, aggregation of amyloid-β 42 (Aβ 42 ) peptide can generate toxic oligomers and their accumulation in the brain is responsible for the onset of AD. In spite of carrying out a large number of experimental studies on inhibition of Aβ 42 aggregation by small molecules, the detailed inhibitory mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, comparable molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to elucidate the inhibitory mechanism of a sulfonamide inhibitor C1 (2,5-dichloro-N-(4-piperidinophenyl)-3-thiophenesulfonamide), reported for its in vitro and in vivo anti-aggregation activity against Aβ 42 . MD simulations reveal that C1 stabilizes native α-helix conformation of Aβ 42 by interacting with key residues in the central helix region (13-26) with hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions. C1 lowers the solvent-accessible surface area of the central hydrophobic core (CHC), KLVFF (16-20), that confirms burial of hydrophobic residues leading to the dominance of helical conformation in the CHC region. The binding free energy analysis with MM-PBSA demonstrates that Ala2, Phe4, Tyr10, Gln15, Lys16, Leu17, Val18, Phe19, Phe20, Glu22, and Met35 contribute maximum to binding free energy (-43.1 kcal/mol) between C1 and Aβ 42 monomer. Overall, MD simulations reveal that C1 inhibits Aβ 42 aggregation by stabilizing native helical conformation and inhibiting the formation of aggregation-prone β-sheet conformation. The present results will shed light on the underlying inhibitory mechanism of small molecules that show potential in vitro anti-aggregation activity against Aβ 42 .

  4. Development of Anti-Virulence Approaches for Candidiasis via a Novel Series of Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Candida albicans Filamentation

    PubMed Central

    Romo, Jesus A.; Pierce, Christopher G.; Chaturvedi, Ashok K.; Lazzell, Anna L.; McHardy, Stanton F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida albicans remains the main etiologic agent of candidiasis, the most common fungal infection and now the third most frequent infection in U.S. hospitals. The scarcity of antifungal agents and their limited efficacy contribute to the unacceptably high morbidity and mortality rates associated with these infections. The yeast-to-hypha transition represents the main virulence factor associated with the pathogenesis of C. albicans infections. In addition, filamentation is pivotal for robust biofilm development, which represents another major virulence factor for candidiasis and further complicates treatment. Targeting pathogenic mechanisms rather than growth represents an attractive yet clinically unexploited approach in the development of novel antifungal agents. Here, we performed large-scale phenotypic screening assays with 30,000 drug-like small-molecule compounds within ChemBridge’s DIVERSet chemical library in order to identify small-molecule inhibitors of C. albicans filamentation, and our efforts led to the identification of a novel series of bioactive compounds with a common biaryl amide core structure. The leading compound of this series, N-[3-(allyloxy)-phenyl]-4-methoxybenzamide, was able to prevent filamentation under all liquid and solid medium conditions tested, suggesting that it impacts a common core component of the cellular machinery that mediates hypha formation under different environmental conditions. In addition to filamentation, this compound also inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation. This leading compound also demonstrated in vivo activity in clinically relevant murine models of invasive and oral candidiasis. Overall, our results indicate that compounds within this series represent promising candidates for the development of novel anti-virulence approaches to combat C. albicans infections. PMID:29208749

  5. A small molecule polyamine oxidase inhibitor blocks androgen-induced oxidative stress and delays prostate cancer progression in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model.

    PubMed

    Basu, Hirak S; Thompson, Todd A; Church, Dawn R; Clower, Cynthia C; Mehraein-Ghomi, Farideh; Amlong, Corey A; Martin, Christopher T; Woster, Patrick M; Lindstrom, Mary J; Wilding, George

    2009-10-01

    High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) present in human prostate epithelia are an important etiologic factor in prostate cancer (CaP) occurrence, recurrence, and progression. Androgen induces ROS production in the prostate by a yet unknown mechanism. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time that androgen induces an overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the polyamine oxidation pathway. As prostatic epithelia produce a large excess of polyamines, the androgen-induced polyamine oxidation that produces H2O2 could be a major reason for the high ROS levels in the prostate epithelia. A small molecule polyamine oxidase inhibitor N,N'-butanedienyl butanediamine (MDL 72,527 or CPC-200) effectively blocks androgen-induced ROS production in human CaP cells, as well as significantly delays CaP progression and death in animals developing spontaneous CaP. These data show that polyamine oxidation is not only a major pathway for ROS production in prostate, but inhibiting this pathway also successfully delays CaP progression.

  6. A Small Molecule Polyamine Oxidase Inhibitor Blocks Androgen-Induced Oxidative Stress and Delays Prostate Cancer Progression in the TRAMP Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Hirak S.; Thompson, Todd A.; Church, Dawn R.; Clower, Cynthia C.; Mehraein-Ghomi, Farideh; Amlong, Corey A.; Martin, Christopher T.; Woster, Patrick M.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Wilding, George

    2009-01-01

    High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) present in human prostate epithelia are an important etiological factor in prostate cancer (CaP) occurrence, recurrence and progression. Androgen induces ROS production in the prostate by a yet unknown mechanism. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time that androgen induces an overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT), the rate-limiting enzyme in the polyamine oxidation pathway. As prostatic epithelia produce a large excess of polyamines, the androgen-induced polyamine oxidation that produces H2O2 could be a major reason for the high ROS levels in the prostate epithelia. A small molecule polyamine oxidase inhibitor N,N'-butanedienyl butanediamine (MDL 72,527 or CPC-200) effectively blocks androgen-induced ROS production in human CaP cells as well as significantly delays CaP progression and death in animals developing spontaneous CaP. These data demonstrate that polyamine oxidation is not only a major pathway for ROS production in prostate, but inhibiting this pathway also successfully delays prostate cancer progression. PMID:19773450

  7. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of bioactive molecules; Quantification of tricyclic pyrones from pharmacokinetic studies; Nanodelivery of siRNA; and Synthesis of viral protease inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasekara, Sahani Manjitha

    Four research projects were carried out and they are described in this dissertation. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3?) plays a pivotal and central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and protein kinase C (PKC) controls the function of other proteins via phosphorylation and involves in tumor promotion. In pursuit of identifying novel GSK3beta and/or PKC inhibitors, substituted quinoline molecules were designed and synthesized based on the structure-activity-relationship studies. Synthesized molecules were evaluated for their neural protective activities and selected molecules were further tested for inhibitory activities on GSK3beta and PKC enzymes. Among these compounds, compound 2 was found to have better GSK3beta enzyme inhibitory and MC65 cell protection activities at low nanomolar concentrations and poor PKC inhibitory activity whereas compound 3 shows better PKC inhibitory activity. This demonstrates the potential for uses of quinoline scaffold in designing novel compounds for AD and cancer. Pharmacokinetics and distribution profiles of two anti-Alzheimer molecules, CP2 and TP70, discovered in our laboratory were assessed using HPLC/MS. Plasma samples of mice and rats fed with TP70 via different routes over various times were analyzed to quantify the amounts of TP70 in plasma of both species. Distribution profiles of TP70 in various tissues of mice were studied and results show that TP70 penetrated the blood brain barrier and accumulated in the brain tissue in significant amounts. Similarly, the amount of CP2 in plasma of mice was analyzed. The HPLC analysis revealed that both compounds have good PK profiles and bioavailability, which would make them suitable candidates for further in vivo efficacy studies. Nanodelivery of specific dsRNA for suppressing the western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) genes was studied using modified chitosan or modified polyvinylpyrrolidinone (PVP) as nanocarriers. Computational

  8. PHA665752, a small-molecule inhibitor of c-Met, inhibits hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated migration and proliferation of c-Met-positive neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Crosswell, Hal E; Dasgupta, Anindya; Alvarado, Carlos S; Watt, Tanya; Christensen, James G; De, Pradip; Durden, Donald L; Findley, Harry W

    2009-11-25

    c-Met is a tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), and both c-Met and its ligand are expressed in a variety of tissues. C-Met/HGF/SF signaling is essential for normal embryogenesis, organogenesis, and tissue regeneration. Abnormal c-Met/HGF/SF signaling has been demonstrated in different tumors and linked to aggressive and metastatic tumor phenotypes. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated inhibition of c-Met/HGF/SF signaling by the small-molecule inhibitor PHA665752. This study investigated c-Met and HGF expression in two neuroblastoma (NBL) cell lines and tumor tissue from patients with NBL, as well as the effects of PHA665752 on growth and motility of NBL cell lines. The effect of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN on migration and proliferation of tumor cells treated with PHA665752 was also evaluated. Expression of c-Met and HGF in NBL cell lines SH-EP and SH-SY5Y and primary tumor tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. The effect of PHA665752 on c-Met/HGF signaling involved in NBL cell proliferation and migration was evaluated in c-Met-positive cells and c-Met-transfected cells. The transwell chemotaxis assay and the MTT assay were used to measure migration and proliferation/cell-survival of tumor cells, respectively. The PPAR-gamma agonist rosiglitazone was used to assess the effect of PTEN on PHA665752-induced inhibition of NBL cell proliferation/cell-survival and migration High c-Met expression was detected in SH-EP cells and primary tumors from patients with advanced-stage disease. C-Met/HGF signaling induced both migration and proliferation of SH-EP cells. Migration and proliferation/cell-survival were inhibited by PHA665752 in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that induced overexpression of PTEN following treatment with rosiglitazone significantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of PHA665752 on NBL-cell migration and proliferation. c-Met is highly expressed in most tumors

  9. Targeting the apoptotic machinery in pancreatic cancers using small-molecule antagonists of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein.

    PubMed

    Karikari, Collins A; Roy, Indrajit; Tryggestad, Eric; Feldmann, Georg; Pinilla, Clemencia; Welsh, Kate; Reed, John C; Armour, Elwood P; Wong, John; Herman, Joseph; Rakheja, Dinesh; Maitra, Anirban

    2007-03-01

    Resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of many solid tumors, including pancreatic cancers, and may be the underlying basis for the suboptimal response to chemoradiation therapies. Overexpression of a family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) is commonly observed in pancreatic malignancies. We determined the therapeutic efficacy of recently described small-molecule antagonists of the X-linked IAP (XIAP) in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. Primary pancreatic cancers were assessed for XIAP expression by immunohistochemistry, using a pancreatic cancer tissue microarray. XIAP small-molecule antagonists ("XAntag"; compounds 1396-11 and 1396-12) and the related compound 1396-28 were tested in vitro in a panel of human pancreatic cancer cell lines (Panc1, Capan1, and BxPC3) and in vivo in s.c. xenograft models for their ability to induce apoptosis and impede neoplastic growth. In addition, pancreatic cancer cell lines were treated with XAntags in conjunction with either tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or with radiation to determine potential synergy for such dual targeting of the apoptotic machinery. XIAP was overexpressed in 14 of 18 (77%) of primary pancreatic cancers. The XAntags1396-11 and 1396-12, but not the inactive isomer 1396-28, induced profound apoptosis in multiple pancreatic cancer cell lines tested in vitro, with a IC(50) in the range of 2 to 5 mumol/L. Mechanistic specificity of the XAntags for the baculoviral IAP repeat-2 domain of XIAP was shown by preferential activation of downstream "effector" caspases (caspase-3 and caspase-7) versus the upstream "initiator" caspase-9. S.c. BxPC3 xenograft growth in athymic mice was significantly inhibited by monotherapy with XAntags; treated xenografts showed marked apoptosis and increased cleavage of caspase-3. Notably, striking synergy was demonstrable when XAntags were combined with either TRAIL or radiation therapy, as measured by growth inhibition in vitro and reduced

  10. An Improved Small-Molecule Inhibitor of FtsZ with Superior In Vitro Potency, Drug-Like Properties, and In Vivo Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nicola; Bennett, James M.; Berry, Joanne; Collins, Ian; Czaplewski, Lloyd G.; Logan, Alastair; Macdonald, Rebecca; MacLeod, Leanne; Peasley, Hilary; Mitchell, Jeffrey P.; Nayal, Narendra; Yadav, Anju; Srivastava, Anil; Haydon, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is an attractive target for small-molecule antibacterial drug discovery. Derivatives of 3-methoxybenzamide, including compound PC190723, have been reported to be potent and selective antistaphylococcal agents which exert their effects through the disruption of intracellular FtsZ function. Here, we report the further optimization of 3-methoxybenzamide derivatives towards a drug candidate. The in vitro and in vivo characterization of a more advanced lead compound, designated compound 1, is described. Compound 1 was potently antibacterial, with an average MIC of 0.12 μg/ml against all staphylococcal species, including methicillin- and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Compound 1 inhibited an S. aureus strain carrying the G196A mutation in FtsZ, which confers resistance to PC190723. Like PC190723, compound 1 acted on whole bacterial cells by blocking cytokinesis. No interactions between compound 1 and a diverse panel of antibiotics were measured in checkerboard experiments. Compound 1 displayed suitable in vitro pharmaceutical properties and a favorable in vivo pharmacokinetic profile following intravenous and oral administration, with a calculated bioavailability of 82.0% in mice. Compound 1 demonstrated efficacy in a murine model of systemic S. aureus infection and caused a significant decrease in the bacterial load in the thigh infection model. A greater reduction in the number of S. aureus cells recovered from infected thighs, equivalent to 3.68 log units, than in those recovered from controls was achieved using a succinate prodrug of compound 1, which was designated compound 2. In summary, optimized derivatives of 3-methoxybenzamide may yield a first-in-class FtsZ inhibitor for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant staphylococcal infections. PMID:23114779

  11. The Small Molecule Inhibitor G6 Significantly Reduces Bone Marrow Fibrosis and the Mutant Burden in a Mouse Model of Jak2-Mediated Myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kirabo, Annet; Park, Sung O.; Wamsley, Heather L.; Gali, Meghanath; Baskin, Rebekah; Reinhard, Mary K.; Zhao, Zhizhuang J.; Bisht, Kirpal S.; Keserű, György M.; Cogle, Christopher R.; Sayeski, Peter P.

    2013-01-01

    Philadelphia chromosome–negative myeloproliferative neoplasms, including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytosis, and myelofibrosis, are disorders characterized by abnormal hematopoiesis. Among these myeloproliferative neoplasms, myelofibrosis has the most unfavorable prognosis. Furthermore, currently available therapies for myelofibrosis have little to no efficacy in the bone marrow and hence, are palliative. We recently developed a Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) small molecule inhibitor called G6 and found that it exhibits marked efficacy in a xenograft model of Jak2-V617F–mediated hyperplasia and a transgenic mouse model of Jak2-V617F–mediated polycythemia vera/essential thrombocytosis. However, its efficacy in Jak2-mediated myelofibrosis has not previously been examined. Here, we hypothesized that G6 would be efficacious in Jak2-V617F–mediated myelofibrosis. To test this, mice expressing the human Jak2-V617F cDNA under the control of the vav promoter were administered G6 or vehicle control solution, and efficacy was determined by measuring parameters within the peripheral blood, liver, spleen, and bone marrow. We found that G6 significantly reduced extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver and splenomegaly. In the bone marrow, G6 significantly reduced pathogenic Jak/STAT signaling by 53%, megakaryocytic hyperplasia by 70%, and the Jak2 mutant burden by 68%. Furthermore, G6 significantly improved the myeloid to erythroid ratio and significantly reversed the myelofibrosis. Collectively, these results indicate that G6 is efficacious in Jak2-V617F–mediated myelofibrosis, and given its bone marrow efficacy, it may alter the natural history of this disease. PMID:22796437

  12. Phase I Study of SU5416, a Small Molecule Inhibitor of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor (VEGFR) in Refractory Pediatric Central Nervous System Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kieran, Mark W.; Supko, Jeffrey G.; Wallace, Dana; Fruscio, Robert; Poussaint, Tina Young; Phillips, Peter; Pollack, Ian; Packer, Roger; Boyett, James M.; Blaney, Susan; Prados, Michael; Geyer, Russ; Friedman, Henry; Goldman, Stewart; Kun, Larry E.; MacDonald, Tobey

    2009-01-01

    SU5416 is a novel small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the VEGF receptors 1 and 2. A phase I dose escalation study stratified by concurrent use (stratum II) or absence (Stratum I) of enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant drugs was undertaken to estimate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and to describe the toxicity profile of SU5416 in pediatric patients with refractory brain tumors. Dose escalations were conducted independently for stratum I starting at 110mg/m2 while stratum II started at 48mg/m2. Thirty-three eligible patients were treated on stratum I (n=23) and stratum II (n=10). Tumor types included 23 glial tumors, 4 neural tumors, 4 ependymomas and 2 choroid plexus carcinomas. The MTD in Stratum I was initially estimated to be 110mg/m2. The protocol was amended to determine the MTD after excluding transient AST elevation. Re-estimation of the MTD began at the 145mg/m2 dose level but due to development of SU5416 being stopped by the sponsor, the trial was closed before completion. The most serious drug-related toxicities were grade 3 liver enzyme abnormalities, arthralgia and hallucinations. The plasma pharmacokinetics of SU5416 was not significantly affected by the concurrent administration of enzyme-inducing anticonvulsant drugs. Mean values of the total body clearance, apparent volume of distribution, and terminal phase half-life of SU5416 for the 19 patients in Stratum I were 26.1 ± 12.5 liter/h/m2, 41.9 ± 21.4 liter/m2, and 1.11 ± 0.41 h, respectively. The plasma pharmacokinetics of SU5416 in children was similar to previously reported findings in adult cancer patients. Prolonged disease stabilization was observed in 4 of 16 stratum 1 patients. PMID:19065567

  13. ARQ-197, a small-molecule inhibitor of c-Met, reduces tumour burden and prevents myeloma-induced bone disease in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lath, Darren L; Buckle, Clive H; Evans, Holly R; Fisher, Matthew; Down, Jenny M; Lawson, Michelle A; Chantry, Andrew D

    2018-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met, its ligand HGF, and components of the downstream signalling pathway, have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of myeloma, both as modulators of plasma cell proliferation and as agents driving osteoclast differentiation and osteoblast inhibition thus, all these contribute substantially to the bone destruction typically caused by myeloma. Patients with elevated levels of HGF have a poor prognosis, therefore, targeting these entities in such patients may be of substantial benefit. We hypothesized that ARQ-197 (Tivantinib), a small molecule c-Met inhibitor, would reduce myeloma cell growth and prevent myeloma-associated bone disease in a murine model. In vitro we assessed the effects of ARQ-197 on myeloma cell proliferation, cytotoxicity and c-Met protein expression in human myeloma cell lines. In vivo we injected NOD/SCID-γ mice with PBS (non-tumour bearing) or JJN3 cells and treated them with either ARQ-197 or vehicle. In vitro exposure of JJN3, U266 or NCI-H929 cells to ARQ-197 resulted in a significant inhibition of cell proliferation and an induction of cell death by necrosis, probably caused by significantly reduced levels of phosphorylated c-Met. In vivo ARQ-197 treatment of JJN3 tumour-bearing mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumour burden, tumour cell proliferation, bone lesion number, trabecular bone loss and prevented significant decreases in the bone formation rate on the cortico-endosteal bone surface compared to the vehicle group. However, no significant differences on bone parameters were observed in non-tumour mice treated with ARQ-197 compared to vehicle, implying that in tumour-bearing mice the effects of ARQ-197 on bone cells was indirect. In summary, these res ults suggest that ARQ-197 could be a promising therapeutic in myeloma patients, leading to both a reduction in tumour burden and an inhibition of myeloma-induced bone disease.

  14. Inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit by small molecule inhibitor NU7026 sensitizes human leukemic K562 cells to benzene metabolite-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    You, Hao; Kong, Meng-meng; Wang, Li-ping; Xiao, Xiao; Liao, Han-lin; Bi, Zhuo-yue; Yan, Hong; Wang, Hong; Wang, Chun-hong; Ma, Qiang; Liu, Yan-qun; Bi, Yong-yi

    2013-02-01

    Benzene is an established leukotoxin and leukemogen in humans. We have previously reported that exposure of workers to benzene and to benzene metabolite hydroquinone in cultured cells induced DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to mediate the cellular response to DNA double strand break (DSB) caused by DNA-damaging metabolites. In this study, we used a new, small molecule, a selective inhibitor of DNA-PKcs, 2-(morpholin-4-yl)-benzo[h]chomen-4-one (NU7026), as a probe to analyze the molecular events and pathways in hydroquinone-induced DNA DSB repair and apoptosis. Inhibition of DNA-PKcs by NU7026 markedly potentiated the apoptotic and growth inhibitory effects of hydroquinone in proerythroid leukemic K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with NU7026 did not alter the production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress by hydroquinone but repressed the protein level of DNA-PKcs and blocked the induction of the kinase mRNA and protein expression by hydroquinone. Moreover, hydroquinone increased the phosphorylation of Akt to activate Akt, whereas co-treatment with NU7026 prevented the activation of Akt by hydroquinone. Lastly, hydroquinone and NU7026 exhibited synergistic effects on promoting apoptosis by increasing the protein levels of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and caspase-3 but decreasing the protein expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Taken together, the findings reveal a central role of DNA-PKcs in hydroquinone-induced hematotoxicity in which it coordinates DNA DSB repair, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis to regulate the response to hydroquinone-induced DNA damage.

