Edge rotation as governed by momentum transport due to neutrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pusztai, Istvan; Omotani, John; Fülöp, Tünde
2016-10-01
Neutrals can strongly affect momentum transport even in relatively small concentrations due to their high cross-field mobility. We present a framework to calculate numerically the momentum transport due to charge-exchanging neutrals, in the closed field-line region. We couple a short mean-free-path solution of the neutral kinetic equation to neoclassical ions. We can then determine self-consistently the radial electric field and plasma rotation velocity, assuming that the neutrals dominate the momentum transport. We use the neoclassical solver PERFECT [Landreman et al. 2014 PPCF 56 045005] to compute the ion distributions. Numerical solutions allow us to consider the full range of collisionalities; typical experimental parameters fall in the intermediate region that is not well described by analytical limits. We also compute the rotation velocities of minority impurity species, to facilitate experimental comparison of the results. We find that at a fixed collisionality, the important parameter determining the radial electric field and rotation is the major radius where the neutrals are localized. Therefore changes to the location of the peak neutral density, caused by altering the fuelling location or moving the X-point for example, should allow the rotation to be manipulated. Supported by the Framework Grant for Strategic Energy Research (Dnr. 2014-5392) and the International Career Grant (Dnr. 330-2014-6313) from Vetenskapsrådet.
Toroidal momentum transport in a tokamak due to profile shearing
Buchholz, R.; Grosshauser, S. R.; Hornsby, W. A.; Migliano, P.; Peeters, A. G.; Camenen, Y.; Casson, F. J.
2014-06-15
The effect of profile shearing on toroidal momentum transport is studied in linear and non-linear gyro-kinetic simulations. Retaining the radial dependence of both plasma and geometry parameters leads to a momentum flux that has contributions both linear in the logarithmic gradients of density and temperature, as well as contributions linear in the derivatives of the logarithmic gradients. The effect of the turbulence intensity gradient on momentum transport is found to be small for the studied parameters. Linear simulations at fixed normalized toroidal wave number predict a weak dependence of the momentum flux on the normalized Larmor radius ρ{sub *}=ρ/R. Non-linear simulations, however, at sufficiently small ρ{sub *} show a linear scaling of the momentum flux with ρ{sub *}. The obtained stationary rotation gradients are in the range of, although perhaps smaller than, current experiments. For a reactor plasma, however, a rather small rotation gradient should result from profile shearing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ball, Justin; Parra, Felix I.
2017-02-01
Introducing up-down asymmetry into the tokamak magnetic equilibria appears to be a feasible method to drive fast intrinsic toroidal rotation in future large devices. In this paper we investigate how the intrinsic momentum transport generated by up-down asymmetric shaping scales with the mode number of the shaping effects. Making use the gyrokinetic tilting symmetry (Ball et al 2016 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 045023), we study the effect of envelopes created by the beating of different high-order shaping effects. This reveals that the presence of an envelope can change the scaling of the momentum flux from exponentially small in the limit of large shaping mode number to just polynomially small. This enhancement of the momentum transport requires the envelope to be both up-down asymmetric and have a spatial scale on the order of the minor radius.
Singh, Rameswar; Singh, R; Jhang, Hogun; Diamond, P. H.
2014-01-15
We present an analytic study of momentum transport of tokamak plasmas in the vicinity of minimum safety factor (q) position in reversed magnetic shear configuration. Slab ion temperature gradient modes with an equilibrium flow profile are considered in this study. Quasi-linear calculations of momentum flux clearly show the novel effects of q-curvature on the generation of intrinsic rotation and mean poloidal flow without invoking reflectional symmetry breaking of parallel wavenumber (k{sub ∥}). This q-curvature effect originates from the inherent asymmetry in k{sub ∥} populations with respect to a rational surface due to the quadratic proportionality of k{sub ∥} when q-curvature is taken into account. Discussions are made of possible implications of q-curvature induced plasma flows on internal transport barrier formation in reversed shear tokamaks.
Electromagnetic angular momentum transport in Saturn's rings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goertz, C. K.; Morfill, G. E.; Ip, W.; Gruen, E.; Havnes, O.
1986-01-01
It is shown here that submicrometer dust particles sporadically elevated above Saturn's ring are subject to electromagnetic forces which will reduce their angular momentum inside synchronous orbit and increase it outside. When the dust is reabsorbed by the ring the angular momentum of the ring is decreased (increased) inside (outside) of synchronous orbit. For the case of the spokes in Saturn's B-ring it is estimated that the timescale for transporting ring material due to this angular momentum coupling effect is comparable to the viscous transport time or even smaller. It is suggested that the minimum in the optical depth of the B-ring at synchronous orbit is due to this effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tobias, B.; Ferraro, N.; Jardin, S.; Kramer, G.; Evans, T.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.
2016-10-01
The onset of energetic particle stochasticity has been correlated with the transition to a hollow rotation profile by scaling linear tearing modes from M3D-C1 to ECEI data and following energetic particles in the SPIRAL code. The superposition of two tearing modes of different n-number increases magnetic field line stochasticity by generating tertiary magnetic islands, even when the flux perturbation is composed of only two linearly independent solutions. Furthermore, particle orbit stochasticity increases with particle energy--a mechanism for non-ambipolar transport that modifies fluid rotation in a regime relevant to the saturated island widths, neutral beam injection energies, and physical dimensions of DIII-D. This demonstrates that energy-dependent stochastic effects operate alongside nonlinear MHD coupling and neoclassical toroidal viscosity to determine the dynamics of non-axisymmetric and tearing-unstable systems, including disruptive tokamak discharges. Supported by the U.S. DOE DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-FG02-99ER54531.
Edge rotation from momentum transport by neutrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omotani, JT; Newton, SL; Pusztai, I.; Fülöp, T.
2016-11-01
Due to their high cross field mobility, neutral atoms can have a strong effect on transport even at the low relative densities found inside the separatrix. We use a charge-exchange dominated model for the neutrals, coupled to neoclassical ions, to calculate momentum transport when it is dominated by the neutrals. We can then calculate self-consistently the radial electric field and predict the intrinsic rotation in an otherwise torque-free plasma. Using a numerical solver for the ion distribution to allow arbitrary collisionality, we investigate the effects of inverse aspect ratio and elongation on plasma rotation. We also calculate the rotation of a trace carbon impurity, to facilitate future comparison to experiments using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostics.
Quantized adiabatic transport in momentum space.
Ho, Derek Y H; Gong, Jiangbin
2012-07-06
Though topological aspects of energy bands are known to play a key role in quantum transport in solid-state systems, the implications of Floquet band topology for transport in momentum space (i.e., acceleration) have not been explored so far. Using a ratchet accelerator model inspired by existing cold-atom experiments, here we characterize a class of extended Floquet bands of one-dimensional driven quantum systems by Chern numbers, reveal topological phase transitions therein, and theoretically predict the quantization of adiabatic transport in momentum space. Numerical results confirm our theory and indicate the feasibility of experimental studies.
Stochastic models for convective momentum transport.
Majda, Andrew J; Stechmann, Samuel N
2008-11-18
The improved parameterization of unresolved features of tropical convection is a central challenge in current computer models for long-range ensemble forecasting of weather and short-term climate change. Observations, theory, and detailed smaller-scale numerical simulations suggest that convective momentum transport (CMT) from the unresolved scales to the resolved scales is one of the major deficiencies in contemporary computer models. Here, a combination of mathematical and physical reasoning is utilized to build simple stochastic models that capture the significant intermittent upscale transports of CMT on the large scales due to organized unresolved convection from squall lines. Properties of the stochastic model for CMT are developed below in a test column model environment for the large-scale variables. The effects of CMT from the stochastic model on a large-scale convectively coupled wave in an idealized setting are presented below as a nontrivial test problem. Here, the upscale transports from stochastic effects are significant and even generate a large-scale mean flow which can interact with the convectively coupled wave.
Mass and Momentum Turbulent Transport Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.; Roback, R.
1984-01-01
An experimental study of mixing downstream of axial and swirling coaxial jets is being conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently employed in a variety of computational procedures used throughout the propulsion community. Effort was directed toward the acquisition of length scale and dissipation rate data that will provide more accurate inlet boundary conditions for the computational procedures and a data base to evaluate the turbulent transport models in the near jet region where recirculation does not occur. Mass and momentum turbulent transport data with a blunt inner-jet inlet configuration will also be acquired.
Transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift wave turbulence
Diamond, P. H.; McDevitt, C. J.; Guercan, Oe. D.; Hahm, T. S.; Naulin, V.
2008-01-15
This paper presents a novel, unified approach to the theory of turbulent transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift waves. The physics of resonant and nonresonant off-diagonal contributions to the momentum flux is emphasized, and collisionless momentum exchange between waves and particles is accounted for. Two related momentum conservation theorems are derived. These relate the resonant particle momentum flux, the wave momentum flux, and the refractive force. A perturbative calculation, in the spirit of Chapman-Enskog theory, is used to obtain the wave momentum flux, which contributes significantly to the residual stress. A general equation for mean k{sub parallel} (
Momentum injection in tokamak plasmas and transitions to reduced transport.
Parra, F I; Barnes, M; Highcock, E G; Schekochihin, A A; Cowley, S C
2011-03-18
The effect of momentum injection on the temperature gradient in tokamak plasmas is studied. A plausible scenario for transitions to reduced transport regimes is proposed. The transition happens when there is sufficient momentum input so that the velocity shear can suppress or reduce the turbulence. However, it is possible to drive too much velocity shear and rekindle the turbulent transport. The optimal level of momentum injection is determined. The reduction in transport is maximized in the regions of low or zero magnetic shear.
Momentum Injection in Tokamak Plasmas and Transitions to Reduced Transport
Parra, F. I.; Highcock, E. G.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Barnes, M.
2011-03-18
The effect of momentum injection on the temperature gradient in tokamak plasmas is studied. A plausible scenario for transitions to reduced transport regimes is proposed. The transition happens when there is sufficient momentum input so that the velocity shear can suppress or reduce the turbulence. However, it is possible to drive too much velocity shear and rekindle the turbulent transport. The optimal level of momentum injection is determined. The reduction in transport is maximized in the regions of low or zero magnetic shear.
MOMENTUM TRANSPORT FROM CURRENT-DRIVEN RECONNECTION IN ASTROPHYSICAL DISKS
Ebrahimi, F.; Prager, S. C.
2011-12-20
Current-driven reconnection is investigated as a possible mechanism for angular momentum transport in astrophysical disks. A theoretical and computational study of angular momentum transport from current-driven magnetohydrodynamic instabilities is performed. It is found that both a single resistive tearing instability and an ideal instability can transport momentum in the presence of azimuthal Keplerian flow. The structure of the Maxwell stress is examined for a single mode through analytic quasilinear theory and computation. Full nonlinear multiple-mode computation shows that a global Maxwell stress causes significant momentum transport.
Energy and Momentum Transport in String Waves
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Juenker, D. W.
1976-01-01
Formulas are derived for the energy, momentum, and angular momentum transmitted by waves of arbitrary shape in an inextensible string by pure transverse waves in a string using Tait's procedure. (Author/CP)
Design of Large Momentum Acceptance Transport Systems
D.R. Douglas
2005-05-01
The use of energy recovery to enable high power linac operation often gives rise to an attendant challenge--the transport of high power beams subtending large phase space volumes. In particular applications--such as FEL driver accelerators--this manifests itself as a requirement for beam transport systems with large momentum acceptance. We will discuss the design, implementation, and operation of such systems. Though at times counterintuitive in behavior (perturbative descriptions may, for example, be misleading), large acceptance systems have been successfully utilized for generations as spectrometers and accelerator recirculators [1]. Such systems are in fact often readily designed using appropriate geometric descriptions of beam behavior; insight provided using such a perspective may in addition reveal inherent symmetries that simplify construction and improve operability. Our discussion will focus on two examples: the Bates-clone recirculator used in the Jefferson Lab 10 kW IR U pgrade FEL (which has an observed acceptance of 10% or more) and a compaction-managed mirror-bend achromat concept with an acceptance ranging from 50 to 150 MeV.
Spontaneous toroidal flow generation due to negative effective momentum diffusivity
McMillan, Ben F.
2015-02-15
Spontaneous structure formation, and in particular, zonal flows, is observed in a broad range of natural and engineered systems, often arising dynamically as the saturated state of a linear instability. Flows in tokamaks are known to self-organise on small scales, but large scale toroidal flows also arise even when externally applied torques are zero. This has previously been interpreted as the result of small externally imposed breaking of a symmetry. However, we show that for large enough field line pitch, a robust spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs, leading to the generation of strong toroidal flow structures; parameters are typical of Spherical Tokamak discharges with reversed shear profiles. The short wavelength dynamics are qualitatively similar to the growth of poloidal flow structures, and toroidal flow gradients nonlinearly saturate at levels where the shearing rate is comparable to linear growth rate. On long wavelengths, we measure Prandtl numbers of around zero for these systems, in conjunction with the formation of structured toroidal flows, and we show that this is consistent with a model of momentum transport where fluxes act to reinforce small flow gradients: the effective momentum diffusivity is negative. Toroidal flow structures are largely unaffected by collisional damping, so this may allow toroidal bulk flows of order the ion thermal velocity to be maintained with zero momentum input. This phenomenon also provides a mechanism for the generation of localised meso-scale structures like transport barriers.
Spontaneous toroidal flow generation due to negative effective momentum diffusivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMillan, Ben F.
2015-02-01
Spontaneous structure formation, and in particular, zonal flows, is observed in a broad range of natural and engineered systems, often arising dynamically as the saturated state of a linear instability. Flows in tokamaks are known to self-organise on small scales, but large scale toroidal flows also arise even when externally applied torques are zero. This has previously been interpreted as the result of small externally imposed breaking of a symmetry. However, we show that for large enough field line pitch, a robust spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs, leading to the generation of strong toroidal flow structures; parameters are typical of Spherical Tokamak discharges with reversed shear profiles. The short wavelength dynamics are qualitatively similar to the growth of poloidal flow structures, and toroidal flow gradients nonlinearly saturate at levels where the shearing rate is comparable to linear growth rate. On long wavelengths, we measure Prandtl numbers of around zero for these systems, in conjunction with the formation of structured toroidal flows, and we show that this is consistent with a model of momentum transport where fluxes act to reinforce small flow gradients: the effective momentum diffusivity is negative. Toroidal flow structures are largely unaffected by collisional damping, so this may allow toroidal bulk flows of order the ion thermal velocity to be maintained with zero momentum input. This phenomenon also provides a mechanism for the generation of localised meso-scale structures like transport barriers.
Reynolds stress and the physics of turbulent momentum transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernard, Peter S.; Handler, Robert A.
1990-11-01
The nature of the momentum transport processes responsible for the Reynolds shear stress is investigated using several ensembles of fluid particle paths obtained from a direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow. It is found that the Reynolds stress can be viewed as arising from two fundamentally different mechanisms. The more significant entails transport in the manner described by Prandtl in which momentum is carried unchanged from one point to another by the random displacement of fluid particles. One-point models, such as the gradient law are found to be inherently unsuitable for representing this process. However, a potentially useful non-local approximation to displacement transport, depending on the global distribution of the mean velocity gradient, may be developed as a natural consequence of its definition. A second important transport mechanism involves fluid particles experiencing systematic accelerations and decelerations. Close to the wall this results in a reduction in Reynolds stress due to the solving of sweep-type motions. Further away Reynolds stress is produced in spiralling motions, where particles accelerate or decelerate while changing direction. Both transport mechanisms appear to be closely associated with the dynamics of vortical structures in the wall region.
Angular momentum transport within evolved low-mass stars
Cantiello, Matteo; Bildsten, Lars; Paxton, Bill; Mankovich, Christopher; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen
2014-06-10
Asteroseismology of 1.0-2.0 M {sub ☉} red giants by the Kepler satellite has enabled the first definitive measurements of interior rotation in both first ascent red giant branch (RGB) stars and those on the helium burning clump. The inferred rotation rates are 10-30 days for the ≈0.2 M {sub ☉} He degenerate cores on the RGB and 30-100 days for the He burning core in a clump star. Using the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Evolution code, we calculate state-of-the-art stellar evolution models of low mass rotating stars from the zero-age main sequence to the cooling white dwarf (WD) stage. We include transport of angular momentum due to rotationally induced instabilities and circulations, as well as magnetic fields in radiative zones (generated by the Tayler-Spruit dynamo). We find that all models fail to predict core rotation as slow as observed on the RGB and during core He burning, implying that an unmodeled angular momentum transport process must be operating on the early RGB of low mass stars. Later evolution of the star from the He burning clump to the cooling WD phase appears to be at nearly constant core angular momentum. We also incorporate the adiabatic pulsation code, ADIPLS, to explicitly highlight this shortfall when applied to a specific Kepler asteroseismic target, KIC8366239.
Observation of anomalous momentum transport in tokamak plasmas with no momentum input.
Lee, W D; Rice, J E; Marmar, E S; Greenwald, M J; Hutchinson, I H; Snipes, J A
2003-11-14
Anomalous momentum transport has been observed in Alcator C-Mod tokamak plasmas through analysis of the time evolution of core impurity toroidal rotation velocity profiles. Following the L-mode to EDA (enhanced D(alpha)) H-mode transition, the ensuing cocurrent toroidal rotation velocity, which is generated in the absence of any external momentum source, is observed to propagate in from the edge plasma to the core. The steady state toroidal rotation velocity profiles are relatively flat and the momentum transport can be simulated with a simple diffusion model. Velocity profiles during edge localized mode free (ELM-free) H-modes are centrally peaked, which suggests the addition of inward momentum convection. In all operating regimes the observed momentum diffusivities are much larger than the neoclassical values.
Momentum transport from nonlinear mode coupling of magnetic fluctuations
Hansen; Almagri; Craig; Den Hartog DJ; Hegna; Prager; Sarff
2000-10-16
A cause of observed anomalous plasma momentum transport in a reversed-field pinch is determined experimentally. Magnetohydrodynamic theory predicts that nonlinear interactions involving triplets of tearing modes produce internal torques that redistribute momentum. Evidence for the nonlinear torque is acquired by detecting the correlation of momentum redistribution with the mode triplets, with the elimination of one of the modes in the triplet, and with the external driving of one of the modes.
Influence of Convective Momentum Transport on Tropical Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, L.
2012-12-01
Convective momentum transport (CMT) has been found to play an important role during the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Influences of CMT on tropical waves are analytically studied in a two-layer model, which captures the first-order baroclinic structure in the vertical. Since CMT is the momentum exchange between the lower and the upper troposphere during convection, the easterly and westerly vertical shears of background zonal winds lead to different CMT influences. Generally, CMT plays more important roles than a damping term to tropical waves. CMT is a critical factor for determining the meridional scale of tropical waves and leads to kinetic energy transfer against the direction of background wind shear in the vertical. CMT can also be favorable for internal instability and induce upscale momentum transfer. Specifically, due to CMT, the meridional scale in the two-layer model is wider than the Rossby radius of deformation (RL, the meridional scale of tropical waves in the classical theory) over the Indo-Pacific warm pool, but narrower than RL from the central to the eastern Pacific Ocean and over the Atlantic Ocean. Such variation is consistent with observations. CMT results in minor modifications to the speeds of Rossby waves, inertial gravity waves, and Kelvin waves. Nevertheless, CMT has significant influences on the mixed Rossby-gravity (MRG) waves, especially over the Indo-Pacific warm pool where the vertical wind shear in easterly. Westward propagating MRG waves with small wavenumber become unstable under the influence of CMT. The phase relation between the convergence and geopotential is no longer in quadrature, which is different from classical MRG waves. As a result, there is a net source of mechanical energy within one period and there is an upscale momentum transfer from the perturbed field to large scale velocities. This theoretical study sheds lights on the relation between CMT and slow variations in the atmosphere, including MJO.
INTERNAL GRAVITY WAVES IN MASSIVE STARS: ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSPORT
Rogers, T. M.; Lin, D. N. C.; McElwaine, J. N.; Lau, H. H. B. E-mail: lin@ucolick.org E-mail: hblau@astro.uni-bonn.de
2013-07-20
We present numerical simulations of internal gravity waves (IGW) in a star with a convective core and extended radiative envelope. We report on amplitudes, spectra, dissipation, and consequent angular momentum transport by such waves. We find that these waves are generated efficiently and transport angular momentum on short timescales over large distances. We show that, as in Earth's atmosphere, IGW drive equatorial flows which change magnitude and direction on short timescales. These results have profound consequences for the observational inferences of massive stars, as well as their long term angular momentum evolution. We suggest IGW angular momentum transport may explain many observational mysteries, such as: the misalignment of hot Jupiters around hot stars, the Be class of stars, Ni enrichment anomalies in massive stars, and the non-synchronous orbits of interacting binaries.
Laboratory Study of Angular Momentum Transport in Astrophysical Accretion Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Hantao
2014-10-01
Studying astrophysical processes in the lab becomes increasingly possible and exciting, as one of Stirling's favorite subjects throughout his scientific career. In this talk, I will describe experimental efforts to study mechanisms of rapid angular momentum transport required to occur in accretion disks to explain a wide range of phenomena from star formation, energetic activity of cataclysmic variables, to powering quasars, the most luminous steady sources in the Universe. By carefully isolating effects due to artificial boundaries, which are inherent to terrestrial experiments, certain astrophysical questions regarding hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic stabilities are being addressed in the laboratory. Inspirations from Stirling as well as scientific exchanges with him will be mentioned during this talk as part of my scientific journey on this subject.
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.
2013-06-10
We perform global unstratified three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of an astrophysical boundary layer (BL)-an interface region between an accretion disk and a weakly magnetized accreting object such as a white dwarf-with the goal of understanding the effects of magnetic field on the BL. We use cylindrical coordinates with an isothermal equation of state and investigate a number of initial field geometries including toroidal, vertical, and vertical with zero net flux. Our initial setup consists of a Keplerian disk attached to a non-rotating star. In a previous work, we found that in hydrodynamical simulations, sound waves excited by shear in the BL were able to efficiently transport angular momentum and drive mass accretion onto the star. Here we confirm that in MHD simulations, waves serve as an efficient means of angular momentum transport in the vicinity of the BL, despite the magnetorotational instability (MRI) operating in the disk. In particular, the angular momentum current due to waves is at times larger than the angular momentum current due to MRI. Our results suggest that angular momentum transport in the BL and its vicinity is a global phenomenon occurring through dissipation of waves and shocks. This point of view is quite different from the standard picture of transport by a local anomalous turbulent viscosity. In addition to angular momentum transport, we also study magnetic field amplification within the BL. We find that the field is indeed amplified in the BL, but only by a factor of a few, and remains subthermal.
Rectified momentum transport for a kicked Bose-Einstein condensate.
Sadgrove, Mark; Horikoshi, Munekazu; Sekimura, Tetsuo; Nakagawa, Ken'ichi
2007-07-27
We report the experimental observation of rectified momentum transport for a Bose-Einstein condensate kicked at the Talbot time (quantum resonance) by an optical standing wave. Atoms are initially prepared in a superposition of the 0 and -2hkl momentum states using an optical pi/2 pulse. By changing the relative phase of the superposed states, a momentum current in either direction along the standing wave may be produced. We offer an interpretation based on matter-wave interference, showing that the observed effect is uniquely quantum.
Mass and momentum turbulent transport experiments with confined coaxial jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.; Bennett, J. C.
1984-01-01
An experimental study of mixing downstream of coaxial jets discharging into an expanded circular duct was conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models. A combination of turbulent momentum transport rate and two components of velocity data were obtained from simultaneous measurements with a two-color LV system. A combination of turbulent mass transport rate, concentration and velocity data were obtained from simultaneous measurements with laser velocimeter (LV) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) systems.
Momentum Transport in Electron-Dominated Spherical Torus Plasmas
Kaye, S. M.; Solomon, W.; Bell, R. E.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Levinton, F.; Menard, J.; Rewoldt, G.; Sabbagh, S.; Wang, W.; Yuh, H.
2009-02-24
The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) operates between 0.35 and 0.55 T, which, when coupled to up to 7 MW of neutral beam injection, leads to central rotation velocities in excess of 300 km/s and ExB shearing rates up to 1 MHz. This level of ExB shear can be up to a factor of five greater than typical linear growth rates of long-wavelength ion (e.g., ITG) modes, at least partially suppressing these instabilities. Evidence for this turbulence suppression is that the inferred diffusive ion thermal flux in NSTX H-modes is often at the neoclassical level, and thus these plasmas operate in an electron-dominated transport regime. Analysis of experiments using n=3 magnetic fields to change plasma rotation indicate that local rotation shear influences local transport coefficients, most notably the ion thermal diffusivity, in a manner consistent with suppression of the low-k turbulence by this rotation shear. The value of the effective momentum diffusivity, as inferred from steady-state momentum balance, is found to be larger than the neoclassical value. Results of perturbative experiments indicate inward pinch velocities up to 40 m/s and perturbative momentum diffusivities of up to 4 m2/s, which are larger by a factor of several than those values inferred from steady-state analysis. The inferred pinch velocity values are consistent with values based on theories in which low-k turbulence drives the inward momentum pinch. Thus, in Spherical Tori (STs), while the neoclassical ion energy transport effects can be relatively high and dominate the ion energy transport, the neoclassical momentum transport effects are near zero, meaning that transport of momentum is dominated by any low-k turbulence that exists.
Mass and Momentum Turbulent Transport Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.
1983-01-01
The downstream mixing of coaxial jets discharging in an expanded duct was studied to improve turbulent transport models which are used in computational procedures throughout the propulsion community for combustor flow modeling. Laser velocimeter (LV) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques were used to measure velocities and concentration and flow visualization techniques to determine the time dependent characteristics of the flow and the scale of the turbulent structure.
Turbulent Transport of Momentum and Scalars Above an Urban Canopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Linlin; Li, Dan; Gao, Zhiqiu; Sun, Ting; Guo, Xiaofeng; Bou-Zeid, Elie
2014-03-01
Turbulent transport of momentum and scalars over an urban canopy is investigated using the quadrant analysis technique. High-frequency measurements are available at three levels above the urban canopy (47, 140 and 280 m). The characteristics of coherent ejection-sweep motions (flux contributions and time fractions) at the three levels are analyzed, particularly focusing on the difference between ejections and sweeps, the dissimilarity between momentum and scalars, and the dissimilarity between the different scalars (i.e., temperature, water vapour and . It is found that ejections dominate momentum and scalar transfer at all three levels under unstable conditions, while sweeps are the dominant eddy motions for transporting momentum and scalars in the urban roughness sublayer under neutral and stable conditions. The flux contributions and time fractions of ejections and sweeps can be adequately captured by assuming a Gaussian joint probability density function for flow variables. However, the inequality of flux contributions from ejections and sweeps is more accurately reproduced by the third-order cumulant expansion method (CEM). The incomplete cumulant expansion method (ICEM) also works well except for at 47 m where the skewness of fluctuations is significantly larger than that for vertical velocity. The dissimilarity between momentum and scalar transfers is linked to the dissimilarity in the characteristics of ejection-sweep motions and is further quantified by measures of transport efficiencies. Atmospheric stability is the controlling factor for the transport efficiencies of momentum and heat, and fitted functions from the literature describe their behaviour fairly accurately. However, transport efficiencies of water vapour and are less affected by the atmospheric stability. The dissimilarity among the three scalars examined in this study is linked to the active role of temperature and to the surface heterogeneity effect.
Momentum transport near a magnetic X line in collisionless reconnection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cai, H. J.; Ding, D. Q.; Lee, L. C.
1994-01-01
Plasma dynamics and momentum transport near an X line during time-dependent magnetic reconnection in a collisionless plasma are investigated based on two-dimensional particle simulations. We find that a weakly skewed velocity distribution is formed near the magnetic X line, leading to the presence of off-diagonal elements of the plasma pressure tensor. Let the reconnection electric field be in the y direction. The gradients of the off-diagonal elements of the pressure tensor can provide a transport of the y momentum. During the normal magnetic reconnection, the momentum transport associated with the off-diagonal terms of the pressure tensor mediates a transfer of the y momentum from the region near the X line to regions outside the X line. A period of 'reverse magnetic reconnection,' during which the plasma kinetic energy is converted into magnetic energy, is also observed in the simulation. When reverse reconnection occurs, the gradients of the off-diagonal pressure tensor elements can mediate a transfer of y momentum into the X line. It is found that the inertial term also plays a significant role in the force balance near the magnetic X line. An explanation for the origin of the off-diagonal pressure terms is also given in this paper.
Xu Zhe; Greiner, Carsten
2007-08-15
To describe momentum isotropization of gluon matter produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, the transport rate of gluon drift and the transport collision rates of elastic (gg{r_reversible}gg) as well as inelastic (gg{r_reversible}ggg) perturbative quantum chromodynamics- (pQCD) scattering processes are introduced and calculated within the kinetic parton cascade Boltzmann approach of multiparton scatterings (BAMPS), which simulates the space-time evolution of partons. We define isotropization as the development of an anisotropic system as it reaches isotropy. The inverse of the introduced total transport rate gives the correct time scale of the momentum isotropization. The contributions of the various scattering processes to the momentum isotropization can be separated into the transport collision rates. In contrast to the transport cross section, the transport collision rate has an indirect but correctly implemented relationship with the collision-angle distribution. Based on the calculated transport collision rates from BAMPS for central Au+Au collisions at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies, we show that pQCD gg{r_reversible}ggg bremsstrahlung processes isotropize the momentum five times more efficiently than elastic scatterings. The large efficiency of the bremsstrahlung stems mainly from its large momentum deflection. Due to kinematics, 2{yields}N (N>2) production processes allow more particles to become isotropic in momentum space and thus kinetically equilibrate more quickly than their back reactions or elastic scatterings. We also show that the relaxation time in the relaxation time approximation, which is often used, is strongly momentum dependent and thus cannot serve as a global quantity that describes kinetic equilibration.
Gyrokinetic theory and simulation of angular momentum transport
Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Candy, J.; Hinton, F. L.
2007-12-15
A gyrokinetic theory of turbulent toroidal angular momentum transport as well as modifications to neoclassical poloidal rotation from turbulence is formulated starting from the fundamental six-dimensional kinetic equation. The gyro-Bohm scaled transport is evaluated from toroidal delta-f gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code [Candy and Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. The simulations recover two pinch mechanisms in the radial transport of toroidal angular momentum: The slab geometry ExB shear pinch [Dominguez and Staebler, Phys. Fluids B 5, 387 (1993)] and the toroidal geometry 'Coriolis' pinch [Peeters, Angioni, and Strintzi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265003 (2007)]. The pinches allow the steady state null stress (or angular momentum transport flow) condition required to understand intrinsic (or spontaneous) toroidal rotation in heated tokamak without an internal source of torque [Staebler, Kinsey, and Waltz, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 46, 221 (2001)]. A predicted turbulent shift in the neoclassical poloidal rotation [Staebler, Phys. Plasmas 11, 1064 (2004)] appears to be small at the finite relative gyroradius (rho-star) of current experiments.
Momentum transport and non-local transport in heat-flux-driven magnetic reconnection in HEDP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chang; Fox, Will; Bhattacharjee, Amitava
2016-10-01
Strong magnetic fields are readily generated in high-energy-density plasmas and can affect the heat confinement properties of the plasma. Magnetic reconnection can in turn be important as an inverse process, which destroys or reconfigures the magnetic field. Recent theory has demonstrated a novel physics regime for reconnection in high-energy-density plasmas where the magnetic field is advected into the reconnection layer by plasma heat flux via the Nernst effect. In this work we elucidate the physics of the electron dissipation layer in this heat-flux-driven regime. Through fully kinetic simulation and a new generalized Ohm's law, we show that momentum transport due to the heat-flux-viscosity effect provides the dissipation mechanism to allow magnetic field line reconnection. Scaling analysis and simulations show that the characteristic width of the current sheet in this regime is several electron mean-free-paths. These results additionally show a coupling between non-local transport and momentum transport, which in turn affects the dynamics of the magnetic field. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-SC0008655.
Topological angular momentum and radiative heat transport in closed orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silveirinha, Mário G.
2017-03-01
We study the role of topological edge states of light in the transport of thermally generated radiation in a closed cavity at a thermodynamic equilibrium. It is shown that even in the zero temperature limit—when the field fluctuations are purely quantum mechanical—there is a persistent flow of electromagnetic momentum in the cavity in closed orbits, deeply rooted in the emergence of spatially separated unidirectional edge state channels. It is highlighted that the electromagnetic orbital angular momentum of the system is nontrivial, and that the energy circulation is towards the same direction as that determined by incomplete cyclotron orbits near the cavity walls. Our findings open inroads in topological photonics and suggest that topological states of light can determine novel paradigms in the context of radiative heat transport.
Zombie Vortices: Angular Momentum Transport and Planetesimal Formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barranco, Joseph; Marcus, Philip; Pei, Suyang; Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Lecoanet, Daniel
2014-11-01
Zombie vortices may fill the dead zones of protoplanetary disks, where they may play important roles in star and planet formation. We will investigate this new, purely hydrodynamic instability and explore the conditions necessary to resurrect the dead zone and fill it with large amplitude vortices that may transport angular momentum and allow mass to accrete onto the protostar. One unresolved issue is whether angular momentum transport is mediated via asymmetries in the vortices, vortex-vortex interactions, or acoustic waves launched by the vortices. Vortices may also play a crucial role in the formation of planetesimals, the building blocks of planets. It is still an open question how grains grow to kilometer-size. We will investigate the interactions of dust with vortices generated via our new hydrodynamic instability, and bridge the gap between micron-sized grains and kilometer-sized planetesimals. Supported by NSF AST-1010052.
Mass and Momentum Turbulent Transport Experiments with Confined Coaxial Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.; Bennett, J. C.
1981-01-01
Downstream mixing of coaxial jets discharging in an expanded duct was studied to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently used in a variety of computational procedures throughout the propulsion community for combustor flow modeling. Flow visualization studies showed four major shear regions occurring; a wake region immediately downstream of the inlet jet inlet duct; a shear region further downstream between the inner and annular jets; a recirculation zone; and a reattachment zone. A combination of turbulent momentum transport rate and two velocity component data were obtained from simultaneous measurements with a two color laser velocimeter (LV) system. Axial, radial and azimuthal velocities and turbulent momentum transport rate measurements in the r-z and r-theta planes were used to determine the mean value, second central moment (or rms fluctuation from mean), skewness and kurtosis for each data set probability density function (p.d.f.). A combination of turbulent mass transport rate, concentration and velocity data were obtained system. Velocity and mass transport in all three directions as well as concentration distributions were used to obtain the mean, second central moments, skewness and kurtosis for each p.d.f. These LV/LIF measurements also exposed the existence of a large region of countergradient turbulent axial mass transport in the region where the annular jet fluid was accelerating the inner jet fluid.
Intercomponent momentum transport and electrical conductivity of collisionless plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilhelm, H. E.
1973-01-01
Based on the Lenard-Balescu equation, the interaction integral for the intercomponent momentum transfer in a two-component, collisionless plasma is evaluated in closed form. The distribution functions of the electrons and ions are represented in the form of nonisothermal, displaced Maxwellians corresponding to the 5-moment approximation. As an application, the transport of electrical current in an electric field is discussed for infrasonic up to sonic electron-ion drift velocities.
Angular momentum transport in thin accretion disks and intermittent accretion.
Coppi, B; Coppi, P S
2001-07-30
The plasma modes, transporting angular momentum in accretion disks, under minimally restrictive conditions when the magnetic energy density is significant relative to the thermal energy density, are shown to be singular if the ideal MHD approximation is adopted. A similarity with the modes producing magnetic reconnection in current carrying plasmas is established. The combined effects of finite plasma temperature, of plasma compressibility, of the gradient of the rotation frequency, and of appropriate transport processes (outside ideal MHD) are involved in the onset of these nonaxisymmetric and locally corotating modes.
Momentum transport experiments using NBI in an RFP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nornberg, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.; den Hartog, D. J.; Kumar, S.; Anderson, J. K.; Waksman, J.; Dobbins, T.; Craig, D.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.
2012-10-01
The self-organization process that shapes the current density profile in an RFP discharge gives rise to large turbulent stresses that also shape the parallel flow profile. These stresses drive rapid transport during relaxation events flattening both the plasma current and parallel flow profiles. Experiments using tangential neutral beam injection to create a core-localized torque are presented for a range of equilibrium conditions in MST plasmas: from standard RFP discharges where tearing modes give rise to stochastic transport to discharges with inductive profile control (PPCD) which greatly suppress the tearing modes. Measurements of plasma spin-down after NBI turn-off are used to gauge momentum transport in plasmas with varying levels of tearing mode activity. Plasmas tending toward the quasi-single-helicity state have a dominant core mode that induces a braking torque on the plasma. This core mode is suppressed by NBI thereby reducing the braking torque on the plasma. Variation of the magnetic fluctuation level through inductive profile control shows a reduction in momentum transport consistent with stochastic transport theory.
Nonlinear parallel momentum transport in strong electrostatic turbulence
Wang, Lu Wen, Tiliang; Diamond, P. H.
2015-05-15
Most existing theoretical studies of momentum transport focus on calculating the Reynolds stress based on quasilinear theory, without considering the nonlinear momentum flux-〈v{sup ~}{sub r}n{sup ~}u{sup ~}{sub ∥}〉. However, a recent experiment on TORPEX found that the nonlinear toroidal momentum flux induced by blobs makes a significant contribution as compared to the Reynolds stress [Labit et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 032308 (2011)]. In this work, the nonlinear parallel momentum flux in strong electrostatic turbulence is calculated by using a three dimensional Hasegawa-Mima equation, which is relevant for tokamak edge turbulence. It is shown that the nonlinear diffusivity is smaller than the quasilinear diffusivity from Reynolds stress. However, the leading order nonlinear residual stress can be comparable to the quasilinear residual stress, and so may be important to intrinsic rotation in tokamak edge plasmas. A key difference from the quasilinear residual stress is that parallel fluctuation spectrum asymmetry is not required for nonlinear residual stress.
Angular momentum transport via internal gravity waves in evolving stars
Fuller, Jim; Lecoanet, Daniel; Cantiello, Matteo; Brown, Ben
2014-11-20
Recent asteroseismic advances have allowed for direct measurements of the internal rotation rates of many subgiant and red giant stars. Unlike the nearly rigidly rotating Sun, these evolved stars contain radiative cores that spin faster than their overlying convective envelopes, but slower than they would in the absence of internal angular momentum transport. We investigate the role of internal gravity waves in angular momentum transport in evolving low-mass stars. In agreement with previous results, we find that convectively excited gravity waves can prevent the development of strong differential rotation in the radiative cores of Sun-like stars. As stars evolve into subgiants, however, low-frequency gravity waves become strongly attenuated and cannot propagate below the hydrogen-burning shell, allowing the spin of the core to decouple from the convective envelope. This decoupling occurs at the base of the subgiant branch when stars have surface temperatures of T ≈ 5500 K. However, gravity waves can still spin down the upper radiative region, implying that the observed differential rotation is likely confined to the deep core near the hydrogen-burning shell. The torque on the upper radiative region may also prevent the core from accreting high angular momentum material and slow the rate of core spin-up. The observed spin-down of cores on the red giant branch cannot be totally attributed to gravity waves, but the waves may enhance shear within the radiative region and thus increase the efficacy of viscous/magnetic torques.
Hydrodynamic turbulence cannot transport angular momentum effectively in astrophysical disks.
Ji, Hantao; Burin, Michael; Schartman, Ethan; Goodman, Jeremy
2006-11-16
The most efficient energy sources known in the Universe are accretion disks. Those around black holes convert 5-40 per cent of rest-mass energy to radiation. Like water circling a drain, inflowing mass must lose angular momentum, presumably by vigorous turbulence in disks, which are essentially inviscid. The origin of the turbulence is unclear. Hot disks of electrically conducting plasma can become turbulent by way of the linear magnetorotational instability. Cool disks, such as the planet-forming disks of protostars, may be too poorly ionized for the magnetorotational instability to occur, and therefore essentially unmagnetized and linearly stable. Nonlinear hydrodynamic instability often occurs in linearly stable flows (for example, pipe flows) at sufficiently large Reynolds numbers. Although planet-forming disks have extreme Reynolds numbers, keplerian rotation enhances their linear hydrodynamic stability, so the question of whether they can be turbulent and thereby transport angular momentum effectively is controversial. Here we report a laboratory experiment, demonstrating that non-magnetic quasi-keplerian flows at Reynolds numbers up to millions are essentially steady. Scaled to accretion disks, rates of angular momentum transport lie far below astrophysical requirements. By ruling out purely hydrodynamic turbulence, our results indirectly support the magnetorotational instability as the likely cause of turbulence, even in cool disks.
Temperature dependence of angular momentum transport across interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Kai; Lin, Weiwei; Chien, C. L.; Zhang, Shufeng
2016-08-01
Angular momentum transport in magnetic multilayered structures plays a central role in spintronic physics and devices. The angular momentum currents or spin currents are carried by either quasiparticles such as electrons and magnons, or by macroscopic order parameters such as local magnetization of ferromagnets. Based on the generic interface exchange interaction, we develop a microscopic theory that describes interfacial spin conductance for various interfaces among nonmagnetic metals, ferromagnetic insulators, and antiferromagnetic insulators. Spin conductance and its temperature dependence are obtained for different spin batteries including spin pumping, temperature gradient, and spin Hall effect. As an application of our theory, we calculate the spin current in a trilayer made of a ferromagnetic insulator, an antiferromagnetic insulator, and a nonmagnetic heavy metal. The calculated results on the temperature dependence of spin conductance quantitatively agree with the existing experiments.
Hoshino, Masahiro
2015-02-13
Angular momentum transport and particle acceleration during the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless accretion disk are investigated using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. We show that the kinetic MRI can provide not only high-energy particle acceleration but also enhancement of angular momentum transport. We find that the plasma pressure anisotropy inside the channel flow with p(∥)>p(⊥) induced by active magnetic reconnection suppresses the onset of subsequent reconnection, which, in turn, leads to high-magnetic-field saturation and enhancement of the Maxwell stress tensor of angular momentum transport. Meanwhile, during the quiescent stage of reconnection, the plasma isotropization progresses in the channel flow and the anisotropic plasma with p(⊥)>p(∥) due to the dynamo action of MRI outside the channel flow contribute to rapid reconnection and strong particle acceleration. This efficient particle acceleration and enhanced angular momentum transport in a collisionless accretion disk may explain the origin of high-energy particles observed around massive black holes.
Plasma rotation from momentum transport by neutrals in tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omotani, J.; Pusztai, I.; Newton, S.; Fülöp, T.
2016-12-01
Neutral atoms can strongly influence the intrinsic rotation and radial electric field at the tokamak edge. Here, we present a framework to investigate these effects when the neutrals dominate the momentum transport. We explore the parameter space numerically, using highly flexible model geometries and a state of the art kinetic solver. We find that the most important parameters controlling the toroidal rotation and electric field are the major radius where the neutrals are localized and the plasma collisionality. This offers a means to influence the rotation and electric field by, for example, varying the radial position of the X-point to change the major radius of the neutral peak.
Theory for plasma confinement and momentum transport in snakes
Shaing, K.C.
2005-07-15
A theory for plasma confinement in snakes is developed based on the consequences of the momentum transport resulting from the symmetry-breaking-induced plasma viscosity in the vicinity of an m=1 magnetic island. Here, m is the poloidal mode number of the island. The symmetry-breaking mechanism is the distortion of the magnetic surface associated with the magnetic island embedded in the equilibrium magnetic field. It is demonstrated that a combination of the turbulence suppression and the effects of the orbit squeezing could be responsible for the observed improved plasma confinement in snakes.
Momentum and particle transport in a nonhomogenous canopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gould, Andrew W.
Turbulent particle transport through the air plays an important role in the life cycle of many plant pathogens. In this study, data from a field experiment was analyzed to explore momentum and particle transport within a grape vineyard. The overall goal of these experiments was to understand how the architecture of a sparse agricultural canopy interacts with turbulent flow and ultimately determines the dispersion of airborne fungal plant pathogens. Turbulence in the vineyard canopy was measured using an array of four sonic anemometers deployed at heights z/H 0.4, 0.9, 1.45, and 1.95 where z is the height of the each sonic and H is the canopy height. In addition to turbulence measurements from the sonic anemometers, particle dispersion was measured using inert particles with the approximate size and density of powdery mildew spores and a roto-rod impaction trap array. Measurements from the sonic anemometers demonstrate that first and second order statistics of the wind field are dependent on wind direction orientation with respect to vineyard row direction. This dependence is a result of wind channeling which transfers energy between the velocity components when the wind direction is not aligned with the rows. Although the winds have a strong directional dependence, spectra analysis indicates that the structure of the turbulent flow is not fundamentally altered by the interaction between wind direction and row direction. Examination of a limited number of particle release events indicates that the wind turning and channeling observed in the momentum field impacts particle dispersion. For row-aligned flow, particle dispersion in the direction normal to the flow is decreased relative to the plume spread predicted by a standard Gaussian plume model. For flow that is not aligned with the row direction, the plume is found to rotate in the same manner as the momentum field.
Momentum and Current Transport in the MST Reversed Field Pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, W. X.; Lin, Liang; Brower, D. L.; Almagri, A. F.; Chapman, B. E.; Hartog, D. J. Den; Duff, J.; Sarff, J. S.
2013-10-01
Self-generated flows and current (dynamo effects) are routinely observed in the MST RFP where both parallel flow and electric field reverse sign compared to the edge. In the absence of external torque and applied poloidal electric field, both the flow and electric field may arise from kinetic effects. Kinetic effects, defined as the correlated product of parallel pressure and radial magnetic field fluctuations, have been measured by using a high-speed polarimetry-interferometry diagnostic (for combined radial magnetic field and density fluctuation measurement). Between sawtooth crashes it is found that the measured kinetic effects associated with density fluctuations (a component of parallel pressure fluctuation) has a finite amplitude that may account for the observed flow in the core. In addition, the same fluctuations also influence electron dynamics via the kinetic dynamo. These results suggest kinetic effects may play an important role in coupling between momentum transport and current transport. Work supported by US DOE and NSF.
Cloud-top meridional momentum transports on Saturn and Jupiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stromovsky, L. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Krauss, R. J.
1986-01-01
Cloud-tracked wind measurements reported by Sromovsky et al. were analyzed to determine meridional momentum transports in Saturn's northern middle latitudes. Results are expressed in terms of eastward and northward velocity components (u and v), and eddy components u and v. At most latitudes between 13 and 44 deg N (planetocentric), the transport by the mean flow (
Enhanced understanding of momentum transport barrier observed in KSTAR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, H. H.; Seol, J.; Ko, W. H.; Terzolo, L.; Aydemir, A. Y.; in, Y.; Ghime, Y. C.; Lee, S. G.
2016-10-01
It is expected that H-mode plasmas exhibit transport barriers not only for plasma particles and energy but also for toroidal angular momentum. Although density and temperature pedestals at the edge have been seen since the first observations of H-mode in tokamaks three decades ago, a toroidal rotation pedestal is not commonly observed except in some special cases such as QH-mode or is much weaker than those in the density and temperature profiles. But, in the KSTAR tokamak, H-mode plasma is always accompanied by the noticeable toroidal rotation pedestal. We show that the inherent nonaxisymmetric error fields and toroidal ripple can generate significant neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV), which damps the toroidal rotation at the edge and to a large extent remove the pedestal in the rotation profile. On the other hand, we demonstrate that the NTV torque induced by the intrinsic error fields and toroidal field ripple in the level of the KSTAR tokamak, which are expected to be smaller than most tokamaks by at least one order of magnitude, is negligible in determining the toroidal rotation velocity profile. Thus we conclusively show that H-mode provides a transport barrier against all three transport channels when turbulent transport is suppressed at the edge.
