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Sample records for molecules forming incomplete

  1. Algodystrophy: complex regional pain syndrome and incomplete forms

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell’Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Celli, Fabio; Cazzella, Niki; Guido, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Summary The algodystrophy, also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), is a painful disease characterized by erythema, edema, functional impairment, sensory and vasomotor disturbance. The diagnosis of CRPS is based solely on clinical signs and symptoms, and for exclusion compared to other forms of chronic pain. There is not a specific diagnostic procedure; careful clinical evaluation and additional test should lead to an accurate diagnosis. There are similar forms of chronic pain known as bone marrow edema syndrome, in which is absent the history of trauma or triggering events and the skin dystrophic changes and vasomotor alterations. These incomplete forms are self-limited, and surgical treatment is generally not needed. It is still controversial, if these forms represent a distinct self-limiting entity or an incomplete variant of CRPS. In painful unexplained conditions such as frozen shoulder, post-operative stiff shoulder or painful knee prosthesis, the algodystrophy, especially in its incomplete forms, could represent the cause. PMID:27252736

  2. Incomplete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffer, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Elizabeth Parker's reflection on her experience as a musician educator working with children in an urban non-profit context is an uncomfortable read for me. In a courageous act, Parker makes public her private misgivings about her past experience and allows scrutiny of them in the form of two public commentaries as well as the private musings of…

  3. Identification and structural characterization of two incompletely processed forms of the fourth component of human complement.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, A C; Atkinson, J P

    1983-01-01

    Immunoprecipitates of human C4 from EDTA-plasma were incubated with [14C]methylamine and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. In addition to finding label in the alpha-chains of the secreted (C4s) and predominant plasma (C4p) forms of C4, two additional molecules with apparent molecular weights of approximately 168,000 (p168) and approximately 125,000 (p125) covalently incorporated methylamine, indicating the presence of an internal thioester bond. These two molecules were present at a concentration of approximately 5% of total plasma C4 and were not immunoprecipitated by antisera to C3 or alpha 2-macroglobulin. A human hepatoma-derived cell line (HepG2), in addition to synthesizing C4s and small quantities of the polypeptide precursor of C4 (pro-C4), was found to secrete p168 and p125 at concentrations of 14 +/- 4.8 and 21 +/- 9.2% (mean +/- SD), respectively, of total secreted C4. These molecules were not found intracellularly. Both molecules were present on reduced, but not nonreduced, SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Chido (C4B) and Rodgers' (C4A) alloantisera precipitated the C4A and C4B variants of pro-C4, p168, p125, and C4s. Both tryptic and Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease peptide analyses showed homology between p168 and the beta- and alpha-chains and between p125 and the alpha- and gamma-chains. Partial NH2-terminal sequencing revealed that the beta-chain was NH2-terminal in p168 and that the alpha-chain was NH2-terminal in p125. Taken together, these data indicate that p168 and p125 represent uncleaved beta-alpha- and alpha-gamma-fragments of pro-C4, respectively. Thus, in most individuals, plasma C4 consists of five structurally distinct molecules, the single polypeptide precursor (pro-C4), the three-subunit secreted (C4s) and predominant plasma (C4p) forms of C4, and two incompletely processed two-subunit molecules with uncleaved beta-alpha- (p168) or uncleaved alpha-gamma (p125)-subunits. In addition

  4. Callus formation is associated with hyperproliferation and incomplete differentiation of keratinocytes, and increased expression of adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Kim, S; Choi, H I; Choi, Y J; Lee, Y S; Sohn, K C; Lee, Y; Kim, C D; Yoon, T J; Lee, J H; Lee, Y H

    2010-09-01

    A callus is a local thickening of skin, characterized by accelerated keratinization and a reduced rate of desquamation. However, the mechanism of callus formation is not fully understood. To evaluate the expression patterns, in callused skin, of genes that are implicated in keratinization and adhesion/desquamation. Samples of skin from the dorsum of the foot (DF), centre of the plantar arch (CP) and anterior aspect of the heel (AH) were obtained from fresh cadavers, and protein and gene expression were determined by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The stratum corneum in the DF showed a splitting phenotype by conventional haematoxylin and eosin staining, while the stratum corneum was normal in the AH. Cells of the stratum corneum in the AH were nonsquamous. Expression of cornification-related molecules including involucrin, filaggrin, caspase 14 and calcium-sensing receptor was higher in the AH. Similarly, expression of adhesive proteins such as corneodesmosin, desmoglein 1 and desmocollin 1 was increased in the AH. However, protease-activated receptor 2 expression was reduced in the stratum granulosum in the AH. The number of proliferating cells in the stratum basale was significantly increased in the AH, compared with the DF and CP. Our data suggest that calluses form as a result of hyperproliferation and incomplete differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes, and increased expression of adhesion molecules. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. MDM2 regulates a novel form of incomplete neoplastic transformation of Theileria parva infected lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Kyoko; Kajino, Kiichi; Hattori, Masakazu; Wallace, Maura; Morrison, Ivan; Greene, Mark I; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2013-02-01

    Our efforts are concerned with identifying features of incomplete malignant transformation caused by non viral pathogens. Theileria parva (T. parva) is a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite that can cause a fatal lymphoproliferative disease in cattle. The T. parva-infected lymphocytes display a transformed phenotype and proliferate in culture media like the other tumor cells, however those cells will return to normal after antiprotozoal treatment reflecting the incomplete nature of transformation. To identify signaling pathways involved in this form of transformation of T. parva-infected cells, we screened a library of anticancer compounds. Among these, TIBC, a specific inhibitor of MDM2, markedly inhibited proliferation of T. parva-infected lymphocytes and promoted apoptosis. Therefore we analyzed MDM2 function in T. parva-infected cells. Several T. parva-infected cell lines showed increased expression level of MDM2 with alternatively spliced isoforms compared to the lymphoma cells or ConA blasts. In addition, buparvaquone affected MDM2 expression in T. parva transformed cells. Moreover, p53 protein accumulation and function were impaired in T. parva-infected cells after cisplatin induced DNA damage despite the increased p53 transcription level. Finally, the treatment of T. parva-infected cells with boronic-chalcone derivatives TIBC restored p53 protein accumulation and induced Bax expression. These results suggest that the overexpression of MDM2 is closely linked to the inhibition of p53-dependent apoptosis of T. parva-infected lymphocytes. Aberrant expression of host lymphocyte MDM2 induced by cytoplasmic existence of T. parva, directly and/or indirectly, is associated with aspects of this type of transformation of T. parva-infected lymphocytes. This form of transformation shares features of oncogene induced malignant phenotype acquisition.

  6. Incomplete laboratory request forms: the extent and impact on critical results at a tertiary hospital in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nutt, Louise; Zemlin, Annalise E; Erasmus, Rajiv T

    2008-09-01

    Research has demonstrated that most laboratory errors occur in the preanalytical phase of testing. In view of the paucity of studies examining preanalytical errors, we evaluated our laboratory request forms for the frequency and impact of incomplete data. This study examined all request forms received at our laboratory during a five-day period. The forms were scrutinized for the presence of specific parameters. The impact of abbreviated diagnoses was analysed, as well as how lack of ward or telephone details affects the communication of critical results to clinicians. A total of 2550 request forms were analysed. Medication(s) used by the patient (89.6%) and doctor's contact number (61.2%) were the most incomplete parameters. No diagnosis was provided on 19.1% of forms, and when a diagnosis was present it was an abbreviated form in 37.3%. This resulted in 35.5% of diagnoses not being recorded by reception staff. Incomplete ward information was found on 4.9% of forms. In a separate search, the impact of 151 request forms (collected over a period of eight months), with incomplete ward location information and corresponding to critical results was assessed. Critical results were not communicated by telephone to clinicians in 19.9% of cases. As laboratory data influences 70% of medical diagnoses, incorrect or incomplete data provided to the laboratory could significantly impact the success and cost of overall treatment.

  7. Towards a new paradigm of microscopic colitis: Incomplete and variant forms

    PubMed Central

    Guagnozzi, Danila; Landolfi, Stefania; Vicario, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that has emerged in the last three decades as a leading cause of chronic watery diarrhoea. MC classically includes two main subtypes: lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC). Other types of histopathological changes in the colonic mucosa have been described in patients with chronic diarrhoea, without fulfilling the conventional histopathological criteria for MC diagnosis. Whereas those unclassified alterations remained orphan for a long time, the use of the term incomplete MC (MCi) is nowadays universally accepted. However, it is still unresolved whether CC, LC and MCi should be considered as one clinical entity or if they represent three related conditions. In contrast to classical MC, the real epidemiological impact of MCi remains unknown, because only few epidemiological studies and case reports have been described. MCi presents clinical characteristics indistinguishable from complete MC with a good response to budesonide and cholestiramine. Although a number of medical treatments have been assayed in MC patients, currently, there is no causal treatment approach for MC and MCi, and only empirical strategies have been performed. Further studies are needed in order to identify their etiopathogenic mechanisms, and to better classify and treat MC. PMID:27784958

  8. Kinematic Slowing of Molecules Formed by Reactive Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Ningning; Loesch, Hansjuergen

    2007-03-09

    We report the generation of a beam of slow (translationally cold) KBr molecules formed by exoergic reactive collisions in counterpropagating beams of K atoms and HBr molecules. The intensity of the slow beam is estimated to 4x10{sup 11} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}. The velocity distribution (density) peaks at 42.5 m/s corresponding to a formal temperature of 13 K. About 7% of the molecules move at velocities between 14.2 and 20 m/s and an estimated fraction of 7% is slower than 14.2 m/s.

  9. Correlation of mutant menin stability with clinical expression of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and its incomplete forms.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Satoko; Nagamura, Yuko; Yaguchi, Hiroko; Ohkura, Naganari; Tsukada, Toshihiko

    2011-11-01

    Germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene MEN1 are found not only in typical multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) but also in its incomplete forms such as familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) and apparently sporadic parathyroid tumor (ASPT). No definitive genotype-phenotype correlation has been established between these clinical forms and MEN1 gene mutations. We previously demonstrated that mutant menin proteins associated with MEN1 are rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. To examine whether the intracellular stability of mutant menin is correlated with clinical phenotypes, we developed a method of evaluating menin stability and examined 20 mutants associated with typical MEN1 (17 missense, two in-frame deletion, one nonsense) and 21 mutants associated with FIHP or ASPT (19 missense, two in-frame deletion). All tested mutants associated with typical MEN1 showed reduced stability. Some missense and in-frame deletion mutants (G28A, R171W, T197I, E255K, E274A, Y353del and E366D) associated with FIHP or ASPT were almost as stable as or only slightly less stable than wild-type menin, while others were as unstable as those associated with typical MEN1. Some stable mutants exhibited substantial biological activities when tested by JunD-dependent transactivation assay. These findings suggest that certain missense and in-frame mutations are fairly stable and retain intrinsic biological activity, and might be specifically associated with incomplete clinical phenotypes. The menin stability test will provide useful information for the management of patients carrying germline MEN1 mutations especially when they have missense or in-frame variants of ambiguous clinical significance.

  10. Tracking molecular resonance forms of donor–acceptor push–pull molecules by single-molecule conductance experiments

    PubMed Central

    Lissau, Henriette; Frisenda, Riccardo; Olsen, Stine T.; Jevric, Martyn; Parker, Christian R.; Kadziola, Anders; Hansen, Thorsten; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Brøndsted Nielsen, Mogens; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of molecules to change colour on account of changes in solvent polarity is known as solvatochromism and used spectroscopically to characterize charge-transfer transitions in donor–acceptor molecules. Here we report that donor–acceptor-substituted molecular wires also exhibit distinct properties in single-molecule electronics under the influence of a bias voltage, but in absence of solvent. Two oligo(phenyleneethynylene) wires with donor–acceptor substitution on the central ring (cruciform-like) exhibit remarkably broad conductance peaks measured by the mechanically controlled break-junction technique with gold contacts, in contrast to the sharp peak of simpler molecules. From a theoretical analysis, we explain this by different degrees of charge delocalization and hence cross-conjugation at the central ring. Thus, small variations in the local environment promote the quinoid resonance form (off), the linearly conjugated (on) or any form in between. This shows how the conductance of donor–acceptor cruciforms is tuned by small changes in the environment. PMID:26667583

  11. Ray Calculations of Ocean Sound Channels Using a Pocket Programmable Calculator and Extended Forms of the Hirsch-Carter Mathematical Model with Tables of the Incomplete Beta Function.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    pocket programmable calculator on two Sargasso Sea profiles, one from the center of a cold ring eddy are given. Necessary tables of the incomplete beta-function and calculator programs are included in a supplement.

  12. Conformational flexibility and hydrogen-bonding patterns of the neotame molecule in its various solid forms.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zedong; Munson, Eric J; Schroeder, Steve A; Prakash, Indra; Grant, David J W

    2002-09-01

    The conformational flexibility and the molecular packing patterns of the neotame molecule in its various crystal forms, including neotame monohydrate, methanol solvate, ethanol solvate, benzene solvate, and anhydrate polymorph G, are analyzed in this work. The Cerius2 molecular modeling program with the Dreiding 2.21 force field was employed to calculate the most stable conformations of neotame molecules in the gaseous state and to analyze the conformations of the neotame molecule in its various crystal forms. Using graph set analysis, the hydrogen bond patterns of these crystal forms were compared. The neotame molecule takes different conformations in its crystal forms and in the free gaseous state. Cerius2 found 10 conformers with lower conformational energies than those in the actual crystal structures, which represent an energetic compromise. The relatively large differences between the energies of the conformers indicate the necessity for rewriting or customizing the force field for neotame. The hydrogen bonding patterns of the neotame methanol and ethanol solvates are identical, but different from those of the other three forms, which also differ from each other. The neotame molecule in its various crystal forms takes different conformations that differ from those in the gaseous state because of the influence of crystal packing. The intramolecular ring, S5, is present in all the crystal forms. The following hydrogen bonding patterns occur in some of the crystal forms: diad, D; intramolecular rings, S(6) and S(7); chains, C(5) and C(6); and an intermolecular ring, R2(2)(12). Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Structural and functional mosaic nature of MHC class I molecules in their peptide-free form.

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, Eiji; Kuroki, Kimiko; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Igaki, Takahiro; Iguchi, Takeshi; Maenaka, Katsumi; Kato, Koichi

    2013-10-01

    Despite well-organized peptide-loading mechanisms within the endoplasmic reticulum, major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules can be displayed on cell surfaces in peptide-free forms. Although these empty MHC-I (eMHC-I) molecules are presumably involved in physiological and pathological processes, little is known about their structures and functions due to their instability. Using bacterially expressed HLA-Cw*07:02 heavy chain and β2 microglobulin molecules, we successfully established an in vitro refolding method to prepare eMHC-I molecules in sufficient quantities for detailed structural analyses. NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with subunit-specific ¹⁵N-labeling techniques revealed that the peptide-binding domains and the adjacent regions were unstructured in the peptide-free form, while the remaining regions maintained their structural integrity. Consistent with our spectroscopic data, the eMHC-I complex could interact with leukocyte Ig-like receptor B1, but not with killer cell Ig-like receptor 2DL3. Thus, eMHC-I molecules have a mosaic nature in terms of their three-dimensional structure and binding to immunologically relevant molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Haldane State Formed by Oxygen Molecules Encapsulated in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Masayuki; Ikeda, Masami; Kida, Takanori; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Tadera, Shin; Kyakuno, Haruka; Yanagi, Kazuhiro; Maniwa, Yutaka; Okunishi, Kouichi

    2014-11-01

    We report on the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetic susceptibility, and high-field magnetization measurements of oxygen molecules, which are unique magnetic homonuclear diatomic molecules with spin-1, encapsulated in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with diameters of about 0.8 nm. Antiferromagnetic interactions between neighboring oxygen molecules are expected in SWCNTs, resulting in the formation of a spin-1 one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet, known as a Haldane magnet. The XRD pattern can be predicted accurately by considering the expected oxygen molecule alignment. The temperature evolution of the magnetic susceptibility and the high-field magnetization curve are typical of those for a Haldane magnet with spin-1. The results indicate that the Haldane state has been realized in a nanospaced material for the first time. This provides an alternative to the conventional condensed matter approach to forming quantum spin systems.

  15. Complex organic molecules toward low-mass and high-mass star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favre, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Bergin, E.; Carvajal, M.; Brouillet, N.; Despois, D.; Jørgensen, J.; Kleiner, I.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important questions in molecular astrophysics is how, when, and where complex organic molecules, COMs (≥ 6 atoms) are formed. In the Interstellar-Earth connection context, could this have a bearing on the origin of life on Earth? Formation mechanisms of COMs, which include potentially prebiotic molecules, are still debated and may include grain-mantle and/or gas-phase chemistry. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to the interstellar molecular complexification, along with the involved physicochemical processes, is mandatory to answer the above questions. In that context, active researches are ongoing in theory, laboratory experiment, chemical modeling and observations. Thanks to recent progress in radioastronomy instrumentation for both single-dish and millimeter array (e.g. Herschel, NOEMA, ALMA), new results have been obtained. I will review some notable results on the detection of COMs, including prebiotic molecules, towards star forming regions.

  16. Models of fullerene molecules: Deliberately truncated face forms of icosahedral symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Dilanyan, R.A.; Rybchenko, O.G.; Shekhtman, V.Sh.

    1994-01-01

    A method is proposed to describe fullerene molecules C{sub n} with the aid of noncrystallographic icosahedral m{bar 3}{bar 5} and 235 groups. It is shown that the truncation of face forms of icosahedral symmetry by a pentagonal dodecahedron yields the C{sub 60}, C{sub 80}, and C{sub 140} polyhedra. For these clusters, the radii of the spheres circumscribing the polyhedra, the numerical values of the coordinates of the atoms forming these molecules, and the parameters of the face-centered crystal (fcc) lattices formed by special packing of spheres were calculated. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the fullerene compounds C{sub 60}, C{sub 80}, and C{sub 140} were simulated. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Crystal chemistry of layered structures formed by linear rigid silyl-capped molecules.

    PubMed

    Lumpi, Daniel; Kautny, Paul; Stöger, Berthold; Fröhlich, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    The crystallization behavior of methylthio- or methylsulfonyl-containing spacer extended Z,Z-bis-ene-yne molecules capped with trimethylsilyl groups obtained by (tandem) thiophene ring fragmentation and of two non-spacer extended analogs were investigated. The rigid and linear molecules generally crystallized in layers whereby the flexibility of the layer interfaces formed by the silyl groups leads to a remarkably rich crystal chemistry. The molecules with benzene and thiophene spacers both crystallized with C2/c symmetry and can be considered as merotypes. Increasing the steric bulk of the core by introduction of ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) gave a structure incommensurately modulated in the [010] direction. Further increase of steric demand in the case of a dimethoxythiophene restored periodicity along [010] but resulted in a doubling of the c vector. Two different polytypes were observed, which feature geometrically different layer interfaces (non-OD, order-disorder, polytypes), one with a high stacking fault probability. Oxidation of the methylthio groups of the benzene-based molecule to methylsulfonyl groups led to three polymorphs (two temperature-dependent), which were analyzed by Hirshfeld surface d e/d i fingerprint plots. The analogously oxidized EDOT-based molecule crystallized as systematic twins owing to its OD polytypism. Shortening of the backbone by removal of the aryl core resulted in an enantiomorphic structure and a further shortening by removal of a methylthio-ene fragment again in a systematically twinned OD polytype.

  18. Photodissociation of organic molecules in star-forming regions. II. Acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilling, S.; Santos, A. C. F.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.

    2006-04-01

    Fragments from organic molecule dissociation (such as reactive ions and radicals) can form interstellar complex molecules like amino acids. The goal of this work is to experimentally study photoionization and photodissociation processes of acetic acid (CH3COOH), a glycine (NH2CH2COOH) precursor molecule, by soft X-ray photons. The measurements were taken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing soft X-ray photons from a toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline (100-310 eV). Mass spectra were obtained using the photoelectron photoion coincidence (PEPICO) method. Kinetic energy distribution and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Absolute photoionization and photodissociation cross sections were also determined. We have found, among the channels leading to ionization, that only 4-6% of CH3COOH survive the strong ionization field. CH3CO^+, COOH+ and CH3+ ions are the main fragments, and the presence of the former may indicate that the production-destruction process of acetic acid in hot molecular cores (HMCs) could decrease the H2O abundance since the net result of this process converts H2O into OH + H^+. The COOH+ ion plays an important role in ion-molecule reactions to form large biomolecules like glycine.

  19. The First Detections of the Key Prebiotic Molecule PO in Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Fontani, F.; Beltrán, M. T.; Vasyunin, A.; Caselli, P.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Cesaroni, R.

    2016-08-01

    Phosphorus is a crucial element in biochemistry, in particular the P-O bond, which is key in the formation of the backbone of deoxyribonucleic acid. So far, PO has only been detected toward the envelope of evolved stars, but never toward star-forming regions. We report the first detection of PO toward two massive star-forming regions, W51 e1/e2 and W3(OH), using data from the IRAM 30 m telescope. PN has also been detected toward the two regions. The abundance ratio PO/PN is 1.8 and 3 for W51 and W3(OH), respectively. Our chemical model indicates that the two molecules are chemically related and are formed via gas-phase ion-molecule and neutral-neutral reactions during cold collapse. The molecules freeze out onto grains at the end of the collapse and desorb during the warm-up phase once the temperature reaches ˜35 K. Similar abundances of the two species are expected during a period of ˜5 × 104 yr at the early stages of the warm-up phase, when the temperature is in the range 35-90 K. The observed molecular abundances of 10-10 are predicted by the model if a relatively high initial abundance of 5 × 10-9 of depleted phosphorus is assumed.

  20. Millimeter and Submillimeter Studies of O(^1D) Insertion Reactions to Form Molecules of Astrophysical Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Brian; Wehres, Nadine; Deprince, Bridget Alligood; Roy, Althea A. M.; Laas, Jacob; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2015-06-01

    While both the number of detected interstellar molecules and their chemical complexity continue to increase, understanding of the processes leading to their formation is lacking. Our research group combines laboratory spectroscopy, observational astronomy, and astrochemical modeling for an interdisciplinary examination of the chemistry of star and planet formation. This talk will focus on our laboratory studies of O(^1D) insertion reactions with organic molecules to produce molecules of astrophysical interest. By employing these reactions in a supersonic expansion, we are able to produce interstellar organic reaction intermediates that are unstable under terrestrial conditions; we then probe the products using millimeter and submillimeter spectroscopy. We benchmarked this setup using the well-studied O(^1D) + methane reaction to form methanol. After optimizing methanol production, we moved on to study the O(^1D) + ethylene reaction to form vinyl alcohol (CH_2CHOH), and the O(^1D) + methyl amine reaction to form aminomethanol (NH_2CH_2OH). Vinyl alcohol measurements have now been extended up to 450 GHz, and the associated spectral analysis is complete. A possible detection of aminomethanol has also been made, and continued spectral studies and analysis are underway. We will present the results from these experiments and discuss future applications of these molecular and spectroscopic techniques.

  1. Translational vibrations between chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules in solid-state aspirin form I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masae; Ishikawa, Yoichi

    2013-06-01

    We perform dispersion-corrected first-principles calculations, and far-infrared (terahertz) spectroscopic experiments at 4 K, to examine translational vibrations between chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules in solid-state aspirin form I. The calculated frequencies and relative intensities reproduce the observed spectrum to accuracy of 11 cm-1 or less. The stronger one of the two peaks assigned to the translational mode includes the stretching vibration of the weak hydrogen bond between the acetyl groups of a neighboring one-dimensional chain. The calculation of aspirin form II performed for comparison gives the stretching vibration of the weak hydrogen bond in one-dimensional chain.

  2. What Is Required for Highly Oxidized Molecules To Form Clusters with Sulfuric Acid?

    PubMed

    Elm, Jonas; Myllys, Nanna; Kurtén, Theo

    2017-06-15

    We have studied the specific requirements of a given neutral organic molecule to act as a stabilizer in sulfuric acid induced new particle formation. Based on an analysis of the reaction Gibbs free energies between simple functional groups and sulfuric acid, carboxylic acid groups are identified to show the strongest hydrogen bonding interaction with sulfuric acid. The free energy associated with the hydrogen bonding between sulfuric acid and 14 different carboxylic acids of atmospheric relevance reveal that the binding strength is very dependent on the ability of sulfuric acid to form an additional hydrogen bond via its vacant S-OH group to a γ-carbonyl group in the organic molecule. Extending the analysis to monoterpene oxidation products and further to large dimer esters, we identify the following necessary criteria for a given organic oxidation product to efficiently stabilize sulfuric acid clustering: (1) weak or no intramolecular hydrogen bonds in the isolated monomer; (2) more than two carboxylic acid groups. As a proof of concept we show that these requirements correspond to the docking of a sulfuric acid molecule between two non-interacting carboxylic acid groups in the organic molecule. These findings suggests that, for a given organic oxidation product to participate in the initial steps in new particle formation involving sulfuric acid, very distinct molecular features are required.

  3. A secreted form of the human lymphocyte cell surface molecule CD8 arises from alternative splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Giblin, P.; Kavathas, P. ); Ledbetter, J.A. )

    1989-02-01

    The human lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD8 is encoded by a single gene that gives rise to a 33- to 34-kDa glycoprotein expressed on the cell surface as a dimer and in higher molecular mass forms. The authors demonstrate that the mRNA is alternatively spliced so that an exon encoding a transmembrane domain is deleted. This gives rise to a 30-kDa molecule that is secreted and exists primarily as a monomer. mRNA corresponding to both forms is present in peripheral blood lymphocytes, Con A-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes, and three CD8{sup +} T-cell lines, with the membrane form being the major species. However, differences in the ratio of mRNA for membrane CD8 and secreted CD8 exist. In addition, the splicing pattern observed differs from the pattern found for the mouse CD8 gene. This mRNA is also alternatively spliced, but an exon encoding a cytoplasmic region is deleted, giving rise to a cell surface molecule that differs in its cytoplasmic tail from the protein encoded by the longer mRNA. Neither protein is secreted. This is one of the first examples of a different splicing pattern between two homologous mouse and human genes giving rise to very different proteins. This represents one mechanism of generating diversity during speciation.

  4. Therapeutic genome mutagenesis using synthetic donor DNA and triplex-forming molecules.

    PubMed

    Reza, Faisal; Glazer, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Genome mutagenesis can be achieved in a variety of ways, though a select few are suitable for therapeutic settings. Among them, the harnessing of intracellular homologous recombination affords the safety and efficacy profile suitable for such settings. Recombinagenic donor DNA and mutagenic triplex-forming molecules co-opt this natural recombination phenomenon to enable the specific, heritable editing and targeting of the genome. Editing the genome is achieved by designing the sequence-specific recombinagenic donor DNA to have base mismatches, insertions, and deletions that will be incorporated into the genome when it is used as a template for recombination. Targeting the genome is similarly achieved by designing the sequence-specific mutagenic triplex-forming molecules to further recruit the recombination machinery thereby upregulating its activity with the recombinagenic donor DNA. This combination of extracellularly introduced, designed synthetic molecules and intercellularly ubiquitous, evolved natural machinery enables the mutagenesis of chromosomes and engineering of whole genomes with great fidelity while limiting nonspecific interactions. Herein, we demonstrate the harnessing of recombinagenic donor DNA and mutagenic triplex-forming molecular technology for potential therapeutic applications. These demonstrations involve, among others, utilizing this technology to correct genes so that they become physiologically functional, to induce dormant yet functional genes in place of non-functional counterparts, to place induced genes under regulatory elements, and to disrupt genes to abrogate a cellular vulnerability. Ancillary demonstrations of the design and synthesis of this recombinagenic and mutagenic molecular technology as well as their delivery and assayed interaction with duplex DNA reveal a potent technological platform for engineering specific changes into the living genome.

  5. Microsolvation of anions by molecules forming CH··X- hydrogen bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepal, Binod; Scheiner, Steve

    2015-12-01

    Various anions were surrounded by n molecules of CF3H, which was used as a prototype CH donor solvent, and the structures and energies studied by M06-2X calculations with a 6-31+G∗∗ basis set. Anions considered included the halides F-, Cl-, Br- and I-, as well as those with multiple proton acceptor sites: CN-, NO3-, HCOO-, CH3COO-, HSO4-, H2PO4-, and anions with higher charges SO42-, HPO42- and PO43-. Well structured cages were formed and the average H-bond energy decreases steadily as the number of surrounding solvent molecules rises, even when n exceeds 6 and the CF3H molecules begin to interact with one another rather than with the central anion. Total binding energies are very nearly proportional to the magnitude of the negative charge on the anion. The free energy of complexation becomes more negative for larger n initially, but then reaches a minimum and begins to rise for larger values of n.

  6. Surface Molecules Released by Trypanosoma cruzi Metacyclic Forms Downregulate Host Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Tatiana Mordente; Cortez, Cristian; Novaes, Antônio da Silva; Yoshida, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    Background The question whether metacylic trypomastigote (MT) forms of different T. cruzi strains differentially release surface molecules, and how they affect host cell invasion, remains to be fully clarified. We addressed that question using T. cruzi strains that differ widely in the ability to invade cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Metacyclic forms were incubated at 37°C for 1 h in complete D10 medium or in nutrient-deprived PBS containing Ca2+ and Mg2+ (PBS++). The conditioned medium (CM), collected after parasite centrifugation, was used for cell invasion assays and Western blot analysis, using monoclonal antibodies directed to gp82 and gp90, the MT surface molecules that promote and negatively regulate invasion, respectively. CM of poorly invasive G strain (G-CM) contained high amounts of gp90 and gp82, either in vesicles or as soluble molecules. CM of highly invasive CL strain (CL-CM) contained gp90 and gp82 at very low levels. HeLa cells were incubated for 1 h with CL strain MT in D10, in absence or in the presence of G-CM or CL-CM. Parasite invasion was significantly inhibited by G-CM, but not by CL-CM. As G strain MT invasion rate in D10 is very low, assays with this strain were performed in PBS++, which induces invasion-promoting lysosome-spreading. G-CM, but not CL-CM, significantly inhibited G strain internalization, effect that was counteracted by preincubating G-CM with an anti-gp90 monoclonal antibody or anti-gp82 polyclonal antibody that do not recognize live MT. G strain CM generated in PBS++ contained much lower amounts of gp90 and gp82 as compared to CM produced in D10, and exhibited lower inhibitory effect on host cell invasion. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that the surface molecules spontaneously released by MT impair parasite-host cell interaction, gp82 presumably competing with the molecule expressed on MT surface for the host cell receptor, and gp90 further contributing to down modulate invasion. PMID:27483135

  7. Small-molecule inhibitors of the budded-to-hyphal-form transition in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Toenjes, Kurt A; Munsee, Suzanne M; Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Jeffrey, Rachel; Edwards, John E; Johnson, Douglas I

    2005-03-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can exist in multiple morphological states, including budded, pseudohyphal, and true hyphal forms. The ability to convert between the budded and hyphal forms, termed the budded-to-hyphal-form transition, is important for virulence and is regulated by multiple environmental and cellular signals. To identify inhibitors of this morphological transition, a microplate-based morphological assay was developed. With this assay, the known actin-inhibiting drugs latrunculin-A and jasplakinolide were shown to inhibit the transition in a dose-dependent and reversible manner. Five novel small molecules that reversibly inhibited the transition and hyphal elongation without affecting budded growth were identified. These molecules inhibited hyphal growth induced by Spider, Lee's, M199 pH 8, and 10% serum-containing media, with two molecules having a synergistic effect. The molecules also differentially affected the hyphal form-specific gene expression of HWP1 and endocytosis without disrupting the actin cytoskeleton or septin organization. Structural derivatives of one of the molecules were more effective inhibiters than the original molecule, while other derivatives had decreased efficacies. Several of the small molecules were able to reduce C. albicans-dependent damage to endothelial cells by inhibiting the budded-to-hyphal-form transition. These studies substantiated the effectiveness of the morphological assay and identified several novel molecules that, by virtue of their ability to inhibit the budded-to-hyphal-form transition, may be exploited as starting points for effective antifungal therapeutics in the future.

  8. Formation of ethylene glycol and other complex organic molecules in star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Beltrán, M. T.; Cesaroni, R.; Fontani, F.; Codella, C.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The detection of complex organic molecules related with prebiotic chemistry in star-forming regions allows us to investigate how the basic building blocks of life are formed. Aims: Ethylene glycol (CH2OH)2 is the simplest sugar alcohol and the reduced alcohol of the simplest sugar glycoladehyde (CH2OHCHO). We study the molecular abundance and spatial distribution of (CH2OH)2, CH2OHCHO and other chemically related complex organic species (CH3OCHO, CH3OCH3, and C2H5OH) towards the chemically rich massive star-forming region G31.41+0.31. Methods: We analyzed multiple single-dish (Green Bank Telescope and IRAM 30 m) and interferometric (Submillimeter Array) spectra towards G31.41+0.31, covering a range of frequencies from 45 to 258 GHz. We fitted the observed spectra with a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) synthetic spectra, and obtained excitation temperatures and column densities. We compared our findings in G31.41+0.31 with the results found in other environments, including low- and high-mass star-forming regions, quiescent clouds and comets. Results: We report for the first time the presence of the aGg' conformer of (CH2OH)2 towards G31.41+0.31, detecting more than 30 unblended lines. We also detected multiple transitions of other complex organic molecules such as CH2OHCHO, CH3OCHO, CH3OCH3, and C2H5OH. The high angular resolution images show that the (CH2OH)2 emission is very compact, peaking towards the maximum of the 1.3 mm continuum. These observations suggest that low abundance complex organic molecules, like (CH2OH)2 or CH2OHCHO, are good probes of the gas located closer to the forming stars. Our analysis confirms that (CH2OH)2 is more abundant than CH2OHCHO in G31.41+0.31, as previously observed in other interstellar regions. Comparing different star-forming regions we find evidence of an increase of the (CH2OH)2/CH2OHCHO abundance ratio with the luminosity of the source. The CH3OCH3/CH3OCHO and (CH2OH)2/C2H5OH ratios are nearly constant with

  9. Probing non polar interstellar molecules through their protonated form: Detection of protonated cyanogen (NCCNH(+)).

    PubMed

    Agúndez, M; Cernicharo, J; de Vicente, P; Marcelino, N; Roueff, E; Fuente, A; Gerin, M; Guélin, M; Albo, C; Barcia, A; Barbas, L; Bolaño, R; Colomer, F; Diez, M C; Gallego, J D; Gómez-González, J; López-Fernández, I; López-Fernández, J A; López-Pérez, J A; Malo, I; Serna, J M; Tercero, F

    2015-07-01

    Cyanogen (NCCN) is the simplest member of the series of dicyanopolyynes. It has been hypothesized that this family of molecules can be important constituents of interstellar and circumstellar media, although the lack of a permanent electric dipole moment prevents its detection through radioastronomical techniques. Here we present the first solid evidence of the presence of cyanogen in interstellar clouds through the detection of its protonated form toward the cold dark clouds TMC-1 and L483. Protonated cyanogen (NCCNH(+)) has been identified through the J = 5 - 4 and J = 10 - 9 rotational transitions using the 40m radiotelescope of Yebes and the IRAM 30m telescope. We derive beam averaged column densities for NCCNH(+) of (8.6 ± 4.4) × 10(10) cm(-2) in TMC-1 and (3.9 ± 1.8) × 10(10) cm(-2) in L483, which translate to fairly low fractional abundances relative to H2, in the range (1-10) × 10(-12). The chemistry of protonated molecules in dark clouds is discussed, and it is found that, in general terms, the abundance ratio between the protonated and non protonated forms of a molecule increases with increasing proton affinity. Our chemical model predicts an abundance ratio NCCNH(+)/NCCN of ~ 10(-4), which implies that the abundance of cyanogen in dark clouds could be as high as (1-10) × 10(-8) relative to H2, i.e., comparable to that of other abundant nitriles such as HCN, HNC, and HC3N.

  10. Probing non polar interstellar molecules through their protonated form: Detection of protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+)★

    PubMed Central

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; de Vicente, P.; Marcelino, N.; Roueff, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Guélin, M.; Albo, C.; Barcia, A.; Barbas, L.; Bolaño, R.; Colomer, F.; Diez, M. C.; Gallego, J. D.; Gómez-González, J.; López-Fernández, I.; López-Fernández, J. A.; López-Pérez, J. A.; Malo, I.; Serna, J. M.; Tercero, F.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanogen (NCCN) is the simplest member of the series of dicyanopolyynes. It has been hypothesized that this family of molecules can be important constituents of interstellar and circumstellar media, although the lack of a permanent electric dipole moment prevents its detection through radioastronomical techniques. Here we present the first solid evidence of the presence of cyanogen in interstellar clouds through the detection of its protonated form toward the cold dark clouds TMC-1 and L483. Protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+) has been identified through the J = 5 – 4 and J = 10 – 9 rotational transitions using the 40m radiotelescope of Yebes and the IRAM 30m telescope. We derive beam averaged column densities for NCCNH+ of (8.6 ± 4.4) × 1010 cm−2 in TMC-1 and (3.9 ± 1.8) × 1010 cm−2 in L483, which translate to fairly low fractional abundances relative to H2, in the range (1-10) × 10−12. The chemistry of protonated molecules in dark clouds is discussed, and it is found that, in general terms, the abundance ratio between the protonated and non protonated forms of a molecule increases with increasing proton affinity. Our chemical model predicts an abundance ratio NCCNH+/NCCN of ~ 10−4, which implies that the abundance of cyanogen in dark clouds could be as high as (1-10) × 10−8 relative to H2, i.e., comparable to that of other abundant nitriles such as HCN, HNC, and HC3N. PMID:26543239

  11. The electrophoretically 'slow' and 'fast' forms of the alpha 2-macroglobulin molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, A J; Brown, M A; Sayers, C A

    1979-01-01

    alpha 2-Macroglobulin (alpha 2M) was isolated from human plasma by a four-step procedure: poly(ethylene glyco) fractionation, gel chromatography, euglobulin precipitation and immunoadsorption. No contaminants were detected in the final preparations by electrophoresis or immunoprecipitation. The protein ran as a single slow band in gel electrophoresis, and was designated 'S-alpha 2M'. S-alpha 2M bound about 2 mol of trypsin/mol. Treatment of S-alpha 2M with a proteinase or ammonium salts produced a form of the molecule more mobile in electrophoresis, and lacking proteinase-binding activity (F-alpha 2M). The electrophoretic mobility of the F-alpha 2M resulting from reaction with NH4+ salts was identical with that of proteinase complexes. We attribute the change in electrophoretic mobility of the alpha 2M to a conformation change, but there was no evidence of a change in pI or Strokes radius. Electrophoresis of S-alpha 2M in the presence of sodium dodecylsulphate gave results consistent with the view that the alpha 2M molecule is a tetramer of identical subunits, assembled as a non-covalent pair of disulphide-linked dimers. Some of the subunits seemed to be 'nicked' into two-thires-length and one-third-length chains, however. This was not apparent with F-alpha 2M produced by ammonium salts. F-alpha 2M produced by trypsin showed two new bands attributable to cleavage of the subunit polypeptide chain near the middle. Immunoassays of F-alpha 2M gave 'rockets' 12-29% lower than those with S-alpha 2M. The nature of the interactions between subunits in S-alpha 2M and F-alpha 2M was investigated by treating each form with glutaraldehyde before electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. A much greater degree of cross-linking was observed with the F-alpha 2M, indicating that the subunits interact most closely in this form of the molecule. Exposure of S-alpha 2M to 3 M-urea or pH3 resulted in dissociation to the disulphide-bonded half-molecules; these did not

  12. Accurate statistical associating fluid theory for chain molecules formed from Mie segments.

    PubMed

    Lafitte, Thomas; Apostolakou, Anastasia; Avendaño, Carlos; Galindo, Amparo; Adjiman, Claire S; Müller, Erich A; Jackson, George

    2013-10-21

    A highly accurate equation of state (EOS) for chain molecules formed from spherical segments interacting through Mie potentials (i.e., a generalized Lennard-Jones form with variable repulsive and attractive exponents) is presented. The quality of the theoretical description of the vapour-liquid equilibria (coexistence densities and vapour pressures) and the second-derivative thermophysical properties (heat capacities, isobaric thermal expansivities, and speed of sound) are critically assessed by comparison with molecular simulation and with experimental data of representative real substances. Our new EOS represents a notable improvement with respect to previous versions of the statistical associating fluid theory for variable range interactions (SAFT-VR) of the generic Mie form. The approach makes rigorous use of the Barker and Henderson high-temperature perturbation expansion up to third order in the free energy of the monomer Mie system. The radial distribution function of the reference monomer fluid, which is a prerequisite for the representation of the properties of the fluid of Mie chains within a Wertheim first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT1), is calculated from a second-order expansion. The resulting SAFT-VR Mie EOS can now be applied to molecular fluids characterized by a broad range of interactions spanning from soft to very repulsive and short-ranged Mie potentials. A good representation of the corresponding molecular-simulation data is achieved for model monomer and chain fluids. When applied to the particular case of the ubiquitous Lennard-Jones potential, our rigorous description of the thermodynamic properties is of equivalent quality to that obtained with the empirical EOSs for LJ monomer (EOS of Johnson et al.) and LJ chain (soft-SAFT) fluids. A key feature of our reformulated SAFT-VR approach is the greatly enhanced accuracy in the near-critical region for chain molecules. This attribute, combined with the accurate modeling of second

  13. [Serum concentration of soluble adhesive molecules in patients with different forms of coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Damnjanović, Goran; Jelić, Marija; Dindić, Boris; Ilić, Stevan

    2009-04-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecules-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesive molecules-1 (ICAM-1) play an important role in developing and progression of coronary atherosderosis. The aim of the paper was to compare concentrations of soluble forms of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in patients with different clinical presentations of coronary artery disease (CAD) and patients without CAD. Blood samples were taken from 25 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 25 patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP), 25 with stable angina pectoris (SAP) and from 15 control patients without CAD, and concentrations of solubile adhesive molecules (VCAM-1, ICAM-1) were determined. Obesity was more prominent in the NAP than in the SAP and the control patients (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in gender distribution, age, duration of the CAD and body mass index between the groups. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 were more frequent in the CAD patients than in the controls (p < 0.01). Family history of the CAD was more frequent in the AMI and the UAP group than in the controls (p < 0.05). Serum concentrations of VCAM-1 was similar in the patients with AMI (955.9 +/- 117.8 ng/mL), UAP (952.4 +/- 139.1 ng/mL) and SAP (931 +/- 169.8 ng/mL), and significantly higher in these groups compared with the controls (823.4 +/- 97.6; p < 0.05, p < 0.05 and p < 0.1 respectively). Serum concentration of ICAM-1 was similar in the patients with AMI (699.2 +/- 125.6 ng/mL), UAP (727.6 +/- 171.8 ng/mL) and SAP (697.5 +/- 165.6 ng/mL), and significantly higher in these groups compared with the controls (583.4 +/- 86.6; p < 0.1, p < 0.05 and p < 0.1 respectively). Increased concentrations of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, as markers of inflammation, showed the importance of inflammatory processes in development of atherosclerosis and clinical expresion of CAD. Measurement of soluble ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations is a usefull indicator of atherosclerosis presence but not severity of CAD

  14. Phosphorus-bearing molecules in solar-type star-forming regions: first PO detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefloch, Bertrand; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Jimenez-Serra, I.; Codella, C.; Podio, L.; Ceccarelli, C.; Mendoza, E.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Bachiller, R.

    2016-11-01

    As part of the Large Program Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM, we have used the IRAM 30 m telescope to lead a systematic search for the emission of rotational transitions of P-bearing species between 80 and 350 GHz towards L1157-B1, a shock position in the solar-type star-forming region L1157. We report the detection of several transitions of PN and, for the first time, of pre-biotic molecule PO. None of these species are detected towards the driving protostar of the outflow L1157-mm. Analysis of the line profiles shows that PN arises from the outflow cavity, where SiO, a strong shock tracer, is produced. Radiative transfer analysis yields an abundance of 2.5 × 10-9 and 0.9 × 10-9 for PO and PN, respectively. These results imply a strong depletion (≈100) of phosphorus in the quiescent cloud gas. Shock modelling shows that atomic N plays a major role in the chemistry of PO and PN. The relative abundance of PO and PN brings constraints both on the duration of the pre-shock phase, which has to be ˜106 yr, and on the shock parameters. The maximum temperature in the shock has to be larger than 4000 K, which implies a shock velocity of 40 km s-1.

  15. Nonchiral polar smectic liquid crystals formed by bent-core molecules: weak coupling regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranjc, Tomaz

    2002-12-01

    The structure and dynamic properties of achiral polar smectic liquid crystals formed by bow shaped molecules is considered and described by two two-dimensional order parameters, \\vec P and \\vec ξ. The first, polarization order parameter, gives the average projection of the arrow vectors on the smectic layer planes. The second, tilt order parameter, gives the average magnitude and direction of the tilt. To study the possible liquid crystal structures and their properties, a discrete phenomenological model taking into account the competing interactions between the nearest-neighbor smectic layers is used. The free energy of the system is expressed as a sum over smectic layers with terms modeling the appropriate intralayer and interlayer interactions and written only in terms of the arrow and the string order parameters. The free energy is then minimized in order to obtain stable structures and deduce their optical properties. There exist solutions for the case of strong coupling between the polarization and the tilt order parameters arising from attractive intralayer van der Waals and from steric interactions. In this contribution, we focus our attention to the case of weak coupling between the two order parameters and investigate possible structures and related optical properties of the system.

  16. Angiogenesis mediated by soluble forms of E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Alisa E.; Halloran, Margaret M.; Haskell, Catherine J.; Shah, Manisha R.; Polverini, Peter J.

    1995-08-01

    ENDOTHELIAL adhesion molecules facilitate the entry of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. This in turn promotes neovascularization, a process central to the progression of rheumatoid arthritis, tumour growth and wound repair1. Here we test the hypothesis that soluble endothelial adhesion molecules promote angiogenesis2á¤-4. Human recombinant soluble E-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 induced chemotaxis of human endothelial cells in vitro and were angiogenic in rat cornea. Soluble E-selectin acted on endothelial cells in part through a sialyl Lewis-X-dependent mechanism, while soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 acted on endothelial cells in part through a very late antigen (VLA)-4 dependent mechanism. The chemotactic activity of rheumatoid synovial fluid for endothelial cells, and also its angiogenic activity, were blocked by antibodies to either soluble E-selectin or soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. These results suggest a novel function for soluble endothelial adhesion molecules as mediators of angiogenesis.

  17. The dark side of crystal engineering: creating glasses from small symmetric molecules that form multiple hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Olivier; Maris, Thierry; Perron, Marie-Eve; Demers, Eric; Wuest, James D

    2006-08-16

    Glasses made from compounds of low molecular weight are useful materials with many attractive features, including well-defined compositions. At present, there are no reliable ways to identify molecules that will form long-lived glasses, and efforts to design them have tended to rely on crude principles, such as avoiding small, symmetric, and relatively inflexible molecules that engage in strong intermolecular association. We have found that it is possible to make glasses from such molecules by turning to the dark side of crystal engineering and by making small but carefully selected structural modifications specifically designed to thwart established patterns of crystallization.

  18. Reasoning from Incomplete Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Allan M.; And Others

    People use a variety of plausible, but uncertain inferences to answer questions about which their knowledge is incomplete. Such inferential thinking and reasoning is being incorporated into the SCHOLAR computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system. Socratic tutorial techniques in CAI systems such as SCHOLAR are described, and examples of their…

  19. Soluble form of the endothelial adhesion molecule CD146 binds preferentially CD16+ monocytes.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, Silvano; Barisione, Chiara; Ghigliotti, Giorgio; Spallarossa, Paolo; Barsotti, Antonio; Fabbi, Patrizia; Corsiglia, Luca; Palmieri, Daniela; Palombo, Domenico; Brunelli, Claudio

    2012-06-01

    The cell adhesion molecule CD146 is normally located at the endothelial cell-to-cell junction and colocalizes with actin cytoskeleton. The soluble form of CD146 (sCD146) has been identified in the endothelial cell supernatant and in normal human plasma, and is increased in pathologic conditions with altered endothelial function. Soluble CD146 binding to monocytes promotes their transendothelial migration, which represents a central step in the development of atherosclerotic plaque. Since peripheral blood monocytes are characterized by a phenotypic and functional heterogeneity, with different transendothelial migration capacity, we hypothesized that monocyte subsets differently bind sCD146. Based on surface CD14 and CD16 expression monocytes were distinguished by flow cytometry (FACS) into three subsets: CD14++/CD16-, CD14++/CD16+ and CD14+/CD16+. CD16+ monocytes have been found to possess higher transendothelial migration ability. FACS analysis on blood monocytes from 30 healthy subjects revealed that higher percentages of CD14++/CD16+ (median, first and third quartile: 2.26, 1.62-3.87) and of CD14+/CD16+ (2.59, 1.28-4.80) were positive for CD146 (both p < 0.01), in comparison to CD14++/CD16- (0.66, 0.47-1.01). Moreover, in vitro treatment of ficoll separated monocytes with recombinant CD146 showed that both CD16+ subsets increased their percentage of CD146-positive events compared to CD16- monocytes (p < 0.01). Soluble CD146 levels were evaluated by ELISA in plasma samples of subjects from our study group and showed a correlation with percentage of CD146-positive CD14+/CD16+ monocyte subset. In this work we have demonstrated that monocyte subsets behave differently with regard to their sCD146 binding activity; because binding of CD146 influences transendothelial migration of monocytes, modulation of monocyte-CD146 interaction may represent a potential target to limit atherosclerotic plaque development.

  20. Closed-form equation of state for Lennard-Jones molecules based on perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bokis, C.P.; Donohue, M.D.

    1995-08-17

    A comparison of virial theory and perturbation theory for spherical molecules is presented. A new equation of state is derived. This new model has the exact second virial coefficient behavior, converges to the correct mean-field behavior at high densities, and successfully interpolates between these two limits. This new equation of state is applied to molecules that interact via the Lennard-Jones potential. Comparison is made with computer simulation results for the configurational energy, the compressibility factor, and the second virial coefficient of Lennard-Jones molecules. 25 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Review of crystalline structures of some selected homologous series of rod-like molecules capable of forming liquid crystalline phases.

    PubMed

    Zugenmaier, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The crystal structures of four homologous series of rod-like molecules are reviewed, two of which form hydrogen bonds and two with a symmetric chemical constitution. Many of the compounds investigated turn into liquid crystalline phases upon temperature increase. It is of valuable interest to know possible conformations and possible packing arrangements as prerequisites to model liquid crystalline structures. The hydrogen bonds of homologous series of pure 4-(ω-hydroxyalkyloxy)-4'-hydroxybiphenyl (HnHBP, n the alkyloxy tail length) are realized through head to tail arrangements of the hydroxyl groups and crystallize except one compound in chiral space groups without the molecules containing any asymmetric carbon. The hydrogen bonds of the homologous series of 4-substituted benzoic acids with various lengths of the tail provide dimers through strong polar bonding of adjacent carboxyl groups and thus provide the stiff part of a mesogenic unit prerequisite for liquid crystalline phases. The homologous series of dialkanoyloxybiphenyls (BP-n, n = 1, 19), of which nine compounds could be crystallized, show liquid crystalline behavior for longer alkane chain lengths, despite the high mobility of the alkane chain ends already detectable in the crystal phase. A single molecule, half a molecule or two half molecules form the asymmetric unit in a centrosymmetric space group. The homologous series of 1,4-terephthalidene-bis-N-(4'-n-alkylaniline) (TBAA-n) exhibit a large variety of packing arrangements in the crystalline state, with or without relying on the symmetry center within the molecules.

  2. Spectroscopy of Cold LiCa Molecules Formed on Helium Nanodroplets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report on the formation of mixed alkali–alkaline earth molecules (LiCa) on helium nanodroplets and present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the ground and excited states of LiCa. Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight (REMPI-TOF) spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy were used for the experimental investigation of LiCa from 15000 to 25500 cm–1. The 42Σ+ and 32Π states show a vibrational structure accompanied by distinct phonon wings, which allows us to determine molecular parameters as well as to study the interaction of the molecule with the helium droplet. Higher excited states (42Π, 52Σ+, 52Π, and 62Σ+) are not vibrationally resolved and vibronic transitions start to overlap. The experimental spectrum is well reproduced by high-level ab initio calculations. By using a multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) approach, we calculated the 19 lowest lying potential energy curves (PECs) of the LiCa molecule. On the basis of these calculations, we could identify previously unobserved transitions. Our results demonstrate that the helium droplet isolation approach is a powerful method for the characterization of tailor-made alkali–alkaline earth molecules. In this way, important contributions can be made to the search for optimal pathways toward the creation of ultracold alkali–alkaline earth ground state molecules from the corresponding atomic species. Furthermore, a test for PECs calculated by ab initio methods is provided. PMID:24028555

  3. A triclinic polymorph of benzanilide: disordered molecules form hydrogen-bonded chains.

    PubMed

    Bowes, Katharine F; Glidewell, Christopher; Low, John N; Skakle, Janet M S; Wardell, James L

    2003-01-01

    In the P-1 polymorph of benzanilide or N-phenylbenzamide, C(13)H(11)NO, the molecules are linked into simple C(4) chains by N-H...O hydrogen bonds. The molecules exhibit orientational disorder, but the donor and acceptor in a given hydrogen bond may occur, independently, in either the major or the minor orientation, such that all four possible N-H.O combinations have very similar geometries. The structure of this P-1 polymorph can be related to that of a previously reported C2/c polymorph.

  4. Kinematic slowing and electrostatic guiding of KBr molecules formed by the reactive collision process: K + HBr --> KBr + H.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning-Ning; Loesch, Hansjürgen

    2010-03-11

    We have generated a beam of translationally cold KBr molecules formed by exoergic reactive collisions in counterpropagating beams of K atoms and HBr molecules. The method relies on the extreme mass ratio of the products and the proper choice of the beam velocities (Liu, N.-N.; Loesch, H. J. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2007, 98, 10300). Here, we report the results of experiments on guiding the slow molecules from the site of their creation to the detector by a linear electrostatic quadrupole field. The device enhances the total intensity by a factor of 2.3 and the intensity at 14.2 m/s (1.4K) by an order of magnitude. The density velocity distributions, deduced directly from the observed time-of-flight profiles, peak at 20 m/s (2.9K). A numerical simulation of the guiding efficiency indicates that the polarization of the nascent molecules is first altered by a sudden change of the quantization axis from parallel to the initial relative velocity to parallel to the fringing field and thereafter follows adiabatically the local field as quantization axis. Drastic differences between the velocity and rotational state distributions of the molecules entering and leaving the energized quadrupole field are predicted. The counterpropagating beams can be used to continuously load an electrostatic trap. The equilibrium density of confined molecules is estimated to 1 x 10(7) cm(-3).

  5. Halo Nucleic Molecules: Molecules Formed from at Least One Atom with a Halo Nucleus. Emphasis on 11,11Li_2 Along with Other Exotic Isotopologues.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattani, Nikesh S.; Welsh, Staszek

    2014-06-01

    Atoms whose nuclei have an exotic number of nucleons can have a `core nucleus' surrounded by a `halo' formed by a nucleon orbiting the core nucleus. For example, due to the two halo neutrons orbiting the core nucleus of 11Li, its nucleus has a cross section that is roughly the same size as that of 208Pb. Halo nucleic atoms have been studied extensively both in theory and in experiments, however halo nucleic molecules have not been studied in either. We first show, using HeH^+, BeH, and MgH as examples, that with measurements of any two isotopologues of a molecule, we can determine crucial properties of a third isotopologue well within spectroscopic accuracy. We then use the extremely precise empirical information available for the low-lying states of 6,6Li_2, 6,7Li_2 and 7,7Li_2 to predict potentials and various properties of the halo nucleic molecule 11,11Li_2, along with isotopologues containing 3Li, 4Li, 5Li, 8Li, 9Li, 10Li, and 12Li. We believe that our predictions of the ro-vibrational energies are reliable for experiments for the first detection of a halo nucleic molecule. R. J. Le Roy, N. S. Dattani, J. A. Coxon, A. J. Ross, P. Crozet, C. Linton, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 204309 (2009). N. S. Dattani, R. J. Le Roy, J. Mol. Spec. 268, 199-210 (2011). M. Semczuk, X. Li, W. Gunton, M. Haw, N. S. Dattani, J. Witz, A. Mills, D. J. Jones, K. W. Madison, Phys. Rev. A 87, 052505 (2013) W. Gunton, M. Semczuk, N. S. Dattani, K. W. Madison, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062510 (2013)

  6. Incomplete invention of drugs.

    PubMed

    Hisa, Tomoyuki

    2007-02-01

    Scientists seldom know the differences between "rejected invention", "non-invention", "incomplete invention", "invention yet to be completed" and "defective invention". The Japanese Supreme Court appointed me as a specialist member (Article 92-2, Code of Civil Procedure) of intellectual property division for medical and biological patents. Herein, I present scientists to the differences and which of them are patentable. In order to prevent oneself from being taken for granted for the scientists' noblesse oblige by clever business administrations, the scientists must know the borderline between patentable or non-patentable.

