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Sample records for molecules forming incomplete

  1. Algodystrophy: complex regional pain syndrome and incomplete forms.

    PubMed

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell'Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Celli, Fabio; Cazzella, Niki; Guido, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The algodystrophy, also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), is a painful disease characterized by erythema, edema, functional impairment, sensory and vasomotor disturbance. The diagnosis of CRPS is based solely on clinical signs and symptoms, and for exclusion compared to other forms of chronic pain. There is not a specific diagnostic procedure; careful clinical evaluation and additional test should lead to an accurate diagnosis. There are similar forms of chronic pain known as bone marrow edema syndrome, in which is absent the history of trauma or triggering events and the skin dystrophic changes and vasomotor alterations. These incomplete forms are self-limited, and surgical treatment is generally not needed. It is still controversial, if these forms represent a distinct self-limiting entity or an incomplete variant of CRPS. In painful unexplained conditions such as frozen shoulder, post-operative stiff shoulder or painful knee prosthesis, the algodystrophy, especially in its incomplete forms, could represent the cause. PMID:27252736

  2. Algodystrophy: complex regional pain syndrome and incomplete forms

    PubMed Central

    Giannotti, Stefano; Bottai, Vanna; Dell’Osso, Giacomo; Bugelli, Giulia; Celli, Fabio; Cazzella, Niki; Guido, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Summary The algodystrophy, also known as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), is a painful disease characterized by erythema, edema, functional impairment, sensory and vasomotor disturbance. The diagnosis of CRPS is based solely on clinical signs and symptoms, and for exclusion compared to other forms of chronic pain. There is not a specific diagnostic procedure; careful clinical evaluation and additional test should lead to an accurate diagnosis. There are similar forms of chronic pain known as bone marrow edema syndrome, in which is absent the history of trauma or triggering events and the skin dystrophic changes and vasomotor alterations. These incomplete forms are self-limited, and surgical treatment is generally not needed. It is still controversial, if these forms represent a distinct self-limiting entity or an incomplete variant of CRPS. In painful unexplained conditions such as frozen shoulder, post-operative stiff shoulder or painful knee prosthesis, the algodystrophy, especially in its incomplete forms, could represent the cause. PMID:27252736

  3. Incomplete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauffer, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    Elizabeth Parker's reflection on her experience as a musician educator working with children in an urban non-profit context is an uncomfortable read for me. In a courageous act, Parker makes public her private misgivings about her past experience and allows scrutiny of them in the form of two public commentaries as well as the private musings of…

  4. Analytical forms for most likely matrices derived from incomplete information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, Kostas N.

    2012-03-01

    Consider a rectangular matrix describing some type of communication or transportation between a set of origins and a set of destinations, or a classification of objects by two attributes. The problem is to infer the entries of the matrix from limited information in the form of constraints, generally the sums of the elements over various subsets of the matrix, such as rows, columns, etc., or from bounds on these sums, down to individual elements. Such problems are routinely addressed by applying the maximum entropy method to compute the matrix numerically, but in this article we derive analytical, closed-form solutions. For the most complicated cases we consider the solution depends on the root of a non-linear equation, for which we provide an analytical approximation in the form of a power series. Some of our solutions extend to 3-dimensional matrices. Besides being valid for matrices of arbitrary size, the analytical solutions exhibit many of the appealing properties of maximum entropy, such as precise use of the available data, intuitive behaviour with respect to changes in the constraints, and logical consistency.

  5. Normal form analysis of multiple bifurcations in incompletely mixed chemical reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puhl, Andreas; Nicolis, Grégoire

    1987-07-01

    Using the theory of normal forms, we investigate the effects of mixing in a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for a reaction model exhibiting oscillatory behavior in the vicinity of a degenerated bifurcation point (here, a Takens-Bogdanov point). In addition we show without specification of a particular reaction system that, as long as reaction rates remain much slower than the inverse mixing time, incomplete mixing introduces a new bifurcation parameter for nonpremixed feeding conditions, whereas premixed feeding conditions merely lead to a renormalization of flow rate.

  6. Pion transition form factor in the Regge approach and incomplete vector-meson dominance

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz Arriola, Enrique; Broniowski, Wojciech

    2010-05-01

    The concept of incomplete vector-meson dominance and Regge models is applied to the transition form factor of the pion. First, we argue that variants of the chiral quark model fulfilling the chiral anomaly may violate the Terazawa-West unitarity bounds, as these bounds are based on unverified assumptions for the real parts of the amplitudes, precluding a possible presence of polynomial terms. A direct consequence is that the transition form factor need not necessarily vanish at large values of the photon virtuality. Moreover, in the range of the BABAR experiment, the Terazawa-West bound is an order of magnitude above the data, thus is of formal rather than practical interest. Then we demonstrate how the experimental data may be properly explained with incomplete vector-meson dominance in a simple model with one state, as well as in more sophisticated Regge models. Generalizations of the simple Regge model along the lines of Dominguez result in a proper description of the data, where one may adjust the parameters in such a way that the Terazawa-West bound is satisfied or violated. We also impose the experimental constraint from the Z{yields}{pi}{sub 0{gamma}} decay. Finally, we point out that the photon momentum asymmetry parameter may noticeably influence the precision analysis.

  7. Towards a new paradigm of microscopic colitis: Incomplete and variant forms

    PubMed Central

    Guagnozzi, Danila; Landolfi, Stefania; Vicario, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that has emerged in the last three decades as a leading cause of chronic watery diarrhoea. MC classically includes two main subtypes: lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC). Other types of histopathological changes in the colonic mucosa have been described in patients with chronic diarrhoea, without fulfilling the conventional histopathological criteria for MC diagnosis. Whereas those unclassified alterations remained orphan for a long time, the use of the term incomplete MC (MCi) is nowadays universally accepted. However, it is still unresolved whether CC, LC and MCi should be considered as one clinical entity or if they represent three related conditions. In contrast to classical MC, the real epidemiological impact of MCi remains unknown, because only few epidemiological studies and case reports have been described. MCi presents clinical characteristics indistinguishable from complete MC with a good response to budesonide and cholestiramine. Although a number of medical treatments have been assayed in MC patients, currently, there is no causal treatment approach for MC and MCi, and only empirical strategies have been performed. Further studies are needed in order to identify their etiopathogenic mechanisms, and to better classify and treat MC. PMID:27784958

  8. Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (incomplete form) in young adults: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Hemanta K; Rajkumar, Vangipuram Deepak; Kumar, Naresh; Kar, Premashis

    2012-01-01

    Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is characterised by digital clubbing and periosteal reaction of long bones. Most cases are associated with malignancy or other conditions such as congenital heart disease, liver cirrhosis, pulmonary fibrosis, biliary atresia and inflammatory bowel diseases. We report a middle-aged man found to have 15-year history of clubbing of the fingers and toes on his routine check-up for dyspepsia. Skiagram of hand joints showed periosteal apposition without any periosteal reaction of long bones. The search for a secondary cause of clubbing remained negative. The primary or idiopathic form is rare and has a good prognosis and has to be differentiated from secondary form. He was eradicated successfully with Pylori kit for his antral predominant Helicobacter-induced gastritis. PMID:23242097

  9. Metabolic demand and muscle activation during different forms of bodyweight supported locomotion in men with incomplete SCI.

    PubMed

    Fenuta, Alyssa M; Hicks, Audrey L

    2014-01-01

    Body weight supported locomotor training uses neuroplasticity principles to improve recovery following a spinal cord injury (SCI). Steady state locomotion using the same body weight support (BWS) percent was compared in 7 males (42.6 ± 4.29 years) with incomplete SCI and matched (gender, age) noninjured controls (42.7 ± 5.4 years) using the Lokomat, Manual Treadmill, and ZeroG. The VO2000, Polar Heart Rate (HR) Monitor, and lower limb electromyography (EMG) electrodes were worn during the 2-minute sessions. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and HR were expressed as percentage of peak values obtained using progressive arm ergometry; VO2 was also expressed relative to resting metabolic equivalents (METS). Filtered EMG signals from tibialis anterior (TA), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) were normalized to ZeroG stepping. The Lokomat required 30% of VO2 peak (2METS) compared to ~54% (3METS) for Manual Treadmill and ZeroG sessions. HR was 67% of peak during Lokomat sessions compared to ~83% for Manual Treadmill and ZeroG. Muscle activation was higher in treadmill conditions compared to the ZeroG primarily due to increased BF activity. At the same level of BWS, locomotion using the Manual Treadmill or the ZeroG is more aerobically demanding than the Lokomat. Treadmill modalities encourage greater hip extensor activation compared to overground locomotion.

  10. Tracking molecular resonance forms of donor–acceptor push–pull molecules by single-molecule conductance experiments

    PubMed Central

    Lissau, Henriette; Frisenda, Riccardo; Olsen, Stine T.; Jevric, Martyn; Parker, Christian R.; Kadziola, Anders; Hansen, Thorsten; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Brøndsted Nielsen, Mogens; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of molecules to change colour on account of changes in solvent polarity is known as solvatochromism and used spectroscopically to characterize charge-transfer transitions in donor–acceptor molecules. Here we report that donor–acceptor-substituted molecular wires also exhibit distinct properties in single-molecule electronics under the influence of a bias voltage, but in absence of solvent. Two oligo(phenyleneethynylene) wires with donor–acceptor substitution on the central ring (cruciform-like) exhibit remarkably broad conductance peaks measured by the mechanically controlled break-junction technique with gold contacts, in contrast to the sharp peak of simpler molecules. From a theoretical analysis, we explain this by different degrees of charge delocalization and hence cross-conjugation at the central ring. Thus, small variations in the local environment promote the quinoid resonance form (off), the linearly conjugated (on) or any form in between. This shows how the conductance of donor–acceptor cruciforms is tuned by small changes in the environment. PMID:26667583

  11. Modeling the production of highly-complex molecules in star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrod, R. T.

    2016-05-01

    Molecules of increasing complexity are being observed toward star-forming regions, including the recently detected iso-propyl cyanide, the first interstellar branched carbon-chain molecule. Modeling the formation of new complex organics requires new grain-surface production mechanisms, as well as gas-phase and grain-surface destruction processes. The method for constructing networks for new molecules is discussed, as well as the results of recent models of branched carbon-chain molecule chemistry. The formation of both simple and complex organics in cold regions is also discussed. New, exact kinetics models indicate that complex molecules may be formed efficiently at very low temperatures, if CO is abundant on the grain surfaces.

  12. Nuclear Polarization of H{sub 2} Molecules formed from Polarized Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, T.; Balewski, J.T.; Daehnick, W.W.; Doskow, J.; Friesel, D.; Haeberli, W.; Kolster,H.; Lorentz, B.; Meyer, H.O.; Pancella, P.V.; Pollock, R.E.; Przewoski, B.v.; Quin, P.A.; Rathmann, F.; Rinckel, T.; Saha, Swapan K.; Schwartz, B.; Wellinghausen, A.

    2000-12-31

    A planned experiment to measure the nuclear polarization of H{sub 2} molecules formed by recombination of polarized H atoms is described. Polarization will be measured with a longitudinally polarized 200-MeV proton beam and a longitudinally polarized storage cell gas target at the IUCF cooler ring.

  13. Crystal chemistry of layered structures formed by linear rigid silyl-capped molecules

    PubMed Central

    Lumpi, Daniel; Kautny, Paul; Stöger, Berthold; Fröhlich, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The crystallization behavior of methylthio- or methylsulfonyl-containing spacer extended Z,Z-bis-ene–yne molecules capped with trimethylsilyl groups obtained by (tandem) thiophene ring fragmentation and of two non-spacer extended analogs were investigated. The rigid and linear molecules generally crystallized in layers whereby the flexibility of the layer interfaces formed by the silyl groups leads to a remarkably rich crystal chemistry. The molecules with benzene and thiophene spacers both crystallized with C2/c symmetry and can be considered as merotypes. Increasing the steric bulk of the core by introduction of ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) gave a structure incommensurately modulated in the [010] direction. Further increase of steric demand in the case of a dimethoxythiophene restored periodicity along [010] but resulted in a doubling of the c vector. Two different polytypes were observed, which feature geometrically different layer interfaces (non-OD, order–disorder, polytypes), one with a high stacking fault probability. Oxidation of the methylthio groups of the benzene-based molecule to methylsulfonyl groups led to three polymorphs (two temperature-dependent), which were analyzed by Hirshfeld surface d e/d i fingerprint plots. The analogously oxidized EDOT-based molecule crystallized as systematic twins owing to its OD polytypism. Shortening of the backbone by removal of the aryl core resulted in an enantiomorphic structure and a further shortening by removal of a methylthio-ene fragment again in a systematically twinned OD polytype. PMID:26306200

  14. The First Detections of the Key Prebiotic Molecule PO in Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Fontani, F.; Beltrán, M. T.; Vasyunin, A.; Caselli, P.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Cesaroni, R.

    2016-08-01

    Phosphorus is a crucial element in biochemistry, in particular the P‑O bond, which is key in the formation of the backbone of deoxyribonucleic acid. So far, PO has only been detected toward the envelope of evolved stars, but never toward star-forming regions. We report the first detection of PO toward two massive star-forming regions, W51 e1/e2 and W3(OH), using data from the IRAM 30 m telescope. PN has also been detected toward the two regions. The abundance ratio PO/PN is 1.8 and 3 for W51 and W3(OH), respectively. Our chemical model indicates that the two molecules are chemically related and are formed via gas-phase ion–molecule and neutral–neutral reactions during cold collapse. The molecules freeze out onto grains at the end of the collapse and desorb during the warm-up phase once the temperature reaches ˜35 K. Similar abundances of the two species are expected during a period of ˜5 × 104 yr at the early stages of the warm-up phase, when the temperature is in the range 35–90 K. The observed molecular abundances of 10‑10 are predicted by the model if a relatively high initial abundance of 5 × 10‑9 of depleted phosphorus is assumed.

  15. Millimeter and Submillimeter Studies of O(^1D) Insertion Reactions to Form Molecules of Astrophysical Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Brian; Wehres, Nadine; Deprince, Bridget Alligood; Roy, Althea A. M.; Laas, Jacob; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2015-06-01

    While both the number of detected interstellar molecules and their chemical complexity continue to increase, understanding of the processes leading to their formation is lacking. Our research group combines laboratory spectroscopy, observational astronomy, and astrochemical modeling for an interdisciplinary examination of the chemistry of star and planet formation. This talk will focus on our laboratory studies of O(^1D) insertion reactions with organic molecules to produce molecules of astrophysical interest. By employing these reactions in a supersonic expansion, we are able to produce interstellar organic reaction intermediates that are unstable under terrestrial conditions; we then probe the products using millimeter and submillimeter spectroscopy. We benchmarked this setup using the well-studied O(^1D) + methane reaction to form methanol. After optimizing methanol production, we moved on to study the O(^1D) + ethylene reaction to form vinyl alcohol (CH_2CHOH), and the O(^1D) + methyl amine reaction to form aminomethanol (NH_2CH_2OH). Vinyl alcohol measurements have now been extended up to 450 GHz, and the associated spectral analysis is complete. A possible detection of aminomethanol has also been made, and continued spectral studies and analysis are underway. We will present the results from these experiments and discuss future applications of these molecular and spectroscopic techniques.

  16. The First Detections of the Key Prebiotic Molecule PO in Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Fontani, F.; Beltrán, M. T.; Vasyunin, A.; Caselli, P.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Cesaroni, R.

    2016-08-01

    Phosphorus is a crucial element in biochemistry, in particular the P-O bond, which is key in the formation of the backbone of deoxyribonucleic acid. So far, PO has only been detected toward the envelope of evolved stars, but never toward star-forming regions. We report the first detection of PO toward two massive star-forming regions, W51 e1/e2 and W3(OH), using data from the IRAM 30 m telescope. PN has also been detected toward the two regions. The abundance ratio PO/PN is 1.8 and 3 for W51 and W3(OH), respectively. Our chemical model indicates that the two molecules are chemically related and are formed via gas-phase ion-molecule and neutral-neutral reactions during cold collapse. The molecules freeze out onto grains at the end of the collapse and desorb during the warm-up phase once the temperature reaches ˜35 K. Similar abundances of the two species are expected during a period of ˜5 × 104 yr at the early stages of the warm-up phase, when the temperature is in the range 35-90 K. The observed molecular abundances of 10-10 are predicted by the model if a relatively high initial abundance of 5 × 10-9 of depleted phosphorus is assumed.

  17. Translational vibrations between chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules in solid-state aspirin form I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masae; Ishikawa, Yoichi

    2013-06-01

    We perform dispersion-corrected first-principles calculations, and far-infrared (terahertz) spectroscopic experiments at 4 K, to examine translational vibrations between chains of hydrogen-bonded molecules in solid-state aspirin form I. The calculated frequencies and relative intensities reproduce the observed spectrum to accuracy of 11 cm-1 or less. The stronger one of the two peaks assigned to the translational mode includes the stretching vibration of the weak hydrogen bond between the acetyl groups of a neighboring one-dimensional chain. The calculation of aspirin form II performed for comparison gives the stretching vibration of the weak hydrogen bond in one-dimensional chain.

  18. Electronic and geometrical structure of dipole-bound anions formed by polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Gutsev, G.L.; Adamowicz, L.

    1995-09-07

    The electronic and geometrical structures of fourteen polar molecules, which have sufficiently large dipole moments to form dipole-bound stationary states with an extra electron, are investigated with the Hartree-Fock (HF) method and second-order Moller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory. The molecules considered are as follow: formaldehyde, H{sub 2}CO; propanal, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CHO; pivalaldehyde, (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}CCHO; butanal, CH{sub 3}-CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}CHO; acetaldehyde, CH{sub 3}CHO; 2-butanone, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}COCH{sub 3}; trifluorobenzene, C{sub 7}H{sub 5}F{sub 3}; cyclohexanone, C{sub 6}H{sub 10}O; acetone; CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}; cyclopentanone, C{sub 5}H{sub 8}O; cyclobutanone, C{sub 4}H{sub 6}O; methylacrylonitrile, CH{sub 2}-CCH{sub 3}CN; acrylonitrile, CH{sub 2}CHCN; acetonitrile, CH{sub 3}CN. The electron affinities corresponding to the formation of the dipole-bound states of the anions are calculated. For all the molecules considered, except formaldehyde, the molecules are found to be able to support dipole-bound states. Almost direct proportionality is found between the dipole moment and the electron affinity (EA) in the series. 105 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Small hydrocarbon molecules in cloud-forming brown dwarf and giant gas planet atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilger, C.; Rimmer, P.; Helling, Ch.

    2013-11-01

    We study the abundances of complex carbon-bearing molecules in the oxygen-rich dust-forming atmospheres of brown dwarfs and giant gas planets. The inner atmospheric regions that form the inner boundary for thermochemical gas-phase models are investigated. Results from DRIFT-PHOENIX atmosphere simulations, which include the feedback of phase-non-equilibrium dust cloud formation on the atmospheric structure and the gas-phase abundances, are utilized. The resulting element depletion leads to a shift in the carbon-to-oxygen ratio such that several hydrocarbon molecules and cyanopolyyne molecules can be present. An increase in surface gravity and/or a decrease in metallicity support the increase in the partial pressures of these species. CO, CO2, CH4 and HCN contain the largest fraction of carbon. In the upper atmosphere of low-metallicity objects, more carbon is contained in C4H than in CO, and also CH3 and C2H2 play an increasingly important role as carbon sink. We determine chemical relaxation time-scales to evaluate if hydrocarbon molecules can be affected by transport-induced quenching. Our results suggest that a considerable amount of C2H6 and C2H2 could be expected in the upper atmospheres not only of giant gas planets, but also of brown dwarfs. However, the exact quenching height strongly depends on the data source used. These results will have an impact on future thermokinetic studies, as they change the inner boundary condition for those simulations.

  20. A secreted form of the human lymphocyte cell surface molecule CD8 arises from alternative splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Giblin, P.; Kavathas, P. ); Ledbetter, J.A. )

    1989-02-01

    The human lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD8 is encoded by a single gene that gives rise to a 33- to 34-kDa glycoprotein expressed on the cell surface as a dimer and in higher molecular mass forms. The authors demonstrate that the mRNA is alternatively spliced so that an exon encoding a transmembrane domain is deleted. This gives rise to a 30-kDa molecule that is secreted and exists primarily as a monomer. mRNA corresponding to both forms is present in peripheral blood lymphocytes, Con A-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes, and three CD8{sup +} T-cell lines, with the membrane form being the major species. However, differences in the ratio of mRNA for membrane CD8 and secreted CD8 exist. In addition, the splicing pattern observed differs from the pattern found for the mouse CD8 gene. This mRNA is also alternatively spliced, but an exon encoding a cytoplasmic region is deleted, giving rise to a cell surface molecule that differs in its cytoplasmic tail from the protein encoded by the longer mRNA. Neither protein is secreted. This is one of the first examples of a different splicing pattern between two homologous mouse and human genes giving rise to very different proteins. This represents one mechanism of generating diversity during speciation.

  1. From antiferroelectricity to ferroelectricity in smectic mesophases formed by bent-core molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschierske, Carsten; Dantlgraber, Gert

    2003-08-01

    This contribution gives an overview of ferroelectric switching liquid crystalline phases formed by bent-core molecules. First a description of some general principles behind the mesophase formation within bent-core systems will be given, followed by a short review of the mesophase structures formed by such molecules. Then, different classes of ferroelectric switching bent-core mesogens will be described. This type of switching behaviour has been reported for several subtypes of polar smectic phases (B2, B5, B7 and SmCG) and recently for columnar mesophases. In this discussion particular attention will be made to polyphilic bent-core molecules, composed of three incompatible units, a bent aromatic core, alkyl chains and an oligosiloxane unit. The importance of the decoupling of the layers into microsegregated sublayers for the ferroelectric organisation is discussed. Many of the ferroelectric switching mesophases show dark textures with distinct regions of opposite chirality in their ground states. It is discussed that this might be due to a helical superstructure formed as a result of an escape from macroscopic polar order. Hence, the materials themselves are not ferroelectric in the ground state, but upon alignment within an electric field in the measuring cells the ferroelectric states are stabilised by surface interactions, leading to a ferroelectric switching system. The designing principle was extended to mesogenic dimers with bent-core structural units. For these compounds, depending on the number of dimethylsiloxane units in the spacer either ferroelectric or antiferroelectric switching was observed, whereby the effect of parity is reversed to that observed for conventional calamitic dimesogens. Finally, a carbosilane-based first generation dendrimer is reported. It shows a ferroelectric switching phase, for which a non-correlated organisation of tilted polar smectic layers is proposed (SmCPR).

  2. Surface Molecules Released by Trypanosoma cruzi Metacyclic Forms Downregulate Host Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Tatiana Mordente; Cortez, Cristian; Novaes, Antônio da Silva; Yoshida, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    Background The question whether metacylic trypomastigote (MT) forms of different T. cruzi strains differentially release surface molecules, and how they affect host cell invasion, remains to be fully clarified. We addressed that question using T. cruzi strains that differ widely in the ability to invade cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Metacyclic forms were incubated at 37°C for 1 h in complete D10 medium or in nutrient-deprived PBS containing Ca2+ and Mg2+ (PBS++). The conditioned medium (CM), collected after parasite centrifugation, was used for cell invasion assays and Western blot analysis, using monoclonal antibodies directed to gp82 and gp90, the MT surface molecules that promote and negatively regulate invasion, respectively. CM of poorly invasive G strain (G-CM) contained high amounts of gp90 and gp82, either in vesicles or as soluble molecules. CM of highly invasive CL strain (CL-CM) contained gp90 and gp82 at very low levels. HeLa cells were incubated for 1 h with CL strain MT in D10, in absence or in the presence of G-CM or CL-CM. Parasite invasion was significantly inhibited by G-CM, but not by CL-CM. As G strain MT invasion rate in D10 is very low, assays with this strain were performed in PBS++, which induces invasion-promoting lysosome-spreading. G-CM, but not CL-CM, significantly inhibited G strain internalization, effect that was counteracted by preincubating G-CM with an anti-gp90 monoclonal antibody or anti-gp82 polyclonal antibody that do not recognize live MT. G strain CM generated in PBS++ contained much lower amounts of gp90 and gp82 as compared to CM produced in D10, and exhibited lower inhibitory effect on host cell invasion. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that the surface molecules spontaneously released by MT impair parasite-host cell interaction, gp82 presumably competing with the molecule expressed on MT surface for the host cell receptor, and gp90 further contributing to down modulate invasion. PMID:27483135

  3. Probing non-polar interstellar molecules through their protonated form: Detection of protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; de Vicente, P.; Marcelino, N.; Roueff, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Guélin, M.; Albo, C.; Barcia, A.; Barbas, L.; Bolaño, R.; Colomer, F.; Diez, M. C.; Gallego, J. D.; Gómez-González, J.; López-Fernández, I.; López-Fernández, J. A.; López-Pérez, J. A.; Malo, I.; Serna, J. M.; Tercero, F.

    2015-07-01

    Cyanogen (NCCN) is the simplest member of the series of dicyanopolyynes. It has been hypothesized that this family of molecules can be important constituents of interstellar and circumstellar media, although the lack of a permanent electric dipole moment prevents its detection through radioastronomical techniques. Here we present the first solid evidence of the presence of cyanogen in interstellar clouds by detection of its protonated form toward the cold dark clouds TMC-1 and L483. Protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+) has been identified through the J = 5-4 and J = 10-9 rotational transitions using the 40 m radiotelescope of Yebes and the IRAM 30 m telescope. We derive beam-averaged column densities for NCCNH+ of (8.6 ± 4.4) × 1010 cm-2 in TMC-1 and (3.9 ± 1.8) × 1010 cm-2 in L483, which translate into fairly low fractional abundances relative to H2, in the range (1-10) × 10-12. The chemistry of protonated molecules in dark clouds is discussed, and it is found that, in general terms, the abundance ratio between the protonated and non-protonated forms of a molecule increases with increasing proton affinity. Our chemical model predicts an abundance ratio NCCNH+/NCCN of ~10-4, which implies that the abundance of cyanogen in dark clouds could be as high as (1-10) × 10-8 relative to H2, i.e., comparable to that of other abundant nitriles such as HCN, HNC, and HC3N. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope and the Yebes 40 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain). The 40 m radiotelescope at Yebes Observatory is operated by the Spanish National Geographic Institute (IGN, Ministerio de Fomento).

  4. Probing non polar interstellar molecules through their protonated form: Detection of protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+)★

    PubMed Central

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; de Vicente, P.; Marcelino, N.; Roueff, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Guélin, M.; Albo, C.; Barcia, A.; Barbas, L.; Bolaño, R.; Colomer, F.; Diez, M. C.; Gallego, J. D.; Gómez-González, J.; López-Fernández, I.; López-Fernández, J. A.; López-Pérez, J. A.; Malo, I.; Serna, J. M.; Tercero, F.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanogen (NCCN) is the simplest member of the series of dicyanopolyynes. It has been hypothesized that this family of molecules can be important constituents of interstellar and circumstellar media, although the lack of a permanent electric dipole moment prevents its detection through radioastronomical techniques. Here we present the first solid evidence of the presence of cyanogen in interstellar clouds through the detection of its protonated form toward the cold dark clouds TMC-1 and L483. Protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+) has been identified through the J = 5 – 4 and J = 10 – 9 rotational transitions using the 40m radiotelescope of Yebes and the IRAM 30m telescope. We derive beam averaged column densities for NCCNH+ of (8.6 ± 4.4) × 1010 cm−2 in TMC-1 and (3.9 ± 1.8) × 1010 cm−2 in L483, which translate to fairly low fractional abundances relative to H2, in the range (1-10) × 10−12. The chemistry of protonated molecules in dark clouds is discussed, and it is found that, in general terms, the abundance ratio between the protonated and non protonated forms of a molecule increases with increasing proton affinity. Our chemical model predicts an abundance ratio NCCNH+/NCCN of ~ 10−4, which implies that the abundance of cyanogen in dark clouds could be as high as (1-10) × 10−8 relative to H2, i.e., comparable to that of other abundant nitriles such as HCN, HNC, and HC3N. PMID:26543239

  5. The electrophoretically 'slow' and 'fast' forms of the alpha 2-macroglobulin molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, A J; Brown, M A; Sayers, C A

    1979-01-01

    alpha 2-Macroglobulin (alpha 2M) was isolated from human plasma by a four-step procedure: poly(ethylene glyco) fractionation, gel chromatography, euglobulin precipitation and immunoadsorption. No contaminants were detected in the final preparations by electrophoresis or immunoprecipitation. The protein ran as a single slow band in gel electrophoresis, and was designated 'S-alpha 2M'. S-alpha 2M bound about 2 mol of trypsin/mol. Treatment of S-alpha 2M with a proteinase or ammonium salts produced a form of the molecule more mobile in electrophoresis, and lacking proteinase-binding activity (F-alpha 2M). The electrophoretic mobility of the F-alpha 2M resulting from reaction with NH4+ salts was identical with that of proteinase complexes. We attribute the change in electrophoretic mobility of the alpha 2M to a conformation change, but there was no evidence of a change in pI or Strokes radius. Electrophoresis of S-alpha 2M in the presence of sodium dodecylsulphate gave results consistent with the view that the alpha 2M molecule is a tetramer of identical subunits, assembled as a non-covalent pair of disulphide-linked dimers. Some of the subunits seemed to be 'nicked' into two-thires-length and one-third-length chains, however. This was not apparent with F-alpha 2M produced by ammonium salts. F-alpha 2M produced by trypsin showed two new bands attributable to cleavage of the subunit polypeptide chain near the middle. Immunoassays of F-alpha 2M gave 'rockets' 12-29% lower than those with S-alpha 2M. The nature of the interactions between subunits in S-alpha 2M and F-alpha 2M was investigated by treating each form with glutaraldehyde before electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. A much greater degree of cross-linking was observed with the F-alpha 2M, indicating that the subunits interact most closely in this form of the molecule. Exposure of S-alpha 2M to 3 M-urea or pH3 resulted in dissociation to the disulphide-bonded half-molecules; these did not

  6. Local delivery of gene-modifying triplex-forming molecules to epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Faye A.; Hu, Rong-Hua; Milstone, Leonard M.

    2012-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes are particularly suitable candidates for in situ gene correction. Intraperitoneal administration of a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) was shown previously to introduce DNA base changes in a reporter gene in skin, without identifying which cells had been targeted. We extend those previous experiments using two triplex-forming molecules (TFMs), a peptide nucleic acid (PNA-Antp) and a TFO (AG30), and two lines of transgenic mice that have the chromosomally integrated λsupFG1 shuttle-reporter transgene. Successful in vivo genomic modification occurs in epidermis and dermis in CD1 transgenic mice following either intraperitoneal or intradermal delivery of the PNA-Antennapedia conjugate. FITC-PNA-Antp accumulates in nuclei of keratinocytes and, after intradermal delivery of the PNA-Antp, chromosomally modified, keratin 5 positive basal keratinocytes persist for at least 10 days. In hairless (SKH1) mice with the λsupFG1 transgene, intradermal delivery of the TFO, AG30, introduces gene modifications in both tail and back skin and those chromosomal modifications persist in basal keratinocytes for 10 days. Hairless mice should facilitate comparison of various targeting agents and methods of delivery. Gene targeting by repeated local administration of oligonucleotides may prove clinically useful for judiciously selected disease-causing genes in the epidermis. PMID:23014335

  7. Accurate statistical associating fluid theory for chain molecules formed from Mie segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafitte, Thomas; Apostolakou, Anastasia; Avendaño, Carlos; Galindo, Amparo; Adjiman, Claire S.; Müller, Erich A.; Jackson, George

    2013-10-01

    A highly accurate equation of state (EOS) for chain molecules formed from spherical segments interacting through Mie potentials (i.e., a generalized Lennard-Jones form with variable repulsive and attractive exponents) is presented. The quality of the theoretical description of the vapour-liquid equilibria (coexistence densities and vapour pressures) and the second-derivative thermophysical properties (heat capacities, isobaric thermal expansivities, and speed of sound) are critically assessed by comparison with molecular simulation and with experimental data of representative real substances. Our new EOS represents a notable improvement with respect to previous versions of the statistical associating fluid theory for variable range interactions (SAFT-VR) of the generic Mie form. The approach makes rigorous use of the Barker and Henderson high-temperature perturbation expansion up to third order in the free energy of the monomer Mie system. The radial distribution function of the reference monomer fluid, which is a prerequisite for the representation of the properties of the fluid of Mie chains within a Wertheim first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT1), is calculated from a second-order expansion. The resulting SAFT-VR Mie EOS can now be applied to molecular fluids characterized by a broad range of interactions spanning from soft to very repulsive and short-ranged Mie potentials. A good representation of the corresponding molecular-simulation data is achieved for model monomer and chain fluids. When applied to the particular case of the ubiquitous Lennard-Jones potential, our rigorous description of the thermodynamic properties is of equivalent quality to that obtained with the empirical EOSs for LJ monomer (EOS of Johnson et al.) and LJ chain (soft-SAFT) fluids. A key feature of our reformulated SAFT-VR approach is the greatly enhanced accuracy in the near-critical region for chain molecules. This attribute, combined with the accurate modeling of second

  8. Accurate statistical associating fluid theory for chain molecules formed from Mie segments.

    PubMed

    Lafitte, Thomas; Apostolakou, Anastasia; Avendaño, Carlos; Galindo, Amparo; Adjiman, Claire S; Müller, Erich A; Jackson, George

    2013-10-21

    A highly accurate equation of state (EOS) for chain molecules formed from spherical segments interacting through Mie potentials (i.e., a generalized Lennard-Jones form with variable repulsive and attractive exponents) is presented. The quality of the theoretical description of the vapour-liquid equilibria (coexistence densities and vapour pressures) and the second-derivative thermophysical properties (heat capacities, isobaric thermal expansivities, and speed of sound) are critically assessed by comparison with molecular simulation and with experimental data of representative real substances. Our new EOS represents a notable improvement with respect to previous versions of the statistical associating fluid theory for variable range interactions (SAFT-VR) of the generic Mie form. The approach makes rigorous use of the Barker and Henderson high-temperature perturbation expansion up to third order in the free energy of the monomer Mie system. The radial distribution function of the reference monomer fluid, which is a prerequisite for the representation of the properties of the fluid of Mie chains within a Wertheim first-order thermodynamic perturbation theory (TPT1), is calculated from a second-order expansion. The resulting SAFT-VR Mie EOS can now be applied to molecular fluids characterized by a broad range of interactions spanning from soft to very repulsive and short-ranged Mie potentials. A good representation of the corresponding molecular-simulation data is achieved for model monomer and chain fluids. When applied to the particular case of the ubiquitous Lennard-Jones potential, our rigorous description of the thermodynamic properties is of equivalent quality to that obtained with the empirical EOSs for LJ monomer (EOS of Johnson et al.) and LJ chain (soft-SAFT) fluids. A key feature of our reformulated SAFT-VR approach is the greatly enhanced accuracy in the near-critical region for chain molecules. This attribute, combined with the accurate modeling of second

  9. Phosphorus-bearing molecules in solar-type star forming regions: First PO detection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefloch, Bertrand; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Jimenez-Serra, I.; Codella, C.; Podio, L.; Ceccarelli, C.; Mendoza, E.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Bachiller, R.

    2016-08-01

    As part of the Large Program ASAI (Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM), we have used the IRAM 30m telescope to lead a systematic search for the emission of rotational transitions of P-bearing species between 80 and 350 GHz towards L1157-B1, a shock position in the solar-type star forming region L1157. We report the detection of several transitions of PN and, for the first time, of prebiotic molecule PO. None of these species are detected towards the driving protostar of the outflow L1157-mm. Analysis of the line profiles shows that PN arises from the outflow cavity, where SiO, a strong shock tracer, is produced. Radiative transfer analysis yields an abundance of 2.5 × 10-9 and 0.9 × 10-9 for PO and PN, respectively. These results imply a strong depletion (≈100) of Phosphorus in the quiescent cloud gas. Shock modelling shows that atomic N plays a major role in the chemistry of PO and PN. The relative abundance of PO and PN brings constraints both on the duration of the pre-shock phase, which has to be ˜ 106 yr, and on the shock parameters. The maximum temperature in the shock has to be larger than 4000 K, which implies a shock velocity of 40 km s-1.

  10. Phosphorus-bearing molecules in solar-type star-forming regions: first PO detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefloch, Bertrand; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Jimenez-Serra, I.; Codella, C.; Podio, L.; Ceccarelli, C.; Mendoza, E.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Bachiller, R.

    2016-11-01

    As part of the Large Program Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM, we have used the IRAM 30 m telescope to lead a systematic search for the emission of rotational transitions of P-bearing species between 80 and 350 GHz towards L1157-B1, a shock position in the solar-type star-forming region L1157. We report the detection of several transitions of PN and, for the first time, of pre-biotic molecule PO. None of these species are detected towards the driving protostar of the outflow L1157-mm. Analysis of the line profiles shows that PN arises from the outflow cavity, where SiO, a strong shock tracer, is produced. Radiative transfer analysis yields an abundance of 2.5 × 10-9 and 0.9 × 10-9 for PO and PN, respectively. These results imply a strong depletion (≈100) of phosphorus in the quiescent cloud gas. Shock modelling shows that atomic N plays a major role in the chemistry of PO and PN. The relative abundance of PO and PN brings constraints both on the duration of the pre-shock phase, which has to be ˜106 yr, and on the shock parameters. The maximum temperature in the shock has to be larger than 4000 K, which implies a shock velocity of 40 km s-1.

  11. Mass Spectrometric Investigation of Anions Formed upon Free Electron Attachment to Nucleobase Molecules and Clusters Embedded in Superfluid Helium Droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Denifl, Stephan; Zappa, Fabio; Maehr, Ingo; Lecointre, Julien; Probst, Michael; Maerk, Tilmann D.; Scheier, Paul

    2006-07-28

    Here we report the first mass spectrometric study of negative ions formed via free electron attachment (EA) to nucleobases (NBs) embedded in helium clusters. Pure and mixed clusters of adenine and thymine have been formed by pickup of isolated NB molecules by cold helium droplets. In contrast to EA of isolated molecules in the gas phase we observe a long-lived parent anion NB{sup -} and, in addition, parent cluster ions NB{sub n}{sup -} up to size n=6. Moreover, we show that a low energy electron penetrating into a doped helium droplet causes efficient damage of the embedded nucleobases via resonant, site selective, dissociative electron attachment.

  12. Review of crystalline structures of some selected homologous series of rod-like molecules capable of forming liquid crystalline phases.

    PubMed

    Zugenmaier, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The crystal structures of four homologous series of rod-like molecules are reviewed, two of which form hydrogen bonds and two with a symmetric chemical constitution. Many of the compounds investigated turn into liquid crystalline phases upon temperature increase. It is of valuable interest to know possible conformations and possible packing arrangements as prerequisites to model liquid crystalline structures. The hydrogen bonds of homologous series of pure 4-(ω-hydroxyalkyloxy)-4'-hydroxybiphenyl (HnHBP, n the alkyloxy tail length) are realized through head to tail arrangements of the hydroxyl groups and crystallize except one compound in chiral space groups without the molecules containing any asymmetric carbon. The hydrogen bonds of the homologous series of 4-substituted benzoic acids with various lengths of the tail provide dimers through strong polar bonding of adjacent carboxyl groups and thus provide the stiff part of a mesogenic unit prerequisite for liquid crystalline phases. The homologous series of dialkanoyloxybiphenyls (BP-n, n = 1, 19), of which nine compounds could be crystallized, show liquid crystalline behavior for longer alkane chain lengths, despite the high mobility of the alkane chain ends already detectable in the crystal phase. A single molecule, half a molecule or two half molecules form the asymmetric unit in a centrosymmetric space group. The homologous series of 1,4-terephthalidene-bis-N-(4'-n-alkylaniline) (TBAA-n) exhibit a large variety of packing arrangements in the crystalline state, with or without relying on the symmetry center within the molecules. PMID:22174604

  13. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  14. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    PubMed

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737

  15. Halo Nucleic Molecules: Molecules Formed from at Least One Atom with a Halo Nucleus. Emphasis on 11,11Li_2 Along with Other Exotic Isotopologues.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattani, Nikesh S.; Welsh, Staszek

    2014-06-01

    Atoms whose nuclei have an exotic number of nucleons can have a `core nucleus' surrounded by a `halo' formed by a nucleon orbiting the core nucleus. For example, due to the two halo neutrons orbiting the core nucleus of 11Li, its nucleus has a cross section that is roughly the same size as that of 208Pb. Halo nucleic atoms have been studied extensively both in theory and in experiments, however halo nucleic molecules have not been studied in either. We first show, using HeH^+, BeH, and MgH as examples, that with measurements of any two isotopologues of a molecule, we can determine crucial properties of a third isotopologue well within spectroscopic accuracy. We then use the extremely precise empirical information available for the low-lying states of 6,6Li_2, 6,7Li_2 and 7,7Li_2 to predict potentials and various properties of the halo nucleic molecule 11,11Li_2, along with isotopologues containing 3Li, 4Li, 5Li, 8Li, 9Li, 10Li, and 12Li. We believe that our predictions of the ro-vibrational energies are reliable for experiments for the first detection of a halo nucleic molecule. R. J. Le Roy, N. S. Dattani, J. A. Coxon, A. J. Ross, P. Crozet, C. Linton, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 204309 (2009). N. S. Dattani, R. J. Le Roy, J. Mol. Spec. 268, 199-210 (2011). M. Semczuk, X. Li, W. Gunton, M. Haw, N. S. Dattani, J. Witz, A. Mills, D. J. Jones, K. W. Madison, Phys. Rev. A 87, 052505 (2013) W. Gunton, M. Semczuk, N. S. Dattani, K. W. Madison, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062510 (2013)

  16. Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown.

    PubMed

    Nah, Kyung-Soo

    2013-12-01

    The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown. PMID:24380070

  17. Interaction of epitaxial silicene with overlayers formed by exposure to Al atoms and O2 molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlein, R.; Van Bui, H.; Wiggers, F. B.; Yamada-Takamura, Y.; Kovalgin, A. Y.; de Jong, M. P.

    2014-05-01

    As silicene is not chemically inert, the study and exploitation of its electronic properties outside of ultrahigh vacuum environments require the use of insulating capping layers. In order to understand if aluminum oxide might be a suitable encapsulation material, we used high-resolution synchrotron photoelectron spectroscopy to study the interactions of Al atoms and O2 molecules, as well as the combination of both, with epitaxial silicene on thin ZrB2(0001) films grown on Si(111). The deposition of Al atoms onto silicene, up to the coverage of about 0.4 Al per Si atoms, has little effect on the chemical state of the Si atoms. The silicene-terminated surface is also hardly affected by exposure to O2 gas, up to a dose of 4500 L. In contrast, when Al-covered silicene is exposed to the same dose, a large fraction of the Si atoms becomes oxidized. This is attributed to dissociative chemisorption of O2 molecules by Al atoms at the surface, producing reactive atomic oxygen species that cause the oxidation. It is concluded that aluminum oxide overlayers prepared in this fashion are not suitable for encapsulation since they do not prevent but actually enhance the degradation of silicene.

  18. Interaction of epitaxial silicene with overlayers formed by exposure to Al atoms and O2 molecules.

    PubMed

    Friedlein, R; Van Bui, H; Wiggers, F B; Yamada-Takamura, Y; Kovalgin, A Y; de Jong, M P

    2014-05-28

    As silicene is not chemically inert, the study and exploitation of its electronic properties outside of ultrahigh vacuum environments require the use of insulating capping layers. In order to understand if aluminum oxide might be a suitable encapsulation material, we used high-resolution synchrotron photoelectron spectroscopy to study the interactions of Al atoms and O2 molecules, as well as the combination of both, with epitaxial silicene on thin ZrB2(0001) films grown on Si(111). The deposition of Al atoms onto silicene, up to the coverage of about 0.4 Al per Si atoms, has little effect on the chemical state of the Si atoms. The silicene-terminated surface is also hardly affected by exposure to O2 gas, up to a dose of 4500 L. In contrast, when Al-covered silicene is exposed to the same dose, a large fraction of the Si atoms becomes oxidized. This is attributed to dissociative chemisorption of O2 molecules by Al atoms at the surface, producing reactive atomic oxygen species that cause the oxidation. It is concluded that aluminum oxide overlayers prepared in this fashion are not suitable for encapsulation since they do not prevent but actually enhance the degradation of silicene.

  19. Observed bromodomain flexibility reveals histone peptide- and small molecule ligand-compatible forms of ATAD2.

    PubMed

    Poncet-Montange, Guillaume; Zhan, Yanai; Bardenhagen, Jennifer P; Petrocchi, Alessia; Leo, Elisabetta; Shi, Xi; Lee, Gilbert R; Leonard, Paul G; Geck Do, Mary K; Cardozo, Mario G; Andersen, Jannik N; Palmer, Wylie S; Jones, Philip; Ladbury, John E

    2015-03-01

    Preventing histone recognition by bromodomains emerges as an attractive therapeutic approach in cancer. Overexpression of ATAD2 (ATPase family AAA domain-containing 2 isoform A) in cancer cells is associated with poor prognosis making the bromodomain of ATAD2 a promising epigenetic therapeutic target. In the development of an in vitro assay and identification of small molecule ligands, we conducted structure-guided studies which revealed a conformationally flexible ATAD2 bromodomain. Structural studies on apo-, peptide-and small molecule-ATAD2 complexes (by co-crystallization) revealed that the bromodomain adopts a 'closed', histone-compatible conformation and a more 'open' ligand-compatible conformation of the binding site respectively. An unexpected conformational change of the conserved asparagine residue plays an important role in driving the peptide-binding conformation remodelling. We also identified dimethylisoxazole-containing ligands as ATAD2 binders which aided in the validation of the in vitro screen and in the analysis of these conformational studies.

  20. Parafermion excitations in superfluid of quasi-molecular chains formed by dipolar molecules or indirect excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklov, Anatoly; Tsvelik, Alexei

    2013-03-01

    We study a quantum phase transition in a system of dipoles confined in a stack of N identical 1D lattices (tubes) polarized perpendicularly to the lattices. The dipoles may represent polar molecules or indirect excitons. The transition separates two phases; in one of them superfluidity takes place in each individual lattice, in the other (chain superfluid) the order parameter is the product of bosonic operators from all lattices. We argue that in the presence of finite inter-lattice tunneling the transition belongs to the universality class of the q = N two-dimensional classical Potts model. For N = 2 , 3 , 4 the corresponding low energy field theory is the model of ZN parafermions perturbed by the thermal operator. Results of Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with these predictions. The detection schemes for the chain superfluid of dipolar molecules and indirect excitons are outlined. ABK was supported by the NSF under Grant No.PHY1005527; AMT acknowledges a support from US DOE under contract DE-AC02-98 CH108

  1. Bent LC molecules with a 60° central core that can form B7 and B2 phases (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Junji

    2015-10-01

    We synthesized small-angle bent-core liquid-crystalline (LC) molecules based on a 1,2-bis(phenylethylene) benzene central core, containing seven aromatic rings and alkoxy tails with carbon numbers of 12, 16 and 18. This ortho-bistolane central core offers a 60° bend angle. Irrespective of this unusually small angle, these molecules can form banana smectic phases with a ferroelectric B7-antiferroelectric B2 phase sequence upon cooling as clarified from the micoscopic, X-ray and opto-electric observations. This indicates that despite of the low bend angle of 60°, these are able to be still packed into a layer with the polar bent direction parallel to the layer like ordinal banana molecules. The present result is striking since it had been believed that banana phases can only be stabilized when the bending angle is in the range from 110-140°, providing additional insight into the nature of banana-shaped molecules.

  2. Single-molecule visualization of dynamic transitions of pore-forming peptides among multiple transmembrane positions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Qian, Zhenyu; Ma, Li; Hu, Shuxin; Nong, Daguan; Xu, Chunhua; Ye, Fangfu; Lu, Ying; Wei, Guanghong; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Research on the dynamics of single-membrane proteins remains underdeveloped due to the lack of proper approaches that can probe in real time the protein's insertion depth in lipid bilayers. Here we report a single-molecule visualization method to track both vertical insertion and lateral diffusion of membrane proteins in supported lipid bilayers by exploiting the surface-induced fluorescence attenuation (SIFA) of fluorophores. The attenuation follows a d−4 dependency, where d is the fluorophore-to-surface distance. The method is validated by observing the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 to transfer among five transmembrane positions: the surface, the upper leaflet, the centre, the lower leaflet and the bottom of the lipid bilayer. These results demonstrate the power of SIFA to study protein-membrane interactions and provide unprecedented in-depth understanding of molecular mechanisms of the insertion and translocation of membrane proteins. PMID:27686409

  3. Single Molecule Characterization of Conjugated Oligomers Formed through Radical Cyclization at a Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Riss, Alexander; Wickenburg, Sebastian; Tan, Liang; Gorman, Patrick; Oteyza, Dimas; Chen, Yen-Chia; Bradley, Aaron; Ugeda, Miguel; Etkin, Grisha; Louie, Steven; Fischer, Felix; Crommie, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Conjugated polymers have gained considerable attention due to their potential industrial applications and interesting fundamental properties. Real-space imaging their chemical bonds and understanding their electronic structures at the nanoscale could lead to enhanced control in the synthesis of these polymers for the potential applications in the nanoelectronics. Here, we present the synthesis and characterization of poly-acetylene derivatives resulting from cyclizations of enediyne molecules on an Au(111) surface. We performed non-contact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) with sub-molecular resolution to determine the precise chemical structure of cyclized monomers and chemically linked molecular chains. Additionally, STM measurements provide insight into the corresponding electronic structure and reveal a 1D conducting channel along the backbone of the conjugated oligomers, consistent with theoretical predictions. This work demonstrates the unique insight that can be gained by combining nc-AFM and STM to study the chemical and electronic structure of molecular assemblies at surfaces.

  4. A single thiazole orange molecule forms an exciplex in a DNA i-motif.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baochang; Wu, Xiangyang; Yeow, Edwin K L; Shao, Fangwei

    2014-06-18

    A fluorescent exciplex of thiazole orange (TO) is formed in a single-dye conjugated DNA i-motif. The exciplex fluorescence exhibits a large Stokes shift, high quantum yield, robust response to pH oscillation and little structural disturbance to the DNA quadruplex, which can be used to monitor the folding of high-order DNA structures.

  5. Study to explore the mechanism to form inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin with vitamin molecules

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Subhadeep; Roy, Aditi; Roy, Kanak; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    Host–guest inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin with two vitamins viz., nicotinic acid and ascorbic acid in aqueous medium have been explored by reliable spectroscopic, physicochemical and calorimetric methods as stabilizer, carrier and regulatory releaser of the guest molecules. Job’s plots have been drawn by UV-visible spectroscopy to confirm the 1:1 stoichiometry of the host-guest assembly. Stereo-chemical nature of the inclusion complexes has been explained by 2D NMR spectroscopy. Surface tension and conductivity studies further support the inclusion process. Association constants for the vitamin-β-CD inclusion complexes have been calculated by UV-visible spectroscopy using both Benesi–Hildebrand method and non-linear programme, while the thermodynamic parameters have been estimated with the help of van’t Hoff equation. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies have been performed to determine the stoichiometry, association constant and thermodynamic parameters with high accuracy. The outcomes reveal that there is a drop in ΔSo, which is overcome by higher negative value of ΔHo, making the overall inclusion process thermodynamically favorable. The association constant is found to be higher for ascorbic acid than that for nicotinic acid, which has been explained on the basis of their molecular structures. PMID:27762346

  6. Identification of an Allosteric Small Molecule Inhibitor Selective for Inducible Form of Heat Shock Protein 70

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Matthew K.; Bodoor, Khaldon; Carlson, David A.; Hughes, Philip F.; Alwarawrah, Yazan; Loiselle, David R.; Jaeger, Alex M.; Darr, David B.; Jordan, Jamie L.; Hunter, Lucas M.; Molzberger, Eileen T.; Gobillot, Theodore A.; Thiele, Dennis J.; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.; Spector, Neil L.; Haystead, Timothy A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Inducible Hsp70 (Hsp70i) is overexpressed in a wide spectrum of human tumors and its expression correlates with metastasis, poor outcomes, and resistance to chemotherapy in patients. Identification of small molecule inhibitors selective for Hsp70i could provide new therapeutic tools for cancer treatment. In this work, we used fluorescence-linked enzyme chemoproteomic strategy (FLECS) to identify HS-72, an allosteric inhibitor selective for Hsp70i. HS-72 displays the hallmarks of Hsp70 inhibition in cells, promoting substrate protein degradation and growth inhibition. Importantly, HS-72 is selective for Hsp70i over the closely related constitutively active Hsc70. Studies with purified protein show HS-72 acts as an allosteric inhibitor, reducing ATP affinity. In vivo HS-72 is well-tolerated, showing bioavailability and efficacy, inhibiting tumor growth and promoting survival in a HER2+ model of breast cancer. The HS-72 scaffold is amenable to resynthesis and iteration, suggesting an ideal starting point for a new generation of anticancer therapeutics targeting Hsp70i. PMID:25500222

  7. Nanopore integrated with Au clusters formed under electron beam irradiation for single molecule analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seong Soo; Park, Myoung Jin; Han, Chul Hee; Kim, Sung In; Yoo, Jung Ho; Park, Kyung Jin; Park, Nam Kyou; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2016-02-01

    Recently the single molecules such as protein and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) have been successfully characterized using a solidstate nanopore with an electrical detection technique. However, the optical plasmonic nanopore has yet to be fabricated. The optical detection technique can be better utilized as next generation ultrafast geneome sequencing devices due to the possible utilization of the current optical technique for genome sequencing. In this report, we have investigated the Au nanopore formation under the electron beam irradiation on an Au aperture. The circular-type nanoopening with ~ 5 nm diameter on the diffused membrane is fabricated by using 2 keV electron beam irradiation by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). We found the Au cluster on the periphery of the drilled aperture under a 2 keV electron beam irradiation. Immediately right after electron beam irradiation, no Au cluster and no Au crystal lattice structure on the diffused plane are observed. However, after the sample was kept for ~ 6 months under a room environment, the Au clusters are found on the diffused membrane and the Au crystal lattice structures on the diffused membrane are also found using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. These phenomena can be attributed to Ostwald ripening. In addition, the Au nano-hole on the 40 nm thick Au membrane was also drilled by using 200 keV scanning transmission electron microscopy.