Wave mediated angular momentum transport in astrophysical boundary layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertfelder, Marius; Kley, Wilhelm
2015-07-01
Context. Disk accretion onto weakly magnetized stars leads to the formation of a boundary layer (BL) where the gas loses its excess kinetic energy and settles onto the star. There are still many open questions concerning the BL, for instance the transport of angular momentum (AM) or the vertical structure. Aims: It is the aim of this work to investigate the AM transport in the BL where the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is not operating owing to the increasing angular velocity Ω(r) with radius. We will therefore search for an appropriate mechanism and examine its efficiency and implications. Methods: We perform 2D numerical hydrodynamical simulations in a cylindrical coordinate system (r,ϕ) for a thin, vertically integrated accretion disk around a young star. We employ a realistic equation of state and include both cooling from the disk surfaces and radiation transport in radial and azimuthal direction. The viscosity in the disk is treated by the α-model; in the BL there is no viscosity term included. Results: We find that our setup is unstable to the sonic instability which sets in shortly after the simulations have been started. Acoustic waves are generated and traverse the domain, developing weak shocks in the vicinity of the BL. Furthermore, the system undergoes recurrent outbursts where the activity in the disk increases strongly. The instability and the waves do not die out for over 2000 orbits. Conclusions: There is indeed a purely hydrodynamical mechanism that enables AM transport in the BL. It is efficient and wave mediated; however, this renders it a non-local transport method, which means that models of a effective local viscosity like the α-viscosity are probably not applicable in the BL. A variety of further implications of the non-local AM transport are discussed.
Be Star Outbursts: Transport of Angular Momentum by Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neiner, C.; Mathis, S.; Saio, H.; Lee, U.
2013-12-01
The Be phenomenon, that is the ejection of matter from Be stars into a circumstellar disk, has been a long lasting mystery. In the last few years, the CoRoT (Convection Rotation and planetary Transits) satellite brought clear evidence that Be outbursts are directly correlated with pulsations. We found that it may be the transport of angular momentum by waves or pulsation modes that brings the already rapid stellar rotation to its critical value at the surface, and allows the star to eject material. The recent discovery of stochastically excited gravito-inertial modes by CoRoT in a hot Be star strengthens this scenario. We present the CoRoT observations and modeling of several Be stars and describe the new picture of the Be phenomenon which arose from these results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Weixing
2008-11-01
Global gyrokinetic simulations using the GTS code [1] have found that a large inward flux of toroidal momentum is driven robustly in the post saturation phase of ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence. As a consequence, core plasma rotation spins up resulting in δu a few percent of vth in the case with no momentum source at the edge. The underlying physics for the inward flux is identified to be the generation of residual stress due to the k symmetry breaking [2] induced by self-generated zonal flow shear which is quasi-stationary in global simulations. The elatively low level momentum flux in the long- time steady state appears to be approximately diffusive, with effective χφ/χi on the order of unity, in broad agreement with experimental observations and theory predictions for ITG turbulence [3]. Neoclassical simulations using the GTC- NEO code [4] also show that the ion temperature gradient can drive a significant inward nondiffusive momentum flux. However, the overall neoclassical contribution to the momentum transport is negligibly small compared to experimental levels for NSTX and DIII-D plasmas. It is also found that finite residual turbulence can survive strong mean ExB shear flow induced damping. This residual turbulence in the presence of strong ExB shear may drive an insignificant ion heat flux reasonably close to the neoclassical value, and a finite momentum flux significantly higher than the neoclassical level. Moreover, the equilibrium ExB flow shear is found to reduce the turbulence driven transport for energy more efficiently than for momentum. These findings may offer an explanation for rather peculiar observations of near neoclassical ion heat and anomalous momentum transport in experiments, which has been often observed in various machines, but with little theoretical understanding. [1] W.X. Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 072306 (2007). [2] O.D. Gurcan et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 042306 (2007). [3] N. Mattor and P.H. Diamond, Phys. Fluids 31
Spin transport in the XXZ chain at finite temperature and momentum.
Steinigeweg, Robin; Brenig, Wolfram
2011-12-16
We investigate the role of momentum for the transport of magnetization in the spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain above the isotropic point at finite temperature and momentum. Using numerical and analytical approaches, we analyze the autocorrelations of density and current and observe a finite region of the Brillouin zone with diffusive dynamics below a cutoff momentum, and a diffusion constant independent of momentum and time, which scales inversely with anisotropy. Lowering the temperature over a wide range, starting from infinity, the diffusion constant is found to increase strongly while the cutoff momentum for diffusion decreases. Above the cutoff momentum diffusion breaks down completely.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hablani, Hari B.
1993-01-01
This paper has a two-fold objective: determination of yearly momentum accumulation due to solar radiation pressure, and optimum reaction wheel sizing. The first objective is confronted while determining propellant consumption by the attitude control system over a spacecraft's lifetime. This, however, cannot be obtained from the daily momentum accumulation and treating that constant throughout the year, because the orientation of the solar arrays relative to the spacecraft changes over a wide range in a year, particularly if the spacecraft has two arrays, one normal and the other off-normal to different extent at different times to the sun rays. The paper first develops commands for the arrays for tracking the sun, the arrays articulated to earth-pointing spacecraft with two rotational degrees of freedom, and spacecraft in an arbitrary circular orbit. After developing expressions for solar radiation torque due to one or both arrays, arranged symmetrically or asymmetrically relative to the spacecraft bus, momentum accumulation over an orbit and then over a year are determined. The remainder of the paper is concerned with designing reaction wheel configurations. Four-, six-, and three-wheel configurations are considered, and for given torque and momentum requirements, their cant angles with the roll/yaw plane are optimized for minimum power consumption. Finally, their momentum and torque capacities are determined for one-wheel failure scenario, and six configurations are compared and contrasted.
Towards a More Realistic Description of Swing Pumping Due to the Exchange of Angular Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roura, P.; Gonzalez, J. A.
2010-01-01
The pumping mechanism of a swing in a playground is due to the exchange of angular momentum from the rocking movement of the swinger to the swing oscillation around the point from which the swing is suspended. We describe the rocking events as square pulses of short duration. This choice, together with a simplified mechanical model for the…
Heat and momentum transport scalings in vertical convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shishkina, Olga
2016-11-01
For vertical convection, where a fluid is confined between two differently heated isothermal vertical walls, we investigate the heat and momentum transport, which are measured, respectively, by the Nusselt number Nu and the Reynolds number Re . For laminar vertical convection we derive analytically the dependence of Re and Nu on the Rayleigh number Ra and the Prandtl number Pr from our boundary layer equations and find two different scaling regimes: Nu Pr 1 / 4 Ra 1 / 4 , Re Pr - 1 / 2 Ra 1 / 2 for Pr << 1 and Nu Pr0 Ra 1 / 4 , Re Pr-1 Ra 1 / 2 for Pr >> 1 . Direct numerical simulations for Ra from 105 to 1010 and Pr from 0.01 to 30 are in excellent ageement with our theoretical findings and show that the transition between the regimes takes place for Pr around 0.1. We summarize the results from and present new theoretical and numerical results for transitional and turbulent vertical convection. The work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Grant Sh 405/4 - Heisenberg fellowship.
The angular momentum transport by unstable toroidal magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rüdiger, G.; Gellert, M.; Spada, F.; Tereshin, I.
2015-01-01
We demonstrate with a nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code that angular momentum can be transported because of the magnetic instability of toroidal fields under the influence of differential rotation, and that the resulting effective viscosity may be high enough to explain the almost rigid-body rotation observed in radiative stellar cores. We only consider stationary, current-free fields, and only those combinations of rotation rates and magnetic field amplitudes which provide maximal numerical values of the viscosity. We find that the dimensionless ratio of the effective over molecular viscosity, νT/ν, linearly grows with the Reynolds number of the rotating fluid multiplied by the square-root of the magnetic Prandtl number, which is approximately unity for the considered red subgiant star KIC 7341231. For the interval of magnetic Reynolds numbers considered - which is restricted by numerical constraints of the nonlinear MHD code - the magnetic Prandtl number has a remarkable influence on the relative importance of the contributions of the Reynolds stress and the Maxwell stress to the total viscosity, which is magnetically dominated only for Pm ≳ 0.5. We also find that the magnetized plasma behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid, i.e., the resulting effective viscosity depends on the shear in the rotation law. The decay time of the differential rotation thus depends on its shear and becomes longer and longer during the spin-down of a stellar core.
Momentum relaxation due to polar optical phonons in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, J.-Z.; Dyson, A.; Ridley, B. K.
2011-10-01
Using the dielectric continuum (DC) model, momentum relaxation rates are calculated for electrons confined in quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) channels of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. Particular attention is paid to the effects of half-space and interface modes on the momentum relaxation. The total momentum relaxation rates are compared with those evaluated by the three-dimensional phonon (3DP) model, and also with the Callen results for bulk GaN. In heterostructures with a wide channel (effective channel width >100 Å), the DC and 3DP models yield very close momentum relaxation rates. Only for narrow-channel heterostructures do interface phonons become important in momentum relaxation processes, and an abrupt threshold occurs for emission of interface as well as half-space phonons. For a 30-Å GaN channel, for instance, the 3DP model is found to underestimate rates just below the bulk phonon energy by 70% and overestimate rates just above the bulk phonon energy by 40% compared to the DC model. Owing to the rapid decrease in the electron-phonon interaction with the phonon wave vector, negative momentum relaxation rates are predicted for interface phonon absorption in usual GaN channels. The total rates remain positive due to the dominant half-space phonon scattering. The quasi-2D rates can have substantially higher peak values than the three-dimensional rates near the phonon emission threshold. Analytical expressions for momentum relaxation rates are obtained in the extreme quantum limits (i.e., the threshold emission and the near subband-bottom absorption). All the results are well explained in terms of electron and phonon densities of states.
Quantifying Momentum Transfer Due to Blast Waves from Oxy-Acetylene Driven Shock Tubes
2012-05-30
Transfer Due to Blast Waves from Oxy - Acetylene Driven Shock Tubes 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...and the response of materiel to blast loading. Recently, laboratory-scale shock tubes driven by oxy - acetylene were described. It was estimated that...later. In each case, most of the momentum transfer was due to the shock wave itself. The results support previous estimates that the oxy - acetylene
Anomalous transport due to magnetic turbulence
Cardozo, N.J.L.
1996-03-01
Transport in a toroidal system with broken flux surfaces is considered. Flux surfaces with rational field line winding number can degenerate and form magnetic islands. The experimental evidence for the existence of magnetic structures is reviewed. If neighboring chains of islands overlap, a region of stochastic field is formed. In a stochastic field, a field line fills up a region of space and thus makes significant radial excursions. Particles following a stochastic field line may experience rapid radial transport. The problem of computing transport in a stochastic field has two stages: what is the behavior of field lines in a stochastic region? and what is the implication for particle transport? The much used formula due to Rechester & Rosenbluth for collisionless transport in a fully ergodic field is treated. It is shown that the conditions for the validity of this formula are normally not met in a tokamak. 16 refs.
Momentum and spin transport properties of spin polarized Fermi systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Lijuan
We carried out experiments on a spin polarized 3He- 4He mixture with 3He concentration x 3 = 6.26 x 10-4, and on pure 3He liquid. Spin polarization affects the transport properties of these Fermi systems. The effect on momentum transport was studied by using a vibrating-wire viscometer to measure viscosity of the 3He-4He mixture over the temperature range 6.09 mK--100 mK in 7.96 T and 1.00 T magnetic fields. A large viscosity increase was observed upon application of the 7.96 T magnetic field for temperature T < TF(TF = 19.5 mK is the Fermi temperature). The observed viscosity is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations for a dilute Fermi gas by Jeon and Mullin [1988, 1989] and Mullin and Jeon [1992]. The polarization effect on spin transport was investigated by measuring the transverse diffusion coefficient D ⊥ in pure 3He liquid at saturated vapor pressure and at 15.85 bar over the temperature range 4.5 mK--159 mK in a 7.96 T magnetic field. We used a pulsed NMR spin echo technique in a field gradient of 16.0 G/cm to do the measurements and fits to the Leggett equations [1970] to obtain D⊥. For T < 20 mK, we found D⊥ is less than measured in earlier experiments at lower magnetic fields. D⊥ does not increase with decreasing temperature as 1/T2, but appears to approach a constant as T → 0 while it is expected that the longitudinal spin diffusion coefficient D∥ ∝ 1/ T2. This is called spin diffusion anisotropy and it was observed for the first time in our 3He liquid experiments. The anisotropy temperature we determined for 3He liquid was Ta = 16.4 +/- 2.2 mK at saturated vapor pressure and in a 7.96 T magnetic field. The transverse spin diffusion in 3 He results agree qualitatively with theories proposed by Meyerovich and Musaeflan [1992, 1994]. They also agree qualitatively with theories proposed by Golosov and Ruckenstein [1995, 1998] by extrapolation of the dilute theory to a strongly interacting system.
Momentum transport from current-driven reconnection in the reversed field pinch.
Ebrahimi, F; Mirnov, V V; Prager, S C; Sovinec, C R
2007-08-17
We calculate momentum transport from tearing fluctuations in a reversed field pinch with sheared flow, considering both the effect of a single tearing mode (through quasilinear theory and MHD computation) and multiple tearing modes (through nonlinear MHD computation). A single tearing mode transports momentum, via Maxwell and Reynolds stresses, more rapidly than classical viscous forces. Moreover, the transport is enhanced by nonlinear coupling of multiple modes.
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.
2013-06-10
The nature of angular momentum transport in the boundary layers of accretion disks has been one of the central and long-standing issues of accretion disk theory. In this work we demonstrate that acoustic waves excited by supersonic shear in the boundary layer serve as an efficient mechanism of mass, momentum, and energy transport at the interface between the disk and the accreting object. We develop the theory of angular momentum transport by acoustic modes in the boundary layer, and support our findings with three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, using an isothermal equation of state. Our first major result is the identification of three types of global modes in the boundary layer. We derive dispersion relations for each of these modes that accurately capture the pattern speeds observed in simulations to within a few percent. Second, we show that angular momentum transport in the boundary layer is intrinsically nonlocal, and is driven by radiation of angular momentum away from the boundary layer into both the star and the disk. The picture of angular momentum transport in the boundary layer by waves that can travel large distances before dissipating and redistributing angular momentum and energy to the disk and star is incompatible with the conventional notion of local transport by turbulent stresses. Our results have important implications for semianalytical models that describe the spectral emission from boundary layers.
Protostellar angular momentum transport by spiral density waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuan, C.; Cassen, P.
1985-01-01
The application of rotational stability criteria to a specific model of star formation leads to the conclusion that the growth of stellar angular momentum is limited by its transfer to the disk. Excess accreted angular momentum can be transferred by torques connected with spiral density waves induced by even a slight protostellar triaxiality. In addition, viscous damping of the density waves is likely to cause the excess angular momentum to be deposited within a small region close to the protostar. Thus, it would be appropriate to treat that part of the growing protostellar disk beyond the outer Lindblad resonance as an accretion disk with a torque applied to its inner edge. It is noted that this situation is directly relevant to certain models of the evolution of the protosun and solar nebula.
The momentum transfer of incompressible turbulent separated flow due to cavities with steps
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, R. E.; Norton, D. J.
1977-01-01
An experimental study was conducted using a plate test bed having a turbulent boundary layer to determine the momentum transfer to the faces of step/cavity combinations on the plate. Experimental data were obtained from configurations including an isolated configuration and an array of blocks in tile patterns. A momentum transfer correlation model of pressure forces on an isolated step/cavity was developed with experimental results to relate flow and geometry parameters. Results of the experiments reveal that isolated step/cavity excrecences do not have a unique and unifying parameter group due in part to cavity depth effects and in part to width parameter scale effects. Drag predictions for tile patterns by a kinetic pressure empirical method predict experimental results well. Trends were not, however, predicted by a method of variable roughness density phenomenology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rousseau, F.; Coppi, B.
2006-10-01
The presence of angular momentum transport associated with an accretion process in an axisymmetric differentially rotating structure affects the equilibrium configuration that this can take and can introduce a toroidal Lorentz force with the associated poloidal current densities. All three components (vertical, radial and toroidal) of the total momentum conservation equation are considered. A sequence of ring solutions can be found by making use of the inequalities vNJ
Stability and angular-momentum transport of fluid flows between corotating cylinders.
Avila, M
2012-03-23
Turbulent transport of angular momentum is a necessary process to explain accretion in astrophysical disks. Although the hydrodynamic stability of disklike flows has been tested in experiments, results are contradictory and suggest either laminar or turbulent flow. Direct numerical simulations reported here show that currently investigated laboratory flows are hydrodynamically unstable and become turbulent at low Reynolds numbers. The underlying instabilities stem from the axial boundary conditions, affect the flow globally, and enhance angular-momentum transport.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stepinski, T. F.; Levy, E. H.
1990-01-01
Magnetic torques can produce angular momentum redistribution in protostellar nebulas. Dynamo magnetic fields can be generated in differentially rotating and turbulent nebulas and can be the source of magnetic torques that transfer angular momentum from a protostar to a disk, as well as redistribute angular momentum within a disk. A magnetic field strength of 100-1000 G is needed to transport the major part of a protostar's angular momentum into a surrounding disk in a time characteristic of star formation, thus allowing formation of a solar-system size protoplanetary nebula in the usual 'minimum-mass' model of the protosolar nebula. This paper examines the possibility that a dynamo magnetic field could have induced the needed angular momentum transport from the proto-Sun to the protoplanetary nebula.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takehiro, S.; Sasaki, Y.; Hayashi, Y.-Y.; Yamada, M.
2013-12-01
We investigate generation mechanisms of differential rotation and angular momentum transport caused by Boussinesq thermal convection in a rotating spherical shell based on weakly nonlinear numerical calculations for various values of the Prandtl and Ekman numbers under a setup similar to the solar convection layer. When the Prandtl number is of order unity or less and the rotation rate of the system is small (the Ekman number is larger than O(10-2)), the structure of thermal convection is not governed by the Taylor-Proudman theorem; banana-type convection cells emerge which follow the spherical shell boundaries rather than the rotation axis. Due to the Coriolis effect, the velocity field associated with those types of convection cells accompanies the Reynolds stress which transports angular momentum from high-latitudes to the equatorial region horizontally, and equatorial prograde flows are produced. The surface and internal distributions of differential rotation realized in this regime are quite similar to those observed in the Sun with helioseismology. These results may suggest that we should apply larger values of the eddy diffusivities than those believed so far when we use a low resolution numerical model for thermal convection in the solar interior.
Latitudinal Transport of Angular Momentum by Cellular Flows Observed with MDI
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hathaway, David H.; Gilman, Peter A.; Beck, John G.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We have analyzed Doppler velocity images from the MDI instrument on SOHO to determine the latitudinal transport of angular momentum by the cellular photospheric flows. Doppler velocity images from 60-days in May to July of 1996 were processed to remove the p-mode oscillations, the convective blue shift, the axisymmetric flows, and any instrumental artifacts. The remaining cellular flows were examined for evidence of latitudinal angular momentum transport. Small cells show no evidence of any such transport. Cells the size of supergranules (30,000 km in diameter) show strong evidence for a poleward transport of angular momentum. This would be expected if supergranules are influenced by the Coriolis force, and if the cells are elongated in an east-west direction. We find good evidence for just such an east-west elongation of the supergranules. This elongation may be the result of differential rotation shearing the cellular structures. Data simulations of this effect support the conclusion that elongated supergranules transport angular momentum from the equator toward the poles, Cells somewhat larger than supergranules do not show evidence for this poleward transport. Further analysis of the data is planned to determine if the direction of angular momentum transport reverses for even larger cellular structures. The Sun's rapidly rotating equator must be maintained by such transport somewhere within the convection zone.
An instability in planetary rings due to ballistic transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durisen, Richard H.
1995-01-01
Ballistic transport in planetary rings is the net radial transport of mass and angular momentum due to exchanges of meteoroid impact ejecta between neighboring ring regions. The detailed linear stability analysis in this paper demonstrates that ballistic transport causes wavelike disturbances to grow and propagate in an otherwise uniform ring. The growth is strongest for intermediate values of the normal ring optical depth tau = 0.1 to 1.0 and goes to zero as tau approaches 0 and tau approaches infinity. For nominal values of various physical parameters, the minimum e-folding time is approximately 10(exp 5) years for tau approximately 0.4. The direction of propagation is opposite to the sense of any asymmetry that may exist in the ejecta direction distribution (inward for prograde ejecta and outward for retrograde ejecta). The additional effect of viscous transport tends to damp wavelike perturbations strongly at short wavelengths and at high values of tau. The quantitative agreement between this analytic work and numerical simulations reported elsewhere is generally quite good. As applied to Saturn's rings, the results in this paper strengthen the earlier conclusion from numerical calculations that the 100-km structure in the inner B Ring is caused by ballistic transport. However, it is also clear that ballistic transport cannot produce the complex structure seen in the outer two-thirds of the B Ring where tau greater than or approximately 1.5. Wavelike structures in the C Ring might also be attributed to ballistic transport; but this requires further study.
Angular Momentum Transport in Turbulent Flow between Independently Rotating Cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paoletti, M. S.; Lathrop, D. P.
2011-01-01
We present measurements of the angular momentum flux (torque) in Taylor-Couette flow of water between independently rotating cylinders for all regions of the (Ω1, Ω2) parameter space at high Reynolds numbers, where Ω1 (Ω2) is the inner (outer) cylinder angular velocity. We find that the Rossby number Ro=(Ω1-Ω2)/Ω2 fully determines the state and torque G as compared to G(Ro=∞)≡G∞. The ratio G/G∞ is a linear function of Ro-1 in four sections of the parameter space. For flows with radially increasing angular momentum, our measured torques greatly exceed those of previous experiments [Ji et al., Nature (London)NATUAS0028-0836, 444, 343 (2006)10.1038/nature05323], but agree with the analysis of Richard and Zahn [Astron. Astrophys. 347, 734 (1999)AAEJAF0004-6361].
Angular momentum transport in turbulent flow between independently rotating cylinders.
Paoletti, M S; Lathrop, D P
2011-01-14
We present measurements of the angular momentum flux (torque) in Taylor-Couette flow of water between independently rotating cylinders for all regions of the (Ω1, Ω2) parameter space at high Reynolds numbers, where Ω1 (Ω2) is the inner (outer) cylinder angular velocity. We find that the Rossby number Ro = (Ω1 - Ω2)/Ω2 fully determines the state and torque G as compared to G(Ro = ∞) ≡ G∞. The ratio G/G∞ is a linear function of Ro(-1) in four sections of the parameter space. For flows with radially increasing angular momentum, our measured torques greatly exceed those of previous experiments [Ji et al., Nature (London), 444, 343 (2006)], but agree with the analysis of Richard and Zahn [Astron. Astrophys. 347, 734 (1999)].
A numerical study of the vertical transport of momentum in a tropical rainband
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Soong, S.-T.; Tao, W.-K.
1984-01-01
The vertical transport of horizontal momentum in a convective tropical rainband is studied using a two-dimensional cloud ensemble model. Twelve simulations are made under the same large-scale conditions. The vertical transports of v momentum (parallel to the rainband) are essentially the same in all of the simulations, even though the structure of the clouds is different in each of the runs. The magnitude of the v-momentum transport by clouds is fairly large. It takes only half of a day to smooth out the tropical low-level easterly jet parallel to the rainband if no other processes are operating. The vertical transports of u momentum (perpendicular to the rainband) are quite different in all of the simulations. This difference can be explained by the dissimilarities in the distributions of horizontal momentum associated with various cloud configurations. The simulated vertical transports of horizontal momentum are compared with those computed with the Schneider and Lindzen scheme. The results suggest that their scheme is basically correct and usable if some improvements are made.
Lysosomal solute carrier transporters gain momentum in research.
Bissa, B; Beedle, A M; Govindarajan, R
2016-11-01
Emerging evidence indicates that lysosome function extends beyond macromolecular degradation. Genetic and functional defects in components of the lysosomal transport machinery cause lysosomal storage disorders implicating the lysosomal solute carrier (SLC) transporters as essential to vital cell processes. The pathophysiology and therapeutic potential of lysosomal SLC transporters are highlighted here, focusing on recent discoveries in autophagic amino acid sensing (SLC38A9), phagocytic regulation in macrophages (SLC29A3, SLC15A3/A4), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) exocytosis in neurotransmission (SLC17A9), and lysosomal transport of maytansine catabolites into the cytoplasm (SLC46A3).
Lysosomal solute carrier transporters gain momentum in research
Beedle, AM; Govindarajan, R
2016-01-01
Emerging evidence indicates that lysosome function extends beyond macromolecular degradation. Genetic and functional defects in components of the lysosomal transport machinery cause lysosomal storage disorders implicating the lysosomal solute carrier (SLC) transporters as essential to vital cell processes. The pathophysiology and therapeutic potential of lysosomal SLC transporters are highlighted here, focusing on recent discoveries in autophagic amino acid sensing (SLC38A9), phagocytic regulation in macrophages (SLC29A3, SLC15A3/A4), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) exocytosis in neurotransmission (SLC17A9), and lysosomal transport of maytansine catabolites into the cytoplasm (SLC46A3). PMID:27530302
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tobias, B. J.
2015-11-01
The dynamic, nonlinear evolution of tearing instabilities on DIII-D reveals a coupling of rational surfaces that can lead to phase-locking amongst multiple rotating magnetic island chains. This loss of flow shear increases disruptivity, particularly at the low level of rotation expected in ITER. Bifurcation of differential mode frequency and fluid rotation in hybrid scenario discharges has been interpreted by comparison to a recently developed theory of nonlinear mode coupling. Magnetic islands of different toroidal mode number couple to flatten the toroidal rotation profile, and the resulting phase-locked state is similar to the so-called ``slinky'' mode observed in reversed field pinch devices. Reduction of the edge safety factor increases the momentum transport, easily overwhelming the local torque density available from neutral beam injection. In discharges with q95 ~ 4.5, however, the participating modes do not remain phase-locked. In these cases, ECE-Imaging data have been used to show that the poloidal rotation of the composite, multi-helicity structure exceeds that of the measured carbon (and estimated deuterium) fluid flow. The present model of nonlinear 3-wave mode coupling does not generate the forces required to drive this rotation. Therefore, flow shear inversion represents a transition from phase-locking to a new regime of convective momentum transport in which additional mechanisms become important. These results highlight the importance of controlling multi-mode interactions in order to maintain stabilizing flow shear. Supported by US DOE DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-FG02-07ER54917, DE-FG02-92-ER54141.
Transport of absolute angular momentum in quasi-axisymmetric equatorial jet streams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Read, P. L.
1986-01-01
It is well known that prograde equatorial jet stresses cannot occur in an axisymmetric inviscid fluid, owing to the constraints of local angular momentum conservation. For a viscous fluid, the constraints of mass conservation prevent the formation of any local maximum of absolute angular momentum (m) without a means of transferring m against its gradient (delta m) in the meridional plane. The circumstances under which m can be diffused up-gradient by normal molecular viscosity are derived, and illustrated with reference to numerical simulations of axisymmetric flows in a cylindrical annulus. Viscosity is shown to act so as to tend to expel m from the interior outwards from the rotation axis. Such an effect can produce local super-rotation even in a mechanically isolated fluid. The tendency of viscosity to result in the expulsion of m is shown to be analogous in certain respects to a vorticity-mixing hypothesis for the effects of non-axisymmetric eddies of the zonally-averaged flow. It is shown how the advective and diffusive transport of m by non-axisymmetric eddies can be represented by the Transformed Eulerian Mean meridional circulation and the Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux of Andrews and McIntyre respectively, in the zonal mean. Constraints on the form and direction of the EP flux in an advective/diffusive flow for such eddies are derived, by analogy with similar constraints on the diffusive flux of m due to viscosity.
Momentum Transport Studies in High E x B Shear Plasmas in NSTX
Solomon, W M; Bell, R E; LeBlanc, B P; Menard, J E; Rewoldt, G; Wang, W; Levinton, F M; Yuh, H
2008-06-26
Experiments have been conducted on NSTX to study both steady state and perturbative mo mentum transport. These studies are unique in their parameter space under investigation, where the low aspect ratio of NSTX results in rapid plasma rotation with E x B shearing rates high enough to suppress low-k turbulence. In some cases, the ratio of momentum to energy confinement time is found to exceed five. Momentum pinch velocities of order 10-40 m/s are inferred from the measured angular momentum flux evolution after non-resonant magnetic perturbations are applied to brake the plasma.
Local momentum and heat fluxes in transient transport processes and inhomogeneous systems.
Chen, Youping; Diaz, Adrian
2016-11-01
This work examines existing formalisms for the derivation of microscopic momentum and heat fluxes. Both analytical and simulation results are provided to show that the widely used flux formulas are not applicable to transient transport processes or highly inhomogeneous systems, e.g., materials with atomically sharp interfaces. A method is formulated for formally deriving microscopic momentum and heat fluxes through the integral representation of conservation laws. The resulting flux formulas are mathematically rigorous, fully consistent with the physical concepts of momentum and heat fluxes, and applicable to nonequilibrium transient processes in atomically inhomogeneous systems with general many-body forces.
Local momentum and heat fluxes in transient transport processes and inhomogeneous systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Youping; Diaz, Adrian
2016-11-01
This work examines existing formalisms for the derivation of microscopic momentum and heat fluxes. Both analytical and simulation results are provided to show that the widely used flux formulas are not applicable to transient transport processes or highly inhomogeneous systems, e.g., materials with atomically sharp interfaces. A method is formulated for formally deriving microscopic momentum and heat fluxes through the integral representation of conservation laws. The resulting flux formulas are mathematically rigorous, fully consistent with the physical concepts of momentum and heat fluxes, and applicable to nonequilibrium transient processes in atomically inhomogeneous systems with general many-body forces.
Effect of nonlinear instability on gravity-wave momentum transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunkerton, Timothy J.
1987-01-01
This paper investigates the nonlinear instability of internal gravity waves and the effects of their nonlinear interaction on momentum flux, using simple theoretical and numerical models. From the result of an analysis of parametric instability of a two-dimensional internal gravity wave as discussed by Yeh and Liu (1981) and Klostermeyer (1982), a group trajectory length scale for a gravity wave packet was determined, expressed in terms of the dominant vertical wavelenght and the degree of convective saturation. It is shown that this analysis justifies the Eikonal saturation method for relatively transient packets, that are well below the saturation amplitude, propagating in a slowly varying mean flow. Conversely, linear theory fails for persistent disturbances and trasient wave packets near convective saturation.
Poloidal rotation driven by nonlinear momentum transport in strong electrostatic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lu; Wen, Tiliang; Diamond, P. H.
2016-10-01
Virtually, all existing theoretical works on turbulent poloidal momentum transport are based on quasilinear theory. Nonlinear poloidal momentum flux—< {{\\tilde{v}}r}\\tilde{n}{{\\tilde{v}}θ}> is universally neglected. However, in the strong turbulence regime where relative fluctuation amplitude is no longer small, quasilinear theory is invalid. This is true at the all-important plasma edge. In this work, nonlinear poloidal momentum flux < {{\\tilde{v}}r}\\tilde{n}{{\\tilde{v}}θ}> in strong electrostatic turbulence is calculated using the Hasegawa-Mima equation, and is compared with quasilinear poloidal Reynolds stress. A novel property is that symmetry breaking in fluctuation spectrum is not necessary for a nonlinear poloidal momentum flux. This is fundamentally different from the quasilinear Reynold stress. Furthermore, the comparison implies that the poloidal rotation drive from the radial gradient of nonlinear momentum flux is comparable to that from the quasilinear Reynolds force. Nonlinear poloidal momentum transport in strong electrostatic turbulence is thus not negligible for poloidal rotation drive, and so may be significant to transport barrier formation.
Flow anisotropy due to momentum deposition in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomášik, Boris; Schulc, Martin
2017-03-01
Minijets and jets are produced in large numbers in nuclear collisions at TeV energies, so that there are many of them in a single fireball. They deposit non-negligible amount of momentum and energy into the hydrodynamically expanding bulk and cause anisotropies of the expansion. Moreover, due to their multiple production in a single event the resulting anisotropies are correlated with the collision geometry and thus contribute positively also to event-averaged anisotropies in non-central collisions. Using simulations with three-dimensional ideal hydrodynamic model we demonstrate the importance of this effect. It must be taken into account if conclusions about the properties of the hot matter are to be drawn.
Angular momentum transport efficiency in post-main sequence low-mass stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spada, F.; Gellert, M.; Arlt, R.; Deheuvels, S.
2016-05-01
Context. Using asteroseismic techniques, it has recently become possible to probe the internal rotation profile of low-mass (≈1.1-1.5 M⊙) subgiant and red giant stars. Under the assumption of local angular momentum conservation, the core contraction and envelope expansion occurring at the end of the main sequence would result in a much larger internal differential rotation than observed. This suggests that angular momentum redistribution must be taking place in the interior of these stars. Aims: We investigate the physical nature of the angular momentum redistribution mechanisms operating in stellar interiors by constraining the efficiency of post-main sequence rotational coupling. Methods: We model the rotational evolution of a 1.25M⊙ star using the Yale Rotational stellar Evolution Code. Our models take into account the magnetic wind braking occurring at the surface of the star and the angular momentum transport in the interior, with an efficiency dependent on the degree of internal differential rotation. Results: We find that models including a dependence of the angular momentum transport efficiency on the radial rotational shear reproduce very well the observations. The best fit of the data is obtained with an angular momentum transport coefficient scaling with the ratio of the rotation rate of the radiative interior over that of the convective envelope of the star as a power law of exponent ≈3. This scaling is consistent with the predictions of recent numerical simulations of the Azimuthal Magneto-Rotational Instability. Conclusions: We show that an angular momentum transport process whose efficiency varies during the stellar evolution through a dependence on the level of internal differential rotation is required to explain the observed post-main sequence rotational evolution of low-mass stars.
Up-down symmetry of the turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks
Parra, Felix I.; Barnes, Michael
2011-06-15
Two symmetries of the local nonlinear {delta}f gyrokinetic system of equations in tokamaks in the high flow regime are presented. The turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum changes sign under an up-down reflection of the tokamak and a sign change of both the rotation and the rotation shear. Thus, the turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum must vanish for up-down symmetric tokamaks in the absence of both rotation and rotation shear. This has important implications for the modeling of spontaneous rotation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.; Bennett, J. C.
1983-01-01
An experimental study of mixing downstream of coaxial jets discharging into an expanded circular duct was conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently used for combustor flow modeling. A combination of turbulent momentum transport rate and two velocity component data was obtained from simultaneous measurements with a two-color LV system. A combination of turbulent mass transport rate, concentration and velocity data was obtained from simultaneous measurements with laser velocimeter (LV) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) systems. These measurements were used to obtain mean, second central moment, skewness and kurtosis values for three velocity components and the concentration. These measurements showed the existence of countergradient turbulent axial mass transport where the annular jet fluid was accelerating the inner jet fluid. Results from the study are related to the assumptions employed in the current mass and momentum turbulent transport models.
Anomalous Transport due to Magnetic Turbulence
Lopes Cardozo, Niek
2004-03-15
In this paper we consider transport in a toroidal system with broken flux surfaces. Flux surfaces with rational field line winding number can degenerate and form magnetic islands. Where neighbouring chains of islands overlap, a region of chaotic field forms. Thus, the generic topology of the magnetic field in a toroidal device consists of an alternation of shells with 'good' surfaces and shells with islands or chaotic field.In a chaotic field, a field line fills up a region of space and thus makes significant radial excursions. Particles following a chaotic field line may experience rapid radial transport. Recent experimental evidence for the existence of alternating layers with high and low thermal transport is presented. The implication for the determination of transport coefficients is discussed. It is shown that a transport analysis that does not resolve the fine structure of the transport coefficient yields results that are almost meaningless.
Wang, W X; Hahm, T S; Ethier, S; Rewoldt, G; Lee, W W; Tang, W M; Kaye, S M; Diamond, P H
2009-01-23
A significant inward flux of toroidal momentum is found in global gyrokinetic simulations of ion temperature gradient turbulence, leading to core plasma rotation spin-up. The underlying mechanism is identified to be the generation of residual stress due to the k parallel symmetry breaking induced by global quasistationary zonal flow shear. Simulations also show a significant off-diagonal element associated with the ion temperature gradient in the neoclassical momentum flux, while the overall neoclassical flux is small. In addition, the residual turbulence found in the presence of strong E x B flow shear may account for neoclassical-level ion heat and anomalous momentum transport widely observed in experiments.
Mass and Momentum Transport Experiments with Swirling Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.; Roback, R.
1984-01-01
An experimental study of mixing downstream of axial and swirling coaxial jets is being conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently employed in a variety of computational procedures used throughout the propulsion community. The axial coaxial jet study was completed under Phase 1. The swirling coaxial jet study, which is the subject of this paper, was conducted under Phase 2 of the contract. A TEACH code was acquired, checked out for several test cases, and is reported. A study to measure length scales and to obtain a limited number of measurements with a blunt trailing edge inlet is being conducted under Phase 3 of the contract.
Molecular momentum transport at fluid-solid interfaces in MEMS/NEMS: a review.
Cao, Bing-Yang; Sun, Jun; Chen, Min; Guo, Zeng-Yuan
2009-10-29
This review is focused on molecular momentum transport at fluid-solid interfaces mainly related to microfluidics and nanofluidics in micro-/nano-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). This broad subject covers molecular dynamics behaviors, boundary conditions, molecular momentum accommodations, theoretical and phenomenological models in terms of gas-solid and liquid-solid interfaces affected by various physical factors, such as fluid and solid species, surface roughness, surface patterns, wettability, temperature, pressure, fluid viscosity and polarity. This review offers an overview of the major achievements, including experiments, theories and molecular dynamics simulations, in the field with particular emphasis on the effects on microfluidics and nanofluidics in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In Section 1 we present a brief introduction on the backgrounds, history and concepts. Sections 2 and 3 are focused on molecular momentum transport at gas-solid and liquid-solid interfaces, respectively. Summary and conclusions are finally presented in Section 4.
Molecular Momentum Transport at Fluid-Solid Interfaces in MEMS/NEMS: A Review
Cao, Bing-Yang; Sun, Jun; Chen, Min; Guo, Zeng-Yuan
2009-01-01
This review is focused on molecular momentum transport at fluid-solid interfaces mainly related to microfluidics and nanofluidics in micro-/nano-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). This broad subject covers molecular dynamics behaviors, boundary conditions, molecular momentum accommodations, theoretical and phenomenological models in terms of gas-solid and liquid-solid interfaces affected by various physical factors, such as fluid and solid species, surface roughness, surface patterns, wettability, temperature, pressure, fluid viscosity and polarity. This review offers an overview of the major achievements, including experiments, theories and molecular dynamics simulations, in the field with particular emphasis on the effects on microfluidics and nanofluidics in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In Section 1 we present a brief introduction on the backgrounds, history and concepts. Sections 2 and 3 are focused on molecular momentum transport at gas-solid and liquid-solid interfaces, respectively. Summary and conclusions are finally presented in Section 4. PMID:20087458
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ball, Justin; Parra, Felix I.; Lee, Jungpyo; Cerfon, Antoine J.
2016-12-01
Tokamaks with up-down asymmetric poloidal cross-sections spontaneously rotate due to turbulent transport of momentum. In this work, we investigate the effect of the Shafranov shift on this intrinsic rotation, primarily by analyzing tokamaks with tilted elliptical flux surfaces. By expanding the Grad-Shafranov equation in the large aspect ratio limit we calculate the magnitude and direction of the Shafranov shift in tilted elliptical tokamaks. The results show that, while the Shafranov shift becomes up-down asymmetric and depends strongly on the tilt angle of the flux surfaces, it is insensitive to the shape of the current and pressure profiles (when the geometry, total plasma current, and average pressure gradient are kept fixed). Next, local nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of these MHD equilibria are performed with GS2, which reveal that the Shafranov shift can significantly enhance the momentum transport. However, to be consistent, the effect of {β\\prime} (i.e. the radial gradient of β) on the magnetic equilibrium was also included, which was found to significantly reduce momentum transport. Including these two competing effects broadens the rotation profile, but leaves the on-axis value of the rotation roughly unchanged. Consequently, the shape of the β profile has a significant effect on the rotation profile of an up-down asymmetric tokamak.
Mass and momentum turbulent transport experiments with confined swirling coaxial jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roback, R.; Johnson, B. V.
1983-01-01
Swirling coaxial jets mixing downstream, discharging into an expanded duct was conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently used in a variety of computational procedures throughout the combustion community. A combination of laser velocimeter (LV) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques was employed to obtain mean and fluctuating velocity and concentration distributions which were used to derive mass and momentum turbulent transport parameters currently incorporated into various combustor flow models. Flow visualization techniques were also employed to determine qualitatively the time dependent characteristics of the flow and the scale of turbulence. The results of these measurements indicated that the largest momentum turbulent transport was in the r-z plane. Peak momentum turbulent transport rates were approximately the same as those for the nonswirling flow condition. The mass turbulent transport process for swirling flow was complicated. Mixing occurred in several steps of axial and radial mass transport and was coupled with a large radial mean convective flux. Mixing for swirling flow was completed in one-third the length required for nonswirling flow.
Momentum Transport: 2D and 3D Cloud Resolving Model Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, Wei-Kuo
2001-01-01
The major objective of this study is to investigate the momentum budgets associated with several convective systems that developed during the TOGA COARE IOP (west Pacific warm pool region) and GATE (east Atlantic region). The tool for this study is the improved Goddard Cumulas Ensemble (GCE) model which includes a 3-class ice-phase microphysical scheme, explicit cloud radiative interactive processes and air-sea interactive surface processes. The model domain contains 256 x 256 grid points (with 2 km resolution) in the horizontal and 38 grid points (to a depth of 22 km) in the vertical. The 2D domain has 1024 grid points. The simulations were performed over a 7-day time period (December 19-26, 1992, for TOGA COARE and September 1-7, 1994 for GATE). Cyclic literal boundary conditions are required for this type of long-term integration. Two well organized squall systems (TOGA, COARE February 22, 1993, and GATE September 12, 1994) were also simulated using the 3D GCE model. Only 9 h simulations were required to cover the life time of the squall systems. the lateral boundary conditions were open for these two squall systems simulations. the following will be examined: (1) the momentum budgets in the convective and stratiform regions, (2) the relationship between momentum transport and cloud organization (i.e., well organized squall lines versus less organized convective), (3) the differences and similarities in momentum transport between 2D and 3D simulated convective systems, and (4) the differences and similarities in momentum budgets between cloud systems simulated with open and cyclic lateral boundary conditions. Preliminary results indicate that there are only small differences between 2D and 3D simulated momentum budgets. Major differences occur, however, between momentum budgets associated with squall systems simulated using different lateral boundary conditions.
Protostellar disk formation and transport of angular momentum during magnetized core collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joos, M.; Hennebelle, P.; Ciardi, A.
2012-07-01
Context. Theoretical studies of collapsing clouds have found that even a relatively weak magnetic field may prevent the formation of disks and their fragmentation. However, most previous studies have been limited to cases where the magnetic field and the rotation axis of the cloud are aligned. Aims: We study the transport of angular momentum, and its effects on disk formation, for non-aligned initial configurations and a range of magnetic intensities. Methods: We perform three-dimensional, adaptive mesh, numerical simulations of magnetically supercritical collapsing dense cores using the magneto-hydrodynamic code Ramses. We compute the contributions of all the relevant processes transporting angular momentum, in both the envelope and the region of the disk. We clearly define centrifugally supported disks and thoroughly study their properties. Results: At variance with earlier analyses, we show that the transport of angular momentum acts less efficiently in collapsing cores with non-aligned rotation and magnetic field. Analytically, this result can be understood by taking into account the bending of field lines occurring during the gravitational collapse. For the transport of angular momentum, we conclude that magnetic braking in the mean direction of the magnetic field tends to dominate over both the gravitational and outflow transport of angular momentum. We find that massive disks, containing at least 10% of the initial core mass, can form during the earliest stages of star formation even for mass-to-flux ratios as small as three to five times the critical value. At higher field intensities, the early formation of massive disks is prevented. Conclusions: Given the ubiquity of Class I disks, and because the early formation of massive disks can take place at moderate magnetic intensities, we speculate that for stronger fields, disks will form later, when most of the envelope will have been accreted. In addition, we speculate that some observed early massive disks
Momentum and energy transport by waves in the solar atmosphere and solar wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacques, S. A.
1977-01-01
The fluid equations for the solar wind are presented in a form which includes the momentum and energy flux of waves in a general and consistent way. The concept of conservation of wave action is introduced and is used to derive expressions for the wave energy density as a function of heliocentric distance. The explicit form of the terms due to waves in both the momentum and energy equations are given for radially propagating acoustic, Alfven, and fast mode waves. The effect of waves as a source of momentum is explored by examining the critical points of the momentum equation for isothermal spherically symmetric flow. We find that the principal effect of waves on the solutions is to bring the critical point closer to the sun's surface and to increase the Mach number at the critical point. When a simple model of dissipation is included for acoustic waves, in some cases there are multiple critical points.
Rotation drive and momentum transport with electron cyclotron heating in tokamak plasmas.
Yoshida, M; Sakamoto, Y; Takenaga, H; Ide, S; Oyama, N; Kobayashi, T; Kamada, Y
2009-08-07
The role of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) on the toroidal rotation velocity profile has been investigated in the JT-60U tokamak device by separating the effects of the change in momentum transport, the intrinsic rotation by pressure gradient, and the intrinsic rotation by ECRH. It is found that ECRH increases the toroidal momentum diffusivity and the convection velocity. It is also found that ECRH drives the codirection (co) intrinsic rotation inside the EC deposition radius and the counterdirection (ctr) intrinsic rotation outside the EC deposition radius. This ctr rotation starts from the EC deposition radius and propagates to the edge region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egito, F.; Andrioli, V. F.; Batista, P. P.
2016-11-01
In the equatorial region planetary scale waves play an important role transporting significant amount of energy and momentum through atmosphere. Quantifying the momentum transported by these waves and its effects on the mean flow is rather important. Direct estimates of the momentum flux transported by waves require horizontal and vertical wind measurements. Ground-based meteor radars have provided continuous and reliable measurements of the horizontal wind components in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region and have contributed to improve our knowledge of the dynamics of this region. However, instrumental limitations hinder its use for measuring vertical winds and momentum fluxes. On the other hand, according to Babu et al (2012), all- sky meteor radars are able to infer tridimensional winds when using a large number of meteor echoes centered at the meteor ablation peak. Following this approach, we have used measurements performed by a Meteor Radar installed at São João do Cariri, Brazil (7.4°S; 36.5°W) in order to measure vertical winds and calculate the momentum flux transported by equatorial planetary scale waves. In order to evaluate the accuracy of vertical wind values we have performed several tests based on a simple model considering real meteor distributions and theoretical equations for the MLT winds motion. From our tests, we inferred that Brazilian meteor radar data can be used for this purpose with an accuracy of 1.8 m/s. The results show that the vertical wind presents magnitudes of a few meters per second and occasionally reaches magnitudes around 10 m/s. Below 92 km the vertical wind is predominantly upward during the whole year and above exhibits a semi-annual oscillation with downward phase during the equinoxes. Variations associated to planetary scale waves in the vertical wind are also observed and some of them appear simultaneously in the zonal and meridional wind as well. Largest wave induced amplitudes in the vertical wind
Reverse Fluid Transport Due to Boundary Pulsations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coloma, Mikhail; Schaffer, David; Chiarot, Paul; Huang, Peter
2016-11-01
We investigate a reverse fluid transport mechanism consisting of peristaltic flow and boundary wave reflections. The reverse flow occurs in a rectangular conduit aligned in parallel between two cylindrical channels embedded in an elastic PDMS medium. The pulsating flow in the cylindrical channels, driven by a peristaltic pump, deform the PDMS medium and induce a pulsating flow in the rectangular conduit. Waveforms along the conduit boundaries, and their transmission and reflections, can be controlled by changing the PDMS rigidity. Our results show that while the overall wave propagation direction is in the forward direction, a reverse flow in the rectangular conduit can be preferentially induced by varying the elastic rigidity in one of the cylindrical channels. We study the overall flow velocity and direction under various PDMS rigidities. The identified set of experimental parameters that leads to a reverse flow will provide insights in understanding metabolic waste transport within the arterial walls in the brain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lore, J.; Guttenfelder, W.; Briesemeister, A.; Anderson, D. T.; Anderson, F. S. B.; Deng, C. B.; Likin, K. M.; Spong, D. A.; Talmadge, J. N.; Zhai, K.
