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Sample records for molecules coherent control

  1. Coherent control of optically induced birefringence in azoaromatic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Mendonca, C. R.; Neves, U. M.; Guedes, I.; Zilio, S. C.; Misoguti, L.

    2006-08-15

    Here we present the coherent control of two-photon induced birefringence in polymeric films containing Disperse Red 13 (DR13) azoaromatic molecules. Such control is achieved by enhancing and reducing the azochromophor cis-trans photoisomerization rate, which leads to the molecular orientation, inducing the birefringence. The dependence on chirp and phase mask of the birefringence signal was studied and modeled.

  2. Coherent Control of Ground State NaK Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zoe; Park, Jee Woo; Loh, Huanqian; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold dipolar molecules exhibit anisotropic, tunable, long-range interactions, making them attractive for the study of novel states of matter and quantum information processing. We demonstrate the creation and control of 23 Na40 K molecules in their rovibronic and hyperfine ground state. By applying microwaves, we drive coherent Rabi oscillations of spin-polarized molecules between the rotational ground state (J=0) and J=1. The control afforded by microwave manipulation allows us to pursue engineered dipolar interactions via microwave dressing. By driving a two-photon transition, we are also able to observe Ramsey fringes between different J=0 hyperfine states, with coherence times as long as 0.5s. The realization of long coherence times between different molecular states is crucial for applications in quantum information processing. NSF, AFOSR- MURI, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, DARPA-OLE

  3. Attosecond Coherent Control of the Photo-Dissociation of Oxygen Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Felix; Ray, Dipanwita; Wright, Travis; Shivaram, Niranjan; Bocharova, Irina; Slaughter, Daniel; Ranitovic, Predrag; Belkacem, Ali; Weber, Thorsten

    2016-05-01

    Attosecond Coherent Control has emerged in recent years as a technique to manipulate the absorption and ionization in atoms as well as the dissociation of molecules on an attosecond time scale. Single attosecond pulses and attosecond pulse trains (APTs) can coherently excite multiple electronic states. The electronic and nuclear wave packets can then be coupled with a second pulse forming multiple interfering quantum pathways. We have built a high flux extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light source delivering APTs based on HHG that allows to selectively excite neutral and ion states in molecules. Our beamline provides spectral selectivity and attosecond interferometric control of the pulses. In the study presented here, we use APTs, generated by High Harmonic Generation in a high flux extreme ultraviolet light source, to ionize highly excited states of oxygen molecules. We identify the ionization/dissociation pathways revealing vibrational structure with ultra-high resolution ion 3D-momentum imaging spectroscopy. Furthermore, we introduce a delay between IR pulses and XUV/IR pulses to constructively or destructively interfere the ionization and dissociation pathways, thus, enabling the manipulation of both the O2+and the O+ ion yields with attosecond precision. Supported by DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  4. Coherent control of interfering wave packets in dissociating HD+ molecules: the role of phase and delay time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chaochao; Zhang, Lili; Qiu, Xuejun; Zhang, Xianzhou; Liu, Yufang

    2016-02-01

    The coherent control of interference between dissociating wave packets of the HD+ molecules generated by a pair of time-delayed and phase-locked femtosecond laser pulses is theoretically studied by using the time-dependent quantum wave packet method. The density function in both coordinate and momentum representation are presented and discussed. It is demonstrated that the interference pattern is observed in both coordinate and momentum density functions. The interference undergoes a π-phase shift when the delay time between the two phase-locked femtosecond laser pulses is changed by half an optical period. In particular, the number of interference fringes, the fringe spacing in the R-dependent density distribution |ψ(R)|2, and the modulation period of the energy-dependent distribution of the fragments P(E) can be tuned by two phase-locked femtosecond pulses.

  5. Coherent control of metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sangeeta; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha; Wanare, Harshawardhan

    2009-08-01

    We theoretically demonstrate the possibility of dynamically controlling the response of metamaterials at optical frequencies using the well known phenomenon of coherent control. Our results predict a variety of effects ranging from dramatic reduction of losses associated with the resonant response of metamaterials to switchable ultraslow to superluminal propagation of pulses governed by the magnetic field of the incident wave. These effects, generic to all metamaterials having a resonant response, involve embedding the metamaterial in resonant dispersive coherent atomic/molecular media. These effects may be utilized for narrow band switching applications and detectors for radiation below predetermined cut-off frequencies.

  6. Preparation of polarized molecules using coherent infrared multicolor ladder excitation.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Nandini; Zare, Richard N

    2010-04-21

    A density matrix treatment is presented for a general process of preparing polarized molecules through their coherent interaction with two or more infrared photons of different frequencies, each tuned to cause a transition between real levels. This process, which might be called infrared stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, allows complete population transfer to selected rotational-vibrational levels and controls the direction of the rotational angular momentum vector J of the molecule with the possibility of preparing higher moments of the J spatial distribution. HCl molecules in a supersonic molecular beam are considered as a candidate system. Theory predicts that under collision-free conditions two infrared laser pulses of microsecond duration and milliwatt power are able to achieve complete population transfer and alignment of HCl (v=2, J=2, and M=0) for mutually parallel excitation and HCl (v=2, J=2, and M=+/-1) for mutually perpendicular excitation. Orientation of the HCl (v=2, J=2, and M=+/-2) can also be achieved using two circularly polarized pulses of the same helicity. For simplicity, our treatment ignores nuclear spin depolarization, which would be the case for molecules such as (12)C(16)O and (12)C(16)OO(2). Polarized molecules in higher vibrational levels can be prepared using additional infrared pulses.

  7. Coherent Transfer of Photoassociated Molecules into the Rovibrational Ground State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inouye, Shin

    2011-05-01

    Recently, there have been impressive advances in methods of creating ultracold molecules from ultracold atomic gases. One of the key technologies used there is Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage (STIRAP), which has been successfully used for transferring Feshbach molecules into the rovibrational ground state. Since STIRAP relies on quantum coherence, it is unclear if STIRAP is also useful for non-polarized sample, like photo-associated molecules in a magneto-optical trap. Here we report on the SITRAP transfer of weakly bound molecules produced by photoassociation (PA). Laser cooled 41 K and 87 Rb atoms were first photo-associated into loosely-bound molecules in the X 1 Σ potential. Using v = 41, J = 1 level in the (3) 1 Σ potential as an intermediate level, we succeeded in transferring molecules in the v = 91, J = 0 level into the absolute ground state (X 1 Σ , v = 0, N = 0). High-resolution spectroscopy based on the coherent transfer revealed the hyperfine structure of both weakly-bound and tightly-bound molecules. Our results show that a pure sample of ultracold ground-state molecules is achieved via the all-optical association of laser-cooled atoms, opening possibilities to coherently manipulate a wide variety of molecules.In collaboration with Kiyotaka Aikawa, Kohei Oasa, University of Tokyo; Masahito Ueda, University of Tokyo, JST, ERATO; Jun Kobayashi, University of Tokyo; and Tetsuo Kishimoto, University of Electro-Communications.

  8. Coherent controlization using superconducting qubits.

    PubMed

    Friis, Nicolai; Melnikov, Alexey A; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Briegel, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    Coherent controlization, i.e., coherent conditioning of arbitrary single- or multi-qubit operations on the state of one or more control qubits, is an important ingredient for the flexible implementation of many algorithms in quantum computation. This is of particular significance when certain subroutines are changing over time or when they are frequently modified, such as in decision-making algorithms for learning agents. We propose a scheme to realize coherent controlization for any number of superconducting qubits coupled to a microwave resonator. For two and three qubits, we present an explicit construction that is of high relevance for quantum learning agents. We demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal, taking into account loss, dephasing, and the cavity self-Kerr effect.

  9. Coherent controlization using superconducting qubits

    PubMed Central

    Friis, Nicolai; Melnikov, Alexey A.; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Briegel, Hans J.

    2015-01-01

    Coherent controlization, i.e., coherent conditioning of arbitrary single- or multi-qubit operations on the state of one or more control qubits, is an important ingredient for the flexible implementation of many algorithms in quantum computation. This is of particular significance when certain subroutines are changing over time or when they are frequently modified, such as in decision-making algorithms for learning agents. We propose a scheme to realize coherent controlization for any number of superconducting qubits coupled to a microwave resonator. For two and three qubits, we present an explicit construction that is of high relevance for quantum learning agents. We demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal, taking into account loss, dephasing, and the cavity self-Kerr effect. PMID:26667893

  10. Nonlinear coherent spectroscopy in the single molecule limit (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potma, Eric O.

    2015-10-01

    Detecting coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signals from signal molecules is a longstanding experimental challenge. Driving the vibrational CARS response with surface plasmon fields has proven notoriously difficult due to strong background contributions, unfavorable heat dissipation and the phase dispersion of the plasmon modes in the ensemble. In this work we overcome previous experimental limitations and demonstrate time-resolved, vibrational CARS from molecules in the low copy number limit, down to the single molecule level. Our measurements, which are performed under ambient and non-electronic resonance conditions, establish that the coherent response from vibrational modes of individual molecules can be studied experimentally, opening up a new realm of molecular spectroscopic investigations.

  11. Mode Selective Excitation Using Coherent Control Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ajay K.; Konradi, Jakow; Materny, Arnulf; Sarkar, Sisir K.

    2008-11-14

    Femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) gives access to ultrafast molecular dynamics. However, femtosecond laser pulses are spectrally broad and therefore coherently excite several molecular modes. While the temporal resolution is high, usually no mode-selective excitation is possible. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of selectively exciting specific molecular vibrations in solution phase with shaped fs laser excitation using a feedback-controlled optimization technique guided by an evolutionary algorithm. This approach is also used to obtain molecule-specific CARS spectra from a mixture of different substances. The optimized phase structures of the fs pulses are characterized to get insight into the control process. Possible applications of the spectrum control are discussed.

  12. Coherent control near metallic nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Efimov, Ilya; Efimov, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    We study coherent control in the vicinity of metallic nanostructures. Unlike in the case of control in gas or liquid phase, the collective response of electrons in a metallic nanostructure can significantly enhance different frequency components of the control field. This enhancement strongly depends on the geometry of the nanostructure and can substantially modify the temporal profile of the local control field. The changes in the amplitude and phase of the control field near the nanostructure are studied using linear response theory. The inverse problem of finding the external electromagnetic field to generate the desired local control field is considered and solved.

  13. Quantum Zeno control of coherent dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Khripkov, C.; Vardi, A.

    2011-08-15

    We study the effect of dephasing on the coherent dissociation dynamics of an atom-molecule Bose-Einstein condensate. We show that when phase-noise intensity is strong with respect to the inverse correlation time of the stimulated process, dissociation is suppressed via a Bose enhanced quantum Zeno effect. This is complementary to the quantum Zeno control of phase-diffusion in a bimodal condensate by symmetric noise [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 220403 (2008)] in that the controlled process here is phase formation and the required decoherence mechanism for its suppression is purely phase noise.

  14. Control over coherent light fields enables multidimensional coherent spectroscopy and multispectral coherent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Keith A.

    2012-02-01

    Using a combination of spatial and temporal shaping of optical laser fields, fully coherent spectroscopy and coherent control can be carried out to high order from optical to THz spectral ranges. A single beam with a single femtosecond pulse can be transformed into multiple beams and multiple pulses, reconfigurably under computer control with no human alignment needed, retaining full phase coherence among all the noncollinear fields. This enables multiple-quantum 2D and 3D Fourier transform optical spectroscopy of excitons and exciton-polaritons in inorganic quantum wells and microcavities, in organic J-aggregate films, and in inorganic/organic hybrid structures, the results of which will be discussed. Spatiotemporal shaping also enables coherent control over THz phonon-polariton waves in ferroelectric crystals. The THz waves can be coherently superposed to reach extremely large field amplitudes both in the host crystals and in free space, and the fields can be further enhanced in dipolar antenna and metamaterial structures, enabling highly nonlinear coherent spectroscopy and coherent control in the THz regime. Results from solid, liquid, and gas phases, including multiple-quantum rotational coherences in molecular gases and THz-induced phase transitions in crystalline solids, will be presented. Prospects for further generalization of the approach all the way to the hard x-ray regime will be discussed.

  15. Observing a coherent superposition of an atom and a molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, Mark R.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Rudolph, Terry; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2006-11-15

    We demonstrate that it is possible, in principle, to perform a Ramsey-type interference experiment to exhibit a coherent superposition of a single atom and a diatomic molecule. This gedanken experiment, based on the techniques of Aharonov and Susskind [Phys. Rev. 155, 1428 (1967)], explicitly violates the commonly accepted superselection rule that forbids coherent superpositions of eigenstates of differing atom number. A Bose-Einstein condensate plays the role of a reference frame that allows for coherent operations analogous to Ramsey pulses. We also investigate an analogous gedanken experiment to exhibit a coherent superposition of a single boson and a fermion, violating the commonly accepted superselection rule forbidding coherent superpositions of states of differing particle statistics. In this case, the reference frame is realized by a multimode state of many fermions. This latter case reproduces all of the relevant features of Ramsey interferometry, including Ramsey fringes over many repetitions of the experiment. However, the apparent inability of this proposed experiment to produce well-defined relative phases between two distinct systems each described by a coherent superposition of a boson and a fermion demonstrates that there are additional, outstanding requirements to fully 'lift' the univalence superselection rule.

  16. Atom-Molecule Coherence in a One-Dimensional System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citro, R.; Orignac, E.

    2005-09-01

    We study a model of one-dimensional fermionic atoms with a narrow Feshbach resonance that allows them to bind in pairs to form bosonic molecules. We show that at low energy, a coherence develops between the molecule and fermion Luttinger liquids. At the same time, a gap opens in the spin excitation spectrum. The coherence implies that the order parameters for the molecular Bose-Einstein condensation and the atomic BCS pairing become identical. Moreover, both bosonic and fermionic charge density wave correlations decay exponentially, in contrast with a usual Luttinger liquid. We exhibit a Luther-Emery point where the systems can be described in terms of noninteracting pseudofermions. At this point we discuss the threshold behavior of density-density response functions.

  17. Coherent control of molecular torsion.

    PubMed

    Parker, Shane M; Ratner, Mark A; Seideman, Tamar

    2011-12-14

    We propose a coherent, strong-field approach to control the torsional modes of biphenyl derivatives, and develop a numerical scheme to simulate the torsional dynamics. By choice of the field parameters, the method can be applied either to drive the torsion angle to an arbitrary configuration or to induce free internal rotation. Transient absorption spectroscopy is suggested as a probe of torsional control and the usefulness of this approach is numerically explored. Several consequences of our ability to manipulate molecular torsional motions are considered. These include a method for the inversion of molecular chirality and an ultrafast chiral switch.

  18. Coherent Control of Quantum Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalleri, Andrea

    2011-10-05

    This talk addresses some recent work aimed at controlling the low-lying electrodynamics of quantum solids using strong field transients. The excitation of selected vibrational resonances to manipulate the many-body physics of one dimensional Mott Hubbard Insulators and to perturb competing orders in High-Tc superconductors is also covered. Finally, the speaker shows how the electrodynamics of layered superconductors can be driven through the orderparameter phase gradient, demonstrating ultrafast transistor action in a layered superconductor. Advances in the use of coherent optics, from tabletop sources to THz and x-ray free-electron lasers are also discussed.

  19. Coherent (photon) vs incoherent (current) detection of multidimensional optical signals from single molecules in open junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Hua, Weijie; Zhang, Yu; Mukamel, Shaul; Harbola, Upendra

    2015-06-07

    The nonlinear optical response of a current-carrying single molecule coupled to two metal leads and driven by a sequence of impulsive optical pulses with controllable phases and time delays is calculated. Coherent (stimulated, heterodyne) detection of photons and incoherent detection of the optically induced current are compared. Using a diagrammatic Liouville space superoperator formalism, the signals are recast in terms of molecular correlation functions which are then expanded in the many-body molecular states. Two dimensional signals in benzene-1,4-dithiol molecule show cross peaks involving charged states. The correlation between optical and charge current signal is also observed.

  20. Coherent control of photoelectron wavepacket angular interferograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockett, P.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Baumert, T.

    2015-11-01

    Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process, where the final (time-integrated) observable coherently samples all instantaneous states of the light-matter interaction. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable.

  1. Control of Population Flow in Coherently Driven Quantum Ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Fernandez, Ruth; Bergmann, Klaas; Ekers, Aigars; Yatsenko, Leonid P.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.

    2005-07-22

    A technique for adiabatic control of the population flow through a preselected decaying excited level in a three-level quantum ladder is presented. The population flow through the intermediate or upper level is controlled efficiently and robustly by varying the pulse delay between a pair of partly overlapping coherent laser pulses. The technique is analyzed theoretically and demonstrated in an experiment with Na{sub 2} molecules.

  2. Attosecond vacuum UV coherent control of molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ranitovic, Predrag; Hogle, Craig W.; Rivière, Paula; Palacios, Alicia; Tong, Xiao-Ming; Toshima, Nobuyuki; González-Castrillo, Alberto; Martin, Leigh; Martín, Fernando; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry

    2014-01-01

    High harmonic light sources make it possible to access attosecond timescales, thus opening up the prospect of manipulating electronic wave packets for steering molecular dynamics. However, two decades after the birth of attosecond physics, the concept of attosecond chemistry has not yet been realized; this is because excitation and manipulation of molecular orbitals requires precisely controlled attosecond waveforms in the deep UV, which have not yet been synthesized. Here, we present a unique approach using attosecond vacuum UV pulse-trains to coherently excite and control the outcome of a simple chemical reaction in a deuterium molecule in a non-Born–Oppenheimer regime. By controlling the interfering pathways of electron wave packets in the excited neutral and singly ionized molecule, we unambiguously show that we can switch the excited electronic state on attosecond timescales, coherently guide the nuclear wave packets to dictate the way a neutral molecule vibrates, and steer and manipulate the ionization and dissociation channels. Furthermore, through advanced theory, we succeed in rigorously modeling multiscale electron and nuclear quantum control in a molecule. The observed richness and complexity of the dynamics, even in this very simplest of molecules, is both remarkable and daunting, and presents intriguing new possibilities for bridging the gap between attosecond physics and attochemistry. PMID:24395768

  3. Cooling Mechanical Oscillators by Coherent Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimmer, Martin; Gieseler, Jan; Novotny, Lukas

    2016-10-01

    In optomechanics, electromagnetic fields are harnessed to control a single mode of a mechanically compliant system, while other mechanical degrees of freedom remain unaffected due to the modes' mutual orthogonality and high quality factor. Extension of the optical control beyond the directly addressed mode would require a controlled coupling between mechanical modes. Here, we introduce an optically controlled coupling between two oscillation modes of an optically levitated nanoparticle. We sympathetically cool one oscillation mode by coupling it coherently to the second mode, which is feedback cooled. Furthermore, we demonstrate coherent energy transfer between mechanical modes and discuss its application for ground-state cooling.

  4. Coherent optical transfer of Feshbach molecules to a lower vibrational state.

    PubMed

    Winkler, K; Lang, F; Thalhammer, G; Straten, P v d; Grimm, R; Denschlag, J Hecker

    2007-01-26

    Using the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) we have coherently transferred ultracold (87)Rb(2) Feshbach molecules into a more deeply bound vibrational quantum level. Our measurements indicate a high transfer efficiency of up to 87%. Because the molecules are held in an optical lattice with not more than a single molecule per lattice site, inelastic collisions between the molecules are suppressed and we observe long molecular lifetimes of about 1 s. Using STIRAP we have created quantum superpositions of the two molecular states and tested their coherence interferometrically. These results represent an important step towards Bose-Einstein condensation of molecules in the vibrational ground state. PMID:17358763

  5. Diffractive Imaging of Coherent Nuclear Motion in Isolated Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Guehr, Markus; Shen, Xiaozhe; Li, Renkai; Vecchione, Theodore; Coffee, Ryan; Corbett, Jeff; Fry, Alan; Hartmann, Nick; Hast, Carsten; Hegazy, Kareem; Jobe, Keith; Makasyuk, Igor; Robinson, Joseph; Robinson, Matthew S.; Vetter, Sharon; Weathersby, Stephen; Yoneda, Charles; Wang, Xijie; Centurion, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Observing the motion of the nuclear wave packets during a molecular reaction, in both space and time, is crucial for understanding and controlling the outcome of photoinduced chemical reactions. We have imaged the motion of a vibrational wave packet in isolated iodine molecules using ultrafast electron diffraction with relativistic electrons. The time-varying interatomic distance was measured with a precision 0.07 Å and temporal resolution of 230 fs full width at half maximum. The method is not only sensitive to the position but also the shape of the nuclear wave packet.

  6. Optics of a gas of coherently spinning molecules.

    PubMed

    Steinitz, Uri; Prior, Yehiam; Averbukh, Ilya Sh

    2014-01-10

    We consider the optical properties of a gas of molecules that are brought to fast unidirectional spinning by a pulsed laser field. It is shown that a circularly polarized probe light passing through the medium inverts its polarization handedness and experiences a frequency shift controllable by the sense and the rate of molecular rotation. Our analysis is supported by two recent experiments on the laser-induced rotational Doppler effect in molecular gases and provides a good qualitative and quantitative description of the experimental observations. PMID:24483895

  7. Frequency shift by optical coherent control

    SciTech Connect

    Ignesti, Emilio; Buffa, Roberto; Fini, Lorenzo; Sali, Emiliano; Cavalieri, Stefano; Tognetti, Marco V.

    2010-02-15

    We report the experimental observation of an optically controllable shift of the central frequency of a laser pulse, using a scheme based on dynamical electromagnetically induced transparency. This is evidence of frequency shift controllable by a coherent process. Original theoretical results are in agreement with the experimental data.

  8. High-harmonic probing of electronic coherence in dynamically aligned molecules.

    PubMed

    Kraus, P M; Zhang, S B; Gijsbertsen, A; Lucchese, R R; Rohringer, N; Wörner, H J

    2013-12-13

    We introduce and demonstrate a new approach to measuring coherent electron wave packets using high-harmonic spectroscopy. By preparing a molecule in a coherent superposition of electronic states, we show that electronic coherence opens previously unobserved high-harmonic-generation channels that connect distinct but coherently related electronic states. Performing the measurements in dynamically aligned nitric oxide molecules we observe the complex temporal evolution of the electronic coherence under coupling to nuclear motion. Choosing a weakly allowed transition to prepare the wave packet, we demonstrate an unprecedented sensitivity that arises from optical interference between coherent and incoherent pathways. This mechanism converts a 0.1% excitation fraction into a ∼20% signal modulation.

  9. Controlling Casimir force via coherent driving field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Rashid; Abbas, Muqaddar; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-04-01

    A four level atom-field configuration is used to investigate the coherent control of Casimir force between two identical plates made up of chiral atomic media and separated by vacuum of width d. The electromagnetic chirality-induced negative refraction is obtained via atomic coherence. The behavior of Casimir force is investigated using Casimir-Lifshitz formula. It is noticed that Casimir force can be switched from repulsive to attractive and vice versa via coherent control of the driving field. This switching feature provides new possibilities of using the repulsive Casimir force in the development of new emerging technologies, such as, micro-electro-mechanical and nano-electro-mechanical systems, i.e., MEMS and NEMS, respectively.

  10. Towards coherent control of energetic material initiation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, Margo T; Mcgrane, Shawn D; Scharff, R Jason; Moore, David S

    2009-01-01

    Direct optical initiation (DOI) of energetic materials using coherent control of localized energy deposition requires depositing energy into the material to produce a critical size hot spot, which allows propagation of the reaction and thereby initiation, The hot spot characteristics needed for growth to initiation can be studied using quantum controlled initiation (QCI). Achieving direct quantum controlled initiation (QCI) in condensed phase systems requires optimally shaped ultrafast laser pulses to coherently guide the energy flow along the desired paths. As a test of our quantum control capabilities we have successfully demonstrated our ability to control the reaction pathway of the chemical system stilbene. An acousto-optical modulator based pulse shaper was used at 266 nm, in a shaped pump/supercontinuum probe technique, to enhance and suppress th relative yields of the cis- to trans-stilbene isomerization. The quantum control techniques tested in the stilbene experiments are currently being used to investigate QCI of the explosive hexanitroazobenzene (HNAB).

  11. Coherent control in simple quantum systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prants, Sergey V.

    1995-01-01

    Coherent dynamics of two, three, and four-level quantum systems, simultaneously driven by concurrent laser pulses of arbitrary and different forms, is treated by using a nonperturbative, group-theoretical approach. The respective evolution matrices are calculated in an explicit form. General aspects of controllability of few-level atoms by using laser fields are treated analytically.

  12. Coherent control in hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Chao; Sukharev, Maxim; Malinovskaya, Svetlana

    2013-05-01

    A quickly growing field of hybrid materials is emerging on the base of latest advancements in nanoplasmonic science. Here one merges plasmonics with atomic and molecular physics considering systems comprised of quantum emitters and metal nano-structures. Such systems exhibit a wide variety of new phenomena. It has long been realized that quantum control could be successfully applied to optically active nano-systems. In this paper we explore the ideas of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) applied to ensembles of atoms optically coupled to plasmonic systems. We demonstrate the implementation of STIRAP as a tool to control scattering, reflection, and transmission properties of hybrid systems. As an example we consider a core-shell silver nanowire with resonantly coupled layer of three-level atoms. A self-consistent model of Maxwell-Liouville-von Neumann equations is implemented that allows taking into account the collective effects between atoms. We show that both linear and nonlinear optical properties of atomic ensembles may be controlled by coupling to plasmonic nano-structures. The work is partially supported by NSF.

  13. Optical pulse shaping approaches to coherent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Debabrata

    2003-02-01

    The last part of the twentieth century has experienced a huge resurge of activity in the field of coherent light-matter interaction, more so in attempting to exert control over such interactions. Birth of coherent control was originally spurred by the theoretical understanding of the quantum interferences that lead to energy randomization and experimental developments in ultrafast laser spectroscopy. The theoretical predictions on control of reaction channels or energy randomization processes are still more dramatic than the experimental demonstrations, though this gap between the two is consistently reducing over the recent years with realistic theoretical models and technological developments. Experimental demonstrations of arbitrary optical pulse shaping have made some of the previously impracticable theoretical predictions possible to implement. Starting with the simple laser modulation schemes to provide proof-of-the-principle demonstrations, feedback loop pulse shaping systems have been developed that can actively manipulate some atomic and molecular processes. This tremendous experimental boost of optical pulse shaping developments has prospects and implications into many more new directions, such as quantum computing and terabit/sec data communications. This review captures certain aspects and impacts of optical pulse shaping into the fast developing areas of coherent control and other related fields. Currently available reviews focus on one or the other detailed aspects of coherent control, and the reader will be referred to such details as and when necessary for issues that are dealt in brief here. We will focus on the current issues including control of intramolecular dynamics and make connections to the future concepts, such as, quantum computation, biomedical applications, etc.

  14. Coherent control of photoionization of atomic barium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Rekishu

    We present the results of our study on coherent control of photoionization of atomic barium. Our study focused on the understanding of the controllability, especially due to the effect of the coherent interaction between the atomic system and the laser field. The first half of the study investigates the mechanisms of the control behind the previously observed laser phase-insensitive product state control. The controllability of this excitation scheme, two-color two-photon resonantly enhanced excitation, was analyzed from two aspects, the role of ac Stark shift introduced by the strong laser field and the multi-pathway quantum mechanical interferences. We have analyzed the excitation scheme from the analysis of the photoelectron angular distribution measured using the excitation scheme and the monitoring of the intermediate state population. Analysis of the data as well as the numerical simulation showed clear understanding of the role of two mechanisms in the product state control reported. We also investigated the control of the phase lag during the product state control. We conducted the control of the phase lag in the study of asymmetric photoelectron angular distribution, which arises from the concurrent even-odd parity outgoing electron wave excitation. The phase lag was controlled in full range, 2pi, and the results were analyzed in terms of the role of autoionizing resonance structures as well as the nature of outgoing electron waves at different locations of the autoionizing resonances.

  15. Generation of stochastic electromagnetic beams with complete controllable coherence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xudong; Chang, Chengcheng; Chen, Ziyang; Lin, Zhili; Pu, Jixiong

    2016-09-19

    We generate a stochastic electromagnetic beam (SEB) with complete controllable coherence, that is, the coherence degree can be controlled independently along two mutually perpendicular directions. We control the coherence of the SEB by adjusting the phase modulation magnitude applied onto two crossed phase only spatial light modulators. We measure the beam's coherence properties using Young's interference experiment, as well as the beam propagation factor. It is shown that the experimental results are consistent with our theoretical predictions. PMID:27661897

  16. Coherence in Rydberg Atoms: Measurement and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutteruf, Mary

    We demonstrate a variety of techniques for measuring and controlling dephasing and decoherence in alkali metal Rydberg atom systems. Specifically, we investigate the coherence of the spin-orbit interaction in individual atoms and of dipole-dipole resonant energy exchange between pairs of atoms. Rydberg atoms are a good model system for exploring decoherence because they are sensitive to noise in their environments. The phase coherence of wave packets encoded on the fine-structure Rydberg states of lithium atoms is measured using a population echo and preserved using pulsed and continuous dynamic decoupling techniques. Pulsed electric fields toggle the spin-orbit coupling, repeatedly flipping the state vector, and preventing the slow acquisition of phase noise in a bang-bang scheme. Continuous dynamic decoupling is implemented by driving population between the relevant electronic states with a resonant rf field. The energy spacing between the levels is locked to the rf frequency as long as the Rabi rate is much greater than the dephasing rate. We demonstrate a technique which reduces the average relative velocity between interacting potassium Rydberg atoms, extending the atom transit time and allowing us to control when all resonant energy exchange interactions in the ensemble begin and end. Velocity reduction is achieved without the use of a chopper wheel by exciting a small cylinder of atoms and allowing them to thermally expand prior to tuning them into resonance. Resonant energy transfer is explored further in a nearly frozen rubidium Rydberg gas. We observe enhancement in the transition signal when the probability amplitudes acquired on opposite sides of the resonance interfere constructively compared to the population transferred when remaining on either side of the resonance. This enhancement reflects the coherence of the energy exchange interaction and decays over 10 us microseconds. The observed coherence time is much longer than previously measured

  17. Coherent atomic soliton molecules for matter-wave switching

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Chenyun; Berloff, Natalia G.; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Novoa, David; Carpentier, Alicia V.; Michinel, Humberto

    2011-05-15

    We discuss the dynamics of interacting dark-bright two-dimensional vector solitons in multicomponent immiscible bulk Bose-Einstein condensates. We describe matter-wave molecules without a scalar counterpart that can be seen as bound states of vector objects. We also analyze the possibility of using these structures as building blocks for the design of matter-wave switchers.

  18. Decoherence Control by Tracking a Hamiltonian Reference Molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Gil; Ratner, Mark A.; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2007-05-18

    A molecular system in contact with a bath undergoes strong decoherence processes. We examine a control scheme to minimize dissipation, while maximally retaining coherent evolution, by relating the evolution of the molecule to that of an identical freely propagating system. We seek a driving field that maximizes the projection of the open molecular system onto the freely propagated one. The evolution in time of a molecular system consisting of two nonadiabatically coupled electronic states interacting with a bath is followed. The driving control field that overcomes the decoherence is calculated. A proposition to implement the scheme in the laboratory using feedback control is suggested.

  19. Certifying the quantumness of a generalized coherent control scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Scholak, Torsten Brumer, Paul

    2014-11-28

    We consider the role of quantum mechanics in a specific coherent control scenario, designing a “coherent control interferometer” as the essential tool that links coherent control to quantum fundamentals. Building upon this allows us to rigorously display the genuinely quantum nature of a generalized weak-field coherent control scenario (utilizing 1 vs. 2 photon excitation) via a Bell-CHSH test. Specifically, we propose an implementation of “quantum delayed-choice” in a bichromatic alkali atom photoionization experiment. The experimenter can choose between two complementary situations, which are characterized by a random photoelectron spin polarization with particle-like behavior on the one hand, and by spin controllability and wave-like nature on the other. Because these two choices are conditioned coherently on states of the driving fields, it becomes physically unknowable, prior to measurement, whether there is control over the spin or not.

  20. Ultrafast X-Ray Coherent Control

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, David

    2009-05-01

    This main purpose of this grant was to develop the nascent eld of ultrafast x-ray science using accelerator-based sources, and originally developed from an idea that a laser could modulate the di racting properties of a x-ray di racting crystal on a fast enough time scale to switch out in time a shorter slice from the already short x-ray pulses from a synchrotron. The research was carried out primarily at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) sector 7 at Argonne National Laboratory and the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at SLAC; in anticipation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser that became operational in 2009 at SLAC (all National User Facilities operated by BES). The research centered on the generation, control and measurement of atomic-scale dynamics in atomic, molecular optical and condensed matter systems with temporal and spatial resolution . It helped develop the ultrafast physics, techniques and scienti c case for using the unprecedented characteristics of the LCLS. The project has been very successful with results have been disseminated widely and in top journals, have been well cited in the eld, and have laid the foundation for many experiments being performed on the LCLS, the world's rst hard x-ray free electron laser.

  1. Spin-boson theory for charge photogeneration in organic molecules: Role of quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao

    2015-01-01

    The charge photogeneration process in organic molecules is investigated by a quantum heat engine model, in which two molecules are modeled by a two-spin system sandwiched between two bosonic baths. The two baths represent the high-temperature photon emission source and the low-temperature phonon environment, respectively. We utilize the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group algorithm to investigate the quantum dynamics of the model. It is found that the transient energy current flowing through the two molecules exhibits two stages. In the first stage the energy current is of a coherent feature and represents the ultrafast delocalization of the charge-transfer state, and in the second stage a steady incoherent current is established. The power conversion efficiency is significantly high and may reach the maximum value of 93 % with optimized model parameters. The long-lived quantum entanglement between the two spins is found to be primarily responsible for the hyperefficiency.

  2. Coherent Control of the Optical Absorption in a Plasmonic Lattice Coupled to a Luminescent Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirruccio, Giuseppe; Ramezani, Mohammad; Rodriguez, Said Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh; Rivas, Jaime Gómez

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the coherent control, i.e., phase-dependent enhancement and suppression, of the optical absorption in an array of metallic nanoantennas covered by a thin luminescent layer. The coherent control is achieved by using two collinear, counterpropagating, and phase-controlled incident waves with wavelength matching the absorption spectrum of dye molecules coupled to the array. Symmetry arguments shed light on the relation between the relative phase of the incident waves and the excitation efficiency of the optical resonances of the system. This coherent control is associated with a phase-dependent distribution of the electromagnetic near fields in the structure which enables a significant reduction of the unwanted dissipation in the metallic structures.

  3. Coherent Control of the Optical Absorption in a Plasmonic Lattice Coupled to a Luminescent Layer.

    PubMed

    Pirruccio, Giuseppe; Ramezani, Mohammad; Rodriguez, Said Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh; Rivas, Jaime Gómez

    2016-03-11

    We experimentally demonstrate the coherent control, i.e., phase-dependent enhancement and suppression, of the optical absorption in an array of metallic nanoantennas covered by a thin luminescent layer. The coherent control is achieved by using two collinear, counterpropagating, and phase-controlled incident waves with wavelength matching the absorption spectrum of dye molecules coupled to the array. Symmetry arguments shed light on the relation between the relative phase of the incident waves and the excitation efficiency of the optical resonances of the system. This coherent control is associated with a phase-dependent distribution of the electromagnetic near fields in the structure which enables a significant reduction of the unwanted dissipation in the metallic structures. PMID:27015478

  4. Coherence in the presence of absorption and heating in a molecule interferometer.

    PubMed

    Cotter, J P; Eibenberger, S; Mairhofer, L; Cheng, X; Asenbaum, P; Arndt, M; Walter, K; Nimmrichter, S; Hornberger, K

    2015-06-11

    Matter-wave interferometry can be used to probe the foundations of physics and to enable precise measurements of particle properties and fundamental constants. It relies on beam splitters that coherently divide the wave function. In atom interferometers, such elements are often realised using lasers by exploiting the dipole interaction or through photon absorption. It is intriguing to extend these ideas to complex molecules where the energy of an absorbed photon can rapidly be redistributed across many internal degrees of freedom. Here, we provide evidence that center-of-mass coherence can be maintained even when the internal energy and entropy of the interfering particle are substantially increased by absorption of photons from a standing light wave. Each photon correlates the molecular center-of-mass wave function with its internal temperature and splits it into a superposition with opposite momenta in addition to the beam-splitting action of the optical dipole potential.

  5. Coherence in the presence of absorption and heating in a molecule interferometer

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, J. P.; Eibenberger, S.; Mairhofer, L.; Cheng, X.; Asenbaum, P.; Arndt, M.; Walter, K.; Nimmrichter, S.; Hornberger, K.

    2015-01-01

    Matter-wave interferometry can be used to probe the foundations of physics and to enable precise measurements of particle properties and fundamental constants. It relies on beam splitters that coherently divide the wave function. In atom interferometers, such elements are often realised using lasers by exploiting the dipole interaction or through photon absorption. It is intriguing to extend these ideas to complex molecules where the energy of an absorbed photon can rapidly be redistributed across many internal degrees of freedom. Here, we provide evidence that center-of-mass coherence can be maintained even when the internal energy and entropy of the interfering particle are substantially increased by absorption of photons from a standing light wave. Each photon correlates the molecular center-of-mass wave function with its internal temperature and splits it into a superposition with opposite momenta in addition to the beam-splitting action of the optical dipole potential. PMID:26066053

  6. Electron dynamics and its control in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2014-03-01

    The accessibility of few femtosecond or even attoseconds pulses opens the door to direct observation of electron dynamics. The idea to steer chemical reactions by localization of electronic wavepackets is intriguing, since electrons are directly involved in bond breaking and formation. The formation of a localized electronic wavepacket requires the superposition of two or more appropriate electronic states. Its guidance is only possible within the coherence time of the system and has to be synchronized with the vibrational molecular motions. In theoretical studies we elucidate the role of electron wavepacket motion for the control of molecular processes. We give three examples with direct connection to experiments. From our analysis, we extract the systems requirements defining the time window for intramolecular electronic coherence, the basis for efficient control. Based on these findings we map out a photoreaction that allows direct control by guiding electronic wavepackets. The carrier envelope of a femtosecond few cycle IR pulse is the control parameter that steers the photoreaction through a conical intersection.

  7. Coherent Control of Multiphoton Transitions in the Gas and Condensed Phases with Shaped Ultrashort Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Marcos Dantus

    2008-09-23

    Controlling laser-molecule interactions has become an integral part of developing devices and applications in spectroscopy, microscopy, optical switching, micromachining and photochemistry. Coherent control of multiphoton transitions could bring a significant improvement of these methods. In microscopy, multi-photon transitions are used to activate different contrast agents and suppress background fluorescence; coherent control could generate selective probe excitation. In photochemistry, different dissociative states are accessed through two, three, or more photon transitions; coherent control could be used to select the reaction pathway and therefore the yield-specific products. For micromachining and processing a wide variety of materials, femtosecond lasers are now used routinely. Understanding the interactions between the intense femtosecond pulse and the material could lead to technologically important advances. Pulse shaping could then be used to optimize the desired outcome. The scope of our research program is to develop robust and efficient strategies to control nonlinear laser-matter interactions using ultrashort shaped pulses in gas and condensed phases. Our systematic research has led to significant developments in a number of areas relevant to the AMO Physics group at DOE, among them: generation of ultrashort phase shaped pulses, coherent control and manipulation of quantum mechanical states in gas and condensed phases, behavior of isolated molecules under intense laser fields, behavior of condensed phase matter under intense laser field and implications on micromachining with ultrashort pulses, coherent control of nanoparticles their surface plasmon waves and their nonlinear optical behavior, and observation of coherent Coulomb explosion processes at 10^16 W/cm^2. In all, the research has resulted in 36 publications (five journal covers) and nine invention disclosures, five of which have continued on to patenting

  8. Coherent control of quantum systems as a resource theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matera, J. M.; Egloff, D.; Killoran, N.; Plenio, M. B.

    2016-08-01

    Control at the interface between the classical and the quantum world is fundamental in quantum physics. In particular, how classical control is enhanced by coherence effects is an important question both from a theoretical as well as from a technological point of view. In this work, we establish a resource theory describing this setting and explore relations to the theory of coherence, entanglement and information processing. Specifically, for the coherent control of quantum systems, the relevant resources of entanglement and coherence are found to be equivalent and closely related to a measure of discord. The results are then applied to the DQC1 protocol and the precision of the final measurement is expressed in terms of the available resources.

  9. Coherent Control of Collective Atomic Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trail, Collin M.

    2011-12-01

    In this thesis I explore the use of collective spin angular momentum as a platform for quantum information processing. In the limit of a large number of atoms, the collective variables of atomic systems have a natural connection to the bosonic algebra of light (known as the Holstein-Primakoff or HP approximation) where components of the collective spin angular momentum effectively act as quadratures, making them natural systems for coupling to light. I have sought to improve previous schemes for the spin squeezing of atomic ensembles, such as the proposal of Takeuchi et. al. based on coherent quantum feedback [39]. In this scheme a beam of linearly polarized light passes through the atomic ensemble (prepared in a coherent state), coupling to the atoms through a state-dependent index of refraction (the Faraday effect). The light is then passed through a wave-plate and reflected back through the atoms for a second pass. This double-pass scheme leads to an effective nonlinearity as the atomic fluctuations are mapped onto the light on the first pass and then back on to the atoms in the second pass. The light acts as a bus coupling each atom to each of the others. This nonlinear interaction forms a shearing of the atomic coherent state that results in squeezing. The light is entangled to the atoms through these interactions, and remains entangled as it escapes the system. This leads to decoherence of the atoms as the light is lost to the environment, reducing the amount of spin squeezing achieved. The first step towards improving the double-pass scheme was to add a quantum eraser step in which the light is disentangled from the squeezed atoms. By first measuring one quadrature of the light, and then performing a measurement-dependent rotation on the atomic ensemble, it is possible to decouple the atoms and light so that the loss of the light does not reduce the atomic squeezing. This results in an improvement of the rate of atomic spin squeezing. A complete model

  10. Stimulus control topography coherence theory: foundations and extensions.

    PubMed

    McIlvane, William J; Dube, William V

    2003-01-01

    Stimulus control topography refers to qualitative differences among members of a functional stimulus class. Stimulus control topography coherence refers to the degree of concordance between the stimulus properties specified as relevant by the individual arranging a reinforcement contingency (behavior analyst, experimenter, teacher, etc.) and the stimulus properties that come to control the behavior of the organism (experimental subject, student, etc.) that experiences those contingencies. This paper summarizes the rationale for analyses of discrimination learning outcomes in terms of stimulus control topography coherence and briefly reviews some of the foundational studies that led to this perspective. We also suggest directions for future research, including pursuit of conceptual and methodological challenges to a complete stimulus control topography coherence analysis of processes involved in discriminated and generalized operants.

  11. Turbulence management in free shear flows by control of coherent structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husain, Hyder S.; Bridges, James E.; Hussain, Fazle

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of controlling turbulence by manipulating coherent structures is discussed. The processes of the generation, evolution, and interaction of coherent structures are described together with measurements necessary to analyze such coherent-structure properties as coherent vorticity, incoherent turbulence intensities, coherent and incoherent Reynolds stresses, and coherent turbulence production. Experimental findings are presented, in which the modified coherent structures were shown to result in favorable effects on the turbulence field.

  12. Quantum-field coherent control: Preparation of broken-symmetry entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Kral, Petr; Thanopulos, Ioannis; Shapiro, Moshe

    2005-08-15

    We show that entangled radiation-matter states with broken symmetries can be prepared by using nonclassical light in the coherent control techniques. We demonstrate the method by realizing the entanglement in degenerate continuum electronic momentum states of opposite directionality and discrete states of opposite handedness in chiral molecules. When the material system is excited simultaneously by classical light and quantum light in a state with several semiclassical phases, the interference conditions guide the system to such entangled radiation-matter states.

  13. Investigation of Atom-Molecule Coherence in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodby, Eleanor; Thompson, Sarah; Claussen, Neil; Wieman, Carl

    2003-05-01

    Recent experiments with a Rb-85 BEC have demonstrated a remarkable quantum superposition between two distinct chemical species: free atoms and weakly bound molecules [1]. We present further investigations of the coherent atom-molecule oscillations observed in this unique system. The oscillations are excited by two rapid magnetic field pulses close to a Feshbach resonance. The frequencies and damping rates of the oscillations have been measured as a function of the magnetic field between the pulses. The frequency measurements provide the most precise determination of the position and width of the Feshbach resonance to date [2]. The damping rate is consistent with a dephasing of the atom-molecule oscillation across the condensate caused by the magnetic field gradient of the trapping potential. Close to the Feshbach resonance we have observed evidence for a second, density-dependent damping process. [1] E.A. Donley et al., Nature 417, 529 (2001); [2] N.R. Claussen et al., (submitted) We acknowledge valuable contributions to this work from E.A.Donley and S.Kokkelmans, and funding from ONR, NSF, Lindemann Trust (EH) and an ARO-MURI fellowship (ST).

  14. Theory of perturbative pulse train based coherent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinev, Timur; Brumer, Paul

    2014-03-01

    A theoretical description of coherent control of excited state dynamics using pulse trains in the perturbative regime, as carried out in recent experiments, is presented. Analytical expressions relating the excited state populations to the pulse train control parameters are derived. Numerical examples are provided for models of pyrazine and β-carotene, and the significant role of overlapping resonances is exposed.

  15. Coherent adiabatic theory of two-electron quantum dot molecules in external spin baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepstad, R.; Sælen, L.; Hansen, J. P.

    2008-03-01

    We derive an accurate molecular orbital based expression for the coherent time evolution of a two-electron wave function in a quantum dot molecule where the electrons interact with each other, with external time-dependent electromagnetic fields and with a surrounding nuclear spin reservoir. The theory allows for direct numerical modeling of the decoherence in quantum dots due to hyperfine interactions. Calculations result in good agreement with recent singlet-triplet dephasing experiments by Laird [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 056801 (2006)], as well as analytical model calculations. Furthermore, it is shown that using a much faster electric switch than applied in these experiments will transfer the initial state to excited states where the hyperfine singlet-triplet mixing is negligible.

  16. Broadband standoff detection of large molecules by mid-infrared active coherent laser spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Neil A; Molero, Francisco; Weidmann, Damien

    2015-01-26

    A widely tunable active coherent laser spectrometer (ACLaS) has been demonstrated for standoff detection of broadband absorbers in the 1280 to 1318 cm-1 spectral region using an external cavity quantum cascade laser as a mid-infrared source. The broad tuning range allows detection and quantification of vapor phase molecules, such as dichloroethane, ethylene glycol dinitrate, and tetrafluoroethane. The level of confidence in molecular mixing ratios retrieved from interfering spectral measurements is assessed in a quantitative manner. A first qualitative demonstration of condensed phase chemical detection on nitroacetanilide has also been conducted. Detection performances of the broadband ACLaS have been placed in the context of explosive detection and compared to that obtained using distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers.

  17. Frequency domain Fourier transform THz-EPR on single molecule magnets using coherent synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Schnegg, Alexander; Behrends, Jan; Lips, Klaus; Bittl, Robert; Holldack, Karsten

    2009-08-21

    Frequency domain Fourier transform THz electron paramagnetic resonance (FD-FT THz-EPR) based on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is presented as a novel tool to ascertain very large zero field splittings in transition metal ion complexes. A description of the FD-FT THz-EPR at the BESSY II storage ring providing CSR in a frequency range from 5 cm(-1) up to 40 cm(-1) at external magnetic fields from -10 T to +10 T is given together with first measurements on the single molecule magnet Mn(12)Ac where we studied DeltaM(S) = +/-1 spin transition energies as a function of the external magnetic field and temperature.

  18. Coherent control of optical polarization effects in metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyedmohammad A; Plum, Eric; Shi, Jinhui; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    Processing of photonic information usually relies on electronics. Aiming to avoid the conversion between photonic and electronic signals, modulation of light with light based on optical nonlinearity has become a major research field and coherent optical effects on the nanoscale are emerging as new means of handling and distributing signals. Here we demonstrate that in slabs of linear material of sub-wavelength thickness optical manifestations of birefringence and optical activity (linear and circular birefringence and dichroism) can be controlled by a wave coherent with the wave probing the polarization effect. We demonstrate this in proof-of-principle experiments for chiral and anisotropic microwave metamaterials, where we show that the large parameter space of polarization characteristics may be accessed at will by coherent control. Such control can be exerted at arbitrarily low intensities, thus arguably allowing for fast handling of electromagnetic signals without facing thermal management and energy challenges. PMID:25755071

  19. Sequential and coherent, optical and x-ray two-photon processes in atoms and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Jeffrey Dean

    1997-09-01

    Vibronic and rovibronic implementations of conventional semiclassical theories, employing a phenomenological lineshape and descriptive of the absorption of a single photon by isolated chemical particles, are used to account for the absolute magnitude of the highly structured, broadband optical absorption, emission, radiation transfer, and refractive index of high- temperature (T ≈ 2000K), rare-gas-buffered, and locally equilibrated atomic and diatomic metal vapors (Li, Na, Al, and Li/Al). The polarized, resonant, inelastic scattering of x-rays (hν /approx 2.5 keV) from the K-edges of unoriented, chlorine- and sulfur- containing molecular gases (CH3Cl, H2S, and Cl2) is also modeled by means of the fully quantum- mechanical, time-independent Kramers-Heisenberg formalism applied in electronic and vibronic resolution. This accounts for the energy, polarization, and direction dependence of the anisotropic signal, concretely treats the demise of core-excited states by Auger-electron emission within the Feshbach-Fano theory of resonance- continuum mixing, and is in general valid for resonant, nonresonant, inelastic, and 'distinguishable' elastic scattering. Unusual, coherent interference phenomena within and between vibronic and electronic channels and related novel, otherwise-forbidden nondipole features expected to arise in molecules with equivalent atomic centers and recently observed in the chlorine molecule are explored along with their implications for common conceptions of 'localized, equivalent core-hole excited states.' Transition coherence, especially as manifested within the quantum-mechanical treatment of the spectral lineshape, is shown to provide the key to unifying the present single-step interpretation of two-photon x-ray scattering with that involving a pair of successive absorption and emission transitions generally regarded as two independent single-photon processes of the type described in the first portion of the work.

  20. Coherent electron emission beyond Young-type interference from diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agueny, H.; Makhoute, A.; Dubois, A.; Hansen, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    It has been known for more than 15 years that the differential cross section of electrons emitted from diatomic molecules during interaction with energetic charged particles oscillates as a function of electron momentum. The origin of the phenomenon is two-center interference, which naturally relates it back to the Young double-slit experiment. In addition to a characteristic frequency which can be described by lowest-order perturbation theories, the observation and origin of higher-order harmonics of the basic oscillation frequency has been much discussed. Here, we show that high harmonics of the fundamental Young-type oscillation frequency observed in electron spectra in fast ion-molecule collisions can be clearly exposed in numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation within a one-dimensional model. Momentum distribution of the ejected electron is analyzed and shows that the phenomenon emerges when the charged particle beam collides with diatomic molecules with substantial large internuclear distance. Frequency spectra from nonperturbative calculations for electron emission from Rb2+ and Cs2+ exhibit a pronounced high-order oscillation in contrast to similar close-coupling calculations performed on H2 targets. The electron emission from these heavy molecules contains second- and third-order harmonics which are fully reproduced in an analytic model based on the Born series. Extending to triatomic molecular targets displays an increased range of harmonics. This suggests that electron emission spectra from new experiments on heavy diatomic and linear polyatomic molecular targets may provide a unique insight into competing coherent emission mechanisms and their relative strength.

  1. Coherent control using kinetic energy and the geometric phase of a conical intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liekhus-Schmaltz, Chelsea; McCracken, Gregory A.; Kaldun, Andreas; Cryan, James P.; Bucksbaum, Philip H.

    2016-10-01

    Conical intersections (CIs) between molecular potential energy surfaces with non-vanishing non-adiabatic couplings generally occur in any molecule consisting of at least three atoms. They play a fundamental role in describing the molecular dynamics beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and have been used to understand a large variety of effects, from photofragmentation and isomerization to more exotic applications such as exciton fission in semiconductors. However, few studies have used the features of a CI as a tool for coherent control. Here we demonstrate two modes of control around a conical intersection. The first uses a continuous light field to control the population on the two intersecting electronic states in the vicinity of a CI. The second uses a pulsed light field to control wavepackets that are subjected to the geometric phase shift in transit around a CI. This second technique is likely to be useful for studying the role of nuclear dynamics in electronic coherence phenomena.

  2. Injectable controlled release depots for large molecules

    PubMed Central

    Schwendeman, Steven P.; Shah, Ronak B.; Bailey, Brittany A.; Schwendeman, Anna S.

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable, injectable depot formulations for long-term controlled drug release have improved therapy for a number of drug molecules and led to over a dozen highly successful pharmaceutical products. Until now, success has been limited to several small molecules and peptides, although remarkable improvements have been accomplished in some of these cases. For example, twice-a-year depot injections with leuprolide are available compared to the once-a-day injection of the solution dosage form. Injectable depots are typically prepared by encapsulation of the drug in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), a polymer that is used in children every day as a resorbable suture material, and therefore, highly biocompatible. PLGAs remain today as one of the few “real world” biodegradable synthetic biomaterials used in US FDA-approved parenteral long-acting-release (LAR) products. Despite their success, there remain critical barriers to the more widespread use of PLGA LAR products, particularly for delivery of more peptides and other large molecular drugs, namely proteins. In this review, we describe key concepts in the development of injectable PLGA controlled-release depots for peptides and proteins, and then use this information to identify key issues impeding greater widespread use of PLGA depots for this class of drugs. Finally, we examine important approaches, particularly those developed in our research laboratory, toward overcoming these barriers to advance commercial LAR development. PMID:24929039

  3. Non-Markovian response of ultrafast coherent electronic ring currents in chiral aromatic molecules in a condensed phase

    SciTech Connect

    Mineo, H.; Lin, S. H.; Fujimura, Y.; Xu, J.; Xu, R. X.; Yan, Y. J.

    2013-12-07

    Results of a theoretical study on non-Markov response for femtosecond laser-driven coherent ring currents in chiral aromatic molecules embedded in a condensed phase are presented. Coherent ring currents are generated by coherent excitation of a pair of quasi-degenerated π-electronic excited states. The coherent electronic dynamical behaviors are strongly influenced by interactions between the electronic system and phonon bath in a condensed phase. Here, the bath correlation time is not instantaneous but should be taken to be a finite time in ultrashort time-resolved experiments. In such a case, Markov approximation breaks down. A hierarchical master equation approach for an improved semiclassical Drude dissipation model was adopted to examine the non-Markov effects on ultrafast coherent electronic ring currents of (P)-2,2{sup ′}-biphenol in a condensed phase. Time evolution of the coherent ring current derived in the hierarchical master equation approach was calculated and compared with those in the Drude model in the Markov approximation and in the static limit. The results show how non-Markovian behaviors in quantum beat signals of ring currents depend on the Drude bath damping constant. Effects of temperatures on ultrafast coherent electronic ring currents are also clarified.

  4. Non-Markovian response of ultrafast coherent electronic ring currents in chiral aromatic molecules in a condensed phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineo, H.; Lin, S. H.; Fujimura, Y.; Xu, J.; Xu, R. X.; Yan, Y. J.

    2013-12-01

    Results of a theoretical study on non-Markov response for femtosecond laser-driven coherent ring currents in chiral aromatic molecules embedded in a condensed phase are presented. Coherent ring currents are generated by coherent excitation of a pair of quasi-degenerated π-electronic excited states. The coherent electronic dynamical behaviors are strongly influenced by interactions between the electronic system and phonon bath in a condensed phase. Here, the bath correlation time is not instantaneous but should be taken to be a finite time in ultrashort time-resolved experiments. In such a case, Markov approximation breaks down. A hierarchical master equation approach for an improved semiclassical Drude dissipation model was adopted to examine the non-Markov effects on ultrafast coherent electronic ring currents of (P)-2,2'-biphenol in a condensed phase. Time evolution of the coherent ring current derived in the hierarchical master equation approach was calculated and compared with those in the Drude model in the Markov approximation and in the static limit. The results show how non-Markovian behaviors in quantum beat signals of ring currents depend on the Drude bath damping constant. Effects of temperatures on ultrafast coherent electronic ring currents are also clarified.

  5. Coherence times of precise depth controlled NV centers in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Zhang, Wenlong; Zhang, Jian; You, Jie; Li, Yan; Guo, Guoping; Feng, Fupan; Song, Xuerui; Lou, Liren; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Guanzhong

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the depth dependence of coherence times of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers through precise depth control using oxidative etching at 580 °C in air. By successive nanoscale etching, NV centers could be brought close to the diamond surface step by step, which enabled us to track the evolution of the number of NV centers remaining in the chip and to study the depth dependence of coherence times of NV centers with diamond etching. Our results showed that the coherence times of NV centers declined rapidly with the depth reduction in the last about 22 nm before they finally disappeared, which revealed a critical depth for the influence of a rapid fluctuating surface spin bath. Moreover, by using the slow etching method combined with low-energy nitrogen implantation, NV centers with depths shallower than the initially implanted depths can be generated, which are preferred for detecting external spins with higher sensitivity.

  6. Coherent feedback control of a single qubit in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Masashi; Cappellaro, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Engineering desired operations on qubits subjected to the deleterious effects of their environment is a critical task in quantum information processing, quantum simulation and sensing. The most common approach relies on open-loop quantum control techniques, including optimal-control algorithms based on analytical or numerical solutions, Lyapunov design and Hamiltonian engineering. An alternative strategy, inspired by the success of classical control, is feedback control. Because of the complications introduced by quantum measurement, closed-loop control is less pervasive in the quantum setting and, with exceptions, its experimental implementations have been mainly limited to quantum optics experiments. Here we implement a feedback-control algorithm using a solid-state spin qubit system associated with the nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond, using coherent feedback to overcome the limitations of measurement-based feedback, and show that it can protect the qubit against intrinsic dephasing noise for milliseconds. In coherent feedback, the quantum system is connected to an auxiliary quantum controller (ancilla) that acquires information about the output state of the system (by an entangling operation) and performs an appropriate feedback action (by a conditional gate). In contrast to open-loop dynamical decoupling techniques, feedback control can protect the qubit even against Markovian noise and for an arbitrary period of time (limited only by the coherence time of the ancilla), while allowing gate operations. It is thus more closely related to quantum error-correction schemes, although these require larger and increasing qubit overheads. Increasing the number of fresh ancillas enables protection beyond their coherence time. We further evaluate the robustness of the feedback protocol, which could be applied to quantum computation and sensing, by exploring a trade-off between information gain and decoherence protection, as measurement of the ancilla-qubit correlation

  7. Coherent feedback control of a single qubit in diamond.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masashi; Cappellaro, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Engineering desired operations on qubits subjected to the deleterious effects of their environment is a critical task in quantum information processing, quantum simulation and sensing. The most common approach relies on open-loop quantum control techniques, including optimal-control algorithms based on analytical or numerical solutions, Lyapunov design and Hamiltonian engineering. An alternative strategy, inspired by the success of classical control, is feedback control. Because of the complications introduced by quantum measurement, closed-loop control is less pervasive in the quantum setting and, with exceptions, its experimental implementations have been mainly limited to quantum optics experiments. Here we implement a feedback-control algorithm using a solid-state spin qubit system associated with the nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond, using coherent feedback to overcome the limitations of measurement-based feedback, and show that it can protect the qubit against intrinsic dephasing noise for milliseconds. In coherent feedback, the quantum system is connected to an auxiliary quantum controller (ancilla) that acquires information about the output state of the system (by an entangling operation) and performs an appropriate feedback action (by a conditional gate). In contrast to open-loop dynamical decoupling techniques, feedback control can protect the qubit even against Markovian noise and for an arbitrary period of time (limited only by the coherence time of the ancilla), while allowing gate operations. It is thus more closely related to quantum error-correction schemes, although these require larger and increasing qubit overheads. Increasing the number of fresh ancillas enables protection beyond their coherence time. We further evaluate the robustness of the feedback protocol, which could be applied to quantum computation and sensing, by exploring a trade-off between information gain and decoherence protection, as measurement of the ancilla-qubit correlation

  8. Photodissociation of ultracold diatomic strontium molecules with quantum state control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, M.; McGuyer, B. H.; Apfelbeck, F.; Lee, C.-H.; Majewska, I.; Moszynski, R.; Zelevinsky, T.

    2016-07-01

    Chemical reactions at ultracold temperatures are expected to be dominated by quantum mechanical effects. Although progress towards ultracold chemistry has been made through atomic photoassociation, Feshbach resonances and bimolecular collisions, these approaches have been limited by imperfect quantum state selectivity. In particular, attaining complete control of the ground or excited continuum quantum states has remained a challenge. Here we achieve this control using photodissociation, an approach that encodes a wealth of information in the angular distribution of outgoing fragments. By photodissociating ultracold 88Sr2 molecules with full control of the low-energy continuum, we access the quantum regime of ultracold chemistry, observing resonant and nonresonant barrier tunnelling, matter–wave interference of reaction products and forbidden reaction pathways. Our results illustrate the failure of the traditional quasiclassical model of photodissociation and instead are accurately described by a quantum mechanical model. The experimental ability to produce well-defined quantum continuum states at low energies will enable high-precision studies of long-range molecular potentials for which accurate quantum chemistry models are unavailable, and may serve as a source of entangled states and coherent matter waves for a wide range of experiments in quantum optics.

  9. Photodissociation of ultracold diatomic strontium molecules with quantum state control.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M; McGuyer, B H; Apfelbeck, F; Lee, C-H; Majewska, I; Moszynski, R; Zelevinsky, T

    2016-07-01

    Chemical reactions at ultracold temperatures are expected to be dominated by quantum mechanical effects. Although progress towards ultracold chemistry has been made through atomic photoassociation, Feshbach resonances and bimolecular collisions, these approaches have been limited by imperfect quantum state selectivity. In particular, attaining complete control of the ground or excited continuum quantum states has remained a challenge. Here we achieve this control using photodissociation, an approach that encodes a wealth of information in the angular distribution of outgoing fragments. By photodissociating ultracold (88)Sr2 molecules with full control of the low-energy continuum, we access the quantum regime of ultracold chemistry, observing resonant and nonresonant barrier tunnelling, matter-wave interference of reaction products and forbidden reaction pathways. Our results illustrate the failure of the traditional quasiclassical model of photodissociation and instead are accurately described by a quantum mechanical model. The experimental ability to produce well-defined quantum continuum states at low energies will enable high-precision studies of long-range molecular potentials for which accurate quantum chemistry models are unavailable, and may serve as a source of entangled states and coherent matter waves for a wide range of experiments in quantum optics. PMID:27383945

  10. Photodissociation of ultracold diatomic strontium molecules with quantum state control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, M.; McGuyer, B. H.; Apfelbeck, F.; Lee, C.-H.; Majewska, I.; Moszynski, R.; Zelevinsky, T.