  7. Largely Enhanced Single-molecule Fluorescence in Plasmonic Nanogaps formed by Hybrid Silver Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that narrow gaps between metallic nanostructures can be practical for producing large field enhancement. We design a hybrid silver nanostructure geometry in which fluorescent emitters are sandwiched between silver nanoparticles and silver island film (SIF). A desired number of polyelectrolyte layers are deposited on the SIF surface before the self-assembly of a second silver nanoparticle layer. Layer-by-layer configuration provides a well-defined dye position. It allows us to study the photophyical behaviors of fluorophores in the resulting gap at the single molecule level. The enhancement factor of a fluorophore located in the gap is much higher than those on silver surfaces alone and on glass. These effects may be used for increased detectability of single molecules bound to surfaces which contain metallic structures for either biophysical studies or high sensitivity assays. PMID:23373787

  8. Cybotactic behavior in the de Vries smectic-A* liquid-crystal structure formed by a silicon-containing molecule.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seong Ho; Shin, Tae Joo; Gong, Tao; Shen, Yongqiang; Korblova, Eva; Shao, Renfan; Walba, David M; Clark, Noel A; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2014-03-01

    We have identified a metastable liquid-crystal (LC) structure in the de Vries smectic-A* phase (de Vries Sm-A*) formed by silicon-containing molecules under certain boundary conditions. The phase transition with the metastable structure was observed in a LC droplet placed on a planar aligned substrate and LCs confined in the groove of a silicon microchannel. During the rapid cooling step, a batonnet structure was generated as an intermediate and metastable state prior to the transition that yielded the thermodynamically stable toric focal conic domains. This distinctive behavior was characterized using depolarized reflection light microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction techniques. We concluded that the silicon groups in the molecules that formed the de Vries phase induced the formation of layered clusters called cybotactic structures. This observation is relevant to an exploration of the physical properties of cybotactic de Vries phases and gives a hint as to their optoelectronic applications.

  9. Cybotactic behavior in the de Vries smectic-A* liquid-crystal structure formed by a silicon-containing molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Seong Ho; Shin, Tae Joo; Gong, Tao; Shen, Yongqiang; Korblova, Eva; Shao, Renfan; Walba, David M.; Clark, Noel A.; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2014-03-01

    We have identified a metastable liquid-crystal (LC) structure in the de Vries smectic-A* phase (de Vries Sm-A*) formed by silicon-containing molecules under certain boundary conditions. The phase transition with the metastable structure was observed in a LC droplet placed on a planar aligned substrate and LCs confined in the groove of a silicon microchannel. During the rapid cooling step, a batonnet structure was generated as an intermediate and metastable state prior to the transition that yielded the thermodynamically stable toric focal conic domains. This distinctive behavior was characterized using depolarized reflection light microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction techniques. We concluded that the silicon groups in the molecules that formed the de Vries phase induced the formation of layered clusters called cybotactic structures. This observation is relevant to an exploration of the physical properties of cybotactic de Vries phases and gives a hint as to their optoelectronic applications.

  10. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  11. Properties of complexes formed by Na(+), Mg(2+), and Fe(2+) binding with benzene molecules.

    PubMed

    Kolakkandy, Sujitha; Pratihar, Subha; Aquino, Adelia J A; Wang, Hai; Hase, William L

    2014-10-09

    A theoretical investigation was performed to study cation-π interactions in complexes of benzene (Bz) with cations, that is, M(z+)(Bz)n for M(z+) = Na(+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+) and n = 1-3, using MP2 theory with the 6-31+G* and 6-311++G** basis sets and the DFT/(B3LYP and B3LYP-D)/6-311++G** methods. Binding energies and structures of the complexes are reported. The splitting between the quintet and single states of the Fe(2+) complexes was found to depend on the number of benzene molecules in the complex and the complex's structure. All of the M(z+)(Bz) complexes prefer a half-sandwich geometry. A geometry with the cation sandwiched between the two benzene rings was found for the M(z+)(Bz)2 complexes, with the benzene rings either in an eclipsed or staggered conformation. An approximate cyclic structure, with the cation at its center, was found for three benzene molecules interacting with the cation. The cation-benzene binding energy is substantial and equal to 22, 108, and 151 kcal/mol for the Na(+)(Bz), Mg(2+)(Bz), and Fe(2+)(Bz) complexes, respectively. The strength of the interaction of the cation with an individual benzene molecule decreases as the number of benzene molecules bound to the cation increases; for example, it is 108 kcal/mol for Mg(2+)(Bz), but only 71 kcal/mol for Mg(2+)(Bz)3. There is a range of values for the M(z+)(Bz)n intermolecular vibrational frequencies; for example, they are ∼230-360 and ∼10-330 cm(-1) for the Mg(2+)(Bz) and Mg(2+)(Bz)3 complexes, respectively. Binding of the cation to benzene both red and blue shifts the benzene vibrational frequencies. This shifting is larger for the Mg(2+) and Fe(2+) complexes, as compared to those for Na(+), as a result of the former's stronger cation-benzene binding. The present study is an initial step to understand the possible importance of cation-π interactions for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon aggregation processes during soot formation.

  12. Theoretical study on substituent and solvent effects for nanocubes formed with gear-shaped amphiphile molecules.

    PubMed

    Mashiko, T; Hiraoka, S; Nagashima, U; Tachikawa, M

    2017-01-04

    Gear-shaped amphiphile molecules (1) recently synthesized by Hiraoka et al. self-assemble into a hexameric structure, nanocubes (16), in 25% aqueous methanol due to a solvophobic effect. Here we have carried out molecular dynamic simulations to elucidate the stability of these hexameric capsules (16 and 26) in water, 25% aqueous methanol, and methanol. In all solvents, the 16 nanocubes are maintained for all trajectories. On the other hand, 26 was found to collapse for one trajectory in water and seven trajectories in 25% aqueous methanol. In a pure methanol solvent, 26 was found to collapse for all trajectories. The number of collapsed trajectories of 26 increased with the amount of methanol in the solvent. We therefore focused on the structure of the π-π stacking between pyridyl groups and the CH-π interactions between the methyl and pyridyl groups within the nanocube. Our study clearly shows the role played by the methanol solvent molecules in the assembly of the nanocube in terms of the substituent and solvent effects at the molecular level, and that these substituent and solvent effects are important for the self-assembly of the nanocubes.

  13. Interaction of epitaxial silicene with overlayers formed by exposure to Al atoms and O2 molecules.

    PubMed

    Friedlein, R; Van Bui, H; Wiggers, F B; Yamada-Takamura, Y; Kovalgin, A Y; de Jong, M P

    2014-05-28

    As silicene is not chemically inert, the study and exploitation of its electronic properties outside of ultrahigh vacuum environments require the use of insulating capping layers. In order to understand if aluminum oxide might be a suitable encapsulation material, we used high-resolution synchrotron photoelectron spectroscopy to study the interactions of Al atoms and O2 molecules, as well as the combination of both, with epitaxial silicene on thin ZrB2(0001) films grown on Si(111). The deposition of Al atoms onto silicene, up to the coverage of about 0.4 Al per Si atoms, has little effect on the chemical state of the Si atoms. The silicene-terminated surface is also hardly affected by exposure to O2 gas, up to a dose of 4500 L. In contrast, when Al-covered silicene is exposed to the same dose, a large fraction of the Si atoms becomes oxidized. This is attributed to dissociative chemisorption of O2 molecules by Al atoms at the surface, producing reactive atomic oxygen species that cause the oxidation. It is concluded that aluminum oxide overlayers prepared in this fashion are not suitable for encapsulation since they do not prevent but actually enhance the degradation of silicene.

  14. Observed bromodomain flexibility reveals histone peptide- and small molecule ligand-compatible forms of ATAD2.

    PubMed

    Poncet-Montange, Guillaume; Zhan, Yanai; Bardenhagen, Jennifer P; Petrocchi, Alessia; Leo, Elisabetta; Shi, Xi; Lee, Gilbert R; Leonard, Paul G; Geck Do, Mary K; Cardozo, Mario G; Andersen, Jannik N; Palmer, Wylie S; Jones, Philip; Ladbury, John E

    2015-03-01

    Preventing histone recognition by bromodomains emerges as an attractive therapeutic approach in cancer. Overexpression of ATAD2 (ATPase family AAA domain-containing 2 isoform A) in cancer cells is associated with poor prognosis making the bromodomain of ATAD2 a promising epigenetic therapeutic target. In the development of an in vitro assay and identification of small molecule ligands, we conducted structure-guided studies which revealed a conformationally flexible ATAD2 bromodomain. Structural studies on apo-, peptide-and small molecule-ATAD2 complexes (by co-crystallization) revealed that the bromodomain adopts a 'closed', histone-compatible conformation and a more 'open' ligand-compatible conformation of the binding site respectively. An unexpected conformational change of the conserved asparagine residue plays an important role in driving the peptide-binding conformation remodelling. We also identified dimethylisoxazole-containing ligands as ATAD2 binders which aided in the validation of the in vitro screen and in the analysis of these conformational studies.

  15. Recent results for electron scattering from biomolecules and molecules formed due to plasma treatment of biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunger, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We have been concentrating our recent experimental studies, for determining absolute cross sections, on both biomolecules (e.g. pyrimidine and benzoquinone) and molecules that result when biomass undergoes treatment by plasmas (e.g. phenol and furfural). All this work was supported and informed by computations from the Brazilian SMC groups and the Madrid IAM-SCAR group. A major rationale for these investigations was to provide cross section data for relevant modelling studies, and in this talk I will also present some results from those modelling studies. Possible further investigations will be canvassed in this presentation. Work done in conjunction with: D. B. Jones, L. Campbell, R. D. White, S. J. Buckman, M. A. P. Lima, M. C. A. Lopes, M. H. F. Bettega, M. T. do N. Varella, R. F. da Costa, G. García, P. Limão-Vieira, D. H. Madison, O. Ingólfsson and many other friends and colleagues.

  16. Single-molecule visualization of dynamic transitions of pore-forming peptides among multiple transmembrane positions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Qian, Zhenyu; Ma, Li; Hu, Shuxin; Nong, Daguan; Xu, Chunhua; Ye, Fangfu; Lu, Ying; Wei, Guanghong; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Research on the dynamics of single-membrane proteins remains underdeveloped due to the lack of proper approaches that can probe in real time the protein's insertion depth in lipid bilayers. Here we report a single-molecule visualization method to track both vertical insertion and lateral diffusion of membrane proteins in supported lipid bilayers by exploiting the surface-induced fluorescence attenuation (SIFA) of fluorophores. The attenuation follows a d−4 dependency, where d is the fluorophore-to-surface distance. The method is validated by observing the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 to transfer among five transmembrane positions: the surface, the upper leaflet, the centre, the lower leaflet and the bottom of the lipid bilayer. These results demonstrate the power of SIFA to study protein-membrane interactions and provide unprecedented in-depth understanding of molecular mechanisms of the insertion and translocation of membrane proteins. PMID:27686409

  17. ENAM Mutations with Incomplete Penetrance

    PubMed Central

    Seymen, F.; Lee, K.-E.; Koruyucu, M.; Gencay, K.; Bayram, M.; Tuna, E.B.; Lee, Z.H.; Kim, J.-W.

    2014-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a genetic disease affecting tooth enamel formation. AI can be an isolated entity or a phenotype of syndromes. To date, more than 10 genes have been associated with various forms of AI. We have identified 2 unrelated Turkish families with hypoplastic AI and performed mutational analysis. Whole-exome sequencing identified 2 novel heterozygous nonsense mutations in the ENAM gene (c.454G>T p.Glu152* in family 1, c.358C>T p.Gln120* in family 2) in the probands. Affected individuals were heterozygous for the mutation in each family. Segregation analysis within each family revealed individuals with incomplete penetrance or extremely mild enamel phenotype, in spite of having the same mutation with the other affected individuals. We believe that these findings will broaden our understanding of the clinical phenotype of AI caused by ENAM mutations. PMID:25143514

  18. Bent LC molecules with a 60° central core that can form B7 and B2 phases (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Junji

    2015-10-01

    We synthesized small-angle bent-core liquid-crystalline (LC) molecules based on a 1,2-bis(phenylethylene) benzene central core, containing seven aromatic rings and alkoxy tails with carbon numbers of 12, 16 and 18. This ortho-bistolane central core offers a 60° bend angle. Irrespective of this unusually small angle, these molecules can form banana smectic phases with a ferroelectric B7-antiferroelectric B2 phase sequence upon cooling as clarified from the micoscopic, X-ray and opto-electric observations. This indicates that despite of the low bend angle of 60°, these are able to be still packed into a layer with the polar bent direction parallel to the layer like ordinal banana molecules. The present result is striking since it had been believed that banana phases can only be stabilized when the bending angle is in the range from 110-140°, providing additional insight into the nature of banana-shaped molecules.

  19. Nanopore integrated with Au clusters formed under electron beam irradiation for single molecule analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seong Soo; Park, Myoung Jin; Han, Chul Hee; Kim, Sung In; Yoo, Jung Ho; Park, Kyung Jin; Park, Nam Kyou; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2016-02-01

    Recently the single molecules such as protein and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) have been successfully characterized using a solidstate nanopore with an electrical detection technique. However, the optical plasmonic nanopore has yet to be fabricated. The optical detection technique can be better utilized as next generation ultrafast geneome sequencing devices due to the possible utilization of the current optical technique for genome sequencing. In this report, we have investigated the Au nanopore formation under the electron beam irradiation on an Au aperture. The circular-type nanoopening with ~ 5 nm diameter on the diffused membrane is fabricated by using 2 keV electron beam irradiation by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). We found the Au cluster on the periphery of the drilled aperture under a 2 keV electron beam irradiation. Immediately right after electron beam irradiation, no Au cluster and no Au crystal lattice structure on the diffused plane are observed. However, after the sample was kept for ~ 6 months under a room environment, the Au clusters are found on the diffused membrane and the Au crystal lattice structures on the diffused membrane are also found using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. These phenomena can be attributed to Ostwald ripening. In addition, the Au nano-hole on the 40 nm thick Au membrane was also drilled by using 200 keV scanning transmission electron microscopy.

  20. Study to explore the mechanism to form inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin with vitamin molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Subhadeep; Roy, Aditi; Roy, Kanak; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2016-10-01

    Host–guest inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin with two vitamins viz., nicotinic acid and ascorbic acid in aqueous medium have been explored by reliable spectroscopic, physicochemical and calorimetric methods as stabilizer, carrier and regulatory releaser of the guest molecules. Job’s plots have been drawn by UV-visible spectroscopy to confirm the 1:1 stoichiometry of the host-guest assembly. Stereo-chemical nature of the inclusion complexes has been explained by 2D NMR spectroscopy. Surface tension and conductivity studies further support the inclusion process. Association constants for the vitamin-β-CD inclusion complexes have been calculated by UV-visible spectroscopy using both Benesi–Hildebrand method and non-linear programme, while the thermodynamic parameters have been estimated with the help of van’t Hoff equation. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies have been performed to determine the stoichiometry, association constant and thermodynamic parameters with high accuracy. The outcomes reveal that there is a drop in ΔSo, which is overcome by higher negative value of ΔHo, making the overall inclusion process thermodynamically favorable. The association constant is found to be higher for ascorbic acid than that for nicotinic acid, which has been explained on the basis of their molecular structures.

  1. Study to explore the mechanism to form inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin with vitamin molecules

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Subhadeep; Roy, Aditi; Roy, Kanak; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    Host–guest inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin with two vitamins viz., nicotinic acid and ascorbic acid in aqueous medium have been explored by reliable spectroscopic, physicochemical and calorimetric methods as stabilizer, carrier and regulatory releaser of the guest molecules. Job’s plots have been drawn by UV-visible spectroscopy to confirm the 1:1 stoichiometry of the host-guest assembly. Stereo-chemical nature of the inclusion complexes has been explained by 2D NMR spectroscopy. Surface tension and conductivity studies further support the inclusion process. Association constants for the vitamin-β-CD inclusion complexes have been calculated by UV-visible spectroscopy using both Benesi–Hildebrand method and non-linear programme, while the thermodynamic parameters have been estimated with the help of van’t Hoff equation. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies have been performed to determine the stoichiometry, association constant and thermodynamic parameters with high accuracy. The outcomes reveal that there is a drop in ΔSo, which is overcome by higher negative value of ΔHo, making the overall inclusion process thermodynamically favorable. The association constant is found to be higher for ascorbic acid than that for nicotinic acid, which has been explained on the basis of their molecular structures. PMID:27762346

  2. Incomplete periacetabular acetabuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Residual acetabular dysplasia is one of the most common complications after treatment for developmental dysplasia of the hip. The acetabular growth response after reduction of a dislocated hip varies. The options are to wait and add a redirectional osteotomy as a secondary procedure at an older age, or to perform a primary acetabuloplasty at the time of the open reduction to stimulate acetabular development. We present the early results of such a procedure—open reduction and an incomplete periacetabular acetabuloplasty—as a one-stop procedure for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed the results obtained with 55 hips (in 48 patients, 43 of them girls) treated between September 2004 and February 2011. This cohort included late presentations and failures of nonoperative treatment and excluded unsuccessful previous surgical treatment (including closed reductions), neuromuscular disease, and other teratological conditions. Patients were treated once the ossific nucleus was present or when they reached one year of age. 31 cases were late presentations while 17 represented failures of nonoperative treatment. The mean age of the patients at surgery was 1.3 (0.6–2.6) years. The mean follow-up period was 4 (2–8) years. According to the IHDI classification, 1 was grade I, 9 were grade II, 13 were grade III, and 32 were grade IV. Results The mean acetabular index fell from 38 (23–49) preoperatively to 21 (10–27) at the last follow-up. There were no infections, nerve palsies, or graft extrusions. None of the cases required secondary surgery for residual acetabular dysplasia. 8 patients developed avascular necrosis (AVN) of grade II or more. The incidence of AVN was significantly associated with previous, failed nonoperative treatment. 1 patient developed coxa magna requiring shelf arthroplasty 4 years after the index procedure and 1 patient with lateral growth arrest required medial screw epiphysiodesis

  3. Yeast Cell Adhesion Molecules Have Functional Amyloid-Forming Sequences ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ramsook, Caleen B.; Tan, Cho; Garcia, Melissa C.; Fung, Raymond; Soybelman, Gregory; Henry, Ryan; Litewka, Anna; O'Meally, Shanique; Otoo, Henry N.; Khalaf, Roy A.; Dranginis, Anne M.; Gaur, Nand K.; Klotz, Stephen A.; Rauceo, Jason M.; Jue, Chong K.; Lipke, Peter N.

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of highly conserved amyloid-forming sequences in Candida albicans Als proteins (H. N. Otoo et al., Eukaryot. Cell 7:776–782, 2008) led us to search for similar sequences in other adhesins from C. albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The β-aggregation predictor TANGO found highly β-aggregation-prone sequences in almost all yeast adhesins. These sequences had an unusual amino acid composition: 77% of their residues were β-branched aliphatic amino acids Ile, Thr, and Val, which is more than 4-fold greater than their prevalence in the S. cerevisiae proteome. High β-aggregation potential peptides from S. cerevisiae Flo1p and C. albicans Eap1p rapidly formed insoluble amyloids, as determined by Congo red absorbance, thioflavin T fluorescence, and fiber morphology. As examples of the amyloid-forming ability of the native proteins, soluble glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-less fragments of C. albicans Als5p and S. cerevisiae Muc1p also formed amyloids within a few days under native conditions at nM concentrations. There was also evidence of amyloid formation in vivo: the surfaces of cells expressing wall-bound Als1p, Als5p, Muc1p, or Flo1p were birefringent and bound the fluorescent amyloid-reporting dye thioflavin T. Both of these properties increased upon aggregation of the cells. In addition, amyloid binding dyes strongly inhibited aggregation and flocculation. The results imply that amyloid formation is an intrinsic property of yeast cell adhesion proteins from many gene families and that amyloid formation is an important component of cellular aggregation mediated by these proteins. PMID:20038605

  4. High-Resolution Spectroscopic Studies of Complexes Formed by Medium-Size Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Becucci, Maurizio; Melandri, Sonia

    2016-05-11

    A wealth of structural and dynamical information has been obtained in the last 30 years from the study of high-resolution spectra of molecular clusters generated in a cold supersonic expansion by means of highly resolved spectroscopic methods. The data obtained, generally lead to determination of the structures of stable conformations. In addition, in the case of weakly bound molecular complexes, it is usual to observe the effects of internal motions due to the shallowness of the potential energy surfaces involved and the flexibility of the systems. In the case of electronic excitation experiments, also the effect of electronic distribution changes on both equilibrium structures and internal motions becomes accessible. The structural and dynamical information that can be obtained by applying suitable theoretical models to the analysis of these unusually complex spectra allows the determination and understanding of the driving forces involved in formation of the molecular complex. In this way, many types of non-covalent interactions have been characterized, from pure van der Waals interactions in complexes of rare gases to moderate-strength and weak hydrogen bonds and to the most recent halogen bonds and n-π interactions. The aim of this review is to underline how the different experimental and theoretical methods converge in giving a detailed picture of weak interactions in small molecular adducts involving medium-size molecules. The conclusions regarding geometries and energies can contribute to understanding of the different driving forces involved in the dynamics of the processes and can be exploited in all fields of chemistry and biochemistry, from design of new materials with novel properties to rational design of drugs.

  5. Catalysis in the 3rd Dimension: How Organic Molecules May be Formed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Catalysis is often little more than a word to phenomenologically describe the fact that a reaction follows a pat1 that leads to products of an unexpected kind or of unexpected yield. Low activation energy barriers for intermediates are recognized as the most likely cause why a system deviates from the thermodynamic pull towards minimizing its free energy and ends up in a metastable state. Seldom is the mechanism known. This i: particularly true for heterogeneous catalysis under hydrothermal conditions with minerals as catalysts. It is commonly assumed that catalytic action takes place across solid-fluid interfaces and that, on the atomic level, interfaces are just 2-dimensional contacts. This makes it difficult to understand, for instance, the assembly of long-chain carboxylic (fatty) acids. 3y studying single crystals that grew from a melt in the presence of H2O and CO2, we can show: (1) that numerals take up the fluid components into solid solution, (2) that some-thing happens converting them to -educedH and C, (3) that C atoms segregate into dislocations and tie C-C bonds. The products are medium-to-long chain Cn protomolecules, with some C-H attached, pre-assembled in the dislocations. Upon solvent extraction, these proto-molecules turn into carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids. This observation suggests that, in a very elementary step, catalysis under hydrothermal conditions leading to fatty acids involves the pre-assembly of Cn entities in the interface that is not 2-D but extends into the 3rd dimension, with dislocations as synthesis sites.

  6. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) deficiency protects mice against severe forms of experimentally induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bendjelloul, F; Malý, P; Mandys, V; Jirkovská, M; Prokešová, L; Tučková, L; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H

    2000-01-01

    ICAM-1 (CD54), the ligand for LFA-1 and Mac-1, is up-regulated during inflammatory reaction on the activated vascular endothelium. To determine its role in intestinal inflammation, we induced acute experimental colitis in mice with a deleted ICAM-1 gene, by feeding them with 3% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 7 days. Chronic colitis was elicited by DSS similarly, followed by 2 weeks with water. In the acute phase of inflammation, ICAM-1-deficient mice exhibited a significantly lower mortality rate (5%) than control C57Bl/6J mice (35%). Control animals, but not the ICAM-1-deficient mice, exhibited diarrhoea and rectal bleeding. Histological examination of large-bowel samples evaluated the intensity of inflammatory changes, and type and extent of mucosal lesions. In the acute phase, 33.3% of samples from ICAM-1-deficient mice exhibited mucosal defects (flat and fissural ulcers), predominantly mild to moderate inflammatory infiltrate within the lamina propria mucosae and lower grades of mucosal lesions. Much stronger inflammatory changes were present in control animals, flat ulcers (sometimes multiple) and fissural ulcers being observed in 62.5% of samples. Mucosal inflammatory infiltrate was moderate to severe, typically with higher grades of mucosal lesions. In chronic colitis, smaller inflammatory changes were found in the large bowel. The two mouse strains differed, the chronic colitis being accompanied by an increased serum level of anti-epithelial IgA autoantibodies in C57Bl/6 control mice but not in ICAM-1-deficient mice. These findings provide direct evidence of the participation of ICAM-1 molecule in the development of experimentally induced intestinal inflammation. PMID:10606964

  7. Catalysis in the 3rd Dimension: How Organic Molecules May be Formed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Catalysis is often little more than a word to phenomenologically describe the fact that a reaction follows a pat1 that leads to products of an unexpected kind or of unexpected yield. Low activation energy barriers for intermediates are recognized as the most likely cause why a system deviates from the thermodynamic pull towards minimizing its free energy and ends up in a metastable state. Seldom is the mechanism known. This i: particularly true for heterogeneous catalysis under hydrothermal conditions with minerals as catalysts. It is commonly assumed that catalytic action takes place across solid-fluid interfaces and that, on the atomic level, interfaces are just 2-dimensional contacts. This makes it difficult to understand, for instance, the assembly of long-chain carboxylic (fatty) acids. 3y studying single crystals that grew from a melt in the presence of H2O and CO2, we can show: (1) that numerals take up the fluid components into solid solution, (2) that some-thing happens converting them to -educedH and C, (3) that C atoms segregate into dislocations and tie C-C bonds. The products are medium-to-long chain Cn protomolecules, with some C-H attached, pre-assembled in the dislocations. Upon solvent extraction, these proto-molecules turn into carboxylic and dicarboxylic acids. This observation suggests that, in a very elementary step, catalysis under hydrothermal conditions leading to fatty acids involves the pre-assembly of Cn entities in the interface that is not 2-D but extends into the 3rd dimension, with dislocations as synthesis sites.

  8. Why do Hydrates (Solvates) Form in Small Neutral Organic Molecules? Exploring the Crystal Form Landscapes of the Alkaloids Brucine and Strychnine.

    PubMed

    Braun, Doris E; Griesser, Ulrich J

    2016-11-02

    Computational methods were used to generate and explore the crystal structure landscapes of the two alkaloids strychnine and brucine. The computed structures were analyzed and rationalized by correlating the modelling results to a rich pool of available experimental data. Despite their structural similarity, the two compounds show marked differences in the formation of solid forms. For strychnine only one anhydrous form is reported in the literature and two new solvates from 1,4-dioxane were detected in the course of this work. In contrast, 22 solid forms are so far known to exist for brucine, comprising two anhydrates, four hydrates (HyA - HyC and a 5.25-hydrate), twelve solvates (alcohols and acetone) and four heterosolvates (mixed solvates with water and alcohols). For strychnine it is hard to produce any solid form other than the stable anhydrate while the formation of specific solid state forms of brucine is governed by a complex interplay between temperature and relative humidity/water activity and it is rather a challenging to avoid hydrate formation. Differences in crystal packing and the high tendency for brucine to form hydrates are not intuitive from the molecular structure alone, as both molecules have hydrogen bond acceptor groups but lack hydrogen bond donor groups. Only the evaluation of the crystal energy landscapes, in particular the close-packed crystal structures and high-energy open frameworks containing voids of molecular (water) dimensions, allowed us to unravel the diverse solid state behavior of the two alkaloids at a molecular level. In this study we demonstrate that expanding the analysis of anhydrate crystal energy landscapes to higher energy structures and calculating the solvent-accessible volume can be used to estimate non-stoichiometric or channel hydrate (solvate) formation, without explicitly computing the hydrate/solvate crystal energy landscapes.

  9. Sub-lethal activity of small molecules from natural sources and their synthetic derivatives against biofilm forming nosocomial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Villa, Federica; Villa, Stefania; Gelain, Arianna; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the patient safety is seriously jeopardized by the emergence and spread of nosocomial pathogens in the form of biofilm that is resistant to traditional and affordable antimicrobials. Although advances in organic synthesis have extended the lifetime of classic antibiotics through synthetic modifications, the search of innovative antibiofilm compounds from natural sources can provide new templates, novel targets and unique mechanisms that should have advantages over known antimicrobial agents. Testing sub-lethal concentrations of crude extracts and/or isolated compounds from plants and microorganisms is critical to acting on mechanisms subtler than the killing activity, e.g. those influencing the multicellular behavior, offering an elegant way to develop novel antimicrobial-free antibiofilm strategies. Herein we discussed the search and biological activity of small molecules from natural sources and their synthetic derivatives able to modulate biofilm genesis of nosocomial pathogens through non-microbicidal mechanisms (sub-lethal concentrations). The present work offers an overview about the approaches applied to the discovery of lead small molecules including a) conventional drug design methods like screening of chemical compounds obtained from nature and b) computer- aided drug design approaches. Finally, a classification (not exhaustive but representative) based on the natural origin of small molecules and their synthetic derivatives was reported. The information presented in this review should be of interest to a broad range of disciplines and represents an effort to summarize experimental research and advances in this field.

  10. A Survey of Large Molecules of Biological Interest toward Selected High Mass Star Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remijan, A.; Shiao, Y.-S.; Friedel, D. N.; Meier, D. S.; Snyder, L. E.

    2004-01-01

    We have surveyed three high mass Galactic star forming regions for interstellar methanol (CH3OH), formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), methyl formate (HCOOCH3), methyl cyanide (CH3CN), and ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) with the BIMA Array. From our observations, we have detected two new sources of interstellar HCOOH toward the hot core regions G19.61-0.23 and W75N. We have also made the first detections of CH3CH2CN and HCOOCH3 toward G19.61-0.23. The relative HCOOH/HCOOCH3 abundance ratio toward G19.61-0.23 is 0.18 which is comparable to the abundance ratios found by Liu and colleagues toward Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion and W51(approximately 0.10). We have made the first detection of HCOOCH3 toward W75N. The relative HCOOH/HCOOCH3 abundance ratio toward W75N is 0.26 which is more than twice as large as the abundance ratios found by Liu and colleagues. Furthermore, the hot core regions around W75N show a chemical differentiation between the O and N cores similar to what is seen toward the Orion Hot Core and Compact Ridge and W3(OH) and W3(H2O). It is also apparent from our observations that the high mass star forming region G45.47+0.05 does not contain any compact hot molecular core and as a consequence its chemistry may be similar to cold dark clouds. Finally, the formation of CH3COOH appears to favor HMCs with well mixed N and O, despite the fact that CH3COOH does not contain a N atom. If proved to be true, this is an important constraint on CH3COOH formation and possibly other structurally similar biomolecules.

  11. Antibody nanoparticle dispersions formed with mixtures of crowding molecules retain activity and in vivo bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Miller, Maria A; Khan, Tarik A; Kaczorowski, Kevin J; Wilson, Brian K; Dinin, Aileen K; Borwankar, Ameya U; Rodrigues, Miguel A; Truskett, Thomas M; Johnston, Keith P; Maynard, Jennifer A

    2012-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies continue to command a large market for treatment of a variety of diseases. In many cases, the doses required for therapeutic efficacy are large, limiting options for antibody delivery and administration. We report a novel formulation strategy based on dispersions of antibody nanoclusters that allows for subcutaneous injection of highly concentrated antibody (≈ 190 mg/mL). A solution of monoclonal antibody 1B7 was rapidly frozen and lyophilized using a novel spiral-wound in-situ freezing technology to generate amorphous particles. Upon gentle stirring, a translucent dispersion of approximately 430 nm protein clusters with low apparent viscosity (≈ 24 cp) formed rapidly in buffer containing the pharmaceutically acceptable crowding agents such as trehalose, polyethylene glycol, and n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Upon in vitro dilution of the dispersion, the nanoclusters rapidly reverted to monomeric protein with full activity, as monitored by dynamic light scattering and antigen binding. When administered to mice as an intravenous solution, subcutaneous solution, or subcutaneous dispersion at similar (4.6-7.3 mg/kg) or ultra-high dosages (51.6 mg/kg), the distribution and elimination kinetics were within error and the protein retained full activity. Overall, this method of generating high-concentration, low-viscosity dispersions of antibody nanoclusters could lead to improved administration and patient compliance, providing new opportunities for the biotechnology industry.

  12. Antibody nanoparticle dispersions formed with mixtures of crowding molecules retain activity and in vivo bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Maria A.; Khan, Tarik A.; Kaczorowski, Kevin J.; Wilson, Brian K.; Dinin, Aileen K.; Borwankar, Ameya U.; Rodrigues, Miguel A.; Truskett, Thomas M.; Johnston, Keith P.; Maynard, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies continue to command a large market for treatment of a variety of diseases. In many cases, the doses required for therapeutic efficacy are large, limiting options for antibody delivery and administration. We report a novel formulation strategy based on dispersions of antibody nanoclusters that allows for subcutaneous injection of highly concentrated antibody (~190 mg/ml). A solution of monoclonal antibody 1B7 was rapidly frozen and lyophilized using a novel spiral-wound in situ freezing technology (SWIFT) to generate amorphous particles. Upon gentle stirring, a translucent dispersion of ~430 nm protein clusters low apparent viscosity (~24 cp) formed rapidly in buffer containing the pharmaceutically acceptable crowding agents, trehalose, polyethylene glycol and n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Upon in vitro dilution of the dispersion, the nanoclusters rapidly reverted to monomeric protein with full activity, as monitored by dynamic light scattering and antigen binding. When administered to mice as an intravenous solution, subcutaneous solution or subcutaneous dispersion at similar (4.6-7.3 mg/kg) or ultra-high dosages (51.6 mg/kg), the distribution and elimination kinetics were within error and the protein retained full activity. Overall, this method of generating high-concentration, low-viscosity dispersions of antibody nanoclusters could lead to improved administration and patient compliance, providing new opportunities for the biotechnology industry. PMID:22777686

  13. A Global View of Molecule-forming Clouds in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Steven J.; Bell, Aaron Christopher; Newton, Jonathan H.; Howard, Ward; Jolly, Christian; Spraggs, Mary; Hughes, James

    2015-08-01

    The gas in galactic disks occurs in a wide range of temperatures and densities, most of which are unsuitable for star formation. Somehow, diffuse atomic clouds are collected into colder, denser molecular clouds that can collapse under their own gravity. The molecular condensation process is not directly observable, but it most likely arises in cold, quiescent pockets of atomic hydrogen (HI) gas, which over time will form molecular hydrogen (H2) followed by more observable molecular species. We have mapped cold 21cm line HI self-absorption (HISA) over more than 90% of the Milky Way's disk at arcminute resolution with the International Galactic Plane Survey. To probe the formation of H2 clouds, we have made a detailed comparison of the IGPS HISA distribution with available 12CO J=1-0 line emission surveys. We find that few HISA features in the outer Galaxy have CO at the same position and velocity, while most inner-Galaxy HISA does have overlapping CO. But chance superpositions of unrelated HISA and CO at different distances are much more likely in the inner Galaxy, and if these are accounted for, the majority of inner-Galaxy HISA may also be CO-free. Standard equilibrium cloud models cannot explain very cold HI in many HISA features without molecular shielding, so these clouds may instead have significant CO-dark H2 to keep them cool. A significant number of these clouds are found downstream of spiral shocks where H2 formation might be expected, with CO formation taking somewhat longer. Support for this work was provided by the U.S. National Science Foundation, NASA, Western Kentucky University, and the Gatton Academy.

  14. Incompletely compacted equilibrated ordinary chondrites

    SciTech Connect

    Sasso, M.R.; Macke, R.J.; Boesenberg, J.S.; Britt, D.T.; Rovers, M.L.; Ebel, D.S.; Friedrich, J.M.

    2010-01-22

    We document the size distributions and locations of voids present within five highly porous equilibrated ordinary chondrites using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) and helium pycnometry. We found total porosities ranging from {approx}10 to 20% within these chondrites, and with {mu}CT we show that up to 64% of the void space is located within intergranular voids within the rock. Given the low (S1-S2) shock stages of the samples and the large voids between mineral grains, we conclude that these samples experienced unusually low amounts of compaction and shock loading throughout their entire post accretionary history. With Fe metal and FeS metal abundances and grain size distributions, we show that these chondrites formed naturally with greater than average porosities prior to parent body metamorphism. These materials were not 'fluffed' on their parent body by impact-related regolith gardening or events caused by seismic vibrations. Samples of all three chemical types of ordinary chondrites (LL, L, H) are represented in this study and we conclude that incomplete compaction is common within the asteroid belt.

  15. The analysis of incomplete data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, H. O.; Hocking, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to provide a simple taxonomy for incomplete-data problems and at the same time develop unified methods of analysis. The emphasis is on techniques which are natural extensions of the complete-data analysis and which will handle rather general classes of incomplete-data problems as opposed to custom-made techniques for special problems. The principle of estimation is either maximum likelihood or is at least based on maximum likelihood.

  16. Endothelial cells proactively form microvilli-like membrane projections upon intercellular adhesion molecule 1 engagement of leukocyte LFA-1.

    PubMed

    Carman, Christopher V; Jun, Chang-Duk; Salas, Azucena; Springer, Timothy A

    2003-12-01

    Specific leukocyte/endothelial interactions are critical for immunity and inflammation, yet the molecular details of this interaction interface remain poorly understood. Thus, we investigated, with confocal microscopy, the distribution dynamics of the central adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and LFA-1 in this context. Monolayers of activated HUVECs stained with fluorescent anti-ICAM-1 Fabs or Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells expressing ICAM-1-green fluorescent protein were allowed to bind LFA-1-bearing monocytes, neutrophils, or K562 LFA-1 transfectants. ICAM-1 was rapidly relocalized to newly formed microvilli-like membrane projections in response to binding LFA-1 on leukocytes. These ICAM-1-enriched projections encircled the leukocytes extending up their sides and clustered LFA-1 underneath into linear tracks. Projections formed independently of VCAM-1/very late Ag 4 interactions, shear, and proactive contributions from the LFA-1-bearing cells. In the ICAM-1-bearing endothelial cells, projections were enriched in actin but not microtubules, required intracellular calcium, and intact microfilament and microtubule cytoskeletons and were independent of Rho/Rho kinase signaling. Disruption of these projections with cytochalasin D, colchicine, or BAPTA-AM had no affect on firm adhesion. These data show that in response to LFA-1 engagement the endothelium proactively forms an ICAM-1-enriched cup-like structure that surrounds adherent leukocytes but is not important for firm adhesion. This finding leaves open a possible role in leukocyte transendothelial migration, which would be consistent with the geometry and kinetics of formation of the cup-like structure.

  17. Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Il`in, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

  18. Closely related form I ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase molecules that possess different CO2/O2 substrate specificities.

    PubMed

    Horken, K M; Tabita, F R

    1999-01-15

    The deduced primary sequence (cbbL and cbbS) of form I ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) from Bradyrhizobium japonicum places this enzyme within the Type IC subgroup of red-like rubisco enzymes. In addition, B. japonicum appears to organize most of the structural genes of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) pathway in at least one major operon. Functional expression and characterization of the B. japonicum and Xanthobacter flavus enzymes from this group revealed that these molecules exhibit diverse kinetic properties despite their relatively high degree of sequence relatedness. Of prime importance was the fact that these closely related enzymes exhibited CO2 and O2 substrate specificities that varied from relatively low values [tau = (VcKo)/(VoKc) = 45] to values that approximated those obtained for higher plants (tau = 75). These results, combined with the metabolic and genetic versatility of the organisms from which these enzymes were derived, suggest a potential rich resource for future biological selection and structure-function studies aimed at elucidating structural features that govern key enzymological properties of rubisco.

  19. Theoretical binding affinities and spectroscopy of complexes formed by cyclobis(paraquat- p-anthrancene) with some pharmaceutical molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xin; Luo, Zhouyang; Du, Jinpei; Wu, Shi

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical investigation on the stabilities and spectroscopic properties of the complexes formed by cyciobis(paraquat- p-anthracene) with pharmaceutical molecules were performed using the semi-empirical PM3 and B3LYP/3-21G methods. Based on the B3LYP/3-21G optimized geometries, the energies of the complexes were calculated at B3LYP/6-31G( d) level. The binding energies of the complexes were computed after the correction of basis set superposition error (BSSE). The energy gaps of the complexes are decreased due to the formation of the hydrogen bonds. The stretching vibrations of the C-H bonds adjacent to the hydrogen bonds in the IR spectra of the complexes calculated with PM3 method are red-shifted compared with those of the host. The chemical shifts of α-C and β-C atoms in the complexes calculated at B3LYP/3-21G level are shifted downfield due to the formation of the hydrogen bonds and the electron-withdrawing effect of the nitrogen atoms. The aromaticities of the complexes are improved because of the enlargement of the conjugation system and the overlap of electron cloud based on the nuclear independent chemical shifts (NICS) calculated at B3LYP/3-21G level.

  20. Involvement of pore-forming molecules in immune defense and development of the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    PubMed

    Estévez-Calvar, Noelia; Romero, Alejandro; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz

    2011-10-01

    The membrane attack complex and perforin (MACPF) superfamily is one of the largest families of pore-forming molecules. Although MACPF proteins are able to destruct invading microbes, several MACPF proteins play roles in embryonic development, neural migration or tumor suppression. We describe two apextrin-like proteins (ApelB and ApelP) and one MACPF-domain-containing protein (Macp) in Mytilus galloprovincialis. The two apextrin-like proteins did not present any conserved domain. The Macp protein contained the membrane/attack complex domain and its signature motif. Gene expression during larval development was analyzed by RT-PCR. There was a stage-specific up-regulation of the three proteins, suggesting that they play a role in development. Apextrin-like proteins were highly expressed at blastula and trochophore stage, whereas Macp was expressed at veliger stage. RT-PCR revealed up-regulation of the three genes in tissues and hemocytes from adults treated with bacteria and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, suggesting that they may be involved in the immune response.

  1. Phase diagram of a lattice of pancake vortex molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Crisan, A.; Shivagan, D. D.; Iyo, A.; Shirage, P. M.; Tokiwa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Terada, N.

    2009-10-01

    On a superconducting bi-layer with thickness much smaller than the penetration depth, λ, a vortex molecule might form. A vortex molecule is composed of two fractional vortices and a soliton wall. The soliton wall can be regarded as a Josephson vortex missing magnetic flux (degenerate Josephson vortex) due to an incomplete shielding. The magnetic energy carried by fractional vortices is less than in the conventional vortex. This energy gain can pay a cost to form a degenerate Josephson vortex. The phase diagram of the vortex molecule is rich because of its rotational freedom.

  2. The Behavior of Warm Molecules in Planet-forming Disks and CHESS: a Pathfinder UV Spectrograph for the LUVOIR Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoadley, Keri; France, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of gas over the lifetime of protoplanetary disks provides us with important clues about how planet formation mechanisms drive the diversity of exoplanetary systems observed to date. In the first part of my talk, I will discuss how we use emission line observations of molecular hydrogen (H2) in the far-ultraviolet (far-UV) with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to study the warm molecular regions (a < 10 AU) of planet-forming disks. We compare the observations with analytic disk models that produce synthetic H2 profiles, and we statistically determine the disk representations that best replicate the data. I will discuss the results of our comparisons and how the modeled radial distributions of H2 in the disk help provide important constraints on the effective density of gas left in the inner disk of protoplanetary disks at various disk evolutionary stages. Finally, I will talk about follow-up studies that look to connect the warm, UV-pumped molecular populations of the inner disk to thermally-excited molecules observed in similar regions of the disk in the near- to mid-IR.In the second part of my talk, I will discuss the observational requirements in the UV and IR band passes to gain further insights into the behavior of the warm, gaseous protoplanetary disk, focusing specifically on a spectrograph concept for the next-generation LUVOIR Surveyor. I will discuss a testbed instrument, the Colorado High-resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS), built as a demonstration of one component of the LUVOIR spectrograph and new technological improvements to UV optical components for the next generation of near- to far-UV astrophysical observatories. CHESS is a far-UV sounding rocket experiment designed to probe the warm and cool atoms and molecules near sites of recent star formation in the local interstellar medium. I will talk about the science goals, design, research and development (R&D) components, and

  3. The origins of life -- the 'protein interaction world' hypothesis: protein interactions were the first form of self-reproducing life and nucleic acids evolved later as memory molecules.

    PubMed

    Andras, Peter; Andras, Csaba

    2005-01-01

    The 'protein interaction world' (PIW) hypothesis of the origins of life assumes that life emerged as a self-reproducing and expanding system of protein interactions. In mainstream molecular biology, 'replication' refers to the material copying of molecules such as nucleic acids. However, PIW is conceptualized as an abstract communication system constituted by the interactions between proteins, in which 'replication' happens at the level of self-reproduction of these interactions between proteins. Densely concentrated peptide interaction systems may have reproduced and expanded as 'protocell' vesicles surrounded by lipid bi-layer membranes. Protocells led to the emergence of proto-RNA molecules of greater chemical stability which served as chemically differentiated 'memories' of peptide interaction states, thereby facilitating the reproduction and expansion of protocells. Simplification-driven expansion led to the selection of biotic amino acids and the reduction of the typical RNA alphabet to the four usual bases (A, C, G and U). Dense interactions between RNA molecules led to the emergence of the RNA interaction subsystem of the cell, and to the emergence of 'memories' of RNA interactions in the form of DNA molecules with greater chemical stability. The expansion of DNA molecule interactions led to the dense clustering and encapsulation of DNA molecules within the cell nucleus. RNA molecules therefore serve as memories of protein interactions and DNA molecules are memories of RNA interactions. We believe that the PIW hypothesis is more evolutionarily plausible than the mainstream RNA world hypothesis, and has greater explanatory power.

  4. RNase-dependent discontinuities associated with the crossovers of spontaneously formed joint DNA molecules in Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Maric, Chrystelle; Bénard, Marianne; Pierron, Gérard

    2010-12-01

    Transient four stranded joint DNA molecules bridging sister chromatids constitute an intriguing feature of replicating genomes. Here, we studied their structure and frequency of formation in Physarum polycephalum. By "3D gels", we evidenced that they are not made of four continuous DNA strands. Discontinuities, which do not interfere with the unique propensity of the joint DNA molecules to branch migrate in vitro, are linked to the crossover, enhanced by RNaseA, and affect at most half of the DNA strands. We propose a structural model of joint DNA molecules containing ribonucleotides inserted within one strand, a gapped strand, and two continuous DNA strands. We further show that spontaneous joint DNA molecules are short-lived and are as abundant as replication forks. Our results emphasize the highly frequent formation of joint DNA molecules involving newly replicated DNA in an untreated cell and uncover a transitory mechanism connecting the sister chromatids during S phase.

  5. Room temperature spectrally resolved single-molecule spectroscopy reveals new spectral forms and photophysical versatility of aequorea green fluorescent protein variants.

    PubMed

    Blum, Christian; Meixner, Alfred J; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2004-12-01

    It is known from ensemble spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures that variants of the Aequorea green fluorescent protein (GFP) occur in interconvertible spectroscopically distinct forms which are obscured in ensemble room temperature spectroscopy. By analyzing the fluorescence of the GFP variants EYFP and EGFP by spectrally resolved single-molecule spectroscopy we were able to observe spectroscopically different forms of the proteins and to dynamically monitor transitions between these forms at room temperature. In addition to the predominant EYFP B-form we have observed the blue-shifted I-form thus far only seen at cryogenic temperatures and have followed transitions between these forms. Further we have identified for EYFP and for EGFP three more, so far unknown, forms with red-shifted fluorescence. Transitions between the predominant forms and the red-shifted forms show a dark time which indicates the existence of a nonfluorescent intermediate. The spectral position of the newly-identified red-shifted forms and their formation via a nonfluorescent intermediate hint that these states may account for the possible photoactivation observed in bulk experiments. The comparison of the single-protein spectra of the red-shifted EYFP and EGFP forms with single-molecule fluorescence spectra of DsRed suggest that these new forms possibly originate from an extended chromophoric pi-system analogous to the DsRed chromophore.

  6. Comparative study of adhesion molecule expression in nodular lesions of Behçet syndrome and other forms of panniculitis.

    PubMed

    Demirkesen, Cuyan; Tüzüner, Nukhet; Senocak, Mustafa; Türkmen, Iknur; Aki, Hilal; Kepil, Nuray; Mat, Cem; Yazici, Hasan

    2008-07-01

    Adhesion molecules have a role in many vasculitic disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the status of adhesion molecules in nodular lesions of Behçet syndrome (BS) and compare them with results for the 2 most common types of panniculitis, erythema nodosum (EN) and nodular vasculitis (NV). We included the data for 28 patients with nodular lesions of BS, 24 with EN, and 22 with NV. A panel of monoclonal antibodies against E-selectin, P-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 were applied. The distribution and intensity of adhesion molecules were assessed. There were no statistically significant differences between the BS and control groups in regard to these adhesion molecules except for ICAM-1. The percentage of strongly ICAM-1-stained endothelial cells in subcutaneous fat tissue in relation to the total number of endothelial cells was the lowest in BS (P= .0208). Because many lesions of BS were related to an enhanced inflammatory response, the lower percentage of ICAM-1 expression seems counterintuitive.

  7. Dynamics of water around the complex structures formed between the KH domains of far upstream element binding protein and single-stranded DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2015-07-28

    Single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) binding proteins specifically bind to the single-stranded regions of the DNA and protect it from premature annealing, thereby stabilizing the DNA structure. We have carried out atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the aqueous solutions of two DNA binding K homology (KH) domains (KH3 and KH4) of the far upstream element binding protein complexed with two short ss-DNA segments. Attempts have been made to explore the influence of the formation of such complex structures on the microscopic dynamics and hydrogen bond properties of the interfacial water molecules. It is found that the water molecules involved in bridging the ss-DNA segments and the protein domains form a highly constrained thin layer with extremely retarded mobility. These water molecules play important roles in freezing the conformational oscillations of the ss-DNA oligomers and thereby forming rigid complex structures. Further, it is demonstrated that the effect of complexation on the slow long-time relaxations of hydrogen bonds at the interface is correlated with hindered motions of the surrounding water molecules. Importantly, it is observed that the highly restricted motions of the water molecules bridging the protein and the DNA components in the complexed forms originate from more frequent hydrogen bond reformations.

  8. Dynamics of water around the complex structures formed between the KH domains of far upstream element binding protein and single-stranded DNA molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2015-07-28

    Single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) binding proteins specifically bind to the single-stranded regions of the DNA and protect it from premature annealing, thereby stabilizing the DNA structure. We have carried out atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the aqueous solutions of two DNA binding K homology (KH) domains (KH3 and KH4) of the far upstream element binding protein complexed with two short ss-DNA segments. Attempts have been made to explore the influence of the formation of such complex structures on the microscopic dynamics and hydrogen bond properties of the interfacial water molecules. It is found that the water molecules involved in bridging the ss-DNA segments and the protein domains form a highly constrained thin layer with extremely retarded mobility. These water molecules play important roles in freezing the conformational oscillations of the ss-DNA oligomers and thereby forming rigid complex structures. Further, it is demonstrated that the effect of complexation on the slow long-time relaxations of hydrogen bonds at the interface is correlated with hindered motions of the surrounding water molecules. Importantly, it is observed that the highly restricted motions of the water molecules bridging the protein and the DNA components in the complexed forms originate from more frequent hydrogen bond reformations.

  9. Dynamics of water around the complex structures formed between the KH domains of far upstream element binding protein and single-stranded DNA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2015-07-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) binding proteins specifically bind to the single-stranded regions of the DNA and protect it from premature annealing, thereby stabilizing the DNA structure. We have carried out atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the aqueous solutions of two DNA binding K homology (KH) domains (KH3 and KH4) of the far upstream element binding protein complexed with two short ss-DNA segments. Attempts have been made to explore the influence of the formation of such complex structures on the microscopic dynamics and hydrogen bond properties of the interfacial water molecules. It is found that the water molecules involved in bridging the ss-DNA segments and the protein domains form a highly constrained thin layer with extremely retarded mobility. These water molecules play important roles in freezing the conformational oscillations of the ss-DNA oligomers and thereby forming rigid complex structures. Further, it is demonstrated that the effect of complexation on the slow long-time relaxations of hydrogen bonds at the interface is correlated with hindered motions of the surrounding water molecules. Importantly, it is observed that the highly restricted motions of the water molecules bridging the protein and the DNA components in the complexed forms originate from more frequent hydrogen bond reformations.

  10. Profile Likelihood and Incomplete Data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiwei

    2010-04-01

    According to the law of likelihood, statistical evidence is represented by likelihood functions and its strength measured by likelihood ratios. This point of view has led to a likelihood paradigm for interpreting statistical evidence, which carefully distinguishes evidence about a parameter from error probabilities and personal belief. Like other paradigms of statistics, the likelihood paradigm faces challenges when data are observed incompletely, due to non-response or censoring, for instance. Standard methods to generate likelihood functions in such circumstances generally require assumptions about the mechanism that governs the incomplete observation of data, assumptions that usually rely on external information and cannot be validated with the observed data. Without reliable external information, the use of untestable assumptions driven by convenience could potentially compromise the interpretability of the resulting likelihood as an objective representation of the observed evidence. This paper proposes a profile likelihood approach for representing and interpreting statistical evidence with incomplete data without imposing untestable assumptions. The proposed approach is based on partial identification and is illustrated with several statistical problems involving missing data or censored data. Numerical examples based on real data are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  11. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    PubMed Central

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children with bowel disorders showed incomplete absorption. Seven children were tested again with an equal amount of glucose, and in three of them also of galactose, added to the fructose. The mean maximum breath hydrogen increases were 5 and 10 ppm, respectively, compared with 103 ppm after fructose alone. In one boy several tests were performed with various sugars; fructose was the only sugar incompletely absorbed, and the effect of glucose on fructose absorption was shown to be dependent on the amount added. It is concluded that children have a limited absorptive capacity for fructose. We speculate that the enhancing effect of glucose and galactose on fructose absorption may be due to activation of the fructose carrier. Apple juice in particular contains fructose in excess of glucose and could lead to abdominal symptoms in susceptible children. PMID:6476870

  12. Signal transducing molecules and glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked proteins form a caveolin-rich insoluble complex in MDCK cells

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    GPI-linked protein molecules become Triton-insoluble during polarized sorting to the apical cell surface of epithelial cells. These insoluble complexes, enriched in cholesterol, glycolipids, and GPI-linked proteins, have been isolated by flotation on sucrose density gradients and are thought to contain the putative GPI-sorting machinery. As the cellular origin and molecular protein components of this complex remain unknown, we have begun to characterize these low-density insoluble complexes isolated from MDCK cells. We find that these complexes, which represent 0.4-0.8% of the plasma membrane, ultrastructurally resemble caveolae and are over 150-fold enriched in a model GPI-anchored protein and caveolin, a caveolar marker protein. However, they exclude many other plasma membrane associated molecules and organelle-specific marker enzymes, suggesting that they represent microdomains of the plasma membrane. In addition to caveolin, these insoluble complexes contain a subset of hydrophobic plasma membrane proteins and cytoplasmically-oriented signaling molecules, including: (a) GTP- binding proteins--both small and heterotrimeric; (b) annex II--an apical calcium-regulated phospholipid binding protein with a demonstrated role in exocytic fusion events; (c) c-Yes--an apically localized member of the Src family of non-receptor type protein- tyrosine kinases; and (d) an unidentified serine-kinase activity. As we demonstrate that caveolin is both a transmembrane molecule and a major phospho-acceptor component of these complexes, we propose that caveolin could function as a transmembrane adaptor molecule that couples luminal GPI-linked proteins with cytoplasmically oriented signaling molecules during GPI-membrane trafficking or GPI-mediated signal transduction events. In addition, our results have implications for understanding v- Src transformation and the actions of cholera and pertussis toxins on hetero-trimeric G proteins. PMID:8349730

  13. Light-controlled ion channels formed by amphiphilic small molecules regulate ion conduction via cis-trans photoisomerization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Bao, Chunyan; Wang, Haiyan; Lin, Yao; Jia, Huijuan; Zhu, Linyong

    2013-11-11

    Light-regulated ion channel-transport across lipid bilayers was realized using structurally simple azobenzene-based amphiphilic small molecules. UV or visible irradiation triggers molecular photoisomerization, which induces structural and membrane affinity changes in self-assembled channels, thus resulting in light-regulated ion transmembrane transport.

  14. [Incomplete hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with partial factor H deficiency].

    PubMed

    Olaciregui Echenique, I; Areses Trapote, R; Ubetagoyena Arrieta, M; Sota Busselo, I; García Pardos, C; Echaniz Aizpuru, P

    2007-02-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) consists of the association of hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal failure. Most cases are related to toxins (verotoxins) produced by Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and generally have good renal prognosis. Atypical forms can occur, with a less favorable prognosis, and can be due to mutations in the gene codifying factor H, a protein that regulates activation of the alternative complement pathway, among other causes. Factor H deficiency produces continuous complement activation, causing injury to capillary endothelial cells. We report a case of incomplete (absence of thrombocytopenia and uremia), atypical HUS in which hypocomplementemia secondary to partial factor H deficiency was detected, with favorable outcome. Prior to symptom onset, the patient had a Campylobacter infection, precipitating the symptoms. Genetic analysis showed a heterozygous mutation (C846T) located in the SCR4 domain, generating an amino acid change in the factor H molecule (Pro240Leu). This mutation may have been the cause of the partial factor H deficiency and the patient's symptoms on admission.

