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Sample records for momentum transfer coefficients

  1. Measurement of Momentum Transfer Coefficients for H2, N2, CO, and CO2 Incident Upon Spacecraft Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Steven R.; Hoffbauer, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients were made for gas-surface interactions between the Space Shuttle reaction control jet plume gases and the solar panel array materials to be used on the International Space Station. Actual conditions were simulated using a supersonic nozzle source to produce beams of the gases with approximately the same average velocities as the gases have in the Shuttle plumes. Samples of the actual solar panel materials were mounted on a torsion balance that was used to measure the force exerted on the surfaces by the molecular beams. Measurements were made with H2, N2, CO, and CO2 incident upon the solar array material, Kapton, SiO2-coated Kapton, and Z93-coated Al. The measurements showed that molecules scatter from the surfaces more specularly as the angle of incidence increases and that the scattering behavior has a strong dependence upon both the incident gas and velocity. These results show that for some technical surfaces the simple assumption of diffuse scattering with complete thermal accommodation is entirely inadequate. It is clear that additional measurements are required to produce models that more accurately describe the gas-surface interactions encountered in rarefied flow regimes.

  2. Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients for H2, N2, CO and CO2 incident upon spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, S. R.; Hoffbauer, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients were made for gas-surface interactions between the Space Shuttle reaction control jet plume gases and the solar panel array materials to be used on the International Space Station. Actual conditions were simulated using a supersonic nozzle source to produce beams of the gases with approximately the same average velocities as the gases have in the Shuttle plumes. Samples of the actual solar panel materials were mounted on a torsion balance that was used to measure the force exerted on the surfaces by the molecular beams. Measurements were made with H2, N2, CO, and CO2 incident upon the solar array material, Kapton, SiO2-coated Kapton, and Z93-coated Al. The measurements showed that molecules scatter from the surfaces more specularly as the angle of incidence increases and that scattering behavior has a strong dependence upon both the incident gas and velocity. These results show that for some technical surfaces the simple assumption of diffuse scattering with complete thermal accommodation is entirely inadequate. It is clear that additional measurements are required to produce models that more accurately describe the gas-surface interactions encountered in rarefied flow regimes.

  3. Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients for H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2} incident upon spacecraft surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, S.R.; Hoffbauer, M.A.

    1997-07-16

    Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients were made for gas-surface interactions between the Space Shuttle reaction control jet plume gases and the solar panel array materials to be used on the International Space Station. Actual conditions were simulated using a supersonic nozzle source to produce beams of the gases with approximately the same average velocities as the gases have in the Shuttle plumes. Samples of the actual solar panel materials were mounted on a torsion balance that was used to measure the force exerted on the surfaces by the molecular beams. Measurements were made with H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} incident upon the solar array material, Kapton, SiO{sub 2}-coated Kapton, and Z93-coated Al. The measurements showed that molecules scatter from the surfaces more specularly as the angle of incidence increases and that scattering behavior has a strong dependence upon both the incident gas and velocity. These results show that for some technical surfaces the simple assumption of diffuse scattering with complete thermal accommodation is entirely inadequate. It is clear that additional measurements are required to produce models that more accurately describe the gas-surface interactions encountered in rarefied flow regimes.

  4. Analyzing powers and proton spin transfer coefficients in the elastic scattering of 800 MeV polarized protons from an L-type polarized deuteron target at small momentum transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.L.

    1986-10-01

    Analyzing powers and spin transfer coefficients which describe the elastic scattering of polarized protons from a polarized deuteron target have been measured. The energy of the proton beam was 800 MeV and data were taken at laboratory scattering angles of 7, 11, 14, and 16.5 degrees. One analyzing power was also measured at 180 degrees. Three linearly independent orientations of the beam polarization were used and the target was polarized parallel and antiparallel to the direction of the beam momentum. The data were taken with the high resolution spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (experiment 685). The results are compared with multiple scattering predictions based on Dirac representations of the nucleon-nucleon scattering matrices. 27 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Angular momentum conservation in dipolar energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong; Knight, Troy E; McCusker, James K

    2011-12-23

    Conservation of angular momentum is a familiar tenet in science but has seldom been invoked to understand (or predict) chemical processes. We have developed a general formalism based on Wigner's original ideas concerning angular momentum conservation to interpret the photo-induced reactivity of two molecular donor-acceptor assemblies with physical properties synthetically tailored to facilitate intramolecular energy transfer. Steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic data establishing excited-state energy transfer from a rhenium(I)-based charge-transfer state to a chromium(III) acceptor can be fully accounted for by Förster theory, whereas the corresponding cobalt(III) adduct does not undergo an analogous reaction despite having a larger cross-section for dipolar coupling. Because this pronounced difference in reactivity is easily explained within the context of the angular momentum conservation model, this relatively simple construct may provide a means for systematizing a broad range of chemical reactions.

  6. Ultrafast angular momentum transfer in multisublattice ferrimagnets.

    PubMed

    Bergeard, N; López-Flores, V; Halté, V; Hehn, M; Stamm, C; Pontius, N; Beaurepaire, E; Boeglin, C

    2014-03-11

    Femtosecond laser pulses can be used to induce ultrafast changes of the magnetization in magnetic materials. However, one of the unsolved questions is that of conservation of the total angular momentum during the ultrafast demagnetization. Here we report the ultrafast transfer of angular momentum during the first hundred femtoseconds in ferrimagnetic Co0.8Gd0.2 and Co0.74Tb0.26 films. Using time-resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism allowed for time-resolved determination of spin and orbital momenta for each element. We report an ultrafast quenching of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and show that at early times the demagnetization in ferrimagnetic alloys is driven by the local transfer of angular momenta between the two exchange-coupled sublattices while the total angular momentum stays constant. In Co0.74Tb0.26 we have observed a transfer of the total angular momentum to an external bath, which is delayed by ~150 fs.

  7. Momentum transfer dependence of generalized parton distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Neetika

    2016-11-01

    We revisit the model for parametrization of the momentum dependence of nucleon generalized parton distributions in the light of recent MRST measurements of parton distribution functions (A.D. Martin et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 63, 189 (2009)). Our parametrization method with a minimum set of free parameters give a sufficiently good description of data for Dirac and Pauli electromagnetic form factors of proton and neutron at small and intermediate values of momentum transfer. We also calculate the GPDs for up- and down-quarks by decomposing the electromagnetic form factors for the nucleon using the charge and isospin symmetry and also study the evolution of GPDs to a higher scale. We further investigate the transverse charge densities for both the unpolarized and transversely polarized nucleon and compare our results with Kelly's distribution.

  8. Estimation of tangential momentum accommodation coefficient using molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, George Wayne

    The Tangential Momentum Accommodation Coefficient (TMAC) is used to improve the accuracy of fluid flow calculations in the slip flow regime. Under such conditions the continuum assumption that a fluid velocity at a solid surface is equal to the surface velocity is inaccurate because relatively significant fluid "slip" occurs at the surface. In this work, Molecular Dynamics techniques are used to study the impacts of individual gas atoms upon solid surfaces to understand how approach velocity, crystal geometry and interatomic forces affect the scattering of the gas atoms, specifically from the perspective of tangential momentum. The gas - solid impacts were modeled using Lennard Jones potentials. Solid surfaces were modeled with approximately 3 atoms wide by 3 atoms deep by 40 or more atoms long. The crystal surface was modeled as a Face Centered Cubic (100). The gas was modeled as individual free gas atoms. Gas approach angles were varied from 10° to 70° from normal. Gas speed was either specified directly or by way of a ratio relationship with the Lennard-Jones energy potential (Energy Ratio). For each impact the initial and final tangential momenta were determined and after a series of many impacts, a value of TMAC was calculated for those conditions. The modeling was validated with available experimental data for He gas atoms at 1770 m/s impacting Cu over angles ranging from 10° to 70°. The model agreed within 3% of the experimental values and correctly predicted that the coefficient changes with angle of approach. Molecular Dynamics results estimate TMAC values from a high of 1.2 to a low of 0.25, generally estimating a higher coefficient at the smaller angles. TMAC values above 1.0 indicate backscattering, which has been experimentally observed in numerous instances. Increasing the Energy Ratio above a value of 5 tends to decrease the coefficient at all angles. Adsorbed layers atop a surface influence the coefficient similar to their Energy Ratio. The

  9. Polarisation Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, David Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment E99-114 comprised a series of measurements to explore proton Compton scattering at high momentum transfer. For the first time, the polarisation transfer observables in the p ($\\vec{γ}$, γ' \\vec{p}$) reaction were measured in the GeV energy range, where it is believed that quark-gluon degrees of freedom begin to dominate. The experiment utilised a circularly polarised photon beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target, with the scattered photon and recoil proton detected in a lead-glass calorimeter and a magnetic spectrometer, respectively.

  10. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.

    PubMed

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K).

  11. Ion momentum and energy transfer rates for charge exchange collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J.; Banks, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    The rates of momentum and energy transfer have been obtained for charge exchange collisions between ion and neutral gases having arbitrary Maxwellian temperatures and bulk transport velocities. The results are directly applicable to the F-region of the ionosphere where 0+ - 0 charge is the dominant mechanism affecting ion momentum and energy transfer.

  12. Exclusive Reactions at High Momentum Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoler, Paul

    2008-03-01

    Hard exclusive scattering at JLab / P. Kroll -- AdS/CFT and exclusive processes in QCD / S. J. Brodsky and G. F. de Téramond -- Hadron structure matters in collisions at high energy and momentum / A. W. Thomas -- Inclusive perspectives / P. Hoyer -- Fitting DVCS at NLO and beyond / K. Kumericki, D. Müller and K. Passek-Kumericki -- Spin-orbit correlations and single-spin asymmetries / M. Burkardt -- Electroproduction of soft pions at large momentum transfers / V. M. Braun, D. Yu. Ivanov and A. Peters -- Color transparency: 33 years and still running / M. Strikman -- Meson clouds and nucleon electromagnetic form factors / G. A. Miller -- Covariance, dynamics and symmetries, and hadron form factors / M. S. Bhagwat, I. C. Cloët and C. D. Roberts -- N to [symbol] electromagnetic and axial form factors in full QCD / C. Alexandrou -- Real and virtual compton scattering in perturbative QCD / C.-R. Ji and R. Thomson -- Deeply virtual compton scattering at Jefferson Lab / F. Sabatie -- DVCS at HERMES: recent results / F. Ellinghaus -- Deeply virtual compton scattering with CLAS / F. X. Girod -- Deeply virtual compton scattering off the neutron at JLab Hall A / M. Mazouz -- The future DVCS experiments in Hall A at JLab / J. Roche -- Deeply virtual compton scattering with CLAS12 / L. Elouadrhiri -- Quark helicity flip and the transverse spin dependence of inclusive DIS / A. Afanasev, M. Strikman and C. Weiss -- Deeply virtual pseudoscalar meson production / V. Kubarovsky and P. Stoler -- Exclusive p[symbol] electroproduction on the proton: GPDs or not GPDs? / M. Guidal and S. Morrow -- p[symbol] transverse target spin asymmetry at HERMES / A. Airapetian -- Electroproduction of ø(1020) mesons / J. P. Santoro and E. S. Smith -- Generalized parton distributions from hadronic observables / S. Ahmad ... [et al.] -- Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering / G. E. Hyde ... [et al.] -- Regge contributions to exclusive electro-production / A

  13. Droplet deposition and momentum transfer in annular flow

    SciTech Connect

    Fore, L.B.; Dukler, A.E.

    1995-09-01

    Entrainment and deposition in gas-liquid annular upflow are known to account for as much as 20% of the pressure gradient, through droplet accelerations in the core region. Momentum is transferred from the core when droplets decelerate upon impact with the liquid film. It is usually assumed that all of this momentum is transferred to the film, essentially driving the film upward in conjunction with interfacial friction. New data, obtained for annular gas-liquid upflow in a 5.08-cm-ID tube, are used in a momentum balance analysis to determine the mechanism of momentum transfer from depositing droplets. Measurements include the liquid film thickness, wall shear stress, pressure gradient, entrained liquid fraction, droplet deposition rate, droplet centerline axial velocity, and mass-average drop size for two gas-liquid systems. This analysis supports the idea that large droplets displace the film locally and decelerate primarily at the wall, effectively transferring negligible momentum to the liquid film.

  14. Momentum transfer in relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    Relativistic heavy ion charge-exchange reactions yield fragments (Delta-Z = + 1) whose longitudinal momentum distributions are downshifted by larger values than those associated with the remaining fragments (Delta-Z = 1, -2,...). Kinematics alone cannot account for the observed downshifts; therefore, an additional contribution from collision dynamics must be included. In this work, an optical model description of collision momentum transfer is used to estimate the additional dynamical momentum downshift. Good agreement between theoretical estimates and experimental data is obtained.

  15. Energy and Momentum Transfer from Saturn's Magnetosphere to Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledvina, S. A.; Brecht, S. H.; Bell, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Knowing the energy and momentum flowing into Titan's atmosphere is critical to understanding the structure and dynamics of that atmosphere. The goal of this research will be to develop a deeper understanding of energy and momentum transfer from Saturn's magnetosphere into the neutral atmosphere of Titan. A hybrid particle code is used to examine the energy and momentum transferred to Titans atmosphere by ion precipitation and electron currents. The code includes models representing Titan's ion-neutral ionospheric chemistry, Hall and Pederson conductivities, ion-neutral collisions and atmospheric densities and winds from the TGITM atmospheric code. Energy and momentum maps will be created showing the energy and momentum transferred to the neutral atmosphere as functions of latitude, longitude and altitude.

  16. Orbital-angular-momentum transfer to optically levitated microparticles in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazilu, Michael; Arita, Yoshihiko; Vettenburg, Tom; Auñón, Juan M.; Wright, Ewan M.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate the transfer of orbital angular momentum to an optically levitated microparticle in vacuum. The microparticle is placed within a Laguerre-Gaussian beam and orbits the annular beam profile with increasing angular velocity as the air drag coefficient is reduced. We explore the particle dynamics as a function of the topological charge of the levitating beam. Our results reveal that there is a fundamental limit to the orbital angular momentum that may be transferred to a trapped particle, dependent upon the beam parameters and inertial forces present.

  17. Momentum transfer during the impact of granular matter with inclined sliding surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyner, Anne; Deshpande, Vikram; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    2017-09-01

    Increasing the inclination of a rigid surface that is impacted by a collimated granular flow reduces the fraction of granular matter momentum transferred to the surface. Recent studies have shown that the momentum reduction depends upon a frictional interaction between the granular flow and the impacted surface. High coefficient of friction surfaces suffer significantly more momentum transfer than predicted by resolution of the incident momentum onto the inclined plane. This discovery has raised the possibility that inclined surfaces with very low friction coefficients might reduce the impulsive transferred by the impact of high velocity granular matter. Here the use of a lubricated sliding plate is investigated as a means for reducing interfacial friction and impulse transfer to an inclined surface. The study uses a combination of experimental testing and particle-based simulations to investigate impulse transfer to rigid aluminum surfaces inclined either perpendicular or at 53° to synthetic sand that was impulsively accelerated to a velocity of 350-500 m/s. The study shows that impact of this sand with lubricated plates attached to an inclined surface rapidly accelerates them to a velocity of about 55-70 m/s, and reduces the impulse transferred to the inclined surface below. The reduction of impulse by this approach is comparable to that achieved by changing the inclination of the surface.

  18. Momentum transfer using chirped standing-wave fields: Bragg scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Malinovsky, Vladimir S.; Berman, Paul R.

    2003-08-01

    We consider momentum transfer using frequency-chirped standing-wave fields. Atom-beam splitter and mirror schemes based on Bragg scattering are presented. It is shown that a predetermined number of photon momenta can be transferred to the atoms in a single interaction zone.

  19. Momentum transfer to rotating magnetized plasma from gun plasma injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamim, Imran; Hassam, A. B.; Ellis, R. F.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Phillips, M. W.

    2006-11-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the penetration and momentum coupling of a gun-injected plasma slug into a rotating magnetized plasma. An experiment along these lines is envisioned for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)] using a coaxial plasma accelerator gun developed by HyperV Technologies Corp. [F. D. Witherspoon et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, LP1-87 (2005)]. The plasma gun would be located in the axial midplane and fired off-axis into the rotating MCX plasma annulus. The numerical simulation is set up so that the initial momentum in the injected plasma slug is of the order of the initial momentum of the target plasma. Several numerical firings are done into the cylindrical rotating plasma. Axial symmetry is assumed. The slug is seen to penetrate readily and deform into a mushroom, characteristic of interchange deformations. It is found that up to 25% of the momentum in the slug can be transferred to the background plasma in one pass across a cylindrical chord. For the same initial momentum, a high-speed low density slug gives more momentum transfer than a low-speed high density slug. Details of the numerical simulations and a scaling study are presented.

  20. Momentum transfer to rotating magnetized plasma from gun plasma injection

    SciTech Connect

    Shamim, Imran; Hassam, A. B.; Ellis, R. F.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Phillips, M. W.

    2006-11-15

    Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the penetration and momentum coupling of a gun-injected plasma slug into a rotating magnetized plasma. An experiment along these lines is envisioned for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)] using a coaxial plasma accelerator gun developed by HyperV Technologies Corp. [F. D. Witherspoon et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, LP1 87 (2005)]. The plasma gun would be located in the axial midplane and fired off-axis into the rotating MCX plasma annulus. The numerical simulation is set up so that the initial momentum in the injected plasma slug is of the order of the initial momentum of the target plasma. Several numerical firings are done into the cylindrical rotating plasma. Axial symmetry is assumed. The slug is seen to penetrate readily and deform into a mushroom, characteristic of interchange deformations. It is found that up to 25% of the momentum in the slug can be transferred to the background plasma in one pass across a cylindrical chord. For the same initial momentum, a high-speed low density slug gives more momentum transfer than a low-speed high density slug. Details of the numerical simulations and a scaling study are presented.

  1. Spin angular momentum transfer from TEM00 focused Gaussian beams to negative refractive index spherical particles

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Leonardo A.; Hernández-Figueroa, Hugo E.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate optical torques over absorbent negative refractive index spherical scatterers under the influence of linear and circularly polarized TEM00 focused Gaussian beams, in the framework of the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory with the integral localized approximation. The fundamental differences between optical torques due to spin angular momentum transfer in positive and negative refractive index optical trapping are outlined, revealing the effect of the Mie scattering coefficients in one of the most fundamental properties in optical trapping systems. PMID:21833372

  2. Momentum Transfer in a Spinning Fuel Tank Filled with Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peugeot, John W.; Dorney, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Transient spin-up and spin-down flows inside of spacecraft fuel tanks need to be analyzed in order to properly design spacecraft control systems. Knowledge of the characteristics of angular momentum transfer to and from the fuel is used to size the de-spin mechanism that places the spacecraft in a controllable in-orbit state. In previous studies, several analytical models of the spin-up process were developed. However, none have accurately predicted all of the flow dynamics. Several studies have also been conducted using Navier-Stokes based methods. These approaches have been much more successful at simulating the dynamic processes in a cylindrical container, but have not addressed the issue of momentum transfer. In the current study, the spin-up and spin-down of a fuel tank filled with gaseous xenon has been investigated using a three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes code. Primary interests have been concentrated on the spin-up/spin-down time constants and the initial torque imparted on the system. Additional focus was given to the relationship between the dominant flow dynamics and the trends in momentum transfer. Through the simulation of both a cylindrical and a spherical tank, it was revealed that the transfer of angular momentum is nonlinear at early times and tends toward a linear pattern at later times. Further investigation suggests that the nonlinear spin up is controlled by the turbulent transport of momentum, while the linear phase is controlled by a Coriolis driven (Ekman) flow along the outer wall. These results indicate that the spinup and spin-down processes occur more quickly in tanks with curved surfaces than those with defined top, bottom, and side walls. The results also provide insights for the design of spacecraft de-spin mechanisms.

  3. Transfer of optical orbital angular momentum to a bound electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmiegelow, Christian T.; Schulz, Jonas; Kaufmann, Henning; Ruster, Thomas; Poschinger, Ulrich G.; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand

    2016-10-01

    Photons can carry angular momentum, not only due to their spin, but also due to their spatial structure. This extra twist has been used, for example, to drive circular motion of microscopic particles in optical tweezers as well as to create vortices in quantum gases. Here we excite an atomic transition with a vortex laser beam and demonstrate the transfer of optical orbital angular momentum to the valence electron of a single trapped ion. We observe strongly modified selection rules showing that an atom can absorb two quanta of angular momentum from a single photon: one from the spin and another from the spatial structure of the beam. Furthermore, we show that parasitic ac-Stark shifts from off-resonant transitions are suppressed in the dark centre of vortex beams. These results show how light's spatial structure can determine the characteristics of light-matter interaction and pave the way for its application and observation in other systems.

  4. Nuclear Transparency in Large Momentum Transfer Quasielastic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardor, I.; Durrant, S.; Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Barton, D.; Bunce, G.; Carroll, A.; Christensen, N.; Courant, H.; Gushue, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Kosonovsky, E.; Mardor, Y.; Marshak, M.; Makdisi, Y.; Minor, E. D.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Piasetzky, E.; Roser, T.; Russell, J.; Sutton, C. S.; Tanaka, M.; White, C.; Wu, J.-Y.

    1998-12-01

    We measured simultaneously pp elastic and quasielastic \\(p,2p\\) scattering in hydrogen, deuterium, and carbon for momentum transfers of 4.8 to 6.2 \\(GeV/c\\)2 at incoming momenta of 5.9 and 7.5 GeV/c and center-of-mass scattering angles in the range θc.m. = 83.7°-90°. The nuclear transparency is defined as the ratio of the quasielastic cross section to the free pp cross section. At incoming momentum of 5.9 GeV/c, the transparency of carbon decreases by a factor of 2 from θc.m.~=85° to θc.m.~=89°. At the largest angle the transparency of carbon increases from 5.9 to 7.5 GeV/c by more than 50%. The transparency in deuterium does not depend on incoming momentum nor on θc.m..

  5. Transfer of optical orbital angular momentum to a bound electron

    PubMed Central

    Schmiegelow, Christian T.; Schulz, Jonas; Kaufmann, Henning; Ruster, Thomas; Poschinger, Ulrich G.; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Photons can carry angular momentum, not only due to their spin, but also due to their spatial structure. This extra twist has been used, for example, to drive circular motion of microscopic particles in optical tweezers as well as to create vortices in quantum gases. Here we excite an atomic transition with a vortex laser beam and demonstrate the transfer of optical orbital angular momentum to the valence electron of a single trapped ion. We observe strongly modified selection rules showing that an atom can absorb two quanta of angular momentum from a single photon: one from the spin and another from the spatial structure of the beam. Furthermore, we show that parasitic ac-Stark shifts from off-resonant transitions are suppressed in the dark centre of vortex beams. These results show how light's spatial structure can determine the characteristics of light–matter interaction and pave the way for its application and observation in other systems. PMID:27694805

  6. Transfer of optical orbital angular momentum to a bound electron.

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, Christian T; Schulz, Jonas; Kaufmann, Henning; Ruster, Thomas; Poschinger, Ulrich G; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand

    2016-10-03

    Photons can carry angular momentum, not only due to their spin, but also due to their spatial structure. This extra twist has been used, for example, to drive circular motion of microscopic particles in optical tweezers as well as to create vortices in quantum gases. Here we excite an atomic transition with a vortex laser beam and demonstrate the transfer of optical orbital angular momentum to the valence electron of a single trapped ion. We observe strongly modified selection rules showing that an atom can absorb two quanta of angular momentum from a single photon: one from the spin and another from the spatial structure of the beam. Furthermore, we show that parasitic ac-Stark shifts from off-resonant transitions are suppressed in the dark centre of vortex beams. These results show how light's spatial structure can determine the characteristics of light-matter interaction and pave the way for its application and observation in other systems.

  7. Nuclear effects in neutrino interactions at low momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miltenberger, Ethan

    This is a study to identify predicted effects of the carbon nucleus environment on neutrino - nucleus interactions with low momentum transfer. A large sample of neutrino interaction data collected by the MINERvA experiment is analyzed to show the distribution of charged hadron energy in a region with low momentum transfer. These distributions reveal a major discrepancy between the data and a popular interaction model with only the simplest Fermi gas nuclear effects. Detailed analysis of systematic uncertainties due to energy scale and resolution can account for only a little of the discrepancy. Two additional nuclear model effects, a suppression/screening effect (RPA), and the addition of a meson exchange current process (MEC), are shown to improve the description of the data.

  8. Nuclear Effects in Neutrino Interactions at Low Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Miltenberger, Ethan Ryan

    2015-05-01

    This is a study to identify predicted effects of the carbon nucleus environment on neutrino - nucleus interactions with low momentum transfer. A large sample of neutrino interaction data collected by the MINERvA experiment is analyzed to show the distribution of charged hadron energy in a region with low momentum transfer. These distributions reveal a major discrepancy between the data and a popular interaction model with only the simplest Fermi gas nuclear effects. Detailed analysis of systematic uncertainties due to energy scale and resolution can account for only a little of the discrepancy. Two additional nuclear model effects, a suppression/screening effect (RPA), and the addition of a meson exchange current process (MEC), are shown to improve the description of the data.

  9. Electroexcitation of the Δ+(1232) at low momentum transfer

    DOE PAGES

    Blomberg, A.; Anez, D.; Sparveris, N.; ...

    2016-07-05

    We report on new pmore » $$(e,e^\\prime p)\\pi^\\circ$$ measurements at the $$\\Delta^{+}(1232)$$ resonance at the low momentum transfer region. The mesonic cloud dynamics is predicted to be dominant and rapidly changing in this kinematic region offering a test bed for chiral effective field theory calculations. The new data explore the low $Q^2$ dependence of the resonant quadrupole amplitudes while extending the measurements of the Coulomb quadrupole amplitude to the lowest momentum transfer ever reached. The results disagree with predictions of constituent quark models and are in reasonable agreement with dynamical calculations that include pion cloud effects, chiral effective field theory and lattice calculations. The reported measurements suggest that improvement is required to the theoretical calculations and provide valuable input that will allow their refinements.« less

  10. Electroproduction of the {Delta}(1232) Resonance at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, V.V.; Adams, G.S.; Davidson, R.M.; Klusman, M.; Mukhopadhyay, N.C.; Napolitano, J.; Nozar, M.; Price, J.W.; Stoler, P.; Witkowski, M.; Bosted, P.; Armstrong, C.S.; Meekins, D.; Assamagan, K.; Avery, S.; Baker, O.K.; Eden, T.; Gaskell, D.; Gueye, P.; Hinton, W.; Keppel, C.; Madey, R.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Tang, L.; Ahmidouch, A.; Madey, R.; Kim, W.; Baker, O.K.; Burkert, V.; Carlini, R.; Dunne, J.; Ent, R.; Keppel, C.; Mack, D.; Mitchell, J.; Tang, L.; Wood, S.; Koltenuk, D.; Minehart, R.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Tadevosian, V.

    1999-01-01

    We studied the electroproduction of the {Delta}(1232) resonance via the reaction p(e,thinspe{sup {prime}}p){pi}{sup 0} at four-momentum transfers Q{sup 2}=2.8 and 4.0 GeV{sup 2} . This is the highest Q{sup 2} for which exclusive resonance electroproduction has ever been observed. Decay angular distributions for {Delta}{r_arrow}p{pi}{sup 0} were measured over a wide range of barycentric energies covering the resonance. The N{endash}{Delta} transition form factor G{sup {asterisk}}{sub M} and ratios of resonant multipoles E{sub 1+}/M{sub 1+} and S{sub 1+}/M{sub 1+} were extracted from the decay angular distributions. These ratios remain small, indicating that perturbative QCD is not applicable for this reaction at these momentum transfers. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }

  11. Kaon Photoproduction at Large Space-Like Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    O.K. Baker

    2000-05-12

    The ^1H(e,e'K^+)Lambda reaction was studied as a function of squared four-momentum transfer, Q^2, between 0.52 and 2.00 (GeV/c)^2, and of the virtual photon polarization parameter, epsilon, with high precision. The experiment, E93018, was carried out in Hall C at Jefferson Lab in 1996. The results of the experiment show the need for revision of the previous models of kaon electroproduction in this kinematic regime.

  12. Electroproduction of the N*(1535) Resonance at Large Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, V. M.; Goeckeler, M.; Kaltenbrunner, T.; Lenz, A.; Rohrwild, J.; Schaefer, A.; Warkentin, N.; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J. M.; Nakamura, Y.; Pleiter, D.; Rakow, P. E. L.; Schierholz, G.; Stueben, H.

    2009-08-14

    We report on the first lattice calculation of light-cone distribution amplitudes of the N*(1535) resonance, which are used to calculate the transition form factors at large momentum transfers using light-cone sum rules. In the region Q{sup 2}>2 GeV{sup 2}, where the light-cone expansion is expected to converge, the results appear to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Spin entanglement loss by local correlation transfer to the momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Lamata, Lucas; Leon, Juan; Salgado, David

    2006-05-15

    We show the decrease of spin-spin entanglement between two s=(1/2) fermions or two photons due to local transfer of correlations from the spin to the momentum degree of freedom of one of the two particles. We explicitly show how this phenomenon operates in the case where one of the two fermions (photons) passes through a local homogeneous magnetic field (optically active medium), losing its spin correlations with the other particle.

  14. Rates of mass, momentum, and energy transfer at the magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    Empirical estimates of the global rates of transfer of solar wind mass, tangential momentum, and energy at the Earth's magnetopause are presented for comparison against model estimates based on the four principal mechanisms that have been proposed to explain such transfer. The comparisons, although not quite conclusive, strongly favor a model that incorporates some combination of direct magnetic connection and anomalous cross field diffusion. An additional global constraint, the rate at which magnetic flux is cycled through the magnetospheric convection system, strongly suggests that direct magnetic connection plays a significant if not dominant role in the solar wind/magnetosphere interaction.

  15. Measuring Furnace/Sample Heat-Transfer Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosch, William R.; Fripp, Archibald L., Jr.; Debnam, William J., Jr.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    1993-01-01

    Complicated, inexact calculations now unnecessary. Device called HTX used to simulate and measure transfer of heat between directional-solidification crystal-growth furnace and ampoule containing sample of crystalline to be grown. Yields measurement data used to calculate heat-transfer coefficients directly, without need for assumptions or prior knowledge of physical properties of furnace, furnace gas, or specimen. Determines not only total heat-transfer coefficients but also coefficients of transfer of heat in different modes.

  16. Analysis of a heat transfer device for measuring film coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medrow, R. A.; Johnson, R. L.; Loomis, W. R.; Wedeven, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A heat transfer device consisting of a heated rotating cylinder in a bath was analyzed for its effectiveness to determine heat transfer coefficient of fluids. A time dependent analysis shows that the performance is insensitive to the value of heat transfer coefficient with the given rig configuration.

  17. Oblique impact: Projectile richochet, concomitant ejecta and momentum transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gault, Donald E.; Schultz, Peter H.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of oblique impact indicate that projectile richochet occurs for trajectory angles less than 30 deg and that the richocheted projectile, accompanied by some target material, are ejected at velocities that are a large fraction of the impact velocity. Because the probability of occurrence of oblique impact less than 30 deg on a planetary body is about one out of every four impact events, oblique impacts would seem to be a potential mechanism to provide a source of meteorites from even the largest atmosphere-free planetary bodies. Because the amount of richocheted target material cannot be determined from previous results, additional experiments in the Ames Vertical Gun laboratory were undertaken toward that purpose using pendulums; one to measure momentum of the richocheted projectile and concomitant target ejecta, and a second to measure the momentum transferred from projectile to target. These experiments are briefly discussed.

  18. Polarization Transfer in Proton Compton Scattering at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D.J.; Annand, J.R.M.; Mamyan, V.H.; Aniol, K.A.; Margaziotis, D.J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Camsonne, A.; Laveissiere, G.; Bosted, P.; Paschke, K.; Calarco, J.R.; Chang, G.C.; Horn, T.; Savvinov, N.; Chang, T.-H.; Danagoulian, A.; Nathan, A.M.; Roedelbronn, M.; Chen, J.-P.

    2005-06-24

    Compton scattering from the proton was investigated at s=6.9 GeV{sup 2} and t=-4.0 GeV{sup 2} via polarization transfer from circularly polarized incident photons. The longitudinal and transverse components of the recoil proton polarization were measured. The results are in disagreement with a prediction of perturbative QCD based on a two-gluon exchange mechanism, but agree well with a prediction based on a reaction mechanism in which the photon interacts with a single quark carrying the spin of the proton.

  19. Photo-induced Spin Angular Momentum Transfer into Antiferromagnetic Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fan; Fan, Yichun; Ma, Xin; Zhu, J.; Li, Q.; Ma, T. P.; Wu, Y. Z.; Chen, Z. H.; Zhao, H. B.; Luepke, Gunter; College of William and Mary Team; Department of Physics, Fudan University Team; Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University Team

    2014-03-01

    Spin angular momentum transfer into antiferromagnetic(AFM) insulator is observed in single crystalline Fe/CoO/MgO(001) heterostructure by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TR-MOKE). The transfer process is mediated by the Heisenberg exchange coupling between Fe and CoO spins. Below the Neel temperature(TN) of CoO, the fact that effective Gilbert damping parameter α is independent of external magnetic field and it is enhanced with respect to the intrinsic damping in Fe/MgO, indicates that the damping process involves both the intrinsic spin relaxation and the transfer of Fe spin angular momentum to CoO spins via FM-AFM exchange coupling and then into the lattice by spin-orbit coupling. The work at the College of William and Mary was sponsored by the Office of Naval Research. The work at Department of Physics, Fudan, was supported by NSFC. The work at Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan was supported by NSFC and NCET.

  20. Molecular-dynamics study on characteristics of energy and tangential momentum accommodation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Matsuda, Yu; Niimi, Tomohide

    2017-07-01

    Gas-surface interaction is studied by the molecular dynamics method to investigate qualitatively characteristics of accommodation coefficients. A large number of trajectories of gas molecules colliding to and scattering from a surface are statistically analyzed to calculate the energy (thermal) accommodation coefficient (EAC) and the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient (TMAC). Considering experimental measurements of the accommodation coefficients, the incident velocities are stochastically sampled to represent a bulk condition. The accommodation coefficients for noble gases show qualitative coincidence with experimental values. To investigate characteristics of these accommodation coefficients in detail, the gas-surface interaction is parametrically studied by varying the molecular mass of gas, the gas-surface interaction strength, and the molecular size of gas, one by one. EAC increases with increasing every parameter, while TMAC increases with increasing the interaction strength, but decreases with increasing the molecular mass and the molecular size. Thus, contradictory results in experimentally measured TMAC for noble gases could result from the difference between the surface conditions employed in the measurements in the balance among the effective parameters of molecular mass, interaction strength, and molecular size, due to surface roughness and/or adsorbed molecules. The accommodation coefficients for a thermo-fluid dynamics field with a temperature difference between gas and surface and a bulk flow at the same time are also investigated.

  1. Electroexcitation of the Δ+(1232) at low momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, A.; Anez, D.; Sparveris, N.; Sarty, A. J.; Paolone, M.; Gilad, S.; Higinbotham, D.; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Anderson, B.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J.; Arrington, J.; Averett, T.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Bai, X.; Beck, A.; Beck, S.; Bellini, V.; Benmokhtar, F.; Boeglin, W.; Camacho, C. M.; Camsonne, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, J. P.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Cisbani, E.; Dalton, M.; Deconinck, W.; Defurne, M.; De Leo, R.; Flay, D.; Fomin, N.; Friend, M.; Frullani, S.; Fuchey, E.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilman, R.; Gu, C.; Hamilton, D.; Hanretty, C.; Hansen, O.; Hashemi Shabestari, M.; Hen, O.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Iqbal, S.; Kalantarians, N.; Kang, H.; Kelleher, A.; Khandaker, M.; Korover, I.; Leckey, J.; LeRose, J.; Lindgren, R.; Long, E.; Mammei, J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Martí Jimenez-Arguello, A.; Meekins, D.; Meziani, Z. E.; Mihovilovic, M.; Muangma, N.; Norum, B.; Nuruzzaman; Pan, K.; Phillips, S.; Piasetzky, E.; Polychronopoulou, A.; Pomerantz, I.; Posik, M.; Punjabi, V.; Qian, X.; Rakhman, A.; Reimer, P. E.; Riordan, S.; Ron, G.; Saha, A.; Schulte, E.; Selvy, L.; Shneor, R.; Sirca, S.; Sjoegren, J.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Tireman, W.; Wang, D.; Watson, J.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, W.; Yaron, I.; Ye, Z.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, P.

    2016-09-01

    We report on new p (e ,e‧ p)π∘ measurements at the Δ+ (1232) resonance at the low momentum transfer region, where the mesonic cloud dynamics is predicted to be dominant and rapidly changing, offering a test bed for chiral effective field theory calculations. The new data explore the Q2 dependence of the resonant quadrupole amplitudes and for the first time indicate that the Electric and the Coulomb quadrupole amplitudes converge as Q2 → 0. The measurements of the Coulomb quadrupole amplitude have been extended to the lowest momentum transfer ever reached, and suggest that more than half of its magnitude is attributed to the mesonic cloud in this region. The new data disagree with predictions of constituent quark models and are in reasonable agreement with dynamical calculations that include pion cloud effects, chiral effective field theory and lattice calculations. The measurements indicate that improvement is required to the theoretical calculations and provide valuable input that will allow their refinements.

  2. A metabolic derivation of tritium transfer coefficients in animal products.

    PubMed

    Galeriu, D; Crout, N M; Melintescu, A; Beresford, N A; Peterson, S R; Van Hees, M

    2001-12-01

    Tritium is a potentially important environmental contaminant originating from the nuclear industry, and its behaviour in the environment is controlled by that of hydrogen. Animal food products represent a potentially important source of tritium in the human diet and a number of transfer coefficient values for tritium transfer to a limited number of animal products are available. In this paper we present an approach for the derivation of tritium transfer coefficients which is based on the metabolism of hydrogen in animals. The derived transfer coefficients separately account for transfer to and from free (i.e. water) and organically bound tritium. A novel aspect of the approach is that tritium transfer can be predicted for any animal product for which the required metabolic input parameters are available. The predicted transfer coefficients are compared to available independent data. Agreement is good (R2=0.97) with the exception of the transfer coefficient for transfer from tritiated water to organically bound tritium in ruminants. This may be attributable to the particular characteristics of ruminant digestion. We show that tritium transfer coefficients will vary in response to the metabolic status of an animal (e.g. stage of lactation, diet digestibility etc.) and that the use of a single transfer coefficient from diet to animal product is inappropriate. It is possible to derive concentration ratio values from the estimated transfer coefficients which relate the concentration of tritiated water and organically bound tritium in an animal product to their respective concentrations in the animals diet. These concentration ratios are shown to be less subject to metabolic variation and may be more useful radioecological parameters than transfer coefficients. For tritiated water the concentration ratio shows little variation between animal products ranging from 0.59 to 0.82. In the case of organically bound tritium the concentration ratios vary between animal products

  3. An optical model description of momentum transfer in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, F.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, J. W.; Norbury, John W.

    1989-01-01

    An optical model description of momentum transfer in relativistic heavy ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. The imaginary component of the complex momentum transfer, which comes from the absorptive part of the optical potential, is identified as the longitudinal momentum downshift of the projectile. Predictions of fragment momentum distribution observables are made and compared with experimental data. Use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is discussed.

  4. An investigation of the normal momentum transfer for gases on tungsten

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskal, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    The near monoenergetic beam of neutral helium and argon atoms impinged on a single crystal tungsten target, with the (100) face exposed to the beam. The target was mounted on a torsion balance. The rotation of this torsion balance was monitored by an optical lever, and this reading was converted to a measurement of the momentum exchange between the beam and the target. The tungsten target was flashed to a temperature in excess of 2000 C before every clean run, and the vacuum levels in the final chamber were typically between 0.5 and 1 ntorr. The momentum exchange for the helium-tungsten surface and the argon-tungsten surface combination was obtained over approximately a decade of incoming energy (for the argon gas) at angles of incidence of 0, 30, and 41 deg on both clean and dirty (gas covered) surfaces. The results exhibited a significant variation in momentum transfer between the data obtained for the clean and dirty surfaces. The values of normal momentum accommodation coefficient for the clean surface were found to be lower than the values previously reported.

  5. Modeling Momentum Transfer from Kinetic Impacts: Implications for Redirecting Asteroids

    SciTech Connect

    Stickle, A. M.; Atchison, J. A.; Barnouin, O. S.; Cheng, A. F.; Crawford, D. A.; Ernst, C. M.; Fletcher, Z.; Rivkin, A. S.

    2015-05-19

    Kinetic impactors are one way to deflect a potentially hazardous object headed for Earth. The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is designed to test the effectiveness of this approach and is a joint effort between NASA and ESA. The NASA-led portion is the Double Asteroid Redirect Test (DART) and is composed of a ~300-kg spacecraft designed to impact the moon of the binary system 65803 Didymos. The deflection of the moon will be measured by the ESA-led Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) (which will characterize the moon) and from ground-based observations. Because the material properties and internal structure of the target are poorly constrained, however, analytical models and numerical simulations must be used to understand the range of potential outcomes. Here, we describe a modeling effort combining analytical models and CTH simulations to determine possible outcomes of the DART impact. We examine a wide parameter space and provide predictions for crater size, ejecta mass, and momentum transfer following the impact into the moon of the Didymos system. For impacts into “realistic” asteroid types, these models produce craters with diameters on the order of 10 m, an imparted Δv of 0.5–2 mm/s and a momentum enhancement of 1.07 to 5 for a highly porous aggregate to a fully dense rock.

  6. The laser elevator - Momentum transfer using an optical resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Thomas R.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Mckenna, Paul M.

    1987-01-01

    In a conventional laser lightsail system the payload is propelled by the momentum imparted to it by the reflection of a laser beam without the use of any propellant. Because of the unfavorable relationship between energy and momentum in a light beam, these systems are very inefficient. The efficiency can be greatly improved, in principle, if the photons that impact the payload mirror are returned to the source and then redirected back toward the payload again. This system, which recirculates the laser beam, is defined as the 'laser elevator'. The gain of the laser elevator over conventional lightsails depends on the number of times the beam is recycled which is limited by the reflectance of the mirrors used, any losses in the transmission of the beam, and diffraction. Due to the increase pathlength of the folded beam, diffraction losses occur at smaller separations of the payload and the source mirror than for conventional lightsail system. The laser elevator has potential applications in launching to low earth orbit, orbital transfer, and rapid interplanetary delivery of small payloads.

  7. Modeling Momentum Transfer from Kinetic Impacts: Implications for Redirecting Asteroids

    DOE PAGES

    Stickle, A. M.; Atchison, J. A.; Barnouin, O. S.; ...

    2015-05-19

    Kinetic impactors are one way to deflect a potentially hazardous object headed for Earth. The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is designed to test the effectiveness of this approach and is a joint effort between NASA and ESA. The NASA-led portion is the Double Asteroid Redirect Test (DART) and is composed of a ~300-kg spacecraft designed to impact the moon of the binary system 65803 Didymos. The deflection of the moon will be measured by the ESA-led Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) (which will characterize the moon) and from ground-based observations. Because the material properties and internal structure ofmore » the target are poorly constrained, however, analytical models and numerical simulations must be used to understand the range of potential outcomes. Here, we describe a modeling effort combining analytical models and CTH simulations to determine possible outcomes of the DART impact. We examine a wide parameter space and provide predictions for crater size, ejecta mass, and momentum transfer following the impact into the moon of the Didymos system. For impacts into “realistic” asteroid types, these models produce craters with diameters on the order of 10 m, an imparted Δv of 0.5–2 mm/s and a momentum enhancement of 1.07 to 5 for a highly porous aggregate to a fully dense rock.« less

  8. Momentum flux parasitic to free-energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Scott, B.

    2017-08-01

    An often-neglected portion of the radial \\boldsymbol{E}× \\boldsymbol{B} drift is shown to drive an outward flux of co-current momentum when free energy is transferred from the electrostatic potential to ion parallel flows. This symmetry breaking is fully nonlinear, not quasilinear, necessitated simply by free-energy balance in parameter regimes for which significant energy is dissipated via ion parallel flows. The resulting rotation peaking is counter-current and has a scaling and order of magnitude that are comparable with experimental observations. The residual stress becomes inactive when frequencies are much higher than the ion transit frequency, which may explain the observed relation of density peaking and counter-current rotation peaking in the core.

  9. Angular-momentum transfer due to postcollision interaction in atomic inner n s2 -shell photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerchikov, L.; Guillemin, R.; Simon, M.; Sheinerman, S.

    2017-06-01

    A concrete mechanism of angular-momentum transfer in photoionization process is proposed for electron photoemission from deep inner atomic shells. It is demonstrated that the leading contribution to angular-momentum transfer is provided by postcollision interaction of the photoelectrons and Auger electrons. The standard theoretical approach to postcollision interaction has been considerably improved by taking into account angular-momentum transfer. The theory developed is applied to the photoionization of 1 s2 shell in Ar. Calculations show the noticeable influence of angular-momentum transfer on the photoelectron angular distribution.

  10. Angular momentum coefficients for meson strong decay and unquenched quark models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, T. J.

    2014-08-01

    In most meson strong decay and unquenched (coupled-channel) quark models, the pair-creation operator is a scalar product of vectors in the spin and spatial degrees of freedom. While differing in the spatial part, most models have the same spin part, which creates a qq¯ pair coupled to spin triplet, with the spins of the initial quarks as spectators. This is a basic assumption of the P30 model, and is well known to arise also in the flux tube model, starting from the strong coupling expansion of lattice QCD. In this article the same structure is shown to emerge in the Cornell model, in the dominant contributions of a more general microscopic decay model, and in the pseudoscalar-meson emission model. A solution is obtained for arbitrary matrix elements in these "nonflip, triplet" models, expressed as a weighted sum over spatial matrix elements. The coefficients in the expansion, which involve the spin degrees of freedom and the associated angular momentum algebra, are model independent. Tables of the angular momentum coefficients are presented which can be used in future calculations, avoiding tedious Clebsch-Gordan sums. The symmetry and orthogonality properties of the coefficients are discussed, as well as their application to transitions involving hybrid mesons and states of mixed spin. New selection rules are derived, and existing ones generalized. The coefficients lead to model-independent relations among decay amplitudes and widths which can be tested in experiment and lattice QCD. They can also be used to explain how mass shifts in the unquenched quark model do not spoil successful predictions of the ordinary (quenched) quark model.

  11. Proton Momentum Distribution and Diffusion Coefficient in Water: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

    PubMed

    Bruni, F; Giuliani, A; Mayers, J; Ricci, M A

    2012-09-20

    Water, the prototype of a liquid to ordinary people, is the most anomalous liquid to physicists, showing regions of the temperature-density (T,ρ) plane where its microscopic structure, diffusion coefficient, and density have anomalous behaviors. Structural anomalies occur over a broad bell-shaped T,ρ region. This region contains, as a matryoshka, two smaller regions, one delimiting dynamical and the other delimiting thermodynamic anomalies. Water anomalous behavior in each of these regions manifests itself as a decrease of order or an increase of the diffusion coefficient upon increasing pressure and as a decrease of density upon cooling. Here, we show that the radial momentum distribution of water protons and their mean kinetic energy have a peculiar, theoretically unpredicted anomaly in the region of dynamical anomalies. This anomaly can be rationalized as due to two distinct "families" of water protons, experiencing quite distinct local environments, leading to an enhancement of the momentum fluctuations along with an increase of kinetic energy.

  12. Theory of Current-Driven Domain Wall Motion: Spin Transfer versus Momentum Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatara, Gen; Kohno, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    A self-contained theory of the domain wall dynamics in ferromagnets under finite electric current is presented. The current has two effects: one is momentum transfer, which is proportional to the charge current and wall resistivity (ρw); the other is spin transfer, proportional to spin current. For thick walls, as in metallic wires, the latter dominates and the threshold current for wall motion is determined by the hard-axis magnetic anisotropy, except for the case of very strong pinning. For thin walls, as in nanocontacts and magnetic semiconductors, the momentum-transfer effect dominates, and the threshold current is proportional to V0/ρw, V0 being the pinning potential.

  13. Optical orbital angular momentum conservation during the transfer process from plasmonic vortex lens to light.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Yicheng; Han, Shuo; Yang, Haifang; Xu, Xiangang; Wang, Zhengping; Petrov, V; Wang, Jiyang

    2013-11-12

    We demonstrate the optical orbital angular momentum conservation during the transfer process from subwavelength plasmonic vortex lens (PVLs) to light and the generating process of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Illuminating plasmonic vortex lenses with beams carrying optical orbital angular momentum, the SP vortices with orbital angular momentum were generated and inherit the optical angular momentum of light beams and PVLs. The angular momentum of twisting SP electromagnetic field is tunable by the twisted metal/dielectric interfaces of PVLs and angular momentum of illuminating singular light. This work may open the door for several possible applications of SP vortices in subwavelength region.

  14. Optical orbital angular momentum conservation during the transfer process from plasmonic vortex lens to light

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Yicheng; Han, Shuo; Yang, Haifang; Xu, Xiangang; Wang, Zhengping; Petrov, V.; Wang, Jiyang

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the optical orbital angular momentum conservation during the transfer process from subwavelength plasmonic vortex lens (PVLs) to light and the generating process of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Illuminating plasmonic vortex lenses with beams carrying optical orbital angular momentum, the SP vortices with orbital angular momentum were generated and inherit the optical angular momentum of light beams and PVLs. The angular momentum of twisting SP electromagnetic field is tunable by the twisted metal/dielectric interfaces of PVLs and angular momentum of illuminating singular light. This work may open the door for several possible applications of SP vortices in subwavelength region. PMID:24217130

  15. Surface heat transfer coefficients of pin-finned cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to measure heat-transfer coefficients for a 15.24-centimeter-diameter cylinder with pin fins on its surface. Pin diameters of 0.3175 and 0.6350 centimeter with staggered pin spacings of 3 and 4 pin diameters and pin lengths of 5, 7, and 9 pin diameters were tested. Flow was normal to the axis of the cylinder, and local heat-transfer coefficients were measured as a function of angle around the circumference of the cylinder. The average heat-transfer coefficient was also computed. Reynolds number based on pin diameter ranged from 3600 to 27,750. The smallest diameter, closest spacing, and largest pin-length-to-diameter ratio gave the highest average effective heat-transfer coefficients.

  16. ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSFER IN VELA-LIKE PULSAR GLITCHES

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzochero, Pierre M.

    2011-12-10

    The angular momentum transfer associated with Vela-like glitches has never been calculated directly within a realistic scenario for the storage and release of superfluid vorticity; therefore, the explanation of giant glitches in terms of vortices has not yet been tested against observations. We present the first physically reasonable model, both at the microscopic and macroscopic level (spherical geometry, n = 1 polytropic density profile, density-dependent pinning forces compatible with vortex rigidity), to determine where in the star the vorticity is pinned, how much of it is pinned, and for how long. For standard neutron star parameters (M = 1.4 M{sub Sun }, R{sub s} = 10 km, {Omega}-dot = {Omega}-dot{sub Vela} = -10{sup -10} Hz s{sup -1}), we find that maximum pinning forces of order f{sub m} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 15} dyn cm{sup -1} can accumulate {Delta}L{sub gl} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 40} erg s of superfluid angular momentum, and release it to the crust at intervals {Delta}t{sub gl} Almost-Equal-To 3 years. This estimate of {Delta}L{sub gl} is one order of magnitude smaller than that implied indirectly by current models for post-glitch recovery, where the core and inner-crust vortices are taken as physically disconnected; yet, it successfully yields the magnitudes observed in recent Vela glitches for both jump parameters, {Delta}{Omega}{sub gl} and {Delta}{Omega}-dot{sub gl}, provided one assumes that only a small fraction (<10%) of the total star vorticity is coupled to the crust on the short timescale of a glitch. This is reasonable in our approach, where no layer of normal matter exists between the core and the inner-crust, as indicated by existing microscopic calculation. The new scenario presented here is nonetheless compatible with current post-glitch models.

  17. Laser Measurement Of Convective-Heat-Transfer Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. Robert; Hingst, Warren R.; Chriss, Randall M.; Seablom, Kirk D.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Coefficient of convective transfer of heat at spot on surface of wind-tunnel model computed from measurements acquired by developmental laser-induced-heat-flux technique. Enables non-intrusive measurements of convective-heat-transfer coefficients at many points across surfaces of models in complicated, three-dimensional, high-speed flows. Measurement spot scanned across surface of model. Apparatus includes argon-ion laser, attenuator/beam splitter electronic shutter infrared camera, and subsystem.

  18. Laser Measurement Of Convective-Heat-Transfer Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. Robert; Hingst, Warren R.; Chriss, Randall M.; Seablom, Kirk D.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Coefficient of convective transfer of heat at spot on surface of wind-tunnel model computed from measurements acquired by developmental laser-induced-heat-flux technique. Enables non-intrusive measurements of convective-heat-transfer coefficients at many points across surfaces of models in complicated, three-dimensional, high-speed flows. Measurement spot scanned across surface of model. Apparatus includes argon-ion laser, attenuator/beam splitter electronic shutter infrared camera, and subsystem.

  19. Dynamical Evolution and Momentum Transfer for Binary Asteroid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerose, Julie

    Over the past decade, robotic missions have been sent to small bodies, providing a basic understanding of their environment. Some of these small systems are found to be in pairs, orbiting each other, which are thought to represent about 16% of the near-Earth asteroid population. It is fair to assume that a mission will target a binary asteroid system in the near future as they can enable scientific insight into both the geology and dynamics of asteroids. In previous work, the dynamical evolution of binary systems was investigated for an ellipsoidsphere model. From the dynamics of two celestial bodies, equilibrium configurations and their stability were analyzed. For a given value of angular momentum, it was shown that there are in general two relative equilibrium configurations which are opposite in stability. When perturbations are introduced, we found that the equilibrium states are the minimum energy points of nearby periodic families. General dynamics from unstable to stable configurations were investigated for binaries in close proximity. Accounting for the dynamics of binaries, the dynamics of particles in this gravitational field were also studied. The location of the analogue Lagrangian points and energy associated with them were characterized. The L1 region is a key element for transfers between the bodies. It was shown that L1 can be situated between or inside the bodies depending on the free parameters of the system modifying the transfer possibilities since L1 has a hyperbolic manifold associated with it. In the current work, we look at the L1 region for binary system where the bodies are in relative equilibrium, close to each other. We find that L1 transits from outside to inside the ellipsoid when the mass ratio is larger than 0.6. For binary systems in close proximity with L1 being inside the ellipsoidal body, simulations show that particles on the surface tend to move away from the ellipsoid, toward the spherical primary. We can relate this to the

  20. Momentum and buoyancy transfer in atmospheric turbulent boundary layer over wavy water surface - Part 2: Wind-wave spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yu. I.; Ezhova, E. V.; Sergeev, D. A.; Kandaurov, A. A.; Baidakov, G. A.; Vdovin, M. I.; Zilitinkevich, S. S.

    2013-10-01

    Drag and mass exchange coefficients are calculated within a self-consistent problem for the wave-induced air perturbations and mean velocity and density fields using a quasi-linear model based on the Reynolds equations with down-gradient turbulence closure. This second part of the report is devoted to specification of the model elements: turbulent transfer coefficients and wave number-frequency spectra. It is shown that the theory agrees with laboratory and field experimental data well when turbulent mass and momentum transfer coefficients do not depend on the wave parameters. Among several model spectra better agreement of the theoretically calculated drag coefficients with TOGA (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere) COARE (Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment) data is achieved for the Hwang spectrum (Hwang, 2005) with the high frequency part completed by the Romeiser spectrum (Romeiser et al., 1997).

  1. The Momentum Transfer and Target Mass Dependence of the

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boberg, Paul Richard

    In order to study some of the exclusive structure and reaction dynamics in the quasi elastic region, (e,e ^' p) measurements on ^{12}C and ^{63 }Cu were performed. These measurements attempt to isolate the nuclear reaction mechanism contribution from the off shell e-p cross section. We performed measurements at five three-momentum transfer |vec {rm q}| for each target, varying |vec{rm q} | by changing the electron scattering angle theta_{rm e^' }. The measurements were performed at the MIT -Bates Linear Accelerator Center. The measurements were compared with Impulse Approximation (IA) predictions, providing quantitative tests of the approximations involved. The measurements for the p-shells were emphasized: the ^{12}C 1p-shell and the ^{63}Cu 2p-shell. For both targets, missing energy spectra were extract up to 50 MeV. The data from the second major shell regions, the ^{12}C s-shell and the ^{63}Cu f-s shell, were also compared with IA predictions. Finally, the ^{12}C results were compared with existing ^{12}C(e,e ^' p) results.

  2. Momentum transfer at the interface between a porous medium and a pure fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Howard; Zhang, Songpeng

    2015-11-01

    We examine the flow parallel to the interface between a porous medium and a liquid, focusing on the boundary conditions at the interface. When Darcy's law is used to describe the momentum transport in the porous layer, the classic Beavers-Joseph condition relates the shear rate and the slip velocity at the interface with a slip parameter that depends on the structure of the porous surface. When the Brinkman equation is used, the averaged velocity is continuous at the interface, however the fluid shear stress across the interface commonly experiences a jump. This shear stress jump can be expressed in terms of the slip velocity at the interface divided by a length characterized by the square root of the permeability, and a dimensionless stress jump coefficient. In this work, we study the momentum transfer from the clear fluid onto the solid structure at the interface, and proposed a stress partition parameter that characterizes the stress transfer from the clear fluid to the fluid (and solid) phase of the porous medium. Simple models are developed to formulate this stress partition parameter for porous media that are brush-like, long fibers, and random, respectively. Our model predictions are compared with numerical and experimental results in the literature.

  3. Overall Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficient of Water Vapor Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Mori, Hideo; Godo, Masazumi; Miura, Kunio; Watanabe, Yutaka; Ishizawa, Toshihiko; Takatsuka, Takeshi

    A fundamental investigation was performed to develop a compact and simple desiccant ventilation unit which is one of the main components of a novel energy saving air-conditioning system. Water vapor in the air is adsorbed and/or desorbed to be controlled the humidity of supply air through a unit of an adsorbent rotor. A numerical simulation helps to understand the phenomena of heat and mass transfer in the rotor block. Overall transfer coefficients were estimated by performing both experiment and calculation. It was examined that the transient overall equivalent heat and mass transfer coefficient was not constant. It seems that both film fluid and diffusion resistance govern the coefficients in the block, and the influence of air flow on the time averaged coefficients is estimated by a considering the laminar forced convection from a flat plate. There is little difference of the coefficient between adsorption and desorption process. The correlation and fitting parameters are presented for prediction of the overall heat and mass transfer coefficients. The estimation accuracy was improved.

  4. Heat transfer coefficient in serpentine coolant passage for CCDTL

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, P.; Wood, R.; Sigler, F.; Shapiro, A.; Rendon, A.

    1998-12-31

    A series of heat transfer experiments were conducted to refine the cooling passage design in the drift tubes of a coupled cavity drift tube linac (CCDTL). The experimental data were then compared to numerical models to derive relationships between heat transfer rates, Reynold`s number, and Prandtl number, over a range of flow rates. Data reduction consisted of axisymmetric finite element modeling where the heat transfer coefficients were modified to match the experimental data. Unfortunately, the derived relationship is valid only for this specific geometry of the test drift tube. Fortunately, the heat transfer rates were much better (approximately 2.5 times) than expected.

  5. Explained and Unexplained Momentum Impulse Transfer Events (MITEs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bantel, M.; Cunio, P.; Hendrix, D.; Therien, W.

    2016-09-01

    Precision orbit determination (OD) and characterization of resident space objects (RSOs) are fundamental components of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Over 600 days beginning January 1, 2015, ExoAnalytic Solutions collected more than 60 million correlated astrometric measurements of active and inactive resident RSOs in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and in the near-GEO region using a global network of ground-based telescopes. Orbit Determination (OD) on several inactive RSOs in sub-synchronous (e.g., spent upper stages) and super-synchronous (e.g., retired satellites) orbits revealed occasional momentum impulse transfer events (MITEs) with detectable In-track velocity changes of 0.2 to 10 mm/s. These MITEs could not be explained using the accepted gravitational model and an isotropic spherical solar radiation acceleration. Two additional radiation pressure models were considered: a Yarkovsky effect and an asymmetric radiation pressure (diffuse ellipsoid), adding one and two additional free parameters to the model, respectively. Both models include a radiation pressure component perpendicular to the solar direction and in the RSO's orbital plane. The Yarkovsky and Ellipsoid radiation pressure, in combination with the RSO traversing the Earth's Umbra, can produce a measureable change in the RSO's mean motion; a delta-v of 0.5 mm/s per season is not uncommon. OD was performed using the three radiation pressure models (Sphere, Yarkovsky, and Ellipsoid) on six inactive RSOs having 9,000 to 35,000 observations over 600 days. The Ellipsoid model was in good agreement with 95% of the observations falling within a window of ± 20 microradians, or approximately ±0.8 km, over the entire 600 day duration, which included three equinox seasons. Data collection and analysis of inactive RSOs aids the SSA mission of precision tracking and characterization of debris in the space environment.

  6. Estimation of the ion toroidal rotation source due to momentum transfer from Lower Hybrid waves in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. P.; Wright, J. C.; Bonoli, P. T.; Parker, R. R.; Catto, P. J.; Podpaly, Y. A.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M. L.

    2011-12-23

    Significant ion toroidal rotation (50km/s) has been measured by X-Ray spectroscopy for impurities in Alcator C-Mod during lower hybrid (LH) RF power injection. We investigate the relation between the computed toroidal momentum input from LH waves and the measured INITIAL change of ion toroidal rotation when the LH power is turned on. The relation may depend on the plasma current and magnetic configuration. Because of the fast build up time of the electron quasilinear plateau (<1 millisecond), the electron distribution function rapidly reaches steady state in which the electrons transfer momentum to the ions. The LH wave momentum input is computed from the self consistent steady state electron distribution function and a bounce-averaged quasilinear diffusion coefficient that are obtained by iterating a full wave code (TORLH) with a Fokker Plank code (CQL3D)

  7. Heat transfer coefficients of dilute flowing gas-solids suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, R. S.; Pfeffer, R.

    1973-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients of air-glass, argon-glass, and argon-aluminum suspensions were measured in horizontal and vertical tubes. The glass, 21.6 and 36.0 micron diameter particles, was suspended at gas Reynolds numbers between 11,000 and 21,000 and loading ratios between 0 and 2.5. The presence of particles generally reduced the heat transfer coefficient. The circulation of aluminum powder in the 0.870 inch diameter closed loop system produced tenacious deposits on protuberances into the stream. In the vertical test section, the Nusselt number reduction was attributed to viscous sublayer thickening; in the horizontal test section to particle deposition.

  8. Mass transfer coefficients determination from linear gradient elution experiments.

    PubMed

    Pfister, David; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2015-01-02

    A procedure to estimate mass transfer coefficients in linear gradient elution chromatography is presented and validated by comparison with experimental data. Mass transfer coefficients are traditionally estimated experimentally through the van Deemter plot, which represents the HETP as a function of the fluid velocity. Up to now, the HETP was obtained under isocratic elution conditions. Unfortunately, isocratic elution experiments are often not suitable for large biomolecules which suffer from severe mass transfer hindrances. Yamamoto et al. were the first to propose a semi-empirical equation to relate HETPs measured from linear gradient elution experiments to those obtained under isocratic conditions [7]. Based on his pioneering work, the approach presented in this work aims at providing an experimental procedure supported by simple equations to estimate reliable mass transfer parameters from linear gradient elution chromatographic experiments. From the resolution of the transport model, we derived a rigorous analytical expression for the HETP in linear gradient elution chromatography.