    2016-07-01

    Chemical reactions at ultracold temperatures are expected to be dominated by quantum mechanical effects. Although progress towards ultracold chemistry has been made through atomic photoassociation, Feshbach resonances and bimolecular collisions, these approaches have been limited by imperfect quantum state selectivity. In particular, attaining complete control of the ground or excited continuum quantum states has remained a challenge. Here we achieve this control using photodissociation, an approach that encodes a wealth of information in the angular distribution of outgoing fragments. By photodissociating ultracold 88Sr2 molecules with full control of the low-energy continuum, we access the quantum regime of ultracold chemistry, observing resonant and nonresonant barrier tunnelling, matter-wave interference of reaction products and forbidden reaction pathways. Our results illustrate the failure of the traditional quasiclassical model of photodissociation and instead are accurately described by a quantum mechanical model. The experimental ability to produce well-defined quantum continuum states at low energies will enable high-precision studies of long-range molecular potentials for which accurate quantum chemistry models are unavailable, and may serve as a source of entangled states and coherent matter waves for a wide range of experiments in quantum optics.

  11. Photodissociation of ultracold diatomic strontium molecules with quantum state control.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M; McGuyer, B H; Apfelbeck, F; Lee, C-H; Majewska, I; Moszynski, R; Zelevinsky, T

    2016-07-06

    Chemical reactions at ultracold temperatures are expected to be dominated by quantum mechanical effects. Although progress towards ultracold chemistry has been made through atomic photoassociation, Feshbach resonances and bimolecular collisions, these approaches have been limited by imperfect quantum state selectivity. In particular, attaining complete control of the ground or excited continuum quantum states has remained a challenge. Here we achieve this control using photodissociation, an approach that encodes a wealth of information in the angular distribution of outgoing fragments. By photodissociating ultracold (88)Sr2 molecules with full control of the low-energy continuum, we access the quantum regime of ultracold chemistry, observing resonant and nonresonant barrier tunnelling, matter-wave interference of reaction products and forbidden reaction pathways. Our results illustrate the failure of the traditional quasiclassical model of photodissociation and instead are accurately described by a quantum mechanical model. The experimental ability to produce well-defined quantum continuum states at low energies will enable high-precision studies of long-range molecular potentials for which accurate quantum chemistry models are unavailable, and may serve as a source of entangled states and coherent matter waves for a wide range of experiments in quantum optics.

  12. Nonlocal Nuclear Spin Quieting in Quantum Dot Molecules: Optically Induced Extended Two-Electron Spin Coherence Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Colin M.; Ross, Aaron M.; Kim, Danny; Gammon, Daniel; Bracker, Allan S.; Sham, L. J.; Steel, Duncan G.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the extension of coherence between all four two-electron spin ground states of an InAs quantum dot molecule (QDM) via nonlocal suppression of nuclear spin fluctuations in two vertically stacked quantum dots (QDs), while optically addressing only the top QD transitions. Long coherence times are revealed through dark-state spectroscopy as resulting from nuclear spin locking mediated by the exchange interaction between the QDs. Line shape analysis provides the first measurement of the quieting of the Overhauser field distribution correlating with reduced nuclear spin fluctuations.

  13. Nonlocal Nuclear Spin Quieting in Quantum Dot Molecules: Optically Induced Extended Two-Electron Spin Coherence Time.

    PubMed

    Chow, Colin M; Ross, Aaron M; Kim, Danny; Gammon, Daniel; Bracker, Allan S; Sham, L J; Steel, Duncan G

    2016-08-12

    We demonstrate the extension of coherence between all four two-electron spin ground states of an InAs quantum dot molecule (QDM) via nonlocal suppression of nuclear spin fluctuations in two vertically stacked quantum dots (QDs), while optically addressing only the top QD transitions. Long coherence times are revealed through dark-state spectroscopy as resulting from nuclear spin locking mediated by the exchange interaction between the QDs. Line shape analysis provides the first measurement of the quieting of the Overhauser field distribution correlating with reduced nuclear spin fluctuations. PMID:27563998

  14. Spontaneous Raman and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy of Infrared Multiphoton-Excited Molecules.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    This thesis is a study of infrared multiphoton excitation using spontaneous and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. The spontaneous Raman measurements provide information on the intramolecular vibrational energy distribution over the different modes. This information is complemented by the CARS measurements which make it possible to perform state-specific studies of the vibrational and rotational distribution. For SF_6, the time-resolved spontaneous Raman measurements show complete equilibrium of energy from the pump mode to other vibrational modes. In contrast, for smaller molecules such as CF_2 Cl_2, a nonthermal energy distribution is observed after excitation. These measurements therefore disprove the general belief that the intramolecular energy distribution in infrared multiphoton molecules is always in equilibrium. The CARS measurements on bulk OCS provide values for the anharmonicities and for the energy transfer rates between modes. In addition the spectra show a very fast relaxation of the vibrational energy within the nu_2 mode. For SO_2 , the CARS measurements show that it is the nu_1 symmetric stretching mode and not the overtone excitation of the nu_2 bending mode that is pumped by the CO_2 laser. Moreover, it is shown that the hot bands of SO_2 have been incorrectly assigned up to now. Corrected values for the anharmonicities are given. In the second half of the thesis, a pulsed supersonic molecular beam is added to the infrared multiphoton excitation study. Combined with the state-specific CARS technique, the collisionless and internally cooled molecules in the beam open the door to a more detailed study of the excitation process. Pure rotational CARS is used to study the change in rotational distribution of ethylene due to infrared excitation in the beam. The appearance of rotational holes reveal which rotational states are pumped by the CO _2 laser. For OCS the evolution of the overtone population into a thermal distribution is studied

  15. Quantum coherence and entanglement control for atom-cavity systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Wenchong

    Coherence and entanglement play a significant role in the quantum theory. Ideal quantum systems, "closed" to the outside world, remain quantum forever and thus manage to retain coherence and entanglement. Real quantum systems, however, are open to the environment and are therefore susceptible to the phenomenon of decoherence and disentanglement which are major hindrances to the effectiveness of quantum information processing tasks. In this thesis we have theoretically studied the evolution of coherence and entanglement in quantum systems coupled to various environments. We have also studied ways and means of controlling the decay of coherence and entanglement. We have studied the exact qubit entanglement dynamics of some interesting initial states coupled to a high-Q cavity containing zero photon, one photon, two photons and many photons respectively. We have found that an initially correlated environmental state can serve as an enhancer for entanglement decay or generation processes. More precisely, we have demonstrated that the degree of entanglement, including its collapse as well as its revival times, can be significantly modified by the correlated structure of the environmental modes. We have also studied dynamical decoupling (DD) technique --- a prominent strategy of controlling decoherence and preserving entanglement in open quantum systems. We have analyzed several DD control methods applied to qubit systems that can eliminate the system-environment coupling and prolong the quantum coherence time. Particularly, we have proposed a new DD sequence consisting a set of designed control operators that can universally protected an unknown qutrit state against colored phase and amplitude environment noises. In addition, in a non-Markovian regime, we have reformulated the quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to incorporate the effect of the external control fields. Without any assumptions on the system-environment coupling and the size of environment, we have

  16. Enhancing coherent transport in a photonic network using controllable decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggerstaff, Devon N.; Heilmann, René; Zecevik, Aidan A.; Gräfe, Markus; Broome, Matthew A.; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; White, Andrew G.; Kassal, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Transport phenomena on a quantum scale appear in a variety of systems, ranging from photosynthetic complexes to engineered quantum devices. It has been predicted that the efficiency of coherent transport can be enhanced through dynamic interaction between the system and a noisy environment. We report an experimental simulation of environment-assisted coherent transport, using an engineered network of laser-written waveguides, with relative energies and inter-waveguide couplings tailored to yield the desired Hamiltonian. Controllable-strength decoherence is simulated by broadening the bandwidth of the input illumination, yielding a significant increase in transport efficiency relative to the narrowband case. We show integrated optics to be suitable for simulating specific target Hamiltonians as well as open quantum systems with controllable loss and decoherence.

  17. Enhancing coherent transport in a photonic network using controllable decoherence.

    PubMed

    Biggerstaff, Devon N; Heilmann, René; Zecevik, Aidan A; Gräfe, Markus; Broome, Matthew A; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; White, Andrew G; Kassal, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Transport phenomena on a quantum scale appear in a variety of systems, ranging from photosynthetic complexes to engineered quantum devices. It has been predicted that the efficiency of coherent transport can be enhanced through dynamic interaction between the system and a noisy environment. We report an experimental simulation of environment-assisted coherent transport, using an engineered network of laser-written waveguides, with relative energies and inter-waveguide couplings tailored to yield the desired Hamiltonian. Controllable-strength decoherence is simulated by broadening the bandwidth of the input illumination, yielding a significant increase in transport efficiency relative to the narrowband case. We show integrated optics to be suitable for simulating specific target Hamiltonians as well as open quantum systems with controllable loss and decoherence.

  18. Coherent control of plasmonic nanoantennas using optical eigenmodes

    PubMed Central

    Kosmeier, Sebastian; De Luca, Anna Chiara; Zolotovskaya, Svetlana; Di Falco, Andrea; Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has seen subwavelength focusing of the electromagnetic field in the proximity of nanoplasmonic structures with various designs. However, a shared issue is the spatial confinement of the field, which is mostly inflexible and limited to fixed locations determined by the geometry of the nanostructures, which hampers many applications. Here, we coherently address numerically and experimentally single and multiple plasmonic nanostructures chosen from a given array, resorting to the principle of optical eigenmodes. By decomposing the light field into optical eigenmodes, specifically tailored to the nanostructure, we create a subwavelength, selective and dynamic control of the incident light. The coherent control of plasmonic nanoantennas using this approach shows an almost zero crosstalk. This approach is applicable even in the presence of large transmission aberrations, such as present in holographic diffusers and multimode fibres. The method presents a paradigm shift for the addressing of plasmonic nanostructures by light. PMID:23657743

  19. Enhancing coherent transport in a photonic network using controllable decoherence

    PubMed Central

    Biggerstaff, Devon N.; Heilmann, René; Zecevik, Aidan A.; Gräfe, Markus; Broome, Matthew A.; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; White, Andrew G.; Kassal, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Transport phenomena on a quantum scale appear in a variety of systems, ranging from photosynthetic complexes to engineered quantum devices. It has been predicted that the efficiency of coherent transport can be enhanced through dynamic interaction between the system and a noisy environment. We report an experimental simulation of environment-assisted coherent transport, using an engineered network of laser-written waveguides, with relative energies and inter-waveguide couplings tailored to yield the desired Hamiltonian. Controllable-strength decoherence is simulated by broadening the bandwidth of the input illumination, yielding a significant increase in transport efficiency relative to the narrowband case. We show integrated optics to be suitable for simulating specific target Hamiltonians as well as open quantum systems with controllable loss and decoherence. PMID:27080915

  20. Controlling the electromagnetically induced grating via spontaneously generated coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozorgzadeh, Forough; Sahrai, Mostafa; Khoshsima, Habib

    2016-09-01

    A new arrangement of an electromagnetically induced grating in a three-level Ladder-type atomic system with indirect incoherent pumping field is proposed. It is found that the diffraction intensity can efficiently be controlled by the spontaneously generated coherence (SGC). In addition, the diffraction intensity spectrum can dramatically be tuned by manipulating the coupling field intensity, resonance conditions, the rate of an indirect incoherent pumping field, and interaction length.

  1. Coherent control of the isomerization of retinal in bacteriorhodopsin in the high intensity regime

    SciTech Connect

    Prokhorenko, Valentyn I.; Halpin, Alexei; Johnson, Philip J. M.; Miller, R. J. Dwayne; Brown, Leonid S.

    2011-02-28

    Coherent control protocols provide a direct experimental determination of the relative importance of quantum interference or phase relationships of coupled states along a selected pathway. These effects are most readily observed in the high intensity regime where the field amplitude is sufficient to overcome decoherence effects. The coherent response of retinal photoisomerization in bacteriorhodopsin to the phase of the photoexcitation pulses was examined at fluences of 10{sup 15}- 2.5 x 10{sup 16} photons per square centimeter, comparable to or higher than the saturation excitation level of the S{sub 0}-S{sub 1} retinal electronic transition. At moderate excitation levels of {approx}6 x 10{sup 15} photons/cm{sup 2} (<100 GW/cm{sup 2}), chirping the excitation pulses increases the all-trans to 13-cis isomerization yield by up to 16% relative to transform limited pulses. The reported results extend previous weak-field studies [Prokhorenko et al., Science 313, 1257 (2006)] and further illustrate that quantum coherence effects persist along the reaction coordinate in strong fields even for systems as complex as biological molecules. However, for higher excitation levels of {approx}200 GW/cm{sup 2}, there is a dramatic change in photophysics that leads to multiphoton generated photoproducts unrelated to the target isomerization reaction channel and drastically changes the observed isomerization kinetics that appears, in particular, as a red shift of the transient spectra. These results explain the apparent contradictions of the work by Florean et al.[Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 10896 (2009)] in the high intensity regime. We are able to show that the difference in observations and interpretation is due to artifacts associated with additional multiphoton-induced photoproducts. At the proper monitoring wavelengths, coherent control in the high intensity regime is clearly observable. The present work highlights the importance of conducting coherent control

  2. Controlled Tethering Molecules via Crystal Surface Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Stephen Z. D.; Zheng, Joseph X.; Chen, William Y.

    2004-03-01

    So far, almost all experiments in tethering chain molecules onto substrates are via "grafting to" or "grafting from" polymerizations in addition to physical absorption. Issues concerning the uniformity of the tethered chain density and the molecular weight distribution of the chains tethered by polymerization always undermine the properties experimentally observed. We proposed a novel design to precisely control the tethering density of polystyrene (PS) brushes on a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) or a poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) lamellar crystal basal surface using PEO-b-PS or PLLA-b-PS diblock copolymers. As the crystallization temperature (Tc) increased in either a PEO-b-PS/mixed solution (chrolobenzene/octane) or a PLLA-b-PS/amyl acetate solution, the PEO or PLLA lamellar thickness (d) increased, and correspondingly, the number of folds per PEO or PLLA block was reduced. The reduced tethered density (Σ*) of the PS brushes thus increased. At an onset where the PS brushes are overcrowded within the solution, a drastic slope change in the relationship between (d)-1 and Tc occurs in both cases at a Σ* between 3 - 4. This illustrates that the weak to intermediate interaction changes of the PS brushes with their neighbors may be universally represented.

  3. Features of coherent preparation of medium for the control of its characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyshchenko, Stepan V.; Pasternak, Yuri G.; Chernov, Roman A.

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses various aspects of coherent control of the medium using a preparatory laser radiation that provides favorable conditions for the propagation of useful radiation. We discussed the possibility of decrease molecular scattering full section in channels of propagation of laser signals, formation of clarified channel in the inhomogeneous medium of propagation and we analyze the molecular dissociation resulting from an increase in rotational energy induced by two successive laser pulses with orthogonal polarizations. Based on the results of calculations, a constant dipole moment of the molecule is shown to play an insignificant role in its orientation in a laser field.

  4. Coherent control of long-range photoinduced electron transfer by stimulated X-ray Raman processes.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Konstantin E; Zhang, Yu; Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-09-01

    We show that X-ray pulses resonant with selected core transitions can manipulate electron transfer (ET) in molecules with ultrafast and atomic selectivity. We present possible protocols for coherently controlling ET dynamics in donor-bridge-acceptor (DBA) systems by stimulated X-ray resonant Raman processes involving various transitions between the D, B, and A sites. Simulations presented for a Ru(II)-Co(III) model complex demonstrate how the shapes, phases and amplitudes of the X-ray pulses can be optimized to create charge on demand at selected atoms, by opening up otherwise blocked ET pathways. PMID:27559082

  5. Coherent control of ultracold collisions with chirped light: Direction matters

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M. J.; Pechkis, J. A.; Carini, J. L.; Gould, P. L.; Kallush, S.; Kosloff, R.

    2007-05-15

    We demonstrate the ability to coherently control ultracold atomic Rb collisions using frequency-chirped light on the nanosecond time scale. For certain center frequencies of the chirp, the rate of inelastic trap-loss collisions induced by negatively chirped light is dramatically suppressed compared to the case of a positive chirp. We attribute this to a fundamental asymmetry in the system: an excited wave packet moves inward on the attractive molecular potential. For a positive chirp, the resonance condition moves outward in time, while for a negative chirp, it moves inward, in the same direction as the excited wave packet; this allows multiple interactions between the wave packet and the light, enabling the wave packet to be returned coherently to the ground state. Classical and quantum calculations support this interpretation.

  6. Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Spectroscopy of Single Molecules in Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Sunney Xie, Wei Min, Chris Freudiger, Sijia Lu

    2012-01-18

    During this funding period, we have developed two breakthrough techniques. The first is stimulated Raman scattering microscopy, providing label-free chemical contrast for chemical and biomedical imaging based on vibrational spectroscopy. Spontaneous Raman microscopy provides specific vibrational signatures of chemical bonds, but is often hindered by low sensitivity. We developed a three-dimensional multiphoton vibrational imaging technique based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). The sensitivity of SRS imaging is significantly greater than that of spontaneous Raman microscopy, which is achieved by implementing high-frequency (megahertz) phase-sensitive detection. SRS microscopy has a major advantage over previous coherent Raman techniques in that it offers background-free and readily interpretable chemical contrast. We demonstrated a variety of biomedical applications, such as differentiating distributions of omega-3 fatty acids and saturated lipids in living cells, imaging of brain and skin tissues based on intrinsic lipid contrast, and monitoring drug delivery through the epidermis. This technology offers exciting prospect for medical imaging. The second technology we developed is stimulated emission microscopy. Many chromophores, such as haemoglobin and cytochromes, absorb but have undetectable fluorescence because the spontaneous emission is dominated by their fast non-radiative decay. Yet the detection of their absorption is difficult under a microscope. We use stimulated emission, which competes effectively with the nonradiative decay, to make the chromophores detectable, as a new contrast mechanism for optical microscopy. We demonstrate a variety of applications of stimulated emission microscopy, such as visualizing chromoproteins, non-fluorescent variants of the green fluorescent protein, monitoring lacZ gene expression with a chromogenic reporter, mapping transdermal drug distribu- tions without histological sectioning, and label-free microvascular

  7. Focus on coherent control of complex quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaley, Birgitta; Milburn, Gerard

    2015-10-01

    The rapid growth of quantum information sciences over the past few decades has fueled a corresponding rise in high profile applications in fields such as metrology, sensors, spintronics, and attosecond dynamics, in addition to quantum information processing. Realizing this potential of today’s quantum science and the novel technologies based on this requires a high degree of coherent control of quantum systems. While early efforts in systematizing methods for high fidelity quantum control focused on isolated or closed quantum systems, recent advances in experimental design, measurement and monitoring, have stimulated both need and interest in the control of complex or large scale quantum systems that may also be coupled to an interactive environment or reservoir. This focus issue brings together new theoretical and experimental work addressing the formulation and implementation of quantum control for a broad range of applications in quantum science and technology today.

  8. Coherent Control of an Atomic Collision in a Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Osnaghi, S.; Bertet, P.; Auffeves, A.; Maioli, P.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J. M.; Haroche, S.

    2001-07-16

    Following a recent proposal by S.B. Zheng and G.C. Guo [Phys.Rev.Lett. 85, 2392 (2000)], we report an experiment in which two Rydberg atoms crossing a nonresonant cavity are entangled by coherent energy exchange. The process, mediated by the virtual emission and absorption of a microwave photon, is characterized by a collision mixing angle 4orders of magnitude larger than for atoms colliding in free space with the same impact parameter. The final entangled state is controlled by adjusting the atom-cavity detuning. This procedure, essentially insensitive to thermal fields and to photon decay, opens promising perspectives for complex entanglement manipulations.

  9. Controllable coherent population transfers in superconducting qubits for quantum computing.

    PubMed

    Wei, L F; Johansson, J R; Cen, L X; Ashhab, S; Nori, Franco

    2008-03-21

    We propose an approach to coherently transfer populations between selected quantum states in one- and two-qubit systems by using controllable Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passages. These evolution-time insensitive transfers, assisted by easily implementable single-qubit phase-shift operations, could serve as elementary logic gates for quantum computing. Specifically, this proposal could be conveniently demonstrated with existing Josephson phase qubits. Our proposal can find an immediate application in the readout of these qubits. Indeed, the broken parity symmetries of the bound states in these artificial atoms provide an efficient approach to design the required adiabatic pulses.

  10. Small molecule control of bacterial biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, Roberta J.; Richards, Justin J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are defined as a surface attached community of bacteria embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. When in the biofilm state, bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response than are their planktonic counterparts. Biofilms are increasingly recognized as being significant in human disease, accounting for 80% of bacterial infections in the body and diseases associated with bacterial biofilms include: lung infections of cystic fibrosis, colitis, urethritis, conjunctivitis, otitis, endocarditis and periodontitis. Additionally, biofilm infections of indwelling medical devices are of particular concern, as once the device is colonized infection is virtually impossible to eradicate. Given the prominence of biofilms in infectious diseases, there has been an increased effort toward the development of small molecules that will modulate bacterial biofilm development and maintenance. In this review, we highlight the development of small molecules that inhibit and/or disperse bacterial biofilms through non-microbicidal mechanisms. The review discuses the numerous approaches that have been applied to the discovery of lead small molecules that mediate biofilm development. These approaches are grouped into: 1) the identification and development of small molecules that target one of the bacterial signaling pathways involved in biofilm regulation, 2) chemical library screening for compounds with anti-biofilm activity, and 3) the identification of natural products that possess anti-biofilm activity, and the chemical manipulation of these natural products to obtain analogues with increased activity. PMID:22733439

  11. Small molecule control of bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Roberta J; Richards, Justin J; Melander, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Bacterial biofilms are defined as a surface attached community of bacteria embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. When in the biofilm state, bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response than are their planktonic counterparts. Biofilms are increasingly recognized as being significant in human disease, accounting for 80% of bacterial infections in the body and diseases associated with bacterial biofilms include: lung infections of cystic fibrosis patients, colitis, urethritis, conjunctivitis, otitis, endocarditis and periodontitis. Additionally, biofilm infections of indwelling medical devices are of particular concern, as once the device is colonized infection is virtually impossible to eradicate. Given the prominence of biofilms in infectious diseases, there has been an increased effort toward the development of small molecules that will modulate bacterial biofilm development and maintenance. In this review, we highlight the development of small molecules that inhibit and/or disperse bacterial biofilms through non-microbicidal mechanisms. The review discuses the numerous approaches that have been applied to the discovery of lead small molecules that mediate biofilm development. These approaches are grouped into: (1) the identification and development of small molecules that target one of the bacterial signaling pathways involved in biofilm regulation, (2) chemical library screening for compounds with anti-biofilm activity, and (3) the identification of natural products that possess anti-biofilm activity, and the chemical manipulation of these natural products to obtain analogues with increased activity. PMID:22733439

  12. Automated alignment method for coherence-controlled holographic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostal, Zbynek; Slaby, Tomas; Kvasnica, Lukas; Lostak, Martin; Krizova, Aneta; Chmelik, Radim

    2015-11-01

    A coherence-controlled holographic microscope (CCHM) was developed particularly for quantitative phase imaging and measurement of live cell dynamics, which is the proper subject of digital holographic microscopy (DHM). CCHM in low-coherence mode extends DHM in the study of living cells. However, this advantage is compensated by sensitivity of the system to easily become misaligned, which is a serious hindrance to wanted performance. Therefore, it became clear that introduction of a self-correcting system is inevitable. Accordingly, we had to devise a theory of a suitable control and design an automated alignment system for CCHM. The modulus of the reconstructed holographic signal was identified as a significant variable for guiding the alignment procedures. From this, we derived the original basic realignment three-dimensional algorithm, which encompasses a unique set of procedures for automated alignment that contains processes for initial and advanced alignment as well as long-term maintenance of microscope tuning. All of these procedures were applied to a functioning microscope and the tested processes were successfully validated. Finally, in such a way, CCHM is enabled to substantially contribute to study of biology, particularly of cancer cells in vitro.

  13. Coherent control of multiple vibrational excitations for optimal detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrane, S. D.; Scharff, R. J.; Greenfield, M.; Moore, D. S.

    2009-10-01

    While the means to selectively excite a single vibrational mode using ultrafast pulse shaping are well established, the subsequent problem of selectively exciting multiple vibrational modes simultaneously has been largely neglected. The coherent control of multiple vibrational excitations has applications in control of chemistry, chemical detection and molecular vibrational quantum information processing. Using simulations and experiments, we demonstrate that multiple vibrational modes can be selectively excited with the concurrent suppression of multiple interfering modes by orders of magnitude. While the mechanism of selectivity is analogous to that of single mode selectivity, the interferences required to select multiple modes require complicated non-intuitive pulse trains. Additionally, we show that selective detection can be achieved by the optimal pulse shape, even when the nature of the interfering species is varied, suggesting that optimized detection should be practical in real world applications. Experimental measurements of the multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectra (CARS) and CARS decay times of toluene, acetone, cis-stilbene and nitromethane liquids are reported, along with optimizations attempting to selectively excite nitromethane in a mixture of the four solvents. The experimental implementation exhibits a smaller degree of signal to background enhancement than predicted, which is primarily attributed to the single objective optimization methodology and not to fundamental limitations.

  14. Coherent 2D Spectroscopy and Control of Molecular Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brixner, Tobias

    2007-03-01

    Coherent two-dimensional femtosecond spectroscopy is used to investigate electronic couplings within molecular complexes. Third-order optical response functions are measured in a non-collinear three-pulse photon echo geometry with heterodyne signal detection. In combination with suitable simulations this allows recovering the delocalization of excited-state wavefunctions, their coupling, and the corresponding energy transport pathways, with nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal resolution. Examples of multichromophoric systems are the FMO and the LH3 light-harvesting complexes from green sulfur bacteria and purple bacteria, respectively, for which energy transfer processes have been determined. Additional challenges arise if one is interested in the spectroscopy of photochemical rather than photophysical processes in molecular complexes: The product yields attained by a single femtosecond laser pulse are often very small, and hence time-dependent signals are hard to measure with good signal-to-noise ratio. In the context of coherent control, this implies that bond-breaking photochemistry in liquids is still difficult despite the many successes of optimal control in gas-phase photodissociation. In a novel accumulative scheme, macroscopic amounts of stable photoproducts are generated in an optimal fashion and with high product detection sensitivity. In connection with time-resolved spectroscopy, the accumulative scheme furthermore provides kinetic information on the pathways of low-efficiency chemical reaction channels. This was applied to investigate the photoconversion of green fluorescent protein.

  15. Physics of lateral triple quantum-dot molecules with controlled electron numbers.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Shim, Yun-Pil; Korkusinski, Marek; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2012-11-01

    We review the recent progress in theory and experiments with lateral triple quantum dots with controlled electron numbers down to one electron in each dot. The theory covers electronic and spin properties as a function of topology, number of electrons, gate voltage and external magnetic field. The orbital Hund's rules and Nagaoka ferromagnetism, magnetic frustration and chirality, interplay of quantum interference and electron-electron interactions and geometrical phases are described and related to charging and transport spectroscopy. Fabrication techniques and recent experiments are covered, as well as potential applications of triple quantum-dot molecule in coherent control, spin manipulation and quantum computation.

  16. Coherent control of optical information with matter wave dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Naomi S; Garner, Sean R; Hau, Lene Vestergaard

    2007-02-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in manipulating matter with light, and light with matter. Resonant laser fields interacting with cold, dense atom clouds provide a particularly rich system. Such light fields interact strongly with the internal electrons of the atoms, and couple directly to external atomic motion through recoil momenta imparted when photons are absorbed and emitted. Ultraslow light propagation in Bose-Einstein condensates represents an extreme example of resonant light manipulation using cold atoms. Here we demonstrate that a slow light pulse can be stopped and stored in one Bose-Einstein condensate and subsequently revived from a totally different condensate, 160 mum away; information is transferred through conversion of the optical pulse into a travelling matter wave. In the presence of an optical coupling field, a probe laser pulse is first injected into one of the condensates where it is spatially compressed to a length much shorter than the coherent extent of the condensate. The coupling field is then turned off, leaving the atoms in the first condensate in quantum superposition states that comprise a stationary component and a recoiling component in a different internal state. The amplitude and phase of the spatially localized light pulse are imprinted on the recoiling part of the wavefunction, which moves towards the second condensate. When this 'messenger' atom pulse is embedded in the second condensate, the system is re-illuminated with the coupling laser. The probe light is driven back on and the messenger pulse is coherently added to the matter field of the second condensate by way of slow-light-mediated atomic matter-wave amplification. The revived light pulse records the relative amplitude and phase between the recoiling atomic imprint and the revival condensate. Our results provide a dramatic demonstration of coherent optical information processing with matter wave dynamics. Such quantum control may find

  17. Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2010-12-06

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.

  18. Quantum phase gate and controlled entanglement with polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Charron, Eric; Keller, Arne; Atabek, Osman; Milman, Perola

    2007-03-15

    We propose an alternative scenario for the generation of entanglement between rotational quantum states of two polar molecules. This entanglement arises from dipole-dipole interaction, and is controlled by a sequence of laser pulses simultaneously exciting both molecules. We study the efficiency of the process, and discuss possible experimental implementations with cold molecules trapped in optical lattices or in solid matrices. Finally, various entanglement detection procedures are presented, and their suitability for these two physical situations is analyzed.

  19. Control of vascular permeability by adhesion molecules

    PubMed Central

    Sarelius, Ingrid H; Glading, Angela J

    2014-01-01

    Vascular permeability is a vital function of the circulatory system that is regulated in large part by the limited flux of solutes, water, and cells through the endothelial cell layer. One major pathway through this barrier is via the inter-endothelial junction, which is driven by the regulation of cadherin-based adhesions. The endothelium also forms attachments with surrounding proteins and cells via 2 classes of adhesion molecules, the integrins and IgCAMs. Integrins and IgCAMs propagate activation of multiple downstream signals that potentially impact cadherin adhesion. Here we discuss the known contributions of integrin and IgCAM signaling to the regulation of cadherin adhesion stability, endothelial barrier function, and vascular permeability. Emphasis is placed on known and prospective crosstalk signaling mechanisms between integrins, the IgCAMs- ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, and inter-endothelial cadherin adhesions, as potential strategic signaling nodes for multipartite regulation of cadherin adhesion. PMID:25838987

  20. Control of vascular permeability by adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Sarelius, Ingrid H; Glading, Angela J

    2015-01-01

    Vascular permeability is a vital function of the circulatory system that is regulated in large part by the limited flux of solutes, water, and cells through the endothelial cell layer. One major pathway through this barrier is via the inter-endothelial junction, which is driven by the regulation of cadherin-based adhesions. The endothelium also forms attachments with surrounding proteins and cells via 2 classes of adhesion molecules, the integrins and IgCAMs. Integrins and IgCAMs propagate activation of multiple downstream signals that potentially impact cadherin adhesion. Here we discuss the known contributions of integrin and IgCAM signaling to the regulation of cadherin adhesion stability, endothelial barrier function, and vascular permeability. Emphasis is placed on known and prospective crosstalk signaling mechanisms between integrins, the IgCAMs- ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, and inter-endothelial cadherin adhesions, as potential strategic signaling nodes for multipartite regulation of cadherin adhesion. PMID:25838987

  1. Measurement of a weak transition moment using Coherent Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antypas, Dionysios

    We have developed a two-pathway Coherent Control technique for measurements of weak optical transition moments. We demonstrate this technique through a measurement of the transition moment of the highly-forbidden magnetic dipole transition between the 6s2S 1/21/2 and 7s2S 1/21/2 states in atomic Cesium. The experimental principle is based on a two-pathway excitation, using two phase-coherent laser fields, a fundamental field at 1079 nm and its second harmonic at 539.5 nm. The IR field induces a strong two-photon transition, while the 539.5 nm field drives a pair of weak one-photon transitions: a Stark-induced transition of controllable strength as well as the magnetic dipole transition. Observations of the interference between these transitions for different Stark-induced transition amplitudes, allow a measurement of the ratio of the magnetic dipole to the Stark-induced moment. The interference between the transitions is controlled by modulation of the phase-delay between the two optical fields. Our determination of the magnetic dipole moment is at the 0.4% level and in good agreement with previous measurements, and serves as a benchmark for our technique and apparatus. We anticipate that with further improvement of the apparatus detection sensitivity, the demonstrated scheme can be used for measurements of the very weak Parity Violation transition moment on the Cesium 6s2 S1/2→7s2 S1/2 transition.

  2. Controlled Ensembles of Formaldehyde Molecules at Ultracold Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeppenfeld, Martin; Prehn, Alexander; Ibrügger, Martin; Glöckner, Rosa; Rempe, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    Applications of ultracold molecules such as quantum information processing and quantum controlled chemistry require the preparation of ultracold molecule ensembles with a high level of control over all molecular degrees of freedom. Due to the inability to apply standard atom cooling techniques such as laser cooling to most molecule species, developing new methods is essential. We present a toolbox of techniques developed in our group for controlling molecules. A microstructured electric trap allows us to trap molecules in predominantly homogeneous electric fields with trapping times of up to a minute. Optical pumping on a vibrational transition allows us to transfer the population from a large number of rotational states to a single rotational M-sublevel. Our experiment provides excellent conditions for precision spectroscopy and investigation of ultracold collisions.

  3. Coherent control of the Goos-Haenchen shift

    SciTech Connect

    Ziauddin; Qamar, Sajid; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2010-02-15

    The behavior of the Goos-Haenchen (GH) shifts in the reflected and transmitted light beam which is incident on a cavity containing an intracavity medium of three-level or four-level atoms with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is discussed. We report a coherent control of the GH shift in a fixed configuration or device via superluminal and subluminal wave propagation. For superluminal wave propagation, we observe negative GH shifts in the reflected part of the incident light whereas the shifts are positive in the transmitted light beam. This corresponds to the negative group index of the cavity in the former case and positive group index of the cavity in the latter. For subluminal wave propagation, the behavior of the GH shifts in the reflected light changes and positive shifts appear; however, the GH shifts in the transmitted light remains positive. The corresponding group index of the cavity is positive in both cases.

  4. Controlling single-molecule junction conductance by molecular interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kitaguchi, Y.; Habuka, S.; Okuyama, H.; Hatta, S.; Aruga, T.; Frederiksen, T.; Paulsson, M.; Ueba, H.

    2015-01-01

    For the rational design of single-molecular electronic devices, it is essential to understand environmental effects on the electronic properties of a working molecule. Here we investigate the impact of molecular interactions on the single-molecule conductance by accurately positioning individual molecules on the electrode. To achieve reproducible and precise conductivity measurements, we utilize relatively weak π-bonding between a phenoxy molecule and a STM-tip to form and cleave one contact to the molecule. The anchoring to the other electrode is kept stable using a chalcogen atom with strong bonding to a Cu(110) substrate. These non-destructive measurements permit us to investigate the variation in single-molecule conductance under different but controlled environmental conditions. Combined with density functional theory calculations, we clarify the role of the electrostatic field in the environmental effect that influences the molecular level alignment. PMID:26135251

  5. Controlling single-molecule junction conductance by molecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaguchi, Y.; Habuka, S.; Okuyama, H.; Hatta, S.; Aruga, T.; Frederiksen, T.; Paulsson, M.; Ueba, H.

    2015-07-01

    For the rational design of single-molecular electronic devices, it is essential to understand environmental effects on the electronic properties of a working molecule. Here we investigate the impact of molecular interactions on the single-molecule conductance by accurately positioning individual molecules on the electrode. To achieve reproducible and precise conductivity measurements, we utilize relatively weak π-bonding between a phenoxy molecule and a STM-tip to form and cleave one contact to the molecule. The anchoring to the other electrode is kept stable using a chalcogen atom with strong bonding to a Cu(110) substrate. These non-destructive measurements permit us to investigate the variation in single-molecule conductance under different but controlled environmental conditions. Combined with density functional theory calculations, we clarify the role of the electrostatic field in the environmental effect that influences the molecular level alignment.

  6. Label‐Free Fluctuation Spectroscopy Based on Coherent Anti‐Stokes Raman Scattering from Bulk Water Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Rabasovic, M. D.; Sisamakis, E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nanoparticles (NPs) and molecules can be analyzed by inverse fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (iFCS) as they pass through an open detection volume, displacing fractions of the fluorescence‐emitting solution in which they are dissolved. iFCS does not require the NPs or molecules to be labeled. However, fluorophores in μm–mm concentrations are needed for the solution signal. Here, we instead use coherent anti‐Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) from plain water molecules as the signal from the solution. By this fully label‐free approach, termed inverse CARS‐based correlation spectroscopy (iCARS‐CS), NPs that are a few tenths of nm in diameter and at pM concentrations can be analyzed, and their absolute volumes/concentrations can be determined. Likewise, lipid vesicles can be analyzed as they diffuse/flow through the detection volume by using CARS fluctuations from the surrounding water molecules. iCARS–CS could likely offer a broadly applicable, label‐free characterization technique of, for example, NPs, small lipid exosomes, or microparticles in biomolecular diagnostics and screening, and can also utilize CARS signals from biologically relevant media other than water. PMID:26819085

  7. Coherent Interaction of Light and Single Molecules in a Dielectric Nanoguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faez, Sanli; Türschmann, Pierre; Haakh, Harald R.; Götzinger, Stephan; Sandoghdar, Vahid

    2014-11-01

    Many of the currently pursued experiments in quantum optics would greatly benefit from a strong interaction between light and matter. Here, we present a simple new scheme for the efficient coupling of single molecules and photons. A glass capillary with a diameter of 600 nm filled with an organic crystal tightly guides the excitation light and provides a maximum spontaneous emission coupling factor (β ) of 18% for the dye molecules doped in the organic crystal. A combination of extinction, fluorescence excitation, and resonance fluorescence spectroscopy with microscopy provides high-resolution spatiospectral access to a very large number of single molecules in a linear geometry. We discuss strategies for exploring a range of quantum-optical phenomena, including polaritonic interactions in a mesoscopic ensemble of molecules mediated by a single mode of propagating photons.

  8. Controllable microgels from multifunctional molecules: structure control and size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zhenyu; Patterson, Gary; Cao, Rong; Armitage, Bruce

    2004-03-01

    Supramolecular microgels with fractal structures were produced by engineered multifunctional molecules. The combination of static and dynamic light scattering was utilized to characterize the fractal dimension (Df) of the microgels and analyze the aggregation process of the microgels. The microgels are assembled from (1) a tetrafunctional protein (avidin), (2) a trifunctional DNA construct known as a three-way junction, and (3) a biotinylated peptide nucleic acid (PNA) that acts as a crosslinker by binding irreversibly to four equivalent binding sites on the protein and thermoreversibly to three identical binding sites on the DNA. The structure of microgels can be controlled through different aggregation mechanisms. The initial microgels formed by titration have a compact structure with Df ˜2.6; while the reversible microgels formed from melted aggregates have an open structure with Df ˜1.8. The values are consistent with the point-cluster and the cluster-cluster aggregation mechanisms, respectively. A narrow size distribution of microgels was observed and explained in terms of the Flory theory of reversible self-assembly.

  9. Coherent atom-molecule superpositions and other weird stuff in Rb 85 BEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieman, Carl

    2002-05-01

    The Feshbach resonance in rubidium 85 has opened up a new area of BEC physics involving adjustable interactions and novel methods of manipulation. We have used this to study the collapse behavior ("Bosenova") as the interactions are made negative, and a variety of curious effects when the interactions are made large and repulsive. By using rapid magnetic field pulse sequences we have recently created coherent superpositions of atomic and molecular BECs ('molatoms"). These are observed as oscillations in the existence of the condensate as a function of time. The oscillation frequency exactly matches the molecular bound state energy. I will discuss these and other interesting behaviors observed in Rb 85 condensates.

  10. Toward quantum processing in molecules: a THz-bandwidth coherent memory for light.

    PubMed

    Bustard, Philip J; Lausten, Rune; England, Duncan G; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2013-08-23

    The unusual features of quantum mechanics are enabling the development of technologies not possible with classical physics. These devices utilize nonclassical phenomena in the states of atoms, ions, and solid-state media as the basis for many prototypes. Here we investigate molecular states as a distinct alternative. We demonstrate a memory for light based on storing photons in the vibrations of hydrogen molecules. The THz-bandwidth molecular memory is used to store 100-fs pulses for durations up to ~1 ns, enabling ~10(4) operational time bins. The results demonstrate the promise of molecules for constructing compact ultrafast quantum photonic technologies. PMID:24010439

  11. Toward quantum processing in molecules: a THz-bandwidth coherent memory for light.

    PubMed

    Bustard, Philip J; Lausten, Rune; England, Duncan G; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2013-08-23

    The unusual features of quantum mechanics are enabling the development of technologies not possible with classical physics. These devices utilize nonclassical phenomena in the states of atoms, ions, and solid-state media as the basis for many prototypes. Here we investigate molecular states as a distinct alternative. We demonstrate a memory for light based on storing photons in the vibrations of hydrogen molecules. The THz-bandwidth molecular memory is used to store 100-fs pulses for durations up to ~1 ns, enabling ~10(4) operational time bins. The results demonstrate the promise of molecules for constructing compact ultrafast quantum photonic technologies.

  12. Closed loop coherent control of electronic transitions in gallium arsenide.

    PubMed

    Singha, Sima; Hu, Zhan; Gordon, Robert J

    2011-06-16

    A genetic algorithm was used to control the photoluminesce-nce (PL) from GaAs(100). A spatial light modulator (SLM) used feedback from the emission to optimize the spectral phase profile of an ultrashort laser pulse. Most of the experiments were performed using a sine phase function to optimize the integrated PL spectrum over a specified wavelength range, with the amplitude and period of the phase function treated as genetic parameters. An order of magnitude increase in signal was achieved after only one generation, and an optimized waveform, consisting of three equally spaced pulses approximately 0.8 ps apart, was obtained after 15 generations. The effects of fluence, polarization, relative phase of the subpulses, and spectral range of the optimized PL were investigated. In addition, preliminary experiments were performed using the phases of individual pixels of the SLM as genetic variables. The PL spectrum is identified with recombination of electron-hole pairs in the L-valley of the Brillouin zone. Control is achieved by coherent manipulation of plasma electrons. It is proposed that hot electrons excite lattice phonons, which in turn scatter carriers into the L-valley.

  13. Controlling the orbital sequence in individual Cu-phthalocyanine molecules.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, C; Swart, I; Repp, J

    2013-02-13

    We report on the controlled change of the energetic ordering of molecular orbitals. Negatively charged copper(II)phthalocyanine on NaCl/Cu(100) undergoes a Jahn-Teller distortion that lifts the degeneracy of two frontier orbitals. The energetic order of the levels can be controlled by Au and Ag atoms in the vicinity of the molecule. As only one of the states is occupied, the control of the energetic order is accompanied by bistable changes of the charge distribution inside the molecule, rendering it a bistable switch.

  14. Coherent Control of Molecular Torsion and the Active-space Decomposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Shane Matthew

    This dissertation discusses schemes and applications for the strong-field control of molecular torsions as well as introduces the active-space decomposition method. In the first part, a route to realize general control over the torsional motions of a class of biaryl compounds is proposed. Torsion in biaryl compounds--molecules with two aromatic moieties connected by a bond about which the barrier to rotation is small--mediates the electronic coupling between the two rings in the molecule. Thus, by controlling the torsion angle, one also controls the electron transfer and transport rates, the absorption and emission spectra, and the molecule's chirality. In our scheme, a non-resonant half-cycle pulse interacts with the permanent dipole of only one moiety of the pre-oriented biaryl compound. In the non-adiabatic regime, coherent motion is initiated by the half-cycle pulse. In the adiabatic regime, the torsion angle is tuned by the pulse. By properly choosing the parameters and polarization of the half-cycle pulse, we show that free internal rotation can be started or that the molecular chirality can be inverted. Then, with the aid of optimal control theory, we design "deracemizing" control pulses, i.e., control pulses that convert a racemic mixture into an enantiopure mixture. Finally, we explore the potential for this type of control in a single-molecule pulling experiment. In the second part, we describe the active space decomposition method for computing excited states of molecular dimers. In this method, the dimer's wavefunction is expressed as a linear combination of direct products of orthogonal localized monomer states. The adiabatic dimer states are found by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian in this direct product space. Matrix elements between direct product states are computed directly, without ever explicitly forming the dimer wavefunction, thus enabling calculations of dimers with active space sizes that would be otherwise impossible. The decomposed

  15. Theory of femtosecond coherent double-pump single-molecule spectroscopy: Application to light harvesting complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Lipeng; Zhao, Yang; Gelin, Maxim F.; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2015-04-28

    We develop a first principles theoretical description of femtosecond double-pump single-molecule signals of molecular aggregates. We incorporate all singly excited electronic states and vibrational modes with significant exciton-phonon coupling into a system Hamiltonian and treat the ensuing system dynamics within the Davydov D{sub 1} Ansatz. The remaining intra- and inter-molecular vibrational modes are treated as a heat bath and their effect is accounted for through lineshape functions. We apply our theory to simulate single-molecule signals of the light harvesting complex II. The calculated signals exhibit pronounced oscillations of mixed electron-vibrational (vibronic) origin. Their periods decrease with decreasing exciton-phonon coupling.

  16. Theory of femtosecond coherent double-pump single-molecule spectroscopy: Application to light harvesting complexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lipeng; Gelin, Maxim F; Domcke, Wolfgang; Zhao, Yang

    2015-04-28

    We develop a first principles theoretical description of femtosecond double-pump single-molecule signals of molecular aggregates. We incorporate all singly excited electronic states and vibrational modes with significant exciton-phonon coupling into a system Hamiltonian and treat the ensuing system dynamics within the Davydov D1 Ansatz. The remaining intra- and inter-molecular vibrational modes are treated as a heat bath and their effect is accounted for through lineshape functions. We apply our theory to simulate single-molecule signals of the light harvesting complex II. The calculated signals exhibit pronounced oscillations of mixed electron-vibrational (vibronic) origin. Their periods decrease with decreasing exciton-phonon coupling. PMID:25933751

  17. Flexible coherent control of plasmonic spin-Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shiyi; Zhong, Fan; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Li, Jensen

    2015-01-01

    The surface plasmon polariton is an emerging candidate for miniaturizing optoelectronic circuits. Recent demonstrations of polarization-dependent splitting using metasurfaces, including focal-spot shifting and unidirectional propagation, allow us to exploit the spin degree of freedom in plasmonics. However, further progress has been hampered by the inability to generate more complicated and independent surface plasmon profiles for two incident spins, which work coherently together for more flexible and tunable functionalities. Here by matching the geometric phases of the nano-slots on silver to specific superimpositions of the inward and outward surface plasmon profiles for the two spins, arbitrary spin-dependent orbitals can be generated in a slot-free region. Furthermore, motion pictures with a series of picture frames can be assembled and played by varying the linear polarization angle of incident light. This spin-enabled control of orbitals is potentially useful for tip-free near-field scanning microscopy, holographic data storage, tunable plasmonic tweezers, and integrated optical components. PMID:26415636

  18. Flexible coherent control of plasmonic spin-Hall effect

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Shiyi; Zhong, Fan; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Li, Jensen

    2015-01-01

    The surface plasmon polariton is an emerging candidate for miniaturizing optoelectronic circuits. Recent demonstrations of polarization-dependent splitting using metasurfaces, including focal-spot shifting and unidirectional propagation, allow us to exploit the spin degree of freedom in plasmonics. However, further progress has been hampered by the inability to generate more complicated and independent surface plasmon profiles for two incident spins, which work coherently together for more flexible and tunable functionalities. Here by matching the geometric phases of the nano-slots on silver to specific superimpositions of the inward and outward surface plasmon profiles for the two spins, arbitrary spin-dependent orbitals can be generated in a slot-free region. Furthermore, motion pictures with a series of picture frames can be assembled and played by varying the linear polarization angle of incident light. This spin-enabled control of orbitals is potentially useful for tip-free near-field scanning microscopy, holographic data storage, tunable plasmonic tweezers, and integrated optical components. PMID:26415636

  19. Time-delayed quantum coherent Pyragas feedback control of photon squeezing in a degenerate parametric oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Manuel; Hein, Sven M.; Lehnert, Judith; Schöll, Eckehard; Hughes, Stephen; Knorr, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Quantum coherent feedback control is a measurement-free control method fully preserving quantum coherence. In this paper we show how time-delayed quantum coherent feedback can be used to control the degree of squeezing in the output field of a cavity containing a degenerate parametric oscillator. We focus on the specific situation of Pyragas-type feedback control where time-delayed signals are fed back directly into the quantum system. Our results show how time-delayed feedback can enhance or decrease the degree of squeezing as a function of time delay and feedback strength.

  20. Method and apparatus for single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system under software control

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-11-02

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system under software control in order to monitor the behavior of a memory coherence mechanism. Single-stepping coherence events in a multiprocessor system is made possible by adding one or more step registers. By accessing these step registers, one or more coherence requests are processed by the multiprocessor system. The step registers determine if the snoop unit will operate by proceeding in a normal execution mode, or operate in a single-step mode.

  1. Holography and coherent diffraction with low-energy electrons: A route towards structural biology at the single molecule level.

    PubMed

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Longchamp, Jean-Nicolas; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2015-12-01

    The current state of the art in structural biology is led by NMR, X-ray crystallography and TEM investigations. These powerful tools however all rely on averaging over a large ensemble of molecules. Here, we present an alternative concept aiming at structural analysis at the single molecule level. We show that by combining electron holography and coherent diffraction imaging estimations concerning the phase of the scattered wave become needless as the phase information is extracted from the data directly and unambiguously. Performed with low-energy electrons the resolution of this lens-less microscope is just limited by the De Broglie wavelength of the electron wave and the numerical aperture, given by detector geometry. In imaging freestanding graphene, a resolution of 2Å has been achieved revealing the 660.000 unit cells of the graphene sheet from a single data set. Once applied to individual biomolecules the method shall ultimately allow for non-destructive imaging and imports the potential to distinguish between different conformations of proteins with atomic resolution.

  2. EDITORIAL: Quantum control theory for coherence and information dynamics Quantum control theory for coherence and information dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Lorenza; Tannor, David

    2011-08-01

    Precisely characterizing and controlling the dynamics of realistic open quantum systems has emerged in recent years as a key challenge across contemporary quantum sciences and technologies, with implications ranging from physics, chemistry and applied mathematics to quantum information processing (QIP) and quantum engineering. Quantum control theory aims to provide both a general dynamical-system framework and a constructive toolbox to meet this challenge. The purpose of this special issue of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics is to present a state-of-the-art account of recent advances and current trends in the field, as reflected in two international meetings that were held on the subject over the last summer and which motivated in part the compilation of this volume—the Topical Group: Frontiers in Open Quantum Systems and Quantum Control Theory, held at the Institute for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (ITAMP) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (USA), from 1-14 August 2010, and the Safed Workshop on Quantum Decoherence and Thermodynamics Control, held in Safed (Israel), from 22-27 August 2010. Initial developments in quantum control theory date back to (at least) the early 1980s, and have been largely inspired by the well-established mathematical framework for classical dynamical systems. As the above-mentioned meetings made clear, and as the burgeoning body of literature on the subject testifies, quantum control has grown since then well beyond its original boundaries, and has by now evolved into a highly cross-disciplinary field which, while still fast-moving, is also entering a new phase of maturity, sophistication, and integration. Two trends deserve special attention: on the one hand, a growing emphasis on control tasks and methodologies that are specifically motivated by QIP, in addition and in parallel to applications in more traditional areas where quantum coherence is nevertheless vital (such as, for instance

  3. Controlled release of fragrant molecules with visible light.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuozhi; Johns, Valentine K; Liao, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Controlled release of odorous molecules is the key to digital scent technology which will add another dimension to electronics. Photorelease is a cold mechanism that promises better temporal and spatial control than thermal release. Herein we report a novel material composed of an acid-sensitive polymer carrying a fragrant aldehyde and a reversible metastable-state photoacid. It releases the fragrant molecule under visible light, and stops releasing it after the light is turned off. A metastable-state photoacid with a fast reverse-reaction rate was developed to quickly stop the release after irradiation. Both the carrier polymer and the photoacid can be reused after all the fragrant molecules have been released. The material combines the advantages of visible-light activity, fast on/off rate, easy preparation, and recyclability, and thus is promising for digital scent technology. PMID:25284277

  4. Attosecond-recollision-controlled selective fragmentation of polyatomic molecules.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xinhua; Doblhoff-Dier, Katharina; Roither, Stefan; Schöffler, Markus S; Kartashov, Daniil; Xu, Huailiang; Rathje, Tim; Paulus, Gerhard G; Baltuška, Andrius; Gräfe, Stefanie; Kitzler, Markus

    2012-12-14

    Control over various fragmentation reactions of a series of polyatomic molecules (acetylene, ethylene, 1,3-butadiene) by the optical waveform of intense few-cycle laser pulses is demonstrated experimentally. We show both experimentally and theoretically that the responsible mechanism is inelastic ionization from inner-valence molecular orbitals by recolliding electron wave packets, whose recollision energy in few-cycle ionizing laser pulses strongly depends on the optical waveform. Our work demonstrates an efficient and selective way of predetermining fragmentation and isomerization reactions in polyatomic molecules on subfemtosecond time scales.

  5. Coherent phase control of internal conversion in pyrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Robert J. Singha, Sima; Zhao, Youbo; Hu, Zhan; Seideman, Tamar; Sukharev, Maxim

    2015-04-14

    Shaped ultrafast laser pulses were used to study and control the ionization dynamics of electronically excited pyrazine in a pump and probe experiment. For pump pulses created without feedback from the product signal, the ion growth curve (the parent ion signal as a function of pump/probe delay) was described quantitatively by the classical rate equations for internal conversion of the S{sub 2} and S{sub 1} states. Very different, non-classical behavior was observed when a genetic algorithm (GA) employing phase-only modulation was used to minimize the ion signal at some pre-determined target time, T. Two qualitatively different control mechanisms were identified for early (T < 1.5 ps) and late (T > 1.5 ps) target times. In the former case, the ion signal was largely suppressed for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the ion signal produced by the GA-optimized pulse and a transform limited (TL) pulse coalesced. In contrast, for T > 1.5 ps, the ion growth curve followed the classical rate equations for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the quantum yield for the GA-optimized pulse was much smaller than for a TL pulse. We interpret the first type of behavior as an indication that the wave packet produced by the pump laser is localized in a region of the S{sub 2} potential energy surface where the vertical ionization energy exceeds the probe photon energy, whereas the second type of behavior may be described by a reduced absorption cross section for S{sub 0} → S{sub 2} followed by incoherent decay of the excited molecules. Amplitude modulation observed in the spectrum of the shaped pulse may have contributed to the control mechanism, although this possibility is mitigated by the very small focal volume of the probe laser.

  6. Theoretical analysis of controllability of interference phenomena between partially coherent fields in the intensity matrix theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashiki, Satoshi

    2016-09-01

    We analyze the controllability of interference phenomena between partially coherent fields by introducing the Wigner distribution function (WDF) and entropy, which is defined using the intensity matrix [H. Gamo, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 976 (1957)]. The analytical derivation of the WDF and entropy is presented for a partially coherent imaging system consisting of two pinholes illuminated by a circular source. It is shown that the WDF, defined in the 4D space–spatial frequency region, and entropy can be useful tools to understand how one can freely and quantitatively control the interference when any optical components in the partially coherent imaging system are changed.

  7. Activation of coherent lattice phonon following ultrafast molecular spin-state photo-switching: A molecule-to-lattice energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Marino, A; Cammarata, M; Matar, S F; Létard, J-F; Chastanet, G; Chollet, M; Glownia, J M; Lemke, H T; Collet, E

    2016-03-01

    We combine ultrafast optical spectroscopy with femtosecond X-ray absorption to study the photo-switching dynamics of the [Fe(PM-AzA)2(NCS)2] spin-crossover molecular solid. The light-induced excited spin-state trapping process switches the molecules from low spin to high spin (HS) states on the sub-picosecond timescale. The change of the electronic state (<50 fs) induces a structural reorganization of the molecule within 160 fs. This transformation is accompanied by coherent molecular vibrations in the HS potential and especially a rapidly damped Fe-ligand breathing mode. The time-resolved studies evidence a delayed activation of coherent optical phonons of the lattice surrounding the photoexcited molecules. PMID:26798836

  8. Activation of coherent lattice phonon following ultrafast molecular spin-state photo-switching: A molecule-to-lattice energy transfer

    PubMed Central

    Marino, A.; Cammarata, M.; Matar, S. F.; Létard, J.-F.; Chastanet, G.; Chollet, M.; Glownia, J. M.; Lemke, H. T.; Collet, E.

    2015-01-01

    We combine ultrafast optical spectroscopy with femtosecond X-ray absorption to study the photo-switching dynamics of the [Fe(PM-AzA)2(NCS)2] spin-crossover molecular solid. The light-induced excited spin-state trapping process switches the molecules from low spin to high spin (HS) states on the sub-picosecond timescale. The change of the electronic state (<50 fs) induces a structural reorganization of the molecule within 160 fs. This transformation is accompanied by coherent molecular vibrations in the HS potential and especially a rapidly damped Fe-ligand breathing mode. The time-resolved studies evidence a delayed activation of coherent optical phonons of the lattice surrounding the photoexcited molecules. PMID:26798836

  9. Activation of coherent lattice phonon following ultrafast molecular spin-state photo-switching: A molecule-to-lattice energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Marino, A; Cammarata, M; Matar, S F; Létard, J-F; Chastanet, G; Chollet, M; Glownia, J M; Lemke, H T; Collet, E

    2016-03-01

    We combine ultrafast optical spectroscopy with femtosecond X-ray absorption to study the photo-switching dynamics of the [Fe(PM-AzA)2(NCS)2] spin-crossover molecular solid. The light-induced excited spin-state trapping process switches the molecules from low spin to high spin (HS) states on the sub-picosecond timescale. The change of the electronic state (<50 fs) induces a structural reorganization of the molecule within 160 fs. This transformation is accompanied by coherent molecular vibrations in the HS potential and especially a rapidly damped Fe-ligand breathing mode. The time-resolved studies evidence a delayed activation of coherent optical phonons of the lattice surrounding the photoexcited molecules.

  10. Comprehension through explanation as the interaction of the brain’s coherence and cognitive control networks

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jarrod; Schunn, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    Discourse comprehension processes attempt to produce an elaborate and well-connected representation in the reader’s mind. A common network of regions including the angular gyrus, posterior cingulate, and dorsal frontal cortex appears to be involved in constructing coherent representations in a variety of tasks including social cognition tasks, narrative comprehension, and expository text comprehension. Reading strategies that require the construction of explicit inferences are used in the present research to examine how this coherence network interacts with other brain regions. A psychophysiological interaction analysis was used to examine regions showing changed functional connectivity with this coherence network when participants were engaged in either a non-inferencing reading strategy, paraphrasing, or a strategy requiring coherence-building inferences, self-explanation. Results of the analysis show that the coherence network increases in functional connectivity with a cognitive control network that may be specialized for the manipulation of semantic representations and the construction of new relations among these representations. PMID:26557066

  11. Comprehension through explanation as the interaction of the brain's coherence and cognitive control networks.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jarrod; Schunn, Christian D

    2015-01-01

    Discourse comprehension processes attempt to produce an elaborate and well-connected representation in the reader's mind. A common network of regions including the angular gyrus, posterior cingulate, and dorsal frontal cortex appears to be involved in constructing coherent representations in a variety of tasks including social cognition tasks, narrative comprehension, and expository text comprehension. Reading strategies that require the construction of explicit inferences are used in the present research to examine how this coherence network interacts with other brain regions. A psychophysiological interaction analysis was used to examine regions showing changed functional connectivity with this coherence network when participants were engaged in either a non-inferencing reading strategy, paraphrasing, or a strategy requiring coherence-building inferences, self-explanation. Results of the analysis show that the coherence network increases in functional connectivity with a cognitive control network that may be specialized for the manipulation of semantic representations and the construction of new relations among these representations. PMID:26557066

  12. Comprehension through explanation as the interaction of the brain's coherence and cognitive control networks.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jarrod; Schunn, Christian D

    2015-01-01

    Discourse comprehension processes attempt to produce an elaborate and well-connected representation in the reader's mind. A common network of regions including the angular gyrus, posterior cingulate, and dorsal frontal cortex appears to be involved in constructing coherent representations in a variety of tasks including social cognition tasks, narrative comprehension, and expository text comprehension. Reading strategies that require the construction of explicit inferences are used in the present research to examine how this coherence network interacts with other brain regions. A psychophysiological interaction analysis was used to examine regions showing changed functional connectivity with this coherence network when participants were engaged in either a non-inferencing reading strategy, paraphrasing, or a strategy requiring coherence-building inferences, self-explanation. Results of the analysis show that the coherence network increases in functional connectivity with a cognitive control network that may be specialized for the manipulation of semantic representations and the construction of new relations among these representations.

  13. Methods for studying the coherent 4D structural dynamics of free molecules and condensed state of matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchenko, A. A.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Avilov, A. S.

    2011-09-01

    Studies in the coupled 4D spatial and temporal continuum are necessary for understanding the dynamic features of molecular systems with a complex profile of the potential energy surface. The introduction of time sweep into diffraction methods and the development of principles for studying coherent processes have revealed new approaches to the analysis of the dynamics of wave packets, the intermediate products and the transition state of the reaction center, and short-lived compounds in gaseous and condensed media. The use of picosecond and femtosecond electron probe pulses, synchronized with excitation laser pulses, determined the development of ultrafast electron crystallography, time-resolved X-ray diffraction, and dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM). One of the most promising applications of the developed diffraction methods is the characterization and visualization of the processes occurring upon the photoexcitation of free molecules and biological objects and the analysis of surface and thin films. The whole set of spectral and diffraction methods based on different physical principles, which are complementary and make it possible to perform the photoexcitation of nuclei and electrons and carry out diagnostics of their dynamics at ultrashort time sequences, reveal new possibilities for studies with the necessary integration of the "structure-dynamics-function" triad in chemistry, biology, and materials science.