  8. High-Resolution Spectroscopic Studies of Complexes Formed by Medium-Size Organic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Becucci, Maurizio; Melandri, Sonia

    2016-05-11

    A wealth of structural and dynamical information has been obtained in the last 30 years from the study of high-resolution spectra of molecular clusters generated in a cold supersonic expansion by means of highly resolved spectroscopic methods. The data obtained, generally lead to determination of the structures of stable conformations. In addition, in the case of weakly bound molecular complexes, it is usual to observe the effects of internal motions due to the shallowness of the potential energy surfaces involved and the flexibility of the systems. In the case of electronic excitation experiments, also the effect of electronic distribution changes on both equilibrium structures and internal motions becomes accessible. The structural and dynamical information that can be obtained by applying suitable theoretical models to the analysis of these unusually complex spectra allows the determination and understanding of the driving forces involved in formation of the molecular complex. In this way, many types of non-covalent interactions have been characterized, from pure van der Waals interactions in complexes of rare gases to moderate-strength and weak hydrogen bonds and to the most recent halogen bonds and n-π interactions. The aim of this review is to underline how the different experimental and theoretical methods converge in giving a detailed picture of weak interactions in small molecular adducts involving medium-size molecules. The conclusions regarding geometries and energies can contribute to understanding of the different driving forces involved in the dynamics of the processes and can be exploited in all fields of chemistry and biochemistry, from design of new materials with novel properties to rational design of drugs. PMID:26986455

  9. High-resolution crystal structures of two crystal forms of human cyclophilin D in complex with PEG 400 molecules

    PubMed Central

    Valasani, Koteswara Rao; Carlson, Emily A.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Bisson, Andrea; Wang, Chunyu; Lovell, Scott; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2014-01-01

    Cyclophilin D (CypD) is a key mitochondrial target for amyloid-β-induced mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunction and is considered a potential drug target for Alzheimer’s disease. The high-resolution crystal structures of primitive orthorhombic (CypD-o) and primitive tetragonal (CypD-t) forms have been determined to 1.45 and 0.85 Å resolution, respectively, and are nearly identical structurally. Although an isomorphous structure of CypD-t has previously been reported, the structure reported here was determined at atomic resolution, while CypD-o represents a new crystal form for this protein. In addition, each crystal form contains a PEG 400 molecule bound to the same region along with a second PEG 400 site in CypD-t which occupies the cyclosporine A inhibitor binding site of CypD. Highly precise structural information for CypD should be extremely useful for discerning the detailed interaction of small molecules, particularly drugs and/or inhibitors, bound to CypD. The 0.85 Å resolution structure of CypD-t is the highest to date for any CypD structure. PMID:24915078

  10. Sub-lethal activity of small molecules from natural sources and their synthetic derivatives against biofilm forming nosocomial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Villa, Federica; Villa, Stefania; Gelain, Arianna; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, the patient safety is seriously jeopardized by the emergence and spread of nosocomial pathogens in the form of biofilm that is resistant to traditional and affordable antimicrobials. Although advances in organic synthesis have extended the lifetime of classic antibiotics through synthetic modifications, the search of innovative antibiofilm compounds from natural sources can provide new templates, novel targets and unique mechanisms that should have advantages over known antimicrobial agents. Testing sub-lethal concentrations of crude extracts and/or isolated compounds from plants and microorganisms is critical to acting on mechanisms subtler than the killing activity, e.g. those influencing the multicellular behavior, offering an elegant way to develop novel antimicrobial-free antibiofilm strategies. Herein we discussed the search and biological activity of small molecules from natural sources and their synthetic derivatives able to modulate biofilm genesis of nosocomial pathogens through non-microbicidal mechanisms (sub-lethal concentrations). The present work offers an overview about the approaches applied to the discovery of lead small molecules including a) conventional drug design methods like screening of chemical compounds obtained from nature and b) computer- aided drug design approaches. Finally, a classification (not exhaustive but representative) based on the natural origin of small molecules and their synthetic derivatives was reported. The information presented in this review should be of interest to a broad range of disciplines and represents an effort to summarize experimental research and advances in this field. PMID:24200356

  11. A Survey of Large Molecules of Biological Interest toward Selected High Mass Star Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remijan, A.; Shiao, Y.-S.; Friedel, D. N.; Meier, D. S.; Snyder, L. E.

    2004-01-01

    We have surveyed three high mass Galactic star forming regions for interstellar methanol (CH3OH), formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), methyl formate (HCOOCH3), methyl cyanide (CH3CN), and ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) with the BIMA Array. From our observations, we have detected two new sources of interstellar HCOOH toward the hot core regions G19.61-0.23 and W75N. We have also made the first detections of CH3CH2CN and HCOOCH3 toward G19.61-0.23. The relative HCOOH/HCOOCH3 abundance ratio toward G19.61-0.23 is 0.18 which is comparable to the abundance ratios found by Liu and colleagues toward Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion and W51(approximately 0.10). We have made the first detection of HCOOCH3 toward W75N. The relative HCOOH/HCOOCH3 abundance ratio toward W75N is 0.26 which is more than twice as large as the abundance ratios found by Liu and colleagues. Furthermore, the hot core regions around W75N show a chemical differentiation between the O and N cores similar to what is seen toward the Orion Hot Core and Compact Ridge and W3(OH) and W3(H2O). It is also apparent from our observations that the high mass star forming region G45.47+0.05 does not contain any compact hot molecular core and as a consequence its chemistry may be similar to cold dark clouds. Finally, the formation of CH3COOH appears to favor HMCs with well mixed N and O, despite the fact that CH3COOH does not contain a N atom. If proved to be true, this is an important constraint on CH3COOH formation and possibly other structurally similar biomolecules.

  12. Incompletely compacted equilibrated ordinary chondrites

    SciTech Connect

    Sasso, M.R.; Macke, R.J.; Boesenberg, J.S.; Britt, D.T.; Rovers, M.L.; Ebel, D.S.; Friedrich, J.M.

    2010-01-22

    We document the size distributions and locations of voids present within five highly porous equilibrated ordinary chondrites using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) and helium pycnometry. We found total porosities ranging from {approx}10 to 20% within these chondrites, and with {mu}CT we show that up to 64% of the void space is located within intergranular voids within the rock. Given the low (S1-S2) shock stages of the samples and the large voids between mineral grains, we conclude that these samples experienced unusually low amounts of compaction and shock loading throughout their entire post accretionary history. With Fe metal and FeS metal abundances and grain size distributions, we show that these chondrites formed naturally with greater than average porosities prior to parent body metamorphism. These materials were not 'fluffed' on their parent body by impact-related regolith gardening or events caused by seismic vibrations. Samples of all three chemical types of ordinary chondrites (LL, L, H) are represented in this study and we conclude that incomplete compaction is common within the asteroid belt.

  13. Antibody nanoparticle dispersions formed with mixtures of crowding molecules retain activity and in vivo bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Maria A.; Khan, Tarik A.; Kaczorowski, Kevin J.; Wilson, Brian K.; Dinin, Aileen K.; Borwankar, Ameya U.; Rodrigues, Miguel A.; Truskett, Thomas M.; Johnston, Keith P.; Maynard, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies continue to command a large market for treatment of a variety of diseases. In many cases, the doses required for therapeutic efficacy are large, limiting options for antibody delivery and administration. We report a novel formulation strategy based on dispersions of antibody nanoclusters that allows for subcutaneous injection of highly concentrated antibody (~190 mg/ml). A solution of monoclonal antibody 1B7 was rapidly frozen and lyophilized using a novel spiral-wound in situ freezing technology (SWIFT) to generate amorphous particles. Upon gentle stirring, a translucent dispersion of ~430 nm protein clusters low apparent viscosity (~24 cp) formed rapidly in buffer containing the pharmaceutically acceptable crowding agents, trehalose, polyethylene glycol and n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Upon in vitro dilution of the dispersion, the nanoclusters rapidly reverted to monomeric protein with full activity, as monitored by dynamic light scattering and antigen binding. When administered to mice as an intravenous solution, subcutaneous solution or subcutaneous dispersion at similar (4.6-7.3 mg/kg) or ultra-high dosages (51.6 mg/kg), the distribution and elimination kinetics were within error and the protein retained full activity. Overall, this method of generating high-concentration, low-viscosity dispersions of antibody nanoclusters could lead to improved administration and patient compliance, providing new opportunities for the biotechnology industry. PMID:22777686

  14. Antibody nanoparticle dispersions formed with mixtures of crowding molecules retain activity and in vivo bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Miller, Maria A; Khan, Tarik A; Kaczorowski, Kevin J; Wilson, Brian K; Dinin, Aileen K; Borwankar, Ameya U; Rodrigues, Miguel A; Truskett, Thomas M; Johnston, Keith P; Maynard, Jennifer A

    2012-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies continue to command a large market for treatment of a variety of diseases. In many cases, the doses required for therapeutic efficacy are large, limiting options for antibody delivery and administration. We report a novel formulation strategy based on dispersions of antibody nanoclusters that allows for subcutaneous injection of highly concentrated antibody (≈ 190 mg/mL). A solution of monoclonal antibody 1B7 was rapidly frozen and lyophilized using a novel spiral-wound in-situ freezing technology to generate amorphous particles. Upon gentle stirring, a translucent dispersion of approximately 430 nm protein clusters with low apparent viscosity (≈ 24 cp) formed rapidly in buffer containing the pharmaceutically acceptable crowding agents such as trehalose, polyethylene glycol, and n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Upon in vitro dilution of the dispersion, the nanoclusters rapidly reverted to monomeric protein with full activity, as monitored by dynamic light scattering and antigen binding. When administered to mice as an intravenous solution, subcutaneous solution, or subcutaneous dispersion at similar (4.6-7.3 mg/kg) or ultra-high dosages (51.6 mg/kg), the distribution and elimination kinetics were within error and the protein retained full activity. Overall, this method of generating high-concentration, low-viscosity dispersions of antibody nanoclusters could lead to improved administration and patient compliance, providing new opportunities for the biotechnology industry.

  15. The analysis of incomplete data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, H. O.; Hocking, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to provide a simple taxonomy for incomplete-data problems and at the same time develop unified methods of analysis. The emphasis is on techniques which are natural extensions of the complete-data analysis and which will handle rather general classes of incomplete-data problems as opposed to custom-made techniques for special problems. The principle of estimation is either maximum likelihood or is at least based on maximum likelihood.

  16. A Global View of Molecule-forming Clouds in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Steven J.; Bell, Aaron Christopher; Newton, Jonathan H.; Howard, Ward; Jolly, Christian; Spraggs, Mary; Hughes, James

    2015-08-01

    The gas in galactic disks occurs in a wide range of temperatures and densities, most of which are unsuitable for star formation. Somehow, diffuse atomic clouds are collected into colder, denser molecular clouds that can collapse under their own gravity. The molecular condensation process is not directly observable, but it most likely arises in cold, quiescent pockets of atomic hydrogen (HI) gas, which over time will form molecular hydrogen (H2) followed by more observable molecular species. We have mapped cold 21cm line HI self-absorption (HISA) over more than 90% of the Milky Way's disk at arcminute resolution with the International Galactic Plane Survey. To probe the formation of H2 clouds, we have made a detailed comparison of the IGPS HISA distribution with available 12CO J=1-0 line emission surveys. We find that few HISA features in the outer Galaxy have CO at the same position and velocity, while most inner-Galaxy HISA does have overlapping CO. But chance superpositions of unrelated HISA and CO at different distances are much more likely in the inner Galaxy, and if these are accounted for, the majority of inner-Galaxy HISA may also be CO-free. Standard equilibrium cloud models cannot explain very cold HI in many HISA features without molecular shielding, so these clouds may instead have significant CO-dark H2 to keep them cool. A significant number of these clouds are found downstream of spiral shocks where H2 formation might be expected, with CO formation taking somewhat longer. Support for this work was provided by the U.S. National Science Foundation, NASA, Western Kentucky University, and the Gatton Academy.

  17. Single molecule imaging of green fluorescent proteins in living cells: E-cadherin forms oligomers on the free cell surface.

    PubMed Central

    Iino, R; Koyama, I; Kusumi, A

    2001-01-01

    Single green fluorescent protein (GFP) molecules were successfully imaged for the first time in living cells. GFP linked to the cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus of E-cadherin (E-cad-GFP) was expressed in mouse fibroblast L cells, and observed using an objective-type total internal reflection fluorescence microscope. Based on the fluorescence intensity of individual fluorescent spots, the majority of E-cad-GFP molecules on the free cell surface were found to be oligomers of various sizes, many of them greater than dimers, suggesting that oligomerization of E-cadherin takes place before its assembly at cell-cell adhesion sites. The translational diffusion coefficient of E-cad-GFP is reduced by a factor of 10 to 40 upon oligomerization. Because such large decreases in translational mobility cannot be explained solely by increases in radius upon oligomerization, an oligomerization-induced trapping model is proposed in which, when oligomers are formed, they are trapped in place due to greatly enhanced tethering and corralling effects of the membrane skeleton on oligomers (compared with monomers). The presence of many oligomers greater than dimers on the free surface suggests that these greater oligomers are the basic building blocks for the two-dimensional cell adhesion structures (adherens junctions). PMID:11371443

  18. An alternatively spliced long form of Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule (FAIM) with tissue-specific expression in the brain.

    PubMed

    Zhong, X; Schneider, T J; Cabral, D S; Donohoe, T J; Rothstein, T L

    2001-01-01

    The gene encoding Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule (FAIM) was cloned by differential display using RNA obtained from Fas-resistant and Fas-sensitive primary murine B lymphocytes. FAIM is highly evolutionarily conserved and broadly expressed, suggesting that its gene product plays a key role in cellular physiology. Here we report the identification of a new, longer form of FAIM (FAIM-L) and characterization of the genomic locus that clarifies its origin. The murine FAIM gene is located at chromosome 9f1, a region syntenic to the corresponding location of the human FAIM gene. The gene consists of six exons and contains putative translation initiation sites within exons II and III. The long form of FAIM is generated by all six exons, whereas the originally cloned form of FAIM, now termed FAIM-Short (FAIM-S) is generated from five exons by alternative splicing. FAIM-L is dominantly expressed in the brain whereas FAIM-S is widely expressed in many tissues.

  19. Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Il`in, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

  20. Nonparametric Estimators for Incomplete Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caditz, David M.

    2016-11-01

    Nonparametric estimators, such as the 1/{V}\\max estimator and the {C}- estimator, have been applied extensively to estimate luminosity functions (LFs) of astronomical sources from complete, truncated survey data sets. Application of such estimators to incomplete data sets typically requires further truncation of data, separation into subsets of constant completeness, and/or correction for incompleteness-induced bias. In this paper, we derive generalizations of the above estimators designed for use with incomplete, truncated data sets. We compare these generalized nonparametric estimators, investigate some of their simple statistical properties, and validate them using Monte Carlo simulation methods. We apply a nonparametric estimator to data obtained from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey to estimate the QSO LF for redshifts 0.68\\lt z\\lt 4.

  1. Identification of small-molecule binding pockets in the soluble monomeric form of the Aβ42 peptide

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Maximillian; Simone, Alfonso De; Schenk, Dale; Toth, Gergely; Dobson, Christopher M.; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation of intrinsically disordered peptides and proteins is associated with a wide range of highly debilitating neurological and systemic disorders. In this work we explored the potential of a structure-based drug discovery procedure to target one such system, the soluble monomeric form of the Aβ42 peptide. We utilised for this purpose a set of structures of the Aβ42 peptide selected from clusters of conformations within an ensemble generated by molecular dynamics simulations. Using these structures we carried out fragment mapping calculations to identify binding ‘hot spots’ on the monomeric form of the Aβ42 peptide. This procedure provided a set of hot spots with ligand efficiencies comparable to those observed for structured proteins, and that are clustered into binding pockets. We verified that such pockets exhibit a propensity to bind small molecules known to interact with the Aβ42 peptide. Taken together these results provide an initial indication that fragment-based drug discovery may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for diseases associated with the aggregation of intrinsically disordered proteins. PMID:23883055

  2. White polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells using emission from exciplexes with long intermolecular distances formed between polyfluorene and π-conjugated amine molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikitani, Y.; Takeuchi, H.; Nishide, H.; Uchida, S.; Yazaki, S.; Nishimura, S.

    2015-12-01

    The authors present white polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells (PLECs) fabricated with polymer blend films of poly(9,9-di-n-dodecylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFD) and π-conjugated triphenylamine molecules. The PLECs have bulk heterojunction structures composed of van der Waals interfaces between the PFD segments and the amine molecules. White-light electroluminescence (EL) can be achieved via light-mixing of the blue exciton emission from PFD and long-wavelength exciplex emission from excited complexes consisting of PFD segments (acceptors (As)) and the amine molecules (donors (Ds)). Precise control of the distances between the PFD and the amine molecules, affected through proper choice of the concentrations of PFD, amine molecules, and polymeric solid electrolytes, is critical to realizing white emission. White PLECs can be fabricated with PFD and amine molecules whose highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels range from -5.3 eV to -5.0 eV. Meanwhile, PLECs fabricated with amine molecules whose HOMO levels are lower than -5.6 eV cannot produce exciplex emission. The distances between the PFD and amine molecules of the exciplexes appear to be larger than 0.4 nm. These experimental data are explained by perturbation theory using the charge-transfer state ( A - D + ), the locally excited state ( A * D ), which is assumed to be the locally excited acceptor state in which there is no interaction with the donor molecule; and the energy gap between the HOMO levels of the PFD and the amine molecules. Color-stable white PLECs were fabricated using 4,4',4″-tris[N-(2-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]-triphenylamine, which has a HOMO level of -5.2 eV, as the amine molecule, and the color stability of the device is a function of the fact that PFD forms exciplexes with these molecules.

  3. Silicon-containing polyphilic bent-core molecules: the importance of nanosegregation for the development of chirality and polar order in liquid crystalline phases formed by achiral molecules.

    PubMed

    Keith, Christina; Reddy, R Amaranatha; Hauser, Anton; Baumeister, Ute; Tschierske, Carsten

    2006-03-01

    Polyphilic molecules composed of a bent aromatic core, oligo(siloxane) units, and alkyl segments were synthesized, and the self-organization of these molecules was investigated. Most materials organize into polar smectic liquid crystalline phases. The switching process of these mesophases changes from antiferroelectric for the nonsilylated compounds via superparaelectric to surface-stabilized ferroelectric with increasing segregation of the silylated segments. It is proposed that the siloxane sublayers stabilize a polar synclinic ferroelectric (SmC(s)P(F)) structure, and the escape from a macroscopic polar order as well as steric effects leads to a deformation of the layers with formation of disordered microdomains, giving rise to optical isotropy. Another striking feature is the spontaneous formation of chiral domains with opposite handedness. For two compounds, a temperature-dependent inversion of the optical rotation of these domains was found, and this is associated with an increase of the tilt angle of the molecules from < 45 degrees to > 50 degrees. This observation confirms the recently proposed concept of layer optical chirality (Hough, L. E.; Clark, N. A. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005, 95, 107802), which is a new source of optical activity in supramolecular systems. With increasing length of the alkyl chains, segregation is lost and a transition from smectic to a columnar phase is found. In the columnar phase, the switching process is antiferroelectric and takes place by rotation of the molecules around the long axes, which reverses the layer chirality; that is, the racemic ground-state structure is switched into a homogeneous chiral structure upon application of an electric field.

  4. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    PubMed

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J

    1984-08-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children with bowel disorders showed incomplete absorption. Seven children were tested again with an equal amount of glucose, and in three of them also of galactose, added to the fructose. The mean maximum breath hydrogen increases were 5 and 10 ppm, respectively, compared with 103 ppm after fructose alone. In one boy several tests were performed with various sugars; fructose was the only sugar incompletely absorbed, and the effect of glucose on fructose absorption was shown to be dependent on the amount added. It is concluded that children have a limited absorptive capacity for fructose. We speculate that the enhancing effect of glucose and galactose on fructose absorption may be due to activation of the fructose carrier. Apple juice in particular contains fructose in excess of glucose and could lead to abdominal symptoms in susceptible children.

  5. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    PubMed Central

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children with bowel disorders showed incomplete absorption. Seven children were tested again with an equal amount of glucose, and in three of them also of galactose, added to the fructose. The mean maximum breath hydrogen increases were 5 and 10 ppm, respectively, compared with 103 ppm after fructose alone. In one boy several tests were performed with various sugars; fructose was the only sugar incompletely absorbed, and the effect of glucose on fructose absorption was shown to be dependent on the amount added. It is concluded that children have a limited absorptive capacity for fructose. We speculate that the enhancing effect of glucose and galactose on fructose absorption may be due to activation of the fructose carrier. Apple juice in particular contains fructose in excess of glucose and could lead to abdominal symptoms in susceptible children. PMID:6476870

  6. Dynamics of water around the complex structures formed between the KH domains of far upstream element binding protein and single-stranded DNA molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2015-07-28

    Single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) binding proteins specifically bind to the single-stranded regions of the DNA and protect it from premature annealing, thereby stabilizing the DNA structure. We have carried out atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the aqueous solutions of two DNA binding K homology (KH) domains (KH3 and KH4) of the far upstream element binding protein complexed with two short ss-DNA segments. Attempts have been made to explore the influence of the formation of such complex structures on the microscopic dynamics and hydrogen bond properties of the interfacial water molecules. It is found that the water molecules involved in bridging the ss-DNA segments and the protein domains form a highly constrained thin layer with extremely retarded mobility. These water molecules play important roles in freezing the conformational oscillations of the ss-DNA oligomers and thereby forming rigid complex structures. Further, it is demonstrated that the effect of complexation on the slow long-time relaxations of hydrogen bonds at the interface is correlated with hindered motions of the surrounding water molecules. Importantly, it is observed that the highly restricted motions of the water molecules bridging the protein and the DNA components in the complexed forms originate from more frequent hydrogen bond reformations.

  7. Incomplete Kochen-Specker coloring

    SciTech Connect

    Granstroem, Helena

    2007-09-15

    A particular incomplete Kochen-Specker coloring, suggested by Appleby [Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys. 36, 1 (2005)] in dimension three, is generalized to arbitrary dimension. We investigate its effectivity as a function of dimension, using two different measures. A limit is derived for the fraction of the sphere that can be colored using the generalized Appleby construction as the number of dimensions approaches infinity. The second, and physically more relevant measure of effectivity, is to look at the fraction of properly colored ON bases. Using this measure, we derive a ''lower bound for the upper bound'' in three and four real dimensions.

  8. Rad52 promotes second-end DNA capture in double-stranded break repair to form complement-stabilized joint molecules.

    PubMed

    Nimonkar, Amitabh V; Sica, R Alejandro; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C

    2009-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad52 performs multiple functions during the recombinational repair of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks (DSBs). It mediates assembly of Rad51 onto single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that is complexed with replication protein A (RPA); the resulting nucleoprotein filament pairs with homologous dsDNA to form joint molecules. Rad52 also catalyzes the annealing of complementary strands of ssDNA, even when they are complexed with RPA. Both Rad51 and Rad52 can be envisioned to promote "second-end capture," a step that pairs the ssDNA generated by processing of the second end of a DSB to the joint molecule formed by invasion of the target dsDNA by the first processed end. Here, we show that Rad52 promotes annealing of complementary ssDNA that is complexed with RPA to the displaced strand of a joint molecule, to form a complement-stabilized joint molecule. RecO, a prokaryotic homolog of Rad52, cannot form complement-stabilized joint molecules with RPA-ssDNA complexes, nor can Rad52 promote second-end capture when the ssDNA is bound with either human RPA or the prokaryotic ssDNA-binding protein, SSB, indicating a species-specific process. We conclude that Rad52 participates in second-end capture by annealing a resected DNA break, complexed with RPA, to the joint molecule product of single-end invasion event. These studies support a role for Rad52-promoted annealing in the formation of Holliday junctions in DSB repair. PMID:19204284

  9. Analytical treatment of the volume and surface area of molecules formed by an arbitrary collection of unequal spheres intersected by planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Lawrence R.; Theodorou, Doros N.

    A general algorithm has been developed for the analytical determination of the volume and exposed surface area of a solid body formed by a collection of arbitrarily sized intersecting spheres and delimited by a set of arbitrarily directed planes. The algorithm is useful for analysing molecules represented as fused hard spheres, sections of such molecules, as well as void or available spaces formed among such molecules. The multisphere-multiplane problem is decomposed into a set of problems involving the intersection of a single sphere by an arbitrary collection of planes. The volume and exposed area of the convex body formed by such an intersection are found using simple principles of analytical geometry. Applications of the new method are presented for the determination of the volume, excluded volume, and surface area of long-chain molecules and of the void volume and internal surface area of a zeolite crystal. It is found that the method is faster, more efficient, more versatile, and more accurate than other analytical and numerical methods. As a result of the decoupling strategy used, the new algorithm scales better with system complexity and can readily provide the exposed areas and volumes contributed by individual spheres in the system.

  10. Mobius Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses formation of chemical molecules via Mobius strip intermediates, and concludes that many special physics-chemical properties of the fully closed circular form (1) of polyoma DNA are explainable by this topological feature. (CC)

  11. Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching and Single-Molecule Tracking Measurements of Anisotropic Diffusion within Identical Regions of a Cylinder-Forming Diblock Copolymer Film.

    PubMed

    Tran-Ba, Khanh-Hoa; Higgins, Daniel A; Ito, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    This work demonstrates ensemble and single-molecule diffusion measurements within identical regions of a cylinder-forming polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymer (PS-b-PEO) film using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and single-molecule tracking (SMT). A PS-b-PEO film (∼4 μm thick) with aligned cylindrical PEO microdomains containing 10 μM sulforhodamine B (SRB) was prepared by directional solvent-vapor penetration (SVP) of 1,4-dioxane. The ensemble diffusion behavior of SRB in the microdomains was assessed in FRAP studies of circular photobleached regions (∼7 μm in diameter). The SRB concentration was subsequently reduced by additional photobleaching, and the diffusion of individual SRB molecules was explored using SMT in the identical area (∼16 × 16 μm(2)). The FRAP data showed anisotropic fluorescence recovery, yielding the average microdomain orientation. The extent of fluorescence recovery observed (∼90%) demonstrated long-range microdomain connectivity, while the recovery time dependence provided an ensemble measurement of the SRB diffusion coefficient within the cylindrical microdomains. The SMT data exhibited one-dimensional diffusion of individual SRB molecules along the SVP direction across the entire film thickness, as consistent with the FRAP results. Importantly, the average of the single-molecule diffusion coefficients was close to the value obtained from FRAP in the identical area. In some cases, SMT offered smaller diffusion coefficients than FRAP, possibly due to contributions from SRB molecules confined within short PEO microdomains. The implementation of FRAP and SMT measurements in identical areas provides complementary information on molecular diffusion with minimal influence of sample heterogeneity, permitting direct comparison of ensemble and single-molecule diffusion behavior.

  12. Adsorption of nitrogen oxide molecules to the surface of nanosized nickel clusters formed on the (111) surface of a magnesium oxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remar, D. F.; Turiev, A. M.; Tsidaeva, N. I.; Magkoev, T. T.

    2010-10-01

    The properties of the systems formed on deposition of Ni atoms on the (111) surface of a MgO film of thickness equal to six monomolecular layers grown on a Mo(110) crystal face and the adsorption of NO nitrogen oxide molecules to the system surface have been studied by methods of electron spectroscopy (AES, XPES, LEED, LEIBSS) and reflective infrared absorption spectroscopy. On deposition of Ni atoms on the surface of MgO at a substrate temperature of 600 K, three-dimensional islands of Ni are formed. The subsequent adsorption of NO results in molecule dissociation even at 110 K. The efficiency of this process depends on the morphology of the Ni layer.

  13. Indirect reciprocity under incomplete observation.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-07-01

    Indirect reciprocity, in which individuals help others with a good reputation but not those with a bad reputation, is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same partners. In a relatively large society where indirect reciprocity is relevant, individuals may not know each other's reputation even indirectly. Previous studies investigated the situations where individuals playing the game have to determine the action possibly without knowing others' reputations. Nevertheless, the possibility that observers of the game, who generate the reputation of the interacting players, assign reputations without complete information about them has been neglected. Because an individual acts as an interacting player and as an observer on different occasions if indirect reciprocity is endogenously sustained in a society, the incompleteness of information may affect either role. We examine the game of indirect reciprocity when the reputations of players are not necessarily known to observers and to interacting players. We find that the trustful discriminator, which cooperates with good and unknown players and defects against bad players, realizes cooperative societies under seven social norms. Among the seven social norms, three of the four suspicious norms under which cooperation (defection) to unknown players leads to a good (bad) reputation enable cooperation down to a relatively small observation probability. In contrast, the three trustful norms under which both cooperation and defection to unknown players lead to a good reputation are relatively efficient.

  14. SULFUR-BEARING MOLECULES IN MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS: OBSERVATIONS OF OCS, CS, H{sub 2}S, AND SO

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Juan; Wang, Junzhi; Zhu, Qingfeng; Zhang, Jiangshui; Li, Di

    2015-03-20

    We studied the sulfur chemistry of massive star-forming regions through single-dish submillimeter spectroscopy. OCS, O{sup 13}CS, {sup 13}CS, H{sub 2}S, and SO transitions were observed toward a sample of massive star-forming regions with embedded UCH ii or CH ii regions. These sources could be divided into H ii-hot core and H ii-only sources based on their CH{sub 3}CN emission. Our results show that the OCS line of thirteen sources is optically thick, with optical depth ranging from 5 to 16. Column densities of these molecules were computed under LTE conditions. CS column densities were also derived using its optically thin isotopologue {sup 13}CS. H{sub 2}S is likely to be the most abundant gas-phase sulfuretted molecule in hot massive cores. Both the column density and abundance of sulfur-bearing molecules decrease significantly from H ii-hot core to H ii-only sources. Ages derived from hot core models appear to be consistent with star formation theories, suggesting that abundance ratios of [CS]/[SO], [SO]/[OCS], and [OCS]/[CS] could be used as chemical clocks in massive star-forming regions.

  15. [NEW INFORMATION ABOUT THE STRUCTURES FORMED BY FtsZ PROTEIN IN ESCHERICHIA COLI CELLS DURING DIVISION PROCESS OBTAINED BY SINGLE-MOLECULE LOCALIZATION MICROSCOPY].

    PubMed

    Vedyaykin, A D; Vishnyakov, I E; Polinovskaya, V S; Artamonova, I T; Khodorkovskii, M A; Sabantsev, A V

    2015-01-01

    FtsZ--a bacterial tubulin homolog--is one of the key bacterial division proteins, forming a contractile Z-ring at the midcell of dividing bacteria. In this work immunofluorescent labeling was used in conjunction with single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) to visualize native structures formed by FtsZ protein in Escherichia coli cells. This approach allowed the reorganization of FtsZ structures during cytokinesis to be visualized step-by-step. New data was obtained that support the hypothesis that the Z-ring is a spiral structure that constricts during division, assisting the formation of the septum between daughter cells.

  16. Interaction of epitaxial silicene with overlayers formed by exposure to Al atoms and O{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlein, R.; Yamada-Takamura, Y.; Van Bui, H.; Wiggers, F. B.; Kovalgin, A. Y.; Jong, M. P. de

    2014-05-28

    As silicene is not chemically inert, the study and exploitation of its electronic properties outside of ultrahigh vacuum environments require the use of insulating capping layers. In order to understand if aluminum oxide might be a suitable encapsulation material, we used high-resolution synchrotron photoelectron spectroscopy to study the interactions of Al atoms and O{sub 2} molecules, as well as the combination of both, with epitaxial silicene on thin ZrB{sub 2}(0001) films grown on Si(111). The deposition of Al atoms onto silicene, up to the coverage of about 0.4 Al per Si atoms, has little effect on the chemical state of the Si atoms. The silicene-terminated surface is also hardly affected by exposure to O{sub 2} gas, up to a dose of 4500 L. In contrast, when Al-covered silicene is exposed to the same dose, a large fraction of the Si atoms becomes oxidized. This is attributed to dissociative chemisorption of O{sub 2} molecules by Al atoms at the surface, producing reactive atomic oxygen species that cause the oxidation. It is concluded that aluminum oxide overlayers prepared in this fashion are not suitable for encapsulation since they do not prevent but actually enhance the degradation of silicene.

  17. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete...

  18. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete...

  19. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete...

  20. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete...

  1. 32 CFR 651.44 - Incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incomplete information. 651.44 Section 651.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.44 Incomplete...

  2. Soluble Forms of Intercellular and Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecules Independently Predict Progression to Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican American Families

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Hemant; Mamtani, Manju; Peralta, Juan; Almeida, Marcio; Dyer, Thomas D.; Goring, Harald H.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Mahaney, Michael C.; Olvera, Rene L.; Almasy, Laura; Glahn, David C.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Curran, Joanne E.; Blangero, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective While the role of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in inducing endothelial dysfunction is fairly well-established the etiological role of endothelial dysfunction in the onset of T2D is still a matter of debate. In the light of conflicting evidence in this regard, we conducted a prospective study to determine the association of circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vessel cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) with incident T2D. Methods Data from this study came from 1,269 Mexican Americans of whom 821 initially T2D-free individuals were longitudinally followed up in the San Antonio Family Heart Study. These individuals were followed for 9752.95 person-years for development of T2D. Prospective association of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 with incident T2D was studied using Kaplan-Meier survival plots and mixed effects Cox proportional hazards modeling to account for relatedness among study participants. Incremental value of adhesion molecule biomarkers was studied using integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and net reclassification improvement (NRI) indexes. Results Decreasing median values for serum concentrations of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were observed in the following groups in this order: individuals with T2D at baseline, individuals who developed T2D during follow-up, individuals with prediabetes at baseline and normal glucose tolerant (NGT) individuals who remained T2D-free during follow-up. Top quartiles for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were strongly and significantly associated with homeostatic model of assessment—insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Mixed effects Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that after correcting for important clinical confounders, high sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 concentrations were associated with 2.52 and 1.99 times faster progression to T2D as compared to low concentrations, respectively. Individuals with high concentrations for both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 progressed to T2D 3.42 times faster than those with low

  3. High levels of the soluble form of CD30 molecule in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are expression of CD30+ T cell involvement in the inflamed joints.

    PubMed

    Gerli, R; Muscat, C; Bistoni, O; Falini, B; Tomassini, C; Agea, E; Tognellini, R; Biagini, P; Bertotto, A

    1995-12-01

    The CD30 is a surface molecule expressed by Th2-type lymphokine-producing T cells upon activation. CD30-expressing activated T cells release a soluble form of the molecule, which can be detectable both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, high levels of soluble CD30 were found in peripheral blood and synovial fluid from patients with RA. However, CD30+ CD3+ cells, either CD4+ or CD8+, were significantly present in synovial fluid, but not in peripheral blood, of RA patients. Serum values of soluble CD30 were higher in active than inactive RA patients and directly correlated with rheumatoid factor serum titres. These data strongly support an involvement of CD30+ T cells in the immune processes of rheumatoid synovitis, and may suggest a relationship between Th2-type cytokine-secreting T cells and the pathological response in RA. PMID:8536371

  4. Two-State or Non-Two-State? An Excess Spectroscopy-based Approach to Differentiate the Existing Forms of Molecules in Liquids Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Sun, Hai-Yuan; Deng, Geng; Yu, Zhi-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Characterization/identification of the clusters/associates in liquids has long been a challenging topic. In this paper, we report a method to identify molecules with two different existing forms in a binary liquid solution. In this so-called two-state situation, the excess infrared spectra of a vibration mode of the respective molecule will show identical band shape if the other component is transparent in the region. More conveniently, the positions of the positive peak, negative peak, and zero-value will be seen to be fixed with varying compositions of the binary system. In the case of non-two-state mixtures, for example the mere solvation of solute by solvent, those positions will be variable. The conclusions are supported/demonstrated by computational simulation and experiments on two binary systems, D2O−H2O and C6F5I−cyclo-C6H12. PMID:26542641

  5. Amino acid-bile acid based molecules: extremely narrow surfactant nanotubes formed by a phenylalanine-substituted cholic acid.

    PubMed

    Travaglini, Leana; D'Annibale, Andrea; Schillén, Karin; Olsson, Ulf; Sennato, Simona; Pavel, Nicolae V; Galantini, Luciano

    2012-12-21

    An amino acid-substituted bile acid forms tubular aggregates with inner and outer diameters of about 3 and 6 nm. The diameters are unusually small for surfactant self-assembled tubes. The results enhance the spectrum of applications of supramolecular tubules and open up possibilities for investigating a novel class of biological amphiphiles.

  6. Identification of an allosteric small-molecule inhibitor selective for the inducible form of heat shock protein 70.

    PubMed

    Howe, Matthew K; Bodoor, Khaldon; Carlson, David A; Hughes, Philip F; Alwarawrah, Yazan; Loiselle, David R; Jaeger, Alex M; Darr, David B; Jordan, Jamie L; Hunter, Lucas M; Molzberger, Eileen T; Gobillot, Theodore A; Thiele, Dennis J; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Spector, Neil L; Haystead, Timothy A J

    2014-12-18

    Inducible Hsp70 (Hsp70i) is overexpressed in a wide spectrum of human tumors, and its expression correlates with metastasis, poor outcomes, and resistance to chemotherapy in patients. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors selective for Hsp70i could provide new therapeutic tools for cancer treatment. In this work, we used fluorescence-linked enzyme chemoproteomic strategy (FLECS) to identify HS-72, an allosteric inhibitor selective for Hsp70i. HS-72 displays the hallmarks of Hsp70 inhibition in cells, promoting substrate protein degradation and growth inhibition. Importantly, HS-72 is selective for Hsp70i over the closely related constitutively active Hsc70. Studies with purified protein show HS-72 acts as an allosteric inhibitor, reducing ATP affinity. In vivo HS-72 is well-tolerated, showing bioavailability and efficacy, inhibiting tumor growth and promoting survival in a HER2+ model of breast cancer. The HS-72 scaffold is amenable to resynthesis and iteration, suggesting an ideal starting point for a new generation of anticancer therapeutics targeting Hsp70i.

  7. Single-Molecule Analysis of Thymine Dimer-Containing G-Quadruplexes Formed from the Human Telomere Sequence

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The human telomere plays crucial roles in maintaining genome stability. In the presence of suitable cations, the repetitive 5′-TTAGGG-3′ human telomere sequence can fold into G-quadruplexes that adopt the hybrid, basket, or propeller fold. The telomere sequence is hypersensitive to UV-induced thymine dimer (T=T) formation, yet it does not cause telomere shortening. In this work, the potential structural disruption and thermodynamic stability of the T=T-containing natural telomere sequences were studied to understand why this damage is tolerated in telomeres. First, established methods, such as thermal melting measurements, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and circular dichroism spectroscopy, were utilized to determine the effects of the damage on these structures. Second, a single-molecule ion channel recording technique using α-hemolysin (α-HL) was employed to examine further the structural differences between the damaged sequences. It was observed that the damage caused slightly lower thermal stabilities and subtle changes in the circular dichroism spectra for hybrid and basket folds. The α-HL experiments determined that T=Ts disrupt double-chain reversal loop formation but are tolerated in edgewise and diagonal loops. The largest change was observed for the T=T-containing natural telomere sequence when the propeller fold (all double-chain reversal loops) was studied. On the basis of the α-HL experiments, it was determined that a triplexlike structure exists under conditions that favor a propeller structure. The biological significance of these observations is discussed. PMID:25407781

  8. Group contribution methodology based on the statistical associating fluid theory for heteronuclear molecules formed from Mie segments.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Vasileios; Lafitte, Thomas; Avendaño, Carlos; Adjiman, Claire S; Jackson, George; Müller, Erich A; Galindo, Amparo

    2014-02-01

    A generalization of the recent version of the statistical associating fluid theory for variable range Mie potentials [Lafitte et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 154504 (2013)] is formulated within the framework of a group contribution approach (SAFT-γ Mie). Molecules are represented as comprising distinct functional (chemical) groups based on a fused heteronuclear molecular model, where the interactions between segments are described with the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jonesium) potential of variable attractive and repulsive range. A key feature of the new theory is the accurate description of the monomeric group-group interactions by application of a high-temperature perturbation expansion up to third order. The capabilities of the SAFT-γ Mie approach are exemplified by studying the thermodynamic properties of two chemical families, the n-alkanes and the n-alkyl esters, by developing parameters for the methyl, methylene, and carboxylate functional groups (CH3, CH2, and COO). The approach is shown to describe accurately the fluid-phase behavior of the compounds considered with absolute average deviations of 1.20% and 0.42% for the vapor pressure and saturated liquid density, respectively, which represents a clear improvement over other existing SAFT-based group contribution approaches. The use of Mie potentials to describe the group-group interaction is shown to allow accurate simultaneous descriptions of the fluid-phase behavior and second-order thermodynamic derivative properties of the pure fluids based on a single set of group parameters. Furthermore, the application of the perturbation expansion to third order for the description of the reference monomeric fluid improves the predictions of the theory for the fluid-phase behavior of pure components in the near-critical region. The predictive capabilities of the approach stem from its formulation within a group-contribution formalism: predictions of the fluid-phase behavior and thermodynamic derivative properties of

  9. Corrosion resistance and durability of superhydrophobic surface formed on magnesium alloy coated with nanostructured cerium oxide film and fluoroalkylsilane molecules in corrosive NaCl aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Takahiro; Masuda, Yoshitake; Sakamoto, Michiru

    2011-04-19

    The corrosion resistant performance and durability of the superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy coated with nanostructured cerium oxide film and fluoroalkylsilane molecules in corrosive NaCl aqueous solution were investigated using electrochemical and contact angle measurements. The durability of the superhydrophobic surface in corrosive 5 wt% NaCl aqueous solution was elucidated. The corrosion resistant performance of the superhydrophobic surface formed on magnesium alloy was estimated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The EIS measurements and appropriate equivalent circuit models revealed that the superhydrophobic surface considerably improved the corrosion resistant performance of magnesium alloy AZ31. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D 3359-02 cross cut tape test was performed to investigate the adhesion of the superhydrophobic film to the magnesium alloy surface. The corrosion formation mechanism of the superhydrophobic surface formed on the magnesium alloy was also proposed.

  10. Even Incomplete Steroid Treatment Helps Preemies

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161404.html Even Incomplete Steroid Treatment Helps Preemies: Study Fewer deaths, complications for ... MONDAY, Oct. 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Even partial steroid treatment before birth can improve survival odds for ...

  11. A comparative study of diastereomeric complexes formed by a prochiral substrate and three structurally analogous chiral molecules on Pt(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemay, Jean-Christian; Dong, Yi; Groves, Michael N.; Demers-Carpentier, Vincent; Goubert, Guillaume; Lafleur-Lambert, Raphaël; Boukouvalas, John; Hammer, Bjørk; McBreen, Peter H.

    2016-04-01

    A comparative study of chemisorbed bimolecular diastereomeric complexes formed by three structurally analogous chiral modifiers and a prochiral substrate on Pt(111) was performed using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. The experiments determine, subject to a number of assumptions, the abundant binding configurations and whether the complexed substrate is organized into pro-S or pro-R states. The overall prochiral ratio (pr) estimated in this manner may be compared in each case to literature values for the enantiomeric ratio (er) observed in catalysis experiments. The experiments were performed using ketopantolactone as the substrate and (R)-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine, (R)-N-Methyl-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine and (R)-1-naphthyl-1,2-ethanediol as the structurally analogous chiral modifiers. The STM measurements were performed at room temperature to better mimic conditions under which the catalytic studies reported in the literature were performed. The results are discussed in terms of the stereochemical effects of subtle modifications of the structure of the chiral modifier.

  12. Nanoparticles that deliver triplex-forming peptide nucleic acid molecules correct F508del CFTR in airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    McNeer, Nicole Ali; Anandalingam, Kavitha; Fields, Rachel J; Caputo, Christina; Kopic, Sascha; Gupta, Anisha; Quijano, Elias; Polikoff, Lee; Kong, Yong; Bahal, Raman; Geibel, John P; Glazer, Peter M; Saltzman, W Mark; Egan, Marie E

    2015-04-27

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal genetic disorder most commonly caused by the F508del mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. It is not readily amenable to gene therapy because of its systemic nature and challenges including in vivo gene delivery and transient gene expression. Here we use triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids and donor DNA in biodegradable polymer nanoparticles to correct F508del. We confirm modification with sequencing and a functional chloride efflux assay. In vitro correction of chloride efflux occurs in up to 25% of human cells. Deep-sequencing reveals negligible off-target effects in partially homologous sites. Intranasal delivery of nanoparticles in CF mice produces changes in the nasal epithelium potential difference assay, consistent with corrected CFTR function. Also, gene correction is detected in the nasal and lung tissue. This work represents facile genome engineering in vivo with oligonucleotides using a nanoparticle system to achieve clinically relevant levels of gene editing without off-target effects.

  13. Imaging Findings of a Patient with Incomplete Phenotypical Expression of the PHACES Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sarikaya, B.; Altugan, F.S.; Firat, M.; Lasjaunias, P.L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary We present imaging findings of a patient with an incomplete form of the PHACES syndrome with dolichosegmental intracranial arteries as the predominant component, and discuss the etiopathological and clinical significance of this finding. PMID:20557791

  14. Physics of Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Many varieties of molecule have been detected in the Milky Way and in other galaxies. The processes by which these molecules are formed and destroyed are now broadly understood (see INTERSTELLAR CHEMISTRY). These molecules are important components of galaxies in two ways. Firstly, radiation emitted by molecules enables us to trace the presence of diffuse gas, to infer its physical properties and ...

  15. The role of the B7-1a molecule, an alternatively spliced form of murine B7-1 (CD80), on T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Inobe, M; Aoki, N; Linsley, P S; Ledbetter, J A; Abe, R; Murakami, M; Uede, T

    1996-07-15

    B7 molecules (CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2/B70)) on APCs provide costimulatory signals for T cell proliferation. We previously described the presence of an alternatively spliced form of murine CD80 (previously termed MB7-2 and renamed as B7-1a) that completely lacks the second Ig-like domain coded by exon 3 in activated murine B cells. in this study, we first examined whether B7-1a mRNA can be detected in vivo by RNase protection assay. The expression of B7-1a mRNA was only detected in lymphoid organs although the level of expression was lesser than that of CD80 mRNA. However, we demonstrated that the expression of B7-1a mRNA like CD80 mRNA was considerably augmented in spleen cells treated with either LPS in vitro or OVA/CFA conjugate in vivo. We next determined the functional activity of B7-1a using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected by B7 genes. When resting T cells were cocultured with CHO cells expressing B7-1a molecules in the presence of PMA/ionomycin, T cell proliferation was not detected, while CHO cells either expressing CD80 or CD86 could promote the proliferation of resting T cells. in contrast to resting T cells, CHO cells expressing B7-1a could support the proliferation of activated T cells. Thus, costimulatory activity of B7-1a molecules was dependent upon the activation stage of T cells. Therefore the IgV-like region of CD80 contains a critical region for functional interaction with its ligands and can transduce a costimulatory signal for T cell proliferation.

  16. The Genetically Modified Polysialylated Form of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule-Positive Cells for Potential Treatment of X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jiho; Kim, Han-Soo; Kang, Joon Won

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cell transplantation of myelin-producing exogenous cells is being extensively explored as a means of remyelinating axons in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. We determined whether 3,3',5-Triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) overexpresses the ABCD2 gene in the polysialylated (PSA) form of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-positive cells and promotes cell proliferation and favors oligodendrocyte lineage differentiation. Materials and Methods PSA-NCAM+ cells from newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were grown for five days on uncoated dishes in defined medium with or without supplementation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and/or T3. Then, PSA-NCAM+ spheres were prepared in single cells and transferred to polyornithine/fibronectin-coated glass coverslips for five days to determine the fate of the cells according to the supplementation of these molecules. T3 responsiveness of ABCD2 was analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the growth and fate of cells were determined using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Results Results demonstrated that T3 induces overexpression of the ABCD2 gene in PSA-NCAM+ cells, and can enhance PSA-NCAM+ cell growth in the presence of bFGF, favoring an oligodendrocyte fate. Conclusion These results may provide new insights into investigation of PSA-NCAM+ cells for therapeutic application to X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. PMID:23225827

  17. The mobility of single-file water molecules is governed by the number of H-bonds they may form with channel-lining residues

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Andreas; Zocher, Florian; Preiner, Johannes; Ollinger, Nicole; Siligan, Christine; Akimov, Sergey A.; Pohl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Channel geometry governs the unitary osmotic water channel permeability, pf, according to classical hydrodynamics. Yet, pf varies by several orders of magnitude for membrane channels with a constriction zone that is one water molecule in width and four to eight molecules in length. We show that both the pf of those channels and the diffusion coefficient of the single-file waters within them are determined by the number NH of residues in the channel wall that may form a hydrogen bond with the single-file waters. The logarithmic dependence of water diffusivity on NH is in line with the multiplicity of binding options at higher NH densities. We obtained high-precision pf values by (i) having measured the abundance of the reconstituted aquaporins in the vesicular membrane via fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and via high-speed atomic force microscopy, and (ii) having acquired the vesicular water efflux from scattered light intensities via our new adaptation of the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye equation. PMID:26167541

  18. Incomplete fusion dynamics by spin distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Ansari, M. Afzal; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Sharma, M. K.; Singh, B. P.; Babu, K. Surendra; Sinha, Rishi K.; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2010-02-15

    Spin distributions for various evaporation residues populated via complete and incomplete fusion of {sup 16}O with {sup 124}Sn at 6.3 MeV/nucleon have been measured, using charged particles (Z=1,2)-{gamma} coincidence technique. Experimentally measured spin distributions of the residues produced as incomplete fusion products associated with 'fast'{alpha}- and 2{alpha}-emission channels observed in the 'forward cone' are found to be distinctly different from those of the residues produced as complete fusion products. Moreover, 'fast'{alpha}-particles that arise from larger angular momentum in the entrance channel are populated at relatively higher driving input angular momentum than those produced through complete fusion. The incomplete fusion residues are populated in a limited, higher-angular-momentum range, in contrast to the complete fusion products, which are populated over a broad spin range.

  19. CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Bramley, R.; Gallivan, K.

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

  20. 40 CFR 725.33 - Incomplete submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.33 Incomplete submissions. (a) A submission under this part is not complete, and the review period does not... attachments are not in English, except for published scientific literature. (4) The submitter does not...

  1. 40 CFR 725.33 - Incomplete submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.33 Incomplete submissions. (a) A submission under this part is not complete, and the review period does not... attachments are not in English, except for published scientific literature. (4) The submitter does not...

  2. 40 CFR 725.33 - Incomplete submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.33 Incomplete submissions. (a) A submission under this part is not complete, and the review period does not... attachments are not in English, except for published scientific literature. (4) The submitter does not...

  3. 40 CFR 725.33 - Incomplete submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures § 725.33 Incomplete submissions. (a) A submission under this part is not complete, and the review period does not... attachments are not in English, except for published scientific literature. (4) The submitter does not...

  4. Characterization of a Distinct Population of Circulating Human Non-Adherent Endothelial Forming Cells and Their Recruitment via Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-3

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Emma J.; Barrett, Jeffrey M.; Tooley, Katie; Sen, Shaundeep; Sun, Wai Yan; Grose, Randall; Nicholson, Ian; Levina, Vitalina; Cooke, Ira; Talbo, Gert; Lopez, Angel F.; Bonder, Claudine S.

    2012-01-01

    Circulating vascular progenitor cells contribute to the pathological vasculogenesis of cancer whilst on the other hand offer much promise in therapeutic revascularization in post-occlusion intervention in cardiovascular disease. However, their characterization has been hampered by the many variables to produce them as well as their described phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. Herein we have isolated, enriched for and then characterized a human umbilical cord blood derived CD133+ population of non-adherent endothelial forming cells (naEFCs) which expressed the hematopoietic progenitor cell markers (CD133, CD34, CD117, CD90 and CD38) together with mature endothelial cell markers (VEGFR2, CD144 and CD31). These cells also expressed low levels of CD45 but did not express the lymphoid markers (CD3, CD4, CD8) or myeloid markers (CD11b and CD14) which distinguishes them from ‘early’ endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Functional studies demonstrated that these naEFCs (i) bound Ulex europaeus lectin, (ii) demonstrated acetylated-low density lipoprotein uptake, (iii) increased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) surface expression in response to tumor necrosis factor and (iv) in co-culture with mature endothelial cells increased the number of tubes, tubule branching and loops in a 3-dimensional in vitro matrix. More importantly, naEFCs placed in vivo generated new lumen containing vasculature lined by CD144 expressing human endothelial cells (ECs). Extensive genomic and proteomic analyses of the naEFCs showed that intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-3 is expressed on their cell surface but not on mature endothelial cells. Furthermore, functional analysis demonstrated that ICAM-3 mediated the rolling and adhesive events of the naEFCs under shear stress. We suggest that the distinct population of naEFCs identified and characterized here represents a new valuable therapeutic target to control aberrant vasculogenesis. PMID:23144795

  5. Numerical evaluation of the incomplete airy functions and their application to high frequency scattering and diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, E. D.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The incomplete Airy integrals serve as canonical functions for the uniform ray optical solutions to several high frequency scattering and diffraction problems that involve a class of integrals characterized by two stationary points that are arbitrarily close to one another or to an integration endpoint. Integrals of such analytical properties describe transition region phenomena associated with composite shadow boundaries. An efficient and accurate method for computing the incomplete Airy functions would make the solutions to such problems useful for engineering purposes. Here, a convergent series solution form for the incomplete Airy functions is derived. Asymptotic expansions involving several terms were also developed and serve as large argument approximations. The combination of the series solution form with the asymptotic formulae provides for an efficient and accurate computation of the incomplete Airy functions. Validation of accuracy is accomplished using direct numerical integration data.

  6. Coincidence of Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell and Meningomyelocele in a Dizygotic Twin Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Timur, Hakan; Tokmak, Aytekin; Bayram, Hatice; Şükran Çakar, Esra; Danışman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Pentalogy of Cantrell is an extremely rare and lethal syndrome. Ectopia cordis is frequently found in fetuses with POC but not required for incomplete forms. Likewise, meningomyelocele is a relatively uncommon neural tube defect affecting central nervous system and associated with neurological problems. Herein, we presented a woman with dizygotic twin pregnancy having coincidence of incomplete POC and MMC in each individual fetus, which has never been reported previously. PMID:26421202

  7. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 15 CFR 30.24), the port director may accept in lieu thereof an incomplete manifest (referred to as a... sector of Berlin) Hungary Iran Iraq Laos Latvia Libya Lithuania Mongolian People's Republic North...

  8. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 15 CFR 30.24), the port director may accept in lieu thereof an incomplete manifest (referred to as a... Polish People's Republic (Including Danzig) Rumania South Yemen Union of Soviet Socialist Republics...

  9. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 15 CFR 30.24), the port director may accept in lieu thereof an incomplete manifest (referred to as a... export declarations have been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China,...

  10. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 15 CFR 30.24), the port director may accept in lieu thereof an incomplete manifest (referred to as a... export declarations have been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China,...

  11. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 15 CFR 30.24), the port director may accept in lieu thereof an incomplete manifest (referred to as a... export declarations have been filed with the port director: Albania Bulgaria Cambodia China,...

  12. Incomplete Laplace integrals - uniform asymptotic expansion with application to the incomplete beta function

    SciTech Connect

    Temme, N.M.

    1987-11-01

    The analytical approach of Temme (1983 and 1985), based on uniform asymptotic expansions, is extended to an additional class of incomplete Laplace integrals. The terminology is introduced; the construction of the formal series is explained; representations for the remainders are derived; the asymptotic nature of the expansions is explored; and error bounds are determined. Numerical results are presented for the case of the incomplete beta function. 14 references.