  15. Mobius Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses formation of chemical molecules via Mobius strip intermediates, and concludes that many special physics-chemical properties of the fully closed circular form (1) of polyoma DNA are explainable by this topological feature. (CC)

  16. Mobius Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses formation of chemical molecules via Mobius strip intermediates, and concludes that many special physics-chemical properties of the fully closed circular form (1) of polyoma DNA are explainable by this topological feature. (CC)

  17. Detection of Quorum Sensing Signal Molecules and Identification of an Autoinducer Synthase Gene among Biofilm Forming Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Anbazhagan, Deepa; Mansor, Marzida; Yan, Gracie Ong Siok; Md Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Hassan, Hamimah; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2012-01-01

    Background Quorum sensing is a term that describes an environmental sensing system that allows bacteria to monitor their own population density which contributes significantly to the size and development of the biofilm. Many gram negative bacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactones as quorum sensing signal molecules. In this study, we sought to find out if the biofilm formation among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. is under the control of autoinducing quorum sensing molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings Biofilm formation among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. was assessed and the production of signal molecules were detected with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 biosensor system. Characterisation of autoinducers was carried out by mass spectrometric analysis. We have also reported the identification of an autoinducer synthase gene, abaΙ among the isolates that produce quorum sensing signal molecules and have reported that the mutation in the abaI gene influences their biofilm forming capabilities. Using a microtitre-plate assay it was shown that 60% of the 50 Acinetobacter spp. isolates significantly formed biofilms. Further detection with the biosensor strain showed that some of these isolates produced long chain signal molecules. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that five of these isolates produced N-decanoyl homoserine lactone and two isolates produced acyl-homoserine lactone with a chain length equal to C12. The abaΙ gene was identified and a tetracycline mutant of the abaΙ gene was created and the inhibition in biofilm formation in the mutant was shown. Conclusions/Significance These data are of great significance as the signal molecules aid in biofilm formation which in turn confer various properties of pathogenicity to the clinical isolates including drug resistance. The use of quorum sensing signal blockers to attenuate bacterial pathogenicity is therefore highly attractive, particularly with respect to the emergence of multi antibiotic

  18. Detection of quorum sensing signal molecules and identification of an autoinducer synthase gene among biofilm forming clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Anbazhagan, Deepa; Mansor, Marzida; Yan, Gracie Ong Siok; Md Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Hassan, Hamimah; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a term that describes an environmental sensing system that allows bacteria to monitor their own population density which contributes significantly to the size and development of the biofilm. Many gram negative bacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactones as quorum sensing signal molecules. In this study, we sought to find out if the biofilm formation among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. is under the control of autoinducing quorum sensing molecules. Biofilm formation among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. was assessed and the production of signal molecules were detected with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 biosensor system. Characterisation of autoinducers was carried out by mass spectrometric analysis. We have also reported the identification of an autoinducer synthase gene, abaΙ among the isolates that produce quorum sensing signal molecules and have reported that the mutation in the abaI gene influences their biofilm forming capabilities. Using a microtitre-plate assay it was shown that 60% of the 50 Acinetobacter spp. isolates significantly formed biofilms. Further detection with the biosensor strain showed that some of these isolates produced long chain signal molecules. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that five of these isolates produced N-decanoyl homoserine lactone and two isolates produced acyl-homoserine lactone with a chain length equal to C(12). The abaΙ gene was identified and a tetracycline mutant of the abaΙ gene was created and the inhibition in biofilm formation in the mutant was shown. These data are of great significance as the signal molecules aid in biofilm formation which in turn confer various properties of pathogenicity to the clinical isolates including drug resistance. The use of quorum sensing signal blockers to attenuate bacterial pathogenicity is therefore highly attractive, particularly with respect to the emergence of multi antibiotic resistant bacteria.

  19. Item Calibration in Incomplete Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.; Verhelst, Norman D.

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses the justifiability of item parameter estimation in incomplete testing designs in item response theory. Marginal maximum likelihood (MML) as well as conditional maximum likelihood (CML) procedures are considered in three commonly used incomplete designs: random incomplete, multistage testing and targeted testing designs.…

  20. Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching and Single-Molecule Tracking Measurements of Anisotropic Diffusion within Identical Regions of a Cylinder-Forming Diblock Copolymer Film.

    PubMed

    Tran-Ba, Khanh-Hoa; Higgins, Daniel A; Ito, Takashi

    2015-06-02

    This work demonstrates ensemble and single-molecule diffusion measurements within identical regions of a cylinder-forming polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymer (PS-b-PEO) film using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and single-molecule tracking (SMT). A PS-b-PEO film (∼4 μm thick) with aligned cylindrical PEO microdomains containing 10 μM sulforhodamine B (SRB) was prepared by directional solvent-vapor penetration (SVP) of 1,4-dioxane. The ensemble diffusion behavior of SRB in the microdomains was assessed in FRAP studies of circular photobleached regions (∼7 μm in diameter). The SRB concentration was subsequently reduced by additional photobleaching, and the diffusion of individual SRB molecules was explored using SMT in the identical area (∼16 × 16 μm(2)). The FRAP data showed anisotropic fluorescence recovery, yielding the average microdomain orientation. The extent of fluorescence recovery observed (∼90%) demonstrated long-range microdomain connectivity, while the recovery time dependence provided an ensemble measurement of the SRB diffusion coefficient within the cylindrical microdomains. The SMT data exhibited one-dimensional diffusion of individual SRB molecules along the SVP direction across the entire film thickness, as consistent with the FRAP results. Importantly, the average of the single-molecule diffusion coefficients was close to the value obtained from FRAP in the identical area. In some cases, SMT offered smaller diffusion coefficients than FRAP, possibly due to contributions from SRB molecules confined within short PEO microdomains. The implementation of FRAP and SMT measurements in identical areas provides complementary information on molecular diffusion with minimal influence of sample heterogeneity, permitting direct comparison of ensemble and single-molecule diffusion behavior.

  1. SULFUR-BEARING MOLECULES IN MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS: OBSERVATIONS OF OCS, CS, H{sub 2}S, AND SO

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Juan; Wang, Junzhi; Zhu, Qingfeng; Zhang, Jiangshui; Li, Di

    2015-03-20

    We studied the sulfur chemistry of massive star-forming regions through single-dish submillimeter spectroscopy. OCS, O{sup 13}CS, {sup 13}CS, H{sub 2}S, and SO transitions were observed toward a sample of massive star-forming regions with embedded UCH ii or CH ii regions. These sources could be divided into H ii-hot core and H ii-only sources based on their CH{sub 3}CN emission. Our results show that the OCS line of thirteen sources is optically thick, with optical depth ranging from 5 to 16. Column densities of these molecules were computed under LTE conditions. CS column densities were also derived using its optically thin isotopologue {sup 13}CS. H{sub 2}S is likely to be the most abundant gas-phase sulfuretted molecule in hot massive cores. Both the column density and abundance of sulfur-bearing molecules decrease significantly from H ii-hot core to H ii-only sources. Ages derived from hot core models appear to be consistent with star formation theories, suggesting that abundance ratios of [CS]/[SO], [SO]/[OCS], and [OCS]/[CS] could be used as chemical clocks in massive star-forming regions.

  2. Aspects of Carbon Monoxide in Form of CO-Releasing Molecules Used in Cancer Treatment: More Light on the Way

    PubMed Central

    Kourti, Malamati; Jiang, Wen G.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has always been recognised as a toxic gas, due to its higher affinity for haemoglobin than oxygen. However, biological studies have revealed an intriguing role for CO as an endogenous signalling molecule, a gasotransmitter. CO is demonstrated to exert many cellular activities including anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antiproliferative activities. In animal studies, CO gas administration can prevent tissues from hypoxia or ischemic-reperfusion injury. As a result, there are a plethora of reports dealing with the biological applications of CO and CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) in inflammatory and vascular diseases. CORMs have already been tested as a therapeutic agent in clinical trials. More recently, an increased interest has been drawn to CO's potential use as an anticancer agent. In this review, we will aim to give an overview of the research focused on the role of CO and CORMs in different types of cancer and expand to the recent development of the next generation CORMs for clinical application in cancer treatment. PMID:28286606

  3. Interaction of epitaxial silicene with overlayers formed by exposure to Al atoms and O{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlein, R.; Yamada-Takamura, Y.; Van Bui, H.; Wiggers, F. B.; Kovalgin, A. Y.; Jong, M. P. de

    2014-05-28

    As silicene is not chemically inert, the study and exploitation of its electronic properties outside of ultrahigh vacuum environments require the use of insulating capping layers. In order to understand if aluminum oxide might be a suitable encapsulation material, we used high-resolution synchrotron photoelectron spectroscopy to study the interactions of Al atoms and O{sub 2} molecules, as well as the combination of both, with epitaxial silicene on thin ZrB{sub 2}(0001) films grown on Si(111). The deposition of Al atoms onto silicene, up to the coverage of about 0.4 Al per Si atoms, has little effect on the chemical state of the Si atoms. The silicene-terminated surface is also hardly affected by exposure to O{sub 2} gas, up to a dose of 4500 L. In contrast, when Al-covered silicene is exposed to the same dose, a large fraction of the Si atoms becomes oxidized. This is attributed to dissociative chemisorption of O{sub 2} molecules by Al atoms at the surface, producing reactive atomic oxygen species that cause the oxidation. It is concluded that aluminum oxide overlayers prepared in this fashion are not suitable for encapsulation since they do not prevent but actually enhance the degradation of silicene.

  4. Soluble Forms of Intercellular and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecules Independently Predict Progression to Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican American Families.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Hemant; Mamtani, Manju; Peralta, Juan; Almeida, Marcio; Dyer, Thomas D; Goring, Harald H; Johnson, Matthew P; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Mahaney, Michael C; Olvera, Rene L; Almasy, Laura; Glahn, David C; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Curran, Joanne E; Blangero, John

    2016-01-01

    While the role of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in inducing endothelial dysfunction is fairly well-established the etiological role of endothelial dysfunction in the onset of T2D is still a matter of debate. In the light of conflicting evidence in this regard, we conducted a prospective study to determine the association of circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vessel cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) with incident T2D. Data from this study came from 1,269 Mexican Americans of whom 821 initially T2D-free individuals were longitudinally followed up in the San Antonio Family Heart Study. These individuals were followed for 9752.95 person-years for development of T2D. Prospective association of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 with incident T2D was studied using Kaplan-Meier survival plots and mixed effects Cox proportional hazards modeling to account for relatedness among study participants. Incremental value of adhesion molecule biomarkers was studied using integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and net reclassification improvement (NRI) indexes. Decreasing median values for serum concentrations of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were observed in the following groups in this order: individuals with T2D at baseline, individuals who developed T2D during follow-up, individuals with prediabetes at baseline and normal glucose tolerant (NGT) individuals who remained T2D-free during follow-up. Top quartiles for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were strongly and significantly associated with homeostatic model of assessment--insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Mixed effects Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that after correcting for important clinical confounders, high sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 concentrations were associated with 2.52 and 1.99 times faster progression to T2D as compared to low concentrations, respectively. Individuals with high concentrations for both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 progressed to T2D 3.42 times faster than those with low values for both sICAM-1 and

  5. A new prodrug form of Affibody molecules (pro-Affibody) is selectively activated by cancer-associated proteases.

    PubMed

    Sandersjöö, Lisa; Jonsson, Andreas; Löfblom, John

    2015-04-01

    Affinity proteins have advanced the field of targeted therapeutics due to their generally higher specificity compared to small molecular compounds. However, side effects caused by on-target binding in healthy tissues are still an issue. Here, we design and investigate a prodrug strategy for improving tissue specificity of Affibody molecules in future in vivo studies. The prodrug Affibody (pro-Affibody) against the HER2 receptor was constructed by fusing a HER2-specific Affibody (ZHER2) to an anti-idiotypic Affibody (anti-ZHER2). The linker was engineered to comprise a substrate peptide for the cancer-associated matrix metalloprotease 1 (MMP-1). The hypothesis was that the binding surface of ZHER2 would thereby be blocked from interacting with HER2 until the substrate peptide was specifically hydrolyzed by MMP-1. Binding should thereby only occur where MMP-1 is overexpressed, potentially decreasing on-target toxicities in normal tissues. The pro-Affibody was engineered to find a suitable linker and substrate peptide, and the different constructs were evaluated with a new bacterial display assay. HER2-binding of the pro-Affibody was efficiently masked and proteolytic activation of the best variant yielded over 1,000-fold increase in apparent binding affinity. Biosensor analysis revealed that blocking of the pro-Affibody primarily affected the association phase. In a cell-binding assay, the activated pro-Affibody targeted native HER2 on cancer cells as opposed to the non-activated pro-Affibody. We believe this prodrug approach with proteolytic activation is promising for improving tissue specificity in future in vivo targeting applications and can hopefully be extended to other Affibody molecules and similar affinity proteins as well.

  6. Tutoring with Incomplete and Uncertain Knowledge. CITE Report No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael

    The design of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) in a knowledge domain where expertise is modeled as a set of uncertain and incomplete beliefs that are justifiable and expressible in the form of a critical argument is outlined. Issues concerning knowledge communication in a tutorial interaction are discussed with reference to a cognitive model…

  7. Soluble Forms of Intercellular and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecules Independently Predict Progression to Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican American Families

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Hemant; Mamtani, Manju; Peralta, Juan; Almeida, Marcio; Dyer, Thomas D.; Goring, Harald H.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Mahaney, Michael C.; Olvera, Rene L.; Almasy, Laura; Glahn, David C.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Curran, Joanne E.; Blangero, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective While the role of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in inducing endothelial dysfunction is fairly well-established the etiological role of endothelial dysfunction in the onset of T2D is still a matter of debate. In the light of conflicting evidence in this regard, we conducted a prospective study to determine the association of circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vessel cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) with incident T2D. Methods Data from this study came from 1,269 Mexican Americans of whom 821 initially T2D-free individuals were longitudinally followed up in the San Antonio Family Heart Study. These individuals were followed for 9752.95 person-years for development of T2D. Prospective association of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 with incident T2D was studied using Kaplan-Meier survival plots and mixed effects Cox proportional hazards modeling to account for relatedness among study participants. Incremental value of adhesion molecule biomarkers was studied using integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and net reclassification improvement (NRI) indexes. Results Decreasing median values for serum concentrations of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were observed in the following groups in this order: individuals with T2D at baseline, individuals who developed T2D during follow-up, individuals with prediabetes at baseline and normal glucose tolerant (NGT) individuals who remained T2D-free during follow-up. Top quartiles for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were strongly and significantly associated with homeostatic model of assessment—insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Mixed effects Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that after correcting for important clinical confounders, high sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 concentrations were associated with 2.52 and 1.99 times faster progression to T2D as compared to low concentrations, respectively. Individuals with high concentrations for both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 progressed to T2D 3.42 times faster than those with low

  8. Two-State or Non-Two-State? An Excess Spectroscopy-based Approach to Differentiate the Existing Forms of Molecules in Liquids Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Sun, Hai-Yuan; Deng, Geng; Yu, Zhi-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Characterization/identification of the clusters/associates in liquids has long been a challenging topic. In this paper, we report a method to identify molecules with two different existing forms in a binary liquid solution. In this so-called two-state situation, the excess infrared spectra of a vibration mode of the respective molecule will show identical band shape if the other component is transparent in the region. More conveniently, the positions of the positive peak, negative peak, and zero-value will be seen to be fixed with varying compositions of the binary system. In the case of non-two-state mixtures, for example the mere solvation of solute by solvent, those positions will be variable. The conclusions are supported/demonstrated by computational simulation and experiments on two binary systems, D2O−H2O and C6F5I−cyclo-C6H12. PMID:26542641

  9. Alternative splicing of micro-exons creates multiple forms of the insect cell adhesion molecule fasciclin I.

    PubMed

    McAllister, L; Rehm, E J; Goodman, G S; Zinn, K

    1992-03-01

    Fasciclin I is a homophilic cell adhesion molecule in insects that is dynamically expressed on a subset of axon pathways in the embryonic nervous system, and on a variety of other cells and tissues during development. The fasciclin I protein consists of four homologous 150 amino acid domains. In this article, we describe the complete sequence of the Drosophila fasciclin I (fasI) gene. The gene consists of 15 exons and is distributed over 14 kilobases of DNA. We examine the structure and temporal expression pattern of multiple fasciclin I mRNAs that differ in the lengths of their 3' untranslated regions. We also show that a highly conserved sequence at the end of the second domain can be altered by the addition of three or six amino acids that are encoded by two alternatively spliced 9 base pair (bp) micro-exons. In grasshopper fasciclin I mRNAs, there are 9 bp and 6 bp insertions at the same position. The first of these insertions is identical in sequence to the first fly micro-exon. The grasshopper insertions are not found together in the same mRNA, so grasshopper fasciclin I species differ by the addition of three or two extra amino acids to the second domain. The alternatively spliced mRNAs are differentially expressed during embryogenesis, and all three of them are present in nerve cord preparations. We suggest that the amino acids inserted by alternative micro-exon splicing may alter the binding specificity of fasciclin I.

  10. L1157-B1, a factory of complex organic molecules in a solar-type star-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefloch, Bertrand; Ceccarelli, C.; Codella, C.; Favre, C.; Podio, L.; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Bachiller, R.

    2017-07-01

    We report on a systematic search for oxygen-bearing complex organic molecules (COMs) in the solar-like protostellar shock region L1157-B1, as part of the IRAM Large Program 'Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM'. Several COMs are unambiguously detected, some for the first time, such as ketene H2CCO, dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) and glycolaldehyde (HCOCH2OH), and others firmly confirmed, such as formic acid (HCOOH) and ethanol (C2H5OH). Thanks to the high sensitivity of the observations and full coverage of the 1, 2 and 3 mm wavelength bands, we detected numerous (˜10-125) lines from each of the detected species. Based on a simple rotational diagram analysis, we derive the excitation conditions and the column densities of the detected COMs. Combining our new results with those previously obtained towards other protostellar objects, we found a good correlation between ethanol, methanol and glycolaldehyde. We discuss the implications of these results on the possible formation routes of ethanol and glycolaldehyde.

  11. Indirect Reciprocity under Incomplete Observation

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, in which individuals help others with a good reputation but not those with a bad reputation, is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same partners. In a relatively large society where indirect reciprocity is relevant, individuals may not know each other's reputation even indirectly. Previous studies investigated the situations where individuals playing the game have to determine the action possibly without knowing others' reputations. Nevertheless, the possibility that observers of the game, who generate the reputation of the interacting players, assign reputations without complete information about them has been neglected. Because an individual acts as an interacting player and as an observer on different occasions if indirect reciprocity is endogenously sustained in a society, the incompleteness of information may affect either role. We examine the game of indirect reciprocity when the reputations of players are not necessarily known to observers and to interacting players. We find that the trustful discriminator, which cooperates with good and unknown players and defects against bad players, realizes cooperative societies under seven social norms. Among the seven social norms, three of the four suspicious norms under which cooperation (defection) to unknown players leads to a good (bad) reputation enable cooperation down to a relatively small observation probability. In contrast, the three trustful norms under which both cooperation and defection to unknown players lead to a good reputation are relatively efficient. PMID:21829335

  12. Polarization and bonding of the intrinsic characteristic contours of hydrogen and fluorine atoms of forming a hydrogen fluoride molecule based on an ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Zhao, Dong-Xia; Wu, Yang

    2004-08-01

    The spatial changing feature of the shapes and sizes of the system consisted of one hydrogen atom and one fluorine atom of forming a hydrogen fluoride molecule is investigated. We give formalism of the potential acting on an electron in a molecule and derive its concrete expression in Hartree-Fock self-consistent molecular orbital theory including configuration interaction. The program of calculating the potential acting on an electron in a molecule is programmed and compiled in the framework of the MELD program package. We formulate briefly the approach of the molecular intrinsic characteristic contour (MICC) which is defined in terms of the classical turning points of electronic motion. The MICC for a molecular system is intrinsic and can be calculated by means of an ab initio CI method. Then, the polarization and bonding features of the intrinsic characteristic contours of hydrogen and fluorine atoms forming a hydrogen fluoride molecule are presented and discussed from ab initio calculations. Furthermore, electron density distribution as an added dimension has been demonstrated on the changing MICC and thus the vivid polarization and bonding features for a chemical process have been shown. It seems that at the early stage (internuclear distance Ind=5.0-20.0 a.u.) the fluorine atom gives more enthusiastic with the sensitive and expanded polarization to welcome coupling with the hydrogen atom while the latter has little response even "shy" with shrinking a bit its size at the beginning of putting the two atoms into a system and it is only around the critical point, the contact point (Ind=4.73 a.u.), that both of them stretch their hands and arms to meet and then fuse together.

  13. Cooperativity of dynamics of 18-crown-6 molecule forming one-dimensional chain in Cs2(18-crown-6)3[Ni(dmit)2]2.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Satoaki; Miyazaki, Yuji; Takeda, Sadamu; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki; Nishihara, Sadafumi; Nakamura, Takayoshi; Saito, Kazuya

    2005-07-22

    Heat capacity of Cs2(18-crown-6)3[Ni(dmit)2]2 was measured by adiabatic calorimetry. A broad thermal anomaly was observed around 225 K. The entropy gain (about 52 J K(-1) mol(-1)) is much larger than that expected for twofold disordering of 18-crown-6 assumed in the previous structure analysis. The shape of thermal anomaly was qualitatively explained by a linear Ising model developed for cooperative disordering in polymers. The 18-crown-6 molecules forming a one-dimensional chain in the crystal are orientationally disordered with moderate cooperativity.

  14. Group contribution methodology based on the statistical associating fluid theory for heteronuclear molecules formed from Mie segments.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Vasileios; Lafitte, Thomas; Avendaño, Carlos; Adjiman, Claire S; Jackson, George; Müller, Erich A; Galindo, Amparo

    2014-02-07

    A generalization of the recent version of the statistical associating fluid theory for variable range Mie potentials [Lafitte et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 154504 (2013)] is formulated within the framework of a group contribution approach (SAFT-γ Mie). Molecules are represented as comprising distinct functional (chemical) groups based on a fused heteronuclear molecular model, where the interactions between segments are described with the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jonesium) potential of variable attractive and repulsive range. A key feature of the new theory is the accurate description of the monomeric group-group interactions by application of a high-temperature perturbation expansion up to third order. The capabilities of the SAFT-γ Mie approach are exemplified by studying the thermodynamic properties of two chemical families, the n-alkanes and the n-alkyl esters, by developing parameters for the methyl, methylene, and carboxylate functional groups (CH3, CH2, and COO). The approach is shown to describe accurately the fluid-phase behavior of the compounds considered with absolute average deviations of 1.20% and 0.42% for the vapor pressure and saturated liquid density, respectively, which represents a clear improvement over other existing SAFT-based group contribution approaches. The use of Mie potentials to describe the group-group interaction is shown to allow accurate simultaneous descriptions of the fluid-phase behavior and second-order thermodynamic derivative properties of the pure fluids based on a single set of group parameters. Furthermore, the application of the perturbation expansion to third order for the description of the reference monomeric fluid improves the predictions of the theory for the fluid-phase behavior of pure components in the near-critical region. The predictive capabilities of the approach stem from its formulation within a group-contribution formalism: predictions of the fluid-phase behavior and thermodynamic derivative properties of

  15. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete information...

  16. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete information...

  17. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete information...

  18. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete information...

  19. A comparative study of diastereomeric complexes formed by a prochiral substrate and three structurally analogous chiral molecules on Pt(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemay, Jean-Christian; Dong, Yi; Groves, Michael N.; Demers-Carpentier, Vincent; Goubert, Guillaume; Lafleur-Lambert, Raphaël; Boukouvalas, John; Hammer, Bjørk; McBreen, Peter H.

    2016-04-01

    A comparative study of chemisorbed bimolecular diastereomeric complexes formed by three structurally analogous chiral modifiers and a prochiral substrate on Pt(111) was performed using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. The experiments determine, subject to a number of assumptions, the abundant binding configurations and whether the complexed substrate is organized into pro-S or pro-R states. The overall prochiral ratio (pr) estimated in this manner may be compared in each case to literature values for the enantiomeric ratio (er) observed in catalysis experiments. The experiments were performed using ketopantolactone as the substrate and (R)-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine, (R)-N-Methyl-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine and (R)-1-naphthyl-1,2-ethanediol as the structurally analogous chiral modifiers. The STM measurements were performed at room temperature to better mimic conditions under which the catalytic studies reported in the literature were performed. The results are discussed in terms of the stereochemical effects of subtle modifications of the structure of the chiral modifier.

  20. Role of viscosity in influencing the glass-forming ability of organic molecules from the undercooled melt state.

    PubMed

    Baird, Jared A; Santiago-Quinonez, Darlene; Rinaldi, Carlos; Taylor, Lynne S

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the critical factors governing the crystallization tendency of organic compounds is vital when assessing the feasibility of an amorphous formulation to improve oral bioavailability. The objective of this study was to investigate potential links between viscosity and crystallization tendency for organic compounds from the undercooled melt state. Steady shear rate viscosities of numerous compounds were measured using standard rheometry as a function of temperature through the undercooled melt regime. Data for each compound were fit to the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) equation; kinetic fragility via strength parameter (D) was determined. Compounds with high crystallization tendencies exhibited lower melt viscosities than compounds with low crystallization tendencies. A correlation was observed between rate of change in viscosity with temperature and crystallization tendency, with slowly crystallizing compounds exhibiting larger increases in viscosity as temperature decreased below T(m). Calculated strength parameters indicated all compounds were kinetically fragile liquids; thus, kinetic fragility may not accurately assess glass-forming ability from undercooled melt state. A link was observed between the viscosity of a compound through the undercooled melt regime and its resultant crystallization tendency, indicating viscosity is a critical parameter to fully understand crystallization tendency of organic compounds.

  1. Toxicity of an α-Pore-forming Toxin Depends on the Assembly Mechanism on the Target Membrane as Revealed by Single Molecule Imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Subburaj, Yamunadevi; Ros, Uris; Hermann, Eduard; Tong, Rudi; García-Sáez, Ana J.

    2015-01-01

    α-Pore-forming toxins (α-PFTs) are ubiquitous defense tools that kill cells by opening pores in the target cell membrane. Despite their relevance in host/pathogen interactions, very little is known about the pore stoichiometry and assembly pathway leading to membrane permeabilization. Equinatoxin II (EqtII) is a model α-PFT from sea anemone that oligomerizes and forms pores in sphingomyelin-containing membranes. Here, we determined the spatiotemporal organization of EqtII in living cells by single molecule imaging. Surprisingly, we found that on the cell surface EqtII did not organize into a unique oligomeric form. Instead, it existed as a mixture of oligomeric species mostly including monomers, dimers, tetramers, and hexamers. Mathematical modeling based on our data supported a new model in which toxin clustering happened in seconds and proceeded via condensation of EqtII dimer units formed upon monomer association. Furthermore, altering the pathway of EqtII assembly strongly affected its toxic activity, which highlights the relevance of the assembly mechanism on toxicity. PMID:25525270

  2. Toxicity of an α-pore-forming toxin depends on the assembly mechanism on the target membrane as revealed by single molecule imaging.

    PubMed

    Subburaj, Yamunadevi; Ros, Uris; Hermann, Eduard; Tong, Rudi; García-Sáez, Ana J

    2015-02-20

    α-Pore-forming toxins (α-PFTs) are ubiquitous defense tools that kill cells by opening pores in the target cell membrane. Despite their relevance in host/pathogen interactions, very little is known about the pore stoichiometry and assembly pathway leading to membrane permeabilization. Equinatoxin II (EqtII) is a model α-PFT from sea anemone that oligomerizes and forms pores in sphingomyelin-containing membranes. Here, we determined the spatiotemporal organization of EqtII in living cells by single molecule imaging. Surprisingly, we found that on the cell surface EqtII did not organize into a unique oligomeric form. Instead, it existed as a mixture of oligomeric species mostly including monomers, dimers, tetramers, and hexamers. Mathematical modeling based on our data supported a new model in which toxin clustering happened in seconds and proceeded via condensation of EqtII dimer units formed upon monomer association. Furthermore, altering the pathway of EqtII assembly strongly affected its toxic activity, which highlights the relevance of the assembly mechanism on toxicity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Updating data bases with incomplete information

    SciTech Connect

    Winslett, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Suppose one wishes to construct, use, and maintain a data base of facts about the real work, even though the state of that world is only partially known. In the AI domain, this problem arises when an agent has a base set of beliefs that reflect partial knowledge about the world, and then tries to incorporate new, possibly contradictory knowledge into this set of beliefs. In the data-base domain, one facet of this situation is the well-known null values problem. The author chooses to represent such a data base as a logical theory, and views the models of the theory as representing possible states of the world that are consistent with all known information. How can new information be incorporated into the database. The research produced a formal method of specifying the desired change intensionally, by stating a well-formed formula that the state of the world is now known to satisfy. The data base update algorithms provided automatically accomplishes that change. The approach embeds the incomplete data base and the incoming information in the language of mathematical logic, and gives formal definitions of the semantics of the update operators, along with proofs of correctness for their associated algorithms. The author assesses the computational complexity of the algorithms, and proposes a means of lazy evaluation to avoid undersirable expense during execution of updates. He also examines means of enforcing integrity constraints as the data base is updated.

  4. Nonallelic heterogeneity in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with incomplete penetrance

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.K.; Berson, E.L.; Dryja, T.P.

    1994-08-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of retinal diseases in which photoreceptor cells throughout the retina degenerate. Although there is considerable genetic heterogeneity (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked forms exist), there is a possibility that some clinically defined subtypes of the disease may be the result of mutations at the same locus. One possible clinically defined subtype is that of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) with incomplete penetrance. Whereas in most families with ADRP, carriers can be clearly identified because of visual loss, ophthalmological findings, or abnormal electroretinograms (ERGs), in occasional families some obligate carriers are asymptomatic and have normal or nearly normal ERGs even late in life. A recent paper reported the mapping of the diseases locus in one pedigree (designated adRP7) with ADRP with incomplete penetrance to chromosome 7p. To test the idea that ADRP with incomplete penetrance may be genetically homogeneous, we have evaluated whether a different family with incomplete penetrance also has a disease gene linked to the same region. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. The genetically modified polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule-positive cells for potential treatment of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jiho; Kim, Han-Soo; Kang, Joon Won; Kang, Hoon-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Cell transplantation of myelin-producing exogenous cells is being extensively explored as a means of remyelinating axons in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. We determined whether 3,3',5-Triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) overexpresses the ABCD2 gene in the polysialylated (PSA) form of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-positive cells and promotes cell proliferation and favors oligodendrocyte lineage differentiation. PSA-NCAM+ cells from newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were grown for five days on uncoated dishes in defined medium with or without supplementation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and/or T3. Then, PSA-NCAM+ spheres were prepared in single cells and transferred to polyornithine/fibronectin-coated glass coverslips for five days to determine the fate of the cells according to the supplementation of these molecules. T3 responsiveness of ABCD2 was analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the growth and fate of cells were determined using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Results demonstrated that T3 induces overexpression of the ABCD2 gene in PSA-NCAM+ cells, and can enhance PSA-NCAM+ cell growth in the presence of bFGF, favoring an oligodendrocyte fate. These results may provide new insights into investigation of PSA-NCAM+ cells for therapeutic application to X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

  6. Bifunctional quorum-quenching and antibiotic-acylase MacQ forms a 170-kDa capsule-shaped molecule containing spacer polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Yoshiaki; Kusada, Hiroyuki; Ebuchi, Teppei; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Tamura, Tomohiro; Kimura, Nobutada

    2017-08-21

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms of bacterial antibiotic resistance will help prepare against further emergence of multi-drug resistant strains. MacQ is an enzyme responsible for the multi-drug resistance of Acidovorax sp. strain MR-S7. MacQ has acylase activity against both N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs), a class of signalling compounds involved in quorum sensing, and β-lactam antibiotics. Thus, MacQ is crucial as a quencher of quorum sensing as well as in conferring antibiotic resistance in Acidovorax. Here, we report the X-ray structures of MacQ in ligand-free and reaction product complexes. MacQ forms a 170-kDa capsule-shaped molecule via face-to-face interaction with two heterodimers consisting of an α-chain and a β-chain, generated by the self-cleaving activity of a precursor polypeptide. The electron density of the spacer polypeptide in the hollow of the molecule revealed the close orientation of the peptide-bond atoms of Val20SP-Gly21SP to the active-site, implying a role of the residues in substrate binding. In mutational analyses, uncleaved MacQ retained degradation activity against both AHLs and penicillin G. These results provide novel insights into the mechanism of self-cleaving maturation and enzymatic function of N-terminal nucleophile hydrolases.

  7. The mobility of single-file water molecules is governed by the number of H-bonds they may form with channel-lining residues

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Andreas; Zocher, Florian; Preiner, Johannes; Ollinger, Nicole; Siligan, Christine; Akimov, Sergey A.; Pohl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Channel geometry governs the unitary osmotic water channel permeability, pf, according to classical hydrodynamics. Yet, pf varies by several orders of magnitude for membrane channels with a constriction zone that is one water molecule in width and four to eight molecules in length. We show that both the pf of those channels and the diffusion coefficient of the single-file waters within them are determined by the number NH of residues in the channel wall that may form a hydrogen bond with the single-file waters. The logarithmic dependence of water diffusivity on NH is in line with the multiplicity of binding options at higher NH densities. We obtained high-precision pf values by (i) having measured the abundance of the reconstituted aquaporins in the vesicular membrane via fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and via high-speed atomic force microscopy, and (ii) having acquired the vesicular water efflux from scattered light intensities via our new adaptation of the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye equation. PMID:26167541

  8. Physics of Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Many varieties of molecule have been detected in the Milky Way and in other galaxies. The processes by which these molecules are formed and destroyed are now broadly understood (see INTERSTELLAR CHEMISTRY). These molecules are important components of galaxies in two ways. Firstly, radiation emitted by molecules enables us to trace the presence of diffuse gas, to infer its physical properties and ...

  9. The dimeric form of HLA-G molecule is associated with the response of early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) patients to methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Roberta; Farina, Ilaria; Bortolotti, Daria; Galuppi, Elisa; Padovan, Melissa; Di Luca, Dario; Govoni, Marcello

    2017-03-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates a possible involvement of HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-G antigens in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), mainly in the HLA-G dimeric isoform, the most active HLA-G form with the strongest immunosuppression, that showed an excellent anti-inflammatory effect in collagen-induced arthritis model mice. However, the relevance of HLA-G dimers in RA response to methotrexate (MTX) treatment is still unknown. We analyzed the HLA-G dimers' amount in plasma samples from early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) patients before MTX therapy and evaluated the role of these molecules as biomarker of the different response to the treatment. Plasma sHLA-G levels were detected by ELISA, and HLA-G dimeric and monomeric forms were revealed by Western blot in 12 MTX responder (reaching DAS28 remission <2.6) and 8 MTX non-responder (DAS28 ≥5.1) patients before the therapy. The response to MTX was evaluated after 6 months of treatment. All ERA patients reaching remission showed higher plasma sHLA-G levels and the 78 kDa HLA-G dimeric form. Unresponsive ERA patients were characterized by lower plasma sHLA-G levels, and only one patient presented the 78 kDa HLA-G dimeric form (DAS28 5.1). Our preliminary results support the hypothesis that in ERA patients, sHLA-G and, in particular, the presence of the dimeric form in plasma samples before MTX therapy could be an a priori biomarker for the response to MTX treatment.

  10. 7 CFR 763.8 - Incomplete applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... days of receipt of an incomplete application, the Agency will provide the seller and buyer written notice of any additional information that must be provided. The seller or buyer, as applicable,...

  11. Reconstruction of Unilateral Incomplete Cryptophthalmos in Fraser Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ann Q; Lee, Bradford W; Alameddine, Ramzi M; Korn, Bobby S; Kikkawa, Don O

    2015-03-25

    A full-term baby girl with Fraser syndrome was born with right incomplete cryptophthalmos. On examination, the globe was completely covered with skin with partially formed eyelids laterally. At 3 years of age, she underwent an evisceration with orbital implant and reconstruction of the eyelids and fornices using the pre-existing scleral remnant. Custom ocular prosthetic fitting was performed 5 weeks postoperatively. At 4 years follow up, she continued to successfully retain an ocular prosthesis.

  12. Incomplete rotational cooling in a 22-pole ion trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, E. S.; Egger, G.; Lee, S.; Lakhmanskaya, O.; Simpson, M.; Wester, R.

    2017-02-01

    Cryogenic 22-pole ion traps have found many applications in ion-molecule reaction kinetics and in high resolution molecular spectroscopy. For most of these applications it is important to know the translational and internal temperatures of the trapped ions. Here, we present detailed rotational state thermometry measurements over an extended temperature range for hydroxyl anions in He, HD, and H2. The measured rotational temperatures show a termination of the thermalisation with the buffer gas around 25 K, independent of mass ratio and confinement potential of the trap. Different possible explanations for this incomplete thermalisation are discussed, among them the thermalisation of the buffer gas, room temperature blackbody radiation or warm gas entering the trap, and heating due to energy transfer from rotationally excited hydrogen molecules.

  13. Incomplete reactions in nanothermite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Rohit J.; Ortiz-Montalvo, Diana L.; Overdeep, Kyle R.; Weihs, Timothy P.; Zachariah, Michael R.

    2017-02-01

    Exothermic reactions between oxophilic metals and transition/post transition metal-oxides have been well documented owing to their fast reaction time scales (≈10 μs). This article examines the extent of the reaction in nano-aluminum based thermite systems through a forensic inspection of the products formed during reaction. Three nanothermite systems (Al/CuO, Al/Bi2O3, and Al/WO3) were selected owing to their diverse combustion characteristics, thereby providing sufficient generality and breadth to the analysis. Microgram quantities of the sample were coated onto a fine platinum wire, which was resistively heated at high heating rates (≈105 K/s) to ignite the sample. The subsequent products were captured/quenched very rapidly (≈500 μs) in order to preserve the chemistry/morphology during initiation and subsequent reaction and were quantitatively analyzed using electron microscopy and focused ion beam cross-sectioning followed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Elemental examination of the cross-section of the quenched particles shows that oxygen is predominantly localized in the regions containing aluminum, implying the occurrence of the redox reaction. The Al/CuO system, which has simultaneous gaseous oxygen release and ignition (TIgnition ≈ TOxygen Release), shows a substantially lower oxygen content within the product particles as opposed to Al/Bi2O3 and Al/WO3 thermites, which are postulated to undergo a condensed phase reaction (TIgnition ≪ TOxygen Release). An effective Al:O composition for the interior section was obtained for all the mixtures, with the smaller particles generally showing a higher oxygen content than the larger ones. The observed results were further corroborated with the reaction temperature, obtained using a high-speed spectro-pyrometer, and bomb calorimetry conducted on larger samples (≈15 mg). The results suggest that thermites that produce sufficient amounts of gaseous products generate smaller product particles and

  14. Characterization of a distinct population of circulating human non-adherent endothelial forming cells and their recruitment via intercellular adhesion molecule-3.

    PubMed

    Appleby, Sarah L; Cockshell, Michaelia P; Pippal, Jyotsna B; Thompson, Emma J; Barrett, Jeffrey M; Tooley, Katie; Sen, Shaundeep; Sun, Wai Yan; Grose, Randall; Nicholson, Ian; Levina, Vitalina; Cooke, Ira; Talbo, Gert; Lopez, Angel F; Bonder, Claudine S

    2012-01-01

    Circulating vascular progenitor cells contribute to the pathological vasculogenesis of cancer whilst on the other hand offer much promise in therapeutic revascularization in post-occlusion intervention in cardiovascular disease. However, their characterization has been hampered by the many variables to produce them as well as their described phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. Herein we have isolated, enriched for and then characterized a human umbilical cord blood derived CD133(+) population of non-adherent endothelial forming cells (naEFCs) which expressed the hematopoietic progenitor cell markers (CD133, CD34, CD117, CD90 and CD38) together with mature endothelial cell markers (VEGFR2, CD144 and CD31). These cells also expressed low levels of CD45 but did not express the lymphoid markers (CD3, CD4, CD8) or myeloid markers (CD11b and CD14) which distinguishes them from 'early' endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Functional studies demonstrated that these naEFCs (i) bound Ulex europaeus lectin, (ii) demonstrated acetylated-low density lipoprotein uptake, (iii) increased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) surface expression in response to tumor necrosis factor and (iv) in co-culture with mature endothelial cells increased the number of tubes, tubule branching and loops in a 3-dimensional in vitro matrix. More importantly, naEFCs placed in vivo generated new lumen containing vasculature lined by CD144 expressing human endothelial cells (ECs). Extensive genomic and proteomic analyses of the naEFCs showed that intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-3 is expressed on their cell surface but not on mature endothelial cells. Furthermore, functional analysis demonstrated that ICAM-3 mediated the rolling and adhesive events of the naEFCs under shear stress. We suggest that the distinct population of naEFCs identified and characterized here represents a new valuable therapeutic target to control aberrant vasculogenesis.

  15. Characterization of a Distinct Population of Circulating Human Non-Adherent Endothelial Forming Cells and Their Recruitment via Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-3

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Emma J.; Barrett, Jeffrey M.; Tooley, Katie; Sen, Shaundeep; Sun, Wai Yan; Grose, Randall; Nicholson, Ian; Levina, Vitalina; Cooke, Ira; Talbo, Gert; Lopez, Angel F.; Bonder, Claudine S.

    2012-01-01

    Circulating vascular progenitor cells contribute to the pathological vasculogenesis of cancer whilst on the other hand offer much promise in therapeutic revascularization in post-occlusion intervention in cardiovascular disease. However, their characterization has been hampered by the many variables to produce them as well as their described phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. Herein we have isolated, enriched for and then characterized a human umbilical cord blood derived CD133+ population of non-adherent endothelial forming cells (naEFCs) which expressed the hematopoietic progenitor cell markers (CD133, CD34, CD117, CD90 and CD38) together with mature endothelial cell markers (VEGFR2, CD144 and CD31). These cells also expressed low levels of CD45 but did not express the lymphoid markers (CD3, CD4, CD8) or myeloid markers (CD11b and CD14) which distinguishes them from ‘early’ endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Functional studies demonstrated that these naEFCs (i) bound Ulex europaeus lectin, (ii) demonstrated acetylated-low density lipoprotein uptake, (iii) increased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) surface expression in response to tumor necrosis factor and (iv) in co-culture with mature endothelial cells increased the number of tubes, tubule branching and loops in a 3-dimensional in vitro matrix. More importantly, naEFCs placed in vivo generated new lumen containing vasculature lined by CD144 expressing human endothelial cells (ECs). Extensive genomic and proteomic analyses of the naEFCs showed that intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-3 is expressed on their cell surface but not on mature endothelial cells. Furthermore, functional analysis demonstrated that ICAM-3 mediated the rolling and adhesive events of the naEFCs under shear stress. We suggest that the distinct population of naEFCs identified and characterized here represents a new valuable therapeutic target to control aberrant vasculogenesis. PMID:23144795

  16. CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Bramley, R.; Gallivan, K.

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

  17. Adaptive schemes for incomplete quantum process tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Rehacek, Jaroslav; Hradil, Zdenek

    2011-12-15

    We propose an iterative algorithm for incomplete quantum process tomography with the help of quantum state estimation. The algorithm, which is based on the combined principles of maximum likelihood and maximum entropy, yields a unique estimator for an unknown quantum process when one has less than a complete set of linearly independent measurement data to specify the quantum process uniquely. We apply this iterative algorithm adaptively in various situations and so optimize the amount of resources required to estimate a quantum process with incomplete data.

  18. Cochlear implant in incomplete partition type I.

    PubMed

    Berrettini, S; Forli, F; De Vito, A; Bruschini, L; Quaranta, N

    2013-02-01

    In this investigation, we report on 4 patients affected by incomplete partition type I submitted to cochlear implant at our institutions. Preoperative, surgical, mapping and follow-up issues as well as results in cases with this complex malformation are described. The cases reported in the present study confirm that cochlear implantation in patients with incomplete partition type I may be challenging for cochlear implant teams. The results are variable, but in many cases satisfactory, and are mainly related to the surgical placement of the electrode and residual neural nerve fibres. Moreover, in some cases the association of cochlear nerve abnormalities and other disabilities may significantly affect results.

  19. Targeted DNA methylation by a DNA methyltransferase coupled to a triple helix forming oligonucleotide to down-regulate the epithelial cell adhesion molecule.

    PubMed

    van der Gun, Bernardina T F; Maluszynska-Hoffman, Maria; Kiss, Antal; Arendzen, Alice J; Ruiters, Marcel H J; McLaughlin, Pamela M J; Weinhold, Elmar; Rots, Marianne G

    2010-07-21

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a membrane glycoprotein that has been identified as a marker of cancer-initiating cells. EpCAM is highly expressed on most carcinomas, and transient silencing of EpCAM expression leads to reduced oncogenic potential. To silence the EpCAM gene in a persistent manner via targeted DNA methylation, a low activity mutant (C141S) of the CpG-specific DNA methyltransferase M.SssI was coupled to a triple-helix-forming oligonucleotide (TFO-C141S) specifically designed for the EpCAM gene. Reporter plasmids encoding the green fluorescent protein under control of different EpCAM promoter fragments were treated with the TFO-C141S conjugate to determine the specificity of targeted DNA methylation in the context of a functional EpCAM promoter. Treatment of the plasmids with TFO-C141S resulted in efficient and specific methylation of the targeted CpG located directly downstream of the triple helix forming site (TFS). No background DNA methylation was observed neither in a 700 bp region of the EpCAM promoter nor in a 400 bp region of the reporter gene downstream of the TFS. Methylation of the target CpG did not have a detectable effect on promoter activity. This study shows that the combination of a specific TFO and a reduced activity methyltransferase variant can be used to target DNA methylation to predetermined sites with high specificity, allowing determination of crucial CpGs for promoter activity.

  20. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of severe forms of vasculitis due to hepatitis C-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Kaplanski, Gilles; Maisonobe, Thierry; Marin, Valérie; Grès, Sandra; Robitail, Stéphane; Farnarier, Catherine; Harlé, Jean-Robert; Piette, Jean-Charles; Cacoub, Patrice

    2005-03-01

    To better characterize the molecules involved in leukocyte tissue infiltration during hepatitis C-mixed cryoglobulinemia (HCV-MC)-associated vasculitis. The involvement of ELAM, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was evaluated in 36 patients with HCV-MC vasculitis using three different approaches: concentrations of soluble forms by specific ELISA, tissue expression by immunohistochemistry on patients nerve biopsies, endothelial expression by FACS analysis, on cells activated in vitro by cryoprecipitates purified from HCV-MC patients. Concentrations of sVCAM-1 were significantly elevated in the serum of HCV-MC patients compared to HCV patients without MC, the highest concentrations being found in severe vasculitis. VCAM-1 expression was detected on blood vessels from nerve biopsies performed in patients with severe vasculitis. When added to endothelial cells in vitro, HCV-MC patients cryoprecipitate induced VCAM-1 but also ELAM and ICAM-1 expression possibly through a mechanism due to the C1q complement fraction interaction with endothelial cells, since C1q was consistently present in the cryoprecipitates. VCAM-1 is mainly involved in the pathogenesis of HCV-MC-associated severe vasculitis and may be a potential interesting therapeutic target.

  1. Revealing the properties of defects formed by CH3NH2 molecules in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite MAPbBr3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji; Zhang, Ao; Yan, Jun; Li, Dan; Chen, Yunlin

    2017-03-01

    The properties of defects in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite are widely studied from the first-principles calculation. However, the defects of methylamine (methylamine = CH3NH2), which would be easily formed during the preparation of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite, are rarely investigated. Thermodynamic properties as well as defect states of methylamine embedded MAPbX3 (MA = methyl-ammonium = CH3NH3, X = Br, I) are studied based on first-principles calculations of density functional theory. It was found that there is a shallow defect level near the highest occupied molecular orbital, which induced by the interstitial methylamine defect in MAPbBr3, will lead to an increase of photoluminescence. The calculation results showed that interstitial defect states of methylamine may move deeper due to the interaction between methylamine molecules and methyl-ammonium cations. It was also showed that the interstitial methylamine defect is stable at room temperature, and the defect can be removed easily by annealing.

  2. 40 CFR 725.33 - Incomplete submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... attachments are not in English, except for published scientific literature. (4) The submitter does not provide... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.33 Incomplete submissions. (a) A submission under this part is not complete, and the review period does not...

  3. 40 CFR 725.33 - Incomplete submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... attachments are not in English, except for published scientific literature. (4) The submitter does not provide... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.33 Incomplete submissions. (a) A submission under this part is not complete, and the review period does not...

  4. 40 CFR 725.33 - Incomplete submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attachments are not in English, except for published scientific literature. (4) The submitter does not provide... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.33 Incomplete submissions. (a) A submission under this part is not complete, and the review period does not...

  5. 40 CFR 725.33 - Incomplete submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... attachments are not in English, except for published scientific literature. (4) The submitter does not provide... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.33 Incomplete submissions. (a) A submission under this part is not complete, and the review period does not...

  6. 40 CFR 725.33 - Incomplete submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... attachments are not in English, except for published scientific literature. (4) The submitter does not provide... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.33 Incomplete submissions. (a) A submission under this part is not complete, and the review period does not...

  7. Higher Education's Grade for Data: "Incomplete"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebel, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The latest national report card on higher education, as in the past, handed out a lot of "incompletes." Like the student who keeps forgetting to turn in that lab report, the grades can't be computed without all the data. There's a lot policy makers don't know about their states' higher-education performance, and the gaps in information limit the…

  8. Higher Education's Grade for Data: "Incomplete"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebel, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The latest national report card on higher education, as in the past, handed out a lot of "incompletes." Like the student who keeps forgetting to turn in that lab report, the grades can't be computed without all the data. There's a lot policy makers don't know about their states' higher-education performance, and the gaps in information limit the…

  9. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete information. When the proposed action will have significant adverse effects on the human environment, and there...

  10. Numerical evaluation of the incomplete airy functions and their application to high frequency scattering and diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, E. D.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The incomplete Airy integrals serve as canonical functions for the uniform ray optical solutions to several high frequency scattering and diffraction problems that involve a class of integrals characterized by two stationary points that are arbitrarily close to one another or to an integration endpoint. Integrals of such analytical properties describe transition region phenomena associated with composite shadow boundaries. An efficient and accurate method for computing the incomplete Airy functions would make the solutions to such problems useful for engineering purposes. Here, a convergent series solution form for the incomplete Airy functions is derived. Asymptotic expansions involving several terms were also developed and serve as large argument approximations. The combination of the series solution form with the asymptotic formulae provides for an efficient and accurate computation of the incomplete Airy functions. Validation of accuracy is accomplished using direct numerical integration data.

  11. Two {Dy2} single-molecule magnets formed via an in situ reaction by capturing CO2 from atmosphere under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Guo, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2017-02-14

    Under ambient conditions, CO2 was captured from atmosphere and reduced for sequestering CO2 into two {Dy2} single-molecule magnets through an in situ organic ligand reaction of hydrazine. A reasonable reaction mechanism is proposed, which provides a promising route towards the capturing and transforming CO2 into single-molecule magnets.

  12. Coincidence of Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell and Meningomyelocele in a Dizygotic Twin Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Timur, Hakan; Bayram, Hatice; Şükran Çakar, Esra; Danışman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Pentalogy of Cantrell is an extremely rare and lethal syndrome. Ectopia cordis is frequently found in fetuses with POC but not required for incomplete forms. Likewise, meningomyelocele is a relatively uncommon neural tube defect affecting central nervous system and associated with neurological problems. Herein, we presented a woman with dizygotic twin pregnancy having coincidence of incomplete POC and MMC in each individual fetus, which has never been reported previously. PMID:26421202

  13. Incomplete exponential sums and Diffie-Hellman triples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, William D.; Friedlander, John B.; Konyagin, Sergei V.; Shparlinski, Igor E.

    2006-03-01

    Let p be a prime and vartheta an integer of order t in the multiplicative group modulo p. In this paper, we continue the study of the distribution of Diffie-Hellman triples (vartheta(x,) vartheta(y,) vartheta(xy) ) by considering the closely related problem of estimating exponential sums formed from linear combinations of the entries in such triples. We show that the techniques developed earlier for complete sums can be combined, modified and developed further to treat incomplete sums as well. Our bounds imply uniformity of distribution results for Diffie-Hellman triples as the pair (x,y) varies over small boxes.

  14. Incomplete Laplace integrals - uniform asymptotic expansion with application to the incomplete beta function

    SciTech Connect

    Temme, N.M.

    1987-11-01

    The analytical approach of Temme (1983 and 1985), based on uniform asymptotic expansions, is extended to an additional class of incomplete Laplace integrals. The terminology is introduced; the construction of the formal series is explained; representations for the remainders are derived; the asymptotic nature of the expansions is explored; and error bounds are determined. Numerical results are presented for the case of the incomplete beta function. 14 references.

  15. The undirected incomplete perfect phylogeny problem.

    PubMed

    Satya, Ravi Vijaya; Mukherjee, Amar

    2008-01-01

    The incomplete perfect phylogeny (IPP) problem and the incomplete perfect phylogeny haplotyping (IPPH) problem deal with constructing a phylogeny for a given set of haplotypes or genotypes with missing entries. The earlier approaches for both of these problems dealt with restricted versions of the problems, where the root is either available or can be trivially re-constructed from the data, or certain assumptions were made about the data. In this paper, we deal with the unrestricted versions of the problems, where the root of the phylogeny is neither available nor trivially recoverable from the data. Both IPP and IPPH problems have previously been proven to be NP-complete. Here, we present efficient enumerative algorithms that can handle practical instances of the problem. Empirical analysis on simulated data shows that the algorithms perform very well both in terms of speed and in terms accuracy of the recovered data.

  16. Methods for incomplete Bessel function evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Frank E.; Fripiat, J. G.

    Presented here are detailed methods for evaluating the incomplete Bessel functions arising when Gaussian-type orbitals are used for systems periodic in one spatial dimension. The scheme is designed to yield these incomplete Bessel functions with an absolute accuracy of ±1 × 10-10, for the range of integer orders 0 ≤ n ≤ 12 [a range sufficient for a basis whose members have angular momenta of up to three units (s, p, d, or f atomic functions)]. To reach this accuracy level within acceptable computation times, new rational approximations were developed to compute the special functions involved, namely, the exponential integral E1(x) and the modified Bessel functions K0(x) and K1(x), to absolute accuracy ±1 × 10-15.

  17. Past incompleteness of a bouncing multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu

    2014-06-01

    According to classical GR, Anti-de Sitter (AdS) bubbles in the multiverse terminate in big crunch singularities. It has been conjectured, however, that the fundamental theory may resolve these singularities and replace them by nonsingular bounces. This may have important implications for the beginning of the multiverse. Geodesics in cosmological spacetimes are known to be past-incomplete, as long as the average expansion rate along the geodesic is positive, but it is not clear that the latter condition is satisfied if the geodesic repeatedly passes through crunching AdS bubbles. We investigate this issue in a simple multiverse model, where the spacetime consists of a patchwork of FRW regions. The conclusion is that the spacetime is still past-incomplete, even in the presence of AdS bounces.

  18. Stochastic approximation boosting for incomplete data problems.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Joseph; Laake, Petter

    2009-12-01

    Boosting is a powerful approach to fitting regression models. This article describes a boosting algorithm for likelihood-based estimation with incomplete data. The algorithm combines boosting with a variant of stochastic approximation that uses Markov chain Monte Carlo to deal with the missing data. Applications to fitting generalized linear and additive models with missing covariates are given. The method is applied to the Pima Indians Diabetes Data where over half of the cases contain missing values.

  19. A Stability Analysis of Incomplete LU Factorizations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    AD-R52 058 A STABILITY ANALYSIS OF INCOMPLETE LU FRCTORIZRTIONS 1/1 (U) YALE UNIY NEN HRVEN CT DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE H C ELMAN FEB 85 YALEU/DCS/RR... computations involving the triangular factors. Our analysis is similar to stability analysis for methods for ordinary differential equations [10]. It shows...of Goteborg, 1978. Also available as Technical Report 77.04R. 32 [13] Peter Henrici , Elements of Numerical Analysis , John Wiley& Sons, New York, 1964

  20. Classification and data acquisition with incomplete data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David P.

    In remote-sensing applications, incomplete data can result when only a subset of sensors (e.g., radar, infrared, acoustic) are deployed at certain regions. The limitations of single sensor systems have spurred interest in employing multiple sensor modalities simultaneously. For example, in land mine detection tasks, different sensor modalities are better-suited to capture different aspects of the underlying physics of the mines. Synthetic aperture radar sensors may be better at detecting surface mines, while infrared sensors may be better at detecting buried mines. By employing multiple sensor modalities to address the detection task, the strengths of the disparate sensors can be exploited in a synergistic manner to improve performance beyond that which would be achievable with either single sensor alone. When multi-sensor approaches are employed, however, incomplete data can be manifested. If each sensor is located on a separate platform ( e.g., aircraft), each sensor may interrogate---and hence collect data over---only partially overlapping areas of land. As a result, some data points may be characterized by data (i.e., features) from only a subset of the possible sensors employed in the task. Equivalently, this scenario implies that some data points will be missing features. Increasing focus in the future on using---and fusing data from---multiple sensors will make such incomplete-data problems commonplace. In many applications involving incomplete data, it is possible to acquire the missing data at a cost. In multi-sensor remote-sensing applications, data is acquired by deploying sensors to data points. Acquiring data is usually an expensive, time-consuming task, a fact that necessitates an intelligent data acquisition process. Incomplete data is not limited to remote-sensing applications, but rather, can arise in virtually any data set. In this dissertation, we address the general problem of classification when faced with incomplete data. We also address the

  1. Essays on incomplete contracts in regulatory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Eduardo Humberto

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay, The Hold-Up Problem in Public Infrastructure Franchising, characterizes the equilibria of the investment decisions in public infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex-post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm) are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment is renegotiated by the parties at the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this essay is that not only underinvestment but also overinvestment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting case. The second essay, Alternative Institutional Arrangements in Network Utilities: An Incomplete Contracting Approach, presents a theoretical assessment of the efficiency implications of privatizing natural monopolies which are vertically related to potential competitive firms. Based on the incomplete contracts and asymmetric information paradigm. I develop a model that analyzes the relative advantages of different institutional arrangements---alternative ownership and market structures in the industry--- in terms of their allocative and productive efficiencies. The main policy conclusion of this essay is that both ownership and the existence of conglomerates in network industries matter. Among other conclusions, this essay provides an economic rationale for a mixed economy in which the network is public and vertical separation of the industry when the natural monopoly is under private ownership. The last essay, Opportunistic Behavior and Legal Disputes in the Chilean Electricity Sector, analyzes post-contractual disputes in this newly privatized industry. It discusses the presumption that opportunistic behavior and disputes arise due to inadequate market design, ambiguous regulation, and institutional weaknesses. This chapter also assesses the presumption

  2. Incomplete penetrance in mitochondrial optic neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Caporali, Leonardo; Maresca, Alessandra; Capristo, Mariantonietta; Del Dotto, Valentina; Tagliavini, Francesca; Valentino, Maria Lucia; La Morgia, Chiara; Carelli, Valerio

    2017-07-14

    Incomplete penetrance characterizes the two most frequent inherited optic neuropathies, Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) and dominant optic atrophy (DOA), due to genetic errors in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the nuclear DNA (nDNA), respectively. For LHON, compelling evidence has accumulated on the complex interplay of mtDNA haplogroups and environmental interacting factors, whereas the nDNA remains essentially non informative. However, a compensatory mechanism of activated mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mtDNA copy number, possibly driven by a permissive nDNA background, is documented in LHON; when successful it maintains unaffected the mutation carriers, but in some individuals it might be hampered by tobacco smoking or other environmental factors, resulting in disease onset. In females, mitochondrial biogenesis is promoted and maintained within the compensatory range by estrogens, partially explaining the gender bias in LHON. Concerning DOA, none of the above mechanisms has been fully explored, thus mtDNA haplogroups, environmental factors such as tobacco and alcohol, and further nDNA variants may all participate as protective factors or, on the contrary, favor disease expression and severity. Next generation sequencing, complemented by transcriptomics and proteomics, may provide some answers in the next future, even if the multifactorial model that seems to apply to incomplete penetrance in mitochondrial optic neuropathies remains problematic, and careful stratification of patients will play a key role for data interpretation. The deep understanding of which factors impinge on incomplete penetrance may shed light on the pathogenic mechanisms leading to optic nerve atrophy, on their possible compensation and, thus, on development of therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Incomplete figure perception and invisible masking.