  14. Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering by the phase control of its intrinsic background

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xi; Wang Kai; Welch, George R.; Sokolov, Alexei V.

    2011-08-15

    We demonstrate the use of femtosecond laser pulse shaping for precise control of the interference between the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal and the coherent nonresonant background generated within the same sample volume. Our technique is similar to heterodyne detection with the coherent background playing the role of the local oscillator field. In our experiment, we first apply two ultrashort (near-transform-limited) femtosecond pump and Stokes laser pulses to excite coherent molecular oscillations within a sample. After a short and controllable delay, we then apply a laser pulse that scatters off of these oscillations to produce the CARS signal. By making fine adjustments to the probe field spectral profile, we vary the relative phase between the Raman-resonant signal and the nonresonant background, and we observe a varying spectral interference pattern. These controlled variations of the measured pattern reveal the phase information within the Raman spectrum.

  15. Phase control of HF chemical lasers for coherent optical recombination.

    PubMed

    Wang, C P; Smith, P L

    1979-05-01

    A servo system for phase-locking two HF chemical lasers has been designed and simulated. A steady-state phase error is achieved that is adequate for coherent optical recombination. The results are based on the measured frequency drift of a small HF chemical laser and the measured frequency response of a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) mirror driver. A major innovation is the use of rate feedback with a laser Doppler sensor to extend the useful frequency response of the PZT driver.

  16. Adhesion Molecules: Master Controllers of the Circulatory System.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eric P; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Lee, Warren L; Downey, Gregory P

    2016-03-15

    This manuscript will review our current understanding of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) relevant to the circulatory system, their physiological role in control of vascular homeostasis, innate and adaptive immune responses, and their importance in pathophysiological (disease) processes such as acute lung injury, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary hypertension. This is a complex and rapidly changing area of research that is incompletely understood. By design, we will begin with a brief overview of the structure and classification of the major groups of adhesion molecules and their physiological functions including cellular adhesion and signaling. The role of specific CAMs in the process of platelet aggregation and hemostasis and leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration will be reviewed as examples of the complex and cooperative interplay between CAMs during physiological and pathophysiological processes. The role of the endothelial glycocalyx and the glycobiology of this complex system related to inflammatory states such as sepsis will be reviewed. We will then focus on the role of adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of specific disease processes involving the lungs and cardiovascular system. The potential of targeting adhesion molecules in the treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases will be highlighted in the relevant sections throughout the manuscript.

  17. Coherent control with a short-wavelength free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, K. C.; Allaria, E.; Callegari, C.; Cucini, R.; de Ninno, G.; di Mitri, S.; Diviacco, B.; Ferrari, E.; Finetti, P.; Gauthier, D.; Giannessi, L.; Mahne, N.; Penco, G.; Plekan, O.; Raimondi, L.; Rebernik, P.; Roussel, E.; Svetina, C.; Trovò, M.; Zangrando, M.; Negro, M.; Carpeggiani, P.; Reduzzi, M.; Sansone, G.; Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.; Gryzlova, E. V.; Strakhova, S. I.; Bartschat, K.; Douguet, N.; Venzke, J.; Iablonskyi, D.; Kumagai, Y.; Takanashi, T.; Ueda, K.; Fischer, A.; Coreno, M.; Stienkemeier, F.; Ovcharenko, Y.; Mazza, T.; Meyer, M.

    2016-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) produce short-wavelength pulses with high intensity, ultrashort duration, well-defined polarization and transverse coherence, and have been utilized for many experiments previously possible only at long wavelengths: multiphoton ionization, pumping an atomic laser and four-wave mixing spectroscopy. However one important optical technique, coherent control, has not yet been demonstrated, because self-amplified spontaneous emission FELs have limited longitudinal coherence. Single-colour pulses from the FERMI seeded FEL are longitudinally coherent, and two-colour emission is predicted to be coherent. Here, we demonstrate the phase correlation of two colours, and manipulate it to control an experiment. Light of wavelengths 63.0 and 31.5 nm ionized neon, and we controlled the asymmetry of the photoelectron angular distribution by adjusting the phase, with a temporal resolution of 3 as. This opens the door to new short-wavelength coherent control experiments with ultrahigh time resolution and chemical sensitivity.

  18. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device.

    PubMed

    Poyser, Caroline L; Akimov, Andrey V; Campion, Richard P; Kent, Anthony J

    2015-02-05

    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale.

  19. Coherent phonon control via electron-lattice interaction in ferromagnetic Co/Pt multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul Hoon; Shim, Je-Ho; Lee, Kyung Min; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Dong Eon

    2016-01-01

    The manipulation of coherent phonons in condensed systems has attracted fundamental interest, particularly for its applications to future devices. We demonstrate that a coherent phonon in Co/Pt nano-multilayer can be quantitatively controlled via electron-lattice coupling, specifically by changing the multilayer repeat number. To that end, systematic measurement of the time-resolved reflectivity and magneto-optical Kerr effect in Co/Pt multilayers was performed. The coherent phonon frequency was observed to be shifted with the change of the multilayer repeat number. This shift could be clearly explained based on the two-temperature model. Detailed analysis indicated that the lattice heat capacity and electron-lattice coupling strength are linearly dependent on the repeat number of the periodic multilayer structures. Accessing the control of coherent phonons using nanostructures opens a new avenue for advanced phonon-engineering applications. PMID:26928846

  20. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device

    PubMed Central

    Poyser, Caroline L.; Akimov, Andrey V.; Campion, Richard P.; Kent, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale. PMID:25652241

  1. Coherent phonon optics in a chip with an electrically controlled active device.

    PubMed

    Poyser, Caroline L; Akimov, Andrey V; Campion, Richard P; Kent, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Phonon optics concerns operations with high-frequency acoustic waves in solid media in a similar way to how traditional optics operates with the light beams (i.e. photons). Phonon optics experiments with coherent terahertz and sub-terahertz phonons promise a revolution in various technical applications related to high-frequency acoustics, imaging, and heat transport. Previously, phonon optics used passive methods for manipulations with propagating phonon beams that did not enable their external control. Here we fabricate a phononic chip, which includes a generator of coherent monochromatic phonons with frequency 378 GHz, a sensitive coherent phonon detector, and an active layer: a doped semiconductor superlattice, with electrical contacts, inserted into the phonon propagation path. In the experiments, we demonstrate the modulation of the coherent phonon flux by an external electrical bias applied to the active layer. Phonon optics using external control broadens the spectrum of prospective applications of phononics on the nanometer scale. PMID:25652241

  2. Central Coherence in Typically Developing Preschoolers: Does It Cohere and Does It Relate to Mindreading and Executive Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Maybery, Murray; Durkin, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Background: Frith and Happe (1994) describe central coherence (CC) as the normal tendency to integrate individual elements into a coherent whole, a cognitive style which varies in the general population. Individuals with autism are at the extreme (weak) end of the continuum of coherence. There has been debate over whether CC is independent from…

  3. Herbert P. Broida Prize Talk: Experimental realization of coherent control of molecular dynamics and chemical reactions with feedback-optimized laser pulses--Quantum Control of Femtochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Gustav

    2009-05-01

    By using coherent control techniques we control the behavior of quantum systems on their natural fs-time scale by applying ultrashort coherent light fields in the wavelength range from the IR to the UV. These laser pulses can be variably shaped in space and time using a laser pulse shaper consisting of a liquid-crystal display. [1] Laser-optimized femtochemistry in the gas phase and liquid phase is one field in which this new technique is successfully employed. Automated optimization of branching ratios and total product yields of gas phase photodissociation reactions as well as chemically selective molecular excitation in the liquid phase is performed [2][3]. Structural changes of a molecule in the liquid phase have been controlled by laser-optimized photoisomerization of a cyanine dye molecule [4] and of retinal in bacteriorhodopsin [5]. So far, optimal control techniques have been restricted to gas phase and condensed phase optimization experiments. Recently we have demonstrated femtosecond laser-assisted catalytic reactions on a Pd(100) single crystal surface. By applying a closed-loop optimal control scheme, we manipulate these reactions and selectively optimize the ratio of different bond-forming reaction channels, in contrast to previous quantum control experiments aiming at bond-cleavage. The results represent a first step towards selective photocatalysis of molecules. [4pt] [1] T. Baumert et al, Appl. Phys. B 65, 779 (1997)[0pt] [2] A. Assion et al, Science 282, 919(1998); T. Brixner et al, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 539 (2003)[0pt] [3] T. Brixner et al, Nature, Vol. 414, 57 (2001) and J. Chem. Phys. 118, 3692 (2003)[0pt] [4] G. Krampert et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 068305 (2005)[0pt] [5] G. Vogt et al, Chem. Phys. Lett. 433, 211 (2006) P. Nuernberger et al, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 2470 (2007)

  4. Harvesting, Coupling, and Control of Single-Exciton Coherences in Photonic Waveguide Antennas.

    PubMed

    Mermillod, Q; Jakubczyk, T; Delmonte, V; Delga, A; Peinke, E; Gérard, J-M; Claudon, J; Kasprzak, J

    2016-04-22

    We perform coherent nonlinear spectroscopy of individual excitons strongly confined in single InAs quantum dots (QDs). The retrieval of their intrinsically weak four-wave mixing (FWM) response is enabled by a one-dimensional dielectric waveguide antenna. Compared to a similar QD embedded in bulk media, the FWM detection sensitivity is enhanced by up to 4 orders of magnitude, over a broad operation bandwidth. Three-beam FWM is employed to investigate coherence and population dynamics within individual QD transitions. We retrieve their homogenous dephasing in a presence of low-frequency spectral wandering. Two-dimensional FWM reveals off-resonant Förster coupling between a pair of distinct QDs embedded in the antenna. We also detect a higher order QD nonlinearity (six-wave mixing) and use it to coherently control the FWM transient. Waveguide antennas enable us to conceive multicolor coherent manipulation schemes of individual emitters.

  5. Harvesting, Coupling, and Control of Single-Exciton Coherences in Photonic Waveguide Antennas.

    PubMed

    Mermillod, Q; Jakubczyk, T; Delmonte, V; Delga, A; Peinke, E; Gérard, J-M; Claudon, J; Kasprzak, J

    2016-04-22

    We perform coherent nonlinear spectroscopy of individual excitons strongly confined in single InAs quantum dots (QDs). The retrieval of their intrinsically weak four-wave mixing (FWM) response is enabled by a one-dimensional dielectric waveguide antenna. Compared to a similar QD embedded in bulk media, the FWM detection sensitivity is enhanced by up to 4 orders of magnitude, over a broad operation bandwidth. Three-beam FWM is employed to investigate coherence and population dynamics within individual QD transitions. We retrieve their homogenous dephasing in a presence of low-frequency spectral wandering. Two-dimensional FWM reveals off-resonant Förster coupling between a pair of distinct QDs embedded in the antenna. We also detect a higher order QD nonlinearity (six-wave mixing) and use it to coherently control the FWM transient. Waveguide antennas enable us to conceive multicolor coherent manipulation schemes of individual emitters. PMID:27152807

  6. Temperature-dependent remote control of polarization and coherence intensity with sender's pure initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fel'dman, E. B.; Kuznetsova, E. I.; Zenchuk, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    We study the remote creation of the polarization and intensity of the first-order coherence (or coherence intensity) in long spin-1/2 chains with one-qubit sender and receiver. Therewith we use a physically motivated initial condition with the pure state of the sender and the thermodynamical equilibrium state of the other nodes. The main part of the creatable region is a one-to-one map of the initial state (control) parameters, except the small subregion twice covered by the control parameters, which appears owing to the chosen initial state. The polarization and coherence intensity behave differently in the state creation process. In particular, the coherence intensity cannot reach any significant value unless the polarization is large in long chains (unlike the short ones), but the opposite is not true. The coherence intensity vanishes with an increase in the chain length, while the polarization (by absolute value) is not sensitive to this parameter. We represent several characteristics of the creatable polarization and coherence intensity and describe their relation to the parameters of the initial state. The link to the eigenvalue-eigenvector parametrization of the receiver's state space is given.

  7. Strong field coherent control of molecular torsions—Analytical models

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwell, Benjamin A.; Ramakrishna, S.; Seideman, Tamar

    2015-08-14

    We introduce analytical models of torsional alignment by moderately intense laser pulses that are applicable to the limiting cases of the torsional barrier heights. Using these models, we explore in detail the role that the laser intensity and pulse duration play in coherent torsional dynamics, addressing both experimental and theoretical concerns. Our results suggest strategies for minimizing the risk of off-resonant ionization, noting the qualitative differences between the case of torsional alignment subject to a field-free torsional barrier and that of torsional alignment of a barrier-less system (equivalent to a 2D rigid rotor). We also investigate several interesting torsional phenomena, including the onset of impulsive alignment of torsions, field-driven oscillations in quantum number space, and the disappearance of an alignment upper bound observed for a rigid rotor in the impulsive torsional alignment limit.

  8. Stabilization of ultracold molecules using optimal control theory

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Christiane P.; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Masnou-Seeuws, Francoise

    2004-07-01

    In recent experiments on ultracold matter, molecules have been produced from ultracold atoms by photoassociation, Feshbach resonances, and three-body recombination. The created molecules are translationally cold, but vibrationally highly excited. This will eventually lead them to be lost from the trap due to collisions. We propose shaped laser pulses to transfer these highly excited molecules to their ground vibrational level. Optimal control theory is employed to find the light field that will carry out this task with minimum intensity. We present results for the sodium dimer. The final target can be reached to within 99% provided the initial guess field is physically motivated. We find that the optimal fields contain the transition frequencies required by a good Franck-Condon pumping scheme. The analysis identifies the ranges of intensity and pulse duration which are able to achieve this task before any other competing processes take place. Such a scheme could produce stable ultracold molecular samples or even stable molecular Bose-Einstein condensates.

  9. Multimonth controlled small molecule release from biodegradable thin films

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Bryan B.; Park, Myoung-Hwan; Hagerman, Samantha R.; Hammond, Paula T.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term, localized delivery of small molecules from a biodegradable thin film is challenging owing to their low molecular weight and poor charge density. Accomplishing highly extended controlled release can facilitate high therapeutic levels in specific regions of the body while significantly reducing the toxicity to vital organs typically caused by systemic administration and decreasing the need for medical intervention because of its long-lasting release. Also important is the ability to achieve high drug loadings in thin film coatings to allow incorporation of significant drug amounts on implant surfaces. Here we report a sustained release formulation for small molecules based on a soluble charged polymer–drug conjugate that is immobilized into nanoscale, conformal, layer-by-layer assembled films applicable to a variety of substrate surfaces. We measured a highly predictable sustained drug release from a polymer thin film coating of 0.5–2.7 μm that continued for more than 14 mo with physiologically relevant drug concentrations, providing an important drug delivery advance. We demonstrated this effect with a potent small molecule nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac, because this drug can be used to address chronic pain, osteoarthritis, and a range of other critical medical issues. PMID:25092310

  10. Coherent Control of Optically Generated and Detected Picosecond Surface Acoustic Phonons

    SciTech Connect

    David H. Hurley

    2006-11-01

    Coherent control of elementary optical excitations is a key issue in ultrafast materials science. Manipulation of electronic and vibronic excitations in solids as well as chemical and biological systems on ultrafast time scales has attracted a great deal of attention recently. In semiconductors, coherent control of vibronic excitations has been demonstrated for bulk acoustic and optical phonons generated in superlattice structures. The bandwidth of these approaches is typically fully utilized by employing a 1-D geometry where the laser spot size is much larger than the superlattice repeat length. In this presentation we demonstrate coherent control of optically generated picosecond surface acoustic waves using sub-optical wavelength absorption gratings. The generation and detection characteristics of two material systems are investigated (aluminum absorption gratings on Si and GaAs substrates).

  11. Coherent control of optically generated and detected picosecond surface acoustic phonons

    SciTech Connect

    David Hurley

    2007-07-01

    Coherent control of electronic and phononic excitations in solids, as well as chemical and biological systems on ultrafast time scales is of current research interest. In semiconductors, coherent control of phonons has been demonstrated for acoustic and optical phonons generated in superlattice structures. The bandwidth of these approaches is typically fully utilized by employing a 1-D geometry where the laser spot size is much larger than the superlattice repeat length. In this article we demonstrate coherent control of optically generated picosecond surface acoustic phonons using sub-optical wavelength absorption gratings. The generation and detection characteristics of two material systems are investigated (aluminum absorption gratings on Si and GaAs substrates). Constructive and complete destructive interference conditions are demonstrated using two pump pulses derived from a single Michelson interferometer.

  12. Controllable dissociations of PH3 molecules on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qin; Lei, Yanhua; Shao, Xiji; Ming, Fangfei; Xu, Hu; Wang, Kedong; Xiao, Xudong

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that controllable dissociation of PH3 adsorption products PH x (x = 2, 1) can be realized by STM (scanning tunneling microscope) manipulation techniques at room temperature. Five dissociative products and their geometric structures are identified via combining STM experiments and first-principle calculations and simulations. In total we realize nine kinds of controllable dissociations by applying a voltage pulse among the PH3-related structures on Si(001). The dissociation rates of the five most common reactions are measured by the I-t spectrum method as a function of voltage. The suddenly increased dissociation rate at 3.3 V indicates a transition from multivibrational excitation to single-step excitation induced by inelastic tunneling electrons. Our studies prove that selectively breaking the chemical bonds of a single molecule on semiconductor surface by STM manipulation technique is feasible.

  13. Electronic control of coherence in a two-dimensional array of photonic crystal surface emitting lasers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R J E; Childs, D T D; Ivanov, P; Stevens, B J; Babazadeh, N; Crombie, A J; Ternent, G; Thoms, S; Zhou, H; Hogg, R A

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a semiconductor PCSEL array that uniquely combines an in-plane waveguide structure with nano-scale patterned PCSEL elements. This novel geometry allows two-dimensional electronically controllable coherent coupling of remote vertically emitting lasers. Mutual coherence of the PCSEL elements is verified through the demonstration of a two-dimensional Young's Slits experiment. In addition to allowing the all-electronic control of the interference pattern, this type of device offers new routes to power and brightness scaling in semiconductor lasers, and opportunities for all-electronic beam steering. PMID:26289621

  14. Electronic control of coherence in a two-dimensional array of photonic crystal surface emitting lasers

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R. J. E.; Childs, D. T. D.; Ivanov, P.; Stevens, B. J.; Babazadeh, N.; Crombie, A. J.; Ternent, G.; Thoms, S.; Zhou, H.; Hogg, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a semiconductor PCSEL array that uniquely combines an in-plane waveguide structure with nano-scale patterned PCSEL elements. This novel geometry allows two-dimensional electronically controllable coherent coupling of remote vertically emitting lasers. Mutual coherence of the PCSEL elements is verified through the demonstration of a two-dimensional Young’s Slits experiment. In addition to allowing the all-electronic control of the interference pattern, this type of device offers new routes to power and brightness scaling in semiconductor lasers, and opportunities for all-electronic beam steering. PMID:26289621

  15. Conformation-controlled electron transport in single-molecule junctions containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene) derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le-Jia; Yong, Ai; Zhou, Kai-Ge; Tan, Lin; Ye, Jian; Wu, Guo-Ping; Xu, Zhu-Guo; Zhang, Hao-Li

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the relationships between the molecular structure and electronic transport characteristics of single-molecule junctions is of fundamental and technological importance for future molecular electronics. Herein, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on the single-molecule conductance of a series of oligo(phenylene ethynylene) (OPE) molecular wires, which consist of two phenyl-ethynyl-phenyl π units with different dihedral angles. The molecular conductance was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)-based break-junction techniques under different conditions, including variable temperature and bias potential, which suggested that a coherent tunneling mechanism takes place in the OPE molecular wires with a length of 2.5 nm. The conductance of OPE molecular junctions are strongly affected by the coupling strength between the two π systems, which can be tuned by controlling their intramolecular conformation. A cos(2)θ dependence was revealed between the molecular conductance and dihedral angles between the two conjugated units. Theoretical investigations on the basis of density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) gave consistent results with the experimental observations and provided insights into the conformation-dominated molecular conductance.

  16. Complete Coherent Control of a Quantum Dot Strongly Coupled to a Nanocavity

    PubMed Central

    Dory, Constantin; Fischer, Kevin A.; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Sarmiento, Tomas; Rundquist, Armand; Zhang, Jingyuan L.; Kelaita, Yousif; Vučković, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Strongly coupled quantum dot-cavity systems provide a non-linear configuration of hybridized light-matter states with promising quantum-optical applications. Here, we investigate the coherent interaction between strong laser pulses and quantum dot-cavity polaritons. Resonant excitation of polaritonic states and their interaction with phonons allow us to observe coherent Rabi oscillations and Ramsey fringes. Furthermore, we demonstrate complete coherent control of a quantum dot-photonic crystal cavity based quantum-bit. By controlling the excitation power and phase in a two-pulse excitation scheme we achieve access to the full Bloch sphere. Quantum-optical simulations are in good agreement with our experiments and provide insight into the decoherence mechanisms. PMID:27112420

  17. Complete Coherent Control of a Quantum Dot Strongly Coupled to a Nanocavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dory, Constantin; Fischer, Kevin A.; Müller, Kai; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Sarmiento, Tomas; Rundquist, Armand; Zhang, Jingyuan L.; Kelaita, Yousif; Vučković, Jelena

    2016-04-01

    Strongly coupled quantum dot-cavity systems provide a non-linear configuration of hybridized light-matter states with promising quantum-optical applications. Here, we investigate the coherent interaction between strong laser pulses and quantum dot-cavity polaritons. Resonant excitation of polaritonic states and their interaction with phonons allow us to observe coherent Rabi oscillations and Ramsey fringes. Furthermore, we demonstrate complete coherent control of a quantum dot-photonic crystal cavity based quantum-bit. By controlling the excitation power and phase in a two-pulse excitation scheme we achieve access to the full Bloch sphere. Quantum-optical simulations are in good agreement with our experiments and provide insight into the decoherence mechanisms.

  18. Coherent control of plasma dynamics by feedback-optimized wavefront manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.-H.; Hou, B.; Gao, G.; Nees, J. A.; Krushelnick, K.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Lebailly, V.; Clarke, R.

    2015-05-15

    Plasmas generated by an intense laser pulse can support coherent structures such as large amplitude wakefield that can affect the outcome of an experiment. We investigate the coherent control of plasma dynamics by feedback-optimized wavefront manipulation using a deformable mirror. The experimental outcome is directly used as feedback in an evolutionary algorithm for optimization of the phase front of the driving laser pulse. In this paper, we applied this method to two different experiments: (i) acceleration of electrons in laser driven plasma waves and (ii) self-compression of optical pulses induced by ionization nonlinearity. The manipulation of the laser wavefront leads to orders of magnitude improvement to electron beam properties such as the peak charge, beam divergence, and transverse emittance. The demonstration of coherent control for plasmas opens new possibilities for future laser-based accelerators and their applications.

  19. Enabling coherent control of trapped ions with economical multi-laser frequency stabilization technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lybarger, Warren Emanuel, Jr.

    A phase-locked scanning stability transfer cavity (SSTC) for transferring the absolute frequency stability of an iodine referenced He-Ne (master) laser to three otherwise uncalibrated (slave) lasers (at 844, 1033, & 1092 nm) of a trapped-Sr+ quantum information processing (QIP) apparatus is described. When locked, the 422 nm frequency-doubled Doppler-cooling laser exhibits an error of <1 MHz RMS for several hours, and similar stability is achieved with the other slave lasers. When unlocked, each slave laser drifts by a large fraction (or more) of the corresponding transition linewidth in minutes, thus making reliable laser cooling, ion state readout, and execution of QIP algorithms practically infeasible. The SSTC makes coherent control of Sr+ possible by addressing this problem, and the QIP apparatus is now sufficiently stable for single user operation. New single-ion experimental capabilities include ground state cooling, high-fidelity Rabi flopping, Ramsey interferometry, and sympathetic cooling of 88Sr+( 86Sr+) with 86Sr+( 88Sr+). A 2.5 msec coherence time has been achieved with the optical quoit encoded in a |5 2S 1/2> ↔ |4 2D5/2> quadrupole transition, a precision measurement of the isotope shift of the qubit transition in 86Sr+ relative to 88Sr+ is reported, and a single-ion heating rate consistent with results throughout the trapped-ion community is reported. The SSTC is simple to implement, uses no custom optics, and it has a higher scanning rate than previously demonstrated SSTC's. Phase-locked SSTC's are shown to have an advantage over the more common displacement-locked SSTC in the low finesse regime, and they are an attractive alternative to passively stable but complex optical references and diode lasers designed to address the same problem. The SSTC is useful in spectroscopic applications with other ion species, atoms, and molecules, in general. An appendix is dedicated to describing in detail an advanced trapped-ion quantum processor concept

  20. Quantum control in silicon using coherent THz pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Stephen A.; Greenland, P. Thornton; van der Meer, Alexander F. G.; Murdin, Benedict N.; Pidgeon, Carl R.; Redlich, Britta; Vinh, Nguyen Q.; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2012-10-01

    It has long been known that shallow donors such as phosphorous and the other group-V elements, have a hydrogen-like optical spectrum. The main difference is that while the spectrum of atomic hydrogen lies in the visible band, the spectrum of shallow donors in silicon is downshifted to the THz frequency band. This is a direct consequence of the reduced Coulomb attraction seen by the loosely bound electron because the core electrons shield the positive donor atom nucleus, and because the electron is now moving in a dielectric material. While spectroscopy has already revealed much about the energy level structure, very little was known about the temporal dynamics of the system until now. We have used THz pulses from the FELIX free electron laser to probe these hydrogen-like levels. By exploiting the well-known pump-probe technique we have measured the characteristic lifetimes of the excited Rydberg states and found them to be of the order 200 ps. Then, by making subtle changes to the geometry of the pump-probe experimental setup we demonstrate the existence of a THz photon echo. The photon echo is a purely quantum phenomenon with no classical analogue, and it allows us to study the quantum state of the donor electron. We then show, using the photon echo, that it is possible to create a coherent superposition of the ground and excited state of the donor. Measuring the photon echo is important because it can also be used to measure a second important characteristic lifetime of the silicon-donor system, the phase decoherence time.

  1. Allosteric control of the ribosome by small-molecule antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Leyi; Pulk, Arto; Wasserman, Michael R; Feldman, Michael B; Altman, Roger B; Cate, Jamie H. Doudna; Blanchard, Scott C

    2013-01-01

    Protein synthesis is targeted by numerous, chemically distinct antibiotics that bind and inhibit key functional centers of the ribosome. Using single-molecule imaging and X-ray crystallography, we show that the aminoglycoside neomycin blocks aminoacyl–transfer RNA (aa-tRNA) selection and translocation as well as ribosome recycling by binding to helix 69 (H69) of 23S ribosomal RNA within the large subunit of the Escherichia coli ribosome. There, neomycin prevents the remodeling of intersubunit bridges that normally accompanies the process of subunit rotation to stabilize a partially rotated ribosome configuration in which peptidyl (P)-site tRNA is constrained in a previously unidentified hybrid position. Direct measurements show that this neomycin-stabilized intermediate is incompatible with the translation factor binding that is required for distinct protein synthesis reactions. These findings reveal the functional importance of reversible intersubunit rotation to the translation mechanism and shed new light on the allosteric control of ribosome functions by small-molecule antibiotics. PMID:22902368

  2. Plasmonic band structure controls single-molecule fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Langguth, Lutz; Punj, Deep; Wenger, Jérôme; Koenderink, A Femius

    2013-10-22

    Plasmonics and photonic crystals are two complementary approaches to tailor single-emitter fluorescence, using strong local field enhancements near metals on one hand and spatially extended photonic band structure effects on the other hand. Here, we explore the emergence of spontaneous emission control by finite-sized hexagonal arrays of nanoapertures milled in gold film. We demonstrate that already small lattices enable highly directional and enhanced emission from single fluorescent molecules in the central aperture. Even for clusters just four unit cells across, the directionality is set by the plasmonic crystal band structure, as confirmed by full-wave numerical simulations. This realization of plasmonic phase array antennas driven by single quantum emitters opens a flexible toolbox to engineer fluorescence and its detection.

  3. Cell cycle control of DNA joint molecule resolution.

    PubMed

    Wild, Philipp; Matos, Joao

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of stable interactions between chromosomes underpins vital cellular processes such as recombinational DNA repair and bipolar chromosome segregation. On the other hand, timely disengagement of persistent connections is necessary to assure efficient partitioning of the replicated genome prior to cell division. Whereas great progress has been made in defining how cohesin-mediated chromosomal interactions are disengaged as cells prepare to undergo chromosome segregation, little is known about the metabolism of DNA joint molecules (JMs), generated during the repair of chromosomal lesions. Recent work on Mus81 and Yen1/GEN1, two conserved structure-selective endonucleases, revealed unforeseen links between JM-processing and cell cycle progression. Cell cycle kinases and phosphatases control Mus81 and Yen1/GEN1 to restrain deleterious JM-processing during S-phase, while safeguarding chromosome segregation during mitosis.

  4. Optimal nonlinear coherent mode transitions in Bose-Einstein condensates utilizing spatiotemporal controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocker, David; Yan, Julia; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-05-01

    Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) offer the potential to examine quantum behavior at large length and time scales, as well as forming promising candidates for quantum technology applications. Thus, the manipulation of BECs using control fields is a topic of prime interest. We consider BECs in the mean-field model of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE), which contains linear and nonlinear features, both of which are subject to control. In this work we report successful optimal control simulations of a one-dimensional GPE by modulation of the linear and nonlinear terms to stimulate transitions into excited coherent modes. The linear and nonlinear controls are allowed to freely vary over space and time to seek their optimal forms. The determination of the excited coherent modes targeted for optimization is numerically performed through an adaptive imaginary time propagation method. Numerical simulations are performed for optimal control of mode-to-mode transitions between the ground coherent mode and the excited modes of a BEC trapped in a harmonic well. The results show greater than 99 % success for nearly all trials utilizing reasonable initial guesses for the controls, and analysis of the optimal controls reveals primarily direct transitions between initial and target modes. The success of using solely the nonlinearity term as a control opens up further research toward exploring novel control mechanisms inaccessible to linear Schrödinger-type systems.

  5. Coherent control of the waveforms of recoilless γ-ray photons.

    PubMed

    Vagizov, Farit; Antonov, Vladimir; Radeonychev, Y V; Shakhmuratov, R N; Kocharovskaya, Olga

    2014-04-01

    The concepts and ideas of coherent, nonlinear and quantum optics have been extended to photon energies in the range of 10-100 kiloelectronvolts, corresponding to soft γ-ray radiation (the term used when the radiation is produced in nuclear transitions) or, equivalently, hard X-ray radiation (the term used when the radiation is produced by electron motion). The recent experimental achievements in this energy range include the demonstration of parametric down-conversion in the Langevin regime, electromagnetically induced transparency in a cavity, the collective Lamb shift, vacuum-assisted generation of atomic coherences and single-photon revival in nuclear absorbing multilayer structures. Also, realization of single-photon coherent storage and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage were recently proposed in this regime. More related work is discussed in a recent review. However, the number of tools for the coherent manipulation of interactions between γ-ray photons and nuclear ensembles remains limited. Here we suggest and implement an efficient method to control the waveforms of γ-ray photons coherently. In particular, we demonstrate the conversion of individual recoilless γ-ray photons into a coherent, ultrashort pulse train and into a double pulse. Our method is based on the resonant interaction of γ-ray photons with an ensemble of nuclei with a resonant transition frequency that is periodically modulated in time. The frequency modulation, which is achieved by a uniform vibration of the resonant absorber, owing to the Doppler effect, renders resonant absorption and dispersion both time dependent, allowing us to shape the waveforms of the incident γ-ray photons. We expect that this technique will lead to advances in the emerging fields of coherent and quantum γ-ray photon optics, providing a basis for the realization of γ-ray-photon/nuclear-ensemble interfaces and quantum interference effects at nuclear γ-ray transitions.

  6. Coherent control of the waveforms of recoilless γ-ray photons.

    PubMed

    Vagizov, Farit; Antonov, Vladimir; Radeonychev, Y V; Shakhmuratov, R N; Kocharovskaya, Olga

    2014-04-01

    The concepts and ideas of coherent, nonlinear and quantum optics have been extended to photon energies in the range of 10-100 kiloelectronvolts, corresponding to soft γ-ray radiation (the term used when the radiation is produced in nuclear transitions) or, equivalently, hard X-ray radiation (the term used when the radiation is produced by electron motion). The recent experimental achievements in this energy range include the demonstration of parametric down-conversion in the Langevin regime, electromagnetically induced transparency in a cavity, the collective Lamb shift, vacuum-assisted generation of atomic coherences and single-photon revival in nuclear absorbing multilayer structures. Also, realization of single-photon coherent storage and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage were recently proposed in this regime. More related work is discussed in a recent review. However, the number of tools for the coherent manipulation of interactions between γ-ray photons and nuclear ensembles remains limited. Here we suggest and implement an efficient method to control the waveforms of γ-ray photons coherently. In particular, we demonstrate the conversion of individual recoilless γ-ray photons into a coherent, ultrashort pulse train and into a double pulse. Our method is based on the resonant interaction of γ-ray photons with an ensemble of nuclei with a resonant transition frequency that is periodically modulated in time. The frequency modulation, which is achieved by a uniform vibration of the resonant absorber, owing to the Doppler effect, renders resonant absorption and dispersion both time dependent, allowing us to shape the waveforms of the incident γ-ray photons. We expect that this technique will lead to advances in the emerging fields of coherent and quantum γ-ray photon optics, providing a basis for the realization of γ-ray-photon/nuclear-ensemble interfaces and quantum interference effects at nuclear γ-ray transitions. PMID:24670656

  7. Experimental control of transport resonances in a coherent quantum rocking ratchet

    PubMed Central

    Grossert, Christopher; Leder, Martin; Denisov, Sergey; Hänggi, Peter; Weitz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The ratchet phenomenon is a means to get directed transport without net forces. Originally conceived to rectify stochastic motion and describe operational principles of biological motors, the ratchet effect can be used to achieve controllable coherent quantum transport. This transport is an ingredient of several perspective quantum devices including atomic chips. Here we examine coherent transport of ultra-cold atoms in a rocking quantum ratchet. This is realized by loading a rubidium atomic Bose–Einstein condensate into a periodic optical potential subjected to a biharmonic temporal drive. The achieved long-time coherence allows us to resolve resonance enhancement of the atom transport induced by avoided crossings in the Floquet spectrum of the system. By tuning the strength of the temporal modulations, we observe a bifurcation of a single resonance into a doublet. Our measurements reveal the role of interactions among Floquet eigenstates for quantum ratchet transport. PMID:26852803

  8. Coherent spin control of a nanocavity-enhanced qubit in diamond

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Luozhou; Lu, Ming; Schroder, Tim; Chen, Edward H.; Walsh, Michael; Bayn, Igal; Goldstein, Jordan; Gaathon, Ophir; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Mower, Jacob; et al

    2015-01-28

    A central aim of quantum information processing is the efficient entanglement of multiple stationary quantum memories via photons. Among solid-state systems, the nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond has emerged as an excellent optically addressable memory with second-scale electron spin coherence times. Recently, quantum entanglement and teleportation have been shown between two nitrogen-vacancy memories, but scaling to larger networks requires more efficient spin-photon interfaces such as optical resonators. Here we report such nitrogen-vacancy nanocavity systems in strong Purcell regime with optical quality factors approaching 10,000 and electron spin coherence times exceeding 200 µs using a silicon hard-mask fabrication process. This spin-photon interfacemore » is integrated with on-chip microwave striplines for coherent spin control, providing an efficient quantum memory for quantum networks.« less

  9. Coherent spin control of a nanocavity-enhanced qubit in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Luozhou; Lu, Ming; Schroder, Tim; Chen, Edward H.; Walsh, Michael; Bayn, Igal; Goldstein, Jordan; Gaathon, Ophir; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Mower, Jacob; Cotlet, Mircea; Markham, Matthew L.; Twitchen, Daniel J.; Englund, Dirk

    2015-01-28

    A central aim of quantum information processing is the efficient entanglement of multiple stationary quantum memories via photons. Among solid-state systems, the nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond has emerged as an excellent optically addressable memory with second-scale electron spin coherence times. Recently, quantum entanglement and teleportation have been shown between two nitrogen-vacancy memories, but scaling to larger networks requires more efficient spin-photon interfaces such as optical resonators. Here we report such nitrogen-vacancy nanocavity systems in strong Purcell regime with optical quality factors approaching 10,000 and electron spin coherence times exceeding 200 µs using a silicon hard-mask fabrication process. This spin-photon interface is integrated with on-chip microwave striplines for coherent spin control, providing an efficient quantum memory for quantum networks.

  10. Experimental control of transport resonances in a coherent quantum rocking ratchet.

    PubMed

    Grossert, Christopher; Leder, Martin; Denisov, Sergey; Hänggi, Peter; Weitz, Martin

    2016-02-08

    The ratchet phenomenon is a means to get directed transport without net forces. Originally conceived to rectify stochastic motion and describe operational principles of biological motors, the ratchet effect can be used to achieve controllable coherent quantum transport. This transport is an ingredient of several perspective quantum devices including atomic chips. Here we examine coherent transport of ultra-cold atoms in a rocking quantum ratchet. This is realized by loading a rubidium atomic Bose-Einstein condensate into a periodic optical potential subjected to a biharmonic temporal drive. The achieved long-time coherence allows us to resolve resonance enhancement of the atom transport induced by avoided crossings in the Floquet spectrum of the system. By tuning the strength of the temporal modulations, we observe a bifurcation of a single resonance into a doublet. Our measurements reveal the role of interactions among Floquet eigenstates for quantum ratchet transport.

  11. Coherent all-optical control of ultracold atoms arrays in permanent magnetic traps.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Mukai, Tetsuya; Häffner, Hartmut; Byrnes, Tim

    2014-02-10

    We propose a hybrid architecture for quantum information processing based on magnetically trapped ultracold atoms coupled via optical fields. The ultracold atoms, which can be either Bose-Einstein condensates or ensembles, are trapped in permanent magnetic traps and are placed in microcavities, connected by silica based waveguides on an atom chip structure. At each trapping center, the ultracold atoms form spin coherent states, serving as a quantum memory. An all-optical scheme is used to initialize, measure and perform a universal set of quantum gates on the single and two spin-coherent states where entanglement can be generated addressably between spatially separated trapped ultracold atoms. This allows for universal quantum operations on the spin coherent state quantum memories. We give detailed derivations of the composite cavity system mediated by a silica waveguide as well as the control scheme. Estimates for the necessary experimental conditions for a working hybrid device are given. PMID:24663640

  12. Experimental control of transport resonances in a coherent quantum rocking ratchet.

    PubMed

    Grossert, Christopher; Leder, Martin; Denisov, Sergey; Hänggi, Peter; Weitz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The ratchet phenomenon is a means to get directed transport without net forces. Originally conceived to rectify stochastic motion and describe operational principles of biological motors, the ratchet effect can be used to achieve controllable coherent quantum transport. This transport is an ingredient of several perspective quantum devices including atomic chips. Here we examine coherent transport of ultra-cold atoms in a rocking quantum ratchet. This is realized by loading a rubidium atomic Bose-Einstein condensate into a periodic optical potential subjected to a biharmonic temporal drive. The achieved long-time coherence allows us to resolve resonance enhancement of the atom transport induced by avoided crossings in the Floquet spectrum of the system. By tuning the strength of the temporal modulations, we observe a bifurcation of a single resonance into a doublet. Our measurements reveal the role of interactions among Floquet eigenstates for quantum ratchet transport. PMID:26852803

  13. Coherent spin control of a nanocavity-enhanced qubit in diamond.

    PubMed

    Li, Luozhou; Schröder, Tim; Chen, Edward H; Walsh, Michael; Bayn, Igal; Goldstein, Jordan; Gaathon, Ophir; Trusheim, Matthew E; Lu, Ming; Mower, Jacob; Cotlet, Mircea; Markham, Matthew L; Twitchen, Daniel J; Englund, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A central aim of quantum information processing is the efficient entanglement of multiple stationary quantum memories via photons. Among solid-state systems, the nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond has emerged as an excellent optically addressable memory with second-scale electron spin coherence times. Recently, quantum entanglement and teleportation have been shown between two nitrogen-vacancy memories, but scaling to larger networks requires more efficient spin-photon interfaces such as optical resonators. Here we report such nitrogen-vacancy-nanocavity systems in the strong Purcell regime with optical quality factors approaching 10,000 and electron spin coherence times exceeding 200 μs using a silicon hard-mask fabrication process. This spin-photon interface is integrated with on-chip microwave striplines for coherent spin control, providing an efficient quantum memory for quantum networks. PMID:25629223

  14. Electroencephalographic coherence in Alzheimer's disease: comparisons with a control group and population norms.

    PubMed

    Knott, V; Mohr, E; Mahoney, C; Ilivitsky, V

    2000-01-01

    Previous research from independent laboratories has shown reduced electroencephalographic coherence in patients diagnosed with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). This study added to this work by comparing interhemispheric and intrahemispheric coherence in nonmedicated DAT patients (n = 35) with that of a normal control group (n = 30), as well as with a data bank of population norms. Raw and Z-score transformed values showed reduced coherence, interhemispherically (in delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands) and intrahemispherically (delta and theta bands) in DAT patients with both comparison procedures. Discriminant analysis correctly classified 73% to 75% of patients. The results are discussed in relation to earlier research, "trait" versus "state" factors, the cholinergic system, and cognitive processes in dementia.

  15. Reference trajectory tracking for locally designed coherent quantum controls.

    PubMed

    Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Turinici, Gabriel; Rouchon, Pierre

    2005-03-24

    Local time control methods are used in the simulation of quantum control phenomena because they conveniently ensure an increase of a predefined performance index and also avoid singularities associated with tracking procedures. However, the drawback of the existing implementations is that they only take into account one-photon, direct transitions and may stop at nonoptimal values of the index. We propose in this paper a modification of the currently used algorithms that addresses this issue and explain how the convergence is improved. Furthermore, when iterations are required, we show that this approach can be inserted into a monotonically convergent algorithm. PMID:16833569

  16. Multi-wave coherent control of a solid-state single emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fras, F.; Mermillod, Q.; Nogues, G.; Hoarau, C.; Schneider, C.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Langbein, W.; Kasprzak, J.

    2016-03-01

    Coherent control of individual two-level systems is at the heart of any quantum information protocol. In solids, two-level systems generated by bound electron-hole excitonic states, trapped in semiconductor quantum dots, display a robust coupling with light, enabling their optical manipulation via avant-garde approaches of nonlinear spectroscopy. Here, we develop a novel toolbox for coherent control of a quantum dot exciton based on the nonlinear wave-mixing responses, which are enhanced by a photonic nanostructure. By employing three, short, resonant laser pulses, we show that we can manipulate, at will, the intrinsic coherence of the quantum dot dipole and therefore engineer the spectro-temporal shape of its coherent emission. Multi-pulse quantum control sequences, which have been successful in NMR spectroscopy and quantum computation, can now be applied to optically active solid-state quantum bits with application in high-order nonlinear spectroscopy, ultrafast quantum optoelectronics and spread spectrum technology at the single emitter level.

  17. Signalling to the nucleus under the control of light and small molecules.

    PubMed

    Juillot, Samuel; Beyer, Hannes M; Madl, Josef; Weber, Wilfried; Zurbriggen, Matias D; Römer, Winfried

    2016-02-01

    One major regulatory mechanism in cell signalling is the spatio-temporal control of the localization of signalling molecules. We synthetically designed an entire cell signalling pathway, which allows controlling the transport of signalling molecules from the plasma membrane to the nucleus, by using light and small molecules.

  18. Inverse Doppler shift and control field as coherence generators for the stability in superluminal light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoor, Fazal; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Khan, Salman

    2015-05-01

    A gain-based four-level atomic medium for the stability in superluminal light propagation using control field and inverse Doppler shift as coherence generators is studied. In regimes of weak and strong control field, a broadband and multiple controllable transparency windows are, respectively, identified with significantly enhanced group indices. The observed Doppler effect for the class of high atomic velocity of the medium is counterintuitive in comparison to the effect of the class of low atomic velocity. The intensity of each of the two pump fields is kept less than the optimum limit reported in [M. D. Stenner and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063801 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevA.67.063801] for stability in the superluminal light pulse. Consequently, superluminal stable domains with the generated coherence are explored.

  19. STM CONTROL OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS: Single-Molecule Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hla, Saw-Wai; Rieder, Karl-Heinz

    2003-10-01

    The fascinating advances in single atom/molecule manipulation with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip allow scientists to fabricate atomic-scale structures or to probe chemical and physical properties of matters at an atomic level. Owing to these advances, it has become possible for the basic chemical reaction steps, such as dissociation, diffusion, adsorption, readsorption, and bond-formation processes, to be performed by using the STM tip. Complete sequences of chemical reactions are able to induce at a single-molecule level. New molecules can be constructed from the basic molecular building blocks on a one-molecule-at-a-time basis by using a variety of STM manipulation schemes in a systematic step-by-step manner. These achievements open up entirely new opportunities in nanochemistry and nanochemical technology. In this review, various STM manipulation techniques useful in the single-molecule reaction process are reviewed, and their impact on the future of nanoscience and technology are discussed.

  20. Controlled Orientation of Polyconjugated Guest Molecules in Tunable Host Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Soegiarto, Airon C.; Comotti, Angiolina; Ward, Michael D.

    2010-12-07

    Linear conjugated guest molecules with high aspect ratios form inclusion compounds with guanidinium organodisulfonate (GDS) host frameworks in which organodisulfonate 'pillars' connect opposing GS sheets to generate lamellar architectures that reflect templating by the guest. Through judicious selection of pillars having adjustable lengths (l{sub S-S}, as measured by the separation between distal sulfur atoms) and guests of various lengths (l{sub g}), the framework architecture can be controlled systematically in a manner that enables regulation of the guest orientation and aggregation in the host framework. Inclusion compounds for which l{sub g}/l{sub S-S} {le} 0.9 exhibit a bilayer architecture with 1-D channels containing guests oriented parallel to the long axis of the pillar. Guests with values of l{sub g} comparable to l{sub S-S}, however, promote the formation of a brick architecture in which the guests and the pillar are arranged in a herringbone motif. Surprisingly, longer guests (l{sub g} = 1.25l{sub S-S}) favor the formation of the bilayer architecture despite their larger volume because the guests are forced to align end-to-end as single-file arrays due to the vertical constraints of the 1-D channels. Bithiophene and biphenyl guests (l{sub g} < l{sub S-S}) are exceptional, promoting bilayer structures in which turnstile rotations of the pillars afford an unusual motif in which the guests are isolated from one another. The ability to synthesize a large family of compounds based on a common supramolecular building block (the GS sheet) permits construction of a structural 'phase diagram' based on two simple molecular parameters, l{sub g} and l{sub S-S}, that can be used to sort the inclusion compounds according to their framework architectures and enable prediction of crystal structures for new host-guest combinations. The effects of these different framework architectures and packing motifs is manifested as bathochromic shifts in the absorption and

  1. Coherent Control of the Exciton-Biexciton System in an InAs Self-Assembled Quantum Dot Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Singh, Rohan; Bayer, Manfred; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Cundiff, Steven T.

    2016-10-01

    Coherent control of a strongly inhomogeneously broadened system, namely, InAs self-assembled quantum dots, is demonstrated. To circumvent the deleterious effects of the inhomogeneous broadening, which usually masks the results of coherent manipulation, we use prepulse two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to provide a size-selective readout of the ground, exciton, and biexciton states. The dependence on the timing of the prepulse is due to the dynamics of the coherently generated populations. To further validate the results, we performed prepulse polarization dependent measurements and confirmed the behavior expected from selection rules. All measured spectra can be excellently reproduced by solving the optical Bloch equations for a 4-level system.

  2. Coherent control over diamond nitrogen-vacancy center spins with a mechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Gregory

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate coherent Rabi oscillations of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center spins driven directly by a mechanical resonator without mediation by a magnetic driving field. Using a bulk-mode acoustic resonator fabricated from single crystal diamond, we exert non-axial ac stress on NV centers positioned at an antinode of a gigahertz frequency mechanical mode. When the Δms = -1 to +1 spin state splitting energy is tuned into resonance with a driven mechanical mode, we observe Δms = +/-2 spin transitions, which are forbidden by the magnetic dipole selection rule. To rule out stray electric and magnetic fields as the origin of these spin transitions, we study the spin signal as a function depth within the diamond resonator. We find that the spin signal reproduces the periodicity of the acoustic standing wave, confirming the mechanical origin of the observed spin resonance. Using single-crystal diamond mechanical resonators with fQ products of 2 ×1012 , we observe coherent mechanically driven Rabi oscillations up to 4 MHz. For ensembles of NV centers coupled to the resonator, we analyze Rabi oscillations and their dephasing with a combination of spatially inhomogeneous mechanical driving and fluctuating magnetic fields from a noisy spin environment. Additionally, we examine the coherence of mechanically controlled NV center qubits and compare it to the coherence of magnetically controlled spin qubits in the NV center ground state spin manifold. This work demonstrates direct and coherent coupling between NV center spins and resonator phonons, which has potential for NV-based metrology using hybrid spin-mechanical sensors, fundamental research into spin-phonon interactions at the nanoscale, and as a platform for hybrid spin-mechanical quantum systems. Funding from ONR is gratefully acknowledged. In collaboration with E. R. MacQuarrie, T. A. Gosavi, A. M. Moehle, N. R. Jungwirth, and S. A. Bhave.

  3. Investigating the Use of Coherence Analysis on Mandibular Electromyograms to Investigate Neural Control of Early Oromandibular Behaviours: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeve, Roger W.; Price, Christiana M.

    2010-01-01

    An empirical method for investigating differences in neural control of jaw movement across oromandibular behaviours is to compute the coherence function for electromyographic signals obtained from mandibular muscle groups. This procedure has been used with adults but not extended to children. This pilot study investigated if coherence analysis…

  4. Control of anisotropic interactions with microwaves in ultracold NaK molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zoe; Loh, Huanqian; Park, Jee Woo; Will, Sebastian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold polar molecules offer long range anisotropic interactions, which can provide access to novel phases of condensed matter physics. The recent creation of fermionic NaK polar molecules in the ground hyperfine-rovibronic state, which is chemically stable, demonstrates an important step towards the study of new dipolar physics. To engineer dipolar interactions between molecules with large electric dipole moments, one can apply microwaves to mix the lowest and first excited rotational states. Hyperfine interaction in the first excited rotational state mixes nuclear spin and rotation, leading to states with rich character, which we map out by performing microwave spectroscopy. The admixed hyperfine character serves as a tool to engineer wide ranges of ``magic'' trap polarization angles, at which the lowest and first excited rotational states have matching polarizabilities. Finally, we demonstrate that we can access large dipole moments by coherently dressing the molecules with microwaves.

  5. Time-resolved investigation of coherently controlled electric currents at a metal surface.

    PubMed

    Güdde, J; Rohleder, M; Meier, T; Koch, S W; Höfer, U

    2007-11-23

    Studies of current dynamics in solids have been hindered by insufficiently brief trigger signals and electronic detection speeds. By combining a coherent control scheme with photoelectron spectroscopy, we generated and detected lateral electron currents at a metal surface on a femtosecond time scale with a contact-free experimental setup. We used coherent optical excitation at the light frequencies omega(a) and omega(a)/2 to induce the current, whose direction was controlled by the relative phase between the phase-locked laser excitation pulses. Time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy afforded a direct image of the momentum distribution of the excited electrons as a function of time. For the first (n = 1) image-potential state of Cu(100), we found a decay time of 10 femtoseconds, attributable to electron scattering with steps and surface defects. PMID:18033880

  6. The Development of the Undulator Controls Module at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Alarcon, A.D.; /SLAC

    2009-12-11

    The Linac Coherent Light Source, LCLS, at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, SNAL, is the first hard x-ray Free Electron Laser. The Undulator Controls Module, UCM, controls five cams and two translation stages that regulate the position of each of the 33 permanent undulator magnet segments within 10 microns. The UCM package, hardware and software, was designed and built by the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne. Important lessons were learned throughout the collaborative design, installation, testing, and commissioning periods that could be invaluable to future similar controls projects.

  7. Coherent control of radiation patterns of nonlinear multiphoton processes in nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Papoff, Francesco; McArthur, Duncan; Hourahine, Ben

    2015-07-09

    We propose a scheme for the coherent control of light waves and currents in metallic nanospheres which applies independently of the nonlinear multiphoton processes at the origin of waves and currents. We derive conditions on the external control field which enable us to change the radiation pattern and suppress radiative losses or to reduce absorption, enabling the particle to behave as a perfect scatterer or as a perfect absorber. The control introduces narrow features in the response of the particles that result in high sensitivity to small variations in the local environment, including subwavelength spatial shifts.

  8. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in asymmetric double quantum wells via spontaneously generated coherence

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yuan; Deng, Li; Chen, Aixi

    2015-02-15

    We investigate the nonlinear optical phenomena of the optical bistability and multistability via spontaneously generated coherence in an asymmetric double quantum well structure coupled by a weak probe field and a controlling field. It is shown that the threshold and hysteresis cycle of the optical bistability can be conveniently controlled only by adjusting the intensity of the SGC or the controlling field. Moreover, switching between optical bistability and multistability can be achieved. These studies may have practical significance for the preparation of optical bistable switching device.

  9. Control of coherent excitation of neon in the extreme ultraviolet regime.

    PubMed

    Plenge, Jürgen; Wirsing, Andreas; Raschpichler, Christopher; Wassermann, Bernhard; Rühl, Eckart

    2011-01-01

    Coherent excitation of a superposition of Rydberg states in neon by the 13th harmonic of an intense 804 nm pulse and the formation of a wave packet is reported. Pump-probe experiments are performed, where the 3d-manifold of the 2p6-->2p5 (2P3/2) 3d [1/2]1- and 2p6-->2p5 (2P3/2) 3d [3/2]1-transitions are excited by an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation pulse, which is centered at 20.05 eV photon energy. The temporal evolution of the excited state population is probed by ionization with a time-delayed 804 nm pulse. Control of coherent transient excitation and wave packet dynamics in the XUV-regime is demonstrated, where the spectral phase of the 13th harmonic is used as a control parameter. Modulation of the phase is achieved by propagation of the XUV-pulse through neon of variable gas density. The experimental results indicate that phase-shaped high-order harmonics can be used to control fundamental coherent excitation processes in the XUV-regime.

  10. Coherent control of a transmon qubit with a nanowire-based Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, T. W.; Petersson, K. D.; Kuemmeth, F.; Jespersen, T. S.; Krogstrup, P.; Nygård, J.; Marcus, C. M.

    2015-03-01

    Transmon qubits have taken great leaps towards realizing a quantum processor. Here we present measurements on a novel, gateable transmon. By tuning the electron density in a semiconducting nanowire Josephson junction we can control the qubit frequency from ~3 GHz to ~8 GHz. The transmon was embedded into an aluminum coplanar waveguide cavity for readout and qubit control. In the resonant regime we observe strong cavity-qubit coupling. In the dispersive regime we demonstrate coherent control on the Bloch sphere. The life- and coherence times were measured to T2* ~ 2T1 ~ 1 μ s. The coherence time was measured to almost 1 μs. Fast gate operations facilitate z-rotations as well as promising fast two-qubit operations in future multiple-qubit devices. These measurements open new possibilities for gateable superconducting qubits and promise a plausible system for Majorana hybrid devices. Research supported by Microsoft Station Q, Danish National Research Foundation, Villum Foundation, Lundbeck Foundation, and the European Commission.

  11. Coherent beam combining of pulsed fibre amplifiers with active phase control

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X L; Zhou, Pu; Ma, Y X; Ma, H T; Xu, X J; Liu, Z J; Zhao, Y J

    2011-12-31

    Coherent beam combining of pulsed fibre lasers is a promising method for power scaling while simultaneously maintaining good beam quality. We propose and demonstrate a scalable architecture for coherent beam combining of all-fibre pulsed amplifiers with active phase control using the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm. A low-pass filter is introduced to eliminate the fluctuation of the metric function caused by pulsed lasers and to extract the exact phase noise signal. Active control is thereby based on the SPGD algorithm, resulting in stable coherent beam combining at the receiving plane even in a turbulent environment. Experimental results show that the fringe visibility of the long exposure pattern increases from 0 to 0.4, and the power encircled in the main-lobe increases by 1.6 times when the system evolves from the open-loop phase-locking scheme to the closed-loop scheme. This architecture can be easily scaled up to a higher power by increasing the number of amplifying channels and the power of a single amplifier.

  12. Coherent control of single spins in silicon carbide at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Widmann, Matthias; Lee, Sang-Yun; Rendler, Torsten; Son, Nguyen Tien; Fedder, Helmut; Paik, Seoyoung; Yang, Li-Ping; Zhao, Nan; Yang, Sen; Booker, Ian; Denisenko, Andrej; Jamali, Mohammad; Momenzadeh, S Ali; Gerhardt, Ilja; Ohshima, Takeshi; Gali, Adam; Janzén, Erik; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2015-02-01

    Spins in solids are cornerstone elements of quantum spintronics. Leading contenders such as defects in diamond or individual phosphorus dopants in silicon have shown spectacular progress, but either lack established nanotechnology or an efficient spin/photon interface. Silicon carbide (SiC) combines the strength of both systems: it has a large bandgap with deep defects and benefits from mature fabrication techniques. Here, we report the characterization of photoluminescence and optical spin polarization from single silicon vacancies in SiC, and demonstrate that single spins can be addressed at room temperature. We show coherent control of a single defect spin and find long spin coherence times under ambient conditions. Our study provides evidence that SiC is a promising system for atomic-scale spintronics and quantum technology. PMID:25437256

  13. Spatiotemporal Coherent Control of Light through a Multiple Scattering Medium with the Multispectral Transmission Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounaix, Mickael; Andreoli, Daria; Defienne, Hugo; Volpe, Giorgio; Katz, Ori; Grésillon, Samuel; Gigan, Sylvain

    2016-06-01

    We report the broadband characterization of the propagation of light through a multiple scattering medium by means of its multispectral transmission matrix. Using a single spatial light modulator, our approach enables the full control of both the spatial and spectral properties of an ultrashort pulse transmitted through the medium. We demonstrate spatiotemporal focusing of the pulse at any arbitrary position and time with any desired spectral shape. Our approach opens new perspectives for fundamental studies of light-matter interaction in disordered media, and has potential applications in sensing, coherent control, and imaging.

  14. Single pulse phase-control interferometric coherent anti-StokesRaman scattering spectroscopy (CARS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Sang-Hyun; Caster, Allison G.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2005-09-28

    In coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy (CARS) experiments, usually the amplitude of the signal is measured and the phase information is lost. With a polarization- and phase-controlled pulse shaping technique, the relative phase between the resonant and non-resonant CARS signals is controlled, and spectral interferometry is performed without an interferometer. Both the real and imaginary parts of the background-free resonant CARS spectrum are measured via spectral interferometry between the resonant and non-resonant signals from the same sample. The resonant signal is amplified significantly by homodyne mixing with the non-resonant signal as a local oscillator, greatly improving the detection limit.

  15. Double-control coherent absorption and transparency in a six-level optical gain medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Saswata; Mandal, Swapan

    2011-10-01

    The application of two coupling/pump fields to an M-type six-level atomic system in order to manipulate the probe response is suggested in this paper. With the inverted population condition the analytical formulation of the probe response is examined under the purview of coupling field-induced double-control quantum interference effects at different detunings. In particular, we report electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency via controlling the driving contribution of two coupling fields on different probe transitions. These driving contributions of the two coupling fields rely on lower-level hyperfine coherence, detuning and strength.

  16. Advantages of the coherent antistokes Raman scattering (CARS) in environmental monitoring and industrial process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Eberhard; de Vries, Thorsten; Darpel, H.; Anders, Angelika

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this investigation was to develop a fast method for the in-situ characterization of chemicals solved in water based on Coherent Antistokes Raman Scattering (CARS). In order to test the potential of CARS as a tool for the in-situ spectroscopy scanning and multiplex CARS techniques were investigated. Polarization CARS (PCARS) was used to reduce the nonvibrational resonant signal generated by the electron cloud of the solvent molecules. The spectra of some alcohols and pollutants such as pyridine, nitrate and sulfate were investigated. Computer simulations were applied for the evaluation of the CARS spectra. The most evident advantage of CARS in comparison with other Raman methods is the very short time to achieve a spectrum. The shortest time to get a spectrum is limited by the length of the laser pulse (e.g. 5 ns). In addition no sample preparation is necessary.

  17. Approximation of reachable sets for coherently controlled open quantum systems: Application to quantum state engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Lu, Dawei; Luo, Zhihuang; Laflamme, Raymond; Peng, Xinhua; Du, Jiangfeng

    2016-07-01

    Precisely characterizing and controlling realistic quantum systems under noises is a challenging frontier in quantum sciences and technologies. In developing reliable controls for open quantum systems, one is often confronted with the problem of the lack of knowledge on the system controllability. The purpose of this paper is to give a numerical approach to this problem, that is, to approximately compute the reachable set of states for coherently controlled quantum Markovian systems. The approximation consists of setting both upper and lower bounds for system's reachable region of states. Furthermore, we apply our reachability analysis to the control of the relaxation dynamics of a two-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance spin system. We implement some experimental tasks of quantum state engineering in this open system at a near optimal performance in view of purity: e.g., increasing polarization and preparing pseudopure states. These results demonstrate the usefulness of our theory and show interesting and promising applications of environment-assisted quantum dynamics.

  18. Electrodynamics analysis on coherent perfect absorber and phase-controlled optical switch.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianjie; Duan, Shaoguang; Chen, Y C

    2012-05-01

    A coherent perfect absorber is essentially a specially designed Fabry-Perot interferometer, which completely extinguishes the incident coherent light. The one- and two-beam coherent perfect absorbers have been analyzed using classical electrodynamics by considering index matching in layered structures to totally suppress reflections. This approach presents a clear and physically intuitive picture for the principle of operation of a perfect absorber. The results show that the incident beam(s) must have correct phases and amplitudes, and the real and imaginary parts of the refractive indices of the media in the interferometer must satisfy a well-defined relation. Our results are in agreement with those obtained using the S-matrix analysis. However, the results were obtained solely based on the superposition of waves from multiple reflections without invoking the concept of time reversal as does the S-matrix approach. Further analysis shows that the two-beam device can be configured to function as a phase-controlled three-state switch.