  15. A small molecule inhibitor of NFκB blocks ER stress and the NLRP3 inflammasome and prevents progression of pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kanak, Mazhar A; Shahbazov, Rauf; Yoshimatsu, Gumpei; Levy, Marlon F; Lawrence, Michael C; Naziruddin, Bashoo

    2017-03-01

    The underlying molecular mechanism that leads to development of chronic pancreatitis remains elusive. The aim of this study is to understand the downstream inflammatory signaling involved in progression of chronic pancreatitis, and to use withaferin A (WA), a small molecule inhibitor of nuclear factor κB (NFκB), to prevent progression of chronic pancreatitis. Two different protocols were used to induce pancreatitis in mice: standard and stringent administration of cerulein. The severity of pancreatitis was assessed by means of pancreatic histology and serum amylase levels. Immunohistochemistry and flow-cytometric analysis was performed to visualize immune cell infiltration into the pancreas. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to analyze the downstream signaling mechanism involved in the development of chronic pancreatitis. The severity of cerulein-induced pancreatitis was reduced significantly by WA, used as either preventive or curative treatment. Immune cell infiltration into the pancreas and acinar cell death were efficiently reduced by WA treatment. Expression of proinflammatory and proapoptotic genes regulated by NFκB activation was increased by cerulein treatment, and WA suppressed these genes significantly. Sustained endoplasmic reticulum stress activation by cerulein administration was reduced. NLRP3 inflammasome activation in cerulein-induced pancreatitis was identified, and this was also potently blocked by WA. The human pancreatitis tissue gene signature correlated with the mouse model. Our data provide evidence for the role of NFκB in the pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis, and strongly suggest that WA could be used as a potential therapeutic drug to alleviate some forms of chronic pancreatitis.

  16. Regulation of human glioblastoma cell death by combined treatment of cannabidiol, γ-radiation and small molecule inhibitors of cell signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Wu, Jinhua; Hei, Tom K.

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. The challenging problem in cancer treatment is to find a way to upregulate radiosensitivity of GBM while protecting neurons and neural stem/progenitor cells in the brain. The goal of the present study was upregulation of the cytotoxic effect of γ-irradiation in GBM by non-psychotropic and non-toxic cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD). We emphasized three main aspects of signaling mechanisms induced by CBD treatment (alone or in combination with γ-irradiation) in human GBM that govern cell death: 1) CBD significantly upregulated the active (phosphorylated) JNK1/2 and MAPK p38 levels with the subsequent downregulation of the active phospho-ERK1/2 and phospho-AKT1 levels. MAPK p38 was one of the main drivers of CBD-induced cell death, while death levels after combined treatment of CBD and radiation were dependent on both MAPK p38 and JNK. Both MAPK p38 and JNK regulate the endogenous TRAIL expression. 2) NF-κB p65-P(Ser536) was not the main target of CBD treatment and this transcription factor was found at high levels in CBD-treated GBM cells. Additional suppression of p65-P(Ser536) levels using specific small molecule inhibitors significantly increased CBD-induced apoptosis. 3) CBD treatment substantially upregulated TNF/TNFR1 and TRAIL/TRAIL-R2 signaling by modulation of both ligand and receptor levels followed by apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that radiation-induced death in GBM could be enhanced by CBD-mediated signaling in concert with its marginal effects for neural stem/progenitor cells and astrocytes. It will allow selecting efficient targets for sensitization of GBM and overcoming cancer therapy-induced severe adverse sequelae. PMID:29088769

  17. Non-covalent Small-Molecule Kelch-like ECH-Associated Protein 1-Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (Keap1-Nrf2) Inhibitors and Their Potential for Targeting Central Nervous System Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pallesen, Jakob S; Tran, Kim T; Bach, Anders

    2018-05-29

    The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has a protective effect against oxidative stress and plays a major role in inflammation and central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Inhibition of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) between Nrf2 and its repressor protein, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), leads to translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol to the nucleus and expression of detoxifying antioxidant enzymes. To date, several non-covalent small-molecule Keap1-Nrf2 inhibitors have been identified; however, many of them contain carboxylic acids and are rather large in size, which likely prevents or decreases CNS permeability. This Perspective describes current small-molecule Keap1-Nrf2 inhibitors with experimental evidence for the ability to inhibit the Keap1-Nrf2 interaction by binding to Keap1 in a non-covalent manner. Binding data, biostructural studies, and biological activity are summarized for the inhibitors, and their potential as CNS tool compounds is discussed by analyzing physicochemical properties, including CNS multiparameter optimization (MPO) scoring algorithms. Finally, several strategies for identifying CNS-targeting Keap1 inhibitors are described.

  18. Carboxylesterase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, M. Jason; Potter, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Carboxylesterases play major roles in the hydrolysis of numerous therapeutically active compounds. This is, in part, due to the prevalence of the ester moiety in these small molecules. However, the impact these enzymes may play on drug stability and pharmacokinetics is rarely considered prior to molecule development. Therefore, the application of selective inhibitors of this class of proteins may have utility in modulating the metabolism, distribution and toxicity of agents that are subjected to enzyme hydrolysis. Areas covered This review details the development of all such compounds dating back to 1986, but principally focuses on the very recent identification of selective human carboxylesterases inhibitors. Expert opinion The implementation of carboxylesterase inhibitors may significantly revolutionize drug discovery. Such molecules may allow for improved efficacy of compounds inactivated by this class of enzymes and/or reduce the toxicity of agents that are activated by these proteins. Furthermore, since lack of carboxylesterase activity appears to have no obvious biological consequence, these compounds could be applied in combination with virtually any esterified drug. Therefore, inhibitors of these proteins may have utility in altering drug hydrolysis and distribution in vivo. The characteristics, chemical and biological properties, and potential uses of such agents, are discussed here. PMID:21609191

  19. A New Class of Orthosteric uPAR•uPA Small-Molecule Antagonists Are Allosteric Inhibitors of the uPAR•Vitronectin Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Degang; Zhou, Donghui; Wang, Bo; Knabe, William Eric; Meroueh, Samy O.

    2015-01-01

    The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-anchored cell surface receptor that is at the center of an intricate network of protein-protein interactions. Its immediate binding partners are the serine proteinase urokinase (uPA), and vitronectin (VTN), a component of the extracellular matrix. uPA and VTN bind at distinct sites on uPAR to promote extracellular matrix degradation and integrin signaling, respectively. Here, we report the discovery of a new class of pyrrolone small-molecule inhibitors of the tight ∼1 nM uPAR•uPA protein-protein interaction. These compounds were designed to bind to the uPA pocket on uPAR. The highest affinity compound, namely 7, displaced a fluorescently-labeled α-helical peptide (AE147-FAM) with an inhibition constant Ki of 0.7 µM and inhibited the tight uPAR•uPAATF interaction with an IC50 of 18 µM. Biophysical studies with surface plasmon resonance showed that VTN binding is highly dependent on uPA. This cooperative binding was confirmed as 7, which binds at the uPAR•uPA interface, also inhibited the distal VTN•uPAR interaction. In cell culture, 7 blocked the uPAR•uPA interaction in uPAR-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells, and impaired cell adhesion to VTN, a process that is mediated by integrins. As a result, 7 inhibited integrin signaling in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells as evidenced by a decrease in focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and Rac1 GTPase activation. Consistent with these results, 7 blocked breast MDA-MB-231 cancer cell invasion with IC50 values similar to those observed in ELISA and surface plasmon resonance competition studies. Explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations show that the cooperativity between uPA and VTN is attributed to stabilization of uPAR motion by uPA. In addition, free energy calculations revealed that uPA stabilizes the VTN•uPARSMB interaction through more favorable electrostatics and entropy. Disruption of the uPAR•VTNSMB interaction by 7 is consistent with the

  20. A new class of orthosteric uPAR·uPA small-molecule antagonists are allosteric inhibitors of the uPAR·vitronectin interaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Degang; Zhou, Donghui; Wang, Bo; Knabe, William Eric; Meroueh, Samy O

    2015-06-19

    The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-anchored cell surface receptor that is at the center of an intricate network of protein-protein interactions. Its immediate binding partners are the serine proteinase urokinase (uPA), and vitronectin (VTN), a component of the extracellular matrix. uPA and VTN bind at distinct sites on uPAR to promote extracellular matrix degradation and integrin signaling, respectively. Here, we report the discovery of a new class of pyrrolone small-molecule inhibitors of the tight ∼1 nM uPAR·uPA protein-protein interaction. These compounds were designed to bind to the uPA pocket on uPAR. The highest affinity compound, namely 7, displaced a fluorescently labeled α-helical peptide (AE147-FAM) with an inhibition constant Ki of 0.7 μM and inhibited the tight uPAR·uPAATF interaction with an IC50 of 18 μM. Biophysical studies with surface plasmon resonance showed that VTN binding is highly dependent on uPA. This cooperative binding was confirmed as 7, which binds at the uPAR·uPA interface, also inhibited the distal VTN·uPAR interaction. In cell culture, 7 blocked the uPAR·uPA interaction in uPAR-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells and impaired cell adhesion to VTN, a process that is mediated by integrins. As a result, 7 inhibited integrin signaling in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells as evidenced by a decrease in focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and Rac1 GTPase activation. Consistent with these results, 7 blocked breast MDA-MB-231 cancer cell invasion with IC50 values similar to those observed in ELISA and surface plasmon resonance competition studies. Explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations show that the cooperativity between uPA and VTN is attributed to stabilization of uPAR motion by uPA. In addition, free energy calculations revealed that uPA stabilizes the VTNSMB·uPAR interaction through more favorable electrostatics and entropy. Disruption of the uPAR·VTNSMB interaction by 7 is consistent with the

  1. Identification of T. gondii Myosin Light Chain-1 as a Direct Target of TachypleginA-2, a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Parasite Motility and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jacqueline M.; Tran, Fanny; Pathak, Ravindra B.; Poupart, Séverine; Heaslip, Aoife T.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Ward, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    Motility of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays an important role in the parasite’s life cycle and virulence within animal and human hosts. Motility is driven by a myosin motor complex that is highly conserved across the Phylum Apicomplexa. Two key components of this complex are the class XIV unconventional myosin, TgMyoA, and its associated light chain, TgMLC1. We previously showed that treatment of parasites with a small-molecule inhibitor of T. gondii invasion and motility, tachypleginA, induces an electrophoretic mobility shift of TgMLC1 that is associated with decreased myosin motor activity. However, the direct target(s) of tachypleginA and the molecular basis of the compound-induced TgMLC1 modification were unknown. We show here by “click” chemistry labelling that TgMLC1 is a direct and covalent target of an alkyne-derivatized analogue of tachypleginA. We also show that this analogue can covalently bind to model thiol substrates. The electrophoretic mobility shift induced by another structural analogue, tachypleginA-2, was associated with the formation of a 225.118 Da adduct on S57 and/or C58, and treatment with deuterated tachypleginA-2 confirmed that the adduct was derived from the compound itself. Recombinant TgMLC1 containing a C58S mutation (but not S57A) was refractory to click labelling and no longer exhibited a mobility shift in response to compound treatment, identifying C58 as the site of compound binding on TgMLC1. Finally, a knock-in parasite line expressing the C58S mutation showed decreased sensitivity to compound treatment in a quantitative 3D motility assay. These data strongly support a model in which tachypleginA and its analogues inhibit the motility of T. gondii by binding directly and covalently to C58 of TgMLC1, thereby causing a decrease in the activity of the parasite’s myosin motor. PMID:24892871

  2. Targeting the apoptotic machinery in pancreatic cancers using small-molecule antagonists of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein

    PubMed Central

    Karikari, Collins A.; Roy, Indrajit; Tryggestad, Eric; Feldmann, Georg; Pinilla, Clemencia; Welsh, Kate; Reed, John C.; Armour, Elwood P.; Wong, John; Herman, Joseph; Rakheja, Dinesh; Maitra, Anirban

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of many solid tumors, including pancreatic cancers, and may be the underlying basis for the suboptimal response to chemo-radiation therapies. Overexpression of a family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP) is commonly observed in pancreatic malignancies. We determined the therapeutic efficacy of recently described small-molecule antagonists of the X-linked IAP (XIAP) in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. Primary pancreatic cancers were assessed for XIAP expression by immunohistochemistry, using a pancreatic cancer tissue microarray. XIAP small-molecule antagonists (“XAntag”; compounds 1396-11 and 1396-12) and the related compound 1396-28 were tested in vitro in a panel of human pancreatic cancer cell lines (Panc1, Capan1, and BxPC3) and in vivo in s.c. xenograft models for their ability to induce apoptosis and impede neoplastic growth. In addition, pancreatic cancer cell lines were treated with XAntags in conjunction with either tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or with radiation to determine potential synergy for such dual targeting of the apoptotic machinery. XIAP was overexpressed in 14 of 18 (77%) of primary pancreatic cancers. The XAntags 1396-11 and 1396-12, but not the inactive isomer 1396-28, induced profound apoptosis in multiple pancreatic cancer cell lines tested in vitro, with a IC50 in the range of 2 to 5 μmol/L. Mechanistic specificity of the XAntags for the baculoviral IAP repeat-2 domain of XIAP was shown by preferential activation of downstream “effector” caspases (caspase-3 and caspase-7) versus the upstream “initiator” caspase-9. S.c. BxPC3 xenograft growth in athymic mice was significantly inhibited by monotherapy with XAntags; treated xenografts showed marked apoptosis and increased cleavage of caspase-3. Notably, striking synergy was demonstrable when XAntags were combined with either TRAIL or radiation therapy, as measured by growth inhibition in

  3. Small Molecule Inhibitors of AI-2 Signaling in Bacteria: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives for Anti-Quorum Sensing Agents

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Min; Gamby, Sonja; Zheng, Yue; Sintim, Herman O.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria respond to different small molecules that are produced by other neighboring bacteria. These molecules, called autoinducers, are classified as intraspecies (i.e., molecules produced and perceived by the same bacterial species) or interspecies (molecules that are produced and sensed between different bacterial species). AI-2 has been proposed as an interspecies autoinducer and has been shown to regulate different bacterial physiology as well as affect virulence factor production and biofilm formation in some bacteria, including bacteria of clinical relevance. Several groups have embarked on the development of small molecules that could be used to perturb AI-2 signaling in bacteria, with the ultimate goal that these molecules could be used to inhibit bacterial virulence and biofilm formation. Additionally, these molecules have the potential to be used in synthetic biology applications whereby these small molecules are used as inputs to switch on and off AI-2 receptors. In this review, we highlight the state-of-the-art in the development of small molecules that perturb AI-2 signaling in bacteria and offer our perspective on the future development and applications of these classes of molecules. PMID:23994835

  4. A Virtual Screening Approach for the Identification of High Affinity Small Molecules Targeting BCR-ABL1 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sharda, Saphy; Sarmandal, Palash; Cherukommu, Shirisha; Dindhoria, Kiran; Yadav, Manisha; Bandaru, Srinivas; Sharma, Anudeep; Sakhi, Aditi; Vyas, Tanmay; Hussain, Tajamul; Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2017-01-01

    CML originates due to reciprocal translocation in Philadelphia chromosome leading to the formation of fusion product BCR-ABL which constitutively activates tyrosine kinase signaling pathways eventually leading to abnormal proliferation of granulocytic cells. As a therapeutic strategy, BCR-ABL inhibitors have been clinically approved which terminates its phosphorylation activity and retards cancer progression. However, a number of patients develop resistance to inhibitors which demand for the discovery of new inhibitors. Given the drawbacks of present inhibitors, by high throughput virtual screening approaches, present study pursues to identify high affinity compounds targeting BCR-ABL1 anticipated to have safer pharmacological profiles. Five established BCR-ABL inhibitors formed the query compounds for identification of structurally similar compounds by Tanimoto coefficient based linear fingerprint search with a threshold of 95% against PubChemdatabase. Assisted by MolDock algorithm all compounds were docked against BCR-ABL protein in order to retrieve high affinity compounds. The parents and similars were further tested for their ADMET propertiesand bioactivity. Rebastinib formed higher affinity inhibitor than rest of the four established compound investigated in the study. Interestingly, Rebastinib similar compound with Pubchem ID: 67254402 was also shown to have highest affinity than other similars including the similars of respective five parents. In terms of ADMET properties Pubchem ID: 67254402 had appreciable ADMET profile and bioactivity. However, Rebastinib still stood as the best inhibitor in terms of binding affinity and ADMET properties than Pubchem ID: 67254402. Nevertheless, owing to the similar pharmacological properties with Rebastinib, Pubchem ID: 67254402 can be expected to form potential BCR-ABL inhibitor. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. The Development of Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase Pathway Through High-Throughput Cell-Based Screens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Akt in the P13K pathway. Given the emerging data for a positive feedback loop induced by mTOR inhibition, a bispecific 5 inhibitor might be attractive...cells relatively sensitive to rapamycin are also sensitive to thioridazine. PTEN null cells are known to be preferentially sensitized to mTOR ...a potent mTOR inhibitor, a downstream protein kinase in the Akt pathway. Rapamycin showed strong growth inhibitory effect in PTEN-null cells but 786

  6. Targeting Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-activated Protein Kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2, MK2): Medicinal Chemistry Efforts to Lead Small Molecule Inhibitors to Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Mario; Forli, Stefano; Manetti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The p38/MAPK-activated kinase 2 (MK2) pathway is involved in a series of pathological conditions (inflammation diseases and metastasis) and in the resistance mechanism to antitumor agents. None of the p38 inhibitors entered advanced clinical trials because of their unwanted systemic side effects. For this reason, MK2 was identified as an alternative target to block the pathway, but avoiding the side effects of p38 inhibition. However, ATP-competitive MK2 inhibitors suffered from low solubility, poor cell permeability, and scarce kinase selectivity. Fortunately, non-ATP-competitive inhibitors of MK2 have been already discovered that allowed circumventing the selectivity issue. These compounds showed the additional advantage to be effective at lower concentrations in comparison to the ATP-competitive inhibitors. Therefore, although the significant difficulties encountered during the development of these inhibitors, MK2 is still considered as an attractive target to treat inflammation and related diseases, to prevent tumor metastasis, and to increase tumor sensitivity to chemotherapeutics. PMID:26502061

  7. Kinase-activating and kinase-impaired cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome alleles have activity during zebrafish development and are sensitive to small molecule inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Anastasaki, Corina; Estep, Anne L; Marais, Richard; Rauen, Katherine A; Patton, E Elizabeth

    2009-07-15

    The Ras/MAPK pathway is critical for human development and plays a central role in the formation and progression of most cancers. Children born with germ-line mutations in BRAF, MEK1 or MEK2 develop cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome, an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, heart defects, skin and hair abnormalities and mental retardation. CFC syndrome mutations in BRAF promote both kinase-activating and kinase-impaired variants. CFC syndrome has a progressive phenotype, and the availability of clinically active inhibitors of the MAPK pathway prompts the important question as to whether such inhibitors might be therapeutically effective in the treatment of CFC syndrome. To study the developmental effects of CFC mutant alleles in vivo, we have expressed a panel of 28 BRAF and MEK alleles in zebrafish embryos to assess the function of human disease alleles and available chemical inhibitors of this pathway. We find that both kinase-activating and kinase-impaired CFC mutant alleles promote the equivalent developmental outcome when expressed during early development and that treatment of CFC-zebrafish embryos with inhibitors of the FGF-MAPK pathway can restore normal early development. Importantly, we find a developmental window in which treatment with a MEK inhibitor can restore the normal early development of the embryo, without the additional, unwanted developmental effects of the drug.