  9. Increased heat transfer to elliptical leading edges due to spanwise variations in the freestream momentum: Numerical and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, D. L.; Vanfossen, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the effect of spanwise variation in momentum on leading edge heat transfer is discussed. Numerical and experimental results are presented for both a circular leading edge and a 3:1 elliptical leading edge. Reynolds numbers in the range of 10,000 to 240,000 based on leading edge diameter are investigated. The surface of the body is held at a constant uniform temperature. Numerical and experimental results with and without spanwise variations are presented. Direct comparison of the two-dimensional results, that is, with no spanwise variations, to the analytical results of Frossling is very good. The numerical calculation, which uses the PARC3D code, solves the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, assuming steady laminar flow on the leading edge region. Experimentally, increases in the spanwise-averaged heat transfer coefficient as high as 50 percent above the two-dimensional value were observed. Numerically, the heat transfer coefficient was seen to increase by as much as 25 percent. In general, under the same flow conditions, the circular leading edge produced a higher heat transfer rate than the elliptical leading edge. As a percentage of the respective two-dimensional values, the circular and elliptical leading edges showed similar sensitivity to span wise variations in momentum. By equating the root mean square of the amplitude of the spanwise variation in momentum to the turbulence intensity, a qualitative comparison between the present work and turbulent results was possible. It is shown that increases in leading edge heat transfer due to spanwise variations in freestream momentum are comparable to those due to freestream turbulence.

  10. Temperature Coefficient for Modeling Denitrification in Surface Water Sediments Using the Mass Transfer Coefficient

    Treesearch

    T. W. Appelboom; G. M. Chescheir; R. W. Skaggs; J. W. Gilliam; Devendra M. Amatya

    2006-01-01

    Watershed modeling has become an important tool for researchers with the high costs of water quality monitoring. When modeling nitrate transport within drainage networks, denitrification within the sediments needs to be accounted for. Birgand et. al. developed an equation using a term called a mass transfer coefficient to mathematically describe sediment...

  11. Temperature coefficient for modeling denitrification in surface water sediments using the mass transfer coefficient

    Treesearch

    T.W. Appelboom; G.M. Chescheir; F. Birgand; R.W. Skaggs; J.W. Gilliam; D. Amatya

    2010-01-01

    Watershed modeling has become an important tool for researchers. Modeling nitrate transport within drainage networks requires quantifying the denitrification within the sediments in canals and streams. In a previous study, several of the authors developed an equation using a term called a mass transfer coefficient to mathematically describe sediment denitrification....

  12. Temperature coefficient for modeling denitrification in surface water sediments using the mass transfer coefficient.

    Treesearch

    T.W. Appelboom; G.M. Chescheir; F. Birgand; R.W. Skaggs; J.W. Gilliam; D. Amatya

    2010-01-01

    Watershed modeling has become an important tool for researchers. Modeling nitrate transport within drainage networks requires quantifying the denitrification within the sediments in canals and streams. In a previous study, several of the authors developed an equation using a term called a mass transfer coefficient to mathematically describe sediment denitrification....

  13. Hypervelocity impacts on asteroids and momentum transfer I. Numerical simulations using porous targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutzi, Martin; Michel, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate numerically the momentum transferred by impacts of small (artificial) projectiles on asteroids. The study of the momentum transfer efficiency as a function of impact conditions and of the internal structure of an asteroid is crucial for performance assessment of the kinetic impactor concept of deflecting an asteroid from its trajectory. The momentum transfer is characterized by the so-called momentum multiplication factor β, which has been introduced to define the momentum imparted to an asteroid in terms of the momentum of the impactor. Here we present results of code calculations of the β factor for porous targets, in which porosity takes the form of microporosity and/or macroporosity. The results of our study using a large range of impact conditions indicate that the momentum multiplication factor β is small for porous targets even for very high impact velocities (β<2 for vimp⩽15 km/s), which is consistent with published scaling laws and results of laboratory experiments (Holsapple, K.A., Housen, K.R. [2012]. Icarus 221, 875-887; Holsapple, K.A., Housen, K.R. [2013]. Proceedings of the IAA Planetary Defense Conference 2013, Flagstaff, USA). It is found that both porosity and strength can have a large effect on the amount of transferred momentum and on the scaling of β with impact velocity. On the other hand, the macroporous inhomogeneities considered here do not have a significant effect on β.

  14. Multicomponent NAPL source dissolution: evaluation of mass-transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Mobile, Michael A; Widdowson, Mark A; Gallagher, Daniel L

    2012-09-18

    Mass transfer rate coefficients were quantified by employing an inverse modeling technique to high-resolution aqueous phase concentration data observed following an experimental release of a multicomponent nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) at a field site. A solute transport model (SEAM3D) was employed to simulate advective-dispersive transport over time coupled to NAPL dissolution. Model calibration was demonstrated by accurately reproducing the observed breakthrough times and peak concentrations at multiple observation points, observed mass discharge at pumping wells, and the reported mass depletions for three soluble NAPL constituents. Vertically variable NAPL mass transfer coefficients were derived for each constituent using an optimized numerical solute transport model, ranging from 0.082 to 2.0 day(-1) across all constituents. Constituent-specific coefficients showed a positive correlation with liquid-phase diffusion coefficients. Application of a time-varying mass transfer coefficient as NAPL mass depleted showed limited sensitivity during which over 80% of the most soluble NAPL constituent dissolved from the source. Long-term simulation results, calibrated to the experimental data and rendered in terms of mass discharge versus source mass depletion, exhibited multistage behavior.

  15. Mathematical Model for a Simplified Calculation of the Input Momentum Coefficient for AFC Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Damian; Gharib, Morteza

    2016-11-01

    Active Flow Control (AFC) is an emerging technology which aims at enhancing the aerodynamic performance of flight vehicles (i.e., to save fuel). A viable AFC system must consider the limited resources available on a plane for attaining performance goals. A higher performance goal (i.e., airplane incremental lift) demands a higher input fluidic requirement (i.e., mass flow rate). Therefore, the key requirement for a successful and practical design is to minimize power input while maximizing performance to achieve design targets. One of the most used design parameters is the input momentum coefficient Cμ. The difficulty associated with Cμ lies in obtaining the parameters for its calculation. In the literature two main approaches can be found, which both have their own disadvantages (assumptions, difficult measurements). A new, much simpler calculation approach will be presented that is based on a mathematical model that can be applied to most jet designs (i.e., steady or sweeping jets). The model-incorporated assumptions will be justified theoretically as well as experimentally. Furthermore, the model's capabilities are exploited to give new insight to the AFC technology and its physical limitations. Supported by Boeing.

  16. A simulation of gas flow: The dependence of the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient on molecular mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, William W.; Suaning, Gregg J.; McKenzie, David R.

    2016-09-01

    The tangential momentum accommodation coefficient (TMAC) influences the rate of pressure driven flow of a gas in a channel. The manner in which TMAC depends on the molecular mass is of importance as it influences the extent to which gas flow rates are affected by their mass, but there are conflicting opinions in the literature concerning the extent and even the sign of this dependence. We simulate the flow of the noble gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe using molecular dynamics with Lennard-Jones potentials. The interaction with the wall is made realistic by simulating five layers of mobile atoms and allowing for adsorbed gas on the wall. With increasing mass of the gas, the TMAC exhibits asymptotic behaviour in approaching the value assumed to apply for an entrapped atom. Either increasing or decreasing TMAC with respect to an increasing molecular mass is produced, depending on the assumed TMAC of an entrapped atom. This resolves a conflict in the literature, where both increasing and decreasing trends are observed with mass.

  17. Dissociation and Mass Transfer Coefficients for Ammonia Volatilization Models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Process-based models are being used to predict ammonia emissions from manure sources, but their accuracy has not been fully evaluated for cattle manure. Laboratory trials were conducted to measure the dissociation and mass transfer coefficients for ammonia volatilization from media of buffered ammon...

  18. Heat-transfer coefficients in agitated vessels. Sensible heat models

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpinsky, E.

    1995-12-01

    Transient models for sensible heat were developed to assess the thermal performance of agitated vessels with coils and jackets. Performance is quantified with the computation of heat-transfer coefficients by introducing vessel heating and cooling data into model equations. Of the two model categories studied, differential and macroscopic, the latter is preferred due to mathematical simplicity and lower sensitivity to experimental data variability.

  19. CFD Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. This study uses first-principles based CFD methodology to compute heat transfer from the tank wall to the cryogenic fluids and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between the tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between the tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that the commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over-predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.

  20. A local collision probability approximation for predicting momentum transfer cross sections.

    PubMed

    Bleiholder, Christian

    2015-10-21

    The local collision probability approximation (LCPA) method is introduced to compute molecular momentum transfer cross sections for comparison to ion mobility experiments. The LCPA replaces the (non-local) scattering trajectory used in the trajectory method to describe the collision process by a (local) collision probability function. This momentum transfer probability is computed using the exact same analyte-buffer interaction potential as used in the trajectory method. Subsequently, the momentum transfer cross section ΩLCPA(T) is calculated in a projection-type manner (corrected for shape effects through a shape factor). Benchmark calculations on a set of 208 carbon clusters with a range of molecular size and degree of concavity demonstrate that LCPA and trajectory calculations agree closely with one another. The results discussed here indicate that the LCPA is suitable to efficiently calculate momentum transfer cross sections for use in ion mobility spectrometry in conjunction with different buffer gases.

  1. Transfer of orbital angular momentum through sub-wavelength waveguides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanqin; Ma, Xiaoliang; Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Zhao, Bo; Cui, Jianhua; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-02-09

    Data capacity of optical communication is achieving its limit owing to the non-linear effect of optical fiber. As an effective alternative, light carrying orbital angular momentum can greatly increase the capacity for its unprecedented degree of freedom. We demonstrate the propagation of orbital angular momentum with topological charge of 1 and 2 in plasmonic circular waveguide with sub-wavelength diameter with little propagation loss of 2.73 dB/μm, which has never been observed in optical fibers with sub-wavelength diameter. We also confirm that lights carrying orbital angular momentum can be maintained in sharp bended sub-wavelength waveguide. This plasmonic waveguide may serve as a key component in on-chip systems involving OAM.

  2. Determination of the heat transfer coefficients in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, L.V.

    1994-06-01

    The process of transpiration cooling is considered. Methods are suggested for estimating the volumetric coefficient of heat transfer with the use of a two-temperature model and the surface heat transfer coefficient at entry into a porous wall. The development of new technology under conditions of increasing heat loads puts the search for effective methods of heat transfer enhancement in the forefront of theoretical investigations. One of the promising trends in the solution of this problem is the use of porous materials (PM) in the elements of power units. For thermal protection against convective or radiative heat fluxes, the method of transpiration cooling is successfully used. The mechanism operative in the thermal protection involves the injection of a coolant through a porous medium to produce a screen over the contour of a body in a flow for removing heat energy from the skeleton of the porous material.

  3. Universal characteristics of transverse momentum transfer in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, F.; Townsend, L. W.; Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    A microscopic optical model formalism for estimating momentum transfer in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions predicts universal behavior of the transverse component. In particular, for symmetric systems heavier than niobium, it appears that values of P(perpendicular)/A are independent of the mass and charge of the colliding nuclei and vary only with impact parameter and incident beam energy. This suggests that momentum transfer per nucleon saturates to some limiting value with increasing mass.

  4. Universal characteristics of transverse momentum transfer in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, F.; Townsend, L. W.; Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    A microscopic optical model formalism for estimating momentum transfer in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions predicts universal behavior of the transverse component. In particular, for symmetric systems heavier than niobium, it appears that values of P(perpendicular)/A are independent of the mass and charge of the colliding nuclei and vary only with impact parameter and incident beam energy. This suggests that momentum transfer per nucleon saturates to some limiting value with increasing mass.

  5. Heat transfer coefficients for staggered arrays of short pin fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Short pin fins are often used to increase that heat transfer to the coolant in the trailing edge of a turbine blade. Due primarily to limits of casting technology, it is not possible to manufacture pins of optimum length for heat transfer purposes in the trailing edge region. In many cases the pins are so short that they actually decrease the total heat transfer surface area compared to a plain wall. A heat transfer data base for these short pins is not available in the literature. Heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for several staggered arrays of short pin fins. The measured Nusselt numbers when plotted versus Reynolds numbers were found to fall on a single curve for all surfaces tested. The heat transfer coefficients for the short pin fins (length to diameter ratios of 1/2 and 2) were found to be about a factor of two lower than data from the literature for longer pin arrays (length to diameter ratios of about 8).

  6. Heat transfer coefficients for staggered arrays of short pin fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Short pin fins are often used to increase the heat transfer to the coolant in the trailing edge of a turbine blade. Due primarily to limits of casting technology, it is not possible to manufacture pins of optimum length for heat transfer purposes in the trailing edge region. In many cases the pins are so short that they actually decrease the total heat transfer surface area compared to a plain wall. A heat transfer data base for these short pins is not available in the literature. Heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for several staggered arrays of short pin fins. The measured Nusselt numbers when plotted versus Reynolds numbers were found to fall on a single curve for all surfaces tested. The heat transfer coefficients for the short pin fins (length to diameter ratios of 1/2 and 2) were found to be about a factor of two lower than data from the literature for longer pin arrays (length to diameter ratios of about 8).

  7. The Transfer of Angular Momentum between Interacting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbasov, R. F.; Klapp, J.; Rodríguez-Meza, M. A.; Cervantes-Cota, J. L.; Dehnen, H.

    2003-06-01

    In this work, we employ a TREE-Code to study the collision of two spiral galaxies when they approach each other in a parabolic orbit. During a collision, we follow the evolution of the angular momentum (AM) of the different components of the galaxies, i.e., disk, bulge and halo.

  8. On angular momentum transfer in binary systems. [stellar orbital period change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Stothers, R.

    1975-01-01

    The maximum limit for the conversion of orbital angular momentum into rotational angular momentum of the mass-gaining component in a close binary system is derived. It is shown that this conversion process does not seriously affect the rate of orbital period change and can be neglected in computing the mass transfer rate. Integration of this limit over the entire accretion process results in a value for the maximum accumulated rotational angular momentum that is 3 to 4 times larger than that implied by the observed underluminosity of stars in such systems as Mu(1) Sco, V Pup, SX Aur, and V356 Sgr. It is suggested that shell stars and emission-line stars in binary systems may be produced when the core angular momentum is transferred into an envelope having a rotational angular momentum close to the maximum limit.-

  9. Nuclear fragmentation energy and momentum transfer distributions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, Govind S.; Khan, Ferdous

    1989-01-01

    An optical model description of energy and momentum transfer in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. Transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers to the projectile are shown to arise from the real and absorptive part of the optical potential, respectively. Comparisons of fragment momentum distribution observables with experiments are made and trends outlined based on our knowledge of the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction. Corrections to the above calculations are discussed. Finally, use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is indicated.

  10. Momentum transfer in asteroid impacts. I. Theory and scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holsapple, Keith A.; Housen, Kevin R.

    2012-11-01

    When an asteroid experiences an impact, its path is changed. How much it changes is important to know for both asteroid evolution studies and for attempts to prevent an asteroid from impacting the Earth. In an impact process the total momentum of the material is conserved. However, not all of the material is of interest, but only that remaining with the asteroid. The ratio of the change of momentum of the remaining asteroid to that of the impactor is called the momentum multiplication factor; and is commonly given the symbol β. It has been known for some time that β can be greater than unity, and in some cases far greater. That could be a significant factor in attempts to deflect an asteroid with an impact, and can also be important in the stirring of objects in the asteroid belt due to mutual impacts. The escaping crater ejecta are the source of the momentum multiplication. Housen and Holsapple (Housen, K.R., Holsapple, K.A. [2011a]. Icarus 211, 856-875) have given a recent summary of ejecta characteristics and scaling. Here we use those ejecta results to determine how β depends on the impactor properties, on the asteroid size and composition, and establish the paths and time of flight of all of the ejecta particles. The approach is to add the contribution of each element of ejected mass accounting for its initial velocity, its trajectory and whether it escapes the asteroid. The goal in this paper is to provide a theoretical framework of the fundamental results which can be used as a test of the veracity of experiments and detailed numerical calculations of impacts. A subsequent paper will present direct laboratory results and numerical simulations of momentum multiplication in various geological materials.

  11. Changing summer sea ice roughness modifies momentum transfer into the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Torge; Tsamados, Michel; Feltham, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The current shrinking of Arctic sea ice affects the transfer of momentum from the atmosphere into the ocean. While in winter a thinner and thus weaker sea ice cover enables a greater ocean surface stress than in previous decades, the enormous retreat of sea ice in recent summers reduced the surface roughness of the Arctic Ocean and hence causes a negative ocean surface stress trend in this season. The latter is related to a generally enhanced surface drag in the presence of sea ice. Martin et al. (2014, JGR) suggested that such amplification of momentum transfer by ice floes peaks at an optimal ice concentration of 80-90% -- since higher concentrations damp momentum transfer due to ice internal stresses. However, this model study only considered a constant sea ice roughness in the calculation of the surface stress. Tsamados et al. (2014, JPO) recently implemented complex variable sea-ice drag coefficients into the sea ice model CICE also distinguishing between skin and form drag. They showed in stand-alone sea ice simulations that varying sea ice roughness due to, amongst others, pressure ridges and floe edges significantly impacts sea ice motion likely with implications for the ocean circulation underneath. Here, we present the effect of variable sea ice drag on the ocean surface stress. A comparison of the CICE results with Martin et al. (2014, JGR) shows that on basin-wide average the ice concentration-ocean stress relationship still peaks at about 80-90% but stress increases more rapidly with increasing ice concentration forming a "plateau" at 40-70%. We find that pressure ridges contribute more to the 80-90% peak whereas floe edges and skin drag shape the plateau. Further, Tsamados et al. (2014, JPO) found for the summer season that floe edges dominate the ice-water drag magnitude and that an increase in the floe edge form drag dominates the overall ice-water drag trend over the past two decades. This hints at the possibility that a favorable floe size

  12. Calculation of Mass Transfer Coefficients in a Crystal Growth Chamber through Heat Transfer Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J H; Hand, L A

    2005-04-21

    The growth rate of a crystal in a supersaturated solution is limited by both reaction kinetics and the local concentration of solute. If the local mass transfer coefficient is too low, concentration of solute at the crystal-solution interface will drop below saturation, leading to a defect in the growing crystal. Here, mass transfer coefficients are calculated for a rotating crystal growing in a supersaturated solution of potassium diphosphate (KDP) in water. Since mass transfer is difficult to measure directly, the heat transfer coefficient of a scale model crystal in water is measured using temperature-sensitive paint (TSP). To the authors' knowledge this is the first use of TSP to measure temperatures in water. The corresponding mass transfer coefficient is then calculated using the Chilton- Colburn analogy. Measurements were made for three crystal sizes at two running conditions each. Running conditions include periodic reversals of rotation direction. Heat transfer coefficients were found to vary significantly both across the crystal faces and over the course of a rotation cycle, but not from one face to another. Mean heat transfer coefficients increased with both crystal size and rotation rate. Computed mass transfer coefficients were broadly in line with expectations from the full-scale crystal growth experiments. Additional experiments show that continuous rotation of the crystal results in about a 30% lower heat transfer compared to rotation with periodic reversals. The continuous rotation case also shows a periodic variation in heat transfer coefficient of about 15%, with a period about 1/20th of the rotation rate.

  13. Energy and angular momentum transfers from an electromagnetic wave to a copper ring in the UHF band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Émile, Olivier; Brousseau, Christian; Émile, Janine; Mahdjoubi, Kouroch

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetic waves could carry orbital angular momentum. Such momentum can be transferred to macroscopic objects and can make them rotate under a constant torque. Based on experimental observations, we investigate the origin of orbital angular momentum and energy transfer. Due to angular momentum and energy conservation, we show that angular momentum transfer is due to the change in the sign of angular momentum upon reflection. This leads to a rotational Doppler shift of the electromagnetic wave frequency, ensuring energy conservation. xml:lang="fr"

  14. Dynamical derivation of momentum diffusion coefficients at collisions of relativistic charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ognivenko, V. V.

    2016-01-15

    An expression has been obtained for the diffusion tensor of particles in the momentum space on the basis of the dynamics of particles motion. The general equations have been used to determine the rms momentum spread at collisions of relativistic charged particles at times shorter than the time of randomization of particles motion and at greater times when motion is completely random.

  15. Angular momentum transfer in low velocity oblique impacts - Implications for asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanagisawa, Masahisa; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted for the low-velocity oblique impact efficiency of angular momentum transfer, which is defined as that fraction of incident angular momentum that is transferred to the rotation of a target. The results obtained suggest that more energetic impacts are able to transfer angular momentum more efficiently. In the cases of ricochetted projectiles, the fraction of angular momentum carried off by the ejecta was noted to be less than 30 percent. It is suggested that, if asteroid spin rates are due to mutual noncatastrophic collisions and the taxonomic classes are indicative of bulk properties, the differences between corresponding spin rates will be smaller than expected from a consideration of relative strength and density alone.

  16. Momentum Transfer Between an Atmospheric and an Oceanic Layer at the Synoptic and the Mesoscale: An Idealized Numerical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulin, A.; Wirth, A.

    2016-09-01

    We consider air-sea interaction at the (atmospheric) synoptic and the mesoscale due to momentum transfer only. Two superposed one-layer fine-resolution shallow-water models are numerically integrated, where the upper layer represents the atmosphere and the lower layer the ocean. The frictional force between the two layers is implemented using a quadratic drag law and experiments with different values of the surface drag coefficient are performed. The actual energy loss of the atmosphere and the energy gain by the ocean, due to the interfacial shear, is determined and compared to estimates based on average speeds. The correlation between the vorticity in the atmosphere and the ocean is determined. Results differ from previous investigations where the exchange of momentum was considered at basin scale. It is shown that the ocean has a passive role, absorbing kinetic energy at nearly all times and locations, results showing that the energy input to the ocean increases almost quadratically with the value of the drag coefficient. Due to the feeble velocities in the ocean, the energy transfer depends only weakly on the oceanic velocity. The ocean dynamics leave nevertheless their imprint on atmospheric dynamics, leading to a quenched disordered state of the atmosphere-ocean system for the highest value of the drag coefficient considered. This finding questions the ergodic hypothesis for the idealized configuration studied here. The ergodic hypothesis is at the basis of a large number of experimental, observational and numerical results in ocean, atmosphere and climate dynamics.

  17. Hydrophobicity, heat transfer, and momentum transfer at hard and soft aqueous interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Hari

    Advancements in science and technology increasingly involve systems operating at the nanoscale. Interfaces are often present in these systems. Nanoscopic interfaces are ubiquitous in biological systems, nanofluidic devices, and integrated circuits. Properties at the interface may be quite different from the bulk, and in fact a true bulk may not be present in these systems. At the nanoscale the ratio of interface to volume is large, and the interface may have the dominant role in determining system behavior. Interfacial characteristics and their connection to interfacial properties are the focus of my thesis. Using molecular simulations of model interfaces we characterize how properties like chemistry, composition, and topography affect such phenomena such as hydrophobicity, heat transfer, and momentum transport at the nanoscale. An interface is defined simply as where two materials meet and a change in some structure or order parameter is observed. In aqueous systems, the type studied here, these changes are relatively sharp and occur within a distance of nanometers. Water molecules near the interface are expected to display sensitivity to the underlying surface. Indeed, water near a hydrophobic surface is more deformable and has greater fluctuations. The hydrophobicity of chemically heterogeneous surfaces and proteins are characterized using these nanoscopic measures. We find the effect of mixing hydrophobic and hydrophobic head group chemistries is asymmetric, i.e., it is easier to make a hydrophobic surface hydrophilic than the reverse. The role of hydrogen bonding in hydrophobic and ion hydration is also characterized using a short range water model. Hydrophobic and ion hydration are reasonably captured with the short range water model. These studies show the importance of chemical composition and local hydrogen bonding in determining surface hydrophobicity. Interfaces also lead to anomalous behavior in heat and momentum transport. Interfaces disrupt local

  18. Saponification reaction system: a detailed mass transfer coefficient determination.

    PubMed

    Pečar, Darja; Goršek, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The saponification of an aromatic ester with an aqueous sodium hydroxide was studied within a heterogeneous reaction medium in order to determine the overall kinetics of the selected system. The extended thermo-kinetic model was developed compared to the previously used simple one. The reaction rate within a heterogeneous liquid-liquid system incorporates a chemical kinetics term as well as mass transfer between both phases. Chemical rate constant was obtained from experiments within a homogeneous medium, whilst the mass-transfer coefficient was determined separately. The measured thermal profiles were then the bases for determining the overall reaction-rate. This study presents the development of an extended kinetic model for considering mass transfer regarding the saponification of ethyl benzoate with sodium hydroxide within a heterogeneous reaction medium. The time-dependences are presented for the mass transfer coefficient and the interfacial areas at different heterogeneous stages and temperatures. The results indicated an important role of reliable kinetic model, as significant difference in k(L)a product was obtained with extended and simple approach.

  19. Effect of Increased Academic Momentum on Transfer Rates: An Application of the Generalized Propensity Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported a positive impact of increased academic momentum on transfer from community colleges to four-year institutions. This result may be due to selection bias. Using data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students dataset, I test whether taking more credits in the first year has an impact on transfer rates among bachelor's…

  20. Effect of Increased Academic Momentum on Transfer Rates: An Application of the Generalized Propensity Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported a positive impact of increased academic momentum on transfer from community colleges to four-year institutions. This result may be due to selection bias. Using data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students dataset, I test whether taking more credits in the first year has an impact on transfer rates among bachelor's…

  1. Measurement of quasi-elastic 12C(p,2p) scattering at high momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardor, Y.; Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Barton, D.; Bunce, G.; Carroll, A.; Christensen, N.; Courant, H.; Durrant, S.; Gushue, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Kosonovsky, E.; Mardor, I.; Marshak, M.; Makdisi, Y.; Minor, E. D.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Piasetzky, E.; Roser, T.; Russell, J.; Sutton, C. S.; Tanaka, M.; White, C.; Wu, J.-Y.

    1998-10-01

    We measured the high-momentum transfer [Q2=4.8 and 6.2 (GeV/c)2] quasi-elastic 12C(p,2p) reaction at θcm~=90 deg for 6 and 7.5 GeV/c incident protons. The momentum components of both outgoing protons and the missing energy and momentum of the proton in the nucleus were measured. We verified the validity of the quasi-elastic picture for ground state momenta up to about 0.5 GeV/c. Transverse and longitudinal momentum distributions of the target proton were measured. They have the same shape with a large momentum tail which is not consistent with independent particle models. We observed that the transverse distribution gets wider as the longitudinal component increases in the beam direction.

  2. Collisionless momentum transfer in space and astrophysical explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, A. S.; Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Clark, S. E.; Lee, B. R.; Constantin, C. G.; Vincena, S.; van Compernolle, B.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Winske, D.; Niemann, C.

    2017-06-01

    The AMPTE (Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers) mission provided in situ measurements of collisionless momentum and energy exchange between an artificial, photo-ionized barium plasma cloud and the streaming, magnetized hydrogen plasma of the solar wind . One of its most significant findings was the unanticipated displacement of the barium ion `comet head’ (and an oppositely directed deflection of the streaming hydrogen ions) transverse to both the solar wind flow and the interplanetary magnetic field, defying the conventional expectation that the barium ions would simply move downwind. While subsequent theoretical and computational efforts to understand the cause of the transverse motion reached differing conclusions, several authors attributed the observations to Larmor coupling, a collisionless momentum exchange mechanism believed to occur in various astrophysical and space-plasma environments and to participate in cosmic magnetized collisionless shock formation. Here we present the detection of Larmor coupling in a reproducible laboratory experiment that combines an explosive laser-produced plasma cloud with preformed, magnetized ambient plasma in a parameter regime relevant to the AMPTE barium releases. In our experiment, time-resolved Doppler spectroscopy reveals ambient ion acceleration transverse to both the laser-produced plasma flow and the background magnetic field. Utilizing a detailed numerical simulation, we demonstrate that the ambient ion velocity distribution corresponding to the measured Doppler-shifted spectrum is qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with Larmor coupling.

  3. Unsteady Analysis of Blade and Tip Heat Transfer as Influenced by the Upstream Momentum and Thermal Wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, Ali A.; Rigby, David L.; Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Heidmann, James D.; Fabian, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the upstream wake on the blade heat transfer has been numerically examined. The geometry and the flow conditions of the first stage turbine blade of GE s E3 engine with a tip clearance equal to 2 percent of the span was utilized. Based on numerical calculations of the vane, a set of wake boundary conditions were approximated, which were subsequently imposed upon the downstream blade. This set consisted of the momentum and thermal wakes as well as the variation in modeled turbulence quantities of turbulence intensity and the length scale. Using a one-blade periodic domain, the distributions of unsteady heat transfer rate on the turbine blade and its tip, as affected by the wake, were determined. Such heat transfer coefficient distribution was computed using the wall heat flux and the adiabatic wall temperature to desensitize the heat transfer coefficient to the wall temperature. For the determination of the wall heat flux and the adiabatic wall temperatures, two sets of computations were required. The results were used in a phase-locked manner to compute the unsteady or steady heat transfer coefficients. It has been found that the unsteady wake has some effect on the distribution of the time averaged heat transfer coefficient on the blade and that this distribution is different from the distribution that is obtainable from a steady computation. This difference was found to be as large as 20 percent of the average heat transfer on the blade surface. On the tip surface, this difference is comparatively smaller and can be as large as four percent of the average.

  4. Molecular Structures and Momentum Transfer Cross Sections: The Influence of the Analyte Charge Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Meggie N.; Bleiholder, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Structure elucidation by ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry methods is based on the comparison of an experimentally measured momentum transfer cross-section to cross-sections calculated for model structures. Thus, it is imperative that the calculated cross-section must be accurate. However, it is not fully understood how important it is to accurately model the charge distribution of an analyte ion when calculating momentum transfer cross-sections. Here, we calculate and compare momentum transfer cross-sections for carbon clusters that differ in mass, charge state, and mode of charge distribution, and vary temperature and polarizability of the buffer gas. Our data indicate that the detailed distribution of the ion charge density is intimately linked to the contribution of glancing collisions to the momentum transfer cross-section. The data suggest that analyte ions with molecular mass 3 kDa or momentum transfer cross-section 400-500 Å2 would be significantly influenced by the charge distribution in nitrogen buffer gas. Our data further suggest that accurate structure elucidation on the basis of IMS-MS data measured in nitrogen buffer gas must account for the molecular charge distribution even for systems as large as C960 ( 12 kDa) when localized charges are present and/or measurements are conducted under cryogenic temperatures. Finally, our data underscore that accurate structure elucidation is unlikely if ion mobility data recorded in one buffer gas is converted into other buffer gases when electronic properties of the buffer gases differ.

  5. The importance of momentum transfer in collision-induced breakups in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Robert C.; Lillie, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    Although there is adequate information on larger objects in low Earth orbit, specifically those objects larger than about 10 cm in diameter, there is little direct information on objects from this size down to 1 mm. Yet, this is the sized regime where objects acting as projectiles represent the ability to seriously damage or destroy a functioning spacecraft if they collide with it. The observed consequences of known collisional breakups in orbit indicates no significant momentum transfer in the resulting debris cloud. The position taken in this paper is that this is an observational selection effect: what is seen in these events is an explosion-like breakup of the target structure arising from shock waves introduced into the structure by the collision, but one that occurs significantly after the collision processes are completed; the collision cloud, in which there is momentum transfer, consists of small, unobserved fragments. Preliminary computations of the contribution of one known collisional breakup, Solwind at 500 km in 1985, and Cosmos 1275 in 1981, assume no momentum transfer on breakup and indicate that these two events are the dominant contributors to the current millimeter and centimeter population. A different story would emerge if momentum transfer was taken into account. The topics covered include: (1) observation of on-orbit collisional breakups; (2) a model for momentum transfer; and (3) velocity space representation of breakup clouds.

  6. Globalism of commutation relation and mechanism of momentum transfer in the Aharonov-Bohm effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun-Fang

    1997-09-01

    After examining the domain of an operator that has classical analog, which is shown to be the whole spatial space, the concept of globalism of a commutation relation is introduced through analyzing the quantization of the kinetic angular momentum in the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Its applications are also given to explain in an elegant and precise way, the mechanism of momentum transfer in the Aharonov-Bohm scattering and to study the probability distribution of the momentum for a particle in a one-dimensional infinitely deep square potential well.

  7. Energy and angular momentum transfer in binary galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namboodiri, P. M. S.; Kochhar, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The authors numerically studied tidal effects of a massive perturber on a satellite galaxy. The model consists of a spherical satellite galaxy and a point mass perturber and the encounter is non-penetrating. A wide range of density ratios and eccentricities of the relative orbits have been considered. The disruption of the satellite galaxy has been observed when the numerical value of the fractional change in the energy is greater than two. The changes in the energy and angular momentum show smooth variation in the case of unbound orbits and irregular variation in the bound orbit cases. It is shown that for a constant pericentral distance, increasing the density ratio decreases the tidal effects; and for a given density ratio an increase in the eccentricity decreases the tidal effects.

  8. Transfer coefficients of radionuclides secreted in milk of dairy cows

    SciTech Connect

    Sam, D.; Williams, W.F.; Rockmann, D.D.; Allen, J.T.

    1980-09-01

    This study simulated experimentally the transfer of radionuclides to milk of dairy cows on a worst-case situation using various radionuclides known to emanate from nuclear power stations and which have been detected on particulates. Two lactating Holstein cows were administered orally one gelatin capsule containing 10 radionuclides in water-soluble form per day for 14 consecutive days. Milk samples were collected and aliquots analyzed in a germanium lithium-drifted detector coupled to a 2048-multichannel gamma-ray analyzer to measure small amounts of complex mixtures of radionuclides. The transfer coefficients of the radionuclides were calculated when their secretion in milk reached or approached a plateau of concentration. The radionuclides and their transfer coefficients to milk were: chromium/sup 51/ less than 0.01%; manganese/sup 54/ 0.033 +- 0.005%; cobalt/sup 60/ 0.01 +- 0.002%; iron/sup 59/ 0.0048 +- 0.002%; zinc/sup 65/ 0.31 +- 0.07%; selenium/sup 75/ 0.29 +- 0.1%; antimony/sup 125/ 0.011 +- 0.003%; iodine/sup 131/ 0.88 +- 0.05%; and cesium/sup 137/ 0.79 +- 0.08%.

  9. Momentum transfer cross-section for ion scattering on dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, I. L.; Khrapak, S. A.; Thomas, H. M.

    2017-03-01

    The momentum transfer cross-section for ion scattering on charged dust particles is calculated using different models of the interaction potential. The results are applied to estimate the ion drag force for typical conditions used in the experiments with complex (dusty) plasmas. The influence of two factors on the ion-dust collision cross section is discussed. The first is related to the nonlinear screening effects associated with the strong coupling between ions and dust particles. The second factor is the plasma absorption by dust particles. It is shown that the nonlinear screening effects are of importance and affect both the momentum transfer cross-section and the ion drag force. On the other hand, the absorption process affects the scattering momentum transfer cross-section only at low collision energies and thus can be neglected in estimating the ion drag force.

  10. New Precision Measurements of Deuteron Structure Function A(Q) at Low Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byungwuek

    2009-08-01

    Differences between previous measurements of low momentum transfer electron-deuteron elastic scattering prevent a clean determination of even the sign of the leading low momentum transfer relativistic corrections, or of the convergence of chiral perturbation theory. We have attempted to resolve this issue with a new high-precision measurement in Jefferson Lab Hall A. Elastic electron scattering was measured on targets of tantalum, carbon, hydrogen, and deuterium at beam energy of 685 MeV. The four-momentum transfer covered the range of 0.15 - 0.7 GeV. The experiment included a new beam calorimeter, to better calibrate the low beam currents used in the experiment, and new collimators to better define the spectrometer solid angles. We obtained cross sections of deuteron as ratios to hydrogen cross sections. A fit function of B(Q) world data is newly made and subtracted from cross sections to find values of A(Q).

  11. In vivo measurement of swine endocardial convective heat transfer coefficient.

    PubMed

    Tangwongsan, Chanchana; Will, James A; Webster, John G; Meredith, Kenneth L; Mahvi, David M

    2004-08-01

    We measured the endocardial convective heat transfer coefficient h at 22 locations in the cardiac chambers of 15 pigs in vivo. A thin-film Pt catheter tip sensor in a Wheatstone-bridge circuit, similar to a hot wire/film anemometer, measured h. Using fluoroscopy, we could precisely locate the steerable catheter sensor tip and sensor orientation in pigs' cardiac chambers. With flows, h varies from 2500 to 9500 W/m2 x K. With zero flow, h is approximately 2400 W/m2 x K. These values of h can be used for the finite element method modeling of radiofrequency cardiac catheter ablation.

  12. Heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids in minichannel heat sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utomo, Adi T.; Zavareh, Ashkan I. T.; Poth, Heiko; Wahab, Mohd; Boonie, Mohammad; Robbins, Phillip T.; Pacek, Andrzej W.

    2012-09-01

    Convective heat transfer in a heat sink consisting of rectangular minichannels and cooled with alumina and titania nanofluids has been investigated experimentally and numerically. Numerical simulations were carried out in a three dimensional domain employing homogeneous mixture model with effective thermo-physical properties of nanofluids. The predictions of base temperature profiles of the heat sink cooled with both water and nanofluids agree well with the experimental data. Experimental and numerical results show that the investigated nanofluids neither exhibits unusual enhancement of heat transfer coefficient nor decreases the heat sink base temperature. Although both nanofluids showed marginal thermal conductivity enhancements, the presence of solid nanoparticles lowers the specific heat capacity of nanofluids offseting the advantage of thermal conductivity enhancement. For all investigated flow rates, the Nusselt number of both nanofluids overlaps with that of water indicating that both nanofluids behave like single-phase fluids.

  13. On effect of wind surface waves on mass and momentum transfer in a stratified turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yu.; Ezhova, E.; Sergeev, D.; Kandaurov, A.; Baidakov, G.; Vdovin, M.

    2012-04-01

    The most important characteristics that determine the interaction between atmosphere and ocean are fluxes of momentum, heat and moisture. For their parameterization the dimensionless exchange coefficients (the surface drag coefficient CD and the heat transfer coefficient or the Stanton number CT) are used. Numerous field and laboratory experiments show that CD increases with increasing wind speed. This is due to the fact that the transfer of the momentum wave disturbances, or form drag, increases with increasing wind speed, which is accompanied by broadening the wind wave spectrum. The dependence of heat transfer coefficient CT on the wind speed is not well studieds and the role of the mechanism associated with the wave disturbances in the mass transfer is poorly understood. Observations and laboratory data show that this dependence is weaker than for the CD, and there are differences in the character of the dependence in different data sets. For example, the algorithm COARE 3.0 (see [1] indicates a slight increase in CT with increasing wind speed U10, a similar dependence was obtained in [2] and the laboratory experiment, [3], and in [4] a dependence of CT on the wind speed was not found. The weak dependence of the CT on U10 is confirmed by theoretical models [5], but the details of the dependence (growing or dropping) were sensitive to the choice of model. The purpose of this paper is investigation of the effect of waves on the surface of the water on the exchange of momentum and mass to drive the boundary layer of air and from this point of view it largely follows [5]. The main difference is related to the used model of the marine atmospheric boundary layer, in which the perturbations induced by the waves on the water surface in the atmosphere are calculated. It is a generalization of the model developed for a homogeneous atmosphere in [6] to the case of a stratified marine atmospheric boundary layer. The model was recently verified by comparing with

  14. Two-photon exchange correction in elastic unpolarized electron-proton scattering at small momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomalak, O.; Vanderhaeghen, M.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the two-photon exchange (TPE) correction to the unpolarized elastic electron-proton scattering at small momentum transfer Q2 . We account for the inelastic intermediate states approximating the double virtual Compton scattering by the unpolarized forward virtual Compton scattering. The unpolarized proton structure functions are used as input for the numerical evaluation of the inelastic contribution. Our calculation reproduces the leading terms in the Q2 expansion of the TPE correction and goes beyond this approximation by keeping the full Q2 dependence of the proton structure functions. In the range of small momentum transfer, our result is in good agreement with the empirical TPE fit to existing data.

  15. The role of momentum transfer during incoherent neutron scattering is explained by the energy landscape model

    PubMed Central

    Frauenfelder, Hans; Young, Robert D.; Fenimore, Paul W.

    2017-01-01

    We recently introduced a model of incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) that treats the neutrons as wave packets of finite length and the protein as a random walker in the free energy landscape. We call the model ELM for “energy landscape model.” In ELM, the interaction of the wave packet with a proton in a protein provides the dynamic information. During the scattering event, the momentum Q(t) is transferred by the wave packet to the struck proton and its moiety, exerting the force F(t)=dQ(t)/dt. The resultant energy E⋆ is stored elastically and returned to the neutron as it exits. The energy is given by E⋆=kB(T0+χQ), where T0 is the ambient temperature and χ (≈ 91 K Å) is a new elastobaric coefficient. Experiments yield the scattering intensity (dynamic structure factor) S(Q;T) as a function of Q and T. To test our model, we use published data on proteins where only thermal vibrations are active. ELM competes with the currently accepted theory, here called the spatial motion model (SMM), which explains S(Q,T) by motions in real space. ELM is superior to SMM: It can explain the experimental angular and temperature dependence, whereas SMM cannot do so. PMID:28461503

  16. Pion photoproduction cross section at large momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoegren, Johan

    2015-02-27

    The Real Compton Scattering experiment was performed in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. It was designed to measure, for Compton scattering and π0-photoproduction, the differential cross section over a range of kinematic points and the polarisation transfer to the proton at a single kinematic point. The full range of the experiment in Mandelstam variables t and s was 1.6-6.46 GeV2 and 4.82-10.92 GeV2 respectively with beam energies of 2-6 GeV. The motivation for the experiment is to test the cross section and polarisation transfer predictions of perturbative QCD versus that of predictions from Generalised Parton Distribution models. This thesis will give an overview of the pertinent theory, experimental setup in Hall A and the extracting of the π0-photoproduction cross section.

  17. Contribution of limb momentum to power transfer in athletic wheelchair pushing.

    PubMed

    Masson, G; Bégin, M-A; Lopez Poncelas, M; Pelletier, S-K; Lessard, J-L; Laroche, J; Berrigan, F; Langelier, E; Smeesters, C; Rancourt, D

    2016-09-06

    Pushing capacity is a key parameter in athletic racing wheelchair performance. This study estimated the potential contribution of upper limb momentum to pushing. The question is relevant since it may affect the training strategy adopted by an athlete. A muscle-free Lagrangian dynamic model of the upper limb segments was developed and theoretical predictions of power transfer to the wheelchair were computed during the push phase. Results show that limb momentum capacity for pushing can be in the order of 40J per push cycle at 10m/s, but it varies with the specific pushing range chosen by the athlete. Although use of momentum could certainly help an athlete improve performance, quantifying the actual contribution of limb momentum to pushing is not trivial. A preliminary experimental investigation on an ergometer, along with a simplified model of the upper limb, suggests that momentum is not the sole contributor to power transfer to a wheelchair. Muscles substantially contribute to pushing, even at high speeds. Moreover, an optimal pushing range is challenging to find since it most likely differs if an athlete chooses a limb momentum pushing strategy versus a muscular exertion pushing strategy, or both at the same time. The study emphasizes the importance of controlling pushing range, although one should optimize it while also taking the dynamics of the recovery period into account.

  18. Ratios of transfer coefficients for radiocesium transport in ruminants

    SciTech Connect

    Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Karamanis, D.

    1995-09-01

    A corollary of the multiple-compartment model for the transport of trace elements through animals was tested for cows, goats, and sheep. According to this corollary, for a given body {open_quotes}compartment{close_quotes} k of the animal (soft tissue, lung, liver, etc.), the ratio a(k)=f(k)/f(blood) of the transfer coefficients f, should exhibit similar values for physiologically similar animals. In order to verify this prediction, two experiments were performed at the Agricultural Research Station of Ioannina and at the facilities of Ria Pripyat in Pripyat, Ukranine. Eight animals in the first experiment and eighteen in the second were housed in individual pens and were artificially contaminated with a constant daily dose of radiocesium until equilibrium was reached. the animals were then sacrificed and transfer coefficients f(k) to twelve body {open_quotes}compartments{close_quotes} k were measured. These data were used to calculate the ratios a(k). The results were in accordance with predictions of the model and average values of a(k) were extracted for ruminants. It is concluded that these values may be employed for the prediction of animal contamination in any body compartment through the measurement of blood samples. 7 refs., 8 tabs.

  19. Consider a non-spherical elephant: computational fluid dynamics simulations of heat transfer coefficients and drag verified using wind tunnel experiments.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Peter N; Bonazza, Riccardo; Porter, Warren P

    2013-07-01

    Animal momentum and heat transfer analysis has historically used direct animal measurements or approximations to calculate drag and heat transfer coefficients. Research can now use modern 3D rendering and computational fluid dynamics software to simulate animal-fluid interactions. Key questions are the level of agreement between simulations and experiments and how superior they are to classical approximations. In this paper we compared experimental and simulated heat transfer and drag calculations on a scale model solid aluminum African elephant casting. We found good agreement between experimental and simulated data and large differences from classical approximations. We used the simulation results to calculate coefficients for heat transfer and drag of the elephant geometry.

  20. Angular momentum transfer by gravitational torques and the evolution of binary protostars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, A. P.

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of angular momentum transport by gravitational torques is investigated semianalytically for two idealized models. The first model, a rotating ellipsoid embedded within another ellipsoid, is compared with numerical results for the fission instability of a radpidly-rotating polytrope. The fission instability is aborted by the rapid transfer of angular momentum outward by gravitational torques. The global rates of angular momentum transfer by gravitational torques in rotating gas clouds such as the presolar nebula are shown to be comparable to the rates assumed to be appropriate for transfer by turbulent stresses. The second model is a binary system embedded within a rotating ellipsoid. The binary orbital angular momentum decreases significantly when the phase angle with the ellipsoid is constant; the binary separation may then decrease by a factor of 100 within about an orbital period. For a variable phase angle, little secular loss of orbital angular momentum occurs. Binaries which form in the isothermal regime of the theory of hierarchical fragmentation will not undergo orbital decay, whereas very close binaries composed of nonisothermal fragments may decay and merge into single objects.

  1. Angular momentum transfer by gravitational torques and the evolution of binary protostars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, A. P.

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of angular momentum transport by gravitational torques is investigated semianalytically for two idealized models. The first model, a rotating ellipsoid embedded within another ellipsoid, is compared with numerical results for the fission instability of a radpidly-rotating polytrope. The fission instability is aborted by the rapid transfer of angular momentum outward by gravitational torques. The global rates of angular momentum transfer by gravitational torques in rotating gas clouds such as the presolar nebula are shown to be comparable to the rates assumed to be appropriate for transfer by turbulent stresses. The second model is a binary system embedded within a rotating ellipsoid. The binary orbital angular momentum decreases significantly when the phase angle with the ellipsoid is constant; the binary separation may then decrease by a factor of 100 within about an orbital period. For a variable phase angle, little secular loss of orbital angular momentum occurs. Binaries which form in the isothermal regime of the theory of hierarchical fragmentation will not undergo orbital decay, whereas very close binaries composed of nonisothermal fragments may decay and merge into single objects.

  2. Unsteady stress partitioning and momentum transfer in the wave bottom boundary layer over movable rippled beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Abudo, S.; Foster, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of the nearbed velocity field over a rippled sediment bed under asymmetric wave forcing conditions were collected using a submersible particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. To examine the role of bed form-induced dynamics in the total momentum transfer, a double-averaging technique was implemented on the two-dimensional time-dependent velocity field by means of the full momentum equation. This approach allows for direct determination of the bed form-induced stresses, i.e., stresses that arise due to the presence of bed forms, which are zero in flat bed conditions. This analysis suggests that bed form-induced stresses are closely related to the presence of coherent motions and may be partitioned from the turbulent stresses. Inferences of stress provided by a bed load transport model suggest that total momentum transfer obtained from the double-averaging technique is capable of reproducing bed form mobilization. Comparisons between the total momentum transfer and stress estimates obtained from local velocity profiles show significant variability across the ripple and suggest that an array of sensors is necessary to reproduce bed form evolution. The imbalance of momentum obtained by resolving the different terms constituting the near-bed momentum balance (i.e., acceleration deficit, stress gradient, and bed form-induced skin friction) provides an estimate of the bed form-induced pressure that is consistent with flow separation. This analysis reveals three regions in the flow: the free-stream, where all terms are relatively balanced; the near-bed, where momentum imbalance is significant during flow weakening; and below ripple crests, where bed form-induced pressure is the leading order mechanism.

  3. CFD MODELING OF ITER CABLE-IN-CONDUIT SUPERCONDUCTORS. PART V: COMBINED MOMENTUM AND HEAT TRANSFER IN RIB ROUGHENED PIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Zanino, R.; Giors, S.

    2008-03-16

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques have been proposed and applied in a series of papers to analyze cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Previous work on the pressure drop in the central channel of ITER CICC is extended here to the problem of combined heat and momentum transfer. The CFD model, solved by the FLUENT commercial code, is first validated against 2D and 3D data from compact heat exchangers, showing good agreement. The Colburn analogy between the friction factor f and the Nusselt number Nu is not verified in the considered 2D geometries, as shown by both experiment and simulation. The validated CFD model is finally applied to the 3D analysis of central channel-like geometries relevant for ITER CICC. It is shown that the heat transfer coefficient on the central channel side stays relatively close to the smooth-pipe (Dittus-Boelter) value.

  4. Application of Momentum Transfer Theory for Ion and Electron Transport in Pure Gases and in Gas Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, J. V.; Vrhovac, S. B.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we have presented two applications of Momentum Transfer Theory (MTT), which were both aimed at obtaining reliable data for modeling of non-equilibrium plasma. Transport properties of ion swarms in presence of Resonant Charge Transfer (RCT) collisions are studied using Momentum Transfer Theory (MTT). Using the developed MTT we tested a previously available anisotropic set of cross-sections for Ar++Ar collisions bay making the comparisons with the available data for the transverse diffusion coefficient. We also developed an anisotropic set of Ne++Ne integral cross-sections based on the available data for mobility, longitudinal and transverse diffusion. Anisotropic sets of cross-sections are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of ion transport and plasma models. Application of Blanc's Law for drift velocities of electrons and ions in gas mixtures at arbitrary reduced electric field strenghts E/n0 was studied theoretically and by numerical examples. Corrections for Blanc's Law that include effects of inelastic collisions were derived. In addition we have derived the common mean energy procedure that was proposed by Chiflikian in a general case both for ions and electrons. Both corrected common E/n0 and common mean energy procedures provide excellent results even for electrons at moderate E/n0 where application of Blanc's Law was regarded as impossible. In mixtures of two gases that have negative differential conductivity (NDC) even when neither of the two pure gases show NDC the Blanc's Law procedure was able to give excellent predictions.

  5. Application of Momentum Transfer Theory for Ion and Electron Transport in Pure Gases and in Gas Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, J.V.; Vrhovac, S. B.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we have presented two applications of Momentum Transfer Theory (MTT), which were both aimed at obtaining reliable data for modeling of non-equilibrium plasma. Transport properties of ion swarms in presence of Resonant Charge Transfer (RCT) collisions are studied using Momentum Transfer Theory (MTT). Using the developed MTT we tested a previously available anisotropic set of cross-sections for Ar++Ar collisions bay making the comparisons with the available data for the transverse diffusion coefficient. We also developed an anisotropic set of Ne++Ne integral cross-sections based on the available data for mobility, longitudinal and transverse diffusion. Anisotropic sets of cross-sections are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of ion transport and plasma models. Application of Blanc's Law for drift velocities of electrons and ions in gas mixtures at arbitrary reduced electric field strengths E/n0 was studied theoretically and by numerical examples. Corrections for Blanc's Law that include effects of inelastic collisions were derived. In addition we have derived the common mean energy procedure that was proposed by Chiflikian in a general case both for ions and electrons. Both corrected common E/n0 and common mean energy procedures provide excellent results even for electrons at moderate E/n0 where application of Blanc's Law was regarded as impossible. In mixtures of two gases that have negative differential conductivity (NDC) even when neither of the two pure gases show NDC the Blanc's Law procedure was able to give excellent predictions.

  6. Quantifying Momentum Transfer Due to Blast Waves from Oxy-Acetylene Driven Shock Tubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-30

    Transfer Due to Blast Waves from Oxy - Acetylene Driven Shock Tubes 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...and the response of materiel to blast loading. Recently, laboratory-scale shock tubes driven by oxy - acetylene were described. It was estimated that...later. In each case, most of the momentum transfer was due to the shock wave itself. The results support previous estimates that the oxy - acetylene

  7. Momentum and energy dependent resolution function of the ARCS neutron chopper spectrometer at high momentum transfer: Comparing simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, S. O.; Lin, J. Y. Y.; Abernathy, D. L.; Azuah, R. T.

    2016-11-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering at high momentum transfers (i.e. Q ≥ 20 A ˚), commonly known as deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS), provides direct observation of the momentum distribution of light atoms, making it a powerful probe for studying single-particle motions in liquids and solids. The quantitative analysis of DINS data requires an accurate knowledge of the instrument resolution function Ri(Q , E) at each momentum Q and energy transfer E, where the label i indicates whether the resolution was experimentally observed i = obs or simulated i=sim. Here, we describe two independent methods for determining the total resolution function Ri(Q , E) of the ARCS neutron instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The first method uses experimental data from an archetypical system (liquid 4He) studied with DINS, which are then numerically deconvoluted using its previously determined intrinsic scattering function to yield Robs(Q , E). The second approach uses accurate Monte Carlo simulations of the ARCS spectrometer, which account for all instrument contributions, coupled to a representative scattering kernel to reproduce the experimentally observed response S(Q , E). Using a delta function as scattering kernel, the simulation yields a resolution function Rsim(Q , E) with comparable lineshape and features as Robs(Q , E), but somewhat narrower due to the ideal nature of the model. Using each of these two Ri(Q , E) separately, we extract characteristic parameters of liquid 4He such as the intrinsic linewidth α2 (which sets the atomic kinetic energy < K > ∼α2) in the normal liquid and the Bose-Einstein condensate parameter n0 in the superfluid phase. The extracted α2 values agree well with previous measurements at saturated vapor pressure (SVP) as well as at elevated pressure (24 bars) within experimental precision, independent of which Ri(Q , y) is used to analyze the data. The actual observed n0 values at each Q vary little

  8. The variation of heat transfer coefficient, adiabatic effectiveness and aerodynamic loss with film cooling hole shape.

    PubMed

    Sargison, J E; Guo, S M; Oldfield, M L; Rawlinson, A J

    2001-05-01

    The heat transfer coefficient and adiabatic effectiveness of cylindrical, fan shaped holes and a slot are presented for the region zero to 50 diameters downstream of the holes. Narrow-band liquid crystals were used on a heated flat plate with heated air coolant. These parameters have been measured in a steady state, low speed facility at engine representative Reynolds number based on hole diameter and pressure difference ratio (ideal momentum flux ratio). The aerodynamic loss due to each of the film cooling geometries has been measured using a traverse of the boundary layer far downstream of the film cooling holes. Compared to the cylindrical holes, the fan shaped hole case showed an improvement in the uniformity of cooling downstream of the holes and in the level of laterally averaged film cooling effectiveness. The fan effectiveness approached the slot level and both the fan and cylindrical hole cases show lower heat transfer coefficients than the slot and non film cooled cases based on the laterally averaged results. The drawback to the fan shaped hole was that the aerodynamic loss was significantly higher than both the slot and cylindrical hole values due to inefficient diffusion in the hole exit expansion.

  9. Molecular-dynamics study of Poiseuille flow in a nanochannel and calculation of energy and momentum accommodation coefficients.

    PubMed

    Prabha, Sooraj K; Sathian, Sarith P

    2012-04-01

    We report a molecular-dynamics study of flow of Lennard-Jones fluid through a nanochannel where size effects predominate. The momentum and energy accommodation coefficients, which determine the amount of slip and temperature jumps, are calculated for a three-dimensional Poiseuille flow through a nano-sized channel. Accommodation coefficients are calculated by considering a " gravity"- (acceleration field) driven Poiseuille flow between two infinite parallel walls that are maintained at a fixed temperature. The Knudsen number (Kn) dependency of the accommodation coefficients, slip length, and velocity profiles is investigated. The system is also studied by varying the strength of gravity. The accommodation coefficients are found to approach a limiting value with an increase in gravity and Kn. For low values of Kn (<0.15), the slip length obtained from the velocity profiles is found to match closely the results obtained from the linear slip model. Using the calculated values of accommodation coefficients, the first- and second-order slip models are validated in the early transition regime. The study demonstrates the applicability of the Navier-Stokes equation with the second-order slip model in the early transition regime.

  10. Molecular Structures and Momentum Transfer Cross Sections: The Influence of the Analyte Charge Distribution.

    PubMed

    Young, Meggie N; Bleiholder, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Structure elucidation by ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry methods is based on the comparison of an experimentally measured momentum transfer cross-section to cross-sections calculated for model structures. Thus, it is imperative that the calculated cross-section must be accurate. However, it is not fully understood how important it is to accurately model the charge distribution of an analyte ion when calculating momentum transfer cross-sections. Here, we calculate and compare momentum transfer cross-sections for carbon clusters that differ in mass, charge state, and mode of charge distribution, and vary temperature and polarizability of the buffer gas. Our data indicate that the detailed distribution of the ion charge density is intimately linked to the contribution of glancing collisions to the momentum transfer cross-section. The data suggest that analyte ions with molecular mass ~3 kDa or momentum transfer cross-section 400-500 Å(2) would be significantly influenced by the charge distribution in nitrogen buffer gas. Our data further suggest that accurate structure elucidation on the basis of IMS-MS data measured in nitrogen buffer gas must account for the molecular charge distribution even for systems as large as C960 (~12 kDa) when localized charges are present and/or measurements are conducted under cryogenic temperatures. Finally, our data underscore that accurate structure elucidation is unlikely if ion mobility data recorded in one buffer gas is converted into other buffer gases when electronic properties of the buffer gases differ. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  11. Interfacial Charge Transfer Circumventing Momentum Mismatch at Two-Dimensional van der Waals Heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiming; Wang, Jue; Gong, Zizhou; Kim, Young Duck; Hone, James; Zhu, X-Y

    2017-06-14

    Interfacial charge separation and recombination at heterojunctions of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are of interest to two-dimensional optoelectronic technologies. These processes can involve large changes in parallel momentum vector due to the confinement of electrons and holes to the K valleys in each layer. Because these high-momentum valleys are usually not aligned across the interface of two TMDC monolayers, how parallel momentum is conserved in the charge separation or recombination process becomes a key question. Here we probe this question using the model system of a type-II heterojunction formed by MoS2 and WSe2 monolayers and the experimental technique of femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. Upon photoexcitation specifically of WSe2 at the heterojunction, we observe ultrafast (<40 fs) electron transfer from WSe2 to MoS2, independent of the angular alignment and thus momentum mismatch between the two TMDCs. The resulting interlayer charge transfer exciton decays via nonradiative recombination with rates varying by up to three-orders of magnitude from sample to sample but with no correlation with interlayer angular alignment. We suggest that the initial interfacial charge separation and the subsequent interfacial charge recombination processes circumvent momentum mismatch via excess electronic energy and via defect-mediated recombination, respectively.

  12. Proton Transfer Rate Coefficient Measurements of Selected Volatile Organic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, G.; Popović, S.; Vušković, L.

    2002-05-01

    We have developed an apparatus based on the selected ion flow tube (SIFT)footnote D. Smith and N.G. Adams, Ads. At. Mol. Phys. 24, 1 (1987). that allows the study of proton transfer between various positive ions and volatile organic molecules. Reactions in the flow tube occur at pressures of approximately 300 mTorr, eliminating the requirement of thermal beam production. The proton donor molecule H_3O^+ has been produced using several types of electrical discharges in water vapor, such as a capacitively coupled RF discharge and a DC hollow cathode discharge. Presently we are developing an Asmussen-type microwave cavity discharge using the components of a standard microwave oven that has the advantages of simple design and operation, as well as low cost. We will be presenting the results of the microwave cavity ion source to produce H_3O^+, and compare it to the other studied sources. In addition, we will be presenting a preliminary measurement of the proton transfer rate coefficient in the reaction of H_3O^+ with acetone and methanol.

  13. Momentum transfer theory of ion transport under the influence of resonant charge transfer collisions: the case of argon and neon ions in parent gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, J. V.; Vrhovac, S. B.; Petrović, Z. Lj.

    2002-12-01

    Transport properties of ion swarms in presence of Resonant Charge Transfer (RCT) collisions are studied using Momentum Transfer Theory (MTT). It was shown that, not surprisingly, RCT collisions may be represented as a special case of elastic scattering. Using the developed MTT we tested a previously available anisotropic set of cross-sections for Ar+Ar^+ collisions by making the comparisons with the available data for the transverse diffusion coefficient. We also developed an anisotropic set of Ne+Ne^+ integral cross-sections based on the available data for mobility, longitudinal and transverse diffusion. Anisotropic sets of cross-sections are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of ion transport and plasma models.

  14. Atom Interferometry with up to 24-Photon-Momentum-Transfer Beam Splitters

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Holger; Chiow, Sheng-wey; Long, Quan; Herrmann, Sven; Chu, Steven

    2008-05-09

    We present up to 24-photon Bragg diffraction as a beam splitter in light-pulse atom interferometers to achieve the largest splitting in momentum space so far. Relative to the 2-photon processes used in the most sensitive present interferometers, these large momentum transfer beam splitters increase the phase shift 12-fold for Mach-Zehnder (MZ) and 144-fold for Ramsey-Borde (RB) geometries. We achieve a high visibility of the interference fringes (up to 52% for MZ or 36% for RB) and long pulse separation times that are possible only in atomic fountain setups. As the atom's internal state is not changed, important systematic effects can cancel.

  15. Spatial light structuring using a combination of multiple orthogonal orbital angular momentum beams with complex coefficients.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guodong; Liu, Cong; Li, Long; Ren, Yongxiong; Zhao, Zhe; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Wang, Zhe; Willner, Asher J; Bao, Changjing; Cao, Yinwen; Liao, Peicheng; Ziyadi, Morteza; Almaiman, Ahmed; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

    2017-03-01

    Analogous to time signals that can be composed of multiple frequency functions, we use uniquely structured orthogonal spatial modes to create different beam shapes. We tailor the spatial structure by judiciously choosing a weighted combination of multiple modal states within an orthogonal orbital angular momentum (OAM) basis set, creating desired beam intensity "shapes." The weights of the OAM beams to be combined forms a Fourier pair with the spatial intensity distribution in the azimuthal direction of the resultant beam. As an example, we simulate and experimentally create various beam shapes by designing the weights of the combined OAM beams. We also find that 6× higher localized power, as compared to traditional beam combining, could be achieved by coherently combining nine orthogonal OAM beams.

  16. Non-Newtonian Momentum Transfer past an Isothermal Stretching Sheet with Applied Suction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veena, P. H.; Suresh, B.; Pravin, V. K.; Goud, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    The paper discusses the flow of an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid due to stretching of a plane elastic surface in a saturated porous medium in the approximation of boundary layer theory. An exact analytical solution of non-linear MHD momentum equation governing the self-similar flow is given. The skin friction co-efficient decreases with an increase in the visco-elastic parameter k1 and increase in the values of both the magnetic parameter and permeability parameter.

  17. Energy transfer, orbital angular momentum, and discrete current in a double-ring fiber array

    SciTech Connect

    Alexeyev, C. N.; Volyar, A. V.; Yavorsky, M. A.