  19. Coherent detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, C. R.; Church, S.; Gaier, T.; Lai, R.; Ruf, C.; Wollack, E.

    2009-03-01

    Coherent systems offer significant advantages in simplicity, testability, control of systematics, and cost. Although quantum noise sets the fundamental limit to their performance at high frequencies, recent breakthroughs suggest that near-quantum-limited noise up to 150 or even 200 GHz could be realized within a few years. If the demands of component separation can be met with frequencies below 200 GHz, coherent systems will be strong competitors for a space CMB polarization mission. The rapid development of digital correlator capability now makes space interferometers with many hundreds of elements possible. Given the advantages of coherent interferometers in suppressing systematic effects, such systems deserve serious study.

  20. Coherent state transfer through a multi-channel quantum network: Natural versus controlled evolution passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing; Li, Yong

    2016-04-01

    Quantum state transfer (QST) is an important task in quantum information processing. In this study, we describe two approaches for the high-fidelity transfer of a quantum state between two opposite quantum dots attached to a multi-channel quantum network. First, we demonstrate that a high-efficiency QST can be achieved with the coherent time evolution of a quantum system without any external control. Second, we present an approach that uses an alternative mechanism for a high-fidelity QST. By adiabatically varying tunnel couplings, it is possible to implement the complete transmission of a quantum state based on this quantum mechanical mechanism.

  1. Coherent dynamics of singlet fission controlled by nonlocal electron-phonon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao

    2016-03-01

    Based on the Frenkel and charge transfer mixing model of singlet fission (SF), we incorporate both the local and nonlocal phonon baths into the Hamiltonian and adopt the algorithm of the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group to simulate the SF process in tetracene and pentacene. The endergonic SF is found to be facilitated by the robust quantum coherence, which concurrently gives rise to a notable quantum beating effect. Being controlled by the nonlocal electron-phonon coupling, the SF process is accelerated and the triplet yield manifests a nonlinear relationship with the singlet density.

  2. Coherent control of light-matter interactions in polarization standing waves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu; MacDonald, Kevin F; Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that standing waves formed by two coherent counter-propagating light waves can take a variety of forms, offering new approaches to the interrogation and control of polarization-sensitive light-matter interactions in ultrathin (subwavelength thickness) media. In contrast to familiar energy standing waves, polarization standing waves have constant electric and magnetic energy densities and a periodically varying polarization state along the wave axis. counterintuitively, anisotropic ultrathin (meta)materials can be made sensitive or insensitive to such polarization variations by adjusting their azimuthal angle. PMID:27514307

  3. Generation and coherent control of pure spin currents via terahertz pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Schüler, Michael Berakdar, Jamal

    2014-04-21

    We inspect the time and spin-dependent, inelastic tunneling in engineered semiconductor-based double quantum well driven by time-structured terahertz pulses. An essential ingredient is an embedded spin-active structure with vibrational modes that scatter the pulse driven carriers. Due to the different time scales of the charge and spin dynamics, the spin-dependent electron-vibron coupling may result in pure net spin current (with negligible charge current). Heating the vibrational site may affect the resulting spin current. Furthermore, by controlling the charge dynamics, the spin dynamics and the generated spin current can be manipulated and switched on and off coherently.

  4. Coherent control of light-matter interactions in polarization standing waves.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu; MacDonald, Kevin F; Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2016-08-12

    We experimentally demonstrate that standing waves formed by two coherent counter-propagating light waves can take a variety of forms, offering new approaches to the interrogation and control of polarization-sensitive light-matter interactions in ultrathin (subwavelength thickness) media. In contrast to familiar energy standing waves, polarization standing waves have constant electric and magnetic energy densities and a periodically varying polarization state along the wave axis. counterintuitively, anisotropic ultrathin (meta)materials can be made sensitive or insensitive to such polarization variations by adjusting their azimuthal angle.

  5. Dynamic control of coherent orbital-angular-momentum beams in turbid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, K. S.; Miller, J. K.; Cochenour, B. M.; Johnson, E. G.

    2016-05-01

    This work examines the propagation properties of two superimposed coherent orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes for use in underwater systems as an alternative to amplitude modulation. An OAM mode of l=+2 is interfered with OAM mode l=-1 from a λ = 540 nm laser source. These OAM modes are superimposed using a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer combined with diffractive optical elements. By manipulating the optical path length of one of the MZ legs, the interference of these beams can be temporally controlled. The spatial profile is maintained in a turbid environment up through 4.9 attenuation lengths for both cases.

  6. Coherent control of light-matter interactions in polarization standing waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xu; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2016-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that standing waves formed by two coherent counter-propagating light waves can take a variety of forms, offering new approaches to the interrogation and control of polarization-sensitive light-matter interactions in ultrathin (subwavelength thickness) media. In contrast to familiar energy standing waves, polarization standing waves have constant electric and magnetic energy densities and a periodically varying polarization state along the wave axis. counterintuitively, anisotropic ultrathin (meta)materials can be made sensitive or insensitive to such polarization variations by adjusting their azimuthal angle.

  7. Coherent control of light-matter interactions in polarization standing waves

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xu; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that standing waves formed by two coherent counter-propagating light waves can take a variety of forms, offering new approaches to the interrogation and control of polarization-sensitive light-matter interactions in ultrathin (subwavelength thickness) media. In contrast to familiar energy standing waves, polarization standing waves have constant electric and magnetic energy densities and a periodically varying polarization state along the wave axis. counterintuitively, anisotropic ultrathin (meta)materials can be made sensitive or insensitive to such polarization variations by adjusting their azimuthal angle. PMID:27514307

  8. Investigation of coherent structures generated by acoustic tube in turbulent flow separation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xingyu; Geisler, Reinhard; Agocs, Janos; Schröder, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    An acoustic tube was designed in order to control the turbulent flow separation downstream of a backward-facing step. The Reynolds number based on the free-stream velocity and the step height was Re h = 2.0 × 104. As an active flow control device, the acoustic tube generated periodic pressure perturbations at a frequency of f a = 100 Hz, which was close to the most amplified frequency of the shedding instability of the turbulent shear layer. Spanwise vortices rolled up due to the perturbations. 2D-2C particle image velocimetry was used to measure separated shear layer and the reattachment area downstream of the BFS. The flow control results show that the acoustic tube can suppress recirculation regions behind the step and reduce the reattachment length by 43.7 %. The roll-up and pairing processes of the vortices lead to an increase in the total Reynolds shear stress. The coherent structures are extracted by proper orthogonal decomposition and represented by two pairs of modes, of which the coherence is analyzed by the corresponding coefficients. Both the primary and secondary series of vortices are reconstructed as traveling waves with the fundamental frequency f a and the overtone frequency 2 f a, respectively.

  9. Can we make atoms sing and molecules dance? Using fast light pulses to observe and control nature"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murnane, Margaret

    2004-05-01

    During the past decade, there has been a revolution in the field of ultrafast lasers. Visible light pulses of only a few optical cycles in duration can now be generated from a simple laser. These laser pulses can be used to literally rip atoms apart, generating "laser-like" x-ray beams in the process. Moreover, using computer algorithms, we can "teach" a laser to generate a properly shaped light pulse in time, that allows us to force an atom to radiate laser-like x-rays of specific wavelengths. This allows us, for example, to channel laser energy into a specific x-ray wavelength, or to force molecules to vibrate along a particular bond. This work is a first step towards using light as a catalyst to control chemical reactions. "Shaped-pulse optimisation of coherent soft-x-rays," Nature 406, 164 (2000). "Direct observation of surface chemistry using ultrafast soft-x-ray pulses", Physical Review Letters 87, 25501 (2001). "Fully spatially coherent EUV beams generated using a small-scale laser", Science 297, 376 (2002).

  10. Coherent combining of pulsed fiber amplifiers in the nonlinear chirp regime with intra-pulse phase control.

    PubMed

    Palese, Stephen; Cheung, Eric; Goodno, Gregory; Shih, Chun-Ching; Di Teodoro, Fabio; McComb, Timothy; Weber, Mark

    2012-03-26

    Two high pulse contrast (> 95 dB) polarization maintaining all-fiber amplifier chains were coherently combined to generate 0.42 mJ, 1 ns 25 kHz pulses with 79% efficiency despite 38 radians of intra-pulse phase distortion. A recursive intra-pulse phase compensation method was utilized to correct for the large nonlinear chirp providing a path for improved coherent waveform control of nanosecond pulse trains.

  11. Phase-coherent transport and spin relaxation in InAs nanowires grown by molecule beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L. B.; Guo, J. K.; Kang, N. E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn; Li, Sen; Fan, Dingxun; Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianhua; Xu, H. Q. E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn

    2015-04-27

    We report low-temperature magnetotransport studies of individual InAs nanowires grown by molecule beam epitaxy. At low magnetic fields, the magnetoconductance characteristics exhibit a crossover between weak antilocalization and weak localization by changing either the gate voltage or the temperature. The observed crossover behavior can be well described in terms of relative scales of the transport characteristic lengths extracted based on the quasi-one-dimensional theory of weak localization in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. The spin relaxation length extracted from the magnetoconductance data is found to be in the range of 80–100 nm, indicating the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling in the InAs nanowires. Moreover, the amplitude of universal conductance fluctuations in the nanowires is found to be suppressed at low temperatures due to the presence of strong spin-orbit scattering.

  12. Motion and Form Coherence Detection in Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Relationship to Motor Control and 2:4 Digit Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Elizabeth; White, Sarah; Campbell, Ruth; Swettenham, John; Hansen, Peter; Ramus, Franck

    2006-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorder and controls performed tasks of coherent motion and form detection, and motor control. Additionally, the ratio of the 2nd and 4th digits of these children, which is thought to be an indicator of foetal testosterone, was measured. Children in the experimental group were impaired at tasks of motor control,…

  13. Pupil tracking optical coherence tomography for precise control of pupil entry position

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Nankivil, Derek; Keller, Brenton; Viehland, Christian; Lujan, Brandon J.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    To maximize the collection efficiency of back-scattered light, and to minimize aberrations and vignetting, the lateral position of the scan pivot of an optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal scanner should be imaged to the center of the ocular pupil. Additionally, several retinal structures including Henle’s Fiber Layer (HFL) exhibit reflectivities that depend on illumination angle, which can be controlled by varying the pupil entry position of the OCT beam. In this work, we describe an automated method for controlling the lateral pupil entry position in retinal OCT by utilizing pupil tracking in conjunction with a 2D fast steering mirror placed conjugate to the retinal plane. We demonstrate that pupil tracking prevents lateral motion artifacts from impeding desired pupil entry locations, and enables precise pupil entry positioning and therefore control of the illumination angle of incidence at the retinal plane. We use our prototype pupil tracking OCT system to directly visualize the obliquely oriented HFL. PMID:26417510

  14. Cell adhesion molecule control of planar spindle orientation.

    PubMed

    Tuncay, Hüseyin; Ebnet, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Polarized epithelial cells align the mitotic spindle in the plane of the sheet to maintain tissue integrity and to prevent malignant transformation. The orientation of the spindle apparatus is regulated by the immobilization of the astral microtubules at the lateral cortex and depends on the precise localization of the dynein-dynactin motor protein complex which captures microtubule plus ends and generates pulling forces towards the centrosomes. Recent developments indicate that signals derived from intercellular junctions are required for the stable interaction of the dynein-dynactin complex with the cortex. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that regulate planar spindle orientation in polarized epithelial cells and we illustrate how different cell adhesion molecules through distinct and non-overlapping mechanisms instruct the cells to align the mitotic spindle in the plane of the sheet. PMID:26698907

  15. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance.

    PubMed

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed 'tobacco exceptionalism'. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

  16. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance.

    PubMed

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed 'tobacco exceptionalism'. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference.

  17. Adiabatic coherent control in the anharmonic ion trap: Numerical analysis of vibrational anharmonicities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Lei; Babikov, Dmitri

    2011-02-15

    Anharmonicity of the quantized motional states of ions in a Paul trap can be utilized to address the state-to-state transitions selectively and control the motional modes of trapped ions coherently and adiabatically [Zhao and Babikov, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012338 (2008)]. In this paper we study two sources of the vibrational anharmonicity in the ion traps: the intrinsic Coulomb anharmonicity due to ion-ion interactions and the external anharmonicity of the trapping potential. An accurate numerical approach is used to compute energies and wave functions of vibrational eigenstates. The magnitude of the Coulomb anharmonicity is determined and shown to be insufficient for successful control. In contrast, anharmonicity of the trapping potential allows one to control the motion of ions very efficiently using the time-varying electric fields. Optimal control theory is used to derive the control pulses. One ion in a slightly anharmonic trap can be easily controlled. In the two- and three-ion systems the symmetric stretching mode is dark and cannot be controlled at all. The other two normal modes of the three-ion system can be controlled and used, for example, to encode a two-qubit system into the motional states of ions. A trap architecture that allows the necessary amount of vibrational anharmonicity to be achieved is proposed.

  18. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed ‘tobacco exceptionalism’. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

  19. Coherent diffraction imaging analysis of shape-controlled nanoparticles with focused hard X-ray free-electron laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yukio; Suzuki, Akihiro; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Takayama, Yuki; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Amane; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of the coherent diffraction imaging analysis of nanoparticles using focused hard X-ray free-electron laser pulses, allowing us to analyze the size distribution of particles as well as the electron density projection of individual particles. We measured 1000 single-shot coherent X-ray diffraction patterns of shape-controlled Ag nanocubes and Au/Ag nanoboxes and estimated the edge length from the speckle size of the coherent diffraction patterns. We then reconstructed the two-dimensional electron density projection with sub-10 nm resolution from selected coherent diffraction patterns. This method enables the simultaneous analysis of the size distribution of synthesized nanoparticles and the structures of particles at nanoscale resolution to address correlations between individual structures of components and the statistical properties in heterogeneous systems such as nanoparticles and cells.

  20. Coherent control of magnetization precession in electrically detected time domain ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Wid, O.; Wahler, M.; Homonnay, N.; Richter, T.; Schmidt, G.

    2015-11-15

    We demonstrate coherent control of time domain ferromagnetic resonance by all electrical excitation and detection. Using two ultrashort magnetic field steps with variable time delay we control the induction decay in yttrium iron garnet (YIG). By setting suitable delay times between the two steps the precession of the magnetization can either be enhanced or completely stopped. The method allows for a determination of the precession frequency within a few precession periods and with an accuracy much higher than can be achieved using fast fourier transformation. Moreover it holds the promise to massively increase precession amplitudes in pulsed inductive microwave magnetometry (PIMM) using low amplitude finite pulse trains. Our experiments are supported by micromagnetic simulations which nicely confirm the experimental results.

  1. Controlling coherence via tuning of the population imbalance in a bipartite optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Liberto, Marco Fedele

    2015-03-01

    The control of transport properties is a key tool at the basis of many technologically relevant effects in condensed matter. The clean and precisely controlled environment of ultracold atoms in optical lattices allows one to prepare simplified but instructive models, which can help to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms. Here we show that by tuning a structural deformation of the unit cell in a bipartite optical lattice, one can induce a phase transition from a superfluid into various Mott insulating phases forming a shell structure in the superimposed harmonic trap. The Mott shells are identified via characteristic features in the visibility of Bragg maxima in momentum spectra. The experimental findings are explained by Gutzwiller mean-field and quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Our system bears similarities with the loss of coherence in cuprate superconductors, known to be associated with the doping induced buckling of the oxygen octahedra surrounding the copper sites.

  2. Controlling coherence via tuning of the population imbalance in a bipartite optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Liberto, M.; Comparin, T.; Kock, T.; Ölschläger, M.; Hemmerich, A.; Smith, C. Morais

    2014-12-01

    The control of transport properties is a key tool at the basis of many technologically relevant effects in condensed matter. The clean and precisely controlled environment of ultracold atoms in optical lattices allows one to prepare simplified but instructive models, which can help to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms. Here we show that by tuning a structural deformation of the unit cell in a bipartite optical lattice, one can induce a phase transition from a superfluid into various Mott insulating phases forming a shell structure in the superimposed harmonic trap. The Mott shells are identified via characteristic features in the visibility of Bragg maxima in momentum spectra. The experimental findings are explained by Gutzwiller mean-field and quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Our system bears similarities with the loss of coherence in cuprate superconductors, known to be associated with the doping-induced buckling of the oxygen octahedra surrounding the copper sites.

  3. Macroscopic manipulation of high-order-harmonic generation through bound-state coherent control.

    PubMed

    Hadas, Itai; Bahabad, Alon

    2014-12-19

    We propose a paradigm for macroscopic control of high-order harmonic generation by modulating the bound-state population of the medium atoms. A unique result of this scheme is that apart from regular spatial quasi-phase-matching (QPM), also purely temporal QPM of the emitted radiation can be established. Our simulations demonstrate temporal QPM by inducing homogenous Rabi oscillations in the medium and also spatial QPM by creating a grating of population inversion using the process of rapid adiabatic passage. In the simulations a scaled version of high-order harmonic generation is used: a far off-resonance 2.6  μm source generates UV-visible high-order harmonics from alkali-metal-atom vapor, while a resonant near IR source is used to coherently control the medium.

  4. Dataset on coherent control of fields and induced currents in nonlinear multiphoton processes in a nanosphere.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Duncan; Hourahine, Ben; Papoff, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We model a scheme for the coherent control of light waves and currents in metallic nanospheres which applies independently of the nonlinear multiphoton processes at the origin of waves and currents. Using exact mathematical formulae, we calculate numerically with a custom fortran code the effect of an external control field which enable us to change the radiation pattern and suppress radiative losses or to reduce absorption, enabling the particle to behave as a perfect scatterer or as a perfect absorber. Data are provided in tabular, comma delimited value format and illustrate narrow features in the response of the particles that result in high sensitivity to small variations in the local environment, including subwavelength spatial shifts. PMID:26601699

  5. Coherent control of magnetization precession in electrically detected time domain ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wid, O.; Wahler, M.; Homonnay, N.; Richter, T.; Schmidt, G.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate coherent control of time domain ferromagnetic resonance by all electrical excitation and detection. Using two ultrashort magnetic field steps with variable time delay we control the induction decay in yttrium iron garnet (YIG). By setting suitable delay times between the two steps the precession of the magnetization can either be enhanced or completely stopped. The method allows for a determination of the precession frequency within a few precession periods and with an accuracy much higher than can be achieved using fast fourier transformation. Moreover it holds the promise to massively increase precession amplitudes in pulsed inductive microwave magnetometry (PIMM) using low amplitude finite pulse trains. Our experiments are supported by micromagnetic simulations which nicely confirm the experimental results.

  6. Dataset on coherent control of fields and induced currents in nonlinear multiphoton processes in a nanosphere.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Duncan; Hourahine, Ben; Papoff, Francesco

    2015-11-24

    We model a scheme for the coherent control of light waves and currents in metallic nanospheres which applies independently of the nonlinear multiphoton processes at the origin of waves and currents. Using exact mathematical formulae, we calculate numerically with a custom fortran code the effect of an external control field which enable us to change the radiation pattern and suppress radiative losses or to reduce absorption, enabling the particle to behave as a perfect scatterer or as a perfect absorber. Data are provided in tabular, comma delimited value format and illustrate narrow features in the response of the particles that result in high sensitivity to small variations in the local environment, including subwavelength spatial shifts.

  7. Dataset on coherent control of fields and induced currents in nonlinear multiphoton processes in a nanosphere

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Duncan; Hourahine, Ben; Papoff, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We model a scheme for the coherent control of light waves and currents in metallic nanospheres which applies independently of the nonlinear multiphoton processes at the origin of waves and currents. Using exact mathematical formulae, we calculate numerically with a custom fortran code the effect of an external control field which enable us to change the radiation pattern and suppress radiative losses or to reduce absorption, enabling the particle to behave as a perfect scatterer or as a perfect absorber. Data are provided in tabular, comma delimited value format and illustrate narrow features in the response of the particles that result in high sensitivity to small variations in the local environment, including subwavelength spatial shifts. PMID:26601699

  8. Coherent control of diamond defects for quantum information science and quantum sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Peter

    Quantum mechanics, arguably one of the greatest achievements of modern physics, has not only fundamentally changed our understanding of nature but is also taking an ever increasing role in engineering. Today, the control of quantum systems has already had a far-reaching impact on time and frequency metrology. By gaining further control over a large variety of different quantum systems, many potential applications are emerging. Those applications range from the development of quantum sensors and new quantum metrological approaches to the realization of quantum information processors and quantum networks. Unfortunately most quantum systems are very fragile objects that require tremendous experimental effort to avoid dephasing. Being able to control the interaction between a quantum system with its local environment embodies therefore an important aspect for application and hence is at the focus of this thesis. Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond have recently attracted attention as a room temperature solid state spin system that expresses long coherence times. The electronic spin associated with NV centers can be efficiently manipulated, initialized and readout using microwave and optical techniques. Inspired by these extraordinary properties, much effort has been dedicated to use NV centers as a building block for scalable room temperature quantum information processing and quantum communication as well as a quantum sensing. In the first part of this thesis we demonstrate that by decoupling the spin from the local environment the coherence time of a NV quantum register can be extended by three order of magnitudes. Employing a novel dissipative mechanism in combination with dynamical decoupling, memory times exceeding one second are observed. The second part shows that, based on quantum control, NV centers in nano-diamonds provide a nanoscale temperature sensor with unprecedented accuracy enabling local temperature measurements in living biological cells

  9. Controlled Bioactive Molecules Delivery Strategies for Tendon and Ligament Tissue Engineering using Polymeric Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Hiong Teh, Thomas Kok; Hong Goh, James Cho; Toh, Siew Lok

    2015-01-01

    The interest in polymeric nanofibers has escalated over the past decade given its promise as tissue engineering scaffolds that can mimic the nanoscale structure of the native extracellular matrix. With functionalization of the polymeric nanofibers using bioactive molecules, localized signaling moieties can be established for the attached cells, to stimulate desired biological effects and direct cellular or tissue response. The inherently high surface area per unit mass of polymeric nanofibers can enhance cell adhesion, bioactive molecules loading and release efficiencies, and mass transfer properties. In this review article, the application of polymeric nanofibers for controlled bioactive molecules delivery will be discussed, with a focus on tendon and ligament tissue engineering. Various polymeric materials of different mechanical and degradation properties will be presented along with the nanofiber fabrication techniques explored. The bioactive molecules of interest for tendon and ligament tissue engineering, including growth factors and small molecules, will also be reviewed and compared in terms of their nanofiber incorporation strategies and release profiles. This article will also highlight and compare various innovative strategies to control the release of bioactive molecules spatiotemporally and explore an emerging tissue engineering strategy involving controlled multiple bioactive molecules sequential release. Finally, the review article concludes with challenges and future trends in the innovation and development of bioactive molecules delivery using polymeric nanofibers for tendon and ligament tissue engineering.

  10. Nonparalytic botulinum molecules for the control of pain.

    PubMed

    Mangione, Antonina S; Obara, Ilona; Maiarú, Maria; Geranton, Sandrine M; Tassorelli, Cristina; Ferrari, Enrico; Leese, Charlotte; Davletov, Bazbek; Hunt, Stephen P

    2016-05-01

    Local injections of botulinum toxins have been reported to be useful not only for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain and migraine but also to cause long-lasting muscle paralysis, a potentially serious side effect. Recently, a botulinum A-based molecule ("BiTox") has been synthesized that retains neuronal silencing capacity without triggering muscle paralysis. In this study, we examined whether BiTox delivered peripherally was able to reduce or prevent the increased nociceptive sensitivity found in animal models of inflammatory, surgical, and neuropathic pain. Plasma extravasation and edema were also measured as well as keratinocyte proliferation. No motor deficits were seen and acute thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds were unimpaired by BiTox injections. We found reduced plasma extravasation and inflammatory edema as well as lower levels of keratinocyte proliferation in cutaneous tissue after local BiTox injection. However, we found no evidence that BiTox was transported to the dorsal root ganglia or dorsal horn and no deficits in formalin-elicited behaviors or capsaicin or formalin-induced c-Fos expression within the dorsal horn. In contrast, Bitox treatment strongly reduced A-nociceptor-mediated secondary mechanical hyperalgesia associated with either complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced joint inflammation or capsaicin injection and the hypersensitivity associated with spared nerve injury. These results imply that although local release of neuromodulators from C-fibers was inhibited by BiTox injection, C-nociceptive signaling function was not impaired. Taken together with recent clinical data the results suggest that BiTox should be considered for treatment of pain conditions in which A-nociceptors are thought to play a significant role.

  11. Nonparalytic botulinum molecules for the control of pain

    PubMed Central

    Mangione, Antonina S.; Obara, Ilona; Maiarú, Maria; Geranton, Sandrine M.; Tassorelli, Cristina; Ferrari, Enrico; Leese, Charlotte; Davletov, Bazbek; Hunt, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Local injections of botulinum toxins have been reported to be useful not only for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain and migraine but also to cause long-lasting muscle paralysis, a potentially serious side effect. Recently, a botulinum A-based molecule (“BiTox”) has been synthesized that retains neuronal silencing capacity without triggering muscle paralysis. In this study, we examined whether BiTox delivered peripherally was able to reduce or prevent the increased nociceptive sensitivity found in animal models of inflammatory, surgical, and neuropathic pain. Plasma extravasation and edema were also measured as well as keratinocyte proliferation. No motor deficits were seen and acute thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds were unimpaired by BiTox injections. We found reduced plasma extravasation and inflammatory edema as well as lower levels of keratinocyte proliferation in cutaneous tissue after local BiTox injection. However, we found no evidence that BiTox was transported to the dorsal root ganglia or dorsal horn and no deficits in formalin-elicited behaviors or capsaicin or formalin-induced c-Fos expression within the dorsal horn. In contrast, Bitox treatment strongly reduced A-nociceptor-mediated secondary mechanical hyperalgesia associated with either complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced joint inflammation or capsaicin injection and the hypersensitivity associated with spared nerve injury. These results imply that although local release of neuromodulators from C-fibers was inhibited by BiTox injection, C-nociceptive signaling function was not impaired. Taken together with recent clinical data the results suggest that BiTox should be considered for treatment of pain conditions in which A-nociceptors are thought to play a significant role. PMID:26761389

  12. Nonparalytic botulinum molecules for the control of pain.

    PubMed

    Mangione, Antonina S; Obara, Ilona; Maiarú, Maria; Geranton, Sandrine M; Tassorelli, Cristina; Ferrari, Enrico; Leese, Charlotte; Davletov, Bazbek; Hunt, Stephen P

    2016-05-01

    Local injections of botulinum toxins have been reported to be useful not only for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain and migraine but also to cause long-lasting muscle paralysis, a potentially serious side effect. Recently, a botulinum A-based molecule ("BiTox") has been synthesized that retains neuronal silencing capacity without triggering muscle paralysis. In this study, we examined whether BiTox delivered peripherally was able to reduce or prevent the increased nociceptive sensitivity found in animal models of inflammatory, surgical, and neuropathic pain. Plasma extravasation and edema were also measured as well as keratinocyte proliferation. No motor deficits were seen and acute thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds were unimpaired by BiTox injections. We found reduced plasma extravasation and inflammatory edema as well as lower levels of keratinocyte proliferation in cutaneous tissue after local BiTox injection. However, we found no evidence that BiTox was transported to the dorsal root ganglia or dorsal horn and no deficits in formalin-elicited behaviors or capsaicin or formalin-induced c-Fos expression within the dorsal horn. In contrast, Bitox treatment strongly reduced A-nociceptor-mediated secondary mechanical hyperalgesia associated with either complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced joint inflammation or capsaicin injection and the hypersensitivity associated with spared nerve injury. These results imply that although local release of neuromodulators from C-fibers was inhibited by BiTox injection, C-nociceptive signaling function was not impaired. Taken together with recent clinical data the results suggest that BiTox should be considered for treatment of pain conditions in which A-nociceptors are thought to play a significant role. PMID:26761389

  13. Coherence-controlled holographic microscopy for live-cell quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slabý, TomáÅ.¡; Křížová, Aneta; Lošt'ák, Martin; Čolláková, Jana; Jůzová, Veronika; Veselý, Pavel; Chmelík, Radim

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present coherence-controlled holographic microscopy (CCHM) and various examples of observations of living cells including combination of CCHM with fluorescence microscopy. CCHM is a novel technique of quantitative phase imaging (QPI). It is based on grating off-axis interferometer, which is fully adapted for the use of incoherent illumination. This enables high-quality QPI free from speckles and parasitic interferences and lateral resolution of classical widefield microscopes. Label-free nature of QPI makes CCHM a useful tool for long-term observations of living cells. Moreover, coherence-gating effect induced by the use of incoherent illumination enables QPI of cells even in scattering media. Combination of CCHM with common imaging techniques brings the possibility to exploit advantages of QPI while simultaneously identifying the observed structures or processes by well-established imaging methods. We used CCHM for investigation of general parameters of cell life cycles and for research of cells reactions to different treatment. Cells were also visualized in 3D collagen gel with the use of CCHM. It was found that both the cell activity and movement of the collagen fibers can be registered. The method of CCHM in combination with fluorescence microscopy was used in order to obtain complementary information about cell morphology and identify typical morphological changes associated with different types of cell death. This combination of CCHM with common imaging technique has a potential to provide new knowledge about various processes and simultaneously their confirmation by comparison with known imaging method.

  14. Control of coherent information via on-chip photonic-phononic emitter-receivers.

    PubMed

    Shin, Heedeuk; Cox, Jonathan A; Jarecki, Robert; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    Rapid progress in integrated photonics has fostered numerous chip-scale sensing, computing and signal processing technologies. However, many crucial filtering and signal delay operations are difficult to perform with all-optical devices. Unlike photons propagating at luminal speeds, GHz-acoustic phonons moving at slower velocities allow information to be stored, filtered and delayed over comparatively smaller length-scales with remarkable fidelity. Hence, controllable and efficient coupling between coherent photons and phonons enables new signal processing technologies that greatly enhance the performance and potential impact of integrated photonics. Here we demonstrate a mechanism for coherent information processing based on travelling-wave photon-phonon transduction, which achieves a phonon emit-and-receive process between distinct nanophotonic waveguides. Using this device, physics--which supports GHz frequencies--we create wavelength-insensitive radiofrequency photonic filters with frequency selectivity, narrow-linewidth and high power-handling in silicon. More generally, this emit-receive concept is the impetus for enabling new signal processing schemes. PMID:25740405

  15. Control of coherent information via on-chip photonic–phononic emitter–receivers

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Heedeuk; Cox, Jonathan A.; Jarecki, Robert; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid progress in integrated photonics has fostered numerous chip-scale sensing, computing and signal processing technologies. However, many crucial filtering and signal delay operations are difficult to perform with all-optical devices. Unlike photons propagating at luminal speeds, GHz-acoustic phonons moving at slower velocities allow information to be stored, filtered and delayed over comparatively smaller length-scales with remarkable fidelity. Hence, controllable and efficient coupling between coherent photons and phonons enables new signal processing technologies that greatly enhance the performance and potential impact of integrated photonics. Here we demonstrate a mechanism for coherent information processing based on travelling-wave photon–phonon transduction, which achieves a phonon emit-and-receive process between distinct nanophotonic waveguides. Using this device, physics—which supports GHz frequencies—we create wavelength-insensitive radiofrequency photonic filters with frequency selectivity, narrow-linewidth and high power-handling in silicon. More generally, this emit-receive concept is the impetus for enabling new signal processing schemes. PMID:25740405

  16. Control of coherent information via on-chip photonic–phononic emitter–receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Heedeuk; Cox, Jonathan A.; Jarecki, Robert; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T.

    2015-03-05

    We report that rapid progress in integrated photonics has fostered numerous chip-scale sensing, computing and signal processing technologies. However, many crucial filtering and signal delay operations are difficult to perform with all-optical devices. Unlike photons propagating at luminal speeds, GHz-acoustic phonons moving at slower velocities allow information to be stored, filtered and delayed over comparatively smaller length-scales with remarkable fidelity. Hence, controllable and efficient coupling between coherent photons and phonons enables new signal processing technologies that greatly enhance the performance and potential impact of integrated photonics. Here we demonstrate a mechanism for coherent information processing based on travelling-wave photon–phonon transduction, which achieves a phonon emit-and-receive process between distinct nanophotonic waveguides. Using this device, physics—which supports GHz frequencies—we create wavelength-insensitive radiofrequency photonic filters with frequency selectivity, narrow-linewidth and high power-handling in silicon. More generally, this emit-receive concept is the impetus for enabling new signal processing schemes.

  17. Control of coherent information via on-chip photonic–phononic emitter–receivers

    DOE PAGES

    Shin, Heedeuk; Cox, Jonathan A.; Jarecki, Robert; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T.

    2015-03-05

    We report that rapid progress in integrated photonics has fostered numerous chip-scale sensing, computing and signal processing technologies. However, many crucial filtering and signal delay operations are difficult to perform with all-optical devices. Unlike photons propagating at luminal speeds, GHz-acoustic phonons moving at slower velocities allow information to be stored, filtered and delayed over comparatively smaller length-scales with remarkable fidelity. Hence, controllable and efficient coupling between coherent photons and phonons enables new signal processing technologies that greatly enhance the performance and potential impact of integrated photonics. Here we demonstrate a mechanism for coherent information processing based on travelling-wave photon–phonon transduction,more » which achieves a phonon emit-and-receive process between distinct nanophotonic waveguides. Using this device, physics—which supports GHz frequencies—we create wavelength-insensitive radiofrequency photonic filters with frequency selectivity, narrow-linewidth and high power-handling in silicon. More generally, this emit-receive concept is the impetus for enabling new signal processing schemes.« less

  18. Coherent control of wavepacket launch and evolution in molecular cations in strong-field regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov(1, 3), Dmitri; Moore Tibbetts(2, 3), Katharine; Tarazkar(2, 3), Maryam; Bohinsky(2, 3), Timothy; Matsika(2, 3), Spiridoula; Levis(2, 3), Robert

    2016-05-01

    The time-resolved dissociative ionization dynamics for a family of acetophenone radical cations has been studied in pump-probe experiments. Modifications of the relative fragment yield have been measured as a function of the pump laser wavelength from 790 nm to 1500 nm. In the case of tunnel ionization (1150 - 1500 nm pump), the time-resolved transients of the parent and fragment ions probed with a weak 790 nm pulse reveal an order-of-magnitude enhancement of the peak-to-peak amplitude oscillations, ~ 100 fs longer coherence time, and an order-of-magnitude increase in the ratio of parent to fragment ions, as compared to the case of multiphoton ionization (790 nm pump). The results are quantitatively explained with a model of wavepacket evolution on the ground (D0) and excited (D1 and D2) ionic potential energy surfaces, with the probe-induced and conical-intersection-related transitions between the surfaces. The theory predicts the periods of fragment-ratio oscillations, thus confirming the ability to prepare and manipulate multiple wavepackets in the vicinity of a conical intersection for polyatomic molecules on the time scale of picoseconds.

  19. Phase control of Goos-Hänchen shift via biexciton coherence in a multiple quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein; Nasehi, Rajab; Soleimani, H. Rahimpour; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-09-01

    The behavior of the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts of the reflected and transmitted probe and signal pulses through a cavity containing four-level GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells with 15 periods of 17.5 nm GaAs wells and 15-nm Al0.3Ga0.7As barriers is theoretically discussed. The biexciton coherence set up by two coupling fields can induce the destructive interference to control the absorption and gain properties of probe field under appropriate conditions. It is realized that for the specific values of the intensities and the relative phase of applied fields, the simultaneous negative or positive GH shift in the transmitted and reflected light beam can be obtained via amplification in a probe light. It is found that by adjusting the controllable parameters, the GH shifts can be switched between the large positive and negative values in the medium. Moreover, the effect of exciton spin relaxation on the GH shift has also been discussed. We find that the exciton spin relaxation can manipulate the behavior of GH shift in the reflected and transmitted probe beam through the cavity. We show that by controlling the incident angles of probe beam and under certain conditions, the GH shifts in the reflected and transmitted probe beams can become either negative or positive corresponding to the superluminal or subluminal light propagation. Our proposed model may supply a new prospect in technological applications for the light amplification in optical sensors working on quantum coherence impacts in solid-state systems.

  20. Pulse-shaping algorithm of a coherent matter-wave-controlling reaction dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, Solvejg; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2004-07-01

    A pulse-shaping algorithm for a matter wave with the purpose of controlling a binary reaction has been designed. The scheme is illustrated for an Eley-Rideal reaction where an impinging matter-wave atom recombines with an adsorbed atom on a metal surface. The wave function of the impinging atom is shaped such that the desorbing molecule leaves the surface in a specific vibrational state.

  1. The artificial control of enhanced optical processes in fluorescent molecules on high-emittance metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Choi, Bongseok; Miyazaki, Hideki T.; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa

    2016-05-01

    Plasmon-enhanced optical processes in molecules have been extensively but individually explored for Raman scattering, fluorescence, and infrared light absorption. In contrast to recent progress in the interfacial control of hot electrons in plasmon-semiconductor hybrid systems, plasmon-molecule hybrid systems have remained to be a conventional scheme, mainly assuming electric-field enhancement. This was because it was difficult to control the plasmon-molecule interface in a well-controlled manner. We here experimentally substantiate an obvious change in artificially enhanced optical processes of fluorescence/Raman scattering in fluorescent molecules on high-emittance plasmo-photonic metasurfaces with/without a self-assembled monolayer of sub-nm thickness. These results indicate that the enhanced optical processes were successfully selected under artificial configurations without any additional chemical treatment that modifies the molecules themselves. Although Raman-scattering efficiency is generally weak in high-fluorescence-yield molecules, it was found that Raman scattering becomes prominent around the molecular fingerprint range on the metasurfaces, being enhanced by more than 2000 fold at the maximum for reference signals. In addition, the highly and uniformly enhancing metasurfaces are able to serve as two-way functional, reproducible, and wavelength-tunable platforms to detect molecules at very low densities, being distinct from other platforms reported so far. The change in the enhanced signals suggests that energy diagrams in fluorescent molecules are changed in the configuration that includes the metal-molecule interface, meaning that plasmon-molecule hybrid systems are rich in the phenomena beyond the conventional scheme.Plasmon-enhanced optical processes in molecules have been extensively but individually explored for Raman scattering, fluorescence, and infrared light absorption. In contrast to recent progress in the interfacial control of hot electrons

  2. Coherence-controlled holographic microscopy principle embodiment into Q-PHASE microscope: story of a successful technology transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lostak, M.; Chmelik, R.

    2016-03-01

    Curiously, the coherence-controlled holographic microscopy (CCHM) was brought into the world owing to the endeavor of Chmelik's team at Brno University of Technology (BUT) to avoid scanning in confocal microscopy. As coherence gating seemed to be the way, the Leith & Upatnieks proposal of incoherent holography had been considered attractive. Their method made interference system free from strict dependence on both spatial and temporal coherence. Off axis holographic system proposed on such basis has been proved capable of coherence based depth discrimination in single wide-field shot in reflected-light arrangement. Consequently, extremely low-coherence holographic imaging had been found highly contributive also to the image quality depriving it from coherence artefacts and improving its transversal resolution. This is why CCHM promised high precision of quantitative phase imaging (QPI) in transmitted light set up that was realized for cell biology. However the cost of necessarily complicated optical design and need of very precise mechanics forced the team of prof Chmelik at BUT to search for a company capable of mastering the instrument. It was TESCAN ORSAY the highly successful scanning electron microscopes producer that finally took charge of the commercial design. Long-term collaboration of the company with BUT made possible both the CCHM technology successful transfer up to Q-PHASE microscope production as well as the company Light microscopy division reinforcement. This contribution merges views of CCHM technology author and the TESCAN development team.

  3. Generation of large coherent states by bang–bang control of a trapped-ion oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, J.; Leupold, F. M.; Solèr, Z. U.; Fadel, M.; Marinelli, M.; Keitch, B. C.; Negnevitsky, V.; Home, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Fast control of quantum systems is essential to make use of quantum properties before they degrade by decoherence. This is important for quantum-enhanced information processing, as well as for pushing quantum systems towards the boundary between quantum and classical physics. ‘Bang–bang' control attains the ultimate speed limit by making large changes to control fields much faster than the system can respond, but is often challenging to implement experimentally. Here we demonstrate bang–bang control of a trapped-ion oscillator using nanosecond switching of the trapping potentials. We perform controlled displacements with which we realize coherent states with up to 10,000 quanta of energy. We use these displaced states to verify the form of the ion-light interaction at high excitations far outside the usual regime of operation. These methods provide new possibilities for quantum-state manipulation and generation, alongside the potential for a significant increase in operational clock speed for trapped-ion quantum information processing. PMID:27046513

  4. Small Molecule Control of Virulence Gene Expression in Francisella tularensis

    PubMed Central

    Charity, James C.; Blalock, LeeAnn T.; Costante-Hamm, Michelle M.; Kasper, Dennis L.; Dove, Simon L.

    2009-01-01

    In Francisella tularensis, the SspA protein family members MglA and SspA form a complex that associates with RNA polymerase (RNAP) to positively control the expression of virulence genes critical for the intramacrophage growth and survival of the organism. Although the association of the MglA-SspA complex with RNAP is evidently central to its role in controlling gene expression, the molecular details of how MglA and SspA exert their effects are not known. Here we show that in the live vaccine strain of F. tularensis (LVS), the MglA-SspA complex works in concert with a putative DNA-binding protein we have called PigR, together with the alarmone guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), to regulate the expression of target genes. In particular, we present evidence that MglA, SspA, PigR and ppGpp regulate expression of the same set of genes, and show that mglA, sspA, pigR and ppGpp null mutants exhibit similar intramacrophage growth defects and are strongly attenuated for virulence in mice. We show further that PigR interacts directly with the MglA-SspA complex, suggesting that the central role of the MglA and SspA proteins in the control of virulence gene expression is to serve as a target for a transcription activator. Finally, we present evidence that ppGpp exerts its effects by promoting the interaction between PigR and the RNAP-associated MglA-SspA complex. Through its responsiveness to ppGpp, the contact between PigR and the MglA-SspA complex allows the integration of nutritional cues into the regulatory network governing virulence gene expression. PMID:19876386

  5. Adsorbed states of chlorophenol on Cu(110) and controlled switching of single-molecule junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, H.; Kitaguchi, Y.; Hattori, T.; Ueda, Y.; Ferrer, N. G.; Hatta, S.; Aruga, T.

    2016-06-01

    A molecular junction of substituted benzene (chlorophenol) is fabricated and controlled by using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Prior to the junction formation, the bonding geometry of the molecule on the surface is characterized by STM and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). EELS shows that the OH group of chlorophenol is dissociated on Cu(110) and that the molecule is bonded nearly flat to the surface via an O atom, with the Cl group intact. We demonstrate controlled contact of an STM tip to the "available" Cl group and lift-up of the molecule while it is anchored to the surface via an O atom. The asymmetric bonding motifs of the molecule to the electrodes allow for reversible control of the junction.

  6. The artificial control of enhanced optical processes in fluorescent molecules on high-emittance metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Masanobu; Choi, Bongseok; Miyazaki, Hideki T; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa

    2016-06-01

    Plasmon-enhanced optical processes in molecules have been extensively but individually explored for Raman scattering, fluorescence, and infrared light absorption. In contrast to recent progress in the interfacial control of hot electrons in plasmon-semiconductor hybrid systems, plasmon-molecule hybrid systems have remained to be a conventional scheme, mainly assuming electric-field enhancement. This was because it was difficult to control the plasmon-molecule interface in a well-controlled manner. We here experimentally substantiate an obvious change in artificially enhanced optical processes of fluorescence/Raman scattering in fluorescent molecules on high-emittance plasmo-photonic metasurfaces with/without a self-assembled monolayer of sub-nm thickness. These results indicate that the enhanced optical processes were successfully selected under artificial configurations without any additional chemical treatment that modifies the molecules themselves. Although Raman-scattering efficiency is generally weak in high-fluorescence-yield molecules, it was found that Raman scattering becomes prominent around the molecular fingerprint range on the metasurfaces, being enhanced by more than 2000 fold at the maximum for reference signals. In addition, the highly and uniformly enhancing metasurfaces are able to serve as two-way functional, reproducible, and wavelength-tunable platforms to detect molecules at very low densities, being distinct from other platforms reported so far. The change in the enhanced signals suggests that energy diagrams in fluorescent molecules are changed in the configuration that includes the metal-molecule interface, meaning that plasmon-molecule hybrid systems are rich in the phenomena beyond the conventional scheme. PMID:27227964

  7. Formation and control of Turing patterns in a coherent quantum fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardizzone, Vincenzo; Lewandowski, Przemyslaw; Luk, M. H.; Tse, Y. C.; Kwong, N. H.; Lücke, Andreas; Abbarchi, Marco; Baudin, Emmanuel; Galopin, Elisabeth; Bloch, Jacqueline; Lemaitre, Aristide; Leung, P. T.; Roussignol, Philippe; Binder, Rolf; Tignon, Jerome; Schumacher, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    Nonequilibrium patterns in open systems are ubiquitous in nature, with examples as diverse as desert sand dunes, animal coat patterns such as zebra stripes, or geographic patterns in parasitic insect populations. A theoretical foundation that explains the basic features of a large class of patterns was given by Turing in the context of chemical reactions and the biological process of morphogenesis. Analogs of Turing patterns have also been studied in optical systems where diffusion of matter is replaced by diffraction of light. The unique features of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities allow us to go one step further and to study Turing patterns in an interacting coherent quantum fluid. We demonstrate formation and control of these patterns. We also demonstrate the promise of these quantum Turing patterns for applications, such as low-intensity ultra-fast all-optical switches.

  8. Formation and control of Turing patterns in a coherent quantum fluid

    PubMed Central

    Ardizzone, Vincenzo; Lewandowski, Przemyslaw; Luk, M. H.; Tse, Y. C.; Kwong, N. H.; Lücke, Andreas; Abbarchi, Marco; Baudin, Emmanuel; Galopin, Elisabeth; Bloch, Jacqueline; Lemaitre, Aristide; Leung, P. T.; Roussignol, Philippe; Binder, Rolf; Tignon, Jerome; Schumacher, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Nonequilibrium patterns in open systems are ubiquitous in nature, with examples as diverse as desert sand dunes, animal coat patterns such as zebra stripes, or geographic patterns in parasitic insect populations. A theoretical foundation that explains the basic features of a large class of patterns was given by Turing in the context of chemical reactions and the biological process of morphogenesis. Analogs of Turing patterns have also been studied in optical systems where diffusion of matter is replaced by diffraction of light. The unique features of polaritons in semiconductor microcavities allow us to go one step further and to study Turing patterns in an interacting coherent quantum fluid. We demonstrate formation and control of these patterns. We also demonstrate the promise of these quantum Turing patterns for applications, such as low-intensity ultra-fast all-optical switches. PMID:24145394

  9. Controllable preparation of two-mode entangled coherent states in circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ying-Hua; Liu, Yong-Mei

    2014-11-01

    Although the multi-level structure of superconducting qubits may result in calculation errors, it can be rationally used to effectively improve the speed of gate operations. Utilizing a current-biased Josephson junction (λ-type rf-SQUID) as a tunable coupler for superconducting transmission line resonators (TLRs), under the large detuning condition, we demonstrate the controllable generation of entangled coherent states in circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit QED). The coupling between the TLRs and the qubit can be effectively regulated by an external bias current or coupling capacitor. Further investigations indicate that the maximum entangled state can be obtained through measuring the excited state of the superconducting qubits. Then, the influence of the TLR decay on the prepared entangled states is analyzed.

  10. Coherent control of a single ²⁹Si nuclear spin qubit.

    PubMed

    Pla, Jarryd J; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A; Tan, Kuan Y; Dehollain, Juan P; Rahman, Rajib; Klimeck, Gerhard; Jamieson, David N; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea

    2014-12-12

    Magnetic fluctuations caused by the nuclear spins of a host crystal are often the leading source of decoherence for many types of solid-state spin qubit. In group-IV semiconductor materials, the spin-bearing nuclei are sufficiently rare that it is possible to identify and control individual host nuclear spins. This Letter presents the first experimental detection and manipulation of a single ²⁹Si nuclear spin. The quantum nondemolition single-shot readout of the spin is demonstrated, and a Hahn echo measurement reveals a coherence time of T₂=6.3(7)  ms—in excellent agreement with bulk experiments. Atomistic modeling combined with extracted experimental parameters provides possible lattice sites for the ²⁹Si atom under investigation. These results demonstrate that single ²⁹Si nuclear spins could serve as a valuable resource in a silicon spin-based quantum computer.

  11. Trapping of weak signal pulses by soliton and trajectory control in a coherent atomic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiming; Huang, Guoxiang

    2014-03-01

    We propose a method for trapping weak signal pulses by soliton and realizing its trajectory control via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The system we consider is a cold, coherent atomic gas with a tripod or multipod level configuration. We show that, due to the giant enhancement of Kerr nonlinearity contributed by EIT, several weak signal pulses can be effectively trapped by a soliton and cotravel stably with ultraslow propagating velocity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the trajectories of the soliton and the trapped signal pulses can be manipulated by using a Stern-Gerlach gradient magnetic field. As a result, the soliton and the trapped signal pulses display a Stern-Gerlach deflection and both of them can bypass an obstacle together. The results predicted here may be used to design all-optical switching at very low light level.

  12. Sperm specific proteins-potential candidate molecules for fertility control.

    PubMed

    Suri, Anil

    2004-03-10

    The increase in population growth rate warrants the development of additional contraceptive methods that are widely acceptable, free from side effects and less expensive. Immunocontraception, and in particular the targeting of antibodies to gamete-specific antigens implicated in sperm egg binding and fertilization, offers an attractive approach to control fertility. The development of a contraceptive vaccine based on sperm antigen represents a promising approach to contraception. In mammals, fertilization is completed by the direct interaction of sperm and egg, a process mediated primarily by sperm surface proteins. Sperm have proteins that are unique, cell specific, immunogenic and accessible to antibodies. A few of the sperm specific proteins have been isolated and characterized. The antibodies raised against the sperm specific antigens have proved to be extremely effective at reducing sperm-egg interaction in vitro; fertility trials in sub-human primates would eventually prove the effectiveness of the sperm antigens in terms of contraceptive efficacy.

  13. Sperm specific proteins-potential candidate molecules for fertility control

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Anil

    2004-01-01

    The increase in population growth rate warrants the development of additional contraceptive methods that are widely acceptable, free from side effects and less expensive. Immunocontraception, and in particular the targeting of antibodies to gamete-specific antigens implicated in sperm egg binding and fertilization, offers an attractive approach to control fertility. The development of a contraceptive vaccine based on sperm antigen represents a promising approach to contraception. In mammals, fertilization is completed by the direct interaction of sperm and egg, a process mediated primarily by sperm surface proteins. Sperm have proteins that are unique, cell specific, immunogenic and accessible to antibodies. A few of the sperm specific proteins have been isolated and characterized. The antibodies raised against the sperm specific antigens have proved to be extremely effective at reducing sperm-egg interaction in vitro; fertility trials in sub-human primates would eventually prove the effectiveness of the sperm antigens in terms of contraceptive efficacy. PMID:15012833

  14. Room temperature coherent control of defect spin qubits in silicon carbide.

    PubMed

    Koehl, William F; Buckley, Bob B; Heremans, F Joseph; Calusine, Greg; Awschalom, David D

    2011-11-01

    Electronic spins in semiconductors have been used extensively to explore the limits of external control over quantum mechanical phenomena. A long-standing goal of this research has been to identify or develop robust quantum systems that can be easily manipulated, for future use in advanced information and communication technologies. Recently, a point defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy centre has attracted a great deal of interest because it possesses an atomic-scale electronic spin state that can be used as an individually addressable, solid-state quantum bit (qubit), even at room temperature. These exceptional quantum properties have motivated efforts to identify similar defects in other semiconductors, as they may offer an expanded range of functionality not available to the diamond nitrogen-vacancy centre. Notably, several defects in silicon carbide (SiC) have been suggested as good candidates for exploration, owing to a combination of computational predictions and magnetic resonance data. Here we demonstrate that several defect spin states in the 4H polytype of SiC (4H-SiC) can be optically addressed and coherently controlled in the time domain at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 kelvin. Using optical and microwave techniques similar to those used with diamond nitrogen-vacancy qubits, we study the spin-1 ground state of each of four inequivalent forms of the neutral carbon-silicon divacancy, as well as a pair of defect spin states of unidentified origin. These defects are optically active near telecommunication wavelengths, and are found in a host material for which there already exist industrial-scale crystal growth and advanced microfabrication techniques. In addition, they possess desirable spin coherence properties that are comparable to those of the diamond nitrogen-vacancy centre. This makes them promising candidates for various photonic, spintronic and quantum information applications that merge quantum degrees of freedom with classical

  15. Vibrational control of electron-transfer reactions: a feasibility study for the fast coherent transfer regime.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, P; Ma, Z; Zhang, P; Beratan, D N; Skourtis, S S

    2015-12-14

    Molecular vibrations and electron-vibrational interactions are central to the control of biomolecular electron and energy-transfer rates. The vibrational control of molecular electron-transfer reactions by infrared pulses may enable the precise probing of electronic-vibrational interactions and of their roles in determining electron-transfer mechanisms. This type of electron-transfer rate control is advantageous because it does not alter the electronic state of the molecular electron-transfer system or irreversibly change its molecular structure. For bridge-mediated electron-transfer reactions, infrared (vibrational) excitation of the bridge linking the electron donor to the electron acceptor was suggested as being capable of influencing the electron-transfer rate by modulating the bridge-mediated donor-to-acceptor electronic coupling. This kind of electron-transfer experiment has been realized, demonstrating that bridge-mediated electron-transfer rates can be changed by exciting vibrational modes of the bridge. Here, we use simple models and ab initio computations to explore the physical constraints on one's ability to vibrationally perturb electron-transfer rates using infrared excitation. These constraints stem from the nature of molecular vibrational spectra, the strengths of the electron-vibrational coupling, and the interaction between molecular vibrations and infrared radiation. With these constraints in mind, we suggest parameter regimes and molecular architectures that may enhance the vibrational control of electron transfer for fast coherent electron-transfer reactions.

  16. Electrically controllable plasmonic enhanced coherent random lasing from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals containing Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Wan, Yuan; Shi, Lijie; Zhong, Haizheng; Deng, Luogen

    2016-08-01

    An electrically controllable plasmonic enhanced coherent random lasing from the dye-doped nematic liquid crystal containing Au nanoparticles is demonstrated. To achieve the optimal control of the RL properties, the polarization of the pump light should be parallel to the rubbing direction of the cells. The lasing output intensity is direction-dependent and the substantial output distributes in an angle range of 0°~30° deviating from the direction of the pump stripe. The coherent feedback associated with the coherent random lasing mainly originates from the cooperative effect of the enhanced localized electric field in the vicinity of Au nanoparticles and the multiple scattering caused by the fluctuations of the liquid crystal director and local dielectric tensor. PMID:27505729

  17. Co-inhibitory molecules: Controlling the effectors or controlling the controllers?

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, Govindarajan; Smolarchuk, Christa; Anderson, Colin C

    2010-04-01

    Nearly forty years ago the concept was proposed that lymphocytes are negatively regulated by what are now called co-inhibitory signals. Nevertheless, it is only the more recent identification of numerous co-inhibitors and their critical functions that has brought co-inhibition to the forefront of immunologic research. Although co-inhibitory signals have been considered to directly regulate conventional T cells, more recent data has indicated a convergence between co-inhibitory signals and the other major negative control mechanism in the periphery that is mediated by regulatory T cells. Furthermore, it is now clear that lymphocytes are not the sole domain of co-inhibitory signals, as cells of the innate immune system, themselves controllers of immunity, are regulated by co-inhibitors they express. Thus, in order to better understand negative regulation in the periphery and apply this knowledge to the treatment of disease, a major focus for the future should be the definition of the conditions where co-inhibition controls effector cells intrinsically versus extrinsically (via regulatory or innate cells).

  18. Nanoscale Molecules Under Thermodynamic Control:" Digestive Ripening" or " Nanomachining"

    SciTech Connect

    Klabunde, Kenneth J.

    2015-06-04

    Overall Research Goals and Specific Objectives: Nanoscale materials are becoming ubiquitous in science and engineering, and are found widely in nature. However, their formation processes and uniquely high chemical reactivities are not understood well, indeed are often mysterious. Over recent years, a number of research teams have described nanoparticle synthesis, and aging, thermal treatment, or etching times have been mentioned. We have used the terms “digestive ripening” and “nanomachining” and have suggested that thermodynamics plays an important part in the size adjustment to monodisperse arrays being formed. Since there is scant theoretical understanding of digestive ripening, the overall goal in our research is to learn what experimental parameters (ligand used, temperature, solvent, time) are most important, how to control nanoparticle size and shape after initial crude nanoparticles have been synthesized, and gain better understanding of the chemical mechanism details. Specific objectives for the past twentynine months since the grant began have been to (1) Secure and train personnel;as of 2011, a postdoc Deepa Jose, female from the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, India; Yijun Sun, a second year graduate student, female from China; and Jessica Changstrom, female from the USA, GK12 fellow (program for enhancing teaching ability) are actively carrying out research. (2) Find out what happens to sulfur bound hydrogen of thiol when it interacts with gold nanoparticles. Our findings are discussed in detail later. (3) Determine the effect of particle size, shape, and temperature on dodecyl thiol assited digestive ripening of gold nanoparticles. See our discussions later. (4) To understand in detail the ligand interaction in molecular clusters and nanoparticles (5) Determine the effect of chain length of amines on Au nanoparticle size under digestive ripening conditions (carbon chain length varied from 4-18). (6) Determine the catalytic activity

  19. Coherent beam control through inhomogeneous media in multi-photon microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Hari Prasad

    Multi-photon fluorescence microscopy has become a primary tool for high-resolution deep tissue imaging because of its sensitivity to ballistic excitation photons in comparison to scattered excitation photons. The imaging depth of multi-photon microscopes in tissue imaging is limited primarily by background fluorescence that is generated by scattered light due to the random fluctuations in refractive index inside the media, and by reduced intensity in the ballistic focal volume due to aberrations within the tissue and at its interface. We built two multi-photon adaptive optics (AO) correction systems, one for combating scattering and aberration problems, and another for compensating interface aberrations. For scattering correction a MEMS segmented deformable mirror (SDM) was inserted at a plane conjugate to the objective back-pupil plane. The SDM can pre-compensate for light scattering by coherent combination of the scattered light to make an apparent focus even at a depths where negligible ballistic light remains (i.e. ballistic limit). This problem was approached by investigating the spatial and temporal focusing characteristics of a broad-band light source through strongly scattering media. A new model was developed for coherent focus enhancement through or inside the strongly media based on the initial speckle contrast. A layer of fluorescent beads under a mouse skull was imaged using an iterative coherent beam control method in the prototype two-photon microscope to demonstrate the technique. We also adapted an AO correction system to an existing in three-photon microscope in a collaborator lab at Cornell University. In the second AO correction approach a continuous deformable mirror (CDM) is placed at a plane conjugate to the plane of an interface aberration. We demonstrated that this "Conjugate AO" technique yields a large field-of-view (FOV) advantage in comparison to Pupil AO. Further, we showed that the extended FOV in conjugate AO is maintained over a

  20. Geometries for the coherent control of four-wave mixing in graphene multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shraddha M.; Lyons, Ashley; Roger, Thomas; Clerici, Matteo; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Faccio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Deeply sub-wavelength two-dimensional films may exhibit extraordinarily strong nonlinear effects. Here we show that 2D films exhibit the remarkable property of a phase-controllable nonlinearity, i.e., the amplitude of the nonlinear polarisation wave in the medium can be controlled via the pump beam phase and determines whether a probe beam will “feel” or not the nonlinearity. This is in stark contrast to bulk nonlinearities where propagation in the medium averages out any such phase dependence. We perform a series of experiments in multilayer graphene that highlight some of the consequences of the optical nonlinearity phase-dependence, such as the coherent control of nonlinearly diffracted beams, single-pump-beam induced phase-conjugation and the demonstration of a nonlinear mirror characterised by negative reflection. The observed phase sensitivity is not specific to graphene but rather is solely a result of the dimensionality and is therefore expected in all 2D materials. PMID:26486075

  1. Coherent control of single spins in a silicon carbide pn junction device at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Yun; Widmann, Matthias; Booker, Ian; Niethammer, Matthias; Ohshima, Takeshi; Gali, Adam; Son, Nguyen T.; Janzén, Erik; Wrachtrup, Joerg

    Spins in single defects have been studied for quantum information science and quantum metrology. It has been proven that spins of the single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond can be used as a quantum bit, and a single spin sensor operating at ambient conditions. Recently, there has been a growing interest in a new material in which color centers similar to NV centers can be created and whose electrical properties can also be well controlled, thus existing electronic devices can easily be adapted as a platform for quantum applications. We recently reported that single spins of negatively charged silicon vacancies in SiC can be coherently controlled and long-lived at room temperature. As a next step, we isolated single silicon vacancies in a SiC pn junction device and investigated how the change in Fermi level, induced by applying bias, alters the charge state of silicon vacancies, thus affects the spin state control. This study will allow us to envision quantum applications based on single defects incorporated in modern electronic devices.

  2. Coherent Control of Population Transfer via Linear Chirp in Liquid Solution: The Role of Motional Narrowing.

    PubMed

    McRobbie, Porscha L; Geva, Eitan

    2016-05-19

    The conditions under which linear chirp can be used to control population transfer between the electronic states of a chromophore dissolved in liquid solution are investigated. To this end, we model the chromophore as a two-state system with shifted electronic potential energy surfaces and a fluctuating electronic transition frequency. The fluctuations are described as an exponentially correlated Gaussian stochastic process, which can be characterized by the average fluctuation amplitude, σ, and correlation time, τc. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation is solved numerically for an ensemble of stochastic histories, at different values of σ and τc, and under a wide range of pulse intensities and linear chirp coefficients. In the limit τc → ∞, we find that control diminishes rapidly as soon as σ exceeds the bandwidth of the pulse. However, we also find that control can be regained by reducing τc. We attribute this trend to motional narrowing, whereby decreasing τc narrows down the effective bandwidth of the solvent-induced fluctuations. The results suggest that the choice of methanol as a solvent in the actual experimental demonstration of chirp control by Cerullo et al. [ Chem. Phys. Lett. 1996 , 262 , 362 - 368 ] may have contributed to its success, due to the particularly short τc (∼20 fs) that the rapid librations of this hydrogen bonded liquid give rise to. The results also give rise to the rather surprising prediction that coherent control in liquid solution can be strongly dependent on the choice of solvent and be improved upon by choosing solvents that correspond to lower values of στc.