  8. Client Proteins and Small Molecule Inhibitors Display Distinct Binding Preferences for Constitutive and Stress-Induced HSP90 Isoforms and Their Conformationally Restricted Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunmin; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Yim, Kendrick; Rivas, Candy; Alarcon, Sylvia; Schwartz, Harvey; Khamit-Kush, Kofi; Scroggins, Bradley T.; Beebe, Kristin; Trepel, Jane B.; Neckers, Len

    2015-01-01

    The two cytosolic/nuclear isoforms of the molecular chaperone HSP90, stress-inducible HSP90α and constitutively expressed HSP90β, fold, assemble and maintain the three-dimensional structure of numerous client proteins. Because many HSP90 clients are important in cancer, several HSP90 inhibitors have been evaluated in the clinic. However, little is known concerning possible unique isoform or conformational preferences of either individual HSP90 clients or inhibitors. In this report, we compare the relative interaction strength of both HSP90α and HSP90β with the transcription factors HSF1 and HIF1α, the kinases ERBB2 and MET, the E3-ubiquitin ligases KEAP1 and RHOBTB2, and the HSP90 inhibitors geldanamycin and ganetespib. We observed unexpected differences in relative client and drug preferences for the two HSP90 isoforms, with HSP90α binding each client protein with greater apparent affinity compared to HSP90β, while HSP90β bound each inhibitor with greater relative interaction strength compared to HSP90α. Stable HSP90 interaction was associated with reduced client activity. Using a defined set of HSP90 conformational mutants, we found that some clients interact strongly with a single, ATP-stabilized HSP90 conformation, only transiently populated during the dynamic HSP90 chaperone cycle, while other clients interact equally with multiple HSP90 conformations. These data suggest different functional requirements among HSP90 clientele that, for some clients, are likely to be ATP-independent. Lastly, the two inhibitors examined, although sharing the same binding site, were differentially able to access distinct HSP90 conformational states. PMID:26517842

  9. The Development of Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Phosphoinositide- 3-Kinase Pathway through High-Throughput Cell-Based Screens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    receptor antagonists (such as haloperidol ) failed to score in the FOXO localization assays. Phenothiazines are also known to be inhibitors of calmodulin...were representative of assay. None of the inhibitors— haloperidol , clozapine, L745870, CANCER CELL : DECEMBER 2003 469 A R T I C L E Figure 6... haloperidol (80 M), clozapine (20 M), L745870 (80 M), and L-speri- done (80 M) do not inhibit FOXO1a export sig- nificantly. C: Treatment with structurally

  10. Identification of a small molecule inhibitor of the aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase type Ib [AAC(6')-Ib] using mixture-based combinatorial libraries.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tung; Chiem, Kevin; Jani, Saumya; Arivett, Brock A; Lin, David L; Lad, Rupali; Jimenez, Verónica; Farone, Mary B; Debevec, Ginamarie; Santos, Radleigh; Giulianotti, Marc; Pinilla, Clemencia; Tolmasky, Marcelo E

    2018-05-01

    The aminoglycoside, 6'-N-acetyltransferase type Ib [AAC(6')-Ib] is the most widely distributed enzyme among AAC(6')-I-producing Gram-negative pathogens and confers resistance to clinically relevant aminoglycosides, including amikacin. This enzyme is therefore an ideal target for enzymatic inhibitors that could overcome resistance to aminoglycosides. The search for inhibitors was carried out using mixture-based combinatorial libraries, the scaffold ranking approach, and the positional scanning strategy. A library with high inhibitory activity had pyrrolidine pentamine scaffold and was selected for further analysis. This library contained 738,192 compounds with functionalities derived from 26 different amino acids (R1, R2 and R3) and 42 different carboxylic acids (R4) in four R-group functionalities. The most active compounds all contained S-phenyl (R1 and R3) and S-hydromethyl (R2) functionalities at three locations and differed at the R4 position. The compound containing 3-phenylbutyl at R4 (compound 206) was a robust enzymatic inhibitor in vitro, in combination with amikacin it potentiated the inhibition of growth of three resistant bacteria in culture, and it improved survival when used as treatment of Galleria mellonella infected with aac(6')-Ib-harboring Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  11. A Small Molecule Pyrazolo[3,4-d]Pyrimidinone Inhibitor of Zipper-Interacting Protein Kinase Suppresses Calcium Sensitization of Vascular Smooth Muscle.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Justin A; Sutherland, Cindy; Carlson, David A; Bhaidani, Sabreena; Al-Ghabkari, Abdulhameed; Swärd, Karl; Haystead, Timothy A J; Walsh, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    A novel inhibitor of zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) was used to examine the involvement of ZIPK in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Pretreatment of de-endothelialized rat caudal arterial smooth muscle strips with the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidinone inhibitor 2-((1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo [3,4-d]-pyrimidin-6-yl)thio)propanamide (HS38) decreased the velocity of contraction (time to reach half-maximal force) induced by the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A in the presence of Ca(2+) without affecting maximal force development. This effect was reversed following washout of HS38 and correlated with a reduction in the rate of phosphorylation of myosin 20-kDa regulatory light chains (LC20) but not of protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitory protein for myosin phosphatase of 17 kDa (CPI-17), prostate apoptosis response-4, or myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1), all of which have been implicated in the regulation of vascular contractility. A structural analog of HS38, with inhibitory activity toward proviral integrations of Moloney (PIM) virus 3 kinase but not ZIPK, had no effect on calyculin A-induced contraction or protein phosphorylations. We conclude that a pool of constitutively active ZIPK is involved in regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction through direct phosphorylation of LC20 upon inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase activity. HS38 also significantly attenuated both phasic and tonic contractile responses elicited by phenylephrine, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, U46619, and K(+)-induced membrane depolarization in the presence of Ca(2+), which correlated with inhibition of phosphorylation of LC20, MYPT1, and CPI-17. These effects of HS38 suggest that ZIPK also lies downstream from G protein-coupled receptors that signal through both Gα12/13 and Gαq/11. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. Treatment with a Small Molecule Mutant IDH1 Inhibitor Suppresses Tumorigenic Activity and Decreases Production of the Oncometabolite 2-Hydroxyglutarate in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Luyuan; Paz, Ana C.; Wilky, Breelyn A.; Johnson, Britt; Galoian, Karina; Rosenberg, Andrew; Hu, Guozhi; Tinoco, Gabriel; Bodamer, Olaf; Trent, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Chondrosarcomas are malignant bone tumors that produce cartilaginous matrix. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase enzymes (IDH1/2) were recently described in several cancers including chondrosarcomas. The IDH1 inhibitor AGI-5198 abrogates the ability of mutant IDH1 to produce the oncometabolite D-2 hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG) in gliomas. We sought to determine if treatment with AGI-5198 would similarly inhibit tumorigenic activity and D-2HG production in IDH1-mutant human chondrosarcoma cells. Two human chondrosarcoma cell lines, JJ012 and HT1080 with endogenous IDH1 mutations and a human chondrocyte cell line C28 with wild type IDH1 were employed in our study. Mutation analysis of IDH was performed by PCR-based DNA sequencing, and D-2HG was detected using tandem mass spectrometry. We confirmed that JJ012 and HT1080 harbor IDH1 R132G and R132C mutation, respectively, while C28 has no mutation. D-2HG was detectable in cell pellets and media of JJ012 and HT1080 cells, as well as plasma and urine from an IDH-mutant chondrosarcoma patient, which decreased after tumor resection. AGI-5198 treatment decreased D-2HG levels in JJ012 and HT1080 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and dramatically inhibited colony formation and migration, interrupted cell cycling, and induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates anti-tumor activity of a mutant IDH1 inhibitor in human chondrosarcoma cell lines, and suggests that D-2HG is a potential biomarker for IDH mutations in chondrosarcoma cells. Thus, clinical trials of mutant IDH inhibitors are warranted for patients with IDH-mutant chondrosarcomas. PMID:26368816

  13. Analysis of binding site for the novel small-molecule TLR4 signal transduction inhibitor TAK-242 and its therapeutic effect on mouse sepsis model

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, K; Matsunaga, N; Yoshimatsu, M; Hazeki, K; Kaisho, T; Uekata, M; Hazeki, O; Akira, S; Iizawa, Y; Ii, M

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: TAK-242, a novel synthetic small-molecule, suppresses production of multiple cytokines by inhibiting Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signalling. In this study, we investigated the target molecule of TAK-242 and examined its therapeutic effect in a mouse sepsis model. Experimental approach: Binding assay with [3H]-TAK-242 and nuclear factor-κB reporter assay were used to identify the target molecule and binding site of TAK-242. Bacillus calmette guerin (BCG)-primed mouse sepsis model using live Escherichia coli was used to estimate the efficacy of TAK-242 in sepsis. Key results: TAK-242 strongly bound to TLR4, but binding to TLR2, 3, 5, 9, TLR-related adaptor molecules and MD-2 was either not observed or marginal. Mutational analysis using TLR4 mutants indicated that TAK-242 inhibits TLR4 signalling by binding to Cys747 in the intracellular domain of TLR4. TAK-242 inhibited MyD88-independent pathway as well as MyD88-dependent pathway and its inhibitory effect was largely unaffected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration and types of TLR4 ligands. TAK-242 had no effect on the LPS-induced conformational change of TLR4-MD-2 and TLR4 homodimerization. In mouse sepsis model, although TAK-242 alone did not affect bacterial counts in blood, if co-administered with ceftazidime it inhibited the increases in serum cytokine levels and improved survival of mice. Conclusions and implications: TAK-242 suppressed TLR4 signalling by binding directly to a specific amino acid Cys747 in the intracellular domain of TLR4. When co-administered with antibiotics, TAK-242 showed potent therapeutic effects in an E. coli-induced sepsis model using BCG-primed mice. Thus, TAK-242 may be a promising therapeutic agent for sepsis. PMID:19563534

  14. Palomid 529, a Novel Small-Molecule Drug, Is a TORC1/TORC2 Inhibitor That Reduces Tumor Growth, Tumor Angiogenesis, and Vascular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qi; Hopkins, Benjamin; Perruzzi, Carole; Udayakumar, Durga; Sherris, David; Benjamin, Laura E.

    2009-01-01

    It has become clear that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is central for promoting both tumor and tumor stroma and is therefore a major target for anticancer drug development. First- and second-generation rapalogs (prototypical mTOR inhibitors) have shown promise but, due to the complex nature of mTOR signaling, can result in counterproductive feedback signaling to potentiate upstream Akt signaling. We present a novel PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor, Palomid 529 (P529), which inhibits the TORC1 and TORC2 complexes and shows both inhibition of Akt signaling and mTOR signaling similarly in tumor and vasculature. We show that P529 inhibits tumor growth, angiogenesis, and vascular permeability. It retains the beneficial aspects of tumor vascular normalization that rapamycin boasts. However, P529 has the additional benefit of blocking pAktS473 signaling consistent with blocking TORC2 in all cells and thus bypassing feedback loops that lead to increased Akt signaling in some tumor cells. [Cancer Res 2008;68(22):9551–7] PMID:19010932

  15. Subtype-Selective Small Molecule Inhibitors Reveal a Fundamental Role for Nav1.7 in Nociceptor Electrogenesis, Axonal Conduction and Presynaptic Release

    PubMed Central

    Estacion, Mark; Turner, Jamie; Mis, Malgorzata A.; Wilbrey, Anna; Payne, Elizabeth C.; Gutteridge, Alex; Cox, Peter J.; Doyle, Rachel; Printzenhoff, David; Lin, Zhixin; Marron, Brian E.; West, Christopher; Swain, Nigel A.; Storer, R. Ian; Stupple, Paul A.; Castle, Neil A.; Hounshell, James A.; Rivara, Mirko; Randall, Andrew; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D.; Krafte, Douglas; Waxman, Stephen G.; Patel, Manoj K.; Butt, Richard P.; Stevens, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    Human genetic studies show that the voltage gated sodium channel 1.7 (Nav1.7) is a key molecular determinant of pain sensation. However, defining the Nav1.7 contribution to nociceptive signalling has been hampered by a lack of selective inhibitors. Here we report two potent and selective arylsulfonamide Nav1.7 inhibitors; PF-05198007 and PF-05089771, which we have used to directly interrogate Nav1.7’s role in nociceptor physiology. We report that Nav1.7 is the predominant functional TTX-sensitive Nav in mouse and human nociceptors and contributes to the initiation and the upstroke phase of the nociceptor action potential. Moreover, we confirm a role for Nav1.7 in influencing synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord as well as peripheral neuropeptide release in the skin. These findings demonstrate multiple contributions of Nav1.7 to nociceptor signalling and shed new light on the relative functional contribution of this channel to peripheral and central noxious signal transmission. PMID:27050761

  16. Discovery of small molecule inhibitors of ubiquitin-like poxvirus proteinase I7L using homology modeling and covalent docking approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katritch, Vsevolod; Byrd, Chelsea M.; Tseitin, Vladimir; Dai, Dongcheng; Raush, Eugene; Totrov, Maxim; Abagyan, Ruben; Jordan, Robert; Hruby, Dennis E.

    2007-10-01

    Essential for viral replication and highly conserved among poxviridae, the vaccinia virus I7L ubiquitin-like proteinase (ULP) is an attractive target for development of smallpox antiviral drugs. At the same time, the I7L proteinase exemplifies several interesting challenges from the rational drug design perspective. In the absence of a published I7L X-ray structure, we have built a detailed 3D model of the I7L ligand binding site (S2-S2' pocket) based on exceptionally high structural conservation of this site in proteases of the ULP family. The accuracy and limitations of this model were assessed through comparative analysis of available X-ray structures of ULPs, as well as energy based conformational modeling. The 3D model of the I7L ligand binding site was used to perform covalent docking and VLS of a comprehensive library of about 230,000 available ketone and aldehyde compounds. Out of 456 predicted ligands, 97 inhibitors of I7L proteinase activity were confirmed in biochemical assays (˜20% overall hit rate). These experimental results both validate our I7L ligand binding model and provide initial leads for rational optimization of poxvirus I7L proteinase inhibitors. Thus, fragments predicted to bind in the prime portion of the active site can be combined with fragments on non-prime side to yield compounds with improved activity and specificity.

  17. A salicylic acid-based small molecule inhibitor for the oncogenic Src homology-2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian; He, Yantao; Liu, Sijiu; Yu, Zhihong; Jiang, Zhong-Xing; Yang, Zhenyun; Dong, Yuanshu; Nabinger, Sarah C.; Wu, Li; Gunawan, Andrea M.; Wang, Lina; Chan, Rebecca J.; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2010-01-01

    The Src homology-2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) plays a pivotal role in growth factor and cytokine signaling. Gain-of-function SHP2 mutations are associated with Noonan syndrome, various kinds of leukemias and solid tumors. Thus there is considerable interest in SHP2 as a potential target for anti-cancer and anti-leukemia therapy. We report a salicylic acid-based combinatorial library approach aimed to bind both active site and unique nearby sub-pockets for enhanced affinity and selectivity. Screening of the library led to the identification of a SHP2 inhibitor II-B08 (compound 9) with highly efficacious cellular activity. Compound 9 blocks growth factor stimulated ERK1/2 activation and hematopoietic progenitor proliferation, providing supporting evidence that chemical inhibition of SHP2 may be therapeutically useful for anti-cancer and anti-leukemia treatment. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the structure of SHP2 in complex with 9 reveals molecular determinants that can be exploited for the acquisition of more potent and selective SHP2 inhibitors. PMID:20170098

  18. Plant-derived mPGES-1 inhibitors or suppressors: A new emerging trend in the search for small molecules to combat inflammation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haroon; Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Pervaiz, Aini; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Atanasov, Atanas G; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2018-06-10

    Inflammation comprises the reaction of the body to injury, in which a series of changes of the terminal vascular bed, blood, and connective tissue tends to eliminate the injurious agent and to repair the damaged tissue. It is a complex process, which involves the release of diverse regulatory mediators. The current anti-inflammatory agents are challenged by multiple side effects and thus, new effective therapies are highly needed. The aim of this review is to summarize the described microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) inhibitors or transcriptional suppressors from medicinal plants, which could be an ideal approach in the management of inflammatory disorders, but need further clinical trials in order to be ultimately validated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Potentiation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-induced Tumor Cell Apoptosis by a Small Molecule Inhibitor for Anti-apoptotic Protein hPEBP4

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jianming; Xiao, Jianfeng; Han, Chaofeng; Li, Nan; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang; Cao, Xuetao

    2010-01-01

    hPEBP4 (human phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 4) has been identified to be able to potentiate the resistance of breast, prostate, and ovarian cancers, with the preferential expression of hPEBP4, to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis, suggesting that inhibitors targeting the anti-apoptotic protein hPEBP4 may be useful to increase the sensitivity of hPEBP4-expressing cancer cells to TNF-α or TRAIL-induced apoptosis. By structure-based virtual screening and following surface plasmon resonance-based binding assay, seven small compounds were found to potently bind with hPEBP4. The hit compounds were further functionally screened for their ability to inhibit cancer cell growth, and one small compound, IOI-42, was identified to be able to promote TNF-α-mediated growth inhibition of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. IOI-42 could potentiate TNF-α-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells by inhibiting hPEBP4 and could suppress anchorage-independent cell growth of MCF-7 cells. We further demonstrated that IOI-42 could reduce the endogenous association of hPEBP4 with Raf-1/MEK1 and enhance the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK while inhibiting Akt activation. Furthermore, IOI-42 also promoted TRAIL-induced cell apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Taken together, our data suggest that IOI-42, as the first chemical inhibitor of anti-apoptotic protein hPEBP4, may serve as a potential anti-tumor drug by sensitizing tumor cells to apoptotic inducers. PMID:20177075

  20. A Small Molecule Screen in Stem Cell-derived Motor Neurons Identifies a Kinase Inhibitor as a Candidate Therapeutic for ALS

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yin M.; Gupta, Shailesh K.; Kim, Kevin J.; Powers, Berit E.; Cerqueira, Antonio; Wainger, Brian J.; Ngo, Hien D.; Rosowski, Kathryn A.; Schein, Pamela A.; Ackeifi, Courtney A.; Arvanites, Anthony C.; Davidow, Lance S.; Woolf, Clifford J.; Rubin, Lee L.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease, characterized by motor neuron (MN) death, for which there are no truly effective treatments. Here, we describe a new small molecule survival screen carried out using MNs from both wildtype and mutant SOD1 mouse embryonic stem cells. Among the hits we found, kenpaullone had a particularly impressive ability to prolong the healthy survival of both types of MNs that can be attributed to its dual inhibition of GSK3 and HGK kinases. Furthermore, kenpaullone also strongly improved the survival of human MNs derived from ALS patient induced pluripotent stem cells and was more active than either of two compounds, olesoxime and dexpramipexole, that recently failed in ALS clinical trials. Our studies demonstrate the value of a stem cell approach to drug discovery and point to a new paradigm for identification and preclinical testing of future ALS therapeutics. PMID:23602540

  1. A Small-molecule Inhibitor, 5′-O-Tritylthymidine, targets FAK and Mdm-2 Interaction, and Blocks Breast and Colon Tumorigenesis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Palma, Nadia L.; Zheng, Min; Ho, Baotran; Magis, Andrew; Ostrov, David; Cance, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is overexpressed in many types of tumors and plays an important role in survival. We developed a novel approach, targeting FAK-protein interactions by computer modeling and screening of NCI small molecule drug database. In this report we targeted FAK and Mdm-2 protein interaction to decrease tumor growth. By macromolecular modeling we found a model of FAK and Mdm-2 interaction and performed screening of >200,000 small molecule compounds from NCI database with drug-like characteristics, targeting the FAK-Mdm-2 interaction. We identified 5′-O-Tritylthymidine, called M13 compound that significantly decreased viability in different cancer cells. M13 was docked into the pocket of FAK and Mdm-2 interaction and was directly bound to the FAK-N terminal domain by ForteBio Octet assay. In addition, M13 compound affected FAK and Mdm-2 levels and decreased complex of FAK and Mdm-2 proteins in breast and colon cancer cells. M13 re-activated p53 activity inhibited by FAK with Mdm-2 promoter. M13 decreased viability, clonogenicity, increased detachment and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in BT474 breast and in HCT116 colon cancer cells in vitro. M13 decreased FAK, activated p53 and caspase-8 in both cell lines. In addition, M13 decreased breast and colon tumor growth in vivo. M13 activated p53 and decreased FAK in tumor samples consistent with decreased tumor growth. The data demonstrate a novel approach for targeting FAK and Mdm-2 protein interaction, provide a model of FAK and Mdm-2 interaction, identify M13 compound targeting this interaction and decreasing tumor growth that is critical for future targeted therapeutics. PMID:22292771

  2. DW10075, a novel selective and small-molecule inhibitor of VEGFR, exhibits antitumor activities both in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng-yuan; Lv, Yong-cong; Tong, Lin-jiang; Peng, Ting; Qu, Rong; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Yi-ming; Chen, Yi; Wei, Li-xin; Geng, Mei-yu; Duan, Wen-hu; Xie, Hua; Ding, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Targeting the VEGF/VEGF receptor (VEGFR) pathway has proved to be an effective antiangiogenic approach for cancer treatment. Here, we identified 6-((2-((3-acetamidophenyl)amino)pyrimidin-4-yl)oxy)-N-phenyl-1-naphthamide (designated herein as DW10075) as a novel and highly selective inhibitor of VEGFRs. Methods: In vitro tyrosine kinase activity was measured using ELISA, and intracellular signaling pathway proteins were detected by Western blot analysis. Endothelial cell proliferation was examined with CCK-8 assays, and tumor cell proliferation was determined with SRB assays. Cell migration, tube formation and rat aortic ring assays were used to detect antiangiogenic activity. Antitumor efficacy was further evaluated in U87-MG human glioblastoma xenograft tumors in nude mice receiving DW10075 (500 mg·kg−1·d−1, po) for two weeks. Results: Among a panel of 21 kinases tested, DW10075 selectively inhibited VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 (the IC50 values were 6.4, 0.69 and 5.5 nmol/L, respectively), but did not affect 18 other kinases including FGFR and PDGFR at 10 μmol/L. DW10075 significantly blocked VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR and its downstream signaling transduction in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), thus inhibited VEGF-induced HUVEC proliferation. DW10075 (1–100 nmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited VEGF-induced HUVEC migration and tube formation and suppressed angiogenesis in both the rat aortic ring model and the chicken chorioallantoic membrane model. Furthermore, DW10075 exhibited anti-proliferative activity against 22 different human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 2.2 μmol/L (for U87-MG human glioblastoma cells) to 22.2 μmol/L (for A375 melanoma cells). In U87-MG xenograft tumors in nude mice, oral administration of DW10075 significantly suppressed tumor growth, and reduced the expression of CD31 and Ki67 in the tumor tissues. Conclusion: DW10075 is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of VEGFR that

  3. Nature of isomerism of solid isothiourea salts, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases, as studied by 1H-14N nuclear quadrupole double resonance, X-ray, and density functional theory/quantum theory of atoms in molecules.