2010-05-01
Electron cyclotron heated plasmas in the Helically Symmetric Experiment (HSX) feature strongly peaked electron temperature profiles; central temperatures are 2.5 keV with 100 kW injected power. These measurements, coupled with neoclassical predictions of large "electron root" radial electric fields with strong radial shear, are evidence of a neoclassically driven thermal transport barrier. Neoclassical transport quantities are calculated using the PENTA code [D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005)], in which momentum is conserved and parallel flow is included. Unlike a conventional stellarator, which exhibits strong flow damping in all directions on a flux surface, quasisymmetric stellarators are free to rotate in the direction of symmetry, and the effect of momentum conservation in neoclassical calculations may therefore be significant. Momentum conservation is shown to modify the neoclassical ion flux and ambipolar ion root radial electric fields in the quasisymmetric configuration. The effect is much smaller in a HSX configuration where the symmetry is spoiled. In addition to neoclassical transport, a model of trapped electron mode turbulence is used to calculate the turbulent-driven electron thermal diffusivity. Turbulent transport quenching due to the neoclassically predicted radial electric field profile is needed in predictive transport simulations to reproduce the peaking of the measured electron temperature profile [Guttenfelder et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 215002 (2008)].
Toroidal momentum transport in a tokamak caused by symmetry breaking parallel derivatives
Sung, T.; Buchholz, R.; Grosshauser, S. R.; Hornsby, W. A.; Migliano, P.; Peeters, A. G.; Casson, F. J.; Fable, E.
2013-04-15
A new mechanism for toroidal momentum transport in a tokamak is investigated using the gyro-kinetic model. First, an analytic model is developed through the use of the ballooning transform. The terms that generate the momentum transport are then connected with the poloidal derivative of the ballooning envelope, which are one order smaller in the normalised Larmor radius, compared with the derivative of the eikonal. The mechanism, therefore, does not introduce an inhomogeneity in the radial direction, in contrast with the effect of profile shearing. Numerical simulations of the linear ion temperature gradient mode with adiabatic electrons, retaining the finite {rho}{sub *} effects in the E Multiplication-Sign B velocity, the drift, and the gyro-average, are presented. The momentum flux is found to be linear in the normalised Larmor radius ({rho}{sub *}) but is, nevertheless, generating a sizeable counter-current rotation. The total momentum flux scales linear with the aspect ratio of the considered magnetic surface, and increases with increasing magnetic shear, safety factor, and density and temperature gradients.
Modeling of momentum transport of axially parallel turbulent flows in rod cascades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neelen, Neele
Problems and boundary conditions of the turbulent flow in heat exchangers, especially for nuclear fuel elements, are treated using mathematical models. Rod cascade flow and the physical fundamentals of turbulent flows are introduced. It is shown that the momentum transport phenomena can be separated into the radial and azimuthal directions. The geometrical characteristics of rod bundle geometries and a regression analysis are considered. The correlation coefficients for the wall parallel vortex viscosity are determined using a numerical optimization method. The order of magnitude of the secondary flow occurring perpendicularly to the main flow direction are determined to be 1 pct to 2 pct of the average axial velocity. The results obtained with the code VELASCO-BS are superior to those of previous codes. The azimuthal vortex viscosity is the decisive parameter, and secondary flow is not important for wall parallel momentum transport.
Simulations of Turbulent Momentum and Scalar Transport in Confined Swirling Coaxial Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey; Moder, Jeffrey P.
2015-01-01
This paper presents the numerical simulations of confined three-dimensional coaxial water jets. The objectives are to validate the newly proposed nonlinear turbulence models of momentum and scalar transport, and to evaluate the newly introduced scalar APDF and DWFDF equation along with its Eulerian implementation in the National Combustion Code(NCC). Simulations conducted include the steady RANS, the unsteady RANS (URANS), and the time-filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS); both without and with invoking the APDF or DWFDF equation.
Brauckmann, Hannes J; Eckhardt, Bruno; Schumacher, Jörg
2017-03-13
Rayleigh-Bénard convection and Taylor-Couette flow are two canonical flows that have many properties in common. We here compare the two flows in detail for parameter values where the Nusselt numbers, i.e. the thermal transport and the angular momentum transport normalized by the corresponding laminar values, coincide. We study turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in air at Rayleigh number Ra=10(7) and Taylor-Couette flow at shear Reynolds number ReS=2×10(4) for two different mean rotation rates but the same Nusselt numbers. For individual pairwise related fields and convective currents, we compare the probability density functions normalized by the corresponding root mean square values and taken at different distances from the wall. We find one rotation number for which there is very good agreement between the mean profiles of the two corresponding quantities temperature and angular momentum. Similarly, there is good agreement between the fluctuations in temperature and velocity components. For the heat and angular momentum currents, there are differences in the fluctuations outside the boundary layers that increase with overall rotation and can be related to differences in the flow structures in the boundary layer and in the bulk. The study extends the similarities between the two flows from global quantities to local quantities and reveals the effects of rotation on the transport.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brauckmann, Hannes J.; Eckhardt, Bruno; Schumacher, Jörg
2017-03-01
Rayleigh-Bénard convection and Taylor-Couette flow are two canonical flows that have many properties in common. We here compare the two flows in detail for parameter values where the Nusselt numbers, i.e. the thermal transport and the angular momentum transport normalized by the corresponding laminar values, coincide. We study turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in air at Rayleigh number Ra=107 and Taylor-Couette flow at shear Reynolds number ReS=2×104 for two different mean rotation rates but the same Nusselt numbers. For individual pairwise related fields and convective currents, we compare the probability density functions normalized by the corresponding root mean square values and taken at different distances from the wall. We find one rotation number for which there is very good agreement between the mean profiles of the two corresponding quantities temperature and angular momentum. Similarly, there is good agreement between the fluctuations in temperature and velocity components. For the heat and angular momentum currents, there are differences in the fluctuations outside the boundary layers that increase with overall rotation and can be related to differences in the flow structures in the boundary layer and in the bulk. The study extends the similarities between the two flows from global quantities to local quantities and reveals the effects of rotation on the transport.
Accuracy of momentum and gyrodensity transport in global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations
McMillan, B. F.; Villard, L.
2014-05-15
Gyrokinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations based on conservative Lagrangian formalisms admit transport equations for conserved quantities such as gyrodensity and toroidal momentum, and these can be derived for arbitrary wavelength, even though previous applications have used the long-wavelength approximation. In control-variate PIC simulations, a consequence of the different treatment of the background (f{sub 0}) and perturbed parts (δf), when a splitting f = f{sub 0} + δf is performed, is that analytical transport relations for the relevant fluxes and moments are only reproduced in the large marker number limit. The transport equations for f can be used to write the inconsistency in the perturbed quantities explicitly in terms of the sampling of the background distribution f{sub 0}. This immediately allows estimates of the error in consistency of momentum transport in control-variate PIC simulations. This inconsistency tends to accumulate secularly and is not directly affected by the sources and noise control in the system. Although physical tokamaks often rotate quite strongly, the standard gyrokinetic formalism assumes weak perpendicular flows, comparable to the drift speed. For systems with such weak flows, maintaining acceptably small relative errors requires that a number of markers scale with the fourth power of the linear system size to consistently resolve long-wavelength evolution. To avoid this unfavourable scaling, an algorithm for exact gyrodensity transport has been developed, and this is shown to allow accurate simulations with an order of magnitude fewer markers.
IMPLICATIONS OF RAPID CORE ROTATION IN RED GIANTS FOR INTERNAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSPORT IN STARS
Tayar, Jamie; Pinsonneault, Marc H.
2013-09-20
Core rotation rates have been measured for red giant stars using asteroseismology. These data, along with helioseismic measurements and open cluster spin-down studies, provide powerful clues about the nature and timescale for internal angular momentum transport in stars. We focus on two cases: the metal-poor red giant KIC 7341231 ({sup O}tto{sup )} and intermediate-mass core helium burning stars. For both, we examine limiting case studies for angular momentum coupling between cores and envelopes under the assumption of rigid rotation on the main sequence. We discuss the expected pattern of core rotation as a function of mass and radius. In the case of Otto, strong post-main-sequence coupling is ruled out and the measured core rotation rate is in the range of 23-33 times the surface value expected from standard spin-down models. The minimum coupling timescale (0.17-0.45 Gyr) is significantly longer than that inferred for young open cluster stars. This implies ineffective internal angular momentum transport in early first ascent giants. By contrast, the core rotation rates of evolved secondary clump stars are found to be consistent with strong coupling given their rapid main-sequence rotation. An extrapolation to the white dwarf regime predicts rotation periods between 330 and 0.0052 days, depending on mass and decoupling time. We identify two key ingredients that explain these features: the presence of a convective core and inefficient angular momentum transport in the presence of larger mean molecular weight gradients. Observational tests that can disentangle these effects are discussed.
Implications of Rapid Core Rotation in Red Giants for Internal Angular Momentum Transport in Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tayar, Jamie; Pinsonneault, Marc H.
2013-09-01
Core rotation rates have been measured for red giant stars using asteroseismology. These data, along with helioseismic measurements and open cluster spin-down studies, provide powerful clues about the nature and timescale for internal angular momentum transport in stars. We focus on two cases: the metal-poor red giant KIC 7341231 ("Otto") and intermediate-mass core helium burning stars. For both, we examine limiting case studies for angular momentum coupling between cores and envelopes under the assumption of rigid rotation on the main sequence. We discuss the expected pattern of core rotation as a function of mass and radius. In the case of Otto, strong post-main-sequence coupling is ruled out and the measured core rotation rate is in the range of 23-33 times the surface value expected from standard spin-down models. The minimum coupling timescale (0.17-0.45 Gyr) is significantly longer than that inferred for young open cluster stars. This implies ineffective internal angular momentum transport in early first ascent giants. By contrast, the core rotation rates of evolved secondary clump stars are found to be consistent with strong coupling given their rapid main-sequence rotation. An extrapolation to the white dwarf regime predicts rotation periods between 330 and 0.0052 days, depending on mass and decoupling time. We identify two key ingredients that explain these features: the presence of a convective core and inefficient angular momentum transport in the presence of larger mean molecular weight gradients. Observational tests that can disentangle these effects are discussed.
Enhanced momentum delivery by electric force to ions due to collisions of ions with neutrals
Makrinich, G.; Fruchtman, A.
2013-04-15
Ions in partially ionized argon, nitrogen, and helium gas discharges are accelerated across a magnetic field by an applied electric field, colliding with neutrals during the acceleration. The momentum delivered by the electric force to the ions, which is equal to the momentum carried by the mixed ion-neutral flow, is found by measuring the force exerted on a balance force meter by that flow exiting the discharge. The power deposited in the ions is calculated by measuring the ion flux and the accelerating voltage. The ratio of force over power is found for the three gases, while the gas flow rates and magnetic field intensities are varied over a wide range of values, resulting in a wide range of gas pressures and applied voltages. The measurements for the three different gases confirm our previous suggestion [G. Makrinich and A. Fruchtman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 181504 (2009)] that the momentum delivered to the ions for a given power is enhanced by ion-neutral collisions during the acceleration and that this enhancement is proportional to the square root of the number of ion-neutral collisions.
Momentum-transport studies in high E x B shear plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment.
Solomon, W M; Kaye, S M; Bell, R E; Leblanc, B P; Menard, J E; Rewoldt, G; Wang, W; Levinton, F M; Yuh, H; Sabbagh, S A
2008-08-08
Experiments have been conducted at the National Sperical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to study both steady state and perturbative momentum transport. These studies are unique in their parameter space under investigation, where the low aspect ratio of NSTX results in rapid plasma rotation with ExB shearing rates high enough to suppress low-k turbulence. In some cases, the ratio of momentum to energy confinement time is found to exceed five. Momentum pinch velocities of order 10-40 m/s are inferred from the measured angular momentum flux evolution after nonresonant magnetic perturbations are applied to brake the plasma.
Scalar and momentum turbulent transport experiments with swirling and nonswirling flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.; Roback, R.; Bennett, J. C.
1984-01-01
Combustor models for the aircraft gas turbine industry have been obtained because of the need to reduce the costs of developing improved performance and more durable engines. A few years ago, it became apparent that the mass concentration and velocity predictions provided by the computer codes were not representing the data measured in some confined recirculating flows. It is pointed out that errors in the mass concentration distribution are an especially serious problem because of their influence on the heat release, temperature, and reactant distributions. Combined mass and momentum turbulent transport experiments with swirling and nonswirling flow have been conducted with the objective to obtain an experimental data base which can be used to evaluate and improve the turbulent transport submodes employed in the aerothermal models. The present paper is mainly concerned with the overall characteristics of the mass turbulent transport processes in complex flows with recirculation and the deficiencies of the conventional models.
Characterization of fluid transport due to multiciliary beating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukens, Sarah; Yang, Xingzhou; Fauci, Lisa
2008-11-01
Understanding fluid transport caused by beating cilia can give insight on biological systems such as transport of respiratory mucus, ovum transport in the oviduct, and feeding currents around unicellular organisms. Here we investigate fluid transport due to coordinated beating of motile cilia based upon a computational model that couples their internal force generating mechanisms with external fluid dynamics. Velocity field data is used to identify Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) within the domain. These coherent structures give spatial information on fluid mixing and nutrient transport within this dynamic environment.
Mass and momentum turbulent transport experiments with swirling confined coaxial jets. II
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roback, R.; Johnson, B. V.
1986-01-01
An experimental study of mixing downstream of swirling coaxial jets discharging into an expanded duct was conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently used in a variety of computational procedures throughout the combustion community. A combination of laser velocimeter and laser induced fluorescence techniques was employed to obtain mean and fluctuating velocity and concentration distributions at selected axial and radial locations throughout the flow field. Flow visualization techniques were also employed to determine qualitatively the time dependent characteristics of the flow and the scale of turbulence. Simultaneous two component velocity and concentration/velocity measurements provided data which were used to determine the average momentum and mass transport rates for each of three measurement planes. Mixing for swirling flows occurred in several steps of axial and radial mean convective flow and was completed in one-third the length required for nonswirling flow. Comparison of the mass and momentum transport processes for swirling and nonswirling flows indicated that large differences existed in these processes between the two flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amard, L.; Palacios, A.; Charbonnel, C.; Gallet, F.; Bouvier, J.
2016-03-01
Context. Understanding the angular momentum evolution of stars is one of the greatest challenges of modern stellar physics. Aims: We study the predicted rotational evolution of solar-type stars from the pre-main sequence to the solar age with 1D rotating evolutionary models including physical ingredients. Methods: We computed rotating evolution models of solar-type stars including an external stellar wind torque and internal transport of angular momentum following the method of Maeder and Zahn with the code STAREVOL. We explored different formalisms and prescriptions available from the literature. We tested the predictions of the models against recent rotational period data from extensive photometric surveys, lithium abundances of solar-mass stars in young clusters, and the helioseismic rotation profile of the Sun. Results: We find a best-matching combination of prescriptions for both internal transport and surface extraction of angular momentum. This combination provides a very good fit to the observed evolution of rotational periods for solar-type stars from early evolution to the age of the Sun. Additionally, we show that fast rotators experience a stronger coupling between their radiative region and the convective envelope. Regardless of the set of prescriptions, however, we cannot simultaneously reproduce surface angular velocity and the internal profile of the Sun or the evolution of lithium abundance. Conclusions: We confirm the idea that additional transport mechanisms must occur in solar-type stars until they reach the age of the Sun. Whether these processes are the same as those needed to explain recent asteroseismic data in more advanced evolutionary phases is still an open question.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiete, Gregory
2006-03-01
In a one dimensional electron gas at low enough density the magnetic exchange energy J between neighboring electrons is exponentially suppressed relative to the Fermi energy, EF. At finite temperature T, the energy hierarchy J << T << EF can be reached, and we refer to this as the spin incoherent (SI) Luttinger liquid state. By using a model of a fluctuating Wigner solid, we theoretically explore the signatures of spin incoherence in the single particle Green’s function[1], momentum resolved tunneling[2], transport[3], and Coulomb drag[4]. In the SI Green’s function the spin modes of a Luttinger liquid (LL) are thermally washed out leaving only singular behavior from the charge modes. The charge modes are broadened in momentum space by an amount of order kF and the energy dependence of the tunneling density of states qualitatively changes from the low energy suppression of the LL regime to a possible low energy divergence in the SI regime. Such a state may be probed directly in momentum resolved tunneling between parallel quantum wires. Deep in the SI regime, the physics of transport and Coulomb drag can be mapped onto spinless electrons. Various crossovers in temperature and for finite systems connected to Fermi liquid leads are discussed. Both transport and Coulomb drag may exhibit interesting non-monotonic temperature dependence. [1] G. A. Fiete and L. Balents, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 226401 (2004). [2] G. A. Fiete, J. Qian, Y. Tserkovnyak, and B. I. Halperin, Phys. Rev. B 72, 045315 (2005). [3] G. A. Fiete, K. Le Hur, and L. Balents, Phys. Rev. B 72, 125416 (2005). [4] G. A. Fiete, K. Le Hur, and L. Balents, Submitted, cond-mat/0511715.
Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization in Plasmas and Magnetofluids (CMTFO)
Lin, Zhihong
2014-02-28
The CMTFO funding partially supports a junior researcher and a graduate student at UCI. During this project, we have further developed the global gyrokinetic particle code GTC to study the momentum transport in tokamak driven by electrostatic ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence [1] with kinetic electrons and by collisionless trapped electron mode (CTEM) turbulence [2]. We have also upgraded GTC for fully electromagnetic simulation and for linear plasma configuration with verification and validation of the electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence in Columbia Linear Machine. The followings are the highlights on the physics results reported in the key publications of this project.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Caixi; Tang, Shuai; Shen, Lian; Dong, Yuhong
2017-03-01
The dynamic and thermal performance of particle-laden turbulent flow is investigated via direction numerical simulation combined with the Lagrangian point-particle tracking under the condition of two-way coupling, with a focus on the contributions of particle feedback effect to momentum and heat transfer of turbulence. We take into account the effects of particles on flow drag and Nusselt number and explore the possibility of drag reduction in conjunction with heat transfer enhancement in particle-laden turbulent flows. The effects of particles on momentum and heat transfer are analyzed, and the possibility of drag reduction in conjunction with heat transfer enhancement for the prototypical case of particle-laden turbulent channel flows is addressed. We present results of turbulence modification and heat transfer in turbulent particle-laden channel flow, which shows the heat transfer reduction when large inertial particles with low specific heat capacity are added to the flow. However, we also found an enhancement of the heat transfer and a small reduction of the flow drag when particles with high specific heat capacity are involved. The present results show that particles, which are active agents, interact not only with the velocity field, but also the temperature field and can cause a dissimilarity in momentum and heat transport. This demonstrates that the possibility to increase heat transfer and suppress friction drag can be achieved with addition of particles with different thermal properties.
Tropical Pacific impacts of convective momentum transport in the SNU coupled GCM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Daehyun; Kug, Jong-Seong; Kang, In-Sik; Jin, Fei-Fei; Wittenberg, Andrew T.
2008-08-01
Impacts of convective momentum transport (CMT) on tropical Pacific climate are examined, using an atmospheric (AGCM) and coupled GCM (CGCM) from Seoul National University. The CMT scheme affects the surface mainly via a convection-compensating atmospheric subsidence which conveys momentum downward through most of the troposphere. AGCM simulations—with SSTs prescribed from climatological and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions—show substantial changes in circulation when CMT is added, such as an eastward shift of the climatological trade winds and west Pacific convection. The CMT also alters the ENSO wind anomalies by shifting them eastward and widening them meridionally, despite only subtle changes in the precipitation anomaly patterns. During ENSO, CMT affects the low-level winds mainly via the anomalous convection acting on the climatological westerly wind shear over the central Pacific—so that an eastward shift of convection transfers more westerly momentum toward the surface than would occur without CMT. By altering the low-level circulation, the CMT further alters the precipitation, which in turn feeds back on the CMT. In the CGCM, CMT affects the simulated climatology by shifting the mean convection and trade winds eastward and warming the equatorial SST; the ENSO period and amplitude also increase. In contrast to the AGCM simulations, CMT substantially alters the El Nino precipitation anomaly patterns in the CGCM. Also discussed are possible impacts of the CMT-induced changes in climatology on the simulated ENSO.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rigby, D. L.; Vanfossen, G. J.
1992-01-01
A study of the effect of spanwise variation in momentum on leading edge heat transfer is discussed. Numerical and experimental results are presented for both a circular leading edge and a 3:1 elliptical leading edge. Reynolds numbers in the range of 10,000 to 240,000 based on leading edge diameter are investigated. The surface of the body is held at a constant uniform temperature. Numerical and experimental results with and without spanwise variations are presented. Direct comparison of the two-dimensional results, that is, with no spanwise variations, to the analytical results of Frossling is very good. The numerical calculation, which uses the PARC3D code, solves the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, assuming steady laminar flow on the leading edge region. Experimentally, increases in the spanwise-averaged heat transfer coefficient as high as 50 percent above the two-dimensional value were observed. Numerically, the heat transfer coefficient was seen to increase by as much as 25 percent. In general, under the same flow conditions, the circular leading edge produced a higher heat transfer rate than the elliptical leading edge. As a percentage of the respective two-dimensional values, the circular and elliptical leading edges showed similar sensitivity to span wise variations in momentum. By equating the root mean square of the amplitude of the spanwise variation in momentum to the turbulence intensity, a qualitative comparison between the present work and turbulent results was possible. It is shown that increases in leading edge heat transfer due to spanwise variations in freestream momentum are comparable to those due to freestream turbulence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey; Moder, Jeffrey P.
2015-01-01
This paper presents the numerical simulations of confined three-dimensional coaxial water jets. The objectives are to validate the newly proposed nonlinear turbulence models of momentum and scalar transport, and to evaluate the newly introduced scalar APDF and DWFDF equation along with its Eulerian implementation in the National Combustion Code (NCC). Simulations conducted include the steady RANS, the unsteady RANS (URANS), and the time-filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS); both without and with invoking the APDF or DWFDF equation. When the APDF (ensemble averaged probability density function) or DWFDF (density weighted filtered density function) equation is invoked, the simulations are of a hybrid nature, i.e., the transport equations of energy and species are replaced by the APDF or DWFDF equation. Results of simulations are compared with the available experimental data. Some positive impacts of the nonlinear turbulence models and the Eulerian scalar APDF and DWFDF approach are observed.
Simulations of Turbulent Momentum and Scalar Transport in Confined Swirling Coaxial Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey
2014-01-01
This paper presents the numerical simulations of confined three dimensional coaxial water jets. The objectives are to validate the newly proposed nonlinear turbulence models of momentum and scalar transport, and to evaluate the newly introduced scalar APDF and DWFDF equation along with its Eulerian implementation in the National Combustion Code (NCC). Simulations conducted include the steady RANS, the unsteady RANS (URANS), and the time-filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) with and without invoking the APDF or DWFDF equation. When the APDF or DWFDF equation is invoked, the simulations are of a hybrid nature, i.e., the transport equations of energy and species are replaced by the APDF or DWFDF equation. Results of simulations are compared with the available experimental data. Some positive impacts of the nonlinear turbulence models and the Eulerian scalar APDF and DWFDF approach are observed.
Momentum transport in strongly coupled anisotropic plasmas in the presence of strong magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finazzo, Stefano Ivo; Critelli, Renato; Rougemont, Romulo; Noronha, Jorge
2016-09-01
We present a holographic perspective on momentum transport in strongly coupled, anisotropic non-Abelian plasmas in the presence of strong magnetic fields. We compute the anisotropic heavy quark drag forces and Langevin diffusion coefficients and also the anisotropic shear viscosities for two different holographic models, namely, a top-down deformation of strongly coupled N =4 super-Yang-Mills theory triggered by an external Abelian magnetic field, and a bottom-up Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton (EMD) model which is able to provide a quantitative description of lattice QCD thermodynamics with (2 +1 ) flavors at both zero and nonzero magnetic fields. We find that, in general, energy loss and momentum diffusion through strongly coupled anisotropic plasmas are enhanced by a magnetic field being larger in transverse directions than in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. Moreover, the anisotropic shear viscosity coefficient is smaller in the direction of the magnetic field than in the plane perpendicular to the field, which indicates that strongly coupled anisotropic plasmas become closer to the perfect fluid limit along the magnetic field. We also present, in the context of the EMD model, holographic predictions for the entropy density and the crossover critical temperature in a wider region of the (T , B ) phase diagram that has not yet been covered by lattice simulations. Our results for the transport coefficients in the phenomenologically realistic magnetic EMD model could be readily used as inputs in numerical codes for magnetohydrodynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durisen, Richard H.; Murphy, Brian W.; Cramer, Nichael Lynn; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Mullikin, Thomas L.
1989-01-01
Ballistic transport, defined as the net radial transport of mass and angular momentum due to exchanges of meteoroid hypersonic-impact ejecta by neighboring planetary ring regions on time-scales orders-of-magnitude shorter than the age of the solar system, is presently considered as a problem in mathematical physics. The preliminary results of a numerical scheme for following the combined effects of ballistic transport and viscous diffusion demonstrate that ballistic transport generates structure near sharp edges already present in the ring-mass distribution; the entire ring system ultimately develops an undulatory structure whose length scale is typically of the order of the radial excursion of the impact ejecta.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Kazunori; Takao, Yoshinori; Chiba, Aiki; Ando, Akira
2016-09-01
Axial momentum lost to a lateral wall of a helicon source is directly measured by using a pendulum force balance, where only the lateral wall is attached to the balance immersed in 60-cm-diam and 1.4-m-long vacuum tank (pumping speed of 300-400 L/s). When operating the source with highly ionized krypton and xenon, the strong density decay along the axis is observed inside the source tube, which seems to be due to the neutral depletion. Under such a condition, a non-negligible loss of the axial momentum to the lateral wall is detected. The presently detected loss of the axial momentum indicates the presence of the ions which are axially accelerated by the electric field in the plasma core and then lost to the lateral wall. Furthermore, the helicon thruster immersed in 1-m-diam and 2-m-long vacuum tank (pumping speed of 4000-5000 L/s) is operated at high rf power up to 5 kW in argon, to demonstrate the neutral-depletion-induced axially asymmetric density profile. Combination between the Langmuir probe and the optical diagnosis indicates that the neutral density at the axial center of the source is reduced to 20% of the initial neutral density. This work is partially supported by grant-in-aid for scientific research (16H04084 and 26247096) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
Enhanced spin Seebeck effect signal due to spin-momentum locked topological surface states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Zilong; Chang, Cui-Zu; Masir, Massoud Ramezani; Tang, Chi; Xu, Yadong; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; MacDonald, Allan H.; Shi, Jing
2016-05-01
Spin-momentum locking in protected surface states enables efficient electrical detection of magnon decay at a magnetic-insulator/topological-insulator heterojunction. Here we demonstrate this property using the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), that is, measuring the transverse thermoelectric response to a temperature gradient across a thin film of yttrium iron garnet, an insulating ferrimagnet, and forming a heterojunction with (BixSb1-x)2Te3, a topological insulator. The non-equilibrium magnon population established at the interface can decay in part by interactions of magnons with electrons near the Fermi energy of the topological insulator. When this decay channel is made active by tuning (BixSb1-x)2Te3 into a bulk insulator, a large electromotive force emerges in the direction perpendicular to the in-plane magnetization of yttrium iron garnet. The enhanced, tunable SSE which occurs when the Fermi level lies in the bulk gap offers unique advantages over the usual SSE in metals and therefore opens up exciting possibilities in spintronics.
Enhanced spin Seebeck effect signal due to spin-momentum locked topological surface states
Jiang, Zilong; Chang, Cui-Zu; Masir, Massoud Ramezani; Tang, Chi; Xu, Yadong; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; MacDonald, Allan H.; Shi, Jing
2016-01-01
Spin-momentum locking in protected surface states enables efficient electrical detection of magnon decay at a magnetic-insulator/topological-insulator heterojunction. Here we demonstrate this property using the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), that is, measuring the transverse thermoelectric response to a temperature gradient across a thin film of yttrium iron garnet, an insulating ferrimagnet, and forming a heterojunction with (BixSb1−x)2Te3, a topological insulator. The non-equilibrium magnon population established at the interface can decay in part by interactions of magnons with electrons near the Fermi energy of the topological insulator. When this decay channel is made active by tuning (BixSb1−x)2Te3 into a bulk insulator, a large electromotive force emerges in the direction perpendicular to the in-plane magnetization of yttrium iron garnet. The enhanced, tunable SSE which occurs when the Fermi level lies in the bulk gap offers unique advantages over the usual SSE in metals and therefore opens up exciting possibilities in spintronics. PMID:27142594
Enhanced spin Seebeck effect signal due to spin-momentum locked topological surface states.
Jiang, Zilong; Chang, Cui-Zu; Masir, Massoud Ramezani; Tang, Chi; Xu, Yadong; Moodera, Jagadeesh S; MacDonald, Allan H; Shi, Jing
2016-05-04
Spin-momentum locking in protected surface states enables efficient electrical detection of magnon decay at a magnetic-insulator/topological-insulator heterojunction. Here we demonstrate this property using the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), that is, measuring the transverse thermoelectric response to a temperature gradient across a thin film of yttrium iron garnet, an insulating ferrimagnet, and forming a heterojunction with (BixSb1-x)2Te3, a topological insulator. The non-equilibrium magnon population established at the interface can decay in part by interactions of magnons with electrons near the Fermi energy of the topological insulator. When this decay channel is made active by tuning (BixSb1-x)2Te3 into a bulk insulator, a large electromotive force emerges in the direction perpendicular to the in-plane magnetization of yttrium iron garnet. The enhanced, tunable SSE which occurs when the Fermi level lies in the bulk gap offers unique advantages over the usual SSE in metals and therefore opens up exciting possibilities in spintronics.
Enhanced spin Seebeck effect signal due to spin-momentum locked topological surface states
Jiang, Zilong; Chang, Cui -Zu; Masir, Massoud Ramezani; Tang, Chi; Xu, Yadong; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; MacDonald, Allan H.; Shi, Jing
2016-05-04
Spin-momentum locking in protected surface states enables efficient electrical detection of magnon decay at a magnetic-insulator/topological-insulator heterojunction. Here we demonstrate this property using the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), that is, measuring the transverse thermoelectric response to a temperature gradient across a thin film of yttrium iron garnet, an insulating ferrimagnet, and forming a heterojunction with (Bi_{x}Sb_{1–x})_{2}Te_{3}, a topological insulator. The non-equilibrium magnon population established at the interface can decay in part by interactions of magnons with electrons near the Fermi energy of the topological insulator. When this decay channel is made active by tuning (Bi_{x}Sb_{1–x})_{2}Te_{3} into a bulk insulator, a large electromotive force emerges in the direction perpendicular to the in-plane magnetization of yttrium iron garnet. Lastly, the enhanced, tunable SSE which occurs when the Fermi level lies in the bulk gap offers unique advantages over the usual SSE in metals and therefore opens up exciting possibilities in spintronics.
Enhanced spin Seebeck effect signal due to spin-momentum locked topological surface states
Jiang, Zilong; Chang, Cui -Zu; Masir, Massoud Ramezani; ...
2016-05-04
Spin-momentum locking in protected surface states enables efficient electrical detection of magnon decay at a magnetic-insulator/topological-insulator heterojunction. Here we demonstrate this property using the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), that is, measuring the transverse thermoelectric response to a temperature gradient across a thin film of yttrium iron garnet, an insulating ferrimagnet, and forming a heterojunction with (BixSb1–x)2Te3, a topological insulator. The non-equilibrium magnon population established at the interface can decay in part by interactions of magnons with electrons near the Fermi energy of the topological insulator. When this decay channel is made active by tuning (BixSb1–x)2Te3 into a bulk insulator, amore » large electromotive force emerges in the direction perpendicular to the in-plane magnetization of yttrium iron garnet. Lastly, the enhanced, tunable SSE which occurs when the Fermi level lies in the bulk gap offers unique advantages over the usual SSE in metals and therefore opens up exciting possibilities in spintronics.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanino, R.
1992-02-01
We have developed a 1 + 1 D time dependent code for the description of ion-impurity transport in a rotating tokamak plasma, using a pseudo-spectral discretization in the poloidal angle θ and a staggered finite difference mesh in the minor radius r. The plasma is assumed to have a constant uniform temperature T, to be in the high collisionality (Pfirsch-Schlüter) regime, and to contain electrons " e," fuel ions " i," and a single impurity species " Z" of charge eZ, where e is the proton charge. We are particularly interested in the case when: (1) flow velocities in the toroidal (symmetry) direction φ are in the range typical of neutral beam injection experiments, i.e., vthZ < Vφi, Z ⪅ vthi, ( vthj √2 T/ mj is the thermal speed, mj is the mass); (2) the relative concentration of impurities in the plasma, {ṅz}/{ṅi}, is significant and comparable to that observed in present tokamaks, i.e., √m e/m i ≪ ṅzZ 2/ ṅi ≈ 1 in order of magnitude. The model fluid equations are obtained via a moment approach, and an expansion in powers of the small ordering parameter δpi = ( mivthi/ eBθ) ((1/ ṅ | ∂ ṅi/∂r| ≪ 1 ( B is the magnetic field) is then employed. The equations at each order in δpi up to the second are solved, and the characteristic features of the results presented: to lowest order, outboard impurity peaking on each magnetic surface appears due to centrifugal forces; to first order, radial gradients driven ion-impurity friction gives rise to up-down asymmetries in the poloidal profiles; to second order, the radial profiles of density and rotation frequency evolve to steady state under the action of particle and angular momentum sources. The evolution of the poloidal profiles is decoupled from the evolution of the radial ones, thanks to the fact that the corresponding time scales belong to different orders in δpi: an algorithm is proposed to treat the 2D problem, alternating the solution of 1D problems.
Transport effects due to particle erosion mechanisms. [in planetary rings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durisen, R. H.
1984-01-01
Various processes can erode the surfaces of planetary ring particles. Recent estimates for Saturn's rings suggest that a centimeter-thick surface layer could be eroded from an isolated ring particle in less than 1000 yr by meteoroid impacts alone. The atoms, molecules, and chips ejected from ring particles by erosion will arc across the rings along elliptical orbits. For moderate ring optical depths, ejecta will be absorbed or inelastically scattered upon reintersecting the ring plane. Continuous exchange of ejecta between different ring regions can lead to net radial transport of mass and angular momentum, to changes in particle sizes, and to the buildup of chip regoliths several centimeters deep on the surfaces of ring particles. Because most of the erosional ejecta are not lost but merely exchanged over short distances, the net erosion rate of the surfaces of these ring particles will be much less than that estimated for an isolated particle. Numerical solutions for time-dependent ballistic transport under various assumptions suggest pile-up and spillover effects especially near regions of preexisting high optical depth contrast, such as the inner edges of A and B rings. Global redistribution could be significant over billions of years. Other features in planetary ring systems may be influenced by ballistic transport.
Mini-conference on Angular Momentum Transport in Laboratory and Nature
Ji, Hantao; Kronberg, Philipp; Prager, Stewart C.; Uzdensky, Dmitri A.
2008-05-06
This paper provides a concise summary of the current status of the research and future perspectives discussed in the Mini-Conference on Angular Momentum Transport in Laboratory and Nature. This Mini-conference, sponsored by the Topical Group on Plasma Astrophysics, was held as part of the American Physical Society's Division of Plasma Physics 2007 Annual Meeting (November 12{16, 2007). This Mini-conference covers a wide range of phenomena happening in fluids and plasmas, either in laboratory or in nature. The purpose of this paper is not to comprehensively review these phenomena, but to provide a starting point for interested readers to refer to related research in areas other than their own.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obabko, Aleksandr V.; Cattaneo, Fausto; F Fischer, Paul
2008-12-01
We present numerical simulations of circular Couette flow in axisymmetric and fully three-dimensional geometry of a cylindrical annulus inspired by Princeton magnetorotational instability (MRI) liquid gallium experiment. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the spectral element code Nek5000 incorporating realistic horizontal boundary conditions of differentially rotating rings. We investigate the effect of changing rotation rates (Reynolds number) and of the horizontal boundary conditions on flow structure, Ekman circulation and associated transport of angular momentum through the onset of unsteadiness and three-dimensionality. A mechanism for the explanation of the dependence of the Ekman flows and circulation on horizontal boundary conditions is proposed. First International Conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' held on 18-26 August 2007 at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy.
Mass and momentum turbulent transport experiments with confined swirling coaxial jets. I
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, B. V.; Roback, R.
1984-01-01
An experimental study of mixing downstream of swirling coaxial jets discharging into an expanded duct was conducted to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently used in a variety of computational procedures throughout the combustion community. A combination of laser velocimeter and laser induced fluorescence techniques was employed to obtain mean and fluctuating velocity and concentration distributions which were used to derive mass and momentum turbulent transport parameters currently incorporated into various combustor flow models. Flow visualization techniques were also employed to determine qualitatively the time dependent characteristics of the flow and the scale of turbulence. Mean and fluctuating velocity profiles and probability density functions were obtained at selected axial and radial locations throughout the flow field. Mixing occurred in several steps of axial and radial mass transport and was coupled with a large radial mean convective flux. Major mixing regions were observed to occur (1) at the interface between the inner stream and the centerline recirculation zone, and (2) at the interface between the inner jet and the annular jet streams. Mixing for swirling flow was completed in one-third the length required for nonswirling flow.
The Hilsch Tube, Rossby Vortices, and a Carnot Engine: Angular Momentum Transport in Astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beckley, Howard F.; Klein, B.; Milburn, M.; Schindel, P.; Westpfahl, D. J.; Teare, S.; Li, H.; Colgate, S. A.
2008-05-01
We are attempting to demonstrate that the common laboratory vortex or Hilsch tube is a paradigm for the angular momentum transport by Rossby vortices in Keplerian accretion disks, either in super massive black hole formation or in star formation. Near supersonic rotating flow is induced in a cylinder by gas pressure injected through a tangential nozzle in a typical Ranque vortex or Hilsch tube. The gas exits through both an on-axis hole and a peripheral radially-aligned hole. The surprising result, demonstrated in hundreds of class rooms, is that one of the exit gas streams is hot and the other is cold. Depressing is that the typical explanation is given in terms of a "Maxwell daemon” that separates hot molecules from cold molecules, just as is the basis of any perpetual motion machine that violates the second law of thermodynamics. Instead we believe that the rotational flow is unstable to the formation of Rossby vortices that co-rotate with the azimuthal flow and act like semi-ridged turbine vanes. These quasi-vanes act like a Carnot turbine engine to the flow that escapes on axis and is therefore cooled by doing work. With the resulting free-energy, the vortices accelerate the peripheral flow which in turn becomes hot by friction with the cylinder wall. As a first step we expect to demonstrate that a free-running turbine, where metal vanes form the Carnot engine, will demonstrate the temperature effect. Such a suggestive result may lead to funding of time-dependent Schlerian photography of a vortex tube that can demonstrate the formation and pressure distribution of the Rossby vortices and coherent transport of angular momentum. This work is supported by a cooperative agreement between the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, the University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the U.S. Dept. of Energy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Natrajan, Vinay Kumar
2009-01-01
The impact of surface roughness on momentum and thermal transport in microscale flow passages of hydraulic diameter D[subscript h] = 600 micrometer is investigated in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes using microscopic PIV, two-color LIF thermometry and pressure-drop measurements. In addition to smooth-wall flow, two different…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eggenberger, P.; Lagarde, N.; Miglio, A.; Montalbán, J.; Ekström, S.; Georgy, C.; Meynet, G.; Salmon, S.; Ceillier, T.; García, R. A.; Mathis, S.; Deheuvels, S.; Maeder, A.; den Hartogh, J. W.; Hirschi, R.
2017-02-01
Context. Constraints on the internal rotation of red giants are now available thanks to asteroseismic observations. Preliminary comparisons with rotating stellar models indicate that an undetermined additional process for the internal transport of angular momentum is required in addition to purely hydrodynamic processes. Aims: We investigate how asteroseismic measurements of red giants can help us characterize the additional transport mechanism. Methods: We first determine the efficiency of the missing transport mechanism for the low-mass red giant KIC 7341231 by computing rotating models that include an additional viscosity corresponding to this process. We then discuss the change in the efficiency of this transport of angular momentum with the mass, metallicity, and evolutionary stage in the light of the corresponding viscosity determined for the more massive red giant KIC 8366239. Results: In the case of the low-mass red giant KIC 7341231, we find that the viscosity corresponding to the additional mechanism is constrained to the range νadd = 1 × 103-1.3 × 104 cm2 s-1. This constraint on the efficiency of the unknown additional transport mechanism during the post-main sequence is obtained independently of any specific assumption about the modeling of rotational effects during the pre-main sequence and the main sequence (in particular, the braking of the surface by magnetized winds and the efficiency of the internal transport of angular momentum before the post-main-sequence phase). When we assume that the additional transport mechanism is at work during the whole evolution of the star together with a solar-calibrated braking of the surface by magnetized winds, the range of νadd is reduced to 1-4 × 103 cm2 s-1. In addition to being sensitive to the evolutionary stage of the star, the efficiency of the unknown process for internal transport of angular momentum increases with the stellar mass.
Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Solomon, W. M.
2011-04-15
Residual stress refers to the remaining toroidal angular momentum (TAM) flux (divided by major radius) when the shear in the equilibrium fluid toroidal velocity (and the velocity itself) vanishes. Previously [Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007); errata 16, 079902 (2009)], we demonstrated with GYRO [Candy and Waltz, J. Comp. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] gyrokinetic simulations that TAM pinching from (ion pressure gradient supported or diamagnetic level) equilibrium ExB velocity shear could provide some of the residual stress needed to support spontaneous toroidal rotation against normal diffusive loss. Here we show that diamagnetic level shear in the intrinsic drift wave velocities (or ''profile shear'' in the ion and electron density and temperature gradients) provides a comparable residual stress. The individual signed contributions of these small (rho-star level) ExB and profile velocity shear rates to the turbulence level and (rho-star squared) ion energy transport stabilization are additive if the rates are of the same sign. However because of the additive stabilization effect, the contributions to the small (rho-star cubed) residual stress is not always simply additive. If the rates differ in sign, the residual stress from one can buck out that from the other (and in some cases reduce the stabilization.) The residual stress from these diamagnetic velocity shear rates is quantified by the ratio of TAM flow to ion energy (power) flow (M/P) in a global GYRO core simulation of a ''null'' toroidal rotation DIII-D [Mahdavi and Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 2 (2005)] discharge by matching M/P profiles within experimental uncertainty. Comparison of global GYRO (ion and electron energy as well as particle) transport flow balance simulations of TAM transport flow in a high-rotation DIII-D L-mode quantifies and isolates the ExB shear and parallel velocity (Coriolis force) pinching components from the larger ''diffusive'' parallel velocity shear driven component and
Philippov, Alexander A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.
2016-01-20
Disk accretion at a high rate onto a white dwarf (WD) or a neutron star has been suggested to result in the formation of a spreading layer (SL)—a belt-like structure on the object's surface, in which the accreted matter steadily spreads in the poleward (meridional) direction while spinning down. To assess its basic characteristics, we perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of supersonic SLs in the relevant morphology with a simple prescription for cooling. We demonstrate that supersonic shear naturally present at the base of the SL inevitably drives sonic instability that gives rise to large-scale acoustic modes governing the evolution of the SL. These modes dominate the transport of momentum and energy, which is intrinsically global and cannot be characterized via some form of local effective viscosity (e.g., α-viscosity). The global nature of the wave-driven transport should have important implications for triggering Type I X-ray bursts in low-mass X-ray binaries. The nonlinear evolution of waves into a system of shocks drives effective rearrangement (sensitively depending on thermodynamical properties of the flow) and deceleration of the SL, which ultimately becomes transonic and susceptible to regular Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. We interpret this evolution in terms of the global structure of the SL and suggest that mixing of the SL material with the underlying stellar fluid should become effective only at intermediate latitudes on the accreting object's surface, where the flow has decelerated appreciably. In the near-equatorial regions the transport is dominated by acoustic waves and mixing is less efficient. We speculate that this latitudinal nonuniformity of mixing in accreting WDs may be linked to the observed bipolar morphology of classical nova ejecta.
Final Technical Report for the Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization (CMTFO)
Forest, Cary B.; Tynan, George R.
2013-07-29
The Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization (CMTFO) is a DOE Plasma Science Center formed in late 2009 to focus on the general principles underlying momentum transport in magnetic fusion and astrophysical systems. It is composed of funded researchers from UCSD, UW Madison, U. Colorado, PPPL. As of 2011, UCSD supported postdocs are collaborating at MIT/Columbia and UC Santa Cruz and beginning in 2012, will also be based at PPPL. In the initial startup period, the Center supported the construction of two basic experiments at PPPL and UW Madison to focus on accretion disk hydrodynamic instabilities and solar physics issues. We now have computational efforts underway focused on understanding recent experimental tests of dynamos, solar tacholine physics, intrinsic rotation in tokamak plasmas and L-H transition physics in tokamak devices. In addition, we have the basic experiments discussed above complemented by work on a basic linear plasma device at UCSD and a collaboration at the LAPD located at UCLA. We are also performing experiments on intrinsic rotation and L-H transition physics in the DIII-D, NSTX, C-Mod, HBT EP, HL-2A, and EAST tokamaks in the US and China, and expect to begin collaborations on K-STAR in the coming year. Center funds provide support to over 10 postdocs and graduate students each year, who work with 8 senior faculty and researchers at their respective institutions. The Center has sponsored a mini-conference at the APS DPP 2010 meeting, and co-sponsored the recent Festival de Theorie (2011) with the CEA in Cadarache, and will co-sponsor a Winter School in January 2012 in collaboration with the CMSO-UW Madison. Center researchers have published over 50 papers in the peer reviewed literature, and given over 10 talks at major international meetings. In addition, the Center co-PI, Professor Patrick Diamond, shared the 2011 Alfven Prize at the EPS meeting. Key scientific results from this startup period include initial simulations of the
Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization (CMTFO). Final technical report
Tynan, George R.; Diamond, P. H.; Ji, H.; Forest, C. B.; Terry, P. W.; Munsat, T.; Brummell, N.
2013-07-29
The Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization (CMTFO) is a DOE Plasma Science Center formed in late 2009 to focus on the general principles underlying momentum transport in magnetic fusion and astrophysical systems. It is composed of funded researchers from UCSD, UW Madison, U. Colorado, PPPL. As of 2011, UCSD supported postdocs are collaborating at MIT/Columbia and UC Santa Cruz and beginning in 2012, will also be based at PPPL. In the initial startup period, the Center supported the construction of two basic experiments at PPPL and UW Madison to focus on accretion disk hydrodynamic instabilities and solar physics issues. We now have computational efforts underway focused on understanding recent experimental tests of dynamos, solar tachocline physics, intrinsic rotation in tokamak plasmas and L-H transition physics in tokamak devices. In addition, we have the basic experiments discussed above complemented by work on a basic linear plasma device at UCSD and a collaboration at the LAPD located at UCLA. We are also performing experiments on intrinsic rotation and L-H transition physics in the DIII-D, NSTX, C-Mod, HBT EP, HL-2A, and EAST tokamaks in the US and China, and expect to begin collaborations on K-STAR in the coming year. Center funds provide support to over 10 postdocs and graduate students each year, who work with 8 senior faculty and researchers at their respective institutions. The Center has sponsored a mini-conference at the APS DPP 2010 meeting, and co-sponsored the recent Festival de Theorie (2011) with the CEA in Cadarache, and will co-sponsor a Winter School in January 2012 in collaboration with the CMSO-UW Madison. Center researchers have published over 50 papers in the peer reviewed literature, and given over 10 talks at major international meetings. In addition, the Center co-PI, Professor Patrick Diamond, shared the 2011 Alfven Prize at the EPS meeting. Key scientific results from this startup period include initial simulations of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuritsyn, A.; Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A. F.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Miller, M. C.; Mirnov, V. V.; Prager, S. C.; Sarff, J. S.