  3. Coherent control of charge exchange in strong-field dissociation of LiF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Greg; Esry, Brett

    2016-05-01

    The alkali-metal-halides family of molecules are useful prototypes in the study of laser-assisted charge exchange. Typically these molecules possess a field-free crossing between the ionic and covalent diabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential curves, leading to Li+ + F- and Li + F in LiF. These channels are energetically well-separated from higher-lying potentials, and may be easily distinguished experimentally. Moreover, charge exchange involves non-adiabatic transitions between the ionic and covalent channels, thereby allowing the investigation of physics beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The focus of this work is to control the preference between ionic and covalent dissociative products. We solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the nuclear motion in full dimensionality, and investigate a pump-probe scheme for charge-exchange control. The degree of control is investigated by calculating the kinetic-energy release spectrum as a function of pump-probe delay for the ionic and covalent fragments. This work is supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. High-gamma band fronto-temporal coherence as a measure of functional connectivity in speech motor control

    PubMed Central

    Kingyon, Johnathan; Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Kelley, Ryan; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; Greenlee, Jeremy D. W.

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of human speech is unclear. Intracranial electrophysiological recordings have revealed that high-gamma band oscillations (70–150 Hz) are observed in frontal lobe during speech production and in the temporal lobe during speech perception. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the frontal and temporal brain regions had high-gamma coherence during speech. We recorded electrocorticography (ECoG) from the frontal and temporal cortices of five humans who underwent surgery for medically intractable epilepsy, and studied coherence between frontal and temporal cortex during vocalization and playback of vocalization. We report two novel results. First, we observed high-gamma band as well as theta (4–8 Hz) coherence between frontal and temporal lobes. Second, both high-gamma and theta coherence were stronger when subjects were actively vocalizing as compared to playback of the same vocalizations. These findings provide evidence that coupling between sensory-motor networks measured by high-gamma coherence plays a key role in feedback-based monitoring and control of vocal output for human vocalization. PMID:26232713

  5. High-gamma band fronto-temporal coherence as a measure of functional connectivity in speech motor control.

    PubMed

    Kingyon, J; Behroozmand, R; Kelley, R; Oya, H; Kawasaki, H; Narayanan, N S; Greenlee, J D W

    2015-10-01

    The neural basis of human speech is unclear. Intracranial electrophysiological recordings have revealed that high-gamma band oscillations (70-150Hz) are observed in the frontal lobe during speech production and in the temporal lobe during speech perception. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the frontal and temporal brain regions had high-gamma coherence during speech. We recorded electrocorticography (ECoG) from the frontal and temporal cortices of five humans who underwent surgery for medically intractable epilepsy, and studied coherence between the frontal and temporal cortex during vocalization and playback of vocalization. We report two novel results. First, we observed high-gamma band as well as theta (4-8Hz) coherence between frontal and temporal lobes. Second, both high-gamma and theta coherence were stronger when subjects were actively vocalizing as compared to playback of the same vocalizations. These findings provide evidence that coupling between sensory-motor networks measured by high-gamma coherence plays a key role in feedback-based monitoring and control of vocal output for human vocalization.

  6. Wigner spectrum and coherent feedback control of continuous-mode single-photon Fock states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhiyuan; Cui, Lei; Zhang, Guofeng; Fu, Hongchen

    2016-10-01

    Single photons are very useful resources in quantum information science. In real applications it is often required that the photons have a well-defined spectral (or equivalently temporal) modal structure. For example, a rising exponential pulse is able to fully excite a two-level atom while a Gaussian pulse cannot. This motivates the study of continuous-mode single-photon Fock states. Such states are characterized by a spectral (or temporal) pulse shape. In this paper we investigate the statistical property of continuous-mode single-photon Fock states. Instead of the commonly used normal ordering (Wick order), the tool we proposed is the Wigner spectrum. The Wigner spectrum has two advantages: (1) it allows to study continuous-mode single-photon Fock states in the time domain and frequency domain simultaneously; (2) because it can deal with the Dirac delta function directly, it has the potential to provide more information than the normal ordering where the Dirac delta function is always discarded. We also show how various control methods in particular coherent feedback control can be used to manipulate the pulse shapes of continuous-mode single-photon Fock states.

  7. Controllable delivery of small-molecule compounds to targeted cells utilizing carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhengding; Zhu, Shuihan; Donkor, Apraku D; Tzoganakis, Costas; Honek, John F

    2011-05-11

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as a new alternative and efficient tool for transporting molecules with biotechnological and biomedical applications, because of their remarkable physicochemical properties. Encapsulation of functional molecules into the hollow chambers of CNTs can not only stabilize encapsulated molecules but also generate new nanodevices. In this work, we have demonstrated that CNTs can function as controllable carriers to transport small-molecule compounds (SMCs) loaded inside their hollow tunnels onto targeted cells. Using indole as model compound, CNTs can protect indole molecules during transportation. Labeling indole-loaded CNTs (indole@CNTs) with EphB4-binding peptides generates cell-homing indole@CNTs (CIDs). CIDs can selectively target EphB4-expressing cells and release indole onto cell surfaces by near-infrared (NIR) irradiation. Released indole molecules exhibit significant cell-killing effects without causing local overheating. This establishes CNTs as excellent near-infrared controllable delivery vehicles for SMCs as selective cell-killing agents.

  8. Small Molecule Control of Intracellular Protein Levels Through Modulation of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, biological probes and drugs have targeted the activities of proteins (such as enzymes and receptors) that can be easily controlled by small molecules. The remaining majority of the proteome has been deemed “undruggable”. By using small molecule modulators of the ubiquitin proteasome, protein levels, rather than protein activities can be targeted instead, increasing the number of druggable targets. While targeting the proteasome itself can lead to a global increase in protein levels, targeting other components of the UPS (e.g., the hundreds of E3 ubiquitin ligases) can lead to an increase in protein levels in a more targeted fashion. Alternatively, multiple strategies for inducing protein degradation with small molecule probes are emerging. With the ability to induce and inhibit the degradation of targeted proteins, small molecule modulators of the UPS have the potential to significantly expand the druggable portion of the proteome beyond traditional targets such as enzymes and receptors. PMID:24459094

  9. Fast and automatic depth control of iterative bone ablation based on optical coherence tomography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Alexander; Pengel, Steffen; Bergmeier, Jan; Kahrs, Lüder A.; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-07-01

    Laser surgery is an established clinical procedure in dental applications, soft tissue ablation, and ophthalmology. The presented experimental set-up for closed-loop control of laser bone ablation addresses a feedback system and enables safe ablation towards anatomical structures that usually would have high risk of damage. This study is based on combined working volumes of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Er:YAG cutting laser. High level of automation in fast image data processing and tissue treatment enables reproducible results and shortens the time in the operating room. For registration of the two coordinate systems a cross-like incision is ablated with the Er:YAG laser and segmented with OCT in three distances. The resulting Er:YAG coordinate system is reconstructed. A parameter list defines multiple sets of laser parameters including discrete and specific ablation rates as ablation model. The control algorithm uses this model to plan corrective laser paths for each set of laser parameters and dynamically adapts the distance of the laser focus. With this iterative control cycle consisting of image processing, path planning, ablation, and moistening of tissue the target geometry and desired depth are approximated until no further corrective laser paths can be set. The achieved depth stays within the tolerances of the parameter set with the smallest ablation rate. Specimen trials with fresh porcine bone have been conducted to prove the functionality of the developed concept. Flat bottom surfaces and sharp edges of the outline without visual signs of thermal damage verify the feasibility of automated, OCT controlled laser bone ablation with minimal process time.

  10. Controlled switching of single-molecule junctions by mechanical motion of a phenyl ring

    PubMed Central

    Kitaguchi, Yuya; Habuka, Satoru; Hatta, Shinichiro; Aruga, Tetsuya; Paulsson, Magnus; Ueba, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mechanical methods for single-molecule control have potential for wide application in nanodevices and machines. Here we demonstrate the operation of a single-molecule switch made functional by the motion of a phenyl ring, analogous to the lever in a conventional toggle switch. The switch can be actuated by dual triggers, either by a voltage pulse or by displacement of the electrode, and electronic manipulation of the ring by chemical substitution enables rational control of the on-state conductance. Owing to its simple mechanics, structural robustness, and chemical accessibility, we propose that phenyl rings are promising components in mechanical molecular devices. PMID:26665080

  11. Controlled switching of single-molecule junctions by mechanical motion of a phenyl ring.

    PubMed

    Kitaguchi, Yuya; Habuka, Satoru; Okuyama, Hiroshi; Hatta, Shinichiro; Aruga, Tetsuya; Frederiksen, Thomas; Paulsson, Magnus; Ueba, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical methods for single-molecule control have potential for wide application in nanodevices and machines. Here we demonstrate the operation of a single-molecule switch made functional by the motion of a phenyl ring, analogous to the lever in a conventional toggle switch. The switch can be actuated by dual triggers, either by a voltage pulse or by displacement of the electrode, and electronic manipulation of the ring by chemical substitution enables rational control of the on-state conductance. Owing to its simple mechanics, structural robustness, and chemical accessibility, we propose that phenyl rings are promising components in mechanical molecular devices. PMID:26665080

  12. Composite microsphere-functionalized scaffold for the controlled release of small molecules in tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfi, Laura; Minardi, Silvia; Taraballi, Francesca; Liu, Xeuwu; Ferrari, Mauro; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-01-01

    Current tissue engineering strategies focus on restoring damaged tissue architectures using biologically active scaffolds. The ideal scaffold would mimic the extracellular matrix of any tissue of interest, promoting cell proliferation and de novo extracellular matrix deposition. A plethora of techniques have been evaluated to engineer scaffolds for the controlled and targeted release of bioactive molecules to provide a functional structure for tissue growth and remodeling, as well as enhance recruitment and proliferation of autologous cells within the implant. Recently, novel approaches using small molecules, instead of growth factors, have been exploited to regulate tissue regeneration. The use of small synthetic molecules could be very advantageous because of their stability, tunability, and low cost. Herein, we propose a chitosan–gelatin scaffold functionalized with composite microspheres consisting of mesoporous silicon microparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) for the controlled release of sphingosine-1-phospate, a small molecule of interest. We characterized the platform with scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and confocal microscopy. Finally, the biocompatibility of this multiscale system was analyzed by culturing human mesenchymal stem cells onto the scaffold. The presented strategy establishes the basis of a versatile scaffold for the controlled release of small molecules and for culturing mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine applications. PMID:26977286

  13. Changes in frontal EEG coherence across infancy predict cognitive abilities at age 3: The mediating role of attentional control.

    PubMed

    Whedon, Margaret; Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-09-01

    Theoretical perspectives of cognitive development have maintained that functional integration of the prefrontal cortex across infancy underlies the emergence of attentional control and higher cognitive abilities in early childhood. To investigate these proposed relations, we tested whether functional integration of prefrontal regions across the second half of the first year predicted observed cognitive performance in early childhood 1 year prior indirectly through observed attentional control (N = 300). Results indicated that greater change in left-but not right-frontal EEG coherence between 5 and 10 months was positively associated with attentional control, cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control. Specifically, a larger increase in coherence between left frontal regions was positively associated with accuracy on a visual search task at Age 2, and visual search accuracy was positively associated with receptive vocabulary, performance on a set-shifting task (DCCS), and delay of gratification at Age 3. Finally, the indirect effects from the change in left frontal EEG coherence to 3-year cognitive flexibility, receptive language, and behavioral inhibitory control were significant, suggesting that internally controlled attention is a mechanism through which early neural maturation influences children's cognitive development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27441486

  14. Coherent structures in swirling flows and their role in acoustic combustion control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschereit, Christian Oliver; Gutmark, Ephraim; Weisenstein, Wolfgang

    1999-09-01

    Interaction between flow instabilities and acoustic resonant modes and their effect on heat release were investigated and controlled in an experimental low-emission swirl stabilized combustor. Acoustic boundary conditions of the combustor were modified to excite combustion instability at various axisymmetric and helical unstable modes in a fully premixed combustion. The combustion unstable modes were related to flow instabilities in the recirculating wakelike region on the combustor axis and the separating shear layer at the sudden expansion (dump plane). Flow field measurements were performed in a water tunnel using a simulated combustor configuration. The water tunnel tests demonstrated the existence of several modes of flow instabilities in a highly swirling flow, modes which were shown to affect the combustion process. Mean and turbulent characteristics of the internal and external swirling shear layers were measured and unstable flow modes were identified. Instability modes during combustion were visualized by phase locked images of OH chemiluminescence. The axisymmetric mode showed large variation of the heat release during one cycle, while the helical modes showed variations in the radial location of maximal heat release. Closed loop active control system was employed to suppress the thermoacoustic pressure oscillations and to reduce NOx emissions. Microphone and OH emission detection sensors monitored the combustion process and provided input to the control system. An acoustic source modulated the airflow and thus affected the mixing process and the combustion. Effective suppression of the pressure oscillations and the concomitant reduction of NOx emissions were associated with a reduced coherence of the flow structures which excited the thermoacoustic instability.

  15. A simulation environment for assisting system design of coherent laser doppler wind sensor for active wind turbine pitch control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Leilei; Pham Tran, Tuan Anh; Beuth, Thorsten; Umesh Babu, Harsha; Heussner, Nico; Bogatscher, Siegwart; Danilova, Svetlana; Stork, Wilhelm

    2013-05-01

    In order to assist a system design of laser coherent Doppler wind sensor for active pitch control of wind turbine systems (WTS), we developed a numerical simulation environment for modeling and simulation of the sensor system. In this paper we present this simulation concept. In previous works, we have shown the general idea and the possibility of using a low cost coherent laser Doppler wind sensing system for an active pitch control of WTS in order to achieve a reduced mechanical stress, increase the WTS lifetime and therefore reduce the electricity price from wind energy. Such a system is based on a 1.55μm Continuous-Wave (CW) laser plus an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with an output power of 1W. Within this system, an optical coherent detection method is chosen for the Doppler frequency measurement in megahertz range. A comparatively low cost short coherent length laser with a fiber delay line is used for achieving a multiple range measurement. In this paper, we show the current results on the improvement of our simulation by applying a Monte Carlo random generation method for positioning the random particles in atmosphere and extend the simulation to the entire beam penetrated space by introducing a cylindrical co-ordinate concept and meshing the entire volume into small elements in order to achieve a faster calculation and gain more realistic simulation result. In addition, by applying different atmospheric parameters, such as particle sizes and distributions, we can simulate different weather and wind situations.

  16. Precise control of coupling strength in photonic molecules over a wide range using nanoelectromechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Du, Han; Zhang, Xingwang; Chen, Guoqiang; Deng, Jie; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya

    2016-01-01

    Photonic molecules have a range of promising applications including quantum information processing, where precise control of coupling strength is critical. Here, by laterally shifting the center-to-center offset of coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities, we demonstrate a method to precisely and dynamically control the coupling strength of photonic molecules through integrated nanoelectromechanical systems with a precision of a few GHz over a range of several THz without modifying the nature of their constituent resonators. Furthermore, the coupling strength can be tuned continuously from negative (strong coupling regime) to zero (weak coupling regime) and further to positive (strong coupling regime) and vice versa. Our work opens a door to the optimization of the coupling strength of photonic molecules in situ for the study of cavity quantum electrodynamics and the development of efficient quantum information devices. PMID:27097883

  17. Precise control of coupling strength in photonic molecules over a wide range using nanoelectromechanical systems

    PubMed Central

    Du, Han; Zhang, Xingwang; Chen, Guoqiang; Deng, Jie; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya

    2016-01-01

    Photonic molecules have a range of promising applications including quantum information processing, where precise control of coupling strength is critical. Here, by laterally shifting the center-to-center offset of coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities, we demonstrate a method to precisely and dynamically control the coupling strength of photonic molecules through integrated nanoelectromechanical systems with a precision of a few GHz over a range of several THz without modifying the nature of their constituent resonators. Furthermore, the coupling strength can be tuned continuously from negative (strong coupling regime) to zero (weak coupling regime) and further to positive (strong coupling regime) and vice versa. Our work opens a door to the optimization of the coupling strength of photonic molecules in situ for the study of cavity quantum electrodynamics and the development of efficient quantum information devices. PMID:27097883

  18. Rotational Control of Asymmetric Molecules: Dipole- versus Polarizability-Driven Rotational Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Damari, Ran; Kallush, Shimshon; Fleischer, Sharly

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally study the optical- and terahertz-induced rotational dynamics of asymmetric molecules in the gas phase. Terahertz and optical fields are identified as two distinct control handles over asymmetric molecules, as they couple to the rotational degrees of freedom via the molecular dipole and polarizability selectively. The distinction between those two rotational handles is highlighted by different types of quantum revivals observed in long-duration (>100  ps) field-free rotational evolution. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with random phase wave function (RPWF) simulations [Phys. Rev. A 91, 063420 (2015)] and provide verification of the RPWF as an efficient method for calculating asymmetric molecular dynamics at ambient temperatures, where exact calculation methods are practically not feasible. Our observations and analysis pave the way for orchestrated excitations by both optical and terahertz fields as complementary rotational handles that enable a plethora of new possibilities in three-dimensional rotational control of asymmetric molecules. PMID:27636471

  19. Rotational Control of Asymmetric Molecules: Dipole- versus Polarizability-Driven Rotational Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damari, Ran; Kallush, Shimshon; Fleischer, Sharly

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally study the optical- and terahertz-induced rotational dynamics of asymmetric molecules in the gas phase. Terahertz and optical fields are identified as two distinct control handles over asymmetric molecules, as they couple to the rotational degrees of freedom via the molecular dipole and polarizability selectively. The distinction between those two rotational handles is highlighted by different types of quantum revivals observed in long-duration (>100 ps ) field-free rotational evolution. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with random phase wave function (RPWF) simulations [Phys. Rev. A 91, 063420 (2015)] and provide verification of the RPWF as an efficient method for calculating asymmetric molecular dynamics at ambient temperatures, where exact calculation methods are practically not feasible. Our observations and analysis pave the way for orchestrated excitations by both optical and terahertz fields as complementary rotational handles that enable a plethora of new possibilities in three-dimensional rotational control of asymmetric molecules.

  20. Controlling the torsional stochastic switching in phenylene ethynylene oligomer molecules by external electrostatic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petreska, Irina; Pejov, Ljupčo; Kocarev, Ljupčo

    2008-07-01

    First-principles molecular-orbital theory was used to predict the possibilities to control the single-molecule conductance switching by external electrostatic fields in the case of nondipolar phenylene ethynylene oligomer molecule. External field directed perpendicularly to the molecular plane was shown to induce conductance switching, while field directed along axis lying within the molecular plane and being perpendicular to the principal molecular axis was shown to be capable of controlling the stochastic conductance by a strong modulation of the corresponding classical transition probability. The possibility for tuning the molecular switching properties could be attributed to the changes in the polarizability tensor components induced upon intramolecular torsion. The outlined possibilities are of fundamental importance in molecular engineering and design of single-molecule switches.

  1. High-Field High-Repetition-Rate Sources for the Coherent THz Control of Matter.

    PubMed

    Green, B; Kovalev, S; Asgekar, V; Geloni, G; Lehnert, U; Golz, T; Kuntzsch, M; Bauer, C; Hauser, J; Voigtlaender, J; Wustmann, B; Koesterke, I; Schwarz, M; Freitag, M; Arnold, A; Teichert, J; Justus, M; Seidel, W; Ilgner, C; Awari, N; Nicoletti, D; Kaiser, S; Laplace, Y; Rajasekaran, S; Zhang, L; Winnerl, S; Schneider, H; Schay, G; Lorincz, I; Rauscher, A A; Radu, I; Mährlein, S; Kim, T H; Lee, J S; Kampfrath, T; Wall, S; Heberle, J; Malnasi-Csizmadia, A; Steiger, A; Müller, A S; Helm, M; Schramm, U; Cowan, T; Michel, P; Cavalleri, A; Fisher, A S; Stojanovic, N; Gensch, M

    2016-01-01

    Ultrashort flashes of THz light with low photon energies of a few meV, but strong electric or magnetic field transients have recently been employed to prepare various fascinating nonequilibrium states in matter. Here we present a new class of sources based on superradiant enhancement of radiation from relativistic electron bunches in a compact electron accelerator that we believe will revolutionize experiments in this field. Our prototype source generates high-field THz pulses at unprecedented quasi-continuous-wave repetition rates up to the MHz regime. We demonstrate parameters that exceed state-of-the-art laser-based sources by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The peak fields and the repetition rates are highly scalable and once fully operational this type of sources will routinely provide 1 MV/cm electric fields and 0.3 T magnetic fields at repetition rates of few 100 kHz. We benchmark the unique properties by performing a resonant coherent THz control experiment with few 10 fs resolution. PMID:26924651

  2. Control of Group Velocity via Spontaneous Generated Coherence and Kerr Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazrat, Ali; Iftikhar, Ahmad; Ziauddin

    2014-09-01

    A four-level N-type atomic medium is considered to study the effect of spontaneous generated coherence (SGC) and Kerr nonlinearity on light pulse propagation. A light pulse is propagating inside the medium where each atom follows four-level N-type atom-field configuration of rubidium (85Rb) atom. The atom-field interaction leads to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) process. The atom-field interaction is accompanied by normal dispersion and in the presence of SGC and Kerr nonlinearity the dispersion property of the proposed atomic medium is modified, which leads to enhancement of positive group index of the medium. The enhancement of positive group index then leads to slow group velocity inside the medium. A more slow group velocity is also investigated by incorporated the collective effect of SGC and Kerr nonlinearity. The control of group velocity inside a four-level N-type atomic medium via collective effect of SGC and Kerr nonlinearity is the major part of this work.

  3. High-Field High-Repetition-Rate Sources for the Coherent THz Control of Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Green, B.; Kovalev, S.; Asgekar, V.; Geloni, G.; Lehnert, U.; Golz, T.; Kuntzsch, M.; Bauer, C.; Hauser, J.; Voigtlaender, J.; et al

    2016-02-29

    Ultrashort flashes of THz light with low photon energies of a few meV, but strong electric or magnetic field transients have recently been employed to prepare various fascinating nonequilibrium states in matter. Here we present a new class of sources based on superradiant enhancement of radiation from relativistic electron bunches in a compact electron accelerator that we believe will revolutionize experiments in this field. Our prototype source generates high-field THz pulses at unprecedented quasi-continuous-wave repetition rates up to the MHz regime. We demonstrate parameters that exceed state-of-the-art laser-based sources by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The peak fields andmore » the repetition rates are highly scalable and once fully operational this type of sources will routinely provide 1 MV/cm electric fields and 0.3 T magnetic fields at repetition rates of few 100 kHz. In conclusion, we benchmark the unique properties by performing a resonant coherent THz control experiment with few 10 fs resolution.« less

  4. High-Field High-Repetition-Rate Sources for the Coherent THz Control of Matter

    PubMed Central

    Green, B.; Kovalev, S.; Asgekar, V.; Geloni, G.; Lehnert, U.; Golz, T.; Kuntzsch, M.; Bauer, C.; Hauser, J.; Voigtlaender, J.; Wustmann, B.; Koesterke, I.; Schwarz, M.; Freitag, M.; Arnold, A.; Teichert, J.; Justus, M.; Seidel, W.; Ilgner, C.; Awari, N.; Nicoletti, D.; Kaiser, S.; Laplace, Y.; Rajasekaran, S.; Zhang, L.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Schay, G.; Lorincz, I.; Rauscher, A. A.; Radu, I.; Mährlein, S.; Kim, T. H.; Lee, J. S.; Kampfrath, T.; Wall, S.; Heberle, J.; Malnasi-Csizmadia, A.; Steiger, A.; Müller, A. S.; Helm, M.; Schramm, U.; Cowan, T.; Michel, P.; Cavalleri, A.; Fisher, A. S.; Stojanovic, N.; Gensch, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrashort flashes of THz light with low photon energies of a few meV, but strong electric or magnetic field transients have recently been employed to prepare various fascinating nonequilibrium states in matter. Here we present a new class of sources based on superradiant enhancement of radiation from relativistic electron bunches in a compact electron accelerator that we believe will revolutionize experiments in this field. Our prototype source generates high-field THz pulses at unprecedented quasi-continuous-wave repetition rates up to the MHz regime. We demonstrate parameters that exceed state-of-the-art laser-based sources by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The peak fields and the repetition rates are highly scalable and once fully operational this type of sources will routinely provide 1 MV/cm electric fields and 0.3 T magnetic fields at repetition rates of few 100 kHz. We benchmark the unique properties by performing a resonant coherent THz control experiment with few 10 fs resolution. PMID:26924651

  5. Coherent control of atomic motion in an optical lattice for precise measurements of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarallo, Marco; Alberti, Andrea; Poli, Nicola; Prevedelli, Marco; Wang, Fu-Yuan; Tino, Guglielmo

    2011-05-01

    Coherent control of atomic motion inside an optical lattice allows precise measurement of forces by means amplitude-modulation (AM) driven resonant tunneling. We report about the recently-performed high precision measurements of gravitational acceleration using ultracold strontium atoms trapped in an AM driven vertical optical lattice. We reached an uncertainty Δg / g ~10-7 by measuring at the 5th harmonic of the Bloch oscillation frequency. We analyzed the systematic effects induced by the trapping optical lattice, such as the intensity gradient and the lattice frequency-induced shift. We accurately measured the lattice frequency by means of an fiber link with a home-made frequency comb. The value of g obtained with this microscopic quantum system is consistent with the one we measured with a classical absolute gravimeter. Short-distance measurements of gravity near dielectric surfaces are discussed. These results prospect a new way to new tests of gravity at micrometer scale. A. Alberti et al., New J. Phys. 12, 065037 (2010).

  6. Single-molecule diodes with high rectification ratios through environmental control.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Brian; Xia, Jianlong; Adak, Olgun; Dell, Emma J; Liu, Zhen-Fei; Taylor, Jeffrey C; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Campos, Luis M; Venkataraman, Latha

    2015-06-01

    Molecular electronics aims to miniaturize electronic devices by using subnanometre-scale active components. A single-molecule diode, a circuit element that directs current flow, was first proposed more than 40 years ago and consisted of an asymmetric molecule comprising a donor-bridge-acceptor architecture to mimic a semiconductor p-n junction. Several single-molecule diodes have since been realized in junctions featuring asymmetric molecular backbones, molecule-electrode linkers or electrode materials. Despite these advances, molecular diodes have had limited potential for applications due to their low conductance, low rectification ratios, extreme sensitivity to the junction structure and high operating voltages. Here, we demonstrate a powerful approach to induce current rectification in symmetric single-molecule junctions using two electrodes of the same metal, but breaking symmetry by exposing considerably different electrode areas to an ionic solution. This allows us to control the junction's electrostatic environment in an asymmetric fashion by simply changing the bias polarity. With this method, we reliably and reproducibly achieve rectification ratios in excess of 200 at voltages as low as 370 mV using a symmetric oligomer of thiophene-1,1-dioxide. By taking advantage of the changes in the junction environment induced by the presence of an ionic solution, this method provides a general route for tuning nonlinear nanoscale device phenomena, which could potentially be applied in systems beyond single-molecule junctions.

  7. Doping-controlled Coherent Electron-Phonon Coupling in Vanadium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Appavoo, Kannatassen; Wang, Bin; Nag, Joyeeta; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Haglund, Richard F.

    2015-05-10

    Broadband femtosecond transient spectroscopy and density functional calculations reveal that substitutional tungsten doping of a VO2 film changes the coherent phonon response compared to the undoped film due to altered electronic and structural dynamics.

  8. Optimally controlling the internal dynamics of a randomly oriented ensemble of molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turinici, Gabriel; Rabitz, Herschel

    2004-12-01

    The ultrafast control of large polyatomic molecules in the gas and condensed phases entails working with a randomly oriented ensemble. During the short control period, little reorientation may occur, especially for cases in the condensed phases. This paper addresses the degree to which all members of the ensemble may be simultaneously controlled with respect to their internal motion by a single laser pulse. It is shown that all members of the ensemble are fully controllable if any one member is. Numerical optimal control simulations also show that excellent quality full ensemble control can be achieved even with reasonable constraints placed on the control fields. Although the full ensemble may be controlled to a high degree, the control mechanism is likely to differ for each ensemble member.

  9. Remote control of therapeutic T cells through a small molecule-gated chimeric receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Yung; Roybal, Kole T.; Puchner, Elias M.; Onuffer, James; Lim, Wendell A.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing promise in using engineered cells as therapeutic agents. For example, synthetic Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs) can redirect T cells to recognize and eliminate tumor cells expressing specific antigens. Despite promising clinical results, excessive activity and poor control over such engineered T cells can cause severe toxicities. We present the design of “ON-switch” CARs that enable small molecule-control over T cell therapeutic functions, while still retaining antigen specificity. In these split receptors, antigen binding and intracellular signaling components only assemble in the presence of a heterodimerizing small molecule. This titratable pharmacologic regulation could allow physicians to precisely control the timing, location, and dosage of T cell activity, thereby mitigating toxicity. This work illustrates the potential of combining cellular engineering with orthogonal chemical tools to yield safer therapeutic cells that tightly integrate both cell autonomous recognition and user control. PMID:26405231

  10. Remote control of therapeutic T cells through a small molecule-gated chimeric receptor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yung; Roybal, Kole T; Puchner, Elias M; Onuffer, James; Lim, Wendell A

    2015-10-16

    There is growing interest in using engineered cells as therapeutic agents. For example, synthetic chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) can redirect T cells to recognize and eliminate tumor cells expressing specific antigens. Despite promising clinical results, these engineered T cells can exhibit excessive activity that is difficult to control and can cause severe toxicity. We designed "ON-switch" CARs that enable small-molecule control over T cell therapeutic functions while still retaining antigen specificity. In these split receptors, antigen-binding and intracellular signaling components assemble only in the presence of a heterodimerizing small molecule. This titratable pharmacologic regulation could allow physicians to precisely control the timing, location, and dosage of T cell activity, thereby mitigating toxicity. This work illustrates the potential of combining cellular engineering with orthogonal chemical tools to yield safer therapeutic cells that tightly integrate cell-autonomous recognition and user control.

  11. Remote control of therapeutic T cells through a small molecule-gated chimeric receptor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yung; Roybal, Kole T; Puchner, Elias M; Onuffer, James; Lim, Wendell A

    2015-10-16

    There is growing interest in using engineered cells as therapeutic agents. For example, synthetic chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) can redirect T cells to recognize and eliminate tumor cells expressing specific antigens. Despite promising clinical results, these engineered T cells can exhibit excessive activity that is difficult to control and can cause severe toxicity. We designed "ON-switch" CARs that enable small-molecule control over T cell therapeutic functions while still retaining antigen specificity. In these split receptors, antigen-binding and intracellular signaling components assemble only in the presence of a heterodimerizing small molecule. This titratable pharmacologic regulation could allow physicians to precisely control the timing, location, and dosage of T cell activity, thereby mitigating toxicity. This work illustrates the potential of combining cellular engineering with orthogonal chemical tools to yield safer therapeutic cells that tightly integrate cell-autonomous recognition and user control. PMID:26405231

  12. Coherent frequency combs and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jun

    2010-03-01

    Optical frequency combs maintain precise phase coherence across the entire visible spectrum and they have profoundly changed optical frequency metrology and ultrafast science, with breakthrough developments in optical atomic clocks, optical frequency synthesis, direct frequency comb spectroscopy (DFCS), high-resolution quantum control, coherent pulse synthesis and amplification, and control of sub-femtosecond electron dynamics in atoms and molecules. DFCS [1] is a new spectroscopic approach that realizes simultaneously broad spectral coverage, high spectral resolution, many parallel detection channels, ultrahigh sensitivity, and real-time analysis [2]. These powerful capabilities have been demonstrated in a series of experiments where identification and quantification of many different molecular states or species are achieved in a massively parallel fashion [3].[4pt] [1] A. Marian et al., Science 306, 2063 (2004). [0pt] [2] M. J. Thorpe et al., Science 311, 1595 (2006). [0pt] [3] M. J. Thorpe & J. Ye, Appl. Phys. B 91, 397 (2008).

  13. Coherent frequency combs and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jun

    2010-03-01

    Optical frequency combs possessing precise phase coherence across the entire visible spectrum have profoundly changed optical frequency metrology and ultrafast science, with breakthrough developments in optical atomic clocks, optical frequency synthesis, direct frequency comb spectroscopy (DFCS), high-resolution quantum control, coherent pulse synthesis and amplification, and control of sub-femtosecond electron dynamics in atoms and molecules. DFCS [1] is a new spectroscopic approach that embraces simultaneously broad spectral coverage, fine spectral resolution, numerous detection channels, ultrahigh sensitivity, and real-time analysis [2]. These powerful capabilities have been demonstrated in a series of experiments where identification and quantification of many different molecular states or species are achieved in a massively parallel fashion [3]. A range of interesting scientific applications will be discussed. [4pt] [1] A. Marian et al., Science 306, 2063 (2004). [0pt] [2] M. J. Thorpe et al., Science 311, 1595 (2006). [0pt] [3] M. J. Thorpe & J. Ye, Appl. Phys. B 91, 397 (2008).

  14. Ultrafast dynamics of single molecules.

    PubMed

    Brinks, Daan; Hildner, Richard; van Dijk, Erik M H P; Stefani, Fernando D; Nieder, Jana B; Hernando, Jordi; van Hulst, Niek F

    2014-04-21

    The detection of individual molecules has found widespread application in molecular biology, photochemistry, polymer chemistry, quantum optics and super-resolution microscopy. Tracking of an individual molecule in time has allowed identifying discrete molecular photodynamic steps, action of molecular motors, protein folding, diffusion, etc. down to the picosecond level. However, methods to study the ultrafast electronic and vibrational molecular dynamics at the level of individual molecules have emerged only recently. In this review we present several examples of femtosecond single molecule spectroscopy. Starting with basic pump-probe spectroscopy in a confocal detection scheme, we move towards deterministic coherent control approaches using pulse shapers and ultra-broad band laser systems. We present the detection of both electronic and vibrational femtosecond dynamics of individual fluorophores at room temperature, showing electronic (de)coherence, vibrational wavepacket interference and quantum control. Finally, two colour phase shaping applied to photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes is presented, which allows investigation of the persistent coherence in photosynthetic complexes under physiological conditions at the level of individual complexes. PMID:24473271

  15. Active control on high-order coherence and statistic characterization on random phase fluctuation of two classical point sources.

    PubMed

    Hong, Peilong; Li, Liming; Liu, Jianji; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-01-01

    Young's double-slit or two-beam interference is of fundamental importance to understand various interference effects, in which the stationary phase difference between two beams plays the key role in the first-order coherence. Different from the case of first-order coherence, in the high-order optical coherence the statistic behavior of the optical phase will play the key role. In this article, by employing a fundamental interfering configuration with two classical point sources, we showed that the high- order optical coherence between two classical point sources can be actively designed by controlling the statistic behavior of the relative phase difference between two point sources. Synchronous position Nth-order subwavelength interference with an effective wavelength of λ/M was demonstrated, in which λ is the wavelength of point sources and M is an integer not larger than N. Interestingly, we found that the synchronous position Nth-order interference fringe fingerprints the statistic trace of random phase fluctuation of two classical point sources, therefore, it provides an effective way to characterize the statistic properties of phase fluctuation for incoherent light sources.

  16. Active control on high-order coherence and statistic characterization on random phase fluctuation of two classical point sources

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Peilong; Li, Liming; Liu, Jianji; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-01-01

    Young’s double-slit or two-beam interference is of fundamental importance to understand various interference effects, in which the stationary phase difference between two beams plays the key role in the first-order coherence. Different from the case of first-order coherence, in the high-order optical coherence the statistic behavior of the optical phase will play the key role. In this article, by employing a fundamental interfering configuration with two classical point sources, we showed that the high- order optical coherence between two classical point sources can be actively designed by controlling the statistic behavior of the relative phase difference between two point sources. Synchronous position Nth-order subwavelength interference with an effective wavelength of λ/M was demonstrated, in which λ is the wavelength of point sources and M is an integer not larger than N. Interestingly, we found that the synchronous position Nth-order interference fringe fingerprints the statistic trace of random phase fluctuation of two classical point sources, therefore, it provides an effective way to characterize the statistic properties of phase fluctuation for incoherent light sources. PMID:27021589

  17. Controlling conformations of conjugated polymers and small molecules: the role of nonbonding interactions.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Nicholas E; Savoie, Brett M; Kohlstedt, Kevin L; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Schatz, George C; Chen, Lin X; Ratner, Mark A

    2013-07-17

    The chemical variety present in the organic electronics literature has motivated us to investigate potential nonbonding interactions often incorporated into conformational "locking" schemes. We examine a variety of potential interactions, including oxygen-sulfur, nitrogen-sulfur, and fluorine-sulfur, using accurate quantum-chemical wave function methods and noncovalent interaction (NCI) analysis on a selection of high-performing conjugated polymers and small molecules found in the literature. In addition, we evaluate a set of nonbonding interactions occurring between various heterocyclic and pendant atoms taken from a group of representative π-conjugated molecules. Together with our survey and set of interactions, it is determined that while many nonbonding interactions possess weak binding capabilities, nontraditional hydrogen-bonding interactions, oxygen-hydrogen (CH···O) and nitrogen-hydrogen (CH···N), are alone in inducing conformational control and enhanced planarity along a polymer or small molecule backbone at room temperature.

  18. Toward Controlled Hierarchical Heterogeneities in Giant Molecules with Precisely Arranged Nano Building Blocks

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Herein we introduce a unique synthetic methodology to prepare a library of giant molecules with multiple, precisely arranged nano building blocks, and illustrate the influence of minute structural differences on their self-assembly behaviors. The T8 polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles are orthogonally functionalized and sequentially attached onto the end of a hydrophobic polymer chain in either linear or branched configuration. The heterogeneity of primary chemical structure in terms of composition, surface functionality, sequence, and topology can be precisely controlled and is reflected in the self-assembled supramolecular structures of these giant molecules in the condensed state. This strategy offers promising opportunities to manipulate the hierarchical heterogeneities of giant molecules via precise and modular assemblies of various nano building blocks. PMID:27163025

  19. Control of autoimmune diseases by the B7-CD28 family molecules.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sudarshan; Chen, Lieping

    2004-01-01

    The roles of B7-CD28 family molecules in the regulation of immune responses have been intensively studied over the past decade. The findings resulting from these studies not only broaden our understanding in the control of immune responses at the molecular level, but also lead to identification of molecular targets for future manipulation and potential treatment of human diseases. There is convincing evidence that the B7-CD28 family molecules play critical roles in the control of initiation, progression and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, which is the focus of this review. Currently, five molecular pathways within this family have been identified and each of them appears to overlap but have distinct functions in the control of priming, activation, maturation and amplification of cellular and humoral immune responses. Rationale-based design of intervention, targeting on multiple pathways should lead to new methods and approaches for management of autoimmune diseases. PMID:14754392

  20. Dynamic acousto-optic control of a strongly coupled photonic molecule.

    PubMed

    Kapfinger, Stephan; Reichert, Thorsten; Lichtmannecker, Stefan; Müller, Kai; Finley, Jonathan J; Wixforth, Achim; Kaniber, Michael; Krenner, Hubert J

    2015-01-01

    Strongly confined photonic modes can couple to quantum emitters and mechanical excitations. To harness the full potential in quantum photonic circuits, interactions between different constituents have to be precisely and dynamically controlled. Here, a prototypical coupled element, a photonic molecule defined in a photonic crystal membrane, is controlled by a radio frequency surface acoustic wave. The sound wave is tailored to deliberately switch on and off the bond of the photonic molecule on sub-nanosecond timescales. In time-resolved experiments, the acousto-optically controllable coupling is directly observed as clear anticrossings between the two nanophotonic modes. The coupling strength is determined directly from the experimental data. Both the time dependence of the tuning and the inter-cavity coupling strength are found to be in excellent agreement with numerical calculations. The demonstrated mechanical technique can be directly applied for dynamic quantum gate operations in state-of-the-art-coupled nanophotonic, quantum cavity electrodynamic and optomechanical systems. PMID:26436203

  1. Controlling orbital-selective Kondo effects in a single molecule through coordination chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukahara, Noriyuki; Kawai, Maki; Takagi, Noriaki; Minamitani, Emi; Kim, Yousoo

    2014-08-07

    Iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc) molecule causes novel Kondo effects derived from the unique electronic structure of multi-spins and multi-orbitals when attached to Au(111). Two unpaired electrons in the d{sub z}{sup 2} and the degenerate dπ orbitals are screened stepwise, resulting in spin and spin+orbital Kondo effects, respectively. We investigated the impact on the Kondo effects of the coordination of CO and NO molecules to the Fe{sup 2+} ion as chemical stimuli by using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory calculations. The impacts of the two diatomic molecules are different from each other as a result of the different electronic configurations. The coordination of CO converts the spin state from triplet to singlet, and then the Kondo effects completely disappear. In contrast, an unpaired electron survives in the molecular orbital composed of Fe d{sub z}{sup 2} and NO 5σ and 2π* orbitals for the coordination of NO, causing a sharp Kondo resonance. The isotropic magnetic response of the peak indicates the origin is the spin Kondo effect. The diatomic molecules attached to the Fe{sup 2+} ion were easily detached by applying a pulsed voltage at the STM junction. These results demonstrate that the single molecule chemistry enables us to switch and control the spin and the many-body quantum states reversibly.

  2. Controlled degradation of hydrogels using multi-functional cross-linking molecules.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuen Yong; Bouhadir, Kamal H; Mooney, David J

    2004-06-01

    Hydrogels, chemically cross-linked or physically entangled, have found a number of applications as novel delivery vehicles of drugs and cells. However, the narrow ranges of degradation rates and mechanical strength currently available from many hydrogels limits their applications. We have hypothesized that utilization of multi-functional cross-linking molecules to form hydrogels could provide a wider range and tighter control over the degradation rates and mechanical stiffness of gels than bi-functional cross-linking molecules. To address the possibility, we isolated alpha-L-guluronate residues of sodium alginate, and oxidized them to prepare poly(aldehyde guluronate) (PAG). Hydrogels were formed with either poly(acrylamide-co-hydrazide) (PAH) as a multi-functional cross-linking molecule or adipic acid dihydrazide (AAD) as a bi-functional cross-linking molecule. The initial properties and degradation behavior of both PAG gel types were monitored. PAG/PAH hydrogels showed higher mechanical stiffness before degradation and degraded more slowly than PAG/AAD gels, at the same concentration of cross-linking functional groups. The enhanced mechanical stiffness and prolonged degradation behavior could be attributed to the multiple attachment points of PAH in the gel at the same concentration of functional groups. This approach to regulating gel properties with multifunctional cross-linking molecules could be broadly used in hydrogels. PMID:14751730

  3. Quantum coherence controls the charge separation in a prototypical artificial light-harvesting system

    PubMed Central

    Andrea Rozzi, Carlo; Maria Falke, Sarah; Spallanzani, Nicola; Rubio, Angel; Molinari, Elisa; Brida, Daniele; Maiuri, Margherita; Cerullo, Giulio; Schramm, Heiko; Christoffers, Jens; Lienau, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The efficient conversion of light into electricity or chemical fuels is a fundamental challenge. In artificial photosynthetic and photovoltaic devices, this conversion is generally thought to happen on ultrafast, femto-to-picosecond timescales and to involve an incoherent electron transfer process. In some biological systems, however, there is growing evidence that the coherent motion of electronic wavepackets is an essential primary step, raising questions about the role of quantum coherence in artificial devices. Here we investigate the primary charge-transfer process in a supramolecular triad, a prototypical artificial reaction centre. Combining high time-resolution femtosecond spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory, we provide compelling evidence that the driving mechanism of the photoinduced current generation cycle is a correlated wavelike motion of electrons and nuclei on a timescale of few tens of femtoseconds. We highlight the fundamental role of the interface between chromophore and charge acceptor in triggering the coherent wavelike electron-hole splitting. PMID:23511467

  4. Virtual reality visual feedback for hand-controlled scanning probe microscopy manipulation of single molecules.

    PubMed

    Leinen, Philipp; Green, Matthew F B; Esat, Taner; Wagner, Christian; Tautz, F Stefan; Temirov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    Controlled manipulation of single molecules is an important step towards the fabrication of single molecule devices and nanoscale molecular machines. Currently, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is the only technique that facilitates direct imaging and manipulations of nanometer-sized molecular compounds on surfaces. The technique of hand-controlled manipulation (HCM) introduced recently in Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2014, 5, 1926-1932 simplifies the identification of successful manipulation protocols in situations when the interaction pattern of the manipulated molecule with its environment is not fully known. Here we present a further technical development that substantially improves the effectiveness of HCM. By adding Oculus Rift virtual reality goggles to our HCM set-up we provide the experimentalist with 3D visual feedback that displays the currently executed trajectory and the position of the SPM tip during manipulation in real time, while simultaneously plotting the experimentally measured frequency shift (Δf) of the non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM) tuning fork sensor as well as the magnitude of the electric current (I) flowing between the tip and the surface. The advantages of the set-up are demonstrated by applying it to the model problem of the extraction of an individual PTCDA molecule from its hydrogen-bonded monolayer grown on Ag(111) surface.

  5. Virtual reality visual feedback for hand-controlled scanning probe microscopy manipulation of single molecules

    PubMed Central

    Leinen, Philipp; Green, Matthew F B; Esat, Taner; Wagner, Christian; Tautz, F Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Controlled manipulation of single molecules is an important step towards the fabrication of single molecule devices and nanoscale molecular machines. Currently, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is the only technique that facilitates direct imaging and manipulations of nanometer-sized molecular compounds on surfaces. The technique of hand-controlled manipulation (HCM) introduced recently in Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2014, 5, 1926–1932 simplifies the identification of successful manipulation protocols in situations when the interaction pattern of the manipulated molecule with its environment is not fully known. Here we present a further technical development that substantially improves the effectiveness of HCM. By adding Oculus Rift virtual reality goggles to our HCM set-up we provide the experimentalist with 3D visual feedback that displays the currently executed trajectory and the position of the SPM tip during manipulation in real time, while simultaneously plotting the experimentally measured frequency shift (Δf) of the non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM) tuning fork sensor as well as the magnitude of the electric current (I) flowing between the tip and the surface. The advantages of the set-up are demonstrated by applying it to the model problem of the extraction of an individual PTCDA molecule from its hydrogen-bonded monolayer grown on Ag(111) surface. PMID:26665087

  6. Controllable electrostatic surface guide for cold molecules with a single charged wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zhenxing; Guo, Chaoxiu; Hou, Shunyong; Li, Shengqiang; Deng, Lianzhong; Yin, Jianping

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate a controllable highly efficient electrostatic surface guide for ND3 molecules in the weak-field-seeking states on a ceramic substrate over a distance of 840 mm, and study the dependences of the relative molecule number (or the overall transmission efficiency) of our single-wire guide and the guiding-center positions on the guiding voltages, both experimentally and theoretically. Our study shows that the guiding-center position and the number of the guided molecules can be easily controlled by adjusting the guiding voltages, and find that an overall transmission efficiency of higher than 50% in a single quantum state can be obtained. Our experimental results are consistent with ones of Monte Carlo simulations. Also, we discuss the transverse velocity filtering effect and the acceptance of the guided molecules in four-dimensional phase space. Both the transmission efficiency and the acceptance in two-dimensional position space are higher than that in our previous two-wire guide [Y. Xia, Y. Yin, H. Chen, L. Deng, and J. Yin, Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.043003 100, 043003 (2008)].

  7. Emission-Tunable Multicolor Graphene Molecules with Controllable Synthesis, Excellent Optical Properties, and Specific Applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junwei; Huang, Yuli; Zhu, Haoyun; Huang, Wei; Wang, Weizhi

    2016-03-01

    Series of graphene molecules with varied emission colors have been prepared by oxidative cyclodehydrogenation using anhydrous ferric chloride (FeCl3) as the catalyst under mild conditions. By controlling the oxidation time in the initial step only, molecules with different fluorescence colors are conveniently obtained. New colors can be recorded evidently because of the stepwise and controllable process, which highly related to the conjugation length. Blue emissive starting compounds in the solid state can be transformed into orange upon brief oxidation, whereas green emissive oligomers are varied to red with an emission wavelength redshift about 123 nm. Cyclic voltammetry measurements performed can give the corresponding data, which verify the results drawn from the UV and PL spectroscope. The gradual change of conjugation length with tunable emission is confirmed in the MALDI-TOF study as well. Further characterizations indicate that the graphene molecules possess satisfactory optical properties, which are highly emissive both in solution and in the solid state because of the alkyl group. In addition, the good thermal stability and the self-assembly of graphene molecules suggest that they are promising candidates for high-tech applications. Furthermore, the fabricated field-effect transistors possess the nice performance, whose mobilities are about 0.57 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with an on-off ratio of 1 × 10(4) and 0.81 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with an on-off ratio of 1 × 10(3), respectively. PMID:26974338

  8. Control of Biofilms with the Fatty Acid Signaling Molecule cis-2-Decenoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Cláudia N. H.; Davies, David G.; Sauer, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms in organized structures attached to surfaces. Importantly, biofilms are a major cause of bacterial infections in humans, and remain one of the most significant challenges to modern medical practice. Unfortunately, conventional therapies have shown to be inadequate in the treatment of most chronic biofilm infections based on the extraordinary innate tolerance of biofilms to antibiotics. Antagonists of quorum sensing signaling molecules have been used as means to control biofilms. QS and other cell-cell communication molecules are able to revert biofilm tolerance, prevent biofilm formation and disrupt fully developed biofilms, albeit with restricted effectiveness. Recently however, it has been demonstrated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a small messenger molecule cis-2-decenoic acid (cis-DA) that shows significant promise as an effective adjunctive to antimicrobial treatment of biofilms. This molecule is responsible for induction of the native biofilm dispersion response in a range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and in yeast, and has been shown to reverse persistence, increase microbial metabolic activity and significantly enhance the cidal effects of conventional antimicrobial agents. In this manuscript, the use of cis-2-decenoic acid as a novel agent for biofilm control is discussed. Stimulating the biofilm dispersion response as a novel antimicrobial strategy holds significant promise for enhanced treatment of infections and in the prevention of biofilm formation. PMID:26610524

  9. Emission-Tunable Multicolor Graphene Molecules with Controllable Synthesis, Excellent Optical Properties, and Specific Applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junwei; Huang, Yuli; Zhu, Haoyun; Huang, Wei; Wang, Weizhi

    2016-03-01

    Series of graphene molecules with varied emission colors have been prepared by oxidative cyclodehydrogenation using anhydrous ferric chloride (FeCl3) as the catalyst under mild conditions. By controlling the oxidation time in the initial step only, molecules with different fluorescence colors are conveniently obtained. New colors can be recorded evidently because of the stepwise and controllable process, which highly related to the conjugation length. Blue emissive starting compounds in the solid state can be transformed into orange upon brief oxidation, whereas green emissive oligomers are varied to red with an emission wavelength redshift about 123 nm. Cyclic voltammetry measurements performed can give the corresponding data, which verify the results drawn from the UV and PL spectroscope. The gradual change of conjugation length with tunable emission is confirmed in the MALDI-TOF study as well. Further characterizations indicate that the graphene molecules possess satisfactory optical properties, which are highly emissive both in solution and in the solid state because of the alkyl group. In addition, the good thermal stability and the self-assembly of graphene molecules suggest that they are promising candidates for high-tech applications. Furthermore, the fabricated field-effect transistors possess the nice performance, whose mobilities are about 0.57 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with an on-off ratio of 1 × 10(4) and 0.81 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with an on-off ratio of 1 × 10(3), respectively.

  10. Virtual reality visual feedback for hand-controlled scanning probe microscopy manipulation of single molecules.

    PubMed

    Leinen, Philipp; Green, Matthew F B; Esat, Taner; Wagner, Christian; Tautz, F Stefan; Temirov, Ruslan

    2015-01-01

    Controlled manipulation of single molecules is an important step towards the fabrication of single molecule devices and nanoscale molecular machines. Currently, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is the only technique that facilitates direct imaging and manipulations of nanometer-sized molecular compounds on surfaces. The technique of hand-controlled manipulation (HCM) introduced recently in Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2014, 5, 1926-1932 simplifies the identification of successful manipulation protocols in situations when the interaction pattern of the manipulated molecule with its environment is not fully known. Here we present a further technical development that substantially improves the effectiveness of HCM. By adding Oculus Rift virtual reality goggles to our HCM set-up we provide the experimentalist with 3D visual feedback that displays the currently executed trajectory and the position of the SPM tip during manipulation in real time, while simultaneously plotting the experimentally measured frequency shift (Δf) of the non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM) tuning fork sensor as well as the magnitude of the electric current (I) flowing between the tip and the surface. The advantages of the set-up are demonstrated by applying it to the model problem of the extraction of an individual PTCDA molecule from its hydrogen-bonded monolayer grown on Ag(111) surface. PMID:26665087

  11. Controlling stimulated coherent spectroscopy and microscopy by a position-dependent phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Chao-Yu; Hsu, Julie; Mukamel, Shaul; Potma, Eric O.

    2013-03-01

    We study the role of geometry-dependent phase shifts of the optical electric field in stimulated coherent spectroscopy, a special class of heterodyne optical spectroscopy techniques. We generalize the theoretical description of stimulated spectroscopy to include spatial phase effects, and study the measured material response for several representative excitation and detection configurations. Using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy as an example, we show that different components of the material response are measured by varying the position of the object in focus. We discuss the implications of the position-dependent phase in stimulated coherent microscopy and point out a detection configuration in which its effects are minimized.

  12. Coherent control of ultracold {sup 85}Rb trap-loss collisions with nonlinearly frequency-chirped light

    SciTech Connect

    Pechkis, J. A.; Carini, J. L.; Rogers, C. E. III; Gould, P. L.; Kallush, S.; Kosloff, R.

    2011-06-15

    We present results on coherent control of ultracold trap-loss collisions using 40-ns pulses of nonlinearly frequency-chirped light. The chirps, either positive or negative, sweep {approx}1 GHz in 100 ns and are centered at various detunings below the D{sub 2} line of {sup 85}Rb. At each center detuning, we compare the collisional rate constant {beta} for chirps that are linear in time, concave-down, and concave-up. For positive chirps, we find that {beta} generally depends very little on the shape of the chirp. For negative chirps, however, we find that {beta} can be enhanced by up to 50(20)% for the case of the concave-down shape. This occurs at detunings where the evolution of the wave packet is expected to be coherent. An enhancement at these detunings is also seen in quantum-mechanical simulations of the collisional process.

  13. Site-controlled quantum dots coupled to a photonic crystal molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Rigal, B.; Jarlov, C.; Gallo, P.; Dwir, B.; Rudra, A.; Calic, M.; Kapon, E.

    2015-10-05

    Two site-controlled quantum dots (QDs) were integrated in a photonic crystal molecule (PCM) formed by L3 nanocavities. A statistical analysis of the coupled cavity modes demonstrated the formation of bonding and anti-bonding delocalized PCM states. Excitonic transitions belonging to each QD were identified by scanning micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy. Co-polarization of the QDs photoluminescence with the coupled cavity modes provides evidence for the simultaneous coupling of two spatially separated QDs to the same PCM mode.

  14. Decrease of Prefrontal-Posterior EEG Coherence: Loose Control during Social-Emotional Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiser, Eva M.; Schulter, Gunter; Weiss, Elisabeth M.; Fink, Andreas; Rominger, Christian; Papousek, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments we aimed to investigate if individual differences in state-dependent decreases or increases of EEG coherence between prefrontal and posterior cortical regions may be indicative of a mechanism modulating the impact social-emotional information has on an individual. Two independent samples were exposed to an emotional stimulation…

  15. Time-delayed feedback control of coherence resonance near subcritical Hopf bifurcation: Theory versus experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, Vladimir; Feoktistov, Alexey; Vadivasova, Tatyana; Schöll, Eckehard Zakharova, Anna

    2015-03-15

    Using the model of a generalized Van der Pol oscillator in the regime of subcritical Hopf bifurcation, we investigate the influence of time delay on noise-induced oscillations. It is shown that for appropriate choices of time delay, either suppression or enhancement of coherence resonance can be achieved. Analytical calculations are combined with numerical simulations and experiments on an electronic circuit.

  16. Time-delayed feedback control of coherence resonance near subcritical Hopf bifurcation: theory versus experiment.

    PubMed

    Semenov, Vladimir; Feoktistov, Alexey; Vadivasova, Tatyana; Schöll, Eckehard; Zakharova, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Using the model of a generalized Van der Pol oscillator in the regime of subcritical Hopf bifurcation, we investigate the influence of time delay on noise-induced oscillations. It is shown that for appropriate choices of time delay, either suppression or enhancement of coherence resonance can be achieved. Analytical calculations are combined with numerical simulations and experiments on an electronic circuit.

  17. Controlling electronic access to the spin excitations of a single molecule in a tunnel junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.; Warner, Ben; El Hallak, Fadi; Prueser, Henning; Ajibade, Afolabi; Gill, Tobias G.; Fisher, Andrew J.; Persson, Mats

    Spintronic phenomena can be utilized to create new devices with applications in data storage and sensing. Scaling these down to the single molecule level requires controlling the properties of the current-carrying orbitals to enable access to spin states through phenomena such as inelastic electron tunneling. Here we show that the spintronic properties of a tunnel junction containing a single molecule can be controlled by their coupling to the local environment. For tunneling through iron phthalocyanine (FePc) on an insulating copper nitride (Cu2N) monolayer above Cu(001), we find that spin transitions may be strongly excited depending on the binding site of the central Fe atom. Different interactions between the Fe and the underlying Cu or N atoms shift the Fe d-orbitals with respect to the Fermi energy, and control the relative strength of the spin excitations, an effect that can described in a simple co-tunneling model. This work demonstrates the importance of the atomic-scale environment in the development of single molecule spintronic devices.

  18. Coherent electronic wave packet motion in C(60) controlled by the waveform and polarization of few-cycle laser fields.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Mignolet, B; Wachter, G; Skruszewicz, S; Zherebtsov, S; Süssmann, F; Kessel, A; Trushin, S A; Kling, Nora G; Kübel, M; Ahn, B; Kim, D; Ben-Itzhak, I; Cocke, C L; Fennel, T; Tiggesbäumker, J; Meiwes-Broer, K-H; Lemell, C; Burgdörfer, J; Levine, R D; Remacle, F; Kling, M F

    2015-03-27

    Strong laser fields can be used to trigger an ultrafast molecular response that involves electronic excitation and ionization dynamics. Here, we report on the experimental control of the spatial localization of the electronic excitation in the C_{60} fullerene exerted by an intense few-cycle (4 fs) pulse at 720 nm. The control is achieved by tailoring the carrier-envelope phase and the polarization of the laser pulse. We find that the maxima and minima of the photoemission-asymmetry parameter along the laser-polarization axis are synchronized with the localization of the coherent electronic wave packet at around the time of ionization. PMID:25860740

  19. A high-speed, high-efficiency phase controller for coherent beam combining based on SPGD algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zh M; Liu, C L; Li, J F; Zhang, D Y

    2014-04-28

    A phase controller for coherent beam combining (CBC) of fibre lasers has been designed and manufactured based on a stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm and a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The theoretical analysis shows that the iteration rate is higher than 1.9 MHz, and the average compensation bandwidth of CBC for 5 or 20 channels is 50 kHz or 12.5 kHz, respectively. The tests show that the phase controller ensures reliable phase locking of lasers: When the phases of five lasers are locked by the improved control strategy with a variable gain, the energy encircled in the target is increased by 23 times than that in the single output, the phase control accuracy is better than λ/20, and the combining efficiency is 92%. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  20. Control of crystallographic orientation in diamond synthesis through laser resonant vibrational excitation of precursor molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhi Qiang; Bai, Jaeil; Zhou, Yun Shen; Gao, Yi; Park, Jongbok; Guillemet, Thomas; Jiang, Lan; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Lu, Yong Feng

    2014-01-01

    Crystallographic orientations determine the optical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of crystals. Control of crystallographic orientations has been studied by changing the growth parameters, including temperature, pressure, proportion of precursors, and surface conditions. However, molecular dynamic mechanisms underlying these controls remain largely unknown. Here we achieved control of crystallographic orientations in diamond growth through a joint experimental and theoretical study of laser resonant vibrational excitation of precursor molecules (ethylene). Resonant vibrational excitation of the ethylene molecules using a wavelength-tunable CO2 laser steers the chemical reactions and promotes proportion of intermediate oxide species, which results in preferential growth of {100}-oriented diamond films and diamond single crystals in open air. Quantum molecular dynamic simulations and calculations of chemisorption energies of radicals detected from our mass-spectroscopy experiment provide an in-depth understanding of molecular reaction mechanisms in the steering of chemical reactions and control of crystallographic orientations. This finding opens up a new avenue for controlled chemical vapor deposition of crystals through resonant vibrational excitations to steer surface chemistry. PMID:24694918

  1. Shifts in controls on the temporal coherence of throughfall chemical flux in Acadia National Park, Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Sarah J.; Webster, Katherine E.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Weathers, Kathleen C.