    2011-12-15

    We study energy transfer and orbital angular momentum of supermodes in a double-ring array of evanescently coupled monomode optical fibers. The structure of supermodes and the spectra of their propagation constants are obtained. The geometrical parameters of the array, at which the energy is mostly confined within the layers, are determined. The developed method for finding the supermodes of concentric arrays is generalized for the case of multiring arrays. The orbital angular momentum carried by a supermode of a double-ring array is calculated. The discrete lattice current is introduced. It is shown that the sum of discrete currents over the array is a conserved quantity. The connection of the total discrete current with orbital angular momentum of discrete optical vortices is made.

  18. Nonlinear momentum transfer control of a gyrostat with a discrete damper using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, In-Ho; Leeghim, Henzeh; Bang, Hyochoong

    2008-03-01

    An adaptive feedback linearization technique combined with neural networks is addressed for the momentum transfer control of a torque-free gyrostat with an attached spring-mass-dashpot damper. The neural network is used to adaptively compensate for the model error uncertainties of internal dynamics. The total spacecraft angular momentum component of the wheel spin axis is selected as an output function for the feedback linearization. Thus, a desired output function is predefined for which the total angular momentum of the spacecraft is absorbed into the wheel spin direction at the steady state with nutation angle converging to zero. The ultimate boundedness of the tracking error is proved by the Lyapunov stability theory. We also investigate the effect of rotor misalignment on the steady spin of the spacecraft and the initial stability condition to overcome the inverted turn due to unstable mass moment of inertia configuration. The effectiveness of the proposed control law is verified through a simulation study.

  19. Momentum transfer and particle stress in polydisperse, particle-laden flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, David; Garcia, Omar; Astephen, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations are performed in combination with two-way coupled Lagrangian point particles to study the effects of polydispersity on particle-induced modifications to momentum transfer in turbulent wall-bounded flow. Turbulent Couette flow is chosen as an idealized testbed for this purpose since total momentum flux is uniform in the wall-normal direction. Monodisperse simulations are first used to characterize momentum flux modification and particle stress as a function of particle Stokes number, and from this understanding bidisperse and continuously polydisperse mixtures of particle Stokes number are simulated. A simple model is then constructed to predict the total particle stress of these particle mixtures. While in the dilute limit particle stresses are nearly linearly additive, the entire mixture cannot simply be modeled by a single monodisperse particle with an effective Stokes number.

  20. Experimental Study on Momentum Transfer of Surface Texture in Taylor-Couette Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yabo; Yao, Zhenqiang; Cheng, De

    2017-03-01

    The behavior of Taylor-Couette (TC) flow has been extensively studied. However, no suitable torque prediction models exist for high-capacity fluid machinery. The Eckhardt-Grossmann-Lohse (EGL) theory, derived based on the Navier-Stokes equations, is proposed to model torque behavior. This theory suggests that surfaces are the significant energy transfer interfaces between cylinders and annular flow. This study mainly focuses on the effects of surface texture on momentum transfer behavior through global torque measurement. First, a power-law torque behavior model is built to reveal the relationship between dimensionless torque and the Taylor number based on the EGL theory. Second, TC flow apparatus is designed and built based on the CNC machine tool to verify the torque behavior model. Third, four surface texture films are tested to check the effects of surface texture on momentum transfer. A stereo microscope and three-dimensional topography instrument are employed to analyze surface morphology. Global torque behavior is measured by rotating a multi component dynamometer, and the effects of surface texture on the annular flow behavior are observed via images obtained using a high-speed camera. Finally, torque behaviors under four different surface conditions are fitted and compared. The experimental results indicate that surface textures have a remarkable influence on torque behavior, and that the peak roughness of surface texture enhances the momentum transfer by strengthening the fluctuation in the TC flow.

  1. Experimental Study on Momentum Transfer of Surface Texture in Taylor-Couette Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yabo; Yao, Zhenqiang; Cheng, De

    2017-05-01

    The behavior of Taylor-Couette (TC) flow has been extensively studied. However, no suitable torque prediction models exist for high-capacity fluid machinery. The Eckhardt-Grossmann-Lohse (EGL) theory, derived based on the Navier-Stokes equations, is proposed to model torque behavior. This theory suggests that surfaces are the significant energy transfer interfaces between cylinders and annular flow. This study mainly focuses on the effects of surface texture on momentum transfer behavior through global torque measurement. First, a power-law torque behavior model is built to reveal the relationship between dimensionless torque and the Taylor number based on the EGL theory. Second, TC flow apparatus is designed and built based on the CNC machine tool to verify the torque behavior model. Third, four surface texture films are tested to check the effects of surface texture on momentum transfer. A stereo microscope and three-dimensional topography instrument are employed to analyze surface morphology. Global torque behavior is measured by rotating a multi component dynamometer, and the effects of surface texture on the annular flow behavior are observed via images obtained using a high-speed camera. Finally, torque behaviors under four different surface conditions are fitted and compared. The experimental results indicate that surface textures have a remarkable influence on torque behavior, and that the peak roughness of surface texture enhances the momentum transfer by strengthening the fluctuation in the TC flow.

  2. Experimentally Determined Heat Transfer Coefficients for Spacesuit Liquid Cooled Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant; Watts, Carly; Rhodes, Richard; Anchondo, Ian; Westheimer, David; Campbell, Colin; Vonau, Walt; Vogel, Matt; Conger, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) Portable Life Support System 2.0 (PLSS 2.0) test has been conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center in the PLSS Development Laboratory from October 27, 2014 to December 19, 2014. These closed-loop tests of the PLSS 2.0 system integrated with human subjects in the Mark III Suit at 3.7 psi to 4.3 psi above ambient pressure performing treadmill exercise at various metabolic rates from standing rest to 3000 BTU/hr (880 W). The bulk of the PLSS 2.0 was at ambient pressure but effluent water vapor from the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and the Auxiliary Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), and effluent carbon dioxide from the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) were ported to vacuum to test performance of these components in flight-like conditions. One of the objectives of this test was to determine the heat transfer coefficient (UA) of the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The UA, an important factor for modeling the heat rejection of an LCG, was determined in a variety of conditions by varying inlet water temperature, flowrate, and metabolic rate. Three LCG configurations were tested: the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) LCG, the Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) LCG, and the OSS auxiliary LCG. Other factors influencing accurate UA determination, such as overall heat balance, LCG fit, and the skin temperature measurement, will also be discussed.

  3. The momentum transfer of incompressible turbulent separated flow due to cavities with steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. E.; Norton, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted using a plate test bed having a turbulent boundary layer to determine the momentum transfer to the faces of step/cavity combinations on the plate. Experimental data were obtained from configurations including an isolated configuration and an array of blocks in tile patterns. A momentum transfer correlation model of pressure forces on an isolated step/cavity was developed with experimental results to relate flow and geometry parameters. Results of the experiments reveal that isolated step/cavity excrecences do not have a unique and unifying parameter group due in part to cavity depth effects and in part to width parameter scale effects. Drag predictions for tile patterns by a kinetic pressure empirical method predict experimental results well. Trends were not, however, predicted by a method of variable roughness density phenomenology.

  4. Electroexcitation of the Δ+(1232) at low momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Blomberg, A.; Anez, D.; Sparveris, N.; Sarty, A. J.; Paolone, M.; Gilad, S.; Higinbotham, D.; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Anderson, B.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J.; Arrington, J.; Averett, T.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Bai, X.; Beck, A.; Beck, S.; Bellini, V.; Benmokhtar, F.; Boeglin, W.; Camacho, C. M.; Camsonne, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, J. P.; Chirapatpimol, K.; Cisbani, E.; Dalton, M.; Deconinck, W.; Defurne, M.; De Leo, R.; Flay, D.; Fomin, N.; Friend, M.; Frullani, S.; Fuchey, E.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilman, R.; Gu, C.; Hamilton, D.; Hanretty, C.; Hansen, O.; Hashemi Shabestari, M.; Hen, O.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Iqbal, S.; Kalantarians, N.; Kang, H.; Kelleher, A.; Khandaker, M.; Korover, I.; Leckey, J.; LeRose, J.; Lindgren, R.; Long, E.; Mammei, J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Martí Jimenez-Arguello, A.; Meekins, D.; Meziani, Z. E.; Mihovilovic, M.; Muangma, N.; Norum, B.; Nuruzzaman, .; Pan, K.; Phillips, S.; Piasetzky, E.; Polychronopoulou, A.; Pomerantz, I.; Posik, M.; Punjabi, V.; Qian, X.; Rakhman, A.; Reimer, P. E.; Riordan, S.; Ron, G.; Saha, A.; Schulte, E.; Selvy, L.; Shneor, R.; Sirca, S.; Sjoegren, J.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Tireman, W.; Wang, D.; Watson, J.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, W.; Yaron, I.; Ye, Z.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, P.

    2016-07-05

    We report on new p$(e,e^\\prime p)\\pi^\\circ$ measurements at the $\\Delta^{+}(1232)$ resonance at the low momentum transfer region. The mesonic cloud dynamics is predicted to be dominant and rapidly changing in this kinematic region offering a test bed for chiral effective field theory calculations. The new data explore the low $Q^2$ dependence of the resonant quadrupole amplitudes while extending the measurements of the Coulomb quadrupole amplitude to the lowest momentum transfer ever reached. The results disagree with predictions of constituent quark models and are in reasonable agreement with dynamical calculations that include pion cloud effects, chiral effective field theory and lattice calculations. The reported measurements suggest that improvement is required to the theoretical calculations and provide valuable input that will allow their refinements.

  5. Photoproduction of the rho(0) meson on the proton at large momentum transfer.

    PubMed

    Battaglieri, M; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; De Vita, R; Golovach, E; Laget, J M; Mokeev, V; Ripani, M; Adams, G; Amaryan, M J; Armstrong, D S; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Barrow, S; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Berman, B L; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Calarco, J R; Capitani, G P; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Cazes, A; Cetina, C; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; DeSanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Demirchyan, R; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Eckhause, M; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Farhi, L; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Freyberger, A P; Frolov, V; Funsten, H; Gaff, S J; Gai, M; Gilad, S; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Gyurjyan, V; Hancock, D; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hicks, R S; Holtrop, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ito, M M; Joo, K; Kelley, J H; Khandaker, M; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuang, Y; Kuhn, S E; Lawrence, D; Lucas, M; Lukashin, K; Major, R W; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McCarthy, J; McNabb, J W; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Muccifora, V; Mueller, J; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nelson, S O; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; O'Brien, J T; Opper, A K; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Reolon, A R; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabourov, K; Salgado, C; Sanzone-Arenhovel, M; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabian, Y G; Shaw, J; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, T; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Todor, L; Thompson, R; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Weinstein, L B; Weisberg, A; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, C S; Wolin, E; Wood, M; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zhang, B; Zhao, J; Zhou, Z

    2001-10-22

    The differential cross section, d sigma/dt, for rho(0) meson photoproduction on the proton above the resonance region was measured up to a momentum transfer -t = 5 GeV2 using the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The rho(0) channel was extracted from the measured two charged-pion cross sections by fitting the pi(+)pi(-) and p pi(+) invariant masses. The low momentum transfer region shows the typical diffractive pattern expected from Reggeon exchange. The flatter behavior at large -t cannot be explained solely in terms of QCD-inspired two-gluon exchange models. The data indicate that other processes, like quark interchange, are important to fully describe rho photoproduction.

  6. Photoproduction of the omega meson on the proton at large momentum transfer.

    PubMed

    Battaglieri, M; Brunoldi, M; De Vita, R; Laget, J M; Osipenko, M; Ripani, M; Taiuti, M; Adams, G; Amaryan, M J; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Armstrong, D S; Asavapibhop, B; Asryan, G; Audit, G; Auger, T; Avakian, H; Barrow, S; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Berman, B L; Bersani, A; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Calarco, J R; Capitani, G P; Carman, D S; Carnahan, B; Cazes, A; Cetina, C; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; DeSanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Demirchyan, R; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Eckhause, M; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Farhi, L; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Freyberger, A P; Frolov, V; Funsten, H; Gaff, S J; Gai, M; Garcon, M; Gavalian, G; Gilad, S; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Golovach, E; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hancock, D; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Hersman, F W; Hicks, K; Hicks, R S; Holtrop, M; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ito, M M; Joo, K; Kelley, J H; Khandaker, M; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuang, Y; Kuhn, S E; Lachniet, J; Lawrence, D; Lucas, M; Lukashin, K; Major, R W; Manak, J J; Marchand, C; McAleer, S; McCarthy, J; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morrow, S; Mozer, M U; Muccifora, V; Mueller, J; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nelson, S O; Niccolai, S; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Brien, J T; Opper, A K; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Reolon, A R; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P D; Sabourov, K; Salgado, C; Sapunenko, V; Schumacher, R A; Serov, V S; Shafi, A; Sharabian, Y G; Shaw, J; Skabelin, A V; Smith, E S; Smith, T; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Spraker, M; Stavinsky, A; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Taylor, S; Tedeschi, D J; Todor, L; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, C S; Wolin, E; Wood, M; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J; Zhang, B; Zhao, J; Zhou, Z

    2003-01-17

    The differential cross section, dsigma/dt, for omega meson exclusive photoproduction on the proton above the resonance region (2.6momentum transfer -t=5 GeV2 using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. The omega channel was identified by detecting a proton and pi(+) in the final state and using the missing mass technique. While the low momentum transfer region shows the typical diffractive pattern expected from Pomeron and Reggeon exchange, at large -t the differential cross section has a flat behavior. This feature can be explained by introducing quark interchange processes in addition to the QCD-inspired two-gluon exchange.

  7. Coherent Transfer between Low-Angular-Momentum and Circular Rydberg States.

    PubMed

    Signoles, A; Dietsche, E K; Facon, A; Grosso, D; Haroche, S; Raimond, J M; Brune, M; Gleyzes, S

    2017-06-23

    We realize a coherent transfer between a laser-accessible low-angular-momentum Rydberg state and the circular Rydberg level with maximal angular momentum. It is induced by a radio frequency field with a high-purity σ^{+} polarization resonant on Stark transitions inside the hydrogenic Rydberg manifold. We observe over a few microseconds more than 20 coherent Rabi oscillations between the initial Rydberg state and the circular level. We characterize these many-Rydberg-level oscillations and find them in perfect agreement with a simple model. This coherent transfer opens the way to hybrid quantum gates bridging the gap between optical communication and quantum information manipulations with microwave cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics.

  8. Coherent Transfer between Low-Angular-Momentum and Circular Rydberg States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signoles, A.; Dietsche, E. K.; Facon, A.; Grosso, D.; Haroche, S.; Raimond, J. M.; Brune, M.; Gleyzes, S.

    2017-06-01

    We realize a coherent transfer between a laser-accessible low-angular-momentum Rydberg state and the circular Rydberg level with maximal angular momentum. It is induced by a radio frequency field with a high-purity σ+ polarization resonant on Stark transitions inside the hydrogenic Rydberg manifold. We observe over a few microseconds more than 20 coherent Rabi oscillations between the initial Rydberg state and the circular level. We characterize these many-Rydberg-level oscillations and find them in perfect agreement with a simple model. This coherent transfer opens the way to hybrid quantum gates bridging the gap between optical communication and quantum information manipulations with microwave cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics.

  9. Photoproduction of the ω Meson on the Proton at Large Momentum Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglieri, M.; Brunoldi, M.; de Vita, R.; Laget, J. M.; Osipenko, M.; Ripani, M.; Taiuti, M.; Adams, G.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Armstrong, D. S.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Barrow, S.; Beard, K.; Bektasoglu, M.; Berman, B. L.; Bersani, A.; Bianchi, N.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Bouchigny, S.; Bradford, R.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Calarco, J. R.; Capitani, G. P.; Carman, D. S.; Carnahan, B.; Cazes, A.; Cetina, C.; Cole, P. L.; Coleman, A.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cummings, J. P.; Desanctis, E.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Demirchyan, R.; Denizli, H.; Dennis, L.; Dharmawardane, K. V.; Dhuga, K. S.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dragovitsch, P.; Dugger, M.; Dytman, S.; Eckhause, M.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Farhi, L.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Ficenec, J.; Forest, T. A.; Freyberger, A. P.; Frolov, V.; Funsten, H.; Gaff, S. J.; Gai, M.; Garcon, M.; Gavalian, G.; Gilad, S.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Golovach, E.; Griffioen, K.; Guidal, M.; Guillo, M.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hancock, D.; Hardie, J.; Heddle, D.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Hicks, R. S.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Ito, M. M.; Joo, K.; Kelley, J. H.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klimenko, A. V.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L. H.; Kuang, Y.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lachniet, J.; Lawrence, D.; Lucas, M.; Lukashin, K.; Major, R. W.; Manak, J. J.; Marchand, C.; McAleer, S.; McCarthy, J.; McNabb, J. W.; Mecking, B. A.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mikhailov, K.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Mokeev, V.; Morrow, S.; Mozer, M. U.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Mutchler, G. S.; Napolitano, J.; Nelson, S. O.; Niccolai, S.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Niyazov, R. A.; Nozar, M.; O'Brien, J. T.; Opper, A. K.; Peterson, G.; Philips, S. A.; Pivnyuk, N.; Pocanic, D.; Pogorelko, O.; Polli, E.; Preedom, B. M.; Price, J. W.; Protopopescu, D.; Qin, L. M.; Raue, B. A.; Reolon, A. R.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Ritchie, B. G.; Ronchetti, F.; Rossi, P.; Rowntree, D.; Rubin, P. D.; Sabourov, K.; Salgado, C.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Shafi, A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Shaw, J.; Skabelin, A. V.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, T.; Smith, L. C.; Sober, D. I.; Spraker, M.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Todor, L.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A. V.; Wang, K.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weller, H.; Weygand, D. P.; Whisnant, C. S.; Wolin, E.; Wood, M.; Yegneswaran, A.; Yun, J.; Zhang, B.; Zhao, J.; Zhou, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The differential cross section, dσ/dt, for ω meson exclusive photoproduction on the proton above the resonance region (2.6momentum transfer -t=5 GeV2 using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. The ω channel was identified by detecting a proton and π+ in the final state and using the missing mass technique. While the low momentum transfer region shows the typical diffractive pattern expected from Pomeron and Reggeon exchange, at large -t the differential cross section has a flat behavior. This feature can be explained by introducing quark interchange processes in addition to the QCD-inspired two-gluon exchange.

  10. Photoproduction of the rho^0 Meson on the Proton at Large Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    M. Battaglieri; E. Anciant; M. Anghinolfi; R. De Vita; E. Golovach; J. M. Laget; V. Mokeev; M. Ripani; G. Adams; M. J. Amaryan; D. S. Armstrong; B. Asavapibhop; G. Asryan; G. Audit; T. Auger; H. Avakian; S. Barrow; K. Beard; M. Bektasoglu; B. L. Berman; N. Bianchi; A. S. Biselli; S. Boiarinov; D. Branford; W. J. Briscoe; W. K. Brooks; V. D. Burkert; J. R. Calarco; G. P. Capitani; D. S. Carman; B. Carnahan; A. Cazes; C. Cetina; P. L. Cole; A. Coleman; D. Cords; P. Corvisiero; D. Crabb; H. Crannell; J. P. Cummings; E. DeSanctis; P. V. Degtyarenko; R. Demirchyan; H. Denizli; L. Dennis; K. V. Dharmawardane; K. S. Dhuga; C. Djalali; G. E. Dodge; D. Doughty; P. Dragovitsch; M. Dugger; S. Dytman; M. Eckhause; H. Egiyan; K. S. Egiyan; L. Elouadrhiri; L. Farhi; R. J. Feuerbach; J. Ficenec; T. A. Forest; A. P. Freyberger; V. Frolov; H. Funsten; S. J. Gaff; M. Gai; S. Gilad; G. P. Gilfoyle; K. L. Giovanetti; K. Griffioen; M. Guidal; M. Guillo; V. Gyurjyan; D. Hancock; J. Hardie; D. Heddle; F. W. Hersman; K. Hicks; R. S. Hicks; M. Holtrop; C. E. Hyde-Wright; M. M. Ito; K. Joo; J. H. Kelley; M. Khandaker; W. Kim; A. Klein; F. J. Klein; M. Klusman; M. Kossov; L. H. Kramer; Y. Kuang; S. E. Kuhn; D. Lawrence; M. Lucas; K. Lukashin; R. W. Major; J. J. Manak; C. Marchand; S. McAleer; J. McCarthy; J. W. C. McNabb; B. A. Mecking; M. D. Mestayer; C. A. Meyer; K. Mikhailov; R. Minehart; M. Mirazita; R. Miskimen; V. Muccifora; J. Mueller; G. S. Mutchler; J. Napolitano; S. O. Nelson; B. B. Niczyporuk; R. A. Niyazov; J. T. O'Brien; A. K. Opper; G. Peterson; S. A. Philips; N. Pivnyuk; D. Pocanic; O. Pogorelko; E. Polli; B. M. Preedom; J. W. Price; D. Protopopescu; L. M. Qin; B. A. Raue; A. R. Reolon; G. Riccardi; G. Ricco; B. G. Ritchie; F. Ronchetti; P. Rossi; D. Rowntree; P. D. Rubin; K. Sabourov; C. Salgado; M. Sanzone-Arenhovel; V. Sapunenko; R. A. Schumacher; V. S. Serov; A. Shafi; Y. G. Sharabian; J. Shaw; A. V. Skabelin; E. S. Smith; T. Smith; L. C. Smith; D. I. Sober; M. Spraker; A. Stavinsky; S. Stepanyan; P. Stoler; M. Taiuti; S. Taylor; D. J. Tedeschi; L. Todor; R. Thompson; M. F. Vineyard; A. V. Vlassov; L. B. Weinstein; A. Weisberg; H. Weller; D. P. Weygand; C. S. Whisnant; E. Wolin; M. Wood; A. Yegneswaran; J. Yun; B. Zhang; J. Zhao; Z. Zhou

    2001-10-01

    The differential cross section, d{sigma}/dt, for p0 meson photoproduction on the proton above the resonance region was measured up to a momentum transfer -t = 5 GeV2 using the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The p0 channel was extracted from the measured two charged-pion cross sections by fitting the {pi}+{pi}- and p{pi}+ invariant masses. The low momentum transfer region shows the typical diffractive pattern expected from Reggeon exchange. The flatter behavior at large -t cannot be explained solely in terms of QCD-inspired two-gluon exchange models. The data indicate that other processes, like quark interchange, are important to fully describe p photoproduction.

  11. Fluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of an ideal gas with momentum transfer.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kevin; Van den Broeck, C; Kawai, R; Lindenberg, Katja

    2007-06-01

    We derive an exact expression for entropy production during effusion of an ideal gas driven by momentum transfer in addition to energy and particle flux. Following the treatment in Cleuren [Phys. Rev. E 74, 021117 (2006)], we construct a master equation formulation of the process and explicitly verify the thermodynamic fluctuation theorem, thereby directly exhibiting its extended applicability to particle flows and hence to hydrodynamic systems.

  12. Densification of functional plasma polymers by momentum transfer during film growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hegemann, Dirk; Koerner, Enrico; Blanchard, Noemi; Drabik, Martin; Guimond, Sebastien

    2012-11-19

    Functional plasma polymers were deposited from pure ethylene discharges and with the addition of carbon dioxide or ammonia. The incorporation of oxygen and nitrogen-containing functional groups depends on the fragmentation in the gas phase as well as on the densification during film growth. While a minimum energy per deposited carbon atom is required for cross-linking, the densification and accompanying reduction of functional group incorporation was found to scale linearly with momentum transfer through ion bombardment during film growth.

  13. Electron impact excitation of SO2 - Differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Trajmar, S.

    1982-01-01

    Electron impact excitation of the electronic states of SO2 was investigated. Differential, integral, and inelastic momentum transfer cross sections were obtained by normalizing the relative measurements to the elastic cross sections. The cross sections are given for seven spectral ranges of the energy-loss spectra extending from the lowest electronic state to near the first ionization limit. Most of the regions represent the overlap of several electronic transitions. No measurements for these cross sections have been reported previously.

  14. Mass and momentum transfer across solid-fluid boundaries in the lattice-Boltzmann method.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xuewen; Le, Guigao; Zhang, Junfeng

    2012-08-01

    Mass conservation and momentum transfer across solid-fluid boundaries have been active topics through the development of the lattice-Boltzmann method. In this paper, we review typical treatments to prevent net mass transfer across solid-fluid boundaries in the lattice-Boltzmann method, and argue that such efforts are in general not necessary and could lead to incorrect results. Carefully designed simulations are conducted to examine the effects of normal boundary movement, tangential density gradient, and lattice grid resolution. Our simulation results show that the global mass conservation can be well satisfied even with local unbalanced mass transfer at boundary nodes, while a local mass conservation constraint can produce incorrect flow and pressure fields. These simulations suggest that local mass conservation, at either a fluid or solid boundary node, is not only an unnecessary consequence to maintain the global mass conservation, but also harmful for meaningful simulation results. In addition, the concern on the momentum addition and reduction associated with status-changing nodes is also not technically necessary. Although including this momentum addition or reduction has no direct influence on flow and pressure fields, the incorrect fluid-particle interaction may affect simulation results of particulate suspensions.

  15. Energy and momentum transfer to a 'fully-clamped' elastic plate in an air-blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Tan, P. J.

    2013-07-01

    The momentum transfer by a planar wave impinging upon a rigid, free-standing plate in water, a largely incompressible medium, is well understood [1]. Kambouchev et al. [2] extended the results of Taylor [1] to include the nonlinear effects of compressibility whilst Hutchinson [3] has recently addressed the issues of energy and momentum transfer to a rigid, free-standing plate. In this paper, key conclusions from the aforementioned studies are critically re-examined in the context of a 'fully-clamped' elastic plate. The dynamic response of an elastic plate is represented by an equivalent single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system. A numerical method based on a Lagrangian formulation of the Euler equations of compressible flow and conventional shock-capturing techn iques, similar to that employed in [2, 3], were employed to solve numerically the interaction between the air blast wave and elastic plate. Particular emphasis is placed on elucidating the energy and momentum transfer to a 'fully-clamped' elastic plate compared to its rigid, free-standing counterpart, and on whether enhancement in the beneficial effects of FSI as a result of fluid compressibility remains and to what extent.

  16. The two-photon exchange contribution to elastic electron-nucleon scattering at large momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Andrei V. Afanasev; Stanley J. Brodsky; Carl E. Carlson; Yu-Chun Chen; Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the two-photon exchange contribution to elastic electron-proton scattering at large momentum transfer by using a quark-parton representation of virtual Compton scattering. We thus can relate the two-photon exchange amplitude to the generalized parton distributions which also enter in other wide angle scattering processes. We find that the interference of one- and two-photon exchange contribution is able to substantially resolve the difference between electric form factor measurements from Rosenbluth and polarization transfer experiments.

  17. The impulsive effects of momentum transfer on the dynamics of a novel ocean wave energy converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, Christopher A.; O'Reilly, Oliver M.; Savaş, Ömer

    2013-10-01

    In a recent paper by Orazov et al. [On the dynamics of a novel ocean wave energy converter. Journal of Sound and Vibration329 (24) (2010) 5058-5069], a wave energy converter (WEC) was proposed. The converter features a mass modulation scheme and a simple model was used to examine its efficacy. The simple model did not adequately account for the momentum transfer which takes place during the mass modulation. The purpose of the present paper is to account for this transfer and to show that the WEC equipped with a novel and more general mass modulation scheme has the potential to improve its energy harvesting capabilities.

  18. Calculation and Analysis of Heat Transfer Coefficients in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Yang, Jianhua; Li, Qinghai

    A new way for the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler research is proposed by the supervisory information system (SIS) in power plant level. The heat transfer coefficient in CFB boiler furnace is calculated and analyzed by the SIS calculation analysis in a commercial CFB boiler, the way how to calculate the heat transfer coefficient in SIS is introduced, and the heat transfer coefficient is accurately received by calculating a large amount of data from database. The relation about the heat transfer coefficient to unit load, bed temperature, bed velocity, and suspension density is analyzed; the linear relation could be accepted for the commercial CFB design. A new calculating and simple way for the heat transfer coefficient of CFB boiler is proposed for CFB boiler design. Using this research result, the reheat spray water flux larger than the design value in lots of commercial CFB boilers is analyzed; the main reason is the designed heat transfer coefficient smaller than the actual value.

  19. External Heat Transfer Coefficient Measurements on a Surrogate Indirect Inertial Confinement Fusion Target

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin; Havstad, Mark; LeBlanc, Mary; Golosker, Ilya; Chang, Allan; Rosso, Paul

    2015-09-15

    External heat transfer coefficients were measured around a surrogate Indirect inertial confinement fusion (ICF) based on the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) design target to validate thermal models of the LIFE target during flight through a fusion chamber. Results indicate that heat transfer coefficients for this target 25-50 W/m2∙K are consistent with theoretically derived heat transfer coefficients and valid for use in calculation of target heating during flight through a fusion chamber.

  20. Confirmation of selected milk and meat radionuclide transfer coefficients. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.M.; Johnson, J.E.

    1984-08-28

    The objectives are to determine transfer coefficients to milk, beef and chicken of four radionuclides for which transfer coefficients were either indetermined or based upon secondary data. The radionuclides are /sup 99/Mo, /sup 99/Tc, /sup 140/Ba, and /sup 131/Te. The transfer coefficient for /sup 133/I to eggs was also determined, because again only limited data was available in the literature.

  1. External Heat Transfer Coefficient Measurements on a Surrogate Indirect Inertial Confinement Fusion Target

    DOE PAGES

    Miles, Robin; Havstad, Mark; LeBlanc, Mary; ...

    2015-09-15

    External heat transfer coefficients were measured around a surrogate Indirect inertial confinement fusion (ICF) based on the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) design target to validate thermal models of the LIFE target during flight through a fusion chamber. Results indicate that heat transfer coefficients for this target 25-50 W/m2∙K are consistent with theoretically derived heat transfer coefficients and valid for use in calculation of target heating during flight through a fusion chamber.

  2. Double ionization of helium by proton impact: from intermediate to high momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosio, Marcelo J.; Ancarani, Lorenzo U.; Gómez, Antonio I.; Gaggioli, Enzo L.; Mitnik, Darío M.; Gasaneo, Gustavo

    2017-05-01

    We study theoretically the double ionization of helium by 6 MeV proton impact. For such fast projectiles, when considering the projectile-target interaction to first order, the four-body Schrödinger equation reduces to solving a three-body driven equation. We solve it with a generalized Sturmian functions approach and, without evaluating a transition matrix element, we extract the transition amplitude directly from the asymptotic limit of the first order scattering solution. Fivefold differential cross sections (FDCS) are calculated for the double ionization process for a number of coplanar kinematical situations. We present a detailed theory-experiment comparison for intermediate momentum transfers (from 0.8 to 1.2 a.u. and from 1.4 to 2.0 a.u.). In spite of some experimental restrictions (energy and momentum ranges) and the low count rates, we found that our theoretical description provides a very satisfactory reproduction of the measured data on relative scale. We then explore how the binary, recoil and back-to-back structures change with increasing momentum transfers (0.853 to 1.656, to 3.0 a.u.). Within the impulsive regime, with a momentum transfer of 3.0 a.u., we also analyze the FDCS for different excess energies. Finally, in analogy to an experimentalist gathering electrons with different excess energies to obtain enough counts, we provide a collective FDCS prediction that hopefully will stimulate further measurements. Contribution to the Topical Issue: "Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces", edited by A.N. Grum-Grzhimailo, E.V. Gryzlova, Yu.V. Popov, and A.V. Solov'yov.

  3. In - line determination of heat transfer coefficients in a plate heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotelo, S. Silva; Domínguez, R. J. Romero

    This paper shows an in - line determination of heat transfer coefficients in a plate heat exchanger. Water and aqueous working solution of lithium bromide + ethylene glycol are considered. Heat transfer coefficients are calculated for both fluids. "Type T" thermocouples were used for monitoring the wall temperature in a plate heat exchanger, which is one of the main components in an absorption system. Commercial software Agilent HP Vee Pro 7.5 was used for monitoring the temperatures and for the determination of the heat transfer coefficients. There are not previous works for heat transfer coefficients for the working solution used in this work.

  4. Direct measurements of wind-water momentum coupling in a marsh with emergent vegetation and implications for gas transfer estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, I.; Poindexter, C.; Variano, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Among the numerous ecological benefits of restoring wetlands is carbon sequestration. As emergent vegetation thrive, atmospheric CO2 is removed and converted into biomass that gradually become additional soil. Forecasts and management for these systems rely on accurate knowledge of gas exchange between the atmosphere and the wetland surface waters. Our previous work showed that the rate of gas transfer across the air-water interface is affected by the amount of water column mixing caused by winds penetrating through the plant canopy. Here, we present the first direct measurements of wind-water momentum coupling made within a tule marsh. This work in Twitchell Island in the California Delta shows how momentum is imparted into the water from wind stress and that this wind stress interacts with the surface waters in an interesting way. By correlating three-component velocity signals from a sonic anemometer placed within the plant canopy with data from a novel Volumetric Particle Imager (VoPI) placed in the water, we measure the flux of kinetic energy through the plant canopy and the time-scale of the response. We also use this unique dataset to estimate the air-water drag coefficient using an adjoint method.

  5. Photon momentum transfer plane for asteroid, meteoroid, and comet orbit shaping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Jonathan W. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A spacecraft docks with a spinning and/or rotating asteroid, meteoroid, comet, or other space object, utilizing a tether shaped in a loop and utilizing subvehicles appropriately to control loop instabilities. The loop is positioned about a portion of the asteroid and retracted thereby docking the spacecraft to the asteroid, meteoroid, comet, or other space object. A deployable rigidized, photon momentum transfer plane of sufficient thickness may then be inflated and filled with foam. This plane has a reflective surface that assists in generating a larger momentum from impinging photons. This plane may also be moved relative to the spacecraft to alter the forces acting on it, and thus on the asteroid, meteoroid, comet, or other space object to which it is attached. In general, these forces may be utilized, over time, to alter the orbits of asteroids, meteoroids, comets, or other space objects. Sensors and communication equipment may be utilized to allow remote operation of the rigidized, photon momentum transfer plane and tether.

  6. Angular Momentum Transfer and Fractional Moment of Inertia in Pulsar Glitches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eya, I. O.; Urama, J. O.; Chukwude, A. E.

    2017-05-01

    We use the Jodrell Bank Observatory glitch database containing 472 glitches from 165 pulsars to investigate the angular momentum transfer during rotational glitches in pulsars. Our emphasis is on pulsars with at least five glitches, of which there are 26 that exhibit 261 glitches in total. This paper identifies four pulsars in which the angular momentum transfer, after many glitches, is almost linear with time. The Lilliefore test on the cumulative distribution of glitch spin-up sizes in these glitching pulsars shows that glitch sizes in 12 pulsars are normally distributed, suggesting that their glitches originate from the same momentum reservoir. In addition, the distribution of the fractional moment of inertia (i.e., the ratio of the moment of inertia of neutron star components that are involved in the glitch process) have a single mode, unlike the distribution of fractional glitch size (Δν/ν), which is usually bimodal. The mean fractional moment of inertia in the glitching pulsars we sampled has a very weak correlation with the pulsar spin properties, thereby supporting a neutron star interior mechanism for the glitch phenomenon.

  7. Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize Lecture: Transfer of spin momentum between magnets: its genesis and prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slonczewski, John

    2013-03-01

    Consider two nanoscopic monodomain magnets connected by a spacer that is composed of a non-magnetic metal or a tunnel barrier. Any externally applied electric current flowing through these three layers contributes tiny pseudo-torques to both magnetic moments (J . S . 1989). Such a weak spin-transfer torque (STT) may counteract and overcome a comparably small torque caused by viscous dissipation (L. Berger1996; J . S . 1996). Any initial motion (e. g. excited by ambient temperature) of one moment (or both), may grow in amplitude and culminate in steady precession or a transient switch to a new direction of static equilibrium. In a memory element, the STT effect writes 0 or 1 in a magnetic-tunnel junction. Indeed, world-wide developments of memory arrays and radio-frequency oscillators utilizing current-driven STT today enjoy a nine-digit dollar commitment. But the fact that transfer of each half-unit of spin momentum h/4 π through a barrier requires the transfer of at least one unit of electric charge limits its efficiency. Arguably, STT should also arise from the flow of external heat, in either direction, between an insulating magnet, of ferrite or garnet (e. g. YIG) composition, and a metallic spacer (J . S . 2010). Whenever s-d exchange annihilates a hot magnon at the insulator/metal-spacer interface, it transfers one unit h/2 π of spin momentum to the spacer. Conduction electrons within the spacer will transport this spin momentum to the second magnet without requiring an electric current. Such a thermagnonicmethod, modestly powered by a Joule-effect heater, can substantially increase the efficiency of STT. Support for this prediction comes from (1) an estimate of the sd-exchange coefficient from data on spin relaxation in magnetically dilute (Cu,Ag,Au):Mn alloys; (2) a DFT computation (J. Xiao et al 2010); and (3) most persuasively, data from spin pumping driven across a YIG/Au interface by ferromagnetic resonance (B. Heinrich et al 2011; C. Burrowes et al

  8. Rotating fiber array molecular driver and molecular momentum transfer device constructed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, Norman

    1983-01-01

    A rotating fiber array molecular driver is disclosed which includes a magnetically suspended and rotated central hub to which is attached a plurality of elongated fibers extending radially therefrom. The hub is rotated so as to straighten and axially extend the fibers and to provide the fibers with a tip speed which exceeds the average molecular velocity of fluid molecules entering between the fibers. Molecules colliding with the sides of the rotating fibers are accelerated to the tip speed of the fiber and given a momentum having a directional orientation within a relatively narrow distribution angle at a point radially outward of the hub, which is centered and peaks at the normal to the fiber sides in the direction of fiber rotation. The rotating fiber array may be used with other like fiber arrays or with other stationary structures to form molecular momentum transfer devices such as vacuum pumps, molecular separators, molecular coaters, or molecular reactors.

  9. Condensation heat transfer coefficient with noncondensible gases for heat transfer in thermal hydraulic codes

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Hassan, Y.A.

    1995-09-01

    Condensation in the presence of noncondensible gases plays an important role in the nuclear industry. The RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code was used to study the ability of the code to predict this phenomenon. Two separate effects experiments were simulated using this code. These were the Massachusetts Institute of Technology`s (MIT) Pressurizer Experiment, the MIT Single Tube Experiment. A new iterative approach to calculate the interface temperature and the degraded heat transfer coefficient was developed and implemented in the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code. This model employs the heat transfer simultaneously. This model was found to perform much better than the reduction factor approach. The calculations using the new model were found to be in much better agreement with the experimental values.

  10. Transfer having a coupling coefficient higher than its active material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesieutre, George A. (Inventor); Davis, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A coupling coefficient is a measure of the effectiveness with which a shape-changing material (or a device employing such a material) converts the energy in an imposed signal to useful mechanical energy. Device coupling coefficients are properties of the device and, although related to the material coupling coefficients, are generally different from them. This invention describes a class of devices wherein the apparent coupling coefficient can, in principle, approach 1.0, corresponding to perfect electromechanical energy conversion. The key feature of this class of devices is the use of destabilizing mechanical pre-loads to counter inherent stiffness. The approach is illustrated for piezoelectric and thermoelectrically actuated devices. The invention provides a way to simultaneously increase both displacement and force, distinguishing it from alternatives such as motion amplification, and allows transducer designers to achieve substantial performance gains for actuator and sensor devices.

  11. A magnetic mechanism for halting inward protoplanet migration: I. Necessary conditions and angular momentum transfer timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, Robert C.

    2008-02-01

    A magnetic torque associated with the magnetic field linking a giant, gaseous protoplanet to its host pre-main-sequence star can halt inward protoplanet migration. This torque results from a toroidal magnetic field generated from the star’s poloidal (dipole) field by the twisting differential motion between the star’s rotation and the protoplanet’s revolution. Outside the corotation radius, where a protoplanet orbits slower than its host star spins, this torque transfers angular momentum from the star to the protoplanet, halting inward migration. Necessary conditions for angular momentum transfer include the requirement that the Alfvén speed v A in the region magnetically linking a protoplanet to its host star exceeds the protoplanet’s orbital speed v K . In addition, the timescale for Ohmic dissipation τ D must exceed the protoplanet’s orbital period P to ensure that the protoplanet is magnetically coupled to its host star. For a Jupiter-mass protoplanet orbiting a solar-mass pre-main-sequence star, v A > v K and τ D > P only when the migrating protoplanet approaches within about 0.1 AU of its host star, primarily because of the rapid drop in the strength of the magnetic field with increasing distance from the central star. Because of this restricted reach, inwardly migrating gaseous protoplanets can be expected to “pile up” very close to their central stars, as is indeed observed for extrasolar planets. The characteristic timescale required for a magnetic torque to transfer angular momentum outward from a more rapidly spinning central star to a magnetically coupled protoplanet is found to be comparable to planet-forming disk lifetimes and protoplanet migration timescales.

  12. Recoil polarization measurements of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio at high momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Puckett

    2009-12-01

    Electromagnetic form factors are fundamental properties of the nucleon that describe the effect of its internal quark structure on the cross section and spin observables in elastic lepton-nucleon scattering. Double-polarization experiments have become the preferred technique to measure the proton and neutron electric form factors at high momentum transfers. The recently completed GEp-III experiment at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility used the recoil polarization method to extend the knowledge of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio GpE/GpM to Q2 = 8.5 GeV2. In this paper we present the preliminary results of the experiment.

  13. Measurement of Tensor Polarization in Elastic Electron-Deuteron Scattering at Large Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    David Abbott; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Heinz Anklin; Francois Arvieux; Jacques Ball; S. Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Samuel Danagoulian; K. Dow; Jean-Eric Ducret; James Dunne; Lars Ewell; Laurent Eyraud; Christophe Furget; Michel Garcon; Ronald Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; Kenneth Gustafsson; Kawtar Hafidi; Adrian Honegger; Juerg Jourdan; Serge Kox; Gerfried Kumbartzki; L. Lu; Allison Lung; David Mack; Pete Markowitz; Justin McIntyre; David Meekins; Fernand Merchez; Joseph Mitchell; R. Mohring; Sekazi Mtingwa; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; David Pitz; Liming Qin; Ronald Ransome; Jean-Sebastien Real; Philip Roos; Paul Rutt; Reyad Sawafta; Samuel Stepanyan; Raphael Tieulent; Egle Tomasi-Gustafsson; William Turchinetz; Kelley Vansyoc; Jochen Volmer; Eric Voutier; William Vulcan; Claude Williamson; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Jie Zhao; Wenxia Zhao

    2000-05-01

    Tensor polarization observables (t20, t21 and t22) have been measured in elastic electron-deuteron scattering for six values of momentum transfer between 0.66 and 1.7 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The experiment was performed at the Jefferson Laboratory in Hall C using the electron HMS Spectrometer, a specially designed deuteron magnetic channel and the recoil deuteron polarimeter POLDER. The new data determine to much larger Q{sup 2} the deuteron charge form factors G{sub C} and G{sub Q}. They are in good agreement with relativistic calculations and disagree with pQCD predictions.

  14. Observation of coherent pi0 electroproduction on deuterons at large momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, Egle; Bimbot, Louis; Danagoulian, Samuel; Gustafsson, Kenneth; Mack, David; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Rekalo, M.P.

    2003-03-01

    The first experimental results for coherent $\\pi^0$-electroproduction on the deuteron, $e+d\\to e+d +\\pi^0$, at large momentum transfer, are reported. The experiment was performed at Jefferson Laboratory at an incident electron energy of 4.05 GeV. A large pion production yield has been observed in a kinematical region for 1.1$

  15. Topological charge transfer in frequency doubling of fractional orbital angular momentum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, R.; Niu, Y. F.; Du, L.; Hu, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, S. N.

    2016-10-01

    Nonlinear frequency conversion is promising for manipulating photons with orbital angular momentum (OAM). In this letter, we investigate the second harmonic generation (SHG) of light beams carrying fractional OAM. By measuring the OAM components of the generated second harmonic (SH) waves, we find that the integer components of the fundamental beam will interact with each other during the nonlinear optical process; thus, we figure out the law for topological charge transfer in frequency doubling of the fractional OAM state. Theoretical predictions by solving the nonlinear coupled wave equations are consistent with the experimental results.

  16. Linear momentum transfer effects in molecular dissociation produced by electron impact.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misakian, M.; Pearl, J. C.; Mumma, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    In this study of molecular dissociation produced by electron impact, diatomic systems and polyatomic molecules are considered, and attention is given to the effects of thermal motion and of momentum transfer in the collision process. A procedure is described which makes it possible to 'construct' both the laboratory angular distribution and velocity distribution of the atomic fragments (or, alternatively, the time-of-flight distribution). The calculation assumes that s-wave electron scattering predominates, i.e., that excitation occurs near threshold. The computational procedure may also be reversed to allow construction of possible molecular models to fit given experimental angular and velocity distribution data.

  17. Investigation of two-phase heat transfer coefficients of argon-freon cryogenic mixed refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seungwhan; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-11-01

    Mixed refrigerant Joule Thomson refrigerators are widely used in various kinds of cryogenic systems these days. Although heat transfer coefficient estimation for a multi-phase and multi-component fluid in the cryogenic temperature range is necessarily required in the heat exchanger design of mixed refrigerant Joule Thomson refrigerators, it has been rarely discussed so far. In this paper, condensation and evaporation heat transfer coefficients of argon-freon mixed refrigerant are measured in a microchannel heat exchanger. A Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) with 340 μm hydraulic diameter has been developed as a compact microchannel heat exchanger and utilized in the experiment. Several two-phase heat transfer coefficient correlations are examined to discuss the experimental measurement results. The result of this paper shows that cryogenic two-phase mixed refrigerant heat transfer coefficients can be estimated by conventional two-phase heat transfer coefficient correlations.

  18. Transfer entropy coefficient: Quantifying level of information flow between financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yue; Shang, Pengjian

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a new coefficient is proposed with the objective of quantifying the level of information flow between financial time series. This transfer entropy coefficient, which provides an assessment on the multiscale information flow between measurements, is defined in terms of the transfer entropy method and the multiscale method. The implementation of this transfer entropy coefficient is illustrated with simulated time series and financial time series. Examples taken from simulated and financial data demonstrate that the dynamic mechanism of a complex system cannot be detected solely on the basis of transfer entropy of single scale.

  19. A novel approach to determine the heat transfer coefficient in directional solidification furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banan, Mohsen; Gray, Ross T.; Wilcox, William R.

    1990-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficient between a molten charge and its surroundings in a Bridgman furnace was determined using an approach utilizing in-situ temperature measurement. The ampoule containing an isothermal melt was suddenly moved from a higher temperature zone to a lower temperature zone. The temperature-time history was used in a lumped-capacity cooling model to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient between the charge and the furnace. The experimentally determined heat transfer coefficient was of the same order of magnitude as the value estimated by standard heat transfer calculations.

  20. The heat transfer coefficients of the heating surface of 300 MWe CFB boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haibo; Zhang, Man; Lu, Qinggang; Sun, Yunkai

    2012-08-01

    A study of the heat transfer about the heating surface of three commercial 300 MWe CFB boilers was conducted in this work. The heat transfer coefficients of the platen heating surface, the external heat exchanger (EHE) and cyclone separator were calculated according to the relative operation data at different boiler loads. Moreover, the heat transfer coefficient of the waterwall was calculated by heat balance of the hot circuit of the CFB boiler. With the boiler capacity increasing, the heat transfer coefficients of these heating surface increases, and the heat transfer coefficient of the water wall is higher than that of the platen heating surface. The heat transfer coefficient of the EHE is the highest in high boiler load, the heat transfer coefficient of the cyclone separator is the lowest. Because the fired coal is different from the design coal in No.1 boiler, the ash content of the fired coal is much lower than that of the design coal. The heat transfer coefficients which calculated with the operation data are lower than the previous design value and that is the reason why the bed temperature is rather high during the boiler operation in No.1 boiler.

  1. Curvature dependence of the interfacial heat and mass transfer coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavatskiy, K. S.; Bedeaux, D.

    2014-03-01

    Nucleation is often accompanied by heat transfer between the surroundings and a nucleus of a new phase. The interface between two phases gives an additional resistance to this transfer. For small nuclei the interfacial curvature is high, which affects not only equilibrium quantities such as surface tension, but also the transport properties. In particular, high curvature affects the interfacial resistance to heat and mass transfer. We develop a framework for determining the curvature dependence of the interfacial heat and mass transfer resistances. We determine the interfacial resistances as a function of a curvature. The analysis is performed for a bubble of a one-component fluid and may be extended to various nuclei of multicomponent systems. The curvature dependence of the interfacial resistances is important in modeling transport processes in multiphase systems.

  2. Viscous hydrodynamics simulations of circumbinary accretion discs: variability, quasi-steady state and angular momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Ryan; Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong

    2017-04-01

    We carry out numerical simulations of circumbinary discs, solving the viscous hydrodynamics equations on a polar grid covering an extended disc outside the binary co-orbital region. We use carefully controlled outer boundary conditions and long-term integrations to ensure that the disc reaches a quasi-steady state, in which the time-averaged mass accretion rate on to the binary, < dot{M}>, matches the mass supply rate at the outer disc. We focus on binaries with comparable masses and a wide range of eccentricities (eB). For eB ≲ 0.05, the mass accretion rate of the binary is modulated at about five times the binary period; otherwise, it is modulated at the binary period. The inner part of the circumbinary disc (r ≲ 6aB) generally becomes coherently eccentric. For low and high eB, the disc line of apsides precesses around the binary, but for intermediate eB (0.2-0.4), it instead becomes locked with that of the binary. By considering the balance of angular momentum transport through the disc by advection, viscous stress and gravitational torque, we determine the time-averaged net angular momentum transfer rate to the binary, < dot{J}>. The specific angular momentum, l_0 = < dot{J}> /< dot{M}>, depends non-monotonically on eB. Contrary to previous claims, we find that l0 is positive for most eB, implying that the binary receives net angular momentum, which may cause its separation to grow with time. The minimum l0 occurs at intermediate eB (0.2-0.4), corresponding to the regime where the inner eccentric disc is apsidally aligned with the binary.

  3. Inclusive electron scattering from nuclei in the quasielastic region at large momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Nadia

    2008-12-01

    Experiment E02-019, performed in Hall C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), was a measurement of inclusive electron cross sections for several nuclei (^{2}H,^{3}He, ^{4}He, ^{9}Be,^{12}C, ^{63}Cu, and ^{197}Au) in the quasielastic region at high momentum transfer. In the region of low energy transfer, the cross sections were analyzed in terms of the reduced response, F(y), by examining its y-scaling behavior. The data were also examined in terms of the nuclear structure function ν W_2^A and its behavior in x and the Nachtmann variable ξ. The data show approximate scaling of ν W_2^A in ξ for all targets at all kinematics, unlike scaling in x, which is confined to the DIS regime. However, y-scaling observations are limited to the kinematic region dominated by the quasielastic response ({y<0}), where some scaling violations arising from FSIs are observed.

  4. Momentum transfer using variable gaseous plasma ion beams and creation of high aspect ratio microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, Sanjeev Kumar; Paul, Samit; Shah, Jay Kumar; Chatterjee, Sanghamitro; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2017-03-01

    Intense gaseous ion beams are created from compact microwave plasmas confined in a multicusp magnetic field. The wave frequency (ω) is comparable to the electron plasma frequency (ωpe) and ≫ the ion plasma frequency (ωpi); therefore, the heavier plasma (ions) are least disturbed by the high frequency electromagnetic waves. By changing the experimental gas, ion beams of different species are obtained, which expands the applicability of the ion beams. For the same applied accelerating potential, the controllability of the beam current owing to different velocities for different ionic species adds to the enhanced functionality. The ion beams are utilized to create a variety of microstructures by direct writing on metallic substrates, and microstructures of a high aspect ratio (ar = line width/depth) in the range of 100-1000 are created by varying the ion species and writing speed. For fixed species (Ga) and low current (1 pA) focused ion beam systems, typically ar ˜ 2.0 to 9.3 may be realized in a single beam scan. A parameter called current normalized force, defined as the momentum transfer per unit time, normalized with the beam current helps in understanding the different momentum transferred to the target sample upon impact by the ion beams of variable species. A mathematical formulation is developed to demonstrate this aspect.

  5. Momentum transfer Monte Carlo model for the simulation of laser speckle contrast imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, Caitlin; Hayakawa, Carole K.; Choi, Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) enables measurement of relative blood flow in microvasculature and perfusion in tissues. To determine the impact of tissue optical properties and perfusion dynamics on speckle contrast, we developed a computational simulation of laser speckle contrast imaging. We used a discrete absorption-weighted Monte Carlo simulation to model the transport of light in tissue. We simulated optical excitation of a uniform flat light source and tracked the momentum transfer of photons as they propagated through a simulated tissue geometry. With knowledge of the probability distribution of momentum transfer occurring in various layers of the tissue, we calculated the expected laser speckle contrast arising with coherent excitation using both reflectance and transmission geometries. We simulated light transport in a single homogeneous tissue while independently varying either absorption (.001-100mm^-1), reduced scattering (.1-10mm^-1), or anisotropy (0.05-0.99) over a range of values relevant to blood and commonly imaged tissues. We observed that contrast decreased by 49% with an increase in optical scattering, and observed a 130% increase with absorption (exposure time = 1ms). We also explored how speckle contrast was affected by the depth (0-1mm) and flow speed (0-10mm/s) of a dynamic vascular inclusion. This model of speckle contrast is important to increase our understanding of how parameters such as perfusion dynamics, vessel depth, and tissue optical properties affect laser speckle imaging.

  6. Impulse waves generated by snow avalanches: Momentum and energy transfer to a water body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitti, Gianluca; Ancey, Christophe; Postacchini, Matteo; Brocchini, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    When a snow avalanche enters a body of water, it creates an impulse wave whose effects may be catastrophic. Assessing the risk posed by such events requires estimates of the wave's features. Empirical equations have been developed for this purpose in the context of landslides and rock avalanches. Despite the density difference between snow and rock, these equations are also used in avalanche protection engineering. We developed a theoretical model which describes the momentum transfers between the particle and water phases of such events. Scaling analysis showed that these momentum transfers were controlled by a number of dimensionless parameters. Approximate solutions could be worked out by aggregating the dimensionless numbers into a single dimensionless group, which then made it possible to reduce the system's degree of freedom. We carried out experiments that mimicked a snow avalanche striking a reservoir. A lightweight granular material was used as a substitute for snow. The setup was devised so as to satisfy the Froude similarity criterion between the real-world and laboratory scenarios. Our experiments in a water channel showed that the numerical solutions underestimated wave amplitude by a factor of 2 on average. We also compared our experimental data with those obtained by Heller and Hager (2010), who used the same relative particle density as in our runs, but at higher slide Froude numbers.

  7. Irregular spin angular momentum transfer from light to small birefringent particles

    SciTech Connect

    Rothmayer, M.; Tierney, D.; Schmitzer, H.; Frins, E.; Dultz, W.

    2009-10-15

    The transfer of spin angular momentum from photons to small particles is a key experiment of quantum physics. The particles rotate clockwise or counterclockwise depending on the polarization of the light beam which holds them in an optical trap. We show that even perfectly disk shaped particles will in general not rotate with a constant angular speed. The particles will periodically accelerate and decelerate their rotational motion due to a varying spin angular momentum transfer from the light. Using the Poincare sphere we derive the equation of motion of a birefringent plate and verify the results by measuring the time dependent rotation of small crystals of Hg(I) iodide and 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) in the trap of polarized optical tweezers. For small ellipticities of the polarized light in the tweezers the plate stops in a fixed orientation relative to the axes of the light ellipse. We discuss the origin of this halt and propose an application of small birefringent plates as self-adjusting optical retarders in micro-optics.

  8. The relative importance of ejections and sweeps to momentum transfer in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katul, Gabriel; Poggi, Davide; Cava, Daniela; Finnigan, John

    2006-09-01

    Using an incomplete third-order cumulant expansion method (ICEM) and standard second-order closure principles, we show that the imbalance in the stress contribution of sweeps and ejections to momentum transfer (Δ S o ) can be predicted from measured profiles of the Reynolds stress and the longitudinal velocity standard deviation for different boundary-layer regions. The ICEM approximation is independently verified using flume data, atmospheric surface layer measurements above grass and ice-sheet surfaces, and within the canopy sublayer of maturing Loblolly pine and alpine hardwood forests. The model skill for discriminating whether sweeps or ejections dominate momentum transfer (e.g. the sign of Δ S o ) agrees well with wind-tunnel measurements in the outer and surface layers, and flume measurements within the canopy sublayer for both sparse and dense vegetation. The broader impact of this work is that the “genesis” of the imbalance in Δ S o is primarily governed by how boundary conditions impact first and second moments.

  9. Two-photon exchange corrections in elastic lepton-proton scattering at small momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomalak, Oleksandr; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, elastic electron-proton scattering experiments, with and without polarized protons, gave strikingly different results for the electric over magnetic proton form factor ratio. A mysterious discrepancy (``the proton radius puzzle'') has been observed in the measurement of the proton charge radius in muon spectroscopy experiments versus electron spectroscopy and electron scattering. Two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions are the largest source of the hadronic uncertainty in these experiments. We compare the existing models of the elastic contribution to TPE correction in lepton-proton scattering. A subtracted dispersion relation formalism for the TPE in electron-proton scattering has been developed and tested. Its relative effect on cross section is in the 1 - 2 % range for a low value of the momentum transfer. An alternative dispersive evaluation of the TPE correction to the hydrogen hyperfine splitting was found and applied. For the inelastic TPE contribution, the low momentum transfer expansion was studied. In addition with the elastic TPE it describes the experimental TPE fit to electron data quite well. For a forthcoming muon-proton scattering experiment (MUSE) the resulting TPE was found to be in the 0 . 5 - 1 % range, which is the planned accuracy goal.

  10. ISEE-3 observations of a viscously-driven plasma sheet: magnetosheath mass and/or momentum transfer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mist, R. T.; Owen, C. J.

    2002-05-01

    A statistical analysis of data from the ISEE-3 distant tail campaign is presented. We investigate the mechanism driving slow, tailward flows observed in the plasma sheet. The possibility that these slow flows are driven by mass and/or momentum transfer across the distant tail magnetopause is explored. We establish that 40% of these flows could be driven by the transfer of approximately 4% of the magnetosheath momentum flux into the magnetotail. Current understanding of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability suggests that this figure is consistent with the amount of momentum flux transfer produced by this mechanism. We also consider the possibility that these flows are solely driven by transferring magnetosheath plasma across the magnetopause. We find that there is sufficient mass observed on these field lines for this to be the sole driving mechanism for only 27% of the observed slow flows.

  11. The Study of the D(e,e'p)n Reaction at High Four-Momentum Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Hari

    2014-09-01

    A study of the D (e ,e' p) reaction has been carried out at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) for a set of fixed values of four-momentum transfers Q2 = 2.1 and 0.8 (GeV/c)2 and for missing momenta pm ranging from pm = 0.03 to pm = 0.65 GeV/c. The analysis resulted in the determination of absolute D (e ,e' p) n cross sections as a function of the recoiling neutron momentum and it's scattering angle with respect to the momentum transfer q-> . The experimental momentum distribution of the bound proton inside the deuteron has been determined for the first time at a set of fixed neutron recoil angle. A study of the D (e ,e' p) reaction has been carried out at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) for a set of fixed values of four-momentum transfers Q2 = 2.1 and 0.8 (GeV/c)2 and for missing momenta pm ranging from pm = 0.03 to pm = 0.65 GeV/c. The analysis resulted in the determination of absolute D (e ,e' p) n cross sections as a function of the recoiling neutron momentum and it's scattering angle with respect to the momentum transfer q-> . The experimental momentum distribution of the bound proton inside the deuteron has been determined for the first time at a set of fixed neutron recoil angle. Department of Energy (DOE).

  12. Effects of an anode sheath on energy and momentum transfer in vacuum arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Zhou, Zhipeng; Tian, Yunbo; Wang, Haoran; Wang, Jianhua; Geng, Yingsan; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2017-07-01

    Anode phenomena under high-current vacuum arcs have a significant impact on the interrupting capacity of vacuum interrupters. However, the vacuum arc energy flux and momentum flux on the anode—which are necessary boundary conditions for simulations—are either set to an imaginary distribution or calculated using simple formulas without considering anode sheath regulatory effects. The objective of this paper is to reveal the anode sheath effects on regulating the energy and momentum transfer from the arc column to the anode surface in vacuum arcs. A particle-in-cell model for the anode sheath is developed. The required input parameters are obtained from a magnetohydrodynamic model for the arc column. From the results, there exists a sheath near the anode with a negative voltage drop. Both the electron density and the ion density significantly decline in the anode sheath region. The kinetic energy of the ions absorbed by the anode consists of directed kinetic energy, random kinetic energy, and sheath acceleration energy. The sheath acceleration energy contribution is the largest, and the random kinetic energy also accounts for a large part that cannot be ignored. The arc pressure on the anode surface is mainly caused by ion impact, and the accelerating effect of the anode sheath on the ions cannot be neglected in pressure calculations. In addition, in the case of an arc current at 15 kA, the input energy and momentum upon the anode surface is not obviously affected by the evaporated atoms at surface temperatures of 1600 K and 2000 K.

  13. OVERALL MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SMALL WATER POOLS UNDER SIMULATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...

  14. Momentum and mass transfer in supersaturated solutions and crystal growth from solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izmailov, Alexander F.; Myerson, Allan S.

    1997-04-01

    The physical properties of supersaturated solutions such as solution density ϱ, shear viscosity η and solute diffusivity D are strongly dependent on solute concentration c∞: ϱ = ϱ( c∞), η = η( c∞) and D = D( c∞). The concentration dependence of the properties has been taken into account in the rederivation of the generalized momentum and mass transport equations governing crystal growth from solutions. The non-linear ordinary differential equations obtained for the steady regime of isothermal crystal growth were analyzed. The exact simultaneous solutions obtained for the rederived transport equations resulted in the following conclusions: (a) There exists a restriction imposed on the Schmidt number for supersaturated solutions: Sc∞ ≫ {4}/{9}. Only under this restriction the generalized momentum and mass transfer equations have simultaneous consistent solutions. (b) The solution-crystal interface profile "thickness" · int( x1) is proportional to the diffusion boundary layer (DBL) thickness: · int( x1) ≈ 0.24· diff( x1). (c) The ratio of solute flux along the solution-crystal interface to the flux along the DBL edge is the increasing function of and is dependent only on Sc ∞.

  15. Charge transfer and momentum exchange in exospheric D-H(+) and H-D(+) collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Breig, E. L.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanisms that control the escape of deuterium from planetary exospheres include the acceleration of D(+) in the polar wind, and the production of suprathermal D atoms through nonthermal collisions. In this paper we examine the effects of neutral-ion interactions involving deuterium and hydrogen on the velocity distribution of neutral D. A two-center scattering approximation is used as the basis for calculations of the differential cross sections for charge transfer and elastic scatter in collision of H with D(+) and of D with H(+) for ionosphere-exosphere collision energies below 10 e V. These data are used to derive temperature dependent rate coefficients for the charge transfer branches of these interactions, and to determine the effects of ion-neutral temperature differences on the rate of generation of suprathermal D through charge transfer and elastic scatter.

  16. Thruster momentum transfer studies and magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster use in materials/surface modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, E.; Collins, W. E.; Burger, A.; George, M. A.; Conner, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    This research project involves the systematic study of the MPD thruster for dual uses. Though it was designed as a thruster for space vehicles, the characteristics of the plasma make it an excellent candidate for industrial applications. This project will seek to characterize the system for use in materials processing and characterization. Crystals grown at Fisk University for use with solid state detectors will be studied. Surface modification on ZnCdTe, CdTe, and ZnTe will be studied using AFM, XPS and SAES. In addition to the surface modification studies, design work on a momentum transfer measurement device has been completed. The design and limitations of the device will be presented.