    PubMed

    Latosińska, J N; Latosińska, M; Seliger, J; Žagar, V; Maurin, J K; Kazimierczuk, Z

    2012-02-09

    Isothioureas, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases, have been studied experimentally in solid state by nuclear quadrupole double resonance (NQDR) and X-ray methods and theoretically by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules/density functional theory. Resonance frequencies on (14)N have been detected and assigned to particular nitrogen sites in each molecule. The crystal packings of (S)-3,4-dichlorobenzyl-N-methylisothiouronium chloride with the disordered chlorine positions in benzene ring and (S)-butyloisothiouronium bromide have been resolved in X-ray diffraction studies. (14)N NQDR spectra have been found good indicators of isomer type and strength of intra- or intermolecular N-H···X (X = Cl, Br) interactions. From among all salts studied, only for (S)-2,3,4,5,6-pentabromobenzylisothiouronium chloride are both nitrogen sites equivalent, which has been explained by the slow exchange. This unique structural feature can be a key factor in the high biological activity of (S)-2,3,4,5,6-pentabromobenzylisothiouronium salts.

  4. Impact of the putative cancer stem cell markers and growth factor receptor expression on the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to treatment with various forms of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and cytotoxic drugs.

    PubMed

    Puvanenthiran, Soozana; Essapen, Sharadah; Seddon, Alan M; Modjtahedi, Helmout

    2016-11-01

    Increased expression and activation of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER-2 have been reported in numerous cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of a large panel of human ovarian cancer cell lines (OCCLs) to treatment with various forms of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and cytotoxic drugs. The aim was to see if there was any association between the protein expression of various biomarkers including three putative ovarian cancer stem cell (CSC) markers (CD24, CD44, CD117/c-Kit), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and HER family members and response to treatment with these agents. The sensitivity of 10 ovarian tumour cell lines to the treatment with various forms of HER TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib, lapatinib, sapitinib, afatinib, canertinib, neratinib), as well as other TKIs (dasatinib, imatinib, NVP-AEW541, crizotinib) and cytotoxic agents (paclitaxel, cisplatin and doxorubicin), as single agents or in combination, was determined by SRB assay. The effect on these agents on the cell cycle distribution, and downstream signaling molecules and tumour migration were determined using flow cytometry, western blotting, and the IncuCyte Clear View cell migration assay respectively. Of the HER inhibitors, the irreversible pan-TKIs (canertinib, neratinib and afatinib) were the most effective TKIs for inhibiting the growth of all ovarian cancer cells, and for blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR, HER-2, AKT and MAPK in SKOV3 cells. Interestingly, while the majority of cancer cells were highly sensitive to treatment with dasatinib, they were relatively resistant to treatment with imatinib (i.e., IC50 >10 µM). Of the cytotoxic agents, paclitaxel was the most effective for inhibiting the growth of OCCLs, and of various combinations of these drugs, only treatment with a combination of NVP-AEW541 and paclitaxel produced a synergistic or additive anti-proliferative effect in all three cell lines examined (i.e., SKOV3, Caov3, ES2

  5. Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationships of Small Molecule Inhibitors of the Simian Virus 40 T Antigen Oncoprotein, an Anti-Polyomaviral Target

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Tushar; Seguin, Sandlin P.; Liang, Mary; Resnick, Lynn; Goldberg, Margot T.; Manos-Turvey, Alexandra; Pipas, James M.; Wipf, Peter; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Polyomavirus infections are common and relatively benign in the general human population but can become pathogenic in immunosuppressed patients. Because most treatments for polyomavirus-associated diseases nonspecifically target DNA replication, existing treatments for polyomavirus infection possess undesirable side effects. However, all polyomaviruses express Large Tumor Antigen (T Ag), which is unique to this virus family and may serve as a therapeutic target. Previous screening of pyrimidinone-peptoid hybrid compounds identified MAL2-11B and a MAL2-11B tetrazole derivative as inhibitors of viral replication and T Ag ATPase activity (IC50 of ~20-50μM). To improve upon this scaffold and to develop a structure-activity relationship for this new class of antiviral agents, several iterative series of MAL2-11B derivatives were synthesized. The replacement of a flexible methylene chain linker with a benzyl group or, alternatively, the addition of an ortho-methyl substituent on the biphenyl side chain in MAL2-11B yielded analogs with modestly improved IC50s (~15 μM), which retained antiviral activity. After combining both structural motifs, a new lead compound was identified that inhibited T Ag ATPase activity with an IC50 of ~5 μM. We suggest that the knowledge gained from the structure-activity relationship and a further refinement cycle of the MAL2-11B scaffold will provide a specific, novel therapeutic treatment option for polyomavirus infections and their associated diseases. PMID:25440730

  6. Adapting AlphaLISA high throughput screen to discover a novel small-molecule inhibitor targeting protein arginine methyltransferase 5 in pancreatic and colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Lakshmi; Wei, Han; Chen, Lan; Demir, Özlem; Sandusky, George; Sun, Emily; Wang, John; Mo, Jessica; Zeng, Lifan; Fishel, Melissa; Safa, Ahmad; Amaro, Rommie; Korc, Murray; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Lu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are notoriously challenging for treatment. Hyperactive nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a common culprit in both cancers. Previously, we discovered that protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) methylated and activated NF-κB. Here, we show that PRMT5 is highly expressed in PDAC and CRC. Overexpression of PRMT5 promoted cancer progression, while shRNA knockdown showed an opposite effect. Using an innovative AlphaLISA high throughput screen, we discovered a lead compound, PR5-LL-CM01, which exhibited robust tumor inhibition effects in both cancers. An in silico structure prediction suggested that PR5-LL-CM01 inhibits PRMT5 by binding with its active pocket. Importantly, PR5-LL-CM01 showed higher anti-tumor efficacy than the commercial PRMT5 inhibitor, EPZ015666, in both PDAC and CRC. This study clearly highlights the significant potential of PRMT5 as a therapeutic target in PDAC and CRC, and establishes PR5-LL-CM01 as a promising basis for new drug development in the future. PMID:28591716

  7. EXEL-8232, a small-molecule JAK2 inhibitor, effectively treats thrombocytosis and extramedullary hematopoiesis in a murine model of myeloproliferative neoplasm induced by MPLW515L.

    PubMed

    Wernig, G; Kharas, M G; Mullally, A; Leeman, D S; Okabe, R; George, T; Clary, D O; Gilliland, D G

    2012-04-01

    About 10% of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) or myelofibrosis (MF) that lack mutations in JAK2 harbor an activating mutation in the thrombopoietin receptor, MPLW515L. Distinct from the JAK2V617F retroviral transplant model, the MPLW515L model recapitulates many features of ET and MF, including severe fibrosis and thrombocytosis. We have tested EXEL-8232, an experimental potent JAK2 inhibitor, for efficacy in suppression of thrombocytosis in vivo and for its ability to attenuate MPLW515L myeloproliferative disease. EXEL-8232 was administered for 28 days q12 h by oral gavage at doses of 30 or 100 mg/kg, prospectively. Animals treated with EXEL-8232 at 100 mg/kg had normalized high platelet counts, eliminated extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and eliminated bone marrow fibrosis, whereas the wild-type controls did not develop thrombocytopenia. Consistent with a clinical response in this model, we validated surrogate end points for response to treatment, including a reduction of endogenous colony growth and signaling inhibition in immature erythroid and myeloid primary cells both in vitro and upon treatment in vivo. We conclude that EXEL-8232 has efficacy in treatment of thrombocytosis in vivo in a murine model of ET and MF, and may be of therapeutic benefit for patients with MPL-mutant MPN.

  8. Characterization of the cellular and antitumor effects of MPI-0479605, a small-molecule inhibitor of the mitotic kinase Mps1.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Keith D; Rogers, Aaron; Cassiano, Jared; Roth, Bruce L; Cimbora, Daniel M; McKinnon, Rena; Peterson, Ashley; Douce, Thomas B; Robinson, Rosann; Dorweiler, Irene; Davis, Thaylon; Hess, Mark A; Ostanin, Kirill; Papac, Damon I; Baichwal, Vijay; McAlexander, Ian; Willardsen, J Adam; Saunders, Michael; Christophe, Hoarau; Kumar, D Vijay; Wettstein, Daniel A; Carlson, Robert O; Williams, Brandi L

    2011-12-01

    Mps1 is a dual specificity protein kinase that is essential for the bipolar attachment of chromosomes to the mitotic spindle and for maintaining the spindle assembly checkpoint until all chromosomes are properly attached. Mps1 is expressed at high levels during mitosis and is abundantly expressed in cancer cells. Disruption of Mps1 function induces aneuploidy and cell death. We report the identification of MPI-0479605, a potent and selective ATP competitive inhibitor of Mps1. Cells treated with MPI-0479605 undergo aberrant mitosis, resulting in aneuploidy and formation of micronuclei. In cells with wild-type p53, this promotes the induction of a postmitotic checkpoint characterized by the ATM- and RAD3-related-dependent activation of the p53-p21 pathway. In both wild-type and p53 mutant cells lines, there is a growth arrest and inhibition of DNA synthesis. Subsequently, cells undergo mitotic catastrophe and/or an apoptotic response. In xenograft models, MPI-0479605 inhibits tumor growth, suggesting that drugs targeting Mps1 may have utility as novel cancer therapeutics.

  9. Circular trimers of gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 constitute a distinct population of functional enzyme molecules differentially regulated by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1

    PubMed Central

    Vandooren, Jennifer; Born, Benjamin; Solomonov, Inna; Zajac, Ewa; Saldova, Radka; Senske, Michael; Ugarte-Berzal, Estefanía; Martens, Erik; Van den Steen, Philippe E.; Van Damme, Jo; Garcia-Pardo, Angeles; Froeyen, Matheus; Deryugina, Elena I.; Quigley, James P.; Moestrup, Søren K.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Sagi, Irit; Opdenakker, Ghislain

    2015-01-01

    Gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (EC 3.4.24.35) cleaves many substrates and is produced by most cell types as a zymogen, proMMP-9, in complex with the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). Natural proMMP-9 occurs as monomers, homomultimers, and heterocomplexes, but our knowledge about the overall structure of proMMP-9 monomers and multimers is limited. We investigated biochemical, biophysical, and functional characteristics of zymogen and activated forms of MMP-9 monomers and multimers. In contrast to a conventional notion of a dimeric nature of MMP-9 homomultimers, we demonstrate that these are reduction-sensitive trimers. Based on the information from electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we generated a 3Dstructure model of the proMMP-9 trimer. Remarkably, the proMMP-9 trimers possessed a 50-fold higher affinity for TIMP-1 than the monomers. In vivo, this finding was reflected in a higher extent of TIMP-1 inhibition of angiogenesis induced by trimers versus monomers. Our results show that proMMP-9 trimers constitute a novel structural and functional entity that is differentially regulated by TIMP-1. PMID:25360794

  10. Significant partial response of metastatic intra-abdominal and pelvic round cell liposarcoma to a small-molecule VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor apatinib

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Min; Bi, Jingwang; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Baocheng; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma is the second most common subtype of liposarcoma. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have a limited efficacy for treating advanced myxoid/round cell liposarcoma, with relatively serious side effects. Case presentation: We herein present a 68-year-old Chinese woman initially diagnosed with advanced multiple intra-abdominal and pelvic round cell liposarcoma. She refused to receive cytotoxic chemotherapy and received apatinib as the first-line therapy, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 that has been used in the treatment of patients with metastatic gastric cancer who progressed with 2 or more chemotherapy regimens. This patient was partially responsive to apatinib with a dose of 500 mg daily. No serious drug-related side effects were observed. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that some cases of liposarcoma may be responsive to antiangiogenic agent apatinib. Randomized clinical studies are needed to further confirm the efficacy and safety of apatinib in the clinical treatment of liposarcoma. PMID:27495042

  11. Significant partial response of metastatic intra-abdominal and pelvic round cell liposarcoma to a small-molecule VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor apatinib: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Min; Bi, Jingwang; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Baocheng; Wang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Myxoid/round cell liposarcoma is the second most common subtype of liposarcoma. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have a limited efficacy for treating advanced myxoid/round cell liposarcoma, with relatively serious side effects. We herein present a 68-year-old Chinese woman initially diagnosed with advanced multiple intra-abdominal and pelvic round cell liposarcoma.She refused to receive cytotoxic chemotherapy and received apatinib as the first-line therapy, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 that has been used in the treatment of patients with metastatic gastric cancer who progressed with 2 or more chemotherapy regimens. This patient was partially responsive to apatinib with a dose of 500 mg daily. No serious drug-related side effects were observed. Our findings indicate that some cases of liposarcoma may be responsive to antiangiogenic agent apatinib. Randomized clinical studies are needed to further confirm the efficacy and safety of apatinib in the clinical treatment of liposarcoma.

  12. Phase Ib Trial With Birabresib, a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Bromodomain and Extraterminal Proteins, in Patients With Selected Advanced Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Jeremy; Soria, Jean-Charles; Stathis, Anastasios; Delord, Jean-Pierre; Peters, Solange; Awada, Ahmad; Aftimos, Philippe G; Bekradda, Mohamed; Rezai, Keyvan; Zeng, Zhen; Hussain, Azher; Perez, Susan; Siu, Lillian L; Massard, Christophe

    2018-05-07

    Purpose Birabresib (MK-8628/OTX015) is a first-in-class bromodomain inhibitor with activity in select hematologic tumors. Safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of birabresib were evaluated in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer, nuclear protein in testis midline carcinoma (NMC), and non-small-cell lung cancer in this phase Ib study. Patients and Methods Forty-seven patients were enrolled to receive birabresib once daily at starting doses of 80 mg continuously (cohort A) or 100 mg for 7 consecutive days (cohort B) in 21-day cycles using a parallel dose escalation 3 + 3 design. The primary objective was occurrence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and determination of the recommended phase II dose. Results Of 46 treated patients, 26 had castrate-resistant prostate cancer, 10 NMC, and 10 non-small-cell lung cancer. For cohort A, four of 19 (21%) evaluable patients had DLTs at 80 mg once daily (grade 3 thrombocytopenia [n = 3], ALT/hyperbilirubinemia [n = 1]) and two of three had DLTs at 100 mg once daily (grade 2 anorexia and nausea with treatment delay > 7 days [n = 1], grade 4 thrombocytopenia [n = 1]). No DLTs occurred in cohort B. Of 46 patients, 38 (83%) had treatment-related adverse events (diarrhea, 17 [37%]; nausea, 17 [37%]; anorexia, 14 [30%]; vomiting, 12 [26%]; thrombocytopenia 10 [22%]). Three patients with NMC (80 mg once daily) had a partial response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] version 1.1) with duration of 1.4 to 8.4 months. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated a dose-proportional increase in birabresib exposure and rapid absorption. Conclusion The recommended phase II dose of birabresib in patients with select solid tumors is 80 mg once daily with continuous dosing. Birabresib has dose-proportional exposure and a favorable safety profile, with clinical activity observed in NMC. Future studies of birabresib must consider intermittent scheduling to possibly mitigate the toxicities of chronic dosing.

  13. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Clostridium perfringens ε-Toxin Cytotoxicity Using a Cell-Based High-Throughput Screen.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michelle; Weaver, Charles David; McClain, Mark S

    2010-07-01

    The Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, a select agent, is responsible for a severe, often fatal enterotoxemia characterized by edema in the heart, lungs, kidney, and brain. The toxin is believed to be an oligomeric pore-forming toxin. Currently, there is no effective therapy for countering the cytotoxic activity of the toxin in exposed individuals. Using a robust cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay, we screened a 151,616-compound library for the ability to inhibit ε-toxin-induced cytotoxicity. Survival of MDCK cells exposed to the toxin was assessed by addition of resazurin to detect metabolic activity in surviving cells. The hit rate for this screen was 0.6%. Following a secondary screen of each hit in triplicate and assays to eliminate false positives, we focused on three structurally-distinct compounds: an N-cycloalkylbenzamide, a furo[2,3-b]quinoline, and a 6H-anthra[1,9-cd]isoxazol. None of the three compounds appeared to inhibit toxin binding to cells or the ability of the toxin to form oligomeric complexes. Additional assays demonstrated that two of the inhibitory compounds inhibited ε-toxin-induced permeabilization of MDCK cells to propidium iodide. Furthermore, the two compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on cells pre-treated with toxin. Structural analogs of one of the inhibitors identified through the high-throughput screen were analyzed and provided initial structure-activity data. These compounds should serve as the basis for further structure-activity refinement that may lead to the development of effective anti-ε-toxin therapeutics.