2009-05-01
In this paper measurements of momentum and current transport caused by current driven tearing instability are reported. The measurements are done in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch [R. N. Dexter, D. W. Kerst, T. W. Lovell, S. C. Prager, and J. C. Sprott, Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] in a regime with repetitive bursts of tearing instability causing magnetic field reconnection. It is established that the plasma parallel momentum profile flattens during these reconnection events: The flow decreases in the core and increases at the edge. The momentum relaxation phenomenon is similar in nature to the well established relaxation of the parallel electrical current and could be a general feature of self-organized systems. The measured fluctuation-induced Maxwell and Reynolds stresses, which govern the dynamics of plasma flow, are large and almost balance each other such that their difference is approximately equal to the rate of change of plasma momentum. The Hall dynamo, which is directly related to the Maxwell stress, drives the parallel current profile relaxation at resonant surfaces at the reconnection events. These results qualitatively agree with analytical calculations and numerical simulations. It is plausible that current-driven instabilities can be responsible for momentum transport in other laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.
1. Transport of Mass, Momentum and Energy in Planetary Magnetodisc Regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Achilleos, Nicholas; André, Nicolas; Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Brandt, Pontus C.; Delamere, Peter A.; Winglee, Robert
2015-04-01
the rate at which plasma mass and momentum are added to the magnetodisc. Following this, we describe the observational properties of plasma injections, and the consequent implications for the nature of global plasma transport and magnetodisc stability. The theory of the flux tube interchange instability is reviewed, and the influences of gravity and magnetic curvature on the instability are described. The interaction between simulated interchange plasma structures and Saturn's moon Titan is discussed, and its relationship to observed periodic phenomena at Saturn is described. Finally, the observation, generation and evolution of plasma waves associated with mass loading in the magnetodisc regions is reviewed.
Secondary Flows and Sediment Transport due to Wave - Current Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ismail, Nabil; Wiegel, Robert
2015-04-01
Objectives: The main purpose of this study is to determine the modifications of coastal processes driven by wave-current interaction and thus to confirm hydrodynamic mechanisms associated with the interaction at river mouths and tidal inlets where anthropogenic impacts were introduced. Further, the aim of the work has been to characterize the effect of the relative strength of momentum action of waves to the opposing current on the nearshore circulation where river flow was previously effective to entrain sediments along the shoreline. Such analytical information are useful to provide guidelines for sustainable design of coastal defense structures. Methodology and Analysis: Use is made of an earlier study reported by the authors (1983) on the interaction of horizontal momentum jets and opposing shallow water waves at shorelines, and of an unpublished laboratory study (1980). The turbulent horizontal discharge was shore-normal, directed offshore, and the incident wave direction was shore-normal, travelling toward shore. Flow visualization at the smooth bottom and the water surface, velocity and water surface elevation measurements were made. Results were obtained for wave , current modifications as well as the flow pattern in the jet and the induced circulation on both sides of the jet, for a range of wave and jet characteristics. The experimental data, obtained from measurement in the 3-D laboratory basin, showed several distinct flow pattern regimes on the bottom and the water surface. The observed flow circulation regimes were found to depend on the ratio of the wave momentum action on the jet to the jet initial momentum. Based on the time and length scales of wave and current parameters and using the time average of the depth integrated conservation equations, it is found that the relative strength of the wave action on the jet could be represented by a dimensionless expression; Rsm ( ) 12ρSa20g-L0h-Cg- 2 Rsm ≈ (C0 - U) /ρ0U w (1) In the above dimensionless
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.
2012-11-01
Disk accretion onto a weakly magnetized central object, e.g., a star, is inevitably accompanied by the formation of a boundary layer near the surface, in which matter slows down from the highly supersonic orbital velocity of the disk to the rotational velocity of the star. We perform high-resolution two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations in the equatorial plane of an astrophysical boundary layer with the goal of exploring the dynamics of non-axisymmetric structures that form there. We generically find that the supersonic shear in the boundary layer excites non-axisymmetric quasi-stationary acoustic modes that are trapped between the surface of the star and a Lindblad resonance in the disk. These modes rotate in a prograde fashion, are stable for hundreds of orbital periods, and have a pattern speed that is less than and of the order of the rotational velocity at the inner edge of the disk. The origin of these intrinsically global modes is intimately related to the operation of a corotation amplifier in the system. Dissipation of acoustic modes in weak shocks provides a universal mechanism for angular momentum and mass transport even in purely hydrodynamic (i.e., non-magnetized) boundary layers. We discuss the possible implications of these trapped modes for explaining the variability seen in accreting compact objects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horing, N. J. M.; Lei, X. L.; Cui, H. L.
1986-05-01
A dielectric interpretation of the nonlinear Lei-Ting force-momentum-balance transport equation for steady-state dc current flow is developed here in correspondence with standard techniques for calculating fast-particle energy loss to a plasmalike medium. In conjunction with this we interpret the result to be an isothermal resistivity calculated to lowest order in the impurity scattering potentials, isothermal in the sense that all energy dissipated is removed from the system, essentially instantaneously as it is generated, by a heat bath in contact with the system which maintains it at constant temperature throughout the nonlinear dc conduction process. On the basis of its isothermal character, we argue that the Lei-Ting dc resistivity calculated to lowest order in the impurity scattering potentials-whose linear limit is significantly different from the corresponding linear resistivity of an adiabatic character (for a system admitting no drainoff of dissipated energy, developing under a purely mechanical Hamiltonian)-is immune to serious critical objections of the type brought by Argyres and Sigel against similar lowest-order adiabatic linear resistivity calculations some time ago. Moreover, we also show that a dielectric Lei-Ting type formulation of linearized ac resistivity leads to the standard high-frequency linear resistivity formula, and that its zero-frequency limit naturally yields the isothermal dc linear Lei-Ting resistivity.
Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R.
2012-11-20
Disk accretion onto a weakly magnetized central object, e.g., a star, is inevitably accompanied by the formation of a boundary layer near the surface, in which matter slows down from the highly supersonic orbital velocity of the disk to the rotational velocity of the star. We perform high-resolution two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations in the equatorial plane of an astrophysical boundary layer with the goal of exploring the dynamics of non-axisymmetric structures that form there. We generically find that the supersonic shear in the boundary layer excites non-axisymmetric quasi-stationary acoustic modes that are trapped between the surface of the star and a Lindblad resonance in the disk. These modes rotate in a prograde fashion, are stable for hundreds of orbital periods, and have a pattern speed that is less than and of the order of the rotational velocity at the inner edge of the disk. The origin of these intrinsically global modes is intimately related to the operation of a corotation amplifier in the system. Dissipation of acoustic modes in weak shocks provides a universal mechanism for angular momentum and mass transport even in purely hydrodynamic (i.e., non-magnetized) boundary layers. We discuss the possible implications of these trapped modes for explaining the variability seen in accreting compact objects.
Charge accumulation due to spin transport in magnetic multilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Yao-Hui; Xu, Deng-Hui; Geng, Ai-Cong
2014-08-01
Starting with the Valet-Fert theory of the current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance, we studied the charge accumulation due to spin transport in magnetic multilayers by solving Poisson's equation analytically. Our results show that, in ferromagnetic layers, the charge accumulation has two exponential terms with opposite signs and different decaying lengths: the Thomas-Fermi screening length (on the order of angstrom) and the spin diffusion length (tens of nm in 3d ferromagnetic metals). The charge accumulation on the scale of the screening length is spin-unpolarized and also present in spin-independent transport in nonmagnetic multilayers. However, the charge accumulation on the scale of the spin diffusion length is spin-polarized and shows up only in ferromagnetic layers. Our analysis also provides new insights into the widely used quasi-neutrality approximation, which neglects the charge accumulation.
Transport of runaway and thermal electrons due to magnetic microturbulence
Mynick, H.E.; Strachan, J.D.
1981-04-01
The ratio of the runaway electron confinement to thermal electron energy confinement is derived for tokamaks where both processes are determined by free streaming along stochastic magnetic field lines. The runaway electron confinement is enhanced at high runaway electron energies due to phase averaging over the magnetic perturbations when the runaway electron drift surfaces are displaced from the magnetic surfaces. Comparison with experimental data from LT-3, Ormak, PLT, ST, and TM-3 indicates that magnetic stochasticity may explain the relative transport rates of runaways and thermal electron energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisch, N. J.; Gladush, M. G.; Petrushevich, Y. V.; Quarati, P.; Starostin, A. N.
2012-06-01
This study concerns a situation when measurements of the nonresonant cross-section of nuclear reactions appear highly dependent on the environment in which the particles interact. An appealing example discussed in the paper is the interaction of a deuteron beam with a target of deuterated metal Ta. In these experiments, the reaction cross section for d(d, p)t was shown to be orders of magnitude greater than what the conventional model predicts for the low-energy particles. In this paper we take into account the influence of quantum effects due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle for particles in a non-ideal plasma medium elastically interacting with the medium particles. In order to calculate the nuclear reaction rate in the non-ideal environment we apply both the Monte Carlo technique and approximate analytical calculation of the Feynman diagram using nonrelativistic kinetic Green's functions in the medium which correspond to the generalized energy and momentum distribution functions of interacting particles. We show a possibility to reduce the 12-fold integral corresponding to this diagram to a fivefold integral. This can significantly speed up the computation and control accuracy. Our calculations show that quantum effects significantly influence reaction rates such as p +7Be, 3He +4He, p +7Li, and 12C +12C. The new reaction rates may be much higher than the classical ones for the interior of the Sun and supernova stars. The possibility to observe the theoretical predictions under laboratory conditions is discussed.
Camenen, Y; Bortolon, A; Duval, B P; Federspiel, L; Peeters, A G; Casson, F J; Hornsby, W A; Karpushov, A N; Piras, F; Sauter, O; Snodin, A P; Szepesi, G
2010-09-24
The first experimental evidence of parallel momentum transport generated by the up-down asymmetry of a toroidal plasma is reported. The experiments, conducted in the Tokamak à Configuration Variable, were motivated by the recent theoretical discovery of ion-scale turbulent momentum transport induced by an up-down asymmetry in the magnetic equilibrium. The toroidal rotation gradient is observed to depend on the asymmetry in the outer part of the plasma leading to a variation of the central rotation by a factor of 1.5-2. The direction of the effect and its magnitude are in agreement with theoretical predictions for the eight possible combinations of plasma asymmetry, current, and magnetic field.
Cross-shelf transport and dispersion due to baroclinic instabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thyng, Kristen; Hetland, Robert
2014-05-01
The dominant forcing mechanisms for the circulation in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico are largely determined by location relative to the shelf break. On the inner shelf, the flow is mostly controlled by the wind and on the outer shelf is affected by the mesoscale loop-current eddies. However, in the summer, baroclinic instabilities can develop along the boundary of the mid-shelf river plume front, leading to large eddies (~50 km length scale) that can reach across the entire shelf and strongly affect the local flow field. These instabilities advect fresher water toward the shelf edge and pull denser water back toward the coast. The details of how the flow crosses between these two regimes is of interest because it controls the flux of river-borne biogeochemical properties to the deep ocean, as well as for the potential onshore transport of oil from offshore spills. We approach this problem using a high resolution numerical model of the Texas-Louisiana shelf run using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and a Lagrangian particle tracking model (TRACMASS). By initializing drifters at the sources of fresh water (the Atchafalaya and Mississippi rivers) in the numerical model, we are able to explicitly track its trajectory through the numerical domain in time. These trajectories can then be used to characterize the cross-shelf transport and lateral dispersion due to the instabilities caused by the presence of the fresher water. We expect the transport and dispersion to be enhanced when compared with these quantities at other times of the year when the instabilities are not present, as well as with other regions of the shelf break that are farther from the plume edge area. Additionally, an idealized numerical model of a shelf break with both horizontal and vertical density gradients has been run through relevant parameter spaces to examine the range of baroclinic instabilities. Drifters are run in these simulations for comparison of transport and dispersion with
Lee, J. P.; Wright, J. C.; Bonoli, P. T.; Parker, R. R.; Catto, P. J.; Podpaly, Y. A.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M. L.
2011-12-23
Significant ion toroidal rotation (50km/s) has been measured by X-Ray spectroscopy for impurities in Alcator C-Mod during lower hybrid (LH) RF power injection. We investigate the relation between the computed toroidal momentum input from LH waves and the measured INITIAL change of ion toroidal rotation when the LH power is turned on. The relation may depend on the plasma current and magnetic configuration. Because of the fast build up time of the electron quasilinear plateau (<1 millisecond), the electron distribution function rapidly reaches steady state in which the electrons transfer momentum to the ions. The LH wave momentum input is computed from the self consistent steady state electron distribution function and a bounce-averaged quasilinear diffusion coefficient that are obtained by iterating a full wave code (TORLH) with a Fokker Plank code (CQL3D)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coppi, B.
2007-11-01
Differentially rotating structures in the prevalent field of a central object have been shown to develop a ``crystal'' magnetic structure resulting from toroidal internal currents and leading to the formation of density ring sequencesootnotetextB. Coppi and F. Rousseau, Ap. J. 641, 458 (2006) rather than disks. Poloidal current densities with appropriate symmetries are found to be connected with angular momentum transport processes represented by an effective viscosity. Jets are suggested to consist of a series of stable ``smoke- rings'' ejected vertically in opposite directions from the central region of the considered ring sequence. A small inward flow velocity is shown to induce a spiral pattern in the magnetic field lines on a selected family of magnetic surfaces. The accretion theoryootnotetextB. Coppi, Nuc. Fus. 42, 1 (2002) of the spontaneous rotation phenomenon in toroidal laboratory plasmas relies on the ejection of angular momentum toward the surrounding material wall, by collisional ballooning modes excited at the edge, whose phase velocity depends on collisionality. The resulting recoil gives rise to the rotation of the main body of the plasma column as other plasma modes (called VTG) provide the needed inward transport of angular momentum. *Sponsored in part by the US D.O.E.
Li, C H; van 't Erve, O M J; Robinson, J T; Liu, Y; Li, L; Jonker, B T
2014-03-01
Topological insulators exhibit metallic surface states populated by massless Dirac fermions with spin-momentum locking, where the carrier spin lies in-plane, locked at right angles to the carrier momentum. Here, we show that a charge current produces a net spin polarization via spin-momentum locking in Bi2Se3 films, and this polarization is directly manifested as a voltage on a ferromagnetic contact. This voltage is proportional to the projection of the spin polarization onto the contact magnetization, is determined by the direction and magnitude of the charge current, scales inversely with Bi2Se3 film thickness, and its sign is that expected from spin-momentum locking rather than Rashba effects. Similar data are obtained for two different ferromagnetic contacts, demonstrating that these behaviours are independent of the details of the ferromagnetic contact. These results demonstrate direct electrical access to the topological insulators' surface-state spin system and enable utilization of its remarkable properties for future technological applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, S.; Chakraborty, S.; DebRoy, T.
2005-05-01
A transport phenomena-based mathematical model is developed to understand liquation cracking in weldments during fusion welding. Equations of conservation of mass, momentum, heat, and solute transport are numerically solved considering nonequilibrium solidification and filler metal addition to determine the solid and liquid phase fractions in the solidifying region and the solute distribution in the weld pool. An effective partition coefficient that considers the local interface velocity and the undercooling is used to simulate solidification during welding. The calculations show that convection plays a dominant role in the solute transport inside the weld pool. The predicted weld-metal solute content agreed well with the independent experimental observations. The liquation cracking susceptibility in Al-Cu alloy weldments could be reliably predicted by the model based on the computed solidifying weld-metal composition and solid fraction considering nonequilibrium solidification.
Transport of parallel momentum induced by current-symmetry breaking in toroidal plasmas.
Camenen, Y; Peeters, A G; Angioni, C; Casson, F J; Hornsby, W A; Snodin, A P; Strintzi, D
2009-03-27
The symmetry of a physical system strongly impacts on its properties. In toroidal plasmas, the symmetry along a magnetic field line usually constrains the radial flux of parallel momentum to zero in the absence of background flows. By breaking the up-down symmetry of the toroidal currents, this constraint can be relaxed. The parallel asymmetry in the magnetic configuration then leads to an incomplete cancellation of the turbulent momentum flux across a flux surface. The magnitude of the subsequent toroidal rotation increases with the up-down asymmetry and its sign depends on the direction of the toroidal magnetic field and plasma current. Such a mechanism offers new insights in the interpretation and control of the intrinsic toroidal rotation in present day experiments.
The Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization in Plasmas - Final Scientific Report
Munsat, Tobin
2015-12-14
Overview of University of Colorado Efforts: The University of Colorado group has focused on two primary fronts during the grant period: development of a variety of multi-point diagnostic and/or imaging analysis techniques, and momentum-transport related experiments on a variety of devices (NSTX at PPPL, CSDX at UCSD, LAPD at UCLA, DIII-D at GA). Experimental work has taken advantage of several diagnostic instruments, including fast-framing cameras for imaging of electron density fluctuations (either directly or using injected gas puffs), ECEI for imaging of electron temperature fluctuations, and multi-tipped Langmuir and magnetic probes for corroborating measurements of Reynolds and Maxwell stresses. Mode Characterization in CSDX: We have performed a series of experiments at the CSDX linear device at UCSD, in collaboration with Center PI G. Tynan's group. The experiments included a detailed study of velocity estimation techniques, including direct comparisons between Langmuir probes and image-based velocimetry from fast-framing camera data. We used the camera data in a second set of studies to identify the spatial and spectral structure of coherent modes, which illuminates wave behavior to a level of detail previously unavailable, and enables direct comparison of dispersion curves to theoretical estimates. In another CSDX study, similar techniques were used to demonstrate a controlled transition from nonlinearly coupled discrete eigenmodes to fully developed broadband turbulence. The axial magnetic field was varied from 40-240 mT, which drove the transition. At low magnetic fields, the plasma is dominated by drift waves. As the magnetic field is increased, a strong potential gradient at the edge introduces an ExB shear-driven instability. At the transition, another mode with signatures of a rotation-induced Rayleigh–Taylor instability appears at the central plasma region. Concurrently, large axial velocities were found in the plasma core. For larger magnetic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz, Joseph A.; Furlanetto, Steven
2012-11-01
We develop a radiation pressure-balanced model for the interstellar medium of high-redshift galaxies that describes many facets of galaxy formation at z ≳ 6, including star formation rates and distributions and gas accretion on to central black holes. We first show that the vertical gravitational force in the disc of such a model is dominated by the disc self-gravity supported by the radiation pressure of ionizing starlight on gas. Constraining our model to reproduce the UV luminosity function of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs), we limit the available parameter space to wind mass-loading factors one to four times the canonical value for momentum-driven winds. We then focus our study by exploring the effects of different angular momentum transport mechanisms in the galactic disc and find that accretion driven by gravitational torques, such as from linear spiral waves or non-linear orbit crossings, can build up black hole masses by z = 6 consistent with the canonical M-σ relation with a duty cycle of unity, while accretion mediated by a local viscosity such as in an α-disc results in negligible black hole (BH) accretion. Both gravitational torque models produce X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) in high-redshift LBGs in excess of the estimated contribution from high-mass X-ray binaries. Using a recent analysis of deep Chandra observations by Cowie et al., we can already begin to rule out the most extreme regions of our parameter space: the inflow velocity of gas through the disc must either be less than one per cent of the disc circular velocity or the X-ray luminosity of the AGN must be substantially obscured. Moderately deeper future observations or larger sample sizes will be able to probe the more reasonable range of angular momentum transport models and obscuring geometries.
Transport of orbital-angular-momentum entanglement through a turbulent atmosphere.
Pors, Bart-Jan; Monken, C H; Eliel, Eric R; Woerdman, J P
2011-03-28
We demonstrate experimentally how orbital-angular-momentum entanglement of two photons evolves under the influence of atmospheric turbulence. Experimental results are in excellent agreement with our theoretical model, which combines the formalism of two-photon coincidence detection with a Kolmogorov description of atmospheric turbulence. We express the robustness to turbulence in terms of the dimensionality of the measured correlations. This dimensionality is surprisingly robust: scaling up our system to real-life dimensions, a horizontal propagation distance of 2 km seems viable.
Thermo-electric transport in gauge/gravity models with momentum dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amoretti, Andrea; Braggio, Alessandro; Maggiore, Nicola; Magnoli, Nicodemo; Musso, Daniele
2014-09-01
We present a systematic definition and analysis of the thermo-electric linear response in gauge/gravity systems focusing especially on models with massive gravity in the bulk and therefore momentum dissipation in the dual field theory. A precise treatment of finite counter-terms proves to be essential to yield a consistent physical picture whose hydrodynamic and beyond-hydrodynamics behaviors noticeably match with field theoretical expectations. The model furnishes a possible gauge/gravity description of the crossover from the quantum-critical to the disorder-dominated Fermi-liquid behaviors, as expected in graphene.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durisen, Richard H.; Bode, Paul W.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Cederbloom, Steven E.; Murphy, Brian W.
1992-01-01
The present numerical simulations and analytic arguments show that many of the common morphological features of the Saturn A- and B-ring inner-edge regions are due to 'ballistic transport', or the net radial transport of mass and angular momentum generated by exchanges of meteoroid impact ejecta. It is suggested that the observed 100-km undulatory structure of the inner B-ring arises from ballistic transport echoing of the inner edge. A strongly prograde ejecta-distribution function is used to fit the edge-region features.
Peeters, A G; Angioni, C; Strintzi, D
2007-06-29
In this Letter, the influence of the "Coriolis drift" on small scale instabilities in toroidal plasmas is shown to generate a toroidal momentum pinch velocity. Such a pinch results because the Coriolis drift generates a coupling between the density and temperature perturbations on the one hand and the perturbed parallel flow velocity on the other. A simple fluid model is used to highlight the physics mechanism and gyro-kinetic calculations are performed to accurately assess the magnitude of the pinch. The derived pinch velocity leads to a radial gradient of the toroidal velocity profile even in the absence of a torque on the plasma and is predicted to generate a peaking of the toroidal velocity profile similar to the peaking of the density profile. Finally, the pinch also affects the interpretation of current experiments.
Investigation of heat and momentum transport in turbulent flows via numerical simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, John
1988-01-01
Turbulent transport of heat is studied by examining the flow fields obtained from a direct simulation of a turbulent channel flow. The turbulence structures associated with the velocity and scalar fields are presented using air (Pr = 0.71) as the medium. A comparison is made between the wall-layer structures identified by the temperature field and the structures found in the velocity field. Consideration is also given to the role of the organized turbulence structures in scalar transport.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuegel, Thomas I.; Hughes, Taylor L.
2015-10-01
The Hall viscosity describes a nondissipative response to strain in systems with broken time-reversal symmetry. We develop a method for computing the Hall viscosity of lattice systems in strong magnetic fields based on momentum transport, which we compare to the method of momentum polarization used by Tu et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 195412 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.195412] and Zaletel et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 236801 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.236801] for noninteracting systems. We compare the Hall viscosity of square-lattice tight-binding models in magnetic field to the continuum integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) showing agreement when the magnetic length is much larger than the lattice constant, but deviation as the magnetic field strength increases. We also relate the Hall viscosity of relativistic electrons in magnetic field (the Dirac IQHE) to the conventional IQHE. The Hall viscosity of the lattice Dirac model in magnetic field agrees with the continuum Dirac Hall viscosity when the magnetic length is much larger than the lattice constant. We also show that the Hall viscosity of the lattice model deviates further from the continuum model if the C4 symmetry of the square lattice is broken to C2, but the deviation is again minimized as the magnetic length increases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonker, Berend
2015-03-01
Topological insulators (TIs) exhibit topologically protected metallic surface states populated by massless Dirac fermions with spin-momentum locking - the carrier spin lies in-plane, locked at right angle to the carrier momentum. An unpolarized charge current should thus create a net spin polarization whose amplitude and orientation are controlled by the charge current. Here we show direct electrical detection of this bias current induced spin polarization as a voltage measured on a ferromagnetic (FM) metal tunnel barrier surface contact. The magnetization of the contact determines the spin detection axis, and the voltage measured at this contact is proportional to the projection of the TI spin polarization onto this axis. When the charge current is orthogonal to the magnetization of the FM detector contact, the TI spin is parallel (or antiparallel) to the magnetization, and a spin-related signal is detected at the FM contact proportional to the magnitude of the charge current. The voltage measured scales inversely with Bi2Se3 film thickness, and its sign is that expected from spin-momentum locking and opposite that of a Rashba effect. Similar data are obtained for two different FM contact structures, Fe/Al2O3 and Co/MgO/graphene, underscoring the fact that these behaviors are due to bias current induced spin polarization in the TI surface states rather than the bulk, and are independent of the details of the contact. These results demonstrate simple and direct electrical access to the TI Dirac surface state spin system, provide clear evidence for the spin-momentum locking and bias current-induced spin polarization, and enable utilization of these remarkable properties for future technological applications. This work was supported by core programs at NRL and the Office of Naval Research.
Williams, Kenneth A; Saini, Sunil; Wick, Timothy M
2002-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models to quantify momentum and mass transport under conditions of tissue growth will aid bioreactor design for development of tissue-engineered cartilage constructs. Fluent CFD models are used to calculate flow fields, shear stresses, and oxygen profiles around nonporous constructs simulating cartilage development in our concentric cylinder bioreactor. The shear stress distribution ranges from 1.5 to 12 dyn/cm(2) across the construct surfaces exposed to fluid flow and varies little with the relative number or placement of constructs in the bioreactor. Approximately 80% of the construct surface exposed to flow experiences shear stresses between 1.5 and 4 dyn/cm(2), validating the assumption that the concentric cylinder bioreactor provides a relatively homogeneous hydrodynamic environment for construct growth. Species mass transport modeling for oxygen demonstrates that fluid-phase oxygen transport to constructs is uniform. Some O(2) depletion near the down stream edge of constructs is noted with minimum pO(2) values near the constructs of 35 mmHg (23% O(2) saturation). These values are above oxygen concentrations in cartilage in vivo, suggesting that bioreactor oxygen concentrations likely do not affect chondrocyte growth. Scale-up studies demonstrate the utility and flexibility of CFD models to design and characterize bioreactors for growth of tissue-engineered cartilage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morrill-Winter, Caleb; Philip, Jimmy; Klewicki, Joseph
2017-03-01
The turbulence contribution to the mean flow is reflected by the motions producing the Reynolds shear stress (<-uv>) and its gradient. Recent analyses of the mean dynamical equation, along with data, evidence that these motions asymptotically exhibit self-similar geometric properties. This study discerns additional properties associated with the uv signal, with an emphasis on the magnitudes and length scales of its negative contributions. The signals analysed derive from high-resolution multi-wire hot-wire sensor data acquired in flat-plate turbulent boundary layers. Space-filling properties of the present signals are shown to reinforce previous observations, while the skewness of uv suggests a connection between the size and magnitude of the negative excursions on the inertial domain. Here, the size and length scales of the negative uv motions are shown to increase with distance from the wall, whereas their occurrences decrease. A joint analysis of the signal magnitudes and their corresponding lengths reveals that the length scales that contribute most to <-uv> are distinctly larger than the average geometric size of the negative uv motions. Co-spectra of the streamwise and wall-normal velocities, however, are shown to exhibit invariance across the inertial region when their wavelengths are normalized by the width distribution, W(y), of the scaling layer hierarchy, which renders the mean momentum equation invariant on the inertial domain.
Familial orthostatic tachycardia due to norepinephrine transporter deficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, D.; Flattem, N.; Tellioglu, T.; Carson, R.; Garland, E.; Shannon, J. R.; Jordan, J.; Jacob, G.; Blakely, R. D.; Biaggioni, I.
2001-01-01
Orthostatic intolerance (OI) or postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a syndrome primarily affecting young females, and is characterized by lightheadedness, palpitations, fatigue, altered mentation, and syncope primarily occurring with upright posture and being relieved by lying down. There is typically tachycardia and raised plasma norepinephrine levels on upright posture, but little or no orthostatic hypotension. The pathophysiology of OI is believed to be very heterogeneous. Most studies of the syndrome have focused on abnormalities in norepinephrine release. Here the hypothesis that abnormal norepinephrine transporter (NET) function might contribute to the pathophysiology in some patients with OI was tested. In a proband with significant orthostatic symptoms and tachycardia, disproportionately elevated plasma norepinephrine with standing, impaired systemic, and local clearance of infused tritiated norepinephrine, impaired tyramine responsiveness, and a dissociation between stimulated plasma norepinephrine and DHPG elevation were found. Studies of NET gene structure in the proband revealed a coding mutation that converts a highly conserved transmembrane domain Ala residue to Pro. Analysis of the protein produced by the mutant cDNA in transfected cells demonstrated greater than 98% reduction in activity relative to normal. NE, DHPG/NE, and heart rate correlated with the mutant allele in this family. CONCLUSION: These results represent the first identification of a specific genetic defect in OI and the first disease linked to a coding alteration in a Na+/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporter. Identification of this mechanism may facilitate our understanding of genetic causes of OI and lead to the development of more effective therapeutic modalities.
Ion transport through macrocapillaries - Oscillations due to charge patch formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkarni, D. D.; Lyle, L. A. M.; Sosolik, C. E.
2016-09-01
We present results on ion transport through large bore capillaries (macrocapillaries) that probe both the geometric and ion-guided aspects of this ion delivery mechanism. We have demonstrated that guiding in macrocapillaries exhibits position- and angle-dependent transmission properties which are directly related to the capillary material (either metal or insulator) and geometry. Specifically, we have passed 1 keV Rb+ ions through glass and metal macrocapillaries, and have observed oscillations for the transmitted ion current passing through the insulating capillaries. Straightforward calculations show that these oscillations can be attributed to beam deflections from charge patches that form on the interior walls of the capillary. The absence of these oscillations in the metal capillary data serve as further confirmation of the role of charge patch formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeSouza, Alexander L.; Basu, Shantanu
2017-02-01
We model the mass accretion rate M˙ to stellar mass M* correlation that has been inferred from observations of intermediate to upper mass T Tauri stars-that is M˙ ∝ M*1.3±0.3. We explain this correlation within the framework of quiescent disk evolution, in which accretion is driven largely by gravitational torques acting in the bulk of the mass and volume of the disk. Stresses within the disk arise from the action of gravitationally driven torques parameterized in our 1D model in terms of Toomre's Q criterion. We do not model the hot inner sub-AU scale region of the disk that is likely stable according to this criterion, and appeal to other mechanisms to remove or redistribute angular momentum and allow accretion onto the star. Our model has the advantage of agreeing with large-scale angle-averaged values from more complex nonaxisymmetric calculations. The model disk transitions from an early phase (dominated by initial conditions inherited from the burst mode of accretion) into a later self-similar mode characterized by a steeper temporal decline in M˙. The models effectively reproduce the spread in mass accretion rates that have been observed for protostellar objects of 0.2 M⊙ ≤ M* ≤ 3.0 M⊙, such as those found in the ρ Ophiuchus and Taurus star forming regions. We then compare realistically sampled populations of young stellar objects produced by our model to their observational counterparts. We find these populations to be statistically coincident, which we argue is evidence for the role of gravitational torques in the late time evolution of quiescent protostellar disks.
Morrill-Winter, Caleb; Philip, Jimmy; Klewicki, Joseph
2017-03-13
The turbulence contribution to the mean flow is reflected by the motions producing the Reynolds shear stress (〈-uv〉) and its gradient. Recent analyses of the mean dynamical equation, along with data, evidence that these motions asymptotically exhibit self-similar geometric properties. This study discerns additional properties associated with the uv signal, with an emphasis on the magnitudes and length scales of its negative contributions. The signals analysed derive from high-resolution multi-wire hot-wire sensor data acquired in flat-plate turbulent boundary layers. Space-filling properties of the present signals are shown to reinforce previous observations, while the skewness of uv suggests a connection between the size and magnitude of the negative excursions on the inertial domain. Here, the size and length scales of the negative uv motions are shown to increase with distance from the wall, whereas their occurrences decrease. A joint analysis of the signal magnitudes and their corresponding lengths reveals that the length scales that contribute most to 〈-uv〉 are distinctly larger than the average geometric size of the negative uv motions. Co-spectra of the streamwise and wall-normal velocities, however, are shown to exhibit invariance across the inertial region when their wavelengths are normalized by the width distribution, W(y), of the scaling layer hierarchy, which renders the mean momentum equation invariant on the inertial domain.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'.
Mass and Momentum Transport in Microcavities for Diffusion-Dominant Cell Culture Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yew, Alvin G.; Pinero, Daniel; Hsieh, Adam H.; Atencia, Javier
2012-01-01
For the informed design of microfluidic devices, it is important to understand transport phenomena at the microscale. This letter outlines an analytically-driven approach to the design of rectangular microcavities extending perpendicular to a perfusion microchannel for microfluidic cell culture devices. We present equations to estimate the spatial transition from advection- to diffusion-dominant transport inside cavities as a function of the geometry and flow conditions. We also estimate the time required for molecules, such as nutrients or drugs to travel from the microchannel to a given depth into the cavity. These analytical predictions can facilitate the rational design of microfluidic devices to optimize and maintain long-term, physiologically-based culture conditions with low fluid shear stress.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escauriaza, Cristian; Sandoval, Jorge; Mignot, Emmanuel; Mao, Luca
2016-11-01
Turbulent flows developed in surface storage zones (SSZ) in rivers control many physical and biogeochemical processes of contaminants in the water. These regions are characterized by low velocities and long residence times, which favor particle deposition, nutrient uptake, and flow interactions with reactive sediments. The dynamics of the flow in SSZ is driven by a shear layer that induces multiple vortical structures with a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. In this work we study the flow in a lateral SSZ of the Lluta River, a high-altitude Andean stream (4,000 masl), with a Re=45,800. We describe the large-scale turbulent coherent structures using field measurements and 3D numerical simulations. We measure the bed topography, instantaneous 3D velocities at selected points, the mean 2D free-surface velocity field, and arsenic concentration in the sediment. Numerical simulations of the flow are also performed using a DES turbulence model. We focus on the mass and momentum transport processes, analyzing the statistics of mass exchange and residence times in the SSZ. With this information we provide new insights on the flow and transport processes between the main channel and the recirculating region in natural conditions. Supported by Fondecyt 1130940.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawata, Takuya; Alfredsson, P. Henrik
2016-07-01
Plane Couette flow under spanwise, anticyclonic system rotation [rotating plane Couette flow (RPCF)] is studied experimentally using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry for different Reynolds and rotation numbers in the fully turbulent regime. Similar to the laminar regime, the turbulent flow in RPCF is characterized by roll cells, however both instantaneous snapshots of the velocity field and space correlations show that the roll cell structure varies with the rotation number. All three velocity components are measured and both the mean flow and all four nonzero Reynolds stresses are obtained across the central parts of the channel. This also allows us to determine the wall shear stress from the viscous stress and the Reynolds stress in the center of the channel, and for low rotation rates the wall shear stress increases with increasing rotation rate as expected. The results show that zero absolute vorticity is established in the central parts of the channel of turbulent RPCF for high enough rotation rates, but also that the mean velocity profile for certain parameter ranges shows an S shape giving rise to a negative velocity gradient in the center of the channel. We find that from an analysis of the Reynolds stress transport equation using the present data there is a transport of the Reynolds shear stress towards the center of the channel, which may then result in a negative mean velocity gradient there.
Polarization momentum transfer collision: Faxen-Holtzmark theory and quantum dynamic shielding.
Ki, Dae-Han; Jung, Young-Dae
2013-04-21
The influence of the quantum dynamic shielding on the polarization momentum transport collision is investigated by using the Faxen-Holtzmark theory in strongly coupled Coulomb systems. The electron-atom polarization momentum transport cross section is derived as a function of the collision energy, de Broglie wavelength, Debye length, thermal energy, and atomic quantum states. It is found that the dynamic shielding enhances the scattering phase shift as well as the polarization momentum transport cross section. The variation of quantum effect on the momentum transport collision due to the change of thermal energy and de Broglie wavelength is also discussed.
Pierre, J; Oddou, C
2007-12-01
Successful bone cell culture in large implants still is a challenge to biologists and requires a strict control of the physicochemical and mechanical environments. This study analyses from the transport phenomena viewpoint the limiting factors of a perfusion bioreactor for bone cell culture within fibrous and porous large implants (2.5 cm in length, a few cubic centimetres in volume, 250 microm in fibre diameter with approximately 60% porosity). A two-dimensional mathematical model, based upon stationary mass and momentum transport in these implants is proposed and numerically solved. Cell oxygen consumption, in accordance theoretically with the Michaelis-Menten law, generates non linearity in the boundary conditions of the convection diffusion equation. Numerical solutions are obtained with a commercial code (Femlab 3.1; Comsol AB, Stockholm, Sweden). Moreover, based on the simplification of transport equations, a simple formula is given for estimating the length of the oxygen penetration within the implant. Results show that within a few hours of culture process and for a perfusion velocity of the order of 10(-4) m s(-1), the local oxygen concentration is everywhere sufficiently high to ensure a suitable cell metabolism. But shear stresses induced by the fluid flow with such a perfusion velocity are found to be locally too large (higher than 10(-3) Pa). Suitable shear stresses are obtained by decreasing the velocity at the inlet to around 2 x 10(-5) m s(-1). But consequently hypoxic regions (low oxygen concentrations) appear at the downstream part of the implant. Thus, it is suggested here that in the determination of the perfusion flow rate within a large implant, a compromise between oxygen supply and shear stress effects must be found in order to obtain a successful cell culture.
Mantica, P.; Ferreira, J. S.; Salmi, A.; Strintzi, D.; Weiland, J.; Brix, M.; Giroud, C.; Corrigan, G.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Tardini, G.
2010-09-15
Perturbative experiments have been carried out in the Joint European Torus [Fusion Sci. Technol. 53(4) (2008)] in order to identify the diffusive and convective components of toroidal momentum transport. The torque source was modulated either by modulating tangential neutral beam power or by modulating in antiphase tangential and normal beams to produce a torque perturbation in the absence of a power perturbation. The resulting periodic perturbation in the toroidal rotation velocity was modeled using time-dependent transport simulations in order to extract empirical profiles of momentum diffusivity and pinch. Details of the experimental technique, data analysis, and modeling are provided. The momentum diffusivity in the core region (0.2<{rho}<0.8) was found to be close to the ion heat diffusivity ({chi}{sub {phi}/{chi}i{approx}}0.7-1.7) and a significant inward momentum convection term, up to 20 m/s, was found, leading to an effective momentum diffusivity significantly lower than the ion heat diffusivity ({chi}{sub {phi}}{sup eff}/{chi}{sub i}{sup eff{approx}}0.4). These results have significant implications on the prediction of toroidal rotation velocities in future tokamaks and are qualitatively consistent with recent developments in momentum transport theory. Detailed quantitative comparisons with the theoretical predictions of the linear gyrokinetic code GKW [A. G. Peeters et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 180, 2650 (2009)] and of the quasilinear fluid Weiland model [J. Weiland, Collective Modes in Inhomogeneous Plasmas (IOP, Bristol, 2000)] are presented for two analyzed discharges.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stepinski, Tomasz F.; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Vanhala, Harri A. T.
1993-01-01
A hydromagnetic dynamo provides the best mechanism for contemporaneously producing magnetic fields in a turbulent solar nebula. We investigate the solar nebula in the framework of a steady-state accretion disk model and establish the criteria for a viable nebular dynamo. We have found that typically a magnetic gap exists in the nebula, the region where the degree of ionization is too small for the magnetic field to couple to the gas. The location and width of this gap depend on the particular model; the supposition is that gaps cover different parts of the nebula at different evolutionary stages. We have found, from several dynamical constraints, that the generated magnetic field is likely to saturate at a strength equal to equipartition with the kinetic energy of turbulence. Maxwell stress arising from a large-scale magnetic field may significantly influence nebular structure, and Maxwell stress due to small-scale fields can actually dominate other stresses in the inner parts of the nebula. We also argue that the bulk of nebular gas, within the scale height from the midplane, is stable against Balbus-Hawley instability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orlando, A. F.; Moffat, R. J.; Kays, W. M.
1974-01-01
The relationship between the turbulent transport of heat and momentum in an adverse pressure gradient boundary layer was studied. An experimental study was conducted of turbulent boundary layers subject to strong adverse pressure gradients with suction. Near-equilibrium flows were attained, evidenced by outer-region similarity in terms of defect temperature and defect velocity profiles. The relationship between Stanton number and enthalpy thickness was shown to be the same as for a flat plate flow both for constant wall temperature boundary conditions and for steps in wall temperature. The superposition principle used with the step-wall-temperature experimental result was shown to accurately predict the Stanton number variation for two cases of arbitrarily varying wall temperature. The Reynolds stress tensor components were measured for strong adverse pressure gradient conditions and different suction rates. Two peaks of turbulence intensity were found: one in the inner and one in the outer regions. The outer peak is shown to be displaced outward by an adverse pressure gradient and suppressed by suction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rousseau, F.; Coppi, B.
2007-04-01
Differentially rotating plasma structures in the prevalent gravity of a central object (e.g. black hole) can acquire a configuration characterized by a radial sequence of ringsootnotetextB. Coppi and F. Rousseau, Ap. J. 641 (1), 458 (2006) in the presence of a ``seed'' vertical magnetic field, rather than one typical of a gaseous disk. A sequence of pairs of counter-streaming toroidal current channels is associated with these rings and no poloidal currents are produced if a torque is absent. When a local transport process of angular momentum is present, loops of poloidal currents associated with the resulting torque are formed.ootnotetextB. Coppi, MIT-LNS Report 06/05 (Cambridge, MA, 2006) In particular, the vertical current densities are up- down antisymmetric. A jet that could emerge from the innermost ring would, in fact, have antisymmetric vertical current densities relative to the equatorial plane. When a small radial velocity, resulting for instance from accretion, is present we argue that matter will flow along the X-lines and the O-lines of a weakly spiraling ring configuration that is envisioned instead of the strictly axisymmetric^1 configuration found when only a toroidal velocity is present. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. Department of Energy.
Rigorous upper bounds for fluid and plasma transport due to passive advection
Krommes, J.A.; Smith, R.A.; Kim, C.B.
1987-07-01
The formulation of variational principles for transport due to passive advection is described. A detailed account of the work has been published elsewhere. In the present paper, the motivations, philosophy, and implications of the method are briefly discussed. 15 refs.
Anomalous perturbative transport in tokamaks due to drift-Alfven-wave turbulence
Thoul, A.A. ); Similon, P.L. ); Sudan, R.N. )
1994-03-01
The method developed in Thoul, Similon, and Sudan [Phys. Plasmas [bold 1], 579 (1994)] is used to calculate the transport due to drift-Alfven-wave turbulence, in which electromagnetic effects such as the fluttering of the magnetic field lines are important. Explicit expressions are obtained for all coefficients of the anomalous transport matrix relating particle and heat fluxes to density and temperature gradients in the plasma. Although the magnetic terms leave the transport by trapped electrons unaffected, they are important for the transport by circulating electrons.
Anomalous perturbative transport in tokamaks due to drift-Alfvén-wave turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thoul, Anne A.; Similon, P. L.; Sudan, R. N.
1994-03-01
The method developed in Thoul, Similon, and Sudan [Phys. Plasmas 1, 579 (1994)] is used to calculate the transport due to drift-Alfvén-wave turbulence, in which electromagnetic effects such as the fluttering of the magnetic field lines are important. Explicit expressions are obtained for all coefficients of the anomalous transport matrix relating particle and heat fluxes to density and temperature gradients in the plasma. Although the magnetic terms leave the transport by trapped electrons unaffected, they are important for the transport by circulating electrons.
Anomalous perturbative transport in tokamaks due to drift-wave turbulence
Thoul, A.A. ); Similon, P.L. ); Sudan, R.N. )
1994-03-01
A new method for calculating the anomalous transport in tokamak plasmas is presented. The renormalized nonlinear plasma response function is derived using the direct-interaction approximation (DIA). A complete calculation for the case of electrostatic drift-wave turbulence is presented. Explicit expressions for all coefficients of the anomalous transport matrix relating particle and heat fluxes to density and temperature gradients in the plasma are obtained. The anomalous transport matrix calculated using the DIA does not have the Onsager symmetry. As an example of application, the parameters of the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) [Nucl. Technol. Fusion [bold 1], 479 (1981)] are used to evaluate all transport coefficients numerically, as well as the spectrum modulation. The relation between the theoretical results and the experimental data is discussed. Although this paper focuses on electron transport for simplicity, the method can also be used to calculate anomalous transport due to ion instabilities, such as the ion-temperature-gradient instability.
Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; /Amer. Museum Natural Hist.
2012-02-14
The magnetorotational instability (MRI) may dominate outward transport of angular momentum in accretion disks, allowing material to fall onto the central object. Previous work has established that the MRI can drive a mean-field dynamo, possibly leading to a self-sustaining accretion system. Recently, however, simulations of the scaling of the angular momentum transport parameter {alpha}{sub SS} with the magnetic Prandtl number Pm have cast doubt on the ability of the MRI to transport astrophysically relevant amounts of angular momentum in real disk systems. Here, we use simulations including explicit physical viscosity and resistivity to show that when vertical stratification is included, mean field dynamo action operates, driving the system to a configuration in which the magnetic field is not fully helical. This relaxes the constraints on the generated field provided by magnetic helicity conservation, allowing the generation of a mean field on timescales independent of the resistivity. Our models demonstrate the existence of a critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm{sub crit}, below which transport becomes strongly Pm-dependent and chaotic, but above which the transport is steady and Pm-independent. Prior simulations showing Pm-dependence had Rm < Rm{sub crit}. We conjecture that this steady regime is possible because the mean field dynamo is not helicity-limited and thus does not depend on the details of the helicity ejection process. Scaling to realistic astrophysical parameters suggests that disks around both protostars and stellar mass black holes have Rm >> Rm{sub crit}. Thus, we suggest that the strong Pm dependence seen in recent simulations does not occur in real systems.
Oishi, Jeffrey S.
2011-10-10
The magnetorotational instability (MRI) may dominate outward transport of angular momentum in accretion disks, allowing material to fall onto the central object. Previous work has established that the MRI can drive a mean-field dynamo, possibly leading to a self-sustaining accretion system. Recently, however, simulations of the scaling of the angular momentum transport parameter {alpha}{sub SS} with the magnetic Prandtl number Pm have cast doubt on the ability of the MRI to transport astrophysically relevant amounts of angular momentum in real disk systems. Here, we use simulations including explicit physical viscosity and resistivity to show that when vertical stratification is included, mean-field dynamo action operates, driving the system to a configuration in which the magnetic field is not fully helical. This relaxes the constraints on the generated field provided by magnetic helicity conservation, allowing the generation of a mean field on timescales independent of the resistivity. Our models demonstrate the existence of a critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm{sub crit}, below which transport becomes strongly Pm-dependent and chaotic, but above which the transport is steady and Pm-independent. Prior simulations showing Pm dependence had Rm < Rm{sub crit}. We conjecture that this steady regime is possible because the mean-field dynamo is not helicity-limited and thus does not depend on the details of the helicity ejection process. Scaling to realistic astrophysical parameters suggests that disks around both protostars and stellar mass black holes have Rm >> Rm{sub crit}. Thus, we suggest that the strong Pm dependence seen in recent simulations does not occur in real systems.
Absorption of intense microwaves and ion acoustic turbulence due to heat transport
De Groot, J.S.; Liu, J.M.; Matte, J.P.
1994-02-04
Measurements and calculations of the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of intense microwaves are presented. The isotropic component of the electron distribution becomes flat-topped in agreement with detailed Fokker-Planck calculations. The plasma heating is reduced due to the flat-topped distributions in agreement with calculations. The calculations show that the heat flux at high microwave powers is very large, q{sub max} {approx} 0.3 n{sub e}v{sub e}T{sub e}. A new particle model to, calculate the heat transport inhibition due to ion acoustic turbulence in ICF plasmas is also presented. One-dimensional PIC calculations of ion acoustic turbulence excited due to heat transport are presented. The 2-D PIC code is presently being used to perform calculations of heat flux inhibition due to ion acoustic turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, F.-C.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Hishida, K.