  13. Past incompleteness of a bouncing multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu

    2014-06-01

    According to classical GR, Anti-de Sitter (AdS) bubbles in the multiverse terminate in big crunch singularities. It has been conjectured, however, that the fundamental theory may resolve these singularities and replace them by nonsingular bounces. This may have important implications for the beginning of the multiverse. Geodesics in cosmological spacetimes are known to be past-incomplete, as long as the average expansion rate along the geodesic is positive, but it is not clear that the latter condition is satisfied if the geodesic repeatedly passes through crunching AdS bubbles. We investigate this issue in a simple multiverse model, where the spacetime consists of a patchwork of FRW regions. The conclusion is that the spacetime is still past-incomplete, even in the presence of AdS bounces.

  14. Novel pathogenic mechanism of microbial metalloproteinases: liberation of membrane-anchored molecules in biologically active form exemplified by studies with the human interleukin-6 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, P; Walev, I; Rose-John, S; Bhakdi, S

    1996-01-01

    Certain membrane-anchored proteins, including several cytokines and cytokine receptors, can be released into cell supernatants through the action of endogenous membrane-bound metalloproteinases. The shed molecules are then able to fulfill various biological functions; for example, soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R) can bind to bystander cells, rendering these cells sensitive to the action of IL-6. Using IL-6R as a model substrate, we report that the metalloproteinase from Serratia marcescens mimics the action of the endogenous shedding proteinase. Treatment of human monocytes with the bacterial protease led to a rapid release of sIL-6R into the supernatant. This effect was inhibitable with TAPI [N-(D,L-[2-(hydroxyaminocarbonyl)methyl]-4-methylpentanoyl) L-3-(2' naphthyl)-alanyl-L-alanine, 2-aminoethyl amide], a specific inhibitor of the membrane-bound intrinsic metalloproteinase, but not with other conventional proteinase inhibitors. sIL-6R-liberating activity was also detected in culture supernatants of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Listeria monocytogenes, organisms that are known to produce metalloproteinases. sIL-6R released through the action of S. marcescens metalloproteinase retained biological activity and rendered IL-6-unresponsive human hepatoma cells sensitive to stimulation with IL-6. This was shown by Northern (RNA) blot detection of haptoglobin mRNA and by quantitative measurements of de novo-synthesized haptoglobin in cell supernatants. Analysis of immunoprecipitated, radiolabeled sIL-6R revealed that the bacterial protease cleaved IL-6R at a site distinct from that utilized by the endogenous protease. These studies show that membrane-anchored proteins can be released in active form through cleavage at multiple sites, and they uncover a novel mechanism via which microbial proteases possibly provoke long-range biological effects in the host organism. PMID:8751912

  15. Essays on incomplete contracts in regulatory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Eduardo Humberto

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay, The Hold-Up Problem in Public Infrastructure Franchising, characterizes the equilibria of the investment decisions in public infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex-post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm) are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment is renegotiated by the parties at the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this essay is that not only underinvestment but also overinvestment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting case. The second essay, Alternative Institutional Arrangements in Network Utilities: An Incomplete Contracting Approach, presents a theoretical assessment of the efficiency implications of privatizing natural monopolies which are vertically related to potential competitive firms. Based on the incomplete contracts and asymmetric information paradigm. I develop a model that analyzes the relative advantages of different institutional arrangements---alternative ownership and market structures in the industry--- in terms of their allocative and productive efficiencies. The main policy conclusion of this essay is that both ownership and the existence of conglomerates in network industries matter. Among other conclusions, this essay provides an economic rationale for a mixed economy in which the network is public and vertical separation of the industry when the natural monopoly is under private ownership. The last essay, Opportunistic Behavior and Legal Disputes in the Chilean Electricity Sector, analyzes post-contractual disputes in this newly privatized industry. It discusses the presumption that opportunistic behavior and disputes arise due to inadequate market design, ambiguous regulation, and institutional weaknesses. This chapter also assesses the presumption

  16. Dynamic pattern matcher using incomplete data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gordon G. (Inventor); Wang, Lui (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates generally to pattern matching systems, and more particularly to a method for dynamically adapting the system to enhance the effectiveness of a pattern match. Apparatus and methods for calculating the similarity between patterns are known. There is considerable interest, however, in the storage and retrieval of data, particularly, when the search is called or initiated by incomplete information. For many search algorithms, a query initiating a data search requires exact information, and the data file is searched for an exact match. Inability to find an exact match thus results in a failure of the system or method.

  17. Inflationary spacetimes are incomplete in past directions.

    PubMed

    Borde, Arvind; Guth, Alan H; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2003-04-18

    Many inflating spacetimes are likely to violate the weak energy condition, a key assumption of singularity theorems. Here we offer a simple kinematical argument, requiring no energy condition, that a cosmological model which is inflating--or just expanding sufficiently fast--must be incomplete in null and timelike past directions. Specifically, we obtain a bound on the integral of the Hubble parameter over a past-directed timelike or null geodesic. Thus inflationary models require physics other than inflation to describe the past boundary of the inflating region of spacetime.

  18. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  19. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chandre, C.

    2015-10-15

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac’s theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac–Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed. The relevance of this procedure for infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems is exemplified.

  20. Rate-dependent incompleteness of earthquake catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainzl, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Important information about the earthquake generation process can be gained from instrumental earthquake catalogs, but this requires complete recordings to avoid biased results. The local completeness magnitude Mc is known to depend on general conditions such as the seismographic network and the environmental noise, which generally limit the possibility to detect small events. The detectability can be additionally reduced by an earthquake-induced increase of the noise-level leading to short-term variations of Mc, which cannot be resolved by traditional methods relying on the analysis of the frequency-magnitude distribution. Based on simple assumptions, I propose a new method to estimate such temporal excursions of Mc solely based on the estimation of the earthquake rate resulting in a high temporal resolution of Mc. The approach is shown to be in agreement with the apparent decrease of the estimated Gutenberg-Richter b-value in high-activity phases of recorded data sets and the observed incompleteness periods after mainshocks. Furthermore, an algorithm to estimate temporal changes of Mc is introduced and applied to empirical aftershock and swarm sequences from California and central Europe, indicating that observed b-value fluctuations are often related to rate-dependent incompleteness of the earthquake catalogs.

  1. Robust pulmonary lobe segmentation against incomplete fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Suicheng; Zheng, Qingfeng; Siegfried, Jill; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-03-01

    As important anatomical landmarks of the human lung, accurate lobe segmentation may be useful for characterizing specific lung diseases (e.g., inflammatory, granulomatous, and neoplastic diseases). A number of investigations showed that pulmonary fissures were often incomplete in image depiction, thereby leading to the computerized identification of individual lobes a challenging task. Our purpose is to develop a fully automated algorithm for accurate identification of individual lobes regardless of the integrity of pulmonary fissures. The underlying idea of the developed lobe segmentation scheme is to use piecewise planes to approximate the detected fissures. After a rotation and a global smoothing, a number of small planes were fitted using local fissures points. The local surfaces are finally combined for lobe segmentation using a quadratic B-spline weighting strategy to assure that the segmentation is smooth. The performance of the developed scheme was assessed by comparing with a manually created reference standard on a dataset of 30 lung CT examinations. These examinations covered a number of lung diseases and were selected from a large chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) dataset. The results indicate that our scheme of lobe segmentation is efficient and accurate against incomplete fissures.

  2. Social Interactions under Incomplete Information: Games, Equilibria, and Expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chao

    Interactions under Incomplete Information", is an application of the first chapter to censored outcomes, corresponding to the situation when agents" behaviors are subjected to some binding restrictions. In an interesting empirical analysis for property tax rates set by North Carolina municipal governments, it is found that there is a significant positive correlation among near-by municipalities. Additionally, some private information about its own residents is used by a municipal government to predict others' tax rates, which enriches current empirical work about tax competition. The third chapter, "Social Interactions under Incomplete Information with Multiple Equilibria", extends the first chapter by investigating effective estimation methods when the condition for a unique equilibrium may not be satisfied. With multiple equilibria, the previous model is incomplete due to the unobservable equilibrium selection. Neither conventional likelihoods nor moment conditions can be used to estimate parameters without further specifications. Although there are some solutions to this issue in the current literature, they are based on strong assumptions such as agents with the same observable characteristics play the same strategy. This paper relaxes those assumptions and extends the all-solution method used to estimate discrete choice games to a setting with both discrete and continuous choices, bounded and unbounded outcomes, and a general form of incomplete information, where the existence of a pure strategy equilibrium has been an open question for a long time. By the use of differential topology and functional analysis, it is found that when all exogenous characteristics are public information, there are a finite number of equilibria. With privately known exogenous characteristics, the equilbria can be represented by a compact set in a Banach space and be approximated by a finite set. As a result, a finite-state probability mass function can be used to specify a probability measure

  3. Walking molecules.

    PubMed

    von Delius, Max; Leigh, David A

    2011-07-01

    Movement is intrinsic to life. Biologists have established that most forms of directed nanoscopic, microscopic and, ultimately, macroscopic movements are powered by molecular motors from the dynein, myosin and kinesin superfamilies. These motor proteins literally walk, step by step, along polymeric filaments, carrying out essential tasks such as organelle transport. In the last few years biological molecular walkers have inspired the development of artificial systems that mimic aspects of their dynamics. Several DNA-based molecular walkers have been synthesised and shown to walk directionally along a track upon sequential addition of appropriate chemical fuels. In other studies, autonomous operation--i.e. DNA-walker migration that continues as long as a complex DNA fuel is present--has been demonstrated and sophisticated tasks performed, such as moving gold nanoparticles from place-to-place and assistance in sequential chemical synthesis. Small-molecule systems, an order of magnitude smaller in each dimension and 1000× smaller in molecular weight than biological motor proteins or the walker systems constructed from DNA, have also been designed and operated such that molecular fragments can be progressively transported directionally along short molecular tracks. The small-molecule systems can be powered by light or chemical fuels. In this critical review the biological motor proteins from the kinesin, myosin and dynein families are analysed as systems from which the designers of synthetic systems can learn, ratchet concepts for transporting Brownian substrates are discussed as the mechanisms by which molecular motors need to operate, and the progress made with synthetic DNA and small-molecule walker systems reviewed (142 references). PMID:21416072

  4. Enhanced photoabsorption efficiency of incomplete nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Venkatapathi, Murugesan; Dastidar, Sudipta G; Bharath, P; Roy, Arindam; Ghosh, Anupam

    2013-09-01

    The rather low scattering or extinction efficiency of small nanoparticles, metallic and otherwise, is significantly enhanced when they are adsorbed on a larger core particle. But the photoabsorption by particles with varying surface area fractions on a larger core particle is found to be limited by saturation. It is found that the core-shell particle can have a lower absorption efficiency than a dielectric core with its surface partially nucleated with absorbing particles-an "incomplete nanoshell" particle. We have both numerically and experimentally studied the optical efficiencies of titania (TiO2) nucleated in various degrees on silica (SiO2) nanospheres. We show that optimal surface nucleation over cores of appropriate sizes and optical properties will have a direct impact on the applications exploiting the absorption and scattering properties of such composite particles. PMID:23988933

  5. Enhanced photoabsorption efficiency of incomplete nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Venkatapathi, Murugesan; Dastidar, Sudipta G; Bharath, P; Roy, Arindam; Ghosh, Anupam

    2013-09-01

    The rather low scattering or extinction efficiency of small nanoparticles, metallic and otherwise, is significantly enhanced when they are adsorbed on a larger core particle. But the photoabsorption by particles with varying surface area fractions on a larger core particle is found to be limited by saturation. It is found that the core-shell particle can have a lower absorption efficiency than a dielectric core with its surface partially nucleated with absorbing particles-an "incomplete nanoshell" particle. We have both numerically and experimentally studied the optical efficiencies of titania (TiO2) nucleated in various degrees on silica (SiO2) nanospheres. We show that optimal surface nucleation over cores of appropriate sizes and optical properties will have a direct impact on the applications exploiting the absorption and scattering properties of such composite particles.

  6. In praise of the incomplete leader.

    PubMed

    Ancona, Deborah; Malone, Thomas W; Orlikowski, Wanda J; Senge, Peter M

    2007-02-01

    Today's top executives are expected to do everything right, from coming up with solutions to unfathomably complex problems to having the charisma and prescience to rally stakeholders around a perfect vision of the future. But no one leader can be all things to all people. It's time to end the myth of the complete leader, say the authors. Those at the top must come to understand their weaknesses as well as their strengths. Only by embracing the ways in which they are incomplete can leaders fill in the gaps in their knowledge with others' skills. The incomplete leader has the confidence and humility to recognize unique talents and perspectives throughout the organization--and to let those qualities shine. The authors' work studying leadership over the past six years has led them to develop a framework of distributed leadership. Within that model, leadership consists of four capabilities: sensemaking, relating, "visioning," and inventing. Sensemaking involves understanding and mapping the context in which a company and its people operate. A leader skilled in this area can quickly identify the complexities of a given situation and explain them to others. The second capability, relating, means being able to build trusting relationships with others through inquiring (listening with intention), advocating (explaining one's own point of view), and connecting (establishing a network of allies who can help a leader accomplish his or her goals). Visioning, the third capability, means coming up with a compelling image of the future. It is a collaborative process that articulates what the members of an organization want to create. Finally, inventing involves developing new ways to bring that vision to life. Rarely will a single person be skilled in all four areas. That's why it's critical that leaders find others who can offset their limitations and complement their strengths. Those who don't will not only bear the burden of leadership alone but will find themselves at the helm

  7. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  8. Dynamical properties of nimodipine molecules confined in SBA-15 matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiwilsza, A.; Pajzderska, A.; Mielcarek, J.; Jenczyk, J.; Wąsicki, J.

    2016-08-01

    The paper reports results of 13C and 1H ssNMR for nimodipine confined in mesopores of SBA-15 for the samples (i) containing nimodipine molecules inside and on the external surface of silica, (ii) containing nimodipine only inside pores forming an incomplete monolayer on the surface (iii) for bulk nimodipine. The measurements permitted comparison of the dynamics of nimodipine bulk and confined in pores. The confined nimodipine is in an amorphous state and has additional degrees of rotational freedom with respect to the bulk one. The height of the energy barrier related to the rotation of methyl groups in confined nimodipine is lower than in bulk nimodipine. The higher mobility of nimodipine molecules confined in silica pores can explain the higher release rate of nimodipine from silica matrix than dissolution rate of bulk drug.

  9. Molecule nanoweaver

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II; Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2009-03-10

    A method, apparatus, and system for constructing uniform macroscopic films with tailored geometric assemblies of molecules on the nanometer scale. The method, apparatus, and system include providing starting molecules of selected character, applying one or more force fields to the molecules to cause them to order and condense with NMR spectra and images being used to monitor progress in creating the desired geometrical assembly and functionality of molecules that comprise the films.

  10. The Treatment of the Incompletely Descended Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D. S. Poole

    1939-01-01

    (1) Under three years of age the diagnosis of the incompletely descended testis is uncertain. (2) The policy of awaiting spontaneous descent may be pursued until 10 years of age but, unless the testis lies in the superior scrotal position, this policy should not be persisted in thereafter. (3) Hormonal therapy may be employed before operative treatment as a means of determining testes which will descend spontaneously. It should only be used in the prepuberty period. (4) Operative treatment may be safely carried out at any age after 3 years and should be completed before puberty. The optimum period is between 8 and 11 years. The Bevan operation may be successful when the testis is very mobile but the most consistent results are obtained by the septal transposition or Keetley-Torek operations. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22 PMID:19991991

  11. WILLIAM SEAL REJECTING AN INCOMPLETE OR IMPROPERLY SET BEARDSLEY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WILLIAM SEAL REJECTING AN INCOMPLETE OR IMPROPERLY SET BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC CORE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Cell adhesion molecules NgCAM and axonin-1 form heterodimers in the neuronal membrane and cooperate in neurite outgrowth promotion

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The axonal surface glycoproteins neuronglia cell adhesion molecule (NgCAM) and axonin-1 promote cell-cell adhesion, neurite outgrowth and fasciculation, and are involved in growth cone guidance. A direct binding between NgCAM and axonin-1 has been demonstrated using isolated molecules conjugated to the surface of fluorescent microspheres. By expressing NgCAM and axonin-1 in myeloma cells and performing cell aggregation assays, we found that NgCAM and axonin-1 cannot bind when present on the surface of different cells. In contrast, the cocapping of axonin-1 upon antibody-induced capping of NgCAM on the surface of CV- 1 cells coexpressing NgCAM and axonin-1 and the selective chemical cross-linking of the two molecules in low density cultures of dorsal root ganglia neurons indicated a specific and direct binding of axonin- 1 and Ng-CAM in the plane of the same membrane. Suppression of the axonin-1 translation by antisense oligonucleotides prevented neurite outgrowth in dissociated dorsal root ganglia neurons cultured on an NgCAM substratum, indicating that neurite outgrowth on NgCAM substratum requires axonin-1. Based on these and previous results, which implicated NgCAM as the neuronal receptor involved in neurite outgrowth on NgCAM substratum, we concluded that neurite outgrowth on an NgCAM substratum depends on two essential interactions of growth cone NgCAM: a trans-interaction with substratum NgCAM and a cis-interaction with axonin-1 residing in the same growth cone membrane. PMID:8978825

  13. Adapting DFT+U for the Chemically Motivated Correction of Minimal Basis Set Incompleteness.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Heather J; Seelam, Natasha; Mar, Brendan D; Martínez, Todd J

    2016-07-28

    Recent algorithmic and hardware advances have enabled the application of electronic structure methods to the study of large-scale systems such as proteins with O(10(3)) atoms. Most such methods benefit greatly from the use of reduced basis sets to further enhance their speed, but truly minimal basis sets are well-known to suffer from incompleteness error that gives rise to incorrect descriptions of chemical bonding, preventing minimal basis set use in production calculations. We present a strategy for improving these well-known shortcomings in minimal basis sets by selectively tuning the energetics and bonding of nitrogen and oxygen atoms within proteins and small molecules to reproduce polarized double-ζ basis set geometries at minimal basis set cost. We borrow the well-known +U correction from the density functional theory community normally employed for self-interaction errors and demonstrate its power in the context of correcting basis set incompleteness within a formally self-interaction-free Hartree-Fock framework. We tune the Hubbard U parameters for nitrogen and oxygen atoms on small-molecule tautomers (e.g., cytosine), demonstrate the applicability of the approach on a number of amide-containing molecules (e.g., formamide, alanine tripeptide), and test our strategy on a 10 protein test set where anomalous proton transfer events are reduced by 90% from RHF/STO-3G to RHF/STO-3G+U, bringing the latter into quantitative agreement with RHF/6-31G* results. Although developed with the study of biological molecules in mind, this empirically tuned U approach shows promise as an alternative strategy for correction of basis set incompleteness errors.

  14. Incomplete fusion in 16O+159Tb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vijay R.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Shuaib, Mohd.; Yadav, Abhishek; Bala, Indu; Sharma, Manoj K.; Gupta, S.; Singh, D. P.; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2016-02-01

    In heavy-ion induced reactions, incomplete fusion (ICF) has been found to be a process of greater importance and of distinct nature even at slightly above the barrier energies where complete fusion (CF) is supposed to be dominant. However, the studies are limited to a few projectile target combinations only. To confirm the distinctly different decay patterns observed in case of CF and ICF residues, and to understand the role of high ℓ-values in the onset of ICF, a particle-γ-coincidence technique has been employed to measure spin-distributions and feeding intensity profiles of CF and ICF residues populated via xn / pxn / αxn-channels in 16O+159Tb interactions at Elab ≈ 83.5 ± 1.5, 88.5 ± 1.5, 93.5 ± 1.5 and 97.6 ± 1.4 MeV. The Gamma Detector Array and the Charged Particles Detector Array have been used to detect prompt γ-rays in coincidence with charged particles (p and α). CF-α and ICF-α channels have been identified from backward (B)- and forward (F)-α-gated-γ-spectra, respectively. Reaction dependent decay patterns (thus, the feeding intensity profiles) have been observed in different α emitting channels. The CF channels are found to be widely populated and strongly fed over a broad spin range. In case of ICF-α channels, narrow range feeding was observed only for high-spin states or the low spin states were not populated. The mean ℓ-values involved in the production of ICF- αxn-channels are found to be higher than those involved in the production of CF- αxn-channels associated with fusion-evaporation reactions.

  15. Emission spectrometric arcing procedure with minimal effect of chemical form of sample. [performed on refractory metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Matrix effects related to the chemical form of analyzed materials were studied. An arc in argon was used which was buffered with silver chloride. The effect of chemical form was minimal for a variety of metals, oxides, and carbides representing the most refractory compounds and thermally stable metal-containing molecules. Only four of the most refractory materials known showed significant emission depressions due to incomplete volatilization in the arc system. These results are discussed in terms of vapor pressures of the solid materials placed on the anodes and dissociation reactions of the molecules in the gaseous environment.

  16. Water-COOH Composite Structure with Enhanced Hydrophobicity Formed by Water Molecules Embedded into Carboxyl-Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Pan; Tu, Yusong; Yang, Jinrong; Wang, Chunlei; Sheng, Nan; Fang, Haiping

    2015-10-01

    By combining molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics calculations, we show the formation of a composite structure composed of embedded water molecules and the COOH matrix on carboxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (COOH SAMs) with appropriate packing densities. This composite structure with an integrated hydrogen bond network inside reduces the hydrogen bonds with the water above. This explains the seeming contradiction on the stability of the surface water on COOH SAMs observed in experiments. The existence of the composite structure at appropriate packing densities results in the two-step distribution of contact angles of water droplets on COOH SAMs, around 0° and 35°, which compares favorably to the experimental measurements of contact angles collected from forty research articles over the past 25 years. These findings provide a molecular-level understanding of water on surfaces (including surfaces on biomolecules) with hydrophilic functional groups.

  17. Water-COOH Composite Structure with Enhanced Hydrophobicity Formed by Water Molecules Embedded into Carboxyl-Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Pan; Tu, Yusong; Yang, Jinrong; Wang, Chunlei; Sheng, Nan; Fang, Haiping

    2015-10-30

    By combining molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics calculations, we show the formation of a composite structure composed of embedded water molecules and the COOH matrix on carboxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayers (COOH SAMs) with appropriate packing densities. This composite structure with an integrated hydrogen bond network inside reduces the hydrogen bonds with the water above. This explains the seeming contradiction on the stability of the surface water on COOH SAMs observed in experiments. The existence of the composite structure at appropriate packing densities results in the two-step distribution of contact angles of water droplets on COOH SAMs, around 0° and 35°, which compares favorably to the experimental measurements of contact angles collected from forty research articles over the past 25 years. These findings provide a molecular-level understanding of water on surfaces (including surfaces on biomolecules) with hydrophilic functional groups.

  18. The long form of Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule is expressed specifically in neurons and protects them against death receptor-triggered apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Segura, Miguel F; Sole, Carme; Pascual, Marta; Moubarak, Rana S; Perez-Garcia, M Jose; Gozzelino, Raffaella; Iglesias, Victoria; Badiola, Nahuai; Bayascas, Jose R; Llecha, Nuria; Rodriguez-Alvarez, Jose; Soriano, Eduardo; Yuste, Victor J; Comella, Joan X

    2007-10-17

    Death receptors (DRs) and their ligands are expressed in developing nervous system. However, neurons are generally resistant to death induction through DRs and rather their activation promotes neuronal outgrowth and branching. These results suppose the existence of DRs antagonists expressed in the nervous system. Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule (FAIM(S)) was first identified as a Fas antagonist in B-cells. Soon after, a longer alternative spliced isoform with unknown function was identified and named FAIM(L). FAIM(S) is widely expressed, including the nervous system, and we have shown previously that it promotes neuronal differentiation but it is not an anti-apoptotic molecule in this system. Here, we demonstrate that FAIM(L) is expressed specifically in neurons, and its expression is regulated during the development. Expression could be induced by NGF through the extracellular regulated kinase pathway in PC12 (pheochromocytoma cell line) cells. Contrary to FAIM(S), FAIM(L) does not increase the neurite outgrowth induced by neurotrophins and does not interfere with nuclear factor kappaB pathway activation as FAIM(S) does. Cells overexpressing FAIM(L) are resistant to apoptotic cell death induced by DRs such as Fas or tumor necrosis factor R1. Reduction of endogenous expression by small interfering RNA shows that endogenous FAIM(L) protects primary neurons from DR-induced cell death. The detailed analysis of this antagonism shows that FAIM(L) can bind to Fas receptor and prevent the activation of the initiator caspase-8 induced by Fas. In conclusion, our results indicate that FAIM(L) could be responsible for maintaining initiator caspases inactive after receptor engagement protecting neurons from the cytotoxic action of death ligands.

  19. Sulfur-bearing molecules observed in the massive star-forming regions, DR21(OH) and G33.92+0.11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh, Y. C.

    2016-07-01

    Recent high sensitive and high angular resolution observations are providing unprecedented amount of chemical data, especially, on the massive star-forming regions. It will greatly extend our understandings on the complicated star formation process, if we can digest those huge amount of information. We discuss here on the properties of the sulfurbearing species observed with high angular resolutions toward two massive star-forming regions, DR21(OH) and G33.92+0.11. H2S may not exist as a solid form in the grain mantles, but OCS is believed to be one of major solid sulfur species, as suggested before. In addition, the bipolar-like outflow of the H2CS emission observed in DR21(OH) may suggest that H2CS is also one of solid sulfur species on the grain mantles. Depending on the chemical environment, the competition between hydrogenation and oxidization on the grain surface may lead to formation of specific solid forms to dominate, which could be either H2CS or OCS. SO and SO2 are often observed to be associated with ionized gas, such as the UC HII regions. These species seem to be formed in the high temperature turbulent gas in a later stage of star formation after the hot core phase. Fractional abundances of these sulfur-bearing species appear to be consistent to a certain extent in several star-forming regions. The physical and chemical evolution of massive star formation seems to pass through very similar stages in most star-forming regions. Consequently, it may indicate that there exists a consistent and coherent pattern of processes experienced by the massive star formation, in spite of the large variations in small scale locational differences.

  20. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. 122.74 Section 122.74 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a)...

  1. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. 122.74 Section 122.74 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a)...

  2. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  3. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  4. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  5. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  6. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Late and incomplete reports. 630.6 Section 630.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.6 Late and incomplete reports. (a) Late...

  7. Optimizing Balanced Incomplete Block Designs for Educational Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Carlson, James E.

    2004-01-01

    A popular design in large-scale educational assessments as well as any other type of survey is the balanced incomplete block design. The design is based on an item pool split into a set of blocks of items that are assigned to sets of "assessment booklets." This article shows how the problem of calculating an optimal balanced incomplete block…

  8. Treatment of Intravenous Leiomyomatosis with Cardiac Extension following Incomplete Resection.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Mathew P; Li, Annette; Villanueva, Claudia I; Peeceeyen, Sheen C S; Cooper, Michael G; Hanel, Kevin C; Fermanis, Gary G; Robertson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) with cardiac extension (CE) is a rare variant of benign uterine leiomyoma. Incomplete resection has a recurrence rate of over 30%. Different hormonal treatments have been described following incomplete resection; however no standard therapy currently exists. We review the literature for medical treatments options following incomplete resection of IVL with CE. Methods. Electronic databases were searched for all studies reporting IVL with CE. These studies were then searched for reports of patients with inoperable or incomplete resection and any further medical treatments. Our database was searched for patients with medical therapy following incomplete resection of IVL with CE and their results were included. Results. All studies were either case reports or case series. Five literature reviews confirm that surgery is the only treatment to achieve cure. The uses of progesterone, estrogen modulation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonism, and aromatase inhibition have been described following incomplete resection. Currently no studies have reviewed the outcomes of these treatments. Conclusions. Complete surgical resection is the only means of cure for IVL with CE, while multiple hormonal therapies have been used with varying results following incomplete resection. Aromatase inhibitors are the only reported treatment to prevent tumor progression or recurrence in patients with incompletely resected IVL with CE. PMID:26783463

  9. Reducing Unnecessary Accumulation of Incomplete Grades: A Quality Improvement Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domocmat, Maria Carmela L.

    2015-01-01

    It has been noted that there is an increasing percentage of students accumulating incomplete (INC) grades. This paper aims to identify the factors that contribute to the accumulation of incomplete grades of students and, utilizing the best practices of various universities worldwide, it intends to recommend solutions in limiting the number of…

  10. Treatment of Intravenous Leiomyomatosis with Cardiac Extension following Incomplete Resection

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Mathew P.; Li, Annette; Villanueva, Claudia I.; Peeceeyen, Sheen C. S.; Cooper, Michael G.; Hanel, Kevin C.; Fermanis, Gary G.; Robertson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) with cardiac extension (CE) is a rare variant of benign uterine leiomyoma. Incomplete resection has a recurrence rate of over 30%. Different hormonal treatments have been described following incomplete resection; however no standard therapy currently exists. We review the literature for medical treatments options following incomplete resection of IVL with CE. Methods. Electronic databases were searched for all studies reporting IVL with CE. These studies were then searched for reports of patients with inoperable or incomplete resection and any further medical treatments. Our database was searched for patients with medical therapy following incomplete resection of IVL with CE and their results were included. Results. All studies were either case reports or case series. Five literature reviews confirm that surgery is the only treatment to achieve cure. The uses of progesterone, estrogen modulation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonism, and aromatase inhibition have been described following incomplete resection. Currently no studies have reviewed the outcomes of these treatments. Conclusions. Complete surgical resection is the only means of cure for IVL with CE, while multiple hormonal therapies have been used with varying results following incomplete resection. Aromatase inhibitors are the only reported treatment to prevent tumor progression or recurrence in patients with incompletely resected IVL with CE. PMID:26783463

  11. A comparison of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum angiotensin I-like molecule with forms of vertebrate angiotensinogens: a hormonal system conserved in the course of evolution.

    PubMed

    Laurent, V; Bulet, P; Salzet, M

    1995-05-12

    After five steps of purification including gel permeation, anti-angiotensin I affinity column chromatography followed by reverse-phase HPLC, a peptide immunoreactive to two different antisera (anti-angiotensin II and anti-angiotensin I) was purified to homogeneity from extracts of the leech Theromyzon tessulatum. The first 14 amino acid residues of the purified peptide (DRVYIHPFHLLXWG) established by automated Edman degradation, reveal the existence in leeches of an angiotensin I-like molecule close to human angiotensin I. The sequence of the purified peptide presents 78.5% of homology with the N-terminal part of human angiotensinogen. Moreover, in its sequence, this peptide presents the cleavage sites of vertebrate angiotensin metabolic enzymes, i.e. the renin and the angiotensin-converting enzyme. This finding constitutes the first biochemical characterization of an angiotensin I in Invertebrates. It also reflects the high conservation of angiotensins in the course of evolution, suggesting a fundamental role of this family in fluid homeostasis.

  12. Surface species formed by the adsorption and dissociation of water molecules on Ru(0001) surface containing a small coverage of carbon atoms studied by scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dept of Materials Science and Engineering UCB; Dept of Applied Science and Technology, UCB; Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yale University; Salmeron, Miquel; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Mugarza, Aitor; Cerda, Jorge I.; Heyde, Markus; Qi, Yabing; Schwarz, Udo D.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-04-26

    The adsorption and dissociation of water on a Ru(0001) surface containing a small amount ({le} 3 %) of carbon impurities was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Various surface species are formed depending on the temperature. These include molecular H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}O-C complexes, H, O, OH and CH. Clusters of either pure H{sub 2}O or mixed H{sub 2}O-OH species are also formed. Each of these species produces a characteristic contrast in the STM images and can be identified by experiment and by ab initio total energy calculations coupled with STM image simulations. Manipulation of individual species via excitation of vibrational modes with the tunneling electrons has been used as supporting evidence.

  13. Small molecule PZL318: forming fluorescent nanoparticles capable of tracing their interactions with cancer cells and activated platelets, slowing tumor growth and inhibiting thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shan; Wang, Yuji; Wang, Feng; Wang, Yaonan; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Ming; Feng, Qiqi; Wu, Jianhui; Zhao, Shurui; Wu, Wei; Peng, Shiqi

    2015-01-01

    Low selectivity of chemotherapy correlates with poor outcomes of cancer patients. To improve this issue, a novel agent, N-(1-[3-methoxycarbonyl-4-hydroxyphenyl]-β-carboline-3-carbonyl)-Trp-Lys-OBzl (PZL318), was reported here. The transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy images demonstrated that PZL318 can form nanoparticles. Fluorescent and confocal images visualized that PZL318 formed fluorescent nanoparticles capable of targeting cancer cells and tracing their interactions with cancer cells. In vitro, 40 μM of PZL318 inhibited the proliferation of tumorigenic cells, but not nontumorigenic cells. In vivo, 10 nmol/kg of PZL318 slowed the tumor growth of S180 mice and alleviated the thrombosis of ferric chloride-treated ICR mice, while 100 μmol/kg of PZL318 did not injure healthy mice and they exhibited no liver toxicity. By analyzing Fourier transform–mass spectrometry and rotating-frame Overhauser spectroscopy (ROESY) two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, the chemical mechanism of PZL318-forming trimers and nanoparticles was explored. By using mesoscale simulation, a nanoparticle of 3.01 nm in diameter was predicted containing 13 trimers. Scavenging free radicals, downregulating sP-selectin expression and intercalating toward DNA were correlated with the antitumor mechanism of PZL318. PMID:26345234

  14. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshkin, K R

    2014-09-30

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess a complete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of a single incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, a certain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  15. The Precise Radio Observation of the 13C Isotopic Fractionation for Carbon Chain Molecule HC3N in the Low-Mass Star Forming Region L1527

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, Mitsunori; Takano, Shuro; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Oyama, Takahiro; Kuze, Nobuhiko; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    We observed the three 13C isotopic species of HC3N with the high signal-to-noise ratios in L1527 using Green Bank 100 m telescope and Nobeyama 45 m telescope to explore the production scheme of HC3N, where L1527 is the low-mass star forming region in the phase of a warm carbon chain chemistry region. The spectral lines of the J = 5--4, 9--8, 10--9, and 12--11 transitions in the 44-109 GHz region were used to measure isotopic ratios. The abundance of HCCCN was determined from the line intensities of the two weak hyperfine components of the J = 5-4 transition. The isotopic ratios were precisely determined to be 1.00 : 1.01 : 1.35 : 86.4 for [H13CCCN] : [HC13CCN] : [HCC13CN] : [HCCCN]. It was found that the abundance of H13CCCN is equal to that of HC13CCN, and it was implied that HC3N is mainly formed by the reaction schemes via C2H2 and C2H2+ in L1527. This would suggest a universality of dicarbide chemistry producing HC3N irrespective of evolutional phases from a starless dark cloud to a warm carbon chain chemistry region. Sakai, N., Sakai, T., Hirota, T., & Yamamoto, S. 2008, ApJ, 672, 371 Takano, S., Masuda, A., Hirahara, Y., et al. 1998, A&A, 329, 1156

  16. Plant Development, Auxin, and the Subsystem Incompleteness Theorem

    PubMed Central

    Niklas, Karl J.; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the “subsystem incompleteness theorem,” which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective. PMID:22645582

  17. Plant development, auxin, and the subsystem incompleteness theorem.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the "subsystem incompleteness theorem," which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective.

  18. Collagen studies in newborn rat kidneys with incomplete ureteric obstruction.

    PubMed

    Haralambous-Gasser, A; Chan, D; Walker, R G; Powell, H R; Becker, G J; Jones, C L

    1993-09-01

    Collagen studies in newborn rats with incomplete ureteric obstruction were performed to describe and quantify changes in collagen deposition resulting from urinary tract obstruction at an early developmental age. Incomplete ureteric obstruction was created in three-day-old rats by placing the left ureter in a tunnel formed by the psoas muscle, and sham-operated controls underwent a laparotomy. The rats were sacrificed at 10, 17, 24 or 31 days. Collagen types I, III, IV, and V were localized by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, the total collagen content of the kidney was quantitated using hydroxyproline analysis, and collagen types I and III were quantitated using cyanogen bromide (CNBr) peptide analysis. Increased immunofluorescent staining for all of the collagens was found in the diffusely widened medullary interstitium of the obstructed kidney, and more focally in the cortical interstitium. Collagen types I, III and V, but not collagen type IV, were also found in bands in the interstitium at the junction of the cortex with the medulla. Increased staining for collagen type IV was found in thickened and tortuous tubular basement membranes (TBM) of the obstructed kidneys. The total collagen content of the obstructed kidney was significantly increased compared to the amounts in both the contralateral kidneys and in the kidneys from sham-operated controls at 24 and 31 days of age (P < 0.01 in each case, Wilcoxon matched pairs rank sum test and Mann Whitney U-test, respectively). The amount of collagen in the kidneys correlated with the degree of hydronephrosis (Spearman correlation test, r = 0.78, P < 0.02). CNBr peptide analysis demonstrated that over 50% of the collagen in the normal neonatal rat kidney was collagen type I and approximately 25% was collagen type III. In the obstructed kidneys most of the collagen was also collagen type I and collagen type III, although the proportion of total collagen comprised by these collagen types was decreased compared

  19. [Age and aging as incomplete architecture of human ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Baltes, P B

    1999-12-01

    The focus is on the basic biological-genetic and social-cultural architecture of human development across the life span. The starting point is the frame provided by past evolutionary forces. A first conclusion is that for modern times and the relative brevity of the time windows involved in modernity, further change in human functioning is primarily dependent on the evolution of new cultural forms of knowledge rather than evolution-based changes in the human genome. A second conclusion concerns the general architecture of the life course. Three governing lifespan developmental principles coexist. First, because long-term evolutionary selection evince a negative age correlation, genome-based plasticity and biological potential decrease with age. Second, for growth aspects of human development to extend further into the life span, culture-based resources are required at ever increasing levels. Third, because of age-related losses in biological plasticity and negative effects associated with some principles of learning (e.g., negative transfer), the efficiency of culture is reduced as lifespan development unfolds. Joint application of these principles suggests that the lifespan architecture becomes more and more incomplete with age. Three examples are given to illustrate the implications of the lifespan architecture outlined. The first is a general theory of development involving the orchestration of three component processes and their age-related dynamics: Selection, optimization, and compensation. The second example is theory and research on lifespan intelligence that distinguishes between the biology-based mechanics and culture-based pragmatics of intelligence and specifies distinct age gradients for the two categories of intellectual functioning. The third example considers the goal of evolving a positive biological and cultural scenario for the last phase of life (fourth age). Because of the general lifespan architecture outlined, this objective becomes

  20. Incomplete and transitory decrease of glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Schoors, Sandra; Cantelmo, Anna Rita; Georgiadou, Maria; Stapor, Peter; Wang, Xingwu; Quaegebeur, Annelies; Cauwenberghs, Sandra; Wong, Brian W; Bifari, Francesco; Decimo, Ilaria; Schoonjans, Luc; De Bock, Katrien; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter

    2014-01-01

    During vessel sprouting, a migratory endothelial tip cell guides the sprout, while proliferating stalk cells elongate the branch. Tip and stalk cell phenotypes are not genetically predetermined fates, but are dynamically interchangeable to ensure that the fittest endothelial cell (EC) leads the vessel sprout. ECs increase glycolysis when forming new blood vessels. Genetic deficiency of the glycolytic activator PFKFB3 in ECs reduces vascular sprouting by impairing migration of tip cells and proliferation of stalk cells. PFKFB3-driven glycolysis promotes the tip cell phenotype during vessel sprouting, since PFKFB3 overexpression overrules the pro-stalk activity of Notch signaling. Furthermore, PFKFB3-deficient ECs cannot compete with wild-type neighbors to form new blood vessels in chimeric mosaic mice. In addition, pharmacological PFKFB3 blockade reduces pathological angiogenesis with modest systemic effects, likely because it decreases glycolysis only partially and transiently. PMID:24335389

  1. The incomplete anti-Rh antibody agglutination mechanism of trypsinized ORh+ red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Margni, R A; Leoni, J; Bazzurro, M

    1977-01-01

    The capacity for binding to trypsinized and non-trypsinized ORh+ red cells, of the IgG incomplete anti-Rh antibody and its F(ab')2 and Fc fragments has been investigated. An analysis has also been made of the capacity of non-specific human IgG, aggregated non-specific human IgG, human IgM (19S) and IgM (7S), and of fragments Fcgamma, Fcmu and Fc5mu to inhibit the agglutination of trypsinized ORh+ red cells by the IgG incomplete anti-Rh antibody. The results obtained indicate that these antibodies behave in a similar manner to that of nonprecipitating antibodies, and that the agglutination of trypsinized red cells seems to be a mixed reaction due to the interaction of an Fab fragment with its Rh antigenic determinant present in the surface of a red cell and the Fc of the same molecule with a receptor for Fc present in adjacent red cells. The trypsin treatment apparently results in the liberation of occult Fc receptors. It has also been demonstrated that in the agglutination of ORh+ red cells by IgG incomplete anti-Rh antibody in the presence of albumin, interaction must occur in some manner between the albumin and the Fc fragment since the F(ab')2 fragment does not give rise to agglutination under such conditions. Images Figure 1 PMID:415968

  2. Interstellar Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Radioastronomy reveals that clouds between the stars, once believed to consist of simple atoms, contain molecules as complex as seven atoms and may be the most massive objects in our Galaxy. (Author/DF)

  3. Interstellar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D.

    1987-09-01

    Some 70 different molecular species have so far been detected variously in diffuse interstellar clouds, dense interstellar clouds, and circumstellar shells. Only simple (diatomic and triatomic) species exist in diffuse clouds because of the penetration of destructive UV radiations, whereas more complex (polyatomic) molecules survive in dense clouds as a result of the shielding against this UV radiation provided by dust grains. A current list of interstellar molecules is given together with a few other molecular species that have so far been detected only in circumstellar shells. Also listed are those interstellar species that contain rare isotopes of several elements. The gas phase ion chemistry is outlined via which the observed molecules are synthesized, and the process by which enrichment of the rare isotopes occurs in some interstellar molecules is described.

  4. Modeling Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The molecule modeling method known as Multibody Order (N) Dynamics, or MBO(N)D, was developed by Moldyn, Inc. at Goddard Space Flight Center through funding provided by the SBIR program. The software can model the dynamics of molecules through technology which stimulates low-frequency molecular motions and properties, such as movements among a molecule's constituent parts. With MBO(N)D, a molecule is substructured into a set of interconnected rigid and flexible bodies. These bodies replace the computation burden of mapping individual atoms. Moldyn's technology cuts computation time while increasing accuracy. The MBO(N)D technology is available as Insight II 97.0 from Molecular Simulations, Inc. Currently the technology is used to account for forces on spacecraft parts and to perform molecular analyses for pharmaceutical purposes. It permits the solution of molecular dynamics problems on a moderate workstation, as opposed to on a supercomputer.

  5. Systematics for low energy incomplete fusion: Still a puzzle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Abhishek; Shuaib, Mohd; Aggarwal, Abhay V.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Bala, Indu; Singh, D. P.; Singh, P. P.; Unnati; Sharma, M. K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2016-05-01

    In order to have a better and clear picture of incomplete fusion reactions at energies ≈4-7MeV/nucleon, the excitation function measurements have been performed for 18O+159Tb system. The experimental data have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay. The cross-section for xn/pxn-channels are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, which suggest their production via complete fusion process. However, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. The incomplete fusion fractions have been deduced at each studied energy and compared with other nearby systems for better insight into the underlying dynamics. The incomplete fusion fraction has been found to be sensitive to the projectile's energy and α-Q-value.

  6. 40 CFR 86.085-20 - Incomplete vehicles, classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.085-20 Incomplete...

  7. Enumerating molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr.; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Roe, Diana C.

    2004-04-01

    This report is a comprehensive review of the field of molecular enumeration from early isomer counting theories to evolutionary algorithms that design molecules in silico. The core of the review is a detail account on how molecules are counted, enumerated, and sampled. The practical applications of molecular enumeration are also reviewed for chemical information, structure elucidation, molecular design, and combinatorial library design purposes. This review is to appear as a chapter in Reviews in Computational Chemistry volume 21 edited by Kenny B. Lipkowitz.

  8. Incomplete nested dissection for solving n by n grid problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A.; Poole, W. G., Jr.; Voigt, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Nested dissection orderings are known to be very effective for solving sparse positive definite linear systems which arise from n by n grid problems. In this paper we consider incomplete nested dissection, an ordering which corresponds to the premature termination of nested dissection. Analyses of the arithmetic and storage requirements for incomplete nested dissection are given and the ordering is shown to be competitive with nested dissection with regard to arithmetic operations and superior to that ordering in storage requirements.

  9. X-ray mapping in heterocyclic design: 17. Crystal and molecular structures of the 'molecule of the month'; and its hydrogenated form

    SciTech Connect

    Rybakov, V. B. Alekseev, R. S.; Kurkin, A. V.; Yurovskaya, M. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structures of 2,8-dimethyl-5-[2-(6-methylpyridin-3-yl)ethyl]-2,3,4,4a,5, 9b-hexahydro1H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole trihydrobromide (I) (a = 12.865(4) Angstrom-Sign , b = 14.281(3) Angstrom-Sign , c = 13.553(3) Angstrom-Sign , Z = 4, sp. gr. Pna2{sub 1}) and 2,8-dimethyl-5-[2-(6-methylpyridin-3-yl)ethyl]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido [4,3-b]indole dihydrobromide (II) (a = 13.9704(14) Angstrom-Sign , b = 14.4447(15) Angstrom-Sign , c = 10.7819(12) Angstrom-Sign , {beta} = 107.58(1) Degree-Sign , Z = 4, sp. gr. P2{sub 1}/c) were studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures were solved by direct methods and refined by the full-matrix least-squares method with anisotropic displacement parameters to the R factors of 0.0603 and 0.0446, respectively. All Br{sup -} anions form hydrogen bonds with protonated nitrogen atoms. The synthesis and physicochemical parameters of these two compounds are reported.

  10. Time-dependent solutions for a stochastic model of gene expression with molecule production in the form of a compound Poisson process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrak, Jakub; Ochab-Marcinek, Anna

    2016-09-01

    We study a stochastic model of gene expression, in which protein production has a form of random bursts whose size distribution is arbitrary, whereas protein decay is a first-order reaction. We find exact analytical expressions for the time evolution of the cumulant-generating function for the most general case when both the burst size probability distribution and the model parameters depend on time in an arbitrary (e.g., oscillatory) manner, and for arbitrary initial conditions. We show that in the case of periodic external activation and constant protein degradation rate, the response of the gene is analogous to the resistor-capacitor low-pass filter, where slow oscillations of the external driving have a greater effect on gene expression than the fast ones. We also demonstrate that the n th cumulant of the protein number distribution depends on the n th moment of the burst size distribution. We use these results to show that different measures of noise (coefficient of variation, Fano factor, fractional change of variance) may vary in time in a different manner. Therefore, any biological hypothesis of evolutionary optimization based on the nonmonotonic dependence of a chosen measure of noise on time must justify why it assumes that biological evolution quantifies noise in that particular way. Finally, we show that not only for exponentially distributed burst sizes but also for a wider class of burst size distributions (e.g., Dirac delta and gamma) the control of gene expression level by burst frequency modulation gives rise to proportional scaling of variance of the protein number distribution to its mean, whereas the control by amplitude modulation implies proportionality of protein number variance to the mean squared.

  11. High-syn conformation of uridine and asymmetry of the hexameric molecule revealed in the high-resolution structures of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uridine phosphorylase in the free form and in complex with uridine.

    PubMed

    Safonova, Tatyana N; Mikhailov, Sergey N; Veiko, Vladimir P; Mordkovich, Nadezhda N; Manuvera, Valentin A; Alekseev, Cyril S; Kovalchuk, Mikhail V; Popov, Vladimir O; Polyakov, Konstantin M

    2014-12-01

    Uridine phosphorylase (UP; EC 2.4.2.3), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine-salvage pathway, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate. Expression of UP from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (SoUP) was performed in Escherichia coli. The high-resolution X-ray structure of SoUP was solved in the free form and in complex with uridine. A crystal of SoUP in the free form was grown under microgravity and diffracted to ultrahigh resolution. Both forms of SoUP contained sulfate instead of phosphate in the active site owing to the presence of ammonium sulfate in the crystallization solution. The latter can be considered as a good mimic of phosphate. In the complex, uridine adopts a high-syn conformation with a nearly planar ribose ring and is present only in one subunit of the hexamer. A comparison of the structures of SoUP in the free form and in complex with the natural substrate uridine showed that the subunits of the hexamer are not identical, with the active sites having either an open or a closed conformation. In the monomers with the closed conformation, the active sites in which uridine is absent contain a glycerol molecule mimicking the ribose moiety of uridine.

  12. The significance of incomplete skull fracture in the birth injury.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Keun; Yoon, Soo Han

    2010-05-01

    Vaginal delivery is accomplished by the force of the labor overcoming the resistance forces of birth canal. During this process, the fetal head passes through the birth canal and the skull receives pressure on the lateral aspect, resulting in molding, the convex shaping of the cranium. Also, the infant's skull is compressed by the mother's pelvic bony structures. These forces may lead to skull fractures and brain injuries. The hypothesis by the authors is that many skull fractures of the newborn present as incomplete fractures. The bony skull of the newborn is histologically primary bone tissue and which is incomplete in its ossification process. During birth the pressure forces upon the newborn's skull is gradual in one direction, rather than a sudden impact, and therefore it is thought that the skull fracture would be an incomplete fracture. However, it is very hard to ascertain the presence of incomplete fractures especially in incompletely ossified skulls with plain X-ray studies, and therefore it is possible that the real incidence of skull fractures in the newborn are higher than reported in the current and past literature. It is also probable that the external forces upon the skull that are sufficient to cause skull fractures, would also lead to significant brain injury more frequently than actually observed, and subsequently contribute to development of many brain disease later in children. The authors of this study propose that very close examination should be conducted to find incomplete fracture, and increased efforts should be made to establish the presence of possible accompanied brain injuries in babies with incomplete skull fracture. The definitive diagnosis and treatment, as well as close follow up of patients with brain injury will assist the clinician in determining the causes of neurological diseases especially in those with previously unknown etiologies, which may be due to birth injuries. Assistance may be also afforded in the early treatment

  13. 'Escentric' molecules.

    PubMed

    Schön, Geza

    2008-06-01

    Can a fragrance be revolutionary? In this commentary, the creation of two unusual, extravagant fine fragrances, 'escentric01' and 'molecule01', is described. In response to the fantasy components found in release notes of many recent perfume launches, both center around a single real fragrance raw material, the transparent woody aroma chemical 'Iso E Super' (1+2). The perfume 'escentric01' contains 65% of it, accompanied by Trisamber (3), red pepper, lime oil, incense and musks, while 'molecule01' consists exclusively of 'Iso E Super' (1+2). The elegant woody note lives here its own eccentric life--the revolution starts.

  14. Ultra-cold molecule production.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez-Serrano, Jamie; Chandler, David W.; Strecker, Kevin; Rahn, Larry A.

    2005-12-01

    The production of Ultra-cold molecules is a goal of many laboratories through out the world. Here we are pursuing a unique technique that utilizes the kinematics of atomic and molecular collisions to achieve the goal of producing substantial numbers of sub Kelvin molecules confined in a trap. Here a trap is defined as an apparatus that spatially localizes, in a known location in the laboratory, a sample of molecules whose temperature is below one degree absolute Kelvin. Further, the storage time for the molecules must be sufficient to measure and possibly further cool the molecules. We utilize a technique unique to Sandia to form cold molecules from near mass degenerate collisions between atoms and molecules. This report describes the progress we have made using this novel technique and the further progress towards trapping molecules we have cooled.

  15. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l < l {sub crit}

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Abhishek Sharma, Vijay R. Singh, Devendra P. Unnati,; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Sharma, M. K.

    2014-08-14

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of {sup 8}Be and/or {sup 4}He from {sup 12}C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l {sub crit} (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions.

  16. Handling incomplete smoking history data in survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale L; Misumi, Munechika; Cullings, Harry M

    2014-10-26

    While data are unavoidably missing or incomplete in most observational studies, consequences of mishandling such incompleteness in analysis are often overlooked. When time-varying information is collected irregularly and infrequently over a long period, even precisely obtained data may implicitly involve substantial incompleteness. Motivated by an analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of smoking and radiation on lung cancer risks among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, we provide a unique application of multiple imputation to incompletely observed smoking histories under the assumption of missing at random. Predicting missing values for the age of smoking initiation and, given initiation, smoking intensity and cessation age, analyses can be based on complete, though partially imputed, smoking histories. A simulation study shows that multiple imputation appropriately conditioned on the outcome and other relevant variables can produce consistent estimates when data are missing at random. Our approach is particularly appealing in large cohort studies where a considerable amount of time-varying information is incomplete under a mechanism depending in a complex manner on other variables. In application to the motivating example, this approach is expected to reduce estimation bias that might be unavoidable in naive analyses, while keeping efficiency by retaining known information. PMID:25348676

  17. Incomplete hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Argentinean children with bloody diarrhea.

    PubMed

    López, E L; Contrini, M M; Devoto, S; de Rosa, M F; Graña, M G; Aversa, L; Gómez, H F; Genero, M H; Cleary, T G

    1995-09-01

    Argentina has an exceptionally high frequency of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). We sought to define prospectively the role of verocytotoxins (Shiga-like toxins [SLTs]) in 254 Argentinean children with grossly bloody diarrhea during spring and summer. Free fecal SLTs (I/II) and/or DNA probe-positive isolates were found in 99 (39%) of the children. During the follow-up period, HUS developed in 6 patients (4 with evidence of recent SLT infection based on stool studies); another 14 patients had some, but not all, of the abnormalities seen in typical HUS. The development of HUS or incomplete HUS in these children was significantly associated with recent SLT-Escherichia coli infection (p = 0.024). The high incidence of SLT-associated bloody diarrhea in Argentina explains, at least partially, the unusually high frequency of HUS. Our data indicate that incomplete forms of HUS may be common in patients with SLT-associated bloody diarrhea.

  18. Modal parameters of two incomplete and complete guitars differing in the bracing pattern of the soundboard.

    PubMed

    Skrodzka, Ewa; Łapa, Andrzej; Linde, Bogumił B J; Rosenfeld, Eike

    2011-10-01

    Similarities and differences in vibrational behavior of two guitars having a symmetric Torres bracing pattern and an asymmetric pattern forming a lattice on a soundboard are investigated by means of the modal analysis technique and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) measurements. Instruments are investigated before and after a bridge and strings assembling (i.e., they are incomplete or complete). The bracing pattern and the absence/presence of the bridge and strings have some effect on modal frequencies and mode shapes. The bracing pattern does not affect the sequence of at least first three low frequency mode shapes of incomplete/complete instruments but affects their modal frequencies. Depending on frequency, the bridge behaves either as a rigid or a flexible structure. PMID:21973373

  19. Comparison of nested factorization, constrained pressure residual, and incomplete factorization preconditionings

    SciTech Connect

    Behie, A.