    PubMed

    Chikhman, Valery; Shelepin, Yuri; Foreman, Nigel; Merkuljev, Aleksey; Pronin, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    The Gollin test (measuring recognition thresholds for fragmented line drawings of everyday objects and animals) has traditionally been regarded as a test of incomplete figure perception or 'closure', though there is a debate about how such closure is achieved. Here, figural incompleteness is considered to be the result of masking, such that absence of contour elements of a fragmented figure is the result of the influence of an 'invisible' mask. It is as though the figure is partly obscured by a mask having parameters identical to those of the background. This mask is 'invisible' only consciously, but for the early stages of visual processing it is real and has properties of multiplicative noise. Incomplete Gollin figures were modeled as the figure covered by the mask with randomly distributed transparent and opaque patches. We adjusted the statistical characteristics of the contour image and empty noise patches and processed those using spatial and spatial-frequency measures. Across 73 figures, despite inter-subject variability, mean recognition threshold was always approximately 15% of total contour in naive observers. Recognition worsened with increasing spectral similarity between the figure and the 'invisible' mask. Near threshold, the spectrum of the fragmented image was equally similar to that of the 'invisible' mask and complete image. The correlation between spectral parameters of figures at threshold and complete figures was greatest for figures that were most easily recognised. Across test sessions, thresholds reduced when either figure or mask parameters were familiar. We argue that recognition thresholds for Gollin stimuli in part reflect the extraction of signal from noise.

  4. Toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules: bio-organometallics and its toxicology.

    PubMed

    Fujie, Tomoya; Hara, Takato; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Bio-organometallics is a research strategy of biology that uses organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. The molecules are expected to exhibit useful bioactivities based on the unique structure formed by interaction between the organic structure and intramolecular metal(s). However, studies on both biology and toxicology of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules have been incompletely performed. There can be two types of toxicological studies of bio-organometallics; one is evaluation of organic-inorganic hybrid molecules and the other is analysis of biological systems from the viewpoint of toxicology using organic-inorganic hybrid molecules. Our recent studies indicate that cytotoxicity of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is nontoxic in inorganic forms can be more toxic than that of hybrid molecules containing a metal that is toxic in inorganic forms when the structure of the ligand is the same. Additionally, it was revealed that organic-inorganic hybrid molecules are useful for analysis of biological systems important for understanding the toxicity of chemical compounds including heavy metals.

  5. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  6. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chandre, C.

    2015-10-15

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac’s theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac–Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed. The relevance of this procedure for infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems is exemplified.

  7. Dynamic pattern matcher using incomplete data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gordon G. (Inventor); Wang, Lui (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates generally to pattern matching systems, and more particularly to a method for dynamically adapting the system to enhance the effectiveness of a pattern match. Apparatus and methods for calculating the similarity between patterns are known. There is considerable interest, however, in the storage and retrieval of data, particularly, when the search is called or initiated by incomplete information. For many search algorithms, a query initiating a data search requires exact information, and the data file is searched for an exact match. Inability to find an exact match thus results in a failure of the system or method.

  8. A spectroscopic experimental and computer-assisted empirical model for the production and energetics of excited oxygen molecules formed by atom recombination on shuttle tile surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owan, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A visible emission spectroscopic method was developed. The amounts of excited singlet and triplet oxygen molecules produced by recombination on the Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protective tiles at elevated temperatures are determined. Rate constants and energetics of the extremely exothermic reaction are evaluated in terms of a chemical and mathematical model. Implications for potential contribution to Shuttle surface reentry heating fluxes are outlined.

  9. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered,...

  10. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered,...

  11. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered,...

  12. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered,...

  13. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered,...

  14. IUD insertion immediately after incomplete abortion.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, A; Goldberg, R; Eyzaguirre, H; Lizana, L

    1972-04-01

    All women who were admitted to the Felix Bulnes Hospital, Santiaog, Chile, for incomplete abortion between July 1968 and June 1969 were given instruction in family planning and contraceptive services. A total of 584 women chose to have an IUD insertion. Although all the women thought they had received an IUD, 1 group had a Lippes loop D inserted immediately after curettage and the other group had no insertion. The attending doctor had no prior knowledge as to which women were to receive the device nor did the doctor at the follow-up know until after the physical exam had taken place. 30 days after discharge from the hospital, the women returned from check-up and follow-up. At this time the women who had not received an IUD were given an insertion. Differences between the group with insertion and the one without were significant only for the interval between curettage and first menses and for the quantity of flow in relation to previous menstruation. The difference between the 2 groups for duration of menstrual flow was of borderline significance at the .05 significance level. It is concluded from the study that in the absence of psychologi cal bias of the patient to the IUD insertion, and possibly bias in its use by the doctor, there are no serious complications in the first month following immediate postabortal IUD insertion even where the abortion was a septic incomplete one.

  15. Incomplete expression of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brodkiewicz, Andrzej; Szychot, Elwira; Peregud-Pogorzelski, Jarosław; Luksza, Krzysztof; Walczak, Mieczysław; Tuziak, Martyna; Giżewska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare, congenital vascular anomaly, defined as a triad including a port-wine stain, underlying bone and soft tissue hypertrophy and varicose veins and/or venous malformations. Our aim is to present the case of a 13-year-old girl with a delayed proper diagnosis of incomplete expression of KTS presenting with a port-wine stain of her left lower extremity associated with hypertrophy of the affected limb (upon the moment of diagnosis no varicose veins were observed). The patient did not experience any pain in the affected limb, nor was she diagnosed with neuropathy - both of above mentioned symptoms are often a significant issue. To ensure proper diagnosis, the patient underwent a broad spectrum of diagnostic tests, including physical examination with anthropometric measuring, biochemical tests, as well as radiological examinations including CT scan, Doppler vein ultrasound and bone X-ray. Based on physical examination and test results we were able to establish the diagnosis of incomplete expression of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. The authors aim to emphasise the very rare incidence of KTS, as well as the low level of awareness of the described disease, which resulted in the significantly delayed final diagnosis in the presented case. Establishing the diagnosis of KTS before the onset of severe vascular complications, regular check-ups in the Outpatient Clinic of Haemangioma Care and compression dressing may help avoid/diminish the severity and significantly delay the development of venous failure of the affected limb.

  16. Robust pulmonary lobe segmentation against incomplete fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Suicheng; Zheng, Qingfeng; Siegfried, Jill; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-03-01

    As important anatomical landmarks of the human lung, accurate lobe segmentation may be useful for characterizing specific lung diseases (e.g., inflammatory, granulomatous, and neoplastic diseases). A number of investigations showed that pulmonary fissures were often incomplete in image depiction, thereby leading to the computerized identification of individual lobes a challenging task. Our purpose is to develop a fully automated algorithm for accurate identification of individual lobes regardless of the integrity of pulmonary fissures. The underlying idea of the developed lobe segmentation scheme is to use piecewise planes to approximate the detected fissures. After a rotation and a global smoothing, a number of small planes were fitted using local fissures points. The local surfaces are finally combined for lobe segmentation using a quadratic B-spline weighting strategy to assure that the segmentation is smooth. The performance of the developed scheme was assessed by comparing with a manually created reference standard on a dataset of 30 lung CT examinations. These examinations covered a number of lung diseases and were selected from a large chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) dataset. The results indicate that our scheme of lobe segmentation is efficient and accurate against incomplete fissures.

  17. Incompleteness, aesthetic sensitivity, and the obsessive-compulsive need for symmetry.

    PubMed

    Summerfeldt, Laura J; Gilbert, Shaun J; Reynolds, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The "need for symmetry" is a well recognized yet little understood feature of obsessive-compulsive (OC) experience. In light of the strong associations between the OC-related trait of incompleteness and symmetry-related behaviors and symptoms, and between perceptual symmetry and aesthetic judgments, this study examined whether trait incompleteness is associated with enhanced natural aesthetic skill and/or aesthetic sensitivity, particularly as they pertain to visual symmetry. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare the responses of nonclinical individuals with high versus average levels of trait incompleteness on self-report measures and two performance measures of aesthetic judgment. Compared to controls, participants high in incompleteness reported higher levels of self-perceived symmetry-related concerns and behaviors, and displayed greater aesthetic sensitivity in the form of substantially heightened preferences for symmetry in images. Contrary to the hypothesis relating to aesthetic skill, however, the two groups did not differ in their capacity to estimate accurately the objective aesthetic value of images. Nor did they differ in self-reported aesthetics interests and background. A clinical sample was not included. Findings provide evidence that high trait incompleteness is associated not just with symptomatic symmetry-related concerns but with a nonspecific heightened preference for visual symmetry. Conceptual implications are discussed, particularly the potential value of the perceptual fluency theory of symmetry and aesthetic response for explaining the association between incompleteness and symmetry preferences and symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Social Interactions under Incomplete Information: Games, Equilibria, and Expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao

    Interactions under Incomplete Information", is an application of the first chapter to censored outcomes, corresponding to the situation when agents" behaviors are subjected to some binding restrictions. In an interesting empirical analysis for property tax rates set by North Carolina municipal governments, it is found that there is a significant positive correlation among near-by municipalities. Additionally, some private information about its own residents is used by a municipal government to predict others' tax rates, which enriches current empirical work about tax competition. The third chapter, "Social Interactions under Incomplete Information with Multiple Equilibria", extends the first chapter by investigating effective estimation methods when the condition for a unique equilibrium may not be satisfied. With multiple equilibria, the previous model is incomplete due to the unobservable equilibrium selection. Neither conventional likelihoods nor moment conditions can be used to estimate parameters without further specifications. Although there are some solutions to this issue in the current literature, they are based on strong assumptions such as agents with the same observable characteristics play the same strategy. This paper relaxes those assumptions and extends the all-solution method used to estimate discrete choice games to a setting with both discrete and continuous choices, bounded and unbounded outcomes, and a general form of incomplete information, where the existence of a pure strategy equilibrium has been an open question for a long time. By the use of differential topology and functional analysis, it is found that when all exogenous characteristics are public information, there are a finite number of equilibria. With privately known exogenous characteristics, the equilbria can be represented by a compact set in a Banach space and be approximated by a finite set. As a result, a finite-state probability mass function can be used to specify a probability measure

  19. Incomplete Gardner's syndrome with blepharoptosis as the first symptom.

    PubMed

    Chatziralli, Irini P; Papazisis, Leonidas; Sergentanis, Theodoros N

    2014-04-01

    Gardner's syndrome (GS) is an autosomal dominant form of polyposis characterized by the presence of multiple polyps in the colon together with osseous tumors and soft-tissue tumors, such as epidermoid cysts and lipomas. An osteoma is a benign, osteogenic tumor and may be sporadic or related to GS. Here, we present a patient with a giant sino-orbital osteoma and blepharoptosis as the only symptom of incomplete GS. A 74-year-old woman, with no previous history of trauma or ophthalmic surgery, presented with a 2 years history of right blepharoptosis without diplopia. The results of slit-lamp and fundoscopic examination were normal. Computed tomography showed a giant sino-orbital osteoma. With suspicion for GS, we thoroughly examined the patient and found no soft-tissue tumors. Fifteen years ago, the patient, who had a family history of colonic polyposis, underwent right colectomy and chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma. We report a case of incomplete GS with blepharoptosis as the first symptom.

  20. New functional form of the dependence of rotational and centrifugal distortional parameters of the water molecule on the bending vibration v2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikov, V. I.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.

    1982-10-01

    A regularity is found for the anomalous behavior of the rotational and centrifugal distortion parameters of the water molecule in the bending states (0 v20). This regularity is described by simple nonpolynomial formulae which are used to calculate Watson's parameters A, Δ K, Δ KJ, δK, HK, HKJ, hK, LK, LKKJ, and lK for the states (010), (020), (030), and (040). The calculated v2 behavior of these parameters is in agreement with the experimental one.

  1. Building Chaotic Model From Incomplete Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siek, Michael; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a number of novel techniques for building a predictive chaotic model from incomplete time series. A predictive chaotic model is built by reconstructing the time-delayed phase space from observed time series and the prediction is made by a global model or adaptive local models based on the dynamical neighbors found in the reconstructed phase space. In general, the building of any data-driven models depends on the completeness and quality of the data itself. However, the completeness of the data availability can not always be guaranteed since the measurement or data transmission is intermittently not working properly due to some reasons. We propose two main solutions dealing with incomplete time series: using imputing and non-imputing methods. For imputing methods, we utilized the interpolation methods (weighted sum of linear interpolations, Bayesian principle component analysis and cubic spline interpolation) and predictive models (neural network, kernel machine, chaotic model) for estimating the missing values. After imputing the missing values, the phase space reconstruction and chaotic model prediction are executed as a standard procedure. For non-imputing methods, we reconstructed the time-delayed phase space from observed time series with missing values. This reconstruction results in non-continuous trajectories. However, the local model prediction can still be made from the other dynamical neighbors reconstructed from non-missing values. We implemented and tested these methods to construct a chaotic model for predicting storm surges at Hoek van Holland as the entrance of Rotterdam Port. The hourly surge time series is available for duration of 1990-1996. For measuring the performance of the proposed methods, a synthetic time series with missing values generated by a particular random variable to the original (complete) time series is utilized. There exist two main performance measures used in this work: (1) error measures between the actual

  2. Dynamical properties of nimodipine molecules confined in SBA-15 matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiwilsza, A.; Pajzderska, A.; Mielcarek, J.; Jenczyk, J.; Wąsicki, J.

    2016-08-01

    The paper reports results of 13C and 1H ssNMR for nimodipine confined in mesopores of SBA-15 for the samples (i) containing nimodipine molecules inside and on the external surface of silica, (ii) containing nimodipine only inside pores forming an incomplete monolayer on the surface (iii) for bulk nimodipine. The measurements permitted comparison of the dynamics of nimodipine bulk and confined in pores. The confined nimodipine is in an amorphous state and has additional degrees of rotational freedom with respect to the bulk one. The height of the energy barrier related to the rotation of methyl groups in confined nimodipine is lower than in bulk nimodipine. The higher mobility of nimodipine molecules confined in silica pores can explain the higher release rate of nimodipine from silica matrix than dissolution rate of bulk drug.

  3. Inflaton dark matter from incomplete decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Cerezo, Rafael; Rosa, João G.

    2016-05-01

    We show that the decay of the inflaton field may be incomplete, while nevertheless successfully reheating the Universe and leaving a stable remnant that accounts for the present dark matter abundance. We note, in particular, that since the mass of the inflaton decay products is field dependent, one can construct models, endowed with an appropriate discrete symmetry, where inflaton decay is kinematically forbidden at late times and only occurs during the initial stages of field oscillations after inflation. We show that this is sufficient to ensure the transition to a radiation-dominated era and that inflaton particles typically thermalize in the process. They eventually decouple and freeze out, yielding a thermal dark matter relic. We discuss possible implementations of this generic mechanism within consistent cosmological and particle physics scenarios, for both single-field and hybrid inflation.

  4. Shape reconstruction methods with incomplete data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahata, K.; Kitahara, M.

    2000-05-01

    Linearized inverse scattering methods are applied to the shape reconstruction of defects in elastic solids. The linearized methods are based on the Born approximation in the low frequency range and the Kirchhoff approximation in the high frequency range. The experimental measurement is performed to collect the scattering data from defects. The processed data from the measurement are fed into the linearized methods and the shape of the defect is reconstructed by two linearized methods. The importance of scattering data in the low frequency range is pointed out not only for Born inversion but also for Kirchhoff inversion. In the ultrasonic measurement for the real structure, the access points of the sensor may be limited to one side of the structural surfaces and a part of the surface. From the viewpoint of application, the incomplete scattering data are used as inputs for the shape reconstruction methods and the effect of the sensing points are discussed.

  5. Bereavement: an incomplete rite of passage.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jennifer

    A bereavement ritual observed during anthropological fieldwork in Peru gives basis to this article which asserts that bereavement has become an incomplete rite of passage. The article reviews the role of ritual and rites of passage, examines other anthropologic examples of death and bereavement rituals, and identifies the lack of post-funeral ritual for many bereaved individuals in the United States. While funerary rituals which end with the funeral and burial of the dead are helpful in providing immediate structure for the bereaved, they are not congruent with the long-term emotional needs and reconstruction of meaning within grief. The author acknowledges value of both private ritual and reunions of the community of mourners, and recommends that bereavement counselors and/or the funeral industry offer to help bereaved construct a "ritual of remembrance and new meaning" after time has allowed them to move along in meaning reconstruction processes of making sense, finding benefits, and identity change.

  6. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  7. Series expansions for the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integral Je 0(a, z)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechaik, Mehdi M.; Dvorak, Steven L.

    1995-09-01

    Bessel series expansions are derived for the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integralJe0(a, z). These expansions are obtained by using contour integration techniques to evaluate the inverse Laplace transform representation for Je0(a, z). It is shown that one of the expansions can be used as a convergent series expansion for one definition of the branch cut and as an asymptotic expansion if the branch cut is chosen differently. The effects of the branch cuts are demonstrated by plotting the terms in the series for interesting special cases. The Laplace transform technique used in this paper simplifies the derivation of the series expansions, provides information about the resulting branch cuts, yields integral representations for Je0(a, z), and allows the series expansions to be extended to complex values of z. These series expansions can be used together with the expansions for Ye0(a, z), which are obtained in a separate paper, to compute numerous other special functions, encountered in electromagnetic applications. These include: incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integrals of the Hankel and modified Bessel form, incomplete cylindrical functions of Poisson form (incomplete Bessel, Struve, Hankel, and Macdonald functions), and incomplete Weber integrals (Lommel functions of two variables).

  8. Discovery and characterization of lunar materials: An incomplete process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D.

    1991-01-01

    Our knowledge of lunar materials is based on (1) sample collections (by the Apollo and Lunar missions, supplemented by Antarctic lunar meteorites); and (2) remote sensing (Earth-based or by spacecraft). The characterization of lunar materials is limited by the small number of sampled sites and the incomplete remote-sensing database (geochemical data collected from orbit cover 20 percent of the lunar surface). There is much about lunar surface materials that remains to be discovered. Listed are some features suspected form present knowledge: (1) Polar Materials; (2) Farside Materials; (3) Crater-Floor Materials; (4) Crater-Wall and Central Peak Materials; (5) Volcanic Shield and Dome Materials; (6) Transient-Event Materials; and (7) Meteoritic and Cometary Materials; This short list of likely discoveries isn't exhaustive. We know much about a few spots on the Moon, but little about the full range of lunar materials.

  9. Classification with Incomplete Data Using Dirichlet Process Priors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunping; Liao, Xuejun; Carin, Lawrence; Dunson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    A non-parametric hierarchical Bayesian framework is developed for designing a classifier, based on a mixture of simple (linear) classifiers. Each simple classifier is termed a local “expert”, and the number of experts and their construction are manifested via a Dirichlet process formulation. The simple form of the “experts” allows analytical handling of incomplete data. The model is extended to allow simultaneous design of classifiers on multiple data sets, termed multi-task learning, with this also performed non-parametrically via the Dirichlet process. Fast inference is performed using variational Bayesian (VB) analysis, and example results are presented for several data sets. We also perform inference via Gibbs sampling, to which we compare the VB results. PMID:23990757

  10. Molecule nanoweaver

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II; Rex, E [Brookfield, IL; Klingler, Robert J [Glenview, IL; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL; Diaz, Rocio [Chicago, IL; Vukovic, Lela [Westchester, IL

    2009-03-10

    A method, apparatus, and system for constructing uniform macroscopic films with tailored geometric assemblies of molecules on the nanometer scale. The method, apparatus, and system include providing starting molecules of selected character, applying one or more force fields to the molecules to cause them to order and condense with NMR spectra and images being used to monitor progress in creating the desired geometrical assembly and functionality of molecules that comprise the films.

  11. Surface structure of SiC formed by C60 molecules on a Si(001)-2×1 surface at 800 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C.-P.; Huang, J.-W.; Pi, T.-W.; Lee, H.-H.

    2006-06-01

    Formation of silicon carbide upon deposition of C60 onto Si(001) at an elevated temperature of 800 °C was studied via synchrotron-radiation photoemission and low electron energy diffraction. The molecules are completely decomposed upon hitting on the hot surface, giving rise to a well-order 2×1 pattern. The C 1s and Si 2p core-level spectra, and valence-band spectra indicate characteristics of a Si-terminated β-SiC(001) 2×1 film. Two surface components corresponding to the terminated and ad-dimer Si atoms are well resolved in the Si 2p cores. By the spectral area ratio of both components, the adlayer atoms cover half of the surface, which agrees with the missing-row structure model [W. Lu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2292 (1998)].

  12. Single-molecule magnet behaviour in a tetranuclear Dy(III) complex formed from a novel tetrazine-centered hydrazone Schiff base ligand.

    PubMed

    Lacelle, T; Brunet, G; Pialat, A; Holmberg, R J; Lan, Y; Gabidullin, B; Korobkov, I; Wernsdorfer, W; Murugesu, M

    2017-02-21

    Two analogous tetranuclear lanthanide complexes have been synthesized with the general formula [Ln4(vht)4(MeOH)8](NO3)4·aMeOH·bH2O, where H2vht = (3,6-bis(vanillidenehydrazinyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine) and Ln = Dy(III) (1), Gd(III) (2). These complexes are characterized by several techniques; including single-crystal X-ray diffraction, SQUID magnetometry and single-crystal micro-SQUID hysteresis loop measurements. Elucidation of the crystal structure of the complexes shows that the lanthanide ions are bridged by a tetrazine ring, a rare bridging moiety for lanthanide ions. Magnetic studies reveal that both 1 and 2 exhibit weak ferromagnetic exchange interactions between Ln ions, and 1 displaying Single-Molecule Magnet (SMM) behaviour with a magnetisation reversal barrier of Ueff = 158 K (τ0 = 1.06 × 10(-7) s).

  13. Water-COOH Composite Structure with Enhanced Hydrophobicity Formed by Water Molecules Embedded into Carboxyl-Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Pan; Tu, Yusong; Yang, Jinrong; Wang, Chunlei; Sheng, Nan; Fang, Haiping

    2015-10-01

    By combining molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics calculations, we show the formation of a composite structure composed of embedded water molecules and the COOH matrix on carboxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (COOH SAMs) with appropriate packing densities. This composite structure with an integrated hydrogen bond network inside reduces the hydrogen bonds with the water above. This explains the seeming contradiction on the stability of the surface water on COOH SAMs observed in experiments. The existence of the composite structure at appropriate packing densities results in the two-step distribution of contact angles of water droplets on COOH SAMs, around 0° and 35°, which compares favorably to the experimental measurements of contact angles collected from forty research articles over the past 25 years. These findings provide a molecular-level understanding of water on surfaces (including surfaces on biomolecules) with hydrophilic functional groups.

  14. Sulfur-bearing molecules observed in the massive star-forming regions, DR21(OH) and G33.92+0.11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh, Y. C.

    2016-07-01

    Recent high sensitive and high angular resolution observations are providing unprecedented amount of chemical data, especially, on the massive star-forming regions. It will greatly extend our understandings on the complicated star formation process, if we can digest those huge amount of information. We discuss here on the properties of the sulfurbearing species observed with high angular resolutions toward two massive star-forming regions, DR21(OH) and G33.92+0.11. H2S may not exist as a solid form in the grain mantles, but OCS is believed to be one of major solid sulfur species, as suggested before. In addition, the bipolar-like outflow of the H2CS emission observed in DR21(OH) may suggest that H2CS is also one of solid sulfur species on the grain mantles. Depending on the chemical environment, the competition between hydrogenation and oxidization on the grain surface may lead to formation of specific solid forms to dominate, which could be either H2CS or OCS. SO and SO2 are often observed to be associated with ionized gas, such as the UC HII regions. These species seem to be formed in the high temperature turbulent gas in a later stage of star formation after the hot core phase. Fractional abundances of these sulfur-bearing species appear to be consistent to a certain extent in several star-forming regions. The physical and chemical evolution of massive star formation seems to pass through very similar stages in most star-forming regions. Consequently, it may indicate that there exists a consistent and coherent pattern of processes experienced by the massive star formation, in spite of the large variations in small scale locational differences.

  15. Soluble platelet selectin (sP-selectin) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) decrease during therapy with benznidazole in children with indeterminate form of Chagas' disease

    PubMed Central

    Laucella, S A; Segura, E L; Riarte, A; Sosa, Estani S

    1999-01-01

    The immune response against Trypanosoma cruzi infection has been associated with both protection and pathogenesis. Central events in host defence system- and immune-mediated damage are tightly regulated by cell adhesion molecules (CAM). Levels of sP-selectin and sVCAM-1 were measured in sera from 41 children with the indeterminate phase of Chagas' disease. Simultaneously, levels of soluble adhesion molecule were also quantified in Chagas' disease children undergoing specific chemotherapy with benznidazole. Levels of sP-selectin and sVCAM-1 were found to be elevated in children with indeterminate Chagas' disease before aetiologic therapy was started. However, a small group of patients showed sP-selectin and sVCAM-1 levels comparable to those of non-infected children. A positive correlation between levels of sVCAM-1 and sP-selectin in sera from Chagas' disease patients was found. There was a significantly greater decrease in the titres of sP-selectin and sVCAM-1 in those children receiving benznidazole therapy compared with those children receiving placebo. Measurement of soluble adhesion molecules revealed differences in the activation of the immune system in children with the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease. The early decrease of sP-selectin and sVCAM-1 levels after anti-parasitic treatment suggests that these molecules might be valuable indicators of effective parasitologic clearance. PMID:10594562

  16. The bond-forming reactions of atomic dications with neutral molecules: formation of ArNH+ and ArN+ from collisions of Ar2+ with NH3.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Natalie; Kearney, Dominic; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Price, Stephen D

    2004-03-24

    An experimental and computational study has been performed to investigate the bond-forming reactivity between Ar(2+) and NH(3). Experimentally, we detect two previously unobserved bond-forming reactions between Ar(2+) and NH(3) forming ArN(+) and ArNH(+). This is the first experimental observation of a triatomic product ion (ArNH(+)) following a chemical reaction of a rare gas dication with a neutral. The intensity of ArNH(+) was found to decrease with increasing collision energy, with a corresponding increase in the intensity of ArN(+), indicating that ArN(+) is formed by the dissociation of ArNH(+). Key features on the potential energy surface for the reaction were calculated quantum chemically using CASSCF and MRCI methods. The calculated reaction mechanism, which takes place on a singlet surface, involves the initial formation of an Ar-N bond to give Ar-NH(3)(2+). This complexation is followed by proton loss via a transition state, and then loss of the two remaining hydrogen atoms in two subsequent activationless steps to give the products (3)ArN(+) + H(+) + 2H. This calculated pathway supports the sequential formation of ArN(+) from ArNH(+), as suggested by the experimental data. The calculations also indicate that no bond-forming pathway exists on the ground triplet surface for this system.

  17. Formation of Ultracold Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, Robin

    2016-01-28

    Advances in our ability to slow down and cool atoms and molecules to ultracold temperatures have paved the way to a revolution in basic research on molecules. Ultracold molecules are sensitive of very weak interactions, even when separated by large distances, which allow studies of the effect of those interactions on the behavior of molecules. In this program, we have explored ways to form ultracold molecules starting from pairs of atoms that have already reached the ultracold regime. We devised methods that enhance the efficiency of ultracold molecule production, for example by tuning external magnetic fields and using appropriate laser excitations. We also investigates the properties of those ultracold molecules, especially their de-excitation into stable molecules. We studied the possibility of creating new classes of ultra-long range molecules, named macrodimers, thousand times more extended than regular molecules. Again, such objects are possible because ultra low temperatures prevent their breakup by collision. Finally, we carried out calculations on how chemical reactions are affected and modified at ultracold temperatures. Normally, reactions become less effective as the temperature decreases, but at ultracold temperatures, they can become very effective. We studied this counter-intuitive behavior for benchmark chemical reactions involving molecular hydrogen.

  18. Analyzing incomplete longitudinal clinical trial data.

    PubMed

    Molenberghs, Geert; Thijs, Herbert; Jansen, Ivy; Beunckens, Caroline; Kenward, Michael G; Mallinckrodt, Craig; Carroll, Raymond J

    2004-07-01

    Using standard missing data taxonomy, due to Rubin and co-workers, and simple algebraic derivations, it is argued that some simple but commonly used methods to handle incomplete longitudinal clinical trial data, such as complete case analyses and methods based on last observation carried forward, require restrictive assumptions and stand on a weaker theoretical foundation than likelihood-based methods developed under the missing at random (MAR) framework. Given the availability of flexible software for analyzing longitudinal sequences of unequal length, implementation of likelihood-based MAR analyses is not limited by computational considerations. While such analyses are valid under the comparatively weak assumption of MAR, the possibility of data missing not at random (MNAR) is difficult to rule out. It is argued, however, that MNAR analyses are, themselves, surrounded with problems and therefore, rather than ignoring MNAR analyses altogether or blindly shifting to them, their optimal place is within sensitivity analysis. The concepts developed here are illustrated using data from three clinical trials, where it is shown that the analysis method may have an impact on the conclusions of the study.

  19. Structure of Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Ann M.; Dvorak, H. F.

    1974-01-01

    Emulsions of complete (CFA) and incomplete (IFA) Freund's adjuvants were examined in the light and electron microscopes, and the resulting morphological findings were correlated with the effectiveness of the emulsions as immunological adjuvants. Thick (viscous) emulsions of both IFA and CFA consisted of highly stable, three-dimensional meshworks composed of interconnecting strands of antigen-containing water droplets interspersed in oil phase. Included mycobacteria were confined to this meshwork and were coated with an adherent surface layer of water droplets. Thin Freund's adjuvants were less stable, relatively coarse emulsions, but even in such preparations mycobacteria showed a striking affinity for the surface of water droplets when these contained low concentrations of antigens such as human serum albumin (HSA). The characteristic adjuvant effect of CFA was observed only when associations between mycobacteria and water droplets took place. Thus, no adjuvant effect occurred with oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions, nor when antigen and mycobacteria-in-oil were injected into separate foot pads. Further, a good adjuvant effect was observed even with thin emulsions when mycobacteria-water droplet associations were abundant. These morphological and immunological data suggest that CFA is a device for bringing extrinsic, water-soluble antigens into intimate, stable contact with myco-bacteria, thereby conferring on them the ability to elicit an immunological response qualitatively similar to that induced by mycobacteria-in-oil to the intrinsic antigen, tuberculin. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4605156

  20. Trisomy 18 syndrome with incomplete Cantrell syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yi-Jen; Chen, Fong-Lin; Ng, Yan-Yan; Hu, Jui-Ming; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Su, Pen-Hua

    2008-06-01

    The pentalogy of Cantrell was first described in 1958 by Cantrell and coworkers, who reported five cases in which they described a pentad of findings including a midline supraumbilical thoracoabdominal wall defect, a defect of the Lower sternum, abnormalities of the diaphragmatic pericardium and the anterior diaphragm, and congenital cardiac anomalies. Trisomy 18 has an incidence of about 0.3 per 1000 newborns. We present a case of trisomy 18 with incomplete Cantrell syndrome. The patient presented with hypogenesis of the corpus callosum, vermian-cerebellar hypoplasia (Dandy-Walker variant), ventricular septal defect, dextrocardia, patent ductus arteriosus, a defect of the lower sternum, a midline supraumbilical abdominal wall defect with omphalocele, congenital left posterior diaphragmatic hernia (Bochdalek hernia), micrognathia, low-set and malformed ears, rocker-bottom feet, dorsiflexed hallux, hypoplastic nails, short neck, and wrist deformity. Trisomy 18 syndrome was unusually combined with the pentalogy of Cantrell. We present this case because of its rarity and high risk of mortality.

  1. Deep community detection in topologically incomplete networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Xin; Wang, Chaokun; Ying, Xiang; Wang, Boyang

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of detecting communities in topologically incomplete networks (TIN), which are usually observed from real-world networks and where some edges are missing. Existing approaches to community detection always consider the input network as connected. However, more or less, even nearly all, edges are missing in real-world applications, e.g. the protein-protein interaction networks. Clearly, it is a big challenge to effectively detect communities in these observed TIN. At first, we bring forward a simple but useful method to address the problem. Then, we design a structured deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model to better detect communities in TIN. By gradually removing edges of the real-world networks, we show the effectiveness and robustness of our structured deep model on a variety of real-world networks. Moreover, we find that the appropriate choice of hop counts can improve the performance of our deep model in some degree. Finally, experimental results conducted on synthetic data sets also show the good performance of our proposed deep CNN model.

  2. Scalable tensor factorizations with incomplete data.

    SciTech Connect

    Morup, Morten; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Acar, Evrim; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2010-07-01

    The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing data. A unique aspect of our approach is that it scales to sparse large-scale data, e.g., 1000 x 1000 x 1000 with five million known entries (0.5% dense). We further demonstrate the usefulness of CP-WOPT on two real-world applications: a novel EEG (electroencephalogram) application where missing data is frequently encountered due to disconnections of electrodes and the problem of modeling computer network traffic where data may be absent due to the expense of the data collection process.

  3. The Treatment of the Incompletely Descended Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D. S. Poole

    1939-01-01

    (1) Under three years of age the diagnosis of the incompletely descended testis is uncertain. (2) The policy of awaiting spontaneous descent may be pursued until 10 years of age but, unless the testis lies in the superior scrotal position, this policy should not be persisted in thereafter. (3) Hormonal therapy may be employed before operative treatment as a means of determining testes which will descend spontaneously. It should only be used in the prepuberty period. (4) Operative treatment may be safely carried out at any age after 3 years and should be completed before puberty. The optimum period is between 8 and 11 years. The Bevan operation may be successful when the testis is very mobile but the most consistent results are obtained by the septal transposition or Keetley-Torek operations. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22 PMID:19991991

  4. WILLIAM SEAL REJECTING AN INCOMPLETE OR IMPROPERLY SET BEARDSLEY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WILLIAM SEAL REJECTING AN INCOMPLETE OR IMPROPERLY SET BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC CORE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  5. Mind Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Solomon H.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific styles vary tremendously. For me, research is largely about the unfettered pursuit of novel ideas and experiments that can test multiple ideas in a day, not a year, an approach that I learned from my mentor Julius “Julie” Axelrod. This focus on creative conceptualizations has been my métier since working in the summers during medical school at the National Institutes of Health, during my two years in the Axelrod laboratory, and throughout my forty-five years at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Equally important has been the “high” that emerges from brainstorming with my students. Nothing can compare with the eureka moments when, together, we sense new insights and, better yet, when high-risk, high-payoff experiments succeed. Although I have studied many different questions over the years, a common theme emerges: simple biochemical approaches to understanding molecular messengers, usually small molecules. Equally important has been identifying, purifying, and cloning the messengers' relevant biosynthetic, degradative, or target proteins, at all times seeking potential therapeutic relevance in the form of drugs. In the interests of brevity, this Reflections article is highly selective, and, with a few exceptions, literature citations are only of findings of our laboratory that illustrate notable themes. PMID:21543333

  6. Emission spectrometric arcing procedure with minimal effect of chemical form of sample. [performed on refractory metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Matrix effects related to the chemical form of analyzed materials were studied. An arc in argon was used which was buffered with silver chloride. The effect of chemical form was minimal for a variety of metals, oxides, and carbides representing the most refractory compounds and thermally stable metal-containing molecules. Only four of the most refractory materials known showed significant emission depressions due to incomplete volatilization in the arc system. These results are discussed in terms of vapor pressures of the solid materials placed on the anodes and dissociation reactions of the molecules in the gaseous environment.

  7. Interstellar molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townes, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    Progress in the discovery and study of interstellar molecules is summarized. The 36 molecular species thus far identified in interstellar space are listed in several groups which include simple hydrides, oxides, and sulfides, various derivatives of ammonia, molecules involving linear carbon chains, cyanides, and molecules related in structure to formaldehyde, alcohols, or ethers. Several free radicals are described, the discovery of molecules in external galaxies is discussed, and possible mechanisms for molecular formation are noted. Methods for examining relative isotopic abundances by measuring molecules in interstellar clouds are outlined, mechanisms for the excitation of interstellar molecules are reviewed, and values are presented for the C-12/C-13 abundance ratio in a number of interstellar clouds. The detection of interstellar masers is discussed along with pumping mechanisms and masing transitions in H2CO, CH, OH, and SiO. The nature of dense interstellar clouds is examined in terms of several simple and complex cloud models, with emphasis on multiple condensation models.

  8. Surface species formed by the adsorption and dissociation of water molecules on Ru(0001) surface containing a small coverage of carbon atoms studied by scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dept of Materials Science and Engineering UCB; Dept of Applied Science and Technology, UCB; Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yale University; Salmeron, Miquel; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Mugarza, Aitor; Cerda, Jorge I.; Heyde, Markus; Qi, Yabing; Schwarz, Udo D.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-04-26

    The adsorption and dissociation of water on a Ru(0001) surface containing a small amount ({le} 3 %) of carbon impurities was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Various surface species are formed depending on the temperature. These include molecular H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}O-C complexes, H, O, OH and CH. Clusters of either pure H{sub 2}O or mixed H{sub 2}O-OH species are also formed. Each of these species produces a characteristic contrast in the STM images and can be identified by experiment and by ab initio total energy calculations coupled with STM image simulations. Manipulation of individual species via excitation of vibrational modes with the tunneling electrons has been used as supporting evidence.

  9. Assessment of density functional theory for bonds formed between rare gases and open-shell atoms: a computational study of small molecules containing He, Ar, Kr and Xe.

    PubMed

    Bertolus, Marjorie; Major, Mohamed; Brenner, Valérie

    2012-01-14

    The validity of the description of the DFT approximations currently implemented in plane wave DFT codes (LDA, GGA, meta-GGA, hybrid, GGA + empirical dispersion correction) for interactions between rare gases and open-shell atoms which form materials is poorly known. We have performed a first assessment of the accuracy of these functionals for the description of the bonds formed by helium, argon, krypton and xenon with various open-shell atoms. This evaluation has been done on model molecular systems for which precise experimental data are available and reference post-Hartree-Fock calculations (CCSD(T) using large basis sets) are feasible. The results show that when the rare gas atom shares density with the neighbouring atoms, the GGA functionals yield good geometries and qualitatively correct binding energies, even if these are quite significantly overestimated. The use of hybrid functionals enables us to obtain good geometries and satisfactory binding energies. For compounds in which the rare gas atom forms weak dispersive-like bonding, the accuracy yielded by the various functionals is not as good. No functional gives satisfactory binding energies for all the compounds investigated. Several GGA and hybrid functionals yield correct geometries, even if some isomers are not obtained. One GGA functional (PBE) yields qualitatively correct results for the compounds of the three rare gases and several hybrid functionals give satisfactory energies for He compounds. The addition of an empirical dispersive correction improves the results on association compounds, but several isomers are not found.

  10. Improved small molecule drug release from in situ forming poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds incorporating poly(β-amino ester) and hydroxyapatite microparticles.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Paul D; Palomino, Pablo; Milbrandt, Todd A; Hilt, J Zach; Puleo, David A

    2014-01-01

    In situ forming implants are an attractive choice for controlled drug release into a fixed location. Currently, rapidly solidifying solvent exchange systems suffer from a high initial burst, and sustained release behavior is tied to polymer precipitation and degradation rate. The present studies investigated addition of hydroxyapatite (HA) and drug-loaded poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) microparticles to in situ forming poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based systems to prolong release and reduce burst. PBAEs were synthesized, imbibed with simvastatin (osteogenic) or clodronate (anti-resorptive), and then ground into microparticles. Microparticles were mixed with or without HA into a PLGA solution, and the mixture was injected into buffer, leading to precipitation and creating solid scaffolds with embedded HA and PBAE microparticles. Simvastatin release was prolonged through 30 days, and burst release was reduced from 81 to 39% when loaded into PBAE microparticles. Clodronate burst was reduced from 49 to 32% after addition of HA filler, but release kinetics were unaffected after loading into PBAE microparticles. Scaffold dry mass remained unchanged through day 15, with a pronounced increase in degradation rate after day 30, while wet scaffolds experienced a mass increase through day 25 due to swelling. Porosity and pore size changed throughout degradation, likely due to a combination of swelling and degradation. The system offers improved release kinetics, multiple release profiles, and rapid solidification compared to traditional in situ forming implants.

  11. Improved small molecule drug release from in situ forming poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds incorporating poly(β-amino ester) and hydroxyapatite microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Paul D.; Palomino, Pablo; Milbrandt, Todd A.; Hilt, J. Zach; Puleo, David A.

    2014-01-01

    In situ forming implants are an attractive choice for controlled drug release into a fixed location. Currently, rapidly solidifying solvent exchange systems suffer from a high initial burst, and sustained release behavior is tied to polymer precipitation and degradation rate. The present studies investigated addition of hydroxyapatite (HA) and drug-loaded poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) microparticles to in situ forming poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)–based systems to prolong release and reduce burst. PBAEs were synthesized, imbibed with simvastatin (osteogenic) or clodronate (anti-resorptive), and then ground into microparticles. Microparticles were mixed with or without HA into a PLGA solution, and the mixture was injected into buffer, leading to precipitation and creating solid scaffolds with embedded HA and PBAE microparticles. Simvastatin release was prolonged through 30 days, and burst release was reduced from 81% to 39% when loaded into PBAE microparticles. Clodronate burst was reduced from 49% to 32% after addition of HA filler, but release kinetics were unaffected after loading into PBAE microparticles. Scaffold dry mass remained unchanged through day 15, with a pronounced increase in degradation rate after day 30, while wet scaffolds experienced a mass increase through day 25 due to swelling. Porosity and pore size changed throughout degradation, likely due to a combination of swelling and degradation. The system offers improved release kinetics, multiple release profiles, and rapid solidification compared to traditional in situ forming implants. PMID:24903524

  12. Auditory Compensation for Head Rotation Is Incomplete

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hearing is confronted by a similar problem to vision when the observer moves. The image motion that is created remains ambiguous until the observer knows the velocity of eye and/or head. One way the visual system solves this problem is to use motor commands, proprioception, and vestibular information. These “extraretinal signals” compensate for self-movement, converting image motion into head-centered coordinates, although not always perfectly. We investigated whether the auditory system also transforms coordinates by examining the degree of compensation for head rotation when judging a moving sound. Real-time recordings of head motion were used to change the “movement gain” relating head movement to source movement across a loudspeaker array. We then determined psychophysically the gain that corresponded to a perceptually stationary source. Experiment 1 showed that the gain was small and positive for a wide range of trained head speeds. Hence, listeners perceived a stationary source as moving slightly opposite to the head rotation, in much the same way that observers see stationary visual objects move against a smooth pursuit eye movement. Experiment 2 showed the degree of compensation remained the same for sounds presented at different azimuths, although the precision of performance declined when the sound was eccentric. We discuss two possible explanations for incomplete compensation, one based on differences in the accuracy of signals encoding image motion and self-movement and one concerning statistical optimization that sacrifices accuracy for precision. We then consider the degree to which such explanations can be applied to auditory motion perception in moving listeners. PMID:27841453

  13. Adapting DFT+U for the Chemically Motivated Correction of Minimal Basis Set Incompleteness.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Heather J; Seelam, Natasha; Mar, Brendan D; Martínez, Todd J

    2016-07-28

    Recent algorithmic and hardware advances have enabled the application of electronic structure methods to the study of large-scale systems such as proteins with O(10(3)) atoms. Most such methods benefit greatly from the use of reduced basis sets to further enhance their speed, but truly minimal basis sets are well-known to suffer from incompleteness error that gives rise to incorrect descriptions of chemical bonding, preventing minimal basis set use in production calculations. We present a strategy for improving these well-known shortcomings in minimal basis sets by selectively tuning the energetics and bonding of nitrogen and oxygen atoms within proteins and small molecules to reproduce polarized double-ζ basis set geometries at minimal basis set cost. We borrow the well-known +U correction from the density functional theory community normally employed for self-interaction errors and demonstrate its power in the context of correcting basis set incompleteness within a formally self-interaction-free Hartree-Fock framework. We tune the Hubbard U parameters for nitrogen and oxygen atoms on small-molecule tautomers (e.g., cytosine), demonstrate the applicability of the approach on a number of amide-containing molecules (e.g., formamide, alanine tripeptide), and test our strategy on a 10 protein test set where anomalous proton transfer events are reduced by 90% from RHF/STO-3G to RHF/STO-3G+U, bringing the latter into quantitative agreement with RHF/6-31G* results. Although developed with the study of biological molecules in mind, this empirically tuned U approach shows promise as an alternative strategy for correction of basis set incompleteness errors.

  14. The Precise Radio Observation of the 13C Isotopic Fractionation for Carbon Chain Molecule HC3N in the Low-Mass Star Forming Region L1527

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Mitsunori; Takano, Shuro; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Oyama, Takahiro; Kuze, Nobuhiko; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    We observed the three 13C isotopic species of HC3N with the high signal-to-noise ratios in L1527 using Green Bank 100 m telescope and Nobeyama 45 m telescope to explore the production scheme of HC3N, where L1527 is the low-mass star forming region in the phase of a warm carbon chain chemistry region. The spectral lines of the J = 5--4, 9--8, 10--9, and 12--11 transitions in the 44-109 GHz region were used to measure isotopic ratios. The abundance of HCCCN was determined from the line intensities of the two weak hyperfine components of the J = 5-4 transition. The isotopic ratios were precisely determined to be 1.00 : 1.01 : 1.35 : 86.4 for [H13CCCN] : [HC13CCN] : [HCC13CN] : [HCCCN]. It was found that the abundance of H13CCCN is equal to that of HC13CCN, and it was implied that HC3N is mainly formed by the reaction schemes via C2H2 and C2H2+ in L1527. This would suggest a universality of dicarbide chemistry producing HC3N irrespective of evolutional phases from a starless dark cloud to a warm carbon chain chemistry region. Sakai, N., Sakai, T., Hirota, T., & Yamamoto, S. 2008, ApJ, 672, 371 Takano, S., Masuda, A., Hirahara, Y., et al. 1998, A&A, 329, 1156

  15. Treatment of Intravenous Leiomyomatosis with Cardiac Extension following Incomplete Resection

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Mathew P.; Li, Annette; Villanueva, Claudia I.; Peeceeyen, Sheen C. S.; Cooper, Michael G.; Hanel, Kevin C.; Fermanis, Gary G.; Robertson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) with cardiac extension (CE) is a rare variant of benign uterine leiomyoma. Incomplete resection has a recurrence rate of over 30%. Different hormonal treatments have been described following incomplete resection; however no standard therapy currently exists. We review the literature for medical treatments options following incomplete resection of IVL with CE. Methods. Electronic databases were searched for all studies reporting IVL with CE. These studies were then searched for reports of patients with inoperable or incomplete resection and any further medical treatments. Our database was searched for patients with medical therapy following incomplete resection of IVL with CE and their results were included. Results. All studies were either case reports or case series. Five literature reviews confirm that surgery is the only treatment to achieve cure. The uses of progesterone, estrogen modulation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonism, and aromatase inhibition have been described following incomplete resection. Currently no studies have reviewed the outcomes of these treatments. Conclusions. Complete surgical resection is the only means of cure for IVL with CE, while multiple hormonal therapies have been used with varying results following incomplete resection. Aromatase inhibitors are the only reported treatment to prevent tumor progression or recurrence in patients with incompletely resected IVL with CE. PMID:26783463

  16. Loss of Information in Estimating Item Parameters in Incomplete Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.; Verelst, Norman D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the efficiency of conditional maximum likelihood (CML) and marginal maximum likelihood (MML) estimation of the item parameters of the Rasch model in incomplete designs is investigated. The use of the concept of F-information (Eggen, 2000) is generalized to incomplete testing designs. The scaled determinant of the F-information…

  17. Loss of Information in Estimating Item Parameters in Incomplete Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.; Verelst, Norman D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the efficiency of conditional maximum likelihood (CML) and marginal maximum likelihood (MML) estimation of the item parameters of the Rasch model in incomplete designs is investigated. The use of the concept of F-information (Eggen, 2000) is generalized to incomplete testing designs. The scaled determinant of the F-information…

  18. Calculating Balanced Incomplete Block Design for Educational Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Carlson, James E.

    A popular design in large-scale educational assessments is the balanced incomplete block design. The design assumes that the item pool is split into a set of blocks of items that are assigned to assessment booklets. This paper shows how the technique of 0-1 linear programming can be used to calculate a balanced incomplete block design. Several…

  19. Analysis of Repeated Measures Designs with Nested Incomplete Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Si

    A statistical method has been developed for nested incomplete samples in a longitudinal study in which part of the sample has dropped out in such a way that the data have a nested pattern. A procedure which performed well in a Monte Carlo experiment was extended to a two-factor incomplete design with repeated measures on one factor. Methods…

  20. 40 CFR 86.085-20 - Incomplete vehicles, classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.085-20 Incomplete vehicles... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incomplete vehicles,...

  1. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  2. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  3. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  4. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  5. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  6. Proteolytic cleavage of chemerin protein is necessary for activation to the active form, Chem157S, which functions as a signaling molecule in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yasuto; Du, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Lei; Morser, John; Leung, Lawrence L K

    2011-11-11

    Chemerin is a chemoattractant involved in innate and adaptive immunity as well as an adipokine implicated in adipocyte differentiation. Chemerin circulates as an inactive precursor in blood whose bioactivity is closely regulated through proteolytic processing at its C terminus. We developed methodology for production of different recombinant chemerin isoforms (chem163S, chem157S, and chem155A) which allowed us to obtain large quantities of these proteins with purity of >95%. Chem158K was generated from chem163S by plasmin cleavage. Characterization by mass spectrometry and Edman degradation demonstrated that both the N and C termini were correct for each isoform. Ca(2+) mobilization assays showed that the EC(50) values for chem163S and chem158K were 54.2 ± 19.9 nm and 65.2 ± 13.2 nm, respectively, whereas chem157S had a ∼50-fold higher potency with an EC(50) of 1.2 ± 0.7 nm. Chem155A had no agonist activity and weak antagonist activity, causing a 50% reduction of chem157S activity at a molar ratio of 100:1. Similar results were obtained in a chemotaxis assay. Because chem158K is the dominant form in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with glioblastoma (GBM), we examined the significance of chemerin in GBM biology. In silico analysis showed chemerin mRNA was significantly increased in tissue from grade III and IV gliomas. Furthermore, U-87 MG cells, a human GBM line, express the chemerin receptors, chemokine-like receptor 1 and chemokine receptor-like 2, and chem157S triggered Ca(2+) flux. This study emphasized the necessity of appropriate C-terminal proteolytic processing to generate the likely physiologic form of active chemerin, chem157S, and suggested a possible role in malignant GBM.

  7. X-ray mapping in heterocyclic design: 17. Crystal and molecular structures of the 'molecule of the month'; and its hydrogenated form

    SciTech Connect

    Rybakov, V. B. Alekseev, R. S.; Kurkin, A. V.; Yurovskaya, M. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structures of 2,8-dimethyl-5-[2-(6-methylpyridin-3-yl)ethyl]-2,3,4,4a,5, 9b-hexahydro1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole trihydrobromide (I) (a = 12.865(4) Angstrom-Sign , b = 14.281(3) Angstrom-Sign , c = 13.553(3) Angstrom-Sign , Z = 4, sp. gr. Pna2{sub 1}) and 2,8-dimethyl-5-[2-(6-methylpyridin-3-yl)ethyl]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido [4,3-b]indole dihydrobromide (II) (a = 13.9704(14) Angstrom-Sign , b = 14.4447(15) Angstrom-Sign , c = 10.7819(12) Angstrom-Sign , {beta} = 107.58(1) Degree-Sign , Z = 4, sp. gr. P2{sub 1}/c) were studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures were solved by direct methods and refined by the full-matrix least-squares method with anisotropic displacement parameters to the R factors of 0.0603 and 0.0446, respectively. All Br{sup -} anions form hydrogen bonds with protonated nitrogen atoms. The synthesis and physicochemical parameters of these two compounds are reported.

  8. Time-dependent solutions for a stochastic model of gene expression with molecule production in the form of a compound Poisson process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrak, Jakub; Ochab-Marcinek, Anna

    2016-09-01

    We study a stochastic model of gene expression, in which protein production has a form of random bursts whose size distribution is arbitrary, whereas protein decay is a first-order reaction. We find exact analytical expressions for the time evolution of the cumulant-generating function for the most general case when both the burst size probability distribution and the model parameters depend on time in an arbitrary (e.g., oscillatory) manner, and for arbitrary initial conditions. We show that in the case of periodic external activation and constant protein degradation rate, the response of the gene is analogous to the resistor-capacitor low-pass filter, where slow oscillations of the external driving have a greater effect on gene expression than the fast ones. We also demonstrate that the n th cumulant of the protein number distribution depends on the n th moment of the burst size distribution. We use these results to show that different measures of noise (coefficient of variation, Fano factor, fractional change of variance) may vary in time in a different manner. Therefore, any biological hypothesis of evolutionary optimization based on the nonmonotonic dependence of a chosen measure of noise on time must justify why it assumes that biological evolution quantifies noise in that particular way. Finally, we show that not only for exponentially distributed burst sizes but also for a wider class of burst size distributions (e.g., Dirac delta and gamma) the control of gene expression level by burst frequency modulation gives rise to proportional scaling of variance of the protein number distribution to its mean, whereas the control by amplitude modulation implies proportionality of protein number variance to the mean squared.

  9. Time-dependent solutions for a stochastic model of gene expression with molecule production in the form of a compound Poisson process.

    PubMed

    Jędrak, Jakub; Ochab-Marcinek, Anna

    2016-09-01

    We study a stochastic model of gene expression, in which protein production has a form of random bursts whose size distribution is arbitrary, whereas protein decay is a first-order reaction. We find exact analytical expressions for the time evolution of the cumulant-generating function for the most general case when both the burst size probability distribution and the model parameters depend on time in an arbitrary (e.g., oscillatory) manner, and for arbitrary initial conditions. We show that in the case of periodic external activation and constant protein degradation rate, the response of the gene is analogous to the resistor-capacitor low-pass filter, where slow oscillations of the external driving have a greater effect on gene expression than the fast ones. We also demonstrate that the nth cumulant of the protein number distribution depends on the nth moment of the burst size distribution. We use these results to show that different measures of noise (coefficient of variation, Fano factor, fractional change of variance) may vary in time in a different manner. Therefore, any biological hypothesis of evolutionary optimization based on the nonmonotonic dependence of a chosen measure of noise on time must justify why it assumes that biological evolution quantifies noise in that particular way. Finally, we show that not only for exponentially distributed burst sizes but also for a wider class of burst size distributions (e.g., Dirac delta and gamma) the control of gene expression level by burst frequency modulation gives rise to proportional scaling of variance of the protein number distribution to its mean, whereas the control by amplitude modulation implies proportionality of protein number variance to the mean squared.

  10. Interstellar Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Radioastronomy reveals that clouds between the stars, once believed to consist of simple atoms, contain molecules as complex as seven atoms and may be the most massive objects in our Galaxy. (Author/DF)

  11. Modeling Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The molecule modeling method known as Multibody Order (N) Dynamics, or MBO(N)D, was developed by Moldyn, Inc. at Goddard Space Flight Center through funding provided by the SBIR program. The software can model the dynamics of molecules through technology which stimulates low-frequency molecular motions and properties, such as movements among a molecule's constituent parts. With MBO(N)D, a molecule is substructured into a set of interconnected rigid and flexible bodies. These bodies replace the computation burden of mapping individual atoms. Moldyn's technology cuts computation time while increasing accuracy. The MBO(N)D technology is available as Insight II 97.0 from Molecular Simulations, Inc. Currently the technology is used to account for forces on spacecraft parts and to perform molecular analyses for pharmaceutical purposes. It permits the solution of molecular dynamics problems on a moderate workstation, as opposed to on a supercomputer.