    2013-01-01

    Major ion and mercury (Hg) inputs to terrestrial ecosystems include both wet and dry deposition (total deposition). Estimating total deposition to sensitive receptor sites is hampered by limited information regarding its spatial heterogeneity and seasonality. We used measurements of throughfall flux, which includes atmospheric inputs to forests and the net effects of canopy leaching or uptake, for ten major ions and Hg collected during 35 time periods in 1999–2005 at over 70 sites within Acadia National Park, Maine to (1) quantify coherence in temporal dynamics of seasonal throughfall deposition and (2) examine controls on these patterns at multiple scales. We quantified temporal coherence as the correlation between all possible site pairs for each solute on a seasonal basis. In the summer growing season and autumn, coherence among pairs of sites with similar vegetation was stronger than for site-pairs that differed in vegetation suggesting that interaction with the canopy and leaching of solutes differed in coniferous, deciduous, mixed, and shrub or open canopy sites. The spatial pattern in throughfall hydrologic inputs across Acadia National Park was more variable during the winter snow season, suggesting that snow re-distribution affects net hydrologic input, which consequently affects chemical flux. Sea-salt corrected calcium concentrations identified a shift in air mass sources from maritime in winter to the continental industrial corridor in summer. Our results suggest that the spatial pattern of throughfall hydrologic flux, dominant seasonal air mass source, and relationship with vegetation in winter differ from the spatial pattern of throughfall flux in these solutes in summer and autumn. The coherence approach applied here made clear the strong influence of spatial heterogeneity in throughfall hydrologic inputs and a maritime air mass source on winter patterns of throughfall flux. By contrast, vegetation type was the most important influence on

  2. Electrostatic control over temperature-dependent tunnelling across a single-molecule junction

    PubMed Central

    Garrigues, Alvar R.; Wang, Lejia; del Barco, Enrique; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the mechanism of charge transport through molecular tunnel junctions depends on temperature is crucial to control electronic function in molecular electronic devices. With just a few systems investigated as a function of bias and temperature so far, thermal effects in molecular tunnel junctions remain poorly understood. Here we report a detailed charge transport study of an individual redox-active ferrocene-based molecule over a wide range of temperatures and applied potentials. The results show the temperature dependence of the current to vary strongly as a function of the gate voltage. Specifically, the current across the molecule exponentially increases in the Coulomb blockade regime and decreases at the charge degeneracy points, while remaining temperature-independent at resonance. Our observations can be well accounted for by a formal single-level tunnelling model where the temperature dependence relies on the thermal broadening of the Fermi distributions of the electrons in the leads. PMID:27211787

  3. Electrostatic control over temperature-dependent tunnelling across a single-molecule junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigues, Alvar R.; Wang, Lejia; Del Barco, Enrique; Nijhuis, Christian A.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the mechanism of charge transport through molecular tunnel junctions depends on temperature is crucial to control electronic function in molecular electronic devices. With just a few systems investigated as a function of bias and temperature so far, thermal effects in molecular tunnel junctions remain poorly understood. Here we report a detailed charge transport study of an individual redox-active ferrocene-based molecule over a wide range of temperatures and applied potentials. The results show the temperature dependence of the current to vary strongly as a function of the gate voltage. Specifically, the current across the molecule exponentially increases in the Coulomb blockade regime and decreases at the charge degeneracy points, while remaining temperature-independent at resonance. Our observations can be well accounted for by a formal single-level tunnelling model where the temperature dependence relies on the thermal broadening of the Fermi distributions of the electrons in the leads.

  4. Assessing the Role of Capping Molecules in Controlling Aggregative Growth of Gold Nanoparticles in Heated Solution.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Han-Wen; Schadt, Mark J; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2016-01-01

    This report describes findings of an investigation of the role of capping molecules in the size growth in the aggregative growth of pre-formed small-sized gold nanoparticles capped with alkanethiolate monolayers toward monodispersed larger sizes. The size controllability depends on the thiolate chain length and concentration in the thermal solution. The size evolution in solution at different concentrations of alkanethiols is analyzed in relation to adsorption isotherms and cohesive energy. The size dependence on thiolate chain length is also analyzed by considering the cohesive energy of the capping molecules, revealing the importance of cohesive energy in the capping structure. Theoretical and experimental comparisons of the surface plasmonic resonance optical properties have also provided new insights into the mechanism, thus enabling the exploitation of size-dependent nanoscale properties.

  5. Adaptive Control Model Reveals Systematic Feedback and Key Molecules in Metabolic Pathway Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Richard A.; Merrill, Alfred H.; Wang, May D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Robust behavior in metabolic pathways resembles stabilized performance in systems under autonomous control. This suggests we can apply control theory to study existing regulation in these cellular networks. Here, we use model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) to investigate the dynamics of de novo sphingolipid synthesis regulation in a combined theoretical and experimental case study. The effects of serine palmitoyltransferase over-expression on this pathway are studied in vitro using human embryonic kidney cells. We report two key results from comparing numerical simulations with observed data. First, MRAC simulations of pathway dynamics are comparable to simulations from a standard model using mass action kinetics. The root-sum-square (RSS) between data and simulations in both cases differ by less than 5%. Second, MRAC simulations suggest systematic pathway regulation in terms of adaptive feedback from individual molecules. In response to increased metabolite levels available for de novo sphingolipid synthesis, feedback from molecules along the main artery of the pathway is regulated more frequently and with greater amplitude than from other molecules along the branches. These biological insights are consistent with current knowledge while being new that they may guide future research in sphingolipid biology. In summary, we report a novel approach to study regulation in cellular networks by applying control theory in the context of robust metabolic pathways. We do this to uncover potential insight into the dynamics of regulation and the reverse engineering of cellular networks for systems biology. This new modeling approach and the implementation routines designed for this case study may be extended to other systems. Supplementary Material is available at www.liebertonline.com/cmb. PMID:21314456

  6. Goal-directed control with cortical units that are gated by both top-down feedback and oscillatory coherence

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Robert R.; Grayden, David B.; Thomas, Doreen A.; Gilson, Matthieu; Burkitt, Anthony N.

    2014-01-01

    The brain is able to flexibly select behaviors that adapt to both its environment and its present goals. This cognitive control is understood to occur within the hierarchy of the cortex and relies strongly on the prefrontal and premotor cortices, which sit at the top of this hierarchy. Pyramidal neurons, the principal neurons in the cortex, have been observed to exhibit much stronger responses when they receive inputs at their soma/basal dendrites that are coincident with inputs at their apical dendrites. This corresponds to inputs from both lower-order regions (feedforward) and higher-order regions (feedback), respectively. In addition to this, coherence between oscillations, such as gamma oscillations, in different neuronal groups has been proposed to modulate and route communication in the brain. In this paper, we develop a simple, but novel, neural mass model in which cortical units (or ensembles) exhibit gamma oscillations when they receive coherent oscillatory inputs from both feedforward and feedback connections. By forming these units into circuits that can perform logic operations, we identify the different ways in which operations can be initiated and manipulated by top-down feedback. We demonstrate that more sophisticated and flexible top-down control is possible when the gain of units is modulated by not only top-down feedback but by coherence between the activities of the oscillating units. With these types of units, it is possible to not only add units to, or remove units from, a higher-level unit's logic operation using top-down feedback, but also to modify the type of role that a unit plays in the operation. Finally, we explore how different network properties affect top-down control and processing in large networks. Based on this, we make predictions about the likely connectivities between certain brain regions that have been experimentally observed to be involved in goal-directed behavior and top-down attention. PMID:25152715

  7. Control of coherence among the spins of a single electron and the three nearest neighbor {sup 13}C nuclei of a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Shimo-Oka, T.; Miwa, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Mizuochi, N.; Kato, H.; Yamasaki, S.; Jelezko, F.

    2015-04-13

    Individual nuclear spins in diamond can be optically detected through hyperfine couplings with the electron spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center; such nuclear spins have outstandingly long coherence times. Among the hyperfine couplings in the NV center, the nearest neighbor {sup 13}C nuclear spins have the largest coupling strength. Nearest neighbor {sup 13}C nuclear spins have the potential to perform fastest gate operations, providing highest fidelity in quantum computing. Herein, we report on the control of coherences in the NV center where all three nearest neighbor carbons are of the {sup 13}C isotope. Coherence among the three and four qubits are generated and analyzed at room temperature.

  8. Smart magnetic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) to control the release of bio-active molecules.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Chiara; Lungaro, Lisa; Goranov, Vitaly; Riminucci, Alberto; Piñeiro-Redondo, Yolanda; Bañobre-López, Manuel; Rivas, José; Dediu, Valentin

    2014-10-01

    Thermo switchable magnetic hydrogels undoubtedly have a great potential for medical applications since they can behave as smart carriers able to transport bioactive molecules to a chosen part of the body and release them on demand via magneto-thermal activation. We report on the ability to modify the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) on demand from 32 °C to LCST ≥ 37 °C. This was achieved by the absorption of controlled amounts of magnetite nanoparticles on the polymer chains. We show, through the effect on cell viability, that the resulting magnetic PNIPAM is able to trap and to release bio-active molecules, such as cell growth factors. The activities of the released bio molecule are tested on human umbilical vein endothelial cells culture. We demonstrate that the LCST of the magnetic PNIPAM can be reached remotely via inductive heating with an alternating magnetic field. This approach on magnetic PNIPAM clearly supports appealing applications in safe biomedicine.

  9. Smart magnetic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) to control the release of bio-active molecules.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, Chiara; Lungaro, Lisa; Goranov, Vitaly; Riminucci, Alberto; Piñeiro-Redondo, Yolanda; Bañobre-López, Manuel; Rivas, José; Dediu, Valentin

    2014-10-01

    Thermo switchable magnetic hydrogels undoubtedly have a great potential for medical applications since they can behave as smart carriers able to transport bioactive molecules to a chosen part of the body and release them on demand via magneto-thermal activation. We report on the ability to modify the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) on demand from 32 °C to LCST ≥ 37 °C. This was achieved by the absorption of controlled amounts of magnetite nanoparticles on the polymer chains. We show, through the effect on cell viability, that the resulting magnetic PNIPAM is able to trap and to release bio-active molecules, such as cell growth factors. The activities of the released bio molecule are tested on human umbilical vein endothelial cells culture. We demonstrate that the LCST of the magnetic PNIPAM can be reached remotely via inductive heating with an alternating magnetic field. This approach on magnetic PNIPAM clearly supports appealing applications in safe biomedicine. PMID:24477874

  10. The controllable assembly of nanorods, nanowires and microwires of a perylenediimide molecule with photoswitching property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ying; An, Boxing; Wang, Meng; Shi, Fangxiao; Wang, Qing; Gu, Yaxin; Niu, Wanyang; Fan, Zhaorong; Shang, Yanli; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Cong

    2015-07-01

    By using an electron donor-acceptor molecule that consists of a perylenediimide (PDI) core bonded with two ferrocene (Fc) units, well-defined nanorods, nanowires and microwires of PDI-Fc were formed through simply adjusting the initial concentration of PDI-Fc in dichloromethane or CH2Cl2. Moreover, the two-ended devices based on individual microwire were fabricated. Highly reproducible and sensitive photo response characteristics were demonstrated in the microwire through controlling the white light on and off with different light intensities. The assembly strategy via complementary donors and acceptors is of significance for constructing photoconductive systems and developing novel functional devices.

  11. Imaging and control of interfering wave packets in a dissociating molecule.

    PubMed

    Skovsen, Esben; Machholm, Mette; Ejdrup, Tine; Thøgersen, Jan; Stapelfeldt, Henrik

    2002-09-23

    Using two identical 110 femtosecond (fs) optical pulses separated by 310 fs, we launch two dissociative wave packets in I2. We measure the square of the wave function as a function of both the internuclear separation, /Psi(R)/(2), and of the internuclear velocity, /Psi(v(R))/(2), by ionizing the dissociating molecule with an intense 20 fs probe pulse. Strong interference is observed in both /Psi(R)/(2) and in /Psi(v(R))/(2). The interference, and therefore the shape of the wave function, is controlled through the phase difference between the two dissociation pulses in good agreement with calculations.

  12. Harmonic spectral modulation of an optical frequency comb to control the ultracold molecules formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovskaya, Svetlana A.; Liu, Gengyuan

    2016-11-01

    A method for creation of ultracold molecules by stepwise adiabatic passage from the Feshbach state to the fundamentally ground state using an optical frequency comb is presented within a semiclassical multilevel model. The sine modulation of the spectral phase of the comb leads to the creation of a quasi-dark dressed state. An insignificant population of the excited state manifold in this dark state provides an efficient way of mitigating decoherence in the system. In contrast, the cosine modulation does not lead to the quasi-dark state formation. The results demonstrate the importance of the parity of the spectral chirp in quantum control.

  13. Optimizing coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering by genetic algorithm controlled pulse shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenlong; Sokolov, Alexei

    2010-10-01

    The hybrid coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) has been successful applied to fast chemical sensitive detections. As the development of femto-second pulse shaping techniques, it is of great interest to find the optimum pulse shapes for CARS. The optimum pulse shapes should minimize the non-resonant four wave mixing (NRFWM) background and maximize the CARS signal. A genetic algorithm (GA) is developed to make a heuristic searching for optimized pulse shapes, which give the best signal the background ratio. The GA is shown to be able to rediscover the hybrid CARS scheme and find optimized pulse shapes for customized applications by itself.

  14. Voluntary control of corticomuscular coherence through neurofeedback: a proof-of-principle study in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    von Carlowitz-Ghori, K; Bayraktaroglu, Z; Waterstraat, G; Curio, G; Nikulin, V V

    2015-04-01

    Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) relates to synchronization between activity in the motor cortex and the muscle activity. The strength of CMC can be affected by motor behavior. In a proof-of-principle study, we examined whether independent of motor output parameters, healthy subjects are able to voluntarily modulate CMC in a neurofeedback paradigm. Subjects received visual online feedback of their instantaneous CMC strength, which was calculated between an optimized spatial projection of multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) in an individually defined target frequency range. The neurofeedback training consisted of either increasing or decreasing CMC strength using a self-chosen mental strategy while performing a simple motor task. Evaluation of instantaneous coherence showed that CMC strength was significantly larger when subjects had to increase than when to decrease CMC; this difference between the two task conditions did not depend on motor performance. The exclusion of confounding factors such as motor performance, attention and task complexity in study design provides evidence that subjects were able to voluntarily modify CMC independent of motor output parameters. Additional analysis further strengthened the assumption that the subjects' response was specifically shaped by the neurofeedback. In perspective, we suggest that CMC-based neurofeedback could provide a therapeutic approach in clinical conditions, such as motor stroke, where CMC is altered.

  15. Laser-controlled vibrational heating and cooling of oriented H+2 molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederhausen, Thomas; Thumm, Uwe; Martín, Fernando

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the control of the vibrational dynamics in the hydrogen molecular ion H+2 using strong femto-second infrared control-laser pulses. For our three-dimensional calculations, we use infrared laser pulses of 800 nm wavelength, 6 fs pulse duration and a peak intensity between 1012 and 1015 W cm-2. For laser electric fields aligned along the molecular axis, we numerically solve the full vibronic Schrödinger equation and compare our results with a model calculation that only includes the nuclear motion on the two lowest coupled adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential curves. The initial vibrational wave packet is launched with the ionization of the parent H2 molecule in the pump pulse. Precise timing between pump- and control-laser pulses allows for the direct manipulation of the final bound vibrational-state composition and dissociation dynamics of the ion. We show that significant enhancement of the occupation of particular stationary vibrational-state contributions can be achieved for laser intensities below the onset of strong ionization (≈1014 W cm-2). In addition, we find that this vibrational selectivity strongly depends on the delay time but not on the intensity of the control pulse. The relative stationary vibrational-state contributions and the shape of the vibrating wave packet depend sensitively on the control-pulse delay time, and the overall amplitude of the final vibrational wave packet depends on the intensity of the control pulse.

  16. The controllable assembly of nanorods, nanowires and microwires of a perylenediimide molecule with photoswitching property

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ying; An, Boxing; Wang, Meng; Shi, Fangxiao; Wang, Qing; Gu, Yaxin; Niu, Wanyang; Fan, Zhaorong; Shang, Yanli; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Cong

    2015-07-15

    By using an electron donor–acceptor molecule that consists of a perylenediimide (PDI) core bonded with two ferrocene (Fc) units, well-defined nanorods, nanowires and microwires of PDI-Fc were formed through simply adjusting the initial concentration of PDI-Fc in dichloromethane or CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Moreover, the two-ended devices based on individual microwire were fabricated. Highly reproducible and sensitive photo response characteristics were demonstrated in the microwire through controlling the white light on and off with different light intensities. The assembly strategy via complementary donors and acceptors is of significance for constructing photoconductive systems and developing novel functional devices. - Graphical abstract: The two-ended devices based on individual microwire were fabricated. Highly reproducible and sensitive photo response characteristics were observed by controlling the white light on and off with different light intensities. - Highlights: • An electron donor–acceptor molecule (PDI-Fc) was synthesized. • Well-defined nanorods, nanowires and microwires of PDI-Fc were formed. • The two-ended devices based on individual microwire were fabricated. • Highly reproducible and sensitive photo response characteristics were observed.

  17. A flexible metal–organic framework: Guest molecules controlled dynamic gas adsorption

    DOE PAGES

    Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Li, Man -Rong; Wang, Hailong; Lu, Zhengliang; Chen, Banglin; Dai, Sheng; Yue, Yanfeng; Rabone, Jeremy A.; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Jihang; et al

    2015-04-13

    A flexible metal–organic framework (MOF) of [Zn3(btca)2(OH)2]·(guest)n (H2btca = 1,2,3-benzotriazole-5-carboxylic acid) that exhibits guest molecule-controlled dynamic gas adsorption is reported in which carbon dioxide molecules rather than N2, He, and Ar induce a structural transition with a corresponding appearance of additional steps in the isotherms. Physical insights into the dynamic adsorption behaviors of flexible compound 1 were detected by gas adsorption at different temperatures and different pressures and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular simulations. Interestingly, by taking advantage of the flexible nature inherent to the framework, this MOF material enables highly selective adsorption of CO2/N2, CO2/Ar, andmore » CO2/He of 36.3, 32.6, and 35.9, respectively, at 298 K. Furthermore, this class of flexible MOFs has potential applications for controlled release, molecular sensing, noble gas separation, smart membranes, and nanotechnological devices.« less

  18. A flexible metal–organic framework: Guest molecules controlled dynamic gas adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Li, Man -Rong; Wang, Hailong; Lu, Zhengliang; Chen, Banglin; Dai, Sheng; Yue, Yanfeng; Rabone, Jeremy A.; Liu, Hongjun; Wang, Jihang; Fang, Youxing

    2015-04-13

    A flexible metal–organic framework (MOF) of [Zn3(btca)2(OH)2]·(guest)n (H2btca = 1,2,3-benzotriazole-5-carboxylic acid) that exhibits guest molecule-controlled dynamic gas adsorption is reported in which carbon dioxide molecules rather than N2, He, and Ar induce a structural transition with a corresponding appearance of additional steps in the isotherms. Physical insights into the dynamic adsorption behaviors of flexible compound 1 were detected by gas adsorption at different temperatures and different pressures and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular simulations. Interestingly, by taking advantage of the flexible nature inherent to the framework, this MOF material enables highly selective adsorption of CO2/N2, CO2/Ar, and CO2/He of 36.3, 32.6, and 35.9, respectively, at 298 K. Furthermore, this class of flexible MOFs has potential applications for controlled release, molecular sensing, noble gas separation, smart membranes, and nanotechnological devices.

  19. Controlled interference of association paths in the conversion of ultracold atoms into molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plata, J.

    2015-12-01

    We present a proposal for controlling the conversion of ultracold atoms into molecules by fixing the phase difference between two oscillating magnetic fields. The scheme is based on the use of a magnetic Feshbach resonance with a field modulation that incorporates terms oscillating with frequencies corresponding to the main resonance and one of the subharmonics. The interference between the two association processes activated by the oscillating terms is controlled via the phase difference. As a result, significant increase or decrease of the effective interaction strength can be achieved. The realization of the proposal is feasible under standard technical conditions. In particular, the method is found to be robust against the effect of the sources of decoherence present in the practical setup. The applicability of the approach to deal with quadratic terms in the field modulation is discussed.

  20. Thermal control of sequential on-surface transformation of a hydrocarbon molecule on a copper surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Shigeki; Haapasilta, Ville; Lindner, Benjamin D.; Tahara, Kazukuni; Spijker, Peter; Buitendijk, Jeroen A.; Pawlak, Rémy; Meier, Tobias; Tobe, Yoshito; Foster, Adam S.; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-09-01

    On-surface chemical reactions hold the potential for manufacturing nanoscale structures directly onto surfaces by linking carbon atoms in a single-step reaction. To fabricate more complex and functionalized structures, the control of the on-surface chemical reactions must be developed significantly. Here, we present a thermally controlled sequential three-step chemical transformation of a hydrocarbon molecule on a Cu(111) surface. With a combination of high-resolution atomic force microscopy and first-principles computations, we investigate the transformation process in step-by-step detail from the initial structure to the final product via two intermediate states. The results demonstrate that surfaces can be used as catalysing templates to obtain compounds, which cannot easily be synthesized by solution chemistry.

  1. Thermal control of sequential on-surface transformation of a hydrocarbon molecule on a copper surface.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Shigeki; Haapasilta, Ville; Lindner, Benjamin D; Tahara, Kazukuni; Spijker, Peter; Buitendijk, Jeroen A; Pawlak, Rémy; Meier, Tobias; Tobe, Yoshito; Foster, Adam S; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    On-surface chemical reactions hold the potential for manufacturing nanoscale structures directly onto surfaces by linking carbon atoms in a single-step reaction. To fabricate more complex and functionalized structures, the control of the on-surface chemical reactions must be developed significantly. Here, we present a thermally controlled sequential three-step chemical transformation of a hydrocarbon molecule on a Cu(111) surface. With a combination of high-resolution atomic force microscopy and first-principles computations, we investigate the transformation process in step-by-step detail from the initial structure to the final product via two intermediate states. The results demonstrate that surfaces can be used as catalysing templates to obtain compounds, which cannot easily be synthesized by solution chemistry. PMID:27619070

  2. Thermal control of sequential on-surface transformation of a hydrocarbon molecule on a copper surface

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Shigeki; Haapasilta, Ville; Lindner, Benjamin D.; Tahara, Kazukuni; Spijker, Peter; Buitendijk, Jeroen A.; Pawlak, Rémy; Meier, Tobias; Tobe, Yoshito; Foster, Adam S.; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    On-surface chemical reactions hold the potential for manufacturing nanoscale structures directly onto surfaces by linking carbon atoms in a single-step reaction. To fabricate more complex and functionalized structures, the control of the on-surface chemical reactions must be developed significantly. Here, we present a thermally controlled sequential three-step chemical transformation of a hydrocarbon molecule on a Cu(111) surface. With a combination of high-resolution atomic force microscopy and first-principles computations, we investigate the transformation process in step-by-step detail from the initial structure to the final product via two intermediate states. The results demonstrate that surfaces can be used as catalysing templates to obtain compounds, which cannot easily be synthesized by solution chemistry. PMID:27619070

  3. Coherent control of injection currents in high-quality films of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Bas, D. A.; Vargas-Velez, K.; Babakiray, S.; Johnson, T. A.; Borisov, P.; Stanescu, T. D.; Lederman, D.; Bristow, A. D.

    2015-01-26

    Films of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} are grown by molecular beam epitaxy with in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The films are shown to be high-quality by X-ray reflectivity and diffraction and atomic-force microscopy. Quantum interference control of photocurrents is observed by excitation with harmonically related pulses and detected by terahertz radiation. The injection current obeys the expected excitation irradiance dependence, showing linear dependence on the fundamental pulse irradiance and square-root irradiance dependence of the frequency-doubled optical pulses. The injection current also follows a sinusoidal relative-phase dependence between the two excitation pulses. These results confirm the third-order nonlinear optical origins of the coherently controlled injection current. Experiments are compared to a tight-binding band structure to illustrate the possible optical transitions that occur in creating the injection current.

  4. Optical system design and experimental evaluation of a coherent Doppler wind Lidar system for the predictive control of wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Leilei; Tauscher, Julian Asche; Beuth, Thorsten; Heussner, Nico; Fox, Maik; Babu, Harsha Umesh; Stork, Wilhelm

    2014-09-01

    The control of wind turbine blade pitch systems by Lidar assisted wind speed prediction has been proposed to increase the electric power generation and reduce the mechanical fatigue load on wind turbines. However, the sticking point of such Lidar systems is the price. Hence, our objective is to develop a more cost efficient Lidar system to support the pitch control of horizontal axis wind turbines and therefore to reduce the material requirement, lower the operation and maintenance costs and decrease the cost of wind energy in the long term. Compared to the state of the art Lidar systems, a laser with a shorter coherence length and a corresponding fiber delay line is introduced for reducing the costs. In this paper we present the experimental evaluation of different sending and receiving optics designs for such a system from a free space laboratory setup.

  5. Coherent control of the dissociation probability of H2+ in ω-3ω two-color fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Han; Hu, Hongtao; Tong, Xiao-Min; Liu, Peng; Li, Ruxin; Sang, Robert T.; Litvinyuk, Igor V.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate that the coherent control of unimolecular reactions by using a waveform-controlled laser fields can lead to a strong modulation on the yield of the reaction. By using a synthesized ω (1800-nm) and 3ω (600-nm) two-color laser field, the probability of photodissociation of H2+ can be strongly modulated by varying the relative phase between the two colors. The dissociation probability maximizes at different relative phases for protons with different kinetic energy, and such energy dependence can also be qualitatively reproduced by our simulation. We attribute the observed dissociation probability modulation to the interference between two different dissociation pathways which start from the same electronic states and end with the same kinetic energy.

  6. Probability density function formalism for optical coherence tomography signal analysis: a controlled phantom study.

    PubMed

    Weatherbee, Andrew; Sugita, Mitsuro; Bizheva, Kostadinka; Popov, Ivan; Vitkin, Alex

    2016-06-15

    The distribution of backscattered intensities as described by the probability density function (PDF) of tissue-scattered light contains information that may be useful for tissue assessment and diagnosis, including characterization of its pathology. In this Letter, we examine the PDF description of the light scattering statistics in a well characterized tissue-like particulate medium using optical coherence tomography (OCT). It is shown that for low scatterer density, the governing statistics depart considerably from a Gaussian description and follow the K distribution for both OCT amplitude and intensity. The PDF formalism is shown to be independent of the scatterer flow conditions; this is expected from theory, and suggests robustness and motion independence of the OCT amplitude (and OCT intensity) PDF metrics in the context of potential biomedical applications.

  7. Probability density function formalism for optical coherence tomography signal analysis: a controlled phantom study.

    PubMed

    Weatherbee, Andrew; Sugita, Mitsuro; Bizheva, Kostadinka; Popov, Ivan; Vitkin, Alex

    2016-06-15

    The distribution of backscattered intensities as described by the probability density function (PDF) of tissue-scattered light contains information that may be useful for tissue assessment and diagnosis, including characterization of its pathology. In this Letter, we examine the PDF description of the light scattering statistics in a well characterized tissue-like particulate medium using optical coherence tomography (OCT). It is shown that for low scatterer density, the governing statistics depart considerably from a Gaussian description and follow the K distribution for both OCT amplitude and intensity. The PDF formalism is shown to be independent of the scatterer flow conditions; this is expected from theory, and suggests robustness and motion independence of the OCT amplitude (and OCT intensity) PDF metrics in the context of potential biomedical applications. PMID:27304274

  8. Picosecond laser ablation system with process control by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targowski, Piotr; Ostrowski, Roman; Marczak, Jan; Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Kwiatkowska, Ewa A.

    2009-07-01

    In this contribution we describe an apparatus for precise laser ablation of delicate layers, like varnish on pictures. This specific case is very demanding. First of all any changes in colour of remaining varnish layer as well as underneath paint layers are unacceptable. This effect may be induced photochemically or thermically. In the first case strong absorption of the radiation used will eliminate its influence on underlying strata. The thermal effect is limited to so called heat affected zone (HAZ). In addition to colour change, a mechanical damage caused by overheating of the structure adjacent to ablated region should be considered also. All kinds of treads must be carefully eliminated in order to make laser ablation of varnish commonly accepted alternative to chemical and/or mechanical treatments [1]. Since the varnish ablation process is obviously irreversible its effective monitoring is very important to make it safe and trusted. As we showed previously [2-6] optical coherence tomography (OCT) originated from medicine diagnostic method for examination and imaging of cross-sections of weakly absorbing objects can be used for this task. OCT utilises infrared light for non-invasive structure examination and has been under consideration for the examining of objects of art since 2004 [7-10]. In this case the in-depth (axial) resolution is obtained by means of interference of light of high spatial (to ensure sensitivity) and very low temporal coherence (to ensure high axial resolution). In practice, IR sources of bandwidths from 25 to 150 nm are utilised. Resolutions obtained range from 15 down to 2 μm in the media of refracting index equal 1.5. In this contribution we expand application of OCT to space resolved determination of ablation rates, separately for every point of examined area. Such data help in better understanding of the ablation process, fine tuning the laser and finally permit increase of the safety of the ablation process.

  9. Experimental demonstration of using divergence cost-function in SPGD algorithm for coherent beam combining with tip/tilt control.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chao; Luo, Wen; Tan, Yi; Liu, Hongmei; Mu, Jinbo; Li, Xinyang

    2013-10-21

    A novel approach of tip/tilt control by using divergence cost function in stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm for coherent beam combining (CBC) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally in a seven-channel 2-W fiber amplifier array with both phase-locking and tip/tilt control, for the first time to our best knowledge. Compared with the conventional power-in-the-bucket (PIB) cost function for SPGD optimization, the tip/tilt control using divergence cost function ensures wider correction range, automatic switching control of program, and freedom of camera's intensity-saturation. Homemade piezoelectric-ring phase-modulator (PZT PM) and adaptive fiber-optics collimator (AFOC) are developed to correct piston- and tip/tilt-type aberrations, respectively. The PIB cost function is employed for phase-locking via maximization of SPGD optimization, while the divergence cost function is used for tip/tilt control via minimization. An average of 432-μrad of divergence metrics in open loop has decreased to 89-μrad when tip/tilt control implemented. In CBC, the power in the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the main lobe increases by 32 times, and the phase residual error is less than λ/15. PMID:24150347

  10. One-pot Synthesis of Metal-Organic Frameworks with Encapsulated Target Molecules and Their Applications for Controlled Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haoquan; Zhang, Yuning; Liu, Leifeng; Wan, Wei; Guo, Peng; Nyström, Andreas M; Zou, Xiaodong

    2016-01-27

    Many medical and chemical applications require target molecules to be delivered in a controlled manner at precise locations. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have high porosity, large surface area, and tunable functionality and are promising carriers for such purposes. Current approaches for incorporating target molecules are based on multistep postfunctionalization. Here, we report a novel approach that combines MOF synthesis and molecule encapsulation in a one-pot process. We demonstrate that large drug and dye molecules can be encapsulated in zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) crystals. The molecules are homogeneously distributed within the crystals, and their loadings can be tuned. We show that ZIF-8 crystals loaded with the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) are efficient drug delivery vehicles in cancer therapy using pH-responsive release. Their efficacy on breast cancer cell lines is higher than that of free DOX. Our one-pot process opens new possibilities to construct multifunctional delivery systems for a wide range of applications.

  11. Insulator-protected mechanically controlled break junctions for measuring single-molecule conductance in aqueous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthusubramanian, N.; Galan, E.; Maity, C.; Eelkema, R.; Grozema, F. C.; van der Zant, H. S. J.

    2016-07-01

    We present a method to fabricate insulated gold mechanically controlled break junctions (MCBJ) by coating the metal with a thin layer of aluminum oxide using plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition. The Al2O3 thickness deposited on the MCBJ devices was varied from 2 to 15 nm to test the suppression of leakage currents in deionized water and phosphate buffered saline. Junctions coated with a 15 nm thick oxide layer yielded atomically sharp electrodes and negligible conductance counts in the range of 1 to 10-4 G0 (1 G0 = 77 μS), where single-molecule conductances are commonly observed. The insulated devices were used to measure the conductance of an amphiphilic oligophenylene ethynylene derivative in deionized water.

  12. Enhancement of ultracold molecule formation by local control in the nanosecond regime

    SciTech Connect

    Carini, J. L.; Kallush, S.; Kosloff, R.; Gould, P. L.

    2015-02-01

    We describe quantum simulations of ultracold 87Rb2 molecule formation using photoassociation (PA) with nanosecond-time-scale pulses of frequency chirped light. In particular, we compare the case of a linear chirp to one where the frequency evolution is optimized by local control (LC) of the phase, and find that LC can provide a significant enhancement. The resulting optimal frequency evolution corresponds to a rapid jump from the PA absorption resonance to a downward transition to a bound level of the lowest triplet state. We also consider the case of two frequencies and investigate interference effects. The assumed chirp parameters should be achievable with nanosecond pulse shaping techniques and are predicted to provide a significant enhancement over recent experiments with linear chirps.

  13. Enhancement of ultracold molecule formation by local control in the nanosecond regime

    DOE PAGES

    Carini, J. L.; Kallush, S.; Kosloff, R.; Gould, P. L.

    2015-02-01

    We describe quantum simulations of ultracold 87Rb2 molecule formation using photoassociation (PA) with nanosecond-time-scale pulses of frequency chirped light. In particular, we compare the case of a linear chirp to one where the frequency evolution is optimized by local control (LC) of the phase, and find that LC can provide a significant enhancement. The resulting optimal frequency evolution corresponds to a rapid jump from the PA absorption resonance to a downward transition to a bound level of the lowest triplet state. We also consider the case of two frequencies and investigate interference effects. The assumed chirp parameters should be achievablemore » with nanosecond pulse shaping techniques and are predicted to provide a significant enhancement over recent experiments with linear chirps.« less

  14. Enhancement of VUV and EUV generation by field-controlled resonance structures of diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslar, John; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.

    2016-05-01

    Below- and near-threshold harmonic generation provides a potential approach to achieve a high conversion efficiency of vacuum-ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet sources for the advancement of spectroscopy. Here we perform an all-electron time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) study for the nonperturbative treatment of below- and near-threshold harmonic generation of CO and N2 diatomic molecules subject to short near-infrared laser pulses and aligned parallel to the laser field polarization. We find that with the use of different driving laser pulse shapes we can control and enhance harmonic generation through the excited state resonance structures. Our analysis reveals several novel features where the HHG signal is enhanced, boosting the conversion efficiency on the microscopic level. Depending on the pulse shape, the enhancement can reach 5 to 7 orders of magnitude as compared to the reference sine-squared laser pulse of the same duration. This work was partially supported by DOE.

  15. Enhancement of VUV and EUV generation by field-controlled resonance structures of diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslar, John; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.

    2016-06-01

    Below- and near-threshold harmonic generation provides a potential approach to achieve a high conversion efficiency of vacuum-ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet sources for the advancement of spectroscopy. Here, we perform a time-dependent density functional theory study for the nonperturbative treatment of below- and near-threshold harmonic generation of CO and N2 diatomic molecules subject to short near-infrared laser pulses and aligned parallel to the laser field polarization. We find that with the use of different driving laser pulse shapes, we can control and enhance harmonic generation through the excited-state resonance structures. Depending on the pulse shape, the enhancement can reach five to seven orders of magnitude as compared to the reference sine-squared laser pulse of the same duration. The results for different driving laser intensities are also presented and discussed in detail.

  16. Biosolar cells: global artificial photosynthesis needs responsive matrices with quantum coherent kinetic control for high yield.

    PubMed

    Purchase, R L; de Groot, H J M

    2015-06-01

    This contribution discusses why we should consider developing artificial photosynthesis with the tandem approach followed by the Dutch BioSolar Cells consortium, a current operational paradigm for a global artificial photosynthesis project. We weigh the advantages and disadvantages of a tandem converter against other approaches, including biomass. Owing to the low density of solar energy per unit area, artificial photosynthetic systems must operate at high efficiency to minimize the land (or sea) area required. In particular, tandem converters are a much better option than biomass for densely populated countries and use two photons per electron extracted from water as the raw material into chemical conversion to hydrogen, or carbon-based fuel when CO2 is also used. For the average total light sum of 40 mol m(-2) d(-1) for The Netherlands, the upper limits are many tons of hydrogen or carbon-based fuel per hectare per year. A principal challenge is to forge materials for quantitative conversion of photons to chemical products within the physical limitation of an internal potential of ca 2.9 V. When going from electric charge in the tandem to hydrogen and back to electricity, only the energy equivalent to 1.23 V can be stored in the fuel and regained. A critical step is then to learn from nature how to use the remaining difference of ca 1.7 V effectively by triple use of one overpotential for preventing recombination, kinetic stabilization of catalytic intermediates and finally generating targeted heat for the release of oxygen. Probably the only way to achieve this is by using bioinspired responsive matrices that have quantum-classical pathways for a coherent conversion of photons to fuels, similar to what has been achieved by natural selection in evolution. In appendix A for the expert, we derive a propagator that describes how catalytic reactions can proceed coherently by a convergence of time scales of quantum electron dynamics and classical nuclear dynamics. We

  17. Biosolar cells: global artificial photosynthesis needs responsive matrices with quantum coherent kinetic control for high yield

    PubMed Central

    Purchase, R. L.; de Groot, H. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution discusses why we should consider developing artificial photosynthesis with the tandem approach followed by the Dutch BioSolar Cells consortium, a current operational paradigm for a global artificial photosynthesis project. We weigh the advantages and disadvantages of a tandem converter against other approaches, including biomass. Owing to the low density of solar energy per unit area, artificial photosynthetic systems must operate at high efficiency to minimize the land (or sea) area required. In particular, tandem converters are a much better option than biomass for densely populated countries and use two photons per electron extracted from water as the raw material into chemical conversion to hydrogen, or carbon-based fuel when CO2 is also used. For the average total light sum of 40 mol m−2 d−1 for The Netherlands, the upper limits are many tons of hydrogen or carbon-based fuel per hectare per year. A principal challenge is to forge materials for quantitative conversion of photons to chemical products within the physical limitation of an internal potential of ca 2.9 V. When going from electric charge in the tandem to hydrogen and back to electricity, only the energy equivalent to 1.23 V can be stored in the fuel and regained. A critical step is then to learn from nature how to use the remaining difference of ca 1.7 V effectively by triple use of one overpotential for preventing recombination, kinetic stabilization of catalytic intermediates and finally generating targeted heat for the release of oxygen. Probably the only way to achieve this is by using bioinspired responsive matrices that have quantum–classical pathways for a coherent conversion of photons to fuels, similar to what has been achieved by natural selection in evolution. In appendix A for the expert, we derive a propagator that describes how catalytic reactions can proceed coherently by a convergence of time scales of quantum electron dynamics and classical nuclear dynamics

  18. Biosolar cells: global artificial photosynthesis needs responsive matrices with quantum coherent kinetic control for high yield.

    PubMed

    Purchase, R L; de Groot, H J M

    2015-06-01

    This contribution discusses why we should consider developing artificial photosynthesis with the tandem approach followed by the Dutch BioSolar Cells consortium, a current operational paradigm for a global artificial photosynthesis project. We weigh the advantages and disadvantages of a tandem converter against other approaches, including biomass. Owing to the low density of solar energy per unit area, artificial photosynthetic systems must operate at high efficiency to minimize the land (or sea) area required. In particular, tandem converters are a much better option than biomass for densely populated countries and use two photons per electron extracted from water as the raw material into chemical conversion to hydrogen, or carbon-based fuel when CO2 is also used. For the average total light sum of 40 mol m(-2) d(-1) for The Netherlands, the upper limits are many tons of hydrogen or carbon-based fuel per hectare per year. A principal challenge is to forge materials for quantitative conversion of photons to chemical products within the physical limitation of an internal potential of ca 2.9 V. When going from electric charge in the tandem to hydrogen and back to electricity, only the energy equivalent to 1.23 V can be stored in the fuel and regained. A critical step is then to learn from nature how to use the remaining difference of ca 1.7 V effectively by triple use of one overpotential for preventing recombination, kinetic stabilization of catalytic intermediates and finally generating targeted heat for the release of oxygen. Probably the only way to achieve this is by using bioinspired responsive matrices that have quantum-classical pathways for a coherent conversion of photons to fuels, similar to what has been achieved by natural selection in evolution. In appendix A for the expert, we derive a propagator that describes how catalytic reactions can proceed coherently by a convergence of time scales of quantum electron dynamics and classical nuclear dynamics. We

  19. Condensation of Coherent Structures in Turbulent Flows.

    PubMed

    Chong, Kai Leong; Huang, Shi-Di; Kaczorowski, Matthias; Xia, Ke-Qing

    2015-12-31

    Coherent structures are ubiquitous in turbulent flows and play a key role in transport. The most important coherent structures in thermal turbulence are plumes. Despite being the primary heat carriers, the potential of manipulating thermal plumes to transport more heat has been overlooked so far. Unlike some other forms of energy transport, such as electromagnetic or sound waves, heat flow in fluids is generally difficult to manipulate, as it is associated with the random motion of molecules and atoms. Here we report how a simple geometrical confinement can lead to the condensation of elementary plumes. The result is the formation of highly coherent system-sized plumes and the emergence of a new regime of convective thermal turbulence characterized by universal temperature profiles and significantly enhanced heat transfer. It is also found that the universality of the temperature profiles and heat transport originate from the geometrical properties of the coherent structures, i.e., the thermal plumes. Therefore, in contrast to the classical regime, boundary layers in this plume-controlled regime are being controlled, rather than controlling. PMID:26764994

  20. Ultraslow helical optical bullets and their acceleration in magneto-optically controlled coherent atomic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2013-05-01

    We propose a scheme to produce ultraslow (3+1)-dimensional helical optical solitons, also called helical optical bullets, in a resonant three-level Λ-type atomic system via quantum coherence. We show that, due to the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency, the helical optical bullets can propagate with an ultraslow velocity up to 10-5 c (c is the light speed in vacuum) in the longitudinal direction and a slow rotational motion (with velocity 10-7 c) in transverse directions. The generation power of such optical bullets can be lowered to microwatts, and their stability can be achieved by using a Bessel optical lattice potential formed by a far-detuned laser field. We also show that the transverse rotational motion of the optical bullets can be accelerated by applying a time-dependent Stern-Gerlach magnetic field. Because of the ultraslow velocity in the longitudinal direction, a significant acceleration of the rotational motion of optical bullets may be observed for a very short medium length.

  1. Scalable coherent interface

    SciTech Connect

    Alnaes, K.; Kristiansen, E.H. ); Gustavson, D.B. ); James, D.V. )

    1990-01-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Abstract coherent categories.

    PubMed

    Rehder, B; Ross, B H

    2001-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the knowledge that interrelates features in people's mental representation of categories and that makes our conception of categories coherent. This article focuses on abstract coherent categories, coherent categories that are also abstract because they are defined by relations independently of any features. Four experiments demonstrate that abstract coherent categories are learned more easily than control categories with identical features and statistical structure, and also that participants induced an abstract representation of the category by granting category membership to exemplars with completely novel features. The authors argue that the human conceptual system is heavily populated with abstract coherent concepts, including conceptions of social groups, societal institutions, legal, political, and military scenarios, and many superordinate categories, such as classes of natural kinds. PMID:11550753

  3. Design of Control Software for a High-Speed Coherent Doppler Lidar System for CO2 Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanvalkenburg, Randal L.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The design of the software for a 2-micron coherent high-speed Doppler lidar system for CO2 measurement at NASA Langley Research Center is discussed in this paper. The specific strategy and design topology to meet the requirements of the system are reviewed. In order to attain the high-speed digitization of the different types of signals to be sampled on multiple channels, a carefully planned design of the control software is imperative. Samples of digitized data from each channel and their roles in data analysis post processing are also presented. Several challenges of extremely-fast, high volume data acquisition are discussed. The software must check the validity of each lidar return as well as other monitoring channel data in real-time. For such high-speed data acquisition systems, the software is a key component that enables the entire scope of CO2 measurement studies using commercially available system components.

  4. Coherent control time-dependent methods for determining eigenvalues of Hermitian matrices with applications to electronic structure computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; Nest, Mathias; Pollak, Eli

    2012-05-01

    Three different methods that are based on the coherent control of a time evolved wavefunction are used to determine the eigenvalues of Hermitian matrices. These methods are of special interest for determining eigenvalues of very large matrices and they replace the standard matrix diagonalization by a minimization problem of a few optimal time or phase variables. Upon inversion, the optimal time or phase variables directly provide the energies of higher eigenstates spanned by the initial wavefunction, without having to compute the wavefunctions themselves. The methods are applied to determine the electronic energies of the He and C atoms as well as a model harmonic oscillator system. All three methods scale as N 2 for a matrix whose dimension is N and they use as input only the overlap of the time evolved initial wavefunction with itself.

  5. Coherent control of cooperative spontaneous emission from two identical three-level atoms in a photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldeyohannes, Mesfin; Idehenre, Ighodalo; Hardin, Tyler

    2015-08-01

    The coherent control of cooperative spontaneous emission from two identical non-overlapping three-level atoms in the V-configuration located within a photonic band gap (PBG) material with two resonant frequencies near the upper band edge of the PBG and confined to a region small in comparison to their radiation wavelengths but still greater than their atomic sizes is investigated. The dependencies of cooperative effects in which a photon emitted by one atom is reabsorbed by the other atom on the inter-atomic separation, on the initial state of the two-atom system, on the strength of the driving control laser field, and on the detuning of the atomic resonant frequencies from the upper band edge frequency is analyzed so as to identify the conditions for which these cooperative effects are enhanced or inhibited. Cooperative effects between atoms are shown to be influenced more by the PBG than by the nature of the atomic transitions involved. Excited state populations as well as coherences between excited levels are expressed in terms of time-dependent amplitudes which are shown to satisfy coupled integro-differential equations for which analytic solutions are derived under special conditions. Unlike for the case of one atom in a PBG where the fractional non-zero steady state populations on the excited levels as well as the coherence between the excited levels are constants independent of time, in the case of two atoms in PBG these quantities continuously oscillate as a manifestation of beating due to the continuous exchange between the two atoms of the photon trapped by the PBG. The values of these quantities as well as the amplitudes and frequencies of their oscillations depend of the parameters of the system, providing different ways of manipulating the system. The general formalism presented here is shown to recapture the special results of investigations of similar systems in free space when the non-Markovian memory kernels of the PBG are replaced by delta

  6. Development of a reference material of a single DNA molecule for the quality control of PCR testing.

    PubMed

    Mano, Junichi; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Yoshii, Junji; Nakae, Hiroki; Naito, Shigehiro; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2014-09-01

    We developed a reference material of a single DNA molecule with a specific nucleotide sequence. The double-strand linear DNA which has PCR target sequences at the both ends was prepared as a reference DNA molecule, and we named the PCR targets on each side as confirmation sequence and standard sequence. The highly diluted solution of the reference molecule was dispensed into 96 wells of a plastic PCR plate to make the average number of molecules in a well below one. Subsequently, the presence or absence of the reference molecule in each well was checked by real-time PCR targeting for the confirmation sequence. After an enzymatic treatment of the reaction mixture in the positive wells for the digestion of PCR products, the resultant solution was used as the reference material of a single DNA molecule with the standard sequence. PCR analyses revealed that the prepared samples included only one reference molecule with high probability. The single-molecule reference material developed in this study will be useful for the absolute evaluation of a detection limit of PCR-based testing methods, the quality control of PCR analyses, performance evaluations of PCR reagents and instruments, and the preparation of an accurate calibration curve for real-time PCR quantitation.

  7. Development of a reference material of a single DNA molecule for the quality control of PCR testing.

    PubMed

    Mano, Junichi; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Yoshii, Junji; Nakae, Hiroki; Naito, Shigehiro; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2014-09-01

    We developed a reference material of a single DNA molecule with a specific nucleotide sequence. The double-strand linear DNA which has PCR target sequences at the both ends was prepared as a reference DNA molecule, and we named the PCR targets on each side as confirmation sequence and standard sequence. The highly diluted solution of the reference molecule was dispensed into 96 wells of a plastic PCR plate to make the average number of molecules in a well below one. Subsequently, the presence or absence of the reference molecule in each well was checked by real-time PCR targeting for the confirmation sequence. After an enzymatic treatment of the reaction mixture in the positive wells for the digestion of PCR products, the resultant solution was used as the reference material of a single DNA molecule with the standard sequence. PCR analyses revealed that the prepared samples included only one reference molecule with high probability. The single-molecule reference material developed in this study will be useful for the absolute evaluation of a detection limit of PCR-based testing methods, the quality control of PCR analyses, performance evaluations of PCR reagents and instruments, and the preparation of an accurate calibration curve for real-time PCR quantitation. PMID:25061686

  8. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  9. Using the binding site to control the magnetic and spintronic properties of a single magnetic molecule in a tunnel junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Ben; El Hallak, Fadi; Prueser, Henning; Gill, Tobias G.; Sharp, John; Fisher, Andrew J.; Persson, Mats; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.

    2015-03-01

    Many proposals outline the use of single magnetic molecules in new applications in information technology and spintronics, with the intention of creating new devices based on phenomena that only manifest at the atomic scale. To create these devices it will be necessary to engineer the required properties, whether through controlling the molecule's chemical makeup or its interaction with the external surroundings. The latter may involve using interactions with the supporting substrate surface, which have been shown to not only modify the molecule properties but also create effects such as chirality. Here we utilize the surface interaction to modify the properties of FePc on copper nitride, a thin insulator, above bulk Cu(001). Using scanning tunneling microscopy we show that the interaction with the surface is defined by the binding site of the central Fe atom in the molecule. By performing elastic and inelastic tunneling spectroscopy and comparing the results to DFT modeling, we explore how coupling to the surface can be used to control the molecular orbitals and the accessibility of the spin excitations. This demonstrates the importance of controlling molecule-substrate coupling down to the atomic scale for the development of single molecule devices.

  10. Weak competing interactions control assembly of strongly bonded TCNQ ionic acceptor molecules on silver surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changwon; Rojas, Geoffrey A.; Jeon, Seokmin; Kelly, Simon J.; Smith, Sean C.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Yoon, Mina; Maksymovych, Petro

    2014-09-01

    The energy scales of interactions that control molecular adsorption and assembly on surfaces can vary by several orders of magnitude, yet the importance of each contributing interaction is not apparent a priori. Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) is an archetypal electron acceptor molecule and it is a key component of organic metals. On metal surfaces, this molecule also acts as an electron acceptor, producing negatively charged adsorbates. It is therefore rather intriguing to observe attractive molecular interactions in this system that were reported previously for copper and silver surfaces. Our experiments compared TCNQ adsorption on noble metal surfaces of Ag(100) and Ag(111). In both cases we found net attractive interactions down to the lowest coverage. However, the morphology of the assemblies was strikingly different, with two-dimensional islands on Ag(100) and one-dimensional chains on Ag(111) surfaces. This observation suggests that the registry effect governed by the molecular interaction with the underlying lattice potential is critical in determining the dimensionality of the molecular assembly. Using first-principles density functional calculations with a van der Waals correction scheme, we revealed that the strengths of major interactions (i.e., lattice potential corrugation, intermolecular attraction, and charge-transfer-induced repulsion) are all similar in energy. The van der Waals interactions, in particular, almost double the strength of attractive interactions, making the intermolecular potential comparable in strength to the diffusion potential and promoting self-assembly. However, it is the anisotropy of local intermolecular interactions that is primarily responsible for the difference in the topology of the molecular islands on Ag(100) and Ag(111) surfaces. We anticipate that the intermolecular potential will become more attractive and dominant over the diffusion potential with increasing molecular size, providing new design strategies for the

  11. Coherent control of D2/H2 dissociative ionization by a mid-infrared two-color laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanie, Vincent; Ibrahim, Heide; Beaulieu, Samuel; Thiré, Nicolas; Schmidt, Bruno E.; Deng, Yunpei; Alnaser, Ali S.; Litvinyuk, Igor V.; Tong, Xiao-Min; Légaré, François

    2016-01-01

    Steering the electrons during an ultrafast photo-induced process in a molecule influences the chemical behavior of the system, opening the door to the control of photochemical reactions and photobiological processes. Electrons can be efficiently localized using a strong laser field with a well-designed temporal shape of the electric component. Consequently, many experiments have been performed with laser sources in the near-infrared region (800 nm) in the interest of studying and enhancing the electron localization. However, due to its limited accessibility, the mid-infrared (MIR) range has barely been investigated, although it allows to efficiently control small molecules and even more complex systems. To push further the manipulation of basic chemical mechanisms, we used a MIR two-color (1800 and 900 nm) laser field to ionize H2 and D2 molecules and to steer the remaining electron during the photo-induced dissociation. The study of this prototype reaction led to the simultaneous control of four fragmentation channels. The results are well reproduced by a theoretical model solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the molecular ion, identifying the involved dissociation mechanisms. By varying the relative phase between the two colors, asymmetries (i.e., electron localization selectivity) of up to 65% were obtained, corresponding to enhanced or equivalent levels of control compared to previous experiments. Experimentally easier to implement, the use of a two-color laser field leads to a better electron localization than carrier-envelope phase stabilized pulses and applying the technique in the MIR range reveals more dissociation channels than at 800 nm.

  12. Ongoing Activity in Temporally Coherent Networks Predicts Intra-Subject Fluctuation of Response Time to Sporadic Executive Control Demands

    PubMed Central

    Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Ihara, Mizuki; Kotozaki, Yuka; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kanno, Akitake; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    Can ongoing fMRI BOLD signals predict fluctuations in swiftness of a person’s response to sporadic cognitive demands? This is an important issue because it clarifies whether intrinsic brain dynamics, for which spatio-temporal patterns are expressed as temporally coherent networks (TCNs), have effects not only on sensory or motor processes, but also on cognitive processes. Predictivity has been affirmed, although to a limited extent. Expecting a predictive effect on executive performance for a wider range of TCNs constituting the cingulo-opercular, fronto-parietal, and default mode networks, we conducted an fMRI study using a version of the color–word Stroop task that was specifically designed to put a higher load on executive control, with the aim of making its fluctuations more detectable. We explored the relationships between the fluctuations in ongoing pre-trial activity in TCNs and the task response time (RT). The results revealed the existence of TCNs in which fluctuations in activity several seconds before the onset of the trial predicted RT fluctuations for the subsequent trial. These TCNs were distributed in the cingulo-opercular and fronto-parietal networks, as well as in perceptual and motor networks. Our results suggest that intrinsic brain dynamics in these networks constitute “cognitive readiness,” which plays an active role especially in situations where information for anticipatory attention control is unavailable. Fluctuations in these networks lead to fluctuations in executive control performance. PMID:24901995

  13. Towards deterministically controlled InGaAs/GaAs lateral quantum dot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Rastelli, A.; Kiravittaya, S.; Atkinson, P.; Ding, F.; Bof Bufon, C. C.; Hermannstädter, C.; Witzany, M.; Beirne, G. J.; Michler, P.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2008-04-01

    We report on the fabrication, detailed characterization and modeling of lateral InGaAs quantum dot molecules (QDMs) embedded in a GaAs matrix and we discuss strategies to fully control their spatial configuration and electronic properties. The three-dimensional morphology of encapsulated QDMs was revealed by selective wet chemical etching of the GaAs top capping layer and subsequent imaging by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM investigation showed that different overgrowth procedures have a profound consequence on the QDM height and shape. QDMs partially capped and annealed in situ for micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy consist of shallow but well-defined quantum dots (QDs) in contrast to misleading results usually provided by surface morphology measurements when they are buried by a thin GaAs layer. This uncapping approach is crucial for determining the QDM structural parameters, which are required for modeling the system. A single-band effective-mass approximation is employed to calculate the confined electron and heavy-hole energy levels, taking the geometry and structural information extracted from the uncapping experiments as inputs. The calculated transition energy of the single QDM shows good agreement with the experimentally observed values. By decreasing the edge-to-edge distance between the two QDs within a QDM, a splitting of the electron (hole) wavefunction into symmetric and antisymmetric states is observed, indicating the presence of lateral coupling. Site control of such lateral QDMs obtained by growth on a pre-patterned substrate, combined with a technology to fabricate gate structures at well-defined positions with respect to the QDMs, could lead to deterministically controlled devices based on QDMs.

  14. Signal contrast in coherent Raman scattering: Optical phonons versus biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    We show that the limiting contrast of the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal with respect to the coherent background due to nonresonant four-wave mixing is controlled by the Q factor of the Raman mode and is independent of the parameters of laser pulses. High-Q phonon modes of semiconductor nanoparticles, such as diamond nanoprobes, can therefore substantially enhance the contrast of CARS images, as well as the sensitivity of CARS spectroscopy and microscopy compared to typical Raman-active vibrations of organic molecules in biotissues.

  15. [ERIAD mass spectrometry (electrospray with controlled fragmentation) is the common method for metallomics and biochemistry of elementoorganic molecules].

    PubMed

    Gall', N R; Fomina, N S; Bazhenov, A N; Masiukevich, S V; Kretinina, A V; Gall', L N

    2011-01-01

    The physical aspects of the ERIAD method (electrospray with controlled fragmentation) in terms of the problems of metallomics and biochemistry of elementoorganic compounds have been considered. It was shown that the method is well suited to study the objects of this class since it enables one to change from the molecular to the elemental analysis merely by changing the voltage between the nozzle and the skimmer. In the regime of molecular analysis, it is possible to determine the mass of the molecule as a whole and decipher its structure by controlled fragmentation, and in the regime of elemental analysis the number of atoms of heteroelements incorporated in the molecule can be quantified.

  16. Molecules and Clusters in Intense Laser Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posthumus, Jan

    2001-06-01

    Preface; 1. Ultra-high intensity based on Ti:Sapphire Philip F. Taday and Andrew J. Langley; 2. Diatomic molecules in intense laser fields Jan H. Posthumus and James F. McCann; 3. Small polyatomic molecules in intense laser fields C. Cornaggia; 4. Coherent control in intense laser fields Eric Charron and Brian Sheehy; 5. Experimental studies of laser-heated rare gas clusters M. Lezius and M. Schmidt; 6. Single cluster explosions and high harmonic generation John W. G. Tisch and Emma Springate; 7. Intense laser interaction with extended cluster media Roland A. Smith and Todd Ditmire.

  17. Molecules and Clusters in Intense Laser Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posthumus, Jan

    2009-09-01

    Preface; 1. Ultra-high intensity based on Ti:Sapphire Philip F. Taday and Andrew J. Langley; 2. Diatomic molecules in intense laser fields Jan H. Posthumus and James F. McCann; 3. Small polyatomic molecules in intense laser fields C. Cornaggia; 4. Coherent control in intense laser fields Eric Charron and Brian Sheehy; 5. Experimental studies of laser-heated rare gas clusters M. Lezius and M. Schmidt; 6. Single cluster explosions and high harmonic generation John W. G. Tisch and Emma Springate; 7. Intense laser interaction with extended cluster media Roland A. Smith and Todd Ditmire.

  18. Coherence-controlled holographic microscopy enabled recognition of necrosis as the mechanism of cancer cells death after exposure to cytopathic turbid emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collakova, Jana; Krizova, Aneta; Kollarova, Vera; Dostal, Zbynek; Slaba, Michala; Vesely, Pavel; Chmelik, Radim

    2015-11-01

    Coherence-controlled holographic microscopy (CCHM) in low-coherence mode possesses a pronounced coherence gate effect. This offers an option to investigate the details of cellular events leading to cell death caused by cytopathic turbid emulsions. CCHM capacity was first assessed in model situations that showed clear images obtained with low coherence of illumination but not with high coherence of illumination. Then, the form of death of human cancer cells induced by treatment with biologically active phospholipids (BAPs) preparation was investigated. The observed overall retraction of cell colony was apparently caused by the release of cell-to-substratum contacts. This was followed by the accumulation of granules decorating the nuclear membrane. Then, the occurrence of nuclear membrane indentations signaled the start of damage to the integrity of the cell nucleus. In the final stage, cells shrunk and disintegrated. This indicated that BAPs cause cell death by necrosis and not apoptosis. An intriguing option of checking the fate of cancer cells caused by the anticipated cooperative effect after adding another tested substance sodium dichloroacetate to turbid emulsion is discussed on grounds of pilot experiments. Such observations should reveal the impact and mechanism of action of the interacting drugs on cell behavior and fate that would otherwise remain hidden in turbid milieu.

  19. Fabrication of nickel and gold nanowires by controlled electrodeposition on deoxyribonucleic acid molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Qun; Jin, Helena; Dai, Kun

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic and electrical nanowires are two important materials in the development of futuristic nanoelectronics, data storage media and nanosensors. Ni and Au nanowires with a diameter of a few tens of nanometres have been fabricated using deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules as a template through nanoparticle-controlled electroless deposition (ELD). Nanowire precursors, 1-3 nm Pt(0)-DNA and 1.4 nm Au(0)-DNA, were assembled using two different methods. Chemical reduction was used to deposit Pt(0) particles on DNA which catalyzed Ni nanowire growth. Positively charged Au nanoparticles were directly assembled on phosphate groups of DNA which were stretched and anchored between micrometre-spaced electrodes. Electrical measurement has shown that Au nanowires, catalyzed by Au(0)-DNA in a subsequent ELD, are highly conductive and show linear I-V characteristics. The major factors for the resistivity of nanowires were discussed in detail. This work involves important aspects in the field of DNA-based self-assembly, such as DNA and surface interaction, DNA nanoparticle assembly and electrical property of fabricated nanowires.

  20. Polysialic Acid Directs Tumor Cell Growth by Controlling Heterophilic Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Seidenfaden, Ralph; Krauter, Andrea; Schertzinger, Frank; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Hildebrandt, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    Polysialic acid (PSA), a carbohydrate polymer attached to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), promotes neural plasticity and tumor malignancy, but its mode of action is controversial. Here we establish that PSA controls tumor cell growth and differentiation by interfering with NCAM signaling at cell-cell contacts. Interactions between cells with different PSA and NCAM expression profiles were initiated by enzymatic removal of PSA and by ectopic expression of NCAM or PSA-NCAM. Removal of PSA from the cell surface led to reduced proliferation and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), inducing enhanced survival and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. Blocking with an NCAM-specific peptide prevented these effects. Combinatorial transinteraction studies with cells and membranes with different PSA and NCAM phenotypes revealed that heterophilic NCAM binding mimics the cellular responses to PSA removal. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that PSA masks heterophilic NCAM signals, having a direct impact on tumor cell growth. This provides a mechanism for how PSA may promote the genesis and progression of highly aggressive PSA-NCAM-positive tumors. PMID:12897159

  1. Role of solvent environments in single molecule conductance used insulator-modified mechanically controlled break junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthusubramanian, Nandini; Maity, Chandan; Galan Garcia, Elena; Eelkema, Rienk; Grozema, Ferdinand; van der Zant, Herre; Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Collaboration; Department of Chemical Engineering Collaboration

    We present a method for studying the effects of polar solvents on charge transport through organic/biological single molecules by developing solvent-compatible mechanically controlled break junctions of gold coated with a thin layer of aluminium oxide using plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD). The optimal oxide thickness was experimentally determined to be 15 nm deposited at ALD operating temperature of 300°C which yielded atomically sharp electrodes and reproducible single-barrier tunnelling behaviour across a wide conductance range between 1 G0 and 10-7 G0. The insulator protected MCBJ devices were found to be effective in various solvents such as deionized water, phosphate buffered saline, methanol, acetonitrile and dichlorobenzene. The yield of molecular junctions using such insulated electrodes was tested by developing a chemical protocol for synthesizing an amphipathic form of oligo-phenylene ethynylene (OPE3-PEO) with thioacetate anchoring groups. This work has further applications in studying effects of solvation, dipole orientation and other thermodynamic interactions on charge transport. Eu Marie Curie Initial Training Network (ITN). MOLECULAR-SCALE ELECTRONICS: ``MOLESCO'' Project Number 606728.