    1985-02-01

    Two recently developed methods for the solution of the sparse block-banded linear equation sets generated by fully implicit reservoir simulators are investigated. Nested factorization is a new approach to forming an incomplete factorization of the linear system. Comparisons are made of the nested factorization approach and the incomplete LU factorization (ILU) approach. Tests are done on both model problems and on problems generated by reservoir simulators. The nested factorization was no better than the best ILU method on both types of problems in most cases. In some cases it was considerably worse. Constrained pressure residual preconditioning (CPR) is a variant of the COMBINATIVE method. These two methods are compared on problems generated by black oil and steam simulators. CPR gives small improvements in convergence rates in some cases.

  20. Modal parameters of two incomplete and complete guitars differing in the bracing pattern of the soundboard.

    PubMed

    Skrodzka, Ewa; Łapa, Andrzej; Linde, Bogumił B J; Rosenfeld, Eike

    2011-10-01

    Similarities and differences in vibrational behavior of two guitars having a symmetric Torres bracing pattern and an asymmetric pattern forming a lattice on a soundboard are investigated by means of the modal analysis technique and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) measurements. Instruments are investigated before and after a bridge and strings assembling (i.e., they are incomplete or complete). The bracing pattern and the absence/presence of the bridge and strings have some effect on modal frequencies and mode shapes. The bracing pattern does not affect the sequence of at least first three low frequency mode shapes of incomplete/complete instruments but affects their modal frequencies. Depending on frequency, the bridge behaves either as a rigid or a flexible structure.

  1. Incomplete fuzzy data processing systems using artificial neural network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patyra, Marek J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the implementation of a fuzzy data processing system using an artificial neural network (ANN) is discussed. The binary representation of fuzzy data is assumed, where the universe of discourse is decartelized into n equal intervals. The value of a membership function is represented by a binary number. It is proposed that incomplete fuzzy data processing be performed in two stages. The first stage performs the 'retrieval' of incomplete fuzzy data, and the second stage performs the desired operation on the retrieval data. The method of incomplete fuzzy data retrieval is proposed based on the linear approximation of missing values of the membership function. The ANN implementation of the proposed system is presented. The system was computationally verified and showed a relatively small total error.

  2. A novel method to assess incompleteness of mammography reports.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Francisco J; Wu, Yirong; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Rubin, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    Mammography has been shown to improve outcomes of women with breast cancer, but it is subject to inter-reader variability. One well-documented source of such variability is in the content of mammography reports. The mammography report is of crucial importance, since it documents the radiologist's imaging observations, interpretation of those observations in terms of likelihood of malignancy, and suggested patient management. In this paper, we define an incompleteness score to measure how incomplete the information content is in the mammography report and provide an algorithm to calculate this metric. We then show that the incompleteness score can be used to predict errors in interpretation. This method has 82.6% accuracy at predicting errors in interpretation and can possibly reduce total diagnostic errors by up to 21.7%. Such a method can easily be modified to suit other domains that depend on quality reporting.

  3. A Novel Method to Assess Incompleteness of Mammography Reports

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Francisco J.; Wu, Yirong; Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Mammography has been shown to improve outcomes of women with breast cancer, but it is subject to inter-reader variability. One well-documented source of such variability is in the content of mammography reports. The mammography report is of crucial importance, since it documents the radiologist’s imaging observations, interpretation of those observations in terms of likelihood of malignancy, and suggested patient management. In this paper, we define an incompleteness score to measure how incomplete the information content is in the mammography report and provide an algorithm to calculate this metric. We then show that the incompleteness score can be used to predict errors in interpretation. This method has 82.6% accuracy at predicting errors in interpretation and can possibly reduce total diagnostic errors by up to 21.7%. Such a method can easily be modified to suit other domains that depend on quality reporting. PMID:25954448

  4. Incomplete defect filling after third generation autologous chondrocyte implantation

    PubMed Central

    Pietschmann, Matthias F.; Ficklscherer, Andreas; Gülecyüz, Mehmet F.; Hammerschmid, Florian; Müller, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Third generation autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a suitable method for the treatment of cartilage defects in the knee joint. However, knowledge about the development of graft thickness and the clinical relevance of incomplete defect filling in the postoperative course is low. This prospective study analyses the graft integration into the surrounding cartilage, with special consideration of the graft thickness. Material and methods A total of 71 consecutive patients with 79 cartilage defects were treated with third generation autologous chondrocyte implantation (NOVOCART 3D) in the knee. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 years. Graft thickness was measured compared to the surrounding healthy cartilage. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scoring system and the visual analogue scale (VAS) were used for clinical evaluation. Cartilage defect filling was classified as the percentage of the surrounding cartilage. Results The average graft thickness showed a significant increase between 3 and 6 months after autologous chondrocyte implantation. Incomplete defect filling occurred in 44 (55.7%) cases. Of these, 33 cases showed incomplete defect filling grade I (> 75%), 10 cases were grade II (> 50%) and one case grade III (> 25%). Incomplete defect filling grade IV (< 25%) was not observed. Incomplete defect filling occurred significantly more often in women (p = 0.021), without worse clinical results. Conclusions Graft thickness after third generation autologous chondrocyte implantation shows increasing graft thickness over the period of 2 years postoperatively. A high rate of incomplete defect filling in the surrounding cartilage was observed, without worse clinical results. PMID:27478460

  5. Low Complexity Models to improve Incomplete Sensitivities for Shape Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanciu, Mugurel; Mohammadi, Bijan; Moreau, Stéphane

    2003-01-01

    The present global platform for simulation and design of multi-model configurations treat shape optimization problems in aerodynamics. Flow solvers are coupled with optimization algorithms based on CAD-free and CAD-connected frameworks. Newton methods together with incomplete expressions of gradients are used. Such incomplete sensitivities are improved using reduced models based on physical assumptions. The validity and the application of this approach in real-life problems are presented. The numerical examples concern shape optimization for an airfoil, a business jet and a car engine cooling axial fan.

  6. [Incomplete antigens derived from milk proteins in the serum of infants allergic to milk].

    PubMed

    Vanella, L M; de González Lascano, A M; Miguez, V M

    1978-01-01

    1. Sera of 22 children with cow's milk clinical hypersensitivity were studied to demonstrate the presence of substances immunologically related with milk. They were compared with 23 controls. The infants of both groups were feed with bovine milk. The immunogenic capacity of cow's milk and their major proteins were experimentally investigated. 2. Specific rabbit antisera were obtained by injection of antigens with incomplete Freund adjuvant. Double difussion gel, passive hemagglutination and ultramicromethod for the determination of antigen antibody precipitated were performed. 3. Immunogenicity was proved by precipitation and hemagglutination methods. by precipitation cow's milk antigens were present in 5 of 22 sera of antigenic patients, in 3 of them ALA antigens were present and in only 1 of them, caseina were present. By hemagglutination, 12 of 22 allergic infants showed ALA and BLG and 11 caseine (C). In 2 of 7 controls, beta lactoglobuline (BLG) was present and in an other one C. It was possible to detect incomplete antigens related with ALA, BLG, and C in allergic infants as well as controls. A significative difference was found for BLG (P less than 0.01) and it was highest (P less than 0.003) in infants with protein calorie malnutrition. 4. It is concluded that sensitization depends not only on stimulation of incomplete or complete antigens, as were observed in this study but on the host's capacity to form citrotropic antibody in humoral hypersensitivity or to stimulate lymphocytes in cellular immunity field.

  7. Augmented multisensory feedback enhances locomotor adaptation in humans with incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Yen, Sheng-Che; Landry, Jill M; Wu, Ming

    2014-06-01

    Different forms of augmented feedback may engage different motor learning pathways, but it is unclear how these pathways interact with each other, especially in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). The purpose of this study was to test whether augmented multisensory feedback could enhance aftereffects following short term locomotor training (i.e., adaptation) in patients with incomplete SCI. A total of 10 subjects with incomplete SCI were recruited to perform locomotor adaptation. Three types of augmented feedback were provided during the adaptation: (a) computerized visual cues showing the actual and target stride length (augmented visual feedback); (b) a swing resistance applied to the leg (augmented proprioceptive feedback); (c) a combination of the visual cues and resistance (augmented multisensory feedback). The results showed that subjects' stride length increased in all conditions following the adaptation, but the increase was greater and retained longer in the multisensory feedback condition. The multisensory feedback provided in this study may engage both explicit and implicit learning pathways during the adaptation and in turn enhance the aftereffect. The results implied that multisensory feedback may be used as an adjunctive approach to enhance gait recovery in humans with SCI. PMID:24746604

  8. 43 CFR 46.125 - Incomplete or unavailable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.125 Incomplete or unavailable information. In circumstances where the provisions of 40 CFR 1502.22... as other non-monetized costs when appropriate, such as social costs, delays, opportunity costs,...

  9. 43 CFR 46.125 - Incomplete or unavailable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....125 Incomplete or unavailable information. In circumstances where the provisions of 40 CFR 1502.22 apply, bureaus must consider all costs to obtain information. These costs include monetary costs as well as other non-monetized costs when appropriate, such as social costs, delays, opportunity costs,...

  10. 43 CFR 46.125 - Incomplete or unavailable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....125 Incomplete or unavailable information. In circumstances where the provisions of 40 CFR 1502.22 apply, bureaus must consider all costs to obtain information. These costs include monetary costs as well as other non-monetized costs when appropriate, such as social costs, delays, opportunity costs,...

  11. 43 CFR 46.125 - Incomplete or unavailable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....125 Incomplete or unavailable information. In circumstances where the provisions of 40 CFR 1502.22 apply, bureaus must consider all costs to obtain information. These costs include monetary costs as well as other non-monetized costs when appropriate, such as social costs, delays, opportunity costs,...

  12. 43 CFR 46.125 - Incomplete or unavailable information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.125 Incomplete or unavailable information. In circumstances where the provisions of 40 CFR 1502.22 apply, bureaus must consider all costs to obtain information. These costs include monetary costs as...

  13. 40 CFR 86.085-20 - Incomplete vehicles, classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incomplete vehicles, classification... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty...

  14. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, S.

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  15. Conceptual versus Perceptual Priming in Incomplete Picture Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsukawa, Junko; Snodgrass, Joan Gay; Doniger, Glen M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined conceptual versus perceptual priming in identification of incomplete pictures by using a short-term priming paradigm, in which information that may be useful in identifying a fragmented target is presented just prior to the target's presentation. The target was a picture that slowly and continuously became complete and the…

  16. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURERS OF MULTISTAGE... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  17. A qualitative model for temporal reasoning with incomplete information

    SciTech Connect

    Geffner, H.

    1996-12-31

    We develop a qualitative framework for temporal reasoning with incomplete information that features a modeling language based on rules and a semantics based on infinitesimal probabilities. The framework relates logical and probabilistical models, and accommodates in a natural way features that have been found problematic in other models like non-determinism, action qualifications, parallel actions, and abduction to actions and fluents.

  18. Limit Pricing with Incomplete Information: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Timothy L.

    2004-01-01

    Strategic pricing is an important and exciting topic in industrial organization and the economics of strategy. A wide range of texts use what has become a standard version of the Milgrom and Roberts (1982a) limit-pricing model to convey the essential ideas of strategic pricing under incomplete information. In addition to providing a formal, but…

  19. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  20. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  1. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  2. MOLECULES IN {eta} CARINAE

    SciTech Connect

    Loinard, Laurent; Menten, Karl M.; Guesten, Rolf; Zapata, Luis A.; Rodriguez, Luis F.

    2012-04-10

    We report the detection toward {eta} Carinae of six new molecules, CO, CN, HCO{sup +}, HCN, HNC, and N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and of two of their less abundant isotopic counterparts, {sup 13}CO and H{sup 13}CN. The line profiles are moderately broad ({approx}100 km s{sup -1}), indicating that the emission originates in the dense, possibly clumpy, central arcsecond of the Homunculus Nebula. Contrary to previous claims, CO and HCO{sup +} do not appear to be underabundant in {eta} Carinae. On the other hand, molecules containing nitrogen or the {sup 13}C isotope of carbon are overabundant by about one order of magnitude. This demonstrates that, together with the dust responsible for the dimming of {eta} Carinae following the Great Eruption, the molecules detected here must have formed in situ out of CNO-processed stellar material.

  3. Impact of the putative cancer stem cell markers and growth factor receptor expression on the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to treatment with various forms of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and cytotoxic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Puvanenthiran, Soozana; Essapen, Sharadah; Seddon, Alan M.; Modjtahedi, Helmout

    2016-01-01

    Increased expression and activation of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER-2 have been reported in numerous cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of a large panel of human ovarian cancer cell lines (OCCLs) to treatment with various forms of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and cytotoxic drugs. The aim was to see if there was any association between the protein expression of various biomarkers including three putative ovarian cancer stem cell (CSC) markers (CD24, CD44, CD117/c-Kit), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and HER family members and response to treatment with these agents. The sensitivity of 10 ovarian tumour cell lines to the treatment with various forms of HER TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib, lapatinib, sapitinib, afatinib, canertinib, neratinib), as well as other TKIs (dasatinib, imatinib, NVP-AEW541, crizotinib) and cytotoxic agents (paclitaxel, cisplatin and doxorubicin), as single agents or in combination, was determined by SRB assay. The effect on these agents on the cell cycle distribution, and downstream signaling molecules and tumour migration were determined using flow cytometry, western blotting, and the IncuCyte Clear View cell migration assay respectively. Of the HER inhibitors, the irreversible pan-TKIs (canertinib, neratinib and afatinib) were the most effective TKIs for inhibiting the growth of all ovarian cancer cells, and for blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR, HER-2, AKT and MAPK in SKOV3 cells. Interestingly, while the majority of cancer cells were highly sensitive to treatment with dasatinib, they were relatively resistant to treatment with imatinib (i.e., IC50 >10 μM). Of the cytotoxic agents, paclitaxel was the most effective for inhibiting the growth of OCCLs, and of various combinations of these drugs, only treatment with a combination of NVP-AEW541 and paclitaxel produced a synergistic or additive anti-proliferative effect in all three cell lines examined (i.e., SKOV3, Caov3, ES2

  4. Local recurrence of a parosteal osteosarcoma 21 years after incomplete resection

    PubMed Central

    Combalia, Andrés; Muñoz-Mahamud, Ernesto; Palacín, Antonio; Pomés, Jaume; López, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Parosteal osteosarcoma (POS) is the most common form of surface osteosarcoma. Its symptoms are insidious and its duration prior to diagnosis is considerably longer than that of other types of osteosarcoma. We report a case of POS with a growing mass but no evidence of metastasis. This tumor, which was diagnosed as calcified hematoma with benign characteristics, was incompletely resected in our hospital 21 years before the diagnosis of recurrence. The patient underwent a wide en bloc resection in our hospital and was free of symptoms, with no signs of tumor recurrence or metastasis during a 53-month follow-up. PMID:22059909

  5. Treatment Strategy after Incomplete Endoscopic Resection of Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer is defined as incomplete when tumor cells are found at the resection margin upon histopathological examination. However, a tumor-positive resection margin does not always indicate residual tumor; it can also be caused by tissue contraction during fixation, by the cautery effect during endoscopic resection, or by incorrect histopathological mapping. Cases of highly suspicious residual tumor require additional endoscopic or surgical resection. For inoperable patients, argon plasma coagulation can be used as an alternative endoscopic treatment. Immediately after the incomplete resection or residual tumor has been confirmed by the pathologist, clinicians should also decide upon any additional treatment to be carried out during the follow-up period. PMID:27435699

  6. Inpatient capsule endoscopy leads to frequent incomplete small bowel examinations

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Cemal; Losurdo, John; Brown, Michael D; Oosterveen, Scott; Rahimi, Robert; Keshavarzian, Ali; Bozorgnia, Leila; Mutlu, Ece

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To examine the predictive factors of capsule endoscopy (CE) completion rate (CECR) including the effect of inpatient and outpatient status. METHODS: We identified 355 consecutive patients who completed CE at Rush University Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2005. Subjects for CE had either nothing by mouth or clear liquids for the afternoon and evening of the day before the procedure. CE exams were reviewed by two physicians who were unaware of the study hypotheses. After retrospective analysis, 21 cases were excluded due to capsule malfunction, prior gastric surgery, endoscopic capsule placement or insufficient data. Of the remaining 334 exams [264 out-patient (OP), 70 in-patient (IP)], CE indications, findings, location of the patients [IP vs OP and intensive care unit (ICU) vs general medical floor (GMF)] and gastrointestinal transit times were analyzed. Statistical analysis was completed using SPSS version 17 (Chicago, IL). Chi-square, t test or fisher exact-tests were used as appropriate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with incomplete CE exams. RESULTS: The mean age for the entire study population was 54.7 years. Sixty-one percent of the study population was female, and gender was not different between IPs vs OPs (P = 0.07). The overall incomplete CECR was 14% in our study. Overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB) was significantly more common for the IP CE (P = 0.0001), while abdominal pain and assessment of IBD were more frequent indications for the OP CE exams (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively). Occult OGB was the most common indication and arteriovenous malformations were the most common finding both in the IPs and OPs. The capsule did not enter the small bowel (SB) in 6/70 IPs and 8/264 OPs (P = 0.04). The capsule never reached the cecum in 31.4% (22/70) of IP vs 9.5% (25/ 264) of OP examinations (P < 0.001). The mean gastric transit time (GTT) was delayed in IPs compared to

  7. Investigations on the Incompletely Developed Plane Diagonal-Tension Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Paul

    1940-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation on the incompletely developed diagonal-tension field. Actual diagonal-tension beams work in an intermediate stage between pure shear and pure diagonal tension; the theory developed by wagner for diagonal tension is not directly applicable. The first part of the paper reviews the most essential items of the theory of pure diagonal tension as well as previous attempts to formulate a theory of incomplete diagonal tension. The second part of the paper describes strain measurement made by the N. A. C. A. to obtain the necessary coefficients for the proposed theory. The third part of the paper discusses the stress analysis of diagonal-tension beams by means of the proposed theory.

  8. Treatment Strategy after Incomplete Endoscopic Resection of Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Gyun

    2016-07-01

    Endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer is defined as incomplete when tumor cells are found at the resection margin upon histopathological examination. However, a tumor-positive resection margin does not always indicate residual tumor; it can also be caused by tissue contraction during fixation, by the cautery effect during endoscopic resection, or by incorrect histopathological mapping. Cases of highly suspicious residual tumor require additional endoscopic or surgical resection. For inoperable patients, argon plasma coagulation can be used as an alternative endoscopic treatment. Immediately after the incomplete resection or residual tumor has been confirmed by the pathologist, clinicians should also decide upon any additional treatment to be carried out during the follow-up period. PMID:27435699

  9. Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks

    PubMed Central

    Park, Juyong; Yook, Soon-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest – essential in determining reward and penalty – is frequently an ambiguous task due to the incomplete (partially filled) nature of competition networks. Here we introduce the “Natural Ranking,” an unambiguous ranking method applicable to a round robin tournament, and formulate an analytical model based on the Bayesian formula for inferring the expected mean and error of the natural ranking of nodes from an incomplete network. We investigate its potential and uses in resolving important issues of ranking by applying it to real-world competition networks. PMID:25163528

  10. Survey incompleteness and the evolution of the QSO luminosity function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majewski, Steven R.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Kron, Richard G.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Smetanka, John J.; Koo, David C.

    1993-01-01

    We concentrate on a type of QSO survey which depends on selecting QSO candidates based on combinations of colors. Since QSO's have emission lines and power-law continua, they are expected to yield broadband colors unlike those of stellar photospheres. Previously, the fraction of QSO's expected to be hiding (unselected) within the locus of stellar (U-J, J-F) colors was estimated at about 15 percent. We have now verified that the KK88 survey is at least 11 percent incomplete, but have determined that it may be as much as 34 percent incomplete. The 'missing' QSO's are expected to be predominantly at z less than or = 2.2. We have studied the proper motion and variability properties of all stellar objects with J less than or = 22.5 or F less than or = 21.5 in the SA 57 field which has previously been surveyed with a multicolor QSO search by KK88.

  11. Contributions to the theory of incomplete tension bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schapitz, E

    1937-01-01

    The present report offers an approximate theory for the stress and deformation condition after buckling of the skin in reinforced panels and shells loaded in simple shear and compression and under combined stresses. The theory presents a unified scheme for stresses of these types. It is based upon the concept of a nonuniform stress distribution in the metal panel and its marked power of resistance against compressive stresses ("incomplete" tension bay).

  12. A probabilistic approach to quantum Bayesian games of incomplete information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Azhar; Chappell, James M.; Li, Qiang; Pearce, Charles E. M.; Abbott, Derek

    2014-12-01

    A Bayesian game is a game of incomplete information in which the rules of the game are not fully known to all players. We consider the Bayesian game of Battle of Sexes that has several Bayesian Nash equilibria and investigate its outcome when the underlying probability set is obtained from generalized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments. We find that this probability set, which may become non-factorizable, results in a unique Bayesian Nash equilibrium of the game.

  13. Effects of incomplete adaptation and disturbance in adaptive control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    In this paper consideration is given to the effects of disturbance and incomplete parameter adaptation on the performance of adaptive control systems in which Liapunov theory is used in deriving the control law. A design equation for the bounded error is derived. It is further shown that parameters in the adaptive controller may not converge in the presence of disturbance unless the input signal has a rich enough frequency constant. Design examples are presented.

  14. Abducens nerve palsy in a girl with incomplete Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Emiroglu, Melike; Alkan, Gulsum; Kartal, Ayse; Cimen, Derya

    2016-08-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis that can involve the nervous system, including the cranial nerves. Central nervous system findings, especially irritability, lethargy, and aseptic meningitis, occur in 1-30 % of KD patients (1). Cranial nerve palsies are seen rarely, and abducens nerve palsy has been reported in only three children. We describe a 2.5-year-old girl with incomplete KD who developed transient abducens nerve palsy after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment.

  15. An automatic ordering method for incomplete factorization iterative solvers

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, P.A.; Tang, W.P. . Dept. of Computer Science); D'Azevedo, E.F.D. )

    1991-01-01

    The minimum discarded fill (MDF) ordering strategy for incomplete factorization iterative solvers is developed. MDF ordering is demonstrated for several model son-symmetric problems, as well as a water-flooding simulation which uses an unstructured grid. The model problems show a three to five fold decrease in the number of iterations compared to natural orderings. Greater than twofold improvement was observed for the waterflooding simulation. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Abducens nerve palsy in a girl with incomplete Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Emiroglu, Melike; Alkan, Gulsum; Kartal, Ayse; Cimen, Derya

    2016-08-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis that can involve the nervous system, including the cranial nerves. Central nervous system findings, especially irritability, lethargy, and aseptic meningitis, occur in 1-30 % of KD patients (1). Cranial nerve palsies are seen rarely, and abducens nerve palsy has been reported in only three children. We describe a 2.5-year-old girl with incomplete KD who developed transient abducens nerve palsy after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. PMID:27329470

  17. Electrorheological crystallization of proteins and other molecules

    DOEpatents

    Craig, George D.; Rupp, Bernhard

    1996-01-01

    An electrorheological crystalline mass of a molecule is formed by dispersing the molecule in a dispersion fluid and subjecting the molecule dispersion to a uniform electrical field for a period of time during which time an electrorheological crystalline mass is formed. Molecules that may be used to form an electrorheological crystalline mass include any organic or inorganic molecule which has a permanent dipole and/or which is capable of becoming an induced dipole in the presence of an electric field. The molecules used to form the electrorheological crystalline mass are preferably macromolecules, such as biomolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipoproteins and viruses. Molecules are crystallized by a method in which an electric field is maintained for a period of time after the electrorheological crystalline mass has formed during which time at least some of the molecules making up the electrorheological crystalline mass form a crystal lattice. The three dimensional structure of a molecule is determined by a method in which an electrorheological crystalline mass of the molecule is formed, an x-ray diffraction pattern of the electrorheological crystalline mass is obtained and the three dimensional structure of the molecule is calculated from the x-ray diffraction pattern.

  18. Electrorheological crystallization of proteins and other molecules

    DOEpatents

    Craig, G.D.; Rupp, B.

    1996-06-11

    An electrorheological crystalline mass of a molecule is formed by dispersing the molecule in a dispersion fluid and subjecting the molecule dispersion to a uniform electrical field for a period of time during which time an electrorheological crystalline mass is formed. Molecules that may be used to form an electrorheological crystalline mass include any organic or inorganic molecule which has a permanent dipole and/or which is capable of becoming an induced dipole in the presence of an electric field. The molecules used to form the electrorheological crystalline mass are preferably macromolecules, such as biomolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipoproteins and viruses. Molecules are crystallized by a method in which an electric field is maintained for a period of time after the electrorheological crystalline mass has formed during which time at least some of the molecules making up the electrorheological crystalline mass form a crystal lattice. The three dimensional structure of a molecule is determined by a method in which an electrorheological crystalline mass of the molecule is formed, an X-ray diffraction pattern of the electrorheological crystalline mass is obtained and the three dimensional structure of the molecule is calculated from the X-ray diffraction pattern. 4 figs.

  19. Introducing misoprostol for the treatment of incomplete abortion in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dah, Talemoh; Akiode, Akinsewa; Awah, Paschal; Fetters, Tamara; Okoh, Mathew; Ujah, Innocent; Oji, Ejike

    2011-12-01

    Despite legal restriction, induced abortions and resulting complications are common in Nigeria. Misoprostol administration for incomplete abortion was introduced in 3 Nigerian hospitals. The feasibility of the hospitals, patient and provider acceptability were assessed using questionnaire and interview guides administered to 205 women and 17 providers respectively. Amongst the women, 194 (95%) were satisfied and very satisfied with misoprostol, 176 (86%) would choose misoprostol again if another incomplete abortion occurred and 191 (93%) would recommend it to another woman in a similar situation. Providers were highly satisfied with misoprostol. The ease of use and ability to redirect surgical resources to more complicated issues were positive features cited by them. The providers agreed that integration of misoprostol was straightforward and required few resources. Therefore, misoprostol for incomplete abortion is safe, efficacious and acceptable to providers and patients. In remote areas of Nigeria with limited post-abortion care (PAC), misoprostol administration is an important potential PAC treatment modality. Features of misoprostol-low cost, room temperature stability, and ease of introduction-render it an important treatment option, particularly in low resource and rural settings.

  20. The analysis of incomplete cost data due to dropout.

    PubMed

    Oostenbrink, Jan B; Al, Maiwenn J

    2005-08-01

    Incomplete data due to premature withdrawal (dropout) constitute a serious problem in prospective economic evaluations that has received only little attention to date. The aim of this simulation study was to investigate how standard methods for dealing with incomplete data perform when applied to cost data with various distributions and various types of dropout. Selected methods included the product-limit estimator of Lin et al. the expectation maximisation (EM-) algorithm, several types of multiple imputation (MI) and various simple methods like complete case analysis and mean imputation. Almost all methods were unbiased in the case of dropout completely at random (DCAR), but only the product-limit estimator, the EM-algorithm and the MI approaches provided adequate estimates of the standard error (SE). The best estimates of the mean and SE for dropout at random (DAR) were provided by the bootstrap EM-algorithm, MI regression and MI Monte Carlo Markov chain. These methods were able to deal with skewed cost data in combination with DAR and only became biased when costs also included the costs of expensive events. None of the methods were able to deal adequately with informative dropout. In conclusion, the EM-algorithm with bootstrap, MI regression and MI MCMC are robust to the multivariate normal assumption and are the preferred methods for the analysis of incomplete cost data when the assumption of DCAR is not justified. PMID:15729743

  1. Incomplete mixing and reactions in laminar shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paster, A.; Aquino, T.; Bolster, D.

    2015-07-01

    Incomplete mixing of reactive solutes is well known to slow down reaction rates relative to what would be expected from assuming perfect mixing. In purely diffusive systems, for example, it is known that small initial fluctuations in reactant concentrations can lead to reactant segregation, which in the long run can reduce global reaction rates due to poor mixing. In contrast, nonuniform flows can enhance mixing between interacting solutes. Thus, a natural question arises: Can nonuniform flows sufficiently enhance mixing to restrain incomplete mixing effects and, if so, under what conditions? We address this question by considering a specific and simple case, namely, a laminar pure shear reactive flow. Two solution approaches are developed: a Lagrangian random walk method and a semianalytical solution. The results consistently highlight that if shear effects in the system are not sufficiently strong, incomplete mixing effects initially similar to purely diffusive systems will occur, slowing down the overall reaction rate. Then, at some later time, dependent on the strength of the shear, the system will return to behaving as if it were well mixed, but represented by a reduced effective reaction rate.

  2. Alzheimer's disease Advax(CpG)- adjuvanted MultiTEP-based dual and single vaccines induce high-titer antibodies against various forms of tau and Aβ pathological molecules.

    PubMed

    Davtyan, Hayk; Zagorski, Karen; Rajapaksha, Harinda; Hovakimyan, Armine; Davtyan, Arpine; Petrushina, Irina; Kazarian, Konstantin; Cribbs, David H; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Agadjanyan, Michael G; Ghochikyan, Anahit

    2016-01-01

    Although β-amyloid (Aβ) may be the primary driver of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, accumulation of pathological tau correlates with dementia in AD patients. Thus, the prevention/inhibition of AD may require vaccine/s targeting Aβ and tau simultaneously or sequentially. Since high antibody titers are required for AD vaccine efficacy, we have decided to generate vaccines, targeting Aβ (AV-1959R), Tau (AV-1980R) or Aβ/tau (AV-1953R) B cell epitopes, based on immunogenic MultiTEP platform and evaluate the immunogenicity of these vaccines formulated with Advax(CpG), delta inulin, Alhydrogel(®), Montanide-ISA51, Montanide-ISA720, MPLA-SM pharmaceutical grade adjuvants. Formulation of AV-1959R in Advax(CpG) induced the highest cellular and humoral immune responses in mice. The dual-epitope vaccine, AV-1953R, or the combination of AV-1959R and AV-1980R vaccines formulated with Advax(CpG) induced robust antibody responses against various forms of both, Aβ and tau pathological molecules. While anti-Aβ antibody titers after AV-1953R immunization were similar to that in mice vaccinated with AV-1959R or AV-1959R/AV-1980R combination, anti-tau titers were significantly lower after AV-1953R injection when compared to the AV-1980R or AV-1959R/AV-1980R. In silico 3D-modeling provided insight into the differences in immunogenicity of these vaccine constructs. In sum, AV-1959R and AV-1980R formulated with Advax(CpG) adjuvant were identified as promising immunogenic vaccines for ongoing pre-clinical assessment and future human clinical trials. PMID:27363809

  3. Alzheimer’s disease AdvaxCpG- adjuvanted MultiTEP-based dual and single vaccines induce high-titer antibodies against various forms of tau and Aβ pathological molecules

    PubMed Central

    Davtyan, Hayk; Zagorski, Karen; Rajapaksha, Harinda; Hovakimyan, Armine; Davtyan, Arpine; Petrushina, Irina; Kazarian, Konstantin; Cribbs, David H.; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Agadjanyan, Michael G.; Ghochikyan, Anahit

    2016-01-01

    Although β-amyloid (Aβ) may be the primary driver of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, accumulation of pathological tau correlates with dementia in AD patients. Thus, the prevention/inhibition of AD may require vaccine/s targeting Aβ and tau simultaneously or sequentially. Since high antibody titers are required for AD vaccine efficacy, we have decided to generate vaccines, targeting Aβ (AV-1959R), Tau (AV-1980R) or Aβ/tau (AV-1953R) B cell epitopes, based on immunogenic MultiTEP platform and evaluate the immunogenicity of these vaccines formulated with AdvaxCpG, delta inulin, Alhydrogel®, Montanide-ISA51, Montanide-ISA720, MPLA-SM pharmaceutical grade adjuvants. Formulation of AV-1959R in AdvaxCpG induced the highest cellular and humoral immune responses in mice. The dual-epitope vaccine, AV-1953R, or the combination of AV-1959R and AV-1980R vaccines formulated with AdvaxCpG induced robust antibody responses against various forms of both, Aβ and tau pathological molecules. While anti-Aβ antibody titers after AV-1953R immunization were similar to that in mice vaccinated with AV-1959R or AV-1959R/AV-1980R combination, anti-tau titers were significantly lower after AV-1953R injection when compared to the AV-1980R or AV-1959R/AV-1980R. In silico 3D-modeling provided insight into the differences in immunogenicity of these vaccine constructs. In sum, AV-1959R and AV-1980R formulated with AdvaxCpG adjuvant were identified as promising immunogenic vaccines for ongoing pre-clinical assessment and future human clinical trials. PMID:27363809

  4. Crown lengthening to facilitate restorative treatment in the presence of incomplete passive eruption.

    PubMed

    Hempton, T J; Esrason, F

    1999-01-01

    The following clinical case involves subgingival caries noted in the presence of incomplete passive eruption in the maxillary anterior sextant. Understand the clinical entity known as incomplete passive eruption and discover utilization of crown lengthening surgery to treat this condition.

  5. Analytical Solution for Reactive Solute Transport Considering Incomplete Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellin, A.; Chiogna, G.

    2013-12-01

    The laboratory experiments of Gramling et al. (2002) showed that incomplete mixing at the pore scale exerts a significant impact on transport of reactive solutes and that assuming complete mixing leads to overestimation of product concentration in bimolecular reactions. We consider here the family of equilibrium reactions for which the concentration of the reactants and the product can be expressed as a function of the mixing ratio, the concentration of a fictitious non reactive solute. For this type of reactions we propose, in agreement with previous studies, to model the effect of incomplete mixing at scales smaller than the Darcy scale assuming that the mixing ratio is distributed within an REV according to a Beta distribution. We compute the parameters of the Beta model by imposing that the mean concentration is equal to the value that the concentration assumes at the continuum Darcy scale, while the variance decays with time as a power law. We show that our model reproduces the concentration profiles of the reaction product measured in the Gramling et al. (2002) experiments using the transport parameters obtained from conservative experiments and an instantaneous reaction kinetic. The results are obtained applying analytical solutions both for conservative and for reactive solute transport, thereby providing a method to handle the effect of incomplete mixing on multispecies reactive solute transport, which is simpler than other previously developed methods. Gramling, C. M., C. F. Harvey, and L. C. Meigs (2002), Reactive transport in porous media: A comparison of model prediction with laboratory visualization, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36(11), 2508-2514.

  6. Cold molecules, collisions and reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker Denschlag, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    I will report on recent experiments of my group where we have been studying the formation of ultracold diatomic molecules and their subsequent inelastic/reactive collisions. For example, in one of these experiments we investigate collisions of triplet Rb2 molecules in the rovibrational ground state. We observe fast molecular loss and compare the measured loss rates to predictions based on universality. In another set of experiments we investigate the formation of (BaRb)+ molecules after three-body recombination of a single Ba+ ion with two Rb atoms in an ultracold gas of Rb atoms. Our investigations indicate that the formed (BaRb)+ molecules are weakly bound and that several secondary processes take place ranging from photodissociation of the (BaRb)+ molecule to reactive collisions with Rb atoms. I will explain how we can experimentally distinguish these processes and what the typical reaction rates are. Support from the German Research foundation DFG and the European Community is acknowledged.

  7. Incomplete shored exit wounds: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Druid, H; Ward, M E

    2000-09-01

    Typical and atypical exit wounds are well described in the forensic literature. Included in the descriptions of atypical exit wounds are perforating, "shored" exit wounds, in which the perforation of the skin is associated with an abrasion, whether or not the bullet fully exits the body. The authors describe an atypical, incomplete, shored exit wound in which the skin was abraded by supporting material at the site the bullet was recovered, but there was no associated perforation of the skin. Recognition of this injury pattern can be important in reconstruction of the crime scene in relation to the victim at the time of the shooting. PMID:10990280

  8. Incomplete block SSOR preconditionings for high order discretizations

    SciTech Connect

    Kolotilina, L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper considers the solution of linear algebraic systems Ax = b resulting from the p-version of the Finite Element Method (FEM) using PCG iterations. Contrary to the h-version, the p-version ensures the desired accuracy of a discretization not by refining an original finite element mesh but by introducing higher degree polynomials as additional basis functions which permits to reduce the size of the resulting linear system as compared with the h-version. The suggested preconditionings are the so-called Incomplete Block SSOR (IBSSOR) preconditionings.

  9. A Supernodal Approach to Incomplete LU Factorization with Partial Pivoting

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaoye Sherry; Shao, Meiyue

    2009-06-25

    We present a new supernode-based incomplete LU factorization method to construct a preconditioner for solving sparse linear systems with iterative methods. The new algorithm is primarily based on the ILUTP approach by Saad, and we incorporate a number of techniques to improve the robustness and performance of the traditional ILUTP method. These include the new dropping strategies that accommodate the use of supernodal structures in the factored matrix. We present numerical experiments to demonstrate that our new method is competitive with the other ILU approaches and is well suited for today's high performance architectures.

  10. Familial occurrence of congenital incomplete prepyloric mucosal diaphragm.

    PubMed Central

    Gahukamble, D B

    1998-01-01

    Incomplete prepyloric mucosal diaphragm (IPMD) is an uncommon congenital anomaly that leads to gastric outlet obstruction in infancy and childhood. This report describes the occurrence of IPMD in six children in a closely knit tribal family from a geographically isolated desert town with a small population in the Sahara. Their records showed similarities of clinical, radiological, operative, and histopathological features. These features, as well as its occurrence in brothers, sisters, and cousins, suggest that this unusual anomaly is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. Images PMID:9863605

  11. Chronic incomplete atrioventricular block induced by radiofrequency catheter ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.K.; Bharati, S.; Graham, A.R.; Gorman, G.; Lev, M. )

    1989-10-01

    To determine if catheter ablation of the atrioventricular (AV) junction with radiofrequency energy can induce chronic incomplete (first- and second-degree) AV block to avoid the need for a permanent pacemaker, 20 closed-chest dogs were studied. Group 1 (10 dogs) received radiofrequency energy (750 kHz) with a fixed power setting (5 or 10 W) while increasing the pulse duration from 10 to 50 seconds for each application. Group 2 (10 dogs) received energy with a fixed pulse duration (20 or 30 seconds) while increasing the power setting from 5 to 10 W or from 10 to 20 W during each energy delivery. Radiofrequency energy was delivered between a chest-patch electrode and the distal electrode of a regular 7F tripolar His bundle catheter. For each application, the energy delivery was interrupted when (1) the PR interval prolonged (greater than 50%) or (2) second-degree or complete AV block occurred and persisted up to 5 seconds. The ablation procedure ended when there was (1) persistent PR prolongation (greater than 50%) or persistent second-degree AV block (lasting greater than 30 minutes) after ablation, (2) occurrence of two consecutive transient (less than 1 minute) complete AV blocks after each energy delivery, or (3) complete AV block (lasting greater than 2 minutes) after ablation. Of seven dogs in group 1 and five dogs in group 2 in which incomplete AV block was achieved 1 hour after the procedure, six in group 1 and five in group 2 remained in incomplete AV block 2-3 months after ablation. One dog in group 1 progressed into complete AV block. Of the remaining three dogs in group 1 and five dogs in group 2 in which complete AV block was initially achieved 1 hour after ablation, two in group 1 and four in group 2 continued to have complete AV block, whereas one in each group had AV conduction returned to incomplete at 1-2 months of follow-up.

  12. Effects of incomplete adaption and disturbance in adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    This investigation focused attention on the fact that the synthesis of adaptive control systems has often been discussed in the framework of idealizations which may represent over simplifications. A condition for boundedness of the tracking error has been derived for the case in which incomplete adaption and disturbance are present. When using Parks' design it is shown that instability of the adaptive gains can result due to the presence of disturbance. The theory has been applied to a nontrivial example in order to illustrate the concepts involved.

  13. Rough set approach to incomplete multiscale information system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xibei; Qi, Yong; Yu, Dongjun; Yu, Hualong; Song, Xiaoning; Yang, Jingyu

    2014-01-01

    Multiscale information system is a new knowledge representation system for expressing the knowledge with different levels of granulations. In this paper, by considering the unknown values, which can be seen everywhere in real world applications, the incomplete multiscale information system is firstly investigated. The descriptor technique is employed to construct rough sets at different scales for analyzing the hierarchically structured data. The problem of unravelling decision rules at different scales is also addressed. Finally, the reduct descriptors are formulated to simplify decision rules, which can be derived from different scales. Some numerical examples are employed to substantiate the conceptual arguments. PMID:25276852

  14. A computer program for estimation from incomplete multinomial data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    Coding is given for maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation of the vector p of multinomial cell probabilities from incomplete data. Also included is coding to calculate and approximate elements of the posterior mean and covariance matrices. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 language for the Control Data CYBER 170 series digital computer system with network operating system (NOS) 1.1. The program requires approximately 44000 octal locations of core storage. A typical case requires from 72 seconds to 92 seconds on CYBER 175 depending on the value of the prior parameter.

  15. A model of incomplete chromatic adaptation for calculating corresponding colors

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    A new mathematical model of chromatic adaptation for calculating corresponding colors across changes in illumination is formulated and tested. This model consists of a modified von Kries transform that accounts for incomplete levels of adaptation. The model predicts that adaptation will be less complete as the saturation of the adapting stimulus increases and more complete as the luminance of the adapting stimulus increases. The model is tested with experimental results from two different studies and found to be significantly better at predicting corresponding colors than other proposed models. This model represents a first step toward the specification of color appearance across varying conditions. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Incompletely fractured teeth--a survey of endodontists.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, E H; Braly, B V; Eakle, W S

    1986-01-01

    By means of questionnaires, 303 endodontists were asked about their experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of incompletely fractured teeth. The present article discloses the results relative to which teeth are most likely to fracture, which predisposing factors involve higher or lower risk, how endodontists prefer to treat root-fractured teeth, and the success rate they have had with them. The endodontists also reported the frequency of endodontic treatment failures attributable to root fractures. These results are discussed with respect to the potential implications for clinical dental practice. PMID:3456133

  17. Incomplete block factorization preconditioning for indefinite elliptic problems

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Chun-Hua

    1996-12-31

    The application of the finite difference method to approximate the solution of an indefinite elliptic problem produces a linear system whose coefficient matrix is block tridiagonal and symmetric indefinite. Such a linear system can be solved efficiently by a conjugate residual method, particularly when combined with a good preconditioner. We show that specific incomplete block factorization exists for the indefinite matrix if the mesh size is reasonably small. And this factorization can serve as an efficient preconditioner. Some efforts are made to estimate the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix. Numerical results are also given.

  18. Conditioning Analysis of Incomplete Cholesky Factorizations with Orthogonal Dropping

    SciTech Connect

    Napov, Artem

    2013-08-01

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  19. Onset of incomplete momentum transfer in fusion-like processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stokstad, R.G.; Chan, Y.; Murphy, M.; Tserruya, I.; Wald, S.; Budzanowski, A.

    1983-03-01

    Velocity spectra of evaporation residues from the reactions /sup 16/O + Al, Ca, and Ni have been measured at bombarding energies of 8.8, 13.6, and 19.6 MeV/u. Comparison with statistical model predictions shows clear evidence for the onset of incomplete momentum transfer at about 5 MeV/u above the interaction barrier. To first order, the results are similar for all targets, suggesting that the missing momentum is mainly associated with the projectile. The fraction of transferred linear momentum appears to decrease linearly with increasing relative velocity of the colliding nuclei at the barrier.

  20. Bayesian model updating using incomplete modal data without mode matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates a new probabilistic strategy for model updating using incomplete modal data. A hierarchical Bayesian inference is employed to model the updating problem. A Markov chain Monte Carlo technique with adaptive random-work steps is used to draw parameter samples for uncertainty quantification. Mode matching between measured and predicted modal quantities is not required through model reduction. We employ an iterated improved reduced system technique for model reduction. The reduced model retains the dynamic features as close as possible to those of the model before reduction. The proposed algorithm is finally validated by an experimental example.

  1. 7 CFR 1924.11 - District Director's review of incomplete development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... observations and recommendations regarding incomplete development. The report may be included in the District... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false District Director's review of incomplete development... and Other Development § 1924.11 District Director's review of incomplete development. During...

  2. Nonsequential double ionization of molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Prauzner-Bechcicki, Jakub S.; Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub; Eckhardt, Bruno

    2005-03-01

    Double ionization of diatomic molecules by short linearly polarized laser pulses is analyzed. We consider the final stage of the ionization process, that is the decay of a highly excited two electron molecule, which is formed after rescattering. The saddles of the effective adiabatic potential energy close to which simultaneous escape of electrons takes place are identified. Numerical simulations of the ionization of molecules show that the process can be dominated by either sequential or nonsequential events. In order to increase the ratio of nonsequential to sequential ionizations very short laser pulses should be applied.

  3. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  4. Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Regimes.

    PubMed

    Karaivanov, Alexander; Townsend, Robert M

    2014-05-01

    We formulate and solve a range of dynamic models of constrained credit/insurance that allow for moral hazard and limited commitment. We compare them to full insurance and exogenously incomplete financial regimes (autarky, saving only, borrowing and lending in a single asset). We develop computational methods based on mechanism design, linear programming, and maximum likelihood to estimate, compare, and statistically test these alternative dynamic models with financial/information constraints. Our methods can use both cross-sectional and panel data and allow for measurement error and unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate the models using data on Thai households running small businesses from two separate samples. We find that in the rural sample, the exogenously incomplete saving only and borrowing regimes provide the best fit using data on consumption, business assets, investment, and income. Family and other networks help consumption smoothing there, as in a moral hazard constrained regime. In contrast, in urban areas, we find mechanism design financial/information regimes that are decidedly less constrained, with the moral hazard model fitting best combined business and consumption data. We perform numerous robustness checks in both the Thai data and in Monte Carlo simulations and compare our maximum likelihood criterion with results from other metrics and data not used in the estimation. A prototypical counterfactual policy evaluation exercise using the estimation results is also featured.

  5. Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Regimes.

    PubMed

    Karaivanov, Alexander; Townsend, Robert M

    2014-05-01

    We formulate and solve a range of dynamic models of constrained credit/insurance that allow for moral hazard and limited commitment. We compare them to full insurance and exogenously incomplete financial regimes (autarky, saving only, borrowing and lending in a single asset). We develop computational methods based on mechanism design, linear programming, and maximum likelihood to estimate, compare, and statistically test these alternative dynamic models with financial/information constraints. Our methods can use both cross-sectional and panel data and allow for measurement error and unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate the models using data on Thai households running small businesses from two separate samples. We find that in the rural sample, the exogenously incomplete saving only and borrowing regimes provide the best fit using data on consumption, business assets, investment, and income. Family and other networks help consumption smoothing there, as in a moral hazard constrained regime. In contrast, in urban areas, we find mechanism design financial/information regimes that are decidedly less constrained, with the moral hazard model fitting best combined business and consumption data. We perform numerous robustness checks in both the Thai data and in Monte Carlo simulations and compare our maximum likelihood criterion with results from other metrics and data not used in the estimation. A prototypical counterfactual policy evaluation exercise using the estimation results is also featured. PMID:25246710

  6. Comparison of tests for association and linkage in incomplete families.

    PubMed

    Cervino, A C; Hill, A V

    2000-07-01

    To analyze incomplete families, the following statistical tests can be used: LRAT-a simple likelihood-based association test, TRANSMIT, SIBASSOC/STDT, and RCTDT. We compared these four tests, for the diallelic case, on simulated data sets. The comparisons focused on the power to detect linkage and association when different familial structures, resistance to population stratification, resistance to misclassification of the disease status of the healthy sib, and the effect of nonpaternity were considered. The simulations lead to the following conclusions. The type I errors of TRANSMIT, SIBASSOC/STDT, and RCTDT were not affected by population stratification. LRAT showed bias under strong population stratification. High nonpaternity rates can lead to inflated type I errors, highlighting the importance of identification of half sibs. Under different homogeneous models, the power of TRANSMIT was very similar to that of LRAT, and, similarly, no difference in power was observed between SIBASSOC/STDT and RCTDT. Under various recessive and additive models, TRANSMIT was slightly more powerful than SIBASSOC/STDT when monoparental families with one affected and one unaffected sib were analyzed. Under various dominant models, SIBASSOC/STDT was slightly more powerful than TRANSMIT. Misclassification of the disease status of healthy sibs, as well as the discarding of incomplete families, resulted in a consistent loss of power.

  7. Comparison of Tests for Association and Linkage in Incomplete Families

    PubMed Central

    Cervino, A. C. L.; Hill, A. V. S.

    2000-01-01

    To analyze incomplete families, the following statistical tests can be used: LRAT—a simple likelihood-based association test, TRANSMIT, SIBASSOC/STDT, and RCTDT. We compared these four tests, for the diallelic case, on simulated data sets. The comparisons focused on the power to detect linkage and association when different familial structures, resistance to population stratification, resistance to misclassification of the disease status of the healthy sib, and the effect of nonpaternity were considered. The simulations lead to the following conclusions. The type I errors of TRANSMIT, SIBASSOC/STDT, and RCTDT were not affected by population stratification. LRAT showed bias under strong population stratification. High nonpaternity rates can lead to inflated type I errors, highlighting the importance of identification of half sibs. Under different homogenous models, the power of TRANSMIT was very similar to that of LRAT, and, similarly, no difference in power was observed between SIBASSOC/STDT and RCTDT. Under various recessive and additive models, TRANSMIT was slightly more powerful than SIBASSOC/STDT when monoparental families with one affected and one unaffected sib were analyzed. Under various dominant models, SIBASSOC/STDT was slightly more powerful than TRANSMIT. Misclassification of the disease status of healthy sibs, as well as the discarding of incomplete families, resulted in a consistent loss of power. PMID:10841813

  8. An information propagation model considering incomplete reading behavior in microblog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Qiang; Huang, Jiajia; Zhao, Xiande

    2015-02-01

    Microblog is one of the most popular communication channels on the Internet, and has already become the third largest source of news and public opinions in China. Although researchers have studied the information propagation in microblog using the epidemic models, previous studies have not considered the incomplete reading behavior among microblog users. Therefore, the model cannot fit the real situations well. In this paper, we proposed an improved model entitled Microblog-Susceptible-Infected-Removed (Mb-SIR) for information propagation by explicitly considering the user's incomplete reading behavior. We also tested the effectiveness of the model using real data from Sina Microblog. We demonstrate that the new proposed model is more accurate in describing the information propagation in microblog. In addition, we also investigate the effects of the critical model parameters, e.g., reading rate, spreading rate, and removed rate through numerical simulations. The simulation results show that, compared with other parameters, reading rate plays the most influential role in the information propagation performance in microblog.

  9. Evolutionary ultimatum game on complex networks under incomplete information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Xianyu; Yang, Jianmei

    2010-03-01

    This paper studies the evolutionary ultimatum game on networks when agents have incomplete information about the strategies of their neighborhood agents. Our model assumes that agents may initially display low fairness behavior, and therefore, may have to learn and develop their own strategies in this unknown environment. The Genetic Algorithm Learning Classifier System (GALCS) is used in the model as the agent strategy learning rule. Aside from the Watts-Strogatz (WS) small-world network and its variations, the present paper also extends the spatial ultimatum game to the Barabási-Albert (BA) scale-free network. Simulation results show that the fairness level achieved is lower than in situations where agents have complete information about other agents’ strategies. The research results display that fairness behavior will always emerge regardless of the distribution of the initial strategies. If the strategies are randomly distributed on the network, then the long-term agent fairness levels achieved are very close given unchanged learning parameters. Neighborhood size also has little effect on the fairness level attained. The simulation results also imply that WS small-world and BA scale-free networks have different effects on the spatial ultimatum game. In ultimatum game on networks with incomplete information, the WS small-world network and its variations favor the emergence of fairness behavior slightly more than the BA network where agents are heterogeneously structured.

  10. Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Regimes*

    PubMed Central

    Karaivanov, Alexander; Townsend, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    We formulate and solve a range of dynamic models of constrained credit/insurance that allow for moral hazard and limited commitment. We compare them to full insurance and exogenously incomplete financial regimes (autarky, saving only, borrowing and lending in a single asset). We develop computational methods based on mechanism design, linear programming, and maximum likelihood to estimate, compare, and statistically test these alternative dynamic models with financial/information constraints. Our methods can use both cross-sectional and panel data and allow for measurement error and unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate the models using data on Thai households running small businesses from two separate samples. We find that in the rural sample, the exogenously incomplete saving only and borrowing regimes provide the best fit using data on consumption, business assets, investment, and income. Family and other networks help consumption smoothing there, as in a moral hazard constrained regime. In contrast, in urban areas, we find mechanism design financial/information regimes that are decidedly less constrained, with the moral hazard model fitting best combined business and consumption data. We perform numerous robustness checks in both the Thai data and in Monte Carlo simulations and compare our maximum likelihood criterion with results from other metrics and data not used in the estimation. A prototypical counterfactual policy evaluation exercise using the estimation results is also featured. PMID:25246710

  11. Treadmill training in incomplete spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, K; Metz, G A; Merkler, D; Dietz, V; Schwab, M E

    2000-10-01

    Treadmill training has been shown to accelerate locomotor recovery and to improve weight bearing during treadmill walking in spinal cats. In human patients treadmill training is increasingly used in rehabilitation after incomplete spinal cord injury. In this study we examined training effects in spinal cord injured rats with an incomplete dorsal lesion. Recovery was examined with an open field locomotor score, kinematic analysis on the treadmill, and several functional tests (i.e. foot print evaluation, narrow beam crossing, grid walking, open field exploratory activity). During the course of 5 weeks after the injury, a substantial amount of recovery occurred in the treadmill trained as well as in the untrained rats. If compared to the control lesioned rats, which showed a high level of spontaneous hindlimb movements at 7-14 days post lesion, no additional beneficial effect of a 5-week daily treadmill training on the locomotor outcome could be detected in the trained group. The only change observed was a slightly larger exploratory activity of the trained rats. It is probable that the spared ventral and ventro-lateral fibers allowed spontaneous recovery and 'self-training' to occur to such an extend that systematic treadmill training did not provide additional improvement. PMID:10996413

  12. Short-Lived HF Molecules in Superionic Hydrogen Fluoride at Extreme Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumuraya, Kazuo; Ohde, Yoshiyuki; Oshimi, Tadaaki

    2015-02-01

    The first principles molecular dynamics study enables us to elucidate the existence of short-lived HF molecules in the superionic hydrogen fluoride at an extreme high pressure and a temperature. Three fourth of the immobile fluorines constructs the molecules with lifetime of 8 fs. The ionized fluorines form weak HF bond with the proton in the nearest HF molecule of which the lifetime is 3 fs. The covalent and the Coulomb bonds between the fluorines and the protons form indirect covalent and indirect Coulomb attractions between the di-interstitial protons on the mid-fluorines. The attractions reduce the Haven's ratio of the protons. The absence of the proton dimers indicates a failure of the caterpillar diffusion model or the Frenkel-Kontorova chain model for the superionic diffusion of the protons. The incompletely ionized cations and anions reduce their Coulomb attractions which induce the sublattice melting of smaller size and smaller mass of the protons than the fluorines. The electronic states of the fluoride are intermediate between the ionic crystals and the covalent bonded molecular crystals. The superionic conductors are classified into three groups: they are molecular type, covalent metalloid type, and metallic type conductors.