  14. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Clostridium perfringens ε-Toxin Cytotoxicity Using a Cell-Based High-Throughput Screen

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michelle; Weaver, Charles David; McClain, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    The Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, a select agent, is responsible for a severe, often fatal enterotoxemia characterized by edema in the heart, lungs, kidney, and brain. The toxin is believed to be an oligomeric pore-forming toxin. Currently, there is no effective therapy for countering the cytotoxic activity of the toxin in exposed individuals. Using a robust cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) assay, we screened a 151,616-compound library for the ability to inhibit ε-toxin-induced cytotoxicity. Survival of MDCK cells exposed to the toxin was assessed by addition of resazurin to detect metabolic activity in surviving cells. The hit rate for this screen was 0.6%. Following a secondary screen of each hit in triplicate and assays to eliminate false positives, we focused on three structurally-distinct compounds: an N-cycloalkylbenzamide, a furo[2,3-b]quinoline, and a 6H-anthra[1,9-cd]isoxazol. None of the three compounds appeared to inhibit toxin binding to cells or the ability of the toxin to form oligomeric complexes. Additional assays demonstrated that two of the inhibitory compounds inhibited ε-toxin-induced permeabilization of MDCK cells to propidium iodide. Furthermore, the two compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on cells pre-treated with toxin. Structural analogs of one of the inhibitors identified through the high-throughput screen were analyzed and provided initial structure-activity data. These compounds should serve as the basis for further structure-activity refinement that may lead to the development of effective anti-ε-toxin therapeutics. PMID:20721308

  15. Affinity Map of Bromodomain Protein 4 (BRD4) Interactions with the Histone H4 Tail and the Small Molecule Inhibitor JQ1*

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Marie; Philpott, Martin; Müller, Susanne; Schulze, Jessica; Badock, Volker; Eberspächer, Uwe; Moosmayer, Dieter; Bader, Benjamin; Schmees, Norbert; Fernández-Montalván, Amaury; Haendler, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Bromodomain protein 4 (BRD4) is a member of the bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) protein family. It binds to acetylated histone tails via its tandem bromodomains BD1 and BD2 and forms a complex with the positive transcription elongation factor b, which controls phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II, ultimately leading to stimulation of transcription elongation. An essential role of BRD4 in cell proliferation and cancer growth has been reported in several recent studies. We analyzed the binding of BRD4 BD1 and BD2 to different partners and showed that the strongest interactions took place with di- and tetra-acetylated peptides derived from the histone 4 N-terminal tail. We also found that several histone 4 residues neighboring the acetylated lysines significantly influenced binding. We generated 10 different BRD4 BD1 mutants and analyzed their affinities to acetylated histone tails and to the BET inhibitor JQ1 using several complementary biochemical and biophysical methods. The impact of these mutations was confirmed in a cellular environment. Altogether, the results show that Trp-81, Tyr-97, Asn-140, and Met-149 play similarly important roles in the recognition of acetylated histones and JQ1. Pro-82, Leu-94, Asp-145, and Ile-146 have a more differentiated role, suggesting that different kinds of interactions take place and that resistance mutations compatible with BRD4 function are possible. Our study extends the knowledge on the contribution of individual BRD4 amino acids to histone and JQ1 binding and may help in the design of new BET antagonists with improved pharmacological properties. PMID:24497639

  16. A Phase I and pharmacodynamic study of AT9283, a small molecule inhibitor of aurora kinases in patients with relapsed/refractory leukemia or myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Foran, James; Ravandi, Farhad; Wierda, William; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Verstovsek, Srdan; Kadia, Tapan; Burger, Jan; Yule, Murray; Langford, Gillian; Lyons, John; Ayrton, John; Lock, Victoria; Borthakur, Gautham; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify the MTD of AT9283, an inhibitor of Aurora kinases A and B, in patients with relapsed or refractory leukemias. Other endpoints included pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability, pharmacodynamics and preliminary evidence of efficacy. Patients and Methods AT9283 was administered as a continuous 72h infusion every 21 days. Doses were escalated by a standard 3+3 design. After the MTD for the 72h infusion was identified, infusion duration was increased incrementally to 96h and 120h. In total, 48 patients received ≥1 cycle of AT9283. Median age was 61 years (range 22–86 years), with 56% men, 75% diagnosed with AML, and 89% having received ≥3 (up to 16) prior lines of therapy. Results 324 mg/m2/72h AT9283 was determined to be the MTD. DLTs were myocardial infarction, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, tumor lysis syndrome, pneumonia and multiorgan failure. Other AT9283-related toxicities (non-DLT) included myelosuppression, predominantly leucopenia and mucositis. Bone marrow blasts decreased ≥38% after AT9283 treatment in approximately one-third of patients with relapsed/refractory AML; however, this effect was transient and no objective responses were achieved, despite evidence of aurora kinase B inhibition. Two patients with accelerated phase CML showed evidence of benefit, manifest as a cytogenetic response in one case; one patient completed 6 cycles of treatment. Exposure to AT9283 was generally dose proportional. Conclusion AT9283 tolerability was strongly dose dependent with reversible myelosuppression predominating at lower doses and events such as cardiovascular toxicities manifesting at higher doses. Clinical trials with AT9283 are ongoing in alternative patient populations. PMID:24355079

  17. Induction of apoptosis in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells via p53 activation by a novel small-molecule MDM2 inhibitor - LQFM030.

    PubMed

    da Mota, Mariana F; Cortez, Alane P; Benfica, Polyana L; Rodrigues, Bruna Dos S; Castro, Thalyta F; Macedo, Larissa M; Castro, Carlos H; Lião, Luciano M; de Carvalho, Flávio S; Romeiro, Luiz A S; Menegatti, Ricardo; Verli, Hugo; Villavicencio, Bianca; Valadares, Marize C

    2016-09-01

    The activation of the p53 pathway through the inhibition of MDM2 has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy against tumours. A series of cis-imidazoline analogues, termed nutlins, were reported to displace the recombinant p53 protein from its complex with MDM2 by binding to MDM2 in the p53 pocket, and exhibited an antitumour activity both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antitumour properties of LQFM030 (2), a nutlin analogue created by employing the strategy of molecular simplification. LQFM030 (2) cytotoxicity was evaluated in Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) cells, p53 wild type, by the trypan blue exclusion test, and the mechanisms involved in EAT cell death were investigated by light and fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, real-time PCR and Western blotting. Our results demonstrate that LQFM030 has dose-dependent antiproliferative activity and cytotoxic activity on EAT cells, induces the accumulation of p53 protein and promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. p53 gene transcription was unaffected by LQFM030 (2); however, MDM2 mRNA increased and MDM2 protein decreased. These results suggest that the small-molecule p53 activator LQFM030 (2) has the potential for further development as a novel cancer therapeutic agent. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. TG101209, a small molecule JAK2-selective kinase inhibitor potently inhibits myeloproliferative disorder-associated JAK2V617F and MPLW515L/K mutations.

    PubMed

    Pardanani, A; Hood, J; Lasho, T; Levine, R L; Martin, M B; Noronha, G; Finke, C; Mak, C C; Mesa, R; Zhu, H; Soll, R; Gilliland, D G; Tefferi, A

    2007-08-01

    JAK2V617F and MPLW515L/K represent recently identified mutations in myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) that cause dysregulated JAK-STAT signaling, which is implicated in MPD pathogenesis. We developed TG101209, an orally bioavailable small molecule that potently inhibits JAK2 (IC(50)=6 nM), FLT3 (IC(50)=25 nM) and RET (IC(50)=17 nM) kinases, with significantly less activity against other tyrosine kinases including JAK3 (IC(50)=169 nM). TG101209 inhibited growth of Ba/F3 cells expressing JAK2V617F or MPLW515L mutations with an IC(50) of approximately 200 nM. In a human JAK2V617F-expressing acute myeloid leukemia cell line, TG101209-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and inhibited phosphorylation of JAK2V617F, STAT5 and STAT3. Therapeutic efficacy of TG101209 was demonstrated in a nude mouse model. Furthermore, TG101209 suppressed growth of hematopoietic colonies from primary progenitor cells harboring JAK2V617F or MPL515 mutations.

  19. ENOblock, a unique small molecule inhibitor of the non-glycolytic functions of enolase, alleviates the symptoms of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Haaglim; Um, JungIn; Lee, Ji-Hyung; Kim, Woong-Hee; Kang, Wan Seok; Kim, So Hun; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Yong-Chul; Ahn, Young-Keun; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R.

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) significantly impacts on human health and patient numbers are predicted to rise. Discovering novel drugs and targets for treating T2DM is a research priority. In this study, we investigated targeting of the glycolysis enzyme, enolase, using the small molecule ENOblock, which binds enolase and modulates its non-glycolytic ‘moonlighting’ functions. In insulin-responsive cells ENOblock induced enolase nuclear translocation, where this enzyme acts as a transcriptional repressor. In a mammalian model of T2DM, ENOblock treatment reduced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Liver and kidney tissue of ENOblock-treated mice showed down-regulation of known enolase target genes and reduced enolase enzyme activity. Indicators of secondary diabetic complications, such as tissue apoptosis, inflammatory markers and fibrosis were inhibited by ENOblock treatment. Compared to the well-characterized anti-diabetes drug, rosiglitazone, ENOblock produced greater beneficial effects on lipid homeostasis, fibrosis, inflammatory markers, nephrotoxicity and cardiac hypertrophy. ENOblock treatment was associated with the down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, which are known to produce anti-diabetic effects. In summary, these findings indicate that ENOblock has potential for therapeutic development to treat T2DM. Previously considered as a ‘boring’ housekeeping gene, these results also implicate enolase as a novel drug target for T2DM. PMID:28272459

  20. The helicase-primase inhibitor BAY 57-1293 reduces the Alzheimer's disease-related molecules induced by herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, M A; Frost, A L; Itzhaki, R F

    2013-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) infection of cultured cells causes the formation of β-amyloid (Aβ) and abnormal tau (P-tau). These molecules comprise the main components of the abnormal protein deposits, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, respectively, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, and they have been implicated in disease development. The formation of P-tau, but not of Aβ, depends on viral DNA replication, but nonetheless, three antiviral agents that inhibit HSV1 DNA replication, including acyclovir (ACV), were found to reduce greatly the level of Aβ as well as P-tau, the former probably through prevention of viral spread. Previous studies showed that HSV1 DNA is present and is active in the brain of many elderly people, including AD patients, and that in combination with the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene, it is likely to play a role in the disease, perhaps via Aβ and P-tau production. With the aim of finding the most suitable antiviral for inhibiting Aβ and P-tau formation as well as HSV1 DNA replication, for future use in a clinical trial for treating AD, we compared the efficacy of ACV with that of another antiviral, BAY 57-1293, which acts by a different mechanism from ACV. We found that BAY 57-1293 is more efficient than ACV not only in inhibiting HSV1 replication, confirming previous studies, but also in decreasing Aβ and P-tau formation. Also, the cell clusters that are formed during infection are reduced in size much more efficiently by BAY 57-1293 than by ACV. These data suggest that BAY 57-1293 would be a more effective agent than ACV for treating AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The small-molecule TNF-α inhibitor, UTL-5g, delays deaths and increases survival rates for mice treated with high doses of cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Media, Joseph; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Fredrick

    2013-01-01

    Purpose UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule chemoprotector that lowers hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and myelotoxicity induced by cisplatin through TNF-α inhibition among other factors. The objective of this study was to investigate whether UTL-5g can reduce the overall acute toxicity of cisplatin and increase cisplatin tolerability in mice. Materials and Methods BDF1 female mice were treated individually with UTL-5g (suspended in Ora-Plus) by oral gavage at 60 mg/kg, 30 min before i.p. injection of cisplatin at 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg respectively on Day 0. Starting from Day 1, individual mice were again treated daily by the same dose of UTL-5g for 4 consecutive days. Survivals and bodyweights were monitored. Results UTL-5g treatment increased the survival rate and delayed the time to death for mice treated with 150% of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cisplatin (15 mg/kg). Likewise, at 200% of the MTD of cisplatin (20 mg/kg), treatment of UTL-5g increased the survival rate and delayed the time to death. Treatment of UTL-5g did not have a significant effect on weight-loss induced by cisplatin indicating that bodyweight may not be a sensitive enough measure for chemoprotection of UTL-5g against cisplatin. Conclusions In summary, UTL-5g delayed deaths and increased survival rates of mice treated by high doses of cisplatin indicating that UTL-5g is capable of reducing the overall acute toxicity of cisplatin and increased cisplatin tolerability in mice; this is in line with the specific chemoprotective effects of UTL-5g previously reported. Further investigation of UTL-5g in combination with cisplatin is warranted. PMID:23881213

  2. The small-molecule TNF-α inhibitor, UTL-5g, delays deaths and increases survival rates for mice treated with high doses of cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jiajiu; Media, Joseph; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Fredrick

    2013-09-01

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule chemoprotector that lowers hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and myelotoxicity induced by cisplatin through TNF-α inhibition among other factors. The objective of this study was to investigate whether UTL-5g can reduce the overall acute toxicity of cisplatin and increase cisplatin tolerability in mice. BDF1 female mice were treated individually with UTL-5g (suspended in Ora-Plus) by oral gavage at 60 mg/kg, 30 min before i.p. injection of cisplatin at 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg, respectively, on Day 0. Starting from Day 1, individual mice were again treated daily by the same dose of UTL-5g for 4 consecutive days. Survivals and body weights were monitored. UTL-5g treatment increased the survival rate and delayed the time to death for mice treated with 150 % of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cisplatin (15 mg/kg). Likewise, at 200 % of the MTD of cisplatin (20 mg/kg), treatment of UTL-5g increased the survival rate and delayed the time to death. Treatment of UTL-5g did not have a significant effect on weight loss induced by cisplatin, indicating that body weight may not be a sensitive-enough measure for chemoprotection of UTL-5g against cisplatin. In summary, UTL-5g delayed deaths and increased survival rates of mice treated by high doses of cisplatin, indicating that UTL-5g is capable of reducing the overall acute toxicity of cisplatin and increased cisplatin tolerability in mice; this is in line with the specific chemoprotective effects of UTL-5g previously reported. Further investigation of UTL-5g in combination with cisplatin is warranted.

  3. GNX-4728, a novel small molecule drug inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition, is therapeutic in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lee J.; Fancelli, Daniele; Wong, Margaret; Niedzwiecki, Mark; Ballarini, Marco; Plyte, Simon; Chang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological disorder in humans characterized by progressive degeneration of skeletal muscle and motor neurons in spinal cord, brainstem, and cerebral cortex causing skeletal muscle paralysis, respiratory insufficiency, and death. There are no cures or effective treatments for ALS. ALS can be inherited, but most cases are not associated with a family history of the disease. Mitochondria have been implicated in the pathogenesis but definitive proof of causal mechanisms is lacking. Identification of new clinically translatable disease mechanism-based molecular targets and small molecule drug candidates are needed for ALS patients. We tested the hypothesis in an animal model that drug modulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) is therapeutic in ALS. A prospective randomized placebo-controlled drug trial was done in a transgenic (tg) mouse model of ALS. We explored GNX-4728 as a therapeutic drug. GNX-4728 inhibits mPTP opening as evidenced by increased mitochondrial calcium retention capacity (CRC) both in vitro and in vivo. Chronic systemic treatment of G37R-human mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (hSOD1) tg mice with GNX-4728 resulted in major therapeutic benefits. GNX-4728 slowed disease progression and significantly improved motor function. The survival of ALS mice was increased significantly by GNX-4728 treatment as evidence by a nearly 2-fold extension of lifespan (360 days–750 days). GNX-4728 protected against motor neuron degeneration and mitochondrial degeneration, attenuated spinal cord inflammation, and preserved neuromuscular junction (NMJ) innervation in the diaphragm in ALS mice. This work demonstrates that a mPTP-acting drug has major disease-modifying efficacy in a preclinical mouse model of ALS and establishes mitochondrial calcium retention, and indirectly the mPTP, as targets for ALS drug development. PMID:25565966

  4. Using a simple HPLC approach to identify the enzymatic products of UTL-5g, a small molecule TNF-α inhibitor, from porcine esterase and from rabbit esterase.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Kenneth; Zhang, Yiguan; Valeriote, Frederick; Chen, Ben; Shaw, Jiajiu

    2013-12-01

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule chemoprotector that lowers hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and myelotoxicity induced by cisplatin through TNF-α inhibition among other factors. As a prelude to investigating the metabolites of UTL-5g, we set out to identify the enzymatic products of UTL-5g under the treatment of both porcine liver esterase (PLE) and rabbit liver esterase (RLE). First, a number of mixtures made by UTL-5g and PLE were incubated at 25°C. At predetermined time points, individual samples were quenched by acetonitrile, vortexed, and centrifuged. The supernatants were then analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC (using a C18 column). The retention times and UV/vis spectra of individual peaks were compared to those of UTL-5g and its two postulated enzymatic products; thus the enzymatic products of UTL-5g were tentatively identified. Secondly, a different HPLC method (providing different retentions times) was used to cross-check and to confirm the identities of the two enzymatic products. Based on the observations, it was concluded that under the treatment of PLE, the major enzymatic products of UTL-5g were 5-methyliosxazole-3-carboxylic acid (ISOX) and 2,4-dichloroaniline (DCA). Treatment of UTL-5g by RLE also provided the same enzymatic products of UTL-5g from esterase. These results indicate that the peptide bond in UTL-5g was cleaved by PLE/RLE. Michaelis-Menten kinetics showed that the Km values of UTL-5g were 2.07mM with PLE and 0.37mM with RLE indicating that UTL-5g had a higher affinity with RLE. In summary, by a simple HPLC approach, we have concluded that the peptide bond in UTL-5g was cleaved by esterase from either porcine liver or rabbit liver in vitro and afforded DCA (at a mole ratio of 1:1) and ISOX. However, further studies are needed in order to determine whether UTL-5g is metabolized by microsomal enzymes to produce ISOX and DCA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Using a simple HPLC approach to identify the enzymatic products of UTL-5g, a small molecule TNF-α inhibitor, from porcine esterase and from rabbit esterase

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Kenneth; Zhang, Yiguan; Valeriote, Frederick; Chen, Ben; Shaw, Jiajiu

    2013-01-01

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule chemoprotector that lowers hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and myelotoxicity induced by cisplatin through TNF-α inhibition among other factors. As a prelude to investigating the metabolites of UTL-5g, we set out to identify the enzymatic products of UTL-5g under the treatment of both porcine liver esterase (PLE) and rabbit liver esterase (RLE). First, a number of mixtures made by UTL-5g and PLE were incubated at 25 °C. At predetermined time points, individual samples were quenched by acetonitrile, vortexed, and centrifuged. The supernatants were then analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC (using a C18 column). The retention times and UV/Vis spectra of individual peaks were compared to those of UTL-5g and its two postulated enzymatic products; thus the enzymatic products of UTL-5g were tentatively identified. Secondly, a different HPLC method (providing different retentions times) was used to cross-check and to confirm the identities of the two enzymatic products. Based on the observations, it was concluded that under the treatment of PLE, the major enzymatic products of UTL-5g were 5-methyliosxazole-3-carboxylic acid (ISOX) and 2,4-dichloroaniline (DCA). Treatment of UTL-5g by RLE also provided the same enzymatic products of UTL-5g from esterase. These results indicate that the peptide bond in UTL-5g was cleaved by PLE/RLE. Michaelis–Menten kinetics showed that the Km values of UTL-5g were 2.07 mM with PLE and 0.37 mM with RLE indicating that UTL-5g had a higher affinity with RLE. In summary, by a simple HPLC approach, we have concluded that the peptide bond in UTL-5g was cleaved by esterase from either porcine liver or rabbit liver in vitro and afforded DCA (at a mole ratio of 1:1) and ISOX. However, further studies are needed in order to determine whether UTL-5g is metabolized by microsomal enzymes to produce ISOX and DCA. PMID:24126042

  6. Molecule nanoweaver

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II; Rex, E [Brookfield, IL; Klingler, Robert J [Glenview, IL; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL; Diaz, Rocio [Chicago, IL; Vukovic, Lela [Westchester, IL

    2009-03-10

    A method, apparatus, and system for constructing uniform macroscopic films with tailored geometric assemblies of molecules on the nanometer scale. The method, apparatus, and system include providing starting molecules of selected character, applying one or more force fields to the molecules to cause them to order and condense with NMR spectra and images being used to monitor progress in creating the desired geometrical assembly and functionality of molecules that comprise the films.

  7. Trichloroacetimidates as Alkylating Reagents and Their Application in the Synthesis of Pyrroloindoline Natural Products and Synthesis of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Src Homology 2 Domain-Containing Inositol Phosphatase (SHIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Arijit A.

    was applied towards the synthesis of natural products and their analogs. The pyrroloindoline ring system is found in many alkaloids and cyclic peptides which mainly differ in the substitution at the C3a position. To provide rapid access to these natural products a diversity-oriented strategy was established via displacement of C3a-trichloroacetimidate pyrroloindoline. Carbon, oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen nucleophiles were all shown to undergo substitution reactions with these trichloroacetimidates in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst. In order to demonstrate the utility of this new method it was applied towards the synthesis of arundinine and a formal synthesis of psychotriasine. Current investigations involve the application of this method towards the synthesis of a complex pyrroloindoline natural product kapakahine C and the progress made therein has been discussed. The reactivity of trichloroacetimidates was also investigated for the selective C3-alkylation of 2,3-disubstituted indoles to provide indolenines. Indolenines serve as useful intermediates in the synthesis of many complex alkaloids. Different benzylic and allylic trichloroacetimidates were shown to provide 3,3'-disubstituted indolenines with high yields in the presence of catalytic amounts of Lewis acids. Various substituted indoles were evaluated under these reaction conditions. This methodology was also applied towards the synthesis of the core tetracyclic ring system found in communesin natural products. In addition to the above work, synthesis of small molecule inhibitors of Src Homology 2 Domain-Containing Inositol Phosphatase (SHIP) has also been described. Aberrations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) cellular signaling pathway can lead to diseased cellular states like cancer. Herein we have reported stereoselective synthesis of two quinoline based small molecule SHIP inhibitors. The lead compounds and their analogs were tested for their activities against SHIP by Malachite green assay

  8. Discovery of novel and potent small-molecule inhibitors of NO and cytokine production as antisepsis agents: synthesis and biological activity of alkyl 6-(N-substituted sulfamoyl)cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masami; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ii, Masayuki; Sunamoto, Mie; Itoh, Katsumi; Tamura, Norikazu; Kitazaki, Tomoyuki

    2005-11-17

    To develop a new therapeutic agent for sepsis, screening of the Takeda chemical library was carried out using mouse macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to identify a new class of small-molecule inhibitors of inflammatory mediator production. The lead compound 5a was discovered, from which a series of novel cyclohexene derivatives I bearing a sulfamoyl and ester group were designed, synthesized and tested for their inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production. Derivatives I were synthesized by the coupling of sulfonyl chlorides and anilines with concomitant double bond migration in the presence of triethylamine, and phenyl ring substitution and modification of the ester and cyclohexene moieties were carried out. Among the compounds synthesized, ethyl (6R)-6-[N-(2-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)sulfamoyl]cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxylate [(R)-(+)-5n, TAK-242] was found to exhibit the most potent suppressive activity for the production of not only NO but also inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced by LPS-stimulated mouse macrophages with IC50 values of 1.8, 1.9 and 1.3 nM, respectively. It shows marked beneficial effects in vivo also. Intravenous administration of (R)-(+)-5n at doses of 0.1 mg/kg or more suppressed the production of NO and various cytokines [TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1beta] in the mouse endotoxin shock model. Furthermore, it protected mice from death dose-dependently and all mice survived at a dose of 3 mg/kg. The minimum effective dose to protect mice from lethality in this model was 0.3 mg/kg, which was consistent with those for inhibitory effects on the production of NO and cytokines. Compound (R)-(+)-5n is currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of sepsis.