2004-09-01
Simultaneous measurements of the velocity (u and ν in the streamwise and wall-normal directions, respectively) and temperature fluctuations (θ) in the thermal boundary layer were carried out for a heated drag-reducing surfactant solution flow in a two-dimensional channel by means of a two-component laser Doppler velocimetry and a fine-wire thermocouple probe. The drag-reducing fluid tested was a dilute aqueous solution of a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), with 30 ppm concentration. Measurements were performed for CTAC solution flows at an inlet temperature of 31 °C and at three Reynolds numbers of 3.5×104, 2.5×104, and 1.5×104, respectively, and for water flow at the Reynolds number of 2.5×104. Drag reduction (DR) and heat transfer reduction (HTR) for the three CTAC solution flows were DR(HTR)=33.0(20.2), 70.0(77.3), and 65.1(77.0) percentage, respectively. At a high HTR level, a large temperature gradient appeared when y+<50 in the measured range (the superscript "+" denotes normalization with inner variables). Temperature fluctuation intensity, θ'+, and the streamwise turbulent heat flux, u+θ+¯, were enhanced in the layer with large temperature gradient for the drag-reducing flow, whereas the wall-normal turbulent heat flux, -ν+θ+¯, was depressed throughout the measured range. The depression of -ν+θ+¯ was due to a cause similar to that of the depression of the Reynolds shear stress -u+ν+¯, i.e., in addition to the decrease of ν'+, decorrelation between the two variables occurred. The decrease of -ν+θ+¯ resulted in HTR, which was similar to that of the decrease of -u+ν+¯ resulted in DR for the drag-reducing flow by additives. The turbulence production terms, -u+ν+¯(∂U+/∂y+) and -ν+θ+¯(∂Θ+/∂y+) where U and Θ are mean velocity and temperature, were reduced in the drag-reducing CTAC solution flows. The estimated power spectra of temperature fluctuations implied that the drag-reducing surfactant
Myers, William K; Scholes, Charles P; Tierney, David L
2009-08-05
We report Q-band ENDOR of (1)H, (14)N, and (11)B at the g( parallel) extreme of the EPR spectrum of bis(trispyrazolylborate) cobalt(II) [Co(Tp)(2)] and two structural analogs. This trigonally symmetric, high-spin (hs) S = 3/2 Co(II) complex shows large unquenched ground-state orbital angular momentum, which leads to highly anisotropic electronic g-values (g( parallel) = 8.48, g( perpendicular) = 1.02). The large g-anisotropy is shown to result in large dipolar couplings near g( parallel) and uniquely anisotropic (14)N Fermi couplings, which arise from spin transferred to the nitrogen 2s orbital (2.2%) via antibonding interactions with singly occupied metal d(x(2)-y(2)) and d(z(2)) orbitals. Large, well-resolved (1)H and (11)B dipolar couplings were also observed. Taken in concert with our previous X-band ENDOR measurements at g( perpendicular) ( Myers, W. K.; et al. Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47, 6701-6710 ), the present data allow a detailed analysis of the dipolar hyperfine tensors of two of the four symmetry distinct protons in the parent molecule. In the substituted analogs, changes in hyperfine coupling due to altered metal-proton distances give further evidence of an anisotropic Fermi contact interaction. For the pyrazolyl 3H proton, the data indicate a 0.2 MHz anisotropic contact interaction and approximately 4% transfer of spin away from Co(II). Dipolar coupling also dominates for the axial boron atoms, consistent with their distance from the Co(II) ion, and resolved (11)B quadrupolar coupling showed approximately 30% electronic inequivalence between the B-H and B-C sp(3) bonds. This is the first comprehensive ENDOR study of any hs Co(II) species and lays the foundation for future development.
Deterministic transport calculations of dose profiles due to proton beam irradiation
Filippone, W.L.; Smith, M.S.; Santoro, R.T.; Gabriel, T.A.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.
1988-01-01
Charged-particle transport calculations are most often carried out using the Monte Carlo technique. For example, the TIGER and EGS codes are used for electron transport calculations, while HETC models the transport of protons and heavy ions. In recent years there has been considerable progress in deterministic models of electron transport. Many of these models are also applicable to protons. In this paper we present discrete ordinates solutions to the Spencer-Lewis equation for protons. In its present form, our code calculates the energy deposition profile and primary proton flux in x-y geometry due to proton beam irradiation. Proton energies up to 0.4 GeV are permissible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Salil; Jhang, Hogun; Singh, R.; Nordman, H.
2016-10-01
The significant effect of impurities in radiation losses and plasma dilution, which result in lower fusion power, and the evaluation of the important effects of intrinsic rotation on transport barrier formation, determination of momentum pinch velocity and its theoretical basis, in tokamak performance is studied using the four-wave parametric process using an electrostatic, collisionless fluid model for ion-temperature-gradient and trapped-electron mode driven turbulence in the presence of radio frequency fields in the lower hybrid (LH) range of frequencies. The beating of the pump and the sidebands exert a ponderomotive force on electrons, modifying the eigenfrequency of the drift waves and influencing the growth rates and the turbulent transport properties. Explicit expressions for the non-linear growth rate and the associated ion thermal conductivity and effective impurity diffusivity are derived. The effects of the rf fields on the momentum and impurity transport coefficients are evaluated for key parameters like rf power, temperature gradients, and magnetic shear. Prince Georges Community College, Largo, Maryland 20774, USA.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, J.; Simon, T. W.
1987-01-01
The effects of streamwise convex curvature, recovery, and freestream turbulence intensity on the turbulent transport of heat and momentum in a mature boundary layer are studied using a specially designed three-wire hot-wire probe. Increased freestream turbulence is found to increase the profiles throughout the boundary layer on the flat developing wall. Curvature effects were found to dominate turbulence intensity effects for the present cases considered. For the higher TI (turbulence intensity) case, negative values of the turbulent Prandtl number are found in the outer half of the boundary layer, indicating a breakdown in Reynolds analogy.
Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Al-Jamel, A; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Bjorndal, M T; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Chai, J-S; Chang, B S; Charvet, J-L; Chernichenko, S; Chiba, J; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Cianciolo, V; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Dahms, T; Das, K; David, G; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Dubey, A K; Durum, A; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fung, S-Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Henni, A Hadj; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hamagaki, H; Han, R; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Heuser, J M; He, X; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Imrek, J; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kawagishi, T; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, Y-S; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kroon, P J; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y-S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Le Bornec, Y; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Lim, H; Liska, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Li, X; Li, X H; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Masek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCain, M C; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Miake, Y; Mikes, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Norman, B E; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, H; Okada, K; Oka, M; Omiwade, O O; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Rykov, V L; Ryu, S S; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Sakata, H; Samsonov, V; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shevel, A; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shohjoh, T; Shoji, K; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skutnik, S; Slunecka, M; Smith, W C; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sullivan, J P; Sziklai, J; Tabaru, T; Takagi, S; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tojo, J; Tomásek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V-N; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Vertesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wagner, M; Walker, D; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; Wessels, J; White, S N; Willis, N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yanovich, A; Yasin, Z; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zimányi, J; Zolin, L
2008-12-05
For Au + Au collisions at 200 GeV, we measure neutral pion production with good statistics for transverse momentum, pT, up to 20 GeV/c. A fivefold suppression is found, which is essentially constant for 5 < pT < 20 GeV/c. Experimental uncertainties are small enough to constrain any model-dependent parametrization for the transport coefficient of the medium, e.g., q in the parton quenching model. The spectral shape is similar for all collision classes, and the suppression does not saturate in Au + Au collisions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaghloul, Mofreh R.; Bourham, Mohamed A.; Doster, J. Michael
2000-04-01
An exact analytical expression for the energy-averaged electron-ion momentum transport cross section in the Born approximation and Debye-Hückel exponentially screened potential has been derived and compared with the formulae given by other authors. A quantitative comparison between cut-off theory and quantum mechanical perturbation theory has been presented. Based on results from the Born approximation and Spitzer's formula, a new approximate formula for the quantum Coulomb logarithm has been derived and shown to be more accurate than previous expressions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaghloul, Mofreh R.; Bourham, Mohamed A.; Doster, J. Michael
2000-02-01
An exact analytical expression for the energy-averaged electron-ion momentum transport cross section in the Born approximation and Debye-Hückel exponentially screened potential has been derived and compared with the formulae given by other authors. A quantitative comparison between cut-off theory and quantum mechanical perturbation theory has been presented. Based on results from the Born approximation and Spitzer's formula, a new approximate formula for the quantum Coulomb logarithm has been derived and shown to be more accurate than previous expressions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yue; Chen, Z. P.; Zhuang, G.; Wang, L.; Liu, H.; Wang, Z. J.
2016-04-01
The influences of electrode biasing (EB) on toroidal rotation and turbulent (toroidal) momentum transport at the plasma edge have been experimentally studied in the J-TEXT tokamak. In the absence of bias (i.e. the bias current I b = 0 A), plasma toroidal rotation at the edge of the confined region is intrinsically towards the co-I p direction (parallel to plasma current); in the presence of bias, edge rotation can be greatly modified, and shows positive correlation with the bias current. As the dominant term in the turbulent momentum flux, the toroidal-radial Reynolds stress term is found to give rise to an intrinsic torque in the experiments. The local momentum balance is provided by a viscous damping-like term on the velocity. Moreover, the existence of intrinsic torque at the edge is directly verified by cancelling out the local rotation under negative bias (I b ≈ -60 A). The corresponding intrinsic torque density at the plasma edge is about 0.65 N m-2, in the co-I p direction. Further comparison shows that this intrinsic torque can be reasonably explained by the measured residual stress, providing direct evidence for the hypothesis that the residual stress is the origin of the intrinsic rotation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Estrada, Paul R.; Durisen, Richard H.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Morgan, Demitri A.
2015-01-01
We introduce improved numerical techniques for simulating the structural and compositional evolution of planetary rings due to micrometeoroid bombardment and subsequent ballistic transport of impact ejecta. Our current, robust code is capable of modeling structural changes and pollution transport simultaneously over long times on both local and global scales. In this paper, we describe the methodology based on the original structural code of Durisen et al. (1989, Icarus 80, 136-166) and on the pollution transport code of Cuzzi and Estrada (1998, Icarus 132, 1-35). We provide demonstrative simulations to compare with, and extend upon previous work, as well as examples of how ballistic transport can maintain the observed structure in Saturn's rings using available Cassini occultation optical depth data. In particular, we explicitly verify the claim that the inner B (and presumably A) ring edge can be maintained over long periods of time due to an ejecta distribution that is heavily biased in the prograde direction through a balance between the sharpening effects of ballistic transport and the broadening effects of viscosity. We also see that a "ramp"-like feature forms over time just inside that edge. However, it does not remain linear for the duration of the runs presented here unless a less steep ejecta velocity distribution is adopted. We also model the C ring plateaus and find that their outer edges can be maintained at their observed sharpness for long periods due to ballistic transport. We hypothesize that the addition of a significant component of a retrograde-biased ejecta distribution may help explain the linearity of the ramp and is probably essential for maintaining the sharpness of C ring plateau inner edges. This component would arise for the subset of micrometeoroid impacts which are destructive rather than merely cratering. Such a distribution will be introduced in future work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Estrada, Paul R.; Durisen, Richard H.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Morgan, Demitri A.
2015-05-01
We introduce improved numerical techniques for simulating the structural and compositional evolution of planetary rings due to micrometeoroid bombardment and subsequent ballistic transport of impact ejecta. Our current, robust code is capable of modeling structural changes and pollution transport simultaneously over long times on both local and global scales. In this paper, we describe the methodology based on the original structural code of Durisen et al. (Durisen, R.H. et al. [1989]. Icarus 80, 136-166) and on the pollution transport code of Cuzzi and Estrada (Cuzzi, J.N., Estrada, P.R. [1998]. Icarus 132, 1-35). We provide demonstrative simulations to compare with, and extend upon previous work, as well as examples of how ballistic transport can maintain the observed structure in Saturn's rings using available Cassini occultation optical depth data. In particular, we explicitly verify the claim that the inner B (and presumably A) ring edge can be maintained over long periods of time due to an ejecta distribution that is heavily biased in the prograde direction through a balance between the sharpening effects of ballistic transport and the broadening effects of viscosity. We also see that a "ramp"-like feature forms over time just inside that edge. However, it does not remain linear for the duration of the runs presented here unless a less steep ejecta velocity distribution is adopted. We also model the C ring plateaus and find that their outer edges can be maintained at their observed sharpness for long periods due to ballistic transport. We hypothesize that the addition of a significant component of a retrograde-biased ejecta distribution may help explain the linearity of the ramp and could provide a mechanism for maintaining the sharpness of C ring plateau inner edges. This component would arise for the subset of micrometeoroid impacts which are destructive rather than merely cratering. Such a distribution will be introduced in future work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramalho, Inês; Omira, Rachid; Baptista, Maria Ana; El Moussaoui, Said; Najib Zaghloul, Mohamed
2016-04-01
Coastal areas in the North of Morocco are at risk of tsunami inundation. Overland tsunami propagation leads to widespread and dramatic changes in coastal morphology due to sediments erosion, transport and deposition processes. Tsunami sediments transport and morphological changes must take into consideration bed-load and suspended load transport of non-cohesive sediments and suspended load of cohesive sediments. Numerical calculation of suspended sediment transport/deposition is performed by solving the advection-diffusion equations for the suspended sediment, where the velocities are obtained from the hydrodynamic modelling. In this study, we assess the morphological changes under tsunami impact at the Bay of Tangier-Morocco. We use a coupled hydrodynamic and morpho-dynamic numerical code, based on two open sources codes: COMCOT and Xbeach, to simulate the tsunami impact and the associated sediments transport and deposition. COMCOT solves the shallow water equations to calculate the inundation characteristics (flow depth and velocity), while Xbeach allows solving the advection-diffusion equations to determine the amount of sediments eroded, transported and deposed. The results of this study are presented in terms of maps displaying the amount of sediments eroded, transported and deposed at the bay of Tangier following a tsunami similar to the 1755 Lisbon event. We find that the bay of Tangier is vulnerable to morphological changes under tsunami threat coming from SW Iberia margin. This work is supported by the EU project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe, Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013,6.4-3).
Battaglia, D. J.; Boedo, J. A.; Burrell, K. H.; Chang, C. S.; Canik, J. M.; deGrassie, J. S.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Grierson, B. A.; Groebner, R. J.; Maingi, Rajesh; Smith, S. P.
2014-09-01
Energy and particle transport rates are decoupled in the H-mode edge since the ion thermal transport rate is primarily set by the neoclassical transport of the deuterium ions in the tail of the thermal energy distribution, while the net particle transport rate is set by anomalous transport of the colder bulk ions. Ion orbit loss drives the energy distributions away from Maxwellian, and describes the anisotropy, poloidal asymmetry and local minimum near the separatrix observed in the Ti profile. Non-Maxwellian distributions also drive large intrinsic edge flows, and the interaction of turbulence at the top of the pedestal with the intrinsic edge flow can generate an intrinsic core torque. The primary driver of the radial electric field (Er) in the pedestal and scrapeoff layer (SOL) are kinetic neoclassical effects, such as ion orbit loss of tail ions and parallel electron loss to the divertor. This paper describes the first multi-species kinetic neoclassical transport calculations for ELM-free H-mode pedestal and scrape-off layer on DIII-D using XGC0, a 5D full-f particle-in-cell drift-kinetic solver with self-consistent neutral recycling and sheath potentials. Quantitative agreement between the flux-driven simulation and the experimental electron density, impurity density and orthogonal measurements of impurity temperature and flow profiles is achieved by adding random-walk particle diffusion to the guiding-center drift motion. This interpretative technique quantifies the role of neoclassical, anomalous and neutral transport to the overall pedestal structure, and consequently illustrates the importance of including kinetic effects self-consistently in transport calculations around transport barriers.
Slope Evolution by Stochastic Soil Production and Transport due to Biota
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietrich, W. E.; Bellugi, D.
2006-05-01
To explore the role of variability in prediction of landscape form and evolution we need transport expressions that explicitly account for mechanisms linking a process to a stochastic driver or variable state. Recent work has begun the important task of exploring how stochastic rainfall events (rather than steady runoff) may affect landscape development. Another source of variability, bedrock characteristics, has long been discussed and noted, but predictions, using testable mechanistic expressions of processes, of how, say, bedrock fractures direct streams, or lithology determines hillslope gradients are lacking. A third source of stochasticity is the action of biota, and, here, even less is known. For hillslope processes, the role of biota is swept into parameters that set rates or controls strength or resistance in physical transport laws. While these parameters can be determined from field studies, they are usually evaluated for geomorphically significant periods in which the stochastic nature of biotic activity is ignored. Some aspects of stochasticity due to periodic fires have been explored. On hillslopes, rates of soil production from bedrock is often treated as an inverse function of soil depth, with the explanation being that biotic disruption of underlying weathered bedrock is less likely the thicker the soil. Transport downslope is modeled with linear and non-linear slope dependent expressions, with the rate constant parameters often assumed to be driven by dilational activity of biota in the soil. Here we explore the evolution of soil thickness and hillslope form caused by stochastic soil production and transport due to tree throw. For soil production the average recurrence interval of production is specified, and production occurrence at any cell is an independent random event at each time step. The amount of bedrock converted to soil at a production event is specified by the empirical soil production function. All disrupted bedrock and overlying soil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coppi, B.; Basu, B.; Fletcher, A.
2016-10-01
The two-fluid theory of magnetic reconnection, when the longitudinal electron thermal conductivity is relatively large, shows that the perturbed electron temperature tends to become singular in the presence of a reconnected field component and an electron temperature gradient. A transverse thermal diffusivity can remove this singularity while a finite ``inductivity'' can remove the singularity of the corresponding plasma displacement. Then i) a new ``magneto-thermal reconnection'' producing mode, driven by the electron temperature gradient, is found; ii) the characteristic widths of the layers where reconnection takes place remain significant even when the relevant macroscopic distances are very large; iii) modes with phase velocities both in the electron diamagnetic velocity direction and in the opposite one are found. Their growth rates depend on small dissipative factors. The found modes can extract angular momentum from the plasma and thereby sustain a ``spontaneous rotation'' process. Sponsored by the U.S. D.O.E.
Holzinger, Dennis; Koch, Iris; Burgard, Stefan; Ehresmann, Arno
2015-07-28
An approach for a remotely controllable transport of magnetic micro- and/or nanoparticles above a topographically flat exchange-bias (EB) thin film system, magnetically patterned into parallel stripe domains, is presented where the particle manipulation is achieved by sub-mT external magnetic field pulses. Superparamagnetic core-shell particles are moved stepwise by the dynamic transformation of the particles' magnetic potential energy landscape due to the external magnetic field pulses without affecting the magnetic state of the thin film system. The magnetic particle velocity is adjustable in the range of 1-100 μm/s by the design of the substrate's magnetic field landscape (MFL), the particle-substrate distance, and the magnitude of the applied external magnetic field pulses. The agglomeration of magnetic particles is avoided by the intrinsic magnetostatic repulsion of particles due to the parallel alignment of the particles' magnetic moments perpendicular to the transport direction and parallel to the surface normal of the substrate during the particle motion. The transport mechanism is modeled by a quantitative theory based on the precise knowledge of the sample's MFL and the particle-substrate distance.
Investigation of VOC Transport in Soil Vapors due to Wind Effects using Models and Measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pennell, K. G.; Roghani, M.; Shirazi, E.; Willett, E.
2014-12-01
For the past several years, vapor intrusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that emanate from hazardous waste sites has been gaining attention due to adverse health effects and regulatory action. Most studies of VOC vapor intrusion suggest that diffusion is the dominant contaminant transport mechanism, while advection is only considered important near contaminant entry points (i.e. building cracks). This conceptual framework is accurate when above-ground surface features do not promote air flow into (or out of) the ground surface. Recent research related to air flow in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) due to wind effects around buildings suggests a need for better understanding how advective transport processes can impact contaminant profiles and vapor intrusion exposure risks. In this study, a numerical model using COMSOL Multiphysics was developed to account for parameters affecting the transport of VOCs from the subsurface into buildings by considering wind effects in the ABL. Model simulations are compared to preliminary laboratory and field data to evaluate the relative importance of wind induced pressure gradients, soil permeability, soil porosity, and soil effective diffusivity on vapor intrusion entry rates. The major goal of this research is to develop an improved conceptual understanding of the vapor intrusion process so that remediation efforts can be better designed and implemented.
Incorporating Super-Diffusion due to Sub-Grid Heterogeneity to Capture Non-Fickian Transport.
Baeumer, Boris; Zhang, Yong; Schumer, Rina
2015-01-01
Numerical transport models based on the advection-dispersion equation (ADE) are built on the assumption that sub-grid cell transport is Fickian such that dispersive spreading around the average velocity is symmetric and without significant tailing on the front edge of a solute plume. However, anomalous diffusion in the form of super-diffusion due to preferential pathways in an aquifer has been observed in field data, challenging the assumption of Fickian dispersion at the local scale. This study develops a fully Lagrangian method to simulate sub-grid super-diffusion in a multidimensional regional-scale transport model by using a recent mathematical model allowing super-diffusion along the flow direction given by the regional model. Here, the time randomizing procedure known as subordination is applied to flow field output from MODFLOW simulations. Numerical tests check the applicability of the novel method in mapping regional-scale super-diffusive transport conditioned on local properties of multidimensional heterogeneous media.
Nonlinear thermoelectric response due to energy-dependent transport properties of a quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svilans, Artis; Burke, Adam M.; Svensson, Sofia Fahlvik; Leijnse, Martin; Linke, Heiner
2016-08-01
Quantum dots are useful model systems for studying quantum thermoelectric behavior because of their highly energy-dependent electron transport properties, which are tunable by electrostatic gating. As a result of this strong energy dependence, the thermoelectric response of quantum dots is expected to be nonlinear with respect to an applied thermal bias. However, until now this effect has been challenging to observe because, first, it is experimentally difficult to apply a sufficiently large thermal bias at the nanoscale and, second, it is difficult to distinguish thermal bias effects from purely temperature-dependent effects due to overall heating of a device. Here we take advantage of a novel thermal biasing technique and demonstrate a nonlinear thermoelectric response in a quantum dot which is defined in a heterostructured semiconductor nanowire. We also show that a theoretical model based on the Master equations fully explains the observed nonlinear thermoelectric response given the energy-dependent transport properties of the quantum dot.
Cen, Renyue
2015-05-20
We reason that without physical fine-tuning, neither the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) nor the stellar bulges can self-regulate or inter-regulate by driving away already fallen cold gas to produce the observed correlation between them. We suggest an alternative scenario where the observed mass ratios of the SMBHs to bulges reflect the angular momentum distribution of infallen gas such that the mass reaching the stable accretion disk is a small fraction of that reaching the bulge region, averaged over the cosmological timescales. We test this scenario using high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, without active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, assuming the angular momentum distribution of gas landing in the bulge region yields a Mestel disk that is supported by independent simulations resolving the Bondi radii of SMBHs. A mass ratio of 0.1%–0.3% between the very low angular momentum gas that free falls to the subparsec region to accrete to the SMBH and the overall star formation rate is found. This ratio is found to increase with increasing redshift to within a factor of ∼2, suggesting that the SMBH-to-bulge ratio is nearly redshift independent, with a modest increase with redshift, which is a testable prediction. Furthermore, the duty cycle of AGNs with high Eddington ratios is expected to increase significantly with redshift. Finally, while SMBHs and bulges are found to coevolve on ∼30–150 Myr timescales or longer, there is indication that on still smaller timescales, the SMBH accretion and star formation may be less correlated.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor
2013-01-01
The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…
Inhibition of quantum transport due to 'scars' of unstable periodic orbits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jensen, R. V.; Sanders, M. M.; Saraceno, M.; Sundaram, B.
1989-01-01
A new quantum mechanism for the suppression of chaotic ionization of highly excited hydrogen atoms explains the appearance of anomalously stable states in the microwave ionization experiments of Koch et al. A novel phase-space representation of the perturbed wave functions reveals that the inhibition of quantum transport is due to the selective excitation of wave functions that are highly localized near unstable periodic orbits in the chaotic classical phase space. The 'scarred' wave functions provide a new basis for the quantum description of a variety of classically chaotic systems.
Gravity wave motions and momentum fluxes in the middle atmosphere at Adelaide, Australia
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vincent, R. A.; Fritts, D. C.
1985-01-01
A study was made of gravity wave momentum fluxes in the middle atmosphere using data collected during June 1984 at Adelaide, Australia (35 deg S). The primary objectives were to identify that portion of the gravity wave spectrum that contributes most of the momentum transport and flux divergence and to examine the temporal variability of wave energies and momentum fluxes. The data were obtained with an HF (2 MHz) radar operated in a Doppler configuration with two coplanar off-vertical beams. This technique provides a direct measure of the vertical flux of horizontal momentum due to an arbitrary spectrum of gravity wave and other motions in the plane of the radar beams.
Rawl, Richard R; Scofield, Patricia A; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F
2010-04-01
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level NORM
CFD Assessment of Aerodynamic Degradation of a Subsonic Transport Due to Airframe Damage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frink, Neal T.; Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.; Atkins, Harold L.; Viken, Sally A.; Morrison, Joseph H.
2010-01-01
A computational study is presented to assess the utility of two NASA unstructured Navier-Stokes flow solvers for capturing the degradation in static stability and aerodynamic performance of a NASA General Transport Model (GTM) due to airframe damage. The approach is to correlate computational results with a substantial subset of experimental data for the GTM undergoing progressive losses to the wing, vertical tail, and horizontal tail components. The ultimate goal is to advance the probability of inserting computational data into the creation of advanced flight simulation models of damaged subsonic aircraft in order to improve pilot training. Results presented in this paper demonstrate good correlations with slope-derived quantities, such as pitch static margin and static directional stability, and incremental rolling moment due to wing damage. This study further demonstrates that high fidelity Navier-Stokes flow solvers could augment flight simulation models with additional aerodynamic data for various airframe damage scenarios.
Time-dependent Radial Transport of Electron Distributions Due to ECCD in DIII-D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harvey, R. W.; Smirnov, A. P.; Prater, R.; Petty, C. C.
2007-11-01
The radial transport modeling capability in the CQL3D bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck collisional-rf quasilinear code[1] has been greatly improved and the self-consistent time-dependent toroidal electric field added, making the code truly a ``Fokker-Planck-Transport'' code. The time-dependent, coupled 3D Fokker-Planck equation and the Ampere-Faraday Law equation are solved for the electron distribution, f( u,θu,ρ,t ), and the toroidal loop voltage, Vloop( ρ,t ). A fully 3D, time-implicit solution of the FP equation using sparse-matrix methods[2] is coupled to a new iterative toroidal electric field solve. The DIII-D ECH experiment is in an intermediate driven regime with τtransport τslowing[3] for the EC driven electrons. Results will be reported for time-evolution of radial profiles of current density, fast electrons, and toroidal loop voltage due to EC heating and current drive in DIII-D. [1] R.W. Harvey and M.G. McCoy, IAEA TCM on Advances in Simulation and Modeling of Thermonuclear Plasmas, Montreal, 1992; USDOC NTIS No. 93002962. [2] Y. Peysson et al., Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas, 15th Topical Conference, Moran, Wyoming (2003). [3] R.W. Harvey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 205001 (2002).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindsay, Alexander; Anderson, Carly; Slikboer, Elmar; Shannon, Steven; Graves, David
2015-10-01
There is a growing interest in the study of plasma-liquid interactions with application to biomedicine, chemical disinfection, agriculture, and other fields. This work models the momentum, heat, and neutral species mass transfer between gas and aqueous phases in the context of a streamer discharge; the qualitative conclusions are generally applicable to plasma-liquid systems. The problem domain is discretized using the finite element method. The most interesting and relevant model result for application purposes is the steep gradients in reactive species at the interface. At the center of where the reactive gas stream impinges on the water surface, the aqueous concentrations of OH and ONOOH decrease by roughly 9 and 4 orders of magnitude respectively within 50 μ m of the interface. Recognizing the limited penetration of reactive plasma species into the aqueous phase is critical to discussions about the therapeutic mechanisms for direct plasma treatment of biological solutions. Other interesting results from this study include the presence of a 10 K temperature drop in the gas boundary layer adjacent to the interface that arises from convective cooling. Though the temperature magnitudes may vary among atmospheric discharge types (different amounts of plasma-gas heating), this relative difference between gas and liquid bulk temperatures is expected to be present for any system in which convection is significant. Accounting for the resulting difference between gas and liquid bulk temperatures has a significant impact on reaction kinetics; factor of two changes in terminal aqueous species concentrations like H2O2, NO2- , and NO3- are observed in this study if the effect of evaporative cooling is not included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qi; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Anderson, William
2016-04-01
Spectral discretization of quantities exhibiting abrupt shifts results in oscillations, or ;ringing;, known as the Gibbs phenomenon. When spectral discretization is used to evaluate spatial gradients during numerical integration of the transport equations governing turbulent fluid flows, these oscillations can contaminate various flow quantities. A particularly relevant application where the emergence of Gibbs phenomenon is a well-recognized weakness is in the context of simulations using the immersed boundary method. In this paper, we examine the effect of the Gibbs phenomenon in such simulations in detail, and we propose a computationally efficient smoothing treatment to reduce the associated oscillations. The effectiveness of this treatment is demonstrated in a priori tests on functions with abrupt shifts, and in a posteriori tests in wall-modeled large-eddy simulations of incompressible flow and passive scalar transport over solid bluff bodies. Furthermore, the large eddy simulation results indicate that the Gibbs phenomenon's impacts are significantly more detrimental to the computations of the subgrid-scale quantities and of scalar transport close to the solid interface, as compared to their impact on computations involving the resolved velocity field.
1975-05-01
COMMERCE TIlE TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE TRANSPORT OF 1 M(IMENTUM AND HEAT W\\ ITHl THE EFFECT OF ROUGIINESS I • • 11. . 1 ...1975 NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE US D.l’. 2 C....51.3’ tt.VA. 22t51 II Unclassified - SECURTY CLAISSIFICATION OF TUIS PAGE 1 --. 0- 1 ...EoI1*’*dl REPORT DOCUMENTATION4 PAGE BEOECMLEIGFR REPO T N] 1 :ER:.10VT ACCESSION NO. 3 RsECIPIENT Sl CATALOG NUMBER 4 TITLE (sI4S.btIIII.) 5. TYPE OF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, N.; Sun, Y.; Taron, J.; Shao, H.; Kolditz, O.
2013-12-01
Modeling fracture permeability evolution is of great interest in various geotechnical applications including underground waste repositories, carbon capture and storage, and engineered geothermal systems where fractures dominate transport behaviors. In this study, a numerical model is presented to simulate fracture permeability evolution due to reactive transport and pressure solution processes in single fractures. The model was developed within the international benchmarking project for radioactive waste disposals, DECOVALEX 2015 (Task C1). The model combines bulk behavior in pore spaces with intergranular process at asperity contacts. Hydraulic flow and reactive transport including mineral dissolution and precipitation in fracture pore space are simulated using the Galerkin finite element method. A pressure solution model developed by Taron and Elsworth (2010 JGR) is applied to simulating stress-enhanced dissolution, solute exchange with pore space, and volume removal at grain contacts. Fracture aperture and contact area ratio are updated as a result of the pore-space reaction and intergranular dissolution. In order to increase robustness and time step size, relevant processes are monolithically coupled with the simulations. The model is implemented in a scientific open-source project OpenGeoSys (www.opengeosys.org) for numerical simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical/chemical processes in porous and fractured media. Numerical results are compared to previous experiment performed by Yasuhara et al. (2006) on flow through fractures in the Arkansas novaculite sample. The novaculite is approximated as pure quartz aggregates. Only with fitted quartz dissolution rate constants and solubility is the current model capable of reproducing observed hydraulic aperture reduction and aqueous silicate concentrations. Future work will examine reaction parameters and further validate the model against experimental results.
Oil droplets transport due to irregular waves: Development of large-scale spreading coefficients.
Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C; Ozgokmen, Tamay; King, Thomas; Lee, Kenneth; Lu, Youyu; Zhao, Lin
2016-03-15
The movement of oil droplets due to waves and buoyancy was investigated by assuming an irregular sea state following a JONSWAP spectrum and four buoyancy values. A technique known as Wheeler stretching was used to model the movement of particles under the moving water surface. In each simulation, 500 particles were released and were tracked for a real time of 4.0 h. A Monte Carlo approach was used to obtain ensemble properties. It was found that small eddy diffusivities that decrease rapidly with depth generated the largest horizontal spreading of the plume. It was also found that large eddy diffusivities that decrease slowly with depth generated the smallest horizontal spreading coefficient of the plume. The increase in buoyancy resulted in a decrease in the horizontal spreading coefficient, which suggests that two-dimensional (horizontal) models that predict the transport of surface oil could be overestimating the spreading of oil.
Significant change of spin transport property in Cu/Nb bilayer due to superconducting transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohnishi, Kohei; Ono, Yuma; Nomura, Tatsuya; Kimura, Takashi
2014-09-01
The combination between the spin-dependent and super-conducting (SC) transports is expected to provide intriguing properties such as crossed Andreev reflection and spin-triplet superconductivity. This may be able to open a new avenue in the field of spintronics, namely superconducting spintronics because a superconductor itself has great potential for future nanoelectronic applications. To observe such SC spin transports, the suppression of the extrinsic effects originating from the heating and Oersted field due to the electric current is a crucial role. Pure spin current without accompanying the charge current is known as a powerful mean for preventing such extrinsic effects. However, non-negligible heat flow is found to exist even in a conventional pure spin current device based on laterally-configured spin valve because of the heating around the spin injector. Here, we develop a nanopillar-based lateral spin valve, which significantly reduces the heat generation, on a superconducting Nb film. By using this ideal platform, we found that the spin absorption is strongly suppressed by the SC transition of Nb. This demonstration is the clear evidence that the super-conducting Nb is an insulator for the pure spin current.
Significant change of spin transport property in Cu/Nb bilayer due to superconducting transition
Ohnishi, Kohei; Ono, Yuma; Nomura, Tatsuya; Kimura, Takashi
2014-01-01
The combination between the spin-dependent and super-conducting (SC) transports is expected to provide intriguing properties such as crossed Andreev reflection and spin-triplet superconductivity. This may be able to open a new avenue in the field of spintronics, namely superconducting spintronics because a superconductor itself has great potential for future nanoelectronic applications. To observe such SC spin transports, the suppression of the extrinsic effects originating from the heating and Oersted field due to the electric current is a crucial role. Pure spin current without accompanying the charge current is known as a powerful mean for preventing such extrinsic effects. However, non-negligible heat flow is found to exist even in a conventional pure spin current device based on laterally-configured spin valve because of the heating around the spin injector. Here, we develop a nanopillar-based lateral spin valve, which significantly reduces the heat generation, on a superconducting Nb film. By using this ideal platform, we found that the spin absorption is strongly suppressed by the SC transition of Nb. This demonstration is the clear evidence that the super-conducting Nb is an insulator for the pure spin current. PMID:25179118
Significant change of spin transport property in Cu/Nb bilayer due to superconducting transition.
Ohnishi, Kohei; Ono, Yuma; Nomura, Tatsuya; Kimura, Takashi
2014-09-02
The combination between the spin-dependent and super-conducting (SC) transports is expected to provide intriguing properties such as crossed Andreev reflection and spin-triplet superconductivity. This may be able to open a new avenue in the field of spintronics, namely superconducting spintronics because a superconductor itself has great potential for future nanoelectronic applications. To observe such SC spin transports, the suppression of the extrinsic effects originating from the heating and Oersted field due to the electric current is a crucial role. Pure spin current without accompanying the charge current is known as a powerful mean for preventing such extrinsic effects. However, non-negligible heat flow is found to exist even in a conventional pure spin current device based on laterally-configured spin valve because of the heating around the spin injector. Here, we develop a nanopillar-based lateral spin valve, which significantly reduces the heat generation, on a superconducting Nb film. By using this ideal platform, we found that the spin absorption is strongly suppressed by the SC transition of Nb. This demonstration is the clear evidence that the super-conducting Nb is an insulator for the pure spin current.
EPA's Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) announced the release of the final report, Evaluating Potential Exposures to Ecological Receptors Due to Transport of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants in Subsurface Systems. This technical paper recommends several ty...
Fast transport in phase space due to nonlinear wave-particle interaction in the radiation belts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artemyev, Anton; Vasiliev, Alexii; Mourenas, Didier; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Boscher, Daniel; Rolland, Guy
2014-05-01
We present an analytical, simplified formulation accounting for the fast transport of particles in phase space, in the presence of nonlinear wave-particle resonant interactions in an inhomogeneous magnetic field representative of the radiation belts. We show that the general approach for the description of the evolution of the particle velocity distribution based on the Fokker-Plank equation can be modified to consider the process of nonlinear wave-particle interaction, including particle trapping. Such a modification consists in one additional operator describing fast particle jumps in phase space. The proposed approach is illustrated by considering the acceleration of relativistic electrons by strongly oblique whistler waves. We determine the typical variation of electron phase-density due to nonlinear wave-particle interaction and compare this variation with pitch-angle/energy diffusion due to quasi-linear electron scattering. We show that relation between nonlinear and quasi-linear effects is controlled by the distribution of wave-amplitudes. When this distribution has a heavy tail, nonlinear effects can become dominant in the formation of the electron energy distribution.
The metabolic basis for developmental disorders due to defective folate transport.
Desai, Ankuri; Sequeira, Jeffrey M; Quadros, Edward V
2016-07-01
Folates are essential in the intermediary metabolism of amino acids, synthesis of nucleotides and for maintaining methylation reactions. They are also linked to the production of neurotransmitters through GTP needed for the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin. During pregnancy, folate is needed for fetal development. Folate deficiency during this period has been linked to increased risk of neural tube defects. Disturbances of folate metabolism due to genetic abnormalities or the presence of autoantibodies to folate receptor alpha (FRα) can impair physiologic processes dependent on folate, resulting in a variety of developmental disorders including cerebral folate deficiency syndrome and autism spectrum disorders. Overall, adequate folate status has proven to be important during pregnancy as well as neurological development and functioning in neonates and children. Treatment with pharmacologic doses of folinic acid has led to reversal of some symptoms in many children diagnosed with cerebral folate deficiency syndrome and autism, especially in those positive for autoantibodies to FRα. Thus, as the brain continues to develop throughout fetal and infant life, it can be affected and become dysfunctional due to a defective folate transport contributing to folate deficiency. Treatment and prevention of these disorders can be achieved by identification of those at risk and supplementation with folinic acid.
Douberly, Gary E. Liang, Tao; Raston, Paul L.; Marshall, Mark D.
2015-04-07
The T-shaped OH–C{sub 2}H{sub 2} complex is formed in helium droplets via the sequential pick-up and solvation of the monomer fragments. Rovibrational spectra of the a-type OH stretch and b-type antisymmetric CH stretch vibrations contain resolved parity splitting that reveals the extent to which electronic angular momentum of the OH moiety is quenched upon complex formation. The energy difference between the spin-orbit coupled {sup 2}B{sub 1} (A″) and {sup 2}B{sub 2} (A′) electronic states is determined spectroscopically to be 216 cm{sup −1} in helium droplets, which is 13 cm{sup −1} larger than in the gas phase [Marshall et al., J. Chem. Phys. 121, 5845 (2004)]. The effect of the helium is rationalized as a difference in the solvation free energies of the two electronic states. This interpretation is motivated by the separation between the Q(3/2) and R(3/2) transitions in the infrared spectrum of the helium-solvated {sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} OH radical. Despite the expectation of a reduced rotational constant, the observed Q(3/2) to R(3/2) splitting is larger than in the gas phase by ≈0.3 cm{sup −1}. This observation can be accounted for quantitatively by assuming the energetic separation between {sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} and {sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} manifolds is increased by ≈40 cm{sup −1} upon helium solvation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radl, Stefan; Municchi, Federico; Goniva, Christoph
2016-11-01
Understanding transport phenomena in fluid-particle systems is of primary importance for the design of large-scale equipment, e.g., in the chemical industry. Typically, the analysis of such systems is performed by numerically solving a set of partial differential equations modeling the particle phase and the fluid phase as interpenetrating continua. Such models require a number of closure models that are often constructed via spatial filtering of data obtained from particle-resolved direct numerical simulations (PR-DNS). In the present work we make use of PR-DNS to evaluate corrections to existing closure models. Specifically, we aim on accounting for wall effects on the fluid-particle drag force and the particle-individual Nusselt number. We then propose an improved closure model to be used in particle-unresolved Euler-Lagrange (PU-EL) simulations. We demonstrate that such an advanced closure should account for a dimensionless filter size, as well as a normalized distance from the wall. In addition, we make an attempt to model the filtered fluid velocity profile in wall-bounded suspension flows. The authors acknowledge funding from the European Commission through FP7 Grant Agreement No. 604656, as well as VSC-3 and dcluster.tugraz.at.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruiz, Maritza
Thermal management of systems under high heat fluxes on the order of hundreds of W/cm2 is important for the safety, performance and lifetime of devices, with innovative cooling technologies leading to improved performance of electronics or concentrating solar photovoltaics. A novel, spiraling radial inflow microchannel heat sink for high flux cooling applications, using a single phase or vaporizing coolant, has demonstrated enhanced heat transfer capabilities. The design of the heat sink provides an inward swirl flow between parallel, coaxial disks that form a microchannel of 1 cm radius and 300 micron channel height with a single inlet and a single outlet. The channel is heated on one side through a conducting copper surface, and is essentially adiabatic on the opposite side to simulate a heat sink scenario for electronics or concentrated photovoltaics cooling. Experimental results on the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in the heat sink, using single phase water as a working fluid, revealed heat transfer enhancements due to flow acceleration and induced secondary flows when compared to unidirectional laminar fully developed flow between parallel plates. Additionally, thermal gradients on the surface are small relative to the bulk fluid temperature gain, a beneficial feature for high heat flux cooling applications. Heat flux levels of 113 W/cm2 at a surface temperature of 77 deg C were reached with a ratio of pumping power to heat rate of 0.03%. Analytical models on single phase flow are used to explore the parametric trends of the flow rate and passage geometry on the streamlines and pressure drop through the device. Flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics were obtained for this heat sink using water at near atmospheric pressure as the working fluid for inlet subcooling levels ranging from 20 to 80 deg C and mean mass flux levels ranging from 184-716 kg/m. 2s. Flow enhancements similar to singlephase flow were expected, as well
Reduced sediment transport in the Yellow River due to anthropogenic changes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shuai; Fu, Bojie; Piao, Shilong; Lü, Yihe; Ciais, Philippe; Feng, Xiaoming; Wang, Yafeng
2016-01-01
The erosion, transport and redeposition of sediments shape the Earth’s surface, and affect the structure and function of ecosystems and society. The Yellow River was once the world’s largest carrier of fluvial sediment, but its sediment load has decreased by approximately 90% over the past 60 years. The decline in sediment load is due to changes in water discharge and sediment concentration, which are both influenced by regional climate change and human activities. Here we use an attribution approach to analyse 60 years of runoff and sediment load observations from the traverse of the Yellow River over China’s Loess Plateau -- the source of nearly 90% of its sediment load. We find that landscape engineering, terracing and the construction of check dams and reservoirs were the primary factors driving reduction in sediment load from the 1970s to 1990s, but large-scale vegetation restoration projects have also reduced soil erosion from the 1990s onwards. We suggest that, as the ability of existing dams and reservoirs to trap sediments declines in the future, erosion rates on the Loess Plateau will increasingly control the Yellow River’s sediment load.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ristic, R.; Radic, B.; Vasiljevic, N.; Nikic, Z.; Malusevic, I.
2012-04-01
The construction or improvement of Serbian ski resorts provoked intensive erosion processes, sediment transport and hydrological responses due to land use changes, affecting the surrounding environment and even endangering the functionality of the built objects. The dominant disturbing activities (clear cuttings, trunk transport, machine grading of slopes, huge excavations, and access road construction) were followed by the activities during skiing and non skiing periods (skiing, usage of snow groomers, moving of vehicles and tourists, forestry activities and overgrazing). These activities put a lot of pressure on the environment, including the removal or compaction of the surface soil layer, the reduction of the infiltration capacity, the destruction or degradation of the vegetation cover, the intensifying of the surface runoff and the development of erosion processes. The most affected ski runs were surveyed (scale 1:1000) and all damages were mapped and classified during the summers of 2007-2010. The development of rills and gullies was measured at experimental plots (100x60 m), and the survey data were entered into a GIS application. The area sediment yield and the intensity of erosion processes were estimated on the basis of the "Erosion Potential Method"(EPM). The changes in hydrological conditions were estimated by comparing the computed values of maximal discharges in the conditions before and after massive activities in the ski resorts, as well as by using the local hydrological records. The determination of maximal discharges was achieved using a combined method: the synthetic unit hydrograph (maximum ordinate of unit runoff, qmax) and the Soil Conservation Service (SCS, 1979) methodology (deriving effective rainfall, Pe, from total precipitation, Pb). The determination was performed for AMC III (Antecedent Moisture Conditions III: high water content in the soil and significantly reduced infiltration capacity). The computations of maximal discharges were
Titan's asymmetric lake distribution mediated by methane transport due to atmospheric eddies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lora, Juan M.; Mitchell, Jonathan L.
2015-08-01
The hemispheric asymmetry of Titan's surface methane has been proposed to be a consequence of orbital forcing affecting Titan's hydrologic cycle, but the mechanism behind asymmetrical transport of moisture remains to be examined. Using general circulation model simulations of Titan's atmosphere, we show that atmospheric moisture transport by three-dimensional tropospheric eddies is critical in generating Titan's surface liquid asymmetry. Comparison of axisymmetric and three-dimensional simulations demonstrates that a significant asymmetry only develops in the latter case. Analysis of the components of the three-dimensional moisture transport reveals that nonaxisymmetric eddies transport methane away from the poles and into the midlatitudes, where they transfer moisture into the cross-equatorial transport by the mean meridional circulation, producing an atmospheric "bucket brigade." Because these high-latitude, baroclinic eddies are more intense in the south than in the north, the net transport is preferentially northward, with the northern hemisphere gaining surface liquid at the expense of the southern hemisphere.
Anomalous Electron Transport Due to Multiple High Frequency Beam Ion Driven Alfven Eigenmode
Gorelenkov, N. N.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Boozer, A.; Delgardo-Aparicio, L.; Fredrickson, E.; Kaye, S.; White, R.
2010-07-13
We report on the simulations of recently observed correlations of the core electron transport with the sub-thermal ion cyclotron frequency instabilities in low aspect ratio plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). In order to model the electron transport of the guiding center code ORBIT is employed. A spectrum of test functions of multiple core localized Global shear Alfven Eigenmode (GAE) instabilities based on a previously developed theory and experimental observations is used to examine the electron transport properties. The simulations exhibit thermal electron transport induced by electron drift orbit stochasticity in the presence of multiple core localized GAE.
Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Millan, R M; Kress, B T; Smith, D C
2014-01-01
[1]Relativistic electron intensities in Earth's outer radiation belt can vary by multiple orders of magnitude on the time scales ranging from minutes to days. One fundamental process contributing to dynamic variability of radiation belt intensities is the radial transport of relativistic electrons across their drift shells. In this paper we analyze the properties of three-dimensional radial transport in a global magnetic field model driven by variations in the solar wind dynamic pressure. We use a test particle approach which captures anomalous effects such as drift orbit bifurcations. We show that the bifurcations lead to an order of magnitude increase in radial transport rates and enhance the energization at large equatorial pitch angles. Even at quiet time fluctuations in dynamic pressure, radial transport at large pitch angles exhibits strong deviations from the diffusion approximation. The radial transport rates are much lower at small pitch angle values which results in a better agreement with the diffusion approximation.