  13. Gradual molecular evolution of a sex determination switch through incomplete penetrance of femaleness.

    PubMed

    Beye, Martin; Seelmann, Christine; Gempe, Tanja; Hasselmann, Martin; Vekemans, Xavier; Fondrk, M Kim; Page, Robert E

    2013-12-16

    Some genes regulate phenotypes that are either present or absent. They are often important regulators of developmental switches and are involved in morphological evolution. We have little understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which these absence/presence gene functions have evolved, because the phenotype and fitness of molecular intermediate forms are unknown. Here, we studied the sex-determining switch of 14 natural sequence variants of the csd gene among 76 genotypes of the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Heterozygous genotypes (different specificities) of the csd gene determine femaleness, while hemizygous genotypes (single specificity) determine maleness. Homozygous genotypes of the csd gene (same specificity) are lethal. We found that at least five amino acid differences and length variation between Csd specificities in the specifying domain (PSD) were sufficient to regularly induce femaleness. We estimated that, on average, six pairwise amino acid differences evolved under positive selection. We also identified a natural evolutionary intermediate that showed only three amino acid length differences in the PSD relative to its parental allele. This genotype showed an intermediate fitness because it implemented lethality regularly and induced femaleness infrequently (i.e., incomplete penetrance). We suggest incomplete penetrance as a mechanism through which new molecular switches can gradually and adaptively evolve.

  14. [Application of immunomodulators in the treatment of mandibular fractures in elderly patients with incomplete secondary adentia].

    PubMed

    Abramov, A V; Parfenov, S A; Belov, V G; Parfenov, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study the experience of using complex pharmacotherapy in the treatment of mandibular fractures in elderly patients with incomplete secondary periodontitis, which were divided into two groups. In the first group, patients (n = 46; average age 69.0 ± 3.6) were treated using the authors' original device combined with application of antimicrobial MetrogilDenta gel onto gums two times a day during ten days. Patients in the second group (n = 52; average age 61.0 ± 3.1) were treated with the same device combined with (i) application of MetrogilDenta antimicrobial gel onto gums two times a day during ten days, (ii) application of 1.5 ml of Cycloferon 5% liniment by cotton pellet for 20 min during the same 10 days (30 minutes after the antimicrobial gel), and (iii) intramuscular injections of 6 mg of synthetic immunomodulator Polyoxidonium once a day for 3 days, then once every two days (for a total of 17 days). It is established that the use of the combination of interferon inducers of immunomodulator group--Cycloferon in the form of liniment and synthetic immunomodulator Polyoksidonium together with MetrogilDenta antimicrobial gel--led to the most pronounced regression of inflammatory and destructive processes in periodontal tissues (in 7.1%, đ = 0.05), optimized the state of local immunity of the oral cavity, and normalized microflora in periodontal pockets in elderly patients with incomplete secondary adentia. PMID:25365866

  15. Estimating expected value of sample information for incomplete data models using Bayesian approximation.

    PubMed

    Kharroubi, Samer A; Brennan, Alan; Strong, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Expected value of sample information (EVSI) involves simulating data collection, Bayesian updating, and reexamining decisions. Bayesian updating in incomplete data models typically requires Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). This article describes a revision to a form of Bayesian Laplace approximation for EVSI computation to support decisions in incomplete data models. The authors develop the approximation, setting out the mathematics for the likelihood and log posterior density function, which are necessary for the method. They compare the accuracy of EVSI estimates in a case study cost-effectiveness model using first- and second-order versions of their approximation formula and traditional Monte Carlo. Computational efficiency gains depend on the complexity of the net benefit functions, the number of inner-level Monte Carlo samples used, and the requirement or otherwise for MCMC methods to produce the posterior distributions. This methodology provides a new and valuable approach for EVSI computation in health economic decision models and potential wider benefits in many fields requiring Bayesian approximation. PMID:21512189

  16. Photonic Molecule Lasers Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Denis; Dumont, Joey; Déziel, Jean-Luc; Dubé, Louis J.

    2014-05-01

    Photonic molecules (PMs) formed by coupling two or more optical resonators are ideal candidates for the fabrication of integrated microlasers, photonic molecule lasers. Whereas most calculations on PM lasers have been based on cold-cavity (passive) modes, i.e. quasi-bound states, a recently formulated steady-state ab initio laser theory (SALT) offers the possibility to take into account the spectral properties of the underlying gain transition, its position and linewidth, as well as incorporating an arbitrary pump profile. We will combine two theoretical approaches to characterize the lasing properties of PM lasers: for two-dimensional systems, the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory will obtain the resonant modes of the coupled molecules in an active medium described by SALT. Not only is then the theoretical description more complete, the use of an active medium provides additional parameters to control, engineer and harness the lasing properties of PM lasers for ultra-low threshold and directional single-mode emission. We will extend our recent study and present new results for a number of promising geometries. The authors acknowledge financial support from NSERC (Canada) and the CERC in Photonic Innovations of Y. Messaddeq.

  17. Symmetry of interactions rules in incompletely connected random replicator ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kärenlampi, Petri P

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of an incompletely connected system of species with speciation and extinction is investigated in terms of random replicators. It is found that evolving random replicator systems with speciation do become large and complex, depending on speciation parameters. Antisymmetric interactions result in large systems, whereas systems with symmetric interactions remain small. A co-dominating feature is within-species interaction pressure: large within-species interaction increases species diversity. Average fitness evolves in all systems, however symmetry and connectivity evolve in small systems only. Newcomers get extinct almost immediately in symmetric systems. The distribution in species lifetimes is determined for antisymmetric systems. The replicator systems investigated do not show any sign of self-organized criticality. The generalized Lotka-Volterra system is shown to be a tedious way of implementing the replicator system. PMID:24965155

  18. Management of the Patient with Incomplete Response to PPI Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kahrilas, Peter J; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Smout, Andre JPM

    2013-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) remove most of the acid from the gastroesophageal refluxate. However, PPIs do not eliminate reflux and the response of specific GERD symptoms to PPI therapy depends on the degree to which acid drives those symptoms. PPIs are progressively less effective for heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain and extra-esophageal symptoms. Hence, with an incomplete PPI response, obtaining an accurate history, detailing which symptoms are ‘refractory’ and exactly what evidence exists linking these symptoms to GERD is paramount. Reflux can continue to cause symptoms despite PPI therapy because of persistent acid reflux or weakly acidic reflux. Given these possibilities, diagnostic testing (pH or pH-impedance monitoring) becomes essential. Antireflux surgery is an alternative in patients if a clear relationship is established between persistent symptoms, particularly regurgitation, and reflux. Treating visceral hypersensitivity may also benefit the subset of GERD patients whose symptoms are driven by this mechanism. PMID:23998978

  19. Spectral ordering techniques for incomplete LU preconditoners for CG methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clift, Simon S.; Simon, Horst D.; Tang, Wei-Pai

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of an incomplete LU (ILU) factorization as a preconditioner for the conjugate gradient method can be highly dependent on the ordering of the matrix rows during its creation. Detailed justification for two heuristics commonly used in matrix ordering for anisotropic problems is given. The bandwidth reduction and weak connection following heuristics are implemented through an ordering method based on eigenvector computations. This spectral ordering is shown to be a good representation of the heuristics. Analysis and test cases in two and three dimensional diffusion problems demonstrate when ordering is important, and when an ILU decomposition will be ordering insensitive. The applicability of the heuristics is thus evaluated and placed on a more rigorous footing.

  20. Incomplete and noisy network data as a percolation process

    PubMed Central

    Stumpf, Michael P. H.; Wiuf, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the ramifications of noisy and incomplete observations of network data on the existence of a giant connected component (GCC). The existence of a GCC in a random graph can be described in terms of a percolation process, and building on general results for classes of random graphs with specified degree distributions we derive percolation thresholds above which GCCs exist. We show that sampling and noise can have a profound effect on the perceived existence of a GCC and find that both processes can destroy it. We also show that the absence of a GCC puts a theoretical upper bound on the false-positive rate and relate our percolation analysis to experimental protein–protein interaction data. PMID:20378609

  1. Spatial reasoning with incomplete information on relative positioning.

    PubMed

    Dehak, Sidi Mohammed Réda; Bloch, Isabelle; Maître, Henri

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a probabilistic method of inferring the position of a point with respect to a reference point knowing their relative spatial position to a third point. We address this problem in the case of incomplete information where only the angular spatial relationships are known. The use of probabilistic representations allows us to model prior knowledge. We derive exact formulae expressing the conditional probability of the position given the two known angles, in typical cases: uniform or Gaussian random prior distributions within rectangular or circular regions. This result is illustrated with respect to two different simulations: The first is devoted to the localization of a mobile phone using only angular relationships, the second, to geopositioning within a city. This last example uses angular relationships and some additional knowledge about the position. PMID:16173189

  2. Incomplete dominant osteochondrodysplasia in heterozygous Scottish Fold cats.

    PubMed

    Takanosu, M; Takanosu, T; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K

    2008-04-01

    This report describes an autosomal incomplete dominant pattern of inheritance for osteochondrodysplasia in the Scottish Fold cats. A three-generation pedigree was analysed. Cats with folded ears were mated with cats with normal ears. All cats with folded ears, which were presumably heterozygous for the mutated allele, developed osteochondrodysplasia in distal fore- and hindlimbs but not in other bones, including the tail in which bone deformity had been demonstrated in previous studies. The severity of the skeletal lesions of osteochondrodysplasia was different in each affected cat. Most of the cats with severe osteochondrodysplasia showed some clinical signs, but cats with mild disease were clinically unaffected. All Scottish Fold-related cats with folded-ear phenotype, even if heterozygotes, suffered from some degree of osteochondrodysplasia of the distal limbs. PMID:18339089

  3. Quantum Tomography from Incomplete Data via MaxEnt Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bužek, Vladimír

    We show how the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle can be efficiently used for a reconstruction of states of quantum systems from incomplete tomographic data. This MaxEnt reconstruction scheme can be in specific cases several orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard inverse Radon transformation or the reconstruction via direct sampling using pattern functions. We apply the MaxEnt algorithm for a reconstruction of motional quantum states of neutral atoms. As an example we analyze the experimental data obtained by the group of C. Salomon at the ENS in Paris and we reconstruct Wigner functions of motional quantum states of Cs atoms trapped in an optical lattice. We also reconstruct Wigner functions of a cavity field based on a measurement of the parity operator. We analyze in detail experimental data obtained by the group of S. Haroche at the ENS in Paris.

  4. A Coupled Approach for Structural Damage Detection with Incomplete Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George; Cao, Timothy; Kaouk, Mo; Zimmerman, David

    2013-01-01

    This historical work couples model order reduction, damage detection, dynamic residual/mode shape expansion, and damage extent estimation to overcome the incomplete measurements problem by using an appropriate undamaged structural model. A contribution of this work is the development of a process to estimate the full dynamic residuals using the columns of a spring connectivity matrix obtained by disassembling the structural stiffness matrix. Another contribution is the extension of an eigenvector filtering procedure to produce full-order mode shapes that more closely match the measured active partition of the mode shapes using a set of modified Ritz vectors. The full dynamic residuals and full mode shapes are used as inputs to the minimum rank perturbation theory to provide an estimate of damage location and extent. The issues associated with this process are also discussed as drivers of near-term development activities to understand and improve this approach.

  5. A flexible acquisition cycle for incompletely defined fieldbus protocols.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, Vasile-Gheorghita; Gaitan, Nicoleta-Cristina; Ungurean, Ioan

    2014-05-01

    Real time data-acquisition from fieldbuses strongly depends on the network type and protocol used. Currently, there is an impressive number of fieldbuses, some of them are completely defined and others are incompletely defined. In those from the second category, the time variable, the main element in real-time data acquisition, does not appear explicitly. Examples include protocols such as Modbus ASCII/RTU, M-bus, ASCII character-based, and so on. This paper defines a flexible acquisition cycle based on the Master-Slave architecture that can be implemented on a Master station, called a Base Station Gateway (BSG). The BSG can add a timestamp for temporal location of data. It also presents a possible extension for the Modbus protocol, developed as simple and low cost solution based on existing hardware. PMID:24650922

  6. Reconciliation of mass-asymmetry systematics for incomplete fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Kumar, R.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Singh, B. P.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Prasad, R.; AMU-IUAC Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The onset and strength of incomplete fusion (ICF) has been studied in the framework of Morgenstern's mass-asymmetry systematics. The fraction of ICF has been deduced in 12C+169Tm system at energies ranging from 1.02Vb to 1.64Vb (Vb = 54.94 MeV from the analysis of excitation functions (EFs). It has been found that the ICF starts influencing complete fusion at noticeably lower, β-values (i.e., 0.025 or 2. 5% of c) than that proposed by Morgenstern (i.e., ≈ 6% of c). The fraction of ICF increases with entrance channel mass-asymmetry for individual projectiles, termed as projectile dependent mass-asymmetry (ProMass-) systematics. The proposed ProMass- systematics has withstood all tests that have been done for fairly large number of systems to verify its validness.

  7. Absolute magnitude calibration using trigonometric parallax - Incomplete, spectroscopic samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Casertano, Stefano

    1991-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm is used to calibrate the absolute magnitude of spectroscopically selected stars from their observed trigonometric parallax. This procedure, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, can retrieve unbiased estimates of the intrinsic absolute magnitude and its dispersion even from incomplete samples suffering from selection biases in apparent magnitude and color. It can also make full use of low accuracy and negative parallaxes and incorporate censorship on reported parallax values. Accurate error estimates are derived for each of the fitted parameters. The algorithm allows an a posteriori check of whether the fitted model gives a good representation of the observations. The procedure is described in general and applied to both real and simulated data.

  8. Incomplete lineage sorting is common in extant gibbon genera.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jeffrey D; Kim, Sung K; Luca, Francesca; Carbone, Lucia; Mootnick, Alan R; de Jong, Pieter J; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We sequenced reduced representation libraries by means of Illumina technology to generate over 1.5 Mb of orthologous sequence from a representative of each of the four extant gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Symphalangus, and Hoolock). We used these data to assess the evolutionary relationships between the genera by evaluating the likelihoods of all possible bifurcating trees involving the four taxa. Our analyses provide weak support for a tree with Nomascus and Hylobates as sister taxa and with Hoolock and Symphalangus as sister taxa, though bootstrap resampling suggests that other phylogenetic scenarios are also possible. This uncertainty is due to short internal branch lengths and extensive incomplete lineage sorting across taxa. The true phylogenetic relationships among gibbon genera will likely require a more extensive whole-genome sequence analysis.

  9. Symmetry of interactions rules in incompletely connected random replicator ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kärenlampi, Petri P

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of an incompletely connected system of species with speciation and extinction is investigated in terms of random replicators. It is found that evolving random replicator systems with speciation do become large and complex, depending on speciation parameters. Antisymmetric interactions result in large systems, whereas systems with symmetric interactions remain small. A co-dominating feature is within-species interaction pressure: large within-species interaction increases species diversity. Average fitness evolves in all systems, however symmetry and connectivity evolve in small systems only. Newcomers get extinct almost immediately in symmetric systems. The distribution in species lifetimes is determined for antisymmetric systems. The replicator systems investigated do not show any sign of self-organized criticality. The generalized Lotka-Volterra system is shown to be a tedious way of implementing the replicator system.

  10. A Framework for Fast Image Deconvolution With Incomplete Observations.

    PubMed

    Simoes, Miguel; Almeida, Luis B; Bioucas-Dias, Jose; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2016-11-01

    In image deconvolution problems, the diagonalization of the underlying operators by means of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) usually yields very large speedups. When there are incomplete observations (e.g., in the case of unknown boundaries), standard deconvolution techniques normally involve non-diagonalizable operators, resulting in rather slow methods or, otherwise, use inexact convolution models, resulting in the occurrence of artifacts in the enhanced images. In this paper, we propose a new deconvolution framework for images with incomplete observations that allows us to work with diagonalized convolution operators, and therefore is very fast. We iteratively alternate the estimation of the unknown pixels and of the deconvolved image, using, e.g., an FFT-based deconvolution method. This framework is an efficient, high-quality alternative to existing methods of dealing with the image boundaries, such as edge tapering. It can be used with any fast deconvolution method. We give an example in which a state-of-the-art method that assumes periodic boundary conditions is extended, using this framework, to unknown boundary conditions. Furthermore, we propose a specific implementation of this framework, based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). We provide a proof of convergence for the resulting algorithm, which can be seen as a "partial" ADMM, in which not all variables are dualized. We report experimental comparisons with other primal-dual methods, where the proposed one performed at the level of the state of the art. Four different kinds of applications were tested in the experiments: deconvolution, deconvolution with inpainting, superresolution, and demosaicing, all with unknown boundaries.

  11. A Framework for Fast Image Deconvolution With Incomplete Observations.

    PubMed

    Simoes, Miguel; Almeida, Luis B; Bioucas-Dias, Jose; Chanussot, Jocelyn

    2016-11-01

    In image deconvolution problems, the diagonalization of the underlying operators by means of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) usually yields very large speedups. When there are incomplete observations (e.g., in the case of unknown boundaries), standard deconvolution techniques normally involve non-diagonalizable operators, resulting in rather slow methods or, otherwise, use inexact convolution models, resulting in the occurrence of artifacts in the enhanced images. In this paper, we propose a new deconvolution framework for images with incomplete observations that allows us to work with diagonalized convolution operators, and therefore is very fast. We iteratively alternate the estimation of the unknown pixels and of the deconvolved image, using, e.g., an FFT-based deconvolution method. This framework is an efficient, high-quality alternative to existing methods of dealing with the image boundaries, such as edge tapering. It can be used with any fast deconvolution method. We give an example in which a state-of-the-art method that assumes periodic boundary conditions is extended, using this framework, to unknown boundary conditions. Furthermore, we propose a specific implementation of this framework, based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). We provide a proof of convergence for the resulting algorithm, which can be seen as a "partial" ADMM, in which not all variables are dualized. We report experimental comparisons with other primal-dual methods, where the proposed one performed at the level of the state of the art. Four different kinds of applications were tested in the experiments: deconvolution, deconvolution with inpainting, superresolution, and demosaicing, all with unknown boundaries. PMID:27576251

  12. Effects of incomplete mixing on chemical reactions under flow heterogeneities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Lazaro; Hidalgo, Juan J.; Dentz, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation of the mixing process in aquifers is of primary importance when assessing attenuation of pollutants. In aquifers different hydraulic and chemical properties can increase mixing and spreading of the transported species. Mixing processes control biogeochemical transformations such as precipitation/dissolution reactions or degradation reactions that are fast compared to mass transfer processes. Reactions are local phenomena that fluctuate at the pore scale, but predictions are often made at much larger scales. However, aquifer heterogeities are found at all scales and generates flow heterogeneities which creates complex concentration distributions that enhances mixing. In order to assess the impact of spatial flow heterogeneities at pore scale we study concentration profiles, gradients and reaction rates using a random walk particle tracking (RWPT) method and kernel density estimators to reconstruct concentrations and gradients in two setups. First, we focus on a irreversible bimolecular reaction A+B → C under homogeneous flow to distinguish phenomena of incomplete mixing of reactants from finite-size sampling effects. Second, we analise a fast reversible bimolecular chemical reaction A+B rightleftharpoons C in a laminar Poiseuille flow reactor to determine the difference between local and global reaction rates caused by the incomplete mixing under flow heterogeneities. Simulation results for the first setup differ from the analytical solution of the continuum scale advection-dispersion-reaction equation studied by Gramling et al. (2002), which results in an overstimation quantity of reaction product (C). In the second setup, results show that actual reaction rates are bigger than the obtained from artificially mixing the system by averaging the concentration vertically. - LITERATURE Gramling, C. M.,Harvey, C. F., Meigs, and L. C., (2002). Reactive transport in porous media: A comparison of model prediction with laboratory visualization, Environ. Sci

  13. Single Molecule Electronics and Devices

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    The manufacture of integrated circuits with single-molecule building blocks is a goal of molecular electronics. While research in the past has been limited to bulk experiments on self-assembled monolayers, advances in technology have now enabled us to fabricate single-molecule junctions. This has led to significant progress in understanding electron transport in molecular systems at the single-molecule level and the concomitant emergence of new device concepts. Here, we review recent developments in this field. We summarize the methods currently used to form metal-molecule-metal structures and some single-molecule techniques essential for characterizing molecular junctions such as inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy. We then highlight several important achievements, including demonstration of single-molecule diodes, transistors, and switches that make use of electrical, photo, and mechanical stimulation to control the electron transport. We also discuss intriguing issues to be addressed further in the future such as heat and thermoelectric transport in an individual molecule. PMID:22969345

  14. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates.

    PubMed

    Converse, Sarah J; Royle, J Andrew; Adler, Peter H; Urbanek, Richard P; Barzen, Jeb A

    2013-11-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  15. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzan, Jeb A.

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  16. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates.

    PubMed

    Converse, Sarah J; Royle, J Andrew; Adler, Peter H; Urbanek, Richard P; Barzen, Jeb A

    2013-11-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the

  17. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment from Incomplete and Uncertain Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Ansie; Kijko, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    A question that frequently arises with seismic hazard assessment is why are our assessments so poor? Often the answer is that in many cases the standard applied methodologies do not take into account the nature of seismic event catalogs. In reality these catalogues are incomplete with uncertain magnitude estimates and a significant discrepancy between the empirical data and applied occurrence model. Most probabilistic seismic hazard analysis procedures require knowledge of at least three seismic source parameters: the mean seismic activity rate λ, the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, and the area-characteristic (seismogenic source) maximum possible earthquake magnitude Mmax. In almost all currently used seismic hazard assessment procedures utilizing these three parameters, it's explicitly assumed that all three remain constant over a specified time and space. However, closer examination of most earthquake catalogues indicates that there are significant spatial and temporal variations in the seismic activity rate λ as well as the Gutenberg-Richter b-value. In the proposed methodology the maximum likelihood estimation of these earthquake hazard parameters takes into account the incompleteness of catalogues, uncertainty in the earthquake magnitude determination as well as the uncertainty associated with the applied earthquake occurrence models. The uncertainty in the earthquake occurrence models are introduced by assuming that both, the mean, seismic activity rate λ and the b-value of Gutenberg-Richter are random variables, each described by the Gamma distribution. The approach results in the extension of the classic frequency-magnitude Gutenberg-Richter relation and the Poisson distribution of number of earthquakes, with their compounded counterparts. The proposed procedure is applied in the estimation of the seismic parameters for the area of Ceres-Tulbagh, South Africa, which experienced the strongest earthquake in the country's recorded history. In this example it is

  18. Incomplete DNA methylation underlies a transcriptional memory of the somatic cell in human iPS cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohi, Yuki; Qin, Han; Hong, Chibo; Blouin, Laure; Polo, Jose M.; Guo, Tingxia; Qi, Zhongxia; Downey, Sara L.; Manos, Philip D.; Rossi, Derrick J.; Yu, Jingwei; Hebrok, Matthias; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Costello, Joseph F.; Song, Jun S.; Ramalho-Santos, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are remarkably similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells, but recent reports suggest that there may be important differences between them. We performed a systematic comparison of human iPS cells generated from hepatocytes (representative of endoderm), skin fibroblasts (mesoderm) and melanocytes (ectoderm). All low passage iPS cells analyzed retain a transcriptional memory of the original cells. The persistent expression of somatic genes can be partially explained by incomplete promoter DNA methylation. This epigenetic mechanism underlies a robust form of memory that can be found in iPS cells generated by multiple laboratories using different methods, including RNA transfection. Incompletely silenced genes tend to be isolated from other genes that are repressed during reprogramming, indicating that recruitment of the silencing machinery may be inefficient at isolated genes. Knockdown of the incompletely reprogrammed gene C9orf64 reduces the efficiency of human iPS cell generation, suggesting that somatic memory genes may be functionally relevant during reprogramming. PMID:21499256

  19. An Iterative Reweighted Method for Tucker Decomposition of Incomplete Tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Linxiao; Fang, Jun; Li, Hongbin; Zeng, Bing

    2016-09-01

    We consider the problem of low-rank decomposition of incomplete multiway tensors. Since many real-world data lie on an intrinsically low dimensional subspace, tensor low-rank decomposition with missing entries has applications in many data analysis problems such as recommender systems and image inpainting. In this paper, we focus on Tucker decomposition which represents an Nth-order tensor in terms of N factor matrices and a core tensor via multilinear operations. To exploit the underlying multilinear low-rank structure in high-dimensional datasets, we propose a group-based log-sum penalty functional to place structural sparsity over the core tensor, which leads to a compact representation with smallest core tensor. The method for Tucker decomposition is developed by iteratively minimizing a surrogate function that majorizes the original objective function, which results in an iterative reweighted process. In addition, to reduce the computational complexity, an over-relaxed monotone fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding technique is adapted and embedded in the iterative reweighted process. The proposed method is able to determine the model complexity (i.e. multilinear rank) in an automatic way. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm offers competitive performance compared with other existing algorithms.

  20. Quantum Correlations from the Conditional Statistics of Incomplete Data.

    PubMed

    Sperling, J; Bartley, T J; Donati, G; Barbieri, M; Jin, X-M; Datta, A; Vogel, W; Walmsley, I A

    2016-08-19

    We study, in theory and experiment, the quantum properties of correlated light fields measured with click-counting detectors providing incomplete information on the photon statistics. We establish a correlation parameter for the conditional statistics, and we derive the corresponding nonclassicality criteria for detecting conditional quantum correlations. Classical bounds for Pearson's correlation parameter are formulated that allow us, once they are violated, to determine nonclassical correlations via the joint statistics. On the one hand, we demonstrate nonclassical correlations in terms of the joint click statistics of light produced by a parametric down-conversion source. On the other hand, we verify quantum correlations of a heralded, split single-photon state via the conditional click statistics together with a generalization to higher-order moments. We discuss the performance of the presented nonclassicality criteria to successfully discern joint and conditional quantum correlations. Remarkably, our results are obtained without making any assumptions on the response function, quantum efficiency, and dark-count rate of photodetectors. PMID:27588857

  1. Quantum Correlations from the Conditional Statistics of Incomplete Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, J.; Bartley, T. J.; Donati, G.; Barbieri, M.; Jin, X.-M.; Datta, A.; Vogel, W.; Walmsley, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    We study, in theory and experiment, the quantum properties of correlated light fields measured with click-counting detectors providing incomplete information on the photon statistics. We establish a correlation parameter for the conditional statistics, and we derive the corresponding nonclassicality criteria for detecting conditional quantum correlations. Classical bounds for Pearson's correlation parameter are formulated that allow us, once they are violated, to determine nonclassical correlations via the joint statistics. On the one hand, we demonstrate nonclassical correlations in terms of the joint click statistics of light produced by a parametric down-conversion source. On the other hand, we verify quantum correlations of a heralded, split single-photon state via the conditional click statistics together with a generalization to higher-order moments. We discuss the performance of the presented nonclassicality criteria to successfully discern joint and conditional quantum correlations. Remarkably, our results are obtained without making any assumptions on the response function, quantum efficiency, and dark-count rate of photodetectors.

  2. Incomplete restoration of homeostatic shear stress within arteriovenous fistulae.

    PubMed

    McGah, Patrick M; Leotta, Daniel F; Beach, Kirk W; Eugene Zierler, R; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are surgically created to provide adequate access for dialysis patients suffering from end-stage renal disease. It has long been hypothesized that the rapid blood vessel remodeling occurring after fistula creation is, in part, a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level, i.e., mechanical homeostasis. We present computational hemodynamic simulations in four patient-specific models of mature arteriovenous fistulae reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. Our results suggest that these mature fistulae have remodeled to return to ''normal'' shear stresses away from the anastomoses: about 1.0 Pa in the outflow veins and about 2.5 Pa in the inflow arteries. Large parts of the anastomoses were found to be under very high shear stresses >15 Pa, over most of the cardiac cycle. These results suggest that the remodeling process works toward restoring mechanical homeostasis in the fistulae, but that the process is limited or incomplete, even in mature fistulae, as evidenced by the elevated shear at or near the anastomoses. Based on the long term clinical viability of these dialysis accesses, we hypothesize that the elevated nonhomeostatic shear stresses in some portions of the vessels were not detrimental to fistula patency. PMID:23363216

  3. Inferring Phylogenetic Networks with Maximum Pseudolikelihood under Incomplete Lineage Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Solís-Lemus, Claudia; Ané, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic networks are necessary to represent the tree of life expanded by edges to represent events such as horizontal gene transfers, hybridizations or gene flow. Not all species follow the paradigm of vertical inheritance of their genetic material. While a great deal of research has flourished into the inference of phylogenetic trees, statistical methods to infer phylogenetic networks are still limited and under development. The main disadvantage of existing methods is a lack of scalability. Here, we present a statistical method to infer phylogenetic networks from multi-locus genetic data in a pseudolikelihood framework. Our model accounts for incomplete lineage sorting through the coalescent model, and for horizontal inheritance of genes through reticulation nodes in the network. Computation of the pseudolikelihood is fast and simple, and it avoids the burdensome calculation of the full likelihood which can be intractable with many species. Moreover, estimation at the quartet-level has the added computational benefit that it is easily parallelizable. Simulation studies comparing our method to a full likelihood approach show that our pseudolikelihood approach is much faster without compromising accuracy. We applied our method to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among swordtails and platyfishes (Xiphophorus: Poeciliidae), which is characterized by widespread hybridizations. PMID:26950302

  4. Can restoring incomplete microcirculatory reperfusion improve stroke outcome after thrombolysis?

    PubMed Central

    Dalkara, Turgay; Arsava, Ethem Murat

    2012-01-01

    Substantial experimental data and recent clinical evidence suggesting that tissue reperfusion is a better predictor of outcome after thrombolysis than recanalization necessitate that patency of microcirculation after recanalization should be reevaluated. If indeed microcirculatory blood flow cannot be sufficiently reinstituted despite complete recanalization as commonly observed in coronary circulation, it may be one of the factors contributing to low efficacy of thrombolysis in stroke. Although microvascular no-reflow is considered an irreversible process that prevents tissue recovery from injury, emerging evidence suggests that it might be reversed with pharmacological agents administered early during recanalization. Therefore, therapeutic approaches aiming at reducing microvascular obstructions may improve success rate of recanalization therapies. Importantly, promoting oxygen delivery to the tissue, where entrapped erythrocytes cannot circulate in capillaries, with ongoing serum flow may improve survival of the underreperfused tissue. Altogether, these developments bring about the exciting possibility that benefit of reperfusion therapies can be further improved by restoring microcirculatory function because survival in the penumbra critically depends on adequate blood supply. Here, we review the available evidence suggesting presence of an ‘incomplete microcirculatory reperfusion' (IMR) after focal cerebral ischemia and discuss potential means that may help investigate IMR in stroke patients after recanalization therapies despite technical limitations. PMID:23047270

  5. Synesthesia in twins: incomplete concordance in monozygotes suggests extragenic factors.

    PubMed

    Bosley, Hannah G; Eagleman, David M

    2015-06-01

    Colored-sequence synesthesia (CSS) is a neurological condition in which sequential stimuli such as letters, numbers, or days of the week trigger simultaneous, involuntary color perception. Although the condition appears to run in families and several studies have sought a genetic link, the genetic contribution to synesthesia remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative twin study of CSS and found that CSS has a pairwise concordance of 73.9% in monozygotic twins, and a pairwise concordance of 36.4% in dizygotic twins. In line with previous studies, our results suggest a heritable element of synesthesia. However, consonant with the findings of previous single-pair case studies, our large sample size verifies that synesthesia is not completely conferred by genetics; if it were, monozygotic twins should have 100% concordance. These findings implicate a genetic mechanism of CSS that may work differently than previously thought: collectively, our data suggest that synesthesia is a heritable condition with incomplete penetrance that is substantially influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors.

  6. Incomplete water securitization in coupled hydro-human production sytems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Boom, B.; Pande, S.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the dynamics, the externalities and the contingencies involved in managing local water resource for production, the water allocation at basin-level is a subtle balance between laws of nature (gravity; flux) and laws of economics (price; productivity). We study this balance by looking at inter-temporal basin-level water resource allocations in which subbasins enjoy a certain degree of autonomy. Each subbasin is represented as an economic agent i, following a gravity ordering with i=1 representing the most upstream area and i=I the downstream boundary. The water allocation is modeled as a decentralized equilibrium in a coupled conceptual hydro-human production system. Agents i=1,2,...,I in the basin produce a composite good according to a technology that requires water as a main input and that is specific to the subbasin. Agent i manages her use Xi and her storage Si, conceptualizing surface and subsurface water, of water with the purpose of maximizing the utility derived from consumption Ci of the composite good, where Ci is a scalar and Xi and Si are vectors which are composed of one element for each time period and for each contingency. A natural way to consume the good would be to absorb the own production. Yet, the agent may have two more option, namely, she might get a social transfer from other agents or she could use an income from trading water securities with her contiguous neighbors. To study these options, we compare water allocations (Ci, Xi, Si) all i=1,2,...,I for three different settings. We look at allocations without water securitization (water autarky equilibrium EA) first. Next, we describe the imaginary case of full securitization (contingent water markets equilibrium ECM) and, in between, we study limited securitization (incomplete water security equilibrium EWS). We show that allocations under contingent water markets ECM are efficient in the sense that, for the prevailing production technologies, no other allocation exists that is at

  7. Bayesian CP Factorization of Incomplete Tensors with Automatic Rank Determination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qibin; Zhang, Liqing; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor factorization of incomplete data is a powerful technique for tensor completion through explicitly capturing the multilinear latent factors. The existing CP algorithms require the tensor rank to be manually specified, however, the determination of tensor rank remains a challenging problem especially for CP rank . In addition, existing approaches do not take into account uncertainty information of latent factors, as well as missing entries. To address these issues, we formulate CP factorization using a hierarchical probabilistic model and employ a fully Bayesian treatment by incorporating a sparsity-inducing prior over multiple latent factors and the appropriate hyperpriors over all hyperparameters, resulting in automatic rank determination. To learn the model, we develop an efficient deterministic Bayesian inference algorithm, which scales linearly with data size. Our method is characterized as a tuning parameter-free approach, which can effectively infer underlying multilinear factors with a low-rank constraint, while also providing predictive distributions over missing entries. Extensive simulations on synthetic data illustrate the intrinsic capability of our method to recover the ground-truth of CP rank and prevent the overfitting problem, even when a large amount of entries are missing. Moreover, the results from real-world applications, including image inpainting and facial image synthesis, demonstrate that our method outperforms state-of-the-art approaches for both tensor factorization and tensor completion in terms of predictive performance.

  8. Incomplete Maternal Transmission of Mitochondrial DNA in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, R.; Satta, Y.; Matsuura, E. T.; Ishiwa, H.; Takahata, N.; Chigusa, S. I.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of incomplete maternal transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Drosophila, previously suggested by the presence of heteroplasmy, was examined by intra- and interspecific backcrosses of Drosophila simulans and its closest relative, Drosophila mauritiana. mtDNAs of offspring in these crosses were characterized by Southern hybridization with two α-(32)P-labeled probes that are specific to paternal mtDNAs. This method could detect as little as 0.03% paternal mtDNA, if present, in a sample. Among 331 lines that had been backcrossed for ten generations, four lines from the interspecific cross D. simulans (female) X D. mauritiana (male) showed clear evidence for paternal leakage of mtDNA. In three of these the maternal type was completely replaced while the fourth was heteroplasmic. Since in this experiment the total number of fertilization is known to be 331 X 10 = 3310, the proportion of paternal mtDNA per fertilization was estimated as about 0.1%. The mechanisms and evolutionary significance for paternal leakage are discussed in light of this finding. PMID:2249764

  9. Probabilistic updating of building models using incomplete modal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates a new probabilistic strategy for Bayesian model updating using incomplete modal data. Direct mode matching between the measured and the predicted modal quantities is not required in the updating process, which is realized through model reduction. A Markov chain Monte Carlo technique with adaptive random-walk steps is proposed to draw the samples for model parameter uncertainty quantification. The iterated improved reduced system technique is employed to update the prediction error as well as to calculate the likelihood function in the sampling process. Since modal quantities are used in the model updating, modal identification is first carried out to extract the natural frequencies and mode shapes through the acceleration measurements of the structural system. The proposed algorithm is finally validated by both numerical and experimental examples: a 10-storey building with synthetic data and a 8-storey building with shaking table test data. Results illustrate that the proposed algorithm is effective and robust for parameter uncertainty quantification in probabilistic model updating of buildings.

  10. Synesthesia in twins: incomplete concordance in monozygotes suggests extragenic factors.

    PubMed

    Bosley, Hannah G; Eagleman, David M

    2015-06-01

    Colored-sequence synesthesia (CSS) is a neurological condition in which sequential stimuli such as letters, numbers, or days of the week trigger simultaneous, involuntary color perception. Although the condition appears to run in families and several studies have sought a genetic link, the genetic contribution to synesthesia remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative twin study of CSS and found that CSS has a pairwise concordance of 73.9% in monozygotic twins, and a pairwise concordance of 36.4% in dizygotic twins. In line with previous studies, our results suggest a heritable element of synesthesia. However, consonant with the findings of previous single-pair case studies, our large sample size verifies that synesthesia is not completely conferred by genetics; if it were, monozygotic twins should have 100% concordance. These findings implicate a genetic mechanism of CSS that may work differently than previously thought: collectively, our data suggest that synesthesia is a heritable condition with incomplete penetrance that is substantially influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. PMID:25704836

  11. Incomplete turgor adjustment in Cladophora rupestrisunder fluctuating salinity regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiencke, Christian; Gorham, John; Tomos, Deri; Davenport, John

    1992-04-01

    Turgor pressure fluctuates strongly in Cladophora rupestrissubjected to low salinities and shows only a small tendency to readjust to the normal value in full seawater (incomplete turgor adjustment). This was revealed by direct turgor pressure measurements and by chemical analyses of osmotic solutes after exposure of upper and lower shore Cladophorato the different salinity regimes occurring in the intertidal zone or representing steady state osmotic acclimation. The main internal osmotic solutes were K +, Cl -, amino acids, NO 3-and glycine betaine. Na +, SO 42-and PO 43-were of less importance. The sum of the charges on the cations was similar to that for the anions. K +, Cl -and, to a lesser extent, amino acids were responsible for limited turgor pressure adjustment which did occur. The concentrations of the major osmotic solutes were influenced not only by salinity but also by light: those of amino acids and NO 3-were increased while those of K +and Cl -were decreased under illumination. Cladophorapopulations from the upper and lower shore differed in their ability to restore internal K +and Cl -levels on transfer to full seawater after long term exposure to low salinity. This may indicate ecotypic variation.

  12. Projectile - Mass asymmetry systematics for low energy incomplete fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kumar, Pawan; Sahoo, Rudra N.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Prasad, R.

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, low energy incomplete fusion (ICF) in which only a part of projectile fuses with target nucleus has been investigated in terms of various entrance channel parameters. The ICF strength function has been extracted from the analysis of experimental excitation functions (EFs) measured for different projectile-target combinations from near- to well above- barrier energies in 12C,16O(from 1.02Vb to 1.64Vb)+169Tm systems. Experimental EFs have been analysed in the framework statistical model code PACE4 based on the idea of equilibrated compound nucleus decay. It has been found that the value of ICF fraction (FICF) increases with incident projectile energy. A substantial fraction of ICF (FICF ≈ 7 %) has been accounted even at energy as low as ≈ 7.5% above the barrier (at relative velocity νrel ≈0.027) in 12C+169Tm system, and FICF ≈ 10 % at νrel ≈0.014 in 16O+169Tm system. The probability of ICF is discussed in light of the Morgenstern's mass-asymmetry systematics. The value of FICF for 16O+169Tm systems is found to be 18.3 % higher than that observed for 12C+169Tm systems. Present results together with the re-analysis of existing data for nearby systems conclusively demonstrate strong competition of ICF with CF even at slightly above barrier energies, and strong projectile dependence that seems to supplement the Morgenstern's systematics.

  13. Spectral Regularization Algorithms for Learning Large Incomplete Matrices.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Rahul; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert

    2010-03-01

    We use convex relaxation techniques to provide a sequence of regularized low-rank solutions for large-scale matrix completion problems. Using the nuclear norm as a regularizer, we provide a simple and very efficient convex algorithm for minimizing the reconstruction error subject to a bound on the nuclear norm. Our algorithm Soft-Impute iteratively replaces the missing elements with those obtained from a soft-thresholded SVD. With warm starts this allows us to efficiently compute an entire regularization path of solutions on a grid of values of the regularization parameter. The computationally intensive part of our algorithm is in computing a low-rank SVD of a dense matrix. Exploiting the problem structure, we show that the task can be performed with a complexity linear in the matrix dimensions. Our semidefinite-programming algorithm is readily scalable to large matrices: for example it can obtain a rank-80 approximation of a 10(6) × 10(6) incomplete matrix with 10(5) observed entries in 2.5 hours, and can fit a rank 40 approximation to the full Netflix training set in 6.6 hours. Our methods show very good performance both in training and test error when compared to other competitive state-of-the art techniques.

  14. Quantum Correlations from the Conditional Statistics of Incomplete Data.

    PubMed

    Sperling, J; Bartley, T J; Donati, G; Barbieri, M; Jin, X-M; Datta, A; Vogel, W; Walmsley, I A

    2016-08-19

    We study, in theory and experiment, the quantum properties of correlated light fields measured with click-counting detectors providing incomplete information on the photon statistics. We establish a correlation parameter for the conditional statistics, and we derive the corresponding nonclassicality criteria for detecting conditional quantum correlations. Classical bounds for Pearson's correlation parameter are formulated that allow us, once they are violated, to determine nonclassical correlations via the joint statistics. On the one hand, we demonstrate nonclassical correlations in terms of the joint click statistics of light produced by a parametric down-conversion source. On the other hand, we verify quantum correlations of a heralded, split single-photon state via the conditional click statistics together with a generalization to higher-order moments. We discuss the performance of the presented nonclassicality criteria to successfully discern joint and conditional quantum correlations. Remarkably, our results are obtained without making any assumptions on the response function, quantum efficiency, and dark-count rate of photodetectors.

  15. A new approach to detection of incomplete antibodies using hydrogel chromatography medium.

    PubMed

    Wang, HongMei; Chen, YeZhou; Ding, ShaoHua; Duan, ShengBao; Tian, JingJing; Meng, QingLin; Wei, ShuangShi; Li, Yong

    2015-12-01

    In assays for incomplete antibody detection, several washing steps are required to remove unbound globulins which may cause false negatives. Here, we present an improved approach employing hydrogel chromatography medium (HCM) in the detection of incomplete antibodies. After a rapid single-step centrifugation, incomplete antibodies, attached to red blood cells (RBCs), were separated from the reaction mixture using HCM and sedimentation. This method obviates the need for multiple centrifugation steps found in conventional Tube-Coombs tests. The HCM-Coombs tests may have a wide range of applications for incomplete antibody detection.

  16. Molecules in the Spotlight

    SciTech Connect

    Cryan, James

    2010-01-26

    SLAC has just unveiled the world's first X-ray laser, the LCLS. This machine produces pulses of X-rays that are ten billion times brighter than those from conventional sources. One of the goals of this machine is to make movies of chemical reactions, including reactions necessary for life and reactions that might power new energy technologies. This public lecture will show the first results from the LCLS. As a first target, we have chosen nitrogen gas, the main component of the air we breathe. Using the unprecedented power of the LCLS X-rays as a blasting torch, we have created new forms of this molecule and with unique electronic arrangements. Please share with us the first insights from this new technology.

  17. Training-Specific Neural Plasticity in Spinal Reflexes after Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Susan K.; Roy, Francois D.; Gorassini, Monica A.

    2016-01-01

    The neural plasticity of spinal reflexes after two contrasting forms of walking training was determined in individuals with chronic, motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). Endurance Training involved treadmill walking for as long as possible, and Precision Training involved walking precisely over obstacles and onto targets overground. Twenty participants started either Endurance or Precision Training for 2 months and then crossed over after a 2-month rest period to the other form of training for 2 months. Measures were taken before and after each phase of training and rest. The cutaneomuscular reflex (CMR) during walking was evoked in the soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior muscles by stimulating the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle. Clonus was estimated from the EMG power in the SOL during unperturbed walking. The inhibitory component of the SOL CMR was enhanced after Endurance but not Precision Training. Clonus did not change after either form of training. Participants with lower reflex excitability tended to be better walkers (i.e., faster walking speeds) prior to training, and the reduction in clonus was significantly correlated with the improvement in walking speed and distance. Thus, reflex excitability responded in a training-specific way, with the reduction in reflex excitability related to improvements in walking function. Trial registration number is NCT01765153. PMID:27725887

  18. A story of quantum chemistry: From research on energy transfer mechanism in collisions of the H2 1∑u+ excited state, to the identification and calculation of novel light molecules that hold hydrogen in molecular form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaides, Cleanthes A.

    2015-12-01

    The `story' consists of a series of theoretical and computational results, starting in the early 1980s, concerning unusual circumstances of bonding involving local minima of potential energy surfaces and, mainly, regions of avoided, or almost avoided, intersections at extraordinary geometries, between a repulsive ground state and a bound first excited singlet state of the same symmetry. The results have led to the prediction of novel neutral or charged light molecules, including `non-classical hydrogen complexes', such as H2 - - BeO and H2 - - Si2 F3.

  19. Photoinduced Bilayer-to-Nonbilayer Phase Transition of POPE by Photoisomerization of Added Stilbene Molecules.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Koyomi; Hishida, Mafumi; Nagatomo, Shigenori; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Saito, Kazuya

    2016-08-01

    The photocontrol of a bilayer-to-nonbilayer phase transition (the liquid-crystalline Lα phase to the inverted hexagonal HII phase) of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) by the photoisomerization of incorporated stilbene molecules was examined by utilizing differential scanning calorimetry, small-angle X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet (UV)/visible absorption, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. cis-Stilbene lowered the transition temperature, Th, to a greater extent than did trans-stilbene, and the difference was at most ca. 10 °C. At temperatures higher than the Th of POPE/cis-stilbene but lower than that of POPE/trans-stilbene, the photoisomerization from the trans to the cis form of the stilbene molecules by irradiation with UV light caused a Lα-HII phase transition. The UV irradiation partially induced the HII phase at a constant temperature because of the incomplete photoisomerization of stilbene (ca. 60%). The reduction in Th by the incorporation of stilbenes was caused mainly by the reduction in the spontaneous radius of curvature of the lipid monolayer, R0. The greater bulkiness of cis-stilbene as compared to the trans form resulted in a more effective reduction in R0 and stabilization of the HII phase. PMID:27351293

  20. Connected-diagram expansions of effective Hamiltonians in incomplete model spaces. I. Quasicomplete and isolated incomplete model spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzelnigg, Werner; Mukherjee, Debashis; Koch, Sigurd

    1987-11-01

    In this and the following paper, we formulate a Fock space theory for incomplete model spaces (IMS) that applies both to coupled-cluster expansions and to perturbation theory. We stress in this paper that the concept of the ``connected'' nature of extensive quantities like an effective Hamiltonian Heff is more fundamental than the ``linkedness'' that is conventionally used in many-body perturbation theory. The ``connectedness'' of Heff follows when the wave operator W is multiplicatively separable into noninteracting subsystems. This is ensured by writing W as an exponential Fock space operator with the exponent connected. It is demonstrated in particular that the connectedness of the exponent in W requires that the normalization condition of W be separable as well. Unlike the situation in a complete model space, the definition of ``diagonal'' or ``nondiagonal'' operators depends generally on the particular m-valence IMS. There are, however, special categories of IMS, the ``quasicomplete'' and the ``isolated'' model spaces, for which these definitions are possible without reference to the particular IMS. The formal properties of these IMS are discussed. It is shown that for the quasicomplete model space, the intermediate normalization is not separable, while it is so for the isolated model space.

  1. Tn9 and IS1 inserts in a ribosomal ribonucleic acid operon of Escherichia coli are incompletely polar.

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, J M; Morgan, E A

    1981-01-01

    Transcription is known to be coupled to translation in many or all bacterial operons which code for proteins. In these operons, nonsense codons which prevent normal translation often result in premature termination of transcription (polarity). However, efficient transcription of ribosomal ribonucleic acid operons (rrn operons) occurs, although rrn transcripts are not translated. It therefore seemed possible that insertion sequences and transposable elements which are polar in protein-coding operons might not be polar in rrn operons. Previously, it has been shown (E. A. Morgan, Cell 21:257-265, 1980) that Tn10 is incompletely polar in the rrnX operon. Here we show that the transposon Tn9 and the insertion sequence IS1 also incompletely polar in rrnX. In normal cells expression of sequences distal to the insertions can be detected by genetic methods. In ultraviolet-irradiated cells expression of distal sequences is about 80% of that observed in uninterrupted rrnX operons. These observations provide evidence that ribonucleic acid polymerase molecules beginning at rrnX promoters can read through Tn9 and IS1 and that, at least in ultraviolet-irradiated cells, read-through is very efficient. Images PMID:6171559

  2. Accounting for Incomplete Species Detection in Fish Community Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Orth, Dr. Donald J; Jager, Yetta

    2013-01-01

    Riverine fish assemblages are heterogeneous and very difficult to characterize with a one-size-fits-all approach to sampling. Furthermore, detecting changes in fish assemblages over time requires accounting for variation in sampling designs. We present a modeling approach that permits heterogeneous sampling by accounting for site and sampling covariates (including method) in a model-based framework for estimation (versus a sampling-based framework). We snorkeled during three surveys and electrofished during a single survey in suite of delineated habitats stratified by reach types. We developed single-species occupancy models to determine covariates influencing patch occupancy and species detection probabilities whereas community occupancy models estimated species richness in light of incomplete detections. For most species, information-theoretic criteria showed higher support for models that included patch size and reach as covariates of occupancy. In addition, models including patch size and sampling method as covariates of detection probabilities also had higher support. Detection probability estimates for snorkeling surveys were higher for larger non-benthic species whereas electrofishing was more effective at detecting smaller benthic species. The number of sites and sampling occasions required to accurately estimate occupancy varied among fish species. For rare benthic species, our results suggested that higher number of occasions, and especially the addition of electrofishing, may be required to improve detection probabilities and obtain accurate occupancy estimates. Community models suggested that richness was 41% higher than the number of species actually observed and the addition of an electrofishing survey increased estimated richness by 13%. These results can be useful to future fish assemblage monitoring efforts by informing sampling designs, such as site selection (e.g. stratifying based on patch size) and determining effort required (e.g. number of

  3. Potential associations between chronic whiplash and incomplete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew C.; Parrish, Todd B.; Hoggarth, Mark A.; McPherson, Jacob G.; Tysseling, Vicki M.; Wasielewski, Marie; Kim, Hyosub E.; Hornby, T. George; Elliott, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design This research utilized a cross-sectional design with control group inclusion. Objectives Preliminary evidence suggests that a portion of the patient population with chronic whiplash may have sustained spinal cord damage. Our hypothesis is that in some cases of chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), observed muscle weakness in the legs will be associated with local signs of a partial spinal cord injury of the cervical spine. Setting University based laboratory in Chicago, IL, USA. Methods Five participants with chronic WAD were compared with five gender/age/height/weight/body mass index (BMI) control participants. For a secondary investigation, the chronic WAD group was compared with five unmatched participants with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Spinal cord motor tract integrity was assessed using magnetization transfer imaging. Muscle fat infiltration (MFI) was quantified using fat/water separation magnetic resonance imaging. Central volitional muscle activation of the plantarflexors was assessed using a burst superimposition technique. Results We found reduced spinal cord motor tract integrity, increased MFI of the neck and lower extremity muscles and significantly impaired voluntary plantarflexor muscle activation in five participants with chronic WAD. The lower extremity structural changes and volitional weakness in chronic WAD were comparable to participants with iSCI. Conclusion The results support the position that a subset of the chronic whiplash population may have sustained partial damage to the spinal cord. Sponsorship NIH R01HD079076-01A1, NIH T32 HD057845 and the Foundation for Physical Therapy Promotion of Doctoral Studies program.