  12. Interstellar Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Radioastronomy reveals that clouds between the stars, once believed to consist of simple atoms, contain molecules as complex as seven atoms and may be the most massive objects in our Galaxy. (Author/DF)

  13. Enumerating molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr.; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Roe, Diana C.

    2004-04-01

    This report is a comprehensive review of the field of molecular enumeration from early isomer counting theories to evolutionary algorithms that design molecules in silico. The core of the review is a detail account on how molecules are counted, enumerated, and sampled. The practical applications of molecular enumeration are also reviewed for chemical information, structure elucidation, molecular design, and combinatorial library design purposes. This review is to appear as a chapter in Reviews in Computational Chemistry volume 21 edited by Kenny B. Lipkowitz.

  14. Double Incomplete Internal Biliary Fistula: Coexisting Cholecystogastric and Cholecystoduodenal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Beksac, Kemal; Erkan, Arman; Kaynaroglu, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Internal biliary fistula is a rare complication of a common surgical disease, cholelithiasis. It is seen in 0.74% of all biliary tract surgeries and is thought to be a result of repeated inflammatory periods of the gallbladder. In this report we present a case of incomplete cholecystogastric and cholecystoduodenal fistulae in a single patient missed by ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and diagnosed intraoperatively. In the literature there is only one report of an incomplete cholecystogastric fistula. To our knowledge this is the first case of double incomplete internal biliary fistulae. PMID:26904348

  15. Double Incomplete Internal Biliary Fistula: Coexisting Cholecystogastric and Cholecystoduodenal Fistula.

    PubMed

    Beksac, Kemal; Erkan, Arman; Kaynaroglu, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Internal biliary fistula is a rare complication of a common surgical disease, cholelithiasis. It is seen in 0.74% of all biliary tract surgeries and is thought to be a result of repeated inflammatory periods of the gallbladder. In this report we present a case of incomplete cholecystogastric and cholecystoduodenal fistulae in a single patient missed by ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and diagnosed intraoperatively. In the literature there is only one report of an incomplete cholecystogastric fistula. To our knowledge this is the first case of double incomplete internal biliary fistulae.

  16. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshkin, K R

    2014-09-30

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess a complete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of a single incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, a certain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  17. Plant development, auxin, and the subsystem incompleteness theorem.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the "subsystem incompleteness theorem," which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective.

  18. Incomplete and transitory decrease of glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Schoors, Sandra; Cantelmo, Anna Rita; Georgiadou, Maria; Stapor, Peter; Wang, Xingwu; Quaegebeur, Annelies; Cauwenberghs, Sandra; Wong, Brian W; Bifari, Francesco; Decimo, Ilaria; Schoonjans, Luc; De Bock, Katrien; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter

    2014-01-01

    During vessel sprouting, a migratory endothelial tip cell guides the sprout, while proliferating stalk cells elongate the branch. Tip and stalk cell phenotypes are not genetically predetermined fates, but are dynamically interchangeable to ensure that the fittest endothelial cell (EC) leads the vessel sprout. ECs increase glycolysis when forming new blood vessels. Genetic deficiency of the glycolytic activator PFKFB3 in ECs reduces vascular sprouting by impairing migration of tip cells and proliferation of stalk cells. PFKFB3-driven glycolysis promotes the tip cell phenotype during vessel sprouting, since PFKFB3 overexpression overrules the pro-stalk activity of Notch signaling. Furthermore, PFKFB3-deficient ECs cannot compete with wild-type neighbors to form new blood vessels in chimeric mosaic mice. In addition, pharmacological PFKFB3 blockade reduces pathological angiogenesis with modest systemic effects, likely because it decreases glycolysis only partially and transiently. PMID:24335389

  19. [Age and aging as incomplete architecture of human ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Baltes, P B

    1999-12-01

    The focus is on the basic biological-genetic and social-cultural architecture of human development across the life span. The starting point is the frame provided by past evolutionary forces. A first conclusion is that for modern times and the relative brevity of the time windows involved in modernity, further change in human functioning is primarily dependent on the evolution of new cultural forms of knowledge rather than evolution-based changes in the human genome. A second conclusion concerns the general architecture of the life course. Three governing lifespan developmental principles coexist. First, because long-term evolutionary selection evince a negative age correlation, genome-based plasticity and biological potential decrease with age. Second, for growth aspects of human development to extend further into the life span, culture-based resources are required at ever increasing levels. Third, because of age-related losses in biological plasticity and negative effects associated with some principles of learning (e.g., negative transfer), the efficiency of culture is reduced as lifespan development unfolds. Joint application of these principles suggests that the lifespan architecture becomes more and more incomplete with age. Three examples are given to illustrate the implications of the lifespan architecture outlined. The first is a general theory of development involving the orchestration of three component processes and their age-related dynamics: Selection, optimization, and compensation. The second example is theory and research on lifespan intelligence that distinguishes between the biology-based mechanics and culture-based pragmatics of intelligence and specifies distinct age gradients for the two categories of intellectual functioning. The third example considers the goal of evolving a positive biological and cultural scenario for the last phase of life (fourth age). Because of the general lifespan architecture outlined, this objective becomes

  20. Efficient and accurate computation of the incomplete Airy functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, E. D.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    The incomplete Airy integrals serve as canonical functions for the uniform ray optical solutions to several high-frequency scattering and diffraction problems that involve a class of integrals characterized by two stationary points that are arbitrarily close to one another or to an integration endpoint. Integrals with such analytical properties describe transition region phenomena associated with composite shadow boundaries. An efficient and accurate method for computing the incomplete Airy functions would make the solutions to such problems useful for engineering purposes. In this paper a convergent series solution for the incomplete Airy functions is derived. Asymptotic expansions involving several terms are also developed and serve as large argument approximations. The combination of the series solution with the asymptotic formulae provides for an efficient and accurate computation of the incomplete Airy functions. Validation of accuracy is accomplished using direct numerical integration data.

  1. Quantum Mechanics is Incomplete but it is Consistent with Locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlman, H. S.

    2017-07-01

    Quantum mechanics is seen to be incomplete not because it cannot explain the correlations that characterize entanglement without invoking either non-locality or realism, both of which, despite special relativity or no-go theorems, are at least conceivable. Quantum mechanics is incomplete, in a perhaps broader than hidden variable sense, because it fails to address within its theoretical structure the question of how even a single particle, by being in a given quantum state, causes the frequency distribution of measurement values specified by the state. This incompleteness of quantum mechanics as it is currently conceived is both fundamental and indefeasible. Failure to address the question of how the states of entangled particles are given effect to yield the correlations they specify is simply a particular albeit attention arresting instance of this incompleteness. But if that is so then quantum mechanics cannot be held to be inconsistent with locality.

  2. Systematics for low energy incomplete fusion: Still a puzzle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Abhishek; Shuaib, Mohd; Aggarwal, Abhay V.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Bala, Indu; Singh, D. P.; Singh, P. P.; Unnati; Sharma, M. K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2016-05-01

    In order to have a better and clear picture of incomplete fusion reactions at energies ≈4-7MeV/nucleon, the excitation function measurements have been performed for 18O+159Tb system. The experimental data have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay. The cross-section for xn/pxn-channels are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, which suggest their production via complete fusion process. However, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. The incomplete fusion fractions have been deduced at each studied energy and compared with other nearby systems for better insight into the underlying dynamics. The incomplete fusion fraction has been found to be sensitive to the projectile's energy and α-Q-value.

  3. Constructivism and empiricism: An incomplete divorce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    1992-12-01

    The paper outlines the significant influence of constructivism in contemporary science and mathematics education, and emphasises the central role that epistemology plays in constructivist theory and practice. It is claimed that despite the anti-empiricism of much constructivist writing, in most forms its epistemology is nevertheless firmly empiricist. In particular it is subject-centered and experience-based. It is argued that its relativist, if not skeptical conclusions, only follow given these empiricist assumptions. Further it is suggested that such assumptions belong to Aristotelian science, and were effectively overthrown with the modern science of Galileo and Newton. Thus constructivism cannot provide understanding of post-Aristotelian science.

  4. The Index of Dirac Operators on Incomplete Edge Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, Pierre; Gell-Redman, Jesse

    2016-09-01

    We derive a formula for the index of a Dirac operator on a compact, even-dimensional incomplete edge space satisfying a ''geometric Witt condition''. We accomplish this by cutting off to a smooth manifold with boundary, applying the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem, and taking a limit. We deduce corollaries related to the existence of positive scalar curvature metrics on incomplete edge spaces.

  5. Incomplete nested dissection for solving n by n grid problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A.; Poole, W. G., Jr.; Voigt, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Nested dissection orderings are known to be very effective for solving sparse positive definite linear systems which arise from n by n grid problems. In this paper we consider incomplete nested dissection, an ordering which corresponds to the premature termination of nested dissection. Analyses of the arithmetic and storage requirements for incomplete nested dissection are given and the ordering is shown to be competitive with nested dissection with regard to arithmetic operations and superior to that ordering in storage requirements.

  6. Efficient Algorithms for Bayesian Network Parameter Learning from Incomplete Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Efficient Algorithms for Bayesian Network Parameter Learning from Incomplete Data Guy Van den Broeck∗ and Karthika Mohan∗ and Arthur Choi and Adnan...We propose a family of efficient algorithms for learning the parameters of a Bayesian network from incomplete data. Our approach is based on recent...algorithms like EM (which require inference). 1 INTRODUCTION When learning the parameters of a Bayesian network from data with missing values, the

  7. Ultra-cold molecule production.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez-Serrano, Jamie; Chandler, David W.; Strecker, Kevin; Rahn, Larry A.

    2005-12-01

    The production of Ultra-cold molecules is a goal of many laboratories through out the world. Here we are pursuing a unique technique that utilizes the kinematics of atomic and molecular collisions to achieve the goal of producing substantial numbers of sub Kelvin molecules confined in a trap. Here a trap is defined as an apparatus that spatially localizes, in a known location in the laboratory, a sample of molecules whose temperature is below one degree absolute Kelvin. Further, the storage time for the molecules must be sufficient to measure and possibly further cool the molecules. We utilize a technique unique to Sandia to form cold molecules from near mass degenerate collisions between atoms and molecules. This report describes the progress we have made using this novel technique and the further progress towards trapping molecules we have cooled.

  8. Fiber-mesh photonic molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Subodha; Satpathy, Sashi

    2008-03-01

    Analogous to the photonic crystal, we introduce the concept of a fiber-mesh photonic molecule made up of optical fibers and study its transmission characteristics. We consider a specific example of a photonic molecule, inspired by the well-known C60 molecule, with the arms of the molecule formed out of single-moded optical fibers. The transmittance consists of sharp peaks determined by the pole structure of the scattering matrix in the complex energy plane. A molecule can be designed to control the positions and the widths of the transmission peaks, opening up the possibility of building new photonic devices such as high quality band-pass filters.

  9. Analysis of MHC class I folding: novel insights into intermediate forms

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Laura C.; Tuli, Amit; Simone, Peter D.; Wang, Xiaojian; Solheim, Joyce C.

    2012-01-01

    Folding around a peptide ligand is integral to the antigen presentation function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Several lines of evidence indicate that the broadly cross-reactive 34-1-2 antibody is sensitive to folding of the MHC class I peptide-binding groove. Here, we show that peptide-loading complex proteins associated with the murine MHC class I molecule Kd are found primarily in association with the 34-1-2+ form. This led us to hypothesize that the 34-1-2 antibody may recognize intermediately, as well as fully, folded MHC class I molecules. In order to further characterize the form(s) of MHC class I molecules recognized by 34-1-2, we took advantage of its cross-reactivity with Ld. Recognition of the open and folded forms of Ld by the 64-3-7 and 30-5-7 antibodies, respectively, has been extensively characterized, providing us with parameters against which to compare 34-1-2 reactivity. We found that the 34-1-2+ Ld molecules displayed characteristics indicative of incomplete folding, including increased tapasin association, endoplasmic reticulum retention, and instability at the cell surface. Moreover, we demonstrate that an Ld-specific peptide induced folding of the 34-1-2+ Ld intermediate. Altogether, these results yield novel insights into the nature of MHC class I molecules recognized by the 34-1-2 antibody. PMID:22329842

  10. Incomplete Relaxation between Beats after Myocardial Hypoxia and Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Weisfeldt, Myron L.; Armstrong, Paul; Scully, Hugh E.; Sanders, Charles A.; Daggett, Willard M.

    1974-01-01

    Recovery from hypoxia has been shown to prolong cardiac muscle contraction, particularly the relaxation phase. The present studies were designed to examine whether incomplete relaxation between beats can result from this prolongation of contraction and relaxation in isolated muscle after hypoxia and in the canine heart after both hypoxia and acute ischemia. The relationship between heart rate and the extent of incomplete relaxation is emphasized in view of the known enhancement of the velocity of contraction caused by increasing heart rate. The extent of incomplete relaxation during 10-s periods of pacing at increasing rates was examined before and after hypoxia in isometric cat right ventricular papillary muscle (12-120 beats/min) and in the canine isovolumic left ventricle (120-180 beats/min). Incomplete relaxation was quantified by measuring the difference between the lowest diastolic tension or pressure during pacing and the true resting tension or pressure determined by interruption of pacing at each rate. In eight cat papillary muscles (29°C), there was significantly greater incomplete relaxation 5 min after hypoxia at rates of 96 and 120 beats/min (P < 0.02 vs. before hypoxia). In seven canine isovolumic left ventricles, recovery from hypoxia and higher heart rates also resulted in incomplete relaxation. Incomplete relaxation before hypoxia at a rate of 180 beats/min was 0.8±0.5 cm H2O and at 5 min of recovery from hypoxia was 12.6±3.5 cm H2O (P < 0.01). 12 hearts were subjected to a 1.5-3-min period of acute ischemia and fibrillation. There was significant incomplete relaxation at a rate of 140 beats/min for 5 min after defibrillation and reperfusion. These data indicate that incomplete relaxation is an important determinant of diastolic hemodynamics during recovery from ischemia or hypoxia. The extent of incomplete relaxation appears to be a function of the rate of normalization of the velocity of relaxation and tension development after ischemia or

  11. Incomplete caries removal: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Dörfer, C E; Paris, S

    2013-04-01

    Increasing numbers of clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of incomplete caries removal, in particular in the treatment of deep caries. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials investigating one- or two-step incomplete compared with complete caries removal. Studies treating primary and permanent teeth with primary caries lesions requiring a restoration were analyzed. The following primary and secondary outcomes were investigated: risk of pulpal exposure, post-operative pulpal symptoms, overall failure, and caries progression. Electronic databases were screened for studies from 1967 to 2012. Cross-referencing was used to identify further articles. Odds ratios (OR) as effect estimates were calculated in a random-effects model. From 364 screened articles, 10 studies representing 1,257 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed risk reduction for both pulpal exposure (OR [95% CI] 0.31 [0.19-0.49]) and pulpal symptoms (OR 0.58 [0.31-1.10]) for teeth treated with one- or two-step incomplete excavation. Risk of failure seemed to be similar for both complete and incomplete excavation, but data for this outcome were of limited quality and inconclusive (OR 0.97 [0.64-1.46]). Based on reviewed studies, incomplete caries removal seems advantageous compared with complete excavation, especially in proximity to the pulp. However, evidence levels are currently insufficient for definitive conclusions because of high risk of bias within studies.

  12. Handling incomplete smoking history data in survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale L; Misumi, Munechika; Cullings, Harry M

    2014-10-26

    While data are unavoidably missing or incomplete in most observational studies, consequences of mishandling such incompleteness in analysis are often overlooked. When time-varying information is collected irregularly and infrequently over a long period, even precisely obtained data may implicitly involve substantial incompleteness. Motivated by an analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of smoking and radiation on lung cancer risks among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, we provide a unique application of multiple imputation to incompletely observed smoking histories under the assumption of missing at random. Predicting missing values for the age of smoking initiation and, given initiation, smoking intensity and cessation age, analyses can be based on complete, though partially imputed, smoking histories. A simulation study shows that multiple imputation appropriately conditioned on the outcome and other relevant variables can produce consistent estimates when data are missing at random. Our approach is particularly appealing in large cohort studies where a considerable amount of time-varying information is incomplete under a mechanism depending in a complex manner on other variables. In application to the motivating example, this approach is expected to reduce estimation bias that might be unavoidable in naive analyses, while keeping efficiency by retaining known information.

  13. A statistical approach for distinguishing hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting.

    PubMed

    Joly, Simon; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2009-08-01

    The extent and evolutionary significance of hybridization is difficult to evaluate because of the difficulty in distinguishing hybridization from incomplete lineage sorting. Here we present a novel parametric approach for statistically distinguishing hybridization from incomplete lineage sorting based on minimum genetic distances of a nonrecombining locus. It is based on the idea that the expected minimum genetic distance between sequences from two species is smaller for some hybridization events than for incomplete lineage sorting scenarios. When applied to empirical data sets, distributions can be generated for the minimum interspecies distances expected under incomplete lineage sorting using coalescent simulations. If the observed distance between sequences from two species is smaller than its predicted distribution, incomplete lineage sorting can be rejected and hybridization inferred. We demonstrate the power of the method using simulations and illustrate its application on New Zealand alpine buttercups (Ranunculus). The method is robust and complements existing approaches. Thus it should allow biologists to assess with greater accuracy the importance of hybridization in evolution.

  14. Prediction of incomplete screening mammograms based on age and race.

    PubMed

    Justice, Tiffany D; Stiff, Jennifer H; Myers, John A; Milam, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the age-associated rate of incomplete mammograms requiring additional testing based on Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) score. A retrospective, observational study design from a tertiary medical center was used to evaluate which explanatory variables significantly predicted whether a woman had an incomplete mammogram. An incomplete mammogram was defined as a BIRADS score of 0 (requiring further imaging), whereas a benign process was defined as a BIRADS score of 1 or 2. Explanatory variables included traditional clinical factors (age, race, and menopausal state). During the study period, 20,269 subjects were evaluated. The majority of the patients were white (n = 12,955; 64.6%) and had a BIRADS score consistent with a benign finding (n = 17,571; 86.6%). Premenopausal state (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% CI, 1.27-1.50), white race (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08-1.29), and younger age (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.27-1.50) significantly increased the odds a woman had an incomplete study. In this cross-sectional, single-institution analysis, premenopausal state and white race are associated with an increased rate for incomplete mammograms. Patients should be counseled appropriately before the initiation of screening.

  15. DNA: An Extensible Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cluzel, Philippe; Lebrun, Anne; Heller, Christoph; Lavery, Richard; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Chatenay, Didier; Caron, Francois

    1996-02-01

    The force-displacement response of a single duplex DNA molecule was measured. The force saturates at a plateau around 70 piconewtons, which ends when the DNA has been stretched about 1.7 times its contour length. This behavior reveals a highly cooperative transition to a state here termed S-DNA. Addition of an intercalator suppresses this transition. Molecular modeling of the process also yields a force plateau and suggests a structure for the extended form. These results may shed light on biological processes involving DNA extension and open the route for mechanical studies on individual molecules in a previously unexplored range.

  16. Enzyme molecules as nanomotors.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Samudra; Dey, Krishna K; Muddana, Hari S; Tabouillot, Tristan; Ibele, Michael E; Butler, Peter J; Sen, Ayusman

    2013-01-30

    Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we show that the diffusive movements of catalase enzyme molecules increase in the presence of the substrate, hydrogen peroxide, in a concentration-dependent manner. Employing a microfluidic device to generate a substrate concentration gradient, we show that both catalase and urease enzyme molecules spread toward areas of higher substrate concentration, a form of chemotaxis at the molecular scale. Using glucose oxidase and glucose to generate a hydrogen peroxide gradient, we induce the migration of catalase toward glucose oxidase, thereby showing that chemically interconnected enzymes can be drawn together.

  17. Identification of classical anaphylatoxin as the des-Arg form of the C5a molecule: Evidence of a modulator role for the oligosaccharide unit in human des-Arg74-C5a

    PubMed Central

    Gerard, Craig; Hugli, Tony E.

    1981-01-01

    A functionally active and potentially lethal fragment of the fifth component of complement (C5) is generated during complement activation in serum from animals of various species. This factor, termed the “classical” anaphylatoxin, was isolated from porcine serum and was identified chemically as the des-Arg derivative of the well-characterized C5a molecule. Unlike the C3a and C4a anaphylatoxins, porcine C5a does not require the COOH-terminal arginyl residue for spasmogenic activity. Further degradation of porcine des-Arg74-C5a by carboxypeptidase Y removed glycine-73 and leucine-72 and decreased the intrinsic spasmogenic activity by >90%. Hence, we conclude that, although the arginyl residue is not essential, the COOH-terminal sequence Leu-Gly-Arg contributes structural information that accounts for >90% of C5a activity. Human des-Arg74-C5a, like its porcine counterpart, has instrinsic anaphylatoxin activity; however, higher concentrations were needed to contract the guinea pig ileal tissue (i.e., 1 μM for human des-Arg74-C5a versus 1 nM for porcine des-Arg74-C5a). Furthermore, the des-Arg form of human C5a was only 0.1% as active as porcine des-Arg74-C5a for enhancing vascular permeability in guinea pig skin. In addition to these biological differences, numerous chemical differences exist between the human and porcine des-Arg74-C5a molecules, the most prominent feature being an oligosaccharide entity associated uniquely with the human C5a. When the oligosaccharide unit of human des-Arg74-C5a was removed by glycosidases, leaving a single glucosamine residue attached to the side chain of asparagine-64, activity was enhanced. The human des-Arg74-C5a molecule devoid of the complex oligosaccharide unit exhibited 10-fold stronger spasmogenic activity and 20- to 50-fold greater permeability-enhancing activity than did human des-Arg74-C5a containing the oligosaccharide. Consequently, the oligosaccharide associated with human C5a modulates or suppresses potentially

  18. A Novel Method to Assess Incompleteness of Mammography Reports

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Francisco J.; Wu, Yirong; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Mammography has been shown to improve outcomes of women with breast cancer, but it is subject to inter-reader variability. One well-documented source of such variability is in the content of mammography reports. The mammography report is of crucial importance, since it documents the radiologist’s imaging observations, interpretation of those observations in terms of likelihood of malignancy, and suggested patient management. In this paper, we define an incompleteness score to measure how incomplete the information content is in the mammography report and provide an algorithm to calculate this metric. We then show that the incompleteness score can be used to predict errors in interpretation. This method has 82.6% accuracy at predicting errors in interpretation and can possibly reduce total diagnostic errors by up to 21.7%. Such a method can easily be modified to suit other domains that depend on quality reporting. PMID:25954448

  19. A novel method to assess incompleteness of mammography reports.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Francisco J; Wu, Yirong; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Rubin, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    Mammography has been shown to improve outcomes of women with breast cancer, but it is subject to inter-reader variability. One well-documented source of such variability is in the content of mammography reports. The mammography report is of crucial importance, since it documents the radiologist's imaging observations, interpretation of those observations in terms of likelihood of malignancy, and suggested patient management. In this paper, we define an incompleteness score to measure how incomplete the information content is in the mammography report and provide an algorithm to calculate this metric. We then show that the incompleteness score can be used to predict errors in interpretation. This method has 82.6% accuracy at predicting errors in interpretation and can possibly reduce total diagnostic errors by up to 21.7%. Such a method can easily be modified to suit other domains that depend on quality reporting.

  20. Incomplete fuzzy data processing systems using artificial neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patyra, Marek J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the implementation of a fuzzy data processing system using an artificial neural network (ANN) is discussed. The binary representation of fuzzy data is assumed, where the universe of discourse is decartelized into n equal intervals. The value of a membership function is represented by a binary number. It is proposed that incomplete fuzzy data processing be performed in two stages. The first stage performs the 'retrieval' of incomplete fuzzy data, and the second stage performs the desired operation on the retrieval data. The method of incomplete fuzzy data retrieval is proposed based on the linear approximation of missing values of the membership function. The ANN implementation of the proposed system is presented. The system was computationally verified and showed a relatively small total error.

  1. A comparison of incomplete-data methods for categorical data.

    PubMed

    van der Palm, Daniël W; van der Ark, L Andries; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2016-04-01

    We studied four methods for handling incomplete categorical data in statistical modeling: (1) maximum likelihood estimation of the statistical model with incomplete data, (2) multiple imputation using a loglinear model, (3) multiple imputation using a latent class model, (4) and multivariate imputation by chained equations. Each method has advantages and disadvantages, and it is unknown which method should be recommended to practitioners. We reviewed the merits of each method and investigated their effect on the bias and stability of parameter estimates and bias of the standard errors. We found that multiple imputation using a latent class model with many latent classes was the most promising method for handling incomplete categorical data, especially when the number of variables used in the imputation model is large.

  2. Incomplete fuzzy data processing systems using artificial neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patyra, Marek J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the implementation of a fuzzy data processing system using an artificial neural network (ANN) is discussed. The binary representation of fuzzy data is assumed, where the universe of discourse is decartelized into n equal intervals. The value of a membership function is represented by a binary number. It is proposed that incomplete fuzzy data processing be performed in two stages. The first stage performs the 'retrieval' of incomplete fuzzy data, and the second stage performs the desired operation on the retrieval data. The method of incomplete fuzzy data retrieval is proposed based on the linear approximation of missing values of the membership function. The ANN implementation of the proposed system is presented. The system was computationally verified and showed a relatively small total error.

  3. Incomplete and False Identification Distributions: Group Screening Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    AD-AO99 310 MARYLAND LUN1V COLLEGE PARK F/6 12/1 INCOMPLETE AND FALSE IDENTIFICATION DISTRIBUTIONS: GROUP SCREEN--ETC(U) MAY 8l S KOTZ. N L JOHNSON...present paper, we extend some of these results to the case of screeningw’mpling schemes. KeyWords and Phrases: group screening; binomial distribution...Johnson and Kotz (1981a). la) Incomplete identification. Consider a sample of size n without replacement from a lot of size N conforming X defective (or

  4. Low Complexity Models to improve Incomplete Sensitivities for Shape Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanciu, Mugurel; Mohammadi, Bijan; Moreau, Stéphane

    2003-01-01

    The present global platform for simulation and design of multi-model configurations treat shape optimization problems in aerodynamics. Flow solvers are coupled with optimization algorithms based on CAD-free and CAD-connected frameworks. Newton methods together with incomplete expressions of gradients are used. Such incomplete sensitivities are improved using reduced models based on physical assumptions. The validity and the application of this approach in real-life problems are presented. The numerical examples concern shape optimization for an airfoil, a business jet and a car engine cooling axial fan.

  5. Incomplete use of condoms: the importance of sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Graham, Cynthia A; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sanders, Stephanie A; Yarber, William L

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify associations between incomplete condom use (not using condoms from start to finish of sex) and sexual arousal variables. A convenience sample of heterosexual men (n = 761) completed a web-based questionnaire. Men who scored higher on sexual arousability were more likely to put a condom on after sex had begun (AOR = 1.58). Men who reported difficulty reaching orgasm were more likely to report removing condoms before sex was over (AOR = 2.08). These findings suggest that sexual arousal may be an important, and under-studied, factor associated with incomplete use of condoms.

  6. Impact of the putative cancer stem cell markers and growth factor receptor expression on the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to treatment with various forms of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and cytotoxic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Puvanenthiran, Soozana; Essapen, Sharadah; Seddon, Alan M.; Modjtahedi, Helmout

    2016-01-01

    Increased expression and activation of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER-2 have been reported in numerous cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of a large panel of human ovarian cancer cell lines (OCCLs) to treatment with various forms of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and cytotoxic drugs. The aim was to see if there was any association between the protein expression of various biomarkers including three putative ovarian cancer stem cell (CSC) markers (CD24, CD44, CD117/c-Kit), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and HER family members and response to treatment with these agents. The sensitivity of 10 ovarian tumour cell lines to the treatment with various forms of HER TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib, lapatinib, sapitinib, afatinib, canertinib, neratinib), as well as other TKIs (dasatinib, imatinib, NVP-AEW541, crizotinib) and cytotoxic agents (paclitaxel, cisplatin and doxorubicin), as single agents or in combination, was determined by SRB assay. The effect on these agents on the cell cycle distribution, and downstream signaling molecules and tumour migration were determined using flow cytometry, western blotting, and the IncuCyte Clear View cell migration assay respectively. Of the HER inhibitors, the irreversible pan-TKIs (canertinib, neratinib and afatinib) were the most effective TKIs for inhibiting the growth of all ovarian cancer cells, and for blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR, HER-2, AKT and MAPK in SKOV3 cells. Interestingly, while the majority of cancer cells were highly sensitive to treatment with dasatinib, they were relatively resistant to treatment with imatinib (i.e., IC50 >10 μM). Of the cytotoxic agents, paclitaxel was the most effective for inhibiting the growth of OCCLs, and of various combinations of these drugs, only treatment with a combination of NVP-AEW541 and paclitaxel produced a synergistic or additive anti-proliferative effect in all three cell lines examined (i.e., SKOV3, Caov3, ES2

  7. SOME CODES WHICH ARE INVARIENT UNDER A DOUBLY-TRANSITIVE PERMUTATION GROUP AND THEIR CONNECTION WITH BALANCED INCOMPLETE BLOCK DESIGNS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    If a binary code is invariant under a doubly-transitive permutation group, then the set of all code words of weight j forms a balanced incomplete...codes are properly arranged, and if the first digit is omitted, then all Reed-Muller codes are cyclic.

  8. MOLECULES IN {eta} CARINAE

    SciTech Connect

    Loinard, Laurent; Menten, Karl M.; Guesten, Rolf; Zapata, Luis A.; Rodriguez, Luis F.

    2012-04-10

    We report the detection toward {eta} Carinae of six new molecules, CO, CN, HCO{sup +}, HCN, HNC, and N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and of two of their less abundant isotopic counterparts, {sup 13}CO and H{sup 13}CN. The line profiles are moderately broad ({approx}100 km s{sup -1}), indicating that the emission originates in the dense, possibly clumpy, central arcsecond of the Homunculus Nebula. Contrary to previous claims, CO and HCO{sup +} do not appear to be underabundant in {eta} Carinae. On the other hand, molecules containing nitrogen or the {sup 13}C isotope of carbon are overabundant by about one order of magnitude. This demonstrates that, together with the dust responsible for the dimming of {eta} Carinae following the Great Eruption, the molecules detected here must have formed in situ out of CNO-processed stellar material.

  9. Disentangling DNA molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The widespread circular form of DNA molecules inside cells creates very serious topological problems during replication. Due to the helical structure of the double helix the parental strands of circular DNA form a link of very high order, and yet they have to be unlinked before the cell division. DNA topoisomerases, the enzymes that catalyze passing of one DNA segment through another, solve this problem in principle. However, it is very difficult to remove all entanglements between the replicated DNA molecules due to huge length of DNA comparing to the cell size. One strategy that nature uses to overcome this problem is to create the topoisomerases that can dramatically reduce the fraction of linked circular DNA molecules relative to the corresponding fraction at thermodynamic equilibrium. This striking property of the enzymes means that the enzymes that interact with DNA only locally can access their topology, a global property of circular DNA molecules. This review considers the experimental studies of the phenomenon and analyzes the theoretical models that have been suggested in attempts to explain it. We describe here how various models of enzyme action can be investigated computationally. There is no doubt at the moment that we understand basic principles governing enzyme action. Still, there are essential quantitative discrepancies between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. We consider how these discrepancies can be overcome.

  10. Disentangling DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Vologodskii, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The widespread circular form of DNA molecules inside cells creates very serious topological problems during replication. Due to the helical structure of the double helix the parental strands of circular DNA form a link of very high order, and yet they have to be unlinked before the cell division. DNA topoisomerases, the enzymes that catalyze passing of one DNA segment through another, solve this problem in principle. However, it is very difficult to remove all entanglements between the replicated DNA molecules due to huge length of DNA comparing to the cell size. One strategy that nature uses to overcome this problem is to create the topoisomerases that can dramatically reduce the fraction of linked circular DNA molecules relative to the corresponding fraction at thermodynamic equilibrium. This striking property of the enzymes means that the enzymes that interact with DNA only locally can access their topology, a global property of circular DNA molecules. This review considers the experimental studies of the phenomenon and analyzes the theoretical models that have been suggested in attempts to explain it. We describe here how various models of enzyme action can be investigated computationally. There is no doubt at the moment that we understand basic principles governing enzyme action. Still, there are essential quantitative discrepancies between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. We consider how these discrepancies can be overcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Inference and sample size calculation for clinical trials with incomplete observations of paired binary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song; Cao, Jing; Ahn, Chul

    2017-02-20

    We investigate the estimation of intervention effect and sample size determination for experiments where subjects are supposed to contribute paired binary outcomes with some incomplete observations. We propose a hybrid estimator to appropriately account for the mixed nature of observed data: paired outcomes from those who contribute complete pairs of observations and unpaired outcomes from those who contribute either pre-intervention or post-intervention outcomes. We theoretically prove that if incomplete data are evenly distributed between the pre-intervention and post-intervention periods, the proposed estimator will always be more efficient than the traditional estimator. A numerical research shows that when the distribution of incomplete data is unbalanced, the proposed estimator will be superior when there is moderate-to-strong positive within-subject correlation. We further derive a closed-form sample size formula to help researchers determine how many subjects need to be enrolled in such studies. Simulation results suggest that the calculated sample size maintains the empirical power and type I error under various design configurations. We demonstrate the proposed method using a real application example. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Augmented multisensory feedback enhances locomotor adaptation in humans with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yen, Sheng-Che; Landry, Jill M; Wu, Ming

    2014-06-01

    Different forms of augmented feedback may engage different motor learning pathways, but it is unclear how these pathways interact with each other, especially in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this study was to test whether augmented multisensory feedback could enhance aftereffects following short term locomotor training (i.e., adaptation) in patients with incomplete SCI. A total of 10 subjects with incomplete SCI were recruited to perform locomotor adaptation. Three types of augmented feedback were provided during the adaptation: (a) computerized visual cues showing the actual and target stride length (augmented visual feedback); (b) a swing resistance applied to the leg (augmented proprioceptive feedback); (c) a combination of the visual cues and resistance (augmented multisensory feedback). The results showed that subjects' stride length increased in all conditions following the adaptation, but the increase was greater and retained longer in the multisensory feedback condition. The multisensory feedback provided in this study may engage both explicit and implicit learning pathways during the adaptation and in turn enhance the aftereffect. The results implied that multisensory feedback may be used as an adjunctive approach to enhance gait recovery in humans with SCI.

  13. Stability of geodesic incompleteness for Robertson-Walker space-times.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beem, John K.; Ehrlich, Paul E.

    1981-03-01

    Let (M, g) be a Lorentzian warped product space-timeM=(a, b)×H, g = -dt 2 ⊕fh, where -∞⩽a-∞ and (H, h) is homogeneous, then the past incompleteness of every timelike geodesic of (M,g) is stable under smallC 0 perturbations in the space Lor(M) of Lorentzian metrics forM. Also we show that if (H,h) is isotropic and (M,g) contains a past-inextendible, past-incomplete null geodesic, then the past incompleteness of all null geodesics is stable under smallC 1 perturbations in Lor(M). Given either the isotropy or homogeneity of the Riemannian factor, the background space-time (M,g) is globally hyperbolic. The results of this paper, in particular, answer a question raised by D. Lerner for big bang Robertson-Walker cosmological models affirmatively.

  14. Limit Pricing with Incomplete Information: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Timothy L.

    2004-01-01

    Strategic pricing is an important and exciting topic in industrial organization and the economics of strategy. A wide range of texts use what has become a standard version of the Milgrom and Roberts (1982a) limit-pricing model to convey the essential ideas of strategic pricing under incomplete information. In addition to providing a formal, but…

  15. Limit Pricing with Incomplete Information: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Timothy L.

    2004-01-01

    Strategic pricing is an important and exciting topic in industrial organization and the economics of strategy. A wide range of texts use what has become a standard version of the Milgrom and Roberts (1982a) limit-pricing model to convey the essential ideas of strategic pricing under incomplete information. In addition to providing a formal, but…

  16. An Interactive Approach to Analyzing Incomplete Multivariate Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Mark R.

    This paper examines some of the problems that arise when conducting multivariate analyses with incomplete data. The literature on the effectiveness of several missing data procedures (MDP) is summarized. The most widely used MDPs are: (1) listwise deletion; (2) pairwise deletion; (3) variable mean; (4) correlational methods. No MDP should be used…

  17. 40 CFR 1502.22 - Incomplete or unavailable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incomplete or unavailable information. 1502.22 Section 1502.22 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT... foreseeable significant adverse effects on the human environment in an environmental impact statement and...

  18. Gender under Incomplete Acquisition: Heritage Speakers' Knowledge of Noun Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polinsky, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses a study of gender assignment (noun categorization) in heritage Russian and presents issues in the methodology of heritage language study. To anticipate the conclusions of this article, the gender assignment data presented argue for the systematicity of what emerges under incomplete acquisition. The system is different from its…

  19. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. 122.74 Section 122.74 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  20. Percutaneous vascular plug for incomplete surgical left atrial appendage closure.

    PubMed

    Levisay, Justin P; Sangodkar, Sandeep; Salinger, Michael H; Lampert, Mark; Feldman, Ted

    2014-04-01

    Surgical left atrial appendage (LAA) exclusion has a failure rate as high as 60% due to persistent residual flow in the LAA or large LAA remnants. We describe a novel technique for treatment of incomplete surgical LAA ligation, and define the mechanism that led to persistence of the remnant LAA without any thrombus formation.

  1. 43 CFR 10010.34 - Incomplete or unavailable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.34 Incomplete or unavailable information. The references to overall costs in 40 CFR 1502.22 of the CEQ regulations are not limited to market costs, but may also include other costs such as social costs due to delay. ...

  2. 43 CFR 10010.34 - Incomplete or unavailable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.34 Incomplete or unavailable information. The references to overall costs in 40 CFR 1502.22 of the CEQ regulations are not limited to market costs, but may also include other costs such as social costs due to delay. ...

  3. 43 CFR 10010.34 - Incomplete or unavailable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.34 Incomplete or unavailable information. The references to overall costs in 40 CFR 1502.22 of the CEQ regulations are not limited to market costs, but may also include other costs such as social costs due to delay. ...

  4. Endodontic and restorative management of incompletely fractured molar teeth.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, J L; Rakusin, H

    1994-11-01

    The treatment of fractured teeth poses significant problems for the practitioner. However, once the treatment planning decision has been made to attempt to retain the tooth, various practical regimens are available to effect this goal. This paper addresses the specific use of glass ionomer in the restorative management of incompletely, vertically fractured molar teeth integrated with specific root canal treatment techniques.

  5. Computer Simulation of Incomplete-Data Interpretation Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Douglas Frederick

    1987-01-01

    Described is a computer simulation that was used to help general education students enrolled in a large introductory geology course. The purpose of the simulation is to learn to interpret incomplete data. Students design a plan to collect bathymetric data for an area of the ocean. Procedures used by the students and instructor are included.…

  6. Robustness of shape descriptors to incomplete contour representations.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anarta; Petkov, Nicolai

    2005-11-01

    With inspiration from psychophysical researches of the human visual system, we propose a novel aspect and a method for performance evaluation of contour-based shape recognition algorithms regarding their robustness to incompleteness of contours. We use complete contour representations of objects as a reference (training) set. Incomplete contour representations of the same objects are used as a test set. The performance of an algorithm is reported using the recognition rate as a function of the percentage of contour retained. We call this evaluation procedure the ICR test. We consider three types of contour incompleteness, viz. segment-wise contour deletion, occlusion, and random pixel depletion. As an illustration, the robustness of two shape recognition algorithms to contour incompleteness is evaluated. These algorithms use a shape context and a distance multiset as local shape descriptors. Qualitatively, both algorithms mimic human visual perception in the sense that recognition performance monotonously increases with the degree of completeness and that they perform best in the case of random depletion and worst in the case of occluded contours. The distance multiset method performs better than the shape context method in this test framework.

  7. Statistical evaluations of current sampling procedures and incomplete core recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, P.G.; Jensen, L.

    1994-03-01

    This document develops two formulas that describe the effects of incomplete recovery on core sampling results for the Hanford waste tanks. The formulas evaluate incomplete core recovery from a worst-case (i.e.,biased) and best-case (i.e., unbiased) perspective. A core sampler is unbiased if the sample material recovered is a random sample of the material in the tank, while any sampler that preferentially recovers a particular type of waste over others is a biased sampler. There is strong evidence to indicate that the push-mode sampler presently used at the Hanford site is a biased one. The formulas presented here show the effects of incomplete core recovery on the accuracy of composition measurements, as functions of the vertical variability in the waste. These equations are evaluated using vertical variability estimates from previously sampled tanks (B110, U110, C109). Assuming that the values of vertical variability used in this study adequately describes the Hanford tank farm, one can use the formulas to compute the effect of incomplete recovery on the accuracy of an average constituent estimate. To determine acceptable recovery limits, we have assumed that the relative error of such an estimate should be no more than 20%.

  8. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, S.

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  9. 40 CFR 86.085-20 - Incomplete vehicles, classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incomplete vehicles, classification... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty...

  10. Characterization of a surface membrane molecule expressed by natural killer cells in most inbred mouse strains: monoclonal antibody C9.1 identifies an allelic form of the 2B4 antigen

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, K; Katoh, H; Muguruma, K; Koyama, K

    1999-01-01

    A newly generated monoclonal antibody (mAb C9.1) described in this study identifies a surface membrane molecule that is involved in the lytic programme of activated natural killer (NK) cells. This conclusion is based on the facts that, first, this antigen was expressed on the vast majority of surface immunoglobulin (sIg)− CD3− CD4− CD8− spleen lymphocytes, albeit it was also present on minor subsets of sIg+ B (≈7%) and CD3+ T (≈2%) lymphocytes; second, that all splenic NK activity was contained within the C9.1+ cell population, and was almost totally abolished by treatment of spleen cells with mAb C9.1 and complement; third, that mAb C9.1 was capable of increasing interleukin-2-cultured and in vivo polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid-activated, NK cell-mediated, antibody-redirected lysis, but not freshly isolated NK cell-mediated killing. Furthermore, the strain distribution of the C9.1 antigen was shown to be antithetical to that of the 2B4 antigen already described as a molecule associated with major histocompatibility complex-unrestricted killing mediated by activated NK cells. The gene encoding C9.1 antigen was linked to the Akp1 isozyme locus on chromosome 1 close to the 2B4 gene. Although C9.1 and 2B4 were monomeric glycoproteins of 78 000 MW and 66 000 MW, respectively, removal of N-linked sugars from both antigens by endoglycosidase F yielded identical protein backbones of 38 000 MW. Thus, all of these results suggest that mAb C9.1 recognizes an allelic form of the 2B4 antigen. However, the detection of mAb C9.1-reactive antigen on a minor subset of B cells may suggest a possible reactivity of mAb C9.1 with some product of other members of the 2B4 family genes. PMID:10233732

  11. Electrorheological crystallization of proteins and other molecules

    DOEpatents

    Craig, G.D.; Rupp, B.

    1996-06-11

    An electrorheological crystalline mass of a molecule is formed by dispersing the molecule in a dispersion fluid and subjecting the molecule dispersion to a uniform electrical field for a period of time during which time an electrorheological crystalline mass is formed. Molecules that may be used to form an electrorheological crystalline mass include any organic or inorganic molecule which has a permanent dipole and/or which is capable of becoming an induced dipole in the presence of an electric field. The molecules used to form the electrorheological crystalline mass are preferably macromolecules, such as biomolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipoproteins and viruses. Molecules are crystallized by a method in which an electric field is maintained for a period of time after the electrorheological crystalline mass has formed during which time at least some of the molecules making up the electrorheological crystalline mass form a crystal lattice. The three dimensional structure of a molecule is determined by a method in which an electrorheological crystalline mass of the molecule is formed, an X-ray diffraction pattern of the electrorheological crystalline mass is obtained and the three dimensional structure of the molecule is calculated from the X-ray diffraction pattern. 4 figs.

  12. Electrorheological crystallization of proteins and other molecules

    DOEpatents

    Craig, George D.; Rupp, Bernhard

    1996-01-01

    An electrorheological crystalline mass of a molecule is formed by dispersing the molecule in a dispersion fluid and subjecting the molecule dispersion to a uniform electrical field for a period of time during which time an electrorheological crystalline mass is formed. Molecules that may be used to form an electrorheological crystalline mass include any organic or inorganic molecule which has a permanent dipole and/or which is capable of becoming an induced dipole in the presence of an electric field. The molecules used to form the electrorheological crystalline mass are preferably macromolecules, such as biomolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipoproteins and viruses. Molecules are crystallized by a method in which an electric field is maintained for a period of time after the electrorheological crystalline mass has formed during which time at least some of the molecules making up the electrorheological crystalline mass form a crystal lattice. The three dimensional structure of a molecule is determined by a method in which an electrorheological crystalline mass of the molecule is formed, an x-ray diffraction pattern of the electrorheological crystalline mass is obtained and the three dimensional structure of the molecule is calculated from the x-ray diffraction pattern.

  13. Alzheimer’s disease AdvaxCpG- adjuvanted MultiTEP-based dual and single vaccines induce high-titer antibodies against various forms of tau and Aβ pathological molecules

    PubMed Central

    Davtyan, Hayk; Zagorski, Karen; Rajapaksha, Harinda; Hovakimyan, Armine; Davtyan, Arpine; Petrushina, Irina; Kazarian, Konstantin; Cribbs, David H.; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Agadjanyan, Michael G.; Ghochikyan, Anahit

    2016-01-01

    Although β-amyloid (Aβ) may be the primary driver of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, accumulation of pathological tau correlates with dementia in AD patients. Thus, the prevention/inhibition of AD may require vaccine/s targeting Aβ and tau simultaneously or sequentially. Since high antibody titers are required for AD vaccine efficacy, we have decided to generate vaccines, targeting Aβ (AV-1959R), Tau (AV-1980R) or Aβ/tau (AV-1953R) B cell epitopes, based on immunogenic MultiTEP platform and evaluate the immunogenicity of these vaccines formulated with AdvaxCpG, delta inulin, Alhydrogel®, Montanide-ISA51, Montanide-ISA720, MPLA-SM pharmaceutical grade adjuvants. Formulation of AV-1959R in AdvaxCpG induced the highest cellular and humoral immune responses in mice. The dual-epitope vaccine, AV-1953R, or the combination of AV-1959R and AV-1980R vaccines formulated with AdvaxCpG induced robust antibody responses against various forms of both, Aβ and tau pathological molecules. While anti-Aβ antibody titers after AV-1953R immunization were similar to that in mice vaccinated with AV-1959R or AV-1959R/AV-1980R combination, anti-tau titers were significantly lower after AV-1953R injection when compared to the AV-1980R or AV-1959R/AV-1980R. In silico 3D-modeling provided insight into the differences in immunogenicity of these vaccine constructs. In sum, AV-1959R and AV-1980R formulated with AdvaxCpG adjuvant were identified as promising immunogenic vaccines for ongoing pre-clinical assessment and future human clinical trials. PMID:27363809

  14. Inpatient capsule endoscopy leads to frequent incomplete small bowel examinations.

    PubMed

    Yazici, Cemal; Losurdo, John; Brown, Michael D; Oosterveen, Scott; Rahimi, Robert; Keshavarzian, Ali; Bozorgnia, Leila; Mutlu, Ece

    2012-09-28

    To examine the predictive factors of capsule endoscopy (CE) completion rate (CECR) including the effect of inpatient and outpatient status. We identified 355 consecutive patients who completed CE at Rush University Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2005. Subjects for CE had either nothing by mouth or clear liquids for the afternoon and evening of the day before the procedure. CE exams were reviewed by two physicians who were unaware of the study hypotheses. After retrospective analysis, 21 cases were excluded due to capsule malfunction, prior gastric surgery, endoscopic capsule placement or insufficient data. Of the remaining 334 exams [264 out-patient (OP), 70 in-patient (IP)], CE indications, findings, location of the patients [IP vs OP and intensive care unit (ICU) vs general medical floor (GMF)] and gastrointestinal transit times were analyzed. Statistical analysis was completed using SPSS version 17 (Chicago, IL). Chi-square, t test or fisher exact-tests were used as appropriate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with incomplete CE exams. The mean age for the entire study population was 54.7 years. Sixty-one percent of the study population was female, and gender was not different between IPs vs OPs (P = 0.07). The overall incomplete CECR was 14% in our study. Overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB) was significantly more common for the IP CE (P = 0.0001), while abdominal pain and assessment of IBD were more frequent indications for the OP CE exams (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively). Occult OGB was the most common indication and arteriovenous malformations were the most common finding both in the IPs and OPs. The capsule did not enter the small bowel (SB) in 6/70 IPs and 8/264 OPs (P = 0.04). The capsule never reached the cecum in 31.4% (22/70) of IP vs 9.5% (25/ 264) of OP examinations (P < 0.001). The mean gastric transit time (GTT) was delayed in IPs compared to OPs, 98.5 ± 139.5 min vs

  15. Noise effects on conflicting interest quantum games with incomplete information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Situ, Haozhen; Huang, Zhiming; Zhang, Cai

    2016-09-01

    Noise effects can be harmful to quantum information systems. In the present paper, we study noise effects in the context of quantum games with incomplete information, which have more complicated structure than quantum games with complete information. The effects of several paradigmatic noises on three newly proposed conflicting interest quantum games with incomplete information are studied using numerical optimization method. Intuitively noises will bring down the payoffs. However, we find that in some situations the outcome of the games under the influence of noise effects are counter-intuitive. Sometimes stronger noise may lead to higher payoffs. Some properties of the game, like quantum advantage, fairness and equilibrium, are invulnerable to some kinds of noises.

  16. Incomplete Stevens-Johnson syndrome secondary to atypical pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Anantharaman; Patel, Chiraush; Conlon, Christopher

    2011-10-04

    Steven-Johnson syndrome is a common condition characterised by erythematous target lesions on the skin and involvement of the oral mucosa, genitals and conjunctivae. It has been documented as one of the extra-pulmonary manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Recently, there has been several documentation of an incomplete presentation of this syndrome - without the typical rash but with mucosal, conjunctival and genital involvement. Our case illustrates that the incomplete Steven-Johnson syndrome may present with oral mucosal and conjunctival involvement alone without skin or genital involvement. This important clinical diagnosis should not be missed due to its atypical presentation. Treatment of Steven-Johnson syndrome remains supportive along with treating the underlying infection if recognised.

  17. Survey incompleteness and the evolution of the QSO luminosity function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Kron, Richard G.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Smetanka, John J.; Koo, David C.

    1993-01-01

    We concentrate on a type of QSO survey which depends on selecting QSO candidates based on combinations of colors. Since QSO's have emission lines and power-law continua, they are expected to yield broadband colors unlike those of stellar photospheres. Previously, the fraction of QSO's expected to be hiding (unselected) within the locus of stellar (U-J, J-F) colors was estimated at about 15 percent. We have now verified that the KK88 survey is at least 11 percent incomplete, but have determined that it may be as much as 34 percent incomplete. The 'missing' QSO's are expected to be predominantly at z less than or = 2.2. We have studied the proper motion and variability properties of all stellar objects with J less than or = 22.5 or F less than or = 21.5 in the SA 57 field which has previously been surveyed with a multicolor QSO search by KK88.

  18. Α Markov model for longitudinal studies with incomplete dichotomous outcomes.

    PubMed

    Efthimiou, Orestis; Welton, Nicky; Samara, Myrto; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia

    2017-03-01

    Missing outcome data constitute a serious threat to the validity and precision of inferences from randomized controlled trials. In this paper, we propose the use of a multistate Markov model for the analysis of incomplete individual patient data for a dichotomous outcome reported over a period of time. The model accounts for patients dropping out of the study and also for patients relapsing. The time of each observation is accounted for, and the model allows the estimation of time-dependent relative treatment effects. We apply our methods to data from a study comparing the effectiveness of 2 pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. The model jointly estimates the relative efficacy and the dropout rate and also allows for a wide range of clinically interesting inferences to be made. Assumptions about the missingness mechanism and the unobserved outcomes of patients dropping out can be incorporated into the analysis. The presented method constitutes a viable candidate for analyzing longitudinal, incomplete binary data.

  19. Investigations on the Incompletely Developed Plane Diagonal-Tension Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Paul

    1940-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation on the incompletely developed diagonal-tension field. Actual diagonal-tension beams work in an intermediate stage between pure shear and pure diagonal tension; the theory developed by wagner for diagonal tension is not directly applicable. The first part of the paper reviews the most essential items of the theory of pure diagonal tension as well as previous attempts to formulate a theory of incomplete diagonal tension. The second part of the paper describes strain measurement made by the N. A. C. A. to obtain the necessary coefficients for the proposed theory. The third part of the paper discusses the stress analysis of diagonal-tension beams by means of the proposed theory.

  20. Reticulate evolution and incomplete lineage sorting among the ponderosa pines.

    PubMed

    Willyard, Ann; Cronn, Richard; Liston, Aaron

    2009-08-01

    Interspecific gene flow via hybridization may play a major role in evolution by creating reticulate rather than hierarchical lineages in plant species. Occasional diploid pine hybrids indicate the potential for introgression, but reticulation is hard to detect because ancestral polymorphism is still shared across many groups of pine species. Nucleotide sequences for 53 accessions from 17 species in subsection Ponderosae (Pinus) provide evidence for reticulate evolution. Two discordant patterns among independent low-copy nuclear gene trees and a chloroplast haplotype are better explained by introgression than incomplete lineage sorting or other causes of incongruence. Conflicting resolution of three monophyletic Pinus coulteri accessions is best explained by ancient introgression followed by a genetic bottleneck. More recent hybridization transferred a chloroplast from P. jeffreyi to a sympatric P. washoensis individual. We conclude that incomplete lineage sorting could account for other examples of non-monophyly, and caution against any analysis based on single-accession or single-locus sampling in Pinus.

  1. Α Markov model for longitudinal studies with incomplete dichotomous outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Welton, Nicky; Samara, Myrto; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Missing outcome data constitute a serious threat to the validity and precision of inferences from randomized controlled trials. In this paper, we propose the use of a multistate Markov model for the analysis of incomplete individual patient data for a dichotomous outcome reported over a period of time. The model accounts for patients dropping out of the study and also for patients relapsing. The time of each observation is accounted for, and the model allows the estimation of time‐dependent relative treatment effects. We apply our methods to data from a study comparing the effectiveness of 2 pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. The model jointly estimates the relative efficacy and the dropout rate and also allows for a wide range of clinically interesting inferences to be made. Assumptions about the missingness mechanism and the unobserved outcomes of patients dropping out can be incorporated into the analysis. The presented method constitutes a viable candidate for analyzing longitudinal, incomplete binary data. PMID:27917593

  2. Prevalence of incomplete interlobar fissures of the lung.

    PubMed

    Sedlackova, Zuzana; Ctvrtlik, Filip; Miroslav, Herman

    2016-12-01

    Some patients benefit from accurate integrity assessment of pulmonary fissures. There are a number of methods for the assessment of incomplete interlobar fissures: imaging techniques, endobronchial methods measuring collateral air flow, a perioperative view, and autopsies used in research into pulmonary anatomy. We performed a computerized advanced search for primary evidence in the PubMed (Public/Publisher MEDLINE) and Google Scholar electronic databases using the following terms: incomplete and fissure. The search was not restricted to the English literature, nor limited by publication time. The bibliographic search was then extended to the "Related Articles" links and to the list of literature references of each article. Publications have consistently shown that interlobar fissures exhibit high variability and that preoperative or at least detailed perioperative assessment can influence the effect of treatment.

  3. Einstein's Boxes: Incompleteness of Quantum Mechanics Without a Separation Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Einstein made several attempts to argue for the incompleteness of quantum mechanics (QM), not all of them using a separation principle. One unpublished example, the box parable, has received increased attention in the recent literature. Though the example is tailor-made for applying a separation principle and Einstein indeed applies one, he begins his discussion without it. An analysis of this first part of the parable naturally leads to an argument for incompleteness not involving a separation principle. I discuss the argument and its systematic import. Though it should be kept in mind that the argument is not the one Einstein intends, I show how it suggests itself and leads to a conflict between QM's completeness and a physical principle more fundamental than the separation principle, i.e. a principle saying that QM should deliver probabilities for physical systems possessing properties at definite times.

  4. Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Juyong; Yook, Soon-Hyung

    2014-08-01

    Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest - essential in determining reward and penalty - is frequently an ambiguous task due to the incomplete (partially filled) nature of competition networks. Here we introduce the ``Natural Ranking,'' an unambiguous ranking method applicable to a round robin tournament, and formulate an analytical model based on the Bayesian formula for inferring the expected mean and error of the natural ranking of nodes from an incomplete network. We investigate its potential and uses in resolving important issues of ranking by applying it to real-world competition networks.

  5. Contributions to the theory of incomplete tension bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schapitz, E

    1937-01-01

    The present report offers an approximate theory for the stress and deformation condition after buckling of the skin in reinforced panels and shells loaded in simple shear and compression and under combined stresses. The theory presents a unified scheme for stresses of these types. It is based upon the concept of a nonuniform stress distribution in the metal panel and its marked power of resistance against compressive stresses ("incomplete" tension bay).

  6. 3D ultrasound image segmentation using multiple incomplete feature sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Liexiang; Herrington, David M.; Santago, Peter, II

    1999-05-01

    We use three features, the intensity, texture and motion to obtain robust results for segmentation of intracoronary ultrasound images. Using a parameterized equation to describe the lumen-plaque and media-adventitia boundaries, we formulate the segmentation as a parameter estimation through a cost functional based on the posterior probability, which can handle the incompleteness of the features in ultrasound images by employing outlier detection.