  9. Synthesis of Lysine Methyltransferase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tao; Hui, Chunngai

    2015-07-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting Lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery.

  10. Modeling Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The molecule modeling method known as Multibody Order (N) Dynamics, or MBO(N)D, was developed by Moldyn, Inc. at Goddard Space Flight Center through funding provided by the SBIR program. The software can model the dynamics of molecules through technology which stimulates low-frequency molecular motions and properties, such as movements among a molecule's constituent parts. With MBO(N)D, a molecule is substructured into a set of interconnected rigid and flexible bodies. These bodies replace the computation burden of mapping individual atoms. Moldyn's technology cuts computation time while increasing accuracy. The MBO(N)D technology is available as Insight II 97.0 from Molecular Simulations, Inc. Currently the technology is used to account for forces on spacecraft parts and to perform molecular analyses for pharmaceutical purposes. It permits the solution of molecular dynamics problems on a moderate workstation, as opposed to on a supercomputer.

  11. Hadronic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Feng-Kun; Hanhart, Christoph; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Qiang; Zou, Bing-Song

    2018-01-01

    A large number of experimental discoveries especially in the heavy quarkonium sector that did not meet the expectations of the until then very successful quark model led to a renaissance of hadron spectroscopy. Among various explanations of the internal structure of these excitations, hadronic molecules, being analogs of light nuclei, play a unique role since for those predictions can be made with controlled uncertainty. Experimental evidence of various candidates of hadronic molecules and methods of identifying such structures are reviewed. Nonrelativistic effective field theories are the suitable framework for studying hadronic molecules and are discussed in both the continuum and finite volumes. Also pertinent lattice QCD results are presented. Further, the production mechanisms and decays of hadronic molecules are discussed and comments are given on the reliability of certain assertions often made in the literature.

  12. Mobius Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses formation of chemical molecules via Mobius strip intermediates, and concludes that many special physics-chemical properties of the fully closed circular form (1) of polyoma DNA are explainable by this topological feature. (CC)

  13. Interstellar Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Radioastronomy reveals that clouds between the stars, once believed to consist of simple atoms, contain molecules as complex as seven atoms and may be the most massive objects in our Galaxy. (Author/DF)

  14. JAK inhibitors in autoinflammation.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Hal M; Broderick, Lori

    2018-06-11

    Interferonopathies are a subset of autoinflammatory disorders with a prominent type I IFN gene signature. Treatment of these patients has been challenging, given the lack of response to common autoinflammatory therapeutics including IL-1 and TNF blockade. JAK inhibitors (Jakinibs) are a family of small-molecule inhibitors that target the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and have shown clinical efficacy, with FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA) approval for arthritic and myeloproliferative syndromes. Sanchez and colleagues repurposed baricitinib to establish a significant role for JAK inhibition as a novel therapy for patients with interferonopathies, demonstrating the power of translational rare disease research with lifesaving effects.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations and modelling of the residue interaction networks in the BRAF kinase complexes with small molecule inhibitors: probing the allosteric effects of ligand-induced kinase dimerization and paradoxical activation.

    PubMed

    Verkhivker, G M

    2016-10-20

    Protein kinases are central to proper functioning of cellular networks and are an integral part of many signal transduction pathways. The family of protein kinases represents by far the largest and most important class of therapeutic targets in oncology. Dimerization-induced activation has emerged as a common mechanism of allosteric regulation in BRAF kinases, which play an important role in growth factor signalling and human diseases. Recent studies have revealed that most of the BRAF inhibitors can induce dimerization and paradoxically stimulate enzyme transactivation by conferring an active conformation in the second monomer of the kinase dimer. The emerging connections between inhibitor binding and BRAF kinase domain dimerization have suggested a molecular basis of the activation mechanism in which BRAF inhibitors may allosterically modulate the stability of the dimerization interface and affect the organization of residue interaction networks in BRAF kinase dimers. In this work, we integrated structural bioinformatics analysis, molecular dynamics and binding free energy simulations with the protein structure network analysis of the BRAF crystal structures to determine dynamic signatures of BRAF conformations in complexes with different types of inhibitors and probe the mechanisms of the inhibitor-induced dimerization and paradoxical activation. The results of this study highlight previously unexplored relationships between types of BRAF inhibitors, inhibitor-induced changes in the residue interaction networks and allosteric modulation of the kinase activity. This study suggests a mechanism by which BRAF inhibitors could promote or interfere with the paradoxical activation of BRAF kinases, which may be useful in informing discovery efforts to minimize the unanticipated adverse biological consequences of these therapeutic agents.

  16. Inside HDAC with HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors are a large group of diverse molecules intrinsically able to inhibit cell proliferation in various cancer cell lines. Their apoptotic effects have been linked to the modulation in the expression of several regulatory tumor suppressor genes caused by the modified status of histone acetylation, a key event in chromatin remodelling. As the initial histone deacetylase activity of HDAC has been extended to other proteins, the possible other biological mechanisms modified by HDAC inhibitor treatments are still to be clarified. The need for HDAC isoform selective inhibitors is an important issue to serve this goal. This review discusses the approaches proposed by several research groups working on the synthesis of HDAC inhibitors, based on modelling studies and the way these findings were used to obtain new HDAC inhibitors with possible isoform selectivity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthetic fermentation of bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Stepek, Iain A; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2018-04-05

    The concept of synthetic fermentation is to 'grow' complex organic molecules in a controlled and predictable manner by combining small molecule building blocks in water-without the need for reagents, enzymes, or organisms. This approach mimics the production of small mixtures of structurally related natural products by living organisms, particularly microbes, under conditions compatible with direct screening of the cultures for biological activity. This review discusses the development and implementation of this concept, its use for the discovery of protease inhibitors, its basis as a chemistry outreach program allowing non-specialists to make and discover new antibiotics, and highlights of related approaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel diamide-based inhibitors of IMPDH.

    PubMed

    Gu, Henry H; Iwanowicz, Edwin J; Guo, Junqing; Watterson, Scott H; Shen, Zhongqi; Pitts, William J; Dhar, T G Murali; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Witmer, Mark; Tredup, Jeffrey; Hollenbaugh, Diane

    2002-05-06

    A series of novel amide-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase is described. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) derived from in vitro studies are presented.

  19. Hadron molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gutsche; Tanja, Branz; Amand, Faessler; Ian, Woo Lee; Valery, E. Lyubovitskij

    2010-09-01

    We discuss a possible interpretation of the open charm mesons D*s0(2317), Ds1(2460) and the hidden charm mesons X(3872), Y(3940) and Y(4140) as hadron molecules. Using a phenomenological Lagrangian approach we review the strong and radiative decays of the D*s0(2317) and Ds1(2460) states. The X(3872) is assumed to consist dominantly of molecular hadronic components with an additional small admixture of a charmonium configuration. Determing the radiative (γJ/Ψ and γΨ(2s)) and strong (J/Ψ2π and J/Ψ3π) decay modes we show that the present experimental observation is consistent with the molecular structure assumption of the X(3872). Finally, we give evidence for molecular interpretations of the Y(3940) and Y(4140) related to the observed strong decay modes J/Ψ + ω or J/Ψ + varphi, respectively.

  20. Small molecules targeting viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Highly conserved noncoding RNA (ncRNA) elements in viral genomes and transcripts offer new opportunities to expand the repertoire of drug targets for the development of antiinfective therapy. Ligands binding to ncRNA architectures are able to affect interactions, structural stability or conformational changes and thereby block processes essential for viral replication. Proof of concept for targeting functional RNA by small molecule inhibitors has been demonstrated for multiple viruses with RNA genomes. Strategies to identify antiviral compounds as inhibitors of ncRNA are increasingly emphasizing consideration of drug-like properties of candidate molecules emerging from screening and ligand design. Recent efforts of antiviral lead discovery for RNA targets have provided drug-like small molecules that inhibit viral replication and include inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV), and influenza A virus. While target selectivity remains a challenge for the discovery of useful RNA-binding compounds, a better understanding is emerging of properties that define RNA targets amenable for inhibition by small molecule ligands. Insight from successful approaches of targeting viral ncRNA in HIV, HCV, SARS CoV, and influenza A will provide a basis for the future exploration of RNA targets for therapeutic intervention in other viral pathogens which create urgent, unmet medical needs. Viruses for which targeting ncRNA components in the genome or transcripts may be promising include insect-borne flaviviruses (Dengue, Zika, and West Nile) and filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg). WIREs RNA 2016, 7:726-743. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1373 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Retracted: Addition of a single methyl group to a small molecule sodium channel inhibitor introduces a new mode of gating modulation, by L Wang, SG Zellmer, DM Printzenhoff and NA Castle. British Journal of Pharmacology, volume 172(20): 4905-4918, published in October 2015; DOI 10.1111/bph.13259.

    PubMed

    2018-07-01

    The above article, published by the British Journal of Pharmacology in October 2015 (https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bph.13259), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief and John Wiley & Sons Limited. The retraction has been agreed owing to the discovery of errors in the chemical structure of the synthetic compounds generated. The corrected structure is now available in the article PF-06526290 can both enhance and inhibit conduction through voltage gated sodium channels by L Wang, SG Zellmer, DM Printzenhoff and NA Castle, 2018, https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bph.14338. Reference Wang L, Zellmer SG, Printzenhoff DM, Castle NA (2015). Addition of a single methyl group to a small molecule sodium channel inhibitor introduces a new mode of gating modulation. Br J Pharmacol 172: 4905-4918. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.13259. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. First-in-Human Study of PF-05212384 (PKI-587), a Small-Molecule, Intravenous, Dual Inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR in Patients with Advanced Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Geoffrey I; Bell-McGuinn, Katherine M; Molina, Julian R; Bendell, Johanna; Spicer, James; Kwak, Eunice L; Pandya, Susan S; Millham, Robert; Borzillo, Gary; Pierce, Kristen J; Han, Lixin; Houk, Brett E; Gallo, Jorge D; Alsina, Maria; Braña, Irene; Tabernero, Josep

    2015-04-15

    To evaluate safety (primary endpoint), tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamic profile, and preliminary activity of the intravenous, pan-class I isoform PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PF-05212384 in patients with advanced solid tumors. Part 1 of this open-label phase I study was designed to estimate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) in patients with nonselected solid tumors, using a modified continual reassessment method to guide dose escalation. Objectives of part 2 were MTD confirmation and assessment of preliminary activity in patients with selected tumor types and PI3K pathway dysregulation. Seventy-seven of the 78 enrolled patients received treatment. The MTD for PF-05212384, administered intravenously once weekly, was estimated to be 154 mg. The most common treatment-related adverse events (AE) were mucosal inflammation/stomatitis (58.4%), nausea (42.9%), hyperglycemia (26%), decreased appetite (24.7%), fatigue (24.7%), and vomiting (24.7%). The majority of patients treated at the MTD experienced only grade 1 treatment-related AEs. Grade 3 treatment-related AEs occurred in 23.8% of patients at the MTD. No treatment-related grade 4-5 AEs were reported at any dose level. Antitumor activity was noted in this heavily pretreated patient population, with two partial responses (PR) and an unconfirmed PR. Eight patients had long-lasting stable disease (>6 months). Pharmacokinetic analyses showed a biphasic concentration-time profile for PF-05212384 (half-life, 30-37 hours after multiple dosing). PF-05212384 inhibited downstream effectors of the PI3K pathway in paired tumor biopsies. These findings demonstrate the manageable safety profile and antitumor activity of the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor PF-05212384, supporting further clinical development for patients with advanced solid malignancies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Identification and Characterization of Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the R132H/R132H Mutant Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 Homodimer and R132H/Wild-Type Heterodimer.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Eric; Wu, Xiang; Hanel, Art; Nguyen, Shaun; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jeffrey H; Harrison, Amanda; Zhang, Wentao

    2014-09-01

    Recurrent genetic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) have been identified in multiple tumor types. The most frequent mutation, IDH1 R132H, is a gain-of-function mutation resulting in an enzyme-catalyzing conversion of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). A high-throughput assay quantifying consumption of NADPH by IDH1 R132H has been optimized and implemented to screen 3 million compounds in 1536-well formats. The primary high-throughput screening hits were further characterized by RapidFire-mass spectrometry measuring 2-HG directly. Multiple distinct chemotypes were identified with nanomolar potencies (6-300 nM). All inhibitors were found to be inactive against the wild-type IDH1 homodimers. An IDH1 heterodimer between wild-type and R132H mutant is capable of catalyzing conversion of α-KG to 2-HG and isocitrate to α-KG. Interestingly, one of the inhibitors, EXEL-9324, was found to inhibit both conversions by the IDH1 heterodimer. This indicates the R132H/WT heterodimer may adopt conformations distinct from that of the R132H/R132H homodimer. Further enzymatic studies support this conclusion as the heterodimer exhibited a significantly lower apparent Michaelis-Menten constant for α-KG (K(m)=110 µM) compared with the R132H homodimer (K(m)= 1200 µM). The enhanced apparent affinity for α-KG suggests R132H/WT heterodimeric IDH1 can produce 2-HG more efficiently at normal intracellular levels of α-KG (approximately 100 µM). © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  4. STAT inhibitors for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) proteins are a family of cytoplasmic transcription factors consisting of 7 members, STAT1 to STAT6, including STAT5a and STAT5b. STAT proteins are thought to be ideal targets for anti-cancer therapy since cancer cells are more dependent on the STAT activity than their normal counterparts. Inhibitors targeting STAT3 and STAT5 have been developed. These included peptidomimetics, small molecule inhibitors and oligonucleotides. This review summarized advances in preclinical and clinical development of these compounds. PMID:24308725

  5. [Syk inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yukihiro; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2013-07-01

    Non-receptor type of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) was isolated in the University of Fukui in 1991. Syk is known to be essential for the various physiological functions, especially in hematopoietic lineage cells. Moreover, ectopic expression of Syk by epigenetic changes is reported to cause retinoblastoma. Recently, novel Syk inhibitors were developed and its usefulness has been evaluated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In this review, we will summarize the history, structure, and function of Syk, and then describe the novel Syk inhibitors and their current status. Furthermore, we will introduce our findings of the adaptor protein 3BP2 (c-Abl SH3 domain-binding protein-2), as a novel target of Syk.

  6. Large-scale label-free comparative proteomics analysis of polo-like kinase 1 inhibition via the small-molecule inhibitor BI 6727 (Volasertib) in BRAF(V600E) mutant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cholewa, Brian D; Pellitteri-Hahn, Molly C; Scarlett, Cameron O; Ahmad, Nihal

    2014-11-07

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a key role during the cell cycle by regulating mitotic entry, progression, and exit. Plk1 is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers and is essential to sustained oncogenic proliferation, thus making Plk1 an attractive therapeutic target. However, the clinical efficacy of Plk1 inhibition has not emulated the preclinical success, stressing an urgent need for a better understanding of Plk1 signaling. This study addresses that need by utilizing a quantitative proteomics strategy to compare the proteome of BRAF(V600E) mutant melanoma cells following treatment with the Plk1-specific inhibitor BI 6727. Employing label-free nano-LC-MS/MS technology on a Q-exactive followed by SIEVE processing, we identified more than 20 proteins of interest, many of which have not been previously associated with Plk1 signaling. Here we report the down-regulation of multiple metabolic proteins with an associated decrease in cellular metabolism, as assessed by lactate and NAD levels. Furthermore, we have also identified the down-regulation of multiple proteasomal subunits, resulting in a significant decrease in 20S proteasome activity. Additionally, we have identified a novel association between Plk1 and p53 through heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein C1/C2 (hnRNPC), thus providing valuable insight into Plk1's role in cancer cell survival.

  7. Syk inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Kazuyasu; Kimura, Yukihiro; Honjo, Chisato; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2013-01-01

    Non-receptor type of protein-tyrosine kinase Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) was isolated in University of Fukui in 1991. Syk is most highly expressed by haemopoietic cells and known to play crucial roles in the signal transduction through various immunoreceptors of the adaptive immune response. However, recent reports demonstrate that Syk also mediates other biological functions, such as innate immune response, osteoclast maturation, platelet activation and cellular adhesion. Moreover, ectopic expression of Syk by epigenetic changes is reported to cause retinoblastoma. Because of its critical roles on the cellular functions, the development of Syk inhibitors for clinical use has been desired. Although many candidate compounds were produced, none of them had progressed to clinical trials. However, novel Syk inhibitors were finally developed and its usefulness has been evaluated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In this review, we will summarize the history, structure and function of Syk, and then the novel Syk inhibitors and their current status. In addition, we will introduce our research focused on the functions of Syk on Dectin-1-mediated mast cell activation.

  8. TAK-242, a small-molecule inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4 signalling, unveils similarities and differences in lipopolysaccharide- and lipidinduced inflammation and insulin resistance in muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, Sophie E.; Liang, Hanyu; Costford, Sheila R.; Klip, Amira; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Sanchez-Avila, Alicia; Ely, Brian; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that TLR (Toll-like receptor) 4 and downstream pathways [MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) and NF-κB (nuclear factor κB)] play an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. LPS (lipopolysaccharide) and saturated NEFA (non-esterified fatty acids) activate TLR4, and plasma concentrations of these TLR4 ligands are elevated in obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Our goals were to define the role of TLR4 on the insulin resistance caused by LPS and saturated NEFA, and to dissect the independent contribution of LPS and NEFA to the activation of TLR4-driven pathways by employing TAK-242, a specific inhibitor of TLR4. LPS caused robust activation of the MAPK and NF-κB pathways in L6 myotubes, along with impaired insulin signalling and glucose transport. TAK-242 completely prevented the inflammatory response (MAPK and NF-κB activation) caused by LPS, and, in turn, improved LPS-induced insulin resistance. Similar to LPS, stearate strongly activated MAPKs, although stimulation of the NF-κB axis was modest. As seen with LPS, the inflammatory response caused by stearate was accompanied by impaired insulin action. TAK-242 also blunted stearate-induced inflammation; yet, the protective effect conferred by TAK-242 was partial and observed only on MAPKs. Consequently, the insulin resistance caused by stearate was only partially improved by TAK-242. In summary, TAK-242 provides complete and partial protection against LPS- and NEFA-induced inflammation and insulin resistance, respectively. Thus, LPS-induced insulin resistance depends entirely on TLR4, whereas NEFA works through TLR4-dependent and -independent mechanisms to impair insulin action. PMID:23050932

  9. TAK-242, a small-molecule inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4 signalling, unveils similarities and differences in lipopolysaccharide- and lipid-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Sophie E; Liang, Hanyu; Costford, Sheila R; Klip, Amira; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Sanchez-Avila, Alicia; Ely, Brian; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-11-30

    Emerging evidence suggests that TLR (Toll-like receptor) 4 and downstream pathways [MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) and NF-κB (nuclear factor κB)] play an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. LPS (lipopolysaccharide) and saturated NEFA (non-esterified fatty acids) activate TLR4, and plasma concentrations of these TLR4 ligands are elevated in obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Our goals were to define the role of TLR4 on the insulin resistance caused by LPS and saturated NEFA, and to dissect the independent contribution of LPS and NEFA to the activation of TLR4-driven pathways by employing TAK-242, a specific inhibitor of TLR4. LPS caused robust activation of the MAPK and NF-κB pathways in L6 myotubes, along with impaired insulin signalling and glucose transport. TAK-242 completely prevented the inflammatory response (MAPK and NF-κB activation) caused by LPS, and, in turn, improved LPS-induced insulin resistance. Similar to LPS, stearate strongly activated MAPKs, although stimulation of the NF-κB axis was modest. As seen with LPS, the inflammatory response caused by stearate was accompanied by impaired insulin action. TAK-242 also blunted stearate-induced inflammation; yet, the protective effect conferred by TAK-242 was partial and observed only on MAPKs. Consequently, the insulin resistance caused by stearate was only partially improved by TAK-242. In summary, TAK-242 provides complete and partial protection against LPS- and NEFA-induced inflammation and insulin resistance, respectively. Thus, LPS-induced insulin resistance depends entirely on TLR4, whereas NEFA works through TLR4-dependent and -independent mechanisms to impair insulin action.