  4. Normalization of relative and incomplete temporal expressions in clinical narratives

    PubMed Central

    Rumshisky, Anna; Uzuner, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Objective To improve the normalization of relative and incomplete temporal expressions (RI-TIMEXes) in clinical narratives. Methods We analyzed the RI-TIMEXes in temporally annotated corpora and propose two hypotheses regarding the normalization of RI-TIMEXes in the clinical narrative domain: the anchor point hypothesis and the anchor relation hypothesis. We annotated the RI-TIMEXes in three corpora to study the characteristics of RI-TMEXes in different domains. This informed the design of our RI-TIMEX normalization system for the clinical domain, which consists of an anchor point classifier, an anchor relation classifier, and a rule-based RI-TIMEX text span parser. We experimented with different feature sets and performed an error analysis for each system component. Results The annotation confirmed the hypotheses that we can simplify the RI-TIMEXes normalization task using two multi-label classifiers. Our system achieves anchor point classification, anchor relation classification, and rule-based parsing accuracy of 74.68%, 87.71%, and 57.2% (82.09% under relaxed matching criteria), respectively, on the held-out test set of the 2012 i2b2 temporal relation challenge. Discussion Experiments with feature sets reveal some interesting findings, such as: the verbal tense feature does not inform the anchor relation classification in clinical narratives as much as the tokens near the RI-TIMEX. Error analysis showed that underrepresented anchor point and anchor relation classes are difficult to detect. Conclusions We formulate the RI-TIMEX normalization problem as a pair of multi-label classification problems. Considering only RI-TIMEX extraction and normalization, the system achieves statistically significant improvement over the RI-TIMEX results of the best systems in the 2012 i2b2 challenge. PMID:25868462

  5. Potential associations between chronic whiplash and incomplete spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew C.; Parrish, Todd B.; Hoggarth, Mark A.; McPherson, Jacob G.; Tysseling, Vicki M.; Wasielewski, Marie; Kim, Hyosub E.; Hornby, T. George; Elliott, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design This research utilized a cross-sectional design with control group inclusion. Objectives Preliminary evidence suggests that a portion of the patient population with chronic whiplash may have sustained spinal cord damage. Our hypothesis is that in some cases of chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD), observed muscle weakness in the legs will be associated with local signs of a partial spinal cord injury of the cervical spine. Setting University based laboratory in Chicago, IL, USA. Methods Five participants with chronic WAD were compared with five gender/age/height/weight/body mass index (BMI) control participants. For a secondary investigation, the chronic WAD group was compared with five unmatched participants with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Spinal cord motor tract integrity was assessed using magnetization transfer imaging. Muscle fat infiltration (MFI) was quantified using fat/water separation magnetic resonance imaging. Central volitional muscle activation of the plantarflexors was assessed using a burst superimposition technique. Results We found reduced spinal cord motor tract integrity, increased MFI of the neck and lower extremity muscles and significantly impaired voluntary plantarflexor muscle activation in five participants with chronic WAD. The lower extremity structural changes and volitional weakness in chronic WAD were comparable to participants with iSCI. Conclusion The results support the position that a subset of the chronic whiplash population may have sustained partial damage to the spinal cord. Sponsorship NIH R01HD079076-01A1, NIH T32 HD057845 and the Foundation for Physical Therapy Promotion of Doctoral Studies program. PMID:27630770

  6. Exploring Massive Incomplete Lineage Sorting in Arctoids (Laurasiatheria, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Doronina, Liliya; Churakov, Gennady; Shi, Jingjing; Brosius, Jürgen; Baertsch, Robert; Clawson, Hiram; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Freed from the competition of large raptors, Paleocene carnivores could expand their newly acquired habitats in search of prey. Such changing conditions might have led to their successful distribution and rapid radiation. Today, molecular evolutionary biologists are faced, however, with the consequences of such accelerated adaptive radiations, because they led to sequential speciation more rapidly than phylogenetic markers could be fixed. The repercussions being that current genealogies based on such markers are incongruent with species trees.Our aim was to explore such conflicting phylogenetic zones of evolution during the early arctoid radiation, especially to distinguish diagnostic from misleading phylogenetic signals, and to examine other carnivore-related speciation events. We applied a combination of high-throughput computational strategies to screen carnivore and related genomes in silico for randomly inserted retroposed elements that we then used to identify inconsistent phylogenetic patterns in the Arctoidea group, which is well known for phylogenetic discordances.Our combined retrophylogenomic and in vitro wet lab approach detected hundreds of carnivore-specific insertions, many of them confirming well-established splits or identifying and solving conflicting species distributions. Our systematic genome-wide screens for Long INterspersed Elements detected homoplasy-free markers with insertion-specific truncation points that we used to distinguish phylogenetically informative markers from conflicting signals. The results were independently confirmed by phylogenetic diagnostic Short INterspersed Elements. As statistical analysis ruled out ancestral hybridization, these doubly verified but still conflicting patterns were statistically determined to be genomic remnants from a time of ancestral incomplete lineage sorting that especially accompanied large parts of Arctoidea evolution. PMID:26337548

  7. Exploring Massive Incomplete Lineage Sorting in Arctoids (Laurasiatheria, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Doronina, Liliya; Churakov, Gennady; Shi, Jingjing; Brosius, Jürgen; Baertsch, Robert; Clawson, Hiram; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Freed from the competition of large raptors, Paleocene carnivores could expand their newly acquired habitats in search of prey. Such changing conditions might have led to their successful distribution and rapid radiation. Today, molecular evolutionary biologists are faced, however, with the consequences of such accelerated adaptive radiations, because they led to sequential speciation more rapidly than phylogenetic markers could be fixed. The repercussions being that current genealogies based on such markers are incongruent with species trees.Our aim was to explore such conflicting phylogenetic zones of evolution during the early arctoid radiation, especially to distinguish diagnostic from misleading phylogenetic signals, and to examine other carnivore-related speciation events. We applied a combination of high-throughput computational strategies to screen carnivore and related genomes in silico for randomly inserted retroposed elements that we then used to identify inconsistent phylogenetic patterns in the Arctoidea group, which is well known for phylogenetic discordances.Our combined retrophylogenomic and in vitro wet lab approach detected hundreds of carnivore-specific insertions, many of them confirming well-established splits or identifying and solving conflicting species distributions. Our systematic genome-wide screens for Long INterspersed Elements detected homoplasy-free markers with insertion-specific truncation points that we used to distinguish phylogenetically informative markers from conflicting signals. The results were independently confirmed by phylogenetic diagnostic Short INterspersed Elements. As statistical analysis ruled out ancestral hybridization, these doubly verified but still conflicting patterns were statistically determined to be genomic remnants from a time of ancestral incomplete lineage sorting that especially accompanied large parts of Arctoidea evolution.

  8. Proton affinities of hydrated molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valadbeigi, Younes

    2016-09-01

    Proton affinities (PA) of non-hydrated, M, and hydrated forms, M(H2O)1,2,3, of 20 organic molecules including alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones and amines were calculated by the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. For homogeneous families, linear correlations were observed between PAs of the M(H2O)1,2,3 and the PAs of the non-hydrated molecules. Also, the absolute values of the hydration enthalpies of the protonated molecules decreased linearly with the PAs. The correlation functions predicted that for an amine with PA < 1100 kJ/mol the PA(M(H2O)) is larger than the corresponding PA, while for an amine with PA > 1100 kJ/mol the PA(M(H2O)) is smaller than the PA.

  9. Do You See What I See? Infants' Reasoning about Others' Incomplete Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Beck, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Twelve-month-olds realize that when an agent cannot see an object, her incomplete perceptions still guide her goal-directed actions. What would happen if the agent had incomplete perceptions because she could see only one part of the object, for example one side of a screen? In the present research, 16-month-olds were first shown an agent who…

  10. The effect of H2O gas on volatilities of planet-forming major elements. I - Experimental determination of thermodynamic properties of Ca-, Al-, and Si-hydroxide gas molecules and its application to the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Akihiko

    1992-01-01

    The vapor pressures of Ca(OH)2(g), Al(OH)3(g), and Si(OH)4(g) molecules in equilibrium with solid calcium-, aluminum, and silicon-oxides, respectively, were determined, and were used to derive the heats of formation and entropies of these species, which are expected to be abundant under the currently postulated physical conditions in the primordial solar nebula. These data, in conjunction with thermodynamic data from literature, were used to calculate the relative abundances of M, MO(x), and M(OH)n gas species and relative volatilities of Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, and Al for ranges of temperature, total pressure, and H/O abundance ratio corresponding to the plausible ranges of physical conditions in the solar nebula. The results are used to explain how Ca and Al could have evaporated from Ca,Al-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites, while Si, Mg, and Fe condensed onto them during the preaccretion alteration of CAIs.

  11. Structural Analysis of H2-Db Class I Molecules Containing Two Different Allelic Forms of the type 1 Diabetes Susceptibility Factor beta-2 Microglobulin: Implications for the Mechanism Underlying Viriations in Antigen Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Roden,M.; Brims, D.; Fedorov, A.; DiLorenzo, T.; Almo, S.; Nathenson, s.; Anovitz, L.; Wesolowski, D.

    2006-01-01

    Beta-2 microglobulin ({beta}2m) is a member of the immunoglobulin-like domain superfamily that is an essential structural subunit of the MHC class I (MHC-I) molecule. {beta}2m was previously identified as a susceptibility factor for the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in NOD mice, whereby transgenic expression of the {beta}2m{sup a} variant, but not the {beta}2mb variant, restored diabetes susceptibility to normally resistant NOD.{beta}2m{sup null} mice. Here we report the crystal structures and thermodynamic stabilities of the NOD MHC-I molecule H2-D{sup b} containing these two variants. Our results reveal subtle differences in the structures of the {beta}2m variants, namely in minor loop shifts and in variations in the hydrogen bonding networks at the interfaces between the components of the ternary complex. We also demonstrate that the thermodynamic stabilities of the {beta}2m variants in isolation differ. However, the conformation of the peptide in the MHC cleft is unchanged in {beta}2m allelic Db complexes, as are the TCR recognition surfaces. Thus, despite modest structural differences between allelic complexes, the evidence indicates that D{sup b} peptide presentation of the representative peptide is unchanged in the context of either {beta}2m allelic variant. These data suggest that other mechanisms, such as differential association of MHC-I in multiprotein complexes, are likely responsible for the effect of {beta}2m on T1D development.

  12. Spectroscopic modeling of water molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danylo, R. I.; Okhrimenko, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    This research is devoted to the vibrational spectroscopy inverse problem solution that gives a possibility to design a molecule and make conclusions about its geometry. The valence angle finding based on the usage of inverse spectral vibrational spectroscopy problem is a well-known task. 3N-matrix method was chosen to solve the proposed task. The usage of this method permits to make no assumptions about the molecule force field, besides it can be applied to molecules of matter in liquid state. Anharmonicity constants assessment is an important part of the valence angle finding. The reduction to zero vibrations is necessary because used matrix analytical expression were found in the harmonic approach. In order to find the single-valued inverse spectral problem of vibrational spectroscopy solution a shape parameter characterizing "mixing" of ω1 and ω2 vibrations forms must be found. The minimum of such a function Υ called a divergence parameter was found. This function characterizes method's accuracy. The valence angle assessment was reduced to the divergence parameter minimization. The β value concerning divergence parameter minimum was interpreted as the desired valence angle. The proposed method was applied for water molecule in liquid state: β = (88,8 ±1,7)° . The found angle fits the water molecule nearest surrounding tetrahedral model including hydrogen bond curvature in the first approximation.

  13. Production and Trapping of Ultracold Polar Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    David, DeMille

    2015-04-21

    We report a set of experiments aimed at the production and trapping of ultracold polar molecules. We begin with samples of laser-cooled and trapped Rb and Cs atoms, and bind them together to form polar RbCs molecules. The binding is accomplished via photoassociation, which uses a laser to catalyze the sticking process. We report results from investigation of a new pathway for photoassociation that can produce molecules in their absolute ground state of vibrational and rotational motion. We also report preliminary observations of collisions between these ground-state molecules and co-trapped atoms.

  14. Giant molecules composed of polar molecules and atoms in mixed dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ran; Tan, Shina

    2014-05-01

    Two or three polar molecules, confined to one or two dimensions, can form stable bound states with a single atom living in three dimensions, if the molecule and the atom can interact resonantly such that their mixed dimensional scattering length is large. We call these bound states ``giant molecules'' since it's a molecule composed of smaller molecules and atoms. We study their properties using techniques including exact numerical solution, exact qunatum diffusion Monte Carlo (QMC), Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), and semiclassical approximation. These bound states have a hierarchical structure reminiscent of the celestial systems.

  15. Influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion: Observation of a large incomplete fusion fraction at E {approx_equal}5-7 MeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, B. P.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Unnati,; Singh, Devendra P.; Prasad, R.; Kumar, Rakesh; Golda, K. S.

    2008-01-15

    Experiments have been carried out to explore the reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies. Excitation functions for {sup 168}Lu{sup m}, {sup 167}Lu, {sup 167}Yb, {sup 166}Tm, {sup 179}Re, {sup 177}Re, {sup 177}W, {sup 178}Ta, and {sup 177}Hf radio-nuclides populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of {sup 16}O with {sup 159}Tb and {sup 169}Tm have been studied over the wide projectile energy range E{sub proj}{approx_equal}75-95 MeV. Recoil-catcher technique followed by off-line {gamma}-spectrometry has been employed in the present measurements. Experimental data have been compared with the predictions of theoretical model code PACE2. The experimentally measured production cross sections of {alpha}-emitting channels were found to be larger as compared to the theoretical model predictions and may be attributed to incomplete fusion at these energies. During the analysis of experimental data, incomplete fusion has been found to be competing with complete fusion. As such, an attempt has been made to estimate the incomplete fusion fraction for both the systems, and has been found to be sensitive for projectile energy and mass asymmetry of interacting partners.

  16. Phononic Molecules Studied by Raman Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.; Fainstein, A.; Jusserand, B.; Lemaitre, A.

    2010-01-04

    An acoustic nanocavity can confine phonons in such a way that they act like electrons in an atom. By combining two of these phononic-atoms, it is possible to form a phononic 'molecule', with acoustic modes that are similar to the electronic states in a hydrogen molecule. We report Raman scattering experiments performed in a monolithic structure formed by a phononic molecule embedded in an optical cavity. The acoustic mode splitting becomes evident through both the amplification and change of selection rules induced by the optical cavity confinement. The results are in perfect agreement with photoelastic model simulations.

  17. Incomplete medication adherence of chronically ill patients in German primary care

    PubMed Central

    Hüther, Jakob; von Wolff, Alessa; Stange, Dorit; Härter, Martin; Baehr, Michael; Dartsch, Dorothee C; Kriston, Levente

    2013-01-01

    Background Incomplete medication adherence is a major problem in health care worldwide. Patients who adhere to medical treatment have a better prognosis and create fewer costs. Objective To assess the degree of incomplete adherence of chronically ill routine primary care patients in a German setting and analyze the association between incomplete medication adherence, as well as clinical and sociodemographic patient characteristics. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, chronically ill patients were asked to assess their adherence in primary care retrospectively using the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS-D) questionnaire. To investigate the association of incomplete adherence with sociodemographic and clinical data, univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results In total, 62.1% of 190 patients were categorized as incompletely adherent. The mean MARS-D score was 23.5 (standard deviation = 2.7). Analyses revealed no statistically significant associations at P < 0.05 between degree of adherence and patient characteristics. The total explained variance amounted to 11.8% (Nagelkerke’s R2 = 0.118) in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion Previously reported results regarding associations of sociodemographic and clinical data with incomplete medication adherence could not be confirmed for this sample of chronically ill patients. In order to be able to provide guidelines for the reduction of incomplete medication adherence in German primary care, further research is needed. PMID:23569363

  18. Medical treatments for incomplete miscarriage (less than 24 weeks)

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, James P; Gyte, Gillian ML; Hickey, Martha; Vazquez, Juan C; Dou, Lixia

    2014-01-01

    Background Miscarriage occurs in 10% to 15% of pregnancies. The traditional treatment, after miscarriage, has been to perform surgery to remove any remaining pregnancy tissues in the uterus. However, it has been suggested that drug-based medical treatments, or expectant care (no treatment), may also be effective, safe and acceptable. Objectives To assess the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of any medical treatment for early incomplete miscarriage (before 24 weeks). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (September 2009) and reference lists of retrieved papers. We updated this search on 23 July 2012 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing medical treatment with expectant care or surgery. Quasi-randomised trials were excluded. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Data entry was checked. Main results Fifteen studies (2750 women) were included, there were no studies on women over 13 weeks’ gestation. Studies addressed a number of comparisons and data are therefore limited. Three trials compared misoprostol treatment (all vaginally administered) with expectant care. There was no significant difference in complete miscarriage (average risk ratio (RR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 2.10; two studies, 150 women), or in the need for surgical evacuation (average RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.17 to 2.26; two studies, 308 women). There were few data on ‘deaths or serious complications’. Nine studies involving 1766 women addressed the comparison of misoprostol (four oral, four vaginal, one vaginal + oral) with surgical evacuation. There was no statistically significant difference in complete miscarriage (average RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.00, eight studies, 1377 women) with success rate high for both methods

  19. Isomer ratio measurements as a probe of the dynamics of breakup and incomplete fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Gasques, L. R.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D. J.; Peatey, T.; Diaz-Torres, A.; Newton, J. O.

    2006-12-15

    The incomplete fusion mechanism following breakup of {sup 6,7}Li and {sup 9}Be projectiles incident on targets of {sup 209}Bi and {sup 208}Pb is investigated through isomer ratio measurements for the {sup 212}At and {sup 211}Po products. The phenomenological analysis presented in this paper indicates that incomplete fusion brings relatively more angular momentum into the system than equivalent reactions with a direct beam of the fused fragment. This is attributed to the trajectories of breakup fragments. Calculations with a 3D classical trajectory model support this. Isomer ratio measurements for incomplete fusion reactions can provide a test of new theoretical models of breakup and fusion.

  20. Estimation from incomplete multinomial data. Ph.D. Thesis - Harvard Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    The vector of multinomial cell probabilities was estimated from incomplete data, incomplete in that it contains partially classified observations. Each such partially classified observation was observed to fall in one of two or more selected categories but was not classified further into a single category. The data were assumed to be incomplete at random. The estimation criterion was minimization of risk for quadratic loss. The estimators were the classical maximum likelihood estimate, the Bayesian posterior mode, and the posterior mean. An approximation was developed for the posterior mean. The Dirichlet, the conjugate prior for the multinomial distribution, was assumed for the prior distribution.

  1. IRON-60 HETEROGENEITY AND INCOMPLETE ISOTOPE MIXING IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Quitte, Ghylaine; Markowski, Agnes; Latkoczy, Christopher; Gabriel, Aron; Pack, Andreas

    2010-09-10

    Short-lived radionuclides (e.g., {sup 26}Al, {sup 53}Mn, {sup 60}Fe, {sup 182}Hf) are widely used to refine the chronology of the early solar system. They provide chronological information, however, only if they were homogeneously distributed in the source region of the objects under scrutiny at the time of their formation. With the high level of precision now achieved on isotopic measurements, very short time intervals can in principle be resolved and a precise evaluation of the initial homogeneity degree becomes increasingly crucial. High-precision nickel isotope data for differentiated meteorites (angrites, ureilites) and chondritic (CB) components allow us to test the initial distribution of radioactive {sup 60}Fe and stable Ni isotopes. Although these meteorites appear to have formed nearly contemporaneously, they yield variable initial {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe ratios. Besides, the CB metal nodules and ureilite silicates show nucleosynthetic anomalies. The new data presented here do not confirm the recently inferred late injection of {sup 60}Fe into the protoplanetary disk. Instead, live {sup 60}Fe was present, but heterogeneously distributed, from the start of the solar system, revealing an incomplete mixing of material from various nucleosynthetic sources and restricting the use of the {sup 60}Fe-{sup 60}Ni system as a chronometer.

  2. Transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram as an alternative method for technology transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.

    2012-12-01

    Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) can be used for technology transfer when the relevant problem (called 'top even' in FTA) is solved in a technology centre and the results are diffused to interested parties (usually Small Medium Enterprises - SMEs) that have not the proper equipment and the required know-how to solve the problem by their own. Nevertheless, there is a significant drawback in this procedure: the information usually provided by the SMEs to the technology centre, about production conditions and corresponding quality characteristics of the product, and (sometimes) the relevant expertise in the Knowledge Base of this centre may be inadequate to form a complete fault tree. Since such cases are quite frequent in practice, we have developed a methodology for transforming incomplete fault tree to Ishikawa diagram, which is more flexible and less strict in establishing causal chains, because it uses a surface phenomenological level with a limited number of categories of faults. On the other hand, such an Ishikawa diagram can be extended to simulate a fault tree as relevant knowledge increases. An implementation of this transformation, referring to anodization of aluminium, is presented.

  3. Hybridization experiments indicate incomplete reproductive isolating mechanism between Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Itagaki, T; Ichinomiya, M; Fukuda, K; Fusyuku, S; Carmona, C

    2011-09-01

    Experiments on hybridization between Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were carried out to clarify whether a reproductive isolating mechanism appears between the two Fasciola species. Molecular evidence for hybridization was based on the DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region in nuclear ribosomal DNA, which differs between the species. The results suggested that there were not pre-mating but post-mating isolating mechanisms between the two species. However, viable adults of the hybrids F1 and F2 were produced from both parental F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The hybrids inherited phenotypic characteristics such as ratio of body length and width and infectivity to rats from parental Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. These findings suggest that reproductive isolation is incomplete between Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. Adults of the hybrids F1 and F2 were completely different in mode of reproduction from aspermic Fasciola forms that occur in Asia and seem to be offspring originated from hybridization between F. hepatica and F. gigantica and to reproduce parthenogenetically. PMID:21767436

  4. Complete and incomplete fusion reactions in the {sup 16}O+{sup 169}Tm system: Excitation functions and recoil range distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Unnati,; Sharma, B.K.; Singh, B.P.; Prasad, R.; Bhardwaj, H.D.; Kumar, Rakesh; Golda, K.S.

    2004-10-01

    With the view to study complete and incomplete fusion in heavy ion induced reactions, experiments have been carried out for measuring excitation functions for several reactions in the system {sup 16}O+{sup 169}Tm at energies near the Coulomb barrier to well above it, using an activation technique. The measured excitation functions have been compared with those calculated theoretically using three different computer codes viz., ALICE-91, CASCADE and PACE2. The enhancement of experimentally measured cross sections for alpha emission channels over their theoretical prediction has been attributed to the fact that these residues are formed not only by complete fusion but also through incomplete fusion. In order to separate out the relative contributions of complete and incomplete fusion, the recoil range distributions of eight residues produced in the interaction of {sup 16}O with {sup 169}Tm at {approx_equal}87 MeV have been measured. The recoil range distributions indicate significant contributions from incomplete fusion at {approx_equal}87 MeV for some of the channels.

  5. [Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.

  6. Electrophoresis of Large DNA Molecules in Microcontractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Patrick; Randall, Greg; Kim, Ju Min

    2006-03-01

    The ability to controllably position and stretch large DNA molecules in a microfluidic format is important for gene mapping technologies such as Direct Linear Analysis (DLA). Current technologies developed for DLA use controlled hydrodynamic flows created in a microfluidic device. The downside to this approach is that the imposition of the no-slip condition at the channel walls generates vorticity which can lead to DNA chain tumbling and incomplete stretching. We have recently shown that electric field gradients can be readily generated in a microfluidic device and the resulting field is purely elongational. We present here single molecule studies of DNA molecules driven by an electric field through a microfabricated contraction. Analogous to the hydrodynamic deformation of DNA, we can define an electrophoretic Deborah number (De) for our problem. We will discuss the effectiveness of the device to fully stretch DNA as a function of De and compare to stretching achieved in hydrodynamic flows. A detailed analysis of molecular stretching and the role of a non-homogeneous electric field will be discussed.

  7. Strains caused by daily loading might be responsible for delayed healing of an incomplete atypical femoral fracture.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Anna; Schilcher, Jörg; Grassi, Lorenzo; Aspenberg, Per; Isaksson, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Atypical femoral fractures are insufficiency fractures in the lateral femoral diaphysis or subtrochanteric region that mainly affect older patients on bisphosphonate therapy. Delayed healing is often seen in patients with incomplete fractures (cracks), and histology of bone biopsies shows mainly necrotic material inside the crack. We hypothesized that the magnitude of the strains produced in the soft tissue inside the crack during normal walk exceeds the limit for new bone formation, and thereby inhibit healing. A patient specific finite element model was developed, based on clinical CT images and high resolution μCT images of a biopsy from the crack site. Strain distributions in the femur and inside the crack were calculated for load cases representing normal walk. The models predicted large strains inside the crack, with strain levels above 10% in more than three quarters of the crack volume. According to two different tissue differentiation theories, bone would only form in less than 1-5% of the crack volume. This can explain the impaired healing generally seen in incomplete atypical fractures. Furthermore, the microgeometry of the crack highly influenced the strain distributions. Hence, a realistic microgeometry needs to be considered when modeling the crack. Histology of the biopsy showed signs of remodeling in the bone tissue adjacent to the fracture line, while the crack itself contained mainly necrotic material and signs of healing only in portions that seemed to have been widened by resorption. In conclusion, the poor healing capacity of incomplete atypical femoral fractures can be explained by biomechanical factors, and daily low impact activities are enough to cause strain magnitudes that prohibit bone formation. PMID:27113528

  8. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as products of incomplete combustion from incinerators. PCBs were used widely as industrial chemicals, particularly as additives in electrical transformer cooling oil. Growing evidence of PCBs' role as a persistent...

  9. Spin-distribution measurement: A sensitive probe for incomplete fusion dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, B. P.; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Unnati,; Singh, D.; Ansari, M. A.; Prasad, R.; Kumar, R.; Golda, K. S.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2008-07-15

    Spin distributions of various reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of {sup 16}O with {sup 169}Tm have been measured at projectile energy {approx_equal}5.6 MeV/nucleon. Particle (Z=1,2) {gamma}-coincidences have been employed to achieve the information about involved reaction modes on the basis of their entry state spin populations. The experimentally measured spin distributions for incomplete fusion products have been found to be distinctly different than those observed for complete fusion products. The driving input angular momenta associated with incomplete fusion products have been found to be relatively higher than complete fusion products, and increases with direct {alpha}-multiplicity. It has also been observed that incomplete fusion products are less fed and/or the population of lower spin states are strongly hindered, while complete fusion products indicating strong feeding over a broad spin range.

  10. Crown lengthening to facilitate restorative treatment in the presence of incomplete passive eruption.

    PubMed

    Hempton, T J; Esrason, F

    2000-04-01

    Crown-lengthening surgery can be utilized to expose subgingival caries. In this clinical case, a patient presented with incomplete passive eruption in the maxillary anterior sextant. This case illustrates that when incomplete passive eruption is present and restorative treatment is necessary in the maxillary anterior sextant, crown-lengthening surgery not only provides exposure of subgingival caries but can also result in a more esthetic therapeutic outcome.

  11. Incomplete Augmented Lagrangian Preconditioner for Steady Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ning-Bo; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Hu, Ze-Jun

    2013-01-01

    An incomplete augmented Lagrangian preconditioner, for the steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations discretized by stable finite elements, is proposed. The eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix are analyzed. Numerical experiments show that the incomplete augmented Lagrangian-based preconditioner proposed is very robust and performs quite well by the Picard linearization or the Newton linearization over a wide range of values of the viscosity on both uniform and stretched grids. PMID:24235888

  12. Molecules between the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a listing of molecules discovered to date in the vast interstellar clouds of dust and gas. Emphasizes the recent discoveries of organic molecules. Discusses molecular spectral lines, MASERs (microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation), molecular clouds, and star birth. (TW)

  13. Enzymatic DNA molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, Gerald F. (Inventor); Breaker, Ronald R. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention discloses deoxyribonucleic acid enzymes--catalytic or enzymatic DNA molecules--capable of cleaving nucleic acid sequences or molecules, particularly RNA, in a site-specific manner, as well as compositions including same. Methods of making and using the disclosed enzymes and compositions are also disclosed.

  14. Bridging the gap: a reticulo-propriospinal detour bypassing an incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Filli, Linard; Engmann, Anne Katrin; Zörner, Björn; Weinmann, Oliver; Moraitis, Timoleon; Gullo, Miriam; Kasper, Hansjörg; Schneider, Regula; Schwab, Martin E

    2014-10-01

    Anatomically incomplete spinal cord injuries are often followed by considerable functional recovery in patients and animal models, largely because of processes of neuronal plasticity. In contrast to the corticospinal system, where sprouting of fibers and rearrangements of circuits in response to lesions have been well studied, structural adaptations within descending brainstem pathways and intraspinal networks are poorly investigated, despite the recognized physiological significance of these systems across species. In the present study, spontaneous neuroanatomical plasticity of severed bulbospinal systems and propriospinal neurons was investigated following unilateral C4 spinal hemisection in adult rats. Injection of retrograde tracer into the ipsilesional segments C3-C4 revealed a specific increase in the projection from the ipsilesional gigantocellular reticular nucleus in response to the injury. Substantial regenerative fiber sprouting of reticulospinal axons above the injury site was demonstrated by anterograde tracing. Regrowing reticulospinal fibers exhibited excitatory, vGLUT2-positive varicosities, indicating their synaptic integration into spinal networks. Reticulospinal fibers formed close appositions onto descending, double-midline crossing C3-C4 propriospinal neurons, which crossed the lesion site in the intact half of the spinal cord and recrossed to the denervated cervical hemicord below the injury. These propriospinal projections around the lesion were significantly enhanced after injury. Our results suggest that severed reticulospinal fibers, which are part of the phylogenetically oldest motor command system, spontaneously arborize and form contacts onto a plastic propriospinal relay, thereby bypassing the lesion. These rearrangements were accompanied by substantial locomotor recovery, implying a potential physiological relevance of the detour in restoration of motor function after spinal injury. PMID:25274818

  15. Cost-effectiveness of one- and two-step incomplete and complete excavations.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, F; Stolpe, M; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, S; Dörfer, C E

    2013-10-01

    The treatment of deep caries lesions carries significant risks for the integrity of the pulp and often initiates a cascade of re-interventions. Incomplete caries removal may reduce these risks and avoid or delay re-treatment. The present study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of one- and two-step incomplete as well as complete excavations. We used Markov models to simulate treatment of a molar tooth with a deep caries lesion in a 15-year-old patient. Retention of the tooth and its vitality as effectiveness measures as well as accruing costs were analyzed over the patient's lifetime. The model adopted a public-private-payer perspective within German health care. Transition probabilities were calculated based on literature reviews. Monte-Carlo microsimulations were performed with 6-month cycles. One-step incomplete excavation resulted in lower long-term costs and in longer-retained teeth and their vitality (means: 53.5 and 41.0 yrs) compared with two-step incomplete (52.5 and 37.5 yrs) and complete excavations (49.5 and 31.0 yrs), and dominated the other strategies in 70% to 100% of simulations. Regardless of the assumed willingness-to-pay ceiling value, one-step incomplete excavation had the highest probability of being cost-effective. Despite limited evidence levels of input data, we expect one-step incomplete excavation to reduce costs while retaining deeply carious teeth and their vitality for longer.

  16. Conjugate and method for forming aminomethyl phosphorus conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Berning, Douglas E.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Ketring, Alan R.; Churchill, Robert

    1999-01-01

    A method of forming phosphine-amine conjugates includes reacting a hydroxymethyl phosphine group of an amine-free first molecule with at least one free amine group of a second molecule to covalently bond the first molecule with the second molecule through an aminomethyl phosphorus linkage and the conjugates formed thereby.

  17. Complete and incomplete intestinal metaplasia at the oesophagogastric junction: prevalences and associations with endoscopic erosive oesophagitis and gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Voutilainen, M; Farkkila, M; Juhola, M; Mecklin, J; Sipponen, P; The, C

    1999-01-01

    , junctional complete IM was strongly associated with chronic cardia inflammation and cardia H pylori infection (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—Both complete and incomplete junctional IM are independent acquired lesions that increase in prevalence with age. Although IM subtypes often occur simultaneously, they show remarkable differences in their associations with gastritis and erosive oesophagitis: junctional complete IM is a manifestation of multifocal atrophic gastritis, while the incomplete form (SCE) may result from carditis and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. The frequency of dysplasia in intestinal metaplasia at the oesophagogastric junction appears to be low.


Keywords: intestinal metaplasia; oesophagogastric junction; oesophagitis; gastritis; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; Helicobacter pylori PMID:10517897

  18. Circumstellar and interstellar synthesis of organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Tielens, A G; Charnley, S B

    1997-06-01

    We review the formation and evolution of complex circumstellar and interstellar molecules. A number of promising chemical routes are discussed which may lead to the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules, fullerenes, and unsaturated hydrocarbon chains in the outflows from stars. Some of the problems with these chemical schemes are pointed out as well. We also review the role of grains in the formation of complex molecules in interstellar molecular clouds. This starts with the formation of simple molecules in an ice grain mantle. UV photolysis and/or thermal polymerization can convert some of these simple molecules into more complex polymeric structures. Some of these species may be released to the gas phase, particularly in the warm regions around newly formed stars. Methanol and formaldehyde seem to play an important role in this drive towards molecular complexity and their chemistry is traced in some detail.

  19. Chemical principles of single-molecule electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Timothy A.; Neupane, Madhav; Steigerwald, Michael L.; Venkataraman, Latha; Nuckolls, Colin

    2016-03-01

    The field of single-molecule electronics harnesses expertise from engineering, physics and chemistry to realize circuit elements at the limit of miniaturization; it is a subfield of nanoelectronics in which the electronic components are single molecules. In this Review, we survey the field from a chemical perspective and discuss the structure-property relationships of the three components that form a single-molecule junction: the anchor, the electrode and the molecular bridge. The spatial orientation and electronic coupling between each component profoundly affect the conductance properties and functions of the single-molecule device. We describe the design principles of the anchor group, the influence of the electronic configuration of the electrode and the effect of manipulating the structure of the molecular backbone and of its substituent groups. We discuss single-molecule conductance switches as well as the phenomenon of quantum interference and then trace their fundamental roots back to chemical principles.

  20. Weak disruptive selection and incomplete phenotypic divergence in two classic examples of sympatric speciation: cameroon crater lake cichlids.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christopher H

    2012-10-01

    Recent documentation of a few compelling examples of sympatric speciation led to a proliferation of theoretical models. Unfortunately, plausible examples from nature have rarely been used to test model predictions, such as the initial presence of strong disruptive selection. Here I estimated the form and strength of selection in two classic examples of sympatric speciation: radiations of Cameroon cichlids restricted to Lakes Barombi Mbo and Ejagham. I measured five functional traits and relative growth rates in over 500 individuals within incipient species complexes from each lake. Disruptive selection was prevalent in both groups on single and multivariate trait axes but weak relative to stabilizing selection on other traits and most published estimates of disruptive selection. Furthermore, despite genetic structure, assortative mating, and bimodal species-diagnostic coloration, trait distributions were unimodal in both species complexes, indicating the earliest stages of speciation. Long waiting times or incomplete sympatric speciation may result when disruptive selection is initially weak. Alternatively, I present evidence of additional constraints in both species complexes, including weak linkage between coloration and morphology, reduced morphological variance aligned with nonlinear selection surfaces, and minimal ecological divergence. While other species within these radiations show complete phenotypic separation, morphological and ecological divergence in these species complexes may be slow or incomplete outside optimal parameter ranges, in contrast to rapid divergence of their sexual coloration.

  1. Model Updating Using AN Incomplete Set of Experimental Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHA, P. D.; GU, W.

    2000-06-01

    New approaches are presented that use the measured natural frequencies and mode shapes to update the analytical mass and stiffness matrices of a structure. By adding known masses to the structure and measuring its new modes of vibration, we can utilize this additional information to correct the mass matrix of the system, after which the stiffness matrix can be updated by requiring it to satisfy the generalized eigenvalue problem associated with the structure. Manipulating the unknown system matrices into vector forms, the connectivity information can be easily implemented to preserve the physical configuration of the structure, and to reduce the computational efforts required to correct the system matrices. A comparison is made between the proposed updating schemes introduced in this paper and other updating algorithms found in the literature, and drastic improvements are observed.

  2. Incomplete quality of life data in randomized trials: missing items.

    PubMed

    Fayers, P M; Curran, D; Machin, D

    Missing data has been a problem in many quality of life studies. This paper focuses upon the issues involved in handling forms which contain one or more missing items, and reviews the alternative procedures. One of the most widely practised approaches is imputation using the mean of all observed items in the same subscale. This, together with the related estimation of the subscale score, is based upon traditional psychometric approaches to scale design and analysis. We show that it may be an inappropriate method for many of the items in quality of life questionnaires, and would result in biased or misleading estimates. We provide examples of items and subscales which violate the psychometric foundations that underpin simple mean imputation. A checklist is proposed for examining the adequacy of simple imputation, and some alternative procedures are indicated.

  3. Do triatomic molecules echo atomic periodicity?

    SciTech Connect

    Hefferlin, R. Barrow, J.

    2015-03-30

    Demonstrations of periodicity among triatomic-molecular spectroscopic constants underscore the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. The objective of this work is to prepare for another test using vibration frequencies ν{sub 1} of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected ν{sub 1} data for molecules formed from second period atoms.

  4. Ultralong-range polyatomic Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Ferez, Rosario

    2016-05-01

    Ultralong-range polyatomic Rydberg molecules are formed when a ground-state atom is bound to a Rydberg atom. The binding mechanism of these Rydberg molecules is based on the low-energy collisions between a Rydberg electron and a ground-state atom and leads to the unusual oscillatory behavior of the adiabatic potential energy curves. If the ground-state atom immersed into the Rydberg wave function is replaced by a heteronuclear diatomic molecule another type of polyatomic Rydberg molecules can form. In this case, the Rydberg electron is coupled to the internal states of the polar ground-state molecule. In this talk, we will explore the electronic structure and rovibrational properties of these ultralong-range polyatomic Rydberg molecule. For the second type of Rydberg molecules, the polar dimer is allowed to rotate in the electric fields generated by the Rydberg electron and Rydberg core as well as an additional external field. We will investigate the metamorphosis of the Born-Oppenheimer potential curves, essential for the binding mechanism, with varying electric field and analyze the resulting properties such as the vibrational structure and the alignment and orientation of the polar dimer.

  5. Linking ultracold polar molecules.

    PubMed

    Avdeenkov, A V; Bohn, John L

    2003-01-31

    We predict that pairs of polar molecules can be weakly bound together in an ultracold environment, provided that a dc electric field is present. The field that links the molecules together also strongly influences the basic properties of the resulting dimer, such as its binding energy and predissociation lifetime. Because of their long-range character, these dimers will be useful in disentangling cold collision dynamics of polar molecules. As an example, we estimate the microwave photoassociation yield for OH-OH cold collisions.

  6. Chiral Isotropic Liquids from Achiral Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    L Hough; M Spannuth; M Nakata; D Coleman; C Jones; G Dantlgraber; C Tschierske; J Watanabe; N Clark; et al.

    2011-12-31

    A variety of simple bent-core molecules exhibit smectic liquid crystal phases of planar fluid layers that are spontaneously both polar and chiral in the absence of crystalline order. We found that because of intralayer structural mismatch, such layers are also only marginally stable against spontaneous saddle splay deformation, which is incompatible with long-range order. This results in macroscopically isotropic fluids that possess only short-range orientational and positional order, in which the only macroscopically broken symmetry is chirality - even though the phases are formed from achiral molecules. Their conglomerate domains exhibit optical rotatory powers comparable to the highest ever found for isotropic fluids of chiral molecules.

  7. Optical interfacing single molecules with atomic vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siyushev, Petr; Stein, Guilherme; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2013-05-01

    Organic molecules at liquid Helium temperatures can constitute high-brightness and narrow-band single photon sources. Thus, they might form an important building block for quantum information processing. A number of quantum optical experiments were conducted with single photon sources based on single molecules. It was shown that it is possible to spectrally detune the molecules, and optical interaction between several molecules could be shown. Another important ingredient for quantum information processing is the implementation of quantum memory. Atomic vapors do not only allow for slowing down light, but also for its storage and can be used as an efficient quantum memory. In the past it was impossible to utilize the high brightness of single molecules in combination with an efficient quantum memory, since the lack of spectral overlap. Here, we present spectral tuning of a single molecule to match the resonance of the sodium D-line. We reach up to 6 ×105 detected 30 MHz narrow-band single photons per second. We are able to slow down near-resonant photons from a single molecule, and simultaneous show its single photon properties. We are further able to explore the properties of atomic vapor for its use as a narrow-band filter for single molecule studies.

  8. Interlocked molecules: Aqueous assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Linyi; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-12-01

    The quantitative self-assembly of mechanically interlocked molecules in water, instead of organic solvents, opens up the possibility of such systems being used in a biological context where their functions can be interfaced with biomolecular systems.

  9. Single-Molecule Enzymology

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Xiaoliang; Lu, H PETER.

    1999-06-04

    Viewing a movie of an enzyme molecule made from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, we see incredible details of molecular motions, be it a change of the conformation or the action of a chemical reaction.

  10. Of Molecules and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinner, Bonnie

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which models help students visualize both the DNA process and transcription. After constructing DNA, RNA messenger, and RNA transfer molecules; students model cells, protein synthesis, codons, and RNA movement. (MDH)

  11. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kees de Jager

    2004-08-01

    Although nucleons account for nearly all the visible mass in the universe, they have a complicated structure that is still incompletely understood. The first indication that nucleons have an internal structure, was the measurement of the proton magnetic moment by Frisch and Stern (1933) which revealed a large deviation from the value expected for a point-like Dirac particle. The investigation of the spatial structure of the nucleon, resulting in the first quantitative measurement of the proton charge radius, was initiated by the HEPL (Stanford) experiments in the 1950s, for which Hofstadter was awarded the 1961 Nobel prize. The first indication of a non-zero neutron charge distribution was obtained by scattering thermal neutrons off atomic electrons. The recent revival of its experimental study through the operational implementation of novel instrumentation has instigated a strong theoretical interest. Nucleon electro-magnetic form factors (EMFFs) are optimally studied through the exchange of a virtual photon, in elastic electron-nucleon scattering. The momentum transferred to the nucleon by the virtual photon can be selected to probe different scales of the nucleon, from integral properties such as the charge radius to scaling properties of its internal constituents. Polarization instrumentation, polarized beams and targets, and the measurement of the polarization of the recoiling nucleon have been essential in the accurate separation of the charge and magnetic form factors and in studies of the elusive neutron charge form factor.

  12. Vertically coupled dipolar exciton molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Kobi; Khodas, Maxim; Laikhtman, Boris; Santos, Paulo V.; Rapaport, Ronen

    2016-06-01

    While the interaction potential between two dipoles residing in a single plane is repulsive, in a system of two vertically adjacent layers of dipoles it changes from repulsive interaction in the long range to attractive interaction in the short range. Here we show that for dipolar excitons in semiconductor heterostructures, such a potential may give rise to bound states if two such excitons are excited in two separate layers, leading to the formation of vertically coupled dipolar exciton molecules. Our calculations prove the existence of such bound states and predict their binding energy as a function of the layers separation as well as their thermal distributions. We show that these molecules should be observed in realistic systems such as semiconductor coupled quantum well structures and the more recent van der Waals bound heterostructures. Formation of such molecules can lead to new effects such as a collective dipolar drag between layers and new forms of multiparticle correlations, as well as to the study of dipolar molecular dynamics in a controlled system.

  13. Visualization of Bacteriophage T3 Capsids with DNA Incompletely Packaged In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ping-An; Wright, Elena T.; Weintraub, Susan T.; Hakala, Kevin; Wu, Weimin; Serwer, Philip; Jiang, Wen

    2009-01-01

    The tightly packaged dsDNA genome in the mature particles of many tailed bacteriophages has been shown to form multiple concentric rings when reconstructed from cryo-electron micrographs. However, recent single-particle DNA packaging force measurements have suggested that incompletely packaged DNA (ipDNA) is less ordered when it is shorter than ∼25% of the full genome length. The study presented here initially achieves both the isolation and the ipDNA length-based fractionation of ipDNA-containing T3 phage capsids (ipDNA-capsids) produced by DNA packaging in vivo; some ipDNA has quantized lengths, as judged by high-resolution gel electrophoresis of expelled DNA. This is the first isolation of such particles among the tailed dsDNA bacteriophages. The ipDNA-capsids are a minor component (containing ∼10-4 of packaged DNA in all particles) and are initially detected by non-denaturing gel electrophoresis after partial purification by buoyant density centrifugation. The primary contaminants are aggregates of phage particles and empty capsids. This study then investigates ipDNA conformations by the first cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of ipDNA-capsids produced in vivo. The 3-D structures of DNA-free capsids, ipDNA-capsids with various lengths of ipDNA, and mature bacteriophage are reconstructed, which reveals the typical T=7l icosahedral shell of many tailed dsDNA bacteriophages. Though the icosahedral shell structures of these capsids are indistinguishable at the current resolution for the protein shell (∼15 Å), the conformations of the DNA inside the shell are drastically different. T3 ipDNA-capsids with 10.6 kb or shorter dsDNA (<28% of total genome) have an ipDNA conformation indistinguishable from random. However, T3 ipDNA-capsids with 22 kb DNA (58% of total genome) forms a single DNA ring next to the inner surface of the capsid shell. In contrast, dsDNA fully packaged (38.2 kb) in mature T3 phage particles forms multiple concentric rings like those seen

  14. Combustion method for simultaneous control of nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Min-Da.

    1993-05-25

    A method is described for combusting material with controlled generation of both nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion comprising: (A) combusting material in a first combustion zone to produce gaseous exhaust containing products of incomplete combustion and products of complete combustion; (B) passing the gaseous exhaust from the first combustion zone into a second combustion zone having a width and an axial direction; (C) injecting through a lance with an orientation substantially parallel to said axial direction at least one stream of oxidant, without fuel, having a diameter less than 1/100 of the width of the second combustion zone and having an oxygen concentration of at least 30% into the second combustion zone at a high velocity of at least 300 feet per second; (D) aspirating products of incomplete combustion into the high velocity oxidant; (E) combusting products of incomplete combustion aspirated into the high velocity oxidant with high velocity oxidant within the second combustion zone to carry out a stable combustion by the mixing of the aspirated products of incomplete combustion with the high velocity oxidant; and (F) spreading out the combustion reaction by aspiration of products of complete combustion into the oxidant, said products of complete combustion also serving as a heat sink, to inhibit NO[sub x] formation.

  15. Diversification of self-replicating molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadownik, Jan W.; Mattia, Elio; Nowak, Piotr; Otto, Sijbren

    2016-03-01

    How new species emerge in nature is still incompletely understood and difficult to study directly. Self-replicating molecules provide a simple model that allows us to capture the fundamental processes that occur in species formation. We have been able to monitor in real time and at a molecular level the diversification of self-replicating molecules into two distinct sets that compete for two different building blocks (‘food’) and so capture an important aspect of the process by which species may arise. The results show that the second replicator set is a descendant of the first and that both sets are kinetic products that oppose the thermodynamic preference of the system. The sets occupy related but complementary food niches. As diversification into sets takes place on the timescale of weeks and can be investigated at the molecular level, this work opens up new opportunities for experimentally investigating the process through which species arise both in real time and with enhanced detail.

  16. Minimax approach problem with incomplete information for the two-level hierarchical discrete-time dynamical system

    SciTech Connect

    Shorikov, A. F.

    2014-11-18

    We consider a discrete-time dynamical system consisting of three controllable objects. The motions of all objects are given by the corresponding vector linear or convex discrete-time recurrent vector relations, and control system for its has two levels: basic (first or I level) that is dominating and subordinate level (second or II level) and both have different criterions of functioning and united a priori by determined informational and control connections defined in advance. For the dynamical system in question, we propose a mathematical formalization in the form of solving a multistep problem of two-level hierarchical minimax program control over the terminal approach process with incomplete information and give a general scheme for its solution.

  17. A Case of Sudden Infant Death Due to Incomplete Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Daisuke; Shimizu, Keiko; Oka, Kumiko; Asari, Masaru; Maseda, Chikatoshi; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Shiono, Hiroshi; Ohtani, Seiji; Ogawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Although Kawasaki disease (KD) is a self-limiting disease, it may cause sudden cardiac death. Diagnosis of KD is principally based on clinical signs; however, some infant cases do not meet the criteria. Such cases are identified as incomplete KD. The sudden death risk in incomplete KD cases is similar to conventional KD. In our 5-month-old case, he had been admitted to a hospital for a fever and suppuration at the site of Bacille de Calmette et Guerin (BCG) vaccination. However, after discharge from the hospital, his C-reactive protein (CRP) levels declined, he got indisposed and died suddenly. A medico-legal autopsy revealed myocarditis, coronaritis, platelet-aggregated emboli in coronary arteries, and myocardial degeneration, suggesting that the fatal myocardial infarction was due to thrombus emboli in the coronary arteries. Forensic pathologists therefore should pay attention to the cardiac pathology originated from incomplete KD as a potential cause in cases of sudden infant death. PMID:26347043

  18. Tear lipid layer deficiency associated with incomplete blinking: A case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meibomian gland obstruction induces hyposecretion of tear film lipids, which results in lipid layer deficiency and evaporative dry eye. Unfortunately, the importance of blinking in meibomian gland dysfunction has been largely overlooked, and it is not known whether incomplete blinking causes tear lipid deficiency, even in the unobstructed meibomian glands. Case presentation A 38-year-old woman suffering from foreign body sensations in her eyes was examined. The cornea was clear and tear secretion was normal. Lid margin abnormalities were not observed and the meibum was clear. However, the lipid layer was very thin, and the patient was given a diagnosis of incomplete blinking. The patient was made aware of her condition and asked to blink consciously and completely. After that, an immediate increase in lipid flow was observed. Conclusion Tear lipid layer deficiency can occur with incomplete blinking, even though meibomian gland structures are intact. This case highlights the importance of complete blinking. PMID:23855887

  19. Bulk chemical and Hf-W isotopic consequences of incomplete accretion during planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Christina A.; Nimmo, Francis; Chambers, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Late-stage accretion involves collisions which may result in complete or incomplete merging of the two objects, hit-and-run encounters, or mass loss from the target. We use a recent N-body study incorporating these different collision styles (Chambers, J.E. [2013]. Icarus 224, 43-56) to investigate how collision style affects the bulk chemical and isotopic outcomes of terrestrial planet formation. Compared with simulations in which all collisions result in perfect mergers, the variability in modeled silicate mass fraction and tungsten isotope anomaly is larger, especially for lower-mass planets. The final tungsten anomaly also shows a systematic reduction, because the timescale to finish planet growth is longer when incomplete mergers are included. Simulations including incomplete merging can reproduce the observed scatter in both tungsten anomaly and silicate mass fraction of the terrestrial planets.

  20. Bilevel formulation of a policy design problem considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, Bryant; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2014-07-01

    A bilevel optimization formulation of policy design problems considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences of the stakeholders is presented. The formulation is presented for Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) policy design for decentralized energy infrastructure. The upper-level problem is the policy designer's problem and the lower-level problem is a Nash equilibrium problem resulting from market interactions. The policy designer has two objectives: maximizing the quantity of energy generated and minimizing policy cost. The stakeholders decide on quantities while maximizing net present value and minimizing capital investment. The Nash equilibrium problem in the presence of incomplete preferences is formulated as a stochastic linear complementarity problem and solved using expected value formulation, expected residual minimization formulation, and the Monte Carlo technique. The primary contributions in this article are the mathematical formulation of the FIT policy, the extension of computational policy design problems to multiple objectives, and the consideration of incomplete preferences of stakeholders for policy design problems.

  1. Search for complex organic molecules in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, Masatoshi

    2016-07-01

    It was 1969 when the first organic molecule in space, H2CO, was discovered. Since then many organic molecules were discovered by using the NRAO 11 m (upgraded later to 12 m), Nobeyama 45 m, IRAM 30 m, and other highly sensitive radio telescopes as a result of close collaboration between radio astronomers and microwave spectroscopists. It is noteworthy that many famous organic molecules such as CH3OH, C2H5OH, (CH3)2O and CH3NH2 were detected by 1975. Organic molecules were found in so-called hot cores where molecules were thought to form on cold dust surfaces and then to evaporate by the UV photons emitted from the central star. These days organic molecules are known to exist not only in hot cores but in hot corinos (a warm, compact molecular clump found in the inner envelope of a class 0 protostar) and even protoplanetary disks. As was described above, major organic molecules were known since 1970s. It was very natural that astronomers considered a relationship between organic molecules in space and the origin of life. Several astronomers challenged to detect glycine and other prebiotic molecules without success. ALMA is expected to detect such important materials to further consider the gexogenous deliveryh hypothesis. In this paper I summarize the history in searching for complex organic molecules together with difficulties in observing very weak signals from larger species. The awfully long list of references at the end of this article may be the most useful part for readers who want to feel the exciting discovery stories.

  2. Quest for organic polymer-based monolithic columns affording enhanced efficiency in high performance liquid chromatography separations of small molecules in isocratic mode.

    PubMed

    Svec, Frantisek

    2012-03-01

    The separations of small molecules using columns containing porous polymer monoliths invented two decades ago went a long way from the very modest beginnings to the current capillary columns with efficiencies approaching those featured by their silica-based counterparts. This review article presents a variety of techniques that have been used to form capillary formats of monolithic columns with enhanced separation performance in isocratic elutions. The following text first describes the traditional approaches used for the preparation of efficient monoliths comprising variations in polymerization conditions including temperature as well as composition of monomers and porogenic solvents. Encouraging results of these experiments fueled research of completely new preparation methods such as polymerization to an incomplete conversion, use of single crosslinker, hypercrosslinking, and incorporation of carbon nanotubes that are described in the second part of the text. PMID:21816401

  3. Characterization of Interstellar Organic Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Gencaga, Deniz; Knuth, Kevin H.; Carbon, Duane F.

    2008-11-06

    Understanding the origins of life has been one of the greatest dreams throughout history. It is now known that star-forming regions contain complex organic molecules, known as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), each of which has particular infrared spectral characteristics. By understanding which PAH species are found in specific star-forming regions, we can better understand the biochemistry that takes place in interstellar clouds. Identifying and classifying PAHs is not an easy task: we can only observe a single superposition of PAH spectra at any given astrophysical site, with the PAH species perhaps numbering in the hundreds or even thousands. This is a challenging source separation problem since we have only one observation composed of numerous mixed sources. However, it is made easier with the help of a library of hundreds of PAH spectra. In order to separate PAH molecules from their mixture, we need to identify the specific species and their unique concentrations that would provide the given mixture. We develop a Bayesian approach for this problem where sources are separated from their mixture by Metropolis Hastings algorithm. Separated PAH concentrations are provided with their error bars, illustrating the uncertainties involved in the estimation process. The approach is demonstrated on synthetic spectral mixtures using spectral resolutions from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Performance of the method is tested for different noise levels.

  4. Electrical stimulation of the lumbrical muscles in an incomplete quadriplegic patient: case report.

    PubMed

    Carroll, S G; Bird, S F; Brown, D J

    1992-03-01

    The increasing number of incomplete cervical spinal cord injuries means that more attention needs to be focused on the rehabilitation of the incomplete quadriplegic hand. A case study, describing the application of electrical stimulation for strengthening the paretic lumbrical muscles, is presented. A 2 week strengthening program resulted in a 33% increase in the force produced by the lumbrical muscles. No loss of strength had occurred 4 weeks after cessation of the treatment. The magnitude and speed of this result should be of interest to those clinicians who seek to maximise patient independence in minimal time. PMID:1630853

  5. No-capture breakup and incomplete fusion reactions induced by stable weakly bound nucleus 9Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyyedi, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    The reactions including the stable weakly bound nucleus 9Be have been studied using the classical trajectory model accompanied with the experimental breakup function and the Aage-Winther interaction potential (AW95). In these calculations, the no-capture breakup and the incomplete fusion cross-sections as well as their competition at around the Coulomb barrier have been investigated. Our calculations showed that at a given far-Coulomb-barrier energy the incomplete fusion reaction in different distributions of angular momentum and energies can dominate the no-capture breakup reaction. This dominating process is reversed at the near-barrier energies.

  6. Graph Embedding Techniques for Bounding Condition Numbers of Incomplete Factor Preconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guattery, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    We extend graph embedding techniques for bounding the spectral condition number of preconditioned systems involving symmetric, irreducibly diagonally dominant M-matrices to systems where the preconditioner is not diagonally dominant. In particular, this allows us to bound the spectral condition number when the preconditioner is based on an incomplete factorization. We provide a review of previous techniques, describe our extension, and give examples both of a bound for a model problem, and of ways in which our techniques give intuitive way of looking at incomplete factor preconditioners.

  7. On the efficient calculation of the incomplete Airy function with application to edge diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cwik, Tom

    1988-12-01

    When the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) and its extensions are used to calculate fields across transition regions or in focal areas, various special functions are necessary to create uniform representations. One such transition function is the incomplete Airy function, which is applicable when two reflection points are arbitrarily close to each other and the endpoint of the domain considered. An efficient calculation of the incomplete Airy function is presented and shown to equal known asymptotic expansions when its argument is away from the critical point. By using these expansions, uniform field expressions are found which are consistent with the GTD and maintain its computational efficiency.

  8. Photochemistry of interstellar molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stief, L. J.

    1971-01-01

    The photochemistry of two diatomic and eight polyatomic molecules is discussed quantitatively. For an interstellar molecule, the lifetime against photodecomposition depends upon the absorption cross section, the quantum yield or probability of dissociation following photon absorption, and the interstellar radiation field. The constant energy density of Habing is used for the unobserved regions of interstellar radiation field, and the field in obscuring clouds is estimated by combining the constant flux with the observed interstellar extinction curve covering the visible and ultraviolet regions. Lifetimes against photodecomposition in the unobscured regions and as a function of increasing optical thickness in obscuring clouds are calculated for the ten species. The results show that, except for CO, all the molecules have comparable lifetimes of less than one hundred years. Thus they can exist only in dense clouds and can never have been exposed to the unobscured radiation. The calculations further show that the lifetimes in clouds of moderate opacity are of the order of one million years.