Jiang, Fangming; Peng, Peng
2016-01-01
Underutilization due to performance limitations imposed by species and charge transports is one of the key issues that persist with various lithium-ion batteries. To elucidate the relevant mechanisms, two groups of characteristic parameters were proposed. The first group contains three characteristic time parameters, namely: (1) te, which characterizes the Li-ion transport rate in the electrolyte phase, (2) ts, characterizing the lithium diffusion rate in the solid active materials, and (3) tc, describing the local Li-ion depletion rate in electrolyte phase at the electrolyte/electrode interface due to electrochemical reactions. The second group contains two electric resistance parameters: Re and Rs, which represent respectively, the equivalent ionic transport resistance and the effective electronic transport resistance in the electrode. Electrochemical modeling and simulations to the discharge process of LiCoO2 cells reveal that: (1) if te, ts and tc are on the same order of magnitude, the species transports may not cause any performance limitations to the battery; (2) the underlying mechanisms of performance limitations due to thick electrode, high-rate operation, and large-sized active material particles as well as effects of charge transports are revealed. The findings may be used as quantitative guidelines in the development and design of more advanced Li-ion batteries. PMID:27599870
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tulich, S. N.
2015-06-01
This paper describes a general method for the treatment of convective momentum transport (CMT) in large-scale dynamical solvers that use a cyclic, two-dimensional (2-D) cloud-resolving model (CRM) as a "superparameterization" of convective-system-scale processes. The approach is similar in concept to traditional parameterizations of CMT, but with the distinction that both the scalar transport and diagnostic pressure gradient force are calculated using information provided by the 2-D CRM. No assumptions are therefore made concerning the role of convection-induced pressure gradient forces in producing up or down-gradient CMT. The proposed method is evaluated using a new superparameterized version of the Weather Research and Forecast model (SP-WRF) that is described herein for the first time. Results show that the net effect of the formulation is to modestly reduce the overall strength of the large-scale circulation, via "cumulus friction." This statement holds true for idealized simulations of two types of mesoscale convective systems, a squall line, and a tropical cyclone, in addition to real-world global simulations of seasonal (1 June to 31 August) climate. In the case of the latter, inclusion of the formulation is found to improve the depiction of key synoptic modes of tropical wave variability, in addition to some aspects of the simulated time-mean climate. The choice of CRM orientation is also found to importantly affect the simulated time-mean climate, apparently due to changes in the explicit representation of wide-spread shallow convective regions.
Forest, Cary B.
2016-11-10
This report covers the UW-Madison activities that took place within a larger DoE Center Administered and directed by Professor George Tynan at the University of California, San Diego. The work at Wisconsin will also be covered in the final reporting for the entire center, which will be submitted by UCSD. There were two main activities, one experimental and one that was theoretical in nature, as part of the Center activities at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. First, the Center supported an experimentally focused postdoc (Chris Cooper) to carry out fundamental studies of momentum transport in rotating and weakly magnetized plasma. His experimental work was done on the Plasma Couette Experiment, a cylindrical plasma confinement device, with a plasma flow created through electromagnetically stirring plasma at the plasma edge facilitated by arrays of permanent magnets. Cooper's work involved developing optical techniques to measure the ion temperature and plasma flow through Doppler-shifted line radiation from the plasma argon ions. This included passive emission measurements and development of a novel ring summing Fabry-Perot spectroscopy system, and the active system involved using a diode laser to induce fluorescence. On the theoretical side, CMTFO supported a postdoc (Johannes Pueschel) to carry out a gyrokinetic extension of residual zonal flow theory to the case with magnetic fluctuations, showing that magnetic stochasticity disrupts zonal flows. The work included a successful comparison with gyrokinetic simulations. This work and its connection to the broader CMTFO will be covered more thoroughly in the final CMTFO report from Professor Tynan.
Assessing the transfer of risk due to transportation of agricultural products.
Li, Pei-Chiun; Shih, Hsiu-Ching; Ma, Hwong-Wen
2015-02-01
Health risk assessment (HRA) is the process used to estimate adverse health effects on humans. The importance and sensitivity of food chains to HRA have been observed, but the impact of the transportation of food has generally been ignored. This study developed an exposure assessment to demonstrate the significance of the transportation of agricultural products in HRA. The associated case study estimated the health risks derived from various sources of arsenic emissions in Taiwan. Two assessment scenarios, self-sufficiency and transportation of agricultural products, were compared to calculate risk transfer ratios that show the impact of agriculture transportation. The risk transfer ratios found by the study range from 0.22 to 42.10, indicating that the quantity of transportation of agricultural products is the critical factor. High air deposition and high agricultural production are the two main contributors to the effect of the transportation of agricultural products on HRA. Risk reduction measures could be applied to high-pollution areas as well as to areas with high agricultural productivity to reduce ingestion risks to residents. Certain areas that are sensitive to the transportation of agricultural products may incur more risks if emissions increase in agriculturally productive counties.
Renormalization of the momentum density on the lattice using shifted boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robaina, D.
In order to extract transport quantities from energy-momentum-tensor (EMT) correlators in Lattice QCD there is a strong need for a non-perturbative renormalization of these operators. This is due to the fact that the lattice regularization explicitly breaks translational invariance, invalidating the non-renormalization-theorem. Here we present a non-perturbative calculation of the renormalization constant of the off-diagonal components of the EMT in SU(3) pure gauge theory using lattices with shifted boundary conditions. This allows us to induce a non-zero momentum in the system controlled by the shift parameter and to determine the normalization of the momentum density operator.
Mugglin, D.T.
1993-12-31
This dissertation is concerned with two light-induced kinetic effects, light-induced diffusive pulling and light-induced drift. We use a light-induced diffusive pulling experiment to measure the ground state velocity-changing collision cross section (related to the momentum transport cross section and the diffusion coefficient) and the relative difference ({Delta}{sigma}/{sigma}) of the excited and ground state cross sections with respect to that of the ground state for potassium mixed with inert buffer gases. The measured excited state cross section is a weighted average of the potassium 4{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 4{sup 2}P{sub 3/2} fine structure levels, which are mixed by collisions with inert gas atoms. For the ground state cross sections, we obtain the following experimental results for potassium mixed with He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, respectively: 52 {+-} 4, 57 {+-} 8, 61 {+-} 5, 43 {+-} 5, and 60 {+-}5 {angstrom}{sup 2}. For {Delta}{sigma}/{sigma}, we obtain the following (in the same order): 0.085 {+-} 0.010, 0.058 {+-} 0.006, 0.41 {+-} 0.03, 0.43 {+-} 0.03, and 0.61 {+-} 0.05. For potassium-Ne and potassium-Ar, we combine these measurements with light-induced drift measurements of the ratio {Delta}{sigma}(J = 3/2) : {Delta}{sigma}(J = 1/2) to obtain absolute transport cross sections for the individual 4{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}, 4{sup 2}P{sub 1/2}, and 4{sup 2}P{sub 3/2} levels. We also use the light-induced diffusive pulling experimental method to measure {Delta}{sigma}/{sigma} for Rb-inert gas mixtures. We obtain values for the ground state diffusion cross section for Rb in several of the inert gases as well. We report the first experimental observation of the separation of two isotopes using broadband light by the process of white light-induced drift. For a light source, we use a broadband laser with an acousto-optic modulator as an output coupler. We verify the separation of the {sup 85}Rb and {sup 87}Rb isotopes.
Prausnitz, M R; Milano, C D; Gimm, J A; Langer, R; Weaver, J C
1994-01-01
Electroporation is believed to involve the creation of aqueous pathways in lipid bilayer membranes by transient elevation of the transmembrane voltage to approximately 1 V. Here, results are presented for a quantitative study of the number of bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules transported into erythrocyte ghosts caused by electroportion. 1) Uptake of BSA was found to plateau at high field strength. However, this was not necessarily an absolute maximum in transport. Instead, it represented the maximum effect of increasing field strength for a particular pulse protocol. 2) Maximum uptake under any conditions used in this study corresponded to approximately one-fourth of apparent equilibrium with the external solution. 3) Multiple and longer pulses each increased uptake of BSA, where the total time integral of field strength correlated with uptake, independent of inter-pulse spacing. 4) Pre-pulse adsorption of BSA to ghost membranes appears to have increased transport. 5) Most transport of BSA probably occurred by electrically driven transport during pulses; post-pulse uptake occurred, but to a much lesser extent. Finally, approaches to increasing transport are discussed. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:8061201
Peterson, J. L.; Hammet, G. W.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Yuh, H. Y.; Candy, J.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B.
2011-05-11
The first nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of electron internal transport barriers (e-ITBs) in the National Spherical Torus Experiment show that reversed magnetic shear can suppress thermal transport by increasing the nonlinear critical gradient for electron-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence to three times its linear critical value. An interesting feature of this turbulence is non- linearly driven off-midplane radial streamers. This work reinforces the experimental observation that magnetic shear is likely an effective way of triggering and sustaining e-ITBs in magnetic fusion devices.
Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds.
Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia Therese; Zhao, Zhiwei; Bratveit, Magne; Djurhuus, Rune; Verschoor, Louis; Rubino, Federico Maria; Colosio, Claudio; Jepsen, Jorgen R
2015-01-01
To ensure the preservation and quality of the goods, physical (i.e. radiation) or chemical pest control is needed. The dark side of such consents may bear health risks in international transport and production sharing. In fact, between 10% and 20% of all containers arriving European harbors were shown to contain volatile toxic substances above the exposure limit values. Possible exposure to these toxic chemicals may occur not only for the applicators but also the receiver by off gassing from products, packing materials or transport units like containers. A number of intoxications, some with lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers of importing enterprises that unload the products. Bystanders as well as vulnerable consumers may also be at risk. Ongoing studies focus on the release of these toxic volatile substances from various goods. It was shown that the half-lives of the off-gassing process range between minutes and months, depending on the toxic substance, its chemical reactivity, concentration, the temperature, the contaminated matrix (goods and packing materials), and the packing density in the transport units. Regulations on declaration and handling dangerous goods are mostly not followed. It is obvious that this hazardous situation in freight transport urgently requires preventive steps. In order to improve awareness and relevant knowledge there is a need for more comprehensive information on chemical hazards and a broader implementation of the already existing regulations and guidelines, such as those from ILO, IMO, and national authorities. It is also necessary to have regular controls by the authorities on a worldwide scale, which should be followed by sanctions in case of disregarding regulations
Gaboriau, F. Baude, R.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.
2014-05-26
This paper presents experimental results on plasma transport across the magnetic field (B) in magnetized low-temperature plasma sources. Due to the presence of chamber walls, this transport can be complex even in a non-turbulent regime. In particular, in configurations without cylindrical symmetry, the magnetic drifts tend to be bounded by the chamber walls, thereby inducing plasma asymmetry and reducing magnetic confinement. In this work, we measure electron and ion current densities at metal chamber walls bounding a rectangular magnetic filter and demonstrate that these current densities are asymmetrically nonuniform. We also provide an experimental confirmation of model predictions of increased cross-field electron transport in such filter configuration, scaling as 1/B rather than the classical 1/B{sup 2} scaling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoo, K.; Amundson, R.; Heimsath, A. M.; Dietrich, W. E.
2003-12-01
Most soil C models assume that plant C inputs are matched by C loss through heterotrophic respiration. While these models are applicable for level terrain, on soil mantled uplands in hilly to mountainous regions, persistent soil mass transport represents a potentially large, but unstudied, flux of soil C. In this research we quantify the soil C erosional fluxes and non-steady state soil C storage within two undisturbed grass-covered hillslopes in Coastal California: Tennessee Valley (TV) (coastal Marin County) and Black Diamond (BD) (interior Contra Costa County). At both sites, previous geomorphic studies have quantified both the sediment transport processes (TV= gopher driven sediment transport; BD= abiotic soil shrink/swell) and their rates. Hillslope patterns of soil C storage were examined in relation to slope position with a hillslope sediment transport model. The average C erosion rates from convex slopes are between 1.4 and 2.7 g C m -2 yr-1 at TV and approximately 8 g C m-2 yr-1 at BD. The C erosional flux is locally as high as 14% of above ground net primary productivity (NPP) at TV and 8% at BD. The convex slopes are net C sinks because NPP likely exceeds respiration by a value equaling the size of C erosion. Eroded soils ultimately accumulate in depositional settings which have residence times on the order of 13kyrs at TV and 5.3kyrs at BD. At TV hollow, 15-24 kg C m-2 of soil C has accumulated at a long-term rate of 1.6-1.9 g C m-2 yr-1 . The present rates of C accumulation were calculated to be 0.3 g C m-2 yr-1 at TV and 0.6 g C m-2 yr-1 at BD. During the hollow infilling, the depositional C inputs have been greater than C accumulation rates, meaning that much of the incoming eroded C is ultimately oxidized to CO2. At both sites, a fraction of the eroded C is exported from the watershed (C of 0.1-0.5 g C m-2 yr-1 at TV and 2 g C m-2 yr-1 at BD). When all hillslope components are integrated, these watersheds are continuous atmospheric C sinks at rates
Multimodel estimates of premature human mortality due to intercontinental transport of air pollution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, C.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Sudo, K.; Lund, M. T.; Emmons, L. K.; Takemura, T.; Bian, H.
2015-12-01
Numerous modeling studies indicate that emissions from one continent influence air quality over others. Reducing air pollutant emissions from one continent can therefore benefit air quality and health on multiple continents. Here, we estimate the impacts of the intercontinental transport of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on premature human mortality by using an ensemble of global chemical transport models coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP). We use simulations of 20% reductions of all anthropogenic emissions from 13 regions (North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Former Soviet Union, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia, and Australia) to calculate their impact on premature mortality within each region and elsewhere in the world. To better understand the impact of potential control strategies, we also analyze premature mortality for global 20% perturbations from five sectors individually: power and industry, ground transport, forest and savannah fires, residential, and others (shipping, aviation, and agriculture). Following previous studies, premature human mortality resulting from each perturbation scenario is calculated using a health impact function based on a log-linear model for O3 and an integrated exposure response model for PM2.5 to estimate relative risk. The spatial distribution of the exposed population (adults aged 25 and over) is obtained from the LandScan 2011 Global Population Dataset. Baseline mortality rates for chronic respiratory disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer are estimated from the GBD 2010 country-level mortality dataset for the exposed population. Model results are regridded from each model's original grid to a common 0.5°x0.5° grid used to estimate mortality. We perform uncertainty analysis and evaluate the sensitivity
Nonlinearity effects on the directed momentum current.
Zhao, Wen-Lei; Fu, Li-Bin; Liu, Jie
2014-08-01
We investigate the quantum transport dynamics governed by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a periodically-δ-kicking potential and discover the emergence of a directed current in momentum space. With the increase of nonlinearity, we find strikingly that the momentum current decreases, reverses, and finally vanishes, indicating that the quantum transport can be effectively manipulated through adjusting the nonlinearity. The underlying dynamic mechanism is uncovered and some important implications are addressed.
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics with angular momentum conservation
Müller, Kathrin Fedosov, Dmitry A. Gompper, Gerhard
2015-01-15
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) combines two popular mesoscopic techniques, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) methods, and can be considered as an improved dissipative particle dynamics approach. Despite several advantages of the SDPD method over the conventional DPD model, the original formulation of SDPD by Español and Revenga (2003) [9], lacks angular momentum conservation, leading to unphysical results for problems where the conservation of angular momentum is essential. To overcome this limitation, we extend the SDPD method by introducing a particle spin variable such that local and global angular momentum conservation is restored. The new SDPD formulation (SDPD+a) is directly derived from the Navier–Stokes equation for fluids with spin, while thermal fluctuations are incorporated similarly to the DPD method. We test the new SDPD method and demonstrate that it properly reproduces fluid transport coefficients. Also, SDPD with angular momentum conservation is validated using two problems: (i) the Taylor–Couette flow with two immiscible fluids and (ii) a tank-treading vesicle in shear flow with a viscosity contrast between inner and outer fluids. For both problems, the new SDPD method leads to simulation predictions in agreement with the corresponding analytical theories, while the original SDPD method fails to capture properly physical characteristics of the systems due to violation of angular momentum conservation. In conclusion, the extended SDPD method with angular momentum conservation provides a new approach to tackle fluid problems such as multiphase flows and vesicle/cell suspensions, where the conservation of angular momentum is essential.
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics with angular momentum conservation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Kathrin; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Gompper, Gerhard
2015-01-01
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) combines two popular mesoscopic techniques, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) methods, and can be considered as an improved dissipative particle dynamics approach. Despite several advantages of the SDPD method over the conventional DPD model, the original formulation of SDPD by Español and Revenga (2003) [9], lacks angular momentum conservation, leading to unphysical results for problems where the conservation of angular momentum is essential. To overcome this limitation, we extend the SDPD method by introducing a particle spin variable such that local and global angular momentum conservation is restored. The new SDPD formulation (SDPD+a) is directly derived from the Navier-Stokes equation for fluids with spin, while thermal fluctuations are incorporated similarly to the DPD method. We test the new SDPD method and demonstrate that it properly reproduces fluid transport coefficients. Also, SDPD with angular momentum conservation is validated using two problems: (i) the Taylor-Couette flow with two immiscible fluids and (ii) a tank-treading vesicle in shear flow with a viscosity contrast between inner and outer fluids. For both problems, the new SDPD method leads to simulation predictions in agreement with the corresponding analytical theories, while the original SDPD method fails to capture properly physical characteristics of the systems due to violation of angular momentum conservation. In conclusion, the extended SDPD method with angular momentum conservation provides a new approach to tackle fluid problems such as multiphase flows and vesicle/cell suspensions, where the conservation of angular momentum is essential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M.; Chang, Daniel P. Y.
Hydrogen has been proposed as a low polluting alternative transportation fuel that could help improve urban air quality. This paper examines the potential impact of introducing a hydrogen-based transportation system on urban ambient ozone concentrations. This paper considers two scenarios, where significant numbers of new hydrogen vehicles are added to a constant number of gasoline vehicles. In our scenarios hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) are introduced in Sacramento, California at market penetrations of 9% and 20%. From a life cycle analysis (LCA) perspective, considering all the emissions involved in producing, transporting, and using hydrogen, this research compares three hypothetical natural gas to hydrogen pathways: (1) on-site hydrogen production; (2) central hydrogen production with pipeline delivery; and (3) central hydrogen production with liquid hydrogen truck delivery. Using a regression model, this research shows that the daily maximum temperature correlates well with atmospheric ozone formation. However, increases in initial VOC and NO x concentrations do not necessarily increase the peak ozone concentration, and may even cause it to decrease. It is found that ozone formation is generally limited by NO x in the summer and is mostly limited by VOC in the fall in Sacramento. Of the three hydrogen pathways, the truck delivery pathway contributes the most to ozone precursor emissions. Ozone precursor emissions from the truck pathway at 9% market penetration can cause additional 3-h average VOC (or NO x) concentrations up to approximately 0.05% (or 1%) of current pollution levels, and at 20% market penetration up to approximately 0.1% (or 2%) of current pollution levels. However, all of the hydrogen pathways would result in very small (either negative or positive) changes in ozone air quality. In some cases they will result in worse ozone air quality (mostly in July, August, and September), and in some cases they will result in better ozone air quality
Cloaking of the momentum in acoustic waves.
Sklan, Sophia
2010-01-01
Through an appropriate change in variables, we find that the three-dimensional acoustic wave equation is subject to the transformation media interpretation. In particular, we determine that this interpretation can be extended beyond the pressure difference to also account for the momentum transported by the wave. The suitability of momentum transport is especially interesting as it is an example where the field of interest is not governed by a wave equation. We examine how both fields behave in the case of cloaking. Explicit consideration of the boundary conditions shows that perfect cloaking is preserved, even when the incoming momentum is nonzero at the surface of the cloak.
On the potential for transport due to internal tides in the coastal ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trigo Cabrita Gil, Goncalo; Fringer, Oliver
2010-11-01
Non-linear effects associated with internal waves lead to advection of fluid particles along with suspended mass such as sediment, nutrients, larvae, as well as contaminants. These factors contribute to the development of benthic communities, the geological shaping of the continental slope and, in some situations, play a role in the transport and fate of contaminants. We compute particle trajectories and resulting Stokes velocity profiles using a Navier-Stokes code with a Lagrangian particle tracking model, both are second-order accurate in time and in space. Results are compared to linear theory and a semi-nonlinear formulation using a uniform stratification and stratification typically found at Huntington Beach, CA where there is recurring bacteriological contamination.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nogues, Juan P.; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; Celia, Michael A.; Peters, Catherine A.
2013-09-01
A reactive transport model was developed to simulate reaction of carbonates within a pore network for the high-pressure CO2-acidified conditions relevant to geological carbon sequestration. The pore network was based on a synthetic oolithic dolostone. Simulation results produced insights that can inform continuum-scale models regarding reaction-induced changes in permeability and porosity. As expected, permeability increased extensively with dissolution caused by high concentrations of carbonic acid, but neither pH nor calcite saturation state alone was a good predictor of the effects, as may sometimes be the case. Complex temporal evolutions of interstitial brine chemistry and network structure led to the counterintuitive finding that a far-from-equilibrium solution produced less permeability change than a nearer-to-equilibrium solution at the same pH. This was explained by the pH buffering that increased carbonate ion concentration and inhibited further reaction. Simulations of different flow conditions produced a nonunique set of permeability-porosity relationships. Diffusive-dominated systems caused dissolution to be localized near the inlet, leading to substantial porosity change but relatively small permeability change. For the same extent of porosity change caused from advective transport, the domain changed uniformly, leading to a large permeability change. Regarding precipitation, permeability changes happen much slower compared to dissolution-induced changes and small amounts of precipitation, even if located only near the inlet, can lead to large changes in permeability. Exponent values for a power law that relates changes in permeability and porosity ranged from 2 to 10, but a value of 6 held constant when conditions led to uniform changes throughout the domain.
Preliminary experimental observation of nonlocal transport due to SMBI on the J-TEXT tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Jinshui; Yang, Zhoujun; Zhuang, Ge; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Minghai; State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering; Technology Team
2014-10-01
Experimental studies of nonlocal electron heat transport have been carried out in J-TEXT ohmic plasmas exploiting Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection (SMBI) system. By cooling the very edge plasma, a prompt (~1 ms) temperature rise of the plasma core can be induced. For a low density discharge with ne = 1 . 1 ×1019 m-3, the amplitude of ΔTe/Te exceeds 30% at r/a = 0.17 (a is the minor radius). The duration of NLT phenomena is about 10ms, which is comparable with the energy confinement time of J-TEXT. The Te inverse radius in this discharge locates at r/a = 0.33 ~ 0.4 and is outside the q = 1 surface (r/a ~ 0.3), which the latter is estimated from the sawtooth inverse position. As plasma density increases, the nonlocal phenomena decay. Repetitive nonlocal phenomena can be induced by modulated SMBI, which distinctly exhibits the strong dependence on electron density. The critical density is about 1.6 × 1019 m-3.
Tang-Schomer, Min D; Johnson, Victoria E; Baas, Peter W; Stewart, William; Smith, Douglas H
2012-01-01
Due to their viscoelastic nature, white matter axons are susceptible to damage by high strain rates produced during traumatic brain injury (TBI). Indeed, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is one of the most common features of TBI, characterized by the hallmark pathological profiles of axonal bulbs at disconnected terminal ends of axons and periodic swellings along axons, known as "varicosities." Although transport interruption underlies axonal bulb formation, it is unclear how varicosities arise, with multiple sites accumulating transported materials along one axon. Recently, axonal microtubules have been found to physically break during dynamic stretch injury of cortical axons in vitro. Here, the same in vitro model was used in parallel with histopathological analyses of human brains acquired acutely following TBI to examine the potential role of mechanical microtubule damage in varicosity formation post-trauma. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) following in vitro stretch injury revealed periodic breaks of individual microtubules along axons that regionally corresponded with undulations in axon morphology. However, typically less than a third of microtubules were broken in any region of an axon. Within hours, these sites of microtubule breaks evolved into periodic swellings. This suggests axonal transport may be halted along one broken microtubule, yet can proceed through the same region via other intact microtubules. Similar axonal undulations and varicosities were observed following TBI in humans, suggesting primary microtubule failure may also be a feature of DAI. These data indicate a novel mechanism of mechanical microtubule damage leading to partial transport interruption and varicosity formation in traumatic axonal injury.
Ralston, David K.; Warner, John C.; Geyer, W. Rockwell; Wall, Gary R.
2013-01-01
Tropical Storms Irene and Lee in 2011 produced intense precipitation and flooding in the U.S. Northeast, including the Hudson River watershed. Sediment input to the Hudson River was approximately 2.7 megaton, about 5 times the long-term annual average. Rather than the common assumption that sediment is predominantly trapped in the estuary, observations and model results indicate that approximately two thirds of the new sediment remained trapped in the tidal freshwater river more than 1 month after the storms and only about one fifth of the new sediment reached the saline estuary. High sediment concentrations were observed in the estuary, but the model results suggest that this was predominantly due to remobilization of bed sediment. Spatially localized deposits of new and remobilized sediment were consistent with longer term depositional records. The results indicate that tidal rivers can intercept (at least temporarily) delivery of terrigenous sediment to the marine environment during major flow events.
Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang
2012-01-01
I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Zibtsev, Sergey; Myroniuk, Viktor; Zhurba, Marina; Hamburger, Thomas; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Paugam, Ronan; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Møller, Anders P.; Kireev, Sergey I.
2016-04-01
In 2015, two major fires in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) have caused concerns about the secondary radioactive contamination that might have spread over Europe. The total active burned area was estimated to be about 15,000 hectares, of which 9000 hectares burned in April and 6000 hectares in August. The present paper aims to assess, for the first time, the transport and impact of these fires over Europe. For this reason, direct observations of the prevailing deposition levels of 137Cs and 90Sr, 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am in the CEZ were processed together with burned area estimates. Based on literature reports, we made the conservative assumption that 20% of the deposited labile radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr, and 10% of the more refractory 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am, were resuspended by the fires. We estimate that about 10.9 TBq of 137Cs, 1.5 TBq of 90Sr, 7.8 GBq of 238Pu, 6.3 GBq of 239Pu, 9.4 GBq of 240Pu and 29.7 GBq of 241Am were released from both fire events. These releases could be classified as of "Level 3" on the relative INES (International Nuclear Events Scale) scale, which corresponds to a serious incident, in which non-lethal deterministic effects are expected from radiation. To simulate the dispersion of the resuspended radionuclides in the atmosphere and their deposition onto the terrestrial environment, we used a Lagrangian dispersion model. Spring fires redistributed radionuclides over the northern and eastern parts of Europe, while the summer fires also affected Central and Southern Europe. The more labile elements escaped more easily from the CEZ and then reached and deposited in areas far from the source, whereas the larger refractory particles were removed more efficiently from the atmosphere and thus did mainly affect the CEZ and its vicinity. For the spring 2015 fires, we estimate that about 80% of 137Cs and 90Sr and about 69% of 238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am were deposited over areas outside the CEZ. 93% of the labile and 97% of
Giannopoulos, G; Larcher, M; Casadei, F; Solomos, G
2010-01-15
Terrorist attacks in New York have shocked the world community showing clearly the vulnerability of air transport in such events. However, the terrorist attacks in Madrid and London showed that land mass transport infrastructure is equally vulnerable in case of similar attacks. The fact that there has not been substantial investment in the domain of risk analysis and evaluation of the possible effects due to such events in land mass transportation infrastructure leaves large room for new developments that could eventually fill this gap. In the present work using the finite element code EUROPLEXUS there has been a large effort to perform a complete study of the land mass infrastructure in case of explosion events. This study includes a train station, a metro station and a metro carriage providing thus valuable simulation data for a variety of different situations. For the analysis of these structures it has been necessary to apply a laser scanning method for the acquisition of geometrical data, to improve the simulation capabilities of EUROPLEXUS by adding failure capabilities for specific finite elements, to implement new material models (e.g. glass), and to add new modules that achieve data post-processing for the calculation of fatal and non-fatal injuries risk. The aforementioned improvements are explained in the present work with emphasis in the newly developed risk analysis features of EUROPLEXUS.
Tang-Schomer, Min D.; Johnson, Victoria E.; Baas, Peter W.; Stewart, William; Smith, Douglas H.
2012-01-01
Due to their viscoelastic nature, white matter axons are susceptible to damage by high strain rates produced during traumatic brain injury (TBI). Indeed, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is one of the most common features of TBI, characterized by the hallmark pathological profiles of axonal bulbs at disconnected terminal ends of axons and periodic swellings along axons, known as “varicosities.” Although transport interruption underlies axonal bulb formation, it is unclear how varicosities arise, with multiple sites accumulating transported materials along one axon. Recently, axonal microtubules have been found to physically break during dynamic stretch-injury of cortical axons in vitro. Here, the same in vitro model was used in parallel with histopathological analyses of human brains acquired acutely following TBI to examine the potential role of mechanical microtubule damage in varicosity formation post-trauma. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) following in vitro stretch-injury revealed periodic breaks of individual microtubules along axons that regionally corresponded with undulations in axon morphology. However, typically less than a third of microtubules were broken in any region of an axon. Within hours, these sites of microtubule breaks evolved into periodic swellings. This suggests axonal transport may be halted along one broken microtubule, yet can proceed through the same region via other intact microtubules. Similar axonal undulations and varicosities were observed following TBI in humans, suggesting primary microtubule failure may also be a feature of DAI. These data indicate a novel mechanism of mechanical microtubule damage leading to partial transport interruption and varicosity formation in traumatic axonal injury. PMID:22079153
Constraining nucleon high momentum in nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yong, Gao-Chan
2017-02-01
Recent studies at Jefferson Lab show that there are a certain proportion of nucleons in nuclei have momenta greater than the so-called nuclear Fermi momentum pF. Based on the transport model of nucleus-nucleus collisions at intermediate energies, nucleon high momentum caused by the neutron-proton short-range correlations in nuclei is constrained by comparing with π and photon experimental data and considering some uncertainties. The high momentum cutoff value pmax ≤ 2pF is obtained.
Resolving the mystery of transport within internal transport barriers
Staebler, G. M.; Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lao, L. L.; Smith, S. P.; Kinsey, J. E.; Grierson, B. A.; Chrystal, C.
2014-05-15
The Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF) quasi-linear model [G. M. Staebler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 102508 (2005)], which is calibrated to nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations, is now able to predict the electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion toroidal rotation simultaneously for internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges. This is a strong validation of gyrokinetic theory of ITBs, requiring multiple instabilities responsible for transport in different channels at different scales. The mystery of transport inside the ITB is that momentum and particle transport is far above the predicted neoclassical levels in apparent contradiction with the expectation from the theory of suppression of turbulence by E×B velocity shear. The success of TGLF in predicting ITB transport is due to the inclusion of ion gyro-radius scale modes that become dominant at high E×B velocity shear and to improvements to TGLF that allow momentum transport from gyrokinetic turbulence to be faithfully modeled.
Nonsurvivable momentum exchange system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roder, Russell (Inventor); Ahronovich, Eliezer (Inventor); Davis, III, Milton C. (Inventor)
2007-01-01
A demiseable momentum exchange system includes a base and a flywheel rotatably supported on the base. The flywheel includes a web portion defining a plurality of web openings and a rim portion. The momentum exchange system further includes a motor for driving the flywheel and a cover for engaging the base to substantially enclose the flywheel. The system may also include components having a melting temperature below 1500 degrees Celsius. The momentum exchange system is configured to demise on reentry.
TDRSS momentum unload planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, George R.; Potter, Mitchell A.; Whitehead, J. Douglass; Smith, James T.
1991-01-01
A knowledge-based system is described which monitors TDRSS telemetry for problems in the momentum unload procedure. The system displays TDRSS telemetry and commands in real time via X-windows. The system constructs a momentum unload plan which agrees with the preferences of the attitude control specialists and the momentum growth characteristics of the individual spacecraft. During the execution of the plan, the system monitors the progress of the procedure and watches for unexpected problems.
Do waves carrying orbital angular momentum possess azimuthal linear momentum?
Speirits, Fiona C; Barnett, Stephen M
2013-09-06
All beams are a superposition of plane waves, which carry linear momentum in the direction of propagation with no net azimuthal component. However, plane waves incident on a hologram can produce a vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum that seems to require an azimuthal linear momentum, which presents a paradox. We resolve this by showing that the azimuthal momentum is not a true linear momentum but the azimuthal momentum density is a true component of the linear momentum density.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weaver, Clark J.; Ginoux, Paul; Hsu, Christina; Joiner, Joanna; Chou, Ming-Dah
1999-01-01
This study uses information on mineral aerosol from a transport model to calculate global radiative forcing values. The transport model is driven by assimilated meteorology and outputs three-dimensional dust spatial information for various size ranges. The dust fields are input to an off-line radiative transfer calculation to obtain the direct radiative forcing due to the dust fields. During June, July and August of 1988 presence of dust 1) reduces the global net incoming radiation at the top of atmosphere (TOA) by 0.3 to 0.7 W/sq m and 2) reduces net incoming radiation at the earth's surface by 1.3 to 2.0 W/sq m. Over Africa our estimates of the reduction of radiation at the top of atmosphere compare well with TOA reductions derived from ERBE and TOMS satellite data. However, our heating rates are not consistent with analysis temperature increments produced by the assimilation system over regions of high aerosol loading. These increments are based on differences between temperature observations and temperatures from the assimilation general circulation model. One explanation is that the lower tropospheric temperatures retrieved by TOVS are being contaminated by mineral aerosol.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Phillip M.; Hart, Chris; Luna, Katherine; Munakata, Ko; Tsukada, Akio; Risbud, Subhash H.; Geballe, T. H.; Beasley, M. R.
2014-05-01
Via a two-step deposition and post-annealing procedure, K-doped WO3 thin films with reproducible transport properties are obtained. We observe a larger critical field Hc2 along the c axis, consistent with the picture of the Fermi surface containing one-dimensional bands along this direction. Reducing the film thickness results in a superconductor to insulator transition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that KWO3 crystallites become less connected as the deposition time is reduced, providing a microscopic explanation for the transport behavior. In the superconducting films, a resistive anomaly is observed similar to bulk crystals, with a characteristic temperature that shifts lower with decreasing film thickness. The competing electronic effects manifest as a suppression of the density of states at the Fermi level, observed using point contact tunneling spectroscopy, demonstrating that disorder-induced increased Coulomb interactions are present. Using the theory of Belitz for the reduction of Tc due to disorder, we can infer that the film with the highest observed Tc has a relatively large disorder dependent electron-phonon interaction parameter ˜1.2. Understanding microscopically why certain films display higher Tc will aid in the search for the trace high-Tc superconducting anomalies observed in lightly surface doped bronzes.
Introducing Conservation of Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff
2013-01-01
The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamidaira, Y.; Uchiyama, Y.; Mitarai, S.; Miyazawa, Y.
2014-12-01
A synoptic, regional downscaling experiment of Kuroshio off Ryukyu Islands, Japan, exhibits the evident predominance of submesoscale anticyclonic eddies over cyclones in the narrow strip between Kuroshio and the islands (Uchiyama et al., 2013). In the present study, the mechanism and impacts of the anticyclone dominance are examined with a detailed oceanic downscaling model in a double nested ROMS configuration at the horizontal resolution of 3km (ROMS-L1) and 1km (ROMS-L2), forced by the assimilative JCOPE2 oceanic reanalysis and the JMA GPV-MSM atmospheric hindcast. The model results are extensively validated against a variety of data including shipboard hydrography and satellite altimetry and temperature data to show a good agreement. An alternative ROMS-L2 experiment is also conducted to examine topographic effects on the anticyclones around the Ryukyu Islands by eliminating all the island topography above z > -1000 m, while the other configurations are held unchanged. If the islands are removed, the submesoscale negative vortices on the eastern side of the Kuroshio become much weaker than those of the original case with the islands. The experiment clearly demonstrates that dominance of the negative vorticity between Kuroshio and the Ryukyu Islands is caused by enhanced lateral shear due to the concentrated Kuroshio mean current associated with appropriate formation of the eastern branch, the northward-drifting Ryuku Current, and resultant eddy shedding in the narrow channel between the continental shelf of the East China Sea and the Okinawan ridge. A diagnostic eddy heat flux analysis illustrates that the submesoscale anticyclonic eddies play a crucial role in enhancing the eddy heat transport and thus the lateral mixing between Kuroshio and the islands as compared to those in the coarser resolution models (L1 and JCOPE2), resulting in promoting regional larval and material transport from Kuroshio to the islands.
Momentum fractionation on superstrata
Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.
2016-05-11
Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in highdegree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Lastly, our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.
Momentum fractionation on superstrata
Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; ...
2016-05-11
Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in highdegree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifoldmore » singularities. Upon taking the AdS3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Lastly, our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Ka; Raimondi, R.; Vignale, G.
2014-12-01
Spin-orbit interactions in two-dimensional electron liquids are responsible for many interesting transport phenomena in which particle currents are converted to spin polarizations and spin currents and vice versa. Prime examples are the spin Hall effect, the Edelstein effect, and their inverses. By similar mechanisms, it is also possible to partially convert an optically induced electron-hole density wave to a spin density wave and vice versa. In this paper, we present a unified theoretical treatment of these effects based on quantum kinetic equations that include not only the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling from the band structure of the host material, but also the spin-orbit coupling due to an external electric field and a random impurity potential. The drift-diffusion equations we derive in the diffusive regime are applicable to a broad variety of experimental situations, both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous, and include on equal footing "skew scattering" and "side jump" from electron-impurity collisions. As a demonstration of the strength and usefulness of the theory we apply it to the study of several effects of current experimental interest: the inverse Edelstein effect, the spin-current swapping effect, and the partial conversion of an electron-hole density wave to a spin density wave in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings, subject to an electric field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Searle, Matthew; Maynes, Daniel; Crockett, Julie
2016-11-01
An analytical investigation of thermal transport due to a steady, laminar, buoyancy-driven flow past a vertical superhydrophobic (SHPo) surface was performed. The surface temperature was constant and uniform and exceeded the temperature of the surrounding liquid. Uniform stream-wise hydrodynamic slip and temperature jump are imposed at the wall to model the SHPo surface. Applying an integral analysis within the boundary layer results in a system of differential equations which are solved numerically to obtain boundary layer thickness, maximum velocity in the profile, and local and average values of both the friction coefficient and the Nusselt number. The classical smooth hydrophobic scenario with no-slip and no temperature jump showed excellent agreement with previous analysis of the same problem. The influence of varying temperature jump length on the local and average values of the friction coefficient and the Nusselt number was obtained for Rayleigh number ranging from 104 to 109 and Prandtl number ranging from 2 to 11. Local and average Nusselt numbers decrease dramatically, concomitant with a decrease in the maximum fluid velocity, as the temperature jump length increases. National Science Foundation(NSF) Grant No. CBET-1235881.
Interface area transport of monodispersed spherical particulates
Chang, Chong H.
2016-08-05
We present an interface area transport model required in tracking of mass, momentum, and energy exchange between dispersed and background materials. The basic transport equation has been rigorously derived from the volume fraction evolution equation. Interface area changes due to mass transport and local compression/expansion are included. The model is then simplified for the case in which the dispersed phase is composed of spheres of locally uniform size. A procedure for calculating advective flux with interface reconstruction has been suggested.
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Schwinger, J.
1952-01-26
The commutation relations of an arbitrary angular momentum vector can be reduced to those of the harmonic oscillator. This provides a powerful method for constructing and developing the properties of angular momentum eigenvectors. In this paper many known theorems are derived in this way, and some new results obtained. Among the topics treated are the properties of the rotation matrices; the addition of two, three, and four angular momenta; and the theory of tensor operators.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guo, Liwen; Cardullo, Frank M.; Kelly, Lon C.
2007-01-01
The desire to create more complex visual scenes in modern flight simulators outpaces recent increases in processor speed. As a result, simulation transport delay remains a problem. New approaches for compensating the transport delay in a flight simulator have been developed and are presented in this report. The lead/lag filter, the McFarland compensator and the Sobiski/Cardullo state space filter are three prominent compensators. The lead/lag filter provides some phase lead, while introducing significant gain distortion in the same frequency interval. The McFarland predictor can compensate for much longer delay and cause smaller gain error in low frequencies than the lead/lag filter, but the gain distortion beyond the design frequency interval is still significant, and it also causes large spikes in prediction. Though, theoretically, the Sobiski/Cardullo predictor, a state space filter, can compensate the longest delay with the least gain distortion among the three, it has remained in laboratory use due to several limitations. The first novel compensator is an adaptive predictor that makes use of the Kalman filter algorithm in a unique manner. In this manner the predictor can accurately provide the desired amount of prediction, while significantly reducing the large spikes caused by the McFarland predictor. Among several simplified online adaptive predictors, this report illustrates mathematically why the stochastic approximation algorithm achieves the best compensation results. A second novel approach employed a reference aircraft dynamics model to implement a state space predictor on a flight simulator. The practical implementation formed the filter state vector from the operator s control input and the aircraft states. The relationship between the reference model and the compensator performance was investigated in great detail, and the best performing reference model was selected for implementation in the final tests. Theoretical analyses of data from offline
Ballistic transport in Saturn's rings - An analytic theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lissauer, J. J.
1984-01-01
Ejecta from impacts of micrometeoroids on Saturn's ring particles will, in most cases, remain in orbit about Saturn and eventually be reaccreted by the rings, possibly at a different radial location. The resulting mass transport has been suggested as the cause of some of the features observed in Saturn's rings. Previous attempts to model this transport have used numerical simulations which have not included the effects of the angular momentum transport coincident with mass transport. An analytical model for ballistic mass transport in Saturn's rings is developed. The model includes the effects of angular momentum advection and shows that the net material movement due to angular momentum advection is comparable to that caused by direct ballistic mass transport.
Evidence of inward toroidal momentum convection in the JET tokamak.
Tala, T; Zastrow, K-D; Ferreira, J; Mantica, P; Naulin, V; Peeters, A G; Tardini, G; Brix, M; Corrigan, G; Giroud, C; Strintzi, D
2009-02-20
Experiments have been carried out on the Joint European Torus tokamak to determine the diffusive and convective momentum transport. Torque, injected by neutral beams, was modulated to create a periodic perturbation in the toroidal rotation velocity. Novel transport analysis shows the magnitude and profile shape of the momentum diffusivity are similar to those of the ion heat diffusivity. A significant inward momentum pinch, up to 20 m/s, has been found. Both results are consistent with gyrokinetic simulations. This evidence is complemented in plasmas with internal transport barriers.
Evidence of Inward Toroidal Momentum Convection in the JET Tokamak
Tala, T.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Brix, M.; Corrigan, G.; Giroud, C.; Naulin, V.; Peeters, A. G.; Tardini, G.; Strintzi, D.
2009-02-20
Experiments have been carried out on the Joint European Torus tokamak to determine the diffusive and convective momentum transport. Torque, injected by neutral beams, was modulated to create a periodic perturbation in the toroidal rotation velocity. Novel transport analysis shows the magnitude and profile shape of the momentum diffusivity are similar to those of the ion heat diffusivity. A significant inward momentum pinch, up to 20 m/s, has been found. Both results are consistent with gyrokinetic simulations. This evidence is complemented in plasmas with internal transport barriers.
Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements
Zonca, Fulvio; Cohen, Samuel A.; Bennett, Timothy; Timberlake, John R.
1993-01-01
Invention comprises an instrument in which momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer--a capacitance-type pressure gauge. The transducer is protected from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering, and materials used in the target and pendulum are electrically insulating, rigid even at elevated temperatures, and have low thermal conductivity. The instrument enables measurement of small forces (10.sup.-5 to 10.sup.3 N) accompanied by high heat fluxes which are transmitted by energetic particles with 10's of eV of kinetic energy in a intense magnetic field and pulsed plasma environment.
Achromatic orbital angular momentum generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouchard, Frédéric; Mand, Harjaspreet; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Karimi, Ebrahim; Boyd, Robert W.
2014-12-01
We describe a novel approach for generating light beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) by means of total internal reflection in an isotropic medium. A continuous space-varying cylindrically symmetric reflector, in the form of two glued hollow axicons, is used to introduce a nonuniform rotation of polarization into a linearly polarized input beam. This device acts as a full spin-to-orbital angular momentum convertor. It functions by switching the helicity of the incoming beam's polarization, and by conservation of total angular momentum thereby generates a well-defined value of OAM. Our device is broadband, since the phase shift due to total internal reflection is nearly independent of wavelength. We verify the broad-band behaviour by measuring the conversion efficiency of the device for three different wavelengths corresponding to the RGB colours, red, green and blue. An average conversion efficiency of 95% for these three different wavelengths is observed. This device may find applications in imaging from micro- to astronomical systems where a white vortex beam is needed.
Dorda, Antonius Schürrer, Ferdinand
2015-03-01
We present a novel numerical scheme for the deterministic solution of the Wigner transport equation, especially suited to deal with situations in which strong quantum effects are present. The unique feature of the algorithm is the expansion of the Wigner function in local basis functions, similar to finite element or finite volume methods. This procedure yields a discretization of the pseudo-differential operator that conserves the particle density on arbitrarily chosen grids. The high flexibility in refining the grid spacing together with the weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for the advection term allows for an accurate and well-resolved simulation of the phase space dynamics. A resonant tunneling diode is considered as test case and a detailed convergence study is given by comparing the results to a non-equilibrium Green's functions calculation. The impact of the considered domain size and of the grid spacing is analyzed. The obtained convergence of the results towards a quasi-exact agreement of the steady state Wigner and Green's functions computations demonstrates the accuracy of the scheme, as well as the high flexibility to adjust to different physical situations.
Dorda, Antonius; Schürrer, Ferdinand
2015-03-01
We present a novel numerical scheme for the deterministic solution of the Wigner transport equation, especially suited to deal with situations in which strong quantum effects are present. The unique feature of the algorithm is the expansion of the Wigner function in local basis functions, similar to finite element or finite volume methods. This procedure yields a discretization of the pseudo-differential operator that conserves the particle density on arbitrarily chosen grids. The high flexibility in refining the grid spacing together with the weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for the advection term allows for an accurate and well-resolved simulation of the phase space dynamics. A resonant tunneling diode is considered as test case and a detailed convergence study is given by comparing the results to a non-equilibrium Green's functions calculation. The impact of the considered domain size and of the grid spacing is analyzed. The obtained convergence of the results towards a quasi-exact agreement of the steady state Wigner and Green's functions computations demonstrates the accuracy of the scheme, as well as the high flexibility to adjust to different physical situations.
Dorda, Antonius; Schürrer, Ferdinand
2015-01-01
We present a novel numerical scheme for the deterministic solution of the Wigner transport equation, especially suited to deal with situations in which strong quantum effects are present. The unique feature of the algorithm is the expansion of the Wigner function in local basis functions, similar to finite element or finite volume methods. This procedure yields a discretization of the pseudo-differential operator that conserves the particle density on arbitrarily chosen grids. The high flexibility in refining the grid spacing together with the weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for the advection term allows for an accurate and well-resolved simulation of the phase space dynamics. A resonant tunneling diode is considered as test case and a detailed convergence study is given by comparing the results to a non-equilibrium Green's functions calculation. The impact of the considered domain size and of the grid spacing is analyzed. The obtained convergence of the results towards a quasi-exact agreement of the steady state Wigner and Green's functions computations demonstrates the accuracy of the scheme, as well as the high flexibility to adjust to different physical situations. PMID:25892748
Ion momentum and energy transfer rates for charge exchange collisions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horwitz, J.; Banks, P. M.
1973-01-01
The rates of momentum and energy transfer have been obtained for charge exchange collisions between ion and neutral gases having arbitrary Maxwellian temperatures and bulk transport velocities. The results are directly applicable to the F-region of the ionosphere where 0+ - 0 charge is the dominant mechanism affecting ion momentum and energy transfer.