  7. Distributed control systems with incomplete and uncertain information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jingpeng

    Scientific and engineering advances in wireless communication, sensors, propulsion, and other areas are rapidly making it possible to develop unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) with sophisticated capabilities. UAVs have come to the forefront as tools for airborne reconnaissance to search for, detect, and destroy enemy targets in relatively complex environments. They potentially reduce risk to human life, are cost effective, and are superior to manned aircraft for certain types of missions. It is desirable for UAVs to have a high level of intelligent autonomy to carry out mission tasks with little external supervision and control. This raises important issues involving tradeoffs between centralized control and the associated potential to optimize mission plans, and decentralized control with great robustness and the potential to adapt to changing conditions. UAV capabilities have been extended several ways through armament (e.g., Hellfire missiles on Predator UAVs), increased endurance and altitude (e.g., Global Hawk), and greater autonomy. Some known barriers to full-scale implementation of UAVs are increased communication and control requirements as well as increased platform and system complexity. One of the key problems is how UAV systems can handle incomplete and uncertain information in dynamic environments. Especially when the system is composed of heterogeneous and distributed UAVs, the overall system complexity is increased under such conditions. Presented through the use of published papers, this dissertation lays the groundwork for the study of methodologies for handling incomplete and uncertain information for distributed control systems. An agent-based simulation framework is built to investigate mathematical approaches (optimization) and emergent intelligence approaches. The first paper provides a mathematical approach for systems of UAVs to handle incomplete and uncertain information. The second paper describes an emergent intelligence approach for UAVs

  8. Simulated data supporting inbreeding rate estimates from incomplete pedigrees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark P.

    2017-01-01

    This data release includes:(1) The data from simulations used to illustrate the behavior of inbreeding rate estimators. Estimating inbreeding rates is particularly difficult for natural populations because parentage information for many individuals may be incomplete. Our analyses illustrate the behavior of a newly-described inbreeding rate estimator that outperforms previously described approaches in the scientific literature.(2) Python source code ("analytical expressions", "computer simulations", and "empricial data set") that can be used to analyze these data.

  9. Radiopaque Tagging Masks Caries Lesions following Incomplete Excavation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Schulz, M; Dörfer, C E; Paris, S

    2014-06-01

    One-step incomplete excavation seals caries-affected dentin under a restoration and appears to be advantageous in the treatment of deep lesions. However, it is impossible to discriminate radiographically between intentionally left, arrested lesions and overlooked or active lesions. This diagnostic uncertainty decreases the acceptance of minimally invasive excavation and might lead to unnecessary re-treatment of incompletely excavated teeth. Radiopaque tagging of sealed lesions might mask arrested lesions and assist in discrimination from progressing lesions. Therefore, we microradiographically screened 4 substances (SnCl2, AgNO3, CsF, CsCH3COO) for their effect on artificial lesions. Since water-dissolved tin chloride (SnCl2×Aq) was found to stably mask artificial lesions, we then investigated its radiographic effects on progressing lesions. Natural lesions were incompletely excavated and radiopaque tagging performed. Grey-value differences (△GV) between sound and carious dentin were determined and radiographs assessed by 20 dentists. While radiographic effects of SnCl2×Aq were stable for non-progressing lesions, they significantly decreased during a second demineralization (p < .001, t test). For natural lesions, tagging with SnCl2×Aq significantly reduced △GV (p < .001, Wilcoxon). Tagged lesions were detected significantly less often than untagged lesions (p < .001). SnCl2×Aq was suitable to mask caries-affected dentin and discriminate between arrested and progressing lesions in vitro. Radiopaque tagging could resolve diagnostic uncertainties associated with incomplete excavation.

  10. Acute inflammation at a mandibular solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Minoru; Ono, Yusuke; Ishizuka, Masahide; Hasumi-Nakayama, Yoko; Doto, Ryosuke; Yasuda, Kouichi; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-01

    Acute inflammation is frequently seen in the elderly around incompletely impacted molars located apart from molars or premolars. To identify the factors causing acute inflammation in the solitary molars without second molars or without second and first molars, ages of patients and rates of acute inflammation in 75 horizontal incompletely impacted mandibular molars in contact or not in contact with molars in subjects 41 years old or older were studied using orthopantomographs. Acute inflammation was seen in nine third molars out of 48 third molars in contact with second molars (18.8%), whereas acute inflammation was seen in 11 molars out of 19 solitary molars without second molars or without first and second molars (57.9%) (p < 0.01). The mean age of 48 subjects with third molars in contact with the second molar was 50.42 ± 7.62 years, and the mean age of 19 subjects with isolated molars was 65.16 ± 10.41 years (p < 0.0001). These indicate that a solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar leads more frequently to acute inflammation along with aging due to possible bone resorption resulting from teeth loss. PMID:20360889

  11. Expectant management of incomplete abortion in the first trimester.

    PubMed

    Pauleta, Joana R; Clode, Nuno; Graça, Luís M

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability of expectant management of induced and spontaneous first trimester incomplete abortion. A prospective observational trial, conducted between June 2006 and November 2007, of 2 groups of patients diagnosed with an incomplete abortion: 66 patients who had received misoprostol for an induced abortion (group 1) and 30 patients who had had a spontaneous abortion (group 2). Transvaginal ultrasound was performed weekly. The success rate (complete abortion without surgery), time to resolution, duration of bleeding and pelvic pain, rate of infection, number of unscheduled hospital visits, and level of satisfaction with expectant management were recorded. The incidence of complete abortion was 86.4% and 82.1% in groups 1 and 2 respectively at day 14 after diagnosis, and 100% in both groups at day 30 (two group 2 patients underwent curettage and were excluded from the analysis). Both groups reported 100% satisfaction with expectant management, although over 90% of the women reported feeling anxious. Expectant management for incomplete abortion in the first trimester after use of misoprostol or after spontaneous abortion may be practical and feasible, although it may increase anxiety associated with the impending abortion.

  12. Enteroscope without overtube for cecal intubation after an incomplete colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Franco; Gaia, Silvia; Cosimato, Maurizio; Recchia, Serafino

    2011-06-01

    Cecal intubation is one of the targets of colon endoscopic evaluation, however even under experienced hands 5-10% of colonoscopies are incomplete. The aim of the study is to evaluate the usefulness of single balloon enteroscope (SBE) without employing overtube-balloon equipment in patients with incomplete colonoscopy. Between January 2009 and July 2010, patients with an incomplete standard colonscopy were prospectively enrolled to perform a colonoscopy with a single balloon enteroscope. Examinations were performed by the same expert operator during the same session. Enteroscopy was performed on 79 patients, cecal intubation were obtained in 93.6% of the cases (74/79). It provided a new diagnosis in 43% of cases (34/79). Procedure was safe and well tolerated. Overall the additional use of single balloon enteroscope allowed to obtain the cecal intubation in up to 99.2% cases (898/905). The use of the enteroscope without overtube-balloon equipment may be an effective method to increase the cecal intubation rate after failure of a standard colonoscopy. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Empirical rate formula for ion-dipolar molecule reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shin

    2017-04-01

    New empirical rate formula for the low temperature reactions is proposed. The formula proposed previously has been simplified by using incomplete gamma function. A few examples of temperature dependence of rate constants for the reactions of ions with dipolar molecules and that for the reaction F +H2 →HF +H are demonstrated by using new rate formula.

  14. Bibliographic review and new measurements of the integrated cross sections of 8 molecules (H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, NH3, CH4, HCOOH and H2CO) in the solid form at 25K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelle, B.; Nicolas, F.; Yves, B.; Hervé, C.; Antoine, J.; Claire, G. Marie

    2014-04-01

    Infrared spectra from ISO and Spitzer telescopes revealed the presence of several molecules in the solid phase such as H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, NH3, CH4, HCOOH and H2CO in the environment of some Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) ([1], [2], [3], [4]. To quantify the column density of those molecules, the knowledge of some spectroscopic parameters, especially the integrated cross section A (cm.molecule-1) is required. For some molecules, inconsistencies on the values of spectroscopic parameters can be found in the literature. The purpose of this study is to compare all the values found in the literature with the ones that we have measured recently in order to propose more convincing values.

  15. Determination of the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of incompletely coupled fluxes. Stoichiometry of incompletely coupled reactions.

    PubMed

    Beavis, A D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-07-15

    A rationale is formulated for the design of experiments to determine the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic stoichiometry of any two incompletely coupled fluxes J1 and J2. Incomplete coupling results when there is a branch at some point in the sequence of reactions or processes coupling the two fluxes. The upper limit of the mechanistic stoichiometry is given by the minimum value of dJ2/dJ1 obtained when the fluxes are systematically varied by changes in steps after the branch point. The lower limit is given by the maximum value of dJ2/dJ1 obtained when the fluxes are varied by changes in steps prior to the branch point. The rationale for determining these limits is developed from both a simple kinetic model and from a linear nonequilibrium thermodynamic treatment of coupled fluxes, using the mechanistic approach [Westerhoff, H. V. & van Dam, K. (1979) Curr. Top. Bioenerg. 9, 1-62]. The phenomenological stoichiometry, the flux ratio at level flow and the affinity ratio at static head of incompletely coupled fluxes are defined in terms of mechanistic conductances and their relationship to the mechanistic stoichiometry is discussed. From the rationale developed, experimental approaches to determine the mechanistic stoichiometry of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are outlined. The principles employed do not require knowledge of the pathway or the rate of transmembrane leaks or slippage and may also be applied to analysis of the stoichiometry of other incompletely coupled systems, including vectorial H+/O and K+/O translocation coupled to mitochondrial electron transport.

  16. High school incompletion and childhood maltreatment among street-involved young people in Vancouver, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barker, Brittany; Kerr, Thomas; Dong, Huiru; Wood, Evan; DeBeck, Kora

    2017-03-01

    While the link between educational attainment and future health and wellness is well understood, little investigation has considered the potential impacts of distinct forms of childhood maltreatment on high school completion. In the present study, the relationship between five categories of childhood maltreatment (physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, and physical and emotional neglect) and completion of high school education were examined using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). From September 2005 to May 2013, data were collected for the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a cohort of street-involved young people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between childhood maltreatment and high school completion, while controlling for a range of potential confounding variables. Specifically, five separate models for each category of maltreatment and two combined models were employed to examine the relative associations between, and cumulative impact of, different forms of childhood maltreatment and educational attainment. Among 974 young people, 737 (76%) reported not completing high school. In separate multivariable analyses physical abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect remained positively and independently associated with an incomplete high school education. In a combined multivariable model with all forms of childhood maltreatment considered together, emotional abuse (adjusted odds ratio = 2.08; 95% confidence interval: 1.51-2.86) was the only form of maltreatment that remained significantly associated with an incomplete high school education. The cumulative impact assessment indicated a moderate dose-dependent trend where the greater the number of different forms of childhood maltreatment the greater the risk of not completing a high school education. These findings point to the need for trauma-informed interventions to improve educational attainment among vulnerable young

  17. Daily stepping in individuals with motor incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Poonam; Rafferty, Miriam R; Moore, Jennifer L; Kahn, Jennifer H; Hendron, Kathryn; Leech, Kristan; Hornby, T George

    2010-02-01

    In individuals with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), ambulatory function determined in the clinical setting is related to specific measures of body structure and function and activity limitations, although few studies have quantified the relationship of these variables with daily stepping (steps/day). The aim of this study was to quantify daily stepping in ambulatory individuals with SCI and its relationship with clinical walking performance measures and specific demographics, impairments, and activity limitations. A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate relationships among clinical variables to daily stepping in self-identified community versus non-community (household) walkers. Average daily stepping was determined in 50 people with chronic, motor incomplete SCI. Data for clinical and self-report measures of walking performance also were collected, and their associations with daily stepping were analyzed using correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Relationships between daily stepping and the measures of demographics, impairments, and activity limitations were identified using correlation and regression analyses. The ROC analyses revealed a significant discriminative ability between self-reported community and non-community walkers using clinical gait measures and daily stepping. Stepping activity generally was low throughout the sample tested, however, with an average of approximately 2,600 steps/day. Knee extension strength (force-generating capacity) and static balance were the primary variables related to daily stepping, with metabolic efficiency and capacity and balance confidence contributing to a lesser extent. The small sample size and use of specific impairment-related measures were potential limitations of the study. Daily stepping is extremely limited in individuals with incomplete SCI, with a potentially substantial contribution of impairments in knee extension strength and balance.

  18. Incomplete penetrance: The role of stochasticity in developmental cell colonization.

    PubMed

    Binder, Benjamin J; Landman, Kerry A; Newgreen, Donald F; Ross, Joshua V

    2015-09-07

    Cell colonization during embryonic development involves cells migrating and proliferating over growing tissues. Unsuccessful colonization, resulting from genetic causes, can result in various birth defects. However not all individuals with the same mutation show the disease. This is termed incomplete penetrance, and it even extends to discordancy in monozygotic (identical) twins. A one-dimensional agent-based model of cell migration and proliferation within a growing tissue is presented, where the position of every cell is recorded at any time. We develop a new model that approximates this agent-based process - rather than requiring the precise configuration of cells within the tissue, the new model records the total number of cells, the position of the most advanced cell, and then invokes an approximation for how the cells are distributed. The probability mass function (PMF) for the most advanced cell is obtained for both the agent-based model and its approximation. The two PMFs compare extremely well, but using the approximation is computationally faster. Success or failure of colonization is probabilistic. For example for sufficiently high proliferation rate the colonization is assured. However, if the proliferation rate is sufficiently low, there will be a lower, say 50%, chance of success. These results provide insights into the puzzle of incomplete penetrance of a disease phenotype, especially in monozygotic twins. Indeed, stochastic cell behavior (amplified by disease-causing mutations) within the colonization process may play a key role in incomplete penetrance, rather than differences in genes, their expression or environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Blink rate, incomplete blinks and computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Portello, Joan K; Rosenfield, Mark; Chu, Christina A

    2013-05-01

    Computer vision syndrome (CVS), a highly prevalent condition, is frequently associated with dry eye disorders. Furthermore, a reduced blink rate has been observed during computer use. The present study examined whether post task ocular and visual symptoms are associated with either a decreased blink rate or a higher prevalence of incomplete blinks. An additional trial tested whether increasing the blink rate would reduce CVS symptoms. Subjects (N = 21) were required to perform a continuous 15-minute reading task on a desktop computer at a viewing distance of 50 cm. Subjects were videotaped during the task to determine their blink rate and amplitude. Immediately after the task, subjects completed a questionnaire regarding ocular symptoms experienced during the trial. In a second session, the blink rate was increased by means of an audible tone that sounded every 4 seconds, with subjects being instructed to blink on hearing the tone. The mean blink rate during the task without the audible tone was 11.6 blinks per minute (SD, 7.84). The percentage of blinks deemed incomplete for each subject ranged from 0.9 to 56.5%, with a mean of 16.1% (SD, 15.7). A significant positive correlation was observed between the total symptom score and the percentage of incomplete blinks during the task (p = 0.002). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was noted between the blink score and symptoms (p = 0.035). Increasing the mean blink rate to 23.5 blinks per minute by means of the audible tone did not produce a significant change in the symptom score. Whereas CVS symptoms are associated with a reduced blink rate, the completeness of the blink may be equally significant. Because instructing a patient to increase his or her blink rate may be ineffective or impractical, actions to achieve complete corneal coverage during blinking may be more helpful in alleviating symptoms during computer operation.

  20. Analytical Solution for Reactive Solute Transport Considering Incomplete Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellin, A.; Chiogna, G.

    2013-12-01

    The laboratory experiments of Gramling et al. (2002) showed that incomplete mixing at the pore scale exerts a significant impact on transport of reactive solutes and that assuming complete mixing leads to overestimation of product concentration in bimolecular reactions. We consider here the family of equilibrium reactions for which the concentration of the reactants and the product can be expressed as a function of the mixing ratio, the concentration of a fictitious non reactive solute. For this type of reactions we propose, in agreement with previous studies, to model the effect of incomplete mixing at scales smaller than the Darcy scale assuming that the mixing ratio is distributed within an REV according to a Beta distribution. We compute the parameters of the Beta model by imposing that the mean concentration is equal to the value that the concentration assumes at the continuum Darcy scale, while the variance decays with time as a power law. We show that our model reproduces the concentration profiles of the reaction product measured in the Gramling et al. (2002) experiments using the transport parameters obtained from conservative experiments and an instantaneous reaction kinetic. The results are obtained applying analytical solutions both for conservative and for reactive solute transport, thereby providing a method to handle the effect of incomplete mixing on multispecies reactive solute transport, which is simpler than other previously developed methods. Gramling, C. M., C. F. Harvey, and L. C. Meigs (2002), Reactive transport in porous media: A comparison of model prediction with laboratory visualization, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36(11), 2508-2514.

  1. Incomplete block SSOR preconditionings for high order discretizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kolotilina, L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper considers the solution of linear algebraic systems Ax = b resulting from the p-version of the Finite Element Method (FEM) using PCG iterations. Contrary to the h-version, the p-version ensures the desired accuracy of a discretization not by refining an original finite element mesh but by introducing higher degree polynomials as additional basis functions which permits to reduce the size of the resulting linear system as compared with the h-version. The suggested preconditionings are the so-called Incomplete Block SSOR (IBSSOR) preconditionings.

  2. Bilateral Complete and Incomplete Fusion of Incisors and its Management.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Godwin Clovis; Chalakkal, Paul; De Souza, Neil; Gavhane, Sanket

    2017-01-01

    This case report highlights the management of a case of bilateral complete and incomplete fusion of maxillary incisors in a 10-year-old child. A mock-up was done on the diagnostic cast. Pretreatment esthetic evaluation was done using bis-acryl composite temporaries which were transferred intraorally from the diagnostic cast using a putty index. An incisal overlap veneer preparation was done, following which, an IPS e-max veneer was cemented. A digital mock-up was carried out using the Adobe Photoshop and Corel Draw softwares to aid in laboratorial fabrication of the veneer.

  3. A Supernodal Approach to Incomplete LU Factorization with Partial Pivoting

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaoye Sherry; Shao, Meiyue

    2009-06-25

    We present a new supernode-based incomplete LU factorization method to construct a preconditioner for solving sparse linear systems with iterative methods. The new algorithm is primarily based on the ILUTP approach by Saad, and we incorporate a number of techniques to improve the robustness and performance of the traditional ILUTP method. These include the new dropping strategies that accommodate the use of supernodal structures in the factored matrix. We present numerical experiments to demonstrate that our new method is competitive with the other ILU approaches and is well suited for today's high performance architectures.

  4. Uniform Asymptotic Expansion for the Incomplete Beta Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemes, Gergő; Olde Daalhuis, Adri B.

    2016-10-01

    In [Temme N.M., Special functions. An introduction to the classical functions of mathematical physics, A Wiley-Interscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1996, Section 11.3.3.1] a uniform asymptotic expansion for the incomplete beta function was derived. It was not obvious from those results that the expansion is actually an asymptotic expansion. We derive a remainder estimate that clearly shows that the result indeed has an asymptotic property, and we also give a recurrence relation for the coefficients.

  5. Chronic incomplete atrioventricular block induced by radiofrequency catheter ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.K.; Bharati, S.; Graham, A.R.; Gorman, G.; Lev, M. )

    1989-10-01

    To determine if catheter ablation of the atrioventricular (AV) junction with radiofrequency energy can induce chronic incomplete (first- and second-degree) AV block to avoid the need for a permanent pacemaker, 20 closed-chest dogs were studied. Group 1 (10 dogs) received radiofrequency energy (750 kHz) with a fixed power setting (5 or 10 W) while increasing the pulse duration from 10 to 50 seconds for each application. Group 2 (10 dogs) received energy with a fixed pulse duration (20 or 30 seconds) while increasing the power setting from 5 to 10 W or from 10 to 20 W during each energy delivery. Radiofrequency energy was delivered between a chest-patch electrode and the distal electrode of a regular 7F tripolar His bundle catheter. For each application, the energy delivery was interrupted when (1) the PR interval prolonged (greater than 50%) or (2) second-degree or complete AV block occurred and persisted up to 5 seconds. The ablation procedure ended when there was (1) persistent PR prolongation (greater than 50%) or persistent second-degree AV block (lasting greater than 30 minutes) after ablation, (2) occurrence of two consecutive transient (less than 1 minute) complete AV blocks after each energy delivery, or (3) complete AV block (lasting greater than 2 minutes) after ablation. Of seven dogs in group 1 and five dogs in group 2 in which incomplete AV block was achieved 1 hour after the procedure, six in group 1 and five in group 2 remained in incomplete AV block 2-3 months after ablation. One dog in group 1 progressed into complete AV block. Of the remaining three dogs in group 1 and five dogs in group 2 in which complete AV block was initially achieved 1 hour after ablation, two in group 1 and four in group 2 continued to have complete AV block, whereas one in each group had AV conduction returned to incomplete at 1-2 months of follow-up.

  6. A computer program for estimation from incomplete multinomial data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    Coding is given for maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation of the vector p of multinomial cell probabilities from incomplete data. Also included is coding to calculate and approximate elements of the posterior mean and covariance matrices. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 language for the Control Data CYBER 170 series digital computer system with network operating system (NOS) 1.1. The program requires approximately 44000 octal locations of core storage. A typical case requires from 72 seconds to 92 seconds on CYBER 175 depending on the value of the prior parameter.

  7. Conditioning Analysis of Incomplete Cholesky Factorizations with Orthogonal Dropping

    SciTech Connect

    Napov, Artem

    2013-08-01

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  8. Rough Set Approach to Incomplete Multiscale Information System

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xibei; Qi, Yong; Yu, Dongjun; Yu, Hualong; Song, Xiaoning; Yang, Jingyu

    2014-01-01

    Multiscale information system is a new knowledge representation system for expressing the knowledge with different levels of granulations. In this paper, by considering the unknown values, which can be seen everywhere in real world applications, the incomplete multiscale information system is firstly investigated. The descriptor technique is employed to construct rough sets at different scales for analyzing the hierarchically structured data. The problem of unravelling decision rules at different scales is also addressed. Finally, the reduct descriptors are formulated to simplify decision rules, which can be derived from different scales. Some numerical examples are employed to substantiate the conceptual arguments. PMID:25276852

  9. Bayesian model updating using incomplete modal data without mode matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates a new probabilistic strategy for model updating using incomplete modal data. A hierarchical Bayesian inference is employed to model the updating problem. A Markov chain Monte Carlo technique with adaptive random-work steps is used to draw parameter samples for uncertainty quantification. Mode matching between measured and predicted modal quantities is not required through model reduction. We employ an iterated improved reduced system technique for model reduction. The reduced model retains the dynamic features as close as possible to those of the model before reduction. The proposed algorithm is finally validated by an experimental example.

  10. Incomplete block factorization preconditioning for indefinite elliptic problems

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Chun-Hua

    1996-12-31

    The application of the finite difference method to approximate the solution of an indefinite elliptic problem produces a linear system whose coefficient matrix is block tridiagonal and symmetric indefinite. Such a linear system can be solved efficiently by a conjugate residual method, particularly when combined with a good preconditioner. We show that specific incomplete block factorization exists for the indefinite matrix if the mesh size is reasonably small. And this factorization can serve as an efficient preconditioner. Some efforts are made to estimate the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix. Numerical results are also given.

  11. Significant Digit Computation of the Incomplete Beta Function Ratios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Profile, Archive for History of Exact Sciences, 24, 1981, 11-29. 8. Henrici P., Applied and Computational Complex Analysis (Vol. 1), John Wiley and Sons...SHrTITI E 5 FUINPING ,IRS Significant Digit Computation of the Incomplete Beta Function Ratios 6 AtITImOR(S) Armido I. DiI)onato Alfred H. Morris, Jr. I...ASSII l,) UNCLASSIFIED IN i i FOREWORD I he work described in this report was done in the Space and Surface Systems Division and tile Computer and

  12. Incompletely-Condensed Fluorinated Silsesquioxane: Synthesis and Crystal Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-29

    other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a ...ABSTRACT A recently developed sub-class of POSS, fluorinated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (F-POSS), consists of a Si-O core with a periphery of...incompletely-condensed silsesquioxane, (CF3(CF2)7CH2CH2)8Si8O11(OH)2, has been synthesized via a multi-step synthesis (52% yield). The structure was

  13. Incomplete optical shielding in cold sodium atom traps

    SciTech Connect

    Yurovsky, Vladimir; Ben-Reuven, Abraham

    1997-01-05

    A simple two-channel model, based on the semiclassical Landau-Zener (LZ) approximation, with averaging over angle-dependent exponents, is proposed as a fast means for accounting for the incomplete optical shielding of collisions, as observed in recent experiments conducted by Weiner and co-workers on ultracold sodium-atom traps, and its dependence on the laser polarization. The model yields a reasonably good agreement with the recent quantum close-coupling calculations of Julienne and co-workers. The remaining discrepancy between both theories and the data is qualitatively attributed to a partial overlap of the collision ranges at which loss processes and optical shielding occur.

  14. Guidance for Avoiding Incomplete Premanufacture Notices or Bona Fides in the New Chemicals Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains documents to help you avoid having an incomplete Premanufacture notice or Bona Fide . The documents go over the chemical identity requirements and common errors that result in incompletes.

  15. Photonic Molecule Lasers Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Denis; Dumont, Joey; Déziel, Jean-Luc; Dubé, Louis J.

    2014-05-01

    Photonic molecules (PMs) formed by coupling two or more optical resonators are ideal candidates for the fabrication of integrated microlasers, photonic molecule lasers. Whereas most calculations on PM lasers have been based on cold-cavity (passive) modes, i.e. quasi-bound states, a recently formulated steady-state ab initio laser theory (SALT) offers the possibility to take into account the spectral properties of the underlying gain transition, its position and linewidth, as well as incorporating an arbitrary pump profile. We will combine two theoretical approaches to characterize the lasing properties of PM lasers: for two-dimensional systems, the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory will obtain the resonant modes of the coupled molecules in an active medium described by SALT. Not only is then the theoretical description more complete, the use of an active medium provides additional parameters to control, engineer and harness the lasing properties of PM lasers for ultra-low threshold and directional single-mode emission. We will extend our recent study and present new results for a number of promising geometries. The authors acknowledge financial support from NSERC (Canada) and the CERC in Photonic Innovations of Y. Messaddeq.

  16. An information propagation model considering incomplete reading behavior in microblog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Qiang; Huang, Jiajia; Zhao, Xiande

    2015-02-01

    Microblog is one of the most popular communication channels on the Internet, and has already become the third largest source of news and public opinions in China. Although researchers have studied the information propagation in microblog using the epidemic models, previous studies have not considered the incomplete reading behavior among microblog users. Therefore, the model cannot fit the real situations well. In this paper, we proposed an improved model entitled Microblog-Susceptible-Infected-Removed (Mb-SIR) for information propagation by explicitly considering the user's incomplete reading behavior. We also tested the effectiveness of the model using real data from Sina Microblog. We demonstrate that the new proposed model is more accurate in describing the information propagation in microblog. In addition, we also investigate the effects of the critical model parameters, e.g., reading rate, spreading rate, and removed rate through numerical simulations. The simulation results show that, compared with other parameters, reading rate plays the most influential role in the information propagation performance in microblog.

  17. Do predictors of incomplete Kawasaki disease exist for infants?

    PubMed

    No, Sol Ji; Kim, Dong Ouk; Choi, Kyong Min; Eun, Lucy Youngmin

    2013-02-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD), an acute febrile vasculitis, is the most common cause of acquired heart disease in infants and young children. However, the diagnosis of infantile KD can be difficult or delayed due to vague clinical manifestations. This current study aimed to assess the clinical characteristics and cardiac complications of infantile KD. The study retrospectively reviewed the data of 242 patients with KD. The clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic data between infants and older children were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: infants 12 months old or younger and children older than 12 months. The rate of incomplete KD was much more frequent in infants. During all phases, prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (Pro-BNP) levels were higher in infants, as was thrombocytosis. The coronary artery z-score was higher in infants at all phases of KD. On tissue Doppler imaging, the E/E' ratio (ratio of transmitral Doppler early filling velocity to tissue Doppler early diastolic mitral annular velocity) was higher at the septal and lateral annulus in infants. Infant patients with KD are at increased risk for the development of coronary abnormalities and diastolic dysfunction. Higher levels of Pro-BNP and thrombocytosis with diastolic echo parameters of a higher E/E' ratio can help to identify incomplete KD in infants.

  18. On multilabel classification methods of incompletely labeled biomedical text data.

    PubMed

    Kolesov, Anton; Kamyshenkov, Dmitry; Litovchenko, Maria; Smekalova, Elena; Golovizin, Alexey; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Multilabel classification is often hindered by incompletely labeled training datasets; for some items of such dataset (or even for all of them) some labels may be omitted. In this case, we cannot know if any item is labeled fully and correctly. When we train a classifier directly on incompletely labeled dataset, it performs ineffectively. To overcome the problem, we added an extra step, training set modification, before training a classifier. In this paper, we try two algorithms for training set modification: weighted k-nearest neighbor (WkNN) and soft supervised learning (SoftSL). Both of these approaches are based on similarity measurements between data vectors. We performed the experiments on AgingPortfolio (text dataset) and then rechecked on the Yeast (nontext genetic data). We tried SVM and RF classifiers for the original datasets and then for the modified ones. For each dataset, our experiments demonstrated that both classification algorithms performed considerably better when preceded by the training set modification step.

  19. Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Regimes*

    PubMed Central

    Karaivanov, Alexander; Townsend, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    We formulate and solve a range of dynamic models of constrained credit/insurance that allow for moral hazard and limited commitment. We compare them to full insurance and exogenously incomplete financial regimes (autarky, saving only, borrowing and lending in a single asset). We develop computational methods based on mechanism design, linear programming, and maximum likelihood to estimate, compare, and statistically test these alternative dynamic models with financial/information constraints. Our methods can use both cross-sectional and panel data and allow for measurement error and unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate the models using data on Thai households running small businesses from two separate samples. We find that in the rural sample, the exogenously incomplete saving only and borrowing regimes provide the best fit using data on consumption, business assets, investment, and income. Family and other networks help consumption smoothing there, as in a moral hazard constrained regime. In contrast, in urban areas, we find mechanism design financial/information regimes that are decidedly less constrained, with the moral hazard model fitting best combined business and consumption data. We perform numerous robustness checks in both the Thai data and in Monte Carlo simulations and compare our maximum likelihood criterion with results from other metrics and data not used in the estimation. A prototypical counterfactual policy evaluation exercise using the estimation results is also featured. PMID:25246710

  20. Recognition of control chart patterns with incomplete samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miftah Abdelrahman Senoussi, Ahmed; Masood, Ibrahim; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    In quality control, automated recognition of statistical process control (SPC) chart patterns is an effective technique for monitoring unnatural variation (UV) in manufacturing process. In most studies, focus was given on complete patterns by assuming there is no constrain in the SPC samples. Nevertheless, there is in-practice case whereby the SPC samples cannot be captured properly due to measurement sensor error or human error. Thus, this research aims to design a recognition scheme for incomplete samples pattern that will be useful for an industrial application. The design methodology involves three phases: (i) simulation of UV and SPC chart patterns, (ii) design of pattern recognition scheme, and (iii) evaluation of performance recognition. It involves modelling of the simulated SPC samples in bivariate quality control, raw data input representation, and recognizer training and testing. The proposed technique indicates a high recognition accuracy (normal pattern = 99.5%, shift patterns = 97.5%). This research will provide a new perspective in SPC charting scheme when dealing with constraint in terms of incomplete samples, which is greatly useful for an industrial practitioner in finding the solution for corrective action.

  1. Regularised finite element model updating using measured incomplete modal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-Peng; Maung, Than Soe

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents an effective approach for directly updating finite element model from measured incomplete vibration modal data with regularised algorithms. The proposed method is based on the relationship between the perturbation of structural parameters such as stiffness change and the modal data measurements of the tested structure such as measured mode shape readings. In order to adjust structural parameters at detailed locations, structural updating parameters will be selected at critical point level to reflect the modelling errors at the connections of structural elements. These updating parameters are then evaluated by an iterative or a direct solution procedure, which gives optimised solutions in the least squares sense without requiring an optimisation technique. In order to reduce the influence of modal measurement uncertainty, the Tikhonov regularisation method incorporating the L-curve criterion is employed to produce reliable solutions for the chosen updating parameters. Numerical simulation investigations and experimental studies for the laboratory tested space steel frame structure are undertaken to verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed methods for adjusting the stiffness at the joints of structural members. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods provide reliable estimates of finite element model updating using the measured incomplete modal data.

  2. Analysis of recurrent event data with incomplete observation gaps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang-Jin; Jhun, Myoungshic

    2008-03-30

    In analysis of recurrent event data, recurrent events are not completely experienced when the terminating event occurs before the end of a study. To make valid inference of recurrent events, several methods have been suggested for accommodating the terminating event (Statist. Med. 1997; 16:911-924; Biometrics 2000; 56:554-562). In this paper, our interest is to consider a particular situation, where intermittent dropouts result in observation gaps during which no recurrent events are observed. In this situation, risk status varies over time and the usual definition of risk variable is not applicable. In particular, we consider the case when information on the observation gap is incomplete, that is, the starting time of intermittent dropout is known but the terminating time is not available. This incomplete information is modeled in terms of an interval-censored mechanism. Our proposed method is applied to the study of the Young Traffic Offenders Program on conviction rates, wherein a certain proportion of subjects experienced suspensions with intermittent dropouts during the study.

  3. Topological effects of data incompleteness of gene regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The topological analysis of biological networks has been a prolific topic in network science during the last decade. A persistent problem with this approach is the inherent uncertainty and noisy nature of the data. One of the cases in which this situation is more marked is that of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) in bacteria. The datasets are incomplete because regulatory pathways associated to a relevant fraction of bacterial genes remain unknown. Furthermore, direction, strengths and signs of the links are sometimes unknown or simply overlooked. Finally, the experimental approaches to infer the regulations are highly heterogeneous, in a way that induces the appearance of systematic experimental-topological correlations. And yet, the quality of the available data increases constantly. Results In this work we capitalize on these advances to point out the influence of data (in)completeness and quality on some classical results on topological analysis of TRNs, specially regarding modularity at different levels. Conclusions In doing so, we identify the most relevant factors affecting the validity of previous findings, highlighting important caveats to future prokaryotic TRNs topological analysis. PMID:22920968

  4. Incomplete oxidation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in chemical oxygen demand analysis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James E; Mueller, Sherry A; Kim, Byung R

    2007-09-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was found to incompletely oxidize in chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis, leading to incorrect COD values for water samples containing relatively large amounts of EDTA. The degree of oxidation depended on the oxidant used, its concentration, and the length of digestion. The COD concentrations measured using COD vials with a potassium dichromate concentration of 0.10 N (after dilution by sample and sulfuric acid) were near theoretical oxygen demand values. However, COD measured with dichromate concentrations of 0.010 N and 0.0022 N were 30 to 40% lower than theoretical oxygen demand values. Similarly, lower COD values were observed with manganic sulfate as oxidant at 0.011 N. Extended digestion yielded somewhat higher COD values, suggesting incomplete and slower oxidation of EDTA, as a result of lower oxidant concentrations. For wastewater in which EDTA is a large fraction of COD, accurate COD measurement may not be achieved with methods using dichromate concentrations less than 0.1 N.

  5. Parametric study of the Incompletely Stirred Reactor modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Mobini, K.; Bilger, R.W.

    2009-09-15

    The Incompletely Stirred Reactor (ISR) is a generalization of the widely-used Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) model and allows for incomplete mixing within the reactor. Its formulation is based on the Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) method. This model is applicable to nonpremixed combustion with strong recirculation such as in a gas turbine combustor primary zone. The model uses the simplifying assumptions that the conditionally-averaged reactive-scalar concentrations are independent of position in the reactor: this results in ordinary differential equations in mixture fraction space. The simplicity of the model permits the use of very complex chemical mechanisms. The effects of the detailed chemistry can be found while still including the effects of micromixing. A parametric study is performed here on an ISR for combustion of methane at overall stoichiometric conditions to investigate the sensitivity of the model to different parameters. The focus here is on emissions of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. It is shown that the most important parameters in the ISR model are reactor residence time, the chemical mechanism and the core-averaged Probability Density Function (PDF). Using several different shapes for the core-averaged PDF, it is shown that use of a bimodal PDF with a low minimum at stoichiometric mixture fraction and a large variance leads to lower nitric oxide formation. The 'rich-plus-lean' mixing or staged combustion strategy for combustion is thus supported. (author)

  6. Observable Priors: Limiting Biases in Estimated Parameters for Incomplete Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmo, Kelly; Martinez, Gregory; Hees, Aurelien; Witzel, Gunther; Ghez, Andrea M.; Do, Tuan; Sitarski, Breann; Chu, Devin; Dehghanfar, Arezu

    2017-01-01

    Over twenty years of monitoring stellar orbits at the Galactic center has provided an unprecedented opportunity to study the physics and astrophysics of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. In order to constrain the mass of and distance to the black hole, and to evaluate its gravitational influence on orbiting bodies, we use Bayesian statistics to infer black hole and stellar orbital parameters from astrometric and radial velocity measurements of stars orbiting the central SMBH. Unfortunately, most of the short period stars in the Galactic center have periods much longer than our twenty year time baseline of observations, resulting in incomplete orbital phase coverage--potentially biasing fitted parameters. Using the Bayesian statistical framework, we evaluate biases in the black hole and orbital parameters of stars with varying phase coverage, using various prior models to fit the data. We present evidence that incomplete phase coverage of an orbit causes prior assumptions to bias statistical quantities, and propose a solution to reduce these biases for orbits with low phase coverage. The explored solution assumes uniformity in the observables rather than in the inferred model parameters, as is the current standard method of orbit fitting. Of the cases tested, priors that assume uniform astrometric and radial velocity observables reduce the biases in the estimated parameters. The proposed method will not only improve orbital estimates of stars orbiting the central SMBH, but can also be extended to other orbiting bodies with low phase coverage such as visual binaries and exoplanets.

  7. Fabrication of Stable Cartilage Framework for Microtia in Incomplete Synchondrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Hun; Choi, Kang Young; Yang, Jung Dug; Chung, Ho Yun

    2012-01-01

    The synchondrosis between the sixth and seventh costal cartilage is usually used for the base frame in autogenous ear reconstruction. If the synchondrosis is loose, a variety of modifications can be devised. This report introduces new methods for these problems. In cases of incomplete synchondrosis, only the surface of the base block margin was smoothly tapered without carving for the removal of the conchal deepening. The secure fixation of the two segments (helix and antihelix) to the base block using fine wire sutures gave stability to the unstable basal frame. After confirming that all the segments were assembled in one stable piece, the remaining conchal deepening of the basal framework was removed, and the outer lower portion of the basal cartilage was trimmed along its whole length. A total of 10 consecutive patients with microtia, ranging from 8 to 13 years old, were treated from 2008 to 2009. The follow-up period was 6 months to 2 years. Despite incomplete synchondrosis, the stable frameworks were constructed using the authors' method and aesthetically acceptable results were achieved. The proposed method can provide an easy way to make a stable cartilage framework regardless of the variable conditions of synchondrosis. PMID:22783518

  8. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  9. Semiparametric pseudoscore for regression with multidimensional but incompletely observed regressor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zonghui; Qin, Jing; Follmann, Dean

    2017-02-16

    We study the regression fβ (Y|X,Z), where Y is the response, Z∈Rd is a vector of fully observed regressors and X is the regressor with incomplete observation. To handle missing data, maximum likelihood estimation via expectation-maximisation (EM) is the most efficient but is sensitive to the specification of the distribution of X. Under a missing at random assumption, we propose an EM-type estimation via a semiparametric pseudoscore. Like in EM, we derive the conditional expectation of the score function given Y and Z, or the mean score, over the incompletely observed units under a postulated distribution of X. Instead of directly using the 'mean score' in estimating equation, we use it as a working index to construct the semiparametric pseudoscore via nonparametric regression. Introduction of semiparametric pseudoscore into the EM framework reduces sensitivity to the specified distribution of X. It also avoids the curse of dimensionality when Z is multidimensional. The resulting regression estimator is more than doubly robust: it is consistent if either the pattern of missingness in X is correctly specified or the working index is appropriately, but not necessarily correctly, specified. It attains optimal efficiency when both conditions are satisfied. Numerical performance is explored by Monte Carlo simulations and a study on treating hepatitis C patients with HIV coinfection. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Confidence-interval construction for rate ratio in matched-pair studies with incomplete data.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Qiong; Chan, Ivan S F; Tang, Man-Lai; Tian, Guo-Liang; Tang, Nian-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Matched-pair design is often used in clinical trials to increase the efficiency of establishing equivalence between two treatments with binary outcomes. In this article, we consider such a design based on rate ratio in the presence of incomplete data. The rate ratio is one of the most frequently used indices in comparing efficiency of two treatments in clinical trials. In this article, we propose 10 confidence-interval estimators for the rate ratio in incomplete matched-pair designs. A hybrid method that recovers variance estimates required for the rate ratio from the confidence limits for single proportions is proposed. It is noteworthy that confidence intervals based on this hybrid method have closed-form solution. The performance of the proposed confidence intervals is evaluated with respect to their exact coverage probability, expected confidence interval width, and distal and mesial noncoverage probability. The results show that the hybrid Agresti-Coull confidence interval based on Fieller's theorem performs satisfactorily for small to moderate sample sizes. Two real examples from clinical trials are used to illustrate the proposed confidence intervals.

  11. Gradual molecular evolution of a sex determination switch through incomplete penetrance of femaleness.

    PubMed

    Beye, Martin; Seelmann, Christine; Gempe, Tanja; Hasselmann, Martin; Vekemans, Xavier; Fondrk, M Kim; Page, Robert E

    2013-12-16

    Some genes regulate phenotypes that are either present or absent. They are often important regulators of developmental switches and are involved in morphological evolution. We have little understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which these absence/presence gene functions have evolved, because the phenotype and fitness of molecular intermediate forms are unknown. Here, we studied the sex-determining switch of 14 natural sequence variants of the csd gene among 76 genotypes of the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Heterozygous genotypes (different specificities) of the csd gene determine femaleness, while hemizygous genotypes (single specificity) determine maleness. Homozygous genotypes of the csd gene (same specificity) are lethal. We found that at least five amino acid differences and length variation between Csd specificities in the specifying domain (PSD) were sufficient to regularly induce femaleness. We estimated that, on average, six pairwise amino acid differences evolved under positive selection. We also identified a natural evolutionary intermediate that showed only three amino acid length differences in the PSD relative to its parental allele. This genotype showed an intermediate fitness because it implemented lethality regularly and induced femaleness infrequently (i.e., incomplete penetrance). We suggest incomplete penetrance as a mechanism through which new molecular switches can gradually and adaptively evolve.

  12. Incomplete vertical integration in the health care industry: pseudomarkets and pseudopolicies.

    PubMed

    Evans, R G

    1983-07-01

    Most economic relationships are either arm's-length exchange transactions, each party seeking his or her own interest, or command structures, such as a firm or public agency, integrating joint efforts toward a common goal. The health care industry, however, displays a pattern of incomplete vertical integration--relationships which are neither truly arm's-length nor completely hierarchical. The doctor-patient relationship is archetypical. Physicians appear to sell services in private markets; yet they reach through the exchange process to direct the consumer-patient's utilization decisions, implicity undertaking to act in the patient's interest, and thus integrate forward. But they also integrate backward to control the public regulatory process--self-government--and some forms of insurance. The health care systems of different countries--Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States--can be interpreted as different patterns of incomplete integration among five basic classes of transactors: consumer-patients, first-line providers, second-line providers, insurers, and governments. Each system of linkage has characteristic strengths and weaknesses. Nowhere, however, do we find a predominance of arm's-length market relationships. Where they exist, markets in health care are usually pseudomarkets dominated by one side of the transaction. The rhetoric of market relationships serves principally to obscure political struggles over shifting patterns of integration.

  13. Improving the quality of information on pathology request forms.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Leslie; Chesher, Douglas; Mudaliar, Yugan

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the causes of incomplete pathology request forms received at our clinical chemistry laboratory. Based on a request form audit we found that the data most frequently missing from a pathology request form was the doctor's name, unique identification provider number, or signature. We examined the effect of issuing the requesting doctors with self-inking stamps personalized with their name and a unique provider number. The intervention led to an immediate and sustained improvement in compliance, with the proportion of incomplete forms falling from 43% to 2%. In contrast, distribution of a memorandum alone made no significant change to the number of pathology request forms with incomplete data arriving at the laboratory. This study describes a simple and low-cost solution to one of the causes of incomplete pathology request forms. It also demonstrates the effectiveness of systems improvement in health care.

  14. Single Molecule Electronics and Devices

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule. PMID:22969345

  15. Quantum Tomography from Incomplete Data via MaxEnt Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bužek, Vladimír

    We show how the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle can be efficiently used for a reconstruction of states of quantum systems from incomplete tomographic data. This MaxEnt reconstruction scheme can be in specific cases several orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard inverse Radon transformation or the reconstruction via direct sampling using pattern functions. We apply the MaxEnt algorithm for a reconstruction of motional quantum states of neutral atoms. As an example we analyze the experimental data obtained by the group of C. Salomon at the ENS in Paris and we reconstruct Wigner functions of motional quantum states of Cs atoms trapped in an optical lattice. We also reconstruct Wigner functions of a cavity field based on a measurement of the parity operator. We analyze in detail experimental data obtained by the group of S. Haroche at the ENS in Paris.

  16. Incomplete transposition of the common femoral artery and vein.

    PubMed

    Leite, J O; Carvalho Ventura, I; Botelho, F E; Costa Galvao, W

    2010-02-01

    Anatomical variations of the great saphenous vein, femoral artery and femoral vein at the inguinal level are rare. Modifications in the anatomical relationships among theses vessel can cause technical difficulties. There are two reports in the literature of the complete transposition of the femoral artery and vein. Both patients had large varicose veins only in the limb that presented the variation, which suggested an extrinsic compression. In the present paper, we report a case study of a patient with an incomplete transposition of the femoral artery and vein. Specifically, the common femoral vein and the saphenofemoral junction were completely overlapped by the common femoral artery. Although this anatomical variation did not present any clinical signs, it required a more complex surgical procedure.

  17. Missing... presumed at random: cost-analysis of incomplete data.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Andrew; Clark, Taane; Wolstenholme, Jane; Clarke, Philip

    2003-05-01

    When collecting patient-level resource use data for statistical analysis, for some patients and in some categories of resource use, the required count will not be observed. Although this problem must arise in most reported economic evaluations containing patient-level data, it is rare for authors to detail how the problem was overcome. Statistical packages may default to handling missing data through a so-called 'complete case analysis', while some recent cost-analyses have appeared to favour an 'available case' approach. Both of these methods are problematic: complete case analysis is inefficient and is likely to be biased; available case analysis, by employing different numbers of observations for each resource use item, generates severe problems for standard statistical inference. Instead we explore imputation methods for generating 'replacement' values for missing data that will permit complete case analysis using the whole data set and we illustrate these methods using two data sets that had incomplete resource use information.

  18. Analysis of incomplete longitudinal binary data using multiple imputation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Mehrotra, Devan V; Barnard, John

    2006-06-30

    We propose a propensity score-based multiple imputation (MI) method to tackle incomplete missing data resulting from drop-outs and/or intermittent skipped visits in longitudinal clinical trials with binary responses. The estimation and inferential properties of the proposed method are contrasted via simulation with those of the commonly used complete-case (CC) and generalized estimating equations (GEE) methods. Three key results are noted. First, if data are missing completely at random, MI can be notably more efficient than the CC and GEE methods. Second, with small samples, GEE often fails due to 'convergence problems', but MI is free of that problem. Finally, if the data are missing at random, while the CC and GEE methods yield results with moderate to large bias, MI generally yields results with negligible bias. A numerical example with real data is provided for illustration.

  19. Corrected profile likelihood confidence interval for binomial paired incomplete data.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Vivek; Menon, Sandeep; Das, Ujjwal

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials often use paired binomial data as their clinical endpoint. The confidence interval is frequently used to estimate the treatment performance. Tang et al. (2009) have proposed exact and approximate unconditional methods for constructing a confidence interval in the presence of incomplete paired binary data. The approach proposed by Tang et al. can be overly conservative with large expected confidence interval width (ECIW) in some situations. We propose a profile likelihood-based method with a Jeffreys' prior correction to construct the confidence interval. This approach generates confidence interval with a much better coverage probability and shorter ECIWs. The performances of the method along with the corrections are demonstrated through extensive simulation. Finally, three real world data sets are analyzed by all the methods. Statistical Analysis System (SAS) codes to execute the profile likelihood-based methods are also presented.

  20. Spectral ordering techniques for incomplete LU preconditoners for CG methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clift, Simon S.; Simon, Horst D.; Tang, Wei-Pai

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of an incomplete LU (ILU) factorization as a preconditioner for the conjugate gradient method can be highly dependent on the ordering of the matrix rows during its creation. Detailed justification for two heuristics commonly used in matrix ordering for anisotropic problems is given. The bandwidth reduction and weak connection following heuristics are implemented through an ordering method based on eigenvector computations. This spectral ordering is shown to be a good representation of the heuristics. Analysis and test cases in two and three dimensional diffusion problems demonstrate when ordering is important, and when an ILU decomposition will be ordering insensitive. The applicability of the heuristics is thus evaluated and placed on a more rigorous footing.

  1. Uncovering disease-disease relationships through the incomplete human interactome

    PubMed Central

    Menche, Jörg; Sharma, Amitabh; Kitsak, Maksim; Ghiassian, Susan; Vidal, Marc; Loscalzo, Joseph; Barabási, Albert-László

    2015-01-01

    According to the disease module hypothesis the cellular components associated with a disease segregate in the same neighborhood of the human interactome, the map of biologically relevant molecular interactions. Yet, given the incompleteness of the interactome and the limited knowledge of disease-associated genes, it is not obvious if the available data has sufficient coverage to map out modules associated with each disease. Here we derive mathematical conditions for the identifiability of disease modules and show that the network-based location of each disease module determines its pathobiological relationship to other diseases. For example, diseases with overlapping network modules show significant co-expression patterns, symptom similarity, and comorbidity, while diseases residing in separated network neighborhoods are clinically distinct. These tools represent an interactome-based platform to predict molecular commonalities between clinically related diseases, even if they do not share disease genes. PMID:25700523

  2. A flexible acquisition cycle for incompletely defined fieldbus protocols.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, Vasile-Gheorghita; Gaitan, Nicoleta-Cristina; Ungurean, Ioan

    2014-05-01

    Real time data-acquisition from fieldbuses strongly depends on the network type and protocol used. Currently, there is an impressive number of fieldbuses, some of them are completely defined and others are incompletely defined. In those from the second category, the time variable, the main element in real-time data acquisition, does not appear explicitly. Examples include protocols such as Modbus ASCII/RTU, M-bus, ASCII character-based, and so on. This paper defines a flexible acquisition cycle based on the Master-Slave architecture that can be implemented on a Master station, called a Base Station Gateway (BSG). The BSG can add a timestamp for temporal location of data. It also presents a possible extension for the Modbus protocol, developed as simple and low cost solution based on existing hardware. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reinforcement Learning for Constrained Energy Trading Games With Incomplete Information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiwei; Huang, Tingwen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Chen, Guo

    2017-10-01

    This paper considers the problem of designing adaptive learning algorithms to seek the Nash equilibrium (NE) of the constrained energy trading game among individually strategic players with incomplete information. In this game, each player uses the learning automaton scheme to generate the action probability distribution based on his/her private information for maximizing his own averaged utility. It is shown that if one of admissible mixed-strategies converges to the NE with probability one, then the averaged utility and trading quantity almost surely converge to their expected ones, respectively. For the given discontinuous pricing function, the utility function has already been proved to be upper semicontinuous and payoff secure which guarantee the existence of the mixed-strategy NE. By the strict diagonal concavity of the regularized Lagrange function, the uniqueness of NE is also guaranteed. Finally, an adaptive learning algorithm is provided to generate the strategy probability distribution for seeking the mixed-strategy NE.

  4. Traumatic vertebral artery dissection presenting with incomplete congruous homonymous quadrantanopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To describe a rare presentation of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) as a small but congruous incomplete homonymous hemianopia demonstrating use of visual field testing in the diagnosis. Case presentation A 30 year old woman had been unwell for 4 months with difficulty focusing, vertigo, dizziness and a feeling of falling to the right. A small but congruous right inferior homonymous quadrantanopia was found on examination leading to further investigation that uncovered a vertebral artery dissection and multiple posterior circulation infarctions including a left occipital stroke matching the field defect. Conclusions We describe an atypical case of VAD presenting with a small congruous quadrantanopia. This is a rare but significant condition that predisposes to multiple thromboembolic infarction that may be easily misdiagnosed and a high index of suspicion is required to make the diagnosis. PMID:20482837

  5. Iterative reconstruction of images from incomplete spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhebergen, Jan B.; van den Berg, Peter M.; Habashy, Tarek M.

    1997-06-01

    In various branches of engineering and science, one is confronted with measurements resulting in incomplete spectral data. The problem of the reconstruction of an image from such a data set can be formulated in terms of an integral equation of the first kind. Consequently, this equation can be converted into an equivalent integral equation of the second kind which can be solved by a Neumann-type iterative method. It is shown that this Neumann expansion is an error-reducing method and that it is equivalent to the Papoulis - Gerchberg algorithm for band-limited signal extrapolation. The integral equation can also be solved by employing a conjugate gradient iterative scheme. Again, convergence of this scheme is demonstrated. Finally a number of illustrative numerical examples are presented and discussed.

  6. A Coupled Approach for Structural Damage Detection with Incomplete Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George; Cao, Timothy; Kaouk, Mo; Zimmerman, David

    2013-01-01

    This historical work couples model order reduction, damage detection, dynamic residual/mode shape expansion, and damage extent estimation to overcome the incomplete measurements problem by using an appropriate undamaged structural model. A contribution of this work is the development of a process to estimate the full dynamic residuals using the columns of a spring connectivity matrix obtained by disassembling the structural stiffness matrix. Another contribution is the extension of an eigenvector filtering procedure to produce full-order mode shapes that more closely match the measured active partition of the mode shapes using a set of modified Ritz vectors. The full dynamic residuals and full mode shapes are used as inputs to the minimum rank perturbation theory to provide an estimate of damage location and extent. The issues associated with this process are also discussed as drivers of near-term development activities to understand and improve this approach.

  7. Incomplete Lineage Sorting Is Common in Extant Gibbon Genera

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Francesca; Carbone, Lucia; Mootnick, Alan R.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We sequenced reduced representation libraries by means of Illumina technology to generate over 1.5 Mb of orthologous sequence from a representative of each of the four extant gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Symphalangus, and Hoolock). We used these data to assess the evolutionary relationships between the genera by evaluating the likelihoods of all possible bifurcating trees involving the four taxa. Our analyses provide weak support for a tree with Nomascus and Hylobates as sister taxa and with Hoolock and Symphalangus as sister taxa, though bootstrap resampling suggests that other phylogenetic scenarios are also possible. This uncertainty is due to short internal branch lengths and extensive incomplete lineage sorting across taxa. The true phylogenetic relationships among gibbon genera will likely require a more extensive whole-genome sequence analysis. PMID:23341974

  8. Absolute magnitude calibration using trigonometric parallax - Incomplete, spectroscopic samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Casertano, Stefano

    1991-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm is used to calibrate the absolute magnitude of spectroscopically selected stars from their observed trigonometric parallax. This procedure, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, can retrieve unbiased estimates of the intrinsic absolute magnitude and its dispersion even from incomplete samples suffering from selection biases in apparent magnitude and color. It can also make full use of low accuracy and negative parallaxes and incorporate censorship on reported parallax values. Accurate error estimates are derived for each of the fitted parameters. The algorithm allows an a posteriori check of whether the fitted model gives a good representation of the observations. The procedure is described in general and applied to both real and simulated data.

  9. Pericardio-Amniotic Shunting for Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell.

    PubMed

    Engels, Alexander C; Debeer, Anne; Russo, Francesca M; Aertsen, Michael; Aerts, Katleen; Miserez, Marc; Deprest, Jan; Lewi, Liesbeth; Devlieger, Roland

    2017-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 0, presented with an incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell with an omphalocele, diaphragmatic hernia, and a pericardial defect at 32 weeks' gestation. A large pericardial effusion compressed the lungs and had led to a reduced lung growth with an observed-to-expected total lung volume of 28% as measured by MRI. The effusion disappeared completely after the insertion of a pericardio-amniotic shunt at 33 weeks. After birth, the newborn showed no signs of pulmonary hypoplasia and underwent a surgical correction of the defect. Protracted wound healing and a difficult withdrawal from opioids complicated the neonatal period. The child was discharged on postnatal day 105 in good condition. This case demonstrates that in case of Pentalogy of Cantrell with large pericardial effusion, the perinatal outcome might be improved by pericardio-amniotic shunting.

  10. Multirate control with incomplete information over Profibus-DP network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salt, J.; Casanova, V.; Cuenca, A.; Pizá, R.

    2014-07-01

    When a process field bus-decentralized peripherals (Profibus-DP) network is used in an industrial environment, a deterministic behaviour is usually claimed. However, due to some concerns such as bandwidth limitations, lack of synchronisation among different clocks and existence of time-varying delays, a more complex problem must be faced. This problem implies the transmission of irregular and, even, random sequences of incomplete information. The main consequence of this issue is the appearance of different sampling periods at different network devices. In this paper, this aspect is checked by means of a detailed Profibus-DP timescale study. In addition, in order to deal with the different periods, a delay-dependent dual-rate proportional-integral-derivative control is introduced. Stability for the proposed control system is analysed in terms of linear matrix inequalities.

  11. A recursive algorithm for the incomplete partial fraction decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurie, Dirk P.