  17. Nuclear Effects in Quasi-Elastic and Delta Resonance Production at Low Momentum Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demgen, John Gibney

    Analysis of data collected by the MINERvA experiment is done by showing the distribution of charged hadron energy for interactions that have low momentum transfer. This distribution reveals major discrepancies between the detector data and the standard MINERvA interaction model with only a simple global Fermi gas model. Adding additional model elements, the random phase approximation (RPA), meson exchange current (MEC), and a reduction of resonance delta production improve this discrepancy. Special attention is paid to resonance delta production systematic uncertainties, which do not make up these discrepancies even when added with resolution and biasing systematic uncertainties. Eye- scanning of events in this region also show a discrepancy, but we were insensitive to two-proton events, the predicted signature of the MEC process.

  18. A covariant formalism for the N* electroproduction at high momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Gilberto Ramalho,Franz Gross,Maria Haderer De La Pena S,Kazuo Tsushima

    2011-05-01

    A constituent quark model based on the spectator formalism is applied to the gamma N -> N* transition for the three cases, where N* is the nucleon, the Delta and the Roper resonance. The model is covariant, and therefore can be used for the predictions at higher four-momentum transfer squared, Q2. The baryons are described as an off-mass-shell quark and a spectator on-mass-shell diquark systems. The quark electromagnetic current is described by quark form factors, which have a form inspired by the vector meson dominance. The valence quark contributions of the model are calibrated by lattice QCD simulations and experimental data. Contributions of the meson cloud to the inelastic processes are explicitly included.

  19. Heat and momentum transfer for magnetoconvection in a vertical external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zürner, Till; Liu, Wenjun; Krasnov, Dmitry; Schumacher, Jörg

    2016-11-01

    The scaling theory of Grossmann and Lohse for the turbulent heat and momentum transfer is extended to the magnetoconvection case in the presence of a (strong) vertical magnetic field. The comparison with existing laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations in the quasistatic limit allows to restrict the parameter space to very low Prandtl and magnetic Prandtl numbers and thus to reduce the number of unknown parameters in the model. Also included is the Chandrasekhar limit for which the outer magnetic induction field B is large enough such that convective motion is suppressed and heat is transported by diffusion. Our theory identifies four distinct regimes of magnetoconvection which are distinguished by the strength of the outer magnetic field and the level of turbulence in the flow, respectively. LIMTECH Research Alliance and Research Training Group GK 1567 on Lorentz Force Velocimetry, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  20. Heat and momentum transfer for magnetoconvection in a vertical external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zürner, Till; Liu, Wenjun; Krasnov, Dmitry; Schumacher, Jörg

    2016-10-01

    The scaling theory of Grossmann and Lohse [J. Fluid Mech. 407, 27 (2000), 10.1017/S0022112099007545] for turbulent heat and momentum transfer is extended to the magnetoconvection case in the presence of a (strong) vertical magnetic field. A comparison with existing laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations in the quasistatic limit allows us to restrict the parameter space to very low Prandtl and magnetic Prandtl numbers and thus to reduce the number of unknown parameters in the model. Also included is the Chandrasekhar limit, for which the outer magnetic induction field B is large enough such that convective motion is suppressed and heat is transported by diffusion. Our theory identifies four distinct regimes of magnetoconvection that are distinguished by the strength of the outer magnetic field and the level of turbulence in the flow, respectively.

  1. Interspecies transfer of momentum and energy in disparate-mass gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesco-Chueca, P.; Fernandez-Feria, R.; Fernandez de La Mora, J.

    1987-01-01

    A determination is made of collision integrals for the rate of exchange of momentum and tensorial energy between components of a neutral gas binary mixture, for the case where said components have very different atomic masses. Collision integral values are obtained for arbitrary temperatures and velocities of the two components, allowing for large departures of the heavy gas from equilibrium conditions. The range of present interest is that in which the system is perturbed within times of the order of magnitude of the slow relaxation time that characterizes energy transfer between unlike molecules; the light gas distribution function is then Maxwellian to lowest order. The computation is conducted in detail for the case of atomic interactions describable in terms of a Lennard-Jones potential; by combining numerical computations with optimal matching of analytical expressions valid for large and small slip velocities, a set of compact formulas is obtained that holds for high and low temperatures.

  2. Two-photon exchange correction to muon-proton elastic scattering at low momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomalak, Oleksandr; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2016-03-01

    We evaluate the two-photon exchange (TPE) correction to the muon-proton elastic scattering at small momentum transfer. Besides the elastic (nucleon) intermediate state contribution, which is calculated exactly, we account for the inelastic intermediate states by expressing the TPE process approximately through the forward doubly virtual Compton scattering. The input in our evaluation is given by the unpolarized proton structure functions and by one subtraction function. For the latter, we provide an explicit evaluation based on a Regge fit of high-energy proton structure function data. It is found that, for the kinematics of the forthcoming muon-proton elastic scattering data of the MUSE experiment, the elastic TPE contribution dominates, and the size of the inelastic TPE contributions is within the anticipated error of the forthcoming data.

  3. Stability of curvature perturbation with new covariant form for energy-momentum transfer in dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cheng-Yi; Song, Yu; Yue, Rui-Hong

    2013-02-01

    It was found that the model with interaction between cold dark matter (CDM) and dark energy (DE) proportional to the energy density of CDM ρ m and constant equation of state of DE w d suffered from instabilities of the density perturbations on the super-Hubble scales. Here we suggest a new covariant model for the energy-momentum transfer between CDM and DE. Then using the covariant model, we analyze the evolution of density perturbations on the super-Hubble scale. We find that the instabilities can be avoided in the model with constant w d and interaction proportional to ρ m . Furthermore, we analyze the dominant non-adiabatic mode in the radiation era and find that the mode grows regularly.

  4. Electroproduction of Eta Mesons in the S11(1535) Resonance Region at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, Mark; Adams, Gary; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Angelescu, Tatiana; Arrington, John; Asaturyan, Razmik; Baker, Keith; Benmouna, Nawal; Bertoncini, Crystal; Boeglin, Werner; Bosted, Peter; Breuer, Herbert; Christy, Michael; Connell, S.; Cui, Y.; Danagoulian, Samuel; Day, Donal; Dodario, T.; Dunne, James; Dutta, Dipangkar; Khayari, N.El; Ent, R.; Fenker, Howard; Frolov, Valera; Gan, Liping; Gaskell, David; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hinton, Wendy; Holt, Roy; Horn, Tanja; Huber, Garth; Hungerford, Ed; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jones, Mark; Joo, Kyungseon; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kelly, J.J.; Keppel, Cynthia; Koubarovski, Valeri; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kubarovsky, Valery; Li, Y.; Liang, Y.; Malace, S.; Markowitz, Pete; McKee, Paul; Meekins, David; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Moziak, B.; Navasardyan, Tigran; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Opper, Allena; Ostapenko, Tanya; Reimer, Paul; Reinhold, Joerg; Roche, Julie; ROCK, S.E.; Schulte, Elaine; Segbefia, Edwin; Smith, C.; Smith, Gregory; Stoler, Paul; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Tang, Liguang; Tvaskis, Vladas; Ungaro, Maurizio; Uzzle, Alicia; Vidakovic, S.; Villano, A.; Vulcan, William; WANG, M.; Warren, Glen; Wesselmann, Frank; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Wood, Stephen; Xu, C.; Yuan, Lulin; Zheng, Xiaochao; Guo Zhu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    The differential cross-section for the process p(e,e'p)eta has been measured at Q2 ~ 5.7 and 7.0 (GeV/c)2 for centre-of-mass energies from threshold to 1.8 GeV, encompassing the S11(1535) resonance, which dominates the channel. This is the highest momentum transfer measurement of this exclusive process to date. The helicity-conserving transition amplitude A_1/2, for the production of the S11(1535) resonance, is extracted from the data. This quantity appears to begin scaling as 1/Q3, a predicted signal of the dominance of perturbative QCD, at Q2 ~ 5 (GeV/c)2.

  5. Laboratory investigations of the heat and momentum transfer in the stably stratified air turbulent boundary layer above the wavy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Daniil; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Vdovin, Maxim

    2015-04-01

    the spray of droplets generation, especially heat transfer. The work was supported by RFBR grants (14-05-91767, 14-08-31740, 15-35-20953) and RSF grant 14-17-00667 and by President grant for young scientists MK-3550.2014.5 References: 1. Emanuel, K. A. Sensitivity of tropical cyclones to surface exchange coefficients and a revised steady-state model incorporating eye dynamics // J. Atmos. Sci., 52(22), 3969-3976,1995. 2. Brian K. Haus, Dahai Jeong, Mark A. Donelan, Jun A. Zhang, and Ivan Savelyev Relative rates of sea-air heat transfer and frictional drag in very high winds // GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 37, L07802, doi:10.1029/2009GL042206, 2010 3. Yu. I. Troitskaya, D.A. Sergeev, A.A. Kandaurov, G.A Baidakov, M.A. Vdovin, V.I. Kazakov Laboratory and theoretical modeling of air-sea momentum transfer under severe wind conditions // JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 117, C00J21, 13 PP., 2012 doi:10.1029/2011JC007778 4. Yu.I.Troitskaya, D.A.Sergeev, A.A.Kandaurov, M.I. Vdovin, A.A. Kandaurov, E.V.Ezhova, S.S.Zilitinkevich Momentum and buoyancy exchange in a turbulent air boundary layer over a wavy water surface. Part 2. Wind wave spectra // Nonlinear. Geoph. Processes, Vol. 20, P. 841-856, 2013.

  6. Toward a universal mass-momentum transfer relationship for predicting nutrient uptake and metabolite exchange in benthic reef communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falter, James L.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Zhang, Zhenlin

    2016-09-01

    Here we synthesize data from previous field and laboratory studies describing how rates of nutrient uptake and metabolite exchange (mass transfer) are related to form drag and bottom stresses (momentum transfer). Reanalysis of this data shows that rates of mass transfer are highly correlated (r2 ≥ 0.9) with the root of the bottom stress (τbot0.4) under both waves and currents and only slightly higher under waves (~10%). The amount of mass transfer that can occur per unit bottom stress (or form drag) is influenced by morphological features ranging anywhere from millimeters to meters in scale; however, surface-scale roughness (millimeters) appears to have little effect on actual nutrient uptake by living reef communities. Although field measurements of nutrient uptake by natural reef communities agree reasonably well with predictions based on existing mass-momentum transfer relationships, more work is needed to better constrain these relationships for more rugose and morphologically complex communities.

  7. Diffractive J/{Psi} photoproduction at large momentum transfer in coherent hadron-hadron interactions at CERN LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Sauter, W. K.; Goncalves, V. P.

    2010-11-12

    The vector meson production in coherent hadron-hadron interactions at LHC energies is addressed assuming that the color singlet t-channel exchange carries large momentum transfer. We consider the non-forward solution of the BFKL equation at high energy and large momentum transfer and estimate the rapidity distribution and total cross section for the process h{sub 1}h{sub 2{yields}}h{sub 1}J/{Psi}X, where h{sub i} can be a proton or a nucleus. We predict large rates, which implies that the experimental identification could be feasible at the LHC.

  8. Space-dependent perfusion coefficient estimation in a 2D bioheat transfer problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazán, Fermín S. V.; Bedin, Luciano; Borges, Leonardo S.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a method for estimating the space-dependent perfusion coefficient parameter in a 2D bioheat transfer model is presented. In the method, the bioheat transfer model is transformed into a time-dependent semidiscrete system of ordinary differential equations involving perfusion coefficient values as parameters, and the estimation problem is solved through a nonlinear least squares technique. In particular, the bioheat problem is solved by the method of lines based on a highly accurate pseudospectral approach, and perfusion coefficient values are estimated by the regularized Gauss-Newton method coupled with a proper regularization parameter. The performance of the method on several test problems is illustrated numerically.

  9. Convective heat transfer coefficient model for spherical products subject to hydrocooling

    SciTech Connect

    Dincer, I.

    1996-09-01

    An analytical model was developed to determine the convective heat transfer coefficients of spherical products being cooled in any medium. In order to verify the present model, the experimental center temperature measurements of the individual spherical products (i.e., plums, peaches, tomatoes, pears) were determined in batches containing 5 and 20 kg of product. It was found that the convective heat transfer coefficient of an individual product varied with the batch weight. This study shows that the present model is a simple and effective tool to determine such coefficients and could be a benefit to the refrigeration industry.

  10. Study on heat transfer coefficients during cooling of PET bottles for food beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liga, Antonio; Montesanto, Salvatore; Mannella, Gianluca A.; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Brucato, Valerio; Cammalleri, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The heat transfer properties of different cooling systems dealing with Poly-Ethylene-Terephthalate (PET) bottles were investigated. The heat transfer coefficient (Ug) was measured in various fluid dynamic conditions. Cooling media were either air or water. It was shown that heat transfer coefficients are strongly affected by fluid dynamics conditions, and range from 10 W/m2 K to nearly 400 W/m2 K. PET bottle thickness effect on Ug was shown to become relevant under faster fluid dynamics regimes.

  11. Transient volumetric heat transfer coefficient prediction of a three-phase direct contact condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahood, Hameed B.; Sharif, Adel O.; Thorpe, Rex B.

    2015-02-01

    An experimental investigation for the time dependent volumetric heat transfer coefficient of the bubbles type, three-phase direct contact condenser has been carried out utilising a short column (70 cm in total height and 4 cm inner diameter). A 47 cm active height was chosen with five different mass flow rate ratios and three different initial dispersed phase temperatures. Vapour pentane and constant temperature tap water as dispersed and continuous phases were implemented. The results showed that the volumetric heat transfer coefficient decreases with increased time until it almost reaches its steady state conditions. A sharp decrease in the volumetric heat transfer coefficient was found at the beginning of the operation and, diminished over a short time interval. Furthermore, a positive effect of the mass flow rate ratios on the volumetric heat transfer coefficient was noted and this was more pronounced at the beginning of the operation. On the other hand, the volumetric heat transfer coefficient decreased with an increase in the continuous phase mass flow rate and there was no considerable effect of the initial dispersed phase temperatures, which confirms that latent heat transfer is dominant in the process.

  12. 45 deg round-corner rib heat transfer coefficient measurements in a square channel

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Lengkong, A.

    1999-04-01

    Cooling channels, roughened with repeated ribs, are commonly employed as a means of cooling turbine blades. The increased level of mixing induced by these ribs enhances the convective heat transfer in the blade cooling cavities. Many previous investigations have focused on the heat transfer coefficient on the surfaces between these ribs and only a few studies report the heat transfer coefficient on the rib surfaces themselves. The present study investigated the heat transfer coefficient on the surfaces of 45 deg. round-corner ribs. Three staggered rib geometries corresponding to blockage ratios of 0.133, 0.167, and 0.25 were tested in a square channel for pitch-to-height ratios of 5, 8.5, and 10, and for two distinct thermal boundary conditions of heated and unheated channel wall. Comparisons were made between the surface-averaged heat transfer coefficients and channel friction factors for sharp- and round-corner ribs and 45 versus 90 deg ribs, reported previously. Heat transfer coefficients of the furthest upstream rib and that of a typical rib located in the middle of the rib-roughened region were also compared. The smallest rib geometry (e/D{sub h} = 0.133) at a pitch-to-height ratio of 10 and the largest rib geometry (e/D{sub h} = 0.25) at a pitch-to-height ratio of 5, both in midstream position, produced the highest and the lowest thermal performances, respectively.

  13. Identification of Nuclear Effects in Neutrino-Carbon Interactions at Low Three-Momentum Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, P. A.; Demgen, J.; Miltenberger, E.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Chvojka, J.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Elkins, M.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Leistico, J. R.; Lovlein, A.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Muhlbeier, T.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Minerva Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    Two different nuclear-medium effects are isolated using a low three-momentum transfer subsample of neutrino-carbon scattering data from the MINERvA neutrino experiment. The observed hadronic energy in charged-current νμ interactions is combined with muon kinematics to permit separation of the quasielastic and Δ (1232 ) resonance processes. First, we observe a small cross section at very low energy transfer that matches the expected screening effect of long-range nucleon correlations. Second, additions to the event rate in the kinematic region between the quasielastic and Δ resonance processes are needed to describe the data. The data in this kinematic region also have an enhanced population of multiproton final states. Contributions predicted for scattering from a nucleon pair have both properties; the model tested in this analysis is a significant improvement but does not fully describe the data. We present the results as a double-differential cross section to enable further investigation of nuclear models. Improved description of the effects of the nuclear environment are required by current and future neutrino oscillation experiments.

  14. Identification of nuclear effects in neutrino-carbon interactions at low three-momentum transfer

    DOE PAGES

    Rodrigues, P. A.

    2016-02-17

    Two different nuclear-medium effects are isolated using a low three-momentum transfer subsample of neutrino-carbon scattering data from the MINERvA neutrino experiment. The observed hadronic energy in charged-current νμ interactions is combined with muon kinematics to permit separation of the quasielastic and Δ(1232) resonance processes. First, we observe a small cross section at very low energy transfer that matches the expected screening effect of long-range nucleon correlations. Second, additions to the event rate in the kinematic region between the quasielastic and Δ resonance processes are needed to describe the data. The data in this kinematic region also have an enhanced populationmore » of multiproton final states. Contributions predicted for scattering from a nucleon pair have both properties; the model tested in this analysis is a significant improvement but does not fully describe the data. We present the results as a double-differential cross section to enable further investigation of nuclear models. Furthermore, improved description of the effects of the nuclear environment are required by current and future neutrino oscillation experiments.« less

  15. Identification of Nuclear Effects in Neutrino-Carbon Interactions at Low Three-Momentum Transfer.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, P A; Demgen, J; Miltenberger, E; Aliaga, L; Altinok, O; Bellantoni, L; Bercellie, A; Betancourt, M; Bodek, A; Bravar, A; Budd, H; Cai, T; Carneiro, M F; Chvojka, J; Devan, J; Dytman, S A; Díaz, G A; Eberly, B; Elkins, M; Felix, J; Fields, L; Fine, R; Gago, A M; Galindo, R; Gallagher, H; Ghosh, A; Golan, T; Gran, R; Harris, D A; Higuera, A; Hurtado, K; Kiveni, M; Kleykamp, J; Kordosky, M; Le, T; Leistico, J R; Lovlein, A; Maher, E; Manly, S; Mann, W A; Marshall, C M; Martinez Caicedo, D A; McFarland, K S; McGivern, C L; McGowan, A M; Messerly, B; Miller, J; Mislivec, A; Morfín, J G; Mousseau, J; Muhlbeier, T; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Norrick, A; Nuruzzaman; Osta, J; Paolone, V; Patrick, C E; Perdue, G N; Ramirez, M A; Ransome, R D; Ray, H; Ren, L; Rimal, D; Ruterbories, D; Schellman, H; Schmitz, D W; Solano Salinas, C J; Tagg, N; Tice, B G; Valencia, E; Walton, T; Wolcott, J; Wospakrik, M; Zavala, G; Zhang, D

    2016-02-19

    Two different nuclear-medium effects are isolated using a low three-momentum transfer subsample of neutrino-carbon scattering data from the MINERvA neutrino experiment. The observed hadronic energy in charged-current ν_{μ} interactions is combined with muon kinematics to permit separation of the quasielastic and Δ(1232) resonance processes. First, we observe a small cross section at very low energy transfer that matches the expected screening effect of long-range nucleon correlations. Second, additions to the event rate in the kinematic region between the quasielastic and Δ resonance processes are needed to describe the data. The data in this kinematic region also have an enhanced population of multiproton final states. Contributions predicted for scattering from a nucleon pair have both properties; the model tested in this analysis is a significant improvement but does not fully describe the data. We present the results as a double-differential cross section to enable further investigation of nuclear models. Improved description of the effects of the nuclear environment are required by current and future neutrino oscillation experiments.

  16. Identification of nuclear effects in neutrino-carbon interactions at low three-momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, P. A.

    2016-02-17

    Two different nuclear-medium effects are isolated using a low three-momentum transfer subsample of neutrino-carbon scattering data from the MINERvA neutrino experiment. The observed hadronic energy in charged-current νμ interactions is combined with muon kinematics to permit separation of the quasielastic and Δ(1232) resonance processes. First, we observe a small cross section at very low energy transfer that matches the expected screening effect of long-range nucleon correlations. Second, additions to the event rate in the kinematic region between the quasielastic and Δ resonance processes are needed to describe the data. The data in this kinematic region also have an enhanced population of multiproton final states. Contributions predicted for scattering from a nucleon pair have both properties; the model tested in this analysis is a significant improvement but does not fully describe the data. We present the results as a double-differential cross section to enable further investigation of nuclear models. Furthermore, improved description of the effects of the nuclear environment are required by current and future neutrino oscillation experiments.

  17. Measurements of heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in passages rib-roughened on all walls

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Li, T.; Spring, S.D.

    1998-07-01

    A liquid crystal technique was used to measure heat transfer coefficients in twelve test sections with square and trapezoidal cross-sectional areas representing blade midchord cooling cavities in a modern gas turbine. Full-length ribs were configured on suction side as well as pressure side walls while half-length ribs were mounted on partition walls between adjacent cooling cavities. Ribs were in staggered arrangements with a nominal blockage ratio of 22% and an angle of attack to the mainstream flow, {alpha}, of 90 deg. Heat transfer measurements were performed on the roughened walls with full-length as well as half-length ribs. Nusselt numbers, friction factors, and thermal performances of all geometries are compared. The most important conclusion of this study is that the roughening of the partition walls enhances the heat transfer coefficients on those walls but, more importantly, enhances heat transfer coefficients on the primary walls considerably.

  18. Measurement of local connective heat transfer coefficients of four ice accretion shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. E.; Armilli, R. V.; Keshock, E. G.

    1984-01-01

    In the analytical study of ice accretions that form on aerodynamic surfaces (airfoils, engine inlets, etc.) it is often necessary to be able to calculate convective heat transfer rates. In order to do this, local convective heat transfer coefficients for the ice accretion shapes must be known. In the past, coefficients obtained for circular cylinders were used as an approximation to the actual coefficients since no better information existed. The purpose of this experimental study was to provide local convective heat transfer coefficients for four shapes that represent ice accretions. The shapes were tested with smooth and rough surfaces. The experimental method chosen was the thin-skin heat rate technique. Using this method local Nusselt numbers were determined for the ice shapes. In general it was found that the convective heat transfer was higher in regions where the model's surfaces were convex and lower in regions where the model's surfaces were concave. The effect of roughness was to increase the heat transfer in the high heat transfer regions by approximately 100% while little change was apparent in the low heat transfer regions.

  19. Partonic calculation of the two-photon exchange contribution to elastic electron-proton scattering at large momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Y. C. Chen; A. Afanasev; S. J. Brodsky; C. E. Carlson; Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2004-03-01

    We estimate the two-photon exchange contribution to elastic electron-proton scattering at large momentum transfer through the scattering off a parton in the proton. We relate the process on the nucleon to the generalized parton distributions which also enter in other wide angle scattering processes. We find that when taking the polarization transfer determinations of the form factors as input, adding in the 2 photon correction, does reproduce the Rosenbluth data.

  20. High Energy Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering for Large Momentum Transfers and Van der Waals Type Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleem, F.

    1980-03-01

    The most recent measurements of the angular distribution in proton-proton elastic scattering at sqrt{s}=27.4, 45 and 62GeV with squared four momentum transfer, -t, extending up to 14(GeV/c)2, have been explained using Van der Waals type model.

  1. Quantized spin-momentum transfer in atom-sized magnetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loth, Sebastian

    2010-03-01

    Our ability to quickly access the vast amounts of information linked in the internet is owed to the miniaturization of magnetic data storage. In modern disk drives the tunnel magnetoresistance effect (TMR) serves as sensitive reading mechanism for the nanoscopic magnetic bits [1]. At its core lies the ability to control the flow of electrons with a material's magnetization. The inverse effect, spin transfer torque (STT), allows one to influence a magnetic layer by high current densities of spin-polarized electrons and carries high hopes for applications in non-volatile magnetic memory [2]. We show that equivalent processes are active in quantum spin systems. We use a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating at low temperature and high magnetic field to address individual magnetic structures and probe their spin excitations by inelastic electron tunneling [3]. As model system we investigate transition metal atoms adsorbed to a copper nitride layer grown on a Cu crystal. The magnetic atoms on the surface possess well-defined spin states [4]. Transfer of one magnetic atom to the STM tip's apex creates spin-polarization in the probe tip. The combination of functionalized tip and surface adsorbed atom resembles a TMR structure where the magnetic layers now consist of one magnetic atom each. Spin-polarized current emitted from the probe tip not only senses the magnetic orientation of the atomic spin system, it efficiently transfers spin angular momentum and pumps the quantum spin system between the different spin states. This enables further exploration of the microscopic mechanisms for spin-relaxation and stability of quantum spin systems. [4pt] [1] Zhu and Park, Mater. Today 9, 36 (2006).[0pt] [2] Huai, AAPPS Bulletin 18, 33 (2008).[0pt] [3] Heinrich et al., Science 306, 466 (2004).[0pt] [4] Hirjibehedin et al., Science 317, 1199 (2007).

  2. Quantitative evaluation on contributions of laminar, turbulence and secondary flow to momentum and heat transfer in rhombic ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Naoya

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, Direct Numerical Simulation of turbulent flow in rhombic ducts have been carried out to investigate effects of the corner angle on the friction and heat transfer. Due to secondary flow of the second kind, the friction and heat transfer are enhanced in the corner, while turbulence enhances momentum and heat transfer near the wall away from the corner. In previous studies, turbulence and secondary flows are supposed to enhance momentum and heat transfer, qualitatively. The quantitative estimation of their contribution has not been clarified yet. Fukagata, Iwamoto and Kasagi (2002) have theoretically driven the FIK-identity to evaluate quantitative contributions of laminar and turbulence to the friction in turbulent channel. In this study, the FIK-identity has been numerically applied to DNS data in the rhombic ducts to evaluate quantitative contributions of laminar, turbulence and secondary flow to the momentum and heat transfer. From the results, it is quantitatively clarified that the contributions of turbulence and secondary flow to heat transfer are larger than that to friction in the rhombic ducts.

  3. The ^2H(e,e'p)n Reaction at High Four-Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan Ibrahim

    2006-12-31

    This dissertation presents the highest four-momentum transfer, Q^2,quasielastic (x_Bj = 1) results from Experiment E01-020 which systematically explored the 2He(e,e'p)n reaction ("Electro-disintegration" of the deuteron) at three different four-momentum transfers, Q^2 = 0.8, 2.1, and 3.5 GeV^2 and missing momenta, P_miss = 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 GeV including separations of the longitudinal-transverse interference response function, R_LT, and extractoin of the longitudinal-transverse asymmetry, A_LT. This systematic approach will help to understand the reaction mechanism and the deuteron structure down to the short range part of the nucleon-nucleon interaction which is one of the fundamental missions of nuclear physics. By studying the very short distance structure of the deuteron, one may also determine whether or to what extent the description of nuclei in terms of nucleon/meson degrees of freedom must be supplemented by inclusion of explicit quark effects. The unique combination of energy, current, duty factor, and control of systematics for Hall A at Jefferson Lab made Jefferson Lab the only facility in the world where these systematic studies of the deuteron can be undertaken. This is especially true when we want to understand the short range structure of the deuteron where high energies and high luminosity/duty factor are needed. All these features of Jefferson Lab allow us to examine large missing momenta (short range scales) at kinematics where the effects of final state interactions (FSI), meson exchange currents (MEC), and isobar currents (IC) are minimal, making the extraction of the deuteron structure less model-dependent. Jefferson Lab also provides the kinematical flexibility to perform the separation of R_LT over a broad range of missing momenta and momentum transfers. Experiment E01-020 use the standard Hall A equipment in coincidence configuration in addition to the cryogenic target system. The low and middle Q^2 kinematics were completed

  4. 45 deg staggered rib heat transfer coefficient measurements in a square channel

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Lengkong, A.

    1998-07-01

    For high-blockage ribs with large heat transfer areas, commonly used in small gas turbine blades, the rib heat transfer is a significant portion of the overall heat transfer in the cooling passages. Three staggered 45 deg rib geometries corresponding to blockage ratios of 0.133, 0.167, and 0.25 were tested in a square channel for pitch-to-height ratios of 5, 8.5, and 10, and for two distinct thermal boundary conditions of heated and unheated channel walls. Comparisons were made between the surface-averaged heat transfer coefficients and friction factors for 45 deg ribs, and 90 deg ribs reported previously. Heat transfer coefficients of the furthest upstream rib and that of a typical rib located in the middle of the rib-roughened region were also compared. It was concluded that: (a) For the geometries tested, the rib average heat transfer coefficient was much higher than that for the area between the ribs. (b) Except for two cases corresponding to the highest blockage ribs mounted at pitch-to-height ratios of 8.5 and 10 for which the heat transfer results of 45 deg ribs were very close to those of 90 deg ribs, 45 deg ribs produced higher heat transfer coefficients than 90 deg ribs. (c) At pitch-to-height ratios of 8.5 and 10, all 45 deg ribs produced lower friction factors than 90 deg ribs. However, when they were brought closer to each other (S/e = 5), they produced higher friction factors than 90 deg ribs. (d) Heat transfer coefficients for the two smaller rib geometries (e/D{sub h} = 0.133 and 0.167) did to vary significantly with the pitch-to-height ratio in the range tested. However, the heat transfer coefficient for the high blockage rib geometry increased significantly as the ribs were brought closer to each other. (e) Under otherwise identical conditions, ribs in the furthest upstream position produced lower heat transfer coefficients than those in the midstream position. (f) Rib thermal performance decreased with the rib blockage ratio.

  5. Enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient of ethylene glycol base cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ali; Ramzan, Naveed; Umer, Asim; Ahmad, Ayyaz; Muryam, Hina

    2017-08-01

    The enhancement in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the ethylene glycol (EG) base cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanofluids were investigated. The nanofluids of different volume concentrations i-e 1%, 2.5% and 4.5% were prepared by the two step method. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles were ultrasonically stirred for four hours in the ethylene glycol (EG). The experimental study has been performed through circular tube geometry in laminar flow regime at average Reynolds numbers 36, 71 and 116. The constant heat flux Q = 4000 (W/m2) was maintained during this work. Substantial enhancement was observed in the convective heat transfer coefficient of ethylene glycol (EG) base cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanofluids than the base fluid. The maximum 74% enhancement was observed in convective heat transfer coefficient at 4.5 vol% concentration and Re = 116.

  6. Momentum, sensible heat and CO2 correlation coefficient variability: what can we learn from 20 years of continuous eddy covariance measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurdebise, Quentin; Heinesch, Bernard; De Ligne, Anne; Vincke, Caroline; Aubinet, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Long-term data series of carbon dioxide and other gas exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere become more and more numerous. Long-term analyses of such exchanges require a good understanding of measurement conditions during the investigated period. Independently of climate drivers, measurements may indeed be influenced by measurement conditions themselves subjected to long-term variability due to vegetation growth or set-up changes. The present research refers to the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory (VTO) an ICOS candidate site located in a mixed forest (beech, silver fir, Douglas fir, Norway spruce) in the Belgian Ardenne. Fluxes of momentum, carbon dioxide and sensible heat have been continuously measured there by eddy covariance for more than 20 years. During this period, changes in canopy height and measurement height occurred. The correlation coefficients (for momemtum, sensible heat and CO2) and the normalized standard deviations measured for the past 20 years at the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory (VTO) were analysed in order to define how the fluxes, independently of climate conditions, were affected by the surrounding environment evolution, including tree growth, forest thinning and tower height change. A relationship between canopy aerodynamic distance and the momentum correlation coefficient was found which is characteristic of the roughness sublayer, and suggests that momentum transport processes were affected by z-d. In contrast, no relationship was found for sensible heat and CO2 correlation coefficients, suggesting that the z-d variability observed did not affect their turbulent transport. There were strong differences in these coefficients, however, between two wind sectors, characterized by contrasted stands (height differences, homogeneity) and different hypotheses were raised to explain it. This study highlighted the importance of taking the surrounding environment variability into account in order to ensure the spatio

  7. Measurement of the Electric and Magnetic Elastic Structure Functions of the Deuteron at Large Momentum Transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Suleiman, Riad S.

    1999-12-01

    The deuteron elastic structure functions, A(Q2) and B(Q2), have been extracted from cross section measurements of elastic electron-deuteron scattering in coincidence using the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator and Hall A Facilities of Jefferson Laboratory. Incident electrons were scattered off a high-power cryogenic deuterium target. Scattered electrons and recoil deuterons were detected in the two High Resolution Spectrometers of Hall A. A(Q2) was extracted from forward angle cross section measurements in the squared four-momentum transfer range 0.684 ≤ Q2 ≤ 5.90 (GeV/c)2. B(Q2) was determined by means of a Rosenbluth separation in the range 0.684 ≤ Q2 ≤ 1.325 (GeV/c)2. The data are compared to theoretical models based on the impulse approximation with the inclusion of meson-exchange currents and to predictions of quark dimensional scaling and perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The results are expected to provide insights into the transition from meson-nucleon to quark-gluon descriptions of the nuclear two-body system.

  8. The NEOTωIST mission (Near-Earth Object Transfer of angular momentum spin test)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drube, Line; Harris, Alan W.; Engel, Kilian; Falke, Albert; Johann, Ulrich; Eggl, Siegfried; Cano, Juan L.; Ávila, Javier Martín; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Michel, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    We present a concept for a kinetic impactor demonstration mission, which intends to change the spin rate of a previously-visited asteroid, in this case 25143 Itokawa. The mission would determine the efficiency of momentum transfer during an impact, and help mature the technology required for a kinetic impactor mission, both of which are important precursors for a future space mission to deflect an asteroid by collisional means in an emergency situation. Most demonstration mission concepts to date are based on changing an asteroid's heliocentric orbit and require a reconnaissance spacecraft to measure the very small orbital perturbation due to the impact. Our concept is a low-cost alternative, requiring only a single launch. Taking Itokawa as an example, an estimate of the order of magnitude of the change in the spin period, δP, with such a mission results in δP of 4 min (0.5%), which could be detectable by Earth-based observatories. Our preliminary study found that a mission concept in which an impactor produces a change in an asteroid's spin rate could provide valuable information for the assessment of the viability of the kinetic-impactor asteroid deflection concept. Furthermore, the data gained from the mission would be of great benefit for our understanding of the collisional evolution of asteroids and the physics behind crater and ejecta-cloud development.

  9. Multielement spectrometer for efficient measurement of the momentum transfer dependence of inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Fister, T. T.; Seidler, G. T.; Wharton, L.; Battle, A. R.; Ellis, T. B.; Cross, J. O.; Macrander, A. T.; Elam, W. T.; Tyson, T. A.; Qian, Q.

    2006-06-15

    Nonresonant x-ray Raman scattering (XRS) is the inelastic scattering of hard x rays from the K shell of low-Z elements or the less tightly bound shells of heavier elements. In the limit of low momentum transfer q, XRS is determined by the same transition matrix element as is measured by x-ray absorption spectroscopies. However, XRS at higher q can often access higher order multipole transitions which help separate the symmetry of various contributions to the local density of states. The main drawback of XRS is its low cross section--a problem that is compounded for a q-dependent study. To address this issue, we have constructed a multielement spectrometer to simultaneously measure XRS at ten different values of q. By means of example, we report new measurements of the XRS from the L- and K-edges of Mg. This instrument is now available to general users at the Advanced Photon Source as the lower energy resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (LERIX) spectrometer.

  10. Ionosphere-exosphere coupling through charge exchange and momentum transfer in hydrogen-proton collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Breig, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    The implications of a traditional assumption of exospheric physics, that collisions of hydrogen atoms and protons preferentially result in charge exchange with negligible momentum transfer are examined. Initially adopted as a necessary convenience to accommodate limited computer resources in exosphere model calculations, this approximation results in a direct transformation of the proton velocity distribution into a hot component of neutral hydrogen. With expanding computational facilities, the need for the approximation has passed. As the first step toward its replacement with a realistic, quantum mechanical model of the H - H(+) collision process, differential and cumulative cross sections were calculated for quantum elastic scattering of indistinguishable nuclei for a fine grid of encounter energies and scattering angles. These data are used to study the nature of ionosphere-exosphere coupling through H - H(+) collisions, and to demonstrate that the distribution of velocities of scattered H produced in the traditional exospheric charge exchange approximation, as well as that arising from an alternative, fluid dynamic approach, leads to unacceptable abundances of coronal atoms in long-term, highly elliptic trajectories.

  11. Studying the Transfer of Optical Orbital Angular Momentum to a Helical Bacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Dana; Horton, Timothy; Reichman, Steven; Link, Justin; Schmitzer, Heidrun; Robbins, Jennifer; Engle, Dorothy

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to study how the angular momentum of an optical vortex created by a 1064 nm laser is transferred to a helical shaped bacterium. When under the influence of a laser in optical tweezers, the helical shape of the bacteria causes it to spin in the trap. A spatial light modulator reshapes the beam and is twisted either into a left handed or right handed helix. This results in an optical vortex with a diameter which can be adjusted from roughly half a micron to three microns. The rotational speed of a helical bacterium in this type of optical trap should depend on the handedness of the vortex and the handedness of the bacterium being tweezed. When both the tweezing beam and the bacterium have the same handedness, a slight reduction in rotational speed should be observed; when the tweezing beam has the opposite handedness of the bacterium, a slight increase in rotational speed should be expected. We present our first experiments with magnetospirillum magnetotacticum and rhodospirillum rubrum.

  12. Ionosphere-exosphere coupling through charge exchange and momentum transfer in hydrogen-proton collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Breig, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    The implications of a traditional assumption of exospheric physics, that collisions of hydrogen atoms and protons preferentially result in charge exchange with negligible momentum transfer are examined. Initially adopted as a necessary convenience to accommodate limited computer resources in exosphere model calculations, this approximation results in a direct transformation of the proton velocity distribution into a hot component of neutral hydrogen. With expanding computational facilities, the need for the approximation has passed. As the first step toward its replacement with a realistic, quantum mechanical model of the H - H(+) collision process, differential and cumulative cross sections were calculated for quantum elastic scattering of indistinguishable nuclei for a fine grid of encounter energies and scattering angles. These data are used to study the nature of ionosphere-exosphere coupling through H - H(+) collisions, and to demonstrate that the distribution of velocities of scattered H produced in the traditional exospheric charge exchange approximation, as well as that arising from an alternative, fluid dynamic approach, leads to unacceptable abundances of coronal atoms in long-term, highly elliptic trajectories.

  13. CFD simulation of simultaneous monotonic cooling and surface heat transfer coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Mihálka, Peter Matiašovský, Peter

    2016-07-07

    The monotonic heating regime method for determination of thermal diffusivity is based on the analysis of an unsteady-state (stabilised) thermal process characterised by an independence of the space-time temperature distribution on initial conditions. At the first kind of the monotonic regime a sample of simple geometry is heated / cooled at constant ambient temperature. The determination of thermal diffusivity requires the determination rate of a temperature change and simultaneous determination of the first eigenvalue. According to a characteristic equation the first eigenvalue is a function of the Biot number defined by a surface heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity of an analysed material. Knowing the surface heat transfer coefficient and the first eigenvalue the thermal conductivity can be determined. The surface heat transport coefficient during the monotonic regime can be determined by the continuous measurement of long-wave radiation heat flow and the photoelectric measurement of the air refractive index gradient in a boundary layer. CFD simulation of the cooling process was carried out to analyse local convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients more in detail. Influence of ambient air flow was analysed. The obtained eigenvalues and corresponding surface heat transfer coefficient values enable to determine thermal conductivity of the analysed specimen together with its thermal diffusivity during a monotonic heating regime.

  14. The Effect of Baffles on the Temperature Distribution and Heat-transfer Coefficients of Finned Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Rollin, Vern G

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of baffles on the temperature distribution and the heat-transfer coefficient of finned cylinders. The tests were conducted in a 30-inch wind tunnel on electrically heated cylinders with fins of 0.25 and 0.31 inch pitch. The results of these tests showed that the use of integral baffles gave a reduction of 31.9 percent in the rear wall temperatures and an increase of 54.2 percent in the heat transfer coefficient as compared with a cylinder without baffles.

  15. Polarization momentum transfer collision: Faxen-Holtzmark theory and quantum dynamic shielding.

    PubMed

    Ki, Dae-Han; Jung, Young-Dae

    2013-04-21

    The influence of the quantum dynamic shielding on the polarization momentum transport collision is investigated by using the Faxen-Holtzmark theory in strongly coupled Coulomb systems. The electron-atom polarization momentum transport cross section is derived as a function of the collision energy, de Broglie wavelength, Debye length, thermal energy, and atomic quantum states. It is found that the dynamic shielding enhances the scattering phase shift as well as the polarization momentum transport cross section. The variation of quantum effect on the momentum transport collision due to the change of thermal energy and de Broglie wavelength is also discussed.

  16. Effect of impeller geometry on gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients in filamentous suspensions.

    PubMed

    Dronawat, S N; Svihla, C K; Hanley, T R

    1997-01-01

    Volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients were measured in suspensions of cellulose fibers with concentrations ranging from 0 to 20 g/L. The mass transfer coefficients were measured using the dynamic method. Results are presented for three different combinations of impellers at a variety of gassing rates and agitation speeds. Rheological properties of the cellulose fibers were also measured using the impeller viscometer method. Tests were conducted in a 20 L stirred-tank fermentor and in 65 L tank with a height to diameter ratio of 3:1. Power consumption was measured in both vessels. At low agitation rates, two Rushton turbines gave 20% better performance than the Rushton and hydrofoil combination and 40% better performance than the Rushton and propeller combination for oxygen transfer. At higher agitation rates, the Rushton and hydrofoil combination gave 14 and 25% better performance for oxygen transfer than two Rushton turbines and the Rushton and hydrofoil combination, respectively.

  17. Heat and Momentum Transfer Studies in High Reynolds Number Wavy Films at Normal and Reduced Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakotaiah, V.

    1996-01-01

    We examined the effect of the gas flow on the liquid film when the gas flows in the countercurrent direction in a vertical pipe at normal gravity conditions. The most dramatic effect of the simultaneous flow of gas and liquid in pipes is the greatly increased transport rates of heat, mass, and momentum. In practical situations this enhancement can be a benefit or it can result in serious operational problems. For example, gas-liquid flow always results in substantially higher pressure drop and this is usually undesirable. However, much higher heat transfer coefficients can be expected and this can obviously be of benefit for purposes of design. Unfortunately, designers know so little of the behavior of such two phase systems and as a result these advantages are not utilized. Due to the complexity of the second order boundary model as well as the fact that the pressure variation across the film is small compared to the imposed gas phase pressure, the countercurrent gas flow affect was studied for the standard boundary layer model. A different stream function that can compensate the shear stress affect was developed and this stream function also can predict periodic solutions. The discretized model equations were transformed to a traveling wave coordinate system. A stability analysis of these sets of equations showed the presence of a Hopf bifurcation for certain values of the traveling wave velocity and the shear stress. The Hopf celerity was increased due to the countercurrent shear. For low flow rate the increases of celerity are more than for the high flow rate, which was also observed in experiments. Numerical integration of a traveling wave simplification of the model also predicts the existence of chaotic large amplitude, nonperiodic waves as observed in the experiments. The film thickness was increased by the shear.

  18. Convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for individual human body segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dear, R. J.; Arens, Edward; Hui, Zhang; Oguro, Masayuki

    Human thermal physiological and comfort models will soon be able to simulate both transient and spatial inhomogeneities in the thermal environment. With this increasing detail comes the need for anatomically specific convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for the human body. The present study used an articulated thermal manikin with 16 body segments (head, chest, back, upper arms, forearms, hands, pelvis, upper legs, lower legs, feet) to generate radiative heat transfer coefficients as well as natural- and forced-mode convective coefficients. The tests were conducted across a range of wind speeds from still air to 5.0 m/s, representing atmospheric conditions typical of both indoors and outdoors. Both standing and seated postures were investigated, as were eight different wind azimuth angles. The radiative heat transfer coefficient measured for the whole-body was 4.5 W/m2 per K for both the seated and standing cases, closely matching the generally accepted whole-body value of 4.7 W/m2 per K. Similarly, the whole-body natural convection coefficient for the manikin fell within the mid-range of previously published values at 3.4 and 3.3 W/m2 per K when standing and seated respectively. In the forced convective regime, heat transfer coefficients were higher for hands, feet and peripheral limbs compared to the central torso region. Wind direction had little effect on convective heat transfers from individual body segments. A general-purpose forced convection equation suitable for application to both seated and standing postures indoors was hc=10.3v0.6 for the whole-body. Similar equations were generated for individual body segments in both seated and standing postures.

  19. Sulfide emissions in sewer networks: focus on liquid to gas mass transfer coefficient.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Lucie; Springer, Fanny; Lipeme-Kouyi, Gislain; Buffiere, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    H2S emission dynamics in sewers are conditioned by the mass transfer coefficient at the interface. This work aims at measuring the variation of the mass transfer coefficient with the hydraulic characteristics, with the objective of estimating H2S emission in gravity pipes, and collecting data to establish models independent of the system geometry. The ratio between the H2S and O2 mass transfer coefficient was assessed in an 8 L mixed reactor under different experimental conditions. Then, oxygen mass transfer measurements were performed in a 10 m long gravity pipe. The following ranges of experimental conditions were investigated: velocity flow [0-0.61 m.s(-1)], Reynolds number [0-23,333]. The hydrodynamic parameters at the liquid/gas interface were calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In the laboratory-scale reactor, the O2 mass transfer coefficient was found to depend on the stirring rate (rph) as follows: KL,O2 = 0.016 + 0.025 N(3.85). A KL,H2S/KL,O2 ratio of 0.64 ± 0.24 was found, in accordance with previously published data. CFD results helped in refining this correlation: the mass transfer coefficient depends on the local interface velocity ui (m.h(-1)): KL,O2 = 0.016 + 1.02 × 10(-5) ui(3.85) In the gravity pipe device, KL,O2 also exponentially increased with the mean flow velocity. These trends were found to be consistent with the increasing level of turbulence.

  20. Suppression pattern of neutral pions at high transverse momentum in Au + Au collisions at sqrt[sNN]=200 GeV and constraints on medium transport coefficients.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Al-Jamel, A; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Chai, J-S; Chang, B S; Charvet, J-L; Chernichenko, S; Chiba, J; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Cianciolo, V; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Dahms, T; Das, K; David, G; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Dubey, A K; Durum, A; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S-Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Henni, A Hadj; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hamagaki, H; Han, R; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; He, X; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Imrek, J; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, Y-S; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y-S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Le Bornec, Y; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Lim, H; Liska, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Li, X; Li, X H; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Masek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Miake, Y; Mikes, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Norman, B E; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, H; Okada, K; Oka, M; Omiwade, O O; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Rykov, V L; Ryu, S S; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Sakata, H; Samsonov, V; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shevel, A; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shohjoh, T; Shoji, K; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skutnik, S; Slunecka, M; Smith, W C; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sullivan, J P; Sziklai, J; Tabaru, T; Takagi, S; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tojo, J; Tomásek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V-N; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Vertesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wagner, M; Walker, D; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; Wessels, J; White, S N; Willis, N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yanovich, A; Yasin, Z; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zimányi, J; Zolin, L

    2008-12-05

    For Au + Au collisions at 200 GeV, we measure neutral pion production with good statistics for transverse momentum, pT, up to 20 GeV/c. A fivefold suppression is found, which is essentially constant for 5 < pT < 20 GeV/c. Experimental uncertainties are small enough to constrain any model-dependent parametrization for the transport coefficient of the medium, e.g., q in the parton quenching model. The spectral shape is similar for all collision classes, and the suppression does not saturate in Au + Au collisions.

  1. Measurement of convective heat transfer coefficient for a horizontal cylinder rotating in quiescent air

    SciTech Connect

    Oezerdem, B.

    2000-04-01

    Heat transfer from a rotating cylinder is one of the problems, which is drawing attention due to its wide range of engineering applications. The present paper deals with convective heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder rotating in quiescent air, experimentally. The average convective heat transfer coefficients have been measured by using radiation pyrometer, which offers a new method. According to the experimental results, a correlation in terms of the average Nusselt number and rotating Reynolds number has been established. The average Nusselt number increased with an increase in the rotating speed. Comparison of the results, with previous studies, have been showed a good agreement with each other.

  2. Empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient for a rectangular internal-loop airlift bioreactor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient was developed for a pilot scale internal-loop rectangular airlift bioreactor that was designed for biotechnology. The empirical correlation combines classic turbulence theory, Kolmogorov’s isotropic turbulence theory with Higbie’s pen...

  3. Impact of overall and particle surface heat transfer coefficients on thermal process optimization in rotary retorts.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R; Abakarov, A; Almonacid, S; Teixeira, A

    2008-10-01

    This study attempts to examine the significance of recent research that has focused on efforts to estimate values for global and surface heat transfer coefficients under forced convection heating induced by end-over-end rotation in retorting of canned peas in brine. The study confirms the accuracy of regression analysis used to predict values for heat transfer coefficients as a function of rotating speed and headspace, and uses them to predict values over a range of process conditions, which make up the search domain for process optimization. These coefficients were used in a convective heat transfer model to establish a range of lethality-equivalent retort temperature-time processes for various conditions of retort temperature, rotating speed, and headspace. Then, they were coupled with quality factor kinetics to predict the final volume average and surface quality retention resulting from each process and to find the optimal thermal process conditions for canned fresh green peas. Results showed that maximum quality retention (surface and volume average retention) was achieved with the shortest possible process time (made possible with highest retort temperature), and reached the similar level in all cases with small difference between surface and volume average quality retention. The highest heat transfer coefficients (associated with maximum rotating speed and headspace) showed a 10% reduction in process time over that required with minimum rotating speed and headspace. The study concludes with a discussion of the significance of these findings and degree to which they were expected.

  4. Development of particulate matter transfer coefficients using a three-dimensional air quality model

    SciTech Connect

    Seigneur, C.; Tonne, C.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Pai, P.; Levin, L.

    1999-07-01

    Air quality model simulations constitute an effective approach to develop source-receptor relationships (so-called transfer coefficients in the risk analysis framework) because a significant fraction of particulate matter (particularly PM{sub 2.5}) is secondary and, therefore, depends on the atmospheric chemistry of the airshed. These source-receptor relationships can be made specific to source regions and major pollutants. In this study, the authors have used a comprehensive three-dimensional air quality model for PM (SAQM-AERO) to generate episodic transfer coefficients for several source regions in the Los Angeles basin (i.e., surface coastal region, elevated coastal region, central basin, and downwind region). Transfer coefficients were developed by conducting PM air quality simulations with reduced emissions of one of the four precursors (i.e., primary PM, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and VOC) from each source region. The authors have also compared the transfer coefficients generated from explicit modeling with those based on expert judgment, which were obtained by integrating information from the development of the baseline simulation and across-the-board emission reduction simulations.

  5. Determining heat-transfer coefficients of solid objects by laser photothermal IR radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, S. E.; Gavrilov, G. A.; Kapralov, A. A.; Muratikov, K. L.; Sotnikova, G. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    A simple method for determining heat-transfer coefficients of solid objects is proposed that is based on direct measurement of the sample surface temperature dynamics. The object is probed by a laser beam with preset temporal variation of the radiation power, and the thermal response is detected by photodiodes operating in the mid-IR spectral range without forced cooling.

  6. Photon mass energy transfer coefficients for elements z=1 to 92 and 48 additional substances of dosimetric interest.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hideki

    2014-07-01

    Photon mass energy transfer coefficient is an essential factor when converting photon energy fluence into kinetic energy released per unit mass (kerma). Although mass attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficients can be looked up in databases, the mass energy transfer coefficient values are still controversial. In this paper, the photon mass energy transfer coefficients for elements Z=1-92 were calculated based on cross-sectional data for each photon interaction type. Mass energy transfer coefficients for 48 compounds and/or mixtures of dosimetric interest were calculated from coefficient data for elements using Bragg's additivity rule. We additionally developed software that can search these coefficient data for any element or substance of dosimetric interest. The database and software created in this paper should prove useful for radiation measurements and/or dose calculations.

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from: inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. The work presented under this task uses the first-principles based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique to compute heat transfer from tank wall to the cryogenic fluids, and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.

  8. Low momentum transfer measurements of pion electroproduction and virtual Compton scattering at the Delta resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Blomberg, Adam

    2016-12-01

    Non-spherical components of the nucleon wave function are measured through p(e,e'p)pi^0 experiment at the D+(1232) resonance for Q2 = 0.04, 0.09, and 0.13 (GeV=c)2 utilizing the Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) pulsed beam and Hall A spectrometers. The new data extend the measurements of the Coulomb quadrupole amplitude to the lowest momentum transfer ever reached. The results disagree with predictions of constituent quark models and are in reasonable agreement with dynamical calculations that include pion cloud effects, chiral effective field theory and lattice calculations. The reported measurements indicate that improvement is required to the theoretical calculations and provide valuable input that will allow their refinements. The Coulomb to magnetic multipole ratio (CMR) and generalized polarizability (GP) of the nucleon are also measured through virtual Compton scattering (VCS) for Q2 = 0.2(GeV=c)2 utilizing the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) continuous beam and A1 spectrometers. This data represents the first low Q2 GP measurement at the D+(1232) resonance. The GP measurement explores a region where previous data and theoretical calculations disagree. The CMR measurement will be the first VCS extraction to compare with world data generated through pion electroproduction. The Dispersion Relation (DR) model used for the VCS extraction provides a new theoretical framework for the data signal and backgrounds that is largely independent from the pion electroproduction models. The independence of the DR from the traditional models provides a strong crosscheck on the ability of the models to isolate the data signal.

  9. ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSFER AND LACK OF FRAGMENTATION IN SELF-GRAVITATING ACCRETION FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Shlosman, Isaac E-mail: shlosman@pa.uky.edu

    2009-09-01

    Rapid inflows associated with early galaxy formation lead to the accumulation of self-gravitating gas in the centers of proto-galaxies. Such gas accumulations are prone to nonaxisymmetric instabilities, as in the well known Maclaurin sequence of rotating ellipsoids, which are accompanied by a catastrophic loss of angular momentum (J). Self-gravitating gas is also intuitively associated with star formation. However, recent simulations of the infall process display highly turbulent continuous flows. We propose that J-transfer, which enables the inflow, also suppresses fragmentation. Inefficient J loss by the gas leads to decay of turbulence, triggering global instabilities and renewed turbulence driving. Flow regulated in this way is stable against fragmentation, while staying close to the instability threshold for bar formation-thick self-gravitating disks are prone to global instabilities before they become unstable locally. On smaller scales, the fraction of gravitationally unstable matter swept up by shocks in such a flow is a small and decreasing function of the Mach number. We conclude counterintuitively that gas able to cool down to a small fraction of its virial temperature will not fragment as it collapses. This provides a venue for supermassive black holes to form via direct infall, without the intermediary stage of forming a star cluster. Some black holes could have formed or grown in massive halos at low redshifts. Thus the fragmentation is intimately related to J redistribution within the system: it is less dependent on the molecular/metal cooling but is conditioned by the ability of the flow to develop virial, supersonic turbulence.

  10. Differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic electron scattering by neon - 5 to 100 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.

    1984-01-01

    Relative elastic-scattering differential cross sections were measured in the 5-100-eV impact energy and 10-145 deg angular ranges. Normalization of these cross sections was achieved by utilizing accurate total electron-scattering cross sections. A phase-shift analysis of the angular distributions in terms of real phase shifts has been carried out. From the differential cross sections, momentum-transfer cross sections were obtained and the values of the critical energy and angle were established (associated with the lowest value of the differential cross section) as 62.5 + or - 2.5 eV and 101.7 deg + or - 1.5 deg, respectively. The present phase shifts, the critical parameters, and differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections are compared to previous experimental and theoretical results. The error associated with the present data is about 10 percent.

  11. Inter-species momentum transfer due to the two-stream instability in the solar wind-Venus ionosphere interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceves, H.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Trejo, D. M.; Perez De Tejada, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    We study the development of the two-stream plasma instability, and the ensuing momentum transfer between species, in a four component plasma. The system is taken to represent the interaction of heavy ions and electrons of planetary origin, assumed to be initially at rest, and a stream of protons and electrons representing the solar wind. A stability criterion in terms of solar wind and ionospheric plasma parameters, namely density and temperature as well as the solar wind streaming velocity, is derived from a linear analysis of the coupled fluid equations of motion for all species. The nonlinear development of the instability is studied using a particle plasma code developed by our group. A heuristic estimation of momentum transfer between species is compared with the value derived from the acceleration of the planetary ions resulting in our numerical simulations.

  12. Differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic electron scattering by neon - 5 to 100 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.

    1984-01-01

    Relative elastic-scattering differential cross sections were measured in the 5-100-eV impact energy and 10-145 deg angular ranges. Normalization of these cross sections was achieved by utilizing accurate total electron-scattering cross sections. A phase-shift analysis of the angular distributions in terms of real phase shifts has been carried out. From the differential cross sections, momentum-transfer cross sections were obtained and the values of the critical energy and angle were established (associated with the lowest value of the differential cross section) as 62.5 + or - 2.5 eV and 101.7 deg + or - 1.5 deg, respectively. The present phase shifts, the critical parameters, and differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections are compared to previous experimental and theoretical results. The error associated with the present data is about 10 percent.

  13. Damping of confined modes in a ferromagnetic thin insulating film: angular momentum transfer across a nanoscale field-defined interface.

    PubMed

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Wang, Hailong; Manuilov, Sergei A; Bhallamudi, Vidya P; Zhang, Chi; Pelekhov, Denis V; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P Chris

    2014-10-24

    We observe a dependence of the damping of a confined mode of precessing ferromagnetic magnetization on the size of the mode. The micron-scale mode is created within an extended, unpatterned yttrium iron garnet film by means of the intense local dipolar field of a micromagnetic tip. We find that the damping of the confined mode scales like the surface-to-volume ratio of the mode, indicating an interfacial damping effect (similar to spin pumping) due to the transfer of angular momentum from the confined mode to the spin sink of ferromagnetic material in the surrounding film. Though unexpected for insulating systems, the measured intralayer spin-mixing conductance g_↑↓=5.3×10(19)  m(-2) demonstrates efficient intralayer angular momentum transfer.

  14. Calculations of the time-averaged local heat transfer coefficients in circulating fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, T.H.; Qian, R.Z.; Ai, Y.F.

    1999-04-01

    The great potential to burn a wide variety of fuels and the reduced emission of pollutant gases mainly SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} have inspired the investigators to conduct research at a brisk pace all around the world on circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. An accurate understanding of heat transfer to bed walls is required for proper design of CFB boilers. To develop an optimum economic design of the boiler, it is also necessary to know how the heat transfer coefficient depends on different design and operating parameters. It is impossible to do the experiments under all operating conditions. Thus, the mathematical model prediction is a valuable method instead. Based on the cluster renewal theory of heat transfer in circulating fluidized beds, a mathematical model for predicting the time-averaged local bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficients is developed. The effects of the axial distribution of the bed density on the time-average local heat transfer coefficients are taken into account via dividing the bed into a series of sections along its height. The assumptions are made about the formation and falling process of clusters on the wall. The model predictions are in an acceptable agreement with the published data.

  15. Experimental estimation of the local heat-transfer coefficient in coiled tubes in turbulent flow regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzoli, F.; Cattani, L.; Mocerino, A.; Rainieri, S.

    2016-09-01

    Wall curvature is a popular heat transfer enhancement technique since it gives origin to the centrifugal force in the fluid: this phenomenon promotes local maxima in the velocity distribution that locally increase the temperature gradients at the wall by enhancing the heat transfer both in the laminar and in the turbulent flow regime. This geometry produces an asymmetrical distribution of the velocity field over the cross-section of the tube which lead to a significant variation in the convective heat-transfer coefficient along the circumferential angular coordinate: it presents higher values at the outer bend side of the wall surface than at the inner bend side. Although the irregular distribution of the heat transfer coefficient may be critical in some industrial applications, most of the authors did not investigate this aspect, mainly due to the practical difficulty of measuring heat flux on internal wall surface of a pipe. In the present investigation the local convective heat-transfer coefficient is experimentally estimated at the fluid-wall interface in coiled tubes when turbulent flow regime occurs; in particular, temperature distribution maps on the external coil wall are employed as input data of the inverse heat conduction problem in the wall and a solution approach based on the Tikhonov regularisation is implemented. The results, obtained with water as working fluid, are focused on the fully developed region in the turbulent flow regime in the Reynolds number range of 5000 to 12000.

  16. Development of a model to determine mass transfer coefficient and oxygen solubility in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Johnny

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an experimentally validated mechanistic model to predict the oxygen transfer rate coefficient (Kla) in aeration tanks for different water temperatures. Using experimental data created by Hunter and Vogelaar, the formula precisely reproduces experimental results for the standardized Kla at 20 °C, comparatively better than the current model used by ASCE 2-06 based on the equation Kla20 = Kla. ([Formula: see text])((20-T)) where T is in °C. Currently, reported values for [Formula: see text] range from 1.008 to 1.047. Because it is a geometric function, large error can result if an incorrect value of [Formula: see text] is used. Establishment of such value for an aeration system can only be made by means of series of full scale testing over a range of temperatures required. The new model predicts oxygen transfer coefficients to within 1% error compared to observed measurements. This is a breakthrough since the correct prediction of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (Kla) is a crucial step in the design, operation and scale up of bioreactors including wastewater treatment plant aeration tanks, and the equation developed allows doing so without resorting to multiple full scale testing for each individual tank under the same testing condition for different temperatures. The effect of temperature on the transfer rate coefficient Kla is explored in this paper, and it is recommended to replace the current model by this new model given by: [Formula: see text] where T is in degree Kelvin, and the subscripts refer to degree Celsius; E, ρ, σ are properties of water. Furthermore, using data from published data on oxygen solubility in water, it was found that solubility bears a linear and inverse relationship with the mass transfer coefficient.

  17. External and internal problems of modeling the heat and mass transfer coefficients at particles motion in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptev, A. G.; Lapteva, E. A.

    2017-03-01

    An approach to the determination of the heat and mass transfer coefficients from dispersed particles by the development of the hydrodynamic analogy is considered. The equations for computing the heat and mass transfer coefficients in continuous phase at a laminar regime of the flow around solid particles as well as the mass transfer coefficients in droplets are obtained. Comparisons with the experimental data of different authors are presented.

  18. Experimental determination of heat transfer coefficient in the slip regime and its anomalously low value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demsis, Anwar; Verma, Bhaskar; Prabhu, S. V.; Agrawal, Amit

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, the measurement of the heat transfer coefficient in rarefied gases is presented; these are among the first heat transfer measurements in the slip flow regime. The experimental setup is validated by comparing friction factor in the slip regime and heat transfer coefficient in the continuum regime. Experimental results suggest that the Nusselt number is a function of Reynolds and Knudsen numbers in the slip flow regime. The measured values for Nusselt numbers are smaller than that predicted by theoretical or simulation results, and can become a few orders of magnitude smaller than the theoretical values in the continuum regime. The results are repeatable and expected to be useful for further experimentation and modeling of flow in the slip and transition regimes.

  19. Measurements of Diffractive Vector-Meson Photoproduction at High Momentum Transfer from the ZEUS Experiment at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crittendenr, James A.

    We discuss recent preliminary results on the diffractive photoproduction of ρ0, φ, and J/ψ mesons at high momentum transfer reported by the ZEUS collaboration at HERA. A special-purpose calorimeter served to tag the quasi-real photons (Q2<0.01 Gev2) in the process γ+p-->VM+Y, where Y represents a dissociated state of the proton. The resulting range in photon-proton center-of-mass energy extends from 80 to 120 GeV. The differential cross sections (dσ )/(dt) were obtained in the region |t| > 1.2 GeV2, where t denotes the squared momentum transfer to the proton. The measurements provide good sensitivity to the observed power-law dependence (dσ )/(dt) (-t)-n. Over the region in momentum transfer covered by the data, the power is found to be approximately n = 3 for ρ0 and φ photoproduction, and approximately n = 2 for J/ψ photoproduction.