  9. Atomic branching in molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Juan A.; Randić, Milan

    A graph theoretic measure of extended atomic branching is defined that accounts for the effects of all atoms in the molecule, giving higher weight to the nearest neighbors. It is based on the counting of all substructures in which an atom takes part in a molecule. We prove a theorem that permits the exact calculation of this measure based on the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix of the graph representing a molecule. The definition of this measure within the context of the Hückel molecular orbital (HMO) and its calculation for benzenoid hydrocarbons are also studied. We show that the extended atomic branching can be defined using any real symmetric matrix, as well as any Hermitian (self-adjoint) matrix, which permits its calculation in topological, geometrical, and quantum chemical contexts.

  10. Isomerization reactions on single adsorbed molecules.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Karina

    2009-02-17

    Molecular switches occur throughout nature. In one prominent example, light induces the isomerization of retinal from the compact 11-cis form to the elongated all-trans form, a conversion that triggers the transformation of light into a neural impulse in the eye. Applying these natural principles to synthetic systems offers a promising way to construct smaller and faster nanoelectronic devices. In such systems, electronic switches are essential components for storage and logical operations. The development of molecular switches on the single-molecule level would represent a major step toward incorporating molecules as building units into nanoelectronic circuits. Molecular switches must be both reversible and bistable. To meet these requirements, a molecule must have at least two different thermally stable forms and a way to repeatedly interconvert between those forms based on changes in light, heat, pressure, magnetic or electric fields, pH, mechanical forces, or electric currents. The conversion should be connected to a measurable change in electronic, optical, magnetic, or mechanical properties. Because isomers can differ significantly in physical and chemical properties, isomerization could serve as a molecular switching mechanism. Integration of molecular switches into larger circuits will probably require arranging them on surfaces, which will require a better understanding of isomerization reactions in these environments. In this Account, we describe our scanning tunneling microscopy studies of the isomerization of individual molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Investigating chlorobenzene and azobenzene derivatives on the fcc(111) faces of Ag, Cu, and Au, we explored the influence of substituents and the substrate on the excitation mechanism of the isomerization reaction induced by inelastically tunneling electrons. We achieved an irreversible configurational (cis-trans) isomerization of individual 4-dimethyl-amino-azobenzene-4-sulfonic acid molecules on Au

  11. The Three Forms of Molecular Oxygen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Finds that a logical application of the simple rules of the molecular orbital bonding theory for diatomic molecules predicted the existence of three spin isomers of the oxygen molecule: one triplet form with two unpaired electrons and two singlet forms with all electrons paired. (MVL)

  12. Single Molecule Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, Ching-Hwa

    2011-10-01

    Single-molecule manipulation studies open a door for a close-up investigation of complex biological interactions at the molecular level. In these studies, single biomolecules are pulled while their force response is being monitored. The process is often nonequilibrium, and interpretation of the results has been challenging. We used the atomic force microscope to pull proteins and DNA, and determined the equilibrium properties of the molecules using the recently derived nonequilibrium work theorem. I will present applications of the technique in areas ranging from fundamental biological problems such as DNA mechanics, to complex medical processes such as the mechanical activation of von Willebrand Factor, a key protein in blood coagulation.

  13. Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Brandl, Daniel W; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2007-01-01

    This Account describes a new paradigm for the relationship between the geometry of metallic nanostructures and their optical properties. While the interaction of light with metallic nanoparticles is determined by their collective electronic or plasmon response, a compelling analogy exists between plasmon resonances of metallic nanoparticles and wave functions of simple atoms and molecules. Based on this insight, an entire family of plasmonic nanostructures, artificial molecules, has been developed whose optical properties can be understood within this picture: nanoparticles (nanoshells, nanoeggs, nanomatryushkas, nanorice), multi-nanoparticle assemblies (dimers, trimers, quadrumers), and a nanoparticle-over-metallic film, an electromagnetic analog of the spinless Anderson model. PMID:17226945

  14. Nanodevices for generating power from molecules and batteryless sensing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yinmin; Wang, Xianying; Hamza, Alex V.

    2014-07-15

    A nanoconverter or nanosensor is disclosed capable of directly generating electricity through physisorption interactions with molecules that are dipole containing organic species in a molecule interaction zone. High surface-to-volume ratio semiconductor nanowires or nanotubes (such as ZnO, silicon, carbon, etc.) are grown either aligned or randomly-aligned on a substrate. Epoxy or other nonconductive polymers are used to seal portions of the nanowires or nanotubes to create molecule noninteraction zones. By correlating certain molecule species to voltages generated, a nanosensor may quickly identify which species is detected. Nanoconverters in a series parallel arrangement may be constructed in planar, stacked, or rolled arrays to supply power to nano- and micro-devices without use of external batteries. In some cases breath, from human or other life forms, contain sufficient molecules to power a nanoconverter. A membrane permeable to certain molecules around the molecule interaction zone increases specific molecule nanosensor selectivity response.

  15. Nanodevices for generating power from molecules and batteryless sensing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yinmin; Wang, Xianying; Hamza, Alex V.

    2015-06-09

    A nanoconverter or nanosensor is disclosed capable of directly generating electricity through physisorption interactions with molecules that are dipole containing organic species in a molecule interaction zone. High surface-to-volume ratio semiconductor nanowires or nanotubes (such as ZnO, silicon, carbon, etc.) are grown either aligned or randomly-aligned on a substrate. Epoxy or other nonconductive polymers are used to seal portions of the nanowires or nanotubes to create molecule noninteraction zones. By correlating certain molecule species to voltages generated, a nanosensor may quickly identify which species is detected. Nanoconverters in a series parallel arrangement may be constructed in planar, stacked, or rolled arrays to supply power to nano- and micro-devices without use of external batteries. In some cases breath, from human or other life forms, contain sufficient molecules to power a nanoconverter. A membrane permeable to certain molecules around the molecule interaction zone increases specific molecule nanosensor selectivity response.

  16. Simple structured hybrid WOLEDs based on incomplete energy transfer mechanism: from blue exciplex to orange dopant

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianyou; Zhao, Bo; Chu, Bei; Li, Wenlian; Su, Zisheng; Yan, Xingwu; Liu, Chengyuan; Wu, Hairuo; Gao, Yuan; Jin, Fangming; Hou, Fuhua

    2015-01-01

    Exciplex is well known as a charge transfer state formed between electron-donating and electron-accepting molecules. However, exciplex based organic light emitting diodes (OLED) often performed low efficiencies relative to pure phosphorescent OLED and could hardly be used to construct white OLED (WOLED). In this work, a new mechanism is developed to realize efficient WOLED with extremely simple structure by redistributing the energy of triplet exciplex to both singlet exciplex and the orange dopant. The micro process of energy transfer could be directly examined by detailed photoluminescence decay measurement and time resolved photoluminescence analysis. This strategy overcomes the low reverse intersystem crossing efficiency of blue exciplex and complicated device structure of traditional WOLED, enables us to achieve efficient hybrid WOLEDs. Based on this mechanism, we have successfully constructed both exciplex-fluorescence and exciplex-phosphorescence hybrid WOLEDs with remarkable efficiencies. PMID:25975371

  17. Incomplete Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale test scores are the most visible representation of what happens in schools in the U.S. The prevailing notion is that they will tell people most of what they need to know about a school, including the quality of instruction and the effectiveness of the teaching and administrative staff. Americans put credence in test scores despite the…

  18. Incomplete Puzzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    15 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a mid-summer view of a portion of the south polar residual cap of Mars. The large, relatively flat-lying, puzzle-like pieces in this scene are mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 85.5oS, 76.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  19. Algebraic theory of molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iachello, Franco

    1995-01-01

    An algebraic formulation of quantum mechanics is presented. In this formulation, operators of interest are expanded onto elements of an algebra, G. For bound state problems in nu dimensions the algebra G is taken to be U(nu + 1). Applications to the structure of molecules are presented.

  20. Diversity in Biological Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbury, H. John

    2010-01-01

    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  1. Halley's polymeric organic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, W. F.; Boice, D. C.; Korth, A.

    1989-01-01

    The detection of polymeric organic compounds in the mass spectrum of Comet Halley obtained with the Positive Ion Cluster Composition analyzer on Giotto are examined. It is found that, in addition to polyoxymethylene, other polymers and complex molecules may exist in the comet. It is suggested that polymerized hydrogen cyanide may be a source for the observed CN and NH2 jets.

  2. Mighty Molecule Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tom; Rushton, Greg; Bencomo, Marie

    2008-01-01

    As part of the SMATHematics Project: The Wonder of Science, The Power of Mathematics--a collaborative partnership between Kennesaw State University and two local school districts, fifth graders had the opportunity to puzzle out chemical formulas of propane, methanol, and other important molecules. In addition, they explored properties that…

  3. Masseteric-facial nerve transposition for reanimation of the smile in incomplete facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2015-12-01

    Incomplete facial paralysis occurs in about a third of patients with Bell's palsy. Although their faces are symmetrical at rest, when they smile they have varying degrees of disfigurement. Currently, cross-face nerve grafting is one of the most useful techniques for reanimation. Transfer of the masseteric nerve, although widely used for complete paralysis, has not to our knowledge been reported for incomplete palsy. Between December 2008 and November 2013, we reanimated the faces of 9 patients (2 men and 7 women) with incomplete unilateral facial paralysis with transposition of the masseteric nerve. Sex, age at operation, cause of paralysis, duration of denervation, recipient nerves used, and duration of follow-up were recorded. Commissural excursion, velocity, and patients' satisfaction were evaluated with the FACIAL CLIMA and a questionnaire, respectively. The mean (SD) age at operation was 39 (±6) years and the duration of denervation was 29 (±19) months. There were no complications that required further intervention. Duration of follow-up ranged from 6-26 months. FACIAL CLIMA showed improvement in both commissural excursion and velocity of more than two thirds in 6 patients, more than one half in 2 patients and less than one half in one. Qualitative evaluation showed a slight or pronounced improvement in 7/9 patients. The masseteric nerve is a reliable alternative for reanimation of the smile in patients with incomplete facial paralysis. Its main advantages include its consistent anatomy, a one-stage operation, and low morbidity at the donor site. PMID:26143295

  4. 40 CFR 1037.620 - Shipment of incomplete vehicles to secondary vehicle manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shipment of incomplete vehicles to secondary vehicle manufacturers. 1037.620 Section 1037.620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR...

  5. The Logical Heart of a Classic Proof Revisited: A Guide to Godel's "Incompleteness" Theorems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padula, Janice

    2011-01-01

    The study of Kurt Godel's proof of the "incompleteness" of a formal system such as "Principia Mathematica" is a great way to stimulate students' thinking and creative processes and interest in mathematics and its important developments. This article describes salient features of the proof together with ways to deal with potential difficulties for…

  6. Analysis of incomplete matrix factorizations as multigrid smoothers for vector and parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Axelsson, O.

    1986-07-01

    The cost of smoothing is usually a major expense in multigrid codes. Efficient vectorizable and parallelizable versions of incomplete block-matrix factorization methods used as smoothers for multigrid methods are discussed in this paper. The methods are particularly interesting for computers with parallel processors with pipelines, because both multitasking with little overhead and vectorization can be achieved. 21 references.

  7. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. 223.230 Section 223.230 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM...

  8. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. 223.230 Section 223.230 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM...

  9. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. 223.230 Section 223.230 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM...

  10. 36 CFR 223.230 - Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bid restriction on resale of incomplete contracts, permits, or other instruments. 223.230 Section 223.230 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM...

  11. EMISSIONS OF TRACE PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM A PILOT-SCALE INCINERATOR SECONDARY COMBUSTION CHAMBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator equipped with a 73 kW secondary combustion chamber (SCC) to examine emissions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) resulting from incineration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and dichlorometh...

  12. The (Il)logical Problem of Heritage Speaker Bilingualism and Incomplete Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabo, Diego Pascual Y.; Rothman, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This Forum challenges and problematizes the term "incomplete acquisition," which has been widely used to describe the state of competence of heritage speaker (HS) bilinguals for well over a decade (see, e.g., Montrul, 2008). It is suggested and defended that HS competence, while often different from monolingual peers, is in fact not incomplete…

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR TARGET ANALYTE LIST OF PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of pilot-scale incineration testing to develop a comprehensive list of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) from hazardous waste combustion (HWC) systems. Project goals were to: (1) identify the total mass of organic compounds sufficiently to estimate...

  14. 16 CFR 1702.4 - Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT...

  15. 16 CFR 1702.4 - Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT...

  16. 16 CFR 1702.4 - Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT...

  17. 16 CFR 1702.4 - Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT...

  18. 16 CFR 1702.4 - Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petitions with insufficient or incomplete information. 1702.4 Section 1702.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT...

  19. Review of "Incomplete: How Middle Class Schools Aren't Making the Grade". Think Tank Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    "Incomplete: How Middle Class Schools Aren't Making the Grade" is a new report from Third Way, a Washington, D.C.-based policy think tank. The report aims to convince parents, taxpayers and policymakers that they should be as concerned about middle-class schools not making the grade as they are about the failures of the nation's large, poor, urban…

  20. PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM DIRECT BURNING OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL-TREATED WOOD WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to identify potential air pollution problems from the combustion of waste wood treated with pentachlorophenol preservative for energy production in a boiler. The study emphasized the characterization of the products of incomplete combustion (PI...

  1. High prevalence of incomplete right bundle branch block in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy without cardiac symptoms

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Gaby Pons; van der Kooi, Elly; Behin, Anthony; Smeets, Joep; Timmermans, Janneke; van der Maarel, Silvère; Padberg, George; Voermans, Nicol; van Engelen, Baziel

    2014-01-01

    Summary The exact prevalence and nature of cardiac involvement in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is unknown. Nevertheless, the current opinion is that symptomatic cardiac disease is rare. We performed a cardiac screening [electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography in the event of ECG abnormalities] in 75 genetically confirmed, ambulant FSHD patients without cardiac symptoms, with an eight-year follow-up of 57 patients, and compared the findings with results of previously performed cardiac screenings in the normal population. Baseline ECG demonstrated incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB) in 33%, complete RBBB in 4%, and other minor abnormalities in 16%. Echocardiography showed no abnormalities. No significant changes were found after eight years of follow-up. Comparison with ECG abnormalities in the normal population showed a higher prevalence of incomplete RBBB (9.7 times higher) and of complete RBBB (4.8 times higher) in FSHD patients. This study in cardiac asymptomatic FSHD patients shows i) increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy; ii) no progression of these abnormalities during eight years of follow-up. We conclude that FSHD patients without cardiac complaints do not need specific cardiac screening or surveillance. Furthermore, the increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy suggests a selective involvement of the His-Purkinje system in FSHD. PMID:25473735

  2. Double propensity-score adjustment: A solution to design bias or bias due to incomplete matching.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C

    2014-07-17

    Propensity-score matching is frequently used to reduce the effects of confounding when using observational data to estimate the effects of treatments. Matching allows one to estimate the average effect of treatment in the treated. Rosenbaum and Rubin coined the term "bias due to incomplete matching" to describe the bias that can occur when some treated subjects are excluded from the matched sample because no appropriate control subject was available. The presence of incomplete matching raises important questions around the generalizability of estimated treatment effects to the entire population of treated subjects. We describe an analytic solution to address the bias due to incomplete matching. Our method is based on using optimal or nearest neighbor matching, rather than caliper matching (which frequently results in the exclusion of some treated subjects). Within the sample matched on the propensity score, covariate adjustment using the propensity score is then employed to impute missing potential outcomes under lack of treatment for each treated subject. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we found that the proposed method resulted in estimates of treatment effect that were essentially unbiased. This method resulted in decreased bias compared to caliper matching alone and compared to either optimal matching or nearest neighbor matching alone. Caliper matching alone resulted in design bias or bias due to incomplete matching, while optimal matching or nearest neighbor matching alone resulted in bias due to residual confounding. The proposed method also tended to result in estimates with decreased mean squared error compared to when caliper matching was used.

  3. Back to Basics: Incomplete Knowledge of Differential Object Marking in Spanish Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Bowles, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The obligatory use of the preposition a with animate, specific direct objects in Spanish ("Juan conoce a Maria" "Juan knows Maria") is a well-known instance of Differential Object Marking (DOM; Torrego, 1998; Leonetti, 2004). Recent studies have documented the loss and/or incomplete acquisition of several grammatical features in Spanish heritage…

  4. Incomplete photonic band gap as inferred from the speckle pattern of scattered light waves.

    PubMed

    Apalkov, V M; Raikh, M E; Shapiro, B

    2004-06-25

    Motivated by recent experiments on intensity correlations of the waves transmitted through disordered media, we demonstrate that the speckle pattern from disordered photonic crystal with incomplete band gap represents a sensitive tool for determination of the stop-band width. We establish the quantitative relation between this width and the angular anisotropy of the intensity correlation function.

  5. Identifying Useful Auxiliary Variables for Incomplete Data Analyses: A Note on a Group Difference Examination Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2014-01-01

    This research note contributes to the discussion of methods that can be used to identify useful auxiliary variables for analyses of incomplete data sets. A latent variable approach is discussed, which is helpful in finding auxiliary variables with the property that if included in subsequent maximum likelihood analyses they may enhance considerably…

  6. Incomplete fusion reactions at low energies in 13C+169Tm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Devendra P.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Sharma, M. K.; Gupta, S.; Murlithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2014-03-01

    Aiming to investigate the incomplete fusion processes at low projectile energies, experiments have been carried out for the 13C + 169Tm system at ≈ 4-7 MeV/A. Excitation functions for several heavy residues likely to be populated via complete and incomplete fusion processes have been measured using heavy recoil residue catcher technique followed by γ- ray spectroscopy. The measured cross-sections for the complete fusion (xn and pxn) channels are compared with the statistical model code PACE4, consistently using the same set of parameters. The complete fusion channels are found to be consistent with the model calculations. However, the cross-sections for all the measured α-emitting channels are found to be significantly enhanced over the calculations. Analysis of data indicate a significant fraction of incomplete fusion even at energies as low as 17% above barrier. The present results are discussed in light of the Morgenstern's systematics. Incomplete fusion strength function is found to be relatively large for alpha cluster projectile i.e. for 12C as compared to one neutron excess 13C projectile.

  7. Examining the Missing Completely at Random Mechanism in Incomplete Data Sets: A Multiple Testing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Paulson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    A multiple testing procedure for examining implications of the missing completely at random (MCAR) mechanism in incomplete data sets is discussed. The approach uses the false discovery rate concept and is concerned with testing group differences on a set of variables. The method can be used for ascertaining violations of MCAR and disproving this…

  8. Incomplete Reporting: Addressing the Prevalence of Outcome-Reporting Bias in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Brian; Polanin, Joshua; Williams, Ryan; Pigott, Terri

    2015-01-01

    Outcome reporting bias refers to the practice of omitting from primary studies outcomes that were actually collected. When primary studies do not report on all the outcomes assessed, there is an incomplete understanding of a phenomenon that may be compounded when the study is included in a systematic review of research. Outcome reporting bias is…

  9. Masseteric-facial nerve transposition for reanimation of the smile in incomplete facial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2015-12-01

    Incomplete facial paralysis occurs in about a third of patients with Bell's palsy. Although their faces are symmetrical at rest, when they smile they have varying degrees of disfigurement. Currently, cross-face nerve grafting is one of the most useful techniques for reanimation. Transfer of the masseteric nerve, although widely used for complete paralysis, has not to our knowledge been reported for incomplete palsy. Between December 2008 and November 2013, we reanimated the faces of 9 patients (2 men and 7 women) with incomplete unilateral facial paralysis with transposition of the masseteric nerve. Sex, age at operation, cause of paralysis, duration of denervation, recipient nerves used, and duration of follow-up were recorded. Commissural excursion, velocity, and patients' satisfaction were evaluated with the FACIAL CLIMA and a questionnaire, respectively. The mean (SD) age at operation was 39 (±6) years and the duration of denervation was 29 (±19) months. There were no complications that required further intervention. Duration of follow-up ranged from 6-26 months. FACIAL CLIMA showed improvement in both commissural excursion and velocity of more than two thirds in 6 patients, more than one half in 2 patients and less than one half in one. Qualitative evaluation showed a slight or pronounced improvement in 7/9 patients. The masseteric nerve is a reliable alternative for reanimation of the smile in patients with incomplete facial paralysis. Its main advantages include its consistent anatomy, a one-stage operation, and low morbidity at the donor site.

  10. A walking disaster: a case of incomplete spinal cord injury with symptomatic orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Currie, Katharine D; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2015-10-01

    Eight months post-injury, an ambulatory 58-year-old male with an incomplete spinal cord injury experienced syncope and a 52-mmHg drop in his systolic blood pressure during a tilt-table assessment. This case study highlights the necessity to examine autonomic function in all cases of spinal cord injury, regardless of injury severity. PMID:26264838

  11. A walking disaster: a case of incomplete spinal cord injury with symptomatic orthostatic hypotension.

    PubMed

    Currie, Katharine D; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2015-10-01

    Eight months post-injury, an ambulatory 58-year-old male with an incomplete spinal cord injury experienced syncope and a 52-mmHg drop in his systolic blood pressure during a tilt-table assessment. This case study highlights the necessity to examine autonomic function in all cases of spinal cord injury, regardless of injury severity.

  12. OMG: Open Molecule Generator

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck. PMID:22985496

  13. OMG: Open Molecule Generator.

    PubMed

    Peironcely, Julio E; Rojas-Chertó, Miguel; Fichera, Davide; Reijmers, Theo; Coulier, Leon; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck. PMID:22985496

  14. OMG: Open Molecule Generator.

    PubMed

    Peironcely, Julio E; Rojas-Chertó, Miguel; Fichera, Davide; Reijmers, Theo; Coulier, Leon; Faulon, Jean-Loup; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2012-09-17

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck.

  15. Complex organic molecules and star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacmann, A.; Faure, A.

    2014-12-01

    Star forming regions are characterised by the presence of a wealth of chemical species. For the past two to three decades, ever more complex organic species have been detected in the hot cores of protostars. The evolution of these molecules in the course of the star forming process is still uncertain, but it is likely that they are partially incorporated into protoplanetary disks and then into planetesimals and the small bodies of planetary systems. The complex organic molecules seen in star forming regions are particularly interesting since they probably make up building blocks for prebiotic chemistry. Recently we showed that these species were also present in the cold gas in prestellar cores, which represent the very first stages of star formation. These detections question the models which were until now accepted to account for the presence of complex organic molecules in star forming regions. In this article, we shortly review our current understanding of complex organic molecule formation in the early stages of star formation, in hot and cold cores alike and present new results on the formation of their likely precursor radicals.

  16. The Molecules of the Cell Membrane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretscher, Mark S.

    1985-01-01

    Cell membrane molecules form a simple, two-dimensional liquid controlling what enters and leaves the cell. Discusses cell membrane molecular architecture, plasma membranes, epithelial cells, cycles of endocytosis and exocytosis, and other topics. Indicates that some cells internalize, then recycle, membrane area equivalent to their entire surface…

  17. A Composite-Likelihood Method for Detecting Incomplete Selective Sweep from Population Genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Vy, Ha My T.; Kim, Yuseob

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive evolution occurs as beneficial mutations arise and then increase in frequency by positive natural selection. How, when, and where in the genome such evolutionary events occur is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. It is possible to detect ongoing positive selection or an incomplete selective sweep in species with sexual reproduction because, when a beneficial mutation is on the way to fixation, homologous chromosomes in the population are divided into two groups: one carrying the beneficial allele with very low polymorphism at nearby linked loci and the other carrying the ancestral allele with a normal pattern of sequence variation. Previous studies developed long-range haplotype tests to capture this difference between two groups as the signal of an incomplete selective sweep. In this study, we propose a composite-likelihood-ratio (CLR) test for detecting incomplete selective sweeps based on the joint sampling probabilities for allele frequencies of two groups as a function of strength of selection and recombination rate. Tested against simulated data, this method yielded statistical power and accuracy in parameter estimation that are higher than the iHS test and comparable to the more recently developed nSL test. This procedure was also applied to African Drosophila melanogaster population genomic data to detect candidate genes under ongoing positive selection. Upon visual inspection of sequence polymorphism, candidates detected by our CLR method exhibited clear haplotype structures predicted under incomplete selective sweeps. Our results suggest that different methods capture different aspects of genetic information regarding incomplete sweeps and thus are partially complementary to each other. PMID:25911658

  18. A Composite-Likelihood Method for Detecting Incomplete Selective Sweep from Population Genomic Data.

    PubMed

    Vy, Ha My T; Kim, Yuseob

    2015-06-01

    Adaptive evolution occurs as beneficial mutations arise and then increase in frequency by positive natural selection. How, when, and where in the genome such evolutionary events occur is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. It is possible to detect ongoing positive selection or an incomplete selective sweep in species with sexual reproduction because, when a beneficial mutation is on the way to fixation, homologous chromosomes in the population are divided into two groups: one carrying the beneficial allele with very low polymorphism at nearby linked loci and the other carrying the ancestral allele with a normal pattern of sequence variation. Previous studies developed long-range haplotype tests to capture this difference between two groups as the signal of an incomplete selective sweep. In this study, we propose a composite-likelihood-ratio (CLR) test for detecting incomplete selective sweeps based on the joint sampling probabilities for allele frequencies of two groups as a function of strength of selection and recombination rate. Tested against simulated data, this method yielded statistical power and accuracy in parameter estimation that are higher than the iHS test and comparable to the more recently developed nSL test. This procedure was also applied to African Drosophila melanogaster population genomic data to detect candidate genes under ongoing positive selection. Upon visual inspection of sequence polymorphism, candidates detected by our CLR method exhibited clear haplotype structures predicted under incomplete selective sweeps. Our results suggest that different methods capture different aspects of genetic information regarding incomplete sweeps and thus are partially complementary to each other.

  19. Outcome following incomplete surgical cytoreduction combined with intraperitoneal chemotherapy for colorectal peritoneal metastases

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Roisin Mary; Shields, Conor; Mulsow, Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    Cytoreductive surgery combined with intraperitoneal chemotherapy can improve survival in appropriately selected patients with colorectal peritoneal metastases. Outcomes are best in those patients in whom a complete cytoreduction can be achieved. Unresectable disease is however encountered in approximately one-quarter of patients at laparotomy. The merits, or otherwise, of proceeding with an incomplete cytoreduction in this setting are unclear. We performed a review of published outcomes following incomplete cytoreduction for colorectal peritoneal metastases. Using the electronic databases, PubMed and MEDLINE, a systematic search of available literature published during the period January 1997 to September 2014 was conducted. Following application of exclusion criteria, 19 papers were identified and included in this review. These comprised fifteen case series, 3 case control studies and one randomised control trial. In the nineteen studies included in this review, 2790 patients underwent cytoreductive surgery with or without intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal metastases of colorectal origin. Of these, 1732 (62%) underwent a complete cytoreduction while 986 (35%) patients underwent an incomplete cytoreduction. Median survival in the complete cytoreduction group ranged from 11 to 62 mo while survival in the latter group ranged from 2.4 to 32 mo. Of the 986 patients with an incomplete cytoreduction, 331 patients received intraperitoneal chemotherapy and survival in this cohort ranged from 4.5 to 32 mo. An incomplete cytoreduction, with or without intraperitoneal chemotherapy, does not appear to confer a survival benefit. The limited available data points to a palliative benefit in a subset of patients. In the absence of high quality data, the decision as to whether or not to proceed with surgery should be made on an individual patient basis. PMID:26688707

  20. Bacterial invasion reconstructed molecule by molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, James H

    2009-01-01

    We propose to visualize the initial stages of bacterial infection of a human host cell with unmatched spatial and temporal resolution. This work will develop a new capability for the laboratory (super-resolution optical imaging), will test unresolved scientific hypotheses regarding host-pathogen interaction dynamics, and leverages state of the art 3D molecular tracking instrumentation developed recently by our group. There is much to be gained by applying new single molecule tools to the important and familiar problem of pathogen entry into a host cell. For example, conventional fluorescence microscopy has identified key host receptors, such as CD44 and {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin, that aggregate near the site of Salmonella typhimurium infection of human cells. However, due to the small size of the bacteria ({approx} 2 {micro}m) and the diffraction of the emitted light, one just sees a fluorescent 'blob' of host receptors that aggregate at the site of attachment, making it difficult to determine the exact number of receptors present or whether there is any particular spatial arrangement of the receptors that facilitates bacterial adhesion/entry. Using newly developed single molecule based super-resolution imaging methods, we will visualize how host receptors are directed to the site of pathogen adhesion and whether host receptors adopt a specific spatial arrangement for successful infection. Furthermore, we will employ our 3D molecular tracking methods to follow the injection of virulence proteins, or effectors, into the host cell by the pathogen Type III secretion system (TTSS). We expect these studies to provide mechanistic insights into the early events of pathogen infection that have here-to-fore been technically beyond our reach. Our Research Goals are: Goal 1--Construct a super-resolution fluorescence microscope and use this new capability to image the spatial distribution of different host receptors (e.g. CD44, as {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin) at the point of

  1. Lunar volatile depletion due to incomplete accretion within an impact-generated disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canup, Robin M.; Visscher, Channon; Salmon, Julien; Fegley, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    The Moon likely formed from a disk produced by a giant impact with the Earth. The Moon and the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) share many compositional similarities (e.g., Ringwood 1979; Dauphas et al. 2014). However compared with the BSE, the Moon is more depleted in volatile elements, including moderately volatile K and Na, as well as more highly volatile elements, e.g., Zn (e.g., O’Neill 1991; Taylor & Wieczorek 2014). The origin of this depletion is poorly understood. Prior results suggest escape (e.g., Paniello et al. 2012), but at least hydrodynamic escape appears minimal for expected disk conditions (Nakajima & Stevenson 2014).In the limit of no escape and a closed system, a depletion could instead result if disk volatiles were preferentially accreted by the Earth rather than by the Moon. Taylor et al. (2006) advocated that the lunar depletion pattern is most consistent with incomplete condensation from an initially high temperature vapor, with the accretion of condensates by the Moon “cut-off” at a temperature allowing incorporation of a small component of alkalis (e.g., K and Na) but only a tiny fraction of more volatile elements (e.g., Zn). Neither the mechanism that would produce the cut-off, nor what the relevant cut-off temperature would be in an oxygen-rich protolunar disk (e.g., Visscher & Fegley 2013), were known.We identify a mechanism wherein a depletion results because disk volatiles are preferentially accreted by the Earth rather than by the Moon. The Moon may acquire the final tens to 60% of its mass from melt originating from the inner portions of the disk (Salmon & Canup 2012). Initially the inner disk melt is hot and volatile-poor, but as the disk cools, volatiles condense. We combine dynamical, thermal and chemical models to show that delivery of inner disk material to the Moon effectively ends as gravitational interactions cause the Moon’s orbit to expand away from the disk, with this cut-off occurring prior to condensation of key

  2. Permission Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2005-01-01

    The prevailing practice in public schools is to routinely require permission or release forms for field trips and other activities that pose potential for liability. The legal status of such forms varies, but they are generally considered to be neither rock-solid protection nor legally valueless in terms of immunity. The following case and the…

  3. Short-lived K2S Molecules in Superionic Potassium Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okeya, Yusuke; Tsumuraya, Kazuo

    2015-03-01

    The first principles molecular dynamics method allows us to elucidate the formation of short-lived K2S molecular states in superionic potassium sulfide. The covalent and the Coulomb bonds exist between the ionized mobile potassiums and the ionized immobile sulfurs. Both the bonds induces indirect covalent and indirect Coulomb attractions between the di-interstitial potassiums on the mid-sulfurs, which forms the short-lived K2S molecular states. The covalent electron density also exists between short-lived potassium dimers. The three attractions reduce Haven's ratios of the potassiums in the conductor. The molecule formation indicates the electronic state of the conductor is intermediate between the ionic and covalent crystals. The absence of the long-lived potassium dimers implies a failure of the caterpillar diffusion model or the Frenkel-Kontorova chain model for the superionic diffusion of the potassiums in the sulfide. The incompletely ionized cations and anions reduce the Coulomb attractions between them which induces the sublattice melting of smaller size of the potassiums than the sulfurs.

  4. Self-Assemblies of novel molecules, VECAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Bijay; Kim, Hye-Young; Lee, Soojin; Novak, Brian; Moldovan, Dorel

    2015-03-01

    VECAR is a newly synthesized molecule, which is an amphiphilic antioxidant molecule that consists of two molecular groups, vitamin-E and Carnosine, linked by a hydrocarbon chain. The hydrocarbon chain is hydrophobic and both vitamin-E and Carnosine ends are hydrophilic. In the synthesis process, the length of the hydrophobic chain of VECAR molecules can vary from the shortest (n =0) to the longest (n =18), where n indicates the number of carbon atoms in the chain. We conducted MD simulation studies of self-assembly of VECAR molecules in water using GROMACS on LONI HPC resources. Our study shows that there is a strong correlation between the shape and atomistic structure of the self-assembled nano-structures (SANs) and the chain-length (n) of VECAR molecules. We will report the results of data analyses including the atomistic structure of each SANs and the dynamic and energetic mechanisms of their formation as function of time. In summary, both VECAR molecules of chain-length n =18 and 9 form worm-like micelles, which may be used as a drug delivery system. This research is supported by the Louisiana Board of Regents-RCS Grant (LEQSF(2012-15)-RD-A-19).

  5. Sol-gel method for encapsulating molecules

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ashley, Carol S.; Bhatia, Rimple; Singh, Anup K.

    2002-01-01

    A method for encapsulating organic molecules, and in particular, biomolecules using sol-gel chemistry. A silica sol is prepared from an aqueous alkali metal silicate solution, such as a mixture of silicon dioxide and sodium or potassium oxide in water. The pH is adjusted to a suitably low value to stabilize the sol by minimizing the rate of siloxane condensation, thereby allowing storage stability of the sol prior to gelation. The organic molecules, generally in solution, is then added with the organic molecules being encapsulated in the sol matrix. After aging, either a thin film can be prepared or a gel can be formed with the encapsulated molecules. Depending upon the acid used, pH, and other processing conditions, the gelation time can be from one minute up to several days. In the method of the present invention, no alcohols are generated as by-products during the sol-gel and encapsulation steps. The organic molecules can be added at any desired pH value, where the pH value is generally chosen to achieve the desired reactivity of the organic molecules. The method of the present invention thereby presents a sufficiently mild encapsulation method to retain a significant portion of the activity of the biomolecules, compared with the activity of the biomolecules in free solution.

  6. Single-molecule electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, A.; Shera, E.B.

    1995-09-15

    A novel method for the detection and identification of single molecules in solution has been devised, computer simulated, and experimentally achieved. The technique involves the determination of electrophoretic velocities by measuring the time required for individual molecules to travel a fixed distance between two laser beams. Computer simulations of the process were performed before-hand in order to estimate the experimental feasibility of the method and to determine the optimum values for the various experimental parameters. Examples of the use of the technique for the ultrasensitive detection and identification of rhodamine-6G, a mixture of DNA restriction fragments, and a mixture of proteins in aqueous solution are presented. 20 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Cometary Parent Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Paul

    1990-12-01

    We propose to use HRS observations of a suitable target-of-opportunity comet to study two outstanding problems related to the composition of the volatile component of the cometary nucleus. These problems concern two species, CO and S2, which have been observed in the cometary coma and identified as "parent" molecules sublimating directly from the nucleus. Both of these molecules have their principal fluorescent emissions in the vaccuum ultraviolet. The high spectral resolution will allow the determination of the rotational temperature of CO, which is diagnostic of the source temperature and the excitation mechanism of the observed emission. The determination of the abundance of both CO and S2 in the primarily water ice of the nucleus can serve to constrain current models of comet formation in the primordial solar nebula.

  8. Atomic Force Microscope Conductivity Measurements on Single Ferritin Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Degao; Watt, Gerald D.; Harb, John N.; Davis, Robert C.

    2003-10-01

    We will present electrical measurement on the conductivity of ferritin molecules by conductive AFM. The high stability of ferritin relative to other proteins makes them attractive for nanotechnology applications such as nanoscale batteries. Ferritins are very stable, biological molecules found widely distributed in nature that are responsible for metabolic control of iron in living systems. Ferritins consist of 24 protein subunits that are arrayed to form spherical molecules 12 nm in external diameter with a hollow interior about 8 nm in diameter. The hollow ferritin interior can be filled with up to 4500 iron atoms as Fe(OH)3. Ferritin molecules were self assembled on gold surfaces to form a single ferritin monolayer. AFM was used to study this assembly on atomically flat gold surfaces. Conductivity of the ferritin protein shell of single ferritin molecule was investigated by conductive AFM and compared to conductivity measurements on films of ferritin molecules.

  9. Student Use of Physics to Make Sense of Incomplete but Functional VPython Programs in a Lab Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherford, Shawn A.

    2011-12-01

    Computational activities in Matter & Interactions, an introductory calculus-based physics course, have the instructional goal of providing students with the experience of applying the same set of a small number of fundamental principles to model a wide range of physical systems. However there are significant instructional challenges for students to build computer programs under limited time constraints, especially for students who are unfamiliar with programming languages and concepts. Prior attempts at designing effective computational activities were successful at having students ultimately build working VPython programs under the tutelage of experienced teaching assistants in a studio lab setting. A pilot study revealed that students who completed these computational activities had significant difficultly repeating the exact same tasks and further, had difficulty predicting the animation that would be produced by the example program after interpreting the program code. This study explores the interpretation and prediction tasks as part of an instructional sequence where students are asked to read and comprehend a functional, but incomplete program. Rather than asking students to begin their computational tasks with modifying program code, we explicitly ask students to interpret an existing program that is missing key lines of code. The missing lines of code correspond to the algebraic form of fundamental physics principles or the calculation of forces which would exist between analogous physical objects in the natural world. Students are then asked to draw a prediction of what they would see in the simulation produced by the VPython program and ultimately run the program to evaluate the students' prediction. This study specifically looks at how the participants use physics while interpreting the program code and creating a whiteboard prediction. This study also examines how students evaluate their understanding of the program and modification goals at the

  10. Modelling water molecules inside cyclic peptide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiangtrong, Prangsai; Thamwattana, Ngamta; Baowan, Duangkamon

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic peptide nanotubes occur during the self-assembly process of cyclic peptides. Due to the ease of synthesis and ability to control the properties of outer surface and inner diameter by manipulating the functional side chains and the number of amino acids, cyclic peptide nanotubes have attracted much interest from many research areas. A potential application of peptide nanotubes is their use as artificial transmembrane channels for transporting ions, biomolecules and waters into cells. Here, we use the Lennard-Jones potential and a continuum approach to study the interaction of a water molecule in a cyclo[(- D-Ala- L-Ala)_4-] peptide nanotube. Assuming that each unit of a nanotube comprises an inner and an outer tube and that a water molecule is made up of a sphere of two hydrogen atoms uniformly distributed over its surface and a single oxygen atom at the centre, we determine analytically the interaction energy of the water molecule and the peptide nanotube. Using this energy, we find that, independent of the number of peptide units, the water molecule will be accepted inside the nanotube. Once inside the nanotube, we show that a water molecule prefers to be off-axis, closer to the surface of the inner nanotube. Furthermore, our study of two water molecules inside the peptide nanotube supports the finding that water molecules form an array of a 1-2-1-2 file inside peptide nanotubes. The theoretical study presented here can facilitate thorough understanding of the behaviour of water molecules inside peptide nanotubes for applications, such as artificial transmembrane channels.

  11. Studying how protein crystals form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Watching molecules of the iron-storing protein apoferritin come together to form a nucleus reveals some interesting behavior. In this series of images, researchers observed clusters of four molecules at the corners of a diamond shape (top). As more molecules attach to the cluster, they arrange themselves into rods (second from top), and a raft-like configuration of molecules forms the critical nucleus (third from top), suggesting that crystal growth is much slower than it could be were the molecules arranged in a more compact formation. In the final image, a crystallite consisting of three layers containing approximately 60 to 70 molecules each is formed. Atomic force microscopy made visualizing the process of nucleation possible for the first time. The principal investigator is Peter Vekilov, of the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Vekilov's team at UAH studies protein solutions as they change phases from liquids to crystalline solids. They want to know if the molecules in the solution interact with one another, and if so, how, from the perspectives of thermodynamics and kinetics. They want to understand which forces -- electrical, electrostatic, hydrodynamic, or other kinds of forces -- are responsible for the interactions. They also study nucleation, the begirning stage of crystallization. This process is important to understand because it sets the stage for crystal growth in all kinds of solutions and liquid melts that are important in such diverse fields as agriculture, medicine, and the fabrication of metal components. Nucleation can determine the rate of crystal growth, the number of crystals that will be formed, and the quality and size of the crystals.

  12. Identification of the growth hormone-releasing hormone analogue [Pro1, Val14]-hGHRH with an incomplete C-term amidation in a confiscated product.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Simone; Deventer, Koen; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a modified version of the 44 amino acid human growth hormone-releasing hormone (hGHRH(1-44)) containing an N-terminal proline extension, a valine residue in position 14, and a C-terminus amidation (sequence: PYADAIFTNSYRKVVLGQLSARKLLQDIMSRQQGESNQERGARARL-NH2 ) has been identified in a confiscated product by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Investigation of the product suggests also an incomplete C-term amidation. Similarly to other hGHRH analogues, available in black markets, this peptide can potentially be used as performance-enhancing drug due to its growth hormone releasing activity and therefore it should be considered as a prohibited substance in sport. Additionally, the presence of partially amidated molecule reveals the poor pharmaceutical quality of the preparation, an aspect which represents a big concern for public health as well.

  13. Cold and ultracold molecules: spotlight on orbiting resonances.

    PubMed

    Chandler, David W

    2010-03-21

    There is great interest in the production of cold molecules, at temperatures below 1 K, and ultracold molecules, at temperatures below 1 mK. Such molecules have potential applications in areas ranging from precision measurement to quantum information storage and processing, and quantum gases of ultracold polar molecules are expected to exhibit novel quantum phases. In addition, cold molecules open up a new domain for collision physics, dominated by long-range forces and scattering resonances. There have been major recent advances both in cooling molecules from room temperature and in forming molecules in ultracold atomic gases. As these techniques mature, and cold and ultracold samples are more accessible, collision studies at previously unavailable energies will be possible. This spotlight article will highlight some of the background and motivation for studying collisions at low energies and will direct readers to recent articles on the recent experimental advancements.

  14. Good form.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-03-01

    New standardized prior authorization forms for health care services and prescription drugs released by the Texas Department of Insurance promise to alleviate administrative busy work and its related costs.

  15. The secondary contact zone of phylogenetic lineages of the Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae): an example of incomplete allopatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Lis, Agata; Maryańska-Nadachowska, Anna; Lachowska-Cierlik, Dorota; Kajtoch, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the phylogeography of the meadow spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) suggest the existence of a contact zone of its main phylogenetic lineages along mountain chains in Europe and western Asia. This study presents a detailed examination of the population genetics of P. spumarius within the Carpathian Mountains. The main objective was to determine whether the populations inhabiting that area consist of individuals belonging to different genetic units and whether the observed pattern could be an example of secondary contact zone which formed after incomplete allopatric speciation. Specimens from six transects across the Carpathian arc were examined. The mitochondrial phylogeography of the meadow spittlebug in the examined area clearly shows that individuals from both main clades meet and mix there. Representatives of all three main EF1-α clades were also found. The present distribution of the main clades with a zone of overlap along the mountain ranges may suggest that these phylogenetic lineages form a young hybrid zone. Moreover, a limited number of individuals were shown to possess heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA, which gives additional support to intraspecific hybridization. P. spumarius could be used in future work as an excellent model species in investigating population genetics, intraspecific hybridization, and speciation in progress.

  16. The secondary contact zone of phylogenetic lineages of the Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae: Cercopidae): an example of incomplete allopatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Lis, Agata; Maryańska-Nadachowska, Anna; Lachowska-Cierlik, Dorota; Kajtoch, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the phylogeography of the meadow spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae: Cercopidae) suggest the existence of a contact zone of its main phylogenetic lineages along mountain chains in Europe and western Asia. This study presents a detailed examination of the population genetics of P. spumarius within the Carpathian Mountains. The main objective was to determine whether the populations inhabiting that area consist of individuals belonging to different genetic units and whether the observed pattern could be an example of secondary contact zone which formed after incomplete allopatric speciation. Specimens from six transects across the Carpathian arc were examined. The mitochondrial phylogeography of the meadow spittlebug in the examined area clearly shows that individuals from both main clades meet and mix there. Representatives of all three main EF1-α clades were also found. The present distribution of the main clades with a zone of overlap along the mountain ranges may suggest that these phylogenetic lineages form a young hybrid zone. Moreover, a limited number of individuals were shown to possess heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA, which gives additional support to intraspecific hybridization. P. spumarius could be used in future work as an excellent model species in investigating population genetics, intraspecific hybridization, and speciation in progress.

  17. Colonisation and competition dynamics can explain incomplete sterilisation parasitism in ant-plant symbioses.

    PubMed

    Tarnita, Corina E; Palmer, Todd M; Pringle, Robert M

    2014-10-01

    Sterilisation of parasites prevents host reproduction, thereby diverting host resources to their own benefit. Previous theory predicts that parasites should evolve maximum virulence, yet hosts are often incompletely sterilised. Whereas prior attempts to resolve this paradox have sought evolutionary explanations, we present theory and experiments showing that incomplete sterilisation can arise from ecologically driven fluctuations in parasite load. The African ant-plant Acacia drepanolobium reproduced more when occupied by small colonies of the sterilising symbiont Crematogaster nigriceps. In nature, small colonies result from interference competition between ant colonies; these territorial conflicts thus provide intermittent windows of opportunity for host reproduction. Our mean-field model shows that numerical insufficiency of parasites can produce partial sterilisation of host populations, creating the appearance of reduced virulence even if ants have evolved to sterilise completely. This general framework helps explain both the apparent ubiquity of partial sterilisation parasitism and the ability of these symbiotic associations to persist.

  18. When is incomplete epigenetic resetting in germ cells favoured by natural selection?

    PubMed Central

    Uller, Tobias; English, Sinead; Pen, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Resetting of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, in germ cells or early embryos is not always complete. Epigenetic states may therefore persist, decay or accumulate across generations. In spite of mounting empirical evidence for incomplete resetting, it is currently poorly understood whether it simply reflects stochastic noise or plays an adaptive role in phenotype determination. Here, we use a simple model to show that incomplete resetting can be adaptive in heterogeneous environments. Transmission of acquired epigenetic states prevents mismatched phenotypes when the environment changes infrequently relative to generation time and when maternal and environmental cues are unreliable. We discuss how these results may help to interpret the emerging data on transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in plants and animals. PMID:26136447

  19. Imaging a boa constrictor--the incomplete double aortic arch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Rajeev L; Kanwar, Anubhav; Jacobi, Adam; Sanz, Javier

    2012-11-01

    Incomplete double aortic arch is a rare anomaly resulting from atresia rather than complete involution in the distal left arch resulting in a non-patent fibrous cord between the left arch and descending thoracic aorta. This anatomic anomaly may cause symptomatic vascular rings, leading to stridor, wheezing, or dysphagia, requiring surgical transection of the fibrous cord. Herein, we describe an asymptomatic 59 year-old man presenting for contrast-enhanced CT angiography to assess cardiac anatomy prior to radiofrequency ablation, who was incidentally found to have an incomplete double aortic arch with hypoplasia of the left arch segment and an aortic diverticulum. Recognition of this abnormality by imaging is important to inform both corrective surgery in symptomatic patients, as well as assist in the planning of percutaneous coronary and vascular interventions.

  20. The Role of Inferences in Sequential Bargaining with One-Sided Incomplete Information: Some Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Joydeep

    2001-05-01

    Two experiments tested a sequential bargaining model with one-sided incomplete information and time discounting. The findings suggest that although the comparative statics of the normative model are somewhat descriptive of the qualitative features of the data, bargainers do not conform to the signaling process that underlies bargaining models with incomplete information. Rather than assess and refine a probabilistic assessment of the private information based on the informed bargainer's behavior, uninformed bargainers infer their opponents' competitiveness. Further, bargainers are unable to use cost of delay in the strategic manner dictated by the equilibrium solution. The evidence suggests that although bargaining behavior is primarily determined by situational constraints, bargainers attribute their opponents' behavior to personal disposition, such as their level of competitiveness. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11341821

  1. Nonparametric Bayesian Dictionary Learning for Analysis of Noisy and Incomplete Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mingyuan; Chen, Haojun; Paisley, John; Ren, Lu; Li, Lingbo; Xing, Zhengming; Dunson, David; Sapiro, Guillermo; Carin, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Nonparametric Bayesian methods are considered for recovery of imagery based upon compressive, incomplete, and/or noisy measurements. A truncated beta-Bernoulli process is employed to infer an appropriate dictionary for the data under test and also for image recovery. In the context of compressive sensing, significant improvements in image recovery are manifested using learned dictionaries, relative to using standard orthonormal image expansions. The compressive-measurement projections are also optimized for the learned dictionary. Additionally, we consider simpler (incomplete) measurements, defined by measuring a subset of image pixels, uniformly selected at random. Spatial interrelationships within imagery are exploited through use of the Dirichlet and probit stick-breaking processes. Several example results are presented, with comparisons to other methods in the literature. PMID:21693421

  2. Application of games with incomplete information for pricing electricity in deregulated power pools

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrero, R.W.; Rivera, J.F.; Shahidehpour, S.M.

    1998-02-01

    The authors present a game theoretical approach to the problem of pricing electricity in deregulated energy marketplaces. They assume that an Independent System Operator receives bids by Pool participants and defines transactions among participants by looking for the minimum price that satisfies the demand in the Pool. The competition among Pool participants is modeled as a non-cooperative game with incomplete information. They assume that each Pool participant knows its own operation costs but does not know his opponents` operation costs. The game with incomplete information is transformed into a game with complete, but imperfect, information and solved using the Nash equilibrium idea. The approach presented in this paper is geared towards providing support for pricing electricity in deregulated Pools.

  3. When is incomplete epigenetic resetting in germ cells favoured by natural selection?

    PubMed

    Uller, Tobias; English, Sinead; Pen, Ido

    2015-07-22

    Resetting of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, in germ cells or early embryos is not always complete. Epigenetic states may therefore persist, decay or accumulate across generations. In spite of mounting empirical evidence for incomplete resetting, it is currently poorly understood whether it simply reflects stochastic noise or plays an adaptive role in phenotype determination. Here, we use a simple model to show that incomplete resetting can be adaptive in heterogeneous environments. Transmission of acquired epigenetic states prevents mismatched phenotypes when the environment changes infrequently relative to generation time and when maternal and environmental cues are unreliable. We discuss how these results may help to interpret the emerging data on transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in plants and animals.

  4. A ranking procedure by incomplete pairwise comparisons using information entropy and Dempster-Shafer evidence theory.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dongbo; Lu, Xi; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making, as a way to discover the preference of ranking, has been used in various fields. However, owing to the uncertainty in group decision-making, how to rank alternatives by incomplete pairwise comparisons has become an open issue. In this paper, an improved method is proposed for ranking of alternatives by incomplete pairwise comparisons using Dempster-Shafer evidence theory and information entropy. Firstly, taking the probability assignment of the chosen preference into consideration, the comparison of alternatives to each group is addressed. Experiments verified that the information entropy of the data itself can determine the different weight of each group's choices objectively. Numerical examples in group decision-making environments are used to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. Moreover, the divergence of ranking mechanism is analyzed briefly in conclusion section. PMID:25250393

  5. Exercise Performance in Children and Young Adults After Complete and Incomplete Repair of Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Omer; Katz, Uriel; Reuveny, Ronen; Williams, Craig A; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2015-12-01

    Few previous studies have addressed exercise capacity in patients with corrected congenital heart disease (CHD) and significant anatomical residua. The aim of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness and peak cardiac function of patients with corrected CHD with complete or incomplete repairs, as determined by resting echocardiography. Children, adolescents and young adults (<40 years) with CHD from both sexes, who had previously undergone biventricular corrective therapeutic interventions (n = 73), and non-CHD control participants (n = 76) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The CHD group was further divided according to the absence/presence of significant anatomical residua on a resting echocardiogram ("complete"/"incomplete" repair groups). Aerobic fitness and cardiac function were compared between groups using linear regression and analysis of covariance. Peak oxygen consumption, O2 pulse and ventilatory threshold were significantly lower in CHD patients compared with controls (all p < 0.01). Compared with the complete repair group, the incomplete repair group had a significantly lower mean peak work rate, age-adjusted O2 pulse (expressed as % predicted) and a higher VE/VCO2 ratio (all p ≤ 0.05). Peak oxygen consumption was comparable between the subgroups. Patients after corrected CHD have lower peak and submaximal exercise parameters. Patients with incomplete repair of their heart defect had decreased aerobic fitness, with evidence of impaired peak cardiac function and lower pulmonary perfusion. Patients that had undergone a complete repair had decreased aerobic fitness attributed only to deconditioning. These newly identified differences explain why in previous studies, the lowest fitness was seen in patients with the most hemodynamically significant heart malformations.

  6. Incomplete endothelialisation of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder device followed by meningitis and late acute bacterial endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Białkowski, Jacek; Pawlak, Szymon; Banaszak, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    A 19-year-old woman with atrial septal defect treated percutaneously with an Amplatzer Septal Occluder 24 months earlier, who presented with a history of bacterial meningitis, was admitted with a diagnosis of endocarditis. After 6 weeks of treatment with antibiotics, the incompletely endothelialised occluder was surgically removed. The present report illustrates the need for long-term follow-up of patients who have received nitinol wire mesh occluders. PMID:26707128

  7. HIFI: a computer code for projectile fragmentation accompanied by incomplete fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    A brief summary of a model proposed to describe projectile fragmentation accompanied by incomplete fusion and the instructions for the use of the computer code HIFI are given. The code HIFI calculates single inclusive spectra, coincident spectra and excitation functions resulting from particle-induced reactions. It is a multipurpose program which can calculate any type of coincident spectra as long as the reaction is assumed to take place in two steps.