  2. Room-temperature quantum cloning machine with full coherent phase control in nanodiamond.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-Chun; Liu, Gang-Qin; Liu, Dong-Qi; Fan, Heng; Pan, Xin-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the classical world, an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned ideally, as stated by the no-cloning theorem. However, it is expected that approximate or probabilistic quantum cloning will be necessary for different applications, and thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed. Phase quantum cloning is of particular interest because it can be used to attack the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) states used in quantum key distribution for secure communications. Here, we report the first room-temperature implementation of quantum phase cloning with a controllable phase in a solid-state system: the nitrogen-vacancy centre of a nanodiamond. The phase cloner works well for all qubits located on the equator of the Bloch sphere. The phase is controlled and can be measured with high accuracy, and the experimental results are consistent with theoretical expectations. This experiment provides a basis for phase-controllable quantum information devices. PMID:23511233

  3. Room-Temperature Quantum Cloning Machine with Full Coherent Phase Control in Nanodiamond

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yan-Chun; Liu, Gang-Qin; Liu, Dong-Qi; Fan, Heng; Pan, Xin-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the classical world, an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned ideally, as stated by the no-cloning theorem. However, it is expected that approximate or probabilistic quantum cloning will be necessary for different applications, and thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed. Phase quantum cloning is of particular interest because it can be used to attack the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) states used in quantum key distribution for secure communications. Here, we report the first room-temperature implementation of quantum phase cloning with a controllable phase in a solid-state system: the nitrogen-vacancy centre of a nanodiamond. The phase cloner works well for all qubits located on the equator of the Bloch sphere. The phase is controlled and can be measured with high accuracy, and the experimental results are consistent with theoretical expectations. This experiment provides a basis for phase-controllable quantum information devices. PMID:23511233

  4. Accurate and agile digital control of optical phase, amplitude and frequency for coherent atomic manipulation of atomic systems.

    PubMed

    Thom, Joseph; Wilpers, Guido; Riis, Erling; Sinclair, Alastair G

    2013-08-12

    We demonstrate a system for fast and agile digital control of laser phase, amplitude and frequency for applications in coherent atomic systems. The full versatility of a direct digital synthesis radiofrequency source is faithfully transferred to laser radiation via acousto-optic modulation. Optical beatnotes are used to measure phase steps up to 2π, which are accurately implemented with a resolution of ≤ 10 mrad. By linearizing the optical modulation process, amplitude-shaped pulses of durations ranging from 500 ns to 500 ms, in excellent agreement with the programmed functional form, are demonstrated. Pulse durations are limited only by the 30 ns rise time of the modulation process, and a measured extinction ratio of > 5 × 10(11) is achieved. The system presented here was developed specifically for controlling the quantum state of trapped ions with sequences of multiple laser pulses, including composite and bichromatic pulses. The demonstrated techniques are widely applicable to other atomic systems ranging across quantum information processing, frequency metrology, atom interferometry, and single-photon generation.

  5. Coherent molecular transistor: Control through variation of the gate wave function

    SciTech Connect

    Ernzerhof, Matthias

    2014-03-21

    In quantum interference transistors (QUITs), the current through the device is controlled by variation of the gate component of the wave function that interferes with the wave function component joining the source and the sink. Initially, mesoscopic QUITs have been studied and more recently, QUITs at the molecular scale have been proposed and implemented. Typically, in these devices the gate lead is subjected to externally adjustable physical parameters that permit interference control through modifications of the gate wave function. Here, we present an alternative model of a molecular QUIT in which the gate wave function is directly considered as a variable and the transistor operation is discussed in terms of this variable. This implies that we specify the gate current as well as the phase of the gate wave function component and calculate the resulting current through the source-sink channel. Thus, we extend on prior works that focus on the phase of the gate wave function component as a control parameter while having zero or certain discrete values of the current. We address a large class of systems, including finite graphene flakes, and obtain analytic solutions for how the gate wave function controls the transistor.

  6. Coherent molecular transistor: control through variation of the gate wave function.

    PubMed

    Ernzerhof, Matthias

    2014-03-21

    In quantum interference transistors (QUITs), the current through the device is controlled by variation of the gate component of the wave function that interferes with the wave function component joining the source and the sink. Initially, mesoscopic QUITs have been studied and more recently, QUITs at the molecular scale have been proposed and implemented. Typically, in these devices the gate lead is subjected to externally adjustable physical parameters that permit interference control through modifications of the gate wave function. Here, we present an alternative model of a molecular QUIT in which the gate wave function is directly considered as a variable and the transistor operation is discussed in terms of this variable. This implies that we specify the gate current as well as the phase of the gate wave function component and calculate the resulting current through the source-sink channel. Thus, we extend on prior works that focus on the phase of the gate wave function component as a control parameter while having zero or certain discrete values of the current. We address a large class of systems, including finite graphene flakes, and obtain analytic solutions for how the gate wave function controls the transistor.

  7. Generation of isolated ultra-short attosecond pulses by coherent control of the population of excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jooya, Hossein Z.; Li, Peng-Cheng; Liao, Sheng-Lun; Chu, Shih-I.

    2016-01-01

    We present an ab-initio theoretical investigation of the enhancement of ultra-broad super-continuum harmonic spectra by coherently controlling the electron quantum paths of the helium atom and He+ ion. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation is solved by means of the time-dependent generalized pseudo-spectral method, allowing non-uniform and optimal spatial grid discretization and accurate and efficient propagation of the wave function in space and time. The population of the first two low-lying excited states of He+ is selectively controlled by adding low intensity, high frequency laser pulses to a two color mid-infrared laser field. Although the intensity of the added field is weak, its high frequency makes the subsequent ionization probability from excited states become much larger than for the case of many photons (mid-IR filed), even though the intensity is smaller. We found that the intensity of the attosecond pulse generated by superposing a range of synchronized high harmonics is significantly enhanced by 20 orders of magnitude. Similar calculations have been performed for the neutral He atoms. We found that an intense and ultra-short isolated 18 as can be generated directly. To understand the underlying mechanism of such dramatic enhancement and the role of electron quantum paths, we perform wavelet time-frequency transform of high harmonic spectra. The results show that we can selectively control the domination of the two distinct long and short electron trajectories by controlling the population of different excited states.

  8. Disentangling multidimensional femtosecond spectra of excitons by pulse shaping with coherent control.

    PubMed

    Abramavicius, Darius; Mukamel, Shaul

    2004-05-01

    Sequences of carefully timed and shaped optical pulses provide femtosecond snapshots of molecular structure as well as electronic and vibrational dynamical processes, in analogy with multidimensional NMR. We apply a genetic learning algorithm towards the design of pulse sequences which simplify the multidimensional signals by controlling the relative intensities of various peaks. Numerical simulations demonstrate how poorly resolved weak features may be amplified and observed by using optimized optical pulses, specifically shaped to achieve a desired spectroscopic target.

  9. Incorporating real time velocity map image reconstruction into closed-loop coherent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallis, C. E.; Burwitz, T. G.; Andrews, P. R.; Zohrabi, M.; Averin, R.; De, S.; Bergues, B.; Jochim, Bethany; Voznyuk, A. V.; Gregerson, Neal; Gaire, B.; Znakovskaya, I.; McKenna, J.; Carnes, K. D.; Kling, M. F.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Wells, E.

    2014-11-01

    We report techniques developed to utilize three-dimensional momentum information as feedback in adaptive femtosecond control of molecular dynamics. Velocity map imaging is used to obtain the three-dimensional momentum map of the dissociating ions following interaction with a shaped intense ultrafast laser pulse. In order to recover robust feedback information, however, the two-dimensional momentum projection from the detector must be inverted to reconstruct the full three-dimensional momentum of the photofragments. These methods are typically slow or require manual inputs and are therefore accomplished offline after the images have been obtained. Using an algorithm based upon an "onion-peeling" (also known as "back projection") method, we are able to invert 1040 × 1054 pixel images in under 1 s. This rapid inversion allows the full photofragment momentum to be used as feedback in a closed-loop adaptive control scheme, in which a genetic algorithm tailors an ultrafast laser pulse to optimize a specific outcome. Examples of three-dimensional velocity map image based control applied to strong-field dissociation of CO and O2 are presented.

  10. Quality control in single-molecule studies of kinesins and microtubule-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Brouhard, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    Commercial microscopes capable of single-molecule experiments have made it simple for researchers to adopt these powerful techniques. This chapter is meant to help newcomers assess whether their data is of sufficient quality to warrant time-intensive analysis. Two problems can hamper single-molecule experiments: (1) non-specific aggregation of the proteins of interest and (2) detection thresholds from a poor microscope setup. I outline four steps that researchers can take to overcome these problems and convince themselves that they are observing bona fide single molecules.

  11. Generating Molecular Rovibrational Coherence by Two-Photon Femtosecond Photoassociation of Thermally Hot Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Rybak, Leonid; Levin, Liat; Amitay, Zohar; Amaran, Saieswari; Kosloff, Ronnie; Tomza, Michal; Moszynski, Robert; Koch, Christiane P.

    2011-12-30

    The formation of diatomic molecules with rotational and vibrational coherence is demonstrated experimentally in free-to-bound two-photon femtosecond photoassociation of hot atoms. In a thermal gas at a temperature of 1000 K, pairs of magnesium atoms, colliding in their electronic ground state, are excited into coherent superpositions of bound rovibrational levels in an electronically excited state. The rovibrational coherence is probed by a time-delayed third photon, resulting in quantum beats in the UV fluorescence. A comprehensive theoretical model based on ab initio calculations rationalizes the generation of coherence by Franck-Condon filtering of collision energies and partial waves, quantifying it in terms of an increase in quantum purity of the thermal ensemble. Our results open the way to coherent control of a binary reaction.

  12. Generating Molecular Rovibrational Coherence by Two-Photon Femtosecond Photoassociation of Thermally Hot Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybak, Leonid; Amaran, Saieswari; Levin, Liat; Tomza, Michał; Moszynski, Robert; Kosloff, Ronnie; Koch, Christiane P.; Amitay, Zohar

    2011-12-01

    The formation of diatomic molecules with rotational and vibrational coherence is demonstrated experimentally in free-to-bound two-photon femtosecond photoassociation of hot atoms. In a thermal gas at a temperature of 1000 K, pairs of magnesium atoms, colliding in their electronic ground state, are excited into coherent superpositions of bound rovibrational levels in an electronically excited state. The rovibrational coherence is probed by a time-delayed third photon, resulting in quantum beats in the UV fluorescence. A comprehensive theoretical model based on ab initio calculations rationalizes the generation of coherence by Franck-Condon filtering of collision energies and partial waves, quantifying it in terms of an increase in quantum purity of the thermal ensemble. Our results open the way to coherent control of a binary reaction.

  13. Coherent quantum control of internal conversion: {S}_{2}\\;\\leftrightarrow \\;{S}_{1} in pyrazine via {S}_{0}\\;\\to \\;{S}_{2}/{S}_{1} weak field excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinev, Timur; Shapiro, Moshe; Brumer, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Coherent control of internal conversion (IC) between the first (S1) and second (S2) singlet excited electronic states in pyrazine, where the S2 state is populated from the ground singlet electronic state S0 by weak field excitation, is examined. Control is implemented by shaping the laser which excites S2. Excitation and IC are considered simultaneously, using the recently introduced resonance-based control approach. Highly successful control is achieved by optimizing both the amplitude and phase profiles of the laser spectrum. The dependence of control on the properties of resonances in S2 is demonstrated.

  14. Method of controlling coherent synchroton radiation-driven degradation of beam quality during bunch length compression

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.; Tennant, Christopher D.

    2012-07-10

    A method of avoiding CSR induced beam quality defects in free electron laser operation by a) controlling the rate of compression and b) using a novel means of integrating the compression with the remainder of the transport system: both are accomplished by means of dispersion modulation. A large dispersion is created in the penultimate dipole magnet of the compression region leading to rapid compression; this large dispersion is demagnified and dispersion suppression performed in a final small dipole. As a result, the bunch is short for only a small angular extent of the transport, and the resulting CSR excitation is small.

  15. Ultrafast coherent control of angular momentum during a one-photon excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, D. A.; Eppink, A. T. J. B.; Meerts, W. L.; Kimel, A. V.; Kirilyuk, A.; Rasing, Th.; Zande, W. J. van der

    2011-10-15

    The subpicosecond dynamics of angular momentum transfer in the excited rubidium 5p state is studied in real time by observing photoelectron angular distributions with velocity map imaging. Retrieving the populations of the degenerate Zeeman levels and reconstructing the angular momentum, we show that in the case of resonant excitation the angular momentum does not follow the momentary helicity of the electric field of the pulse. This is in contrast with off-resonant excitation where the angular momentum and pulse helicity are fully correlated. Our study shows how to generate and shape ultrashort pulses of orbital and spin angular momentum in a controllable way.

  16. Functional Corticospinal Projections from Human Supplementary Motor Area Revealed by Corticomuscular Coherence during Precise Grip Force Control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sophie; Entakli, Jonathan; Bonnard, Mireille; Berton, Eric; De Graaf, Jozina B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether corticospinal projections from human supplementary motor area (SMA) are functional during precise force control with the precision grip (thumb-index opposition). Since beta band corticomuscular coherence (CMC) is well-accepted to reflect efferent corticospinal transmission, we analyzed the beta band CMC obtained with simultaneous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) signals. Subjects performed a bimanual precise visuomotor force tracking task by applying isometric low grip forces with their right hand precision grip on a custom device with strain gauges. Concurrently, they held the device with their left hand precision grip, producing similar grip forces but without any precision constraints, to relieve the right hand. Some subjects also participated in a unimanual control condition in which they performed the task with only the right hand precision grip while the device was held by a mechanical grip. We analyzed whole scalp topographies of beta band CMC between 64 EEG channels and 4 EMG intrinsic hand muscles, 2 for each hand. To compare the different topographies, we performed non-parametric statistical tests based on spatio-spectral clustering. For the right hand, we obtained significant beta band CMC over the contralateral M1 region as well as over the SMA region during static force contraction periods. For the left hand, however, beta band CMC was only found over the contralateral M1. By comparing unimanual and bimanual conditions for right hand muscles, no significant difference was found on beta band CMC over M1 and SMA. We conclude that the beta band CMC found over SMA for right hand muscles results from the precision constraints and not from the bimanual aspect of the task. The result of the present study strongly suggests that the corticospinal projections from human SMA become functional when high precision force control is required. PMID:23555945

  17. Coherence current, coherence vortex, and the conservation law of coherence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Takeda, Mitsuo

    2006-06-01

    Introducing scalar and vector densities for a mutual coherence function, we present a new conservation law for optical coherence of scalar wave fields in the form of a continuity equation. This coherence conservation law provides new insights into topological phenomena for the complex coherence function. Some properties related to the newly introduced coherence vector density, such as a circulating coherence current associated with a coherence vortex, are investigated both theoretically and experimentally for the first time.

  18. Sub-nanometer control of the interlayer spacing in thin films of intercalated rodlike conjugated molecules.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Jörn-Oliver; Salzmann, Ingo; Opitz, Ricarda; Duhm, Steffen; Nickel, Bert; Rabe, Jürgen P; Koch, Norbert

    2007-12-27

    Organic molecular beam co-deposition of rodlike conjugated molecules with an alkylated analogue resulted in thin film structures with layers of alternating semiconducting (conjugated molecular parts) and insulating (alkyl parts) character. By varying the alkylated molecule ratio, we could adjust the distance between conjugated layers with sub-nanometer precision, exploiting the mechanical flexibility of the alkyl chains. Furthermore, due to mutual molecular intercalation, mixed layers containing two conjugated moieties with vastly different electronic properties could be fabricated.

  19. Particle-wave duality and coherent instability control in dense gas-solid flows.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Liu, Y. Y.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-01

    The collective effect of transport behaviors in a multibody system can either drastically enhance or deteriorate system performance depending on the nature of the internal interactions (i.e., constructive or deconstructive) and the structure established. For most powder processes, flow instability leads to poor performance. Control strategies have been attempted previously, but with limited success. The ability to drive such a system that is far from equilibrium into its 'ordered' state by tuning the interactions can effectively reduce internal energy dissipation, which may lead to a technological breakthrough. By using a hybrid dynamics simulation and multiphase flow experiments, we will first elucidate two fundamental mechanisms underlying flow instabilities in a dense gas-solid flow: nonlinear drag and collisional dissipation. Then we clarify how gas-fluidized particles exhibit 'particle-wave' duality (e.g., exhibit standing waves in a thin layer of granular bed that are driven by superimposed oscillating air, when the exciting frequencies of the oscillating air match the system's natural frequency). On this basis, we show experimentally that dense gas-fluidized granules can be synchronized into 'ordered' structures by developing an adaptively exciting fluid wave. The introduction of an additional fluid wave enables the flow structures to be fine-tuned. Our method results in remarkably improved fluidization: highly expanded particulate beds with significantly suppressed gas bubble formation (for coarse particles) and channel formation (for ultra-fine powders), as has always prevailed in conventional dense gas-particle systems. By applying our methodology to several systems that are normally difficult to fluidize, we achieve unprecedented, well-controlled suspension of solids in gas flow. A scientific understanding of complex, dense gas-solid flows should enable the dispersion of solids in the gas flow to be controlled effectively. This work contributes to the

  20. Bichromatic coherent random lasing from dye-doped polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystals controlled by pump light polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Meng; Yang, Mingchao; Shi, Li-Jie; Deng, Luogen; Yang, Huai

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the bichromatic coherent random lasing actions from the dye-doped polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystals. Two groups of lasing peaks, of which the full widith at half maximum is about 0.3 nm, are clearly observed. The shorter- and longer-wavelength modes are associated with the excitation of the single laser dye (DCM) monomers and dimers respectively. The experimental results show that the competition between the two groups of the lasing peaks can be controlled by varying the polarization of the pump light. When the polarization of the pump light is rotated from 0° to 90°, the intensity of the shorter-wavelength lasing peak group reduces while the intensity of the longer-wavelength lasing peak group increases. In addition, a red shift of the longer-wavelength modes is also observed and the physical mechanisms behind the red-shift phenomenon are discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474021 and 51333001), the Key Program for International S&T Cooperation Projects of China (Grant No. 2013DFB50340), the Issues of Priority Development Areas of the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120001130005), and the Key (Key Grant) Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Grant No. 313002).

  1. Bichromatic coherent random lasing from dye-doped polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystals controlled by pump light polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Meng; Yang, Mingchao; Shi, Li-Jie; Deng, Luogen; Yang, Huai

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the bichromatic coherent random lasing actions from the dye-doped polymer stabilized blue phase liquid crystals. Two groups of lasing peaks, of which the full widith at half maximum is about 0.3 nm, are clearly observed. The shorter- and longer-wavelength modes are associated with the excitation of the single laser dye (DCM) monomers and dimers respectively. The experimental results show that the competition between the two groups of the lasing peaks can be controlled by varying the polarization of the pump light. When the polarization of the pump light is rotated from 0° to 90°, the intensity of the shorter-wavelength lasing peak group reduces while the intensity of the longer-wavelength lasing peak group increases. In addition, a red shift of the longer-wavelength modes is also observed and the physical mechanisms behind the red-shift phenomenon are discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474021 and 51333001), the Key Program for International S&T Cooperation Projects of China (Grant No. 2013DFB50340), the Issues of Priority Development Areas of the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120001130005), and the Key (Key Grant) Project of Chinese Ministry of Education (Grant No. 313002).

  2. Visualization of magnetic microcapsules in liquid by optical coherent tomography and control of their arrangement via external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikova, T. A.; Akchurin, Ga G.; Portnov, S. A.; Khomutov, G. B.; Akchurin, Ge G.; Naumova, O. G.; Sukhorukov, G. B.; Gorin, D. A.

    2012-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new, non-invasive, noncontact in vivo imaging technology. We demonstrated that the OCT can be used as a sufficient technique for nanocomposite microcapsule visualization in a liquid medium. As a model system we choose a water/glycerol mixture with viscosity in a variable range from 1.01 to 1.41×103 mPa s, including viscosity of a blood plasma. We have found that tomography spatial resolution is enough to visualize capsules and their aggregates in liquids and to estimate their concentration via two-dimensional (2D) tomography scan analysis. In our experimental conditions microcapsule concentration measured by OCT was 3.9×107 cm-3 and this value correlated well with the concentration measured in a counting chamber (1.9×107 cm-3). We also demonstrated the possibility to control capsule spatial distribution in glycerol solutions by external magnetic field and determined the dependence of capsule sedimentation time on the liquid medium viscosity.

  3. Coherently controlled spin precession in canted antiferromagnetic YFeO3 using terahertz magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Heon; Hamh, Sun Young; Han, Jeong Woo; Kang, Chul; Kee, Chul-Sik; Jung, Seonghoon; Park, Jaehun; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Tokura, Yoshinori; Lee, Jong Seok

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the details of the precessional motion of the magnetic moment in canted antiferromagnetic YFeO3, which is excited by a linearly polarized terahertz (THz) pulse at room temperature. By tuning the spectral component of the input THz pulse around the quasi-ferromagnetic mode located near 0.3 THz, we have experimentally clarified the resonance effect in the THz control of the spin state. We were able to confirm this result from the simulation based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with the two sub-lattice model for the canted antiferromagnet. Finally, we discuss a crossover from a linear to a nonlinear magnetic response to the input THz pulse during the THz-induced precessional switching of the magnetization.

  4. Method and apparatus for control of coherent synchrotron radiation effects during recirculation with bunch compression

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, David R; Tennant, Christopher

    2015-11-10

    A modulated-bending recirculating system that avoids CSR-driven breakdown in emittance compensation by redistributing the bending along the beamline. The modulated-bending recirculating system includes a) larger angles of bending in initial FODO cells, thereby enhancing the impact of CSR early on in the beam line while the bunch is long, and 2) a decreased bending angle in the final FODO cells, reducing the effect of CSR while the bunch is short. The invention describes a method for controlling the effects of CSR during recirculation and bunch compression including a) correcting chromatic aberrations, b) correcting lattice and CSR-induced curvature in the longitudinal phase space by compensating T.sub.566, and c) using lattice perturbations to compensate obvious linear correlations x-dp/p and x'-dp/p.

  5. Coherent control of the Goos-Hänchen shift via Fano interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaopeng; Yang, Wen-Xing; Zhu, Zhonghu

    2016-04-01

    A scheme of enhanced Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts in reflected and transmitted light beams is exploited in a cavity, where an asymmetric double AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well structure with resonant tunneling to a common continuum is employed as the intracavity medium. With the help of Fano-type interference induced by resonant tunneling, the generated GH shifts that contain a negative lateral shift in reflected light beam and a positive lateral shift in transmitted light beam are found to be significantly enhanced. More interestingly, these GH shifts in reflected and transmitted light beams are modulated by means of a control beam and external bias voltage, in which maximum negative shift of 1.86 mm and positive shift of 0.37 mm are achievable.

  6. Identification of small molecules inhibiting diguanylate cyclases to control bacterial biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Sambanthamoorthy, Karthik; Luo, Chunyuan; Pattabiraman, Nagarajan; Feng, Xiarong; Koestler, Benjamin; Waters, Christopher M; Palys, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria is an important virulence factor in the development of numerous chronic infections, thereby causing a severe health burden. Many of these infections cannot be resolved, as bacteria in biofilms are resistant to the host's immune defenses and antibiotic therapy. An urgent need for new strategies to treat biofilm-based infections is critically needed. Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a widely conserved second-messenger signal essential for biofilm formation. The absence of this signalling system in higher eukaryotes makes it an attractive target for the development of new anti-biofilm agents. In this study, the results of an in silico pharmacophore-based screen to identify small-molecule inhibitors of diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes that synthesize c-di-GMP are described. Four small molecules, LP 3134, LP 3145, LP 4010 and LP 1062 that antagonize these enzymes and inhibit biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii in a continuous-flow system are reported. All four molecules dispersed P. aeruginosa biofilms and inhibited biofilm development on urinary catheters. One molecule dispersed A. baumannii biofilms. Two molecules displayed no toxic effects on eukaryotic cells. These molecules represent the first compounds identified from an in silico screen that are able to inhibit DGC activity to prevent biofilm formation. PMID:24117391

  7. Identification of small molecules inhibiting diguanylate cyclases to control bacterial biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Sambanthamoorthy, Karthik; Luo, Chunyuan; Pattabiraman, Nagarajan; Feng, Xiarong; Koestler, Benjamin; Waters, Christopher M; Palys, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria is an important virulence factor in the development of numerous chronic infections, thereby causing a severe health burden. Many of these infections cannot be resolved, as bacteria in biofilms are resistant to the host's immune defenses and antibiotic therapy. An urgent need for new strategies to treat biofilm-based infections is critically needed. Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a widely conserved second-messenger signal essential for biofilm formation. The absence of this signalling system in higher eukaryotes makes it an attractive target for the development of new anti-biofilm agents. In this study, the results of an in silico pharmacophore-based screen to identify small-molecule inhibitors of diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes that synthesize c-di-GMP are described. Four small molecules, LP 3134, LP 3145, LP 4010 and LP 1062 that antagonize these enzymes and inhibit biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii in a continuous-flow system are reported. All four molecules dispersed P. aeruginosa biofilms and inhibited biofilm development on urinary catheters. One molecule dispersed A. baumannii biofilms. Two molecules displayed no toxic effects on eukaryotic cells. These molecules represent the first compounds identified from an in silico screen that are able to inhibit DGC activity to prevent biofilm formation.

  8. Dynamics and control of coherent structures in the turbulent wall layer: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkooz, Gal; Holmes, Philip; Lumley, John

    1993-01-01

    , corresponding to acceleration or deceleration of the mean flow, changes the heteroclinic cycles from attracting to repelling, increasing or decreasing the stability, in agreement with observations. The existence of fixed points is an artifact introduced by the projection; however, a decoupled model still displays the rich dynamics. Numerous assumptions made in Aubry et al. (1988) can now be proved exactly. Feeding back eigenfuncitons with the proper phase can delay the bursting, (the heteroclinic jump to the other fixed point), decreasing the drag. It is also possible to speed up the bursting, increasing mixing to control separation. Our approach is optimal for short time tracking in control.

  9. Characteristic operator functions for quantum input-plant-output models and coherent control

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, John E.

    2015-01-15

    We introduce the characteristic operator as the generalization of the usual concept of a transfer function of linear input-plant-output systems to arbitrary quantum nonlinear Markovian input-output models. This is intended as a tool in the characterization of quantum feedback control systems that fits in with the general theory of networks. The definition exploits the linearity of noise differentials in both the plant Heisenberg equations of motion and the differential form of the input-output relations. Mathematically, the characteristic operator is a matrix of dimension equal to the number of outputs times the number of inputs (which must coincide), but with entries that are operators of the plant system. In this sense, the characteristic operator retains details of the effective plant dynamical structure and is an essentially quantum object. We illustrate the relevance to model reduction and simplification definition by showing that the convergence of the characteristic operator in adiabatic elimination limit models requires the same conditions and assumptions appearing in the work on limit quantum stochastic differential theorems of Bouten and Silberfarb [Commun. Math. Phys. 283, 491-505 (2008)]. This approach also shows in a natural way that the limit coefficients of the quantum stochastic differential equations in adiabatic elimination problems arise algebraically as Schur complements and amounts to a model reduction where the fast degrees of freedom are decoupled from the slow ones and eliminated.

  10. Characteristic operator functions for quantum input-plant-output models and coherent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, John E.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the characteristic operator as the generalization of the usual concept of a transfer function of linear input-plant-output systems to arbitrary quantum nonlinear Markovian input-output models. This is intended as a tool in the characterization of quantum feedback control systems that fits in with the general theory of networks. The definition exploits the linearity of noise differentials in both the plant Heisenberg equations of motion and the differential form of the input-output relations. Mathematically, the characteristic operator is a matrix of dimension equal to the number of outputs times the number of inputs (which must coincide), but with entries that are operators of the plant system. In this sense, the characteristic operator retains details of the effective plant dynamical structure and is an essentially quantum object. We illustrate the relevance to model reduction and simplification definition by showing that the convergence of the characteristic operator in adiabatic elimination limit models requires the same conditions and assumptions appearing in the work on limit quantum stochastic differential theorems of Bouten and Silberfarb [Commun. Math. Phys. 283, 491-505 (2008)]. This approach also shows in a natural way that the limit coefficients of the quantum stochastic differential equations in adiabatic elimination problems arise algebraically as Schur complements and amounts to a model reduction where the fast degrees of freedom are decoupled from the slow ones and eliminated.

  11. Associations between maternal sense of coherence and controlling feeding practices: The importance of resilience and support in families of preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Eli, Karin; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Mokoena, Lincoln; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Faith, Myles S; Nowicka, Paulina

    2016-10-01

    Sense of Coherence (SOC) measures an individual's positive, or salutogenic, orientation toward her/his capacities, environment, future, and life. SOC comprises three factors: comprehensibility (the sense of one's own life as ordered and understandable); manageability (the perception of available resources and skills to manage stressors); and meaningfulness (the overall sense that life is filled with meaning and purpose). In numerous studies, SOC has been associated with resilience to stress. However, associations between parental SOC and controlling feeding practices have yet to be studied. This study examines the validity of the SOC 13-item, 3-factor questionnaire, associations between SOC and maternal and child characteristics, and associations between SOC and use of pressuring or restrictive feeding, among mothers of 4-year-olds. 565 mothers (23.5% of foreign origin, 30.3% with overweight/obesity) recruited via the Swedish population registry (response rate: 65%), completed the SOC-13, the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), and a background questionnaire. The validity of SOC-13 was examined using confirmatory factor analysis; associations with background characteristics and feeding practices were tested with structural equation modeling. SOC-13 validity testing showed acceptable fit (TLI = 0.93, CFI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.06, SRMR = 0.04) after allowing one pair of error terms to correlate. The Cronbach's alpha for meaningfulness was 0.73, comprehensibility 0.76, and manageability 0.75. SOC increased with mothers' Swedish background and education, and decreased with higher BMI. Child gender, age, and BMI, were not associated with SOC. Lower SOC was associated with controlling practices and with concern about child weight and eating. The associations between SOC and feeding suggest that SOC-related parameters could inform childhood obesity research, and that prevention should address the socioeconomic barriers that parents face in building resilience to stress.

  12. Associations between maternal sense of coherence and controlling feeding practices: The importance of resilience and support in families of preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Eli, Karin; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Mokoena, Lincoln; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Faith, Myles S; Nowicka, Paulina

    2016-10-01

    Sense of Coherence (SOC) measures an individual's positive, or salutogenic, orientation toward her/his capacities, environment, future, and life. SOC comprises three factors: comprehensibility (the sense of one's own life as ordered and understandable); manageability (the perception of available resources and skills to manage stressors); and meaningfulness (the overall sense that life is filled with meaning and purpose). In numerous studies, SOC has been associated with resilience to stress. However, associations between parental SOC and controlling feeding practices have yet to be studied. This study examines the validity of the SOC 13-item, 3-factor questionnaire, associations between SOC and maternal and child characteristics, and associations between SOC and use of pressuring or restrictive feeding, among mothers of 4-year-olds. 565 mothers (23.5% of foreign origin, 30.3% with overweight/obesity) recruited via the Swedish population registry (response rate: 65%), completed the SOC-13, the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), and a background questionnaire. The validity of SOC-13 was examined using confirmatory factor analysis; associations with background characteristics and feeding practices were tested with structural equation modeling. SOC-13 validity testing showed acceptable fit (TLI = 0.93, CFI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.06, SRMR = 0.04) after allowing one pair of error terms to correlate. The Cronbach's alpha for meaningfulness was 0.73, comprehensibility 0.76, and manageability 0.75. SOC increased with mothers' Swedish background and education, and decreased with higher BMI. Child gender, age, and BMI, were not associated with SOC. Lower SOC was associated with controlling practices and with concern about child weight and eating. The associations between SOC and feeding suggest that SOC-related parameters could inform childhood obesity research, and that prevention should address the socioeconomic barriers that parents face in building resilience to stress

  13. Reversible control of F(1)-ATPase rotational motion using a photochromic ATP analog at the single molecule level.

    PubMed

    Sunamura, Ei-Ichiro; Kamei, Takashi; Konno, Hiroki; Tamaoki, Nobuyuki; Hisabori, Toru

    2014-03-28

    Motor enzymes such as F1-ATPase and kinesin utilize energy from ATP for their motion. Molecular motions of these enzymes are critical to their catalytic mechanisms and were analyzed thoroughly using a single molecule observation technique. As a tool to analyze and control the ATP-driven motor enzyme motion, we recently synthesized a photoresponsive ATP analog with a p-tert-butylazobenzene tethered to the 2' position of the ribose ring. Using cis/trans isomerization of the azobenzene moiety, we achieved a successful reversible photochromic control over a kinesin-microtubule system in an in vitro motility assay. Here we succeeded to control the hydrolytic activity and rotation of the rotary motor enzyme, F1-ATPase, using this photosensitive ATP analog. Subsequent single molecule observations indicated a unique pause occurring at the ATP binding angle position in the presence of cis form of the analog.

  14. Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakovich, Y. P.; Donegan, J. F.; Gerlach, M.; Bradley, A. L.; Connolly, T. M.; Boland, J. J.; Gaponik, N.; Rogach, A.

    2004-11-01

    We report on the coherent coupling of whispering gallery modes (WGM) in a photonic molecule formed from two melamine-formaldehyde spherical microcavities with a thin shell of CdTe nanocrystals. Utilizing a microporous polymer structure to orient the photonic molecule, we have excited the photonic molecule both on and off axis. This controllable geometry has allowed the observation of an off-axis fine structure that consists of very sharp peaks resulting from the removal of the WGM degeneracy with respect to the azimuthal quantum number m . The mode splittings are in very good agreement with theory.

  15. Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Rakovich, Y.P.; Donegan, J.F.; Gerlach, M.; Bradley, A.L.; Connolly, T.M.; Boland, J.J.; Gaponik, N.; Rogach, A.

    2004-11-01

    We report on the coherent coupling of whispering gallery modes (WGM) in a photonic molecule formed from two melamine-formaldehyde spherical microcavities with a thin shell of CdTe nanocrystals. Utilizing a microporous polymer structure to orient the photonic molecule, we have excited the photonic molecule both on and off axis. This controllable geometry has allowed the observation of an off-axis fine structure that consists of very sharp peaks resulting from the removal of the WGM degeneracy with respect to the azimuthal quantum number m. The mode splittings are in very good agreement with theory.

  16. Controlled supramolecular oligomerization of C3-symmetrical molecules in water: the impact of hydrophobic shielding.

    PubMed

    Besenius, Pol; van den Hout, Kelly P; Albers, Harald M H G; de Greef, Tom F A; Olijve, Luuk L C; Hermans, Thomas M; de Waal, Bas F M; Bomans, Paul H H; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M; Portale, Giuseppe; Palmans, Anja R A; van Genderen, Marcel H P; Vekemans, Jef A J M; Meijer, E W

    2011-04-26

    The supramolecular oligomerization of three water-soluble C(3)-symmetrical discotic molecules is reported. The compounds all possess benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide cores and peripheral Gd(III)-DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid) moieties, but differ in their linker units and thus in their propensity to undergo secondary interactions in H(2)O. The self-assembly behavior of these molecules was studied in solution using circular dichroism, UV/Vis spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. The aggregation concentration of these molecules depends on the number of secondary interactions and on the solvophobic character of the polymerizing moieties. Hydrophobic shielding of the hydrogen-bonding motif in the core of the discotic is of paramount importance for yielding stable, helical aggregates that are designed to be restricted in size through anti-cooperative, electrostatic, repulsive interactions.

  17. Controlling the Spin Texture of Topological Insulators by Rational Design of Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Sebastian; Narayan, Awadhesh; Stadtmüller, Benjamin; Droghetti, Andrea; Rungger, Ivan; Hor, Yew S; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Jungkenn, Dominik; Stöckl, Johannes; Laux, Martin; Monti, Oliver L A; Aeschlimann, Martin; Cava, Robert J; Ruben, Mario; Mathias, Stefan; Sanvito, Stefano; Cinchetti, Mirko

    2015-09-01

    We present a rational design approach to customize the spin texture of surface states of a topological insulator. This approach relies on the extreme multifunctionality of organic molecules that are used to functionalize the surface of the prototypical topological insulator (TI) Bi2Se3. For the rational design we use theoretical calculations to guide the choice and chemical synthesis of appropriate molecules that customize the spin texture of Bi2Se3. The theoretical predictions are then verified in angular-resolved photoemission experiments. We show that, by tuning the strength of molecule-TI interaction, the surface of the TI can be passivated, the Dirac point can energetically be shifted at will, and Rashba-split quantum-well interface states can be created. These tailored interface properties-passivation, spin-texture tuning, and creation of hybrid interface states-lay a solid foundation for interface-assisted molecular spintronics in spin-textured materials.

  18. Quantum interference and control of the optical response in quantum dot molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, H. S.; Sanz, L.; Villas-Boas, J. M.; Alcalde, A. M.

    2013-11-25

    We discuss the optical response of a quantum molecule under the action of two lasers fields. Using a realistic model and parameters, we map the physical conditions to find three different phenomena reported in the literature: the tunneling induced transparency, the formation of Autler-Townes doublets, and the creation of a Mollow-like triplet. We found that the electron tunneling between quantum dots is responsible for the different optical regime. Our results not only explain the experimental results in the literature but also give insights for future experiments and applications in optics using quantum dots molecules.

  19. Small-molecule control of cytokine function: new opportunities for treating immune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Thomas B.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Shamji, Alykhan F.

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating cytokine function with protein-based drugs has proven effective for treating a wide variety of autoimmune and auto-inflammatory disorders. However, the limited ability of protein-based drugs to modulate intracellular targets, including many implicated by studies of the genetics and physiology of these diseases, and to coordinately neutralize redundant inflammatory cytokines, suggest an important and complementary role for small molecules in immunomodulatory drug development. The recent clinical approval of Janus kinase and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, along with emerging evidence from other compound classes, firmly establish small molecules as effective tools for modulating therapeutically relevant proteins that give rise to aberrant cytokine signaling or mediate its downstream consequences. PMID:25222143

  20. Controlled gelation kinetics of cucurbit[7]uril-adamantane cross-linked supramolecular hydrogels with competing guest molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Hou, Shengzhen; Ma, Haili; Li, Xu; Tan, Yebang

    2016-02-01

    Gelation kinetics of hydrogels is closely linked to many applications such as the development of injectable and printable hydrogels. However, the control of gelation kinetics without compromising the structure and other properties of the hydrogels, remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate a method to control the gelation kinetics of cucurbit[7]uril-adamantane (CB[7]-AD) cross-linked supramolecular hydrogels by using competing guest molecules. The association between CB[7] and AD moieties on the polymer backbone was impeded by pre-occupying the CB[7] cavity with competing guest molecules. By using various guest molecules and concentrations, the gelation of the hydrogels could be varied from seconds to hours. The strong interaction of CB[7]-AD pair endue the hydrogels good mechanical properties and stability. Moreover, the binding of functionalized guest molecules of CB[7] moieties offers a facile approach for tailoring of the hydrogels’ scaffold. Combined with hydrogel injection and printing technology, this method offers an approach for the development of hydrogels with advanced temporal and spatial complexity.

  1. Controlled gelation kinetics of cucurbit[7]uril-adamantane cross-linked supramolecular hydrogels with competing guest molecules

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Hou, Shengzhen; Ma, Haili; Li, Xu; Tan, Yebang

    2016-01-01

    Gelation kinetics of hydrogels is closely linked to many applications such as the development of injectable and printable hydrogels. However, the control of gelation kinetics without compromising the structure and other properties of the hydrogels, remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate a method to control the gelation kinetics of cucurbit[7]uril-adamantane (CB[7]-AD) cross-linked supramolecular hydrogels by using competing guest molecules. The association between CB[7] and AD moieties on the polymer backbone was impeded by pre-occupying the CB[7] cavity with competing guest molecules. By using various guest molecules and concentrations, the gelation of the hydrogels could be varied from seconds to hours. The strong interaction of CB[7]-AD pair endue the hydrogels good mechanical properties and stability. Moreover, the binding of functionalized guest molecules of CB[7] moieties offers a facile approach for tailoring of the hydrogels’ scaffold. Combined with hydrogel injection and printing technology, this method offers an approach for the development of hydrogels with advanced temporal and spatial complexity. PMID:26846437

  2. "Stirred, Not Shaken": Vibrational Coherence Can Speed Up Electronic Absorption.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo Y; Shin, Seokmin; Sola, Ignacio R

    2015-08-27

    We have recently proposed a laser control scheme for ultrafast absorption in multilevel systems by parallel transfer (J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2015, 6, 1724). In this work we develop an analytical model that better takes into account the main features of electronic absorption in molecules. We show that the initial vibrational coherence in the ground electronic state can be used to greatly enhance the rate and yield of absorption when ultrashort pulses are used, provided that the phases of the coherences are taken into account. On the contrary, the initial coherence plays no role in the opposite limit, when a single long pulse drives the optical transition. The theory is tested by numerical simulations in the first absorption band of Na2.

  3. Holographic microscopy in low coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmelík, Radim; Petráček, Jiří; Slabá, Michala; Kollárová, Věra; Slabý, Tomáš; Čolláková, Jana; Komrska, Jiří; Dostál, Zbyněk.; Veselý, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Low coherence of the illumination substantially improves the quality of holographic and quantitative phase imaging (QPI) by elimination of the coherence noise and various artefacts and by improving the lateral resolution compared to the coherent holographic microscopy. Attributes of coherence-controlled holographic microscope (CCHM) designed and built as an off-axis holographic system allowing QPI within the range from complete coherent to incoherent illumination confirmed these expected advantages. Low coherence illumination also furnishes the coherence gating which constraints imaging of some spatial frequencies of an object axially thus forming an optical section in the wide sense. In this way the depth discrimination capability of the microscope is introduced at the price of restricting the axial interval of possible numerical refocusing. We describe theoretically these effects for the whole range of illumination coherence. We also show that the axial refocusing constraints can be overcome using advanced mode of imaging based on mutual lateral shift of reference and object image fields in CCHM. Lowering the spatial coherence of illumination means increasing its numerical aperture. We study how this change of the illumination geometry influences 3D objects QPI and especially the interpretation of live cells QPI in terms of the dry mass density measurement. In this way a strong dependence of the imaging process on the light coherence is demonstrated. The theoretical calculations and numerical simulations are supported by experimental data including a chance of time-lapse watching of live cells even in optically turbid milieu.

  4. Convergent in situ assembly of injectable lipogel for enzymatically controlled and targeted delivery of hydrophilic molecules.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xia; Shi, Liyang; Guo, Xin; Gao, Jinxu; Ossipov, Dmitri

    2016-12-10

    Applications of liposomes are limited due to their rapid blood clearance and non-specific biodistribution. Surface modification of liposomes could overcome these disadvantages. However, direct coating of liposome surface may cause disruption of liposomes. Herein we present a "top-down" method to coat liposomes in situ with tumor (CD44 receptor) targeting polymer, hyaluronan (HA), by taking advantages of "click" type chemistries and enzymatic degradation. Liposomes entrapped within HA gel were stable without leaking of small cargo molecules from the interior of the liposomes. This injectable liposome-in-hydrogel (lipogel) drug delivery system can achieve sequential two-step release: (1) liposomes release from lipogel after HA degradation; (2) small molecules release from liposomes after the liposomes disruption (either before or after cellular uptake). Similarly to HA coating, this strategy could be used for in situ "top-down" modification of liposomes with other targeting biopolymers. Additionally, it provides the possibility to deliver different types of molecules from two compartments of the lipogel, i.e. large biomacromolecules from the exterior of liposomes and small hydrophilic molecules from the interior of liposomes, locally and systemically. PMID:27577897

  5. Cellular reprogramming for pancreatic β-cell regeneration: clinical potential of small molecule control.

    PubMed

    Pandian, Ganesh N; Taniguchi, Junichi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-03-27

    Recent scientific breakthroughs in stem cell biology suggest that a sustainable treatment approach to cure diabetes mellitus (DM) can be achieved in the near future. However, the transplantation complexities and the difficulty in obtaining the stem cells from adult cells of pancreas, liver, bone morrow and other cells is a major concern. The epoch-making strategy of transcription-factor based cellular reprogramming suggest that these barriers could be overcome, and it is possible to reprogram any cells into functional β cells. Contemporary biological and analytical techniques help us to predict the key transcription factors needed for β-cell regeneration. These β cell-specific transcription factors could be modulated with diverse reprogramming protocols. Among cellular reprogramming strategies, small molecule approach gets proclaimed to have better clinical prospects because it does not involve genetic manipulation. Several small molecules targeting certain epigenetic enzymes and/or signaling pathways have been successful in helping to induce pancreatic β-cell specification. Recently, a synthetic DNA-based small molecule triggered targeted transcriptional activation of pancreas-related genes to suggest the possibility of achieving desired cellular phenotype in a precise mode. Here, we give a brief overview of treating DM by regenerating pancreatic β-cells from various cell sources. Through a comprehensive overview of the available transcription factors, small molecules and reprogramming strategies available for pancreatic β-cell regeneration, this review compiles the current progress made towards the generation of clinically relevant insulin-producing β-cells.

  6. Laser-driven rotational dynamics of gas-phase molecules: Control and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaoming

    In this thesis, our work on developing new techniques to measure and enhance field-free molecular alignment and orientation is described. Non-resonant femtosecond laser pulses are used to align and orient rotationally-cold gas-phase molecules. The time-dependent Schrodinger equation is solved to simulate the experimental results. A single-shot kHz velocity map imaging (VMI) spectrometer is developed for characterizing 1D and 3D alignment. Stimulated by a novel metric for 3D alignment proposed by Makhija et al. [Phys. Rev. A 85,033425 (2012)], a multi-pulse scheme to improve 3D alignment is demonstrated experimentally on difluoro-iodobenzene molecules and the best field-free 3D alignment is achieved. A degenerate four wave mixing probe is developed to overcome limitations in VMI measurement; experiments on different types of molecules show good agreement with computational results. Highly aligned linear molecules are used for high harmonic generation experiments. Due to the high degree of alignment, fractional revivals, variation of revival structure with harmonic order and the shape resonance and Cooper minimum in the photoionization cross section of molecular nitrogen are all observed directly in experiment for the first time. Enhanced orientation from rotationally cold heteronuclear molecules is also demonstrated. We follow the theory developed by Zhang et al. [Phys. Rev. A 83, 043410 (2011)] and demonstrate experimentally for the first time that for rotationally cold carbon monoxide an aligning laser pulse followed by a two-color laser pulse can increase field-free orientation level by almost a factor of three compared to using just the two-color pulse.

  7. Coherent beamsstrahlung

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, W.L.

    1987-11-01

    The radiation coherently emitted by a high energy bunched beam suffering an arbitrarily large disruption in a collision with an idealized undisrupted beam is calculated. The near-luminal velocity of the beam - such that the emitted radiation moves very slowly with respect to the bunch - implies that only a small part of the bunch radiates coherently and necessitates a careful treatment of the disrupted beam phase space during emission. The angular distribution and spectral density are presented. It is found that most of the radiation is at wave lengths greater than or equal to the bunch length and that the total energy lost by the beam due to coherent effects should be negligible in high energy-high luminosity linear colliders. 4 refs.

  8. Coherence and Intramolecular Scattering in Molecular Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, U.

    2006-11-01

    In something akin to a double-slit experiment, it could be shown for the first time that electrons display characteristics of both waves- and particles at the same time and, with virtually the push of a button, can be switched back and forth between these states. The experiments provides evidence that disruption of the reflective symmetry of these molecules by introducing two different heavy isotopes, in this case N-14 and N-15, leads to a partial loss of coherence. The electrons begin to partially localise on one of the two, now distinguishable, atoms. The results could have implications for the building and control of "artificial molecules", which are made of semiconductor quantum dots and are a possible component of quantum computers.

  9. A method for controlling the synthesis of stable twisted two-dimensional conjugated molecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongjun; Jia, Zhiyu; Xiao, Shengqiang; Liu, Huibiao; Li, Yuliang

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamic stabilization (π-electron delocalization through effective conjugation) and kinetic stabilization (blocking the most-reactive sites) are important considerations when designing stable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons displaying tunable optoelectronic properties. Here, we demonstrate an efficient method for preparing a series of stable two-dimensional (2D) twisted dibenzoterrylene-acenes. We investigated their electronic structures and geometries in the ground state through various experiments assisted by calculations using density functional theory. We find that the length of the acene has a clear effect on the photophysical, electrochemical, and magnetic properties. These molecules exhibit tunable ground-state structures, in which a stable open-shell quintet tetraradical can be transferred to triplet diradicals. Such compounds are promising candidates for use in nonlinear optics, field effect transistors and organic spintronics; furthermore, they may enable broader applications of 2D small organic molecules in high-performance electronic and optical devices. PMID:27181692

  10. A method for controlling the synthesis of stable twisted two-dimensional conjugated molecules

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongjun; Jia, Zhiyu; Xiao, Shengqiang; Liu, Huibiao; Li, Yuliang

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamic stabilization (π-electron delocalization through effective conjugation) and kinetic stabilization (blocking the most-reactive sites) are important considerations when designing stable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons displaying tunable optoelectronic properties. Here, we demonstrate an efficient method for preparing a series of stable two-dimensional (2D) twisted dibenzoterrylene-acenes. We investigated their electronic structures and geometries in the ground state through various experiments assisted by calculations using density functional theory. We find that the length of the acene has a clear effect on the photophysical, electrochemical, and magnetic properties. These molecules exhibit tunable ground-state structures, in which a stable open-shell quintet tetraradical can be transferred to triplet diradicals. Such compounds are promising candidates for use in nonlinear optics, field effect transistors and organic spintronics; furthermore, they may enable broader applications of 2D small organic molecules in high-performance electronic and optical devices. PMID:27181692

  11. Carbon-based molecular devices: Fano effects controlled by the molecule length and the gate voltage.

    PubMed

    Yang, X F; Kuang, Y W; Liu, Y S; Zhang, D B; Shao, Z G; Yu, H L; Hong, X K; Feng, J F; Chen, X S; Wang, X F

    2016-08-25

    Fano effect is an important quantum phenomenon in mesoscopic systems, which arises from an interference between the localized state and the extended state. Here we observe an obvious Fano effect near the Fermi level in an all-carbon molecular device consisting of an acene molecule sandwiched between two zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) electrodes. By increasing the length of the molecule, an extended state gradually evolves into a localized state. With the aid of the nearby extended state, a Fano effect is achieved. Using a gate voltage, we can easily tune the Fano effect induced by the single-transmission channel. When the spin degree of freedom is involved, the all-carbon device can show a half-metallic property with positive or negative 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level under the gate voltage; meanwhile the spin thermoelectric effect can also be enhanced. PMID:27528438

  12. Controlled synthesis and inclusion ability of a hyaluronic acid derivative bearing beta-cyclodextrin molecules.

    PubMed

    Charlot, Aurélia; Heyraud, Alain; Guenot, Pierre; Rinaudo, Marguerite; Auzély-Velty, Rachel

    2006-03-01

    A new synthetic route to beta-cyclodextrin-linked hyaluronic acid (HA-CD) was developed. This was based on the preparation of a HA derivative selectively modified with adipic dihydrazide (HA-ADH) and a beta-cyclodextrin derivative possessing an aldehyde function on the primary face, followed by their coupling by a reductive amination-type reaction. The CD-polysaccharide was fully characterized in terms of chemical integrity and purity by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. The complexation ability of the grafted CD was further demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry using sodium adamantane acetate (ADAc) and Ibuprofen as model guest molecules. The thermodynamic parameters for the complexation of these negatively charged guest molecules by the beta-CD grafted on negatively charged HA were shown to be largely influenced by the ionic strength of the aqueous medium. PMID:16529430

  13. Controlled fragrant molecule release from surface-tethered cyclodextrin host-guest inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Schofield, W C E; Badyal, J P S

    2011-06-01

    β-cyclodextrin barrels can be tethered to solid surfaces using the Williamson ether synthesis reaction via an intermediate pulsed plasma deposited poly(4-vinylbenzyl chloride) linker layer. The loading and release of perfume molecules through host-guest inclusion complex formation with surface tethered β-cyclodextrin has been followed by infrared spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance measurements. Fragrance release lasts for several months and can be easily recharged.

  14. The control of tumor vessels: what you would not expect from a neural adhesion molecule.

    PubMed

    Angiolini, Francesca; Cavallaro, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    The neural adhesion molecule L1 is involved in development and plasticity of the nervous system. We recently reported aberrant expression of L1 in the vasculature of various human tumor types. Genetic and functional inactivation of endothelial L1 in a mouse tumor model resulted in decreased tumor angiogenesis and promoted vascular normalization. Thus, endothelial L1 might represent a novel therapeutic target for vessel-targeted treatments of solid tumors. PMID:27308446

  15. Recovery from slow inactivation in K+ channels is controlled by water molecules.

    PubMed

    Ostmeyer, Jared; Chakrapani, Sudha; Pan, Albert C; Perozo, Eduardo; Roux, Benoît

    2013-09-01

    Application of a specific stimulus opens the intracellular gate of a K(+) channel (activation), yielding a transient period of ion conduction until the selectivity filter spontaneously undergoes a conformational change towards a non-conductive state (inactivation). Removal of the stimulus closes the gate and allows the selectivity filter to interconvert back to its conductive conformation (recovery). Given that the structural differences between the conductive and inactivated filter are very small, it is unclear why the recovery process can take up to several seconds. The bacterial K(+) channel KcsA from Streptomyces lividans can be used to help elucidate questions about channel inactivation and recovery at the atomic level. Although KcsA contains only a pore domain, without voltage-sensing machinery, it has the structural elements necessary for ion conduction, activation and inactivation. Here we reveal, by means of a series of long molecular dynamics simulations, how the selectivity filter is sterically locked in the inactive conformation by buried water molecules bound behind the selectivity filter. Potential of mean force calculations show how the recovery process is affected by the buried water molecules and the rebinding of an external K(+) ion. A kinetic model deduced from the simulations shows how releasing the buried water molecules can stretch the timescale of recovery to seconds. This leads to the prediction that reducing the occupancy of the buried water molecules by imposing a high osmotic stress should accelerate the rate of recovery, which was verified experimentally by measuring the recovery rate in the presence of a 2-molar sucrose concentration.

  16. Probing photoelectron angular distributions in molecules with polarization-controlled two-color above-threshold ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Torsten; Taïeb, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Wernet, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    We present polarization-controlled multiphoton two-color above-threshold ionization (TCATI) of molecules. The intensity modulations of valence photoelectron intensities of molecules arising from varying the relative orientation of the linear polarization vectors of femtosecond infrared (IR) and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation in TCATI of the highest occupied molecular orbitals of H2O , O2, and N2 are reported. The results on the molecular systems are compared to the 3 p photoionization of atomic Ar, which serves as a reference system. Modeling the large differences of the modulation amplitudes within the soft-photon approximation enables us to extract the one-photon-ionization anisotropy parameter β2. Accounting only for the first sideband due to two-photon TCATI by one VUV and one IR photon we find satisfactory agreement between experiment and simulation for H2O and O2. However, the model fails for N2 and possible reasons are discussed. We discuss that the described approach may represent an alternative way of determining photoelectron angular distributions from valence shells of molecules and indicate future directions for modeling TCATI of molecules.

  17. Orthodenticle Is Required for the Expression of Principal Recognition Molecules That Control Axon Targeting in the Drosophila Retina.

    PubMed

    Mencarelli, Chiara; Pichaud, Franck

    2015-06-01

    Parallel processing of neuronal inputs relies on assembling neural circuits into distinct synaptic-columns and layers. This is orchestrated by matching recognition molecules between afferent growth cones and target areas. Controlling the expression of these molecules during development is crucial but not well understood. The developing Drosophila visual system is a powerful genetic model for addressing this question. In this model system, the achromatic R1-6 photoreceptors project their axons in the lamina while the R7 and R8 photoreceptors, which are involved in colour detection, project their axons to two distinct synaptic-layers in the medulla. Here we show that the conserved homeodomain transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd), which in the eye is a main regulator of rhodopsin expression, is also required for R1-6 photoreceptor synaptic-column specific innervation of the lamina. Our data indicate that otd function in these photoreceptors is largely mediated by the recognition molecules flamingo (fmi) and golden goal (gogo). In addition, we find that otd regulates synaptic-layer targeting of R8. We demonstrate that during this process, otd and the R8-specific transcription factor senseless/Gfi1 (sens) function as independent transcriptional inputs that are required for the expression of fmi, gogo and the adhesion molecule capricious (caps), which govern R8 synaptic-layer targeting. Our work therefore demonstrates that otd is a main component of the gene regulatory network that regulates synaptic-column and layer targeting in the fly visual system. PMID:26114289

  18. Small Molecules that Modulate Quorum Sensing and Control Virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Mattmann, Margrith E.; Blackwell, Helen E.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria use small molecule signals to access their local population densities in a process called quorum sensing (QS). Once a threshold signal concentration is reached, and therefore a certain number of bacteria have assembled, bacteria use QS to change gene expression levels and initiate behaviors that benefit the group. These group processes play central roles in both bacterial virulence and symbiosis, and can have significant impacts on human health, agriculture, and the environment. The dependence of QS on small molecule signals has inspired organic chemists to design non-native molecules that can intercept these signals and thereby perturb bacterial group behaviors. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been the target of many of these efforts due to its prevalence in human infections. P. aeruginosa uses at least two N-acyl L-homoserine lactone signals and three homologous LuxR-type receptors to initiate a range of pathogenic behaviors at high cell densities, including biofilm formation and the production of an arsenal of virulence factors. This review highlights recent chemical efforts to modulate LuxR-type receptor activity in P. aeruginosa, and offers insight into the development of receptor-specific ligands as potential anti-virulence strategies. PMID:20672805

  19. Coherent receiver employing nonlinear coherence detection for carrier tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Simon, M. K. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The concept of nonlinear coherence employed in carrier tracking to improve telecommunications efficiency is disclosed. A generic tracking loop for a coherent receiver is shown having seven principle feedback signals which may be selectively added and applied to a voltage controlled oscillator to produce a reference signal that is phase coherent with a received carrier. An eighth feedback signal whose nonrandom components are coherent with the phase detected and filtered carrier may also be added to exploit the sideband power of the received signal. A ninth feedback signal whose nonrandom components are also coherent with the quadrature phase detected and filtered carrier could be additionally or alternatively included in the composite feedback signal to the voltage controlled oscillator.

  20. Coherent amplified optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Rao, Bin; Chen, Zhongping

    2007-07-01

    A technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a high speed 1300 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system was demonstrated. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was employed in the sample arm to coherently amplify the weak light back-scattered from sample tissue without increasing laser power illuminated on the sample. The image quality improvement was visualized and quantified by imaging the anterior segment of a rabbit eye at imaging speed of 20,000 A-lines per second. The theory analysis of SNR gain is given followed by the discussion on the technologies that can further improve the SNR gain.

  1. Mechanistic pathway for controlled extraction of guest molecule bound to herring sperm DNA using α-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffer, S. Syed; Ghosh, Prasun; Purkayastha, Pradipta

    2011-05-01

    trans-2-[4-(Dimethylamino)styryl]benzothiazole (DMASBT) is known to have dual emitting states where the locally excited (LE) state is responsible for fluorescence in less polar environment and in polar milieu fluorescence is from the twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state. This compound also undergoes minor groove binding to herring sperm DNA (hsDNA) evidenced by the absorption spectra before and after the binding process and an effect on DMASBT fluorescence by an anionic quencher. The binding occurs efficiently in a 1:1 manner, i.e. one guest molecule binds to one site on the hsDNA. Instead of following the DNA twist, the aromatic part seems to project outward. Thus, the bound molecule can be successfully extracted out from the DNA in a controlled way by the hydrophobic cavity of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD). The extraction starts even with a low concentration of α-CD and increases as the concentration is increased. Absorption, steady-state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic methods have been employed to explore the mechanistic pathway of binding of DMASBT to hsDNA. The mechanistic approach toward controlled extraction of the guest molecules from hsDNA by α-CD is reported and is expected to serve a significant purpose in treatment of drug overdose.

  2. Controlling magnetic Feshbach resonances in polar open-shell molecules with nonresonant light.

    PubMed

    Tomza, Michał; González-Férez, Rosario; Koch, Christiane P; Moszynski, Robert

    2014-03-21

    Magnetically tunable Feshbach resonances for polar paramagnetic ground-state diatomics are too narrow to allow for magnetoassociation starting from trapped, ultracold atoms. We show that nonresonant light can be used to engineer the Feshbach resonances in their position and width. For nonresonant field intensities of the order of 10(9) W/cm(2), we find the width to be increased by 3 orders of magnitude, reaching a few Gauss. This opens the way for producing ultracold molecules with sizable electric and magnetic dipole moments and thus for many-body quantum simulations with such particles. PMID:24702365

  3. Transport and quality control of MHC class I molecules in the early secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Springer, Sebastian

    2015-06-01

    Folding and peptide binding of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules have been thoroughly researched, but the mechanistic connection between these biochemical events and the progress of class I through the early secretory pathway is much less well understood. This review focuses on the question how the partially assembled forms of class I (which lack high-affinity peptide and/or the light chain beta-2 microglobulin) are retained inside the cell. Such investigations offer researchers exciting chances to understand the connections between class I structure, conformational dynamics, peptide binding kinetics and thermodynamics, intracellular transport, and antigen presentation.