  20. Rapidity and momentum transfer distributions of coherent J/ψ photoproduction in ultraperipheral pPb collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzey, V.; Zhalov, M.

    2014-02-01

    Based on accurate calculations of the flux of equivalent photons of the proton and heavy nuclei and the pQCD framework for the gluon distribution in the proton and nuclei, we analyze the rapidity and momentum transfer distributions of coherent J/ψ photoproduction in ultraperipheral proton-Pb collisions at the LHC. We demonstrate that unlike the case of proton-proton UPCs marred by certain theoretical uncertainties and experimental limitations, after a cut excluding the region of small momentum transfers, ultraperipheral proton-Pb collisions offer a clean way to study the gluon distribution in the proton down to x ≈ 10-5. Our analysis of the momentum transfer distributions shows that an interplay of J/ψ production by low-energy photons on the nucleus and by high-energy photons on the proton in proton-Pb UPCs can result in some excess of events at small p t in a definite region of the rapidity y.

  1. Qualification and In-Flight Demonstration of a European Tether Deployment and Momentum Transfer System on YES2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruijff, M.; van der Heide, E. J.

    2008-08-01

    This paper highlights the design, qualification and mission performance of a comprehensive tethered momentum transfer technology on ESA's second Young Engineers' Satellite (YES2), aiming specifically on the tether deployer. The deployer is designed with a broad range of near-term tether applications in mind and therefore opens up novel possibilities e.g. small satellite missions. The system contains the following critical elements. The tether, including features to enhance safety, wound up in controlled manner onto a spool core; optical deployment sensors and electronics; a "barberpole" friction brake controlled by a stepper motor; and a triple cutter system. A spring-based ejection system and, on the subsatellite side, a timer/release system facilitate the stagings required for accurate tethered momentum transfer. In addition a small, 6 kg re-entry capsule was developed with 1 kg scientific payload and parachute system. On September 25th, 2007, YES2 deployed a 32 km tether in orbit and gathered a wealth of data. This paper aims to provide an overview of the design, qualification and flight performance of the tether deployer hardware. This performance is compared to the design and from this can be concluded a suitability of the hardware for tether deployment and tethered momentum transfer.

  2. Transfer of optical momentum: reconciliations of the Abraham and Minowski formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M.; Kemp, Brandon A.

    2008-08-01

    The correct form of electromagnetic wave momentum in matter has been debated in the literature for over a century, with the main candidates being the Minkowski and the Abraham formulations. Recently, a third momentum expression has been proposed, averaging the previous two, and has been argued to be the resolution of the debate. In this paper, we revisit the various formulations and show that the debate has been carried out on a wrong platform: the question is not which momentum expression is right and which is wrong, but which is measurable and which is not. In that regard, experiments have been overwhelmingly in favor of the Minkowski form, which, however, does not discredit the Abraham form as a theoretical concept. The third form of momentum, averaging the previous two, is here argued to be merely the result of a mathematical exercise, which physical assumptions need to be revisited.

  3. Heat transfer coefficient: Medivance Arctic Sun Temperature Management System vs. water immersion.

    PubMed

    English, M J; Hemmerling, T M

    2008-07-01

    To improve heat transfer, the Medivance Arctic Sun Temperature Management System (Medivance, Inc., Louisville, CO, USA) features an adhesive, water-conditioned, highly conductive hydrogel pad for intimate skin contact. This study measured and compared the heat transfer coefficient (h), i.e. heat transfer efficiency, of this pad (hPAD), in a heated model and in nine volunteers' thighs; and of 10 degrees C water (hWATER) in 33 head-out immersions by 11 volunteers. Volunteer studies had ethical approval and written informed consent. Calibrated heat flux transducers measured heat flux (W m-2). Temperature gradient (DeltaT) was measured between skin and pad or water temperatures. Temperature gradient was changed through the pad's water temperature controller or by skin cooling on immersion. The heat transfer coefficient is the slope of W m-2/DeltaT: its unit is W m-2 degrees C-1. Average with (95% CI) was: model, hPAD = 110.4 (107.8-113.1), R2 = 0.99, n = 45; volunteers, hPAD = 109.8 (95.5-124.1), R2 = 0.83, n = 51; and water immersion, hWATER = 107.1 (98.1-116), R2 = 0.86, n = 94. The heat transfer coefficient for the pad was the same in the model and volunteers, and equivalent to hWATER. Therefore, for the same DeltaT and heat transfer area, the Arctic Sun's heat transfer rate would equal water immersion. This has important implications for body cooling/rewarming rates.

  4. Determination of the heat transfer coefficient from IRT measurement data using the Trefftz method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewska, Beata; Strąk, Kinga; Piasecka, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the method of heat transfer coefficient determination for boiling research during FC-72 flow in the minichannels, each 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. The heating element was the thin foil, enhanced on the side which comes into contact with fluid in the minichannels. Local values of the heat transfer coefficient were calculated from the Robin boundary condition. The foil temperature distribution and the derivative of the foil temperature were obtained by solving the two-dimensional inverse heat conduction problem, due to measurements obtained by IRT. Calculations was carried out by the method based on the approximation of the solution of the problem using a linear combination of Trefftz functions. The basic property of this functions is they satisfy the governing equation. Unknown coefficients of linear combination of Trefftz functions are calculated from the minimization of the functional that expresses the mean square error of the approximate solution on the boundary. The results presented as IR thermographs, two-phase flow structure images and the heat transfer coefficient as a function of the distance from the channel inlet, were analyzed.

  5. Determination of drying kinetics and convective heat transfer coefficients of ginger slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpinar, Ebru Kavak; Toraman, Seda

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, the effects of some parametric values on convective heat transfer coefficients and the thin layer drying process of ginger slices were investigated. Drying was done in the laboratory by using cyclone type convective dryer. The drying air temperature was varied as 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and the air velocity is 0.8, 1.5 and 3 m/s. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to the twelve mathematical models and performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient ( R 2), reduced Chi-square ( χ 2) and root mean square error between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were calculated using an infinite series solution of Fick's diffusion equation. The average effective moisture diffusivity values and activation energy values varied from 2.807 × 10-10 to 6.977 × 10-10 m2/s and 19.313-22.722 kJ/mol over the drying air temperature and velocity range, respectively. Experimental data was used to evaluate the values of constants in Nusselt number expression by using linear regression analysis and consequently, convective heat transfer coefficients were determined in forced convection mode. Convective heat transfer coefficient of ginger slices showed changes in ranges 0.33-2.11 W/m2 °C.

  6. Modelling mass transfer during venting/soil vapour extraction: Non-aqueous phase liquid/gas mass transfer coefficient estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esrael, D.; Kacem, M.; Benadda, B.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate how the simulation of the venting/soil vapour extraction (SVE) process is affected by the mass transfer coefficient, using a model comprising five partial differential equations describing gas flow and mass conservation of phases and including an expression accounting for soil saturation conditions. In doing so, we test five previously reported quations for estimating the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL)/gas initial mass transfer coefficient and evaluate an expression that uses a reference NAPL saturation. Four venting/SVE experiments utilizing a sand column are performed with dry and non-saturated sand at low and high flow rates, and the obtained experimental results are subsequently simulated, revealing that hydrodynamic dispersion cannot be neglected in the estimation of the mass transfer coefficient, particularly in the case of low velocities. Among the tested models, only the analytical solution of a convection-dispersion equation and the equation proposed herein are suitable for correctly modelling the experimental results, with the developed model representing the best choice for correctly simulating the experimental results and the tailing part of the extracted gas concentration curve.

  7. On the reliable estimation of heat transfer coefficients for nanofluids in a microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwansyah, Ridho; Cierpka, Christian; Kähler, Christian J.

    2016-09-01

    Nanofluids (base fluid and nanoparticles) can enhance the heat transfer coefficient h in comparison to the base fluid. This open the door for the design of efficient cooling system for microelectronics component for instance. Since theoretical Nusselt number correlations for microchannels are not available, the direct method using an energy balance has to be applied to determine h. However, for low nanoparticle concentrations the absolute numbers are small and hard to measure. Therefore, the study examines the laminar convective heat transfer of Al2O3-water nanofluids in a square microchannel with a cross section of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 and a length of 30 mm under constant wall temperature. The Al2O3 nanoparticles have a diameter size distribution of 30-60 nm. A sensitivity analysis with error propagation was done to reduce the error for a reliable heat transfer coefficient estimation. An enhancement of heat transfer coefficient with increasing nanoparticles volume concentration was confirmed. A maximum enhancement of 6.9% and 21% were realized for 0.6% Al2O3-water and 1% Al2O3-water nanofluids.

  8. Heat transfer coefficient measurements on the pressure surface of a transonic airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodzwa, Paul M.; Eaton, John K.

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents steady-state recovery temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the pressure surface of a modern, highly cambered transonic airfoil. These measurements were collected with a peak Mach number of 1.5 and a maximum turbulence intensity of 30%. We used a single passage model to simulate the idealized two-dimensional flow path between rotor blades in a modern transonic turbine. This set up offered a simpler construction than a linear cascade, yet produced an equivalent flow condition. We performed validated high accuracy (±0.2°C) surface temperature measurements using wide-band thermochromic liquid crystals allowing separate measurements of the previously listed parameters with the same heat transfer surface. We achieved maximum heat transfer coefficient uncertainties that were equivalent to similar investigations (±10%). Two key observations are the heat transfer coefficient along the aft portion of the airfoil is sensitive to the surface heat flux and is highly insensitive to the level of freestream turbulence. Possible explanations for these observations are discussed.

  9. Integration Of Heat Transfer Coefficient In Glass Forming Modeling With Special Interface Element

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, P.; Gregoire, S.; Lochegnies, D.; Cesar de Sa, J.

    2007-05-17

    Numerical modeling of the glass forming processes requires the accurate knowledge of the heat exchange between the glass and the forming tools. A laboratory testing is developed to determine the evolution of the heat transfer coefficient in different glass/mould contact conditions (contact pressure, temperature, lubrication...). In this paper, trials are performed to determine heat transfer coefficient evolutions in experimental conditions close to the industrial blow-and-blow process conditions. In parallel of this work, a special interface element is implemented in a commercial Finite Element code in order to deal with heat transfer between glass and mould for non-meshing meshes and evolutive contact. This special interface element, implemented by using user subroutines, permits to introduce the previous heat transfer coefficient evolutions in the numerical modelings at the glass/mould interface in function of the local temperatures, contact pressures, contact time and kind of lubrication. The blow-and-blow forming simulation of a perfume bottle is finally performed to assess the special interface element performance.

  10. Integration Of Heat Transfer Coefficient In Glass Forming Modeling With Special Interface Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, P.; César de Sá, J.; Grégoire, S.; Lochegnies, D.

    2007-05-01

    Numerical modeling of the glass forming processes requires the accurate knowledge of the heat exchange between the glass and the forming tools. A laboratory testing is developed to determine the evolution of the heat transfer coefficient in different glass/mould contact conditions (contact pressure, temperature, lubrication…). In this paper, trials are performed to determine heat transfer coefficient evolutions in experimental conditions close to the industrial blow-and-blow process conditions. In parallel of this work, a special interface element is implemented in a commercial Finite Element code in order to deal with heat transfer between glass and mould for non-meshing meshes and evolutive contact. This special interface element, implemented by using user subroutines, permits to introduce the previous heat transfer coefficient evolutions in the numerical modelings at the glass/mould interface in function of the local temperatures, contact pressures, contact time and kind of lubrication. The blow-and-blow forming simulation of a perfume bottle is finally performed to assess the special interface element performance.

  11. Study of the average heat transfer coefficient at different distances between wind tunnel models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnyrya, A.; Korobkov, S.; Mokshin, D.; Koshin, A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents investigations of physical and climatic factors with regard to design and process variables having effect on heat transfer in the building model system at different distances between them in the airflow direction. The aim of this work is to improve energy efficiency of exterior walls of buildings. A method of physical simulation was used in experiments. Experimental results on the average values of the heat transfer coefficient in the building model system are presented herein. A series of experiments was carried out on a specific aerodynamic test bench including a subsonic wind tunnel, heat models and devices for giving thermal boundary conditions, transducers, and the record system equipment. The paper contains diagrams of the average heat transfer distribution at fixed Reynolds number and the airflow angle of attack; the average values of the heat transfer coefficient for each face and wind tunnel models as a whole at maximum, medium, and large distances between them. Intensification of the average heat transfer was observed on the downstream model faces depending on the distance between models.

  12. On the influence of the surface heat transfer coefficient on wet underwater welds

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, R.; Mahrenholtz, O.

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with the influence of the surface heat transfer on the temperature distribution during wet underwater welding. A model for the heat-transfer-coefficient on a horizontal plate considering different effects is presented. The influence of undercooled boiling, surface orientation and heater material on the temperature course are discussed. Welding experiments were performed on low carbon steel plates in a shallow water basin using Plasma-MIG underwater welding technique. For the numerical simulation of the welding process a new welding model has been developed for the Plasma-MIG underwater welding technique. The temperature problem is solved using finite element method. The numerical and experimental data are compared.

  13. Survey of literature on convective heat transfer coefficients and recovery factors for high atmosphere thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, S.

    1973-01-01

    Heat transfer phenomena of rarefied gas flows is discussed based on a literature survey of analytical and experimental rarefied gas dynamics. Subsonic flows are emphasized for the purposes of meteorological thermometry in the high atmosphere. The heat transfer coefficients for three basic geometries are given in the regimes of free molecular flow, transition flow, slip flow, and continuum flow. Different types of heat phenomena, and the analysis of theoretical and experimental data are presented. The uncertainties calculated from the interpolation rule compared with the available experimental data are discussed. The recovery factor for each geometry in subsonic rarefied flows is also given.

  14. Determination of the neutron electric form factor from the reaction 3He(e,e'n) at medium momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.; Andresen, H. G.; Annand, J. R. M.; Aulenbacher, K.; Beuchel, K.; Blume-Werry, J.; Dombo, Th.; Drescher, P.; Ebert, M.; Eyl, D.; Frey, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Großmann, T.; Hartmann, P.; Hehl, T.; Heil, W.; Herberg, C.; Hoffmann, J.; Kellie, J. D.; Klein, F.; Livingston, K.; Leduc, M.; Meyerhoff, M.; Möller, H.; Nachtigall, Ch.; Natter, A.; Ostrick, M.; Otten, E. W.; Owens, R. O.; Plützer, S.; Reichert, E.; Rohe, D.; Schäfer, M.; Schmieden, H.; Sprengard, R.; Steigerwald, M.; Steffens, K.-H.; Surkau, R.; Walcher, Th.; Watson, R.; Wilms, E.

    The electric form factor of the neutron GEn has been determined in double polarized exclusive 3He(e,e'n) scattering in quasi-elastic kinematics by measuring asymmetries A⊥, A∥ of the cross section with respect to helicity reversal of the electron, with the nuclear spin being oriented perpendicular to the momentum transfer q in case of A⊥ and parallel in case of A∥. The experiment was performed at the 855 MeV c. w. microtron MAMI at Mainz. The degree of polarization of the electron beam and of the gaseous 3He target were each about 50%. Scattered electrons and neutrons were detected in coincidence by detector arrays covering large solid angles. Quasi-elastic scattering events were reconstructed from the measured electron scattering angles ϑe, φe and the neutron momentum vector pn' in the plane wave impulse approximation. We obtain the result (0.27 < Q2c2/GeV2 < 0.5)= 0.0334 +/- 0.0033stat+/- 0.0028syst which is averaged over the indicated range of Q2, the squared momentum transfer. This GEn value is significantly smaller than measured from the D(e,e'n) reaction under similar kinematical conditions. To what extent final state interactions in 3He quench the GEn result is subject of calculations currently in progress elsewhere.

  15. Determination of heat transfer coefficient for an interaction of sub-cooled gas and metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi Sidek, Mohd; Syahidan Kamarudin, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    Heat transfer coefficient (HTC) for a hot metal surface and their surrounding is one of the need be defined parameter in hot forming process. This study has been conducted to determine the HTC for an interaction between sub-cooled gas sprayed on a hot metal surface. Both experiments and finite element have been adopted in this work. Initially, the designated experiment was conducted to obtain temperature history of spray cooling process. Then, an inverse method was adopted to calculate the HTC value before we validate in a finite element simulation model. The result shows that the heat transfer coefficient for interaction of subcooled gas and hot metal surface is 1000 W/m2K.

  16. Experimental Technique and Assessment for Measuring the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient from Natural Ice Accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masiulaniec, K. Cyril; Vanfossen, G. James, Jr.; Dewitt, Kenneth J.; Dukhan, Nihad

    1995-01-01

    A technique was developed to cast frozen ice shapes that had been grown on a metal surface. This technique was applied to a series of ice shapes that were grown in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel on flat plates. Nine flat plates, 18 inches square, were obtained from which aluminum castings were made that gave good ice shape characterizations. Test strips taken from these plates were outfitted with heat flux gages, such that when placed in a dry wind tunnel, can be used to experimentally map out the convective heat transfer coefficient in the direction of flow from the roughened surfaces. The effects on the heat transfer coefficient for both parallel and accelerating flow will be studied. The smooth plate model verification baseline data as well as one ice roughened test case are presented.

  17. Method for calculating convective heat-transfer coefficients over turbine vane surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, D. J.; Sucec, J.

    1978-01-01

    A method for calculating laminar, transitional, and turbulent convective heat-transfer coefficients for turbine vane surfaces is described. An approximate integral solution method produced results in good agreement with a finite-difference solution. Comparisons between the two are presented. The integral solution results agreed well with the finite-difference solution results in the laminar and turbulent regions. Differences in calculating the start of transition produced a later starting point for the approximate integral solution's transitional flow regime.

  18. Adiabatic Effectiveness and Heat Transfer Coefficient on a Film-Cooled Rotating Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.

    1997-01-01

    three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been used to compute the adiabatic effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient on a rotating film-cooled turbine blade. The blade chosen is the United Technologies Research Center(UTRC) rotor with five film-cooling rows containing 83 holes, including three rows on the shower head with 49 holes, covering about 86% of the blade span. The mainstream is akin to that under real engine conditions with stagnation temperature 1900 K and stagnation pressure 3 MPa. The blade speed is taken to be 5200 rpm. The adiabatic effectiveness is higher for a rotating blade as compared to that for a stationary blade. Also, the direction of coolant injection from the shower-head holes considerably affects the effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient values on both the pressure and suction surfaces. In all cases the heat transfer coefficient and adiabatic effectiveness are highly three-dimensional in the vicinity of holes but tend to become two-dimensional far downstream.

  19. Heat-Transfer Coefficients for a Full-Scale Pebble-Bed Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancashire, R. B.; Lezberg, E. A.; Morris, J. F.

    1960-01-01

    Large quantities of high-temperature air are needed for work with hypersonic flight problems. At temperatures above 2500 degrees Reamur, where conventional heat exchangers have exceeded their material limits, regenerative pebble-bed exchangers may be used with high-temperature refractories. The design of such a heat exchanger requires the use of reliable heat-transfer coefficients for a packed bed. Considerable data are available on the subject, but they spread over two orders of magnitude at any one Reynolds number value. The facility from which the present data were obtained is used at the Lewis Research Center (NASA) for testing air-breathing engine components. The purpose of this work was to obtain heat-transfer data during the initial operation of the bed as a guide to the design of similar equipment. The facility was designed with a conservative estimate of the heat-transfer coefficient, and is shown schematically. Temperatures throughout the packing were measured continuously so that point values of the coefficient might be obtained.

  20. Effect of concave rectangular winglet vortex generator on convection coefficient of heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaiful, Sugiri, Gladys; Soetanto, Maria F.; Bae, Myung-whan

    2017-01-01

    This study shows an experimental result of effects of concave rectangular winglet vortex generator on convection heat transfer coefficient. There are two types of vortex generator those are rectangular winglet and concave rectangular winglet. The aim of this study is to observe effects of geometry and numbers of vortex generator to the increase of heat transfer coefficient. This experiment was done in a glass rectangular channel. Overall, this experiment was conducted with (rectangular and concave rectangular winglets) and without (baseline) vortex generator. Both types of vortex generator were placed at a 30° angle of attack, in an inline position, and variation numbers of vortex generator row of 1, 2 and 3 rows. Vortex generators were mounted on an aluminum plate which was mounted on a heater with 35 watts of heat, inside the rectangular channel. Airflow passed through vortex generators was varied by its inlet velocity to be 0.4 m/s to 2.0 m/s with an interval of 0.2 m/s. The experimental result shows that 3 row of concave rectangular winglet gives the highest heat transfer coefficient enhancement. Nusselt number and j-factor increase but thermal resistance decrease. Experiment results that Nusselt number and j-factor increase up to 205% while thermal resistance decreases up to 67% compared to baseline for the highest Reynolds number.

  1. Determination of forced convective heat transfer coefficients for subsonic flows over heated asymmetric NANA 4412 airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dag, Yusuf

    Forced convection over traditional surfaces such as flat plate, cylinder and sphere have been well researched and documented. Data on forced convection over airfoil surfaces, however, remain very scanty in literature. High altitude vehicles that employ airfoils as lifting surfaces often suffer leading edge ice accretions which have tremendous negative consequences on the lifting capabilities and stability of the vehicle. One of the ways of mitigating the effect of ice accretion involves judicious leading edge convective cooling technique which in turn depends on the accuracy of convective heat transfer coefficient used in the analysis. In this study empirical investigation of convective heat transfer measurements on asymmetric airfoil is presented at different angle of attacks ranging from 0° to 20° under subsonic flow regime. The top and bottom surface temperatures are measured at given points using Senflex hot film sensors (Tao System Inc.) and used to determine heat transfer characteristics of the airfoils. The model surfaces are subjected to constant heat fluxes using KP Kapton flexible heating pads. The monitored temperature data are then utilized to determine the heat convection coefficients modelled empirically as the Nusselt Number on the surface of the airfoil. The experimental work is conducted in an open circuit-Eiffel type wind tunnel, powered by a 37 kW electrical motor that is able to generate subsonic air velocities up to around 41 m/s in the 24 square-inch test section. The heat transfer experiments have been carried out under constant heat flux supply to the asymmetric airfoil. The convective heat transfer coefficients are determined from measured surface temperature and free stream temperature and investigated in the form of Nusselt number. The variation of Nusselt number is shown with Reynolds number at various angles of attacks. It is concluded that Nusselt number increases with increasing Reynolds number and increase in angle of attack from 0

  2. Effect of impeller geometry on gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients in filamentous suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Dronawat, S.N.; Svihla, C.K.; Hanley, T.R.

    1997-12-31

    Volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients were measured in suspensions of cellulose fibers with concentrations ranging from 0 to 20 g/L. The mass transfer coefficients were measured using the dynamic method. Results are presented for three different combinations of impellers at a variety of gassing rates and agitation speeds. Rheological properties of the cellulose fibers were also measured using the impeller viscometer method. Tests were conducted in a 20 L stirred-tank fermentor and in 65 L tank with a height to diameter ratio of 3:1. Power consumption was measured in both vessels. At low agitation rates, two Rushton turbines gave 20% better performance than the Rushton and hydrofoil combination and 40% better performance than the Rushton and propeller combination for oxygen transfer. At higher agitation rates, the Rushton and hydrofoil combination gave 14 and 25% better performance for oxygen transfer than two Rushton turbines and the Rushton and hydrofoil combination, respectively. 8 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. In-situ determination of field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients: Performance, simulation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobile, Michael; Widdowson, Mark; Stewart, Lloyd; Nyman, Jennifer; Deeb, Rula; Kavanaugh, Michael; Mercer, James; Gallagher, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Better estimates of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass, its persistence into the future, and the potential impact of source reduction are critical needs for determining the optimal path to clean up sites impacted by NAPLs. One impediment to constraining time estimates of source depletion is the uncertainty in the rate of mass transfer between NAPLs and groundwater. In this study, an innovative field test is demonstrated for the purpose of quantifying field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients (klN) within a source zone of a fuel-contaminated site. Initial evaluation of the test concept using a numerical model revealed that the aqueous phase concentration response to the injection of clean groundwater within a source zone was a function of NAPL mass transfer. Under rate limited conditions, NAPL dissolution together with the injection flow rate and the radial distance to monitoring points directly controlled time of travel. Concentration responses observed in the field test were consistent with the hypothetical model results allowing field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients to be quantified. Site models for groundwater flow and solute transport were systematically calibrated and utilized for data analysis. Results show klN for benzene varied from 0.022 to 0.60 d- 1. Variability in results was attributed to a highly heterogeneous horizon consisting of layered media of varying physical properties.

  4. Mass transfer coefficient in ginger oil extraction by microwave hydrotropic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, Dwi; Ikhsan, Diyono; Yulianto, Mohamad Endy; Dwisukma, Mandy Ayulia

    2015-12-01

    This research aims to obtain mass transfer coefficient data on the extraction of ginger oil using microwave hydrotropic solvent as an alternative to increase zingiberene. The innovation of this study is extraction with microwave heater and hydrotropic solvent,which able to shift the phase equilibrium, and the increasing rate of the extraction process and to improve the content of ginger oil zingiberene. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Separation Techniques at Chemical Engineering Department of Diponegoro University. The research activities carried out in two stages, namely experimental and modeling work. Preparation of the model postulated, then lowered to obtain equations that were tested and validated using data obtained from experimental. Measurement of experimental data was performed using microwave power (300 W), extraction temperature of 90 ° C and the independent variable, i.e.: type of hydrotropic, the volume of solvent and concentration in order, to obtain zingiberen levels as a function of time. Measured data was used as a tool to validate the postulation, in order to obtain validation of models and empirical equations. The results showed that the mass transfer coefficient (Kla) on zingiberene mass transfer models ginger oil extraction at various hydrotropic solution attained more 14 ± 2 Kla value than its reported on the extraction with electric heating. The larger value of Kla, the faster rate of mass transfer on the extraction process. To obtain the same yields, the microwave-assisted extraction required one twelfth time shorter.

  5. Turbulent flow regime in coiled tubes: local heat-transfer coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzoli, F.; Cattani, L.; Mocerino, A.; Rainieri, S.

    2017-08-01

    Wall curvature represents a widely adopted technique for enhancing heat transfer: the fluid flowing inside a coiled pipe experiences the centrifugal force and this phenomenon induces local maxima in the velocity distribution that locally increase the temperature gradients at the wall by enhancing the heat transfer both in the laminar and in the turbulent flow regime. Consequently, the distribution of the velocity field over the cross-section of the tube is strongly uneven thus leading to significant variations along the circumferential angular coordinate of the convective heat-transfer coefficient at the wall internal surface: in particular, it shows higher values at the outer bend side of the coil than at the inner bend side. The aim of the present work is to estimate experimentally the local convective heat-transfer coefficient at the fluid wall interface in coiled tubes when turbulent flow regime occurs. In particular, the temperature distribution maps on the external coil wall are employed as input data of the inverse heat conduction problem in the wall and a solution approach based on the Tikhonov regularisation is implemented. The results, obtained with water as working fluid, are focused on the fully developed region in the turbulent flow regime in the Reynolds number range of 5000 to 12,000. For the sake of completeness, the overall efficiency of the coiled tubes under test is assessed under a first-law performance evaluation criterion.

  6. In-situ determination of field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients: Performance, simulation and analysis.

    PubMed

    Mobile, Michael; Widdowson, Mark; Stewart, Lloyd; Nyman, Jennifer; Deeb, Rula; Kavanaugh, Michael; Mercer, James; Gallagher, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Better estimates of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass, its persistence into the future, and the potential impact of source reduction are critical needs for determining the optimal path to clean up sites impacted by NAPLs. One impediment to constraining time estimates of source depletion is the uncertainty in the rate of mass transfer between NAPLs and groundwater. In this study, an innovative field test is demonstrated for the purpose of quantifying field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients (kl(N)) within a source zone of a fuel-contaminated site. Initial evaluation of the test concept using a numerical model revealed that the aqueous phase concentration response to the injection of clean groundwater within a source zone was a function of NAPL mass transfer. Under rate limited conditions, NAPL dissolution together with the injection flow rate and the radial distance to monitoring points directly controlled time of travel. Concentration responses observed in the field test were consistent with the hypothetical model results allowing field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients to be quantified. Site models for groundwater flow and solute transport were systematically calibrated and utilized for data analysis. Results show kl(N) for benzene varied from 0.022 to 0.60d(-1). Variability in results was attributed to a highly heterogeneous horizon consisting of layered media of varying physical properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Theory for solvent, momentum, and energy transfer between a surfactant solution and a vapor atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Fried, Eliot; Shen, Amy Q; Gurtin, Morton E

    2006-06-01

    We develop a complete set of equations governing the evolution of a sharp interface separating a volatile-solvent/nonvolatile-surfactant solution from a vapor atmosphere. In addition to a sorption isotherm equation and the conventional balances for mass, linear momentum, and energy, these equations include an alternative to the Hertz-Knudsen-Langmuir equation familiar from conventional theories of evaporation and condensation. This additional equation arises from a consideration of configurational forces within a thermodynamical framework. While the notion of configurational forces is well developed and understood for the description of materials that, like crystalline solids, possess natural reference configurations, very little has been done regarding their role in materials, such as viscous fluids, that do not possess preferred reference states. We therefore provide comprehensive developments of configurational forces, the balance of configurational momentum, and configurational thermodynamics. Our treatment does not require a choice of reference configuration. The general evolution equations arising from our theory account for the thermodynamic structure of the solution and the interface and for sources of dissipation related to the transport of surfactant, momentum, and heat in the solution and within the interface along with the transport of solute, momentum, kinetic energy, and heat across the interface. Moreover, the equations account for the Soret and Dufour effects in the solution and on the interface and for observed discontinuities of the temperature and chemical potential across the interface. Due to the complexity of these equations, we provide approximate equations which we compare to equations preexistent in the literature.

  8. The mean coefficients of heat transfer from gas to turbine nozzle blade at high Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariev, D. I.; Lelchuk, V. L.; Balashov, Iu. A.

    1982-10-01

    The mean heat transfer in the flow section of a high-temperature gas turbine at high Reynolds number between six and seven million was examined. The experimental nozzle cascade is described and experimental velocity curves for assessing the aerodynamic efficiency of the blade profile are shown. The heat-transfer investigation involved calorimetric measurement with forward and reverse directions of the heat flux. The flow rate and temperature difference of water passing through the blade were measured, and the mean coefficients of heat transfer over the profile surface were calculated in the form of the ratio of heat flux density to the difference between the mean temperature of the surface and the inlet cascade flow temperature. The experimental results were used to derive a relation which is analyzed.

  9. A parameterization of eddy transfer coefficients for two-level seasonal statistical dynamical zonally averaged models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeman, Binyamin U.; Ohring, George; Joseph, Joachim H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines a parameterization of a quasi-geostrophic eddy transport that takes into account the time variation of eddy transfer coefficients according to Green's (1970) theory. It was found that, in the original eddy transfer relationship of Green, connecting the integral of the northward eddy entropy flux through midlatitudes with the second power of the difference in 500-mb entropy across the region of baroclinic activity, a value of 4 for the exponent is obtained when the temperature gradients at 500 mb are used. When the gradients at 1000 mb are used, an exponent of 1.5 is obtained. The differences in the powers in the eddy transfer relation were explored in a two-level zonally averaged model. It was found that an appropriate choice of power may be of special importance if the model is devised to simulate the seasonal climate cycle or to test astronomical changes inducing different seasonalities.

  10. Evaporation in relation to CO 2 concentration: Analysis of mass transfer coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, C. S. P.; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Rao, Surampalli; Abd Elbasit, Mohamed A. M.; Kumar, Manoj

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the potential of mass transfer approach in estimating evaporation changes under different CO 2 levels are evaluated using data from controlled chamber experiments in which radiation and wind velocity were kept constant and temperature and relative humidity profiles were varied in different patterns along with CO 2 concentration. Currently, FAO procedure lists three approaches to compute air vapour pressure based on temperature and relative humidity profiles. In this study, the impact of using different procedures of estimating air vapour pressure is examined to assess the use of mass transfer approach for estimating evaporation. To achieve this, a part of the data is used to calibrate mass transfer coefficient which is subsequently used to project evaporation for future states. Accordingly, strategies are ranked for their potential in estimating evaporation. The effect of evaporation rate is compared at 400 ppm and 600 ppm CO 2 level. It has been observed that the evaporation rate is more pronounced at higher CO 2 level.

  11. On total turbulent energy and the passive and active role of buoyancy in turbulent momentum and mass transfer.

    PubMed

    de Nijs, Michel A J; Pietrzak, Julie D

    Measurements of turbulent fluctuations of horizontal and vertical components of velocity, salinity and suspended particulate matter are presented. Turbulent Prandtl numbers are found to increase with stratification and to become larger than 1. Consequently, the vertical turbulent mass transport is suppressed by buoyancy forces, before the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and vertical turbulent momentum exchange are inhibited. With increasing stratification, the buoyancy fluxes do not cease, instead they become countergradient. We find that buoyantly driven motions play an active role in the transfer of mass. This is in agreement with trends derived from Monin-Obukhov scaling. For positive Richardson flux numbers (Ri f ), the log velocity profile in the near-bed layer requires correction with a drag reduction. For negative Ri f , the log velocity profile should be corrected with a drag increase, with increasing |Ri f |. This highlights the active role played by buoyancy in momentum transfer and the production of TKE. However, the data do not appear to entirely follow Monin-Obukhov scaling. This is consistent with the notion that the turbulence field is not in equilibrium. The large stratification results in the decay of turbulence and countergradient buoyancy fluxes act to restore equilibrium in the energy budget. This implies that there is a finite adjustment timescale of the turbulence field to changes in velocity shear and density stratification. The energy transfers associated with the source and sink function of the buoyancy flux can be modeled with the concept of total turbulent energy.

  12. On total turbulent energy and the passive and active role of buoyancy in turbulent momentum and mass transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nijs, Michel A. J.; Pietrzak, Julie D.

    2012-06-01

    Measurements of turbulent fluctuations of horizontal and vertical components of velocity, salinity and suspended particulate matter are presented. Turbulent Prandtl numbers are found to increase with stratification and to become larger than 1. Consequently, the vertical turbulent mass transport is suppressed by buoyancy forces, before the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and vertical turbulent momentum exchange are inhibited. With increasing stratification, the buoyancy fluxes do not cease, instead they become countergradient. We find that buoyantly driven motions play an active role in the transfer of mass. This is in agreement with trends derived from Monin-Obukhov scaling. For positive Richardson flux numbers (Ri f ), the log velocity profile in the near-bed layer requires correction with a drag reduction. For negative Ri f , the log velocity profile should be corrected with a drag increase, with increasing |Ri f |. This highlights the active role played by buoyancy in momentum transfer and the production of TKE. However, the data do not appear to entirely follow Monin-Obukhov scaling. This is consistent with the notion that the turbulence field is not in equilibrium. The large stratification results in the decay of turbulence and countergradient buoyancy fluxes act to restore equilibrium in the energy budget. This implies that there is a finite adjustment timescale of the turbulence field to changes in velocity shear and density stratification. The energy transfers associated with the source and sink function of the buoyancy flux can be modeled with the concept of total turbulent energy.

  13. Quasiclassical trajectory study of collisional energy transfer in toluene systems. II. Helium bath gas: Energy and temperature dependences, and angular momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kieran F.

    1994-11-01

    The collisional deactivation of highly vibrationally excited toluene-d0 and toluene-d8 by helium bath gas has been investigated using quasiclassical trajectory simulations. Collisional energy transfer was found to increase with initial toluene internal energy, in agreement with the experiments of Toselli and Barker [J. Chem. Phys. 97, 1809 (1992), and references therein]. The temperature dependence of <ΔE2>1/2 is predicted to be T(0.44±0.10), in agreement with the experiments of Heymann, Hippler, and Troe [J. Chem. Phys. 80, 1853 (1984)]. Toluene is found to have no net angular-momentum (rotational-energy) transfer to helium bath gas, although <ΔJ2>1/2 has a temperature dependence of T(0.31±0.07). Re-evaluation of earlier calculations [``Paper I:'' Lim, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 7385 (1994)] found that rotational energy transfer could be induced by increasing the mass of the collider, or by increasing the strength of the intermolecular interaction: in these cases, angular-momentum transfer depended on the initial excitation energy. In all cases, the final rotational distributions remained Boltzmann.

  14. Measurements of the Proton Elastic-Form-Factor Ratio μpGEp/GMp at Low Momentum Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ron, G.; Glister, J.; Lee, B.; Allada, K.; Armstrong, W.; Arrington, J.; Beck, A.; Benmokhtar, F.; Berman, B. L.; Boeglin, W.; Brash, E.; Camsonne, A.; Calarco, J.; Chen, J. P.; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E.; Coman, L.; Craver, B.; Cusanno, F.; Dumas, J.; Dutta, C.; Feuerbach, R.; Freyberger, A.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilman, R.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Hyde, C. E.; Ibrahim, H.; Ilieva, Y.; de Jager, C. W.; Jiang, X.; Jones, M. K.; Kang, H.; Kelleher, A.; Khrosinkova, E.; Kuchina, E.; Kumbartzki, G.; Lerose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Markowitz, P.; May-Tal Beck, S.; McCullough, E.; Meekins, D.; Meziane, M.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Norum, B. E.; Oh, Y.; Olson, M.; Paolone, M.; Paschke, K.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Piasetzky, E.; Potokar, M.; Pomatsalyuk, R.; Pomerantz, I.; Puckett, A.; Punjabi, V.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Ransome, R.; Reyhan, M.; Roche, J.; Rousseau, Y.; Saha, A.; Sarty, A. J.; Sawatzky, B.; Schulte, E.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Shneor, R.; Širca, S.; Slifer, K.; Solvignon, P.; Song, J.; Sparks, R.; Subedi, R.; Strauch, S.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Wang, K.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yan, X.; Yao, H.; Zhan, X.; Zhu, X.

    2007-11-01

    High-precision measurements of the proton elastic form-factor ratio, μpGEp/GMp, have been made at four-momentum transfer, Q2, values between 0.2 and 0.5GeV2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to GEp being smaller than expected.

  15. The Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio mu(p) G**p(E)/G**p(M) at Low Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ron; J. Glister; B. Lee; K. Allada; W. Armstrong; J. Arrington; A. Beck; F. Benmokhtar; B.L. Berman; W. Boeglin; E. Brash; A. Camsonne; J. Calarco; J. P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; L. Coman; B. Craver; F. Cusanno; J. Dumas; C. Dutta; R. Feuerbach; A. Freyberger; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; R. Gilman; O. Hansen; D. W. Higinbotham; T. Holmstrom; C.E. Hyde; H. Ibrahim; Y. Ilieva; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; M. K. Jones; A. Kelleher; E. Khrosinkova; E. Kuchina; G. Kumbartzki; J. J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; P. Markowitz; S. May-Tal Beck; E. McCullough; D. Meekins; M. Meziane; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; B. Moffit; B.E. Norum; Y. Oh; M. Olson; M. Paolone; K. Paschke; C. F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; M. Potokar; R. Pomatsalyuk; I. Pomerantz; A. Puckett; V. Punjabi; X. Qian; Y. Qiang; R. Ransome; M. Reyhan; J. Roche; Y. Rousseau; A. Saha; A.J. Sarty; B. Sawatzky; E. Schulte; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; R. Shneor; S. ˇ Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; J. Song; R. Sparks; R. Subedi; S. Strauch; G. M. Urciuoli; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Yan; H. Yao; X. Zhan; X. Zhu

    2007-11-01

    High precision measurements of the proton elastic form factor ratio have been made at four-momentum transfers, Q^2, between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV^2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q^2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to GEp being smaller than the dipole parameterization.

  16. Nuclear and Q{sup 2} dependence of quaselastic (e,e{prime}p) scattering at large momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, H.E.; Geesaman, D.F.; Jones, C.E.

    1995-08-01

    An experiment was completed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in which measurements of the (e,e{prime}p) coincidence quasielastic cross section in nuclei were extended to the largest possible Q{sup 2} attainable with the Nuclear Physics Injector and the End Station A spectrometers. Coincidence measurements of the quasielastic (e,e{prime}p) cross section were made on nuclei from carbon to gold in the Q{sup 2} range of 1-7 (GeV/c){sup 2}. Several papers describing the results were published or submitted. Analysis of the data is in its final stages. In summary, the cross section for quasielastic {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}p) scattering was measured at momentum transfer Q{sup 2}=1, 3, 5, and 6.8 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The results are consistent with scattering from a single nucleon as the dominant process. The nuclear transparency is obtained and compared with theoretical calculations that incorporate color transparency effects. No significant rise of the transparency with Q{sup 2} is observed. Cross sections were reported for the reaction {sup 2}H(e,e{prime}p)n for momentum transfers in the range 1.2 {<=}Q{sup 2}{<=}6.8 (GeV/c){sup 2} and for missing momenta from 0 to 250 MeV/c. The longitudinal-transverse interference structure function was separated at Q{sup 2}=1.5 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The observables were compared to calculations performed in nonrelativistic and relativistic frameworks. The data are best described by a fully relativistic calculation. The A-dependence of the quasielastic A(e,e{prime}p) reaction was studied with {sup 2}H, C, Fe, and Au nuclei at momentum transfers Q{sup 2}=1, 3, 5, and 6.8 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The nuclear transparency T A,Q{sup 2}, a measure of the average probability that the struck proton escapes from the nucleu A without interaction, was extracted. Several calculations predict a significant increase in T with momentum transfer, a phenomenon known as color transparency. No significant rise within errors is seen for any of the nuclei studied.

  17. Estimating monthly-averaged air-sea transfers of heat and momentum using the bulk aerodynamic method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esbensen, S. K.; Reynolds, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Air-sea transfers of sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum are computed from twenty-five years of middle-latitude and subtropical ocean weather ship data in the North Atlantic and North Pacific using the bulk aerodynamic method. The results show that monthly-averaged wind speeds, temperatures, and humidities can be used to estimate the monthly-averaged sensible and latent heat fluxes computed from the bulk aerodynamic equations to within a relative error of approximately 10%. The estimate of monthly-averaged wind stress under the assumption of neutral stability are shown to be within approximately 5% of the monthly-averaged non-neutral values.

  18. Gaussian-beam-propagation theory for nonlinear optics involving an analytical treatment of orbital-angular-momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanning, R. Nicholas; Xiao, Zhihao; Zhang, Mi; Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2017-07-01

    We present a general, Gaussian spatial-mode propagation formalism for describing the generation of higher-order multi-spatial-mode beams generated during nonlinear interactions. Furthermore, to implement the theory, we simulate optical angular momentum transfer interactions and show how one can optimize the interaction to reduce the undesired modes. Past theoretical treatments of this problem have often been phenomenological, at best. Here we present an exact solution for the single-pass no-cavity regime, in which the nonlinear interaction is not overly strong. We apply our theory to two experiments, with very good agreement, and give examples of several more configurations, easily tested in the laboratory.

  19. Transfer efficiency of angular momentum in sum-frequency generation and control of its spin and orbital parts by varying polarization and frequency of fundamental beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perezhogin, I. A.; Grigoriev, K. S.; Potravkin, N. N.; Cherepetskaya, E. B.; Makarov, V. A.

    2017-08-01

    Considering sum-frequency generation in an isotropic chiral nonlinear medium, we analyze the transfer of the spin angular momentum of fundamental elliptically polarized Gaussian light beams to the signal beam, which appears as the superposition of two Laguerre-Gaussian modes with both spin and orbital angular momentum. Only for the circular polarization of the fundamental radiation is its angular momentum fully transferred to the sum-frequency beam; otherwise, part of it can be transferred to the medium. Its value, as well as the ratio of spin and orbital contributions in the signal beam, depends on the fundamental frequency ratio and the polarization of the incident beams. Higher energy conversion efficiency in sum-frequency generation does not always correspond to higher angular momentum conversion efficiency.

  20. Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Steady-State Heat and Mass Transport in Condensation. II. Transfer Coefficients.

    PubMed

    Røsjorde, A.; Kjelstrup, S.; Bedeaux, D.; Hafskjold, B.

    2001-08-01

    We present coefficients for transfer of heat and mass across the liquid-vapor interface of a one-component fluid. The coefficients are defined for the Gibbs surface from nonequilibrium thermodynamics and determined by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The main conductivity coefficients are found to become large near the critical point, consistent with the disappearance of the surface in this limit. The resistivities of transfer found by molecular dynamics simulations are compared to the values predicted by kinetic theory. The main resistivity to heat transfer is found to agree from the triple point to about halfway to the critical point. The resistivity to mass transfer was used to determine the condensation coefficient, which was found to be practically constant with a value of about 0.82. The resistivity coupling coefficient predicted by simulations also agrees with values predicted by kinetic theory from the triple point until about halfway to the critical point. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  1. Photon-electron-ion momentum transfer in high intensityIR laser pulse ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandrauk, Andre D.; Chelkowski, Szczefan; Corkum, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Photon momentum sharing between electrons and parent ions in high intensityIR multiphoton ionization requires going beyond the traditional perturbative dipole approximation. Using numerical solutions of the 2-D TDSE(Time dependent Schroedinger equation) for one electron atom models, we show that the radiation pressure on photoelectrons is sensitive to the ionization mechanism, either direct or by recollision. A complex electron-ion response is obtained due to the interplay between the Lorentz force and Coulomb attraction of the ion.The influence of the photon momentum sharing is shown to be discernible in IR high intensity atomic and/or molecular holographic patterns thus suggesting a new research subject in IR strong field physics.

  2. Momentum transfer from solar wind to interplanetary field enhancements inferred from magnetic field draping signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, H. R.; Russell, C. T.; Jia, Y. D.; Wei, H. Y.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2015-03-01

    Characterized by a cusp-shaped enhancement in the magnetic field strength, the magnetic structure in the solar wind, called an interplanetary field enhancement (IFE), has been investigated since its discovery. To understand its three-dimensional magnetic field geometry, we study an IFE detected by five spacecraft simultaneously. Field lines are seen draping around in the upstream region and rotating in the ambient convection electric field direction in the downstream region. Earlier studies suggest that IFEs are created when the solar wind accelerates newly formed dust clouds. Both signatures found in our study support this hypothesis: the field line draping is caused by dust-solar wind momentum exchange, while the field line rotation is a typical signature of dusty plasma pickup. The force that exchanges the momentum is approximately 106 N. This study illustrates the nature of the interaction between two flowing plasmas of very different mass-to-charge ratio.

  3. Composition dependence of ion transport coefficients in gas mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whealton, J. H.; Mason, E. A.; Robson, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A simple momentum-transfer theory for the composition dependence of ion mobilities and diffusion coefficients in gas mixtures at arbitrary field strengths is corrected, extended, and compared with a similar theory based on momentum and energy transfer, and with results based on direct solution of the Boltzmann equation by Kihara's method. Final equations are recommended for predicting composition dependences, given only results on ion mobilities and diffusion coefficients in the pure component gases.

  4. Hydrodynamics and mass transfer coefficient in activated sludge aerated stirred column reactor: experimental analysis and modeling.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bo; Lant, Paul; Ge, Xiangyu

    2005-08-20

    The aerated stirred reactor (ASR) has been widely used in biochemical and wastewater treatment processes. The information describing how the activated sludge properties and operation conditions affect the hydrodynamics and mass transfer coefficient is missing in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of flow regime, superficial gas velocity (U(G)), power consumption unit (P/V(L)), sludge loading, and apparent viscosity (mu(ap)) of activated sludge fluid on the mixing time (t(m)), gas hold-up (epsilon), and volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) in an activated sludge aerated stirred column reactor (ASCR). The activated sludge fluid performed a non-Newtonian rheological behavior. The sludge loading significantly affected the fluid hydrodynamics and mass transfer. With an increase in the U(G) and P/V(L), the epsilon and k(L)a increased, and the t(m), decreased. The epsilon, k(L)a, and t(m), were influenced dramatically as the flow regime changed from homogeneous to heterogeneous patterns. The proposed mathematical models predicted the experimental results well under experimental conditions, indicating that the U(G), P/V(L), and mu(ap) had significant impact on the t(m), epsilon, and k(L)a. These models were able to give the t(m), epsilon, and k(L)a values with an error around +/-8%, and always less than +/-10%. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Detailed heat transfer coefficient measurements and thermal analysis at engine conditions of a pedestal with fillet radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Ireland, P. T.; Jones, T. V.

    1995-04-01

    The heat transfer coefficient over the surface of a pedestal with fillet radii has been measured using thermochromic liquid crystals and the transient heat transfer method. The tests were performed at engine representative Reynolds numbers for a geometry typical of those used in turbine blade cooling systems. The heat conduction process that occurs in the engine was subsequently modeled numerically with a finite element discretization of the solid pedestal. The measured heat transfer coefficients were used to derive the exact boundary conditions applicable to the engine. The temperature field within the pedestal, calculated using the correct heat transfer coefficient distribution, is compared to that calculated using an area-averaged heat transfer coefficient. Metal temperature differences of 90 K are predicted across the blade wall.

  6. Moisture Transfer in Concrete: Numerical Determination of the Capillary Conductivity Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simo, Elie; Dzali Mbeumo, Pascal Durant; Mbami Njeuten, Jeanne Claude

    2017-03-01

    We numerically investigated moisture transfer in buildings made of concrete. We considered three types of concrete: normal concrete, pumice concrete and cellular concrete. We present the results of a 1-D liquid water flow in such materials. We evaluated the moisture distribution in building materials using the Runge-Kutta fourth-and-fifth-order method. The DOPRI5 code was used as an integrator. The model calculated the resulting moisture content and other moisture-dependent physical parameters. The moisture curves were plotted. The dampness data obtained was utilized for the numerical computation of the coefficient of the capillary conductivity of moisture. Different profiles of this coefficient are represented. Calculations were performed for four different values of the outdoor temperature: -5°C, 0°C, 5°C and 10°C. We determined that the curves corresponding to small time intervals of wetting are associated with great amplitudes of the capillary conductivity . The amplitudes of the coefficient of the capillary conductivity decrease as the time interval increases. High outdoor temperatures induce high amplitudes of the coefficient of the capillary conductivity.

  7. Variations in the normal and tangential momentum accommodation coefficients from analysis of atmospheric lift and drag forces on ANS-1 (1974-70A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P.; Sowter, A.

    Studies of aerodynamic lift and drag in hyperthermal free molecular flow regimes usually adopt Schamberg's model for gas-surface interaction, utilising the thermal accommodation coefficient. Most authors assume near-diffuse reflection characteristics with constant re-emission speed for all angles of incidence. For modelling atmospheric forces a more natural approach is to utilise normal and tangential momentum coefficients, σ1 and σ respectively. Experimental laboratory data has yielded qualitatively the dependence on the angle of incidence which to good approximation can be represented as ω ≜ ω ' 0,ω 1≜ ∑ω01 - &lim&ω11 sec ɛi where σ0, σ10 and σ1l are constants and ξi is the angle subtended between the incident flow and the surface normal. Adopting these relationships the effects of atmospheric lift on the satellite inclination, i, and atmospheric drag on the semi-major axis, a, and eccentricity, e, have been investigated. Applications to ANS1 (1974-70A) show that the observed perturbation in i can be ascribed to non-zero σ1l whilst perturbations in a and e produce a constraint equation between the three parameters. Present address: GEC-MARCONI RESEARCH CENTRE, CHELMSFORD, U.K.

  8. Transient technique for measuring heat transfer coefficients on stator airfoils in a jet engine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Proctor, M. P.

    A transient technique was used to measure heat transfer coefficients on stator airfoils in a high-temperature annular cascade at real engine conditions. The transient response of thin film thermocouples on the airfoil surface to step changes in the gas stream temperature was used to determine these coefficients. In addition, gardon gages and paired thermocouples were also utilized to measure heat flux on the airfoil pressure surface at steady state conditions. The tests were conducted at exit gas stream Reynolds numbers of one-half to 1.9 million based on true chord. The results from the transient technique show good comparison with the steady-state results in both trend and magnitude. In addition, comparison is made with the STAN5 boundary layer code and shows good comparison with the trends. However, the magnitude of the experimental data is consistently higher than the analysis.

  9. Transient technique for measuring heat transfer coefficients on stator airfoils in a jet engine environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Proctor, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    A transient technique was used to measure heat transfer coefficients on stator airfoils in a high-temperature annular cascade at real engine conditions. The transient response of thin film thermocouples on the airfoil surface to step changes in the gas stream temperature was used to determine these coefficients. In addition, gardon gages and paired thermocouples were also utilized to measure heat flux on the airfoil pressure surface at steady state conditions. The tests were conducted at exit gas stream Reynolds numbers of one-half to 1.9 million based on true chord. The results from the transient technique show good comparison with the steady-state results in both trend and magnitude. In addition, comparison is made with the STAN5 boundary layer code and shows good comparison with the trends. However, the magnitude of the experimental data is consistently higher than the analysis.

  10. Transient technique for measuring heat transfer coefficients on stator airfoils in a jet engine environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Proctor, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    A transient technique was used to measure heat transfer coefficients on stator airfoils in a high-temperature annular cascade at real engine conditions. The transient response of thin film thermocouples on the airfoil surface to step changes in the gas stream temperature was used to determine these coefficients. In addition, gardon gages and paired thermocouples were also utilized to measure heat flux on the airfoil pressure surface at steady state conditions. The tests were conducted at exit gas stream Reynolds numbers of one-half to 1.9 million based on true chord. The results from the transient technique show good comparison with the steady-state results in both trend and magnitude. In addition, comparison is made with the STAN5 boundary layer code and shows good comparison with the trends. However, the magnitude of the experimental data is consistently higher than the analysis.

  11. The effect of eddy distribution on momentum and heat transfer near the wall in turbulent pipe flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurawski, Robert L.; Grisnik, Stanley P.; Hardy, Terry L.; Ghorashi, Bahman

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of eddy distribution on momentum and heat transfer near the wall in turbulent pipe flow. The buffer zone was of particular interest in that it is perhaps the most complicated and least understood region in the turbulent flow field. Six eddy diffusivity relationships are directly compared on their ability to predict mean velocity and temperature distributions in turbulent air flow through a cylindrical, smooth-walled pipe with uniform heat transfer. Turbulent flow theory and the development of the eddy diffusivity relationships are briefly reviewed. Velocity and temperature distributions derived from the eddy diffusivity relationships are compared to experimental data for fully-developed pipe flow in turbulent air at a Prandtl number of 0.73 and Reynolds numbers ranging from 8100 to 25 000.

  12. Soil cleanup by in-situ surfactant flushing. VII. Determination of mass transfer coefficients for reclamation of surfactant for recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, J.L.; Debelak, K.A.; Wilson, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The contamination of soils and groundwater with volatile and/or nonvolatile organics from underground storage tanks, spills, and improper waste disposal presents a major remediation problem in the United States and other industrial nations. Mass transfer coefficients were determined for the extraction of naphthalene in 50 and 100 mM aqueous sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) solutions (the continuous phase) into hexane (dispersed phase). The effect of surfactant was explored in a series of single drop experiments. Mass transfer coefficients determined experimentally fall between the values predicted by correlations for circulating and noncirculating drops. The presence of SDS does appear to reduce the mass transfer coefficients as compared to those for pure water.

  13. Evaluation of Contact Heat Transfer Coefficient and Phase Transformation during Hot Stamping of a Hat-Type Part

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heung-Kyu; Lee, Seong Hyeon; Choi, Hyunjoo

    2015-01-01

    Using an inverse analysis technique, the heat transfer coefficient on the die-workpiece contact surface of a hot stamping process was evaluated as a power law function of contact pressure. This evaluation was to determine whether the heat transfer coefficient on the contact surface could be used for finite element analysis of the entire hot stamping process. By comparing results of the finite element analysis and experimental measurements of the phase transformation, an evaluation was performed to determine whether the obtained heat transfer coefficient function could provide reasonable finite element prediction for workpiece properties affected by the hot stamping process. PMID:28788046

  14. An experimental investigation of the rib surface-averaged heat transfer coefficient in a rib-roughened square passage

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Wadsworth, C.M.

    1997-04-01

    Turbine blade cooling is accomplished, among other methods, by passing the cooling air through an often serpentine passage in the core of the blade. Furthermore, to enhance the heat transfer coefficient, these passages are roughened with rib-shaped turbulence promoters. Considerable data are available on the heat transfer coefficient on the passage surface between the ribs. However, the heat transfer coefficients on the surface of the ribs themselves have not been investigated to the same extent. Therefore, an accurate account of the heat transfer coefficient on the rib surfaces is critical in the overall design of the blade cooling system. The objective of this experimental investigation was to conduct a series of 13 tests to measure the rib surface-averaged heat transfer coefficient, h{sub rib} in a square duct roughened with staggered 90 deg ribs. To investigate the effects that blockage ratio, e/D{sub h}, and pitch-to-height ratio, S/e, have on h{sub rib} and passage friction factor, three rib geometries corresponding to blockage ratios of 0.133, 0.167, and 0.25 were tested for pitch-to-height ratios of 5, 7, 8.5, and 10. Comparisons were made between the rib average heat transfer coefficient and that on the wall surface between two ribs, h{sub floor}, reported previously. It is concluded that: The rib average heat transfer coefficient is much higher than that for the area between the ribs; similar to the heat transfer coefficient on the surface between the ribs, the average rib heat transfer coefficient increases with the blockage ratio; a pitch-to-height ratios of 8.5 consistently produced the highest rib average heat transfer coefficients amongst all tested; under otherwise identical conditions, ribs in upstream-most position produced lower heat transfer coefficients than the midchannel positions; the upstream-most rib average heat transfer coefficients decreased with the blockage ratio; and thermal performance decreased with increased blockage ratio.

  15. RADIAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSFER AND MAGNETIC BARRIER FOR SHORT-TYPE GAMMA-RAY-BURST CENTRAL ENGINE ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Tong; Gu Weimin; Hou Shujin; Liang Enwei; Lei Weihua; Lin Lin; Zhang Shuangnan; Dai Zigao

    2012-11-20

    Soft extended emission (EE) following initial hard spikes up to 100 s was observed with Swift/BAT for about half of known short-type gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). This challenges the conversional central engine models of SGRBs, i.e., compact star merger models. In the framework of black-hole-neutron-star merger models, we study the roles of radial angular momentum transfer in the disk and the magnetic barrier around the black hole in the activity of SGRB central engines. We show that radial angular momentum transfer may significantly prolong the lifetime of the accretion process, which may be divided into multiple episodes by the magnetic barrier. Our numerical calculations based on models of neutrino-dominated accretion flows suggest that disk mass is critical for producing the observed EE. In the case of the mass being {approx}0.8 M {sub Sun }, our model can reproduce the observed timescale and luminosity of both the main and the EE episodes in a reasonable parameter set. The predicted luminosity of the EE component is lower than the observed EE within about one order of magnitude and the timescale is shorter than 20 s if the disk mass is {approx}0.2 M {sub Sun }. Swift/BAT-like instruments may be not sensitive enough to detect the EE component in this case. We argue that the EE component could be a probe for the merger process and disk formation for compact star mergers.

  16. Radial Angular Momentum Transfer and Magnetic Barrier for Short-type Gamma-Ray-burst Central Engine Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong; Liang, En-Wei; Gu, Wei-Min; Hou, Shu-Jin; Lei, Wei-Hua; Lin, Lin; Dai, Zi-Gao; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2012-11-01

    Soft extended emission (EE) following initial hard spikes up to 100 s was observed with Swift/BAT for about half of known short-type gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). This challenges the conversional central engine models of SGRBs, i.e., compact star merger models. In the framework of black-hole-neutron-star merger models, we study the roles of radial angular momentum transfer in the disk and the magnetic barrier around the black hole in the activity of SGRB central engines. We show that radial angular momentum transfer may significantly prolong the lifetime of the accretion process, which may be divided into multiple episodes by the magnetic barrier. Our numerical calculations based on models of neutrino-dominated accretion flows suggest that disk mass is critical for producing the observed EE. In the case of the mass being ~0.8 M ⊙, our model can reproduce the observed timescale and luminosity of both the main and the EE episodes in a reasonable parameter set. The predicted luminosity of the EE component is lower than the observed EE within about one order of magnitude and the timescale is shorter than 20 s if the disk mass is ~0.2 M ⊙. Swift/BAT-like instruments may be not sensitive enough to detect the EE component in this case. We argue that the EE component could be a probe for the merger process and disk formation for compact star mergers.

  17. Comparison of the C12(e,e'p) cross section at low momentum transfer with a relativistic calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamae, T.; Sato, Y.; Yokokawa, T.; Asano, Y.; Kawabata, M.; Konno, O.; Nakagawa, I.; Nishikawa, I.; Hirota, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Kimura, R.; Miyase, H.; Tsubota, H.; Giusti, C.; Meucci, A.

    2009-12-01

    The (e,e'p0) cross section of C12 has been measured at an energy transfer of 60 MeV and a momentum transfer of 104.4 MeV/c using a 197.5 MeV continuous electron beam. The cross section at missing momenta between 181.5 and 304.8 MeV/c obtained from the experiment is compared with theoretical calculations based on the relativistic distorted-wave impulse approximation with and without meson-exchange currents (MEC). The contribution of MEC due to the seagull current is large in the high-missing-momentum region, in particular for the longitudinal component. The cross sections calculated using three different current-conserving operators (cc1, cc2, and cc3) are similar, in contrast to the (γ,p) reaction, where the operators give very different results. The shape of the measured cross section is well described by the calculations, whereas its magnitude is slightly smaller than that described by the calculations.

  18. Surface heat transfer coefficient, heat efficiency, and temperature of pulsed solid-state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, K.; Weber, H.

    1988-08-01

    The temperature of solid-state lasers is a critical parameter. Efficiency and output power are strongly influenced by it. The two parameters which determine the temperature are the heat generation efficiency (HGE) and the surface heat transfer coefficient (SHTC) of the laser rod. These parameters allow the scaling of the rod temperature up to high pumping powers. Moreover, from the temperature inside the rod, the temperature gradients and the mechanical stress can be evaluated. Using transient temperature measurements, the SHTC and the HGE were determined for air- and water-cooled Nd:YAG and alexandrite lasers. The SHTC can be confirmed by theoretical considerations.

  19. Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients Dan Wendt, Greg Mines Idaho National Laboratory The use of mixed working fluids in binary power plants can provide significant increases in plant performance, provided the heat exchangers are designed to take advantage of these fluids non-isothermal phase changes. In the 1980's testing was conducted at DOE's Heat Cycle Research Facility (HCRF) where mixtures of different compositions were vaporized at supercritical pressures and then condensed. This testing had focused on using the data collected to verify that Heat Transfer Research Incorporated (HTRI) codes were suitable for the design of heat exchangers that could be used with mixtures. The HCRF data includes mixture compositions varying from 0% to 40% isopentane and condenser tube orientations of 15{sup o}, 60{sup o}, and 90{sup o} from horizontal. Testing was performed over a range of working fluid and cooling fluid conditions. Though the condenser used in this testing was water cooled, the working fluid condensation occurred on the tube-side of the heat exchanger. This tube-side condensation is analogous to that in an air-cooled condenser. Tube-side condensing heat transfer coefficient information gleaned from the HCRF testing is used in this study to assess the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs for use with mixtures. Results of an air-cooled binary plant process model performed with Aspen Plus indicate that that the optimal mixture composition (producing the maximum net power for the scenario considered) is within the range of compositions for which data exist. The HCRF data is used to assess the impact of composition, tube orientation, and process parameters on the condensing heat transfer coefficients. The sensitivity of the condensing coefficients to these factors is evaluated and the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs with mixtures is assessed. This paper summarizes the evaluation of the HCRF

  20. Measurements of local convective heat transfer coefficients on ice accretion shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arimilli, R. V.; Keshock, E. G.; Smith, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The thin-skin heat rate technique was used to determine local convective heat transfer coefficients for four representative ice accretion shapes. The shapes represented three stages of glaze ice formation and one rime ice formation; the ice models had varying degrees of surface roughness. In general, convective heat transfer was higher in regions where the model's surfaces were convex and lower in regions where the surfaces were concave. The effect of roughness was different for the glaze and rime ice shapes. On the glaze ice shapes, roughness increased the maximum Nu by 80 percent, but the other Nu values were virtually unchanged. On the rime ice shape, the Nu numbers near the stagnation point were unchanged. The maximum Nu value increased by 45 percent, and the Nu number downstream of the peak increased by approximately 150 percent.