    1987-05-01

    Given polynomials P m+n-1, D m , and E n (where the subscript denotes degree), the incomplete partial fraction decomposition is equivalent to constructing polynomials Q n -1 and R m -1 such that P m+n-1= Q n-1 D m + E n R m-1. An elegant algorithm, designed for the case when m≪ n, was given by Henrici [ZAMP, 1971]. When this algorithm is applied to cases where m≅ n, it seems to suffer from numerical instability. The purpose of this paper is to explain the numerical instability, and to suggest a modified version of Henrici's algorithm in which the instability is substantially reduced. A numerical example is given.

  12. The value of incomplete mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Radde, Rebecca; Duma, Cecilia; Goedert, Michel; Jucker, Mathias

    2008-03-01

    To study Alzheimer's disease (AD), a variety of mouse models has been generated through the overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein and/or the presenilins harboring one or several mutations found in familial AD. With aging, these mice develop several lesions similar to those of AD, including diffuse and neuritic amyloid deposits, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, dystrophic neurites and synapses, and amyloid-associated neuroinflammation. Other characteristics of AD, such as neurofibrillary tangles and nerve cell loss, are not satisfactorily reproduced in these models. Mouse models that recapitulate only specific aspects of AD pathogenesis are of great advantage when deciphering the complexity of the disease and can contribute substantially to diagnostic and therapeutic innovations. Incomplete mouse models have been key to the development of Abeta42-targeted therapies, as well as to the current understanding of the interrelationship between cerebral beta-amyloidosis and tau neurofibrillary lesions, and are currently being used to develop novel diagnostic agents for in vivo imaging.

  13. Incomplete lineage sorting is common in extant gibbon genera.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jeffrey D; Kim, Sung K; Luca, Francesca; Carbone, Lucia; Mootnick, Alan R; de Jong, Pieter J; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We sequenced reduced representation libraries by means of Illumina technology to generate over 1.5 Mb of orthologous sequence from a representative of each of the four extant gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Symphalangus, and Hoolock). We used these data to assess the evolutionary relationships between the genera by evaluating the likelihoods of all possible bifurcating trees involving the four taxa. Our analyses provide weak support for a tree with Nomascus and Hylobates as sister taxa and with Hoolock and Symphalangus as sister taxa, though bootstrap resampling suggests that other phylogenetic scenarios are also possible. This uncertainty is due to short internal branch lengths and extensive incomplete lineage sorting across taxa. The true phylogenetic relationships among gibbon genera will likely require a more extensive whole-genome sequence analysis.

  14. Recovery of ambulation in motor-incomplete tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Burns, S P; Golding, D G; Rolle, W A; Graziani, V; Ditunno, J F

    1997-11-01

    To determine the effect of age and initial neurologic status on recovery of ambulation in patients with motor-incomplete tetraplegia. Inception cohort study. Urban, tertiary care hospital with Regional Spinal Cord Injury Center. One hundred five patients with American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) C or D tetraplegia at admission or within 72 hours of injury. Ambulatory status at time of discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Ninety-one percent (30/33) of ASIA C patients younger than 50 years of age became ambulatory by discharge, versus 42% (13/31) ASIA C patients age 50 or older (p < .0001). All (41/41) patients initially classified as ASIA D became ambulatory by discharge. For patients with ASIA D tetraplegia, prognosis for recovery of independent ambulation is excellent. For patients with ASIA C tetraplegia, recovery of ambulation is significantly less likely if age is 50 years or older.

  15. Symmetry of interactions rules in incompletely connected random replicator ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kärenlampi, Petri P

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of an incompletely connected system of species with speciation and extinction is investigated in terms of random replicators. It is found that evolving random replicator systems with speciation do become large and complex, depending on speciation parameters. Antisymmetric interactions result in large systems, whereas systems with symmetric interactions remain small. A co-dominating feature is within-species interaction pressure: large within-species interaction increases species diversity. Average fitness evolves in all systems, however symmetry and connectivity evolve in small systems only. Newcomers get extinct almost immediately in symmetric systems. The distribution in species lifetimes is determined for antisymmetric systems. The replicator systems investigated do not show any sign of self-organized criticality. The generalized Lotka-Volterra system is shown to be a tedious way of implementing the replicator system.

  16. MIFuzzy Clustering for Incomplete Longitudinal Data in Smart Health

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Missing data are common in longitudinal observational and randomized controlled trials in smart health studies. Multiple-imputation based fuzzy clustering is an emerging non-parametric soft computing method, used for either semi-supervised or unsupervised learning. Multiple imputation (MI) has been widely-used in missing data analyses, but has not yet been scrutinized for unsupervised learning methods, although they are important for explaining the heterogeneity of treatment effects. Built upon our previous work on MIfuzzy clustering, this paper introduces the MIFuzzy concepts and performance, theoretically, empirically and numerically demonstrate how MI-based approach can reduce the uncertainty of clustering accuracy in comparison to non- and single-imputation based clustering approach. This paper advances our understanding of the utility and strength of MIFuzzy clustering approach to processing incomplete longitudinal behavioral intervention data.

  17. A Framework for Fast Image Deconvolution With Incomplete Observations.

    PubMed

    Simoes, Miguel; Almeida, Luis B; Bioucas-Dias, Jose; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2016-11-01

    In image deconvolution problems, the diagonalization of the underlying operators by means of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) usually yields very large speedups. When there are incomplete observations (e.g., in the case of unknown boundaries), standard deconvolution techniques normally involve non-diagonalizable operators, resulting in rather slow methods or, otherwise, use inexact convolution models, resulting in the occurrence of artifacts in the enhanced images. In this paper, we propose a new deconvolution framework for images with incomplete observations that allows us to work with diagonalized convolution operators, and therefore is very fast. We iteratively alternate the estimation of the unknown pixels and of the deconvolved image, using, e.g., an FFT-based deconvolution method. This framework is an efficient, high-quality alternative to existing methods of dealing with the image boundaries, such as edge tapering. It can be used with any fast deconvolution method. We give an example in which a state-of-the-art method that assumes periodic boundary conditions is extended, using this framework, to unknown boundary conditions. Furthermore, we propose a specific implementation of this framework, based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). We provide a proof of convergence for the resulting algorithm, which can be seen as a "partial" ADMM, in which not all variables are dualized. We report experimental comparisons with other primal-dual methods, where the proposed one performed at the level of the state of the art. Four different kinds of applications were tested in the experiments: deconvolution, deconvolution with inpainting, superresolution, and demosaicing, all with unknown boundaries.

  18. A Framework for Fast Image Deconvolution with Incomplete Observations.

    PubMed

    Simoes, Miguel; Almeida, Luis B; Bioucas-Dias, Jose; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2016-08-26

    In image deconvolution problems, the diagonalization of the underlying operators by means of the FFT usually yields very large speedups. When there are incomplete observations (e.g., in the case of unknown boundaries), standard deconvolution techniques normally involve non-diagonalizable operators, resulting in rather slow methods, or, otherwise, use inexact convolution models, resulting in the occurrence of artifacts in the enhanced images. In this paper, we propose a new deconvolution framework for images with incomplete observations that allows us to work with diagonalized convolution operators, and therefore is very fast. We iteratively alternate the estimation of the unknown pixels and of the deconvolved image, using, e.g., an FFT-based deconvolution method. This framework is an efficient, high-quality alternative to existing methods of dealing with the image boundaries, such as edge tapering. It can be used with any fast deconvolution method. We give an example in which a state-of-the-art method that assumes periodic boundary conditions is extended, through the use of this framework, to unknown boundary conditions. Furthermore, we propose a specific implementation of this framework, based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). We provide a proof of convergence for the resulting algorithm, which can be seen as a "partial" ADMM, in which not all variables are dualized. We report experimental comparisons with other primal-dual methods, where the proposed one performed at the level of the state of the art. Four different kinds of applications were tested in the experiments: deconvolution, deconvolution with inpainting, superresolution, and demosaicing, all with unknown boundaries.

  19. Effects of incomplete mixing on chemical reactions under flow heterogeneities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Lazaro; Hidalgo, Juan J.; Dentz, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation of the mixing process in aquifers is of primary importance when assessing attenuation of pollutants. In aquifers different hydraulic and chemical properties can increase mixing and spreading of the transported species. Mixing processes control biogeochemical transformations such as precipitation/dissolution reactions or degradation reactions that are fast compared to mass transfer processes. Reactions are local phenomena that fluctuate at the pore scale, but predictions are often made at much larger scales. However, aquifer heterogeities are found at all scales and generates flow heterogeneities which creates complex concentration distributions that enhances mixing. In order to assess the impact of spatial flow heterogeneities at pore scale we study concentration profiles, gradients and reaction rates using a random walk particle tracking (RWPT) method and kernel density estimators to reconstruct concentrations and gradients in two setups. First, we focus on a irreversible bimolecular reaction A+B → C under homogeneous flow to distinguish phenomena of incomplete mixing of reactants from finite-size sampling effects. Second, we analise a fast reversible bimolecular chemical reaction A+B rightleftharpoons C in a laminar Poiseuille flow reactor to determine the difference between local and global reaction rates caused by the incomplete mixing under flow heterogeneities. Simulation results for the first setup differ from the analytical solution of the continuum scale advection-dispersion-reaction equation studied by Gramling et al. (2002), which results in an overstimation quantity of reaction product (C). In the second setup, results show that actual reaction rates are bigger than the obtained from artificially mixing the system by averaging the concentration vertically. - LITERATURE Gramling, C. M.,Harvey, C. F., Meigs, and L. C., (2002). Reactive transport in porous media: A comparison of model prediction with laboratory visualization, Environ. Sci

  20. IMPORTANT BUT INCOMPLETE: PLAN B AS AN AVENUE FOR POST-ASSAULT CARE

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Michelle L.; Martyn, Kristy K.; Campbell, Rebecca; Graham-Bermann, Sandra; Seng, Julia S.

    2016-01-01

    Many survivors of rape do not seek post-assault care. The recent change in status of emergency contraception (EC), such as Plan B, to an over-the-counter (OTC) product may be further changing post-assault care-seeking. This descriptive study will quantify OTC EC use in the post-assault period and elicit survivors’ desires for care. Data were collected from women purchasing OTC EC at university pharmacies (n=55) and students in an undergraduate university class (n=165). Quantitative results indicate annual prevalence rates of post-assault OTC EC use as 5.4%-7.3%. Qualitative analyses indicate OTC EC is an important but incomplete form of post-assault care. Future work should focus on intervention development to provide all OTC EC users with information about post-assault resources to prevent long-term sequelae. PMID:27293493

  1. Incomplete oedipism and chronic suicidality in psychotic depression with paranoid delusions related to eyes

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Lester, David; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Self-enucleation or oedipism is a term used to describe self-inflicted enucleation. It is a rare form of self-mutilation, found mainly in acutely psychotic patients. We propose the term incomplete oedipism to describe patients who deliberately and severely mutilate their eyes without proper enucleation. We report the case of a 32-year-old male patient with a five-year history of psychotic depression accompanied by paranoid delusions centered around his belief that his neighbors criticized him and stared at him. A central feature of his clinical picture was an eye injury that the patient had caused by pouring molten lead into his right eye during a period of deep hopelessness and suicidality when the patient could not resolve his anhedonia and social isolation. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy dramatically improved his disorder. PMID:17118200

  2. Incomplete cytokinesis/binucleation in mammals: The powerful system of hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Fortier, M; Celton-Morizur, S; Desdouets, C

    2017-01-01

    Polyploidy, the state of having greater than a diploid DNA content (tetraploid, octoploid, etc.) is a characteristic feature of mammalian hepatocytes and accompanies late fetal development and postnatal maturation of the liver. During the weaning period, diploid hepatocytes can engage either into normal cell division cycle giving rise to two diploid hepatocytes or follow a scheduled division program characterized by incomplete cytokinesis. In that case, diploid hepatocytes undergo mitosis, but do not form a contractile ring. Indeed, cleavage-plane specification is never established, because of the deficiencies of actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Furthermore, microtubules fail both to contact the cortex and to deliver their molecular signal, preventing localization and activation of RhoA. Therefore, cytokinesis aborts and a binucleate tetraploid liver cell is generated, which subsequently plays a pivotal role in liver progressive polyploidization. In this chapter, we describe detailed protocols to monitor hepatocyte proliferation and cytokinesis process by in situ and dynamic ex vivo approaches.

  3. Soluble forms of NCAM and F3 neuronal cell adhesion molecules promote Schwann cell migration: identification of protein tyrosine phosphatases zeta/beta as the putative F3 receptors on Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Thomaidou, D; Coquillat, D; Meintanis, S; Noda, M; Rougon, G; Matsas, R

    2001-08-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and F3 are both axonal adhesion molecules which display homophilic (NCAM) or heterophilic (NCAM, F3) binding activities and participate in bidirectional exchange of information between neurones and glial cells. Engineered Fc chimeric molecules are fusion proteins that contain the extracellular part of NCAM or F3 and the Fc region of human IgG1. Here, we investigated the effect of NCAM-Fc and F3-Fc chimeras on Schwann cell (SC) migration. Binding sites were identified at the surface of cultured SCs by chimera coated fluorospheres. The functional effect of NCAM-Fc and F3-Fc binding was studied in two different SC migration models. In the first, migration is monitored at specific time intervals inside a 1-mm gap produced in a monolayer culture of SCs. In the second, SCs from a dorsal root ganglion explant migrate on a sciatic nerve cryosection. In both systems addition of the chimeras significantly increased the extent of SC migration and this effect could be prevented by the corresponding anti-NCAM or anti-F3 blocking antibodies. Furthermore, antiproteoglycan-type protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta/beta (RPTPzeta/beta) antibodies identified the presence of RPTPzeta/beta on SCs and prevented the enhancing effect of soluble F3 on SC motility by 95%. The F3-Fc coated Sepharose beads precipitated RPTPzeta/beta from SC lysates. Altogether these data point to RPTPzeta/beta is the putative F3 receptor on SCs. These results identify F3 and NCAM receptors on SC as potential mediators of signalling occurring between axons and glial cells during peripheral nerve development and regeneration.

  4. Dihydrino molecule identification

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, R.L.; Good, W.R. ); Shaubach, R.M. )

    1994-01-01

    Three sets of heat production and [open quotes]ash[close quotes] identification data are presented. An exothermic reaction is reported wherein the electrons of hydrogen and deuterium atoms are stimulated to relax to quantized potential energy levels below that of the [open quotes]ground state[close quotes] via electrochemical reactants K[sup +] and K[sup +]; Pd[sup 2+] and Li[sup +]; or Pd and O[sub 2] of redox energy resonant with the energy hole that stimulates this transition. Calorimetry of pulsed current and continuous electrolysis of aqueous potassium carbonate (K[sup +]/K[sup +] electrocatalytic couple) at a nickel cathode were performed. The excess output power of 41 W exceeded by a factor >8 the total input power given by the product of the electrolysis voltage and current. The product of the exothermic reaction is atoms having electrons of energy below the ground state, which are predicted to form molecules. The predicted molecules were identified by their lack of reactivity with oxygen, by separation from molecular deuterium by cryofiltration, and by mass spectroscopic analysis. 15 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Diversification of self-replicating molecules.

    PubMed

    Sadownik, Jan W; Mattia, Elio; Nowak, Piotr; Otto, Sijbren

    2016-03-01

    How new species emerge in nature is still incompletely understood and difficult to study directly. Self-replicating molecules provide a simple model that allows us to capture the fundamental processes that occur in species formation. We have been able to monitor in real time and at a molecular level the diversification of self-replicating molecules into two distinct sets that compete for two different building blocks ('food') and so capture an important aspect of the process by which species may arise. The results show that the second replicator set is a descendant of the first and that both sets are kinetic products that oppose the thermodynamic preference of the system. The sets occupy related but complementary food niches. As diversification into sets takes place on the timescale of weeks and can be investigated at the molecular level, this work opens up new opportunities for experimentally investigating the process through which species arise both in real time and with enhanced detail.

  6. Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules

    PubMed

    Bethlem; Berden; Crompvoets; Jongma; van Roij AJ; Meijer

    2000-08-03

    The ability to cool and slow atoms with light for subsequent trapping allows investigations of the properties and interactions of the trapped atoms in unprecedented detail. By contrast, the complex structure of molecules prohibits this type of manipulation, but magnetic trapping of calcium hydride molecules thermalized in ultra-cold buffer gas and optical trapping of caesium dimers generated from ultra-cold caesium atoms have been reported. However, these methods depend on the target molecules being paramagnetic or able to form through the association of atoms amenable to laser cooling, respectively, thus restricting the range of species that can be studied. Here we describe the slowing of an adiabatically cooled beam of deuterated ammonia molecules by time-varying inhomogeneous electric fields and subsequent loading into an electrostatic trap. We are able to trap state-selected ammonia molecules with a density of 10(6) cm(-3) in a volume of 0.25 cm3 at temperatures below 0.35 K. We observe pronounced density oscillations caused by the rapid switching of the electric fields during loading of the trap. Our findings illustrate that polar molecules can be efficiently cooled and trapped, thus providing an opportunity to study collisions and collective quantum effects in a wide range of ultra-cold molecular systems.

  7. Molecules in the Spotlight

    SciTech Connect

    Cryan, James

    2010-01-26

    SLAC has just unveiled the world's first X-ray laser, the LCLS. This machine produces pulses of X-rays that are ten billion times brighter than those from conventional sources. One of the goals of this machine is to make movies of chemical reactions, including reactions necessary for life and reactions that might power new energy technologies. This public lecture will show the first results from the LCLS. As a first target, we have chosen nitrogen gas, the main component of the air we breathe. Using the unprecedented power of the LCLS X-rays as a blasting torch, we have created new forms of this molecule and with unique electronic arrangements. Please share with us the first insights from this new technology.

  8. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzan, Jeb A.

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  9. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment from Incomplete and Uncertain Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Ansie; Kijko, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    A question that frequently arises with seismic hazard assessment is why are our assessments so poor? Often the answer is that in many cases the standard applied methodologies do not take into account the nature of seismic event catalogs. In reality these catalogues are incomplete with uncertain magnitude estimates and a significant discrepancy between the empirical data and applied occurrence model. Most probabilistic seismic hazard analysis procedures require knowledge of at least three seismic source parameters: the mean seismic activity rate λ, the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, and the area-characteristic (seismogenic source) maximum possible earthquake magnitude Mmax. In almost all currently used seismic hazard assessment procedures utilizing these three parameters, it's explicitly assumed that all three remain constant over a specified time and space. However, closer examination of most earthquake catalogues indicates that there are significant spatial and temporal variations in the seismic activity rate λ as well as the Gutenberg-Richter b-value. In the proposed methodology the maximum likelihood estimation of these earthquake hazard parameters takes into account the incompleteness of catalogues, uncertainty in the earthquake magnitude determination as well as the uncertainty associated with the applied earthquake occurrence models. The uncertainty in the earthquake occurrence models are introduced by assuming that both, the mean, seismic activity rate λ and the b-value of Gutenberg-Richter are random variables, each described by the Gamma distribution. The approach results in the extension of the classic frequency-magnitude Gutenberg-Richter relation and the Poisson distribution of number of earthquakes, with their compounded counterparts. The proposed procedure is applied in the estimation of the seismic parameters for the area of Ceres-Tulbagh, South Africa, which experienced the strongest earthquake in the country's recorded history. In this example it is

  10. White matter disease and an incomplete circle of Willis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Daniel James; Byrne, Susan; Dunne, Ruth; Harmon, Mark; Harbison, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    White matter disease occurs as a consequence of small vessel disease; however, hypoperfusion may also play a role. We investigated whether patients with less cerebral vessel anastomosis may develop more white matter disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (1.5t) with intracranial magnetic resonance angiography data was collected on a convenience sample between July 2008 and January 2009. All patients were independently assessed for circle of Willis variants by two researchers and categorized into two groups: those with a complete circle of Willis and those with an incomplete circle of Willis (absent vessels). The complete group was sub-divided into a classical group (entirely normal circle of Willis) and a hypoplastic group (hypoplasia but no absent vessels). White matter disease assessment was conducted for these groups, by two researchers blind to magnetic resonance angiography findings, on all patients over 50 years old. The circle of Willis was characterized in 163 patients, while 90 (>50 years) underwent white matter disease assessment. The kappa inter-rater reliability between both circle of Willis assessors and between both white matter disease assessors was 0.57 and 0.63, respectively. The prevalence of circle of Willis variants strongly correlated with the seminal paper by Riggs and Rupp. Independent of age and gender, those with an incomplete circle of Willis (n = 68) exhibited 58% more white matter disease than those with a complete circle of Willis (n = 22) (white matter disease score 6.52 vs. 4.11, respectively, P = 0.03). Patients with absent anterior vessels exhibited more frontal white matter disease than those with intact anterior vessels (3.7 vs. 1.72, P < 0.001). Patients with absent posterior vessels exhibited more occipital white matter disease than those with intact posterior vessels (2.52 vs. 1.34, P = 0.014). These data suggest that congenital absence of anastomotic capacity correlates with incident white matter disease, thus

  11. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    PubMed Central

    Converse, Sarah J; Royle, J Andrew; Adler, Peter H; Urbanek, Richard P; Barzen, Jeb A

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  12. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates.

    PubMed

    Converse, Sarah J; Royle, J Andrew; Adler, Peter H; Urbanek, Richard P; Barzen, Jeb A

    2013-11-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  13. Autonomous DNA-Molecule Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Ken; Rose, John A.; Yamamura, Masayuki

    DNA molecules autonomously change their forms from the single strand to the double helix by specific binding between complementary sequences according to the Watson-Crick base pairing rule. This paring rule allows us to control connections among molecules and to construct various structures by sequence design. Further, the motion of constructed structures can also be designed by considering sequential bindings. Recently, the feasibility to utilize the programmed DNA structural change for information processing was studied. In the present paper, we report an efficient synthetic chain reaction based on autonomous binding of DNA to realize a computing system, which enable us to implement computational intelligence in vitro.

  14. The effect of H2O gas on volatilities of planet-forming major elements. I - Experimental determination of thermodynamic properties of Ca-, Al-, and Si-hydroxide gas molecules and its application to the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Akihiko

    1992-01-01

    The vapor pressures of Ca(OH)2(g), Al(OH)3(g), and Si(OH)4(g) molecules in equilibrium with solid calcium-, aluminum, and silicon-oxides, respectively, were determined, and were used to derive the heats of formation and entropies of these species, which are expected to be abundant under the currently postulated physical conditions in the primordial solar nebula. These data, in conjunction with thermodynamic data from literature, were used to calculate the relative abundances of M, MO(x), and M(OH)n gas species and relative volatilities of Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, and Al for ranges of temperature, total pressure, and H/O abundance ratio corresponding to the plausible ranges of physical conditions in the solar nebula. The results are used to explain how Ca and Al could have evaporated from Ca,Al-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites, while Si, Mg, and Fe condensed onto them during the preaccretion alteration of CAIs.

  15. The effect of H2O gas on volatilities of planet-forming major elements. I - Experimental determination of thermodynamic properties of Ca-, Al-, and Si-hydroxide gas molecules and its application to the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Akihiko

    1992-01-01

    The vapor pressures of Ca(OH)2(g), Al(OH)3(g), and Si(OH)4(g) molecules in equilibrium with solid calcium-, aluminum, and silicon-oxides, respectively, were determined, and were used to derive the heats of formation and entropies of these species, which are expected to be abundant under the currently postulated physical conditions in the primordial solar nebula. These data, in conjunction with thermodynamic data from literature, were used to calculate the relative abundances of M, MO(x), and M(OH)n gas species and relative volatilities of Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, and Al for ranges of temperature, total pressure, and H/O abundance ratio corresponding to the plausible ranges of physical conditions in the solar nebula. The results are used to explain how Ca and Al could have evaporated from Ca,Al-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites, while Si, Mg, and Fe condensed onto them during the preaccretion alteration of CAIs.

  16. Structural Analysis of H2-Db Class I Molecules Containing Two Different Allelic Forms of the type 1 Diabetes Susceptibility Factor beta-2 Microglobulin: Implications for the Mechanism Underlying Viriations in Antigen Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Roden,M.; Brims, D.; Fedorov, A.; DiLorenzo, T.; Almo, S.; Nathenson, s.; Anovitz, L.; Wesolowski, D.

    2006-01-01

    Beta-2 microglobulin ({beta}2m) is a member of the immunoglobulin-like domain superfamily that is an essential structural subunit of the MHC class I (MHC-I) molecule. {beta}2m was previously identified as a susceptibility factor for the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice, whereby transgenic expression of the {beta}2m{sup a} variant, but not the {beta}2mb variant, restored diabetes susceptibility to normally resistant NOD.{beta}2m{sup null} mice. Here we report the crystal structures and thermodynamic stabilities of the NOD MHC-I molecule H2-D{sup b} containing these two variants. Our results reveal subtle differences in the structures of the {beta}2m variants, namely in minor loop shifts and in variations in the hydrogen bonding networks at the interfaces between the components of the ternary complex. We also demonstrate that the thermodynamic stabilities of the {beta}2m variants in isolation differ. However, the conformation of the peptide in the MHC cleft is unchanged in {beta}2m allelic Db complexes, as are the TCR recognition surfaces. Thus, despite modest structural differences between allelic complexes, the evidence indicates that D{sup b} peptide presentation of the representative peptide is unchanged in the context of either {beta}2m allelic variant. These data suggest that other mechanisms, such as differential association of MHC-I in multiprotein complexes, are likely responsible for the effect of {beta}2m on T1D development.

  17. The Molecule Cloud - compact visualization of large collections of molecules.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Peter; Rohde, Bernhard

    2012-07-06

    Analysis and visualization of large collections of molecules is one of the most frequent challenges cheminformatics experts in pharmaceutical industry are facing. Various sophisticated methods are available to perform this task, including clustering, dimensionality reduction or scaffold frequency analysis. In any case, however, viewing and analyzing large tables with molecular structures is necessary. We present a new visualization technique, providing basic information about the composition of molecular data sets at a single glance. A method is presented here allowing visual representation of the most common structural features of chemical databases in a form of a cloud diagram. The frequency of molecules containing particular substructure is indicated by the size of respective structural image. The method is useful to quickly perceive the most prominent structural features present in the data set. This approach was inspired by popular word cloud diagrams that are used to visualize textual information in a compact form. Therefore we call this approach "Molecule Cloud". The method also supports visualization of additional information, for example biological activity of molecules containing this scaffold or the protein target class typical for particular scaffolds, by color coding. Detailed description of the algorithm is provided, allowing easy implementation of the method by any cheminformatics toolkit. The layout algorithm is available as open source Java code. Visualization of large molecular data sets using the Molecule Cloud approach allows scientists to get information about the composition of molecular databases and their most frequent structural features easily. The method may be used in the areas where analysis of large molecular collections is needed, for example processing of high throughput screening results, virtual screening or compound purchasing. Several example visualizations of large data sets, including PubChem, ChEMBL and ZINC databases using

  18. Topology and incompleteness for 2+1-dimensional cosmological spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajman, David

    2016-12-01

    We study the long-time behavior of the Einstein flow coupled to matter on 2-dimensional surfaces. We consider massless matter models such as collisionless matter composed of massless particles, massless scalar fields and radiation fluids and show that the maximal globally hyperbolic development of homogeneous and isotropic initial data on the 2-sphere is geodesically incomplete in both time directions, i.e. the spacetime recollapses. This behavior also holds for open sets of initial data. In particular, we construct classes of recollapsing 2+1-dimensional spacetimes with spherical spatial topology which provide evidence for a closed universe recollapse conjecture for massless matter models in 2+1 dimensions. Furthermore, we construct solutions with toroidal and higher genus topology for the massless matter fields, which in both cases are future complete. The spacetimes with toroidal topology are 2+1-dimensional analogies of the Einstein-de Sitter model. In addition, we point out a general relation between the energy-momentum tensor and the Kretschmann scalar in 2+1 dimensions and use it to infer strong cosmic censorship for all these models. In view of this relation, we also recall corresponding models containing massive particles, constructed in a previous work and determine the nature of their initial singularities. We conclude that the global structure of non-vacuum cosmological spacetimes in 2+1 dimensions is determined by the mass of particles and—in the homogeneous and isotropic setting studied here—verifies strong cosmic censorship.

  19. Pathlength scaling in graphs with incomplete navigational information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Holme, Petter

    2011-10-01

    The graph-navigability problem concerns how one can find as short paths as possible between a pair of vertices, given an incomplete picture of a graph. We study the navigability of graphs where the vertices are tagged by a number (between 1 and the total number of vertices) in a way to aid navigation. This information is too little to ensure errorfree navigation but enough, as we will show, for the agents to do significantly better than a random walk. In our setup, given a graph, we first assign information to the vertices that agents can utilize for their navigation. To evaluate the navigation, we calculate the average distance traveled over random pairs of source and target and different graph realizations. We show that this type of embedding can be made quite efficiently; the more information is embedded, the more efficient it gets. We also investigate the embedded navigational information in a standard graph layout algorithm and find that although this information does not make algorithms as efficient as the above-mentioned schemes, it is significantly helpful.

  20. A multiple imputation strategy for incomplete longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Landrum, M B; Becker, M P

    Longitudinal studies are commonly used to study processes of change. Because data are collected over time, missing data are pervasive in longitudinal studies, and complete ascertainment of all variables is rare. In this paper a new imputation strategy for completing longitudinal data sets is proposed. The proposed methodology makes use of shrinkage estimators for pooling information across geographic entities, and of model averaging for pooling predictions across different statistical models. Bayes factors are used to compute weights (probabilities) for a set of models considered to be reasonable for at least some of the units for which imputations must be produced, imputations are produced by draws from the predictive distributions of the missing data, and multiple imputations are used to better reflect selected sources of uncertainty in the imputation process. The imputation strategy is developed within the context of an application to completing incomplete longitudinal variables in the so-called Area Resource File. The proposed procedure is compared with several other imputation procedures in terms of inferences derived with the imputations, and the proposed methodology is demonstrated to provide valid estimates of model parameters when the completed data are analysed. Extensions to other missing data problems in longitudinal studies are straightforward so long as the missing data mechanism can be assumed to be ignorable.

  1. Suppressed Incomplete Ionization of Shallow Donors in Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, Jose; Xu, Chi; Senaratne, Charutha; Kouvetakis, John

    2015-03-01

    For doping levels Nd >1017 cm-3, an elementary analysis indicates that shallow donors should not be completely ionized in germanium at room temperature. The predicted degree of incomplete ionization (I.I.) represents a fundamental limitation in the quest for ultra-low sheet resistances, as required in Ge-based nMOS devices. Unfortunately, the experimental verification of the predictions is made difficult by the possible presence of inactive dopants, which also lead to free carrier concentrations n

  2. Synesthesia in twins: incomplete concordance in monozygotes suggests extragenic factors.

    PubMed

    Bosley, Hannah G; Eagleman, David M

    2015-06-01

    Colored-sequence synesthesia (CSS) is a neurological condition in which sequential stimuli such as letters, numbers, or days of the week trigger simultaneous, involuntary color perception. Although the condition appears to run in families and several studies have sought a genetic link, the genetic contribution to synesthesia remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative twin study of CSS and found that CSS has a pairwise concordance of 73.9% in monozygotic twins, and a pairwise concordance of 36.4% in dizygotic twins. In line with previous studies, our results suggest a heritable element of synesthesia. However, consonant with the findings of previous single-pair case studies, our large sample size verifies that synesthesia is not completely conferred by genetics; if it were, monozygotic twins should have 100% concordance. These findings implicate a genetic mechanism of CSS that may work differently than previously thought: collectively, our data suggest that synesthesia is a heritable condition with incomplete penetrance that is substantially influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantum Correlations from the Conditional Statistics of Incomplete Data.

    PubMed

    Sperling, J; Bartley, T J; Donati, G; Barbieri, M; Jin, X-M; Datta, A; Vogel, W; Walmsley, I A

    2016-08-19

    We study, in theory and experiment, the quantum properties of correlated light fields measured with click-counting detectors providing incomplete information on the photon statistics. We establish a correlation parameter for the conditional statistics, and we derive the corresponding nonclassicality criteria for detecting conditional quantum correlations. Classical bounds for Pearson's correlation parameter are formulated that allow us, once they are violated, to determine nonclassical correlations via the joint statistics. On the one hand, we demonstrate nonclassical correlations in terms of the joint click statistics of light produced by a parametric down-conversion source. On the other hand, we verify quantum correlations of a heralded, split single-photon state via the conditional click statistics together with a generalization to higher-order moments. We discuss the performance of the presented nonclassicality criteria to successfully discern joint and conditional quantum correlations. Remarkably, our results are obtained without making any assumptions on the response function, quantum efficiency, and dark-count rate of photodetectors.

  4. Learning with incomplete information and the mathematical structure behind it.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Reimer; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the problem of learning with incomplete information as exemplified by learning with delayed reinforcement. We study a two phase learning scenario in which a phase of Hebbian associative learning based on momentary internal representations is supplemented by an 'unlearning' phase depending on a graded reinforcement signal. The reinforcement signal quantifies the success-rate globally for a number of learning steps in phase one, and 'unlearning' is indiscriminate with respect to associations learnt in that phase. Learning according to this model is studied via simulations and analytically within a student-teacher scenario for both single layer networks and, for a committee machine. Success and speed of learning depend on the ratio lambda of the learning rates used for the associative Hebbian learning phase and for the unlearning-correction in response to the reinforcement signal, respectively. Asymptotically perfect generalization is possible only, if this ratio exceeds a critical value lambda( c ), in which case the generalization error exhibits a power law decay with the number of examples seen by the student, with an exponent that depends in a non-universal manner on the parameter lambda. We find these features to be robust against a wide spectrum of modifications of microscopic modelling details. Two illustrative applications-one of a robot learning to navigate a field containing obstacles, and the problem of identifying a specific component in a collection of stimuli-are also provided.

  5. Spectral Regularization Algorithms for Learning Large Incomplete Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Rahul; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert

    2010-01-01

    We use convex relaxation techniques to provide a sequence of regularized low-rank solutions for large-scale matrix completion problems. Using the nuclear norm as a regularizer, we provide a simple and very efficient convex algorithm for minimizing the reconstruction error subject to a bound on the nuclear norm. Our algorithm Soft-Impute iteratively replaces the missing elements with those obtained from a soft-thresholded SVD. With warm starts this allows us to efficiently compute an entire regularization path of solutions on a grid of values of the regularization parameter. The computationally intensive part of our algorithm is in computing a low-rank SVD of a dense matrix. Exploiting the problem structure, we show that the task can be performed with a complexity linear in the matrix dimensions. Our semidefinite-programming algorithm is readily scalable to large matrices: for example it can obtain a rank-80 approximation of a 106 × 106 incomplete matrix with 105 observed entries in 2.5 hours, and can fit a rank 40 approximation to the full Netflix training set in 6.6 hours. Our methods show very good performance both in training and test error when compared to other competitive state-of-the art techniques. PMID:21552465

  6. Spectral Regularization Algorithms for Learning Large Incomplete Matrices.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Rahul; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert

    2010-03-01

    We use convex relaxation techniques to provide a sequence of regularized low-rank solutions for large-scale matrix completion problems. Using the nuclear norm as a regularizer, we provide a simple and very efficient convex algorithm for minimizing the reconstruction error subject to a bound on the nuclear norm. Our algorithm Soft-Impute iteratively replaces the missing elements with those obtained from a soft-thresholded SVD. With warm starts this allows us to efficiently compute an entire regularization path of solutions on a grid of values of the regularization parameter. The computationally intensive part of our algorithm is in computing a low-rank SVD of a dense matrix. Exploiting the problem structure, we show that the task can be performed with a complexity linear in the matrix dimensions. Our semidefinite-programming algorithm is readily scalable to large matrices: for example it can obtain a rank-80 approximation of a 10(6) × 10(6) incomplete matrix with 10(5) observed entries in 2.5 hours, and can fit a rank 40 approximation to the full Netflix training set in 6.6 hours. Our methods show very good performance both in training and test error when compared to other competitive state-of-the art techniques.

  7. Incomplete restoration of homeostatic shear stress within arteriovenous fistulae.

    PubMed

    McGah, Patrick M; Leotta, Daniel F; Beach, Kirk W; Eugene Zierler, R; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are surgically created to provide adequate access for dialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. It has long been hypothesized that the rapid blood vessel remodeling occurring after fistula creation is, in part, a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level, i.e., mechanical homeostasis. We present computational hemodynamic simulations in four patient-specific models of mature arteriovenous fistulae reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. Our results suggest that these mature fistulae have remodeled to return to ''normal'' shear stresses away from the anastomoses: about 1.0 Pa in the outflow veins and about 2.5 Pa in the inflow arteries. Large parts of the anastomoses were found to be under very high shear stresses >15 Pa, over most of the cardiac cycle. These results suggest that the remodeling process works toward restoring mechanical homeostasis in the fistulae, but that the process is limited or incomplete, even in mature fistulae, as evidenced by the elevated shear at or near the anastomoses. Based on the long term clinical viability of these dialysis accesses, we hypothesize that the elevated nonhomeostatic shear stresses in some portions of the vessels were not detrimental to fistula patency.

  8. Projectile - Mass asymmetry systematics for low energy incomplete fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kumar, Pawan; Sahoo, Rudra N.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Prasad, R.

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, low energy incomplete fusion (ICF) in which only a part of projectile fuses with target nucleus has been investigated in terms of various entrance channel parameters. The ICF strength function has been extracted from the analysis of experimental excitation functions (EFs) measured for different projectile-target combinations from near- to well above- barrier energies in 12C,16O(from 1.02Vb to 1.64Vb)+169Tm systems. Experimental EFs have been analysed in the framework statistical model code PACE4 based on the idea of equilibrated compound nucleus decay. It has been found that the value of ICF fraction (FICF) increases with incident projectile energy. A substantial fraction of ICF (FICF ≈ 7 %) has been accounted even at energy as low as ≈ 7.5% above the barrier (at relative velocity νrel ≈0.027) in 12C+169Tm system, and FICF ≈ 10 % at νrel ≈0.014 in 16O+169Tm system. The probability of ICF is discussed in light of the Morgenstern's mass-asymmetry systematics. The value of FICF for 16O+169Tm systems is found to be 18.3 % higher than that observed for 12C+169Tm systems. Present results together with the re-analysis of existing data for nearby systems conclusively demonstrate strong competition of ICF with CF even at slightly above barrier energies, and strong projectile dependence that seems to supplement the Morgenstern's systematics.

  9. Quantum Correlations from the Conditional Statistics of Incomplete Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, J.; Bartley, T. J.; Donati, G.; Barbieri, M.; Jin, X.-M.; Datta, A.; Vogel, W.; Walmsley, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    We study, in theory and experiment, the quantum properties of correlated light fields measured with click-counting detectors providing incomplete information on the photon statistics. We establish a correlation parameter for the conditional statistics, and we derive the corresponding nonclassicality criteria for detecting conditional quantum correlations. Classical bounds for Pearson's correlation parameter are formulated that allow us, once they are violated, to determine nonclassical correlations via the joint statistics. On the one hand, we demonstrate nonclassical correlations in terms of the joint click statistics of light produced by a parametric down-conversion source. On the other hand, we verify quantum correlations of a heralded, split single-photon state via the conditional click statistics together with a generalization to higher-order moments. We discuss the performance of the presented nonclassicality criteria to successfully discern joint and conditional quantum correlations. Remarkably, our results are obtained without making any assumptions on the response function, quantum efficiency, and dark-count rate of photodetectors.

  10. General Relativity Theory - Well Proven and Also Incomplete: Further Arguments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Jürgen

    In the former article "General Relativity Theory - well proven and also incomplete?" with a few arguments it was proven that general relativity (GRT) makes contradictory predictions about the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field. With a few further arguments it was proven that this contradiction is resolved by expanding general relativity. General relativity is contradictious in energy questions since on one side the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field is lower than its rest mass (there is energy needed to pull out the particle from the gravitational field) while on the other side it is equal to its rest mass (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle). In the following article these considerations are generalized to a moving particle. A particle moving in the gravitational field has a total energy less than its rest mass times the relativistic γ-factor since there is energy needed to pull the particle out without changing its velocity. On the other side total energy of a moving particle is equal to its rest mass times the relativistic γ-factor (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle, too). This contradiction is resolved by expanding general relativity in the same manner as above. The other fact: Though it is not the aim of the author to reject general relativity but to expand it, he is treated as some uncritical anti-relativist - since the start of his considerations and meanwhile for more than 20 years.

  11. Topology and incompleteness for 2+1-dimensional cosmological spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajman, David

    2017-06-01

    We study the long-time behavior of the Einstein flow coupled to matter on 2-dimensional surfaces. We consider massless matter models such as collisionless matter composed of massless particles, massless scalar fields and radiation fluids and show that the maximal globally hyperbolic development of homogeneous and isotropic initial data on the 2-sphere is geodesically incomplete in both time directions, i.e. the spacetime recollapses. This behavior also holds for open sets of initial data. In particular, we construct classes of recollapsing 2+1-dimensional spacetimes with spherical spatial topology which provide evidence for a closed universe recollapse conjecture for massless matter models in 2+1 dimensions. Furthermore, we construct solutions with toroidal and higher genus topology for the massless matter fields, which in both cases are future complete. The spacetimes with toroidal topology are 2+1-dimensional analogies of the Einstein-de Sitter model. In addition, we point out a general relation between the energy-momentum tensor and the Kretschmann scalar in 2+1 dimensions and use it to infer strong cosmic censorship for all these models. In view of this relation, we also recall corresponding models containing massive particles, constructed in a previous work and determine the nature of their initial singularities. We conclude that the global structure of non-vacuum cosmological spacetimes in 2+1 dimensions is determined by the mass of particles and—in the homogeneous and isotropic setting studied here—verifies strong cosmic censorship.

  12. Incomplete water securitization in coupled hydro-human production sytems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Boom, B.; Pande, S.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the dynamics, the externalities and the contingencies involved in managing local water resource for production, the water allocation at basin-level is a subtle balance between laws of nature (gravity; flux) and laws of economics (price; productivity). We study this balance by looking at inter-temporal basin-level water resource allocations in which subbasins enjoy a certain degree of autonomy. Each subbasin is represented as an economic agent i, following a gravity ordering with i=1 representing the most upstream area and i=I the downstream boundary. The water allocation is modeled as a decentralized equilibrium in a coupled conceptual hydro-human production system. Agents i=1,2,...,I in the basin produce a composite good according to a technology that requires water as a main input and that is specific to the subbasin. Agent i manages her use Xi and her storage Si, conceptualizing surface and subsurface water, of water with the purpose of maximizing the utility derived from consumption Ci of the composite good, where Ci is a scalar and Xi and Si are vectors which are composed of one element for each time period and for each contingency. A natural way to consume the good would be to absorb the own production. Yet, the agent may have two more option, namely, she might get a social transfer from other agents or she could use an income from trading water securities with her contiguous neighbors. To study these options, we compare water allocations (Ci, Xi, Si) all i=1,2,...,I for three different settings. We look at allocations without water securitization (water autarky equilibrium EA) first. Next, we describe the imaginary case of full securitization (contingent water markets equilibrium ECM) and, in between, we study limited securitization (incomplete water security equilibrium EWS). We show that allocations under contingent water markets ECM are efficient in the sense that, for the prevailing production technologies, no other allocation exists that is at

  13. Training-Specific Neural Plasticity in Spinal Reflexes after Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Susan K.; Roy, Francois D.; Gorassini, Monica A.

    2016-01-01

    The neural plasticity of spinal reflexes after two contrasting forms of walking training was determined in individuals with chronic, motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Endurance Training involved treadmill walking for as long as possible, and Precision Training involved walking precisely over obstacles and onto targets overground. Twenty participants started either Endurance or Precision Training for 2 months and then crossed over after a 2-month rest period to the other form of training for 2 months. Measures were taken before and after each phase of training and rest. The cutaneomuscular reflex (CMR) during walking was evoked in the soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior muscles by stimulating the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle. Clonus was estimated from the EMG power in the SOL during unperturbed walking. The inhibitory component of the SOL CMR was enhanced after Endurance but not Precision Training. Clonus did not change after either form of training. Participants with lower reflex excitability tended to be better walkers (i.e., faster walking speeds) prior to training, and the reduction in clonus was significantly correlated with the improvement in walking speed and distance. Thus, reflex excitability responded in a training-specific way, with the reduction in reflex excitability related to improvements in walking function. Trial registration number is NCT01765153. PMID:27725887

  14. Training-Specific Neural Plasticity in Spinal Reflexes after Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Khan, Atif S; Patrick, Susan K; Roy, Francois D; Gorassini, Monica A; Yang, Jaynie F

    2016-01-01

    The neural plasticity of spinal reflexes after two contrasting forms of walking training was determined in individuals with chronic, motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Endurance Training involved treadmill walking for as long as possible, and Precision Training involved walking precisely over obstacles and onto targets overground. Twenty participants started either Endurance or Precision Training for 2 months and then crossed over after a 2-month rest period to the other form of training for 2 months. Measures were taken before and after each phase of training and rest. The cutaneomuscular reflex (CMR) during walking was evoked in the soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior muscles by stimulating the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle. Clonus was estimated from the EMG power in the SOL during unperturbed walking. The inhibitory component of the SOL CMR was enhanced after Endurance but not Precision Training. Clonus did not change after either form of training. Participants with lower reflex excitability tended to be better walkers (i.e., faster walking speeds) prior to training, and the reduction in clonus was significantly correlated with the improvement in walking speed and distance. Thus, reflex excitability responded in a training-specific way, with the reduction in reflex excitability related to improvements in walking function. Trial registration number is NCT01765153.

  15. Axonal and dendritic density field estimation from incomplete single-slice neuronal reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    van Pelt, Jaap; van Ooyen, Arjen; Uylings, Harry B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal information processing in cortical networks critically depends on the organization of synaptic connectivity. Synaptic connections can form when axons and dendrites come in close proximity of each other. The spatial innervation of neuronal arborizations can be described by their axonal and dendritic density fields. Recently we showed that potential locations of synapses between neurons can be estimated from their overlapping axonal and dendritic density fields. However, deriving density fields from single-slice neuronal reconstructions is hampered by incompleteness because of cut branches. Here, we describe a method for recovering the lost axonal and dendritic mass. This so-called completion method is based on an estimation of the mass inside the slice and an extrapolation to the space outside the slice, assuming axial symmetry in the mass distribution. We validated the method using a set of neurons generated with our NETMORPH simulator. The model-generated neurons were artificially sliced and subsequently recovered by the completion method. Depending on slice thickness and arbor extent, branches that have lost their outside parents (orphan branches) may occur inside the slice. Not connected anymore to the contiguous structure of the sliced neuron, orphan branches result in an underestimation of neurite mass. For 300 μm thick slices, however, the validation showed a full recovery of dendritic and an almost full recovery of axonal mass. The completion method was applied to three experimental data sets of reconstructed rat cortical L2/3 pyramidal neurons. The results showed that in 300 μm thick slices intracortical axons lost about 50% and dendrites about 16% of their mass. The completion method can be applied to single-slice reconstructions as long as axial symmetry can be assumed in the mass distribution. This opens up the possibility of using incomplete neuronal reconstructions from open-access data bases to determine population mean mass density fields

  16. Single molecule spectroscopic characterization of a far-red fluorescent protein (HcRed) from the Anthozoa coral Heteractis crispa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotlet, Mircea; Habuchi, Satoshi; Whitier, Jennifer E.; Werner, James H.; De Schryver, Frans C.; Hofkens, Johan; Goodwin, Peter M.

    2006-02-01

    We report on the photophysical properties of a far-red intrinsic fluorescent protein by means of single molecule and ensemble spectroscopic methods. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria is a popular fluorescent marker with genetically encoded fluorescence and which can be fused to any biological structure without affecting its function. GFP and its variants provide emission colors from blue to yellowish green. Red intrinsic fluorescent proteins from Anthozoa species represent a recent addition to the emission color palette provided by GFPs. Red intrinsic fluorescent markers are on high demand in protein-protein interaction studies based on fluorescence-resonance energy transfer or in multicolor tracking studies or in cellular investigations where autofluorescence possesses a problem. Here we address the photophysical properties of a far-red fluorescent protein (HcRed), a mutant engineered from a chromoprotein cloned from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa, by using a combination of ensemble and single molecule spectroscopic methods. We show evidence for the presence of HcRed protein as an oligomer and for incomplete maturation of its chromophore. Incomplete maturation results in the presence of an immature (yellow) species absorbing/fluorescing at 490/530-nm. This yellow chromophore is involved in a fast resonance-energy transfer with the mature (purple) chromophore. The mature chromophore of HcRed is found to adopt two conformations, a Transoriented form absorbing and 565-nm and non-fluorescent in solution and a Cis-oriented form absorbing at 590-nm and emitting at 645-nm. These two forms co-exist in solution in thermal equilibrium. Excitation-power dependence fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of HcRed shows evidence for singlet-triplet transitions in the microseconds time scale and for cis-trans isomerization occurring in a time scale of tens of microseconds. Single molecule fluorescence data recorded from immobilized HcRed proteins, all

  17. Release of incompletely processed proinsulin is the cause of the disproportionate proinsulinemia of NIDDM.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S E; Halban, P A

    1997-11-01

    .1 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.2%; P = 0.0006) conditions, compatible with the release of a disproportionately increased amount of proinsulin-like products. HPLC analysis revealed that, in the stimulated state, intact proinsulin made up 40.1 +/- 6.7% of proinsulin-like molecules in NIDDM individuals (n = 9) and 30.1 +/- 5.6% in healthy subjects (n = 7; NS). The remainder of the proinsulin-like molecules comprised the des-31,32-split proinsulin conversion intermediate. The increase in PI/IRI in NIDDM under basal and especially under stimulated conditions suggests that proinsulin conversion is indeed perturbed in this disorder. Because the relative proportions of intact and des-31,32-split proinsulin are similar in both healthy and NIDDM subjects, the orderly cleavage of proinsulin at its two junctions appears preserved. However, at the time of exocytosis, the secretory granule in the islet of NIDDM subjects contains an increased proportion of incompletely processed proinsulin, presumably reflecting a slower rate of conversion or granules' reduced time of residence in beta-cells.

  18. Learning from Synthetic Models of Extracellular Matrix; Differential Binding of Wild Type and Amyloidogenic Human Apolipoprotein A-I to Hydrogels Formed from Molecules Having Charges Similar to Those Found in Natural GAGs.

    PubMed

    Rosú, Silvana A; Toledo, Leandro; Urbano, Bruno F; Sanchez, Susana A; Calabrese, Graciela C; Tricerri, M Alejandra

    2017-08-01

    Among other components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been strongly associated to the retention or misfolding of different proteins inducing the formation of deposits in amyloid diseases. The composition of these molecules is highly diverse and a key issue seems to be the equilibrium between physiological and pathological events. In order to have a model in which the composition of the matrix could be finely controlled, we designed and synthesized crosslinked hydrophilic polymers, the so-called hydrogels varying the amounts of negative charges and hydroxyl groups that are prevalent in GAGs. We checked and compared by fluorescence techniques the binding of human apolipoprotein A-I and a natural mutant involved in amyloidosis to the hydrogel scaffolds. Our results indicate that both proteins are highly retained as long as the negative charge increases, and in addition it was shown that the mutant is more retained than the Wt, indicating that the retention of specific proteins in the ECM could be part of the pathogenicity. These results show the importance of the use of these polymers as a model to get deep insight into the studies of proteins within macromolecules.

  19. Multiple imputation for an incomplete covariate that is a ratio.

    PubMed

    Morris, Tim P; White, Ian R; Royston, Patrick; Seaman, Shaun R; Wood, Angela M

    2014-01-15

    We are concerned with multiple imputation of the ratio of two variables, which is to be used as a covariate in a regression analysis. If the numerator and denominator are not missing simultaneously, it seems sensible to make use of the observed variable in the imputation model. One such strategy is to impute missing values for the numerator and denominator, or the log-transformed numerator and denominator, and then calculate the ratio of interest; we call this 'passive' imputation. Alternatively, missing ratio values might be imputed directly, with or without the numerator and/or the denominator in the imputation model; we call this 'active' imputation. In two motivating datasets, one involving body mass index as a covariate and the other involving the ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, we assess the sensitivity of results to the choice of imputation model and, as an alternative, explore fully Bayesian joint models for the outcome and incomplete ratio. Fully Bayesian approaches using Winbugs were unusable in both datasets because of computational problems. In our first dataset, multiple imputation results are similar regardless of the imputation model; in the second, results are sensitive to the choice of imputation model. Sensitivity depends strongly on the coefficient of variation of the ratio's denominator. A simulation study demonstrates that passive imputation without transformation is risky because it can lead to downward bias when the coefficient of variation of the ratio's denominator is larger than about 0.1. Active imputation or passive imputation after log-transformation is preferable.

  20. Learning with incomplete information in the committee machine.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Urs M; Kühn, Reimer; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu

    2009-12-01

    We study the problem of learning with incomplete information in a student-teacher setup for the committee machine. The learning algorithm combines unsupervised Hebbian learning of a series of associations with a delayed reinforcement step, in which the set of previously learnt associations is partly and indiscriminately unlearnt, to an extent that depends on the success rate of the student on these previously learnt associations. The relevant learning parameter lambda represents the strength of Hebbian learning. A coarse-grained analysis of the system yields a set of differential equations for overlaps of student and teacher weight vectors, whose solutions provide a complete description of the learning behavior. It reveals complicated dynamics showing that perfect generalization can be obtained if the learning parameter exceeds a threshold lambda ( c ), and if the initial value of the overlap between student and teacher weights is non-zero. In case of convergence, the generalization error exhibits a power law decay as a function of the number of examples used in training, with an exponent that depends on the parameter lambda. An investigation of the system flow in a subspace with broken permutation symmetry between hidden units reveals a bifurcation point lambda* above which perfect generalization does not depend on initial conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that cases of a complexity mismatch between student and teacher are optimally resolved in the sense that an over-complex student can emulate a less complex teacher rule, while an under-complex student reaches a state which realizes the minimal generalization error compatible with the complexity mismatch.

  1. Exploring Massive Incomplete Lineage Sorting in Arctoids (Laurasiatheria, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Doronina, Liliya; Churakov, Gennady; Shi, Jingjing; Brosius, Jürgen; Baertsch, Robert; Clawson, Hiram; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Freed from the competition of large raptors, Paleocene carnivores could expand their newly acquired habitats in search of prey. Such changing conditions might have led to their successful distribution and rapid radiation. Today, molecular evolutionary biologists are faced, however, with the consequences of such accelerated adaptive radiations, because they led to sequential speciation more rapidly than phylogenetic markers could be fixed. The repercussions being that current genealogies based on such markers are incongruent with species trees.Our aim was to explore such conflicting phylogenetic zones of evolution during the early arctoid radiation, especially to distinguish diagnostic from misleading phylogenetic signals, and to examine other carnivore-related speciation events. We applied a combination of high-throughput computational strategies to screen carnivore and related genomes in silico for randomly inserted retroposed elements that we then used to identify inconsistent phylogenetic patterns in the Arctoidea group, which is well known for phylogenetic discordances.Our combined retrophylogenomic and in vitro wet lab approach detected hundreds of carnivore-specific insertions, many of them confirming well-established splits or identifying and solving conflicting species distributions. Our systematic genome-wide screens for Long INterspersed Elements detected homoplasy-free markers with insertion-specific truncation points that we used to distinguish phylogenetically informative markers from conflicting signals. The results were independently confirmed by phylogenetic diagnostic Short INterspersed Elements. As statistical analysis ruled out ancestral hybridization, these doubly verified but still conflicting patterns were statistically determined to be genomic remnants from a time of ancestral incomplete lineage sorting that especially accompanied large parts of Arctoidea evolution.

  2. Potential associations between chronic whiplash and incomplete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, AC; Parrish, TB; Hoggarth, MA; McPherson, JG; Tysseling, VM; Wasielewski, M; Kim, HE; Hornby, TG; Elliott, JM

    2015-01-01

    Study Design: This research utilized a cross-sectional design with control group inclusion. Objectives: Preliminary evidence suggests that a portion of the patient population with chronic whiplash may have sustained spinal cord damage. Our hypothesis is that in some cases of chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), observed muscle weakness in the legs will be associated with local signs of a partial spinal cord injury of the cervical spine. Setting: University based laboratory in Chicago, IL, USA. Methods: Five participants with chronic WAD were compared with five gender/age/height/weight/body mass index (BMI) control participants. For a secondary investigation, the chronic WAD group was compared with five unmatched participants with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Spinal cord motor tract integrity was assessed using magnetization transfer imaging. Muscle fat infiltration (MFI) was quantified using fat/water separation magnetic resonance imaging. Central volitional muscle activation of the plantarflexors was assessed using a burst superimposition technique. Results: We found reduced spinal cord motor tract integrity, increased MFI of the neck and lower extremity muscles and significantly impaired voluntary plantarflexor muscle activation in five participants with chronic WAD. The lower extremity structural changes and volitional weakness in chronic WAD were comparable to participants with iSCI. Conclusion: The results support the position that a subset of the chronic whiplash population may have sustained partial damage to the spinal cord. Sponsorship: NIH R01HD079076-01A1, NIH T32 HD057845 and the Foundation for Physical Therapy Promotion of Doctoral Studies program. PMID:27630770

  3. Aeromedical Evaluation for an F-16 Candidate with Incomplete Paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Chahal-Kummen, Monica; Strand, Trond-Eirik; Owe, Jan Ove; Gulliksen, Eigil; Wagstaff, Anthony S

    A candidate with paraplegia contacted the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Oslo, requesting a medical examination and medical certification for flying back seat on an F-16 Fighting Falcon. Thorough aeromedical examinations, including specialist evaluations, were initiated for the final decision to be made. Almost 13 yr earlier the candidate had acquired spinal cord damage at neurological level L1 after falling 4 m (13 ft) from out of a window. The CT scans showed luxation of the 12(th) thoracic vertebra with fracture and dislocation of the 1(st) lumbar vertebra. He went for surgery, where fixation of the 12(th) thoracic vertebra to the 1(st) lumbar vertebra was performed. He developed syringomyelia 1 yr postoperatively and was re-operated on twice in the following years. He was now in a wheelchair, but engaged himself in several sport activities such as sledge-hockey and sit-skiing, participating in several Paralympics. With respect to the general principles of aviation medicine, several considerations had to be taken into account before a medical certification could be given. The risks associated with an F-16 flight in relationship to the candidate's general health and the fixation of his spinal cord had to be evaluated. Also, his ability to perform required tasks during the flight and in case of an emergency was an important issue discussed. Finally, the candidate's medical and physical condition should not present a considerable risk to flight safety. After extensive specialist consultations and in-depth discussions, the candidate was given medical certification to fly back seat in a F-16. Chahal-Kummen M, Strand T-E, Owe JO, Gulliksen E, Wagstaff AS. Aeromedical evaluation for an F-16 candidate with incomplete paraplegia. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(11):968-971.