  10. Phase I Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study of the Oral, Small-Molecule Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1/2 Inhibitor AZD6244 (ARRY-142886) in Patients With Advanced Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Adjei, Alex A.; Cohen, Roger B.; Franklin, Wilbur; Morris, Clive; Wilson, David; Molina, Julian R.; Hanson, Lorelei J.; Gore, Lia; Chow, Laura; Leong, Stephen; Maloney, Lara; Gordon, Gilad; Simmons, Heidi; Marlow, Allison; Litwiler, Kevin; Brown, Suzy; Poch, Gregory; Kane, Katie; Haney, Jerry; Eckhardt, S. Gail

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To assess the tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PKs), and pharmacodynamics (PDs) of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor AZD6244 (ARRY-142886) in patients with advanced cancer. Patients and Methods In part A, patients received escalating doses to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD). In both parts, blood samples were collected to assess PK and PD parameters. In part B, patients were stratified by cancer type (melanoma v other) and randomly assigned to receive the MTD or 50% MTD. Biopsies were collected to determine inhibition of ERK phosphorylation, Ki-67 expression, and BRAF, KRAS, and NRAS mutations. Results Fifty-seven patients were enrolled. MTD in part A was 200 mg bid, but this dose was discontinued in part B because of toxicity. The 50% MTD (100 mg bid) was well tolerated. Rash was the most frequent and dose-limiting toxicity. Most other adverse events were grade 1 or 2. The PKs were less than dose proportional, with a median half-life of approximately 8 hours and inhibition of ERK phosphorylation in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells at all dose levels. Paired tumor biopsies demonstrated reduced ERK phosphorylation (geometric mean, 79%). Five of 20 patients demonstrated ≥ 50% inhibition of Ki-67 expression, and RAF or RAS mutations were detected in 10 of 26 assessable tumor samples. Nine patients had stable disease (SD) for ≥ 5 months, including two patients with SD for 19 (thyroid cancer) and 22 (uveal melanoma plus renal cancer) 28-day cycles. Conclusion AZD6244 was well tolerated with target inhibition demonstrated at the recommended phase II dose. PK analyses supported twice-daily dosing. Prolonged SD was seen in a variety of advanced cancers. Phase II studies are ongoing. PMID:18390968

  11. The sequence of the CA-SP1 junction accounts for the differential sensitivity of HIV-1 and SIV to the small molecule maturation inhibitor 3-O-{3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl}-betulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Chen, Chin Ho; Aiken, Christopher

    2004-06-29

    Despite the effectiveness of currently available antiretroviral therapies in the treatment of HIV-1 infection, a continuing need exists for novel compounds that can be used in combination with existing drugs to slow the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. We previously reported that the small molecule 3-O-{3',3'-dimethylsuccinyl}-betulinic acid (DSB) specifically inhibits HIV-1 replication by delaying the processing of the CA-SP1 junction in Pr55Gag. By contrast, SIVmac239 replicates efficiently in the presence of high concentrations of DSB. To determine whether sequence differences in the CA-SP1 junction can fully account for the differential sensitivity of HIV-1 and SIV to DSB, we engineered mutations in this region of two viruses and tested their sensitivity to DSB in replication assays using activated human primary CD4+ T cells. Substitution of the P2 and P1 residues of HIV-1 by the corresponding amino acids of SIV resulted in strong resistance to DSB, but the mutant virus replicated with reduced efficiency. Conversely, replication of an SIV mutant containing three amino acid substitutions in the CA-SP1 cleavage site was highly sensitive to DSB, and the mutations resulted in delayed cleavage of the CA-SP1 junction in the presence of the drug. These results demonstrate that the CA-SP1 junction in Pr55Gag represents the primary viral target of DSB. They further suggest that the therapeutic application of DSB will be accompanied by emergence of mutant viruses that are highly resistant to the drug but which exhibit reduced fitness relative to wild type HIV-1.

  12. Pathophysiological significance and therapeutic applications of snake venom protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Rupamoni; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2017-06-01

    Protease inhibitors are important constituents of snake venom and play important roles in the pathophysiology of snakebite. Recently, research on snake venom protease inhibitors has provided valuable information to decipher the molecular details of various biological processes and offer insight for the development of some therapeutically important molecules from snake venom. The process of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, in addition to affecting platelet function, are well known as the major targets of several snake venom protease inhibitors. This review summarizes the structure-functional aspects of snake venom protease inhibitors that have been described to date. Because diverse biological functions have been demonstrated by protease inhibitors, a comparative overview of their pharmacological and pathophysiological properties is also highlighted. In addition, since most snake venom protease inhibitors are non-toxic on their own, this review evaluates the different roles of individual protease inhibitors that could lead to the identification of drug candidates and diagnostic molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physics of Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Many varieties of molecule have been detected in the Milky Way and in other galaxies. The processes by which these molecules are formed and destroyed are now broadly understood (see INTERSTELLAR CHEMISTRY). These molecules are important components of galaxies in two ways. Firstly, radiation emitted by molecules enables us to trace the presence of diffuse gas, to infer its physical properties and ...

  14. Inhibiting prolyl isomerase activity by hybrid organic-inorganic molecules containing rhodium(II) fragments.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Jane M; Kundu, Rituparna; Cooper, Julian C; Ball, Zachary T

    2014-11-15

    A small molecule containing a rhodium(II) tetracarboxylate fragment is shown to be a potent inhibitor of the prolyl isomerase FKBP12. The use of small molecules conjugates of rhodium(II) is presented as a general strategy for developing new protein inhibitors based on distinct structural and sequence features of the enzyme active site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel amide-based inhibitors of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Watterson, Scott H; Liu, Chunjian; Dhar, T G Murali; Gu, Henry H; Pitts, William J; Barrish, Joel C; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-10-21

    A series of novel amide-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) was explored. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) derived from in vitro studies are described.

  16. Rapid synthesis of triazine inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Pitts, William J; Guo, Junqing; Dhar, T G Murali; Shen, Zhongqi; Gu, Henry H; Watterson, Scott H; Bednarz, Mark S; Chen, Bang Chi; Barrish, Joel C; Bassolino, Donna; Cheney, Daniel; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-08-19

    A series of novel triazine-based small molecule inhibitors (IV) of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase was prepared. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SAR) derived from in vitro studies are described.

  17. [Biophysics of single molecules].

    PubMed

    Serdiuk, I N; Deriusheva, E I

    2011-01-01

    The modern methods of research of biological molecules whose application led to the development of a new field of science, biophysics of single molecules, are reviewed. The measurement of the characteristics of single molecules enables one to reveal their individual features, and it is just for this reason that much more information can be obtained from one molecule than from the entire ensample of molecules. The high sensitivity of the methods considered in detail makes it possible to come close to the solution of the basic problem of practical importance, namely, the determination of the nucleotide sequence of a single DNA molecule.

  18. Design and in vitro activities of N-alkyl-N-[(8-R-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)methyl]heteroarylsulfonamides, novel small molecule Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway inhibitors and anti-cancer agents

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Jiyoung; Jabbar, Adnan Abdul; Devi, Narra Sarojini; Yin, Shaoman; Wang, Yingzhe; Tan, Chalet; Culver, Deborah; Snyder, James P.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Goodman, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    The Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) pathway is an attractive target for cancer as it controls tumor adaptation to growth under hypoxia and mediates chemo- and radiation resistance. We previously discovered 3,4-dimethoxy-N-[(2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)methyl]-N-phenylbenzenesulfonamide, as a novel small molecule HIF-1 pathway inhibitor in a high-throughput cell-based assay, but its in vivo delivery is hampered by poor aqueous solubility (0.009 μM in water; logP7.4: 3.7). Here we describe the synthesis of twelve N-alkyl-N-[(8-R-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)methyl]heteroarylsulfonamides, which were designed to possess optimal lipophilicities and aqueous solubilities by in silico calculations. Experimental logP7.4 values of 8 of the 12 new analogs ranged from 1.2 ∼ 3.1. Aqueous solubilities of 3 analogs were measured, among which the most soluble N-[(8-methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)methyl]-N-(propan-2-yl)pyridine-2-sulfonamide had an aqueous solubility of 80 μM, e.g. a solubility improvement of ∼9,000-fold. The pharmacological optimization had minimal impact on drug efficacy as the compounds retained IC50 values at or below 5 μM in our HIF-dependent reporter assay. PMID:22746274

  19. Novel guanidine-based inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Edwin J; Watterson, Scott H; Liu, Chunjian; Gu, Henry H; Mitt, Toomas; Leftheris, Katerina; Barrish, Joel C; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Hollenbaugh, Diane L

    2002-10-21

    A series of novel guanidine-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) was explored. IMPDH catalyzes the rate determining step in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis and is a target for anticancer, immunosuppressive and antiviral therapy. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs), derived from in vitro studies, for this new series of inhibitors is given.

  20. Molecules Without Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, Anthony; Collins, Laura; Gomes, Kenjiro; Janko, Boldizsar

    We present a real-space representation of molecules which results in the normal bonding rules and electronic structure of chemistry without atom-centered coulomb potentials. Using a simple mapping, we can generate atomless molecules from the structure of real molecules. Additionally, molecules without atoms show similar covalent bonding energies and transfer of charge in ionic bonds as real molecules. The atomless molecules contain only the valence and conduction electronic structure of the real molecule. Using the framework of the Atoms in Molecules (AIM) theory of Bader, we prove that the topological features of the valence charge distribution of molecules without atoms are identical to that of real molecules. In particular, the charge basins of atomless molecules show identical location and quantities of representative charge. We compare the accuracy, computational cost, and intuition gained from electronic structure calculations of molecules without atoms with the use of pseudopotentials to represent atomic cores in density functional theory. A. R. acknowledges support from a NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship.

  1. Anticancer molecules targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guang; Liu, Zhiguo; Wu, Jianzhang; Cai, Yuepiao; Li, Xiaokun

    2012-10-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family includes four highly conserved receptor tyrosine kinases: FGFR1-4. Upon ligand binding, FGFRs activate an array of downstream signaling pathways, such as the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways. These FGFR cascades play crucial roles in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration, and survival. The combination of knockdown studies and pharmaceutical inhibition in preclinical models demonstrates that FGFRs are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer. Multiple FGFR inhibitors with various structural skeletons have been designed, synthesized, and evaluated. Reviews on FGFRs have recently focused on FGFR signaling, pathophysiology, and functions in cancer or other diseases. In this article, we review recent advances in structure-activity relationships (SAR) of FGFR inhibitors, as well as the FGFR-targeting drug design strategies currently employed in targeting deregulated FGFRs by antibodies and small molecule inhibitors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. p21-activated kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Joachim; Crawford, James J; Hoeflich, Klaus P; Chernoff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are Ser/Thr kinases in the STE20 kinase family with important roles in regulating cytoskeletal organization, cell migration, and signaling. The PAK enzyme family comprises six members subdivided into two groups: Group I, represented by PAK1, 2, and 3, and Group II, represented by PAK 4, 5, and 6, based on sequence and structural homology. Individual PAK isoforms were found to be overexpressed and amplified in a variety of human cancers, and in vitro and in vivo studies using genetically engineered systems as well as small-molecule tool compounds have suggested therapeutic utility of PAKs as oncology targets. The identification of potent and kinome-selective ATP-competitive PAK inhibitors has proven challenging, likely caused by the openness and unique plasticity of the ATP-binding site of PAK enzymes. Progress in achieving increased kinase selectivity has been achieved with certain inhibitors but at the expense of increased molecular weight. Allosteric inhibitors, such as IPA-3, leverage the unique Group I PAK autoregulatory domain for selective inhibition, and this approach might provide an outlet to evade the kinase selectivity challenges observed with ATP-competitive PAK inhibitors. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Novel Class of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Fang; Regan, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Unregulated cellular proliferation, caused by mutation or dysregulation of growth-promoting proteins, is an underlying cause of cancer. Many such growth-promoting proteins exhibit an increased dependence on the activity of the chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) for correct folding and maturation in the cell. One can therefore envision that inhibition of Hsp90 would be an effective and broadly applicable strategy for the development of anticancer agents. Hsp90 functions in multichaperone complexes driven by the binding and hydrolysis of ATP. Encouraging results have been obtained by inhibiting Hsp90 with 17-AAG, an active-site binding ATP analog. Here we present the results of a different approach to inhibiting Hsp90 by disrupting its interaction with a cochaperone named Hsp organizing protein (HOP). We have used an AlphaScreen technology based high-throughput in vitro screen to identify compounds that inhibit this interaction. In addition, we demonstrate that these compounds are active in vivo. Treatment of human breast cancer cell lines BT474 and SKBR3 with these compounds decreases the levels of the Hsp90-dependent client protein HER2, with associated cell death. PMID:18785742

  4. Profiling protein function with small molecule microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Winssinger, Nicolas; Ficarro, Scott; Schultz, Peter G.; Harris, Jennifer L.

    2002-01-01

    The regulation of protein function through posttranslational modification, local environment, and protein–protein interaction is critical to cellular function. The ability to analyze on a genome-wide scale protein functional activity rather than changes in protein abundance or structure would provide important new insights into complex biological processes. Herein, we report the application of a spatially addressable small molecule microarray to an activity-based profile of proteases in crude cell lysates. The potential of this small molecule-based profiling technology is demonstrated by the detection of caspase activation upon induction of apoptosis, characterization of the activated caspase, and inhibition of the caspase-executed apoptotic phenotype using the small molecule inhibitor identified in the microarray-based profile. PMID:12167675

  5. Molecular mechanism of respiratory syncytial virus fusion inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Battles, Michael B; Langedijk, Johannes P; Furmanova-Hollenstein, Polina; Chaiwatpongsakorn, Supranee; Costello, Heather M; Kwanten, Leen; Vranckx, Luc; Vink, Paul; Jaensch, Steffen; Jonckers, Tim H M; Koul, Anil; Arnoult, Eric; Peeples, Mark E; Roymans, Dirk; McLellan, Jason S

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in young children and the elderly. Therapeutic small molecules have been developed that bind the RSV F glycoprotein and inhibit membrane fusion, yet their binding sites and molecular mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Here we show that these inhibitors bind to a three-fold-symmetric pocket within the central cavity of the metastable prefusion conformation of RSV F. Inhibitor binding stabilizes this conformation by tethering two regions that must undergo a structural rearrangement to facilitate membrane fusion. Inhibitor-escape mutations occur in residues that directly contact the inhibitors or are involved in the conformational rearrangements required to accommodate inhibitor binding. Resistant viruses do not propagate as well as wild-type RSV in vitro, indicating a fitness cost for inhibitor escape. Collectively, these findings provide new insight into class I viral fusion proteins and should facilitate development of optimal RSV fusion inhibitors. PMID:26641933

  6. Active colloidal molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, Hartmut

    2018-03-01

    Like ordinary molecules are composed of atoms, colloidal molecules consist of several species of colloidal particles tightly bound together. If one of these components is self-propelled or swimming, novel “active colloidal molecules” emerge. Active colloidal molecules exist on various levels such as “homonuclear”, “heteronuclear” and “polymeric” and possess a dynamical function moving as propellers, spinners or rotors. Self-assembly of such active complexes has been studied a lot recently and this perspective article summarizes recent progress and gives an outlook to future developments in the rapidly expanding field of active colloidal molecules.

  7. Cold Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raithel, Georg; Zhao, Jianming

    2017-04-01

    Cold atomic systems have opened new frontiers at the interface of atomic and molecular physics. These include research on novel types of Rydberg molecules. Three types of molecules will be reviewed. Long-range, homonuclear Rydberg molecules, first predicted in [1] and observed in [2], are formed via low-energy electron scattering of the Rydberg electron from a ground-state atom within the Rydberg atom's volume. The binding mostly arises from S- and P-wave triplet scattering. We use a Fermi model that includes S-wave and P-wave singlet and triplet scattering, the fine structure coupling of the Rydberg atom and the hyperfine structure coupling of the 5S1/2 atom (in rubidium [3]). The hyperfine structure gives rise to mixed singlet-triplet potentials for both low-L and high-L Rydberg molecules [3]. A classification into Hund's cases [3, 4, 5] will be discussed. The talk further includes results on adiabatic potentials and adiabatic states of Rydberg-Rydberg molecules in Rb and Cs. These molecules, which have even larger bonding length than Rydberg-ground molecules, are formed via electrostatic multipole interactions. The leading interaction term of neutral Rydberg-Rydberg molecules is between two dipoles, while for ionic Rydberg molecules it is between a dipole and a monopole. NSF (PHY-1506093), NNSF of China (61475123).

  8. Thiopurine Drugs Repositioned as Tyrosinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joonhyeok; Lee, You-Mie; Jee, Jun-Goo

    2017-01-01

    Drug repositioning is the application of the existing drugs to new uses and has the potential to reduce the time and cost required for the typical drug discovery process. In this study, we repositioned thiopurine drugs used for the treatment of acute leukaemia as new tyrosinase inhibitors. Tyrosinase catalyses two successive oxidations in melanin biosynthesis: the conversions of tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and DOPA to dopaquinone. Continuous efforts are underway to discover small molecule inhibitors of tyrosinase for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. Structure-based virtual screening predicted inhibitor candidates from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. Enzyme assays confirmed the thiopurine leukaemia drug, thioguanine, as a tyrosinase inhibitor with the inhibitory constant of 52 μM. Two other thiopurine drugs, mercaptopurine and azathioprine, were also evaluated for their tyrosinase inhibition; mercaptopurine caused stronger inhibition than thioguanine did, whereas azathioprine was a poor inhibitor. The inhibitory constant of mercaptopurine (16 μM) was comparable to that of the well-known inhibitor kojic acid (13 μM). The cell-based assay using B16F10 melanoma cells confirmed that the compounds inhibit mammalian tyrosinase. Particularly, 50 μM thioguanine reduced the melanin content by 57%, without apparent cytotoxicity. Cheminformatics showed that the thiopurine drugs shared little chemical similarity with the known tyrosinase inhibitors. PMID:29283382

  9. Adhesion molecules and receptors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adhesion molecules are necessary for leukocyte trafficking and differentiation. They serve to initiate cell-cell interactions under conditions of shear, and they sustain the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions needed for cellular locomotion. They also can serve directly as signaling molecules act...

  10. Cold Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raithel, Georg

    2017-04-01

    Cold atomic systems have opened new frontiers in atomic and molecular physics, including several types of Rydberg molecules. Three types will be reviewed. Long-range Rydberg-ground molecules, first predicted in and observed in, are formed via low-energy electron scattering of the Rydberg electron from a ground-state atom within the Rydberg atom's volume. The binding mostly arises from S- and P-wave triplet scattering. We use a Fermi model that includes S-wave and P-wave singlet and triplet scattering, the fine structure coupling of the Rydberg atom and the hyperfine structure coupling of the 5S1/2 atom (in rubidium). The hyperfine structure gives rise to mixed singlet-triplet potentials for both low-L and high-L Rydberg molecules. A classification into Hund's cases will be discussed. The talk further includes results on adiabatic potentials and adiabatic states of Rydberg-Rydberg molecules in Rb and Cs. These molecules, which have even larger bonding length than Rydberg-ground molecules, are formed via electrostatic multipole interactions. The leading interaction of neutral Rydberg-Rydberg molecules is dipole-dipole, while for ionic Rydberg molecules it is dipole-monopole. Higher-order terms are discussed. FUNDING: NSF (PHY-1506093), NNSF of China (61475123).