  1. Becoming angular momentum density flow through nonlinear mass transfer into a gravitating spheroidal body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krot, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    A statistical theory for a cosmological body forming based on the spheroidal body model has been proposed in the works [1]-[4]. This work studies a slowly evolving process of gravitational condensation of a spheroidal body from an infinitely distributed gas-dust substance in space. The equation for an initial evolution of mass density function of a gas-dust cloud is considered here. It is found this equation coincides completely with the analogous equation for a slowly gravitational compressed spheroidal body [5]. A conductive flow in dissipative systems was investigated by I. Prigogine in his works (see, for example, [6], [7]). As it has been found in [2], [5], there exists a conductive antidiffusion flow in a slowly compressible gravitating spheroidal body. Applying the equation of continuity to this conductive flow density we obtain a linear antidiffusion equation [5]. However, if an intensity of conductive flow density increases sharply then the linear antidiffusion equation becomes a nonlinear one. Really, it was pointed to [6] analogous linear equations of diffusion or thermal conductivity transform in nonlinear equations respectively. In this case, the equation of continuity describes a nonlinear mass flow being a source of instabilities into a gravitating spheroidal body because the gravitational compression factor G is a function of not only time but a mass density. Using integral substitution we can reduce a nonlinear antidiffusion equation to the linear antidiffusion equation relative to a new function. If the factor G can be considered as a specific angular momentum then the new function is an angular momentum density. Thus, a nonlinear momentum density flow induces a flow of angular momentum density because streamlines of moving continuous substance come close into a gravitating spheroidal body. Really, the streamline approach leads to more tight interactions of "liquid particles" that implies a superposition of their specific angular momentums. This

  2. Orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing in free-space optical data transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiao; Yuan, Xiao-Cong; Tao, Shaohua

    2006-08-01

    In the optical wireless communication systems proposed by Gibson, et al, the information is encoded as states of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light and the transmitter unit can produce laser beam with single OAM-state in a time-slot. Recently we have proved that it is possible to generate multiple OAM-states simultaneously by single spatial light modulator. This method is adopted in our free-space optical wireless communication system and these OAM-states can be detected in the receiving unit by a computer-generated hologram. Hence, the transmission capacity is enhanced significantly without increasing the complexity of system.

  3. Coherent transfer of optical orbital angular momentum in multi-order Raman sideband generation.

    PubMed

    Strohaber, J; Zhi, M; Sokolov, A V; Kolomenskii, A A; Paulus, G G; Schuessler, H A

    2012-08-15

    Experimental results from the generation of Raman sidebands using optical vortices are presented. By generating two sets of sidebands originating from different locations in a Raman-active crystal, one set containing optical orbital angular momentum and the other serving as a reference, Young's double slit experiment was simultaneously realized for each sideband. The interference between the two sets of sidebands was used to determine the helicity and topological charge in each order. Topological charges in all orders were found to be discrete and follow selection rules predicted by a cascaded Raman process.

  4. Local heat transfer coefficients under an axisymmetric, single-phase liquid jet

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, J.; Webb, B.W. )

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize local heat transfer coefficients for round, single-phase free liquid jets impinging normally against a flat uniform heat flux surface. The problems parameters investigated were jet Reynolds number Re, nozzle-to-plate spacing z, and jet diameter d. A region of near-constant Nusselt number was observed for the region bounded by 0 {le} r/d {le} 0.75, where is the radical distance from the impingement point. The local Nusselt number profiles exhibited a sharp drop for r/d > 0.75, followed by an inflection and a shower decrease thereafter. Increasing the nozzle-to-plate spacing generally decreased the heat transfer slightly. The local Nusselt number characteristics were found to be dependent on nozzle diameter. This was explained by the influence of the free-stream velocity gradient on local heat transfer, as predicted in the classical analysis of infinite jet stagnation flow and heat transfer. Correlations for local and average Nusselt numbers reveal an approximate Nusselt number dependence on Re{sup 1,3}.

  5. Detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions under an array of impinging jets with coolant extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Ekkad, S.V.; Han, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    Jet impingement cooling is a high performance technique for heat transfer enhancement. Local heat transfer distributions are presented for an array of jets impinging on a target plate with a series of coolant extraction holes. The flow enters the pressure channel, impinges on the target plate and exits toward the sides and through the coolant extraction holes. The impingement plate has four rows of 12 jet holes and the target plate has three rows of 11 coolant extraction holes. The jet holes and the coolant extraction holes have the same diameters and are staggered such that the air impinging from the jet hole does not exit directly through the extraction hole. The detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions are measured using a transient technique and liquid crystal coating. Results are presented for a range of jet Reynolds numbers between 4,000 and 20,000. The effect of crossflow is also studied by changing the exit opening of the impingement channel to provide three different spent air exit directions. Heat transfer results for the target plate with coolant extraction are compared with those without coolant extraction at the same flow conditions.

  6. Experimental and numerical study on effects of airflow and aqueous ammonium solution temperature on ammonia mass transfer coefficient.

    PubMed

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation, based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory, carried out to obtain a general understanding of ammonia mass transfer from an emission surface. The effects of airflow and aqueous ammonium solution temperature on ammonia mass transfer are investigated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and by a mechanism modeling using dissociation constant and Henry's constant models based on the parameters measured in the experiments performed in a wind tunnel. The validated CFD model by experimental data is used to investigate the surface concentration distribution and mass transfer coefficient at different temperatures and velocities for which the Reynolds number is from 1.36 x 10(4) to 5.43 x 10(4) (based on wind tunnel length). The surface concentration increases as velocity decreases and varies greatly along the airflow direction on the emission surface. The average mass transfer coefficient increases with higher velocity and turbulence intensity. However, the mass transfer coefficient estimated by CFD simulation is consistently larger than the calculated one by the method using dissociation constant and Henry's constant models. In addition, the results show that the liquid-air temperature difference has little impact on the simulated mass transfer coefficient by CFD modeling, whereas the mass transfer coefficient increases with higher liquid temperature using the other method under the conditions that the liquid temperature is lower than the air temperature. Although there are differences of mass transfer coefficients between these two methods, the mass transfer coefficients determined by these two methods are significantly related.

  7. Alongshore momentum transfer to the nearshore zone from energetic ocean waves generated by passing hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Ryan P.; Hanson, Jeffrey L.

    2016-06-01

    Wave and current measurements from a cross-shore array of nearshore sensors in Duck, NC, are used to elucidate the balance of alongshore momentum under energetic wave conditions with wide surf zones, generated by passing hurricanes that are close to and far from to the coast. The observations indicate that a distant storm (Hurricane Bill, 2009) with large waves has low variability in directional wave characteristics resulting in alongshore currents that are driven mainly by the changes in wave energy. A storm close to the coast (Hurricane Earl, 2010), with strong local wind stress and combined sea and swell components in wave energy spectra, has high variability in wave direction and wave period that influence wave breaking and nearshore circulation as the storm passes. During both large wave events, the horizontal current shear is strong and radiation stress gradients, bottom stress, wind stress, horizontal mixing, and cross-shore advection contribute to alongshore momentum at different spatial locations across the nearshore region. Horizontal mixing during Hurricane Earl, estimated from rotational velocities, was particularly strong suggesting that intense eddies were generated by the high horizontal shear from opposing wind-driven and wave-driven currents. The results provide insight into the cross-shore distribution of the alongshore current and the connection between flows inside and outside the surf zone during major storms, indicating that the current shear and mixing at the interface between the surf zone and shallow inner shelf is strongly dependent on the distance from the storm center to the coast.

  8. Understanding the Role of Interannual Variability and Momentum Transfer on Wind Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koerner, S.; Brunsell, N. A.; Miller, L.; Mechem, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasting realistic wind power potential is essential for wind energy to assist with meeting future energy demands. Current wind power estimates rely on the use of mean climatological wind speeds. This approach to estimating wind power neglects the influence of momentum extraction by the turbines (i.e. turbine-turbine interactions) and interannual variability in windspeed. The present study will use a wind turbine parameterization within the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model to assess the role of interannual and climatic variability on power extraction. The WRF model will be forced by NARR, and run from 1980-2010 to incorporate different climatic conditions over the central United States. Analysis focusses on the role of climate variability on wind power extraction; specifically on the role of drought and wet periods, as well as variability in the Great Plains Low Level Jet. In addition, WRF will be used to assess the impact of wind turbines on each term of the momentum budget. Understanding the impact of interannual variability will improve our understanding of the role that wind power can play in meeting future energy demands.

  9. Detailed heat transfer coefficient measurements and thermal analysis at engine conditions of a pedestal with fillet radii

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Ireland, P.T.; Jones, T.V.

    1995-04-01

    Short pin-fin and pin-fin arrays are frequently used in turbine blade internal cooling systems to enhance cooling and stiffen the structure. The present work has shown that a knowledge of the detailed heat transfer coefficient distribution is required to predict the cooling effect of such devices accurately. The heat flow process has been numerically modeled at typical engine conditions with the detailed heat transfer distribution measured by the transient heat transfer method being used as the thermal boundary conditions. The heat transfer coefficient over the surface of a pedestal with fillet radii has been measured using thermochromic liquid crystals and the transient heat transfer method. The tests were performed at engine representative Reynolds numbers for a geometry typical of those used in turbine blade cooling systems. The heat conduction process that occurs in the engine was subsequently modeled numerically with a finite element discretization of the solid pedestal. The measured heat transfer coefficients were used to derive the exact boundary conditions applicable to the engine. The temperature field within the pedestal, calculated using the correct heat transfer coefficient distribution, is compared to that calculated using an area-averaged heat transfer coefficient. Metal temperature differences of 90 K are predicted across the blade wall.

  10. Experimental correlation of gas-liquid-solid mass transfer coefficient in a stirred tank using response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Duan, Xili; Gao, Zhengming

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the three-phase (gas-liquid-solid) system in a stirred tank is experimentally studied. The response surface methodology (RSM) is used to analyze the three phase mass transfer coefficient under different conditions, i.e., rotation speeds (8, 10, and 12 s-1), volumetric solid content fractions (0, 6 and 12%), gas flow rates (6, 8, and 10 m3 h-1) and temperatures (40, 54, and 68 °C). With the RSM, it was found that all of these four operational parameters are significant in affecting the mass transfer coefficient, with the rotation speed being the most significant one. A new correlation is developed with a quadratic term for solid content fraction, indicating that there is a minimum value of mass transfer coefficient at a certain solid content fraction. Compared with traditional experimental design and correlation methods, the RSM in this study reduces experiment time and provides a better correlation to predict the mass transfer coefficient.

  11. Heat and momentum transfer model studies applicable to once-through, forced convection potassium boiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabin, C. M.; Poppendiek, H. F.

    1971-01-01

    A number of heat transfer and fluid flow mechanisms that control once-through, forced convection potassium boiling are studied analytically. The topics discussed are: (1) flow through tubes containing helical wire inserts, (2) motion of droplets entrained in vapor flow, (3) liquid phase distribution in boilers, (4) temperature distributions in boiler tube walls, (5) mechanisms of heat transfer regime change, and (6) heat transfer in boiler tubes. Whenever possible, comparisons of predicted and actual performances are made. The model work presented aids in the prediction of operating characteristics of actual boilers.

  12. Calculating Hot Spring/Atmospheric Coupling Using the Coefficient of Convective Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, C.; Price, A. N.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Larson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    We calculated the correlation between discharge temperature and wind speed for multiple hydrothermal springs, both in the Alvord Basin of southeast Oregon and our primary field location in Yellowstone National Park, using spring temperatures, wind speeds, and air temperatures logged at three minute intervals for multiple days. We find that some hydrothermal springs exhibit strong coupling with wind speed and/or air temperatures. The three springs described in this work display this strong coupling, with correlations between wind speed and spring temperature as high as 70 percent; as a result, we can use the changes in spring temperature as a proxy for changes in the coefficient of convective heat transfer (h) between the springs and the atmosphere. The coefficient of convective heat transfer is a complex parameter to measure, but is a necessary input to many heat and mass flux analyses. The results of this study provide a way to estimate h for springs with strong atmospheric coupling, which is a critical component of a total energy balance for hydrothermal discharge areas.

  13. Transfer coefficient of 137Cs from feed to cow milk in tropical region Kaiga, India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, R M; James, J P; Dileep, B N; Mulla, R M; Reji, T K; Ravi, P M; Hegde, A G; Sarkar, P K

    2012-04-01

    In the transport model for the prediction of the concentration of (137)Cs in milk, the transfer coefficient from feed to milk, F(m), is an important parameter. Site-specific transfer coefficient from feed to cow's milk, for (137)Cs in the Kaiga environment, a nuclear power station site in India, determined over a period of 10 y is presented in this paper. The value is determined from (137)Cs concentration in milk and grass samples of the Kaiga region and the result ranged from 6.43E-03 to 1.09E-02 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 8.0E-03 d l(-1). The result is compared with that for (40)K, determined concurrently at the same region and ranged from 3.06E-03 to 3.48E-03 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 3.26E-03 d l(-1). This parameter is quite useful in decision-making for implementing countermeasures during a large area contamination with (137)Cs in tropical areas like Kaiga.

  14. An instrument to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient on large vessels.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Alaor Faria; de O Nascimento, Francisco Assis; da Rocha, Adson Ferreira; dos Santos, Icaro

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. During radiofrequency hepatic ablation, the tumor is heated by means of radiofrequency energy. The heating causes necrosis of the malignant tumor. Thus, if the procedure is successful it can cure the patient. Studies have shown that recurrences occur after the treatment and these recurrences frequently take place next to the hepatic artery and portal vein. The recurrences occur due to the high convective loss on these vessels. This work proposed, developed and tested an instrument for the measurement of the convective heat transfer coefficient (h) in large vessels. Moreover, this work developed a mechanical simulator and validated an equation developed by Consiglieri et al, which analytically determines the value of h. The instrument was tested using a mechanical simulator that reproduces the flow conditions and the geometry of large vessels in the liver. A flow velocity of 0.2 m/s was simulated in order to mock the typical flow at the portal vein. The average value of h using the experimental apparatus was 2130+/-40 W.m(-2).K(-1) (mean+/-SD). The results showed that the error of the proposed method is approximately 22%. This work showed that the instrument can be used for measuring h in vitro and that the Consiglieri's equation can be used to determine the convective heat transfer coefficient on large vessels.

  15. Relationship between the Kubelka-Munk scattering and radiative transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Thennadil, Suresh N

    2008-07-01

    The relationship between the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) and the transport scattering coefficient is obtained through a semi-empirical approach. This approach gives the same result as that given by Gate [Appl. Opt.13, 236 (1974)] when the incident beam is diffuse. This result and those given by Star et al. [Phys. Med. Biol.33, 437 (1988)] and Brinkworth [Appl. Opt.11, 1434 (1972)] are compared with the exact solution of the radiative transfer equation over a large range of optical properties. It is found that the latter expressions, which include an absorption component, do not give accurate results over the range considered. Using the semi-empirical approach, the relationship between the K-M and the transport scattering coefficient is derived for the case where the incident light is collimated. It is shown that although the K-M equation is derived based on diffuse incident light, it can also represent very well the reflectance from a slab of infinite thickness when the incident light is collimated. However, in this case the relationship between the coefficients has to include a function that is dependent on the anisotropy factor. Analysis indicates that the K-M transform achieves the objective of obtaining a measure that gives the ratio of absorption to scattering effects for both diffuse and collimated incident beams over a large range of optical properties.

  16. Estimation of Listeria monocytogenes transfer coefficients and efficacy of bacterial removal through cleaning and sanitation.

    PubMed

    Hoelzer, Karin; Pouillot, Régis; Gallagher, Daniel; Silverman, Meryl B; Kause, Janell; Dennis, Sherri

    2012-07-02

    Listeria monocytogenes is readily found in the environment of retail deli establishments and can occasionally contaminate food handled in these establishments. Here we synthesize the available scientific evidence to derive probability distributions and mathematical models of bacterial transfers between environmental surfaces and foods, including those during slicing of food, and of bacterial removal during cleaning and sanitizing (models available at www.foodrisk.org). Transfer coefficients varied considerably by surface type, and after log(10) transformation were best described by normal distributions with means ranging from -0.29 to -4.96 and standard deviations that ranged from 0.07 to 1.39. 'Transfer coefficients' during slicing were best described by a truncated logistic distribution with location 0.07 and scale 0.03. In the absence of protein residues, mean log inactivation indicated a greater than 5 log(10) reduction for sanitization with hypochlorite (mean: 6.5 log(10); 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.0-8.1 log(10)) and quaternary ammonium compounds (mean: 5.5 log(10); 95% CI: 3.6-7.3 log(10)), but in the presence of protein residues efficacy reduced dramatically for hypochlorite (mean: 3.8 log(10); 95% CI: 2.1-5.4 log(10)) as well as quaternary ammonium compounds (mean: 4.4log(10); 95% CI: 2.5-6.4 log(10)). Overall, transfer coefficients are therefore low, even though cross-contamination can be extremely efficient under certain conditions. Dozens of food items may consequently be contaminated from a single contaminated slicer blade, albeit at low concentrations. Correctly performed sanitizing efficiently reduces L. monocytogenes contamination in the environment and therefore limits cross-contamination, even though sanitization is only performed a few times per day. However, under unfavorable conditions reductions in bacterial concentration may be far below 5 log(10). The probability distributions and mathematical models derived here can be used to evaluate

  17. Local convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of CuO/water nanofluid in a microchannel heat sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabi, A. R.; Zarrinabadi, S.; Peyghambarzadeh, S. M.; Hashemabadi, S. H.; Salimi, M.

    2017-02-01

    Forced convective heat transfer in a microchannel heat sink (MCHS) using CuO/water nanofluids with 0.1 and 0.2 vol% as coolant was investigated. The experiments were focused on the heat transfer enhancement in the channel entrance region at Re < 1800. Hydraulic performance of the MCHS was also estimated by measuring friction factor and pressure drop. Results showed that higher convective heat transfer coefficient was obtained at the microchannel entrance. Maximum enhancement of the average heat transfer coefficient compared with deionized water was about 40 % for 0.2 vol% nanofluid at Re = 1150. Enhancement of the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid decreased with further increasing of Reynolds number.

  18. Thermocouple error correction for measuring the flame temperature with determination of emissivity and heat transfer coefficient.

    PubMed

    Hindasageri, V; Vedula, R P; Prabhu, S V

    2013-02-01

    Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively.

  19. Thermocouple error correction for measuring the flame temperature with determination of emissivity and heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindasageri, V.; Vedula, R. P.; Prabhu, S. V.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively.

  20. Mass transfer of SCWO processes: Molecular diffusion and mass transfer coefficients of inorganic nitrate species in sub- and supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Goemans, M.G.E.; Gloyna, E.F.; Buelow, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    Molecular diffusion coefficients of lithium-, sodium-, potassium-, cesium-, calcium-, and strontium nitrate in subcritical water were determined by analysis of Taylor dispersion profiles. Pressures ranged from 300 to 500 bar at temperatures ranging from 25{degrees}C to 300{degrees}C. The reported diffusion values were determined at infinite dilution. Molecular diffusion coefficients were 10 to 20 times faster in near-critical subcritical water than in water at ambient temperature and pressure (ATP). These findings implied that the diffusion rates were more liquid like than they were gas like, hence experimental results were correlated with diffusion models for liquids. The subcritical diffusion data presented in this work, and supercritical diffusion results published elsewhere were correlated with hydrodynamic diffusion equations. Both the Wilke-Chang correlation and the Stokes-Einstein equation yielded predictions within 10% of the experimental results if the structure of the diffusing species could be estimated. The effect of the increased diffusion rates on mass transfer rates in supercritical water oxidation applications was quantified, with emphasis on heterogeneous oxidation processes. This study and results published elsewhere showed that diffusion limited conditions are much more likely to be encountered in SCWO processes than commonly acknowledged.

  1. Momentum transfer driven textural changes of CeO{sub 2} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Van Steenberge, S. Leroy, W. P.; Depla, D.

    2014-09-15

    The influence of the target erosion depth on the film texture was investigated during DC reactive magnetron sputter deposition of CeO{sub 2} thin films. Three fluxes towards the substrate surface (the relative negative oxygen ion flux, the material flux, and the energy flux) were measured and related to the ongoing erosion of a cerium target. As the deposition rate increased for more eroded targets, both the energy flux and the negative ion flux decreased. Cerium oxide thin films that were deposited at different target erosion states, exhibited a change in preferential crystalline orientation from [200] to [111]. This textural change cannot be explained in terms of the energy per arriving atom concept. Instead, it is shown that the momentum of the high energetic negative ions is an essential condition to clarify the witnessed trends.

  2. Measurement of atomic electric fields and charge densities from average momentum transfers using scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Müller-Caspary, Knut; Krause, Florian F; Grieb, Tim; Löffler, Stefan; Schowalter, Marco; Béché, Armand; Galioit, Vincent; Marquardt, Dennis; Zweck, Josef; Schattschneider, Peter; Verbeeck, Johan; Rosenauer, Andreas

    2016-05-12

    This study sheds light on the prerequisites, possibilities, limitations and interpretation of high-resolution differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). We draw particular attention to the well-established DPC technique based on segmented annular detectors and its relation to recent developments based on pixelated detectors. These employ the expectation value of the momentum transfer as a reliable measure of the angular deflection of the STEM beam induced by an electric field in the specimen. The influence of scattering and propagation of electrons within the specimen is initially discussed separately and then treated in terms of a two-state channeling theory. A detailed simulation study of GaN is presented as a function of specimen thickness and bonding. It is found that bonding effects are rather detectable implicitly, e.g., by characteristics of the momentum flux in areas between the atoms than by directly mapping electric fields and charge densities. For strontium titanate, experimental charge densities are compared with simulations and discussed with respect to experimental artifacts such as scan noise. Finally, we consider practical issues such as figures of merit for spatial and momentum resolution, minimum electron dose, and the mapping of larger-scale, built-in electric fields by virtue of data averaged over a crystal unit cell. We find that the latter is possible for crystals with an inversion center. Concerning the optimal detector design, this study indicates that a sampling of 5mrad per pixel is sufficient in typical applications, corresponding to approximately 10×10 available pixels.

  3. Wind-tunnel Investigation of External-flow Jet-augmented Double Slotted Flaps on a Rectangular Wing at an Angle of Attack of 0 Degree to High Momentum Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, Edwin E

    1957-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been made to determine the characteristics of external-flow jet-augmented double slotted flaps which appear suitable for application to airplanes with pod-mounted engines. The investigation included tests of the rectangular wing with an aspect ratio of 6 over a momentum-coefficient range from 0 to 28. Lift coefficients larger than the jet reaction in the lift direction were obtained with the external-flow jet-augmented double slotted flaps.

  4. Heat transfer coefficient for flow boiling in an annular mini gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hożejowska, Sylwia; Musiał, Tomasz; Piasecka, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the concept of mathematical models of heat transfer in flow boiling in an annular mini gap between the metal pipe with enhanced exterior surface and the external glass pipe. The one- and two-dimensional mathematical models were proposed to describe stationary heat transfer in the gap. A set of experimental data governed both the form of energy equations in cylindrical coordinates and the boundary conditions. The models were formulated to minimize the number of experimentally determined constants. Known temperature distributions in the enhanced surface and in the fluid helped to determine, from the Robin condition, the local heat transfer coefficients at the enhanced surface - fluid contact. The Trefftz method was used to find two-dimensional temperature distributions for the thermal conductive filler layer, enhanced surface and flowing fluid. The method of temperature calculation depended on whether the area of single-phase convection ended with boiling incipience in the gap or the two-phase flow region prevailed, with either fully developed bubbly flow or bubbly-slug flow. In the two-phase flow, the fluid temperature was calculated by Trefftz method. Trefftz functions for the Laplace equation and for the energy equation were used in the calculations.

  5. Determination of interfacial heat transfer coefficient for TC11 titanium alloy hot forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Baoshan; Wang, Leigang; Geng, Zhe; Huang, Yao

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, based on self-developed experimental apparatus, the upsetting test of TC11 titanium alloy on the hot flat die was conducted and Beck's nonlinear inverse estimation method was adopted to calculate the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) and the change rules of IHTC following billet deformation rate, average interfacial temperature and holding time were investigated respectively. Experimental results indicate that IHTC increases with the increase of deformation rate as a whole, and the billet deformation heat and interfacial friction heat during forming that remarkably contribute to IHTC and the contributions by heat conduction to IHTC is differ from that by friction; the glass lubricant coated on the billet surface that weakens the heat transfer situation in the early stage of forging, however, this blocking effect of lubricant on IHTC soon vanishes with increasing deformation rate and it enhances the interface heat transfer later; the average interfacial temperature impacts on IHTC in many aspects and a high average interfacial temperature IHTC corresponds to a high IHTC when the deformation rate is certain, but this changing trend is not monotonous; the IHTC decreases with the increase of holding time due to oxidation. After certain holding time, the IHTC is only related to temperature and pressure in the absence of deformation rate, and the influence of pressure on IHTC is larger than that of temperature on it.

  6. Proton electromagnetic form factor ratio at high momentum transfer via recoil polarization in Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckett, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    Experiment E04-108 in Hall C at Jefferson Lab measured the ratio of the proton's electric (GE) and magnetic (GM) form factors using the recoil polarization technique at three different values of squared four-momentum transfer Q^2--5.2, 6.8, and 8.5 GeV^2. Data taking was completed in June 2008, and analysis of the data is underway. Two new detectors were built by the collaboration to carry out this experiment. A large solid-angle electromagnetic calorimeter was used to detect elastically scattered electrons in coincidence with scattered protons detected by the Hall C High Momentum Spectrometer (HMS). The calorimeter allowed a clean rejection of the significant inelastic backgrounds present at such high Q^2. A new Focal Plane Polarimeter (FPP) was installed in the HMS detector hut to measure the polarization of the scattered proton. After a brief overview of the experiment, the present status of the analysis will be discussed.

  7. Fermi-level pinning, charge transfer, and relaxation of spin-momentum locking at metal contacts to topological insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Spataru, Catalin D.; Léonard, François

    2014-08-13

    Topological insulators are of interest for many applications in electronics and optoelectronics, but harnessing their unique properties requires detailed understanding and control of charge injection at electrical contacts. Here we present large-scale ab initio calculations of the electronic properties of Au, Ni, Pt, Pd, and graphene contacts to Bi2Se3. We show that regardless of the metal, the Fermi level is located in the conduction band, leading to n-type Ohmic contact to the first quintuplet. Furthermore, we find strong charge transfer and band-bending in the first few quintuplets, with no Schottky barrier for charge injection even when the topoplogical insulator is undoped. Our calculations indicate that Au and graphene leave the spin-momentum locking mostly unaltered, but on the other hand, Ni, Pd, and Pt strongly hybridize with Bi2Se3 and relax spin-momentum locking. In conclusion, our results indicate that judicious choice of the contact metal is essential to reveal the unique surface features of topological insulators.

  8. Fermi-level pinning, charge transfer, and relaxation of spin-momentum locking at metal contacts to topological insulators

    DOE PAGES

    Spataru, Catalin D.; Léonard, François

    2014-08-13

    Topological insulators are of interest for many applications in electronics and optoelectronics, but harnessing their unique properties requires detailed understanding and control of charge injection at electrical contacts. Here we present large-scale ab initio calculations of the electronic properties of Au, Ni, Pt, Pd, and graphene contacts to Bi2Se3. We show that regardless of the metal, the Fermi level is located in the conduction band, leading to n-type Ohmic contact to the first quintuplet. Furthermore, we find strong charge transfer and band-bending in the first few quintuplets, with no Schottky barrier for charge injection even when the topoplogical insulator ismore » undoped. Our calculations indicate that Au and graphene leave the spin-momentum locking mostly unaltered, but on the other hand, Ni, Pd, and Pt strongly hybridize with Bi2Se3 and relax spin-momentum locking. In conclusion, our results indicate that judicious choice of the contact metal is essential to reveal the unique surface features of topological insulators.« less

  9. Analytical determination of local surface heat-transfer coefficients for cooled turbine blades from measured metal temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W Byron; Esgar, Jack B

    1950-01-01

    Analytical methods are presented for the determination of local values of outside and inside heat-transfer coefficients and effective gas temperatures by use of turbine-blade-temperature measurements. The methods are derived for a number of configurations that can be applied to typical cooled-turbine-blade shapes as well as to other types of heat-transfer apparatus.

  10. Experimental estimation of convective heat transfer coefficient from pulsating semi-confined impingement air slot jet by using inverse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahani, Somayeh Davoodabadi; Kowsary, Farshad

    2017-09-01

    An experimental study on pulsating impingement semi-confined slot jet has been performed. The effect of pulsations frequency was examined for various Reynolds numbers and Nozzle to plate distances. Convective heat transfer coefficient is estimated using the measured temperatures in the target plate and conjugate gradient method with adjoint equation. Heat transfer coefficient in Re < 3000 tended to increase with increasing frequency. The pulsations enhance mixing, which results in an enhancement of mean flow velocity. In case of turbulent jet (Re > 3000), heat transfer coefficient is affected by the pulsation from particular frequency. In this study, the threshold Strouhal number (St) is 0.11. No significant heat transfer enhancement was obtained for St < 0.11. The thermal resistance is smaller each time due to the newly forming thermal boundary layers. Heat transfer coefficient increases due to decrease thermal resistance. This study shows that maximum enhancement in heat transfer due to pulsations occurs in St = 0.169. Results show the configuration geometry has an important effect on the heat transfer performances in pulsed impinging jet. Heat transfer enhancement can be described to reflect flow by the confinement plate.

  11. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport.

    PubMed

    Leung, Juliana Y; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  12. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Juliana Y.; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  13. Transferring linear motion of an optical wedge to rotational frequency shift in an orbital angular momentum interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Qikun; Qiu, Xiaodong; Wu, Ziwen; Zhang, Wuhong; Chen, Lixiang

    2017-08-01

    We build a modified Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer with an embedded Dove prism in one arm to observe the interference between two conjugate orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams. By inserting and moving an optical wedge vertically in the other arm, we find that its linear motion can induce a rotational frequency shift equivalently, as a consequence of phase transfer from the path difference to the azimuthal difference between two OAM beams. The micron-scale movement of the wedge is driven by a compact motorized translation stage and is manifested by a significant rotation of the interference petal-like patterns. Our scheme offers an accurate method to measure the optical wedge angle with a simple method of digital image processing. This work may also find potential applications in the field of velocity sensing or temperature sensing.

  14. Electroproduction of {eta} mesons in the S{sub 11}(1535) resonance region at high momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, M. M.; Adams, G. S.; Moziak, B.; Stoler, P.; Villano, A.; Ahmidouch, A.; Danagoulian, S.; Angelescu, T.; Malace, S.; Arrington, J.; Hafidi, K.; Holt, R. J.; Reimer, P. E.; Schulte, E.; Zheng, X.; Asaturyan, R.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Navasardyan, T.; Tadevosyan, V.; Baker, O. K.

    2009-07-15

    The differential cross section for the process p(e,e{sup '}p){eta} has been measured at Q{sup 2}{approx}5.7 and 7.0(GeV/c){sup 2} for center-of-mass energies from threshold to 1.8 GeV, encompassing the S{sub 11}(1535) resonance, which dominates the channel. This is the highest momentum-transfer measurement of this exclusive process to date. The helicity-conserving transition amplitude A{sub 1/2}, for the production of the S{sub 11}(1535) resonance, is extracted from the data. Within the limited Q{sup 2} now measured, this quantity appears to begin scaling as Q{sup -3}--a predicted, but not definitive, signal of the dominance of perturbative QCD at Q{sup 2}{approx}5 (GeV/c){sup 2}.

  15. Electroproduction of {eta} mesons in the S{sub 11} (1535) resonance region at high momentum transfer.

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, M. M.; Adams, G. S.; Ahmidouch, A.; Angelescu, T.; Arrington, J.; Holt, R. J.; Hafidi, K.; Reimer, P.; Schulte, E.; Zheng, X.; Physics; Univ. of Witwatersrand; Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst.; North Carolina A & T State Univ.; Bucharest Univ.; Yerevan Physics Inst.

    2009-07-01

    The differential cross section for the process p(e,e{prime}p) {eta} has been measured at Q{sup 2} {approx} 5.7 and 7.0(GeV/c){sup 2} for center-of-mass energies from threshold to 1.8 GeV, encompassing the S{sub 11}(1535) resonance, which dominates the channel. This is the highest momentum-transfer measurement of this exclusive process to date. The helicity-conserving transition amplitude A{sub 1/2}, for the production of the S{sub 11}(1535) resonance, is extracted from the data. Within the limited Q{sup 2} now measured, this quantity appears to begin scaling as Q{sup -3} - a predicted, but not definitive, signal of the dominance of perturbative QCD at Q{sup 2} {approx} 5 (GeV/c){sup 2}.

  16. Towards a Precision Measurement of Parity-Violating e-p Elastic Scattering at Low Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the Q-weak experiment is to make a measurement of the proton's weak charge QWp = 1 - 4 sin2W2(θW2(θWWp by measuring the parity violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at low momentum transfer Q2 = 0.026 (GeV/c)2 and forward angles (8 degrees). The anticipated size of the asymmetry, based on the SM, is about 230 parts per billion (ppb). With the proposed accuracy, the experiment may probe new physics beyond Standard Model at the TeV scale. This thesis focuses on my contributions to the experiment, including track reconstruction for momentum transfer determination of the scattering process, and the focal plane scanner, a detector I designed and built to measure the flux profile of scattered electrons on the focal plane of the Q-weak spectrometer to assist in the extrapolation of low beam current tracking results to high beam current. Preliminary results from the commissioning and the first run period of the Q-weak experiment are reported and discussed.

  17. Two-Body Electrodisintegration of $^3$He at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    R. Schiavilla; O. Benhar; A. Kievsky; L.E. Marcucci; M. Viviani

    2005-08-01

    The {sup 3}He (e,e{prime}p)d reaction is studied using an accurate three-nucleon bound state wave function, a model for the electromagnetic current operator including one- and two-body terms, and the Glauber approximation for the treatment of final state interactions. In contrast to earlier studies, the profile operator in the Glauber expansion is derived from a nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude, which retains its full spin and isospin dependence and is consistent with phase-shift analyses of two-nucleon scattering data. The amplitude is boosted from the center-of-mass frame, where parameterizations for it are available, to the frame where rescattering occurs. Exact Monte Carlo methods are used to evaluate the relevant matrix elements of the electromagnetic current operator. The predicted cross section is found to be in quantitative agreement with the experimental data for values of the missing momentum p{sub m} in the range (0--700) MeV/c, but underestimates the data at p{sub m} {approx} 1 GeV/c by about a factor of two. However, the longitudinal-transverse asymmetry, measured up to p{sub m} {approx} 600 MeV/c, is well reproduced by theory. A critical comparison is carried out between the results obtained in the present work and those of earlier studies.

  18. Characterization of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for hot stamping processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Xi; Liu, Xiaochuan; Fang, Haomiao; Ji, Kang; El Fakir, Omer; Wang, LiLiang

    2016-08-01

    In hot stamping processes, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) between the forming tools and hot blank is an essential parameter which determines the quenching rate of the process and hence the resulting material microstructure. The present work focuses on the characterization of the IHTC between an aluminium alloy 7075-T6 blank and two different die materials, cast iron (G3500) and H13 die steel, at various contact pressures. It was found that the IHTC between AA7075 and cast iron had values 78.6% higher than that obtained between AA7075 and H13 die steel. Die materials and contact pressures had pronounced effects on the IHTC, suggesting that the IHTC can be used to guide the selection of stamping tool materials and the precise control of processing parameters.

  19. Identification of the heat transfer coefficient in the two-dimensional model of binary alloy solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetmaniok, Edyta; Hristov, Jordan; Słota, Damian; Zielonka, Adam

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the procedure for solving the inverse problem for the binary alloy solidification in a two-dimensional space. This is a continuation of some previous works of the authors investigating a similar problem but in the one-dimensional domain. Goal of the problem consists in identification of the heat transfer coefficient on boundary of the region and in reconstruction of the temperature distribution inside the considered region in case when the temperature measurements in selected points of the alloy are known. Mathematical model of the problem is based on the heat conduction equation with the substitute thermal capacity and with the liquidus and solidus temperatures varying in dependance on the concentration of the alloy component. For describing this concentration the Scheil model is used. Investigated procedure involves also the parallelized Ant Colony Optimization algorithm applied for minimizing a functional expressing the error of approximate solution.

  20. Non-Fourier Thermoelastic Analysis of an Annular Fin with Variable Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Haw-Long; Chang, Win-Jin; Chen, Wen-Lih; Yang, Yu-Ching

    2012-06-01

    This paper numerically investigates the hyperbolic thermoelastic problem of an annular fin. The ambient convection heat transfer coefficient of the fin is assumed to be spatially varying. The major difficulty in dealing with such problems is the suppression of numerical oscillations in the vicinity of a jump discontinuity. An efficient numerical scheme involving hybrid application of Laplace transform and control volume method in conjunction with hyperbolic shape functions is used to solve the linear hyperbolic heat conduction equation. The transformed nodal temperatures are inverted to the physical quantities by using numerical inversion of the Laplace transform. Then the stress distributions in the annular fin are calculated subsequently. The results in the illustrated examples show that the application of hyperbolic shape functions can successfully suppress the numerical oscillations in the vicinity of jump discontinuities.

  1. Identification of the heat transfer coefficient in the two-dimensional model of binary alloy solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetmaniok, Edyta; Hristov, Jordan; Słota, Damian; Zielonka, Adam

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents the procedure for solving the inverse problem for the binary alloy solidification in a two-dimensional space. This is a continuation of some previous works of the authors investigating a similar problem but in the one-dimensional domain. Goal of the problem consists in identification of the heat transfer coefficient on boundary of the region and in reconstruction of the temperature distribution inside the considered region in case when the temperature measurements in selected points of the alloy are known. Mathematical model of the problem is based on the heat conduction equation with the substitute thermal capacity and with the liquidus and solidus temperatures varying in dependance on the concentration of the alloy component. For describing this concentration the Scheil model is used. Investigated procedure involves also the parallelized Ant Colony Optimization algorithm applied for minimizing a functional expressing the error of approximate solution.

  2. Measurement of the transfer coefficient for radiocesium transport from a sheep's diet to its milk

    SciTech Connect

    Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Pakou, A.A.; Mantzios, A.

    1987-12-01

    The rate of increase and decay of radio contamination secreted in sheep's milk, resulting from a constant level of radiocesium in the animals' diet, was investigated. Ten lactating ewes were used in the experiment. For a period of 12 d the animals fed on contaminated grass, resulting in a daily radiocesium intake of 832 Bq per animal. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and were monitored for another 9 d. Throughout the period of the experiment, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 137/Cs concentrations in the animals' milk were measured daily with an 18% efficiency, high-resolution Ge detector. The data were in satisfactory agreement with the predictions of a simple two-compartment theory. The transfer coefficient, describing the steady-state equilibrium in this model, was measured as fm = 0.058 +/- 0.007 dL-1.

  3. Experimental measurement of local heat transfer coefficients over discrete roughened plates using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliaga, David Alfredo

    heat transfer coefficients surrounding the ribs are presented and comparisons between plates are drawn. It is shown that the new method of heat transfer measurement is able to detect numerous small scale features of the complex flow field and consequent heat transfer distribution around ribs of arbitrary shape.

  4. Heat transfer coefficient distribution over the inconel plate cooled from high temperature by the array of water jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Z.; Telejko, T.; Cebo-Rudnicka, A.; Szajding, A.; Rywotycki, M.; Hadała, B.

    2016-09-01

    The industrial rolling mills are equipped with systems for controlled water cooling of hot steel products. A cooling rate affects the final mechanical properties of steel which are strongly dependent on microstructure evolution processes. In case of water jets cooling the heat transfer boundary condition can be defined by the heat transfer coefficient. In the present study one and three dimensional heat conduction models have been employed in the inverse solution to heat transfer coefficient. The inconel plate has been heated to about 900oC and then cooled by one, two and six water jets. The plate temperature has been measured by 30 thermocouples. The heat transfer coefficient distributions at plate surface have been determined in time of cooling.

  5. Secondary flow and heat transfer coefficient distributions in the developing flow region of ribbed turbine blade cooling passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsyth, Peter; McGilvray, Matthew; Gillespie, David R. H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental and numerical study of the development and coupling of aerodynamic flows and heat transfer within a model ribbed internal cooling passage to provide insight into the development of secondary flows. Static instrumentation was installed at the end of a long smooth passage and used to measure local flow features in a series of experiments where ribs were incrementally added upstream. This improves test turnaround time and allows higher-resolution heat transfer coefficient distributions to be captured, using a hybrid transient liquid crystal technique. A composite heat transfer coefficient distribution for a 12-rib-pitch passage is reported: notably the behaviour is dominated by the development of the secondary flow in the passage throughout. Both the aerodynamic and heat transfer test data were compared to numerical simulations developed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics solver. By conducting a number of simulations it was possible to interrogate the validity of the underlying assumptions of the experimental strategy; their validity is discussed. The results capture the developing size and strength of the vortical structures in secondary flow. The local flow field was shown to be strongly coupled to the enhancement of heat transfer coefficient. Comparison of the experimental and numerical data generally shows excellent agreement in the level of heat transfer coefficient predicted, though the numerical simulations fail to capture some local enhancement on both the ribbed and smooth surfaces. Where this was the case, the coupled flow and heat transfer measurements were able to identify missing velocity field characteristics.

  6. A robust calibration technique for acoustic emission systems based on momentum transfer from a ball drop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Lockner, David A.; Kilgore, Brian D.; Beeler, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a technique to estimate the seismic moment of acoustic emissions and other extremely small seismic events. Unlike previous calibration techniques, it does not require modeling of the wave propagation, sensor response, or signal conditioning. Rather, this technique calibrates the recording system as a whole and uses a ball impact as a reference source or empirical Green’s function. To correctly apply this technique, we develop mathematical expressions that link the seismic moment $M_{0}$ of internal seismic sources (i.e., earthquakes and acoustic emissions) to the impulse, or change in momentum $\\Delta p $, of externally applied seismic sources (i.e., meteor impacts or, in this case, ball impact). We find that, at low frequencies, moment and impulse are linked by a constant, which we call the force‐moment‐rate scale factor $C_{F\\dot{M}} = M_{0}/\\Delta p$. This constant is equal to twice the speed of sound in the material from which the seismic sources were generated. Next, we demonstrate the calibration technique on two different experimental rock mechanics facilities. The first example is a saw‐cut cylindrical granite sample that is loaded in a triaxial apparatus at 40 MPa confining pressure. The second example is a 2 m long fault cut in a granite sample and deformed in a large biaxial apparatus at lower stress levels. Using the empirical calibration technique, we are able to determine absolute source parameters including the seismic moment, corner frequency, stress drop, and radiated energy of these magnitude −2.5 to −7 seismic events.

  7. Determination of the Heat Transfer Coefficient at the Metal-Mold Interface During Centrifugal Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacca, Santiago; Martorano, Marcelo A.; Heringer, Romulo; Boccalini, Mário

    2015-05-01

    The heat transfer coefficient at the metal-mold interface ( h MM) has been determined for the first time during the centrifugal casting of a Fe-C alloy tube using the inverse solution method. To apply this method, a centrifugal casting experiment was carried out to measure cooling curves within the tube wall under a mold rotation speed of 900 rpm, imposing a centrifugal force 106 times as large as the gravity force (106 G). As part of the solution method, a comprehensive heat transfer model of the centrifugal casting was also developed and coupled to an optimization algorithm. Finally, the evolution of h MM with time that gives the minimum squared error between measured and calculated cooling curves was obtained. The determined h MM is approximately 870 W m-2 K-1 immediately after melt pouring, decreasing to about 50 W m-2 K-1 when the average temperature of the tube is ~973 K (700 °C), after the end of solidification. Despite the existence of a centrifugal force that could enhance the metal-mold contact, these values are lower than those generally reported for static molds with or without an insulating coating at the mold inner surface. The implemented model shows that the heat loss by radiation is dominant over that by convection at the tube inner surface, causing the formation of a solidification front that meets another front coming from the outer surface of the tube.

  8. Heat Transfer Coefficient Distribution in the Furnace of a 300MWe CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Lu, J. F.; Yang, H. R.; Zhang, J. S.; Zhang, H.; Yue, G. X.

    Properly understanding and calculating the distributions of heat flux and heat transfer coefficient (α) in the furnace is important in designing a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, especially with supercritical parameters. Experimental study on the heat transfer in a commercial 300MWe CFB boiler was conducted. The α from the bed to the water wall was measured by the finite element method (FEM), at five different heights. The influence of suspension density and bed temperature on α was analyzed. It was found that the pressure difference between the inlet and exit of the three cyclones, and the chamber pressure of the corresponding loop seal were not equal. The results indicated the suspension solid density was non-uniform in the cross section at a certain height. Consequently, the distributions of heat flux and α in the horizontal plane in the furnace was non-uniform. The furnace can divided into three sections according to the arrangement of the platen superheaters hanging in the upper CFB furnace. In each section, the heat flux near the center showed increasing trend.

  9. Experimental study on convective heat transfer coefficient around a vertical hexagonal rod bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhmalbaf, M. H. M.

    2012-06-01

    Research on convective heat transfer coefficient around a rod bundle has many diverse applications in industry. So far, many studies have been conducted in correlations related to internal and turbulent fully-developed flow. Comparison shows that Dittus-Boelter, Sieder-Tate and Petukhov have so far been the most practical correlations in fully-developed turbulent fluid flow heat transfer. The present study conducts an experimental examination of the validity of these frequently-applied correlations and introduces a manufactured test facility as well. Due to its generalizibility, the unique geometry of this test facility (hexagonal arranged, 7 vertical rods in a hexagonal tube) can fulfil extensive applications. The paper also studies the major deviation sources in data measurements, calibrations and turbulence of fluid flow in this. Finally, regarding to sufficient number of experiments in a vast fluid mean velocity range (3,800 < Re < 40,000), a new curve and correlation are presented and the results are compared with the above mentioned commonly-applied correlations.

  10. The large momentum transfer reaction 12C(p,2p+n) as a new method for measuring short range NN correlations in nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Barton, D.; Bunce, G.; Carroll, A.; Christensen, N.; Courant, H.; Durrant, S.; Gushue, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Kosonovsky, E.; Mardor, I.; Mardor, Y.; Marshak, M.; Makdisi, Y.; Minor, E. D.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Piasetzky, E.; Roser, T.; Russell, J.; Sargsian, M.; Sutton, C. S.; Tanaka, M.; White, C.; Wu, J.-Y.

    1999-05-01

    The reaction 12C(p,2p+n) was measured for momentum transfers of 4.8 and 6.2 (GeV/c)2 at beam momenta of 5.9 and 7.5 GeV/c. We measured the quasi-elastic reaction(p,2p) atθcm~=90 deg, in a kinematically complete measurement. The neutron momentum was measured in triple coincidence with the two emerging high momentum protons. We present the correlation between the momenta of the struck target proton and the neutron. The events are associated with the high momentum components of the nuclear wave function. We present sparse data which, combined with a quasi elastic description of the (p,2p) reaction and kinematical arguments, point to a novel way for isolating two-nucleon short range correlations.

  11. Study of momentum transfer in two-fluid formulation of two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egely, G.; Saha, P.

    Advanced nuclear safety codes such as TRAC and BFIAP5 use two-fluid hydraulic models. However, there are uncertainties for the application of different correlations. The effects and importance of a number of correlations for wall friction, interphase drag, and virtual mass are shown. The homogeneous wall shear model yields good results up to the annular flow regime, the single bubble drag correlation is acceptable, and the inclusion of virtual mass coefficient is helpful. The critical Weber number is not appropriate for bubble radius calculation; it predicts an opposing tendency when compared with the test data. Also, a two phase diffuser efficiency is required for diverging ducts and a correlation for the same was proposed.

  12. Experimental determination of surface heat transfer coefficient in a dry ice-ethanol cooling bath using a numerical approach.

    PubMed

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    BACKGROUND: Dry ice-ethanol bath (-78 degree C) have been widely used in low temperature biological research to attain rapid cooling of samples below freezing temperature. The prediction of cooling rates of biological samples immersed in dry ice-ethanol bath is of practical interest in cryopreservation. The cooling rate can be obtained using mathematical models representing the heat conduction equation in transient state. Additionally, at the solid cryogenic-fluid interface, the knowledge of the surface heat transfer coefficient (h) is necessary for the convective boundary condition in order to correctly establish the mathematical problem. The study was to apply numerical modeling to obtain the surface heat transfer coefficient of a dry ice-ethanol bath. A numerical finite element solution of heat conduction equation was used to obtain surface heat transfer coefficients from measured temperatures at the center of polytetrafluoroethylene and polymethylmetacrylate cylinders immersed in a dry ice-ethanol cooling bath. The numerical model considered the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties of plastic materials used. A negative linear relationship is observed between cylinder diameter and heat transfer coefficient in the liquid bath, the calculated h values were 308, 135 and 62.5 W/(m(2)K) for PMMA 1.3, PTFE 2.59 and 3.14 cm in diameter, respectively. The calculated heat transfer coefficients were consistent among several replicates; h in dry ice-ethanol showed an inverse relationship with cylinder diameter.

  13. Numerical investigation of heat and momentum transfer to particles in high temperature thermal spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissa, Abderrahmane; El Ganaoui, Mohammed; Sahnoun, Mohammed

    2017-05-01

    Numerical analysis has been performed on the motion of a spherical particle injected into high temperature thermal plasma flows in order to disclose the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement and to establish reliable correlations for heat transfer between the plasma gas and the particle. In terms of fluid dynamics occurring, the Navier-Stokes equations were solved for Ar-H2 mixture plasma gas in a two-dimensional system by finite element method (FEM). Computational simulation was undertaken to model the correlations for fine spherical particles in Ar 25%-H2 75% as plasma gas from 1100 to 9100 K at atmospheric pressure. Our results reveal the general consensus of Nusselt number, followed by increasing deviations as the temperature increases. Additionally, a comparison between our data and the predictions of other published correlations are given. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  14. Transfer coefficients for evaporation of a system with a Lennard-Jones long-range spline potential.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jialin; Kjelstrup, S; Bedeaux, D; Simon, J M; Rousseau, B

    2007-06-01

    Surface transfer coefficients are determined by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations for a Lennard-Jones fluid with a long-range spline potential. In earlier work [A. Røsjorde, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 240, 355 (2001); J. Xu, ibid. 299, 452 (2006)], using a short-range Lennard-Jones spline potential, it was found that the resistivity coefficients to heat and mass transfer agreed rather well with the values predicted by kinetic theory. For the long-range Lennard-Jones spline potential considered in this paper we find significant discrepancies from the values predicted by kinetic theory. In particular the coupling coefficient, and as a consequence the heat of transfer on the vapor side of the surface are much larger. Thermodynamic data for the liquid-vapor equilibrium confirmed the law of corresponding states for the surface, when it is described as an autonomous system. The importance of these findings for modelling phase transitions is discussed.

  15. Rotational dependence of the proton-transfer reaction HBr+ + CO2-->HOCO+ + Br. I. Energy versus angular momentum effects.

    PubMed

    Paetow, Lisa; Unger, Franziska; Beichel, Witali; Frenking, Gernot; Weitzel, Karl-Michael

    2010-05-07

    Cross sections for the endothermic proton-transfer reactions of rotationally state-selected HBr(+) and DBr(+) ions with CO(2) were measured in a guided ion beam apparatus in order to determine the influence of rotational excitation and collision energy in the center of mass (c.m.) system on the cross section. Ab initio calculations were performed to obtain energetic information about reactants, intermediates, and products. In the experiment HBr(+) and DBr(+) ions were prepared with the same mean rotational quantum number but different mean rotational energies as the rotational constants differ by about a factor of two. The mean rotational energy was varied from 1.4 to 66.3 meV for HBr(+) and from 0.7 to 43.0 meV for DBr(+). Collision energies (E(c.m.)) ranged from 0.32 to 1.00 eV. Under all conditions considered, an increase in the rotational excitation leads to a decrease in the cross section for both reactions. However, the effect is more pronounced for the higher collision energies. For E(c.m.)=1.00 and 0.85 eV; a comparison between the results for HBr(+) and DBr(+) indicates that the cross section is dominated by effects of rotational energy rather than angular momentum. For lower collision energies the cross sections for the deuteron transfer and the proton transfer are in best agreement if not compared for the same c.m. collision energy but for the same value of the difference between the collision energy and the reaction enthalpy.

  16. Determination of heat transfer coefficients in plastic French straws plunged in liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Santos, M Victoria; Sansinena, M; Chirife, J; Zaritzky, N

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge of the thermodynamic process during the cooling of reproductive biological systems is important to assess and optimize the cryopreservation procedures. The time-temperature curve of a sample immersed in liquid nitrogen enables the calculation of cooling rates and helps to determine whether it is vitrified or undergoes phase change transition. When dealing with cryogenic liquids, the temperature difference between the solid and the sample is high enough to cause boiling of the liquid, and the sample can undergo different regimes such as film and/or nucleate pool boiling. In the present work, the surface heat transfer coefficients (h) for plastic French straws plunged in liquid nitrogen were determined using the measurement of time-temperature curves. When straws filled with ice were used the cooling curve showed an abrupt slope change which was attributed to the transition of film into nucleate pool boiling regime. The h value that fitted each stage of the cooling process was calculated using a numerical finite element program that solves the heat transfer partial differential equation under transient conditions. In the cooling process corresponding to film boiling regime, the h that best fitted experimental results was h=148.12±5.4 W/m(2) K and for nucleate-boiling h=1355±51 W/m(2) K. These values were further validated by predicting the time-temperature curve for French straws filled with a biological fluid system (bovine semen-extender) which undergoes freezing. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental and predicted temperature profiles, further confirming the accuracy of the h values previously determined for the ice-filled straw. These coefficients were corroborated using literature correlations. The determination of the boiling regimes that govern the cooling process when plunging straws in liquid nitrogen constitutes an important issue when trying to optimize cryopreservation procedures. Furthermore, this information can lead to

  17. Correlation formulas for the frost thickness and heat transfer coefficient on a cylinder in humid air cross flow

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Sherif, S.A.; Wong, K.V.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports on results of an experimental investigation where the emphasis was placed on obtaining empirical correlations for the frost thickness-time history and the heat transfer coefficient-time history for a cylinder in humid air cross flow. The facility employed for the investigation consisted of a low velocity wind tunnel comprised of a rectangular test section, a transition section and a honeycomb placed at the tunnel entrance. An external refrigerator was used to cool an antifreeze solution having a mixture of 90% methanol and 10% ethylene glycol. Measured parameters included, among other things, the heat transfer coefficient as well as the frost thickness.

  18. Measurement of natural convective heat transfer coefficient along the surface of a heated wire using digital holographic interferometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Kumar, Manoj; Shakher, Chandra

    2014-09-20

    In this paper, the local convective heat transfer coefficient (h) is measured along the surface of an electrically heated vertical wire using digital holographic interferometry (DHI). Experiments are conducted on wires of different diameters. The experimentally measured values are within the range as given in the literature. DHI is expected to provide a more accurate local convective heat transfer coefficient (h) as the value of the temperature gradient required for the calculation of "h" can be obtained more accurately than by other existing optical interferometric techniques without the use of a phase shifting technique. This is because in digital holography phase measurement accuracy is expected to be higher.

  19. Coefficient of ozone mass transfer during its interaction with an aqueous solution of formic acid in a bubble column reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanov, A. V.; Isaikina, O. Ya.; Gasanova, R. B.; Lunin, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    A way of determining the coefficient of ozone mass transfer between the gas phase and liquid aqueous phase using a test compound (formic acid) is described. The values of ozone mass transfer coefficient (in aqueous solutions of 0.1-0.55 M HClO4 and 0-1 M HCOOH, and in 0.75 M H2SO4, 0.125 M KHSO4, and 0-2 M HCOOH) are determined along with the rate constants of the reaction of O3 with undissociated HCOOH molecules and formate ions at 21 ± 1°C.

  20. Chronoamperometry at micropipet electrodes for determination of diffusion coefficients and transferred charges at liquid/liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi; Wang, Lei; Amemiya, Shigeru

    2004-09-15

    Chronoamperometry was carried out at liquid/liquid interfaces supported at the tip of micropipet electrodes for direct determination of the diffusion coefficient of a species in the outer solution. The diffusion coefficient was used for subsequent determination of the transferred charges per species from the diffusion-limited steady-state current. A large tip resistance of the micropipets causes prolonged charging current so that the faradic current can be measured accurately only at a long-time regime (typically t > 5 ms). At the same time, the long-time current response at the interfaces surrounded by a thin glass wall of the pipets is enhanced by diffusion of the species from behind the pipet tip. Therefore, numerical simulations of the long-time chronoamperometric response were carried out using the finite element method for accurate determination of diffusion coefficients. Validity of the simulation results was confirmed by studying simple transfer of tetraethylammonium ion. The technique was applied for transfer/adsorption reactions of the natural polypeptide protamine and also for Ca2+ and Mg2+ transfers facilitated by ionophore ETH 129. With the diffusion coefficient of protamine determined to be (1.2 +/- 0.1) x 10(-6) cm(2)/s, the ionic charge transferred by each protamine molecule was obtained as +20 +/- 1, which is close to the excess positive charge of protamine. Also, the diffusion coefficient of ETH 129 was determined to demonstrate that each ionophore molecule transfers +0.67 and +1 charge per Ca2+ and Mg2+ transfer, respectively, which corresponds to formation of 1:3 and 1:2 complexes with the respective ions.

  1. Transfer coefficient of 226Ra from vegetation to meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, on U mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutier, N.R.; Clulow, F.V.; Lim, T.P.; Dave, N.K.

    1986-06-01

    The 226Ra level in vegetation growing on U mine tailings in Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, was 211 + 22 mBq g-1 (dry weight) compared to less than 7 mBq g-1 (dry weight) in material from a control site. Skeletons of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) established on the tailings had concentrations of 226Ra of 6083 +/- 673 mBq per animal in winter; 7163 +/- 1077 mBq per animal in spring; 1506 +/- 625 mBq per animal in summer; and 703 +/- 59 mBq per animal in fall, compared to less than 7 mBq per animal in controls. The /sup 226/Ra transfer coefficient from vegetation to voles (defined as total millibecquerels of /sup 226/Ra in adult vole per total millibecquerels of 226Ra consumed by the vole in its lifetime) was calculated as 4.6 +/- 2.9 X 10(-2) in summer and 2.8 +/- 0.6 X 10(-2) in fall.

  2. Effects of oxygen transfer coefficient on dihydroxyacetone production from crude glycerol.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao-Juan; Jin, Kui-Qi; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Gang; Liu, Yu-Peng

    2016-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the kinetics of dihydroxyacetone production by Gluconobacter frateurii CGMCC 5397 under different oxygen volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) conditions in submerged bioreactors using biodiesel-derived crude glycerol as the carbon source. kLa is a key fermentation parameter for the production of dihydroxyacetone. Cultivations were conducted in baffled- and unbaffled-flask cultures (the kLa values were 24.32h(-1) and 52.05h(-1), respectively) and fed-batch cultures (the kLa values were held at 18.21h(-1), 46.03h(-1), and 82.14h(-1)) to achieve high dihydroxyacetone concentration and productivity. The results showed that a high kLa could dramatically increase dihydroxyacetone concentrations and productivities. The baffled-flask culture (with a kLa of 52.05h(-1)) favored glycerol utilization and dihydroxyacetone production, and a dihydroxyacetone concentration as high as 131.16g/L was achieved. When the kLa was set to 82.14h(-1) in the fed-batch culture, the dihydroxyacetone concentration, productivity and yield were 175.44g/L, 7.96g/L/h and 0.89g/g, respectively, all of which were significantly higher than those in previous studies and will benefit dihydroxyacetone industrial production. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimentally Determined Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for Spacesuit Liquid Cooled Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant; Rhodes, Richard; Anchondo, Ian; Westheimer, David; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matt; Vonaue, Walt; Conger, Bruce; Stein, James

    2015-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) Portable Life Support System 2.0 (PLSS 2.0) test has been conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center in the PLSS Development Laboratory from October 27, 2014 to December 19, 2014. These closed-loop tests of the PLSS 2.0 system integrated with human subjects in the Mark III Suit at 3.7 psi to 4.3 psi above ambient pressure performing treadmill exercise at various metabolic rates from standing rest to 3000 BTU/hr (880 W). The bulk of the PLSS 2.0 was at ambient pressure but effluent water vapor from the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and the Auxiliary Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), and effluent carbon dioxide from the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) were ported to vacuum to test performance of these components in flight-like conditions. One of the objectives of this test was to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient (UA) of the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The UA, an important factor for modeling the heat rejection of an LCG, was determined in a variety of conditions by varying inlet water temperature, flow rate, and metabolic rate. Three LCG configurations were tested: the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) LCG, the Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) LCG, and the OSS auxiliary LCG. Other factors influencing accurate UA determination, such as overall heat balance, LCG fit, and the skin temperature measurement, will also be discussed.

  4. Peritoneal vascular reserve characterization through nitroprusside-induced modification of peritoneal mass transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Selgas, R; Carmona, A R; Martinez, M E; Perez-Fontan, M; Salinas, M; Conesa, J; Martinez Ara, J; Sicilia, L S

    1985-07-01

    The transport of solutes across the peritoneum may be increased by the topical administration of nitroprusside; the effects of the drug seem to be due to an increase in the number of perfused capillaries and/or in their permeability. We have compared the peritoneal mass transfer coefficients (MTC) for urea, creatinine and parathormone (PTH) under basal conditions and after administration of nitroprusside (4.5 mg/l dialysate) in 15 patients under CAPD therapy. The mean increments of the MTC were 48.8% for urea, 77.5% for creatinine and 323% for PTH. The relative MTC increments for the three molecules (taken in pairs) were: MTCPTH/urea' 2.53 times (mean), MTCPTH/creatinine' 1.7 times, and MTCcreatinine/urea' 0.73-times, with very variable ranges. The overall mean increment (OMI) for all three ratios ranged from -1.25 and +6 times. In six patients, some of the relative increments (and in three of them the OMI) were negative but the epidemiological features of these patients revealed no clear data. The OMI shows a direct correlation with the body surface area and an inverse correlation with the the duration of CAPD and ESRD and with the number of peritonitis episodes, albeit without statistical significance. We conclude that the peritoneal vascular reserve has individual characteristics, and that perhaps the OMI or some other similar index might serve to quantify and characterise it, if our findings are confirmed.

  5. Transfer coefficient of 226Ra from vegetation to meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, on U mill tailings.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, N R; Clulow, F V; Lim, T P; Davé, N K

    1986-06-01

    The 226Ra level in vegetation growing on U mine tailings in Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, was 211 + 22 mBq g-1 (dry weight) compared to less than 7 mBq g-1 (dry weight) in material from a control site. Skeletons of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) established on the tailings had concentrations of 226Ra of 6,083 +/- 673 mBq per animal in winter; 7,163 +/- 1,077 mBq per animal in spring; 1,506 +/- 625 mBq per animal in summer; and 703 +/- 59 mBq per animal in fall, compared to less than 7 mBq per animal in controls. The 226Ra transfer coefficient from vegetation to voles (defined as total millibecquerels of 226Ra in adult vole per total millibecquerels of 226Ra consumed by the vole in its lifetime) was calculated as 4.6 +/- 2.9 X 10(-2) in summer and 2.8 +/- 0.6 X 10(-2) in fall.