  4. Olivine-wadsleyite-pyroxene topotaxy: Evidence for coherent nucleation and diffusion-controlled growth at the 410-km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Joseph R.; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Huss, Gary R.; Hellebrand, Eric; Rubie, David C.; Frost, Daniel J.

    2012-06-01

    We have synthesized a hydrous peridotite-composition sample at 13 GPa and 1400 °C with co-existing coarse grains (˜100 μm) of olivine, wadsleyite, clinoenstatite, plus melt in a multi-anvil press. Some of the olivine grains contain fine-scale (0.5-2 μm-wide) lamellae of wadsleyite and clinoenstatite that likely resulted from transformation caused by small temperature fluctuations during the four-hour experiment. Phase compositions were determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The olivine ranges from Fo94 to Fo90 in composition and contains about 4000 ppm wt. H2O. The wadsleyite is Fo87±1 in composition and contains about 10,000 ppm wt. H2O. The clinoenstatite is En93±1 in composition and about 1400 ppm wt. H2O. Transmission electron microscopy of the wadsleyite lamellae and host olivine shows that the two phases share their close-packed oxygen planes so that the wadsleyite lamellae are nearly planar and perpendicular to the [1 0 0] of olivine. The wadsleyite lamellae thus have their {1 0 1} and {0 2 1} planes parallel to the (1 0 0) plane of olivine. Additionally, larger incoherent grains of wadsleyite in olivine are found. Dislocation microtexures in the olivine and iron concentration profiles across the lamella interface suggest heterogeneous nucleation and diffusion-controlled growth of coherent wadsleyite lamellae on defects in the olivine followed by the nucleation of faster-growing incoherent grains on the lamellae. The results show that, under hydrous conditions, the olivine-wadsleyite transformation occurs close to equilibrium at conditions of the 410-km discontinuity. Furthermore, inheritance of crystallographic preferred orientations (and therefore seismic anisotropy) across the 410-km discontinuity is unlikely to be significant. In addition, hydrogen distributions among the various phases indicate that dehydration by melt extraction at 410 km will be inefficient and that H contents greater than

  5. Controlling Brownian motion of single protein molecules and single fluorophores in aqueous buffer.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Adam E; Moerner, W E

    2008-05-12

    We present an Anti-Brownian Electrokinetic trap (ABEL trap) capable of trapping individual fluorescently labeled protein molecules in aqueous buffer. The ABEL trap operates by tracking the Brownian motion of a single fluorescent particle in solution, and applying a time-dependent electric field designed to induce an electrokinetic drift that cancels the Brownian motion. The trapping strength of the ABEL trap is limited by the latency of the feedback loop. In previous versions of the trap, this latency was set by the finite frame rate of the camera used for video-tracking. In the present system, the motion of the particle is tracked entirely in hardware (without a camera or image-processing software) using a rapidly rotating laser focus and lock-in detection. The feedback latency is set by the finite rate of arrival of photons. We demonstrate trapping of individual molecules of the protein GroEL in buffer, and we show confinement of single fluorophores of the dye Cy3 in water.

  6. Calreticulin Controls the Rate of Assembly of CD1d Molecules in the Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yajuan; Zhang, Wei; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal; Cresswell, Peter

    2010-01-01

    CD1d is an MHC class I-like molecule comprised of a transmembrane glycoprotein (heavy chain) associated with β2-microglobulin (β2m) that presents lipid antigens to NKT cells. Initial folding of the heavy chain involves its glycan-dependent association with calreticulin (CRT), calnexin (CNX), and the thiol oxidoreductase ERp57, and is followed by assembly with β2m to form the heterodimer. Here we show that in CRT-deficient cells CD1d heavy chains convert to β2m-associated dimers at an accelerated rate, indicating faster folding of the heavy chain, while the rate of intracellular transport after assembly is unaffected. Unlike the situation with MHC class I molecules, antigen presentation by CD1d is not impaired in the absence of CRT. Instead, there are elevated levels of stable and functional CD1d on the surface of CRT-deficient cells. Association of the heavy chains with the ER chaperones Grp94 and Bip is observed in the absence of CRT, and these may replace CRT in mediating CD1d folding and assembly. ER retention of free CD1d heavy chains is impaired in CRT-deficient cells, allowing their escape and subsequent expression on the plasma membrane. However, these free heavy chains are rapidly internalized and degraded in lysosomes, indicating that β2m association is required for the exceptional resistance of CD1d to lysosomal degradation that is normally observed. PMID:20861015

  7. A role for UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase in expression and quality control of MHC class I molecules

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wearsch, Pamela A.; Zhu, Yajuan; Leonhardt, Ralf M.; Cresswell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGT1) serves as a folding sensor in the calnexin/calreticulin glycoprotein quality control cycle. UGT1 recognizes disordered or hydrophobic patches near asparagine-linked nonglucosylated glycans in partially misfolded glycoproteins and reglucosylates them, returning folding intermediates to the cycle. In this study, we examine the contribution of the UGT1-regulated quality control mechanism to MHC I antigen presentation. Using UGT1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts reconstituted or not with UGT1, we show that, although formation of the peptide loading complex is unaffected by the absence of UGT1, the surface level of MHC class I molecules is reduced, MHC class I maturation and assembly are delayed, and peptide selection is impaired. Most strikingly, we show using purified soluble components that UGT1 preferentially recognizes and reglucosylates MHC class I molecules associated with a suboptimal peptide. Our data suggest that, in addition to the extensively studied tapasin-mediated quality control mechanism, UGT1 adds a new level of control in the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. PMID:21383159

  8. Coherently controlled emissions |4P3/2,1/2> ↔ |4S1/2> from a femtosecond Λ-type excitation scheme in potassium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentaris, D.; Damianos, D.; Papademetriou, G.; Lyras, A.; Steponkevičius, K.; Vaičaitis, V.; Efthimiopoulos, T.

    2016-07-01

    The combined excitation of high density potassium (K) vapour by 100 fs pump-coupling pulses is experimentally studied. The intense pump pulse excites the two-photon ? transition and internally generated emissions are initiated along the atomic paths: ? (path-1) and, ? (path-2). The temporally delayed coupling pulse coherently drives the ? transitions, in a Λ-type excitation scheme. The competing axial and conical emission components of the well-resolved ? transitions (D2 and D1 lines of K) are substantially enhanced and controlled, for appropriate detunings and pump-coupling temporal delays. The coherence relaxation time (CRT) of the two-photon excited ? state is determined by exploiting the temporal delay in the pulse sequence. The effect of the pulse delay and the fs pulse bandwidth on the system dynamics is discussed as well as the role of dephasing collisions between K and buffer gas atoms. The proposed scheme can be employed in radiative multi-level systems, for the direct estimation of coherence relaxation rates of various states.

  9. Low-coherence in-depth microscopy for biological tissue imaging: design of a real-time control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchot, Loic; Lebec, Martial; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Gleyzes, Philippe; Boccara, Albert C.; Saint-Jalmes, Herve

    1998-01-01

    We describe the design of a versatile electronic system performing a lock-in detection in parallel on every pixel of a 2D CCD camera. The system is based on a multiplexed lock- in detection method that requires accurate synchronization of the camera, the excitation signal and the processing computer. This device has been incorporated in an imaging setup based on the optical coherence tomography principle, enabling to acquire a full 2D head-on image without scanning. The imaging experiment is implemented on a modified commercial microscope. Lateral resolution is on the order of 2 micrometers , and the coherence length of the light source defines an axial resolution of approximately 8 micrometers . Images of onion cells a few hundred microns deep into the sample are obtained with 100 dB sensitivity.

  10. Low-coherence in-depth microscopy for biological tissue imaging: design of a real-time control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchot, Loic; Lebec, Martial; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Gleyzes, Philippe; Boccara, A. Claude; Saint-Jalmes, Herve

    1997-12-01

    We describe the design of a versatile electronic system performing a lock-in detection in parallel on every pixel of a 2D CCD camera. The system is based on a multiplexed lock- in detection method that requires accurate synchronization of the camera, the excitation signal and the processing computer. This device has been incorporated in an imaging setup based on the optical coherence tomography principle, enabling to acquire a full 2D head-on image without scanning. The imaging experiment is implemented on a modified commercial microscope. Lateral resolution is on the order of 2 micrometers , and the coherence length of the light source defines an axial resolution of approximately 8 micrometers . Images of onion cells a few hundred microns deep into the sample are obtained with 100 dB sensitivity.

  11. Magnetic-field Control of the Ultracold Chemistry of Simple Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzic, Brandon; Hazra, Jisha; Balakrishnan, Naduvalath; Bohn, John

    2016-05-01

    New experimental techniques continue to bring new molecular species into the ultracold regime. At these temperatures, modest external fields can significantly affect collisions. We theoretically explore the ultracold quantum chemistry of simple molecules, including the benchmark chemical reaction of F + H2. We find that resonances that exist in the van der Waals wells of entrance channels can be manipulated by magnetic fields, thus affecting the ability of the reactants to tunnel through the chemical barrier. We focus on the possibility of ultracold Fano-Feshbach resonances and their ability to affect the distribution of product states. We acknowledge support from the ARO MURI Grant No. W911NF-12-1-0476 and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  12. Controlling magnetic order and quantum disorder in molecule-based magnets.

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, T.; Goddard, P. A.; Blundell, S. J.; Foronda, F. R.; Ghannadzadeh, S.; Moller, J. S.; Baker, P. J.; Pratt, F. L.; Baines, C.; Huang, L.; Schlueter, J. A.

    2014-05-19

    We investigate the structural and magnetic properties of two molecule-based magnets synthesized from the same starting components. Their different structural motifs promote contrasting exchange pathways and consequently lead to markedly different magnetic ground states. Through examination of their structural and magnetic properties we show that [Cu(pyz)(H 2 O)(gly) 2 ](ClO 4 ) 2 may be considered a quasi-one-dimensional quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet whereas the related compound [Cu(pyz)(gly)](ClO 4 ) , which is formed from dimers of antiferromagnetically interacting Cu 2+ spins, remains disordered down to at least 0.03 K in zero field but shows a field-temperature phase diagram reminiscent of that seen in materials showing a Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons.

  13. Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lamouche, Guy; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Bisaillon, Charles-Etienne; Curatolo, Andrea; Campbell, Gord; Pazos, Valérie; Sampson, David D.

    2012-01-01

    We review the development of phantoms for optical coherence tomography (OCT) designed to replicate the optical, mechanical and structural properties of a range of tissues. Such phantoms are a key requirement for the continued development of OCT techniques and applications. We focus on phantoms based on silicone, fibrin and poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogels (PVA-C), as we believe these materials hold the most promise for durable and accurate replication of tissue properties. PMID:22741083

  14. Effect of side-chain substituents on self-assembly of perylene diimide molecules: morphology control.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Datar, Aniket; Naddo, Tammene; Huang, Jialing; Oitker, Randy; Yen, Max; Zhao, Jincai; Zang, Ling

    2006-06-01

    Effect of side-chain substitutions on the morphology of self-assembly of perylene diimide molecules has been studied with two derivatives modified with distinctly different side-chains, N,N'-di(dodecyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (DD-PTCDI) and N,N'-di(nonyldecyl)-perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (ND-PTCDI). Due to the different side-chain interference, the self-assembly of the two molecules results in totally different morphologies in aggregate: one-dimensional (1D) nanobelt vs zero-dimensional (0D) nanoparticle. The size, shape, and topography of the self-assemblies were extensively characterized by a variety of microscopies including SEM, TEM, AFM, and fluorescence microscopy. The distinct morphologies of self-assembly have been obtained from both the solution-based processing and surface-supported solvent-vapor annealing. The nanobelts of DD-PTCDI fabricated in solution can feasibly be transferred to both polar (e.g., glass) and nonpolar (e.g., carbon) surfaces, implying the high stability of the molecular assembly (due to the strong pi-pi stacking). The side-chain-dependent molecular interaction was comparatively investigated using various spectrometries including UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the emission of ND-PTCDI aggregate, the emission of DD-PTCDI aggregate was significantly red-shifted (ca. 30 nm) and the emission quantum yield decreased about three times, primarily due to the more favorable molecular stacking for DD-PTCID. Moreover, the aggregate of DD-PTCDI shows a pronounced absorption band at the longer wavelength, whereas the absorption of ND-PTCDI aggregate is not significant in the same wavelength region. These optical spectral observations are reminiscent of the previous theoretical investigation on the side-chain-modulated electronic properties of PTCDI assembly.

  15. Real-Time Infrared Overtone Laser Control of Temperature in Picoliter H(2)O Samples: "Nanobathtubs" for Single Molecule Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Holmstrom, Erik D; Nesbitt, David J

    2010-01-01

    An approach for high spatiotemporal control of aqueous sample temperatures in confocal microscopy is reported. This technique exploits near-IR diode-laser illumination to locally heat picoliter volumes of water via first-overtone excitation in the OH-stretch manifold. A thin water cell after the objective resonantly removes any residual IR light from the detection system, allowing for continuous observation of single-molecule fluorescence throughout the heating event. This technique is tested quantitatively by reproducing single-molecule RNA folding results obtained from "bulk" stage heating measurements. Calibration of sample temperatures is obtained from time-correlated single-photon counting studies of Rhodamine B fluorescence decay. We obtain an upper limit to the heating response time (τ(heat) < 20 ms) consistent with even faster estimates (τ(heat) ≈ 0.25 ms) based on laser spot size, H(2)O heat capacit,y and absorption cross section. This combination of fast, noncontact heating of picoliter volumes provides new opportunities for real-time thermodynamic/kinetic studies at the single-molecule level.

  16. Control of unidirectional transport of single-file water molecules through carbon nanotubes in an electric field.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiaye; Guo, Hongxia

    2011-01-25

    The transport of water molecules through nanopores is not only crucial to biological activities but also useful for designing novel nanofluidic devices. Despite considerable effort and progress that has been made, a controllable and unidirectional water flow is still difficult to achieve and the underlying mechanism is far from being understood. In this paper, using molecular dynamics simulations, we systematically investigate the effects of an external electric field on the transport of single-file water molecules through a carbon nanotube (CNT). We find that the orientation of water molecules inside the CNT can be well-tuned by the electric field and is strongly coupled to the water flux. This orientation-induced water flux is energetically due to the asymmetrical water-water interaction along the CNT axis. The wavelike water density profiles are disturbed under strong field strengths. The frequency of flipping for the water dipoles will decrease as the field strength is increased, and the flipping events vanish completely for the relatively large field strengths. Most importantly, a critical field strength E(c) related to the water flux is found. The water flux is increased as E is increased for E ≤ E(c), while it is almost unchanged for E > E(c). Thus, the electric field offers a level of governing for unidirectional water flow, which may have some biological applications and provides a route for designing efficient nanopumps.

  17. Mesoporous Silica-Based Supports for the Controlled and Targeted Release of Bioactive Molecules in the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Esteve, Édgar; Ruiz-Rico, María; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Barat, José Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Mesoporous silica particles (MSPs) have attracted increasing interest as supports in the design of controlled delivery materials. Besides their excellent properties as loading supports (that is, large surface area and pore volume), the modification of their external surface with molecular/supramolecular ensembles allows the design of gated MSPs. Delivery systems based on gated MSPs show "zero delivery" until an adequate stimulus is present and triggers gate opening and the cargo is released. Encapsulation of bioactive molecules in gated MSPs may improve biological stability, facilitate component handling, mask unpleasant sensorial properties, and modulate the bioaccessibility of target molecules along the gastrointestinal tract. These properties make gated MSPs excellent candidates for encapsulating bioactive molecules and their subsequent utilization in the formulation of functional foods. This text highlights the most significant endogenous triggering stimuli that might be applied to design these site-specific delivery systems, as well as the strategies to develop them. Given the novelty of using MSPs in the food sector, the benefits and current potential limitations of employing MSPs in human food have been identified and discussed.

  18. Control of optical bistability and third-order nonlinearity via tunneling induced quantum interference in triangular quantum dot molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Si-Cong Tong, Cun-Zhu Zhang, Jin-Long; Shan, Xiao-Nan; Fu, Xi-Hong; Zeng, Yu-Gang; Qin, Li; Ning, Yong-Qiang; Wan, Ren-Gang

    2015-06-15

    The optical bistability of a triangular quantum dot molecules embedded inside a unidirectional ring cavity is studied. The type, the threshold and the hysteresis loop of the optical bistability curves can be modified by the tunneling parameters, as well as the probe laser field. The linear and nonlinear susceptibilities of the medium are also studied to interpret the corresponding results. The physical interpretation is that the tunneling can induce the quantum interference, which modifies the linear and the nonlinear response of the medium. As a consequence, the characteristics of the optical bistability are changed. The scheme proposed here can be utilized for optimizing and controlling the optical switching process.

  19. CORRIGENDUM: Controlled positioning of a DNA molecule in an electrode setup based on self-assembly and microstructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maubach, G.; Csáki, A.; Born, D.; Fritzsche, W.

    2003-09-01

    We would like to acknowledge the contribution of R Seidel, M Mertig and W Pompe to this work by adding their names as co-authors of the published article. The correct list of authors for the paper `Controlled positioning of a DNA molecule in an electrode setup based on self-assembly and microstructuring' is G Maubach1, A Csáki1, R Seidel2, M Mertig2, W Pompe2, D Born1 and W Fritzsche1 1Institute for Physical High Technology, PO Box 100239, 07702 Jena, Germany 2Max-Bergmann-Center of Biomaterials and Institute of Materials Science, Technical University Dresden, D-01169 Dresden, Germany.

  20. Coherent acoustic phonons in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekorsy, T.; Taubert, R.; Hudert, F.; Bartels, A.; Habenicht, A.; Merkt, F.; Leiderer, P.; Köhler, K.; Schmitz, J.; Wagner, J.

    2008-02-01

    Phonons are considered as a most important origin of scattering and dissipation for electronic coherence in nanostructures. The generation of coherent acoustic phonons with femtosecond laser pulses opens the possibility to control phonon dynamics in amplitude and phase. We demonstrate a new experimental technique based on two synchronized femtosecond lasers with GHz repetition rate to study the dynamics of coherently generated acoustic phonons in semiconductor heterostructures with high sensitivity. High-speed synchronous optical sampling (ASOPS) enables to scan a time-delay of 1 ns with 100 fs time resolution with a frequency in the kHz range without a moving part in the set-up. We investigate the dynamics of coherent zone-folded acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattices (GaAs/AlAs and GaSb/InAs) and of coherent vibration of metallic nanostructures of non-spherical shape using ASOPS.

  1. Seleno groups control the energy-level alignment between conjugated organic molecules and metals

    SciTech Connect

    Niederhausen, Jens; Heimel, Georg; Wilke, Andreas; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Duhm, Steffen; Bürker, Christoph; Schreiber, Frank; Xin, Qian; Vollmer, Antje; Kera, Satoshi; Ueno, Nobuo; Koch, Norbert

    2014-01-07

    The charge injection from metallic electrodes into hole transporting layers of organic devices often suffers from deviations from vacuum-level alignment at the interface. Even for weakly interacting cases, Pauli repulsion causes an interface dipole between the metal and conjugated organic molecules (COMs) (so called “push-back” or “cushion” effect), which leads notoriously to an increase of the hole injection barrier. On the other hand, for chalcogenol self assembled monolayers (SAMs) on metal surfaces, chemisorption via the formation of chalcogen-metal bonds is commonly observed. In these cases, the energy-level alignment is governed by chalcogen-derived interface states in the vicinity of the metal Fermi-level. In this work, we present X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy data that demonstrate that the interfacial energy-level alignment mechanism found for chalcogenol SAMs also applies to seleno-functionalized COMs. This can be exploited to mitigate the push-back effect at metal contacts, notably also when COMs with low ionization energies are employed, permitting exceedingly low hole injection barriers, as shown here for the interfaces of tetraseleno-tetracene with Au(111), Ag(111), and Cu(111)

  2. IRS2 and PTEN are key molecules in controlling insulin sensitivity in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Beatriz; Marquez, Eva; Lay, Abigail; Carew, RoseaMarie M; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Welsh, Gavin I; Ni, Lan; Hale, Lorna J; Ortiz, Alberto; Saleem, Moin A; Brazil, Derek P; Coward, Richard J; Valverde, Ángela M

    2015-12-01

    Insulin signaling to the glomerular podocyte is important for normal kidney function and is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). This study determined the role of the insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) in this system. Conditionally immortalized murine podocytes were generated from wild-type (WT) and insulin receptor substrate 2-deficient mice (Irs2(-/-)). Insulin signaling, glucose transport, cellular motility and cytoskeleton rearrangement were then analyzed. Within the glomerulus IRS2 is enriched in the podocyte and is preferentially phosphorylated by insulin in comparison to IRS1. Irs2(-/-) podocytes are significantly insulin resistant in respect to AKT signaling, insulin-stimulated GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake, filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton remodeling and cell motility. Mechanistically, we discovered that Irs2 deficiency causes insulin resistance through up-regulation of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Importantly, suppressing PTEN in Irs2(-/-) podocytes rescued insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, this study has identified for the first time IRS2 as a critical molecule for sensitizing the podocyte to insulin actions through its ability to modulate PTEN expression. This finding reveals two potential molecular targets in the podocyte for modulating insulin sensitivity and treating DN.

  3. Microstructural control of calcite via incorporation of intracrystalline organic molecules in shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Taiga; Suzuki, Michio; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2013-10-01

    It is widely accepted that organic substances regulate or influence the structure of biominerals, but its direct evidences are not plenty. Here we show that the crystallographic microstructures in biotic calcites arise from incorporated intracrystalline organic molecules (IOMs), through a comparison between biotic calcites in shells and synthetic ones with the IOMs extracted from the shells. Although the prismatic layers of a pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) and a pen shell (Atrina pectinata) morphologically resemble each other, the crystallographic features of constituent calcites are considerably different; in Pinctada, the IOMs are distributed inhomogeneously to form small-angle grain boundaries and associated crystal defects, whereas in Atrina, the IOMs are distributed almost homogeneously and defects are rare in the calcite crystals. We conducted in vitro calcite syntheses in the presence of the IOMs in EDTA-soluble extracts from the prisms. The IOMs in the extracts from Pinctada and Atrina were incorporated into synthetic calcites in a different manner, exhibiting defect-rich/free features as observed in the natural shells. With regard to amino acid compositions of the IOMs, the extract from Atrina has a higher proportion of acidic amino acids than that from Pinctada, implying that acidic proteins do not correlate directly to their affinity for calcium carbonate crystals.

  4. N-glycosylation controls the function of junctional adhesion molecule-A

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David W.; Tolbert, Caitlin E.; Graham, David M.; Wittchen, Erika; Bear, James E.; Burridge, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is an adherens and tight junction protein expressed by endothelial and epithelial cells. JAM-A serves many roles and contributes to barrier function and cell migration and motility, and it also acts as a ligand for the leukocyte receptor LFA-1. JAM-A is reported to contain N-glycans, but the extent of this modification and its contribution to the protein’s functions are unknown. We show that human JAM-A contains a single N-glycan at N185 and that this residue is conserved across multiple mammalian species. A glycomutant lacking all N-glycans, N185Q, is able to reach the cell surface but exhibits decreased protein half-life compared with the wild- type protein. N-glycosylation of JAM-A is required for the protein’s ability to reinforce barrier function and contributes to Rap1 activity. We further show that glycosylation of N185 is required for JAM-A–mediated reduction of cell migration. Finally, we show that N-glycosylation of JAM-A regulates leukocyte adhesion and LFA-1 binding. These findings identify N-glycosylation as critical for JAM-A’s many functions. PMID:26224316

  5. The Prion Protein Controls Polysialylation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 during Cellular Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; Wang, Hansen; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    Despite its multi-faceted role in neurodegenerative diseases, the physiological function of the prion protein (PrP) has remained elusive. On the basis of its evolutionary relationship to ZIP metal ion transporters, we considered that PrP may contribute to the morphogenetic reprogramming of cells underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Consistent with this hypothesis, PrP transcription increased more than tenfold during EMT, and stable PrP-deficient cells failed to complete EMT in a mammalian cell model. A global comparative proteomics analysis identified the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) as a candidate mediator of this impairment, which led to the observation that PrP-deficient cells fail to undergo NCAM1 polysialylation during EMT. Surprisingly, this defect was caused by a perturbed transcription of the polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 gene. Proteomics data pointed toward β-catenin as a transcriptional regulator affected in PrP-deficient cells. Indeed, pharmacological blockade or siRNA-based knockdown of β-catenin mimicked PrP-deficiency in regards to NCAM1 polysialylation. Our data established the existence of a PrP-ST8SIA2-NCAM signaling loop, merged two mature fields of investigation and offer a simple model for explaining phenotypes linked to PrP. PMID:26288071

  6. The Prion Protein Controls Polysialylation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 during Cellular Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Brethour, Dylan; Wang, Hansen; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    Despite its multi-faceted role in neurodegenerative diseases, the physiological function of the prion protein (PrP) has remained elusive. On the basis of its evolutionary relationship to ZIP metal ion transporters, we considered that PrP may contribute to the morphogenetic reprogramming of cells underlying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT). Consistent with this hypothesis, PrP transcription increased more than tenfold during EMT, and stable PrP-deficient cells failed to complete EMT in a mammalian cell model. A global comparative proteomics analysis identified the neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) as a candidate mediator of this impairment, which led to the observation that PrP-deficient cells fail to undergo NCAM1 polysialylation during EMT. Surprisingly, this defect was caused by a perturbed transcription of the polysialyltransferase ST8SIA2 gene. Proteomics data pointed toward β-catenin as a transcriptional regulator affected in PrP-deficient cells. Indeed, pharmacological blockade or siRNA-based knockdown of β-catenin mimicked PrP-deficiency in regards to NCAM1 polysialylation. Our data established the existence of a PrP-ST8SIA2-NCAM signaling loop, merged two mature fields of investigation and offer a simple model for explaining phenotypes linked to PrP. PMID:26288071

  7. Coherent diffractive imaging and partial coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Garth J.; Quiney, Harry M.; Peele, Andrew G.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2007-03-01

    We formulate coherent diffractive imaging in the framework of partially spatially coherent diffraction. We find that the reconstruction can be critically dependent on the degree of coherence in the illuminating field and that even a small departure from full coherence may invalidate the conventional assumption that a mapping exists between an exit surface wave of finite support and a far field diffraction pattern. We demonstrate that the introduction of sufficient phase curvature in the illumination can overcome the adverse effects of partial coherence.

  8. Single DNA molecules on freestanding and supported cationic lipid bilayers: diverse conformational dynamics controlled by the local bilayer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Christoph; Schwille, Petra; Petrov, Eugene P.

    2016-02-01

    We present experimental results on the interaction of DNA macromolecules with cationic lipid membranes with different properties, including freestanding membranes in the fluid and gel state, and supported lipid membranes in the fluid state and under conditions of fluid-gel phase coexistence. We observe diverse conformational dynamics of membrane-bound DNA molecules controlled by the local properties of the lipid bilayer. In case of fluid-state freestanding lipid membranes, the behaviour of DNA on the membrane is controlled by the membrane charge density: whereas DNA bound to weakly charged membranes predominantly behaves as a 2D random coil, an increase in the membrane charge density leads to membrane-driven irreversible DNA collapse and formation of subresolution-sized DNA globules. On the other hand, electrostatic binding of DNA macromolecules to gel-state freestanding membranes leads to completely arrested diffusion and conformational dynamics of membrane-adsorbed DNA. A drastically different picture is observed in case of DNA interaction with supported cationic lipid bilayers: When the supported bilayer is in the fluid state, membrane-bound DNA molecules undergo 2D translational Brownian motion and conformational fluctuations, irrespectively of the charge density of the supported bilayer. At the same time, when the supported cationic membrane shows fluid-gel phase coexistence, membrane-bound DNA molecules are strongly attracted to micrometre-sized gel-phase domains enriched with the cationic lipid, which results in 2D compaction of the membrane-bound macromolecules. This DNA compaction, however, is fully reversible, and disappears as soon as the membrane is heated above the fluid-gel coexistence. We also discuss possible biological implications of our experimental findings.

  9. Synthetic strategies for controlling inter- and intramolecular interactions: Applications in single-molecule fluorescence imaging, bioluminescence imaging, and palladium catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Nicholas R.

    The field of synthetic organic chemistry has reached such maturity that, with sufficient effort and resources, the synthesis of virtually any small molecule which exhibits reasonable stability at room temperature can be realized. While representing a monumental achievement for the field, the ability to exert precise control over molecular structure is just a means to an end, and it is frequently the responsibility of the synthetic chemist to determine which molecules should actually be synthesized. For better or worse, there exists no competitive free market in academia for new molecules, and as a result, the decision of which compounds should be synthesized is seldom driven by the forces of supply and demand; rather, it is guided by the synthetic chemist's interest in an anticipated structure-function relationship or in the properties of a previously unstudied class of molecules. As a consequence, there exists a pervasive need for chemists with synthetic expertise in fields (e.g., molecular imaging) and subdisciplines of chemistry (e.g., physical chemistry) in which the identification of promising synthetic targets dramatically outpaces the synthetic output in that field or subdiscipline, and ample opportunities are available for synthetic chemists who choose to pursue such cross-disciplinary research. This thesis describes synthetic efforts that leverage these opportunities to realize applications in biological imaging and in palladium catalysis. In Part I, the synthesis and characterization of three novel luminophores and their imaging applications are discussed. The first is a molecular beacon that utilizes a fluorophorefluorophore pair which exhibits H-dimer quenching in the closed conformation. This probe offers several advantages over conventional fluorophore-quencher molecular beacons in the detection of oligonucleotides, both in bulk and at the single-molecule level. Secondly, a fluorescent, Cy3-Cy5 covalent heterodimer is reported, which on account of the

  10. Operational Approach to Generalized Coherent States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMartino, Salvatore; DeSiena, Silvio

    1996-01-01

    Generalized coherent states for general potentials, constructed through a controlling mechanism, can also be obtained applying on a reference state suitable operators. An explicit example is supplied.

  11. Ultracold molecules from the bottom-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jessie T.; Hutzler, Nicholas R.; Liu, Lee R.; Yu, Yichao; Ni, Kang-Kuen

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold polar molecules exhibit strong, long-range, and tunable dipole-dipole interactions that may be utilized for a wide range of studies in quantum simulation and quantum information processing. To realize the full potential of these studies, it is desirable to have a low entropy sample of ultracold polar molecules with full control over both internal and external states, as well as inter-particle interactions. We work toward this goal with a new, bottom-up approach using the highly polar NaCs molecule. The key steps of our scheme are trapping single Na and Cs atoms in optical dipole traps, cooling the atoms to their motional ground state using Raman sideband cooling, and finally coherently transferring them to ground state NaCs molecules via a two-photon process. This approach should enable creation of low entropy samples with full control over all degrees of freedom, as well as realizing the possibility of single-site read-out and manipulation of molecules.

  12. Biocompatible Mesoporous Nanotubular Structured Surface to Control Cell Behaviors and Deliver Bioactive Molecules.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kapil D; Mahapatra, Chinmaya; Jin, Guang-Zhen; Singh, Rajendra K; Kim, Hae-Won

    2015-12-01

    Biocompatible nanostructured surfaces control the cell behaviors and tissue integration process of medical devices and implants. Here we develop a novel biocompatible nanostructured surface based on mesoporous silica nanotube (MSNT) by means of an electrodeposition. MSNTs, replicated from carbon nanotubes of 25 nm × 1200 nm size, were interfaced in combination with fugitive biopolymers (chitosan or collagen) onto a Ti metallic substrate. The MSNT-biopolymer deposits uniformly covered the substrate with weight gains controllable by the electrodeposition conditions. Random nanotubular networks were generated successfully, which alongside the high mesoporosity provided unique nanotopological properties for the cell responses and the loading/delivery of biomolecules. Of note, the adhesion and spreading behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were significantly altered, revealing more rapid cell anchorage and extensive nanofilopodia development along the nanotubular networks. Furthermore, the nanotubular surface improved the loading capacity of biomolecules (dexamethasone and bovine serum albumin) up to 5-7 times. The release of the biomolecules was highly sustained, exhibiting a diffusion-controlled pattern over 15 days. The therapeutic efficacy of the delivered biomolecules was also confirmed in the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. While in vivo performance and applicability studies are needed further, the current biocompatible nanostructured surface may be considered as a novel biointerfacing platform to control cellular behaviors and biomolecular delivery.

  13. A quantum gas of polar molecules in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Steven A.

    Ultracold polar molecules, because of their long-range, spatially anisotropic interactions, are a new quantum system in which to study novel many-body phenomena. In our lab, we have produced the first quantum gas of 40K 87Rb polar molecules. These molecules were found to undergo exothermic chemical reactions, and this led to interesting studies of chemistry near absolute zero. By creating the molecules at individual sites of a 3D optical lattice, we completely suppress these chemical reactions, and the polar molecule gas becomes stable and lives for tens of seconds. This thesis documents our efforts to explore coherent, many-body phenomena resulting from long-range dipolar interactions in the lattice. By encoding a spin-1/2 system in the rotational states of the molecules, we were able to realize spin-exchange interactions based on a spin Hamiltonian, which is one of the first steps in studying quantum magnetism with polar molecules. While this study was the first realization of such coherent dipolar interactions with polar molecules in a lattice, its full potential was limited by the low lattice filling fractions. Using our ability to exquisitely control the initial atomic gas mixture, we loaded a Mott insulator of Rb and a band insulator of K into the lattice. This quantum synthesis approach led to significantly higher molecular filling fractions and represents the first fully connected system of polar molecules in an optical lattice. This low-entropy quantum gas of polar molecules opens the door to interesting quantum simulations, which should be attainable in the next generation of the experiment.

  14. Stark-assisted population control of coherent CS(2) 4f and 5p Rydberg wave packets studied by femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Lerch, Eliza-Beth W; Wen, Patrick; Leone, Stephen R

    2007-09-28

    A two-color (3+1(')) pump-probe scheme is employed to investigate Rydberg wave packet dynamics in carbon disulfide (CS(2) (*)). The state superpositions are created within the 4f and 5p Rydberg manifolds by three photons of the 400 nm pump pulse, and their temporal evolution is monitored with femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using an 800 nm ionizing probe pulse. The coherent behavior of the non-stationary superpositions are observed through wavepacket revivals upon ionization to either the upper (12) or lower (32) spin-orbit components of CS(2) (+). The results show clearly that the composition of the wavepacket can be efficiently controlled by the power density of the excitation pulse over a range from 500 GWcm(2) to 10 TWcm(2). The results are consistent with the anticipated ac-Stark shift for 400 nm light and demonstrate an effective method for population control in molecular systems. Moreover, it is shown that Rydberg wavepackets can be formed in CS(2) with excitation power densities up to 10 TWcm(2) without significant fragmentation. The exponential 1e population decay (T(1)) of specific excited Rydberg states are recovered by analysis of the coherent part of the signal. The dissociation lifetimes of these states are typically 1.5 ps. However, a region exhibiting a more rapid decay ( approximately 800 fs) is observed for states residing in the energy range of 74 450-74 550 cm(-1), suggestive of an enhanced surface crossing in this region.

  15. Structural control of donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules and supramolecular complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Douglas Cary

    Chemists strive for the wherewithal to express a great deal of control over the compounds they make. In supramolecular science and the molecular chemistry of the mechanical bond, there is a degree of complexity, expressed either by dynamic equilibria or the relative motions of mechanically bonded components, that does not typically exist in more traditional molecular settings. Although both of these arenas pose considerable scientific challenges, remarkable strides have been taken to both create (synthesize) and observe (analyze) these systems. While there are many methods and procedures possible to accomplish this goal, three specific ones---all taking advantage of weak noncovalent bonding interactions---are described. Previous work and a historical perspective are provided in the first chapter. The second chapter illustrates the use of light to control shuttling in a degenerate molecular shuttle. This means of control was accomplished by inserting, between degenerate dioxynaphthalene recognition sites, a bridging functional azobenzene subunit which, in its cis configuration, can attenuate the shuttling of an encircling tetracationic cyclophane. The shuttling can be mediated by heat and UV light---or indeed by light alone. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the shuttling process have been quantified primarily by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The third chapter describes a method which enables the selection of a ring-in-ring complex over a [3]catenane by subtle modification of the corner ligands in a central Pd-square. When utilizing a crown ether-based macrocycle, careful tuning of the nature of the hydrogen bond-donating characteristics of the molecular square has a dramatic effect on dictating the more thermodynamically stable (super)structure. If hydrogen bonding is possible, [3]catenane formation is favored. If, however, hydrogen bonding is forestalled, formation of a ring-in-ring complex is observed. Solution-state characterization and X-ray crystallography, which

  16. Attosecond control of dissociative ionization of O{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, W.; Kelkensberg, F.; Gademann, G.; Rouzee, A.; Vrakking, M. J. J.; Johnsson, P.; Dowek, D.; Lucchini, M.; Calegari, F.; De Giovannini, U.; Rubio, A.; Lucchese, R. R.; Kono, H.; Lepine, F.

    2011-12-15

    We demonstrate that dissociative ionization of O{sub 2} can be controlled by the relative delay between an attosecond pulse train (APT) and a copropagating infrared (IR) field. Our experiments reveal a dependence of both the branching ratios between a range of electronic states and the fragment angular distributions on the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) to IR time delay. The observations go beyond adiabatic propagation of dissociative wave packets on IR-induced quasistatic potential energy curves and are understood in terms of an IR-induced coupling between electronic states in the molecular ion.

  17. Vibrationally Coherent Crossing and Coupling of Electronic States during Internal Conversion in β-Carotene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebel, M.; Schnedermann, C.; Kukura, P.

    2014-05-01

    Coupling of nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom mediates energy flow in molecules after optical excitation. The associated coherent dynamics in polyatomic systems, however, remain experimentally unexplored. Here, we combined transient absorption spectroscopy with electronic population control to reveal nuclear wave packet dynamics during the S2→S1 internal conversion in β-carotene. We show that passage through a conical intersection is vibrationally coherent and thereby provides direct feedback on the role of different vibrational coordinates in the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation.

  18. Ajoene, a Sulfur-Rich Molecule from Garlic, Inhibits Genes Controlled by Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:22314537

  19. Ajoene, a sulfur-rich molecule from garlic, inhibits genes controlled by quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  20. DNA Physical Mapping via the Controlled Translocation of Single Molecules through a 5-10nm Silicon Nitride Nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Derek; Reisner, Walter; Jiang, Zhijun; Hagerty, Nick; Wood, Charles; Chan, Jason

    2009-03-01

    The ability to map the binding position of sequence-specific markers, including transcription-factors, protein-nucleic acids (PNAs) or deactivated restriction enzymes, along a single DNA molecule in a nanofluidic device would be of key importance for the life-sciences. Such markers could give an indication of the active genes at particular stage in a cell's transcriptional cycle, pinpoint the location of mutations or even provide a DNA barcode that could aid in genomics applications. We have developed a setup consisting of a 5-10 nm nanopore in a 20nm thick silicon nitride film coupled to an optical tweezer setup. The translocation of DNA across the nanopore can be detected via blockades in the electrical current through the pore. By anchoring one end of the translocating DNA to an optically trapped microsphere, we hope to stretch out the molecule in the nanopore and control the translocation speed, enabling us to slowly scan across the genome and detect changes in the baseline current due to the presence of bound markers.

  1. Dissociation of β2-microglobulin determines the surface quality control of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Sebastián; Venugopalan, Vaishnavi; Fritzsche, Susanne; Kulicke, Corinna; Hein, Zeynep; Springer, Sebastian

    2015-07-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I proteins, which present antigenic peptides to cytotoxic T lymphocytes at the surface of all nucleated cells, are endocytosed and destroyed rapidly once their peptide ligand has dissociated. The molecular mechanism of this cellular quality control process, which prevents rebinding of exogenous peptides and thus erroneous immune responses, is unknown. To identify the nature of the decisive step in endocytic sorting of class I molecules and its location, we have followed the removal of optimally and suboptimally peptide-loaded murine H-2K(b) class I proteins from the cell surface. We find that the binding of their light chain, β2-microglobulin (β2m), protects them from endocytic destruction. Thus, the extended survival of suboptimally loaded K(b) molecules at 25°C is attributed to decreased dissociation of β2m. Because all forms of K(b) are constantly internalized but little β2m-receptive heavy chain is present at the cell surface, it is likely that β2m dissociation and recognition of the heavy chain for lysosomal degradation take place in an endocytic compartment.

  2. Control of Transmembrane Protein Diffusion within the Postsynaptic Density Assessed by Simultaneous Single-Molecule Tracking and Localization Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tuo P.; Blanpied, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Postsynaptic transmembrane proteins are critical elements of synapses, mediating trans-cellular contact, sensitivity to neurotransmitters and other signaling molecules, and flux of Ca and other ions. Positioning and mobility of each member of this large class of proteins is critical to their individual function at the synapse. One critical example is that the position of glutamate receptors within the postsynaptic density (PSD) strongly modulates their function by aligning or misaligning them with sites of presynaptic vesicle fusion. In addition, the regulated ability of receptors to move in or out of the synapse is critical for activity-dependent plasticity. However, factors that control receptor mobility within the boundaries of the synapse are not well understood. Notably, PSD scaffold molecules accumulate in domains much smaller than the synapse. Within these nanodomains, the density of proteins is considerably higher than that of the synapse as a whole, so high that steric hindrance is expected to reduce receptor mobility substantially. However, while numerical modeling has demonstrated several features of how the varying protein density across the face of a single PSD may modulate receptor motion, there is little experimental information about the extent of this influence. To address this critical aspect of synaptic organizational dynamics, we performed single-molecule tracking of transmembrane proteins using universal point accumulation-for-imaging-in-nanoscale-topography (uPAINT) over PSDs whose internal structure was simultaneously resolved using photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM). The results provide important experimental confirmation that PSD scaffold protein density strongly influences the mobility of transmembrane proteins. A protein with a cytosolic domain that does not bind PSD-95 was still slowed in regions of high PSD-95 density, suggesting that crowding by scaffold molecules and perhaps other proteins is sufficient to stabilize

  3. Control of Transmembrane Protein Diffusion within the Postsynaptic Density Assessed by Simultaneous Single-Molecule Tracking and Localization Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Tuo P; Blanpied, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Postsynaptic transmembrane proteins are critical elements of synapses, mediating trans-cellular contact, sensitivity to neurotransmitters and other signaling molecules, and flux of Ca and other ions. Positioning and mobility of each member of this large class of proteins is critical to their individual function at the synapse. One critical example is that the position of glutamate receptors within the postsynaptic density (PSD) strongly modulates their function by aligning or misaligning them with sites of presynaptic vesicle fusion. In addition, the regulated ability of receptors to move in or out of the synapse is critical for activity-dependent plasticity. However, factors that control receptor mobility within the boundaries of the synapse are not well understood. Notably, PSD scaffold molecules accumulate in domains much smaller than the synapse. Within these nanodomains, the density of proteins is considerably higher than that of the synapse as a whole, so high that steric hindrance is expected to reduce receptor mobility substantially. However, while numerical modeling has demonstrated several features of how the varying protein density across the face of a single PSD may modulate receptor motion, there is little experimental information about the extent of this influence. To address this critical aspect of synaptic organizational dynamics, we performed single-molecule tracking of transmembrane proteins using universal point accumulation-for-imaging-in-nanoscale-topography (uPAINT) over PSDs whose internal structure was simultaneously resolved using photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM). The results provide important experimental confirmation that PSD scaffold protein density strongly influences the mobility of transmembrane proteins. A protein with a cytosolic domain that does not bind PSD-95 was still slowed in regions of high PSD-95 density, suggesting that crowding by scaffold molecules and perhaps other proteins is sufficient to stabilize

  4. Light- and Solvent-Controlled Self-Assembly Behavior of Spiropyran-Polyoxometalate-Alkyl Hybrid Molecules.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yang; Saad, Ali; Yin, Panchao; Wu, Jiayingzi; Oms, Olivier; Dolbecq, Anne; Mialane, Pierre; Liu, Tianbo

    2016-08-01

    A molecular photochromic spiropyran-polyoxometalate-alkyl organic-inorganic hybrid has been synthesized and fully characterized. The reversible switching of the hydrophobic spiropyran fragment to the hydrophilic merocyanine one can be easily achieved under light irradiation at different wavelengths. This switch changes the amphiphilic feature of the hybrid, leading to a light-controlled self-assembly behavior in solution. It has been shown that the hybrid can reversibly self-assemble into vesicles in polar solvents and irreversibly into reverse vesicles in non-polar solvents. The sizes of the vesicles and the reverse vesicles are both tunable by the polarity of the solvent, with the hydrophobic interactions being the main driving force. PMID:27404486

  5. Blood Clotting-Inspired Control of Single-Chain Molecules in Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, Charles; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2011-03-01

    Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated a clear link between mechanical stimuli and the activation of von Willebrand Factor (vWF), a protein that plays a critical role in the blood clotting cascade. This protein exhibits counter-intuitive conformational and adsorption responses that suggest novel ways of controlling the single-chain dynamics of polymer chains. Specifically, we are using simulation and theoretical approaches to elucidate the fundamental physics that govern globule-stretch transitions in collapsed polymers due to the effect of fluid flows. We begin to extend this general approach to the case of globule adsorption-desorption transitions in the presence of fluid flows, and demonstrate how kinetic considerations must be taken into account to describe the basic features of these transitions. We expect that these results will both allow the development of novel techniques for single-chain targeting and assembly and offer insight into the physiological behavior of vWF.

  6. Re-Defining Photovoltaic Efficiency Through Molecule Scale Control. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Yardley, James T.

    2015-04-30

    can be used practically in a solar cell system. In addition much work will be required to envision and demonstrate effective device structures that can utilize this concept. However these discoveries do provide the basis for an entirely new set of opportunities for more efficient solar energy generation moving beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit. A second part of the EFRC research program has been to investigate the material and device properties of an entirely new set of materials based on two-dimensional sheets (“ultra-thin”) with thicknesses of only one atom, or a single molecule or just a few atoms. These materials can exhibit conducting, insulating, and semiconducting character and thus they can form the basis for entirely new types of electrical devices. Recent fundamental investigations of these materials, at Columbia and elsewhere, demonstrate clearly that the flow of electrical charges in these systems is fundamentally different from the nature of electrical current flow in conventional materials. This fact presents many possibilities for new photovoltaic device concepts. The EFRC research team has achieved world leadership in the creation and understanding of these materials and in developing the fabrication techniques necessary to create useful devices from them. We have developed the basic fabrication methodology to build structures of these materials into complex device structures, layer by layer. Our EFRC research team has pioneered the synthesis and understanding for graphene, perhaps the simplest of these materials. Graphene can function as a highly transparent conducting material, capable of funneling an electrical charge over reasonable distances without significant energy loss. The EFRC program has also pioneered the development of ultra-thin sheets that function in a way analogous to semiconductor materials as well as sheets that act as electrical insulators. These developments therefore enable the construction of solar cells based on totally

  7. The performance of coherent receiver controlled by the phase lock loop in dual rate free-space laser communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoping; Sun, Jianfeng; Hou, Peipei; Lu, Wei; Xu, Qian; Liu, Liren

    2015-09-01

    The technique of differential phase shift keying(DPSK) modulation is applied into demodulating phase information in the coherent optical receiver. The dual rate free-space receiving structure on the base of Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer with the lens is used suitably for differential delay which is equal to the one bit corresponding to a certain data rate. Delay distance at the interference receiver is varied with transmission rata from satellite to ground. Differential information is obtained by the subtraction of the two successive wave-front phases when made to interfere. The phase demodulation is extremely sensitive to phase fluctuation. Because of the incident light through atmospheric turbulence, the wave-front of optical signal became jittered in the temporal and spatial domain rapidly. In the paper, the dual rate free-space laser communication receiver for phase lock to stable signal light phase is proposed, increasing the homodyne efficiency and decreasing the bit error rate.

  8. Controllable Molecule Transport and Release by a Restorable Surface-tethered DNA nanodevice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaoyin; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Haiyan; Liu, Fengzhen; Ren, Zhenning; Wang, Zhaoxia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report a novel surface-tethered DNA nanodevice that may present three states and undergo conformational changes under the operation of pH. Besides, convenient regulation on the electrode surface renders the construction and operation of this DNA nanodevice restorable. To make full use of this DNA nanodevice, ferrocene (Fc) has been further employed for the fabrication of the molecular device. On one hand, the state switches of the DNA nanodevice can be characterized conveniently and reliably by the obtained electrochemical signals from Fc. On the other hand, β-cyclodextrin-ferrocene (β-CD-Fc) host-guest system can be introduced by Fc, which functionalizes this molecular device. Based on different electrochemical behaviors of β-CD under different states, this DNA nanodevice can actualize directional loading, transporting and unloading of β-CD in nanoscale. Therefore, this DNA nanodevice bares promising applications in controllable molecular transport and release, which are of great value to molecular device design. PMID:27384943

  9. DFT-based Modeling of Field-Dependent Control and Response of Nanomagnetic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Regardless of whether one is interested in characterizing, utilizing or controlling molecular-scale systems [1], one requisite to their understanding, design, and improvement is the ability to realistically model their response to electromagnetic fields. Since such responses are often collective their description requires an understanding of the interplay between bonding, spin, spin-orbit, vibrations, and electromagnetic fields. Inclusion of spin and magnetism influences the behaviors significantly. I provide an overview of a density-functional-based method (NRLMOL) for determining resonant tunneling of magnetization and Berry's phase oscillations in molecular magnets (primarily Mn12-Acetate and derivatives) [2] and spin-electric effects in frustrated spin systems [Na12Cu3(AsW9O33)2.3H20] [3]. The complexities related to spin- and magnetically dependent transport are compared to those of a nonmagnetic case [4]. Direct comparisons to experiments will be made. Challenges and recent progress associated with incorporating these effects into a realistic description of the frequency and amplitude dependent field driven response of many-electron/spin nanosystems will be discussed.[4pt] [1] MRP and SN Khanna, PRB 60 9566 (1999).[0pt] [2] AV Postnikov, J. Kortus & MRP, PSSB 243 2533 (2006).[0pt] [3] MF Islam, JF Nossa, CM Canali, & MRP, PRB 82 15546 (2010).[0pt] [4] N.A. Zimbovskaya, MRP, AS Blum, BR Ratna and R. Allen, JCP 130 094702 (2009).

  10. Materials for sustained and controlled release of nutrients and molecules to support plant growth.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Drew; Gu, Frank X

    2012-02-01

    Controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) are a branch of materials that are designed to improve the soil release kinetics of chemical fertilizers to address problems stemming losses from runoff or other factors. Current CRFs are used but only in a limited market due to relatively high costs and doubts about their abilities to result in higher yields and increased profitability for agricultural businesses. New technologies are emerging that promise to improve the efficacy of CRFs to add additional functionality and reduce cost to make CRFs a more viable alternative to traditional chemical fertilizer treatment. CRFs that offer ways of reducing air and water pollution from fertilizer treatments, improving the ability of plants to access required nutrients, improving water retention to increase drought resistance, and reducing the amount of fertilizer needed to provide maximum crop yields are under development. A wide variety of different strategies are being considered to tackle this problem, and each approach offers different advantages and drawbacks. Agricultural industries will soon be forced to move toward more efficient and sustainable practices to respond to increasing fertilizer cost and desire for sustainable growing practices. CRFs have the potential to solve many problems in agriculture and help enable this shift while maintaining profitability. PMID:22224363

  11. Materials for sustained and controlled release of nutrients and molecules to support plant growth.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Drew; Gu, Frank X

    2012-02-01

    Controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) are a branch of materials that are designed to improve the soil release kinetics of chemical fertilizers to address problems stemming losses from runoff or other factors. Current CRFs are used but only in a limited market due to relatively high costs and doubts about their abilities to result in higher yields and increased profitability for agricultural businesses. New technologies are emerging that promise to improve the efficacy of CRFs to add additional functionality and reduce cost to make CRFs a more viable alternative to traditional chemical fertilizer treatment. CRFs that offer ways of reducing air and water pollution from fertilizer treatments, improving the ability of plants to access required nutrients, improving water retention to increase drought resistance, and reducing the amount of fertilizer needed to provide maximum crop yields are under development. A wide variety of different strategies are being considered to tackle this problem, and each approach offers different advantages and drawbacks. Agricultural industries will soon be forced to move toward more efficient and sustainable practices to respond to increasing fertilizer cost and desire for sustainable growing practices. CRFs have the potential to solve many problems in agriculture and help enable this shift while maintaining profitability.

  12. Water molecules can control the side-chain rotamer distribution of an aryl peptide in a nonpolar environment.

    PubMed

    Radding, W

    1988-06-01

    With computer-controlled circular dichroism (CD) spectrophotometry it is possible to obtain difference CD spectra which result from small perturbations to the environment of a chiral molecule. In the experiments described here a dry iso-octane solution of cyclobis-N-methyl-L-phenylalanine (c-(NMe-L-Phe)2) has been perturbed by exposure to water vapor. The resulting difference spectrum shows that water coordination to c-(NMe-L-Phe)2 eliminates negative ellipticity in the 244 nm region, while it simultaneously creates positive CD intensity in the 212 nm region. These two features of the difference spectrum plus related features of other direct spectra imply that water coordinated with p-orbital unpaired electrons of the carbonyl interferes sterically with the chi = 180 degrees side-chain rotamer. It can be expected that in this way hydrogen bonding of any species to backbone carbonyls can control the rotamer distribution of aromatic side-chains, if one of the rotamers occludes unpaired electrons of the carbonyl. Such control may offer an on-off switch for electron transport through proteins.

  13. Group delay locking of coherently combined broadband lasers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S Benjamin; Weber, Mark E; Goodno, Gregory D

    2012-02-15

    We demonstrate a method for single-detector coherent sensing and automated coalignment of group delays in a coherently combined laser array, enabling robust coherent combining of broadband sources despite initial path mismatches exceeding the laser coherence length. The method is based on Fourier-domain filtering of the coherently combined laser beam to extract error signals, and it is equally applicable to controlling both spatial and temporal misalignments.

  14. Coherent catastrophism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, D. J.; Clube, S. V. M.; Napier, W. M.; Steel, D. I.

    We review the theoretical and observational evidence that, on timescales relevant to mankind, the prime collision hazard is posed by temporally correlated impacts (coherent catastrophism, Δt ˜ 10 2-10 4 yr) rather than random ones (stochastic catastrophism, Δt ˜ 10 5-10 8 yr). The mechanism whereby coherent incursions into and through the terrestrial atmosphere occur is described as being the result of giant cometary bodies arriving in orbits with perihelia in the inner solar system. Hierarchical fragmentation of such large (100 km-plus) bodies — due to thermal stresses near perihelion, collisions in the asteroid belt, or passages through the Jovian Roche radius — results in numerous ˜kilometre-sized objects being left in short-period orbits, and appearing in telescopic searches as Apollo-type asteroids. Many more smaller objects, in the 10-100 metre size range and only recently observed, by the Spacewatch team, are expected to be in replenished clusters in particular orbits as a result of continuing disintegrations of large, differentiated, cometary objects. Gravitational perturbations by Jupiter bring these clusters around to have a node at 1 AU in a cyclic fashion, leading to impacts at certain times of year every few years during active periods lasting a few centuries, such periods being separated by intervals of a few millennia. Furthermore, fragmentations within the hierarchy result in significant bombardment commensurabilities ( Δt ˜ 10-10 2 yr) during active periods occurring at random intervals ( Δt ˜ 10 2-10 3 yr). It appears that the Earth has been subject to such impacts since the break-up of such a comet ˜2×10 4 years ago; currently we are not passing through a high-risk epoch, although some phenomena originating in the products of this break-up have been observed in the 20th century. This most recent hierarchical disintegration, associated with four well-known meteor showers and termed the Taurid Complex, is now recognized as resulting

  15. Magneto-transport and optical control of magnetization in organic systems: From polymers to molecule-based magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozdag, Kadriye Deniz

    Organic systems can be synthesized to have various impressive properties such as room temperature magnetism, electrical conductivity as high as conventional metals and magnetic field dependent transport. In this dissertation, we report comprehensive experimental studies in two different classes of organic systems, V-Cr Prussian blue molecule-based magnets and polyaniline nanofiber networks. The first system, V-Cr Prussian blue magnets, belongs to a family of cyano-bridged bi-metallic compounds which display a broad range of interesting photoinduced magnetic properties. A notable example for optically controllable molecule-based magnets is Co-Fe Prussian blue magnet (Tc ˜ 12 K), which exhibits light-induced changes in between magnetic states together with glassy behavior. In this dissertation, the first reports of reversible photoinduced magnetic phenomena in V-Cr Prussian blue analogs and the analysis of its AC and DC magnetization behavior are presented. Optical excitation of V-Cr Prussian blue, one of the few room temperature molecule-based magnets, with UV light (lambda = 350 nm) suppresses magnetization, whereas subsequent excitation with green light (lambda = 514 nm) increases magnetization. The partial recovery effect of green light is observed only when the sample is previously UV-irradiated. Moreover the photoinduced state has a long lifetime at low temperatures (tau > 106 s at T = 10 K) indicating that V-Cr Prussian blue reaches a hidden metastable state upon illumination with UV light. The effects of optical excitation are maintained up to 200 K and completely erased when the sample is warmed above 250 K. Results of detailed magnetic studies and the likely microscopic mechanisms for the photo illumination effects on magnetic properties are discussed. The second organic system, polyaniline nanofiber networks, was synthesized via dilute polymerization and studied at low and high electric and magnetic fields for temperatures 2 K--250 K for their magneto

  16. Reduction of phase-induced intensity noise in a fiber-based coherent Doppler lidar using polarization control.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2010-03-01

    Optimization of signal-to-noise ratio is an important aspect in the design of optical heterodyne detection systems such as a coherent Doppler lidar (CDL). In a CDL, optimal performance is achieved when the noise in the detector signal is dominated by local oscillator shot-noise. Most modern CDL systems are built using rugged and cost-efficient fiber optic components. Unfortunately, leakage signals such as residual reflections inherent within fiber components (e.g. circulator) can introduce phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) to the Doppler spectrum in a CDL. Such excess noise may be a few orders of magnitude above the shot-noise level within the relevant CDL frequency bandwidth--corrupting the measurement of typically weak backscattered signals. In this study, observation of PIIN in a fiber-based CDL with a master-oscillator power-amplifier tapered semiconductor laser source is reported. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate what we believe is a newly proposed method using a simple polarization scheme to reduce PIIN by more than an order of magnitude.

  17. RA Acts in a Coherent Feed-Forward Mechanism with Tbx5 to Control Limb Bud Induction and Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Satoko; Wilde, Susan M.; Wood, Sophie; Logan, Malcolm P.O.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The retinoic acid (RA)- and β-catenin-signaling pathways regulate limb bud induction and initiation; however, their mechanisms of action are not understood and have been disputed. We demonstrate that both pathways are essential and that RA and β-catenin/TCF/LEF signaling act cooperatively with Hox gene inputs to directly regulate Tbx5 expression. Furthermore, in contrast to previous models, we show that Tbx5 and Tbx4 expression in forelimb and hindlimb, respectively, are not sufficient for limb outgrowth and that input from RA is required. Collectively, our data indicate that RA signaling and Tbx genes act in a coherent feed-forward loop to regulate Fgf10 expression and, as a result, establish a positive feedback loop of FGF signaling between the limb mesenchyme and ectoderm. Our results incorporate RA-, β-catenin/TCF/LEF-, and FGF-signaling pathways into a regulatory network acting to recruit cells of the embryo flank to become limb precursors. PMID:26212321

  18. Retinal optical coherence tomography at 1 μm with dynamic focus control and axial motion tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cua, Michelle; Lee, Sujin; Miao, Dongkai; Ju, Myeong Jin; Mackenzie, Paul J.; Jian, Yifan; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2016-02-01

    High-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal imaging is important to noninvasively visualize the various retinal structures to aid in better understanding of the pathogenesis of vision-robbing diseases. However, conventional OCT systems have a trade-off between lateral resolution and depth-of-focus. In this report, we present the development of a focus-stacking OCT system with automatic focus optimization for high-resolution, extended-focal-range clinical retinal imaging by incorporating a variable-focus liquid lens into the sample arm optics. Retinal layer tracking and selection was performed using a graphics processing unit accelerated processing platform for focus optimization, providing real-time layer-specific en face visualization. After optimization, multiple volumes focused at different depths were acquired, registered, and stitched together to yield a single, high-resolution focus-stacked dataset. Using this system, we show high-resolution images of the retina and optic nerve head, from which we extracted clinically relevant parameters such as the nerve fiber layer thickness and lamina cribrosa microarchitecture.

  19. Humidity-controlled preparation of frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Yuki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2012-05-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy (CXDM) has the potential to visualize the structures of micro- to sub-micrometer-sized biological particles, such as cells and organelles, at high resolution. Toward advancing structural studies on the functional states of such particles, here, we developed a system for the preparation of frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic CXDM experiments. The system, which comprised a moist air generator, microscope, micro-injector mounted on a micromanipulator, custom-made sample preparation chamber, and flash-cooling device, allowed for the manipulation of sample particles in the relative humidity range of 20%-94%rh at 293 K to maintain their hydrated and functional states. Here, we report the details of the system and the operation procedure, including its application to the preparation of a frozen-hydrated chloroplast sample. Sample quality was evaluated through a cryogenic CXDM experiment conducted at BL29XUL of SPring-8. Taking the performance of the system and the quality of the sample, the system was suitable to prepare frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic CXDM experiments.

  20. Humidity-controlled preparation of frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Takayama, Yuki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2012-05-15

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy (CXDM) has the potential to visualize the structures of micro- to sub-micrometer-sized biological particles, such as cells and organelles, at high resolution. Toward advancing structural studies on the functional states of such particles, here, we developed a system for the preparation of frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic CXDM experiments. The system, which comprised a moist air generator, microscope, micro-injector mounted on a micromanipulator, custom-made sample preparation chamber, and flash-cooling device, allowed for the manipulation of sample particles in the relative humidity range of 20%-94%rh at 293 K to maintain their hydrated and functional states. Here, we report the details of the system and the operation procedure, including its application to the preparation of a frozen-hydrated chloroplast sample. Sample quality was evaluated through a cryogenic CXDM experiment conducted at BL29XUL of SPring-8. Taking the performance of the system and the quality of the sample, the system was suitable to prepare frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic CXDM experiments.