  8. Phanerozoic marine biodiversity dynamics in light of the incompleteness of the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Lu, Peter J; Yogo, Motohiro; Marshall, Charles R

    2006-02-21

    Long-term evolutionary dynamics have been approached through quantitative analysis of the fossil record, but without explicitly taking its incompleteness into account. Here we explore the temporal covariance structure of per-genus origination and extinction rates for global marine fossil genera throughout the Phanerozoic, both before and after corrections for the incompleteness of the fossil record. Using uncorrected data based on Sepkoski's compendium, we find significant autocovariance within origination and extinction rates, as well as covariance between extinction and origination, not one, but two, intervals later, corroborating evidence for the unexplained temporal gap found by past studies. However, these effects vanish when the data are corrected for the incompleteness of the fossil record. Instead, we observe significant covariance only between extinction and origination in the immediately following intervals. The gap in the response of the biosphere to extinction in the uncorrected fossil record thus appears to be an artifact of the incompleteness of the fossil record, specifically due to episodic variation in the probability that taxa will be preserved, on time scales comparable to the temporal resolution of Sepkoski's data. Our results also indicate that at that temporal resolution (the stage/substage of duration approximately = 5 million years), changes in origination and extinction do not persist for longer than one interval, except that elevated origination rates immediately after extinction may last for more than a single interval. Thus, although certain individual cases may deviate from the overall pattern, we find that in general the biosphere's response to perturbation is immediate geologically and usually short-lived. PMID:16477008

  9. Double incomplete aortic arch and Kommerell's Diverticulum as a cause of chronic cough.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Galan, Lilia M; Shveid-Gerson, Daniela; Gomez-Garza, Gilberto; Rey-Rodriguez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Vascular rings which can cause symptoms related the trachea and esophagus compression occur in less than 1% of all cardiovascular malformations. Double incomplete aortic arch with right-sided aorta and aberrant left subclavian artery is the rarest one, and its present in 0.04-0.1% of autopsy series. A case of this malformation with a Kommerell's Diverticulum is presented. This diverticulum has risk of severe complications such as dissection and/or rupture.

  10. Phanerozoic marine biodiversity dynamics in light of the incompleteness of the fossil record

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Peter J.; Yogo, Motohiro; Marshall, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term evolutionary dynamics have been approached through quantitative analysis of the fossil record, but without explicitly taking its incompleteness into account. Here we explore the temporal covariance structure of per-genus origination and extinction rates for global marine fossil genera throughout the Phanerozoic, both before and after corrections for the incompleteness of the fossil record. Using uncorrected data based on Sepkoski’s compendium, we find significant autocovariance within origination and extinction rates, as well as covariance between extinction and origination, not one, but two, intervals later, corroborating evidence for the unexplained temporal gap found by past studies. However, these effects vanish when the data are corrected for the incompleteness of the fossil record. Instead, we observe significant covariance only between extinction and origination in the immediately following intervals. The gap in the response of the biosphere to extinction in the uncorrected fossil record thus appears to be an artifact of the incompleteness of the fossil record, specifically due to episodic variation in the probability that taxa will be preserved, on time scales comparable to the temporal resolution of Sepkoski’s data. Our results also indicate that at that temporal resolution (the stage/substage of duration ≈5 million years), changes in origination and extinction do not persist for longer than one interval, except that elevated origination rates immediately after extinction may last for more than a single interval. Thus, although certain individual cases may deviate from the overall pattern, we find that in general the biosphere’s response to perturbation is immediate geologically and usually short-lived. PMID:16477008

  11. Leaflet stress and strain distributions following incomplete transcatheter aortic valve expansion.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mostafa; Azadani, Ali N

    2015-10-15

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an established treatment alternative to surgical valve replacement in high-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. The current guidelines for TAVR are to upsize transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) relative to the native annulus to secure the device and minimize paravalvular leakage. Unlike surgical stented bioprosthetic valves where leaflets are attached to a rigid frame, TAVs must expand to fit within the native annulus. Fully-expanded circular TAVs have consistent leaflet kinematics; however, subtle variations in the degree of stent expansion may affect leaflet coaptation. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of incomplete TAV expansion on leaflet stress and strain distributions. In this study, we developed finite element models of a 23 mm homemade TAV expanded to diameters ranging from 18 to 23 mm in 1mm increments. Through dynamic finite element simulations, we found that leaflet stress and strain distributions were dependent on the diameter of the inflated TAV. After complete expansion of the TAV to 23 mm, high stress and strain regions were observed primarily in the commissures during diastole. However, 2-3mm incomplete TAV stent expansion induced localized high stress regions within the TAV commissures, while 4-5mm incomplete stent expansion induced localized high stress regions within the belly of the TAV leaflets during the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. Increased mechanical stress and flexural deformation on TAV leaflets due to incomplete stent expansion may lead to accelerated tissue degeneration and diminished long-term valve durability.

  12. Watching single molecules dance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Amit Dinesh

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy, from ATP hydrolysis or ion flow, into mechanical motion. A variety of increasingly precise mechanical probes have been developed to monitor and perturb these motors at the single molecule level. Several outstanding questions can be best approached at the single molecule level. These include: how far does a motor progress per energy quanta consumed? how does its reaction cycle respond to load? how many productive catalytic cycles can it undergo per diffusional encounter with its track? and what is the mechanical stiffness of a single molecule connection? A dual beam optical trap, in conjunction with in vitro ensemble motility assays, has been used to characterize two members of the myosin superfamily: muscle myosin II and chick brain myosin V. Both move the helical polymer actin, but myosin II acts in large ensembles to drive muscle contraction or cytokinesis, while myosin V acts in small numbers to transport vesicles. An optical trapping apparatus was rendered sufficiently precise to identify a myosin working stroke with 1nm or so, barring systematic errors such as those perhaps due to random protein orientations. This and other light microscopic motility assays were used to characterize myosin V: unlike myosin II this vesicle transport protein moves through many increments of travel while remaining strongly bound to a single actin filament. The step size, stall force, and travel distance of myosin V reveal a remarkably efficient motor capable of moving along a helical track for over a micrometer without significantly spiraling around it. Such properties are fully consistent with the putative role of an organelle transport motor, present in small numbers to maintain movement over long ranges relative to cellular size scales. The contrast between myosin II and myosin V resembles that between a human running on the moon and one walking on earth, where the former allows for faster motion when in larger ensembles but for less

  13. Molecules in crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, Mark A.

    2013-04-01

    Hirshfeld surface analysis has developed from the serendipitous discovery of a novel partitioning of the crystal electron density into discrete molecular fragments, to a suite of computational tools used widely for the identification, analysis and discussion of intermolecular interactions in molecular crystals. The relationship between the Hirshfeld surface and very early ideas on the internal structure of crystals is outlined, and applications of Hirshfeld surface analysis are presented for three molecules of historical importance in the development of modern x-ray crystallography: hexamethylbenzene, hexamethylenetetramine and diketopiperazine.

  14. Computer Modelling of Biological Molecules: Free Resources on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Neil

    1996-01-01

    Describes a three-dimensional computer modeling system for biological molecules which is suitable for sixth-form teaching. Consists of the modeling program "RasMol" together with structure files of proteins, DNA, and small biological molecules. Describes how the whole system can be downloaded from various sites on the Internet. (Author/JRH)

  15. The influence of incomplete or unavailable information on environmental impact assessment in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, Samuel F. . E-mail: atkinson@unt.edu; Canter, Larry W. . E-mail: envimptr@aol.com; Ravan, Melanie D. . E-mail: melanie.raven@navy.mil

    2006-07-15

    One of the more common activities of environmental scientists in the United States is the preparation of environmental assessments or environmental impact statements in response to the mandates of the National Environmental Policy Act. The central thesis of this paper revolves around a frequent dilemma those scientists face: how to proceed with the environmental impact analysis when information on potential impacts is incomplete or unavailable. The paper examines how the 'hard look' standard that U.S. courts have imposed upon agencies considering proposed actions came about. Further, U.S. courts have said agencies cannot make arbitrary and capricious decisions when deciding to build a project, implement a plan, issue a permit or other give other approvals, and this paper discusses how the courts have defined what arbitrary and capricious decision are, especially when decisions are made when information about impacts is incomplete or unavailable. The paper examines why agencies win or lose lawsuits filed against the environmental assessments or environmental impact statements they write, focusing on those cases that have occurred after the Supreme Court ruled on the issue in 1989. The paper suggests recommendations to environmental scientists faced with incomplete or unavailable information when preparing an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement in the U.S.

  16. Bone resorption in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars and acute pericoronitis.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Minoru; Ono, Yusuke; Takahashi, Masahiro; Doto, Ryosuke; Yasuda, Kouichi; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-01

    Acute pericoronitis (AP) arises frequently in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars, but it remains unknown whether bone resorption in aging is associated with acute inflammation of the third molar. We conducted an experiment to compare the ratio of bone resorption to root length in the distal surface of the second molar (A), the proximal surface (B), and distal surface (C) in mesio-angular, incompletely impacted third molars in 27 young and 58 older adults with AP and 77 young and 79 older adults without a history of AP. Bone resorption in A, B, and C in older adults with AP demonstrated a significantly higher ratio when compared to those without AP, whereas there was no difference between those with and without AP in young adults except for B in women. However, there were no differences between bone resorption in B with AP in young and older women, and between bone resorption in C with AP in young and older adults. These indicate that AP and bone resorption are associated with incompletely impacted mandibular third molars in older adults.

  17. Walking after incomplete spinal cord injury using an implanted FES system: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Elizabeth; Kobetic, Rudi; Murray, Lori; Corado-Ahmed, Michelle; Pinault, Gilles; Sakai, Jonathan; Bailey, Stephanie Nogan; Ho, Chester; Triolo, Ronald J

    2007-01-01

    Implanted functional electrical stimulation (FES) systems for walking are experimentally available to individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI); however, data on short-term therapeutic and functional outcomes are limited. The goal of this study was to quantify therapeutic and functional effects of an implanted FES system for walking after incomplete cervical SCI. After robotic-assisted treadmill training and overground gait training maximized his voluntary function, an individual with incomplete SCI (American Spinal Injury Association grade C, cervical level 6-7) who could stand volitionally but not step was surgically implanted with an 8-channel receiver stimulator and intramuscular electrodes. Electrodes were implanted bilaterally, recruiting iliopsoas, vastus intermedius and lateralis, tensor fasciae latae, tibialis anterior, and peroneus longus muscles. Twelve weeks of training followed limited activity post-surgery. Customized stimulation patterns addressed gait deficits via an external control unit. The system was well-tolerated and reliable. After the 12-week training, maximal walking distance increased (from 14 m to 309 m), maximal walking speed was 10 times greater (from 0.02 m/s to 0.20 m/s), and physiological cost index was 5 times less (from 44.4 beats/m to 8.6 beats/m). Voluntary locomotor function was unchanged. The implanted FES system was well-tolerated, reliable, and supplemented function, allowing the participant limited community ambulation. Physiological effort decreased and maximal walking distance increased dramatically over 12 weeks.

  18. Berry connection in atom-molecule systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Fucheng; Wu Biao

    2011-08-15

    In the mean-field theory of atom-molecule systems, where bosonic atoms combine to form molecules, there is no usual U(1) symmetry, presenting an apparent hurdle for defining the Berry phase and Berry curvature for these systems. We define a Berry connection for this system, with which the Berry phase and Berry curvature can be naturally computed. We use a three-level atom-molecule system to illustrate our results. In particular, we have computed the mean-field Berry curvature of this system analytically, and compared it to the Berry curvature computed with the second-quantized model of the same system. An excellent agreement is found, indicating the validity of our definition.

  19. Stochastic models for surface diffusion of molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, Patrick Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen

    2014-07-28

    We derive a stochastic model for the surface diffusion of molecules, starting from the classical equations of motion for an N-atom molecule on a surface. The equation of motion becomes a generalized Langevin equation for the center of mass of the molecule, with a non-Markovian friction kernel. In the Markov approximation, a standard Langevin equation is recovered, and the effect of the molecular vibrations on the diffusion is seen to lead to an increase in the friction for center of mass motion. This effective friction has a simple form that depends on the curvature of the lowest energy diffusion path in the 3N-dimensional coordinate space. We also find that so long as the intramolecular forces are sufficiently strong, memory effects are usually not significant and the Markov approximation can be employed, resulting in a simple one-dimensional model that can account for the effect of the dynamics of the molecular vibrations on the diffusive motion.

  20. Adhesion Molecules: Master Controllers of the Circulatory System.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Eric P; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Lee, Warren L; Downey, Gregory P

    2016-03-15

    This manuscript will review our current understanding of cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) relevant to the circulatory system, their physiological role in control of vascular homeostasis, innate and adaptive immune responses, and their importance in pathophysiological (disease) processes such as acute lung injury, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary hypertension. This is a complex and rapidly changing area of research that is incompletely understood. By design, we will begin with a brief overview of the structure and classification of the major groups of adhesion molecules and their physiological functions including cellular adhesion and signaling. The role of specific CAMs in the process of platelet aggregation and hemostasis and leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration will be reviewed as examples of the complex and cooperative interplay between CAMs during physiological and pathophysiological processes. The role of the endothelial glycocalyx and the glycobiology of this complex system related to inflammatory states such as sepsis will be reviewed. We will then focus on the role of adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of specific disease processes involving the lungs and cardiovascular system. The potential of targeting adhesion molecules in the treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases will be highlighted in the relevant sections throughout the manuscript.

  1. Sticking of Molecules on Nonporous Amorphous Water Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiao; Acharyya, Kinsuk; Vidali, Gianfranco

    2016-05-01

    Accurate modeling of physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM) requires detailed knowledge of how atoms and molecules adsorb on dust grains. However, the sticking coefficient, a number between 0 and 1 that measures the first step in the interaction of a particle with a surface, is usually assumed in simulations of ISM environments to be either 0.5 or 1. Here we report on the determination of the sticking coefficient of H2, D2, N2, O2, CO, CH4, and CO2 on nonporous amorphous solid water. The sticking coefficient was measured over a wide range of surface temperatures using a highly collimated molecular beam. We showed that the standard way of measuring the sticking coefficient—the King-Wells method—leads to the underestimation of trapping events in which there is incomplete energy accommodation of the molecule on the surface. Surface scattering experiments with the use of a pulsed molecular beam are used instead to measure the sticking coefficient. Based on the values of the measured sticking coefficient, we suggest a useful general formula of the sticking coefficient as a function of grain temperature and molecule-surface binding energy. We use this formula in a simulation of ISM gas-grain chemistry to find the effect of sticking on the abundance of key molecules both on grains and in the gas phase.

  2. Melatonin: a multitasking molecule.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Russel J; Tan, Dun-Xian; Fuentes-Broto, Lorena

    2010-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) has revealed itself as an ubiquitously distributed and functionally diverse molecule. The mechanisms that control its synthesis within the pineal gland have been well characterized and the retinal and biological clock processes that modulate the circadian production of melatonin in the pineal gland are rapidly being unravelled. A feature that characterizes melatonin is the variety of mechanisms it employs to modulate the physiology and molecular biology of cells. While many of these actions are mediated by well-characterized, G-protein coupled melatonin receptors in cellular membranes, other actions of the indole seem to involve its interaction with orphan nuclear receptors and with molecules, for example calmodulin, in the cytosol. Additionally, by virtue of its ability to detoxify free radicals and related oxygen derivatives, melatonin influences the molecular physiology of cells via receptor-independent means. These uncommonly complex processes often make it difficult to determine specifically how melatonin functions to exert its obvious actions. What is apparent, however, is that the actions of melatonin contribute to improved cellular and organismal physiology. In view of this and its virtual absence of toxicity, melatonin may well find applications in both human and veterinary medicine.

  3. Factors associated with incomplete gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection due to misdiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Haruhisa; Oda, Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Masau; Abe, Seiichiro; Nonaka, Satoru; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Saito, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely accepted for treating early gastric cancer (EGC); however, there can be cases of incomplete resection due to not only technical problems, but also misdiagnosis. Our aim was to identify factors associated with incomplete gastric ESD due to misdiagnosis. Patients and methods: A total of 2,268 patients with solitary EGCs at initial onset underwent ESD with curative intent at our hospital from 1999 to 2008. We retrospectively assessed the clinicopathological factors by comparing the two groups of incomplete ESD cases due to misdiagnosis (cases with a positive lateral margins [LM] [Group A] or those with a positive vertical margins [VM] [Group B]) with complete ESD cases using multivariable analysis. Results: Complete ESD was achieved in 2,097 patients. The 171 patients with incomplete ESDs were divided into 109 with a positive LM and 80 with a positive VM (overlapped). Except 49 cases with a positive LM due to technical problems, a positive LM due to misdiagnosis was identified in 60 cases (Group A). Excluding 32 cases with a positive VM due to technical problems, a positive VM due to misdiagnosis was found in 48 cases (Group B). Significant independent factors (odds ratios [OR]; 95 % confidence intervals [CI]) for each group were as follows: Group A: size > 20 mm (5.4; 3.0 – 9.9), undifferentiated-type (4.1; 1.8 – 9.0), submucosal invasion (2.0; 1.1 – 3.4) and location of upper/middle (1.9; 1.0 – 3.6); Group B: size > 20 mm (3.0; 1.6 – 5.5), undifferentiated-type (3.0; 1.1 – 8.0) and location of upper/middle (2.4; 1.2 – 4.8). Conclusions: Endoscopists must be aware of these factors associated with incomplete gastric ESD due to misdiagnosis to further decrease their incidence. PMID:27556097

  4. Fast NJ-like algorithms to deal with incomplete distance matrices

    PubMed Central

    Criscuolo, Alexis; Gascuel, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Background Distance-based phylogeny inference methods first estimate evolutionary distances between every pair of taxa, then build a tree from the so-obtained distance matrix. These methods are fast and fairly accurate. However, they hardly deal with incomplete distance matrices. Such matrices are frequent with recent multi-gene studies, when two species do not share any gene in analyzed data. The few existing algorithms to infer trees with satisfying accuracy from incomplete distance matrices have time complexity in O(n4) or more, where n is the number of taxa, which precludes large scale studies. Agglomerative distance algorithms (e.g. NJ [1,2]) are much faster, with time complexity in O(n3) which allows huge datasets and heavy bootstrap analyses to be dealt with. These algorithms proceed in three steps: (a) search for the taxon pair to be agglomerated, (b) estimate the lengths of the two so-created branches, (c) reduce the distance matrix and return to (a) until the tree is fully resolved. But available agglomerative algorithms cannot deal with incomplete matrices. Results We propose an adaptation to incomplete matrices of three agglomerative algorithms, namely NJ, BIONJ [3] and MVR [4]. Our adaptation generalizes to incomplete matrices the taxon pair selection criterion of NJ (also used by BIONJ and MVR), and combines this generalized criterion with that of ADDTREE [5]. Steps (b) and (c) are also modified, but O(n3) time complexity is kept. The performance of these new algorithms is studied with large scale simulations, which mimic multi-gene phylogenomic datasets. Our new algorithms – named NJ*, BIONJ* and MVR* – infer phylogenetic trees that are as least as accurate as those inferred by other available methods, but with much faster running times. MVR* presents the best overall performance. This algorithm accounts for the variance of the pairwise evolutionary distance estimates, and is well suited for multi-gene studies where some distances are accurately

  5. Molecules Best Paper Award 2013.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Derek J

    2013-02-05

    Molecules has started to institute a "Best Paper" award to recognize the most outstanding papers in the area of natural products, medicinal chemistry and molecular diversity published in Molecules. We are pleased to announce the second "Molecules Best Paper Award" for 2013.

  6. Single Molecule Conductance of Oligothiophene Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell, Emma J.

    This thesis studies the electronic properties of small organic molecules based on the thiophene motif. If we are to build next-generation devices, advanced materials must be designed which possess requisite electronic functionality. Molecules present attractive candidates for these ad- vanced materials since nanoscale devices are particularly sought after. However, selecting a molecule that is suited to a certain electronic function remains a challenge, and characterization of electronic behavior is therefore critical. Single molecule conductance measurements are a powerful tool to determine properties on the nanoscale and, as such, can be used to investigate novel building blocks that may fulfill the design requirements of next-generation devices. Combining these conductance results with strategic chemical synthesis allows for the development of new families of molecules that show attractive properties for future electronic devices. Since thiophene rings are the fruitflies of organic semiconductors on the bulk scale, they present an intriguing starting point for building functional materials on the nanoscale, and therefore form the structural basis of all molecules studied herein. First, the single-molecule conductance of a family of bithiophene derivatives was measured. A broad distribution in the single-molecule conductance of bithiophene was found compared with that of a biphenyl. This increased breadth in the conductance distribution was shown to be explained by the difference in 5-fold symmetry of thiophene rings as compared to the 6-fold symmetry of benzene rings. The reduced symmetry of thiophene rings results in a restriction on the torsion angle space available to these molecules when bound between two metal electrodes in a junction, causing each molecular junction to sample a different set of conformers in the conductance measurements. By contrast, the rotations of biphenyl are essentially unimpeded by junction binding, allowing each molecular junction

  7. Ultracold Dipolar Molecules Composed of Strongly Magnetic Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, A.; Mark, M.; Aikawa, K.; Baier, S.; Grimm, R.; Petrov, A.; Kotochigova, S.; Quéméner, G.; Lepers, M.; Dulieu, O.; Ferlaino, F.

    2015-11-01

    In a combined experimental and theoretical effort, we demonstrate a novel type of dipolar system made of ultracold bosonic dipolar molecules with large magnetic dipole moments. Our dipolar molecules are formed in weakly bound Feshbach molecular states from a sample of strongly magnetic bosonic erbium atoms. We show that the ultracold magnetic molecules can carry very large dipole moments and we demonstrate how to create and characterize them, and how to change their orientation. Finally, we confirm that the relaxation rates of molecules in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry can be reduced by using the anisotropy of the dipole-dipole interaction and that this reduction follows a universal dipolar behavior.

  8. Ion Pairs or Neutral Molecule Adducts? Cooperativity in Hydrogen Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKock, Roger L.; Schipper, Laura A.; Dykhouse, Stephanie C.; Heeringa, Lee P.; Brandsen, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    We performed theoretical studies on the systems NH[subscript 3] times HF times mH[subscript 2]O, NH[subscript 3] times HCl times mH[subscript 2]O, with m = 0, 1, 2, and 6. The molecules with m = 0 form hydrogen-bonded adducts with little tendency to form an ion-pair structure. The molecule NH[subscript 3] times HCl times H[subscript 2]O cannot be…

  9. Spin transport in molecules studied by Fe3O4/molecule nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, F. J.; Wang, S.; Wu, D.

    2013-05-01

    In this work, we synthesize single molecular layer coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles to form the network of the molecular junction spin valves. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles chemically bond with molecules without any physically absorbed molecules, leading to one monolayer molecule coated on nanoparticles. The magnetoresistance (MR) of cold-pressed Fe3O4/oleic acid nanoparticles is more than two times larger than bare Fe3O4 nanoparticles, indicating weaker spin scattering in molecules. Furthermore, the MR ratio is as high as ˜21 % at room temperature for Fe3O4/alkane molecule nanoparticles. Interestingly, even though the resistance spans about two decades as the alkane molecular length varies from 0.7 to 2.5 nm, the MR ratio stays approximately constant. This molecular length independent spin valve MR, originated from the weaker hyperfine interaction strength of the σ-electrons in alkane molecules, entails room-temperature spin-conserving transport in molecular materials. Using the size of ˜500 nm Fe3O4 nanoparticles, a large MR is achieved in a relatively low magnetic field. This feature opens a door for the development of future spin-based molecular electronics. Moreover, spin injection at the interface of Fe3O4/stearic acid molecule is investigated in a comparative study between Fe3O4 nanoparticles chemically bonded (ChemNPs) and physically absorbed (PhyNPs) molecules. A MR of 12 % at room temperature is observed in ChemNPs, in sharp contrast to the zero MR ratio in PhyNPs, reflecting that the chemical bonding is crucial for spin injection. These results show that the hybrid nanoparticles provide a simple approach to study the spin transport in molecules.

  10. Forces in molecules.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Trujillo, Jesús; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Fang, De-Chai; Bader, Richard F W

    2007-01-01

    Chemistry is determined by the electrostatic forces acting within a collection of nuclei and electrons. The attraction of the nuclei for the electrons is the only attractive force in a molecule and is the force responsible for the bonding between atoms. This is the attractive force acting on the electrons in the Ehrenfest force and on the nuclei in the Feynman force, one that is countered by the repulsion between the electrons in the former and by the repulsion between the nuclei in the latter. The virial theorem relates these forces to the energy changes resulting from interactions between atoms. All bonding, as signified by the presence of a bond path, has a common origin in terms of the mechanics determined by the Ehrenfest, Feynman and virial theorems. This paper is concerned in particular with the mechanics of interaction encountered in what are classically described as 'nonbonded interactions'--are atoms that 'touch' bonded or repelling one another?

  11. Forces in molecules.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Trujillo, Jesús; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Fang, De-Chai; Bader, Richard F W

    2007-01-01

    Chemistry is determined by the electrostatic forces acting within a collection of nuclei and electrons. The attraction of the nuclei for the electrons is the only attractive force in a molecule and is the force responsible for the bonding between atoms. This is the attractive force acting on the electrons in the Ehrenfest force and on the nuclei in the Feynman force, one that is countered by the repulsion between the electrons in the former and by the repulsion between the nuclei in the latter. The virial theorem relates these forces to the energy changes resulting from interactions between atoms. All bonding, as signified by the presence of a bond path, has a common origin in terms of the mechanics determined by the Ehrenfest, Feynman and virial theorems. This paper is concerned in particular with the mechanics of interaction encountered in what are classically described as 'nonbonded interactions'--are atoms that 'touch' bonded or repelling one another? PMID:17328425

  12. Single Molecule Junctions: Probing Contact Chemistry and Fundamental Circuit Laws

    SciTech Connect

    Hybertsen M. S.

    2013-04-11

    By exploiting selective link chemistry, formation of single molecule junctions with reproducible conductance has become established. Systematic studies reveal the structure-conductance relationships for diverse molecules. I will draw on experiments from my collaborators at Columbia University, atomic-scale calculations and theory to describe progress in two areas. First, I will describe a novel route to form single molecule junctions, based on SnMe3 terminated molecules, in which gold directly bonds to carbon in the molecule backbone resulting in near ideal contact resistance [1]. Second, comparison of the conductance of junctions formed with molecular species containing either one backbone or two backbones in parallel allows demonstration of the role of quantum interference in the conductance superposition law at the molecular scale [2].

  13. Controlling single-molecule junction conductance by molecular interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kitaguchi, Y.; Habuka, S.; Okuyama, H.; Hatta, S.; Aruga, T.; Frederiksen, T.; Paulsson, M.; Ueba, H.

    2015-01-01

    For the rational design of single-molecular electronic devices, it is essential to understand environmental effects on the electronic properties of a working molecule. Here we investigate the impact of molecular interactions on the single-molecule conductance by accurately positioning individual molecules on the electrode. To achieve reproducible and precise conductivity measurements, we utilize relatively weak π-bonding between a phenoxy molecule and a STM-tip to form and cleave one contact to the molecule. The anchoring to the other electrode is kept stable using a chalcogen atom with strong bonding to a Cu(110) substrate. These non-destructive measurements permit us to investigate the variation in single-molecule conductance under different but controlled environmental conditions. Combined with density functional theory calculations, we clarify the role of the electrostatic field in the environmental effect that influences the molecular level alignment. PMID:26135251

  14. Controlling single-molecule junction conductance by molecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaguchi, Y.; Habuka, S.; Okuyama, H.; Hatta, S.; Aruga, T.; Frederiksen, T.; Paulsson, M.; Ueba, H.

    2015-07-01

    For the rational design of single-molecular electronic devices, it is essential to understand environmental effects on the electronic properties of a working molecule. Here we investigate the impact of molecular interactions on the single-molecule conductance by accurately positioning individual molecules on the electrode. To achieve reproducible and precise conductivity measurements, we utilize relatively weak π-bonding between a phenoxy molecule and a STM-tip to form and cleave one contact to the molecule. The anchoring to the other electrode is kept stable using a chalcogen atom with strong bonding to a Cu(110) substrate. These non-destructive measurements permit us to investigate the variation in single-molecule conductance under different but controlled environmental conditions. Combined with density functional theory calculations, we clarify the role of the electrostatic field in the environmental effect that influences the molecular level alignment.

  15. Molecule formation by inverse predissociation. [in interstellar space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julienne, P. S.; Krauss, M.

    1973-01-01

    The general theory of inverse predissociation is described, and is applied to specific molecules. The list of molecules which can be formed by radiative association will be lengthened considerably by considering this phenomenon. Typical rate constants for diatoms will lie in the range 10 to the minus 16th power to 10 to the minus 20th power cu cm/sec/molecule, with the heavy atom molecules such as CN, CO, or NO generally having larger rates than the hydrides. An attempt is made to point out what molecular characteristics determine the radiative association rate and also to make estimates of what rates may be expected for various interstellar molecules. The formal theory is developed, and the molecular properties are discussed which determine the inverse predissociation rate. The details of the theory as applied to specific interstellar molecules are studied.

  16. Adsorption structure of water molecules on the Be(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yu; Li, Yanfang; Wang, Shuangxi; Zhang, Ping

    2014-06-07

    By using density functional theory calculations, we systematically investigate the adsorption of water molecules at different coverages on the Be(0001) surface. The coverage dependence of the prototype water structures and energetics for water adlayer growth are systematically studied. The structures, energetics, and electronic properties are calculated and compared with other available studies. Through our systematic investigations, we find that water molecules form clusters or chains on the Be(0001) surface at low coverages. When increasing the water coverage, water molecules tend to form a 2 × 2 hexagonal network on the Be(0001) surface.

  17. Mining for Molecules in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    Scientists are using the giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to go prospecting in a rich molecular cloud in our Milky Way Galaxy. They seek to discover new, complex molecules in interstellar space that may be precursors to life. The GBT and Molecules The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope and some molecules it has discovered. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF "Clouds like this one are the raw material for new stars and planets. We know that complex chemistry builds prebiotic molecules in such clouds long before the stars and planets are formed. There is a good chance that some of these interstellar molecules may find their way to the surface of young planets such as the early Earth, and provide a head start for the chemistry of life. For the first time, we now have the capability to make a very thorough and methodical search to find all the chemicals in the clouds," said Anthony Remijan, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). In the past three years, Remijan and his colleagues have used the GBT to discover ten new interstellar molecules, a feat unequalled in such a short time by any other team or telescope. The scientists discovered those molecules by looking specifically for them. However, they now are changing their strategy and casting a wide net designed to find whatever molecules are present, without knowing in advance what they'll find. In addition, they are making their data available freely to other scientists, in hopes of speeding the discovery process. The research team presented its plan to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in St. Louis, MO. As molecules rotate and vibrate, they emit radio waves at specific frequencies. Each molecule has a unique pattern of such frequencies, called spectral lines, that constitutes a "fingerprint" identifying that molecule. Laboratory tests can determine the pattern of spectral lines that identifies a specific molecule. Most past discoveries came from identifying a molecule's pattern in

  18. Reaction mechanism in the {sup 20}Ne+{sup 59}Co system at 3-7 MeV/nucleon, and observation of entrance-channel mass-asymmetry of the incomplete fusion fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Afzal Ansari, M.; Tomar, B. S.; Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R.; Das, S. K.

    2011-05-15

    Incomplete fusion of {sup 20}Ne with {sup 59}Co has been investigated at 3-7 MeV/nucleon using the measurement and analysis of excitation functions. The recoil-catcher technique followed by offline gamma-ray spectroscopy has been employed. Evaporation residues are found to have contributions from precursor decays, which have been separated out from the measured cumulative cross sections of evaporation residues. Measured independent cross sections are compared with PACE-2 predictions. The PACE-2 calculations are carried out for evaporation residues formed in complete fusion (CF), and the parameters are optimized so as to reproduce the cross section of evaporation residues produced exclusively in CF, e.g., xn and pxn products. With these parameters, the predicted CF cross sections for alpha emission products are calculated. Any substantial enhancement in the experimental cross section over the PACE-2 prediction is taken as a signature of incomplete fusion (ICF). The analysis indicates the occurrence of incomplete fusion involving the breakup of {sup 20}Ne into {sup 16}O + {sup 4}He and/or {sup 12}C + {sup 8}Be(2{alpha}) followed by fusion of one of the fragments with the target nucleus {sup 59}Co. These data also suggest that the probability of incomplete fusion increases with the projectile energy. Moreover, the ICF probability is found to increase with entrance-channel mass-asymmetry of the projectile-target systems.

  19. Geranyl diphosphate synthase molecules, and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Burke, Charles Cullen

    2008-06-24

    In one aspect, the present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules that each encode a geranyl diphosphate synthase protein, wherein each isolated nucleic acid molecule hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule consisting of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 under conditions of 5.times.SSC at 45.degree. C. for one hour. The present invention also provides isolated geranyl diphosphate synthase proteins, and methods for altering the level of expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase protein in a host cell.

  20. Widespread Discordance of Gene Trees with Species Tree in Drosophila: Evidence for Incomplete Lineage Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Daniel A; Eisen, Michael B

    2006-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship of the now fully sequenced species Drosophila erecta and D. yakuba with respect to the D. melanogaster species complex has been a subject of controversy. All three possible groupings of the species have been reported in the past, though recent multi-gene studies suggest that D. erecta and D. yakuba are sister species. Using the whole genomes of each of these species as well as the four other fully sequenced species in the subgenus Sophophora, we set out to investigate the placement of D. erecta and D. yakuba in the D. melanogaster species group and to understand the cause of the past incongruence. Though we find that the phylogeny grouping D. erecta and D. yakuba together is the best supported, we also find widespread incongruence in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, insertions and deletions, and gene trees. The time inferred to span the two key speciation events is short enough that under the coalescent model, the incongruence could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting. Consistent with the lineage-sorting hypothesis, substitutions supporting the same tree were spatially clustered. Support for the different trees was found to be linked to recombination such that adjacent genes support the same tree most often in regions of low recombination and substitutions supporting the same tree are most enriched roughly on the same scale as linkage disequilibrium, also consistent with lineage sorting. The incongruence was found to be statistically significant and robust to model and species choice. No systematic biases were found. We conclude that phylogenetic incongruence in the D. melanogaster species complex is the result, at least in part, of incomplete lineage sorting. Incomplete lineage sorting will likely cause phylogenetic incongruence in many comparative genomics datasets. Methods to infer the correct species tree, the history of every base in the genome, and comparative methods that control for and/or utilize this

  1. Widespread Discordance of Gene Trees with Species Tree inDrosophila: Evidence for Incomplete Lineage Sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, Daniel A.; Iyer, Venky N.; Moses, Alan M.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2006-08-28

    The phylogenetic relationship of the now fully sequencedspecies Drosophila erecta and D. yakuba with respect to the D.melanogaster species complex has been a subject of controversy. All threepossible groupings of the species have been reported in the past, thoughrecent multi-gene studies suggest that D. erecta and D. yakuba are sisterspecies. Using the whole genomes of each of these species as well as thefour other fully sequenced species in the subgenus Sophophora, we set outto investigate the placement of D. erecta and D. yakuba in the D.melanogaster species group and to understand the cause of the pastincongruence. Though we find that the phylogeny grouping D. erecta and D.yakuba together is the best supported, we also find widespreadincongruence in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, insertions anddeletions, and gene trees. The time inferred to span the two keyspeciation events is short enough that under the coalescent model, theincongruence could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting.Consistent with the lineage-sorting hypothesis, substitutions supportingthe same tree were spatially clustered. Support for the different treeswas found to be linked to recombination such that adjacent genes supportthe same tree most often in regions of low recombination andsubstitutions supporting the same tree are most enriched roughly on thesame scale as linkage disequilibrium, also consistent with lineagesorting. The incongruence was found to be statistically significant androbust to model and species choice. No systematic biases were found. Weconclude that phylogenetic incongruence in the D. melanogaster speciescomplex is the result, at least in part, of incomplete lineage sorting.Incomplete lineage sorting will likely cause phylogenetic incongruence inmany comparative genomics datasets. Methods to infer the correct speciestree, the history of every base in the genome, and comparative methodsthat control for and/or utilize this information will be

  2. Scaling of Reactive Transport in Fracture Networks with Incomplete Mixing: A Metapopulation Network Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaides, C.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.

    2011-12-01

    The study of networks as complex systems has revolutionized many disciplines in physics and the social and natural sciences. Recently, the focus of network science has shifted from the analysis of the network topology to the study of the dynamics of processes that take place on them. Here, we adopt a bosonic (metapopulation) network approach to characterize transport and reaction on fracture networks. In a bosonic network, nodes contain populations of particles, which may undertake contact processes within them. This coarse-grained conceptualization permits modeling of nonequilibrium phenomena such as incomplete mixing and kinetic reactions. Particles then move between connected nodes along links, with a rate that reflects the traffic patterns through the network. We generate fracture networks from realistic statistical properties of fracture density, orientation and aperture, and solve potential flow on the network for simple flow configurations. It is well known that the transport of passive particles with complete mixing at the nodes on a fracture network or a scale-free network is anomalous [1,2]. Here, we extend this analysis to account for incomplete mixing at the nodes by considering two types of particles, A and B, which come in contact at the nodes at a rate α (the mixing rate) to produce type-C particles: A+B-> 2C. In the limit of α -> ∞ we recover the instantaneous mixing case. Further, type-C particles decay into stable type-D particles at a rate λ : C→ D. As a result, we capture the interplay among the transport, mixing and reaction time scales on a fracture network. Our analysis demonstrates the strong dependence of global mixing and spreading on incomplete local mixing, and allows us to obtain robust scalings for the spatio-temporal distributions of particles.

  3. Incomplete Protection against Dengue Virus Type 2 Re-infection in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Forshey, Brett M.; Reiner, Robert C.; Olkowski, Sandra; Morrison, Amy C.; Espinoza, Angelica; Long, Kanya C.; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Casanova, Wilma; Wearing, Helen J.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Scott, Thomas W.; Stoddard, Steven T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nearly half of the world’s population is at risk for dengue, yet no licensed vaccine or anti-viral drug is currently available. Dengue is caused by any of four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1 through DENV-4), and infection by a DENV serotype is assumed to provide life-long protection against re-infection by that serotype. We investigated the validity of this fundamental assumption during a large dengue epidemic caused by DENV-2 in Iquitos, Peru, in 2010–2011, 15 years after the first outbreak of DENV-2 in the region. Methodology/Principal Findings We estimated the age-dependent prevalence of serotype-specific DENV antibodies from longitudinal cohort studies conducted between 1993 and 2010. During the 2010–2011 epidemic, active dengue cases were identified through active community- and clinic-based febrile surveillance studies, and acute inapparent DENV infections were identified through contact tracing studies. Based on the age-specific prevalence of DENV-2 neutralizing antibodies, the age distribution of DENV-2 cases was markedly older than expected. Homologous protection was estimated at 35.1% (95% confidence interval: 0%–65.2%). At the individual level, pre-existing DENV-2 antibodies were associated with an incomplete reduction in the frequency of symptoms. Among dengue cases, 43% (26/66) exhibited elevated DENV-2 neutralizing antibody titers for years prior to infection, compared with 76% (13/17) of inapparent infections (age-adjusted odds ratio: 4.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.1–17.7). Conclusions/Significance Our data indicate that protection from homologous DENV re-infection may be incomplete in some circumstances, which provides context for the limited vaccine efficacy against DENV-2 in recent trials. Further studies are warranted to confirm this phenomenon and to evaluate the potential role of incomplete homologous protection in DENV transmission dynamics. PMID:26848841

  4. Electron-excited molecule interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L.G. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the limited but significant knowledge to date on electron scattering from vibrationally/rotationally excited molecules and electron scattering from and electron impact ionization of electronically excited molecules is briefly summarized and discussed. The profound effects of the internal energy content of a molecule on its electron attachment properties are highlighted focusing in particular on electron attachment to vibrationally/rotationally and to electronically excited molecules. The limited knowledge to date on electron-excited molecule interactions clearly shows that the cross sections for certain electron-molecule collision processes can be very different from those involving ground state molecules. For example, optically enhanced electron attachment studies have shown that electron attachment to electronically excited molecules can occur with cross sections 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 7} times larger compared to ground state molecules. The study of electron-excited molecule interactions offers many experimental and theoretical challenges and opportunities and is both of fundamental and technological significance. 54 refs., 15 figs.

  5. Organic Molecules in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Zita

    2015-08-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are primitive samples from the asteroid belt, containing 3-5wt% organic carbon. The exogenous delivery of organic matter by carbonaceous meteorites may have contributed to the organic inventory of the early Earth. The majority (>70%) of the meteoritic organic material consist of insoluble organic matter (IOM) [1]. The remaining meteoritic organic material (<30%) consists of a rich organic inventory of soluble organic compounds, including key compounds important in terrestrial biochemistry [2-4]. Different carbonaceous meteorites contain soluble organic molecules with different abundances and distributions, which may reflect the extension of aqueous alteration or thermal metamorphism on the meteorite parent bodies. Extensive aqueous alteration on the meteorite parent body may result on 1) the decomposition of α-amino acids [5, 6]; 2) synthesis of β- and γ-amino acids [2, 6-9]; 3) higher relative abundances of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) [6, 10]; and 4) higher L-enantiomer excess (Lee) value of isovaline [6, 11, 12].The soluble organic content of carbonaceous meteorites may also have a contribution from Fischer-Tropsch/Haber-Bosch type gas-grain reactions after the meteorite parent body cooled to lower temperatures [13, 14].The analysis of the abundances and distribution of the organic molecules present in meteorites helps to determine the physical and chemical conditions of the early solar system, and the prebiotic organic compounds available on the early Earth.[1] Cody and Alexander (2005) GCA 69, 1085. [2] Cronin and Chang (1993) in: The Chemistry of Life’s Origin. pp. 209-258. [3] Martins and Sephton (2009) in: Amino acids, peptides and proteins in organic chemistry. pp. 1-42. [4] Martins (2011) Elements 7, 35. [5] Botta et al. (2007) MAPS 42, 81. [6] Martins et al. (2015) MAPS, in press. [7] Cooper and Cronin (1995) GCA 59, 1003. [8] Glavin et al. (2006) MAPS. 41, 889. [9] Glavin et al. (2011) MAPS 45, 1948. [10

  6. Reconsidering Olanzapine as a Possible Culprit for Drug Fever, defying "Incomplete Neuromalignant Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Georges, Alan; Fitz-Gerald, Mary Jo

    2016-01-01

    This case is important because it is the first time Olanzapine-induced fever has been described in the absence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. In the context of the available antipsychotics with the atypical agents dominating the pool, only few of those are known to be well tolerated among the patients. Fever may be looked at by the physicians as a minor problem yet, it can be disabling to the large set of patients. Fever was not considerably listed as one of the side effects for Olanzapine and should not be confused with the incomplete neuromalignant syndrome. PMID:27598893

  7. Improving efficiency and robustness of the doubly robust estimator for a population mean with incomplete data.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weihua; Tsiatis, Anastasios A; Davidian, Marie

    2009-09-01

    Considerable recent interest has focused on doubly robust estimators for a population mean response in the presence of incomplete data, which involve models for both the propensity score and the regression of outcome on covariates. The usual doubly robust estimator may yield severely biased inferences if neither of these models is correctly specified and can exhibit nonnegligible bias if the estimated propensity score is close to zero for some observations. We propose alternative doubly robust estimators that achieve comparable or improved performance relative to existing methods, even with some estimated propensity scores close to zero. PMID:20161511

  8. Incomplete international climate agreements: Optimal carbon taxes, market failures and welfare effects

    SciTech Connect

    Golombek, R.; Braten, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides an empirical study of optimal carbon taxes and welfare effects under incomplete international climate agreements when there are market failures in the cooperating countries. The objective of the group of countries taking part in the international climate agreement is to design carbon taxes that maximize their aggregate net income, subject to a constraint on global CO{sub 2} emissions. We use a numerical energy model to study scenarios that differ with respect to types of CO{sub 2} taxes and countries taking part in the climate agreement. We also discuss the impact on regional net income following from different international climate agreements. 26 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Mixed constraint satisfaction: A framework for decision problems under incomplete knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Fargier, H.; Lang, J.; Schiex, T.

    1996-12-31

    Constraint satisfaction is a powerful tool for representing and solving decision problems with complete knowledge about the world. We extend the CSP framework so as to represent decision problems under incomplete knowledge. The basis of the extension consists in a distinction between controllable and uncontrollable variables - hence the terminology {open_quotes}mixed CSP{close_quotes} - and a {open_quotes}solution{close_quotes} gives actually a conditional decision. We study the complexity of deciding the consistency of a mixed CSP. As the problem is generally intractable, we propose an algorithm for finding an approximate solution.

  10. Stabilization of the stochastically forced equilibria for nonlinear discrete-time systems with incomplete information

    SciTech Connect

    Ryashko, Lev

    2015-11-30

    A stabilization problem of the equilibrium of stochastically forced nonlinear discrete-time system with incomplete information is considered. Our approach uses a regulator which synthesizes the required stochastic sensitivity of the equilibrium. Mathematically, this problem is reduced to the solution of some quadratic matrix equations. A description of attainability sets and algorithms for regulators design is given. The general results are applied to the suppression of unwanted large-amplitude oscillations around the equilibria of the stochastically forced Verhulst model with noisy observations.

  11. Incomplete fusion studies near Coulomb barrier: a modified sum rule model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhujang, Bhushan; Das, Pragya; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, R.; Tomar, B. S.

    2013-03-01

    The excitation functions of the evaporation residues, produced via complete fusion and incomplete fusion reactions of 11B + 122Sn, were measured for the projectile energy of around 6 MeV/A by the off-line gamma spectrometry. The cross sections have been compared with the statistical model code Projected Angular Momentum Coupled Evaporation (PACE4). The original sum rule model underestimated the ICF cross sections. We therefore made modification in the model mainly to incorporate the energy dependence in the definition of critical angular momentum. Using this modified sum rule model, we found a significant improvement in the results.

  12. Peritoneal seeding following incomplete resection of mixed epithelial stromal tumor of the kidney: First case report

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Judy A.; Laryea, Jonathan; Gokden, Neriman; Kamel, Mohamed H.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed epithelial stromal tumor (MEST) is rare and typically benign renal cystic neoplasm that cannot be clinically distinguished from cystic renal cell carcinoma. Its mainstay course of diagnosis and treatment remains surgical excision. Recurrence and malignant transformation is rare but has previously been described. To our best knowledge, we present the first case of peritoneal seeding resulting in a paracolonic MEST following incomplete resection in a patient with benign MEST. This signifies a new pathological behavior for MEST, predominantly, a benign kidney tumor. In addition, documentation with more cases of MEST is needed to further understand its pathogenesis, clinical behavior, malignant potential, and optimal management. PMID:26834418

  13. Mining for Molecules in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    Scientists are using the giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to go prospecting in a rich molecular cloud in our Milky Way Galaxy. They seek to discover new, complex molecules in interstellar space that may be precursors to life. The GBT and Molecules The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope and some molecules it has discovered. CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF "Clouds like this one are the raw material for new stars and planets. We know that complex chemistry builds prebiotic molecules in such clouds long before the stars and planets are formed. There is a good chance that some of these interstellar molecules may find their way to the surface of young planets such as the early Earth, and provide a head start for the chemistry of life. For the first time, we now have the capability to make a very thorough and methodical search to find all the chemicals in the clouds," said Anthony Remijan, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). In the past three years, Remijan and his colleagues have used the GBT to discover ten new interstellar molecules, a feat unequalled in such a short time by any other team or telescope. The scientists discovered those molecules by looking specifically for them. However, they now are changing their strategy and casting a wide net designed to find whatever molecules are present, without knowing in advance what they'll find. In addition, they are making their data available freely to other scientists, in hopes of speeding the discovery process. The research team presented its plan to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in St. Louis, MO. As molecules rotate and vibrate, they emit radio waves at specific frequencies. Each molecule has a unique pattern of such frequencies, called spectral lines, that constitutes a "fingerprint" identifying that molecule. Laboratory tests can determine the pattern of spectral lines that identifies a specific molecule. Most past discoveries came from identifying a molecule's pattern in

  14. Experimental study of incomplete fusion reactions in the O16 + Te130 system below 6 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Devendra P.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Unnati, Sharma, M. K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2014-02-01

    Background: The measurement and analysis of excitation functions may be used as an important tool to understand incomplete fusion reaction dynamics. Purpose: Several studies have been carried out to study incomplete fusion reactions at low energies, but a clear picture of incomplete fusion reaction processes at energies below 6 MeV/nucleon has yet to emerge. Further, there is no theoretical model which may give a good representation of incomplete fusion processes. Method: Off-line γ-ray spectrometry has been used to measure the excitation functions in the 16O+130Te system at energies ≈3-6 MeV/nucleon. Results: Excitation functions for five reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion processes in the O16 + Te130 system have been measured. Measured cross-sections have been compared with the predictions of the statistical model code pace4. A significant enhancement in the measured excitation functions compared to theoretical predictions for α-emitting channels has been observed and is attributed to incomplete fusion processes. The relative strength of incomplete fusion has been found to increase with projectile energy. In the case of the Xe133(3αn) channel, the isomeric cross-section ratios have been deduced and found to increase rapidly with beam energy, indicating the importance of imparted angular momentum. The angular momentum at different energies has also been calculated. The analysis of the data indicates that incomplete fusion is associated even for angular momentum values smaller than the critical angular momentum for complete fusion. The results have been discussed in terms of the α-cluster structure of the projectile for various fusion reactions. Conclusions: It may be concluded that, apart from complete fusion, incomplete fusion processes are of greater importance even at energies as low as ≈3-6 MeV/nucleon, where fusion evaporation channels are expected to be dominant. The measured isomeric cross-section ratio for the

  15. Single molecule tracking

    DOEpatents

    Shera, E.B.

    1987-10-07

    A detection system is provided for identifying individual particles or molecules having characteristic emission in a flow train of the particles in a flow cell. A position sensitive sensor is located adjacent the flow cell in a position effective to detect the emissions from the particles within the flow cell and to assign spatial and temporal coordinates for the detected emissions. A computer is then enabled to predict spatial and temporal coordinates for the particle in the flow train as a function of a first detected emission. Comparison hardware or software then compares subsequent detected spatial and temporal coordinates with the predicted spatial and temporal coordinates to determine whether subsequently detected emissions originate from a particle in the train of particles. In one embodiment, the particles include fluorescent dyes which are excited to fluoresce a spectrum characteristic of the particular particle. Photons are emitted adjacent at least one microchannel plate sensor to enable spatial and temporal coordinates to be assigned. The effect of comparing detected coordinates with predicted coordinates is to define a moving sample volume which effectively precludes the effects of background emissions. 3 figs.

  16. Single molecule tracking

    DOEpatents

    Shera, E. Brooks

    1988-01-01

    A detection system is provided for identifying individual particles or molecules having characteristic emission in a flow train of the particles in a flow cell. A position sensitive sensor is located adjacent the flow cell in a position effective to detect the emissions from the particles within the flow cell and to assign spatial and temporal coordinates for the detected emissions. A computer is then enabled to predict spatial and temporal coordinates for the particle in the flow train as a function of a first detected emission. Comparison hardware or software then compares subsequent detected spatial and temporal coordinates with the predicted spatial and temporal coordinates to determine whether subsequently detected emissions originate from a particle in the train of particles. In one embodiment, the particles include fluorescent dyes which are excited to fluoresce a spectrum characteristic of the particular particle. Photones are emitted adjacent at least one microchannel plate sensor to enable spatial and temporal coordinates to be assigned. The effect of comparing detected coordinates with predicted coordinates is to define a moving sample volume which effectively precludes the effects of background emissions.

  17. Electrochromic Graphene Molecules

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ji, Zhiqiang; Doorn, Stephen K.; Sykora, Milan

    2015-03-13

    Polyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, also called Graphene Molecules (GMs), with chemical composition C132H36(COOH)2 were synthesized in-situ on the surface of transparent nanocrystaline indium tin oxide (nc-ITO) electrodes. Their electronic structure was studied electrochemically and spectro-electrochemically. Variations in the potential applied onto the nc-ITO/GM electrodes induce only small changes in the observed current but they produce dramatic changes in the absorption of the GMs, which are associated with their oxidation and reduction. Analysis of the absorption changes using modified Nernst equation is used to determine standard potentials associated with the individual charge transfer processes. For the GMs prepared here these were foundmore » to be E1,ox 0 = 0.77± 0.01 V and E2,ox 0 = 1.24 ± 0.02 V vs. NHE for the first and second oxidation and E1,red 0 = -1.50 ± 0.04 V for the first reduction. The charge transfer processes are found to be non-ideal. The non-ideality factors associated with the oxidation and reduction processes suggest presence of strong interactions between the GM redox centers. Under the conditions of potential cycling GMs show rapid (seconds) color change with high contrast and stability. An electrochromic application is demonstrated wherein the GMs are used as the optically active component.« less

  18. Strongly interacting ultracold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadway, Bryce; Yan, Bo

    2016-08-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the study of strongly interacting systems of dipolar molecules. Heteronuclear molecules feature large and tunable electric dipole moments, which give rise to long-range and anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions. Ultracold samples of dipolar molecules with long-range interactions offer a unique platform for quantum simulations and the study of correlated many-body physics. We provide an introduction to the physics of dipolar quantum gases, both electric and magnetic, and summarize the multipronged efforts to bring dipolar molecules into the quantum regime. We discuss in detail the recent experimental progress in realizing and studying strongly interacting systems of polar molecules trapped in optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the study of interacting spin systems and non-equilibrium quantum magnetism. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of the future prospects for studies of strongly interacting dipolar molecules.

  19. Strongly interacting ultracold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadway, Bryce; Yan, Bo

    2016-08-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the study of strongly interacting systems of dipolar molecules. Heteronuclear molecules feature large and tunable electric dipole moments, which give rise to long-range and anisotropic dipole–dipole interactions. Ultracold samples of dipolar molecules with long-range interactions offer a unique platform for quantum simulations and the study of correlated many-body physics. We provide an introduction to the physics of dipolar quantum gases, both electric and magnetic, and summarize the multipronged efforts to bring dipolar molecules into the quantum regime. We discuss in detail the recent experimental progress in realizing and studying strongly interacting systems of polar molecules trapped in optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the study of interacting spin systems and non-equilibrium quantum magnetism. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of the future prospects for studies of strongly interacting dipolar molecules.

  20. NMR studies of oriented molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, S.W.

    1981-11-01

    Deuterium and proton magnetic resonance are used in experiments on a number of compounds which either form liquid crystal mesophases themselves or are dissolved in a liquid crystal solvent. Proton multiple quantum NMR is used to simplify complicated spectra. The theory of nonselective multiple quantum NMR is briefly reviewed. Benzene dissolved in a liquid crystal are used to demonstrate several outcomes of the theory. Experimental studies include proton and deuterium single quantum (..delta..M = +-1) and proton multiple quantum spectra of several molecules which contain the biphenyl moiety. 4-Cyano-4'-n-pentyl-d/sub 11/-biphenyl (5CB-d/sub 11/) is studied as a pure compound in the nematic phase. The obtained chain order parameters and dipolar couplings agree closely with previous results. Models for the effective symmetry of the biphenyl group in 5CB-d/sub 11/ are tested against the experimental spectra. The dihedral angle, defined by the planes containing the rings of the biphenyl group, is found to be 30 +- 2/sup 0/ for 5DB-d/sub 11/. Experiments are also described for 4,4'-d/sub 2/-biphenyl, 4,4' - dibromo-biphenyl, and unsubstituted biphenyl.