  6. Momentum Transfer Studies and Studies of Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Metal Colloids and Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W. E.; Burger, A.; Dyer, K.; George, M.; Henderson, D.; Morgan, S.; Mu, R.; Shi, D.; Conner, D; Thompson, E.; hide

    1996-01-01

    Phase 1 of this work involved design work on a momentum transfer device. The progress on design and testing will be presented. Phase 2 involved the systematic study of the MPD thruster for dual uses. Though it was designed as a thruster for space vehicles, the characteristics of the plasma make it an excellent candidate for industrial applications. This project sought to characterize the system for use in materials processing and characterization. The surface modification on ZnCdTe, CdTe, and ZnTe will be presented. Phase 3 involved metal colloids and semiconductor quantum dots. One aspect of this project involves a collaborative effort with the Solid State Division of ORNL. The thrust behind this research is to develop ion implantation for synthesizing novel materials (quantum dots wires and wells, and metal colloids) for applications in all optical switching devices, up conversion, and the synthesis of novel refractory materials. The ions of interest are Au, Ag, Cd, Se, In, P, Sb, Ga, and As. The specific materials of interest are: CdSe, CdTe, InAs, GaAs, InP, GaP, InSb, GaSb, and InGaAs. A second aspect of this research program involves using porous glass (25-200 A) for fabricating materials of finite size. The results of some of this work will also be reported.

  7. Momentum Transfer Studies and Studies of Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Metal Colloids and Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, W. E.; Burger, A.; Dyer, K.; George, M.; Henderson, D.; Morgan, S.; Mu, R.; Shi, D.; Conner, D; Thompson, E.; Collins, L.; Curry, L.; Mattox, S.; Williams, G.

    1996-01-01

    Phase 1 of this work involved design work on a momentum transfer device. The progress on design and testing will be presented. Phase 2 involved the systematic study of the MPD thruster for dual uses. Though it was designed as a thruster for space vehicles, the characteristics of the plasma make it an excellent candidate for industrial applications. This project sought to characterize the system for use in materials processing and characterization. The surface modification on ZnCdTe, CdTe, and ZnTe will be presented. Phase 3 involved metal colloids and semiconductor quantum dots. One aspect of this project involves a collaborative effort with the Solid State Division of ORNL. The thrust behind this research is to develop ion implantation for synthesizing novel materials (quantum dots wires and wells, and metal colloids) for applications in all optical switching devices, up conversion, and the synthesis of novel refractory materials. The ions of interest are Au, Ag, Cd, Se, In, P, Sb, Ga, and As. The specific materials of interest are: CdSe, CdTe, InAs, GaAs, InP, GaP, InSb, GaSb, and InGaAs. A second aspect of this research program involves using porous glass (25-200 A) for fabricating materials of finite size. The results of some of this work will also be reported.

  8. Four Momentum Transfer Discrepancy in the Charged Current pi+ Production in the MiniBooNE: Data versus Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Jaroslaw A.; /Louisiana State U.

    2009-09-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment has collected what is currently the world's largest sample of {nu}{sub {mu}} charged current single charged pion (CCl{pi}{sup +}) interactions, roughly 46,000 events. The purity of the CCl{pi}{sup +} sample is 87% making this the purest event sample observed in the MiniBooNE detector. The average energy of neutrinos producing CC{pi}{sup +} interactions in MiniBooNE is about 1 GeV, therefore the study of these events can provide insight into both resonant and coherent pion production processes. In this talk, we will discuss the long-standing discrepancy in four-momentum transfer observed between CC{pi}{sup +} data and existing predictions. Several attempts to address this problem will be presented. Specifically, the Rein-Sehgal model has been extended to include muon mass terms for both resonant and coherent production. Using calculations from, an updated form for the vector form factor has also been adopted. The results of this improved description of CC{pi}{sup +} production will be compared to the high statistics MiniBooNE CC{pi}{sup +} data and several existing parametrizations of the axial vector form factor.

  9. Electroproduction of η Mesons in the S11(1535) Resonance Region at High Momentum Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, Mark Macrae

    2008-08-01

    The differential cross-section for the exclusive process p(e, e0p) has been measured at Q2 5.7 and 7.0 (GeV/c)2, which represents the highest momentum transfer measurement of this to date, significantly higher than the previous highest at Q2 3.6 (GeV/c)2. Data was taken for centre-of-mass energies from threshold to 1.8 GeV, encompassing the S11(1535) resonance, which dominates the pη channel. The total cross section is obtained, from which is extracted the helicity-conserving transition amplitude A1/2, for the production of the S11(1535) resonance. This quantity appears to begin scaling as Q-3, a predicted signal of the dominance of perturbative QCD, within the Q2 range of this measurement. No currently available theoretical predictions can account for the behaviour of this quantity over the full measured range of Q2.

  10. Two-center interference effects in (e, 2e) ionization of H2 and CO2 at large momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masakazu; Nakajima, Isao; Satoh, Hironori; Watanabe, Noboru; Jones, Darryl; Takahashi, Masahiko

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in understanding quantum mechanical interference effects in molecular ionization. Since this interference appears as a consequence of coherent electron emission from the different molecular centers, it should depend strongly on the nature of the ionized molecular orbital. Such molecular orbital patterns can be investigated by means of binary (e, 2e) spectroscopy, which is a kinematically-complete electron-impact ionization experiment performed under the high-energy Bethe ridge conditions. In this study, two-center interference effects in the (e, 2e) cross sections of H2 and CO2 at large momentum transfer are demonstrated with a high-statistics experiment, in order to elucidate the relationship between molecular orbital patterns and the interference structure. It is shown that the two-center interference is highly sensitive to the phase, spatial pattern, symmetry of constituent atomic orbital, and chemical bonding nature of the molecular orbital. This work was partially supported by Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research (S) (No. 20225001) and for Young Scientists (B) (No. 21750005) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  11. Momentum Transfer from a Nuclear Stand-Off Burst to a Potentially Hazardous Asteroid or Comet Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, C. S.; Weaver, R.; Huebner, W. F.

    2011-12-01

    We present estimates of momentum transfer by ablation and β factor-like ejection of solid material from the surface of a Potentially Hazardous Object (PHO) by a stand-off nuclear burst. We consider parameters including object composition, shadowing effects of surface geometry, burst yield, and stand-off distance. We use radiation hydrocode models of x-ray energy deposition to estimate the response of a PHO to x-rays. We also use Monte Carlo models to estimate energy deposition from neutrons. These models yield estimates of the mass of vapor and solid material ejected from the surface of the PHO. A byproduct of the Monte Carlo models is an estimate of neutron activation of PHO material, a commonly quoted hazard of nuclear PHO deflection, which is negligible, of order tens of micrograms per kiloton of burst yield. The mass vaporized or ejected from the PHO, along with initial distributions and velocities can then be used to refine n-body models of velocity change and debris reaggregation.

  12. The Gdh Sum Rule with Nearly Real Photons and the G1 Proton Structure Function at Low Momentum Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vita, R.

    2005-02-01

    A measurement of the proton structure function g1 for momentum transfer Q2 in the range 0.01-0.5 GeV2/c2 is planned in Hall B at Jefferson Lab using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The CEBAF polarized electron beam with energy between 1 and 3.2 GeV will scatter off a polarized solid state target. The outgoing electrons will be detected down to a minimum angle of ~5 degrees in CLAS thanks to a new gas Cherenkoy counter designed to optimize the detection efficiency and pion rejection in the operating conditions of this experiment. The proton spin structure function g1 will be measured from the threshold region to the resonance region and beyond. The expected results will add high precision information on the nucleon spin response in kinematics where tests of Chiral Perturbation Theory are possible, and provide the data for an improved understanding of hadronic spin processes in the confinement regime.

  13. Periodic steamwise variations of heat transfer coefficients for incline and staggered arrays of circular jets with crossflow of spent air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florschuetz, L. W.; Metzger, D. E.; Berry, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Heat transfer characteristics were measured for inline and staggered arrays of circular jets impinging on a surface parallel to the jet orifice plate. The impinging flow was constrained to exit in a single direction along the channel formed by the jet plate and the heat transfer surface. In this configuration the air discharged from upstream transverse rows of jet holes imposes a crossflow of increasing magnitude on the succeeding downstream jet rows. Streamwise heat transfer coefficient profiles were determined for a streamwise resolution of one-third the streamwise hole spacing, utilizing a specially constructed test surface.

  14. Detailed measurements of local heat transfer coefficient and adiabatic wall temperature beneath an array of impinging jets

    SciTech Connect

    Van Treuren, K.W.; Wang, Z.; Ireland, P.T.; Jones, T.V. . Dept. of Engineering Science)

    1994-07-01

    A transient method of measuring the local heat transfer under an array of impinging jets has been developed. The use of a temperature-sensitive coating consisting of three encapsulated thermochromic liquid crystal materials has allowed the calculation of both the local adiabatic wall temperature and the local heat transfer coefficient over the complete surface of the target plate. The influence of the temperature of the plate through which the impingment gas flows on the target plate heat transfer has been quantified. Results are presented for a single in-line array configuration over a range of jet Reynolds numbers.

  15. Experimental and numerical investigation of pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient in converging-diverging microchannel heat sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthii, M. K. Dheepan; Mutharasu, D.; Shanmugan, S.

    2017-07-01

    The major challenge in microelectronic chips is to eliminate the generated heat for stable and reliable operation of the devices. Microchannel heat sinks are efficient method to dissipate high heat flux. The pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient are the important parameters which determine the thermal-hydraulic performance of the microchannel heat sink. In this study, a converging-diverging (CD) microchannel heat sink was experimentally investigated for the variation of pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. De-ionized water was considered as the working fluid. Experiments were conducted for single phase fluid flow with mass flow rate and heat flux ranging from 0.001232 to 0.01848 kg/s and 10-50 W/cm2 respectively. The fluid and solid temperature were measured to calculate the heat transfer coefficients. Numerical results were computed using the CFD software and validated against the experimental results. The CD microchannel possesses high heat transfer coefficient than the straight microchannels. Theoretical correlations were proposed for comparing the experimental Nusselt number of CD microchannel. Evaluation of thermal-hydraulic performance of CD microchannel is important to quantify its applications in electronics cooling.

  16. Experimental and numerical investigation of pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient in converging-diverging microchannel heat sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthii, M. K. Dheepan; Mutharasu, D.; Shanmugan, S.

    2017-01-01

    The major challenge in microelectronic chips is to eliminate the generated heat for stable and reliable operation of the devices. Microchannel heat sinks are efficient method to dissipate high heat flux. The pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient are the important parameters which determine the thermal-hydraulic performance of the microchannel heat sink. In this study, a converging-diverging (CD) microchannel heat sink was experimentally investigated for the variation of pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. De-ionized water was considered as the working fluid. Experiments were conducted for single phase fluid flow with mass flow rate and heat flux ranging from 0.001232 to 0.01848 kg/s and 10-50 W/cm2 respectively. The fluid and solid temperature were measured to calculate the heat transfer coefficients. Numerical results were computed using the CFD software and validated against the experimental results. The CD microchannel possesses high heat transfer coefficient than the straight microchannels. Theoretical correlations were proposed for comparing the experimental Nusselt number of CD microchannel. Evaluation of thermal-hydraulic performance of CD microchannel is important to quantify its applications in electronics cooling.

  17. Determination of lateral-stability derivatives and transfer-function coefficients from frequency-response data for lateral motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donegan, James J; Robinson, Samuel W , Jr; Gates, Ordway, B , jr

    1955-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the lateral-stability derivatives, transfer-function coefficients, and the modes for lateral motion from frequency-response data for a rigid aircraft. The method is based on the application of the vector technique to the equations of lateral motion, so that the three equations of lateral motion can be separated into six equations. The method of least squares is then applied to the data for each of these equations to yield the coefficients of the equations of lateral motion from which the lateral-stability derivatives and lateral transfer-function coefficients are computed. Two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the use of the method.

  18. Heat and Momentum Transfer on the Rapid Phase Change of Liquid Induced by Nanosecond-Pulsed Laser Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hee Kuwon

    1994-01-01

    technique, and a high-pressure cell. The onset of phase change introduces a strong acoustic signal that is detected by a piezoelectric transducer and a photoacoustic probe. The information on the temperature and pressure development during the vaporization process determines the heat and momentum transfer in the explosive vaporization process. The pressure production mechanisms in the short-pulsed laser-induced vaporization are studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that the collective bubble growth is an effective momentum transfer mechanism to radiate acoustic energy. It is observed that the thermally driven phase change generates pressure waves in the liquid that trigger subsequent acoustic cavitation. The implications of the thermal nucleation on the following cavitation is studied. It has been found that the metastabilized microscopic bubbles can exist for much longer time than the apparent life time, subsequently enhancing the following acoustic cavitation. As an example of technological application of the phenomenon, a practical laser cleaning technique has been studied. A laser-cleaning tool capable of removing surface contaminants such as submicron-sized particulates and organic films has been constructed and implemented in practical use.

  19. Estimation of internal heat transfer coefficients and detection of rib positions in gas turbine blades from transient surface temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich, P.; Wolfersdorf, J. v.; Schmidt, S.; Schnieder, M.

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes a non-invasive, non-destructive, transient inverse measurement technique that allows one to determine internal heat transfer coefficients and rib positions of real gas turbine blades from outer surface temperature measurements after a sudden flow heating. The determination of internal heat transfer coefficients is important during the design process to adjust local heat transfer to spatial thermal load. The detection of rib positions is important during production to fulfill design and quality requirements. For the analysis the one-dimensional transient heat transfer problem inside of the turbine blade's wall was solved. This solution was combined with the Levenberg-Marquardt method to estimate the unknown boundary condition by an inverse technique. The method was tested with artificial data to determine uncertainties with positive results. Then experimental testing with a reference model was carried out. Based on the results, it is concluded that the presented inverse technique could be used to determine internal heat transfer coefficients and to detect rib positions of real turbine blades.

  20. Development of a laser-induced heat flux technique for measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients in a supersonic flowfield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. Robert; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Hingst, Warren R.; Chriss, Randall M.; Seablom, Kirk D.

    1991-01-01

    A technique is developed to measure the local convective heat transfer coefficient on a model surface in a supersonic flow field. The technique uses a laser to apply a discrete local heat flux at the model test surface, and an infrared camera system determines the local temperature distribution due to heating. From this temperature distribution and an analysis of the heating process, a local convective heat transfer coefficient is determined. The technique was used to measure the load surface convective heat transfer coefficient distribution on a flat plate at nominal Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0. The flat plate boundary layer initially was laminar and became transitional in the measurement region. The experimental results agreed reasonably well with theoretical predictions of convective heat transfer of flat plate laminar boundary layers. The results indicate that this non-intrusive optical measurement technique has the potential to obtain high quality surface convective heat transfer measurements in high speed flowfields.

  1. Evaluation of interfacial mass transfer coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure in carbon dioxide/normal alkane systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkhou, Fatemeh; Keshavarz, Peyman; Ayatollahi, Shahab; Jahromi, Iman Raoofi; Zolghadr, Ali

    2015-04-01

    CO2 gas injection is known as one of the most popular enhanced oil recovery techniques for light and medium oil reservoirs, therefore providing an acceptable mass transfer mechanism for CO2-oil systems seems necessary. In this study, interfacial mass transfer coefficient has been evaluated for CO2-normal heptane and CO2-normal hexadecane systems using equilibrium and dynamic interfacial tension data, which have been measured using the pendant drop method. Interface mass transfer coefficient has been calculated as a function of temperature and pressure in the range of 313-393 K and 1.7-8.6 MPa, respectively. The results showed that the interfacial resistance is a parameter that can control the mass transfer process for some CO2-normal alkane systems, and cannot be neglected. Additionally, it was found that interface mass transfer coefficient increased with pressure. However, the variation of this parameter with temperature did not show a clear trend and it was strongly dependent on the variation of diffusivity and solubility of CO2 in the liquid phase.

  2. DETERMINATION OF HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR FRENCH PLASTIC SEMEN STRAW SUSPENDED IN STATIC NITROGEN VAPOR OVER LIQUID NITROGEN.

    PubMed

    Santo, M V; Sansinena, M; Chirife, J; Zaritzky, N

    2015-01-01

    The use of mathematical models describing heat transfer during the freezing process is useful for the improvement of cryopreservation protocols. A widespread practice for cryopreservation of spermatozoa of domestic animal species consists of suspending plastic straws in nitrogen vapor before plunging into liquid nitrogen. Knowledge of surface heat transfer coefficient (h) is mandatory for computational modelling; however, h values for nitrogen vapor are not available. In the present study, surface heat transfer coefficients for plastic French straws immersed in nitrogen vapor over liquid nitrogen was determined; vertical and horizontal positions were considered. Heat transfer coefficients were determined from the measurement of time-temperature curves and from numerical solution of heat transfer partial differential equation under transient conditions using finite elements. The h values experimentally obtained for horizontal and vertically placed straws were compared to those calculated using correlations based on the Nusselt number for natural convection. For horizontal straws the average obtained value was h=12.5 ± 1.2 W m(2) K and in the case of vertical straws h=16 ± 2.48 W m(2) K. The numerical simulation validated against experimental measurements, combined with accurate h values provides a reliable tool for the prediction of freezing curves of semen-filled straws immersed in nitrogen vapor. The present study contributes to the understanding of the cryopreservation techniques for sperm freezing based on engineering concepts, improving the cooling protocols and the manipulation of the straws.

  3. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Ujwal, P; Yashodhara, I; Rao, Chetan; Sudeep Kumara, K; Dileep, B N; Ravi, P M

    2013-10-01

    Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of (137)Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the (137)Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10(-1) and 1.8 × 10(-1) for (137)Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of (137)Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10(-2) d L(-1) and 4.6 × 10(-2) d L(-1), respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10(-2) d L(-1) for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10(-3) d L(-1) for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of (137)Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for (137)Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content ((40)K and stable K) in

  4. Effects of oxygen transfer coefficient on dihydroxyacetone production from crude glycerol

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao-juan; Jin, Kui-qi; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Gang; Liu, Yu-Peng

    2016-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the kinetics of dihydroxyacetone production by Gluconobacter frateurii CGMCC 5397 under different oxygen volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) conditions in submerged bioreactors using biodiesel-derived crude glycerol as the carbon source. kLa is a key fermentation parameter for the production of dihydroxyacetone. Cultivations were conducted in baffled- and unbaffled-flask cultures (the kLa values were 24.32 h−1 and 52.05 h−1, respectively) and fed-batch cultures (the kLa values were held at 18.21 h−1, 46.03 h−1, and 82.14 h−1) to achieve high dihydroxyacetone concentration and productivity. The results showed that a high kLa could dramatically increase dihydroxyacetone concentrations and productivities. The baffled-flask culture (with a kLa of 52.05 h−1) favored glycerol utilization and dihydroxyacetone production, and a dihydroxyacetone concentration as high as 131.16 g/L was achieved. When the kLa was set to 82.14 h−1 in the fed-batch culture, the dihydroxyacetone concentration, productivity and yield were 175.44 g/L, 7.96 g/L/h and 0.89 g/g, respectively, all of which were significantly higher than those in previous studies and will benefit dihydroxyacetone industrial production. PMID:26887235

  5. Data Qualification Report For DTN: MO0012RIB00065.002, Parameter Values For Transfer Coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Tung

    2001-01-09

    A data-qualification evaluation was conducted on Reference Information Base (RIB) data set MOO0 12RIB00065.002, ''Parameter Values for Transfer Coefficients''. The corroborating data method was used to evaluate the data. This method was selected because it closely matches the literature-review method followed to select parameter values. Five criteria were considered when the corroborating method was used: adequacy of the corroborative literature, sufficiency of value-selection criteria, implementation of the selection criteria, documentation of the process, and whether the analysis was conducted in accordance with applicable quality assurance (QA) procedures. Three criteria were used when a literature review was not conducted: appropriate logic used to select parameters, documentation of the process, and whether the analysis was conducted in accordance with applicable QA procedures. The RIB data item, the associated Analysis and Model Report (AMR), the corroborative literature, and the results of an audit revision O/ICN 0 of the AMR were examined. All calculations and the selection process for all values were repeated and confirmed. The qualification team concluded: (1) A sufficient quantity of corroborative literature was reviewed and no additional literature was identified that should have been considered. (2) The selection criteria were sufficient and resulted in valid parameter values. (3) The process was well defined, adequately documented in the AMR, and correctly followed. (4) The analysis was developed in accordance with applicable QA procedures. No negative findings were documented that resulted in questions about the quality of the data. The qualification team therefore recommends that the qualification status of RIB data set MO0012RIB00065.002 be changed to qualified.

  6. Relationship between body size, fill volume, and mass transfer area coefficient in peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Keshaviah, P; Emerson, P F; Vonesh, E F; Brandes, J C

    1994-04-01

    A peritoneal dialysate fill volume of 2 L has become the standard of clinical practice, but the relationships between body size, fill volume, and mass transfer area coefficient (KoA) have not been well established. These relationships were studied in 10 stable peritoneal dialysis patients who underwent six peritoneal equilibration studies (2 h each) at fill volumes of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 L. The concentration-time profiles for urea, creatinine, and glucose were measured at each fill volume, and residual volumes were calculated from the preceding dwell period. A modified Henderson equation was used to calculate the KoA for the three solutes as a function of fill volume. By normalizing the KoA for each solute to the value at 2 L, the data for all three solutes collapsed onto the same trend line when plotting the normalized KoA versus dialysate volume. Between 0.5- and 2-L fill volumes, the average normalized KoA increases in an almost linear fashion, its value almost doubling over this range. Between 2- and 3-L fill volumes, there is less than a 10% change in the normalized KoA. However, fill volumes for peak urea KoA were found to increase with increasing body surface area (R = 0.76), being around 2.5 L for an average-sized patient and increasing to between 3 and 3.5 L for body surface areas > 2 m2. To maximize solute transport, these relationships between body size, volume, and KoA should be considered when choosing fill volumes for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and automated peritoneal dialysis and when deciding reserve and tidal volumes for tidal peritoneal dialysis.

  7. Experimental determination of convective heat transfer coefficients in the separated flow region of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitesides, R. Harold; Majumdar, Alok K.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Bacchus, David L.

    1990-01-01

    A series of cold flow heat transfer tests was conducted with a 7.5-percent scale model of the Space Shuttle Rocket Motor (SRM) to measure the heat transfer coefficients in the separated flow region around the nose of the submerged nozzle. Modifications were made to an existing 7.5 percent scale model of the internal geometry of the aft end of the SRM, including the gimballed nozzle in order to accomplish the measurements. The model nozzle nose was fitted with a stainless steel shell with numerous thermocouples welded to the backside of the thin wall. A transient 'thin skin' experimental technique was used to measure the local heat transfer coefficients. The effects of Reynolds number, nozzle gimbal angle, and model location were correlated with a Stanton number versus Reynolds number correlation which may be used to determine the convective heating rates for the full scale Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor nozzle.

  8. Triple system HD 201433 with a SPB star component seen by BRITE - Constellation: Pulsation, differential rotation, and angular momentum transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallinger, T.; Weiss, W. W.; Beck, P. G.; Pigulski, A.; Kuschnig, R.; Tkachenko, A.; Pakhomov, Y.; Ryabchikova, T.; Lüftinger, T.; Palle, , P. L.; Semenko, E.; Handler, G.; Koudelka, O.; Matthews, J. M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Pablo, H.; Popowicz, A.; Rucinski, S.; Wade, G. A.; Zwintz, K.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Stellar rotation affects the transport of chemical elements and angular momentum and is therefore a key process during stellar evolution, which is still not fully understood. This is especially true for massive OB-type stars, which are important for the chemical enrichment of the Universe. It is therefore important to constrain the physical parameters and internal angular momentum distribution of massive OB-type stars to calibrate stellar structure and evolution models. Stellar internal rotation can be probed through asteroseismic studies of rotationally split non radial oscillations but such results are still quite rare, especially for stars more massive than the Sun. The slowly pulsating B9V star HD 201433 is known to be part of a single-lined spectroscopic triple system, with two low-mass companions orbiting with periods of about 3.3 and 154 days. Aims: Our goal is to measure the internal rotation profile of HD 201433 and investigate the tidal interaction with the close companion. Methods: We used probabilistic methods to analyse the BRITE - Constellation photometry and radial velocity measurements, to identify a representative stellar model, and to determine the internal rotation profile of the star. Results: Our results are based on photometric observations made by BRITE - Constellation and the Solar Mass Ejection Imager on board the Coriolis satellite, high-resolution spectroscopy, and more than 96 yr of radial velocity measurements. We identify a sequence of nine frequency doublets in the photometric time series, consistent with rotationally split dipole modes with a period spacing of about 5030 s. We establish that HD 201433 is in principle a solid-body rotator with a very slow rotation period of 297 ± 76 days. Tidal interaction with the inner companion has, however, significantly accelerated the spin of the surface layers by a factor of approximately one hundred. The angular momentum transfer onto the surface of HD 201433 is also reflected by the

  9. Determination of the external mass transfer coefficient and influence of mixing intensity in moving bed biofilm reactors for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Bruno L; Pérez, Julio; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Secchi, Argimiro R; Dezotti, Márcia; Biscaia, Evaristo C

    2015-09-01

    In moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR), the removal of pollutants from wastewater is due to the substrate consumption by bacteria attached on suspended carriers. As a biofilm process, the substrates are transported from the bulk phase to the biofilm passing through a mass transfer resistance layer. This study proposes a methodology to determine the external mass transfer coefficient and identify the influence of the mixing intensity on the conversion process in-situ in MBBR systems. The method allows the determination of the external mass transfer coefficient in the reactor, which is a major advantage when compared to the previous methods that require mimicking hydrodynamics of the reactor in a flow chamber or in a separate vessel. The proposed methodology was evaluated in an aerobic lab-scale system operating with COD removal and nitrification. The impact of the mixing intensity on the conversion rates for ammonium and COD was tested individually. When comparing the effect of mixing intensity on the removal rates of COD and ammonium, a higher apparent external mass transfer resistance was found for ammonium. For the used aeration intensities, the external mass transfer coefficient for ammonium oxidation was ranging from 0.68 to 13.50 m d(-1) and for COD removal 2.9 to 22.4 m d(-1). The lower coefficient range for ammonium oxidation is likely related to the location of nitrifiers deeper in the biofilm. The measurement of external mass transfer rates in MBBR will help in better design and evaluation of MBBR system-based technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of segmental linear and angular momentum transfers in two-handed backhand stroke stances for different skill level tennis players.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Hwa; Lin, Hwai-Ting; Lo, Kuo-Cheng; Hsieh, Yung-Chun; Su, Fong-Chin

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of momentum transfer from the trunk and upper extremities to the racket between open and square stances for different skill levels players in the two-handed backhand stroke. The motion capture system with twenty-one reflective markers attached on anatomic landmarks of the subject was used for two-handed backhand stroke motion data collection. Twelve subjects were divided into an advanced group and an intermediate group based on skill level. The three-dimensional linear and angular momentums of the trunk, upper arm, forearm, hand and racket were used for kinetic chain analysis. Results showed that all players with the square stance had significantly larger backward linear momentum contribution in trunk and upper arm than with the open stance (p<.05) irrespective of playing level. However, the external rotation angular momentum of the shoulder joint was significantly larger with an open stance than with a square stance (p=.047). Comparison of playing levels showed that the intermediate group performed higher linear momentum in three components of the trunk, upper arm backward linear momentum, and trunk right bending angular momentum than the advanced group significantly (p<.05). The advanced group reduces trunk linear movement to keep stability and applies trunk and linkage segment rotation to generate backhand stroke power. The advanced group also has a quick backswing for increasing acceleration and maintains longer in the follow-through phase for shock energy absorption. This information could improve training protocol design for teaching the two-handed backhand stroke and teaching players, especially beginners, how to make an effective stroke.

  11. MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR A NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID AND WATER WITH AND WITHOUT ANTI-FOAM AGENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.

    2009-09-09

    Mass transfer rates were measured in a large scale system, which consisted of an 8.4 meter tall by 0.76 meter diameter column containing one of three fluids: water with an anti-foam agent, water without an anti-foam agent, and AZ101 simulant, which simulated a non-Newtonian nuclear waste. The testing contributed to the evaluation of large scale mass transfer of hydrogen in nuclear waste tanks. Due to its radioactivity, the waste was chemically simulated, and due to flammability concerns oxygen was used in lieu of hydrogen. Different liquids were used to better understand the mass transfer processes, where each of the fluids was saturated with oxygen, and the oxygen was then removed from solution as air bubbled up, or sparged, through the solution from the bottom of the column. Air sparging was supplied by a single tube which was co-axial to the column, the decrease in oxygen concentration was recorded, and oxygen measurements were then used to determine the mass transfer coefficients to describe the rate of oxygen transfer from solution. Superficial, average, sparging velocities of 2, 5, and 10 mm/second were applied to each of the liquids at three different column fill levels, and mass transfer coefficient test results are presented here for combinations of superficial velocities and fluid levels.

  12. A study of effective atomic number and electron density of gel dosimeters and human tissues for scattering of gamma rays: momentum transfer, energy and scattering angle dependence.

    PubMed

    Kurudirek, Murat

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work was to study water- and tissue-equivalent properties of some gel dosimeters, human tissues and water, for scattering of photons using the effective atomic number (Z eff). The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) was used to obtain Z eff and electron density (N e ) of gel dosimeters, human tissues and water considering a 10(-2)-10(9) momentum transfer, q (Å(-1)). In the present work, a logarithmic interpolation procedure was used to estimate R/C as well as Z eff of the chosen materials in a wide scattering angle (1°-180°) and energy range (0.001-100 MeV). The Z eff of the chosen materials was found to increase as momentum transfer increases, for q > ~1 Å(-1). At fixed scattering angle and energy, Z eff of the material first increases and then becomes constant for high momentum transfers (q ≥ 3 Å(-1)), which indicates that Z eff is almost independent of energy and scattering angle for the chosen materials. Based on the Z eff data and the continuous momentum transfer range (10(-2)-10(9) Å(-1)), MAGIC, PAGAT and soft tissue were found to be water-equivalent materials, since their differences (%) relative to water are significantly low (≤3.2 % for MAGIC up to 10(3) Å(-1), ≤2.9 % for PAGAT up to 10(9) Å(-1), and ≤3.8 % for soft tissue up to 10(9) Å(-1)), while the Fricke gel was not found to be water equivalent. PAGAT was found to be a soft tissue-equivalent material in the entire momentum transfer range (<4.3 %), while MAGAT has shown to be tissue equivalent for brain (≤8.1 % up to 10 Å(-1)) and lung (<8.2 % up to 10 Å(-1)) tissues. The Fricke gel dosimeter has shown to be adipose tissue equivalent for most of the momentum range considered (<10 %).

  13. Comparison of FEM calculated heat transfer coefficient in a minichannel using two approaches: Trefftz base functions and ADINA software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewska, Beata; Łabędzki, Paweł; Piasecki, Artur; Piasecka, Magdalena

    The paper presents the methods of heat transfer coefficient determination for boiling research during FC-72 flow in a minichannel. The boundary condition in the form of distributions of temperature on the outer side of the minichannel heated wall was obtained using infrared thermography. It was assumed two-dimensional steady-state heat flow. The local values of the heat transfer coefficients on the surface between the heated foil and boiling liquid, were determined from the Robin boundary condition. Data necessary for the heat transfer coefficient evaluation were obtained from numerical computations using two approaches: calculation procedure based on the Trefftz functions and FEM simulations by ADINA software. The shape functions were linear combinations of the Trefftz functions. Combinations of the Trefftz functions exactly satisfy the differential equation. Coefficients of the linear combination of the shape function in the approximate solution were chosen to minimize residuals on domain boundary and along common edges of adjacent elements. Temperature measurement points were located in boundary nodes. During FEM simulations 4-node FCBI elements were used, fluid flow was assumed to be laminar, incompressible and material constants of the fluid and of the foil were independent on temperature. The results of the comparative analysis were presented and discussed.

  14. An experimental determination of the H2S overall mass transfer coefficient from quiescent surfaces at wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jane Meri; Kreim, Virginie; Guillot, Jean-Michel; Reis, Neyval Costa; de Sá, Leandro Melo; Horan, Nigel John

    2012-12-01

    This study has investigated overall mass transfer coefficients of hydrogen sulphide from quiescent liquid surfaces under simulated laboratory conditions. Wind flow (friction velocity) has been correlated with the overall mass transfer coefficient (KL) of hydrogen sulphide in the liquid phase using a wind tunnel study. The experimental values for this coefficient have been compared with predicted KL values obtained from three different emission models that are widely used to determine volatilization rates from the quiescent surfaces of wastewater treatment unit processes. Friction velocity (in a range of 0.11 and 0.27 m s-1) was found to have a negligible influence on the overall mass transfer coefficients for hydrogen sulphide but by contrast two of the models predicted a stronger influence of friction velocity and overestimate the KL values by up to a factor of 12.5, thus risking unnecessary expenditure on odour control measures. However, at low wind speeds or friction velocities, when more odour complaints might be expected due to poor atmospheric dispersion, a better agreement of emission rates with experimental data was found for all the models.

  15. Investigation on heat transfer between two coaxial cylinders for measurement of thermal accommodation coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Kanazawa, Kazuaki; Matsuda, Yu; Niimi, Tomohide; Polikarpov, Alexey; Graur, Irina

    2012-06-01

    The heat flux between two coaxial cylinders was measured in the range from the free molecular to the early transitional flow regimes for extraction of the thermal accommodation coefficient using an approximate relation on the pressure dependence of the heat flux. The experimental coaxial cylinders' geometry has been traditionally implemented for the measurement of the thermal accommodation coefficient using the low-pressure method; however, the actual experimental setup was characterized by large temperature difference and large cylinders' radius ratio. Compared to the original low-pressure method, much higher pressure range was applied. In order to verify assumptions in the accommodation coefficient extraction, the heat flux under measurement conditions was simulated numerically by the nonlinear S-model kinetic equation. Very good agreement was found between the measured and the simulated heat flux. The proposed procedure of the thermal accommodation coefficient extraction was discussed in detail and verified. The temperature dependence of the thermal accommodation coefficient was also found.

  16. An efficient method for transfer cross coefficient approximation in model based optical proximity correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatier, Romuald; Fossati, Caroline; Bourennane, Salah; Di Giacomo, Antonio

    2008-10-01

    Model Based Optical Proximity Correction (MBOPC) is since a decade a widely used technique that permits to achieve resolutions on silicon layout smaller than the wave-length which is used in commercially-available photolithography tools. This is an important point, because masks dimensions are continuously shrinking. As for the current masks, several billions of segments have to be moved, and also, several iterations are needed to reach convergence. Therefore, fast and accurate algorithms are mandatory to perform OPC on a mask in a reasonably short time for industrial purposes. As imaging with an optical lithography system is similar to microscopy, the theory used in MBOPC is drawn from the works originally conducted for the theory of microscopy. Fourier Optics was first developed by Abbe to describe the image formed by a microscope and is often referred to as Abbe formulation. This is one of the best methods for optimizing illumination and is used in most of the commercially available lithography simulation packages. Hopkins method, developed later in 1951, is the best method for mask optimization. Consequently, Hopkins formulation, widely used for partially coherent illumination, and thus for lithography, is present in most of the commercially available OPC tools. This formulation has the advantage of a four-way transmission function independent of the mask layout. The values of this function, called Transfer Cross Coefficients (TCC), describe the illumination and projection pupils. Commonly-used algorithms, involving TCC of Hopkins formulation to compute aerial images during MBOPC treatment, are based on TCC decomposition into its eigenvectors using matricization and the well-known Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) tool. These techniques that use numerical approximation and empirical determination of the number of eigenvectors taken into account, could not match reality and lead to an information loss. They also remain highly runtime consuming. We propose an

  17. Estimation of heat transfer coefficients for biomass particles by direct numerical simulation using microstructured particle models in the Laminar regime

    SciTech Connect

    Pecha, M. Brennan; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Foust, Thomas D.; Ciesielski, Peter N.

    2016-11-08

    Here, direct numerical simulation of convective heat transfer from hot gas to isolated biomass particle models with realistic morphology and explicit microstructure was performed over a range of conditions with laminar flow of hot gas (500 degrees C). Steady-state results demonstrated that convective interfacial heat transfer is dependent on the wood species. The computed heat transfer coefficients were shown to vary between the pine and aspen models by nearly 20%. These differences are attributed to the species-specific variations in the exterior surface morphology of the biomass particles. We also quantify variations in heat transfer experienced by the particle when positioned in different orientations with respect to the direction of fluid flow. These results are compared to previously reported heat transfer coefficient correlations in the range of 0.1 < Pr < 1.5 and 10 < Re < 500. Comparison of these simulation results to correlations commonly used in the literature (Gunn, Ranz-Marshall, and Bird-Stewart-Lightfoot) shows that the Ranz-Marshall (sphere) correlation gave the closest h values to our steady-state simulations for both wood species, though no existing correlation was within 20% of both species at all conditions studied. In general, this work exemplifies the fact that all biomass feedstocks are not created equal, and that their species-specific characteristics must be appreciated in order to facilitate accurate simulations of conversion processes.

  18. Estimation of heat transfer coefficients for biomass particles by direct numerical simulation using microstructured particle models in the Laminar regime

    DOE PAGES

    Pecha, M. Brennan; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Foust, Thomas D.; ...

    2016-11-08

    Here, direct numerical simulation of convective heat transfer from hot gas to isolated biomass particle models with realistic morphology and explicit microstructure was performed over a range of conditions with laminar flow of hot gas (500 degrees C). Steady-state results demonstrated that convective interfacial heat transfer is dependent on the wood species. The computed heat transfer coefficients were shown to vary between the pine and aspen models by nearly 20%. These differences are attributed to the species-specific variations in the exterior surface morphology of the biomass particles. We also quantify variations in heat transfer experienced by the particle when positionedmore » in different orientations with respect to the direction of fluid flow. These results are compared to previously reported heat transfer coefficient correlations in the range of 0.1 < Pr < 1.5 and 10 < Re < 500. Comparison of these simulation results to correlations commonly used in the literature (Gunn, Ranz-Marshall, and Bird-Stewart-Lightfoot) shows that the Ranz-Marshall (sphere) correlation gave the closest h values to our steady-state simulations for both wood species, though no existing correlation was within 20% of both species at all conditions studied. In general, this work exemplifies the fact that all biomass feedstocks are not created equal, and that their species-specific characteristics must be appreciated in order to facilitate accurate simulations of conversion processes.« less

  19. The effect of microbubbles on gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient and degradation rate of COD in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kangning; Chi, Yong; Wang, Fei; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2016-01-01

    A commonly used aeration device at present has the disadvantages of low mass transfer rate because the generated bubbles are several millimeters in diameter which are much bigger than microbubbles. Therefore, the effect of a microbubble on gas-liquid mass transfer and wastewater treatment process was investigated. To evaluate the effect of each bubble type, the volumetric mass transfer coefficients for microbubbles and conventional bubbles were determined. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient was 0.02905 s(-1) and 0.02191 s(-1) at a gas flow rate of 0.67 L min(-1) in tap water for microbubbles and conventional bubbles, respectively. The degradation rate of simulated municipal wastewater was also investigated, using aerobic activated sludge and ozone. Compared with the conventional bubble generator, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 2.04, 5.9, 3.26 times higher than those of the conventional bubble contactor at the same initial COD concentration of COD 200 mg L(-1), 400 mg L(-1), and 600 mg L(-1), while aerobic activated sludge was used. For the ozonation process, the rate of COD removal using microbubble generator was 2.38, 2.51, 2.89 times of those of the conventional bubble generator. Based on the results, the effect of initial COD concentration on the specific COD degradation rate were discussed in different systems. Thus, the results revealed that microbubbles could enhance mass transfer in wastewater treatment and be an effective method to improve the degradation of wastewater.

  20. Application of deterministic chaos theory to local instantaneous temperature, pressure, and heat transfer coefficients in a gas fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Karamavruc, A.I.; Clark, N.N.

    1996-09-01

    A stainless steel heat transfer tube, carrying a hot water flow, was placed in a cold bubbling fluidized bed. The tube was instrumented in the circumferential direction with five fast-responding surface thermocouples and a vertical pressure differential sensor. The local temperature and pressure data were measured simultaneously at a frequency of 120 Hz. Additionally, the local instantaneous heat transfer coefficient was evaluated by solving the transient two-dimensional heat conduction equation across the tube wall numerically. The mutual information function (MIF) has been applied to the signals to observe the relationship between points separated in time. MIF was also used to provide the most appropriate time delay constant {tau} to reconstruct an m-dimensional phase portrait of the one-dimensional time series. The distinct variation of MIF around the tube indicates the variations of solid-surface contact in the circumferential direction. The correlation coefficient was evaluated to calculate the correlation exponent {nu}, which is closely related to the fractal dimension. The correlation exponent is a measure of the strange attractor. The minimum embedding dimension as well as the degrees of freedom of the system were evaluated via the correlation coefficient. Kolmogorov entropies of the signals were approximated by using the correlation coefficient. Kolmogorov entropy considers the inherent multi-dimensional nature of chaotic data. A positive estimation of Kolmogorov entropy is an indication of the chaotic nature of the signal. The Kolmogorov entropies of the temperature data around the tube were found to be between 10 bits/s and 24 bits/s. A comparison between the signals has shown that the local instantaneous heat transfer coefficient exhibits a higher degree of chaos than the local temperature and pressure signals.

  1. Lateral diffusion coefficients in membranes measured by resonance energy transfer and a new algorithm for diffusion in two dimensions.

    PubMed Central

    Kuśba, Jósef; Li, Li; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Johnson, Michael; Lakowicz, Joseph R

    2002-01-01

    We describe measurements of lateral diffusion in membranes using resonance energy transfer. The donor was a rhenium (Re) metal-ligand complex lipid, which displays a donor decay time near 3 micros. The long donor lifetime resulted in an ability to measure lateral diffusion coefficient below 10(-8) cm(2)/s. The donor decay data were analyzed using a new numerical algorithm for calculation of resonance energy transfer for donors and acceptors randomly distributed in two dimensions. An analytical solution to the diffusion equation in two dimensions is not known, so the equation was solved by the relaxation method in Laplace space. This algorithm allows the donor decay in the absence of energy transfer to be multiexponential. The simulations show that mutual lateral diffusion coefficients of the donor and acceptor on the order of 10(-8) cm(2)/s are readily recovered from the frequency-domain data with donor decay times on the microsecond timescale. Importantly, the lateral diffusion coefficients and acceptor concentrations can be recovered independently despite correlation between these parameters. This algorithm was tested and verified using the donor decays of a long lifetime rhenium lipid donor and a Texas red-lipid acceptor. Lateral diffusion coefficients ranged from 4.4 x 10(-9) cm(2)/s in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DMPG) at 10 degrees C to 1.7 x 10(-7) cm(2)/s in 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) at 35 degrees C. These results demonstrated the possibility of direct measurements of lateral diffusion coefficients using microsecond decay time luminophores. PMID:11867452

  2. Experiment 2028: Flowing Temperature Logs and Evaluation of Wellbore Heat Transfer Coefficients with the Nitrogen Blankets – Revision I

    SciTech Connect

    Zyvoloski, George A.; Dash, Zora V.; Murphy, Hugh D.

    1983-06-20

    The accurate assessment of temperatures in the casing and liner is critical to the safety of EE-3 during the upcoming fracturing experiment. The purpose of this experiment is to obtain heat transfer coefficients for the nitrogen filled annulus as well as the water filled annulus below the nitrogen water interface. In addition the flowing temperature logs that were not obtained during Experiment 2026 because of an obstruction; will now be obtained in this experiment.

  3. Mathematical Models and Calculation of the Coefficients of Heat and Mass Transfer in the Packings of Mechanical-Draft Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptev, A. G.; Lapteva, E. A.

    2017-05-01

    Semiempirical expressions for calculating the average coefficients of heat and mass transfer in the blocks of film-type sprayers are considered. The equations of the Chilton-Colburn hydrodynamic analogy, Prandtl model, generalizations of the hydrodynamic analogy, as well as dimensionless expressions and experimental data of various authors have been used. It is shown that the best agreement with experiment is provided by equations obtained with the aid of the hydrodynamic analogy and Prandtl model.

  4. Turbulent Transfer Coefficients and Calculation of Air Temperature inside Tall Grass Canopies in Land Atmosphere Schemes for Environmental Modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailovic, D. T.; Alapaty, K.; Lalic, B.; Arsenic, I.; Rajkovic, B.; Malinovic, S.

    2004-10-01

    A method for estimating profiles of turbulent transfer coefficients inside a vegetation canopy and their use in calculating the air temperature inside tall grass canopies in land surface schemes for environmental modeling is presented. The proposed method, based on K theory, is assessed using data measured in a maize canopy. The air temperature inside the canopy is determined diagnostically by a method based on detailed consideration of 1) calculations of turbulent fluxes, 2) the shape of the wind and turbulent transfer coefficient profiles, and 3) calculation of the aerodynamic resistances inside tall grass canopies. An expression for calculating the turbulent transfer coefficient inside sparse tall grass canopies is also suggested, including modification of the corresponding equation for the wind profile inside the canopy. The proposed calculations of K-theory parameters are tested using the Land Air Parameterization Scheme (LAPS). Model outputs of air temperature inside the canopy for 8 17 July 2002 are compared with micrometeorological measurements inside a sunflower field at the Rimski Sancevi experimental site (Serbia). To demonstrate how changes in the specification of canopy density affect the simulation of air temperature inside tall grass canopies and, thus, alter the growth of PBL height, numerical experiments are performed with LAPS coupled with a one-dimensional PBL model over a sunflower field. To examine how the turbulent transfer coefficient inside tall grass canopies over a large domain represents the influence of the underlying surface on the air layer above, sensitivity tests are performed using a coupled system consisting of the NCEP Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model and LAPS.


  5. In vitro calibration of a system for measurement of in vivo convective heat transfer coefficient in animals

    PubMed Central

    Tangwongsan, Chanchana; Chachati, Louay; Webster, John G; Farrell, Patrick V

    2006-01-01

    Background We need a sensor to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient during ablation of the heart or liver. Methods We built a minimally invasive instrument to measure the in vivo convective heat transfer coefficient, h in animals, using a Wheatstone-bridge circuit, similar to a hot-wire anemometer circuit. One arm is connected to a steerable catheter sensor whose tip is a 1.9 mm × 3.2 mm thin film resistive temperature detector (RTD) sensor. We used a circulation system to simulate different flow rates at 39°C for in vitro experiments using distilled water, tap water and saline. We heated the sensor approximately 5°C above the fluid temperature. We measured the power consumed by the sensor and the resistance of the sensor during the experiments and analyzed these data to determine the value of the convective heat transfer coefficient at various flow rates. Results From 0 to 5 L/min, experimental values of h in W/(m2·K) were for distilled water 5100 to 13000, for tap water 5500 to 12300, and for saline 5400 to 13600. Theoretical values were 1900 to 10700. Conclusion We believe this system is the smallest, most accurate method of minimally invasive measurement of in vivo h in animals and provides the least disturbance of flow. PMID:17067386

  6. Henry's law constant and overall mass transfer coefficient for formaldehyde emission from small water pools under simulated indoor environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Roache, Nancy F; Mocka, Corey A; Allen, Matt R; Mason, Mark A

    2015-02-03

    The Henry's law constant (HLC) and the overall mass transfer coefficient are both important parameters for modeling formaldehyde emissions from aqueous solutions. In this work, the apparent HLCs for formaldehyde aqueous solutions were determined in the concentration range from 0.01% to 1% (w/w) and at different temperatures (23, 40, and 55 °C) by a static headspace extraction method. The aqueous solutions tested included formaldehyde in water, formaldehyde-water with nonionic surfactant Tergitol NP-9, and formaldehyde-water with anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate. Overall, the measured HLCs ranged from 8.33 × 10(-6) to 1.12 × 10(-4) (gas-concentration/aqueous-concentration, dimensionless). Fourteen small-chamber tests were conducted with formaldehyde solutions in small pools. By applying the measured HLCs, the formaldehyde overall liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients (KOLs) were determined to be in the range of 8.12 × 10(-5) to 2.30 × 10(-4) m/h, and the overall gas-phase mass transfer coefficients were between 2.84 and 13.4 m/h. The influences of the formaldehyde concentration, temperature, agitation rate, and surfactant on HLC and KOL were investigated. This study provides useful data to support source modeling for indoor formaldehyde originating from the use of household products that contain formaldehyde-releasing biocides.

  7. In vitro calibration of a system for measurement of in vivo convective heat transfer coefficient in animals.

    PubMed

    Tangwongsan, Chanchana; Chachati, Louay; Webster, John G; Farrell, Patrick V

    2006-10-26

    We need a sensor to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient during ablation of the heart or liver. We built a minimally invasive instrument to measure the in vivo convective heat transfer coefficient, h in animals, using a Wheatstone-bridge circuit, similar to a hot-wire anemometer circuit. One arm is connected to a steerable catheter sensor whose tip is a 1.9 mm x 3.2 mm thin film resistive temperature detector (RTD) sensor. We used a circulation system to simulate different flow rates at 39 degrees C for in vitro experiments using distilled water, tap water and saline. We heated the sensor approximately 5 degrees C above the fluid temperature. We measured the power consumed by the sensor and the resistance of the sensor during the experiments and analyzed these data to determine the value of the convective heat transfer coefficient at various flow rates. From 0 to 5 L/min, experimental values of h in W/(m2.K) were for distilled water 5100 to 13000, for tap water 5500 to 12300, and for saline 5400 to 13600. Theoretical values were 1900 to 10700. We believe this system is the smallest, most accurate method of minimally invasive measurement of in vivo h in animals and provides the least disturbance of flow.

  8. A Study of the Heat Transfer Coefficient of a Mini Channel Evaporator with R-134a as Refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollera, E. B.; Villanueva, E. P.

    2015-09-01

    The present study is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient of the minichannel copper blocks used as evaporator with R-134a as the refrigerant. Experiments were conducted using three evaporator specimens of different channel hydraulic diameters (1.0mm, 2.0mm, 3.0mm). The total length for each channel is 640 mm. The dimension of each is 100mm.x50mm.x20mm. and the outside surfaces were machined to have fins. They were connected to a standard vapour compression refrigeration system. During each run of the experiment, the copper block evaporator was placed inside a small wind tunnel where controlled flow of air from a forced draft fan was introduced for the cooling process. The experimental set-up used data acquisition software and computer-aided simulation software was used to simulate the pressure drop and temperature profiles of the evaporator during the experimental run. The results were then compared with the Shah correlation. The Shah correlation over predicted and under predicted the values as compared with the experimental results for all of the three diameters and high variation for Dh=1.0mm. This indicates that the Shah correlation at small diameters is not the appropriate equation for predicting the heat transfer coefficient. The trend of the heat transfer coefficient is increasing as the size of the diameter increases.

  9. Transition from downward to upward air-sea momentum transfer in swell-dominated light wind condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedman, Ann-Sofi; Högström, Ulf; Rutgersson, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric and surface wave data from two oceanic experiments carried out on FLIP and ASIS platforms are analysed in order to identify swell-related effects on the momentum exchange during low wind speed conditions. The RED experiment was carried out on board an R/P Floating Instrument Platform, FLIP, anchored north east of the Hawaiian island Oahu with sonic anemometers at four levels: 5.1 m, 6.9 m, 9.9 m and 13.8 m respectively. The meteorological conditions were characterized by north- easterly trade wind and with swell present during most of the time. During swell the momentum flux was directed downwards meaning a positive contribution to the stress. The FETCH experiment was carried out in the Gulf of Lion in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. On the ASIS (air-sea interaction spar) buoy a sonic anemometer was mounted at 7 m above the mean surface level. During strong swell conditions the momentum flux was directed upwards meaning a negative contribution to the stress in this case. The downward momentum flux is shown to be a function of the orbital circulation while the upward momentum flux is a function of wave height. The dividing wind speed is found to be 3.5 m/s Conclusion: Wind speed > 3.5 m/s creates waves (ripples) and thus roughness. Combination of orbital motion and asymmetric structure of ripples lead to flow perturbation and downward transport of negative momentum. With low wind speed (no ripples but viscosity) circulations will form above the crest and the trough with opposite direction which will cause a pressure drop in the vertical direction and an upward momentum transport from the water to the air.

  10. Jet momentum balance independent of shear viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, R. B.

    2012-03-01

    Jet momentum balance measurements, such as those recently performed by the CMS collaboration, provide an opportunity to quantify the energy transferred from a parton shower to the underlying medium in heavy-ion collisions. Specifically, I argue that the Cooper-Frye freeze-out distribution associated with the energy and momentum deposited by the parton shower is controlled to a significant extent by the distribution of the underlying bulk matter and independent of the details of how deposited energy is redistributed in the medium, which is largely determined by transport coefficients such as shear viscosity. Thus, by matching the distribution of momentum associated with the secondary jet in such measurements to the thermal distribution of the underlying medium, one can obtain a model-independent estimate on the amount of parton shower energy deposited.

  11. Dependencies of lepton angular distribution coefficients on the transverse momentum and rapidity of Z bosons produced in p p collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wen-Chen; McClellan, Randall Evan; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Teryaev, Oleg

    2017-09-01

    High precision data of lepton angular distributions for γ*/Z production in p p collisions at the LHC, covering broad ranges of dilepton transverse momenta (qT) and rapidity (y ), were recently reported. Strong qT dependencies were observed for several angular distribution coefficients, Ai, including A0-A4. Significant y dependencies were also found for the coefficients A1, A3 and A4, while A0 and A2 exhibit very weak rapidity dependence. Using an intuitive geometric picture, we show that the qT and y dependencies of the angular distributions coefficients can be well described.

  12. Heat-transfer coefficients for air flowing in round tubes, in rectangular ducts, and around finned cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drexel, Rober E; Mcadams, William H

    1945-01-01

    Report reviews published data and presents some new data on heat transfer to air flowing in round tubes, in rectangular ducts, and around finned cylinders. The available data for heat transfer to air in straight ducts of rectangular and circular cross section have been correlated in plots of Stanton number versus Reynolds number to provide a background for the study of the data for finned cylinders. Equations are recommended for both the streamlined and turbulent regions, and data are presented for the transition region between turbulent and laminar flow. Use of hexagonal ends on round tubes causes the characteristics of laminar flow to extend to high Reynolds numbers. Average coefficients for the entire finned cylinder have been calculated from the average temperature at the base of the fins and an equation which was derived to allow for the effectiveness of the fins. The available results for each finned cylinder are correlated herein in terms of graphs of Stanton number versus Reynolds number. In general, for a given Reynolds number, the Stanton number increases with increases in both spacing and width of the fins, and is apparently independent of cylinder diameter and temperature difference. For a given coefficient of heat transfer improved baffles and rough or wavy surfaces give a substantial reduction in pumping power per unit of heat transfer surface and a somewhat smaller decrease in pressure drop. (author)

  13. DETERMINATION OF CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT AT THE OUTER SURFACE OF A CRYOVIAL BEING PLUNGED INTO LIQUID NITROGEN.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Zhao, G; Tang, H Y; Jiang, Z D

    2015-01-01

    Cell survival upon cryopreservation is affected by the cooling rate. However, it is difficult to model the heat transfer process or to predict the cooling curve of a cryoprotective agent (CPA) solution due to the uncertainty of its convective heat transfer coefficient (h). To measure the h and to better understand the heat transfer process of cryovials filled with CPA solution being plunged in liquid nitrogen. The temperatures at three locations of the CPA solution in a cryovial were measured. Different h values were selected after the cooling process was modeled as natural convection heat transfer, the film boiling and the nucleate boiling, respectively. And the temperatures of the selected points are simulated based on the selected h values. h was determined when the simulated temperature best fitted the experimental temperature. When the experimental results were best fitted, according to natural convection heat transfer model, h(1) = 120 W/(m(2)·K) while due to film boiling and nucleate boiling regimes h(f) = 5 W/(m(2)·K) followed by h(n) = 245 W/(m(2)·K). These values were verified by the differential cooling rates at the three locations of a cryovial. The heat transfer process during cooling in liquid nitrogen is better modeled as film boiling followed by nucleate boiling.

  14. Two Experiments for Estimating Free Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economides, Michael J.; Maloney, J. O.

    1978-01-01

    This article describes two simple undergraduate heat transfer experiments which may reinforce a student's understanding of free convection and radiation. Apparatus, experimental procedure, typical results, and discussion are included. (Author/BB)

  15. Comparison of outside-surface heat-transfer coefficients for cascades of turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbartt, James E

    1950-01-01

    A comparison of available results from heat-transfer investigations on cascades of turbine blades is presented using the Nusselt equation. The conventional correlation procedure is modified by defining the Reynolds number by the average of the velocities and the pressures around the blades. The correlation of the results from impulse blades was improved by using the Reynolds number defined by the average velocity and pressure. The final comparison indicated that several variables, which possibly influence heat transfer, should be investigated.

  16. A method for estimating distributions of mass transfer rate coefficients with application to purging and batch experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenbeck, K. J.; Harvey, C. F.; Haggerty, R.; Werth, C. J.

    1999-04-01

    Mass transfer between aquifer material and groundwater is often modeled as first-order rate-limited sorption or diffusive exchange between mobile zones and immobile zones with idealized geometries. Recent improvements in experimental techniques and advances in our understanding of pore-scale heterogeneity demonstrate that two (or even a few) rate coefficients are insufficient in many cases. Here, we investigate a piece-wise linear model for a continuous distribution of rate coefficients, that has several advantages over previously used `statistical' distribution models (with functional form from gamma or lognormal PDF's): (1) distributions of arbitrary, even bimodal, shapes can be represented; (2) linear estimation methods can be applied to determine the distribution from experimental data; (3) the uncertainty in the distribution can be determined for each of its sections; and (4) the relationship between the time scales of available data and those of estimatable mass transfer processes can be investigated. A statistical model refinement algorithm is presented that reduces the number of parameters (sections of the piece-wise linear model) to the admissible minimum. We show that purging experiments allow estimation of a wider zone of the rate distribution than do batch experiments, and hence will provide predictions that are accurate over a wider range of time scales. Finally, in an application to TCE gas-purging desorption data, the piece-wise linear rate-distribution model has a higher probability of being adequate than those using a gamma or lognormal distribution or a single rate coefficient.

  17. A Novel Method for Measuring the Diffusion, Partition and Convective Mass Transfer Coefficients of Formaldehyde and VOC in Building Materials

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jianyin; Huang, Shaodan; Zhang, Yinping

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient (Dm) and material/air partition coefficient (K) are two key parameters characterizing the formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOC) sorption behavior in building materials. By virtue of the sorption process in airtight chamber, this paper proposes a novel method to measure the two key parameters, as well as the convective mass transfer coefficient (hm). Compared to traditional methods, it has the following merits: (1) the K, Dm and hm can be simultaneously obtained, thus is convenient to use; (2) it is time-saving, just one sorption process in airtight chamber is required; (3) the determination of hm is based on the formaldehyde and VOC concentration data in the test chamber rather than the generally used empirical correlations obtained from the heat and mass transfer analogy, thus is more accurate and can be regarded as a significant improvement. The present method is applied to measure the three parameters by treating the experimental data in the literature, and good results are obtained, which validates the effectiveness of the method. Our new method also provides a potential pathway for measuring hm of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) by using that of VOC. PMID:23145156

  18. Electromagnetic momentum conservation in media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Iver; Ellingsen, Simen Å.

    2011-03-01

    That static electric and magnetic fields can store momentum may be perplexing, but is necessary to ensure total conservation of momentum. Simple situations in which such field momentum is transferred to nearby bodies and point charges have often been considered for pedagogical purposes, normally assuming vacuum surroundings. If dielectric media are involved, however, the analysis becomes more delicate, not least since one encounters the electromagnetic energy-momentum problem in matter, the 'Abraham-Minkowski enigma', of what the momentum is of a photon in matter. We analyze the momentum balance in three nontrivial examples obeying azimuthal symmetry, showing how the momentum conservation is satisfied as the magnetic field decays and momentum is transferred to bodies present. In the last of the examples, that of point charge outside a dielectric sphere in an infinite magnetic field, we find that not all of the field momentum is transferred to the nearby bodies; a part of the momentum appears to vanish as momentum flux towards infinity. We discuss this and other surprising observations which can be attributed to the assumption of magnetic fields of infinite extent. We emphasize how formal arguments of conserved quantities cannot determine which energy-momentum tensor is more "correct", and each of our conservation checks may be performed equally well in the Minkowski or Abraham framework.

  19. Electromagnetic momentum conservation in media

    SciTech Connect

    Brevik, Iver; Ellingsen, Simen A.

    2011-03-15

    That static electric and magnetic fields can store momentum may be perplexing, but is necessary to ensure total conservation of momentum. Simple situations in which such field momentum is transferred to nearby bodies and point charges have often been considered for pedagogical purposes, normally assuming vacuum surroundings. If dielectric media are involved, however, the analysis becomes more delicate, not least since one encounters the electromagnetic energy-momentum problem in matter, the 'Abraham-Minkowski enigma', of what the momentum is of a photon in matter. We analyze the momentum balance in three nontrivial examples obeying azimuthal symmetry, showing how the momentum conservation is satisfied as the magnetic field decays and momentum is transferred to bodies present. In the last of the examples, that of point charge outside a dielectric sphere in an infinite magnetic field, we find that not all of the field momentum is transferred to the nearby bodies; a part of the momentum appears to vanish as momentum flux towards infinity. We discuss this and other surprising observations which can be attributed to the assumption of magnetic fields of infinite extent. We emphasize how formal arguments of conserved quantities cannot determine which energy-momentum tensor is more 'correct', and each of our conservation checks may be performed equally well in the Minkowski or Abraham framework.

  20. Partition coefficients for the SAMPL5 challenge using transfer free energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Michael R.; Brooks, Bernard R.; Wilson, Angela K.

    2016-11-01

    SAMPL challenges (Mobley et al. in J Comput Aided Mol Des 28:135-150, 2014; Skillman in J Comput Aided Mol Des 26:473-474, 2012; Geballe in J Comput Aided Mol Des 24:259-279, 2010; Guthrie in J Phys Chem B 113:4501-4507, 2009) provide excellent opportunities to assess theoretical approaches on new data sets with a goal of gaining greater insight towards protein and ligand modeling. In the SAMPL5 experiment, cyclohexane-water partition coefficients were determined using a vertical solvation scheme in conjunction with the SMD continuum solvent model. Several DFT functionals partnered with correlation consistent basis sets were evaluated for the prediction of the partition coefficients. The approach chosen for the competition, a B3PW91 vertical solvation scheme, yields a mean absolute deviation of 1.9 logP units and performs well at estimating the correct hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity for the full SAMPL5 molecule set.

  1. Transferring calibration coefficients from ionisation chambers used for diagnostic radiology to transmission chambers.