  11. Enzymatic DNA molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, Gerald F. (Inventor); Breaker, Ronald R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses deoxyribonucleic acid enzymes--catalytic or enzymatic DNA molecules--capable of cleaving nucleic acid sequences or molecules, particularly RNA, in a site-specific manner, as well as compositions including same. Methods of making and using the disclosed enzymes and compositions are also disclosed.

  12. NADPH oxidase inhibitors: a patent review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Ae; Neupane, Ganesh Prasad; Lee, Eung Seok; Jeong, Byeong-Seon; Park, Byung Chul; Thapa, Pritam

    2011-08-01

    NADPH oxidases, a family of multi-subunit enzyme complexes, catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may contribute to the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. In addition to the first NADPH oxidase found in phagocytes, four non-phagocytic NADPH oxidase isoforms have been identified, which all differ in their catalytic subunit (Nox1-5) and tissue distribution. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the patent literature on NADPH oxidase inhibitors, small molecule Nox inhibitors, peptides and siRNAs. Since each member of the NADPH oxidase family has great potential as a therapeutic target, several different compounds have been registered as NADPH oxidase inhibitors in the patent literature. As yet, none have gone through clinical trials, and some have not completed preclinical trials, including safety and specificity evaluation. Recently, small molecule pyrazolopyridine and triazolopyrimidine derivatives have been submitted as potent NADPH oxidase inhibitors and reported as first-in-class inhibitors for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and acute stroke, respectively. Further clinical efficacy and safety data are warranted to prove their actual clinical utility.

  13. The Molecule Pages database

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Brian; Lyon, Stephen; Day, Matthew; Riley, Brenda; Chenette, Emily; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2008-01-01

    The UCSD-Nature Signaling Gateway Molecule Pages (http://www.signaling-gateway.org/molecule) provides essential information on more than 3800 mammalian proteins involved in cellular signaling. The Molecule Pages contain expert-authored and peer-reviewed information based on the published literature, complemented by regularly updated information derived from public data source references and sequence analysis. The expert-authored data includes both a full-text review about the molecule, with citations, and highly structured data for bioinformatics interrogation, including information on protein interactions and states, transitions between states and protein function. The expert-authored pages are anonymously peer reviewed by the Nature Publishing Group. The Molecule Pages data is present in an object-relational database format and is freely accessible to the authors, the reviewers and the public from a web browser that serves as a presentation layer. The Molecule Pages are supported by several applications that along with the database and the interfaces form a multi-tier architecture. The Molecule Pages and the Signaling Gateway are routinely accessed by a very large research community. PMID:17965093

  14. The Molecule Pages database.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Brian; Lyon, Stephen; Day, Matthew; Riley, Brenda; Chenette, Emily; Subramaniam, Shankar; Vadivelu, Ilango

    2008-01-01

    The UCSD-Nature Signaling Gateway Molecule Pages (http://www.signaling-gateway.org/molecule) provides essential information on more than 3800 mammalian proteins involved in cellular signaling. The Molecule Pages contain expert-authored and peer-reviewed information based on the published literature, complemented by regularly updated information derived from public data source references and sequence analysis. The expert-authored data includes both a full-text review about the molecule, with citations, and highly structured data for bioinformatics interrogation, including information on protein interactions and states, transitions between states and protein function. The expert-authored pages are anonymously peer reviewed by the Nature Publishing Group. The Molecule Pages data is present in an object-relational database format and is freely accessible to the authors, the reviewers and the public from a web browser that serves as a presentation layer. The Molecule Pages are supported by several applications that along with the database and the interfaces form a multi-tier architecture. The Molecule Pages and the Signaling Gateway are routinely accessed by a very large research community.

  15. Sulphonamides as corrosion inhibitor: Experimental and DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obayes, Hasan R.; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Alwan, Ghadah H.; Abdullah, Thamer Adnan; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2017-06-01

    Inhibitors are synthetic and natural molecules have various functional groups like double or triple bonds and heteroatoms; N, O or S, which permit adsorption onto the MS (metal surface). These inhibitors have the ability to adsorb onto the MS and block the active site that was reducing the corrosion rate. Inhibition efficiencies of the investigated compounds: Sulfacetamide (SAM), Sulfamerazine (SMR), Sulfapyridine (SPY) and Sulfathiazole (STI), as inhibitors in corrosive solution were evaluated based on weight loss technique. Nitro and Amino groups were chosen for the study of the substituted reaction of four corrosion inhibitor compounds: SAM, SMR, SPY and STI, theoretically utilizing the thickness capacities hypothesis DFT (density functions theory) method with the level [rB3LYP/6-311G(d,p)]. Our research demonstrated that the nitration of studied molecules lead to a diminishing in inhibition efficiencies, group lead to an increase in inhibition efficiency. Compared with corrosion inhibitor molecules these results gave a significant improvement in inhibition efficiency for corrosion inhibitor molecules.

  16. Glycation, carbonyl stress and AGEs inhibitors: a patent review.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Humera; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    The glycation process, comprising a series of reactions, results in the formation of heterogeneous adducts, known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are involved in several pathologies, including diabetes-associated late complications, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and inflammatory arthritis. Several inhibitors of AGEs and/or reactive carbonyl species have been identified from various sources, including natural products and synthetic molecules, and have been investigated for their mechanism of action. This review covers the literature on AGEs inhibitors published as patents between 2001 and 2014. Initially, the earlier reported molecules with AGEs inhibitory properties, their mechanism of actions and reported adverse effects are discussed. The main focus has been on the chemical structures, methods for evaluation of the activity, modes of action, pharmacokinetics and therapeutic outcomes. The potential of these AGEs inhibitors in the treatment and management of a number of diseases are also discussed in this review. The reactive carbonyl species and AGEs have recently emerged as novel therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. Currently, the major concerns with the use of AGEs inhibitors as therapeutic agents are low effectiveness, poor pharmacokinetics and undesirable side effects. Many of the AGEs inhibitors reviewed here possess potent antiglycation activity and are devoid of undesirable side effects. These small molecules inhibitors can, therefore, serve as scaffolds for the development and designing of new AGEs inhibitors as clinical agents.

  17. Of Molecules and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinner, Bonnie

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which models help students visualize both the DNA process and transcription. After constructing DNA, RNA messenger, and RNA transfer molecules; students model cells, protein synthesis, codons, and RNA movement. (MDH)

  18. Recent developments in small molecule therapies for renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Song, Minsoo

    2017-12-15

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults and is known to be the 10th most common type of cancer in the world. Most of the currently available RCC drugs are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, combination therapies of TKIs and immune checkpoint inhibitors such as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death protein 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors are the focus of most of the final stage clinical trials. Meanwhile, other small molecule therapies for RCC that target indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), glutaminase, C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), and transglutaminase 2 (TG2) are emerging as the next generation of therapeutics. In this review, these three major streams for the development of small molecule drugs for RCC are described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavior of atypical amphiphilic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, John

    1997-08-01

    The physical behavior of several atypical amphiphilic molecules was studied in various environments including micelles, model bilayer membranes, and emulsions. The molecules under investigation were nor-chenodeoxycholic acid (nor-CDCA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), sphingosine (Sp), sphingosine hydrochloride (SpċHCl), and tetrahydrolipstatin (THL). The bile acids, nor-CDCA and UDCA, were studied using 13C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ([13C) -NMR) in micelles of taurocholate and in bilayers of phosphatidylcholine. The pK a values of the bile acids in each environment were determined by [13C) -NMR and are as follows: 6.08 ±.03 for nor-CDCA and 6.27 ±.01 for UDCA in micelles, and 7.04 ± 12 for nor-CDCA and 6.89 ±.05 for UDCA in vesicles. Using line shape analysis, the transbilayer movement rate at 36oC for nor-CDCA and UDCA was calculated to be 580 sec--1 and 409 sec-1, respectively. [13C) -NMR titration of Sp gave pK a values of 9.09 ±.02 in micelles and 9.69 ±.21 in bilayers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction were used to establish the Spċwater and SpċHClċwater phase diagrams. Anhydrous and hydrated samples ranging from 5- 90% water were analyzed. The DSC thermograms traced out the transition temperatures of each molecule while the X- ray diffraction patterns revealed their chain and crystalline lattice packing structures. In general, sphingosine exists as a hydrated crystal with β packing phase below 43oC and melts into an Lα phase. Sphingosine hydrochloride, however, exists as a gel phase (L_beta or /beta/sp') below 42oC that swells to 61% hydration. At low water concentrations (0-64%), a lamellar liquid crystal phase (L_alpha) is formed above the chain melting transition of 42oC. At medium concentration (65%), a Hexagonal I phase is present, and at high water concentrations (66-90%), a micellar phase is present. THL, a specific inhibitor of lipases, was analyzed with [ 13C) -NMR to study its behavior in various environments

  20. Understanding ultracold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julienne, Paul

    2009-05-01

    The successful production of a dense sample of ultracold ground state KRb polar molecules [1] opens the door to a new era of research with dipolar gases and lattices of such species. This feat was achieved by first associating a K and a Rb atom to make a weakly bound Feshbach molecule and then coherently transferring the population to the ground vibrational level of the molecule. This talk focuses on theoretical issues associated with making and using ultracold polar molecules, using KRb as an example [2]. Full understanding of this species and the processes by which it is made requires taking advantage of accurate molecular potentials [3], ab initio calculations [4], and the properties of the long-range potential. A highly accurate model is available for KRb for all bound states below the ground state separated atom limit and could be constructed for other species. The next step is to develop an understanding of the interactions between polar molecules, and their control in the ultracold domain. Understanding long-range interactions and threshold resonances will be crucial for future work. [1] K.-K. Ni, et al, Science 322, 231(2008). [2] P. S. Julienne, arXiv:0812:1233. [3] Pashov et al., Phys. Rev. A76, 022511 (2007). [4] S. Kotochigova, et al., arXiv:0901.1486.

  1. Engineered kinesin motor proteins amenable to small-molecule inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Engelke, Martin F.; Winding, Michael; Yue, Yang; Shastry, Shankar; Teloni, Federico; Reddy, Sanjay; Blasius, T. Lynne; Soppina, Pushpanjali; Hancock, William O.; Gelfand, Vladimir I.; Verhey, Kristen J.

    2016-01-01

    The human genome encodes 45 kinesin motor proteins that drive cell division, cell motility, intracellular trafficking and ciliary function. Determining the cellular function of each kinesin would benefit from specific small-molecule inhibitors. However, screens have yielded only a few specific inhibitors. Here we present a novel chemical-genetic approach to engineer kinesin motors that can carry out the function of the wild-type motor yet can also be efficiently inhibited by small, cell-permeable molecules. Using kinesin-1 as a prototype, we develop two independent strategies to generate inhibitable motors, and characterize the resulting inhibition in single-molecule assays and in cells. We further apply these two strategies to create analogously inhibitable kinesin-3 motors. These inhibitable motors will be of great utility to study the functions of specific kinesins in a dynamic manner in cells and animals. Furthermore, these strategies can be used to generate inhibitable versions of any motor protein of interest. PMID:27045608

  2. Small molecule annotation for the Protein Data Bank

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Sanchayita; Young, Jasmine; Berrisford, John M.; Chen, Minyu; Conroy, Matthew J.; Dutta, Shuchismita; Di Costanzo, Luigi; Gao, Guanghua; Ghosh, Sutapa; Hudson, Brian P.; Igarashi, Reiko; Kengaku, Yumiko; Liang, Yuhe; Peisach, Ezra; Persikova, Irina; Mukhopadhyay, Abhik; Narayanan, Buvaneswari Coimbatore; Sahni, Gaurav; Sato, Junko; Sekharan, Monica; Shao, Chenghua; Tan, Lihua; Zhuravleva, Marina A.

    2014-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is the single global repository for three-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules and their complexes, and its more than 100 000 structures contain more than 20 000 distinct ligands or small molecules bound to proteins and nucleic acids. Information about these small molecules and their interactions with proteins and nucleic acids is crucial for our understanding of biochemical processes and vital for structure-based drug design. Small molecules present in a deposited structure may be attached to a polymer or may occur as a separate, non-covalently linked ligand. During curation of a newly deposited structure by wwPDB annotation staff, each molecule is cross-referenced to the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary (CCD). If the molecule is new to the PDB, a dictionary description is created for it. The information about all small molecule components found in the PDB is distributed via the ftp archive as an external reference file. Small molecule annotation in the PDB also includes information about ligand-binding sites and about covalent and other linkages between ligands and macromolecules. During the remediation of the peptide-like antibiotics and inhibitors present in the PDB archive in 2011, it became clear that additional annotation was required for consistent representation of these molecules, which are quite often composed of several sequential subcomponents including modified amino acids and other chemical groups. The connectivity information of the modified amino acids is necessary for correct representation of these biologically interesting molecules. The combined information is made available via a new resource called the Biologically Interesting molecules Reference Dictionary, which is complementary to the CCD and is now routinely used for annotation of peptide-like antibiotics and inhibitors. PMID:25425036

  3. Small molecule annotation for the Protein Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sanchayita; Young, Jasmine; Berrisford, John M; Chen, Minyu; Conroy, Matthew J; Dutta, Shuchismita; Di Costanzo, Luigi; Gao, Guanghua; Ghosh, Sutapa; Hudson, Brian P; Igarashi, Reiko; Kengaku, Yumiko; Liang, Yuhe; Peisach, Ezra; Persikova, Irina; Mukhopadhyay, Abhik; Narayanan, Buvaneswari Coimbatore; Sahni, Gaurav; Sato, Junko; Sekharan, Monica; Shao, Chenghua; Tan, Lihua; Zhuravleva, Marina A

    2014-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is the single global repository for three-dimensional structures of biological macromolecules and their complexes, and its more than 100,000 structures contain more than 20,000 distinct ligands or small molecules bound to proteins and nucleic acids. Information about these small molecules and their interactions with proteins and nucleic acids is crucial for our understanding of biochemical processes and vital for structure-based drug design. Small molecules present in a deposited structure may be attached to a polymer or may occur as a separate, non-covalently linked ligand. During curation of a newly deposited structure by wwPDB annotation staff, each molecule is cross-referenced to the PDB Chemical Component Dictionary (CCD). If the molecule is new to the PDB, a dictionary description is created for it. The information about all small molecule components found in the PDB is distributed via the ftp archive as an external reference file. Small molecule annotation in the PDB also includes information about ligand-binding sites and about covalent and other linkages between ligands and macromolecules. During the remediation of the peptide-like antibiotics and inhibitors present in the PDB archive in 2011, it became clear that additional annotation was required for consistent representation of these molecules, which are quite often composed of several sequential subcomponents including modified amino acids and other chemical groups. The connectivity information of the modified amino acids is necessary for correct representation of these biologically interesting molecules. The combined information is made available via a new resource called the Biologically Interesting molecules Reference Dictionary, which is complementary to the CCD and is now routinely used for annotation of peptide-like antibiotics and inhibitors. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Single-Molecule Bioelectronics

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstein, Jacob K.; Lemay, Serge G.; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental techniques which interface single biomolecules directly with microelectronic systems are increasingly being used in a wide range of powerful applications, from fundamental studies of biomolecules to ultra-sensitive assays. Here we review several technologies which can perform electronic measurements of single molecules in solution: ion channels, nanopore sensors, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors, electron tunneling gaps, and redox cycling. We discuss the shared features among these techniques that enable them to resolve individual molecules, and discuss their limitations. Recordings from each of these methods all rely on similar electronic instrumentation, and we discuss the relevant circuit implementations and potential for scaling these single-molecule bioelectronic interfaces to high-throughput arrayed sensing platforms. PMID:25529538

  5. Positronium ions and molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Y. K.

    1990-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies on positronium ions and molecules are discussed. A positronium ion is a three particle system consisting of two electrons in singlet spin state, and a positron. Recent studies include calculations of its binding energy, positron annihilation rate, and investigations of its doubly excited resonant states. A positronium molecule is a four body system consisting of two positrons and two electrons in an overall singlet spin state. The recent calculations of its binding energy against the dissociation into two positronium atoms, and studies of auto-detaching states in positronium molecules are discussed. These auto-dissociating states, which are believed to be part of the Rydberg series as a result of a positron attaching to a negatively charged positronium ion, Ps-, would appear as resonances in Ps-Ps scattering.

  6. Inhomogeneous hard homonuclear molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, Jacqueline

    A review is given of some features of theories for inhomogeneous fluids of nonspherical molecules that take as input the direct correlation function of the corresponding homogeneous system. Two different methods are described for defining the structure of hard homonuclear molecules close to a hard planar wall. A spherical harmonics expanison (SHE) within the integral equation (IE) method is presented and, for comparison, a version of density functional theory for orientable hard bodies. In both cases the Pynn-Lado model is employed and a comparison is made with Monte Carlo data. The results indicate that for hard molecules the IE approach does not always capture the effects of orientation due to the characteristics of the SHE for the step function. This disadvantage is particularly true in the case of the orientationally averaged density profile.

  7. Organic molecules on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Kate, Inge Loes

    2018-06-01

    On 6 August 2012, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite (1) arrived on Mars onboard the Curiosity rover. SAM's main aim was to search for organic molecules on the martian surface. On page 1096 of this issue, Eigenbrode et al. (2) report SAM data that provide conclusive evidence for the presence of organic compounds—thiophenic, aromatic, and aliphatic compounds—in drill samples from Mars' Gale crater. In a related paper on page 1093, Webster et al. (3) report a strong seasonal variation in atmospheric methane, the simplest organic molecule, in the martian atmosphere. Both these finding are breakthroughs in astrobiology.

  8. Novel ROCK inhibitors for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Duncan; Hollingworth, Greg; Soldermann, Nicolas

    A novel class of selective inhibitors of ROCK1 and ROCK2 has been identified by structural based drug design. PK/PD experiments using a set of highly selective Rho kinase inhibitors suggest that systemic Rho kinase inhibition is linked to a reversible reduction in lymphocyte counts. These results led to the consideration of topical delivery of these molecules, and to the identification of a lead molecule 7 which shows promising PK and PD in a murine model of pulmonary hypertension after intra-tracheal dosing.

  9. Properties of inhibitors of methane hydrate formation via molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian J; Tester, Jefferson W; Borghi, Gian Paolo; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2005-12-21

    Within the framework of a proposed two-step mechanism for hydrate inhibition, the energy of binding of four inhibitor molecules (PEO, PVP, PVCap, and VIMA) to a hydrate surface is estimated with molecular dynamic simulations. One key feature of this proposed mechanism is that the binding of an inhibitor molecule to the surface of an ensuing hydrate crystal disrupts growth and therein crystallization. It is found through the molecular dynamic simulations that inhibitor molecules that experimentally exhibit better inhibition strength also have higher free energies of binding, an indirect confirmation of our proposed mechanism. Inhibitors increasing in effectiveness, PEO < PVP < PVCap < VIMA, have increasingly negative (exothermic) binding energies of -0.2 < -20.6 < -37.5 < -45.8 kcal/mol and binding free energies of increasing favorability (+0.4 approximately = +0.5 < -9.4 < -15.1 kcal/mol). Furthermore, the effect of an inhibitor molecule on the local liquid water structure under hydrate-forming conditions was examined and correlated to the experimental effectiveness of the inhibitors. Two molecular characteristics that lead to strongly binding inhibitors were found: (1) a charge distribution on the edge of the inhibitor that mimics the charge separation in the water molecules on the surface of the hydrate and (2) the congruence of the size of the inhibitor with respect to the available space at the hydrate-surface binding site. Equipped with this molecular-level understanding of the process of hydrate inhibition via low-dosage kinetic hydrate inhibitors we can design new, more effective inhibitor molecules.

  10. Disentangling DNA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The widespread circular form of DNA molecules inside cells creates very serious topological problems during replication. Due to the helical structure of the double helix the parental strands of circular DNA form a link of very high order, and yet they have to be unlinked before the cell division. DNA topoisomerases, the enzymes that catalyze passing of one DNA segment through another, solve this problem in principle. However, it is very difficult to remove all entanglements between the replicated DNA molecules due to huge length of DNA comparing to the cell size. One strategy that nature uses to overcome this problem is to create the topoisomerases that can dramatically reduce the fraction of linked circular DNA molecules relative to the corresponding fraction at thermodynamic equilibrium. This striking property of the enzymes means that the enzymes that interact with DNA only locally can access their topology, a global property of circular DNA molecules. This review considers the experimental studies of the phenomenon and analyzes the theoretical models that have been suggested in attempts to explain it. We describe here how various models of enzyme action can be investigated computationally. There is no doubt at the moment that we understand basic principles governing enzyme action. Still, there are essential quantitative discrepancies between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. We consider how these discrepancies can be overcome.

  11. Algebraic theory of molecules