  4. Multiple imputation for an incomplete covariate that is a ratio

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Tim P; White, Ian R; Royston, Patrick; Seaman, Shaun R; Wood, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    We are concerned with multiple imputation of the ratio of two variables, which is to be used as a covariate in a regression analysis. If the numerator and denominator are not missing simultaneously, it seems sensible to make use of the observed variable in the imputation model. One such strategy is to impute missing values for the numerator and denominator, or the log-transformed numerator and denominator, and then calculate the ratio of interest; we call this ‘passive’ imputation. Alternatively, missing ratio values might be imputed directly, with or without the numerator and/or the denominator in the imputation model; we call this ‘active’ imputation. In two motivating datasets, one involving body mass index as a covariate and the other involving the ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, we assess the sensitivity of results to the choice of imputation model and, as an alternative, explore fully Bayesian joint models for the outcome and incomplete ratio. Fully Bayesian approaches using Winbugs were unusable in both datasets because of computational problems. In our first dataset, multiple imputation results are similar regardless of the imputation model; in the second, results are sensitive to the choice of imputation model. Sensitivity depends strongly on the coefficient of variation of the ratio's denominator. A simulation study demonstrates that passive imputation without transformation is risky because it can lead to downward bias when the coefficient of variation of the ratio's denominator is larger than about 0.1. Active imputation or passive imputation after log-transformation is preferable. © 2013 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23922236

  5. Accounting for Incomplete Species Detection in Fish Community Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Orth, Dr. Donald J; Jager, Yetta

    2013-01-01

    Riverine fish assemblages are heterogeneous and very difficult to characterize with a one-size-fits-all approach to sampling. Furthermore, detecting changes in fish assemblages over time requires accounting for variation in sampling designs. We present a modeling approach that permits heterogeneous sampling by accounting for site and sampling covariates (including method) in a model-based framework for estimation (versus a sampling-based framework). We snorkeled during three surveys and electrofished during a single survey in suite of delineated habitats stratified by reach types. We developed single-species occupancy models to determine covariates influencing patch occupancy and species detection probabilities whereas community occupancy models estimated species richness in light of incomplete detections. For most species, information-theoretic criteria showed higher support for models that included patch size and reach as covariates of occupancy. In addition, models including patch size and sampling method as covariates of detection probabilities also had higher support. Detection probability estimates for snorkeling surveys were higher for larger non-benthic species whereas electrofishing was more effective at detecting smaller benthic species. The number of sites and sampling occasions required to accurately estimate occupancy varied among fish species. For rare benthic species, our results suggested that higher number of occasions, and especially the addition of electrofishing, may be required to improve detection probabilities and obtain accurate occupancy estimates. Community models suggested that richness was 41% higher than the number of species actually observed and the addition of an electrofishing survey increased estimated richness by 13%. These results can be useful to future fish assemblage monitoring efforts by informing sampling designs, such as site selection (e.g. stratifying based on patch size) and determining effort required (e.g. number of

  6. Production and Trapping of Ultracold Polar Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    David, DeMille

    2015-04-21

    We report a set of experiments aimed at the production and trapping of ultracold polar molecules. We begin with samples of laser-cooled and trapped Rb and Cs atoms, and bind them together to form polar RbCs molecules. The binding is accomplished via photoassociation, which uses a laser to catalyze the sticking process. We report results from investigation of a new pathway for photoassociation that can produce molecules in their absolute ground state of vibrational and rotational motion. We also report preliminary observations of collisions between these ground-state molecules and co-trapped atoms.

  7. The Arrangement of Information in DNA Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Charles A.

    1966-01-01

    The anatomy of DNA molecules isolated from mature bacteriophage is reviewed. These molecules are linear, duplex DNA consisting mainly of uninterrupted polynucleotide chains. Certain phage (T5 and PB) contain four specifically located interruptions. While the nucleotide sequence of most of these molecules is unique (T5, T3, T7, λ), some are circular permutations of each other (T2, T4, P22). Partial degradation of these DNA molecules by exonuclease III predisposes some of them to form circles upon annealing, but indicating they are terminally redundant. PMID:5967428

  8. Second virial coefficients for chain molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bokis, C.P.; Donohue, M.D. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Hall, C.K. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of having accurate second virial coefficients in phase equilibrium calculations, especially for the calculation of dew points, is discussed. The square-well potentials results in a simple but inaccurate equation for the second virial coefficient for small, spherical molecules such as argon. Here, the authors present a new equation for the second virial coefficient of both spherical molecules and chain molecules which is written in a form similar to that for the square-well potential. This new equation is accurate in comparison to Monte Carlo simulation data on second virial coefficients for square-well chain molecules and with second virial coefficients obtained from experiments on n-alkanes.

  9. Isotopic fractionation in low temperature ion--molecule exchange reactions: Enrichment of sup 22 Ne in Ne sup + sub n clusters formed by association in an ionized free jet

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, M.J.; Cyr, D.M.; Chupka, W.A.; Johnson, M.A. )

    1990-06-15

    Cationic clusters of neon atoms (Ne{sup +}{sub {ital n}} ) formed by association of neutrals onto seed ions in an ionized supersonic expansion are found to favor incorporation of the heavier isotope ({sup 22}Ne) {ital by} {ital as} {ital much} {ital as} {ital a} {ital factor} {ital of} 15 (in the dimer and trimer ions) when compared to a simple statistical distribution based on natural abundances. This enrichment is attributed to the small difference in zero-point energies among species formed with the two major isotopes of neon ({sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne), which is of the same order as the collisional energy of particles in the expanding jet. This enrichment is anticipated by current models of isotope exchange which are invoked to explain the anomalous isotope abundance patterns in interstellar clouds.

  10. Giant molecules composed of polar molecules and atoms in mixed dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ran; Tan, Shina

    2014-05-01

    Two or three polar molecules, confined to one or two dimensions, can form stable bound states with a single atom living in three dimensions, if the molecule and the atom can interact resonantly such that their mixed dimensional scattering length is large. We call these bound states ``giant molecules'' since it's a molecule composed of smaller molecules and atoms. We study their properties using techniques including exact numerical solution, exact qunatum diffusion Monte Carlo (QMC), Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), and semiclassical approximation. These bound states have a hierarchical structure reminiscent of the celestial systems.

  11. Ab initio lifetime correction to scattering states for time-dependent electronic-structure calculations with incomplete basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccia, Emanuele; Assaraf, Roland; Luppi, Eleonora; Toulouse, Julien

    2017-07-01

    We propose a method for obtaining effective lifetimes of scattering electronic states for avoiding the artificial confinement of the wave function due to the use of incomplete basis sets in time-dependent electronic-structure calculations of atoms and molecules. In this method, using a fitting procedure, the lifetimes are extracted from the spatial asymptotic decay of the approximate scattering wave functions obtained with a given basis set. The method is based on a rigorous analysis of the complex-energy solutions of the Schrödinger equation. It gives lifetimes adapted to any given basis set without using any empirical parameters. The method can be considered as an ab initio version of the heuristic lifetime model of Klinkusch et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 131, 114304 (2009)]. The method is validated on H and He atoms using Gaussian-type basis sets for the calculation of high-harmonic-generation spectra.

  12. Transport of some strong incompletely dissociated acids through anion-exchange membrane.

    PubMed

    Palatý, Zdenek; Záková, Alena

    2003-12-01

    Nitric and sulfuric acids belong among strong incompletely dissociated acids, so that in the description of their transport through an ion-exchange membrane, ionic equilibria have to be taken into account. The paper presents the determination of ionic mobilities and diffusivity of nondissociated form of these acids. For that purpose, data on the dialysis experiments with nitric and sulfuric acids in a batch mixed cell with an anion-exchange membrane NEOSEPTA-AFN, which have been completed by those on the membrane conductivity, have been used. The dependencies of the ionic mobilities and the diffusivity of nondissociated form of nitric acid upon the acid concentration in the membrane have been approximated by second degree polynomials. Their coefficients have been determined by numerical integration of the partial differential equation describing the concentration fields of the acids in the membrane and liquid films on both sides of the membrane, followed by an optimizing procedure. The model used is based on the Nernst-Planck electrodiffusion equation. Using all the experimental data obtained at various acid concentrations and rotational speeds of the stirrers, it has been found that ionic mobility is strongly affected by the acid concentration in the membrane and decreases in the series H(3)O(+), SO(2-)(4), NO(-)(3), HSO(-)(4).

  13. Do You See What I See? Infants' Reasoning about Others' Incomplete Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Beck, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Twelve-month-olds realize that when an agent cannot see an object, her incomplete perceptions still guide her goal-directed actions. What would happen if the agent had incomplete perceptions because she could see only one part of the object, for example one side of a screen? In the present research, 16-month-olds were first shown an agent who…

  14. On Testing the Equality of Proportions in the Paired Case with Incomplete Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekbohm, Gunnar

    1982-01-01

    The problem of testing two correlated proportions with incomplete data is considered by means of Monte Carlo simulations studies. A test proposed in this paper, which can be regarded as a generalization of McNemar's test, is recommended in all cases with incomplete data and not too small samples. (Author)

  15. 31 CFR 256.14 - What happens if I submit an incomplete request for payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if I submit an incomplete request for payment? 256.14 Section 256.14 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... happens if I submit an incomplete request for payment? FMS may return, without action, any request...

  16. Stresses in single-spar wing constructions with incompletely built-up ribs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinitzhuber, F

    1940-01-01

    It is shown that the force distribution resulting from incomplete ribs in single spar wing structures may be determined with the aid of the shear field method by a statistically indeterminate computation. A numerical computation is given of the force distribution of a wing structure whose two neighboring incomplete ribs with web missing in half the section are torsionally loaded.

  17. Do You See What I See? Infants' Reasoning about Others' Incomplete Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Beck, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Twelve-month-olds realize that when an agent cannot see an object, her incomplete perceptions still guide her goal-directed actions. What would happen if the agent had incomplete perceptions because she could see only one part of the object, for example one side of a screen? In the present research, 16-month-olds were first shown an agent who…

  18. Incomplete Acquisition and Attrition of Spanish Tense/Aspect Distinctions in Adult Bilinguals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2002-01-01

    Investigates whether age of onset of bilingualism has an effect on ultimate attainment and documents incomplete acquisition and attrition of tense/aspect morphology in Spanish. Results suggest that morpho-phonological spell-outs and semantic features of functional categories are affected by incomplete acquisition and language loss, and that many…

  19. Estimating inbreeding rates in natural populations: addressing the problem of incomplete pedigrees

    Treesearch

    Mark P. Miller; Susan M. Haig; Jonathan D. Ballou; Ashley Steel

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and estimating inbreeding is essential for managing threatened and endangered wildlife populations. However, determination of inbreeding rates in natural populations is confounded by incomplete parentage information. We present an approach for quantifying inbreeding rates for populations with incomplete parentage information. The approach exploits...

  20. 43 CFR 30.113 - What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... incomplete probate file? 30.113 Section 30.113 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Commencement of Probate Proceedings § 30.113 What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file? If OHA determines that the probate file received from the agency...

  1. 43 CFR 30.113 - What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... incomplete probate file? 30.113 Section 30.113 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Commencement of Probate Proceedings § 30.113 What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file? If OHA determines that the probate file received from the agency...

  2. 43 CFR 30.113 - What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... incomplete probate file? 30.113 Section 30.113 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Commencement of Probate Proceedings § 30.113 What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file? If OHA determines that the probate file received from the agency...

  3. 43 CFR 30.113 - What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incomplete probate file? 30.113 Section 30.113 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Commencement of Probate Proceedings § 30.113 What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file? If OHA determines that the probate file received from the agency...

  4. 43 CFR 30.113 - What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... incomplete probate file? 30.113 Section 30.113 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Commencement of Probate Proceedings § 30.113 What will OHA do if it receives an incomplete probate file? If OHA determines that the probate file received from the agency...

  5. 31 CFR 256.14 - What happens if I submit an incomplete request for payment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What happens if I submit an incomplete request for payment? 256.14 Section 256.14 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... happens if I submit an incomplete request for payment? Fiscal Service may return, without action, any...

  6. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 223.230 Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. In any... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. 223.230 Section 223.230 Parks, Forests, and...

  7. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 223.230 Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. In any... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. 223.230 Section 223.230 Parks, Forests, and...

  8. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.230 Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. 223.230 Section 223.230 Parks, Forests, and...

  9. Incomplete and inaccurate death certification--the impact on research.

    PubMed

    Morton, L; Omar, R; Carroll, S; Beirne, M; Halliday, D; Taylor, K M

    2000-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the extent of erroneous and/or omitted information on death certificates of patients-implanted with Bjork-Shiley Convexo-Concave (BSCC) heart valves; (2) to determine whether this information could be associated with a possible under-reporting of acute mechanical failure of this valve. A review was carried out of death certificates and clinical notes for patients implanted in the United Kingdom with BSCC valves. This was a multicentre study (38 hospitals) based at the Cardiothoracic Department, NHLI, Imperial College School of Medicine at Hammersmith Hospital, London. The subjects were 478 patients implanted with a BSCC valve between 1979 and 1986 who died in the following years: 1984, 1987, 1990, 1993 and 1996. The main outcome measures were: (1) percentage of death certificates that record the presence of a valve prosthesis; (2) percentage of death certificates that record the presence of a valve prosthesis for patients who had a post mortem; (3) percentage of death certificates that record inaccurate or incomplete information related to the surgery; (4) percentage of death certificates that do not record a post mortem where one is known to have been performed. Twenty-one per cent (101/478) of the total number of death certificates record the presence of the valve prosthesis. Thirty-five per cent (43/123) of the death certificates for patients who had a post mortem record the presence of a valve prosthesis. Six per cent (30/478) of death certificates report inaccurate information related to the valve surgery. Twenty-five per cent (118/478) of the total number of death certificates recorded a single cause of death. Twenty-three per cent (110/478) of all death certificates reviewed recorded only the mode of dying. Eight per cent (10/123) of the total number of death certificates for patients who had a post mortem did not record a post mortem. The relatively high number of death certificates that do not record the

  10. Influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuaib, Mohd; Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, Devendra P.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, excitation functions of several reaction residues in the system 19F+169Tm, populated via the complete and incomplete fusion processes, have been measured using off-line γ-ray spectroscopy. The analysis of excitation functions has been done within the framework of statistical model code pace4. The excitation functions of residues populated via xn and pxn channels are found to be in good agreement with those estimated by the theoretical model code, which confirms the production of these residues solely via complete fusion process. However, a significant enhancement has been observed in the cross-sections of residues involving α-emitting channels as compared to the theoretical predictions. The observed enhancement in the cross-sections has been attributed to the incomplete fusion processes. In order to have a better insight into the onset and strength of incomplete fusion, the incomplete fusion strength function has been deduced. At present, there is no theoretical model available which can satisfactorily explain the incomplete fusion reaction data at energies ≈4–6 MeV/nucleon. In the present work, the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion in the 19F+169Tm system has also been studied. The measured cross-section data may be important for the development of reactor technology as well. It has been found that the incomplete fusion strength function strongly depends on the α-Q value of the projectile, which is found to be in good agreement with the existing literature data. The analysis strongly supports the projectile-dependent mass-asymmetry systematics. In order to study the influence of Coulomb effect ({Z}{{P}}{Z}{{T}}) on incomplete fusion, the deduced strength function for the present work is compared with the nearby projectile–target combinations. The incomplete fusion strength function is found to increase linearly with {Z}{{P}}{Z}{{T}}, indicating a strong influence of Coulomb effect in the incomplete fusion reactions.

  11. An Incomplete-Data Quasi-likelihood Approach to Haplotype-Based Genetic Association Studies on Related Individuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuoheng; McPeek, Mary Sara

    2009-09-01

    We propose an incomplete-data, quasi-likelihood framework, for estimation and score tests, which accommodates both dependent and partially-observed data. The motivation comes from genetic association studies, where we address the problems of estimating haplotype frequencies and testing association between a disease and haplotypes of multiple tightly-linked genetic markers, using case-control samples containing related individuals. We consider a more general setting in which the complete data are dependent with marginal distributions following a generalized linear model. We form a vector Z whose elements are conditional expectations of the elements of the complete-data vector, given selected functions of the incomplete data. Assuming that the covariance matrix of Z is available, we form an optimal linear estimating function based on Z, which we solve by an iterative method. This approach addresses key difficulties in the haplotype frequency estimation and testing problems in related individuals: (1) dependence that is known but can be complicated; (2) data that are incomplete for structural reasons, as well as possibly missing, with different amounts of information for different observations; (3) the need for computational speed in order to analyze large numbers of markers; (4) a well-established null model, but an alternative model that is unknown and is problematic to fully specify in related individuals. For haplotype analysis, we give sufficient conditions for consistency and asymptotic normality of the estimator and asymptotic χ(2) null distribution of the score test. We apply the method to test for association of haplotypes with alcoholism in the GAW 14 COGA data set.

  12. Molecular forms of peptide histidine isoleucine-like immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract. Nonequimolar levels of peptide histidine isoleucine and vasoactive intestinal peptide in the stomach explained by the presence of a big peptide histidine isoleucine-like molecule.

    PubMed

    Yiangou, Y; Christofides, N D; Blank, M A; Yanaihara, N; Tatemoto, K; Bishop, A E; Polak, J M; Bloom, S R

    1985-09-01

    Regional specific antibodies and chromatography were used to analyze the distributions and molecular forms of peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the porcine intestine. Both peptides were present along the entire length of the intestine, the highest concentrations occurring in the colon. Concentrations of PHI immunoreactivity, measured with three different antisera, and VIP immunoreactivity were approximately equal in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract except in the stomach. In the stomach, the concentration of PHI immunoreactivity, measured with the N-terminally directed antibody R8403, although equal to the corresponding VIP concentration, was two to four times higher than the PHI immunoreactivity detected with the two C-terminally directed PHI antisera T33 and T41. Chromatographic analysis on Sephadex G-50 superfine of gastric extracts revealed only one VIP immunoreactive peak that eluted in the same position as the porcine VIP standard, at Kav 0.53. A PHI immunoreactive peak was also detected with the C-terminally directed PHI antisera in the same position as porcine PHI standard. However, with the N-terminally directed PHI antiserum R8403, an additional PHI immunoreactive peak was detected in gastric extracts constituting the predominant form present, and this peak eluted earlier at Kav 0.37. The PHI immunoreactive material that eluted earlier was present in the rest of the intestine in only small amounts. As VIP and PHI are believed to be derived from a common precursor, it is suggested that in the stomach the posttranslational enzymic processing of the precursor is different from that in the other parts of the intestine.

  13. Influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion: Observation of a large incomplete fusion fraction at E {approx_equal}5-7 MeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, B. P.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Unnati,; Singh, Devendra P.; Prasad, R.; Kumar, Rakesh; Golda, K. S.

    2008-01-15

    Experiments have been carried out to explore the reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies. Excitation functions for {sup 168}Lu{sup m}, {sup 167}Lu, {sup 167}Yb, {sup 166}Tm, {sup 179}Re, {sup 177}Re, {sup 177}W, {sup 178}Ta, and {sup 177}Hf radio-nuclides populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of {sup 16}O with {sup 159}Tb and {sup 169}Tm have been studied over the wide projectile energy range E{sub proj}{approx_equal}75-95 MeV. Recoil-catcher technique followed by off-line {gamma}-spectrometry has been employed in the present measurements. Experimental data have been compared with the predictions of theoretical model code PACE2. The experimentally measured production cross sections of {alpha}-emitting channels were found to be larger as compared to the theoretical model predictions and may be attributed to incomplete fusion at these energies. During the analysis of experimental data, incomplete fusion has been found to be competing with complete fusion. As such, an attempt has been made to estimate the incomplete fusion fraction for both the systems, and has been found to be sensitive for projectile energy and mass asymmetry of interacting partners.

  14. Atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Spacelab investigation entitled Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) is designed to obtain fundamental information related to the chemistry and physics of the Earth's upper atmosphere using the techniques of infrared absorption spectroscopy. There are two principal objectives to be met. The first is the determination, on a global scale, of the compositional structure of the upper atmosphere and its spatial variability. The establishment of this variability represents the first step toward determining the characteristic residence times for the upper atmospheric constituents; the magnitudes of their sources and sinks; and, ultimately, an understanding of their effects on the stability of the stratosphere. The second objective is to provide the high-resolution, calibrated spectral information which is essential for the detailed design of advanced instrumentation for subsequent global monitoring of specific species found to be critical to atmospheric stability. This information will be disseminated in the form of a three dimensional atlas of solar absorption spectra obtained over a range of latitudes, longitudes, and altitudes.

  15. The status of molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, T. :

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical status of hadronic molecules, which are weakly-bound states of two or more hadrons. We begin with a brief history of the subject and discuss a few good candidates, and then abstract some signatures for molecules which may be of interest in the classification of possible molecule states. Next we argue that a more general understanding of 2 {yields} 2 hadron-hadron scattering amplitudes will be crucial for molecule searches, and discuss some of our recent work in this area. We conclude with a discussion of a few more recent molecule candidates (notably the f{sub o}(1710)) which are not well established as molecules but satisfy some of the expected signatures.

  16. ATP-Driven Contraction of Phage T3 Capsids with DNA Incompletely Packaged In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Serwer, Philip; Wright, Elena T.

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) cleavage powers packaging of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule in a pre-assembled capsid of phages that include T3. Several observations constitute a challenge to the conventional view that the shell of the capsid is energetically inert during packaging. Here, we test this challenge by analyzing the in vitro effects of ATP on the shells of capsids generated by DNA packaging in vivo. These capsids retain incompletely packaged DNA (ipDNA) and are called ipDNA-capsids; the ipDNA-capsids are assumed to be products of premature genome maturation-cleavage. They were isolated via preparative Nycodenz buoyant density centrifugation. For some ipDNA-capsids, Nycodenz impermeability increases hydration and generates density so low that shell hyper-expansion must exist to accommodate associated water. Electron microscopy (EM) confirmed hyper-expansion and low permeability and revealed that 3.0 mM magnesium ATP (physiological concentration) causes contraction of hyper-expanded, low-permeability ipDNA-capsids to less than mature size; 5.0 mM magnesium ATP (border of supra-physiological concentration) or more disrupts them. Additionally, excess sodium ADP reverses 3.0 mM magnesium ATP-induced contraction and re-generates hyper-expansion. The Nycodenz impermeability implies assembly perfection that suggests selection for function in DNA packaging. These findings support the above challenge and can be explained via the assumption that T3 DNA packaging includes a back-up cycle of ATP-driven capsid contraction and hyper-expansion. PMID:28534826

  17. [Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.

  18. Medical treatments for incomplete miscarriage (less than 24 weeks)

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, James P; Gyte, Gillian ML; Hickey, Martha; Vazquez, Juan C; Dou, Lixia

    2014-01-01

    Background Miscarriage occurs in 10% to 15% of pregnancies. The traditional treatment, after miscarriage, has been to perform surgery to remove any remaining pregnancy tissues in the uterus. However, it has been suggested that drug-based medical treatments, or expectant care (no treatment), may also be effective, safe and acceptable. Objectives To assess the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of any medical treatment for early incomplete miscarriage (before 24 weeks). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (September 2009) and reference lists of retrieved papers. We updated this search on 23 July 2012 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing medical treatment with expectant care or surgery. Quasi-randomised trials were excluded. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Data entry was checked. Main results Fifteen studies (2750 women) were included, there were no studies on women over 13 weeks’ gestation. Studies addressed a number of comparisons and data are therefore limited. Three trials compared misoprostol treatment (all vaginally administered) with expectant care. There was no significant difference in complete miscarriage (average risk ratio (RR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 2.10; two studies, 150 women), or in the need for surgical evacuation (average RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.17 to 2.26; two studies, 308 women). There were few data on ‘deaths or serious complications’. Nine studies involving 1766 women addressed the comparison of misoprostol (four oral, four vaginal, one vaginal + oral) with surgical evacuation. There was no statistically significant difference in complete miscarriage (average RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.00, eight studies, 1377 women) with success rate high for both methods

  19. Layered Molecule-Based Magnets Formed by Decamethylmetallocenium Cations and Two-Dimensional Bimetallic Complexes [ MIIRu III(ox) 3] -( MII=;Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Zn; ox=oxalate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronado, Eugenio; Galán-Mascarós, José R.; Gómez-García, Carlos J.; Martínez-Agudo, José M.; Martínez-Ferrero, Eugenia; Waerenborgh, Joao C.; Almeida, Manuel

    2001-07-01

    A new series of hybrid organometallic-inorganic layered magnets with formula [ZIIICp*2] [MIIRuIII(ox)3] (ZIII=Co and Fe; MII=Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn; ox=oxalate: Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) has been prepared. All of these compounds are isostructural to the previously reported [ZIIICp*2] [MIIMIII(ox)3] (MIII=Cr, Fe) series and crystallize in the monoclinic space group C2/m, as found by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. They are novel examples of magnetic materials formed by bimetallic oxalate-based extended layers separated by layers of organometallic cations. The magnetic properties of all these compounds have been investigated (ac and dc magnetic susceptibilities and field dependence of the isothermal magnetization at 2 K). In particular, it has been found that FeII and CoII derivatives behave as magnets with ordering temperatures of 12.8 and 2.8 K, respectively, while no long-range magnetic ordering has been detected down to 2 K in the MnII and CuII derivatives. The magnetic ordering in the FeII derivatives has been confirmed through Mössbauer spectroscopy. This technique has also made it possible to observe the spin polarization of the paramagnetic [FeCp*2]+ units caused by the internal magnetic field created by the bimetallic layers in the ordered state.

  20. Conjugate and method for forming aminomethyl phosphorus conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Katti, K.V.; Berning, D.E.; Volkert, W.A.; Ketring, A.R.; Churchill, R.

    1999-09-07

    A method of forming phosphine-amine conjugates includes reacting a hydroxymethyl phosphine group of an amine-free first molecule with at least one free amine group of a second molecule to covalently bond the first molecule with the second molecule through an aminomethyl phosphorus linkage and the conjugates formed thereby.

  1. Conjugate and method for forming aminomethyl phosphorus conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Berning, Douglas E.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Ketring, Alan R.; Churchill, Robert

    1999-01-01

    A method of forming phosphine-amine conjugates includes reacting a hydroxymethyl phosphine group of an amine-free first molecule with at least one free amine group of a second molecule to covalently bond the first molecule with the second molecule through an aminomethyl phosphorus linkage and the conjugates formed thereby.

  2. Estimation from incomplete multinomial data. Ph.D. Thesis - Harvard Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    The vector of multinomial cell probabilities was estimated from incomplete data, incomplete in that it contains partially classified observations. Each such partially classified observation was observed to fall in one of two or more selected categories but was not classified further into a single category. The data were assumed to be incomplete at random. The estimation criterion was minimization of risk for quadratic loss. The estimators were the classical maximum likelihood estimate, the Bayesian posterior mode, and the posterior mean. An approximation was developed for the posterior mean. The Dirichlet, the conjugate prior for the multinomial distribution, was assumed for the prior distribution.

  3. Isomer ratio measurements as a probe of the dynamics of breakup and incomplete fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Gasques, L. R.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.; Peatey, T.; Diaz-Torres, A.; Newton, J. O.

    2006-12-15

    The incomplete fusion mechanism following breakup of {sup 6,7}Li and {sup 9}Be projectiles incident on targets of {sup 209}Bi and {sup 208}Pb is investigated through isomer ratio measurements for the {sup 212}At and {sup 211}Po products. The phenomenological analysis presented in this paper indicates that incomplete fusion brings relatively more angular momentum into the system than equivalent reactions with a direct beam of the fused fragment. This is attributed to the trajectories of breakup fragments. Calculations with a 3D classical trajectory model support this. Isomer ratio measurements for incomplete fusion reactions can provide a test of new theoretical models of breakup and fusion.

  4. Physically sound parameterization of incomplete ionization in aluminum-doped silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkemper, Heiko; Altermatt, Pietro P.; Hermle, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Incomplete ionization is an important issue when modeling silicon devices featuring aluminum-doped p+ (Al-p+) regions. Aluminum has a rather deep state in the band gap compared to boron or phosphorus, causing strong incomplete ionization. In this paper, we considerably improve our recent parameterization [Steinkemper et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 074504 (2015)]. On the one hand, we found a fundamental criterion to further reduce the number of free parameters in our fitting procedure. And on the other hand, we address a mistake in the original publication of the incomplete ionization formalism in Altermatt et al., J. Appl. Phys. 100, 113715 (2006).

  5. Enzymatic DNA molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, Gerald F. (Inventor); Breaker, Ronald R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses deoxyribonucleic acid enzymes--catalytic or enzymatic DNA molecules--capable of cleaving nucleic acid sequences or molecules, particularly RNA, in a site-specific manner, as well as compositions including same. Methods of making and using the disclosed enzymes and compositions are also disclosed.

  6. Molecules between the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a listing of molecules discovered to date in the vast interstellar clouds of dust and gas. Emphasizes the recent discoveries of organic molecules. Discusses molecular spectral lines, MASERs (microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation), molecular clouds, and star birth. (TW)

  7. Molecules between the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a listing of molecules discovered to date in the vast interstellar clouds of dust and gas. Emphasizes the recent discoveries of organic molecules. Discusses molecular spectral lines, MASERs (microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation), molecular clouds, and star birth. (TW)

  8. Transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram as an alternative method for technology transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.

    2012-12-01

    Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) can be used for technology transfer when the relevant problem (called 'top even' in FTA) is solved in a technology centre and the results are diffused to interested parties (usually Small Medium Enterprises - SMEs) that have not the proper equipment and the required know-how to solve the problem by their own. Nevertheless, there is a significant drawback in this procedure: the information usually provided by the SMEs to the technology centre, about production conditions and corresponding quality characteristics of the product, and (sometimes) the relevant expertise in the Knowledge Base of this centre may be inadequate to form a complete fault tree. Since such cases are quite frequent in practice, we have developed a methodology for transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram, which is more flexible and less strict in establishing causal chains, because it uses a surface phenomenological level with a limited number of categories of faults. On the other hand, such an Ishikawa diagram can be extended to simulate a fault tree as relevant knowledge increases. An implementation of this transformation, referring to anodization of aluminium, is presented.

  9. Hybridization experiments indicate incomplete reproductive isolating mechanism between Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Itagaki, T; Ichinomiya, M; Fukuda, K; Fusyuku, S; Carmona, C

    2011-09-01

    Experiments on hybridization between Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were carried out to clarify whether a reproductive isolating mechanism appears between the two Fasciola species. Molecular evidence for hybridization was based on the DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region in nuclear ribosomal DNA, which differs between the species. The results suggested that there were not pre-mating but post-mating isolating mechanisms between the two species. However, viable adults of the hybrids F1 and F2 were produced from both parental F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The hybrids inherited phenotypic characteristics such as ratio of body length and width and infectivity to rats from parental Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. These findings suggest that reproductive isolation is incomplete between Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. Adults of the hybrids F1 and F2 were completely different in mode of reproduction from aspermic Fasciola forms that occur in Asia and seem to be offspring originated from hybridization between F. hepatica and F. gigantica and to reproduce parthenogenetically.

  10. Synthesis of Irreversible Incompletely Specified Multi-Output Functions to Reversible EOSOPS Circuits with PSE Gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiszer, Robert Adrian

    As quantum computers edge closer to viability, it becomes necessary to create logic synthesis and minimization algorithms that take into account the particular aspects of quantum computers that differentiate them from classical computers. Since quantum computers can be functionally described as reversible computers with superposition and entanglement, both advances in reversible synthesis and increased utilization of superposition and entanglement in quantum algorithms will increase the power of quantum computing. One necessary component of any practical quantum computer is the computation of irreversible functions. However, very little work has been done on algorithms that synthesize and minimize irreversible functions into a reversible form. In this thesis, we present and implement a pair of algorithms that extend the best published solution to these problems by taking advantage of Product-Sum EXOR (PSE) gates, the reversible generalization of inhibition gates, which we have introduced in previous work [1,2]. We show that these gates, combined with our novel synthesis algorithms, result in much lower quantum costs over a wide variety of functions as compared to our competitors, especially on incompletely specified functions. Furthermore, this solution has applications for milti-valued and multi-output functions.

  11. IRON-60 HETEROGENEITY AND INCOMPLETE ISOTOPE MIXING IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Quitte, Ghylaine; Markowski, Agnes; Latkoczy, Christopher; Gabriel, Aron; Pack, Andreas

    2010-09-10

    Short-lived radionuclides (e.g., {sup 26}Al, {sup 53}Mn, {sup 60}Fe, {sup 182}Hf) are widely used to refine the chronology of the early solar system. They provide chronological information, however, only if they were homogeneously distributed in the source region of the objects under scrutiny at the time of their formation. With the high level of precision now achieved on isotopic measurements, very short time intervals can in principle be resolved and a precise evaluation of the initial homogeneity degree becomes increasingly crucial. High-precision nickel isotope data for differentiated meteorites (angrites, ureilites) and chondritic (CB) components allow us to test the initial distribution of radioactive {sup 60}Fe and stable Ni isotopes. Although these meteorites appear to have formed nearly contemporaneously, they yield variable initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios. Besides, the CB metal nodules and ureilite silicates show nucleosynthetic anomalies. The new data presented here do not confirm the recently inferred late injection of {sup 60}Fe into the protoplanetary disk. Instead, live {sup 60}Fe was present, but heterogeneously distributed, from the start of the solar system, revealing an incomplete mixing of material from various nucleosynthetic sources and restricting the use of the {sup 60}Fe-{sup 60}Ni system as a chronometer.

  12. Developing geostatistical space-time models to predict outpatient treatment burdens from incomplete national data

    PubMed Central

    Gething, Peter W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; Gikandi, Priscilla W.; Hay, Simon I.; Nixon, Mark S.; Snow, Robert W.; Atkinson, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    Basic health system data such as the number of patients utilising different health facilities and the types of illness for which they are being treated are critical for managing service provision. These data requirements are generally addressed with some form of national Health Management Information System (HMIS) which coordinates the routine collection and compilation of data from national health facilities. HMIS in most developing countries are characterised by widespread under-reporting. Here we present a method to adjust incomplete data to allow prediction of national outpatient treatment burdens. We demonstrate this method with the example of outpatient treatments for malaria within the Kenyan HMIS. Three alternative modelling frameworks were developed and tested in which space-time geostatistical prediction algorithms were used to predict the monthly tally of treatments for presumed malaria cases (MC) at facilities where such records were missing. Models were compared by a cross-validation exercise and the model found to most accurately predict MC incorporated available data on the total number of patients visiting each facility each month. A space-time stochastic simulation framework to accompany this model was developed and tested in order to provide estimates of both local and regional prediction uncertainty. The level of accuracy provided by the predictive model, and the accompanying estimates of uncertainty around the predictions, demonstrate how this tool can mitigate the uncertainties caused by missing data, substantially enhancing the utility of existing HMIS data to health-service decision-makers. PMID:19325928

  13. Acute inflammation in horizontal incompletely impacted third molar with radiolucency in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Minoru; Ono, Yusuke; Takahashi, Masahiro; Ishizuka, Masahide; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Yasuda, Kouichi; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-01

    Although radiolucency has been shown as a risk of infection, the poorly understood effects of aging on radiolucency correlate with acute pericoronitis, which has a high risk of infection extending any complications. We reviewed the records of 346 consecutive patients aged more than 41 years to evaluate whether pericoronal radiolucency below the crown in mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars is related to acute inflammation. The frequency of acute inflammation in teeth with pericoronal radiolucency below the crown was similar to that in teeth without; however, the odds ratio of acute inflammation exhibited in women aged more than 61 years compared to women aged 41–50 years was 9.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67–57.29; P < <0.05), and in women aged more than 61 years compared to women aged 51–60 years was 26.25 (95% CI: 2.94–234.38; P < 0.01). The odds ratio of severe acute inflammation exhibited in men aged more than 61 years compared to men aged 41–50 years was 16.67 (95% CI: 1.76–158.27; P < 0.01). These odds ratios indicate an association of acute pericoronitis, including the severe forms of acute inflammation that result from pericoronitis, with pericoronal radiolucency below the crown in the elderly. PMID:19696898

  14. Porous organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, James R.; Trewin, Abbie; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2010-11-01

    Most synthetic materials that show molecular-scale porosity consist of one-, two- or three-dimensional networks. Porous metal-organic frameworks in particular have attracted a lot of recent attention. By contrast, discrete molecules tend to pack efficiently in the solid state, leaving as little empty space as possible, which leads to non-porous materials. This Perspective discusses recent developments with discrete organic molecules that are porous in the solid state. Such molecules, which may be either crystalline or amorphous, can be categorized as either intrinsically porous (containing permanent covalent cavities) or extrinsically porous (inefficiently packed). We focus on the possible advantages of organic molecules over inorganic or hybrid systems in terms of molecular solubility, choice of components and functionalities, and structural mobility and responsiveness in non-covalent extended solids. We also highlight the potential for 'undiscovered' porous systems among the large number of cage-like organic molecules that are already known.

  15. Single molecule electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyunwook; Reed, Mark A; Lee, Takhee

    2011-04-12

    Single molecule electronic devices in which individual molecules are utilized as active electronic components constitute a promising approach for the ultimate miniaturization and integration of electronic devices in nanotechnology through the bottom-up strategy. Thus, the ability to understand, control, and exploit charge transport at the level of single molecules has become a long-standing desire of scientists and engineers from different disciplines for various potential device applications. Indeed, a study on charge transport through single molecules attached to metallic electrodes is a very challenging task, but rapid advances have been made in recent years. This review article focuses on experimental aspects of electronic devices made with single molecules, with a primary focus on the characterization and manipulation of charge transport in this regime. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Superresolution Imaging using Single-Molecule Localization

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, George; Davidson, Michael; Manley, Suliana; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Superresolution imaging is a rapidly emerging new field of microscopy that dramatically improves the spatial resolution of light microscopy by over an order of magnitude (∼10–20-nm resolution), allowing biological processes to be described at the molecular scale. Here, we discuss a form of superresolution microscopy based on the controlled activation and sampling of sparse subsets of photoconvertible fluorescent molecules. In this single-molecule based imaging approach, a wide variety of probes have proved valuable, ranging from genetically encodable photoactivatable fluorescent proteins to photoswitchable cyanine dyes. These have been used in diverse applications of superresolution imaging: from three-dimensional, multicolor molecule localization to tracking of nanometric structures and molecules in living cells. Single-molecule-based superresolution imaging thus offers exciting possibilities for obtaining molecular-scale information on biological events occurring at variable timescales. PMID:20055680

  17. Chemical principles of single-molecule electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Timothy A.; Neupane, Madhav; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Venkataraman, Latha; Nuckolls, Colin

    2016-03-01

    The field of single-molecule electronics harnesses expertise from engineering, physics and chemistry to realize circuit elements at the limit of miniaturization; it is a subfield of nanoelectronics in which the electronic components are single molecules. In this Review, we survey the field from a chemical perspective and discuss the structure-property relationships of the three components that form a single-molecule junction: the anchor, the electrode and the molecular bridge. The spatial orientation and electronic coupling between each component profoundly affect the conductance properties and functions of the single-molecule device. We describe the design principles of the anchor group, the influence of the electronic configuration of the electrode and the effect of manipulating the structure of the molecular backbone and of its substituent groups. We discuss single-molecule conductance switches as well as the phenomenon of quantum interference and then trace their fundamental roots back to chemical principles.

  18. Circumstellar and interstellar synthesis of organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Tielens, A G; Charnley, S B

    1997-06-01

    We review the formation and evolution of complex circumstellar and interstellar molecules. A number of promising chemical routes are discussed which may lead to the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules, fullerenes, and unsaturated hydrocarbon chains in the outflows from stars. Some of the problems with these chemical schemes are pointed out as well. We also review the role of grains in the formation of complex molecules in interstellar molecular clouds. This starts with the formation of simple molecules in an ice grain mantle. UV photolysis and/or thermal polymerization can convert some of these simple molecules into more complex polymeric structures. Some of these species may be released to the gas phase, particularly in the warm regions around newly formed stars. Methanol and formaldehyde seem to play an important role in this drive towards molecular complexity and their chemistry is traced in some detail.

  19. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kees de Jager

    2004-08-01

    Although nucleons account for nearly all the visible mass in the universe, they have a complicated structure that is still incompletely understood. The first indication that nucleons have an internal structure, was the measurement of the proton magnetic moment by Frisch and Stern (1933) which revealed a large deviation from the value expected for a point-like Dirac particle. The investigation of the spatial structure of the nucleon, resulting in the first quantitative measurement of the proton charge radius, was initiated by the HEPL (Stanford) experiments in the 1950s, for which Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel prize. The first indication of a non-zero neutron charge distribution was obtained by scattering thermal neutrons off atomic electrons. The recent revival of its experimental study through the operational implementation of novel instrumentation has instigated a strong theoretical interest. Nucleon electro-magnetic form factors (EMFFs) are optimally studied through the exchange of a virtual photon, in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. The momentum transferred to the nucleon by the virtual photon can be selected to probe different scales of the nucleon, from integral properties such as the charge radius to scaling properties of its internal constituents. Polarization instrumentation, polarized beams and targets, and the measurement of the polarization of the recoiling nucleon have been essential in the accurate separation of the charge and magnetic form factors and in studies of the elusive neutron charge form factor.

  20. Deficient coacervation of two forms of human tropoelastin associated with supravalvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, W J; Weiss, A S

    1999-11-01

    Human tropoelastin associates by coacervation and is subsequently cross-linked to make elastin. In Williams syndrome, defective elastin deposition is associated with hemizygous deletion of the tropoelastin gene in supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). Remarkably, point-mutation forms of SVAS correspond to incomplete forms of tropoelastin which include in-frame termination by nonsense mutations, yet the resulting phenotype of these disorders is not explained because expression variably occurs from both normal and mutant alleles. Proteins corresponding to two truncated tropoelastin mutants were expressed and purified to homogeneity. Coacervation of these proteins occurred as expected with increasing temperature, but substantially contrasted with that of the performance of a normal tropoelastin. Significantly, association by coacervation of the truncated SVAS tropoelastin molecules was negligible at 37 degrees C, which contrasted with the substantial coacervation seen for normal tropoelastin. Furthermore their midpoints of coacervation increased and correlated with the extent of deletion, in accord with the loss of hydrophobic regions required for tropoelastin association. Their secondary structures are similar, as evidenced by CD studies. We propose a model for point-mutation SVAS in which aberrant tropoelastin molecules are incompetent and are mainly excluded from participation in coacervation and consequently in elastogenesis. These forms of SVAS may consequently be considered functionally similar to a hemizygous deletion, and mark point-mutation SVAS as a disorder of defective coacervation.

  1. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as products of incomplete combustion from incinerators. PCBs were used widely as industrial chemicals, particularly as additives in electrical transformer cooling oil. Growing evidence of PCBs' role as a persistent...

  2. Dealing with palliative care patients' incomplete music therapy legacies: reflexive group supervision research.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Petering, Helen; Thomas, Amy; Crappsley, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Legacies encompass treasured memories and items such as wills, publications, and songs, which help to validate lives. Legacy creation is encouraged by palliative care staff to help patients deal with loss and find personal meaning; the legacy works may also support the bereaved. Within the literature, however, there is no consideration of how staff deal with patients' incomplete legacies when patients relocate, deteriorate, or die. Our research focuses on this question: What experiences did four music therapists have with palliative care patients' incomplete tangible music therapy legacies? Data included transcripts from the therapists' discussions about patients' incomplete legacies in three reflexive group supervision sessions and further reflections written during transcript verification. Inductive thematic analysis yielded five themes: the nature of incomplete music therapy legacies; reasons for and feelings about these legacies; factors determining what music therapists do with them; considerations about their future "life"; and the ways therapists' shared reflections can support their future legacy work.

  3. Incomplete deployment of the Vena Tech LP filter--case series and concerns.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Sohail; Esmaeili, Azadeh; Reina, Diego; Deitch, Edwin

    2011-05-01

    The Vena Tech LP vena cava filter (B Braun, Evanston, Illinois) has been FDA approved since 2001 and is a permanent vena cava filtration device. It replaced the previous Vena tech LGM filter also manufactured by B Braun. The LGM filter had 2 case series reporting a high incidence of incomplete deployment of the filter, especially when placed from a jugular approach. Design changes were made to this device and the LP filter introduced. The LP filter has also been reported to have incompletely deployed both in peer reviewed literature as well as the FDA MAUDE website. We present here 3 cases of incomplete deployment of the Vena Tech LP filter and review the cases previously described as well as attempt to present possible etiologies for incomplete deployment.

  4. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as products of incomplete combustion from incinerators. PCBs were used widely as industrial chemicals, particularly as additives in electrical transformer cooling oil. Growing evidence of PCBs' role as a persistent...

  5. Dynamics of Activated Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, Amy S.

    2016-11-16

    Experimental studies have been performed to investigate the collisional energy transfer processes of gas-phase molecules that contain large amounts of internal energy. Such molecules are prototypes for molecules under high temperature conditions relevant in combustion and information about their energy transfer mechanisms is needed for a detailed understanding and modeling of the chemistry. We use high resolution transient IR absorption spectroscopy to measure the full, nascent product distributions for collisions of small bath molecules that relax highly vibrationally excited pyrazine molecules with E=38000 cm-1 of vibrational energy. To perform these studies, we developed new instrumentation based on modern IR light sources to expand our experimental capabilities to investigate new molecules as collision partners. This final report describes our research in four areas: the characterization of a new transient absorption spectrometer and the results of state-resolved collision studies of pyrazine(E) with HCl, methane and ammonia. Through this research we have gained fundamental new insights into the microscopic details of relatively large complex molecules at high energy as they undergo quenching collisions and redistribute their energy.

  6. A New Method for Estimating Life Distributions from Incomplete Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    8217 ACSIO O UTAT O NUBE- RPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE NG FORM. . m m =( -I:,zuDIM .. -IO r NUMBER f -f T2.I. GOVT ACCESSION NO: N. ATALOG 1-1- ME AESR-TR- 0 0...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Florida State University Department of Statistics /61102F, 230A.5...Tallahassee, FL 32306 61102F _ 2304/A5 II, CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Air Force Office of Scientific Research /NM May 1980 Boiling

  7. Neither environmental enrichment nor voluntary wheel running enhances recovery from incomplete spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Erschbamer, M K; Pham, T M; Zwart, M C; Baumans, V; Olson, L

    2006-09-01

    Environmental enrichment and exercise may be neuroprotective or promote recovery after different forms of CNS injury. Here, we tested the possible effects of moderate environmental enrichment and voluntary exercise on the outcome of incomplete spinal cord injury in rats. We provided rats in standard cages with basic environmental enrichment (carton house, nesting material, tube, gnawing sticks). We also analyzed the effect of increased activity by housing spinal-cord-injured rats in cages with or without access to running wheels. In a third experiment, we looked at the possible effect of pre-injury training. In all experiments, a battery of behavior tests were used. Enriched environment provided before, after or both before and after injury did not alter the outcome on any of these tests. Similarly, despite excessive running after injury, no differences in terms of recovery and behavior were found in the running experiment. Similarly, running prior to injury did not significantly decrease the degree of functional deficit caused by the injury. Since there were no effects of further enrichment, above the possible effects of being socially housed, and since exercise did not improve the outcome, we conclude that these forms of increased activity do not render the animals significantly less sensitive to spinal cord injury and do not cause robust improvement when initiated after injury. While these results pose a limit to how helpful environmental and physical training programs may be in rodent impact injury models, they do not contradict the fact that voluntary and guided training can be effective tools in human spinal cord rehabilitation.

  8. Do triatomic molecules echo atomic periodicity?

    SciTech Connect

    Hefferlin, R. Barrow, J.

    2015-03-30

    Demonstrations of periodicity among triatomic-molecular spectroscopic constants underscore the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. The objective of this work is to prepare for another test using vibration frequencies ν{sub 1} of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected ν{sub 1} data for molecules formed from second period atoms.

  9. Risk factors of incomplete Apgar score and umbilical cord blood gas analysis: a retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    van Tetering, Anne A C; van de Ven, Joost; Fransen, Annemarie F; Dieleman, Jeanne P; van Runnard Heimel, Pieter J; Oei, S Guid

    2017-11-01

    To investigate whether incomplete umbilical cord blood gas (UCBG) analysis occurs more often than the incomplete reporting of the Apgar score, and risk factors associated with the incomplete values. A total of 8824 infants born alive after 26 weeks' gestation between January 2009 and April 2013 were included. We extracted data on five-minute Apgar score, UCBG analysis, gestational age, mode of delivery, time of delivery and multiple pregnancy. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Five-minute Apgar score was incomplete in 15 cases (0.2%) and UCBG analysis in 1960 cases (22.2%), p < 0.05. Incomplete UCBG analysis was significantly more likely to occur in situations with Apgar score below seven (Odds ratio (OR) 1.68, 95% CI;1.29-2.19), gestational age between 26 to 27 6/7 and 28 to 31 6/7 weeks (OR 3.14, 95% CI; 2.13-4.62 and OR 1.91, 95% CI; 1.57-2.32), cesarean section (OR 1.31, 95% CI; 1.11-1.55), and multiple pregnancy (OR 2.02, 95% CI; 1.69-2.43). Deliveries during night time had a lower risk of incomplete UCBG analysis (OR 0.78, 95% CI; 0.69-0.88). Measuring five-minute Apgar score generated less incomplete data compared with UCBG analysis. The risk factors associated with incomplete UCBG analysis were noted. Study outcomes with UCBG analysis as neonatal assessment tool should be interpreted with caution.

  10. Is there incomplete mixing of states with different K quantum numbers in the neutron resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, B.R. ); Casten, R.F. ); Ginocchio, J.N. ); Seligman, T. ); Weidenmueller, H.A. )

    1992-04-01

    A recent publication claimed incomplete mixing of states with different {ital K} quantum numbers in the neutron resonance region. We discuss the theoretical implications of such a claim and show that it leads to serious discrepancies with the statistical model. We, therefore, reexamine the experimental data on which such a claim is based. The totality of the evidence invalidates the claim that {ital K} mixing in the resonance region is incomplete.

  11. The incomplete inverse and its applications to the linear least squares problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morduch, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    A modified matrix product is explained, and it is shown that this product defiles a group whose inverse is called the incomplete inverse. It was proven that the incomplete inverse of an augmented normal matrix includes all the quantities associated with the least squares solution. An answer is provided to the problem that occurs when the data residuals are too large and when insufficient data to justify augmenting the model are available.

  12. A Sequential Quadratic Programming Algorithm Using An Incomplete Solution of the Subproblem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    Subproblem by Walter Murray * and Francisco J. Prietot TECHNICAL REPORT SOL 93-3 May 1993 DTIC ELECTE JUL27 1993 93-16793 E epPTOYS6a b~ Department of...Quadratic Programming Algorithm Using An Incomplete Solution of the Subproblem by Walter Murray * and Francisco J. Prietot TECHNICAL REPORT SOL 93-3 May...ALGORITHM USING AN INCOMPLETE SOLUTION OF THE SUBPROBLEM WALTER MURRAY * AND FRANCISCO J. PRIETOt *Systems Optimization Laboratory Department of Operations

  13. Incomplete Augmented Lagrangian Preconditioner for Steady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ning-Bo; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Hu, Ze-Jun

    2013-01-01

    An incomplete augmented Lagrangian preconditioner, for the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations discretized by stable finite elements, is proposed. The eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix are analyzed. Numerical experiments show that the incomplete augmented Lagrangian-based preconditioner proposed is very robust and performs quite well by the Picard linearization or the Newton linearization over a wide range of values of the viscosity on both uniform and stretched grids. PMID:24235888

  14. Incomplete augmented Lagrangian preconditioner for steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ning-Bo; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Hu, Ze-Jun

    2013-01-01

    An incomplete augmented Lagrangian preconditioner, for the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations discretized by stable finite elements, is proposed. The eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix are analyzed. Numerical experiments show that the incomplete augmented Lagrangian-based preconditioner proposed is very robust and performs quite well by the Picard linearization or the Newton linearization over a wide range of values of the viscosity on both uniform and stretched grids.

  15. Heavy exotic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    We briefly review the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom, under the general structures of chiral and heavy quark symmetries. The charm isosinglet exotic molecules with JPC = 1++ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral X(3872). The bottom isotriplet exotic with JPC = 1+- binds, and is identified as a mixed state of the reported charged exotics Zb+(10610) and Zb+(10650). The bound bottom isosinglet molecule with JPC = 1++ is a possible neutral Xb(10532) to be observed.

  16. Heavy exotic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    We briefly review the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom, under the general structures of chiral and heavy quark symmetries. The charm isosinglet exotic molecules with JPC = 1++ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral X(3872). The bottom isotriplet exotic with JPC = 1+1 binds, and is identified as a mixed state of the reported charged exotics Zb+(10610) and Zb-(10650). The bound bottom isosinglet molecule with JPC = 1++ is a possible neutral Xb(10532) to be observed.

  17. Porous hydrocarbon networks of pyramidal molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorimachi, Jun-ya; Okada, Susumu

    2017-06-01

    Using the density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation, we theoretically design porous hydrocarbon networks by assembling pyramidal hydrocarbon molecules with S = 1/2 radical spin. Our calculation showed that the porous hydrocarbon networks have either metallic or semiconducting electronic properties depending on the mutual arrangement of the pyramidal molecules in the networks. Furthermore, owing to the radical spin on the pyramidal molecules, the porous hydrocarbon network exhibits magnetic spin ordering with various spin configurations for metastable states, because the polarized electron spin forms a Kagome lattice and prefers singlet spin-spin coupling.

  18. Adsorption of thioether molecules on an alumina thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yi; Nilius, Niklas; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2014-10-01

    Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy has been employed to study the adsorption of (bis(3-phenylthio)-phenyl)sulfane (BPPS) molecules on an aluminum-oxide film grown on NiAl(110). Large variations in the molecular coverage on incompletely oxidized samples indicate substantial differences in the binding strength of BPPS to metallic (NiAl) versus dielectric (alumina) surfaces. From atomically resolved images, we obtain possible BPPS adsorption geometries on the oxide, in which the sulfur centers and not the phenyl rings of the molecule govern the interaction. A local hexagonal ordering of BPPS, as deduced from pair correlation functions, suggests a preferential binding of the BPPS sulfur atoms to Al ions with distorted pyramidal coordination in the oxide surface. Our work provides insight into rarely explored binding schemes of organic molecules on wide-gap oxide materials.

  19. Estimate of true incomplete exchanges using fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomere probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the frequency of true incomplete exchanges in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human lymphocytes were exposed to 2 Gy and 5 Gy of gamma-rays. Chromosome aberrations were studied using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with whole chromosome-specific probes, together with human telomere probes. Chromosomes 2 and 4 were chosen in the present study. RESULTS: The percentage of incomplete exchanges was 27% when telomere signals were not considered. After excluding false incomplete exchanges identified by the telomere signals, the percentage of incomplete exchanges decreased to 11%. Since telomere signals appear on about 82% of the telomeres, the percentage of true incomplete exchanges should be even lower and was estimated to be 3%. This percentage was similar for chromosomes 2 and 4 and for doses of both 2 Gy and 5 Gy. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of true incomplete exchanges is significantly lower in gamma-irradiated human lymphocytes than the frequencies reported in the literature.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of one- and two-step incomplete and complete excavations.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Stolpe, M; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, S; Dörfer, C E

    2013-10-01

    The treatment of deep caries lesions carries significant risks for the integrity of the pulp and often initiates a cascade of re-interventions. Incomplete caries removal may reduce these risks and avoid or delay re-treatment. The present study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of one- and two-step incomplete as well as complete excavations. We used Markov models to simulate treatment of a molar tooth with a deep caries lesion in a 15-year-old patient. Retention of the tooth and its vitality as effectiveness measures as well as accruing costs were analyzed over the patient's lifetime. The model adopted a public-private-payer perspective within German health care. Transition probabilities were calculated based on literature reviews. Monte-Carlo microsimulations were performed with 6-month cycles. One-step incomplete excavation resulted in lower long-term costs and in longer-retained teeth and their vitality (means: 53.5 and 41.0 yrs) compared with two-step incomplete (52.5 and 37.5 yrs) and complete excavations (49.5 and 31.0 yrs), and dominated the other strategies in 70% to 100% of simulations. Regardless of the assumed willingness-to-pay ceiling value, one-step incomplete excavation had the highest probability of being cost-effective. Despite limited evidence levels of input data, we expect one-step incomplete excavation to reduce costs while retaining deeply carious teeth and their vitality for longer.