    PubMed

    Yoshizumi, Maíra T; Caldas, Linda V E

    2012-07-01

    In this work, the response of a double volume transmission ionisation chamber, developed at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, was compared to that of a commercial transmission chamber. Both ionisation chambers were tested in different X-ray beam qualities using secondary standard ionisation chambers as reference dosimeters. These standard ionisation chambers were a parallel-plate and a cylindrical ionisation chambers, used for diagnostic radiology and mammography beam qualities, respectively. The response of both transmission chambers was compared to that of the secondary standard chambers to obtain coefficients of equivalence. These coefficients allow the transmission chambers to be used as reference equipment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental investigation of heat transfer performance coefficient in tube bundle of shell and tube heat exchanger in two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaś, Marcin; Zając, Daniel; Ulbrich, Roman

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the results of studies in two phase gasliquid flow around tube bundle in the model of shell tube heat exchanger. Experimental investigations of heat transfer coefficient on the tubes surface were performed with the aid of electrochemical technique. Chilton-Colburn analogy between heat and mass transfer was used. Twelve nickel cathodes were mounted on the outside surface of one of the tubes. Measurement of limiting currents in the cathodic reduction of ferricyanide ions on nickel electrodes in aqueous solution of equimolar quantities of K3Fe(CN)6 and K4Fe(CN)6 in the presence of NaOH basic solution were applied to determine the mass transfer coefficient. Controlled diffusion from ions at the electrode was observed and limiting current plateau was measured. Measurements were performed with data acquisition equipment controlled by software created for this experiment. Mass transfer coefficient was calculated on the basis of the limiting current measurements. Results of mass transfer experiments (mass transfer coefficient) were recalculated to heat transfer coefficient. During the experiments, simultaneously conducted was the the investigation of two-phase flow structures around tubes with the use of digital particle image velocimetry. Average velocity fields around tubes were created with the use of a number of flow images and compared with the results of heat transfer coefficient calculations.

  3. Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficient in a Gun Barrel from Experimental Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Barrels, BRL-R- 1740, September 1974. AD #BOOO71L. Mark W. Zemansky , Heat and Thermodynamics, McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York, 1957. 3 Max Jacob...September 1974. AD #BOO17lL. 2. Mark W. Zemansky , Heat and Thermodynamics, McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York, 1957. 3. Max Jacob, Heat Transfer, Vol. 1

  4. Comparison of experimental methods for determination of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient in fermentation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobajas, M.; García-Calvo, E.

    Mass transfer in bioreactors has been examined. In the present work, dynamic methods are used for the determination of KLa values for water, model media and a fermentation broth (Candida utilis) in an airlift reactor. The conventional dynamic method is applied at the end of the microbial process in order to avoid an alteration in the metabolism of the microorganisms. New dynamic methods are used to determine KLa in an airlift reactor during the microbial growth of Candida utilis on glucose. One of the methods is based on the continuous measurement of carbon dioxide production while the other method is based on the relationship between the oxygen transfer and biomass growth rates. These methods of determining KLa does not interfere with the microorganisms action. A theoretical mass transfer model has been used for KLa estimation for the systems described above. Some differences between calculated and measured values are found for fermentation processes due to the model is developed for two-phase air-water systems. Nevertheless, the average deviation between the predicted values and those obtained from the relationship between oxygen transfer and biomass production rates are lower than 25% in any case.

  5. Magnetic Co@g-C3N4 Core-Shells on rGO Sheets for Momentum Transfer with Catalytic Activity toward Continuous-Flow Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shasha; Han, Guosheng; Su, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yanyan; Wu, Xianli; Li, Baojun

    2016-06-28

    Magnetic core-shell structures provide abundant opportunities for the construction of multifunctional composites. In this article, magnetic core-shells were fabricated with Co nanoparticles (NPs) as cores and g-C3N4 as shells. In the fabrication process, the Co@g-C3N4 core-shells were anchored onto the rGO nanosheets to form a Co@g-C3N4-rGO composite (CNG-I). For hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of NaBH4 or NH3BH3, the Co NP cores act as catalytic active sites. The g-C3N4 shells protect Co NPs cores from aggregating or growing. The connection between Co NPs and rGO was strengthened by the g-C3N4 shells to prevent them from leaching or flowing away. The g-C3N4 shells also work as a cocatalyst for hydrogen generation. The magnetism of Co NPs and the shape of rGO nanosheets achieve effective momentum transfer in the external magnetic field. In the batch reactor, a higher catalytic activity was obtained for CNG-I in self-stirring mode than in magneton stirring mode. In the continuous-flow process, stable hydrogen generation was carried out with CNG-I being fixed and propelled by the external magnetic field. The separation film is unnecessary because of magnetic momentum transfer. This idea of the composite design and magnetic momentum transfer will be useful for the development of both hydrogen generation and multifunctional composite materials.

  6. Momentum Distribution as a Fingerprint of Quantum Delocalization in Enzymatic Reactions: Open-Chain Path-Integral Simulations of Model Systems and the Hydride Transfer in Dihydrofolate Reductase.

    PubMed

    Engel, Hamutal; Doron, Dvir; Kohen, Amnon; Major, Dan Thomas

    2012-04-10

    The inclusion of nuclear quantum effects such as zero-point energy and tunneling is of great importance in studying condensed phase chemical reactions involving the transfer of protons, hydrogen atoms, and hydride ions. In the current work, we derive an efficient quantum simulation approach for the computation of the momentum distribution in condensed phase chemical reactions. The method is based on a quantum-classical approach wherein quantum and classical simulations are performed separately. The classical simulations use standard sampling techniques, whereas the quantum simulations employ an open polymer chain path integral formulation which is computed using an efficient Monte Carlo staging algorithm. The approach is validated by applying it to a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator and symmetric double-well potential. Subsequently, the method is applied to the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzed reduction of 7,8-dihydrofolate by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydride (NADPH) to yield S-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADP(+). The key chemical step in the catalytic cycle of DHFR involves a stereospecific hydride transfer. In order to estimate the amount of quantum delocalization, we compute the position and momentum distributions for the transferring hydride ion in the reactant state (RS) and transition state (TS) using a recently developed hybrid semiempirical quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics potential energy surface. Additionally, we examine the effect of compression of the donor-acceptor distance (DAD) in the TS on the momentum distribution. The present results suggest differential quantum delocalization in the RS and TS, as well as reduced tunneling upon DAD compression.

  7. Measurement of Charge Transfer Rate Coefficient Between Ground-State N(2+) Ion and He at Electron-Volt Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Z.; Kwong, Victor H. S.

    1997-01-01

    The charge transfer rate coefficient for the reaction N(2+)(2p(sup 2)P(sup 0)) + He yields products is measured by recording the time dependence of the N(2+) ions stored in an ion trap. A cylindrical radio-frequency ion trap was used to store N(2+) ions produced by laser ablation of a solid titanium nitride target. The decay of the ion signals was analyzed by single exponential least-squares fits to the data. The measured rate coefficient is 8.67(0.76) x 10(exp -11)sq cm/s. The N(2+) ions were at a mean energy of 2.7 eV while He gas was at room temperature, corresponding to an equivalent temperature of 3.9 x 10(exp 3) K. The measured value is in good agreement with a recent calculation.

  8. Measurements of the proton elastic-form-factor ratio mu pG p E/G p M at low momentum transfer.

    PubMed

    Ron, G; Glister, J; Lee, B; Allada, K; Armstrong, W; Arrington, J; Beck, A; Benmokhtar, F; Berman, B L; Boeglin, W; Brash, E; Camsonne, A; Calarco, J; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Coman, L; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; Dumas, J; Dutta, C; Feuerbach, R; Freyberger, A; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilman, R; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H; Ilieva, Y; de Jager, C W; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Kang, H; Kelleher, A; Khrosinkova, E; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Markowitz, P; May-Tal Beck, S; McCullough, E; Meekins, D; Meziane, M; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Norum, B E; Oh, Y; Olson, M; Paolone, M; Paschke, K; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Pomatsalyuk, R; Pomerantz, I; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R; Reyhan, M; Roche, J; Rousseau, Y; Saha, A; Sarty, A J; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Shneor, R; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Song, J; Sparks, R; Subedi, R; Strauch, S; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zhan, X; Zhu, X

    2007-11-16

    High-precision measurements of the proton elastic form-factor ratio, mu pG p E/G p M, have been made at four-momentum transfer, Q2, values between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to G p E being smaller than expected.

  9. Momentum-transfer contributions to the radiative corrections of the Dalitz plot of semileptonic decays of charged baryons with light or charm quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Tun, D.M.; Juarez W., S.R. ); Garcia, A. )

    1991-12-01

    We obtain an expression for the Dalitz plot of semileptonic decays of charged baryons, including radiative corrections with all the terms of the order {alpha} times the momentum transfer. The model dependence of the radiative corrections is kept in a general form which is suitable for model-independent experimental analysis. The bremsstrahlung contribution is given in two ways. The first one leaves the triple integration over the photon variables to be performed numerically and the second one is completely analytic. Our result is suitable for high-statistics decays of ordinary baryons as well as for medium-statistics decays of charm baryons.

  10. Determination of the mass-transfer coefficient in liquid phase in a stream-bubble contact device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, A. V.; Dmitrieva, O. S.; Madyshev, I. N.

    2016-09-01

    One of the most effective energy saving technologies is the improvement of existing heat and mass exchange units. A stream-bubble contact device is designed to enhance the operation efficiency of heat and mass exchange units. The stages of the stream-bubble units that are proposed by the authors for the decarbonization process comprise contact devices with equivalent sizes, whose number is determined by the required performance of a unit. This approach to the structural design eliminates the problems that arise upon the transition from laboratory samples to industrial facilities and makes it possible to design the units of any required performance without a decrease in the effectiveness of mass exchange. To choose the optimal design that provides the maximum effectiveness of the mass-exchange processes in units and their intensification, the change of the mass-transfer coefficient is analyzed with the assumption of a number of parameters. The results of the study of the effect of various structural parameters of a stream-bubble contact device on the mass-transfer coefficient in the liquid phase are given. It is proven that the mass-transfer coefficient increases in the liquid phase, in the first place, with the growth of the level of liquid in the contact element, because the rate of the liquid run-off grows in this case and, consequently, the time of surface renewal is reduced; in the second place, with an increase in the slot diameter in the downpipe, because the jet diameter and, accordingly, their section perimeter and the area of the surface that is immersed in liquid increase; and, in the third place, with an increase in the number of slots in the downpipe, because the area of the surface that is immersed in the liquid of the contact element increases. Thus, in order to increase the mass-transfer coefficient in the liquid phase, it is necessary to design the contact elements with a minimum width and a large number of slots and their increased diameter; in

  11. Determination of Local Experimental Heat-Transfer Coefficients on Combustion Side of an Ammonia-Oxygen Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Ehlers, Robert C.

    1961-01-01

    Local experimental heat-transfer coefficients were measured in the chamber and throat of a 2400-pound-thrust ammonia-oxygen rocket engine with a nominal chamber pressure of 600 pounds per square inch absolute. Three injector configurations were used. The rocket engine was run over a range of oxidant-fuel ratio and chamber pressure. The injector that achieved the best performance also produced the highest rates of heat flux at design conditions. The heat-transfer data from the best-performing injector agreed well with the simplified equation developed by Bartz at the throat region. A large spread of data was observed for the chamber. This spread was attributed generally to the variations of combustion processes. The spread was least evident, however, with the best-performing injector.

  12. Analysis of transient heat flow to thick-walled plates and cylinders. [to determine gas heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    A methodology is described for the analysis of a transient temperature measurement made in a flat or curved plate subjected to convective heat transfer, such that the surface heat flux, the hot-gas temperture, and the gas heat transfer coefficient can be determined. It is shown that if the transient temperature measurement is made at a particular point located nearly midway in the thickness of the plate there is an important simplification in the data analysis process, in that the factor relating the surface heat flux to the measured rate of rise of temperature becomes invariant for a Fourier Number above 0.60 and for all values of the Biot Number. Parameters are derived, tabulated, and plotted which enable straightforward determination of the surface heat flux, the hot-gas temperature, of the plate, the rate of rise of temperature, the plate thickness and curvature, and the mean thermal properties of the plate material at the test temperature.

  13. The effect of the liquid-solid system properties on the interline heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wayner, P. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical procedure to determine the heat transfer characteristics of the interline region of an evaporating meniscus using the macroscopic optical and thermophysical properties of the system is outlined. The analysis is based on the premise that the interline transport processes are controlled by the London-van der Waals forces between condensed phases (solid and liquid). The procedure is used to compare the relative size of the interline heat sink of various systems using a constant heat flux model. This solution demonstrates the importance of the interline heat flow number which is evaluated for various systems. The heat transfer characteristics of the decane-steel system are numerically compared with those of the carbon tetrachloride-quartz system.

  14. Indirect Measurement of Local Condensing Heat-Transfer Coefficient Around Horizontal Finned Tubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    56 B. DATA REDUCTION .............................. 58 1. Modified Wilson Plot on Finned Tubes .... 60 2, Determination ...and materials in order to determine the optimum character’stics when applied to specific applications [3,10). The specific configuration of the fins on...a condenser tube - determine the steam-side heat-transfer performance. As it has been well established, some portion (i.e., lover portion) of a finned

  15. Effect of Inlet Geometry on the Turbine Blade Tip Region Heat Transfer Coefficient and Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    steady state liquid crystal technique. Film cooling injection provides the tip with a blanket of protection from the hot leakage flow. This ex- tends...make use of liquid crystal thermography to obtain the heat transfer data. The data acquisition method corresponds to the steady-state technique with...the use of wide band liquid crystals . It requires a reduced number of experiments when compared with narrow band crystals and thermocouples, and

  16. Medium effect (transfer activity coefficient) of methanol and acetonitrile on beta-cyclodextrin/benzoate complexation in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Porras, Simo P; Sarmini, Karim; Fanali, Salvatore; Kenndler, Ernst

    2003-04-01

    Association constants, Kc, were derived from the electrophoretic mobilities of the anionic solutes (seven benzoates with hydroxy or chloro substituents) by capillary zone electrophoresis in different solvent systems, consisting of binary mixtures of water with up to 20% (v/v) methanol or acetonitrile, respectively. The association constants expectedly are found to decrease with increasing organic solvent concentration. The effect of organic solvents on the Kc of the benzoates with beta-cyclodextrin was analyzed applying the concept of the transfer activity coefficient (or the medium effect). This concept enables the evaluation of the significance of the contributions of the individual species involved in the complexation equilibrium in the different solvents: the benzoate ion, beta-cyclodextrin, and the anionic benzoate-beta-cyclodextrin complex. The medium effect on benzoate was calculated from the change in acidity constant of benzoic acid in the different mixed solvents and the corresponding transfer activity coefficients of the proton and the molecular acid. The transfer activity coefficients for beta-cyclodextrin results from its solubility at saturation in the different solvents. In this way, an estimation of the standard free energy of transfer, deltaG(t)0, of each species involved in the complexation equilibrium was possible for the transfer from water into the respective mixed solvent. It was found that the organic solvents do not significantly affect deltaG(t)0 for the benzoate anion. However, the organic solvents play a different role concerning the stabilization of beta-cyclodextrin and the complex anion: whereas the addition of acetonitrile has nearly no influence on deltaG(t)0 of the anionic complex, the reduction in Kc is caused by the enhanced stabilization of beta-cyclodextrin (reflected by its better solubility). Addition of methanol, on the other hand, lowers the solubility of beta-cyclodextrin, thus giving positive values for deltaG(t)0. Thus

  17. Transfer of spin angular momentum from Cs vapor to nearby Cs salts through laser-induced spin currents

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, K.; Patton, B.; Olsen, B. A.; Jau, Y.-Y.; Happer, W.

    2011-06-15

    Optical pumping of alkali-metal atoms in vapor cells causes spin currents to flow to the cell walls where excess angular momentum accumulates in the wall nuclei. Experiments reported here indicate that the substantial enhancement of the nuclear-spin polarization of salts at the cell walls is primarily due to the nuclear-spin current, with a lesser contribution from the electron-spin current of the vapor.

  18. Pressure-induced absorption coefficients for radiative transfer calculations in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtin, Regis

    1988-01-01

    The semiempirical theory of Birnbaum and Cohen (1976) is used to calculate the FIR pressure-induced absorption (PIA) spectra of N2, CH4, N2 + Ar, N2 + CH4, and N2 + H2 under conditions like those in the Titan troposphere. The results are presented graphically and compared with published data from laboratory measurements of PIA in the same gases and mixtures (Dagg et al., 1986; Dore et al., 1986). Good agreement is obtained, with only a slight underestimation of PIA at 300-400/cm in the case of CH4. The absorption coefficients are presented in tables, and it is suggested that the present findings are of value for evaluating the effects of tropospheric clouds on the Titan FIR spectrum and studying the greenhouse effect near the Titan surface.

  19. Transfer coefficients of selected radionuclides to animal products. I. Comparison of milk and meat from dairy cows and goats

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.E.; Ward, G.M.; Ennis, M.E. Jr.; Boamah, K.N.

    1988-02-01

    The diet-milk transfer coefficient, Fm (Bq L-1 output in milk divided by Bq d-1 intake to the animal) was studied for eight radionuclides that previously had been given little attention. The Fm values for cows and goats, respectively, were: 2.3 x 10(-5) and 1.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 99m/Tc, 1.4 x 10(-4) and 8.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 95m/Tc, 1.1 x 10(-2) for /sup 99/Tc (goats only); 1.7 x 10(-3) and 9 x 10(-3) for /sup 99/Mo; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.4 x 10(-3) for /sup 123m/Te; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.6 x 10(-3) for /sup 133/Ba; 5.5 x 10(-7) and 5.5 x 10(-6) for /sup 95/Zr; and 4.1 x 10(-7) and 6.4 x 10(-6) for /sup 95/Nb. The goat/cow transfer coefficient ratios for milk were approximately 10, but the goat/cow ratios for meat varied by three orders of magnitude.

  20. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of Automatic Transmission Fluid Jets with Implications for Electric Machine Thermal Management: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, Kevin; Moreno, Gilberto

    2015-09-29

    Thermal management for electric machines (motors/ generators) is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. Cooling of the electric machine(s) in some electric vehicle traction drive applications is accomplished by impinging automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets onto the machine's copper windings. In this study, we provide the results of experiments characterizing the thermal performance of ATF jets on surfaces representative of windings, using Ford's Mercon LV ATF. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients. Fluid temperatures were varied from 50 degrees C to 90 degrees C to encompass potential operating temperatures within an automotive transaxle environment. The jet nozzle velocities were varied from 0.5 to 10 m/s. The experimental ATF heat transfer coefficient results provided in this report are a useful resource for understanding factors that influence the performance of ATF-based cooling systems for electric machines.

  1. Impact of the filling level on the global heat transfer coefficient of a plate cross section for sorption heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud, Florine; Hamitouche, Yacine; Vallon, Pierrick; Tremeac, Brice

    2017-02-01

    Compact evaporator like plate heat exchangers can play a significant role in reducing the investment cost of low cooling power sorption systems. However, when water is used as refrigerant, the working pressure is very low and vaporization phenomena are really different than vaporization phenomena occurring at higher pressures. Few studies focus on this subject and there is a lack of knowledge about vaporization (boiling or evaporation) phenomena occurring in compact evaporators at low pressure. The design of such evaporators remain manly empirical. There is thus a need of better characterization of the influence of the driving parameters in order to optimize the evaporator design. The objective of this article is thus to go further in the understanding of phenomena occurring in compact plate-type evaporators. In that goal, an experimental campaign was conducted to study continuously the performance of a smooth plate type evaporator as a function of the filling levels. The influence of the saturation pressure and the secondary fluid temperature on an overall heat transfer coefficient is studied. It is show that there is a dependence of the maximal overall heat transfer coefficient to these parameters. It is also shown that there seems to be a strong dependence between phenomena observed and phenomena that happens before. Thus, dynamic and inertia effects must be taken into account and model developed in absorption configuration cannot be applied for this study.

  2. Experimental verification of heat transfer coefficient for nucleate boiling at sub-atmospheric pressure and small heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajaczkowski, Bartosz; Halon, Tomasz; Krolicki, Zbigniew

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we study the influence of sub-atmospheric pressure on nucleate boiling. Sixteen correlations for pool boiling available in literature are gathered and evaluated. Analysis is performed in the pressure range 1-10 kPa and for heat flux densities 10-45 kW/m2. Superheats are set between 6.2 and 28.7 K. The results of calculations were compared with experimental values for the same parameters. The experiments were conducted using isolated glass cylinder and water boiling above the copper plate. Results show that low pressure adjust the character of boiling curve—the curve flattened and the natural convection region of boiling is shifted towards higher wall temperature superheats due to the influence of low pressure on the bubble creation and process of its departure. In result, 8 of 16 analyzed correlations were determined as completely invalid in subatmospheric conditions and the remaining set of equations was compared to experimental results. Experimentally obtained values of heat transfer coefficients are between 1 and 2 kW/m2K. With mean absolute deviation (MAD) we have found that the most accurate approximation of heat transfer coefficient is obtained using Mostinski reduced pressure correlation (0.13-0.35 MAD) and Labuntsov correlation (0.12-0.89 MAD).

  3. Experimental Investigation of the Discharge Coefficient and Impingement Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Single Jet in Cross Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Brian

    This experimentation investigates the local heat transfer characteristics of an impinging jet with the effects of cross flow. The jet is formed by a single round hole with a diameter of 0.25 inches, sharp edges and a length to diameter ratio of 4. For one combination of impingement plate spacing and cross flow to jet flow mass velocity ratio, detailed photographs of a sheet of liquid crystal were taken. These photographs were then used to create a Nusselt number contour plot. Observations are made regarding the comparison of the Nusselt number contour plots with and without cross flow. Comparisons are also made to data in open literature citing the degradation of the average Nusselt number with cross flow to that without cross flow. While the main focus of this study was the heat transfer of an impinging jet, a large amount of discharge coefficient data was also gathered for a single, sharp edged, round hole in the presence of cross flow. It compared very well to other investigator's data and a correlation relating the discharge coefficient to the mass velocity ratio is reported.

  4. Selection of Initial Mold-Metal Interface Heat Transfer Coefficient Values in Casting Simulations—a Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Ramesh K.; Sundarraj, Suresh

    2010-02-01

    Mold-metal interface heat transfer coefficient values need to be determined precisely to accurately predict thermal histories at different locations in automotive castings. Thermomechanical simulations were carried out for Al-Si alloy casting processes using a commercial code. The cooling curve results were validated with experimental data from the literature for a cylindrical-shaped casting. Our analysis indicates that the interface heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) initial value choice between chill-metal and the sand mold-metal interfaces has a marked effect on the cooling curves. In addition, after choosing an IHTC initial value, the solidification rates of the alloy near the chill-metal interfaces varied during subsequent cooling when the gap began to form. However, the gap formation, which results in an IHTC change from the initial value, does not affect the cooling curves within the vicinity of the sand-metal interface. Optimized initial IHTC values of 3000 and 7000 W m-2-K-1 were determined for a sand-metal interface and a chill (steel or copper)-metal interfaces, respectively. The initial IHTC had a significant effect on the prediction of secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) (varying between approximately 15 microns and 70 microns) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) (varying between approximately 250 MPa and 370 MPa) for initial IHTC values that were less than the optimized value of 7000 W m-2 K-1 for the chill-metal interfaces.

  5. A new branch solution for the nonlinear fin problem with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivanian, Elyas; Hosseini Ghoncheh, S. J.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear fin problem with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient is revisited. In this problem, it has been assumed that the heat transfer coefficient is expressed in a power-law form and the thermal conductivity is a linear function of temperature. A method based on the traditional shooting method and the homotopy analysis method is applied, the so-called shooting homotopy analysis method (SHHAM), to the governing nonlinear differential equation. In this technique, more high-order approximate solutions are computable and multiple solutions are easily searched and discovered due to being free of the symbolic variable. It is found that the solution might be empty, unique or dual depending on the values of the parameters of the model. Furthermore, corresponding fin efficiencies with high accuracy are computed. As a consequence, a new branch solution for this nonlinear problem by a new proposed method, based on the traditional shooting method and the homotopy analysis method, is obtained.

  6. Remote noncontacting measurements of heat transfer coefficients for detection of boundary layer transition in wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. Michele; Winfree, William P.; Carraway, Debra L.; Heyman, Joseph S.

    1987-01-01

    An infrared measurement system is used that consists of a laser heating source, an infrared camera for data acquisition, and a video recorder for data storage. A laser beam is scanned over an airfoil, heating its surface to a few degrees above ambient. An infrared camera then measures the temperature of the airfoil over a two-dimensional field, and these temperatures are stored as a function of time on a video recorder. The resulting temperature pictures are digitized and an iterative approximation algorithm is used to extract the heat transfer coefficient. The resulting values are normalized to the natural convection condition. The technique has been applied in low-speed wind tunnel tests and compared to well-established hot-film measurements which were made simultaneously to confirm the flow conditions. Heat transfer coefficients were determined using a linear scanning pattern, to indicate the position of natural and of artificially induced transition on an airfoil, at various wind speeds. The technique is shown to be sensitive to transition at low Mach numbers. The advantages of the technique are discussed.

  7. Determination of 2p Excitation Transfer Rate Coefficient in Neon Gas Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. J.; Stewart, R. S.

    2001-10-01

    We will discuss our theoretical modelling and application of an array of four complementary optical diagnostic techniques for low-temperature plasmas. These are cw laser collisionally-induced fluorescence (LCIF), cw optogalvanic effect (OGE), optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS). We will briefly present an overview of our investigation of neon positive column plasmas for reduced axial electric fields ranging from 3x10-17 Vcm2 to 2x10-16 Vcm2 (3-20 Td), detailing our determination of five sets of important collisional rate coefficients involving the fifteen lowest levels, the 1S0 ground state and the 1s and 2p excited states (in Paschen notation), hence information on several energy regions of the electron distribution function (EDF). The discussion will be extended to show the new results obtained from analysis of the argon positive column over similar reduced fields. Future work includes application of our multi-diagnostic technique to more complex systems, including the addition of molecules for EDF determination. array of four complementary optical diagnostic techniques OGE LCIF determination of five sets of important collisional rate coefficients

  8. Diffuse x-ray scattering from short-period W/C multilayers at in-plane momentum transfers 0.10-0.17 {angstrom}{sup -1}.

    SciTech Connect

    Headrick, R. L.; Liu, C. L.; Macrander, A. T.

    1999-04-20

    X-ray scattering measurements at 10 keV from multilayers having a period of 24.8 {angstrom} and consisting of 100 W/C bilayers are reported. Specular scans revealed first-order reflectivities in the range 73.5% to 78.0% with bandpasses in the range of 1.5% to 1.7%. Total roughness (or interface grading) values deduced from fitting to the specular data only were in the range 2.5 to 3.0 {angstrom} for the last-to-grow surface of the W layers. Diffuse scattering measurements were made in a geometry that permitted investigation of in-plane momentum transfers up to 0.17 {angstrom}{sup {minus}1}. This is roughly an order of magnitude larger than is possible in conventional rocking scans. Reasonable fitting results were obtained for an in-plane correlation function that has a Fourier transform proportional to exp(-vq{sub y}{sup 2}{vert_bar}z{sub i}-z{sub j}{vert_bar}), where z{sub i}-z{sub j} is the average separation between the i{sup th} and j{sup th} interfaces and q{sub y} is the in-plane momentum transfer.

  9. Comparison of the {sup 12}C(e,e{sup '}p) cross section at low momentum transfer with a relativistic calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Tamae, T.; Sato, Y.; Yokokawa, T.; Asano, Y.; Kawabata, M.; Konno, O.; Nakagawa, I.; Nishikawa, I.; Hirota, K.; Yamazaki, H.; Kimura, R.; Miyase, H.; Tsubota, H.; Giusti, C.; Meucci, A.

    2009-12-15

    The (e,e{sup '}p{sub 0}) cross section of {sup 12}C has been measured at an energy transfer of 60 MeV and a momentum transfer of 104.4 MeV/c using a 197.5 MeV continuous electron beam. The cross section at missing momenta between 181.5 and 304.8 MeV/c obtained from the experiment is compared with theoretical calculations based on the relativistic distorted-wave impulse approximation with and without meson-exchange currents (MEC). The contribution of MEC due to the seagull current is large in the high-missing-momentum region, in particular for the longitudinal component. The cross sections calculated using three different current-conserving operators (cc1, cc2, and cc3) are similar, in contrast to the ({gamma},p) reaction, where the operators give very different results. The shape of the measured cross section is well described by the calculations, whereas its magnitude is slightly smaller than that described by the calculations.

  10. Measurements of Heat-Transfer and Friction Coefficients for Helium Flowing in a Tube at Surface Temperatures up to 5900 Deg R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Maynard F.; Kirchgessner, Thomas A.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements of average heat transfer and friction coefficients and local heat transfer coefficients were made with helium flowing through electrically heated smooth tubes with length-diameter ratios of 60 and 92 for the following range of conditions: Average surface temperature from 1457 to 4533 R, Reynolds numbe r from 3230 to 60,000, heat flux up to 583,200 Btu per hr per ft2 of heat transfer area, and exit Mach numbe r up to 1.0. The results indicate that, in the turbulent range of Reynolds number, good correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients is obtained when the physical properties and density of helium are evaluated at the surface temperature. The average heat transfer coefficients are best correlated on the basis that the coefficient varies with [1 + (L/D))(sup -0,7)] and that the physical properties and density are evaluated at the surface temperature. The average friction coefficients for the tests with no heat addition are in complete agreement with the Karman-Nikuradse line. The average friction coefficients for heat addition are in poor agreement with the accepted line.

  11. Instantaneous heat transfer coefficient based upon two-dimensional analyses of Stirling space engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, Mounir; Kannapareddy, Mohan; Tew, Roy C.; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve different cases of multidimensional models of Stirling engine components for space applications have been numerically investigated for oscillating, incompressible laminar flow with heat transfer. The cases studied covered wide ranges of Valensi number (from 44 to 700), Re(max) number (from 8250 to 60,000), and relative amplitude of fluid motion of 0.686 and 1.32. The Nusselt numbers obtained from the present study indicate a very complex shape with respect to time and axial location in the channel. The results indicate that three parameters can be used to define the local Nusselt number variation, namely: time average, amplitude, and phase angle. These parameters could be correlated respectively using: Re(max), Va and Re(max), and the relative amplitude of fluid motion.

  12. Drag and Bulk Transfer Coefficients Over Water Surfaces in Light Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhongwang; Miyano, Aiko; Sugita, Michiaki

    2016-08-01

    The drag coefficient (CD), experimentally determined from observed wind speed and surface stress, has been reported to increase in the low wind-speed range (<3 m s^{-1}) as wind speed becomes smaller. However, until now, the exact causes for its occurrence have not been determined. Here, possible causes for increased CD values in near-calm conditions are examined using high quality datasets selected from three-year continuous measurements obtained from the centre of Lake Kasumigaura, the second largest lake in Japan. Based on our analysis, suggested causes including (i) measurement errors, (ii) lake currents, (iii) capillary waves, (iv) the possibility of a measurement height within the interfacial/transition sublayer, and (v) a possible mismatch in the representative time scale used for mean and covariance averaging, are not considered major factors. The use of vector-averaged, instead of scalar-averaged, wind speeds and the presence of waves only partially explain the increase in CD under light winds. A small increase in turbulent kinetic energy due to buoyant production at low wind speeds is identified as the likely major cause for this increase in CD in the unstable atmosphere dominant over inland water surfaces.

  13. Theoretical and experimental study of the rule for heat transfer coefficient in hot stamping of high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xianhong; Hao, Xin; Yang, Kun; Zhong, Yaoyao

    2013-12-01

    Heat transfer is a crucial aspect for hot stamping process, the fully austenitized boron steel blank with temperature about 900°C is transferred to the tool, then formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. The desired fully martensitic transformation will happen only if the cooling rate exceeds a critical value approximately 27 K/s. During such process, the heat transfer coefficient (abbreviated as HTC) between the tool and blank plays a decisive role for the variation of the blank temperature. In this work, a theoretical formula based on the joint-roughness model is presented to describe the law of HTC, which relies on the roughness, hardness, and other material parameters of the tool and blank. Moreover, a non-contact temperature measuring system based on the infrared thermal camera is built to catch the temperature change course, and then the HTC value is derived through the inverse analysis. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, the change rule of HTC especially its dependence on the process pressure will be discussed in detail.

  14. Theoretical and experimental study of the rule for heat transfer coefficient in hot stamping of high strength steels

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Xianhong; Hao, Xin; Yang, Kun; Zhong, Yaoyao

    2013-12-16

    Heat transfer is a crucial aspect for hot stamping process, the fully austenitized boron steel blank with temperature about 900°C is transferred to the tool, then formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. The desired fully martensitic transformation will happen only if the cooling rate exceeds a critical value approximately 27 K/s. During such process, the heat transfer coefficient (abbreviated as HTC) between the tool and blank plays a decisive role for the variation of the blank temperature. In this work, a theoretical formula based on the joint-roughness model is presented to describe the law of HTC, which relies on the roughness, hardness, and other material parameters of the tool and blank. Moreover, a non-contact temperature measuring system based on the infrared thermal camera is built to catch the temperature change course, and then the HTC value is derived through the inverse analysis. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, the change rule of HTC especially its dependence on the process pressure will be discussed in detail.

  15. Bloch oscillations for large momentum transfer and high precision in an ytterbium Bose-Einstein condensate interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; McAlpine, Katherine; Gochnauer, Daniel; Saxberg, Brendan; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-05-01

    The narrow momentum and position spread of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) can help improve atom interferometric measurements. In earlier work, we demonstrated a contrast interferometer with ytterbium (Yb) BECs. Here, we report progress towards implementing a second generation Yb BEC interferometer with the goal of measuring h/m, where h is Planck's constant and m is the mass of a Yb atom, in order to determine the fine structure constant α. The use of the non-magnetic Yb atom and the symmetric geometry of the interferometer make the measurement immune to several error sources. We have produced Yb BECs in a new apparatus, and are currently installing and testing the laser pulse atom-optics needed for the interferometry sequence. The precision of our measurement scales with N2, where 2N is the number of photon recoils separating the interfering momentum states in the interferometer. We will discuss our progress towards realizing Bloch oscillations (BO) pulses for large N. Using an extension of our previous analysis2, we will also discuss the role of diffraction phases in our interferometer due to the BO pulses. This work is supported by the NSF.

  16. Investigations of evanescent heat transfer and measurements of the acoustic reflection coefficient for thin metal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, Jackson J.

    1998-10-01

    Evanescent waves are always present near the surfaces of materials and are generated by the random thermal motion of charges, which produce fluctuating electromagnetic fields that extend approximately a thermal wavelength, /hbar c/KBT beyond the surfaces of the materials. Evanescent waves can transfer energy from one material to another if the second material extends into the region where the evanescent waves have appreciable amplitude. In the first part of this thesis, we present a macroscopic, phenomenological theory for the heat flow mediated by evanescent waves between two material half-spaces of differing temperatures whose surfaces are separated by a vacuum gap of width l. For separations much larger than the thermal wavelength, our result reduces to the Stefan- Boltzmann law and for separations much less than the thermal wavelength, the thermal flux due to evanescent waves is orders of magnitude larger than blackbody radiation. For l sufficiently small, the heat transfer varies as l-2. As a special case, we explore the behavior of the heat flux between Drude materials and found that heat flow exhibits a wide range of behavior for different gap widths and electrical conductivities. In the second part of this thesis, we present a picosecond ultrasonic method for studying the interfacial bonding between a thin metal film and a substrate. In this method, a subpicosecond laser pulse produces a rapid heating of the film. Relaxation of the thermal stress created by the heating sets the film into vibration. The rate at which the film vibrations damp out via sound transmission into the substrate depends on both the interfacial bonding and the acoustic properties of the film and substrate. Measurements of the damping rate thus provide a means of assessing interfacial bond strength. As a demonstration, we modified the interfacial bonding by irradiating small areas of some samples with 2.5 He+ MeV ions, a procedure which is known to improve bonding. Measurements of the

  17. Method for determining temperatures and heat transfer coefficients with a superconductive sample

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, D.; Hassenzahl, W.; Polak, M.

    1980-05-01

    The method that is described here uses the current-sharing characteristic of a copper-stabilized, superconductive NbTi wire to determine the temperature. The measurements were made for magnetic fields up to 6 T and the precision actually attained with this method is about 0.1 K. It is an improvement over one that has been used at 4.2 K to measure transient heat transfer in that all the parameters of the sample are well known and the current in the sample is measured directly. The response time of the probe is less than 5 ..mu..s and it has been used to measure temperatures during heat pulses as short as 20 ..mu..s. Temperature measurements between 1.6 and 8.5 K are described. An accurate formula based on the current and electric field along the sample has been developed for temperatures between 2.5 K and the critical temperature of the conductor, which, of course, depends on the applied field. Also described is a graphical method that must be used below 2.5 K, where the critical current is not a linear function of temperature.

  18. Impacts of upscale heat and momentum transfer by moist Kelvin waves on the Madden-Julian oscillation: a theoretical model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    The Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) is observed to interact with moist Kelvin waves. To understand the role of this interaction, a simple scale-interaction model is built, which describes the MJO modulation of moist Kelvin waves and the feedback from moist Kelvin waves through upscale eddy heat and momentum transfer. The backward-tilted moist Kelvin waves produce eddy momentum transfer (EMT) characterized by the lower-tropospheric westerly winds and eddy heat transfer (EHT) that warms the mid-troposphere. The EHT tends to induce the lower-tropospheric easterly winds and low pressure, which is located in front of the "westerly wind burst" induced by the EMT. Adding the eddy forcing to a neutral MJO skeleton model, we show that the EHT provides an instability source for the MJO by warming up the mid-troposphere, and the EMT offers an additional instability source by enhancing the lower-tropospheric westerly winds. The eddy forcing selects eastward propagation for the unstable mode, because it generates positive/negative eddy available potential energy for the eastward/westward modes by changing their thermal and dynamical structures. The present results show that moist Kelvin waves can provide a positive feedback to the MJO only when they are located within (or near) the convective complex (center) of the MJO. The EHT and EMT feedback works positively in the front and rear part of the MJO, respectively. These theoretical results suggest the potential importance of moist Kelvin waves in sustaining the MJO and encourage further observations to document the relationship between moist Kelvin waves and the MJO.

  19. Simple transfer calibration method for a Cimel Sun-Moon photometer: calculating lunar calibration coefficients from Sun calibration constants.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengqiang; Li, Kaitao; Li, Donghui; Yang, Jiuchun; Xu, Hua; Goloub, Philippe; Victori, Stephane

    2016-09-20

    The Cimel new technologies allow both daytime and nighttime aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements. Although the daytime AOD calibration protocols are well established, accurate and simple nighttime calibration is still a challenging task. Standard lunar-Langley and intercomparison calibration methods both require specific conditions in terms of atmospheric stability and site condition. Additionally, the lunar irradiance model also has some known limits on its uncertainty. This paper presents a simple calibration method that transfers the direct-Sun calibration constant, V0,Sun, to the lunar irradiance calibration coefficient, CMoon. Our approach is a pure calculation method, independent of site limits, e.g., Moon phase. The method is also not affected by the lunar irradiance model limitations, which is the largest error source of traditional calibration methods. Besides, this new transfer calibration approach is easy to use in the field since CMoon can be obtained directly once V0,Sun is known. Error analysis suggests that the average uncertainty of CMoon over the 440-1640 nm bands obtained with the transfer method is 2.4%-2.8%, depending on the V0,Sun approach (Langley or intercomparison), which is comparable with that of lunar-Langley approach, theoretically. In this paper, the Sun-Moon transfer and the Langley methods are compared based on site measurements in Beijing, and the day-night measurement continuity and performance are analyzed.

  20. Determination of blade-to-coolant heat-transfer coefficients on a forced-convection, water-cooled, single-stage turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, John C; Schum, Eugene F

    1951-01-01

    Blade-to-coolant convective heat-transfer coefficients were obtained on a forced-convection water-cooled single-stage turbine over a large laminar flow range and over a portion of the transition range between laminar and turbulent flow. The convective coefficients were correlated by the general relation for forced-convection heat transfer with laminar flow. Natural-convection heat transfer was negligible for this turbine over the Grashof number range investigated. Comparison of turbine data with stationary tube data for the laminar flow of heated liquids showed good agreement. Calculated average midspan blade temperatures using theoretical gas-to-blade coefficients and blade-to-coolant coefficients from stationary-tube data resulted in close agreement with experimental data.

  1. Transient liquid-crystal technique used to produce high-resolution convective heat-transfer-coefficient maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.

    1993-08-01

    In this transient technique the preheated isothermal model wall simulates the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction problem. By knowing the temperature of the air flowing through the model, the initial temperature of the model wall, and the surface cooling rate measured at any location with time (using the fast-response liquid-crystal patterns recorded on video tape), the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated for the color isothermal pattern produced. Although the test was run transiently, the heat transfer coefficients are for the steady-state case. The upstream thermal boundary condition was considered to be isothermal. This transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique was used in a transient air tunnel in which a square-inlet, 3-to-1 exit transition duct was placed. The duct was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. The resulting isothermal contours on the duct surfaces were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. The duct surfaces were uniformly heated using two heating systems: the first was an automatic temperature-controlled heater blanket completely surrounding the test duct like an oven, and the second was an internal hot-air loop through the inside of the test duct. The hot-air loop path was confined inside the test duct by insulated heat dams located at the inlet and exit ends of the test duct. A recirculating fan moved hot air into the duct inlet, through the duct, out of the duct exit, through the oven, and back to the duct inlet. The temperature nonuniformity of the test duct model wall was held very small. Test results are reported for two inlet Reynolds numbers of 200,000 and 1,150,000 (based on the square-inlet hydraulic diameter) and two free-stream turbulence

  2. Transient liquid-crystal technique used to produce high-resolution convective heat-transfer-coefficient maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.

    1993-01-01

    In this transient technique the preheated isothermal model wall simulates the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction problem. By knowing the temperature of the air flowing through the model, the initial temperature of the model wall, and the surface cooling rate measured at any location with time (using the fast-response liquid-crystal patterns recorded on video tape), the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated for the color isothermal pattern produced. Although the test was run transiently, the heat transfer coefficients are for the steady-state case. The upstream thermal boundary condition was considered to be isothermal. This transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique was used in a transient air tunnel in which a square-inlet, 3-to-1 exit transition duct was placed. The duct was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. The resulting isothermal contours on the duct surfaces were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. The duct surfaces were uniformly heated using two heating systems: the first was an automatic temperature-controlled heater blanket completely surrounding the test duct like an oven, and the second was an internal hot-air loop through the inside of the test duct. The hot-air loop path was confined inside the test duct by insulated heat dams located at the inlet and exit ends of the test duct. A recirculating fan moved hot air into the duct inlet, through the duct, out of the duct exit, through the oven, and back to the duct inlet. The temperature nonuniformity of the test duct model wall was held very small. Test results are reported for two inlet Reynolds numbers of 200,000 and 1,150,000 (based on the square-inlet hydraulic diameter) and two free-stream turbulence

  3. The generalized correlation for the evaluation of the influence of the Stefan flow on the heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskakov, A. P.; Rakov, O. A.

    2013-11-01

    The analytical equations for the steady-state heat-and-mass transfer in the steam evaporation/condensation processes from the steam-gas mixtures on the planar and spherical surfaces are derived. The vapor flow through the motionless dry gas is considered according to the method proposed by Maxwell for the solution of the diffusion problems. The relationships for the calculation of the coefficients taking into account an increase in the mass output and an increase or a decrease in the heat emission (depending on the directions of the heat-and-mass flows) as a result of the influence of the Stefan flow are presented. The derived relationships can be used to calculate the apparatuses in which the steam evaporation or condensation from the steam-gas mixture occurs (the coolers of the vapor from deaerators, the apparatuses for the deep utilization of the heat of the combustion products, the condensation boilers, etc.).

  4. Determination of the Henry's law constants of low-volatility compounds via the measured air-phase transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Chao, Huan-Ping; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu; Chiou, Cary T

    2017-09-01

    Accurate Henry's law constants (H) are unavailable for the majority of organic pollutants, especially those having a low volatility. A novel kinetics-based experimental method is introduced to determine H for a wide range of low-H compounds. The method consists of measuring independently the water-to-air transfer coefficient (KL) and the associated air-phase transfer coefficient (kG) of a low-H chemical (solute) in water when KL ≅ kGH prevails according to the two-film theory. The kG for a solute is obtained via a developed gas-dynamic equation that relates kG to the solute molecular weight and the solute-vapor escaping efficiency (β) through a boundary air layer. The value of β is only a function of the in situ air turbulence level, independent of the chemical species. Thus, the required β for solutes can be estimated from the evaporative rates of pure volatile liquids under the same ambient setting. By relating the estimated kG with the measured KL of a low-H solute, the solute H is established. The H values of 45 low-H chemicals, including many complex pesticides, in the range of ∼10(-7) to ∼10(-3) have thus been determined. The accountability of the method is underscored by the consistency of the measured and credible literature H values for a number of the low-H compounds studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Wind-chill-equivalent temperatures: regarding the impact due to the variability of the environmental convective heat transfer coefficient.

    PubMed

    Shitzer, Avraham

    2006-03-01

    The wind-chill index (WCI), developed in Antarctica in the 1940s and recently updated by the weather services in the USA and Canada, expresses the enhancement of heat loss in cold climates from exposed body parts, e.g., face, due to wind. The index provides a simple and practical means for assessing the thermal effects of wind on humans outdoors. It is also used for indicating weather conditions that may pose adverse risks of freezing at subfreezing environmental temperatures. Values of the WCI depend on a number of parameters, i.e, temperatures, physical properties of the air, wind speed, etc., and on insolation and evaporation. This paper focuses on the effects of various empirical correlations used in the literature for calculating the convective heat transfer coefficients between humans and their environment. Insolation and evaporation are not included in the presentation. Large differences in calculated values among these correlations are demonstrated and quantified. Steady-state wind-chill-equivalent temperatures (WCETs) are estimated by a simple, one-dimensional heat-conducting hollow-cylindrical model using these empirical correlations. Partial comparison of these values with the published "new" WCETs is presented. The variability of the estimated WCETs, due to different correlations employed to calculate them, is clearly demonstrated. The results of this study clearly suggest the need for establishing a "gold standard" for estimating convective heat exchange between exposed body elements and the cold and windy environment. This should be done prior to the introduction and adoption of further modifications to WCETs and indices. Correlations to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficients between exposed body parts of humans in windy and cold environments influence the WCETs and need to be standardized.

  6. Wind-chill-equivalent temperatures: regarding the impact due to the variability of the environmental convective heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitzer, Avraham

    2006-03-01

    The wind-chill index (WCI), developed in Antarctica in the 1940s and recently updated by the weather services in the USA and Canada, expresses the enhancement of heat loss in cold climates from exposed body parts, e.g., face, due to wind. The index provides a simple and practical means for assessing the thermal effects of wind on humans outdoors. It is also used for indicating weather conditions that may pose adverse risks of freezing at subfreezing environmental temperatures. Values of the WCI depend on a number of parameters, i.e, temperatures, physical properties of the air, wind speed, etc., and on insolation and evaporation. This paper focuses on the effects of various empirical correlations used in the literature for calculating the convective heat transfer coefficients between humans and their environment. Insolation and evaporation are not included in the presentation. Large differences in calculated values among these correlations are demonstrated and quantified. Steady-state wind-chill-equivalent temperatures (WCETs) are estimated by a simple, one-dimensional heat-conducting hollow-cylindrical model using these empirical correlations. Partial comparison of these values with the published “new” WCETs is presented. The variability of the estimated WCETs, due to different correlations employed to calculate them, is clearly demonstrated. The results of this study clearly suggest the need for establishing a “gold standard” for estimating convective heat exchange between exposed body elements and the cold and windy environment. This should be done prior to the introduction and adoption of further modifications to WCETs and indices. Correlations to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficients between exposed body parts of humans in windy and cold environments influence the WCETs and need to be standardized.

  7. On the coefficients of small eddy and surface divergence models for the air-water gas transfer velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Binbin; Liao, Qian; Fillingham, Joseph H.; Bootsma, Harvey A.

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies suggested that under low to moderate wind conditions without bubble entraining wave breaking, the air-water gas transfer velocity k+ can be mechanistically parameterized by the near-surface turbulence, following the small eddy model (SEM). Field measurements have supported this model in a variety of environmental forcing systems. Alternatively, surface divergence model (SDM) has also been shown to predict the gas transfer velocity across the air-water interface in laboratory settings. However, the empirically determined model coefficients (α in SEM and c1 in SDM) scattered over a wide range. Here we present the first field measurement of the near-surface turbulence with a novel floating PIV system on Lake Michigan, which allows us to evaluate the SEM and SDM in situ in the natural environment. k+ was derived from the CO2 flux that was measured simultaneously with a floating gas chamber. Measured results indicate that α and c1 are not universal constants. Regression analysis showed that α˜log>(ɛ>) while the near-surface turbulence dissipation rate ɛ is approximately greater than 10-6 m2 s-3 according to data measured for this study as well as from other published results measured in similar environments or in laboratory settings. It also showed that α scales linearly with the turbulent Reynolds number. Similarly, coefficient c1 in the SDM was found to linearly scale with the Reynolds number. These findings suggest that larger eddies are also important parameters, and the dissipation rate in the SEM or the surface divergence β' in the SDM alone may not be adequate to determine k+ completely.

  8. Experimental study on forced convective and subcooled flow boiling heat transfer coefficient of water-ethanol mixtures: an application in cooling of heat dissipative devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhas, B. G.; Sathyabhama, A.

    2017-08-01

    The experimental study is carried out to determine forced convective and subcooled flow boiling heat transfer coefficient in conventional rectangular channels. The fluid is passed through rectangular channels of 0.01 m depth, 0.01 m width, and 0.15 m length. The parameters varied are heat flux, mass flux, inlet temperature and volume fraction of ethanol. Forced convective heat transfer coefficient increases with increase in heat flux and mass flux, but effect of mass flux is less significant. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer increases with increase in heat flux and mass flux, but the effect of heat flux is dominant. During the subcooled flow boiling region, the effect of mass flux will not influence the heat transfer. The strong Marangoni effect will increase the heat transfer coeffient for mixture with 25% ethanol volume fraction. The results obtained for subcooled flow boiling heat transfer coefficient of water are compared with available literature correlations. It is found that Liu-Winterton equation predicts the experimental results better when compared with that of other literature correlations. An empirical correlation for subcooled flow boiling heat transfer coefficient as a function of mixture wall super heat, mass flux, volume fractions and inlet temperature is developed from the experimental results.

  9. Calculation of the Combined Heat Transfer Coefficient of Hot-face on Cast Iron Cooling Stave Based on Thermal Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-guang; Zhang, Jian-liang; Zuo, Hai-bin; Qin, Xuan; Qi, Cheng-lin

    2017-03-01

    Cooling effects of the cast iron cooling stave were tested with a specially designed experimental furnace under the conditions of different temperatures of 800 °C, 900 °C, 1,000 °C and 1,100 °C as well as different cooling water velocities of 0.5 m·s-1, 1.0 m·s-1, 1.5 m·s-1 and 2.0 m·s-1. Furthermore, the combined heat transfer coefficient of hot-face on cast iron cooling stave (αh-i) was calculated by heat transfer theory based on the thermal test. The calculated αh-i was then applied in temperature field simulation of cooling stave and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data. The calculation of αh-i indicates that αh-i increases rapidly as the furnace temperature increases while it increases a little as the water velocity increases. The comparison of the simulation results with the experimental data shows that the simulation results fit well with the experiment data under different furnace temperatures.

  10. Measurement of enhanced heat transfer coefficient with perforated twisted tape inserts during condensation of R-245fa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatua, A. K.; Kumar, P.; Singh, H. N.; Kumar, R.

    2016-04-01

    The experimental conductive heat transfer results for flow through inserted perforated twisted tapes in a horizontal tube during condensation of pure R-245fa vapor. The test section consisting of two separate coaxial double pipes assembled in series, acted like a counter flow heat exchanger, where the refrigerant condensed inside the inner tube by rejecting heat to the cooling water flowing inside the outer tube in reversed direction. Data for three perforated twisted tapes having constant twist ratio of 7.1 mm and pitch of perforation as 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 mm, inserted one by one in full length of test condenser by varying refrigerant mass flux from 100 to 200 kg/m2 s in steps of 50 kg/m2 s for the range of vapor quality from 0.1 to 0.9, were collected together with flow and without insert (plain tube). It has been found that the perforated twisted tape insert having pitch of perforation equal to in order of 12.5 mm gives the highest value of average heat transfer coefficient and is of the order of 37.5 % more than that of the plain one and the correlation predicts the experimental data within an error band of ±15 %.

  11. Two-photon exchange corrections to elastic e--proton scattering: Full dispersive treatment of π N states at low momentum transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomalak, Oleksandr; Pasquini, Barbara; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    2017-05-01

    We evaluate the pion-nucleon intermediate-state contribution to the two-photon exchange (TPE) correction in the elastic electron-nucleon scattering within a dispersive framework. We calculate the contribution from all π N partial waves using the MAID parametrization. We provide the corresponding TPE correction to the unpolarized e p scattering cross section in the region of low momentum transfer Q2≲0.064 GeV2 , where no analytical continuation into the unphysical region of the TPE scattering amplitudes is required. We compare our result in the forward angular region with an alternative TPE calculation, in terms of structure functions, and find a good agreement, indicating a small contribution at low Q2 due to discontinuities beyond π N . We also compare our results with empirical fits.

  12. Direct determination of resonance phase shifts of soft x-ray diffraction in thin films by momentum-transfer-sensitive three-wave interference

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H.-H.; Lee, Y.-R.; Chang, Y.-Y.; Chu, C.-H.; Tsai, Y.-W.; Liu, Y.-J.; Chang, S.-L.; Hsieh, C.-H.; Chou, L.-J.

    2008-09-01

    A method for direct determination of resonance phase shifts in a (001) CdTe/InSb thin-film system is developed using soft x-ray three-wave resonance diffraction. At the (002) Bragg peaks of CdTe and InSb, two inversion-symmetry related three-wave diffractions are systematically identified according to crystal symmetry and the resonance phase shifts versus photon energies are measured without turning the thin film upside down. The momentum-transfer selectivity at (002) reflections facilitates the quantitative determination of the phase shifts near the Cd L{sub 3}, Te L{sub 3}, and Sb L{sub 2} edges.

  13. On the momentum transfer dependence of the atomic motions in the α-relaxation range. Polymers vs. low molecular-weight glass-forming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacristan, J.; Alvarez, F.; Colmenero, J.

    2007-11-01

    By means of molecular dynamics simulations we have studied the momentum transfer (Q) dependence of the intermediate scattering function Fs(Q, t) of the low-molecular-weight counterpart of a glass-forming polymer. At Q>=0.3 Å-1 we found a similar Q-dependence to that previously reported for many polymers. The relaxation time scales like Q-2/β, where β<1 is the parameter corresponding to a stretched exponential description of the slow decay of Fs(Q, t). Moreover, at Q higher than about 1 Å-1 a crossover towards an approximate Q-2 scaling is observed. Thereby this behavior is not a consequence of the connectivity of polymer chains but a general feature of glass forming systems. Differences among polymers and low molecular glass-forming systems emerge at lower Q's, where the connectivity of the macromolecules prevents normal diffusion.

  14. Mass-energy radiative transfer and momentum extraction by gravitational wave emission in the collision of two black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranha, R. F.; Soares, I. Damião; Tonini, E. V.

    2010-05-01

    We examine numerically the head-on collision of two boosted Schwarzschild black holes, in the realm of Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. Characteristic initial data for the system are constructed and the Robinson-Trautman equation is integrated for these data using a numerical code based on the Galerkin-collocation method. The initial data already have a common horizon so that the evolution covers the post-merger regime up to the final configuration, when the gravitational wave emission ceases. In the nonlinear regime gravitational waves are emitted, extracting mass and linear momentum from the system. The final configuration is a boosted Schwarzschild black hole with rest mass larger than the masses of the two individual initial black holes, and with a smaller final boost parameter characterizing the recoil velocity of the remnant. The efficiency Δ of the mass-energy extraction by gravitational waves is evaluated. The points (Δ,y), where y is the (normalized) rest mass of the remnant black hole, satisfy a nonextensive Tsallis distribution with entropic index q≃1/2 for y≲12. Beyond ỹ12 the experimental points deviate from the distribution function and the efficiency presents an absolute maximum for the case of equally massive individual colliding black holes; the remnant has no recoil in this case. By using the Bondi mass formula we also evaluate the total energy EW carried out by gravitational waves as well as the radiative corrections to the efficiency. EW increases monotonically with y and the experimental points (EW,y) also satisfy a nonextensive Tsallis distribution but with q≃2/3, up to ỹ14.2. Beyond this value the experimental points increase faster than the distribution function. For any initial infalling velocity v, the distribution of momentum of the remnant exhibits a maximum at α1=αm≃0.667, where α1 is related to the ratio of pre-merger rest masses, and has a one-to-one correspondence with y for fixed v. Two distinct regimes of

  15. Syngas fermentation to biofuel: evaluation of carbon monoxide mass transfer coefficient (kLa) in different reactor configurations.

    PubMed

    Munasinghe, Pradeep Chaminda; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as agri-residues, agri-processing by-products, and energy crops do not compete with food and feed, and is considered to be the ideal renewable feedstocks for biofuel production. Gasification of biomass produces synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily consisting of CO and H(2). The produced syngas can be converted to ethanol by anaerobic microbial catalysts especially acetogenic bacteria such as various clostridia species.One of the major drawbacks associated with syngas fermentation is the mass transfer limitation of these sparingly soluble gases in the aqueous phase. One way of addressing this issue is the improvement in reactor design to achieve a higher volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a). In this study, different reactor configurations such as a column diffuser, a 20-μm bulb diffuser, gas sparger, gas sparger with mechanical mixing, air-lift reactor combined with a 20-μm bulb diffuser, air-lift reactor combined with a single gas entry point, and a submerged composite hollow fiber membrane (CHFM) module were employed to examine the k(L) a values. The k(L) a values reported in this study ranged from 0.4 to 91.08 h(-1). The highest k(L) a of 91.08 h(-1) was obtained in the air-lift reactor combined with a 20-μm bulb diffuser, whereas the reactor with the CHFM showed the lowest k(L) a of 0.4 h(-1). By considering both the k(L) a value and the statistical significance of each configuration, the air-lift reactor combined with a 20-μm bulb diffuser was found to be the ideal reactor configuration for carbon monoxide mass transfer in an aqueous phase. Copyright © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  16. Angular momentum reorientation in CO(A 1Π)-He rotational energy transfer studied by optical-optical double resonance multiphoton ionization spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Guohe; Sun, Weizhong; Jiang, Bo; Hintsa, Eric; Zhang, Cunhao

    1993-06-01

    An optical-optical double resonance multiphoton ionization (OODR-MPI) technique has been developed for measuring the angular momentum reorientation in CO(A 1Π)-He inelastic thermal collisions. In this scheme, two-photon pumping of CO(A 1Π) by using a circularly polarized laser creates a highly anisotropic oriented angular momentum distribution in CO(A 1Π). A second counterpropagating circularly polarized laser probes the oriented CO(A 1Π) via 1+1 photon resonance ionization. A depolarization factor (D), which can be calculated from the measured intensity ratios between R and P branches in the OODR-MPI spectrum, is introduced to characterize the amount of collisional reorientation in the J→J' rotational energy transfer (RET). This method has the advantage of both high sensitivity and simplicity in data processing. The experimental results show the propensities that the depolarization factor D increases with ΔJ but decreases with increasing initial J. The D's are asymmetric with respect to ±ΔJ. For comparison, theoretical D's have been computed by an irreducible tensor formalism under the infinite-order-sudden approximation by Alexander and Davis [J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6754 (1983)] which is further simplified by using an exponential energy gap term to represent the dynamic effects. The computed curves of D vs ΔJ/J reproduce the experimental propensities. The best fit between theory and experiment is obtained with an average impact parameter b=2.9 Å, corresponding to a cross section of 26.4 Å2, which is close to the experimental total cross section of CO(A 1Π)-He rotational energy transfer (˜28 Å2).

  17. Investigation into the effect of nozzle shape on the nozzle discharge coefficient and heat and mass transfer characteristics of impinging air jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemoglu, A. B.; Isman, M. K.; Can, M.

    2010-12-01

    High velocity impinging air jets are commonly used for heating, cooling and drying, etc. because of the high heat and mass transfer coefficients which are developed in the impingement region. In order to provide data for the designers of industrial equipment, a variety of slot nozzles were tested to determine the effect on heat transfer of both nozzle shape and slot width. A large multi-nozzle rig was also used to measure average heat and mass transfer characteristics under arrays of both slot nozzles and circular holes. As a necessary preliminary to the heat transfer investigation, the discharge coefficients of the nozzles were measured. Then, the experimental results are compared with the simplified flow model. A good agreement was found between the theoretical and experimental results. From the tests, it was also found that the heat transfer results from differently shaped nozzles could be satisfactorily correlated provided that the effective slot width or hole diameter was used to characterize the nozzle shapes.

  18. Heat transfer coefficients over a flat surface with air and CO{sub 2} injection through compound angle holes using a transient liquid crystal image method

    SciTech Connect

    Ekkad, S.V.; Zapata, D.; Han, J.C.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the detailed heat transfer coefficients over a flat surface with one row of injection holes inclined streamwise at 35 deg for three blowing ratios (M = 0.5--2.0). Three compound angles of 0, 45, and 90 deg with air (D.R. = 0.98) and CO{sub 2} (D.R. = 1.46) as coolants were tested at an elevated free-stream turbulence condition (Tu {approx} 8.5%). The experimental technique involves a liquid crystal coating on the test surface. Two related transient tests obtained detailed heat transfer coefficients and film effectiveness distributions. Heat transfer coefficients increase with increasing blowing ratio for a constant density ratio, but decrease with increasing density ratio for a constant blowing ratio. Heat transfer coefficients increase for both coolants over the test surface as the compound angle increases from 0 to 90 deg. The detailed heat transfer coefficients obtained using the transient liquid crystal technique, particularly in the near-hole region, will provide a better understanding of the film cooling process in gas turbine components.

  19. Effects of Cross-Sectional Shape, Solidity, and Distribution of Heat-Transfer Coefficient on the Torsional Stiffness of Thin Wings Subjected to Aerodynamic Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, Robert G.

    1959-01-01

    A study has been made of the effects of varying the shape, solidity, and heat-transfer coefficient of thin wings with regard to their influence on the torsional-stiffness reduction induced by aerodynamic heating. The variations in airfoil shape include blunting, flattening, and combined blunting and flattening of a solid wing of symmetrical double-wedge cross section. Hollow double-wedge wings of constant skin thickness with and without internal webs also are considered. The effects of heat-transfer coefficients appropriate for laminar and turbulent flow are investigated in addition to a step transition along the chord from a lower to a higher constant value of heat-transfer coefficient. From the results given it is concluded that the flattening of a solid double wedge decreases the reduction in torsional stiffness while slight degrees of blunting increase the loss. The influence of chordwise variations in heat-transfer coefficient due to turbulent and laminar boundary-layer flow on the torsional stiffness of solid wings is negligible. The effect of a step transition in heat-transfer coefficient along the chord of a solid wing can, however, become appreciable. The torsional-stiffness reduction of multiweb and hollow double-wedge wings is substantially less than that calculated for a solid wing subjected to the same heating conditions.

  20. An application of the non-continuous Trefftz method to the determination of heat transfer coefficient for flow boiling in a minichannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewska, Beata; Piasecka, Magdalena

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an application of the semi-analytical method, called the non-continuous Trefftz method, to the calculation of the heat transfer coefficients. It is very effective method for solving direct and inverse problems. The results obtained by this method are consistent with the results obtained by using complicated methods: the FEM and Beck method. Sought local heat transfer coefficients between the heating surface and the boiling liquid flowing through 1 mm deep minichannel were calculated from the Robin boundary condition. The temperature of the heating surface and the derivative of the temperature were was found from solving the inverse problem. The study is limited to the identification of the heat transfer coefficient in the subcooled and the saturated nucleate boiling regions. The article presents also the measurement stand and methodology of conducting the experiment. Presented issues allows verification of state-of-the-art methods of solving the inverse problem by using the authors' empirical data from the experiment.