The Angular Momentum Dichotomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teklu, Adelheid; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Dolag, Klaus; Burkert, Andreas
2015-02-01
In the context of the formation of spiral galaxies the evolution and distribution of the angular momentum of dark matter halos have been discussed for more than 20 years, especially the idea that the specific angular momentum of the halo can be estimated from the specific angular momentum of its disk (e.g. Fall & Efstathiou (1980), Fall (1983) and Mo et al. (1998)). We use a new set of hydrodynamic cosmological simulations called Magneticum Pathfinder which allow us to split the galaxies into spheroidal and disk galaxies via the circularity parameter ɛ, as commonly used (e.g. Scannapieco et al. (2008)). Here, we focus on the dimensionless spin parameter λ = J |E|1/2 / (G M5/2) (Peebles 1969, 1971), which is a measure of the rotation of the total halo and can be fitted by a lognormal distribution, e.g. Mo et al. (1998). The spin parameter allows one to compare the relative angular momentum of halos across different masses and different times. Fig. 1 reveals a dichotomy in the distribution of λ at all redshifts when the galaxies are split into spheroids (dashed) and disk galaxies (dash-dotted). The disk galaxies preferentially live in halos with slightly larger spin parameter compared to spheroidal galaxies. Thus, we see that the λ of the whole halo reflects the morphology of its central galaxy. For more details and a larger study of the angular momentum properties of disk and spheroidal galaxies, see Teklu et al. (in prep.).
Losing forward momentum holographically
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balasubramanian, Koushik; Herzog, Christopher P.
2014-06-01
We present a numerical scheme for solving Einstein’s Equations in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and an event horizon with planar topology. Our scheme allows for the introduction of a particular metric source at the conformal boundary. Such a spacetime has a dual holographic description in terms of a strongly interacting quantum field theory at nonzero temperature. By introducing a sinusoidal static metric source that breaks translation invariance, we study momentum relaxation in the field theory. In the long wavelength limit, our results are consistent with the fluid-gravity correspondence and relativistic hydrodynamics. In the small amplitude limit, our results are consistent with the memory function prediction for the momentum relaxation rate. Our numerical scheme allows us to study momentum relaxation outside these two limits as well.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
CTA Space Systems, Inc. has been licensed to sell commercially a reaction/momentum wheel originally developed for NASA's scientific satellites. NASA originally identified a need for the wheel in its Small Explorer program. The Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite required extremely low jitter and a reaction/momentum wheel with a torque greater than any comparably sized commercially available wheel to keep the instrument pointed at celestial objects to a high degree of precision. After development, a market assessment by Research Triangle Institute was completed, showing commercial potential for the flywheel technology. A license was granted to CTA in the fall of 1996. The company currently uses the technology in its complete spacecraft fabrication services and has built over 10 reaction/momentum wheels for commercial, scientific, and military customers.
Cross-shelf transport into nearshore waters due to shoaling internal tides in San Pedro Bay, CA
Noble, Marlene A.; Burt Jones,; Peter Hamilton,; Xu, Jingping; George Robertson,; Leslie Rosenfeld,; John Largier,
2009-01-01
In the summer of 2001, a coastal ocean measurement program in the southeastern portion of San Pedro Bay, CA, was designed and carried out. One aim of the program was to determine the strength and effectiveness of local cross-shelf transport processes. A particular objective was to assess the ability of semidiurnal internal tidal currents to move suspended material a net distance across the shelf. Hence, a dense array of moorings was deployed across the shelf to monitor the transport patterns associated with fluctuations in currents, temperature and salinity. An associated hydrographic program periodically monitored synoptic changes in the spatial patterns of temperature, salinity, nutrients and bacteria. This set of measurements show that a series of energetic internal tides can, but do not always, transport subthermocline water, dissolved and suspended material from the middle of the shelf into the surfzone. Effective cross-shelf transport occurs only when (1) internal tides at the shelf break are strong and (2) subtidal currents flow strongly downcoast. The subtidal downcoast flow causes isotherms to tilt upward toward the coast, which allows energetic, nonlinear internal tidal currents to carry subthermocline waters into the surfzone. During these events, which may last for several days, the transported water remains in the surfzone until the internal tidal current pulses and/or the downcoast subtidal currents disappear. This nonlinear internal tide cross-shelf transport process was capable of carrying water and the associated suspended or dissolved material from the mid-shelf into the surfzone, but there were no observation of transport from the shelf break into the surfzone. Dissolved nutrients and suspended particulates (such as phytoplankton) transported from the mid-shelf into the nearshore region by nonlinear internal tides may contribute to nearshore algal blooms, including harmful algal blooms that occur off local beaches.
Optical orbital angular momentum.
Barnett, Stephen M; Babiker, Mohamed; Padgett, Miles J
2017-02-28
We present a brief introduction to the orbital angular momentum of light, the subject of our theme issue and, in particular, to the developments in the 13 years following the founding paper by Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)). The papers by our invited authors serve to bring the field up to date and suggest where developments may take us next.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
Optical orbital angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnett, Stephen M.; Babiker, Mohamed; Padgett, Miles J.
2017-02-01
We present a brief introduction to the orbital angular momentum of light, the subject of our theme issue and, in particular, to the developments in the 13 years following the founding paper by Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)). The papers by our invited authors serve to bring the field up to date and suggest where developments may take us next. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements
Zonca, F.; Cohen, S.A.; Bennett, T.; Timberlake, J.R.
1993-08-24
An apparatus is described for measuring momentum flux from an intense plasma stream, comprising: refractory target means oriented normal to the flow of said plasma stream for bombardment by said plasma stream where said bombardment by said plasma stream applies a pressure to said target means, pendulum means for communicating a translational displacement of said target to a force transducer where said translational displacement of said target is transferred to said force transducer by an elongated member coupled to said target, where said member is suspended by a pendulum configuration means and where said force transducer is responsive to said translational displacement of said member, and force transducer means for outputting a signal representing pressure data corresponding to said displacement.
Boubakri, Meriam; Chaya, Taro; Hirata, Hiromi; Kajimura, Naoko; Kuwahara, Ryusuke; Ueno, Akiko; Malicki, Jarema; Furukawa, Takahisa; Omori, Yoshihiro
2016-11-18
In the retina, aberrant opsin transport from cell bodies to outer segments leads to retinal degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa. Opsin transport is facilitated by the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system that mediates the bidirectional movement of proteins within cilia. In contrast to functions of the anterograde transport executed by IFT complex B (IFT-B), the precise functions of the retrograde transport mediated by IFT complex A (IFT-A) have not been well studied in photoreceptor cilia. Here, we analyzed developing zebrafish larvae carrying a null mutation in ift122 encoding a component of IFT-A. ift122 mutant larvae show unexpectedly mild phenotypes, compared with those of mutants defective in IFT-B. ift122 mutants exhibit a slow onset of progressive photoreceptor degeneration mainly after 7 days post-fertilization. ift122 mutant larvae also develop cystic kidney but not curly body, both of which are typically observed in various ciliary mutants. ift122 mutants display a loss of cilia in the inner ear hair cells and nasal pit epithelia. Loss of ift122 causes disorganization of outer segment discs. Ectopic accumulation of an IFT-B component, ift88, is observed in the ift122 mutant photoreceptor cilia. In addition, pulse-chase experiments using GFP-opsin fusion proteins revealed that ift122 is required for the efficient transport of opsin and the distal elongation of outer segments. These results show that IFT-A is essential for the efficient transport of outer segment proteins, including opsin, and for the survival of retinal photoreceptor cells, rendering the ift122 mutant a unique model for human retinal degenerative diseases.
Probing Electron Dynamics with the Laplacian of the Momentum Density
Sukumar, N.; MacDougall, Preston J.; Levit, M. Creon
2012-09-24
This chapter in the above-titled monograph presents topological analysis of the Laplacian of the electron momentum density in organic molecules. It relates topological features in this distribution to chemical and physical properties, particularly aromaticity and electron transport.
Angular Momentum Evolution of Young Solar-type Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amard, Louis; Palacios, Ana; Charbonnel, Corinne
2016-01-01
We present stellar evolution models of young solar-type stars including self consistent treatment of rotational mixing and extraction of angular momentum (AM) by magnetized wind including the most up-to-date physic of AM transport.
Neoclassical Calculations with Momentum Conservation Using the PENTA Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lore, Jeremy; Spong, D. A.; Briesemeister, A.
2010-11-01
The PENTA code calculates neoclassical radial and parallel flows of heat and particles, including the effects of collisional momentum conservation, for arbitrary toroidal geometries. As an input, PENTA uses transport coefficients calculated using a pitch angle scattering (PAS) collision operator, for example from the DKES code. In this sense PENTA acts as a momentum correction technique to transport quantities calculated from the PAS transport coefficients, which are often used in stellarator transport analyses. PENTA has recently been upgraded to account for arbitrary ion impurity species, and to include multiple methods of momentum correction for comparison and benchmarking. For non-(quasi)symmetric configurations, the radial electric field is calculated from the nonambipolar particle fluxes. For (quasi)symmetric devices PENTA recaptures intrinsic ambipolarity, demonstrating its applicability to both 2D and 3D geometries. Momentum correction has been shown to have a significant effect on the calculated parallel flows in the HSX stellarator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, S. M.; Fung, I.; Liu, J.; Hayek, M. N.; Andrews, A. E.
2014-09-01
Estimates of CO2 fluxes that are based on atmospheric data rely upon a meteorological model to simulate atmospheric CO2 transport. These models provide a quantitative link between surface fluxes of CO2 and atmospheric measurements taken downwind. Therefore, any errors in the meteorological model can propagate into atmospheric CO2 transport and ultimately bias the estimated CO2 fluxes. These errors, however, have traditionally been difficult to characterize. To examine the effects of CO2 transport errors on estimated CO2 fluxes, we use a global meteorological model-data assimilation system known as "CAM-LETKF" to quantify two aspects of the transport errors: error variances (standard deviations) and temporal error correlations. Furthermore, we develop two case studies. In the first case study, we examine the extent to which CO2 transport uncertainties can bias CO2 flux estimates. In particular, we use a common flux estimate known as CarbonTracker to discover the minimum hypothetical bias that can be detected above the CO2 transport uncertainties. In the second case study, we then investigate which meteorological conditions may contribute to month-long biases in modeled atmospheric transport. We estimate 6 hourly CO2 transport uncertainties in the model surface layer that range from 0.15 to 9.6 ppm (standard deviation), depending on location, and we estimate an average error decorrelation time of ∼2.3 days at existing CO2 observation sites. As a consequence of these uncertainties, we find that CarbonTracker CO2 fluxes would need to be biased by at least 29%, on average, before that bias were detectable at existing non-marine atmospheric CO2 observation sites. Furthermore, we find that persistent, bias-type errors in atmospheric transport are associated with consistent low net radiation, low energy boundary layer conditions. The meteorological model is not necessarily more uncertain in these conditions. Rather, the extent to which meteorological uncertainties
Schunk, P.R.; Sackinger, P.A.; Rao, R.R.
1996-01-01
GOMA is a two- and three-dimensional finite element program which excels in analyses of manufacturing processes, particularly those involving free or moving interfaces. Specifically, the full-Newton-coupled heat, mass, momentum, and pseudo-solid mesh motion algorithm makes GOMA ideally suited for simulating processes in which the bulk fluid transport is closely coupled to the interfacial physics. Examples include, but are not limited to, coating and polymer processing flows, soldering, crystal growth, and solid-network or solution film drying. The code is based on the premise that any boundary can be (1) moving or free, with an apriori unknown position dictated by the distinguishing physics, (2) fixed, according to a global analytical representation, or (3) moving in time and space under user-prescribed kinematics. The goal is to enable the user to predict boundary position or motion simultaneously with the physics of the problem being analyzed and to pursue geometrical design studies and fluid-structure interaction problems. The moving mesh algorithm treats the entire domain as a computational Lagrangian solid that deforms subject to the physical principles which dictate boundary position. As an added benefit, the same Lagrangian solid mechanics can be exploited to solve multi-field problems for which the solid motion and stresses interact with other transport phenomena, either within the same material phase (e.g. shrinking coating) or in neighboring material phases (e.g. flexible blade coating). Thus, analyses of many fluid-structure interaction problems and deformable porous media problems are accessible. This document serves as a user`s guide and reference for GOMA and provides a brief overview of GOMA`s capabilities, theoretical background, and classes of problems for which it is targeted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCray, J. E.; Downs, W.; Falta, R. W.; Housley, T.
2005-12-01
DNAPL sources of carbon tetrachloride (CT) vapors are of interest at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The site is underlain by thick fractured basalt that includes sedimentary interbeds, each are a few meters thick. Daily atmospheric pressure fluctuations serve as driving forces for CT vapor transport in the subsurface. Other important transport processes for vapor movement include gas-phase diffusion and density-driven transport. The objective of this research is to investigate the influence and relative importance of these processes on gaseous transport of CT. Gas pressure and vapor concentration measurements were conducted at various depths in two wells. A numerical multiphase flow model (TOUGH2), calibrated to field pressure data, is used to conduct sensitivity analyses to elucidate the importance of the different transport mechanisms. Results show that the basalt is highly permeable to vertical air flow. The pressure dampening occurs mainly in the sedimentary interbeds. Model-calibrated permeability values for the interbeds are similar to those obtained in a study by the U.S. Geological Survey for shallow sediments, and an order of magnitude higher than column-scale values obtained by previous studies conducted by INEEL scientists. The transport simulations indicate that considering the effect of barometric pressure changes is critical to simulating transport of pollutants in the vadose zone above the DNAPL source. Predicted concentrations can be orders of magnitude smaller than actual concentrations if the effect is not considered. Below the DNAPL vapor source, accounting for density and diffusion alone would yield acceptable results provided that a 20% error in concentrations are acceptable, and that simulating concentrations trends (and not actual concentrations) is the primary goal.
Angular momentum flux of nonparaxial acoustic vortex beams and torques on axisymmetric objects.
Zhang, Likun; Marston, Philip L
2011-12-01
An acoustic vortex in an inviscid fluid and its radiation torque on an axisymmetric absorbing object are analyzed beyond the paraxial approximation to clarify an analogy with an optical vortex. The angular momentum flux density tensor from the conservation of angular momentum is used as an efficient description of the transport of angular momentum. Analysis of a monochromatic nonparaxial acoustic vortex beam indicates that the local ratio of the axial (or radial) flux density of axial angular momentum to the axial (or radial) flux density of energy is exactly equal to the ratio of the beam's topological charge l to the acoustic frequency ω. The axial radiation torque exerted by the beam on an axisymmetric object centered on the beam's axis due to the transfer of angular momentum is proportional to the power absorbed by the object with a factor l/ω, which can be understood as a result of phonon absorption from the beam. Depending on the vortex's helicity, the torque is parallel or antiparallel to the beam's axis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagano, Akira; Kizu, Shoichi; Hanawa, Kimio; Roemmich, Dean
2016-12-01
Applying segment-wise altimetry-based gravest empirical mode method to expendable bathythermograph temperature, Argo salinity, and altimetric sea surface height data in March, June, and November from San Francisco to near Japan (30∘ N, 145∘ E) via Honolulu, we estimated the component of the heat transport variation caused by change in the southward interior geostrophic flow of the North Pacific subtropical gyre in the top 700 m layer during 1993-2012. The volume transport-weighted temperature ( T I) is strongly dependent on the season. The anomaly of T I from the mean seasonal variation, whose standard deviation is 0.14∘C, was revealed to be caused mainly by change in the volume transport in a potential density layer of 25.0-25.5 σ 𝜃 . The anomaly of T I was observed to vary on a decadal or shorter, i.e., quasi-decadal (QD), timescale. The QD-scale variation of T I had peaks in 1998 and 2007, equivalent to the reduction in the net heat transport by 6 and 10 TW, respectively, approximately 1 year before those of sea surface temperature (SST) in the warm pool region, east of the Philippines. This suggests that variation in T I affects the warm pool SST through modification of the heat balance owing to the entrainment of southward transported water into the mixed layer.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parker, G. W.
1978-01-01
Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-Abudo, S.; Foster, D. L.
2014-12-01
Observations of the nearbed velocity field over a rippled sediment bed under asymmetric wave forcing conditions were collected using a submersible particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. To examine the role of bed form-induced dynamics in the total momentum transfer, a double-averaging technique was implemented on the two-dimensional time-dependent velocity field by means of the full momentum equation. This approach allows for direct determination of the bed form-induced stresses, i.e., stresses that arise due to the presence of bed forms, which are zero in flat bed conditions. This analysis suggests that bed form-induced stresses are closely related to the presence of coherent motions and may be partitioned from the turbulent stresses. Inferences of stress provided by a bed load transport model suggest that total momentum transfer obtained from the double-averaging technique is capable of reproducing bed form mobilization. Comparisons between the total momentum transfer and stress estimates obtained from local velocity profiles show significant variability across the ripple and suggest that an array of sensors is necessary to reproduce bed form evolution. The imbalance of momentum obtained by resolving the different terms constituting the near-bed momentum balance (i.e., acceleration deficit, stress gradient, and bed form-induced skin friction) provides an estimate of the bed form-induced pressure that is consistent with flow separation. This analysis reveals three regions in the flow: the free-stream, where all terms are relatively balanced; the near-bed, where momentum imbalance is significant during flow weakening; and below ripple crests, where bed form-induced pressure is the leading order mechanism.
Contrasts Between Momentum and Scalar Exchanges Over Very Rough Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bou-Zeid, Elie; Li, Qi
2016-11-01
Understanding of the physical processes modulating transport of momentum and scalars over very rough walls is essential in a large range of engineering and environmental applications. Since passive scalars are advected with the flow, broad similarity is expected between momentum and scalar transport. However, unlike momentum, which is dominated by form drag over very rough walls, scalar transport must occur through the viscous exchanges at the solid-fluid interface, which might result in transport dissimilarity. To examine these similarities and differences of momentum and passive scalar exchanges over large three-dimensional roughness elements, a suite of large-eddy simulations is conducted. The turbulent components of the transport of momentum and scalars within the canopy and roughness sublayers are found to be similar. However, strong dissimilarity is noted between the dispersive fluxes. The dispersive components are also found to be a significant fraction of the total fluxes within and below the roughness sublayer. Increasing frontal density induces a general transition in the flow from a rough boundary layer type to a mixed-layer-like type, which is found to have contrasting effects on momentum and scalar transport. This study was funded by the US National Science Foundation's Sustainability Research Network Cooperative Agreement number 1444758 and Water Sustainability and Climate program Grant Number CBET-1058027.
Fried, Eliot; Shen, Amy Q; Gurtin, Morton E
2006-06-01
We develop a complete set of equations governing the evolution of a sharp interface separating a volatile-solvent/nonvolatile-surfactant solution from a vapor atmosphere. In addition to a sorption isotherm equation and the conventional balances for mass, linear momentum, and energy, these equations include an alternative to the Hertz-Knudsen-Langmuir equation familiar from conventional theories of evaporation and condensation. This additional equation arises from a consideration of configurational forces within a thermodynamical framework. While the notion of configurational forces is well developed and understood for the description of materials that, like crystalline solids, possess natural reference configurations, very little has been done regarding their role in materials, such as viscous fluids, that do not possess preferred reference states. We therefore provide comprehensive developments of configurational forces, the balance of configurational momentum, and configurational thermodynamics. Our treatment does not require a choice of reference configuration. The general evolution equations arising from our theory account for the thermodynamic structure of the solution and the interface and for sources of dissipation related to the transport of surfactant, momentum, and heat in the solution and within the interface along with the transport of solute, momentum, kinetic energy, and heat across the interface. Moreover, the equations account for the Soret and Dufour effects in the solution and on the interface and for observed discontinuities of the temperature and chemical potential across the interface. Due to the complexity of these equations, we provide approximate equations which we compare to equations preexistent in the literature.
This technical paper recommends several types of screening assessments to evaluate site conditions for the potential to enhance transport of HOCs, as well as site artifacts that result from inadequate well installation and sampling procedures within a ground-water monitoring netw...
Effects of momentum conservation on the analysis of anisotropic flow
Borghini, N.; Dinh, P.M.; Ollitrault, J.-Y.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Voloshin, S.A.
2002-02-05
We present a general method for taking into account correlations due to momentum conservation in the analysis of anisotropic flow. Momentum conservation mostly affects the first harmonic in azimuthal distributions, i.e., directed flow. It also modifies higher harmonics, for instance elliptic flow, when they are measured with respect to a first harmonic event plane such as one determined with the standard transverse momentum method. Our method is illustrated by application to NA49 data on pion directed flow.
Ward, Andy
2005-06-01
At Hanford, the prediction of field-scale flow and transport in the vadose zone beneath tank farms and other waste-management facilities provide as good example of the limitations of current conceptualizations. Contaminant plumes in Hanford's vadose zone typically show extensive lateral spreading with splitting along flow paths and multiple zones of high-contaminant concentrations, even in sediments that appear homogeneous and isotropic at the regional scale. Because of the limited success in predicting current contaminant distributions using existing conceptual models and approaches to parameterization, there is some uncertainty about predictions of future transport behavior. This is mostly because current parameter upscaling procedures result in overly smoothed descriptions of the hydraulic functions that cause many of the important details (e.g. extreme water and solute flux, anisotropy), known to be caused by finescale heterogeneity, to be ignored.
Garcia, Andres; Evans, James W.
2016-11-03
We show that steady-state catalytic conversion in nanoporous materials can occur in a quasi-counter-diffusion mode with the reactant (product) concentration strongly decaying (growing) into the pore, but also with oscillations in the total concentration. These oscillations reflect the response of the fluid to the transition from an extended to a confined environment near the pore opening. We focus on the regime of strongly inhibited transport in narrow pores corresponding to single-file diffusion. Here, limited penetration of the reactant into the pores and the associated low reaction yield is impacted by strong spatial correlations induced by both reaction (non-equilibrium correlations) and also by intermolecular interactions (thermodynamic correlations). We develop a generalized hydrodynamic formulation to effectively describe inhibited transport accounting for the effect of these correlations, and incorporate this description of transport into appropriate reaction-diffusion equations. These equations accurately describe both shorter-range concentration oscillations near the pore opening and the longer-range mesoscale variation of concentration profiles in the pore (and thus also describe reaction yield). Success of the analytic theory is validated by comparison with a precise kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of an appropriate molecular-level stochastic reaction-diffusion model. As a result, this work elucidates unconventional chemical kinetics in interacting confined systems.
Garcia, Andres; Evans, James W.
2016-11-03
We show that steady-state catalytic conversion in nanoporous materials can occur in a quasi-counter-diffusion mode with the reactant (product) concentration strongly decaying (growing) into the pore, but also with oscillations in the total concentration. These oscillations reflect the response of the fluid to the transition from an extended to a confined environment near the pore opening. We focus on the regime of strongly inhibited transport in narrow pores corresponding to single-file diffusion. Here, limited penetration of the reactant into the pores and the associated low reaction yield is impacted by strong spatial correlations induced by both reaction (non-equilibrium correlations) andmore » also by intermolecular interactions (thermodynamic correlations). We develop a generalized hydrodynamic formulation to effectively describe inhibited transport accounting for the effect of these correlations, and incorporate this description of transport into appropriate reaction-diffusion equations. These equations accurately describe both shorter-range concentration oscillations near the pore opening and the longer-range mesoscale variation of concentration profiles in the pore (and thus also describe reaction yield). Success of the analytic theory is validated by comparison with a precise kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of an appropriate molecular-level stochastic reaction-diffusion model. As a result, this work elucidates unconventional chemical kinetics in interacting confined systems.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García, Andrés; Evans, James W.
2016-11-01
We show that steady-state catalytic conversion in nanoporous materials can occur in a quasi-counter-diffusion mode with the reactant (product) concentration strongly decaying (growing) into the pore, but also with oscillations in the total concentration. These oscillations reflect the response of the fluid to the transition from an extended to a confined environment near the pore opening. We focus on the regime of strongly inhibited transport in narrow pores corresponding to single-file diffusion. Here, limited penetration of the reactant into the pores and the associated low reaction yield is impacted by strong spatial correlations induced by both reaction (non-equilibrium correlations) and also by intermolecular interactions (thermodynamic correlations). We develop a generalized hydrodynamic formulation to effectively describe inhibited transport accounting for the effect of these correlations, and incorporate this description of transport into appropriate reaction-diffusion equations. These equations accurately describe both shorter-range concentration oscillations near the pore opening and the longer-range mesoscale variation of concentration profiles in the pore (and thus also describe reaction yield). Success of the analytic theory is validated by comparison with a precise kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of an appropriate molecular-level stochastic reaction-diffusion model. This work elucidates unconventional chemical kinetics in interacting confined systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinen, Dirk; Schroeder, Herbert; Schilling, Werner
1998-01-01
Electromigration (EM)-driven mass transport in "near-bamboo" Al-lines, which consist mostly of "blocking grains," is an important topic of research on ULSI-metallizations. Because the most easy diffusion path, i.e. grain boundaries parallel to the line, is suppressed in bamboo-like Al-lines other paths have to be considered. In this work two other possible paths of diffusion were examined by in-situ observations in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). For these experiments a special sample holder had to be constructed. One path is EM-driven intragranular diffusion in Al-lines. In this experiment, inert gas-filled voids with a mean diameter of about 10 nm, so-called bubbles, which were created after gas implantation and annealing of the Al-lines, serve as indicators of mass (or vacancy) transport. The in-situ EM-tests reveal no intragranular void motion over a period of more than 100 h at current densities of 1-1.75 MA/cm2 and temperatures of 150-225 °C. This leads to an estimation of the maximum void diffusion velocity which was compared with calculated values of surface and volume diffusion controlled void motion, respectively. The second point of interest was the behavior of dislocations in Al-lines under an applied EM-force. The importance of their observed motion for intragranular mass transport will be discussed.
Optical angular momentum and atoms.
Franke-Arnold, Sonja
2017-02-28
Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom's angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the individual electrons as well as the OAM associated with their spatial distribution. In addition, a mechanical angular momentum can arise from the rotation of the entire atom, which for very cold atoms is also quantized. Atoms therefore allow us to probe and access the quantum properties of light's OAM, aiding our fundamental understanding of light-matter interactions, and moreover, allowing us to construct OAM-based applications, including quantum memories, frequency converters for shaped light and OAM-based sensors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
Optical angular momentum and atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franke-Arnold, Sonja
2017-02-01
Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom's angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the individual electrons as well as the OAM associated with their spatial distribution. In addition, a mechanical angular momentum can arise from the rotation of the entire atom, which for very cold atoms is also quantized. Atoms therefore allow us to probe and access the quantum properties of light's OAM, aiding our fundamental understanding of light-matter interactions, and moreover, allowing us to construct OAM-based applications, including quantum memories, frequency converters for shaped light and OAM-based sensors. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving).
Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...
Electromagnetic momentum conservation in media
Brevik, Iver; Ellingsen, Simen A.
2011-03-15
That static electric and magnetic fields can store momentum may be perplexing, but is necessary to ensure total conservation of momentum. Simple situations in which such field momentum is transferred to nearby bodies and point charges have often been considered for pedagogical purposes, normally assuming vacuum surroundings. If dielectric media are involved, however, the analysis becomes more delicate, not least since one encounters the electromagnetic energy-momentum problem in matter, the 'Abraham-Minkowski enigma', of what the momentum is of a photon in matter. We analyze the momentum balance in three nontrivial examples obeying azimuthal symmetry, showing how the momentum conservation is satisfied as the magnetic field decays and momentum is transferred to bodies present. In the last of the examples, that of point charge outside a dielectric sphere in an infinite magnetic field, we find that not all of the field momentum is transferred to the nearby bodies; a part of the momentum appears to vanish as momentum flux towards infinity. We discuss this and other surprising observations which can be attributed to the assumption of magnetic fields of infinite extent. We emphasize how formal arguments of conserved quantities cannot determine which energy-momentum tensor is more 'correct', and each of our conservation checks may be performed equally well in the Minkowski or Abraham framework.
Optical angular momentum in a rotating frame.
Speirits, Fiona C; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Barnett, Stephen M
2014-05-15
It is well established that light carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) can be used to induce a mechanical torque causing an object to spin. We consider the complementary scenario: will an observer spinning relative to the beam axis measure a change in OAM as a result of their rotational velocity? Remarkably, although a linear Doppler shift changes the linear momentum of a photon, the angular Doppler shift induces no change in the angular momentum. Further, we examine the rotational Doppler shift in frequency imparted to the incident light due to the relative motion of the beam with respect to the observer and consider what must happen to the measured wavelength if the speed of light c is to remain constant. We show specifically that the OAM of the incident beam is not affected by the rotating observer and that the measured wavelength is shifted by a factor equal and opposite to that of the frequency shift induced by the rotational Doppler effect.
Jacquet, Stéphanie; Huber, Karine; Pagès, Nonito; Talavera, Sandra; Burgin, Laura E.; Carpenter, Simon; Sanders, Christopher; Dicko, Ahmadou H.; Djerbal, Mouloud; Goffredo, Maria; Lhor, Youssef; Lucientes, Javier; Miranda-Chueca, Miguel A.; Pereira Da Fonseca, Isabel; Ramilo, David W.; Setier-Rio, Marie-Laure; Bouyer, Jérémy; Chevillon, Christine; Balenghien, Thomas; Guis, Hélène; Garros, Claire
2016-01-01
The role of the northward expansion of Culicoides imicola Kieffer in recent and unprecedented outbreaks of Culicoides-borne arboviruses in southern Europe has been a significant point of contention. We combined entomological surveys, movement simulations of air-borne particles, and population genetics to reconstruct the chain of events that led to a newly colonized French area nestled at the northern foot of the Pyrenees. Simulating the movement of air-borne particles evidenced frequent wind-transport events allowing, within at most 36 hours, the immigration of midges from north-eastern Spain and Balearic Islands, and, as rare events, their immigration from Corsica. Completing the puzzle, population genetic analyses discriminated Corsica as the origin of the new population and identified two successive colonization events within west-Mediterranean basin. Our findings are of considerable importance when trying to understand the invasion of new territories by expanding species. PMID:27263862
Jacquet, Stéphanie; Huber, Karine; Pagès, Nonito; Talavera, Sandra; Burgin, Laura E; Carpenter, Simon; Sanders, Christopher; Dicko, Ahmadou H; Djerbal, Mouloud; Goffredo, Maria; Lhor, Youssef; Lucientes, Javier; Miranda-Chueca, Miguel A; Pereira Da Fonseca, Isabel; Ramilo, David W; Setier-Rio, Marie-Laure; Bouyer, Jérémy; Chevillon, Christine; Balenghien, Thomas; Guis, Hélène; Garros, Claire
2016-06-06
The role of the northward expansion of Culicoides imicola Kieffer in recent and unprecedented outbreaks of Culicoides-borne arboviruses in southern Europe has been a significant point of contention. We combined entomological surveys, movement simulations of air-borne particles, and population genetics to reconstruct the chain of events that led to a newly colonized French area nestled at the northern foot of the Pyrenees. Simulating the movement of air-borne particles evidenced frequent wind-transport events allowing, within at most 36 hours, the immigration of midges from north-eastern Spain and Balearic Islands, and, as rare events, their immigration from Corsica. Completing the puzzle, population genetic analyses discriminated Corsica as the origin of the new population and identified two successive colonization events within west-Mediterranean basin. Our findings are of considerable importance when trying to understand the invasion of new territories by expanding species.
Optical orbital angular momentum
Barnett, Stephen M.; Babiker, Mohamed; Padgett, Miles J.
2017-01-01
We present a brief introduction to the orbital angular momentum of light, the subject of our theme issue and, in particular, to the developments in the 13 years following the founding paper by Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)). The papers by our invited authors serve to bring the field up to date and suggest where developments may take us next. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069775
Kami, Chitose; Allenbach, Laure; Zourelidou, Melina; Ljung, Karin; Schütz, Frédéric; Isono, Erika; Watahiki, Masaaki K; Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Schwechheimer, Claus; Fankhauser, Christian
2014-02-01
Phototropism allows plants to orient their photosynthetic organs towards the light. In Arabidopsis, phototropins 1 and 2 sense directional blue light such that phot1 triggers phototropism in response to low fluence rates, while both phot1 and phot2 mediate this response under higher light conditions. Phototropism results from asymmetric growth in the hypocotyl elongation zone that depends on an auxin gradient across the embryonic stem. How phototropin activation leads to this growth response is still poorly understood. Members of the phytochrome kinase substrate (PKS) family may act early in this pathway, because PKS1, PKS2 and PKS4 are needed for a normal phototropic response and they associate with phot1 in vivo. Here we show that PKS proteins are needed both for phot1- and phot2-mediated phototropism. The phototropic response is conditioned by the developmental asymmetry of dicotyledonous seedlings, such that there is a faster growth reorientation when cotyledons face away from the light compared with seedlings whose cotyledons face the light. The molecular basis for this developmental effect on phototropism is unknown; here we show that PKS proteins play a role at the interface between development and phototropism. Moreover, we present evidence for a role of PKS genes in hypocotyl gravi-reorientation that is independent of photoreceptors. pks mutants have normal levels of auxin and normal polar auxin transport, however they show altered expression patterns of auxin marker genes. This situation suggests that PKS proteins are involved in auxin signaling and/or lateral auxin redistribution.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, Peter H.; Yao, Mao-Sung
1987-01-01
The role of eddy momentum fluxes in the general circulation was investigated using a two-dimensional zonally averaged statistical-dynamical model described by Yao and Stone (1987), which is almost two orders of magnitude faster than the three-dimensional climate model of Hansen et al. (1983). Results show that the vertical structure of the meridional eddy flux has relatively little impact on the general circulation, presumably because the vertical structure is strongly constrained by the thermal wind relation and surface friction. On the other hand, it was found that, in order to simulate accurately the general circulation and its response to climate changes, parameterization of the vertically integrated meridional eddy flux of angular momentum is necessary. A new parameterization of this eddy momentum transport was carried out, which is intended to represent the transport due to large-scale transient eddies arising from baroclinic instability.
Emittance compensation studies of photoinjector beams with angular momentum
Lidia, Steven
2003-05-19
Beam dynamics studies on the FNPL photo injector that seek to optimize the transport of intense electron beams with large values of canonical angular momentum have been performed. These studies investigate the effect of solenoid emittance compensation on beams that evolve under the combined influence of intense space charge forces and large angular momentum. We present details of experimental measurements and supporting simulations of beam envelope evolution.
Orbital angular momentum microlaser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Feng, Liang
2016-07-01
Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes.
Momentum Deposition in Curvilinear Coordinates
Cleveland, Mathew Allen; Lowrie, Robert Byron; Rockefeller, Gabriel M.; Thompson, Kelly Glen; Wollaber, Allan Benton
2015-08-03
The momentum imparted into a material by thermal radiation deposition is an important physical process in astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) simulations. In recent work we presented a new method of evaluating momentum deposition that relies on the combination of a time-averaged approximation and a numerical integration scheme. This approach robustly and efficiently evaluates the momentum deposition in spherical geometry. Future work will look to extend this approach to 2D cylindrical geometries.
Choudhury, S.R.; Jaluria, Y.
1995-04-01
The flow and heat transfer associated with the convective cooling of a heated cylinder moving in a channel with buoyancy and pressure-indicted flow has been numerically investigated. Three distinct transport mechanisms arise in this case due to material motion, forced flow, and buoyancy. Considered in this study are uniform flows at the inlet of the cooling channel in the same, as well as in the opposite, direction as the movement of the cylindrical rod. This problem is of interest in several manufacturing processes such as hot rolling, continuous casting, extrusion, wire drawing, and glass fiber drawing. The transport processes are time dependent at the initial stages, Following the onset of motion, and usually attain steady state conditions at large time. The temperature distribution in the solid is of particular interest in materials processing. A detailed numerical study is carried out, assuming an axisymmetric, transient circumstance with laminar flow. The governing full, elliptic equations are solved, employing the finite volume method. The conjugate problem, coupling the transport in the solid material with that in the fluid, is solved. The effect of thermal buoyancy on the heat transfer and on the flow for different orientations is studied in detail. Of particular interest is the numerical imposition of the boundary conditions. Not much work has been done in this regard with the combined effects of material motion, buoyancy, and forced flow present. When the flow opposes the movement of the rod, either due to pressure-induced flow or due to buoyancy, a recirculating region arises near the rod surface. This recirculation region plays a major role in the heat transfer and thus affects the resulting temperature decay in the moving rod. Validation of the numerical results is carried out by comparisons with earlier experimental results, indicating fairly good agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langer, Maria; Kühn, Michael
2016-04-01
Shallow groundwater resources could be possibly affected by intruding brines, which are displaced along hydraulically conductive faults as result of subsurface activities like CO2 injection. To avoid salinization of potable freshwater aquifers an early detection of intruding saline water is necessary, especially in regions where an initial geogenic salinization already exists. Our study is based on work of Tillner et al. [1] and Langer et al. [2] who investigated the influence of permeable fault systems on brine displacement for the prospective storage site Beeskow-Birkholz in the Northeast German Basin. With a 3D regional scale model considering the deep groundwater system, they demonstrated that the existence of hydraulically conductive faults is not necessarily an exclusion criterion for potential injection sites, because salinization of shallower aquifers strongly depends on the effective damage zone volume, the initial salinity distribution and overlying reservoirs [2], while permeability of fault zones does not influence salinization of shallower aquifers significantly [1]. Here we extracted a 2D cross section regarding the upper 220 m of the study area mainly represented by shallow freshwater aquifers, but also considering an initial geogenic salinization [3]. We took flow rates of the intruding brines from the previous studies [2] and implemented species transport simulations with the program code SHEMAT [4]. Results are investigated and interpreted with the hydrochemical genesis model GEBAH [5] which has been already applied as early warning of saltwater intrusions into freshwater aquifers and surface water [6]. GEBAH allows a categorization of groundwater by the ion ratios of the dissolved components and offers a first indicative determination for an existence and the intensity of saline water intrusion in shallow groundwater aquifer, independent of the concentration of the solution. With our model we investigated the migration of saline water through a
Angular Momentum in Dwarf Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Del Popolo, A.
We study the ``angular momentum catastrophe" in the framework of interaction among baryons and dark matter through dynamical friction. By means of Del Popolo (2009) model we simulate 14 galaxies similar to those investigated by van den Bosch, Burkert and Swaters (2001), and calculate the distribution of their spin parameters and the angular momenta. Our model gives the angular momentum distribution which is in agreement with the van den Bosch et al. observations. Our result shows that the ``angular momentum catastrophe" can be naturally solved in a model that takes into account the baryonic physics and the exchange of energy and angular momentum between the baryonic clumps and dark matter through dynamical friction.
Munera, Hector A.
2010-07-28
Advantages of a neo-Cartesian approach to classical mechanics are noted. If conservation of linear momentum is the fundamental principle, Newton's three laws become theorems. A minor paradox in static Newtonian mechanics is identified, and solved by reinterpreting force as a current of momentum. Contact force plays the role of a mere midwife in the exchange of momentum; however, force cannot be eliminated from physics because it provides the numerical value for momentum current. In this sense, in a neo-Cartesian formulation of mechanics the concept of force becomes strengthened rather than weakened.
Construction of momentum theorem using cross moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu; Diamond, P. H.
2009-11-01
Charney-Drazin theorem has been extended to Hasegawa Wakatani system for zonal flow problem in magnetic fusion [P.H. Diamond, et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50, 124018 (2008)]. For this model, the guiding center density is the potential vorticity and zonal flow is influenced by the particle flux. In this work we construct momentum theorems in terms of a hierarchy of cross moments
A mass and momentum conserving unsplit semi-Lagrangian framework for simulating multiphase flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owkes, Mark; Desjardins, Olivier
2017-03-01
In this work, we present a computational methodology for convection and advection that handles discontinuities with second order accuracy and maintains conservation to machine precision. This method can transport a variety of discontinuous quantities and is used in the context of an incompressible gas-liquid flow to transport the phase interface, momentum, and scalars. The proposed method provides a modification to the three-dimensional, unsplit, second-order semi-Lagrangian flux method of Owkes & Desjardins (JCP, 2014). The modification adds a refined grid that provides consistent fluxes of mass and momentum defined on a staggered grid and discrete conservation of mass and momentum, even for flows with large density ratios. Additionally, the refined grid doubles the resolution of the interface without significantly increasing the computational cost over previous non-conservative schemes. This is possible due to a novel partitioning of the semi-Lagrangian fluxes into a small number of simplices. The proposed scheme is tested using canonical verification tests, rising bubbles, and an atomizing liquid jet.
Intrinsic spin and orbital angular momentum Hall effect.
Zhang, S; Yang, Z
2005-02-18
A generalized definition of intrinsic and extrinsic transport coefficients is introduced. We show that transport coefficients from the intrinsic origin are solely determined by local electronic structure, and thus the intrinsic spin Hall effect is not a transport phenomenon. The intrinsic spin Hall current is always accompanied by an equal but opposite intrinsic orbital angular momentum Hall current. We prove that the intrinsic spin Hall effect does not induce a spin accumulation at the edge of the sample or near the interface.
Imaging molecular geometry with electron momentum spectroscopy.
Wang, Enliang; Shan, Xu; Tian, Qiguo; Yang, Jing; Gong, Maomao; Tang, Yaguo; Niu, Shanshan; Chen, Xiangjun
2016-12-22
Electron momentum spectroscopy is a unique tool for imaging orbital-specific electron density of molecule in momentum space. However, the molecular geometry information is usually veiled due to the single-centered character of momentum space wavefunction of molecular orbital (MO). Here we demonstrate the retrieval of interatomic distances from the multicenter interference effect revealed in the ratios of electron momentum profiles between two MOs with symmetric and anti-symmetric characters. A very sensitive dependence of the oscillation period on interatomic distance is observed, which is used to determine F-F distance in CF4 and O-O distance in CO2 with sub-Ångström precision. Thus, using one spectrometer, and in one measurement, the electron density distributions of MOs and the molecular geometry information can be obtained simultaneously. Our approach provides a new robust tool for imaging molecules with high precision and has potential to apply to ultrafast imaging of molecular dynamics if combined with ultrashort electron pulses in the future.
Imaging molecular geometry with electron momentum spectroscopy
Wang, Enliang; Shan, Xu; Tian, Qiguo; Yang, Jing; Gong, Maomao; Tang, Yaguo; Niu, Shanshan; Chen, Xiangjun
2016-01-01
Electron momentum spectroscopy is a unique tool for imaging orbital-specific electron density of molecule in momentum space. However, the molecular geometry information is usually veiled due to the single-centered character of momentum space wavefunction of molecular orbital (MO). Here we demonstrate the retrieval of interatomic distances from the multicenter interference effect revealed in the ratios of electron momentum profiles between two MOs with symmetric and anti-symmetric characters. A very sensitive dependence of the oscillation period on interatomic distance is observed, which is used to determine F-F distance in CF4 and O-O distance in CO2 with sub-Ångström precision. Thus, using one spectrometer, and in one measurement, the electron density distributions of MOs and the molecular geometry information can be obtained simultaneously. Our approach provides a new robust tool for imaging molecules with high precision and has potential to apply to ultrafast imaging of molecular dynamics if combined with ultrashort electron pulses in the future. PMID:28004794
Turbulent Equipartition Theory of Toroidal Momentum Pinch
T.S. Hahm, P.H. Diamond, O.D. Gurcan, and G. Rewaldt
2008-01-31
The mode-independet part of magnetic curvature driven turbulent convective (TuroCo) pinch of the angular momentum density [Hahm et al., Phys. Plasmas 14,072302 (2007)] which was originally derived from the gyrokinetic equation, can be interpreted in terms of the turbulent equipartition (TEP) theory. It is shown that the previous results can be obtained from the local conservation of "magnetically weighted angular momentum density," nmi U|| R/B2, and its homogenization due to turbulent flows. It is also demonstrated that the magnetic curvature modification of the parallel acceleration in the nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in the laboratory frame, which was shown to be responsible for the TEP part of the TurCo pinch of angular momentum density in the previous work, is closely related to the Coriolis drift coupling to the perturbed electric field. In addition, the origin of the diffusive flux in the rotating frame is highlighted. Finally, it is illustratd that there should be a difference in scalings between the momentum pinch originated from inherently toroidal effects and that coming from other mechanisms which exist in a simpler geometry.
Imaging molecular geometry with electron momentum spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Enliang; Shan, Xu; Tian, Qiguo; Yang, Jing; Gong, Maomao; Tang, Yaguo; Niu, Shanshan; Chen, Xiangjun
2016-12-01
Electron momentum spectroscopy is a unique tool for imaging orbital-specific electron density of molecule in momentum space. However, the molecular geometry information is usually veiled due to the single-centered character of momentum space wavefunction of molecular orbital (MO). Here we demonstrate the retrieval of interatomic distances from the multicenter interference effect revealed in the ratios of electron momentum profiles between two MOs with symmetric and anti-symmetric characters. A very sensitive dependence of the oscillation period on interatomic distance is observed, which is used to determine F-F distance in CF4 and O-O distance in CO2 with sub-Ångström precision. Thus, using one spectrometer, and in one measurement, the electron density distributions of MOs and the molecular geometry information can be obtained simultaneously. Our approach provides a new robust tool for imaging molecules with high precision and has potential to apply to ultrafast imaging of molecular dynamics if combined with ultrashort electron pulses in the future.
Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santarelli, Vincent
1979-01-01
Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)
Exact momentum conservation laws for the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson equations
Brizard, Alain J.; Tronko, Natalia
2011-08-15
The exact momentum conservation laws for the nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson equations are derived by applying the Noether method on the gyrokinetic variational principle [A. J. Brizard, Phys. Plasmas 7, 4816 (2000)]. From the gyrokinetic Noether canonical-momentum equation derived by the Noether method, the gyrokinetic parallel momentum equation and other gyrokinetic Vlasov-moment equations are obtained. In addition, an exact gyrokinetic toroidal angular-momentum conservation law is derived in axisymmetric tokamak geometry, where the transport of parallel-toroidal momentum is related to the radial gyrocenter polarization, which includes contributions from the guiding-center and gyrocenter transformations.
Orbital angular momentum entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romero, Mary Jacquiline Romero
Entanglement in higher dimensions is an attractive concept that is a challenge to realise experimentally. To this end, the entanglement of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons holds promise. The OAM state-space is discrete and theoretically unbounded. In the work that follows, we investigate various aspects of OAM entanglement. We show how the correlations in OAM and its conjugate variable, angular position, are determined by phase- matching and the shape of the pump beam in spontaneous parametric down- conversion. We implement tests of quantum mechanics which have been previously done for other variables. We show the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for OAM and angle, supporting the incompatibility of quantum mechanics with locality and realism. We demonstrate violations of Bell-type inequalities, thereby discounting local hidden variables for describing the correlations we observe. We show the Hardy paradox using OAM, again highlighting the nonlocal nature of quantum mechanics. We demonstrate violations of Leggett-type inequalities, thereby discounting nonlocal hidden variables for describing correlations. Lastly, we have looked into the entanglement of topological vortex structures formed from a special superposition of OAM modes and show violations of Bell-type inequalities confined to a finite, isolated volume.
Integral momentum balance on a growing bubble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siedel, S.; Cioulachtjian, S.; Robinson, A. J.; Bonjour, J.
2013-12-01
The integral momentum balance on a growing boiling bubble is investigated. All forces acting on the bubble are detailed, and the methods and assumptions used to calculate their integral resultants are discussed. The momentum balance computation is then performed using experimental data of bubbles growing on an artificial nucleation site in a controlled environment. The relative magnitude of each force component is compared, showing negligible dynamic forces, upwards forces composed mainly of the buoyancy and contact pressure components, and downwards forces being exclusively due to surface tension and adhesion. The difficulty encountered in measuring the apparent contact angle due to mirage effects has been highlighted; a new method, fitting numerically simulated bubble profile to the contour measurements has been proposed and used to correct the effects of refraction on the bubble profile determination. As all forces acting on the bubble were measured, it was possible to estimate the residuals of the momentum balance. Their small value validated both the expressions used for the forces and the methodology to evaluate their value.
MSWAVEF: Momentum-Space Wavefunctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barklem, Paul S.
2017-01-01
MSWAVEF calculates hydrogenic and non-hydrogenic momentum-space electronic wavefunctions. Such wavefunctions are often required to calculate various collision processes, such as excitation and line broadening cross sections. The hydrogenic functions are calculated using the standard analytical expressions. The non-hydrogenic functions are calculated within quantum defect theory according to the method of Hoang Binh and van Regemorter (1997). Required Hankel transforms have been determined analytically for angular momentum quantum numbers ranging from zero to 13 using Mathematica. Calculations for higher angular momentum quantum numbers are possible, but slow (since calculated numerically). The code is written in IDL.
Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Gyusik; Fujioka, Shozo; Takatsuto, Suguru; Choe, Sunghwa
2012-07-01
Sterols play crucial roles as membrane components and precursors of steroid hormones (e.g., brassinosteroids, BR). Within membranes, sterols regulate membrane permeability and fluidity by interacting with other lipids and proteins. Sterols are frequently enriched in detergent-insoluble membranes (DIMs), which organize molecules involved in specialized signaling processes, including auxin transporters. To be fully functional, the two methyl groups at the C-4 position of cycloartenol, a precursor of plant sterols, must be removed by bifunctional 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases/C-4 decarboxylases (3βHSD/D). To understand the role of 3βHSD/D in Arabidopsis development, we analyzed the phenotypes of knock-out mutants and overexpression lines of two 3βHSD/D genes (At1g47290 and At2g26260). Neither single nor double knock-out mutants displayed a noticeable phenotype; however, overexpression consistently resulted in plants with wrinkled leaves and short inflorescence internodes. Interestingly, the internode growth defects were opportunistic; even within a plant, some stems were more severely affected than others. Endogenous levels of BRs were not altered in the overexpression lines, suggesting that the growth defect is not primarily due to a flaw in BR biosynthesis. To determine if overexpression of the sterol biosynthetic genes affects the functions of membrane-localized auxin transporters, we subjected plants to the auxin efflux carrier inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Where-as the gravity vectors of wild-type roots became randomly scattered in response to NPA treatment, those of the overexpression lines continued to grow in the direction of gravity. Overexpression of the two Arabidopsis 3βHSD/D genes thus appears to affect auxin transporter activity, possibly by altering sterol composition in the membranes.
Wang, Jie; Fang, Zhanqiang; Cheng, Wen; Yan, Xiaomin; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Zhao, Dongye
2016-03-01
In this study, the effects of concentrations 0, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg kg(-1) of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on germination, seedlings growth, physiology and toxicity mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that nZVI had no effect on germination, but inhibited the rice seedlings growth in higher concentrations (>500 mg kg(-1) nZVI). The highest suppression rate of the length of roots and shoots reached 46.9% and 57.5%, respectively. The 1000mg kg(-1) nZVI caused the highest suppression rates for chlorophyll and carotenoids, at 91.6% and 85.2%, respectively. In addition, the activity of antioxidant enzymes was altered by the translocation of nanoparticles and changes in active iron content. Visible symptoms of iron deficiency were observed at higher concentrations, at which the active iron content decreased 61.02% in the shoots, but the active iron content not decreased in roots. Interestingly, the total and available amounts of iron in the soil were not less than those in the control. Therefore, the plants iron deficiency was not caused by (i) deficiency of available iron in the soil and (ii) restraint of the absorption that plant takes in the available iron, while induced by (ⅲ) the transport of active iron from the root to the shoot was blocked. The cortex tissues were seriously damaged by nZVI which was transported from soil to the root, these were proved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This current study shows that the mechanism of iron deficiency in rice seedling was due to transport of active iron from the root to the shoot blocked, which was caused by the uptake of nZVI.
Suls, Arvid; Dedeken, Peter; Goffin, Karolien; Van Esch, Hilde; Dupont, Patrick; Cassiman, David; Kempfle, Judith; Wuttke, Thomas V.; Weber, Yvonne; Lerche, Holger; Afawi, Zaid; Vandenberghe, Wim; Korczyn, Amos D.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Ekstein, Dana; Kivity, Sara; Ryvlin, Philippe; Claes, Lieve R. F.; Deprez, Liesbet; Maljevic, Snezana; Vargas, Alberto; Van Dyck, Tine; Goossens, Dirk; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Van Laere, Koen; De Jonghe, Peter
2008-01-01
Paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia (PED) can occur in isolation or in association with epilepsy, but the genetic causes and pathophysiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. We performed a clinical evaluation and genetic analysis in a five-generation family with co-occurrence of PED and epilepsy (n = 39), suggesting that this combination represents a clinical entity. Based on a whole genome linkage analysis we screened SLC2A1, encoding the glucose transporter of the blood-brain-barrier, GLUT1 and identified heterozygous missense and frameshift mutations segregating in this and three other nuclear families with a similar phenotype. PED was characterized by choreoathetosis, dystonia or both, affecting mainly the legs. Predominant epileptic seizure types were primary generalized. A median CSF/blood glucose ratio of 0.52 (normal >0.60) in the patients and a reduced glucose uptake by mutated transporters compared with the wild-type as determined in Xenopus oocytes confirmed a pathogenic role of these mutations. Functional imaging studies implicated alterations in glucose metabolism in the corticostriate pathways in the pathophysiology of PED and in the frontal lobe cortex in the pathophysiology of epileptic seizures. Three patients were successfully treated with a ketogenic diet. In conclusion, co-occurring PED and epilepsy can be due to autosomal dominant heterozygous SLC2A1 mutations, expanding the phenotypic spectrum associated with GLUT1 deficiency and providing a potential new treatment option for this clinical syndrome. PMID:18577546
Momentum resolution in inverse photoemission
Zumbülte, A.; Schmidt, A. B.; Donath, M.
2015-01-15
We present a method to determine the electron beam divergence, and thus the momentum resolution, of an inverse-photoemission setup directly from a series of spectra measured on Cu(111). Simulating these spectra with different beam divergences shows a distinct influence of the divergence on the appearance of the Shockley surface state. Upon crossing the Fermi level, its rise in intensity can be directly linked with the beam divergence. A comparison of measurement and simulation enables us to quantify the momentum resolution independent of surface quality, energy resolution, and experimental geometry. With spin resolution, a single spectrum taken around the Fermi momentum of a spin-split surface state, e.g., on Au(111), is sufficient to derive the momentum resolution of an inverse-photoemission setup.
Meng, Qiang; Chen, Xin-li; Wang, Chang-yuan; Liu, Qi; Sun, Hui-jun; Sun, Peng-yuan; Huo, Xiao-kui; Liu, Zhi-hao; Yao, Ji-hong; Liu, Ke-xin
2015-03-15
Intrahepatic cholestasis is a clinical syndrome with systemic and intrahepatic accumulation of excessive toxic bile acids that ultimately cause hepatobiliary injury. Appropriate regulation of bile acids in hepatocytes is critically important for protection against liver injury. In the present study, we characterized the protective effect of alisol B 23-acetate (AB23A), a natural triterpenoid, on alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced liver injury and intrahepatic cholestasis in mice and further elucidated the mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. AB23A treatment dose-dependently protected against liver injury induced by ANIT through reducing hepatic uptake and increasing efflux of bile acid via down-regulation of hepatic uptake transporters (Ntcp) and up-regulation of efflux transporter (Bsep, Mrp2 and Mdr2) expression. Furthermore, AB23A reduced bile acid synthesis through repressing Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1, increased bile acid conjugation through inducing Bal, Baat and bile acid metabolism through an induction in gene expression of Sult2a1. We further demonstrate the involvement of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the hepatoprotective effect of AB23A. The changes in transporters and enzymes, as well as ameliorative liver histology in AB23A-treated mice were abrogated by FXR antagonist guggulsterone in vivo. In vitro evidences also directly demonstrated the effect of AB23A on FXR activation in a dose-dependent manner using luciferase reporter assay in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, AB23A produces protective effect against ANIT-induced hepatotoxity and cholestasis, due to FXR-mediated regulation of transporters and enzymes. - Highlights: • AB23A has at least three roles in protection against ANIT-induced liver injury. • AB23A decreases Ntcp, and increases Bsep, Mrp2 and Mdr2 expression. • AB23A represses Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 through inducing Shp and Fgf15 expression. • AB23A increases bile acid metabolism through inducing Sult2a1 expression. • FXR activation is involved
Energy and angular momentum transfers from an electromagnetic wave to a copper ring in the UHF band
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Émile, Olivier; Brousseau, Christian; Émile, Janine; Mahdjoubi, Kouroch
2017-02-01
Electromagnetic waves could carry orbital angular momentum. Such momentum can be transferred to macroscopic objects and can make them rotate under a constant torque. Based on experimental observations, we investigate the origin of orbital angular momentum and energy transfer. Due to angular momentum and energy conservation, we show that angular momentum transfer is due to the change in the sign of angular momentum upon reflection. This leads to a rotational Doppler shift of the electromagnetic wave frequency, ensuring energy conservation. xml:lang="fr"
MBL Experiment in Angular Momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gluck, Paul
2002-04-01
Among the series of beautiful take-home experiments designed by A.P. French and J.G. King for MIT students, the one on angular momentum studies the loss and conservation of angular momentum using a small dc motor as generator. Here we describe a version of the experiment that increases its accuracy, enables students to perform detailed rotational dynamics calculations, and sharpens the ability to isolate the region where the collision occurs.
The varieties of momentum-like experience.
Hubbard, Timothy L
2015-11-01
Cognition and behavior exhibit biases consistent with future expectations, and some of these biases result in momentum-like effects and have been linked with the idea of momentum. These momentum-like effects include representational momentum, operational momentum, attentional momentum, behavioral momentum, and psychological momentum. Effects of numerous variables involving characteristics of the target, display, context, or observer on each momentum-like effect are considered, and similarities of different momentum-like effects are considered. It is suggested that representational momentum, operational momentum, and attentional momentum reflect similar or overlapping mechanisms based on a perceptual time-scale and extrapolation primarily across space, and that behavioral momentum and psychological momentum reflect similar or overlapping mechanisms based on a longer time-scale and extrapolation primarily across time. It is further suggested that all 5 forms of momentum-like effect could reflect a more general extrapolation mechanism that anticipates the future action, behavior, or outcome of a given target, person, or process. A list of properties characterizing momentum-like effects is proposed, and constraints and issues relevant to future models of momentum-like effects are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.
1981-01-01
An analysis of superrotation in the atmosphere of planets, with rotation axis perpendicular to the orbital plane is presented. As the atmosphere expands, Hadley cells develop producing a redistribution of mass and angular momentum. A three dimensional thermally driven zonally symmetric spectral model and Laplace transformation simulate the time evolution of a fluid leading from corotation under globally uniform heating to superrotation under globally nonuniform heating. For high viscosities the rigid shell component of atmospheric superrotation can be understood in analogy with a pirouette. During spin up angular momentum is transferred to the planet. For low iscosities, the process is reversed. A tendency toward geostrophy, combined with increase of surface pressure toward the poles (due to meridional mass transport), induces the atmosphere to subrotate temporarily at lower altitudes. Resultant viscous shear near the surface permits angular momentum to flow from the planet into the atmosphere propagating upwards to produce high altitude superrotation rates.
Kerton, Matt; Newbury, H John; Hand, David; Pritchard, Jeremy
2009-01-01
The aim of this study is to understand the parameters regulating calcium ion distribution in leaves. Accumulation of ions in leaf tissue is in part dependent on import from the xylem. This import via the transpiration stream is more important for ions such as calcium that are xylem but not phloem mobile and cannot therefore be retranslocated. Accumulation of calcium was measured on bulk coriander leaf tissue (Coriandrum sativum L. cv. Lemon) using ion chromatography and calcium uptake was visualized using phosphor-images of (45)Ca(2+). Leaves of plants grown in hydroponics had elevated calcium in the centre of the leaf compared with the leaf margin, while K(+) was distributed homogeneously over the leaf. This calcium was shown to be localised to the mesophyll vacuoles using EDAX. Stomatal density and evapotranspiration (water loss per unit area of leaf) were equal at inner and outer sections of the leaf. Unequal ion distribution but uniformity of water loss suggested that there was a difference in the extent of uncoupling of calcium and water transport between the inner and outer leaf. Since isolated tissue from the inner and outer leaf were able to accumulate similar amounts of calcium, it is proposed that the spatial variation of leaf calcium concentration is due to differential ion delivery to the two regions rather than tissue/cell-specific differences in ion uptake capacity. There was a positive correlation between whole leaf calcium concentration and the difference in calcium concentration between inner and outer leaf tissue. Exposing the plants to increased humidity reduced transpiration and calcium delivery to the leaf and abolished this spatial variation of calcium concentration. Mechanisms of calcium delivery to leaves are discussed. An understanding of calcium delivery and distribution within coriander will inform strategies to reduce the incidence of calcium-related syndromes such as tip-burn and provides a robust model for the transport of ions and
Classical momentum diffusion in double-delta-kicked particles.
Stocklin, M M A; Monteiro, T S
2006-08-01
We investigate the classical chaotic diffusion of atoms subjected to pairs of closely spaced pulses ("kicks") from standing waves of light (the 2delta-KP ). Recent experimental studies with cold atoms implied an underlying classical diffusion of a type very different from the well-known paradigm of Hamiltonian chaos, the standard map. The kicks in each pair are separated by a small time interval E<1, which together with the kick strength K, characterizes the transport. Phase space for the 2delta-KP is partitioned into momentum "cells" partially separated by momentum-trapping regions where diffusion is slow. We present here an analytical derivation of the classical diffusion for a 2delta-KP including all important correlations which were used to analyze the experimental data. We find an asymptotic (t-->infinity) regime of "hindered" diffusion: while for the standard map the diffusion rate, for K>1 , D approximately K(2)/2[1-2J(2)(K)...] oscillates about the uncorrelated rate D(0)=K(2)/2, we find analytically, that the 2delta-KP can equal, but never diffuses faster than, a random walk rate. We argue this is due to the destruction of the important classical "accelerator modes" of the standard map. We analyze the experimental regime 0.1 less or approximately KE less or approximately 1 , where quantum localization lengths L approximately Planck's (-0.75) are affected by fractal cell boundaries. We find an approximate asymptotic diffusion rate D proportional to K(3)E, in correspondence to a D proportional to K(3) regime in the standard map associated with the "golden-ratio" cantori.
Variations in atmospheric angular momentum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.
1981-01-01
Twice-daily values of the atmosphere's angular momentum about the polar axis during the five years from 1976 through 1980 are presented in graphs and a table. The compilation is based on a global data set, incorporating 90 percent of the mass of the atmosphere. The relationship between changes in the angular momentum of the atmosphere and changes in the length of day is described, as are the main sources of error in the data. The variability in angular momentum is revealed in a preliminary fashion by means of a spectral decomposition. The data presented should stimulate comparisons with other measures of the length of day and so provide a basis for greater understanding of Earth-atmosphere interactions.
On nonstable and stable population momentum.
Espenshade, Thomas J; Olgiati, Analia S; Levin, Simon A
2011-11-01
This article decomposes total population momentum into two constituent and multiplicative parts: "nonstable" momentum and "stable" momentum. Nonstable momentum depends on deviations between a population's current age distribution and its implied stable age distribution. Stable momentum is a function of deviations between a population's implied stable and stationary age distributions. In general, the factorization of total momentum into the product of nonstable and stable momentum is a very good approximation. The factorization is exact, however, when the current age distribution is stable or when observed fertility is already at replacement. We provide numerical illustrations by calculating nonstable, stable, and total momentum for 176 countries, the world, and its major regions. In short, the article brings together disparate strands of the population momentum literature and shows how the various kinds of momentum fit together into a single unifying framework.
On Nonstable and Stable Population Momentum
Olgiati, Analia S.; Levin, Simon A.
2014-01-01
This article decomposes total population momentum into two constituent and multiplicative parts: “nonstable” momentum and “stable” momentum. Nonstable momentum depends on deviations between a population’s current age distribution and its implied stable age distribution. Stable momentum is a function of deviations between a population’s implied stable and stationary age distributions. In general, the factorization of total momentum into the product of nonstable and stable momentum is a very good approximation. The factorization is exact, however, when the current age distribution is stable or when observed fertility is already at replacement. We provide numerical illustrations by calculating nonstable, stable, and total momentum for 176 countries, the world, and its major regions. In short, the article brings together disparate strands of the population momentum literature and shows how the various kinds of momentum fit together into a single unifying framework. PMID:21948106
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pak, Alexander J.; Hwang, Gyeong S.
2016-09-01
One important attribute of graphene that makes it attractive for high-performance electronics is its inherently large thermal conductivity (κ ) for the purposes of thermal management. Using a combined density-functional theory and classical molecular-dynamics approach, we predict that the κ of graphene supported on hexagonal boron nitride (h -BN) can be as large as 90% of the κ of suspended graphene, in contrast to the significant suppression of κ (more than 70% reduction) on amorphous silica. Interestingly, we find that this enhanced thermal transport is largely attributed to increased lifetimes of the in-plane acoustic phonon modes, which is a notable contrast from the dominant contribution of out-of-plane acoustic modes in suspended graphene. This behavior is possible due to the charge polarization throughout graphene that induces strong interlayer adhesion between graphene and h -BN. These findings highlight the potential benefit of layered dielectric substrates such as h -BN for graphene-based thermal management, in addition to their electronic advantages. Furthermore, our study brings attention to the importance of understanding the interlayer interactions of graphene with layered dielectric materials which may offer an alternative technological platform for substrates in electronics.
Maranduba, C M C; Friesema, E C H; Kok, F; Kester, M H A; Jansen, J; Sertié, A L; Passos-Bueno, M R; Visser, T J
2006-05-01
We report a novel 1 bp deletion (c.1834delC) in the MCT8 gene in a large Brazilian family with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X linked condition characterised by severe mental retardation and neurological dysfunction. The c.1834delC segregates with the disease in this family and it was not present in 100 control chromosomes, further confirming its pathogenicity. This mutation causes a frameshift and the inclusion of 64 additional amino acids in the C-terminal region of the protein. Pathogenic mutations in the MCT8 gene, which encodes a thyroid hormone transporter, results in elevated serum triiodothyronine (T3) levels, which were confirmed in four affected males of this family, while normal levels were found among obligate carriers. Through in vitro functional assays, we showed that this mutation decreases cellular T3 uptake and intracellular T3 metabolism. Therefore, the severe neurological defects present in the patients are due not only to deficiency of intracellular T3, but also to altered metabolism of T3 in central neurones. In addition, the severe muscle hypoplasia observed in most AHDS patients may be a consequence of high serum T3 levels.
Angular momentum evolution during star and planetary system formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, Claire L.; Greaves, Jane S.
2014-01-01
We focused on analysing the role played by protoplanetary disks in the evolution of angular momentum during star formation. If all the angular momentum contained within collapsing pre-stellar cores was conserved during their formation, proto-stars would reach rotation rates exceeding their break-up velocities before they reached the main sequence (Bodenheimer 1995). In order to avoid this occuring, methods by which proto-stars can lose angular momentum must exist. Angular momentum can be transferred from star to disk via stellar magnetic field lines through a process called magnetic braking (Camenzind 1990; Königl 1991). Alternatively, the stellar angular momentum can be lost from the star-disk system entirely via stellar- or disk-winds (e.g. Pelletier & Pudritz 1992; Matt & Pudritz 2005). The proportion of lost stellar angular momentum retained within the protoplanetary disk is important to studies of planetary system formation. If the bulk motion within the disk remains Keplerian, any increase of angular momentum in the disk causes an outward migration of disk material and an expansion of the disk. Therefore, an increase in disk angular momentum may cause a reduction in the disk surface density, often used to indicate the disk's ability to form planets. We made use of multi-wavelength data available in the literature to directly calculate the stellar and disk angular momenta for two nearby regions of star formation. Namely, these were the densely populated and highly irradiated Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and the comparitively sparse Taurus-Auriga region. Due to the limited size of the ONC dataset, we produced an average surface density profile for the region. We modelled the stars as solid body rotators due to their fully convective nature (Krishnamurthi et al. 1997) and assumed the disks are flat and undergo Keplerian rotation about the same rotation axis as the star. We observed the older disks within each of the two star forming regions to be preferentially
Accretion of low angular momentum material onto black holes: 2D magnetohydrodynamical case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Proga, D.; Begelman, M. C.
2003-03-01
We report on the second phase of our study of slightly rotating accretion flows onto black holes. We consider magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) accretion flows with a spherically symmetric density distribution at the outer boundary, but with spherical symmetry broken by the introduction of a small, latitude-dependent angular momentum and a weak radial magnetic field. We study accretion flows by means of numerical 2D, axisymmetric, MHD simulations with and without resistive heating. Our main result is that the properties of the accretion flow depend mostly on an equatorial accretion torus. Initially, accretion occurs only through the polar funnel, as in the hydrodynamic inviscid case, where material has zero or very low angular momentum. The material that has too much angular momentum to be accreted directly forms a thick torus near the equator. However, in the later phase of the evolution, the transport of angular momentum due to the magnetorotational instability (MRI) facilitates accretion through the torus, too. The torus thickens towards the poles and develops a corona or an outflow or both. Consequently, the mass accretion through the funnel is stopped. The accretion of rotating gas through the torus is significantly reduced compared to the accretion of non-rotating gas (i.e., the Bondi rate). Our results do not change if we switch on or off resistive heating. Overall our simulations are very similar those presented by Stone, Pringle, Hawley and Balbus despite different initial and outer boundary conditions. Thus, we confirm that the MRI is very robust and controls the nature of radiatively inefficient accretion flows. DP acknowledges support from NASA under LTSA grant NAG5-11736 and support provided by NASA through grant AR-09532 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. MB acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-9876887.
Momentum distributions for H2(e,e'p)
Ford, William P.; Jeschonnek, Sabine; Van Orden, J. W.
2014-12-29
[Background] A primary goal of deuteron electrodisintegration is the possibility of extracting the deuteron momentum distribution. This extraction is inherently fraught with difficulty, as the momentum distribution is not an observable and the extraction relies on theoretical models dependent on other models as input. [Purpose] We present a new method for extracting the momentum distribution which takes into account a wide variety of model inputs thus providing a theoretical uncertainty due to the various model constituents. [Method] The calculations presented here are using a Bethe-Salpeter like formalism with a wide variety of bound state wave functions, form factors, and finalmore » state interactions. We present a method to extract the momentum distributions from experimental cross sections, which takes into account the theoretical uncertainty from the various model constituents entering the calculation. [Results] In order to test the extraction pseudo-data was generated, and the extracted "experimental'' distribution, which has theoretical uncertainty from the various model inputs, was compared with the theoretical distribution used to generate the pseudo-data. [Conclusions] In the examples we compared the original distribution was typically within the error band of the extracted distribution. The input wave functions do contain some outliers which are discussed in the text, but at least this process can provide an upper bound on the deuteron momentum distribution. Due to the reliance on the theoretical calculation to obtain this quantity any extraction method should account for the theoretical error inherent in these calculations due to model inputs.« less
Momentum distributions for 2H(e ,e'p )
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ford, William P.; Jeschonnek, Sabine; Van Orden, J. W.
2014-12-01
Background: A primary goal of deuteron electrodisintegration is the possibility of extracting the deuteron momentum distribution. This extraction is inherently fraught with difficulty, as the momentum distribution is not an observable and the extraction relies on theoretical models dependent on other models as input. Purpose: We present a new method for extracting the momentum distribution which takes into account a wide variety of model inputs thus providing a theoretical uncertainty due to the various model constituents. To test the extraction, pseudodata were generated, and the extracted "experimental" distribution, which has theoretical uncertainty accounted by this extraction method, can be compared to the theoretical distribution. This procedure can provide an upper bound on the deuteron momentum distribution. Method: The calculations presented here are using a Bethe-Salpeter-like formalism with a wide variety of bound state wave functions, form factors, and final state interactions. Results: In the examples we compared, the original distribution was typically within the error band of the extracted distribution. The input wave functions do contain some outliers which are discussed in the text. Due to the reliance on the theoretical calculation to obtain this quantity, any extraction method should account for the theoretical error inherent in these calculations due to model inputs. Conclusions: The extraction method works well and provides a systematic way to investigate the deuteron momentum distribution, while accounting for theoretical uncertainty and providing a theoretical error band.
Representational Momentum in Older Adults
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Piotrowski, Andrea S.; Jakobson, Lorna S.
2011-01-01
Humans have a tendency to perceive motion even in static images that simply "imply" movement. This tendency is so strong that our memory for actions depicted in static images is distorted in the direction of implied motion--a phenomenon known as representational momentum (RM). In the present study, we created an RM display depicting a pattern of…
Teaching about Impulse and Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Franklin, Bill
2004-01-01
This American Association of Physics Teachers/Physics Teaching Resource Agents (APPT/PTRA) spiral-bound manual features labs and demos physics teachers can use to give students hands-on opportunities to learn about impulse and momentum. "Make-and-take activities" include AAPT Apparatus Contest winners "An Air Impulse Rocket," "A Fan Driven…
Flow damping due to stochastization of the magnetic field
Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tsuchiya, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Suzuki, C.; Yokoyama, M.; Shimizu, A.; Nagaoka, K.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, K.; Akiyama, T.; Emoto, M.; Evans, T.; Dinklage, A.; Du, X.; Fujii, K.; Goto, M.; Goto, T.; Hasuo, M.; Hidalgo, C.; Ichiguchi, K.; Ishizawa, A.; Jakubowski, M.; Kamiya, K.; Kasahara, H.; Kawamura, G.; Kato, D.; Kobayashi, M.; Morita, S.; Mukai, K.; Murakami, I.; Murakami, S.; Narushima, Y.; Nunami, M.; Ohdach, S.; Ohno, N.; Osakabe, M.; Pablant, N.; Sakakibara, S.; Seki, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Shoji, M.; Sudo, S.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Todo, Y.; Wang, H.; Yamada, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Mutoh, T.; Imagawa, S.; Mito, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Ashikawa, N.; Chikaraishi, H.; Ejiri, A.; Furukawa, M.; Fujita, T.; Hamaguchi, S.; Igami, H.; Isobe, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Morisaki, T.; Motojima, G.; Nagasaki, K.; Nakano, H.; Oya, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Sakamoto, M.; Sanpei, A.; Takahashi, H.; Tokitani, M.; Ueda, Y.; Yoshimura, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Nishimura, K.; Sugama, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Idei, H.; Isayama, A.; Kitajima, S.; Masamune, S.; Shinohara, K.; Bawankar, P. S.; Bernard, E.; von Berkel, M.; Funaba, H.; Huang, X. L.; Ii, T.; Ido, T.; Ikeda, K.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Moon, C.; Muto, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Ming, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Nishimura, S.; Ogawa, K.; Ozaki, T.; Oishi, T.; Ohno, M.; Pandya, S.; Seki, R.; Sano, R.; Saito, K.; Sakaue, H.; Takemura, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, H.; Toi, K.; Wieland, B.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Zhang, H.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.
2015-01-01
The driving and damping mechanism of plasma flow is an important issue because flow shear has a significant impact on turbulence in a plasma, which determines the transport in the magnetized plasma. Here we report clear evidence of the flow damping due to stochastization of the magnetic field. Abrupt damping of the toroidal flow associated with a transition from a nested magnetic flux surface to a stochastic magnetic field is observed when the magnetic shear at the rational surface decreases to 0.5 in the large helical device. This flow damping and resulting profile flattening are much stronger than expected from the Rechester–Rosenbluth model. The toroidal flow shear shows a linear decay, while the ion temperature gradient shows an exponential decay. This observation suggests that the flow damping is due to the change in the non-diffusive term of momentum transport. PMID:25569268
Transfer of optical orbital angular momentum to a bound electron
Schmiegelow, Christian T.; Schulz, Jonas; Kaufmann, Henning; Ruster, Thomas; Poschinger, Ulrich G.; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand
2016-01-01
Photons can carry angular momentum, not only due to their spin, but also due to their spatial structure. This extra twist has been used, for example, to drive circular motion of microscopic particles in optical tweezers as well as to create vortices in quantum gases. Here we excite an atomic transition with a vortex laser beam and demonstrate the transfer of optical orbital angular momentum to the valence electron of a single trapped ion. We observe strongly modified selection rules showing that an atom can absorb two quanta of angular momentum from a single photon: one from the spin and another from the spatial structure of the beam. Furthermore, we show that parasitic ac-Stark shifts from off-resonant transitions are suppressed in the dark centre of vortex beams. These results show how light's spatial structure can determine the characteristics of light–matter interaction and pave the way for its application and observation in other systems. PMID:27694805
Transfer of optical orbital angular momentum to a bound electron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmiegelow, Christian T.; Schulz, Jonas; Kaufmann, Henning; Ruster, Thomas; Poschinger, Ulrich G.; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand
2016-10-01
Photons can carry angular momentum, not only due to their spin, but also due to their spatial structure. This extra twist has been used, for example, to drive circular motion of microscopic particles in optical tweezers as well as to create vortices in quantum gases. Here we excite an atomic transition with a vortex laser beam and demonstrate the transfer of optical orbital angular momentum to the valence electron of a single trapped ion. We observe strongly modified selection rules showing that an atom can absorb two quanta of angular momentum from a single photon: one from the spin and another from the spatial structure of the beam. Furthermore, we show that parasitic ac-Stark shifts from off-resonant transitions are suppressed in the dark centre of vortex beams. These results show how light's spatial structure can determine the characteristics of light-matter interaction and pave the way for its application and observation in other systems.
The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan
2011-01-01
Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated
Energy, momentum and angular momentum conservations in de Sitter gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Jia-An
2016-08-01
In de Sitter (dS) gravity, where gravity is a gauge field introduced to realize the local dS invariance of the matter field, two kinds of conservation laws are derived. The first kind is a differential equation for a dS-covariant current, which unites the canonical energy-momentum (EM) and angular momentum (AM) tensors. The second kind presents a dS-invariant current which is conserved in the sense that its torsion-free divergence vanishes. The dS-invariant current unites the total (matter plus gravity) EM and AM currents. It is well known that the AM current contains an inherent part, called the spin current. Here it is shown that the EM tensor also contains an inherent part, which might be observed by its contribution to the deviation of the dust particle’s world line from a geodesic. All the results are compared to the ordinary Lorentz gravity.
Angular Momentum and Galaxy Formation Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Fall, S. Michael
2012-12-01
Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j sstarf and mass M sstarf (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j sstarf reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j sstarf in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of ~100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j sstarf versus M sstarf. The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j sstarf-M sstarf tracks, with log-slopes of ~0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of ~3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and ~7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j sstarf-M sstarf trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow separate, fundamental j sstarf
Studies of transverse momentum dependent parton distributions and Bessel weighting
Aghasyan, M.; Avakian, H.; De Sanctis, E.; Gamberg, L.; Mirazita, M.; Musch, B.; Prokudin, A.; Rossi, P.
2015-03-01
In this paper we present a new technique for analysis of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions, based on the Bessel weighting formalism. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. Using a fully differential cross section for the process, the effect of four momentum conservation is analyzed using various input models for transverse momentum distributions and fragmentation functions. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy/Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.
Studies of transverse momentum dependent parton distributions and Bessel weighting
Aghasyan, M.; Avakian, H.; De Sanctis, E.; ...
2015-03-01
In this paper we present a new technique for analysis of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions, based on the Bessel weighting formalism. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. Using a fully differential cross section for the process, the effect of four momentum conservation is analyzed using various input models for transverse momentum distributions and fragmentation functions. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Montemore » Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy/Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.« less
Electroencephalographic field influence on calcium momentum waves.
Ingber, Lester; Pappalepore, Marco; Stesiak, Ronald R
2014-02-21
Macroscopic electroencephalographic (EEG) fields can be an explicit top-down neocortical mechanism that directly drives bottom-up processes that describe memory, attention, and other neuronal processes. The top-down mechanism considered is macrocolumnar EEG firings in neocortex, as described by a statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI), developed as a magnetic vector potential A. The bottom-up process considered is Ca(2+) waves prominent in synaptic and extracellular processes that are considered to greatly influence neuronal firings. Here, the complimentary effects are considered, i.e., the influence of A on Ca(2+) momentum, p. The canonical momentum of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field, Π=p+qA (SI units), is calculated, where the charge of Ca(2+) is q=-2e, e is the magnitude of the charge of an electron. Calculations demonstrate that macroscopic EEG A can be quite influential on the momentum p of Ca(2+) ions, in both classical and quantum mechanics. Molecular scales of Ca(2+) wave dynamics are coupled with A fields developed at macroscopic regional scales measured by coherent neuronal firing activity measured by scalp EEG. The project has three main aspects: fitting A models to EEG data as reported here, building tripartite models to develop A models, and studying long coherence times of Ca(2+) waves in the presence of A due to coherent neuronal firings measured by scalp EEG. The SMNI model supports a mechanism wherein the p+qA interaction at tripartite synapses, via a dynamic centering mechanism (DCM) to control background synaptic activity, acts to maintain short-term memory (STM) during states of selective attention.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Claude S.
Two wet deposition monitoring networks, the Coleson Cove Precipitation Monitoring Network (CCPMN) (12 stations) located in the Coleson Cove-Saint John area of south New Brunswick, and the Expanded New Brunswick Precipitation Monitoring Network (ENBPMN) (6 stations) covering the remainder of the province, were established in May 1988. The monitoring networks and a complementary modelling study were implemented to assess the relative contributions of local and distant sources to wet deposition in New Brunswick. Quality assurance/quality control activities for the networks included independent external audits, collocated samplers at one site and comparisons of weekly measurements at the ENBPMN sampler and the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN) sampler which makes daily measurements. The intercomparisons provided reassurance that the networks provided high quality data. Analysis of 2 years (June 1988-May 1990) data from the networks included routine statistical analyses for acid rain chemistry as well as analysis of 1 year of daily back trajectory data from Harcourt, New Brunswick. Three-day back trajectories determined at 12-h intervals from Harcourt on days with precipitatio showed that air masses originate mainly from regions in Quebec, Ontario and northeast U.S.A. which are known to have high sulphur oxide emissions. Some 18 trajectories were associated with 50% of the wet sulphate deposition and over 200 trajectories with 75% of the deposition in the 1-year period ending 31 May 1989. The MESOPUFF model, applied to an 800 km by 800 km domain that included the entire province of New Brunswick, was used to make predictions of wet sulphate and nitrate deposition at each of the wet deposition monitoring stations for a 2-year period, 1 June 1988-31 May 1990. Model predictions averaged over all receptors due to all sources in the model domain accounted for 7-25% of the measured seasonal average wet sulphate deposition and less than 3% of the
Population momentum across the demographic transition.
Blue, Laura; Espenshade, Thomas J
2011-01-01
Population momentum is the main driver of global population growth today, and this makes an appreciation of momentum critical to understanding contemporary worldwide growth dynamics. This article traces population momentum along with two recently defined measures of momentum decomposed—stable and nonstable momentum—across the demographic transition. We use historical data and population projections from 16 countries to illustrate some previously ignored empirical regularities of the demographic transition in both the developed and the developing world. We also demonstrate the dynamic nature of stable and nonstable momentum, as changes in stable momentum lead to predictable changes in current and future nonstable momentum. These results suggest that momentum, which by definition is measured at a point in time, can also be considered as a process that unfolds over time.
Extinction, relapse, and behavioral momentum.
Podlesnik, Christopher A; Shahan, Timothy A
2010-05-01
Previous experiments on behavioral momentum have shown that relative resistance to extinction of operant behavior in the presence of a discriminative stimulus depends upon the baseline rate or magnitude of reinforcement associated with that stimulus (i.e., the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation). Recently, we have shown that relapse of operant behavior in reinstatement, resurgence, and context renewal preparations also is a function of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations. In this paper we present new data examining the role of baseline stimulus-reinforcer relations on resistance to extinction and relapse using a variety of baseline training conditions and relapse operations. Furthermore, we evaluate the adequacy of a behavioral momentum based model in accounting for the results. The model suggests that relapse occurs as a result of a decrease in the disruptive impact of extinction precipitated by a change in circumstances associated with extinction, and that the degree of relapse is a function of the pre-extinction baseline Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation. Across experiments, relative resistance to extinction and relapse were greater in the presence of stimuli associated with more favorable conditions of reinforcement and were positively related to one another. In addition, the model did a good job in accounting for these effects. Thus, behavioral momentum theory may provide a useful quantitative approach for characterizing how differential reinforcement conditions contribute to relapse of operant behavior.
GOES-R STATIONKEEPING AND MOMENTUM MANAGEMENT
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, Donald; Chen, Sam; Early, Derrick; Freesland, Doug; Krimchansky, Alexander; Naasz, Bo; Reth, Alan; Tadikonda, Kumar; Tsui, John; Walsh, Tim
2006-01-01
The NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) fire thrusters to remain within a 1deg longitude-latitude box and to dump accumulated angular momentum. In the past, maneuvers have disrupted GOES imaging due to attitude transients and the loss of orbit knowledge. If the R-series of spacecraft to be launched starting in 2012 were to follow current practice, maneuvers would still fail to meet Image Navigation and Registration (INR) specifications during and after thruster firings. Although maneuvers and recovery take only one percent of spacecraft lifetime, they sometimes come at inopportune times, such as hurricane season, when coverage is critical. To alleviate this problem, thruster firings small enough not to affect imaging are being considered. Eliminating post-maneuver recovery periods increases availability and facilitates autonomous operation. Frequent maneuvers also reduce 1ongitudeAatitude variation and allow satellite co-location. Improved orbit observations come from a high-altitude GPS receiver, and improved attitude control comes from thruster torque compensation. This paper reviews the effects of thruster firings on position knowledge and pointing control and suggests that low-thrust burns plus GPS and feedforward control offer a less disruptive approach to GOES-R stationkeeping and momentum management.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fetzer, Eric J.; Gille, John C.
1996-02-01
Zonal-mean gravity wave variance in the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) temperature data is seen to correlate strongly with the residual term in the LIMS zonal-mean momentum budget throughout much of the observed mesosphere. This momentum residual is attributed to gravity wave momentum transport at scales that cannot be directly sampled by the LIMS instrument Correlation is highest in the vicinity of the fall and winter mesospheric jets, where both gravity wave variance and momentum residual reach their largest values. Correlation is also high in the Southern Hemisphere subtropical mesophere, where gravity wave variance and the momentum residual have broad temporal maxima during the easterly acceleration of the stratopause semi-annual oscillation (SAO). This subtropical correlation has important implications for the SAO eastward acceleration, which several studies suggest is forced by gravity wave momentum flux divergence. Correlation between gravity wave variance and inferred gravity wave momentum flux divergence is unexpected because variance is dominated by large scales and long periods (inertio-gravity waves), while both theoretical arguments and ground-based observations indicate that momentum transport is dominated by periods under 1 h. The results of this study suggest a broadband gravity wave field experiencing forcing and loss processes, which are largely independent of frequency.
Angular Momentum Decomposition for an Electron
Burkardt, Matthias; BC, Hikmat
2009-01-01
We calculate the orbital angular momentum of the `quark' in the scalar diquark model as well as that of the electron in QED (to order $\\alpha$). We compare the orbital angular momentum obtained from the Jaffe-Manohar decomposition to that obtained from the Ji relation and estimate the importance of the vector potential in the definition of orbital angular momentum.
Impact of poloidal convective cells on momentum flux in tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garbet, X.; Asahi, Y.; Donnel, P.; Ehrlacher, C.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Grandgirard, V.; Sarazin, Y.
2017-01-01
Radial fluxes of parallel momentum due to E× B and magnetic drifts are shown to be correlated in tokamak plasmas. This correlation comes from the onset of poloidal convective cells generated by turbulence. The entire process requires a symmetry breaking mechanism, e.g. a mean shear flow. An analytical calculation shows that anti-correlation between the poloidal and parallel components of the turbulent Reynolds stress results in anti-correlation of the fluxes of parallel momentum generated by E× B and curvature drifts.
Plasmons carrying orbital angular momentum in quantum plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Shabbir A.; Ali, S.; Mendonca, J. T.; Mendonca
2013-10-01
The existence of plasmons with orbital angular momentum due to the Laguerre-Gaussian-type density and potential perturbations is studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma. Starting from appropriate hydrodynamic equations for the electrostatic electron dynamics, a dispersion equation is derived in paraxial approximation. The Laguerre-Gaussian beam solutions are obtained and the properties of electric field components, energy flux, and corresponding angular momentum density of plasmons are investigated. The electric field lines are found to form helical structures with a dominant axial component. The results are analyzed numerically and the influence of radial and angular mode numbers on potential and electric field components is illustrated.
Momentum Exchange between Light and a Single Atom: Abraham or Minkowski?
Hinds, E A; Barnett, Stephen M
2009-02-06
We consider forces on an atom due to a plane-wave light pulse. The standard view of the optical dipole force indicates that red-detuned light should attract the atom towards high intensity. While the atom is inside the pulse, this would increase the average momentum per photon from p_{0} to p_{0}n, where n is the average refractive index due to the presence of the atom. We show, however, that this is the wrong conclusion and that the dispersive forces repel the atom from the light in this particular case, giving the photons a momentum p_{0}/n. This leads us to identify Abraham's optical momentum with the kinetic momentum transfer. The form due to Minkowski is similarly associated with the canonical momentum. We consider the possibility of demonstrating this in the laboratory, and we note an unexpected connection with the Aharonov-Casher effect.
Toroidal momentum channeling of geodesic acoustic modes driven by fast ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasaki, M.; Kasuya, N.; Itoh, K.; Kosuga, Y.; Lesur, M.; Hallatschek, K.; Itoh, S.-I.
2017-03-01
Toroidal momentum channeling by fast ion-driven geodesic acoustic mode (EGAM) is proposed based on a quasi-linear analysis. We focus on a branch due to the magnetic drift resonance. Without the magnetic drift resonance, the eigenfunction of the EGAM has up–down anti-symmetric property in the poloidal direction, and the toroidal momentum flux by the EGAM is zero. If the magnetic drift resonance is considered, the up–down anti-symmetry in the poloidal eigenfunction is violated, and, as a result, the toroidal momentum flux becomes finite. Comparing its magnitude to the other processes such as external momentum input, and the turbulent residual stress, the momentum flux induced by the EGAM is found to be significant in the total momentum balance. This suggests that EGAMs can be used as a control knob for the toroidal rotation.
Relevance of angular momentum conservation in mesoscale hydrodynamics simulations.
Götze, Ingo O; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard
2007-10-01
The angular momentum is conserved in fluids with a few exceptions such as ferrofluids. However, it can be violated locally in fluid simulations to reduce computational costs. The effects of this violation are investigated using a particle-based simulation method, multiparticle collision dynamics, which can switch on or off angular-momentum conservation. To this end, we study circular Couette flows between concentric and eccentric cylinders, where nonphysical torques due to the lack of the angular-momentum conservation are found whereas the velocity field is not affected. In addition, in simulations of fluids with different viscosities in contact and star polymers in solvent, incorrect angular velocities occur. These results quantitatively agree with the theoretical predictions based on the macroscopic stress tensor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanikawa, W.; Mizoguchi, K.; Takahashi, M.; Masuda, K.; Hirono, T.; Lin, W.; Soh, W.; Song, S.
2006-12-01
Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) was started from 2002 to investigate the faulting mechanism of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. TCDP was succeeded in penetrating the Chelungpu fault and recovered core samples from two holes, Hole A and Hole B. In Hole B, three fault zones, FZB1136 (1134-1137 m), FZB1194 (1194-1197 m), and FZB1243 (1242-1244 m), were recognized in the core samples (Hirono et al., 2006). Micro- textual observation and rock magnetic analyses of fault zones implied the evidence of heat generation, though the temperature did not reach the melting point. Borehole temperature measurement in Hole A observed the very low temperature anomaly around the fault zone (Kano et al., 2006). These results suggest the low degree of the frictional heating due to very low friction during the slip. The possible low friction might be explained by the slip within clay rich fault gouge with low shear strength. The other possible mechanisms are dynamic weakening behaviors of the fault zone, such as thermal pressurization and elast-hydrodynamic lubrication. To demonstrate the assumptions, the transport properties and the strength of the fault rocks are measured using core samples. Core samples of three fault zones in Hole B (FZB1136, FZB1194, and FZB1243) are selected for our laboratory experiments. Permeability and specific storage for fault rocks were measured under high confining pressure up to 100 MPa. Nitrogen gas was used as a pore fluid, and gas permeability was transformed to water permeability from gas permeability dependence on pore pressure of Klinkenberg equation. In FZB1136, permeability for fault breccia showed around 10-16 m2 at 1km depth which is similar value to that for host rock of siltstone and fracture rocks. In FZB1194, permeability of black fault gouge was about 10^{-15} m2, is larger than surrounding rocks. Frictional tests were also conducted using fault gouge samples with less than 100 μm of grain size. Tests are performed under the
Orbital Propagation of Momentum Exchange Tether Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Westerhoff, John
2002-01-01
An advanced concept in in-space transportation currently being studied is the Momentum-Exchange/Electrodynamic Reboost Tether System (MXER). The system acts as a large momentum wheel, imparting a Av to a payload in low earth orbit (LEO) at the expense of its own orbital energy. After throwing a payload, the system reboosts itself using an electrodynamic tether to push against Earth's magnetic field and brings itself back up to an operational orbit to prepare for the next payload. The ability to reboost itself allows for continued reuse of the system without the expenditure of propellants. Considering the cost of lifting propellant from the ,ground to LEO to do the same Av boost at $10000 per pound, the system cuts the launch cost of the payload dramatically, and subsequently, the MXER system pays for itself after a small number of missions.1 One of the technical hurdles to be overcome with the MXER concept is the rendezvous maneuver. The rendezvous window for the capture of the payload is on the order of a few seconds, as opposed to traditional docking maneuvers, which can take as long ets necessary to complete a precise docking. The payload, therefore, must be able to match its orbit to meet up with the capture device on the end of the tether at a specific time and location in the future. In order to be able to determine that location, the MXER system must be numerically propagated forward in time to predict where the capture device will be at that instant. It should be kept in mind that the propagation computation must be done faster than real-time. This study focuses on the efforts to find and/or build the tools necessary to numerically propagate the motion of the MXER system as accurately as possible.
Confining potential in momentum space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norbury, John W.; Kahana, David E.; Maung, Khin Maung
1992-01-01
A method is presented for the solution in momentum space of the bound state problem with a linear potential in r space. The potential is unbounded at large r leading to a singularity at small q. The singularity is integrable, when regulated by exponentially screening the r-space potential, and is removed by a subtraction technique. The limit of zero screening is taken analytically, and the numerical solution of the subtracted integral equation gives eigenvalues and wave functions in good agreement with position space calculations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Conrath, B. J.
1981-01-01
Superrotation rates observed in planetary atmospheres are analyzed based on the concept of a thermally driven zonally symmetric circulation. Specifically, how this superrotation is produced and maintained against the tendency for friction to oppose differential motions between the atmosphere and the underlying planet is addressed. The time evolution of a fluid leading from corotation under uniform heating to superrotation under globally nonuniform heating is simulated using a three dimensional zonally symmetric spectral model and Laplace transformation. The increased tendency toward geostrophy combined with the increase of surface pressure toward the poles (due to meridional mass transport), induces the atmosphere to subrotate temporarily at lower altitudes. The resulting viscous shear near the surface thus permits angular momentum to flow from the planet into the atmosphere where it propagates upwards and, combined with the change in moment of inertia, produces large superrotation rates at higher viscosities.
Rehak, Pavel; Gatti, Emilio
1987-01-01
A semiconductor charge transport device and method for making same, characterized by providing a thin semiconductor wafer having rectifying junctions on its opposing major surfaces and including a small capacitance ohmic contact, in combination with bias voltage means and associated circuit means for applying a predetermined voltage to effectively deplete the wafer in regions thereof between the rectifying junctions and the ohmic contact. A charge transport device of the invention is usable as a drift chamber, a low capacitance detector, or a charge coupled device each constructed according to the methods of the invention for making such devices. Detectors constructed according to the principles of the invention are characterized by having significantly higher particle position indicating resolution than is attainable with prior art detectors, while at the same time requiring substantially fewer readout channels to realize such high resolution.
Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.
1987-08-18
A semiconductor charge transport device and method for making same are disclosed, characterized by providing a thin semiconductor wafer having rectifying junctions on its opposing major surfaces and including a small capacitance ohmic contact, in combination with bias voltage means and associated circuit means for applying a predetermined voltage to effectively deplete the wafer in regions thereof between the rectifying junctions and the ohmic contact. A charge transport device of the invention is usable as a drift chamber, a low capacitance detector, or a charge coupled device each constructed according to the methods of the invention for making such devices. Detectors constructed according to the principles of the invention are characterized by having significantly higher particle position indicating resolution than is attainable with prior art detectors, while at the same time requiring substantially fewer readout channels to realize such high resolution. 16 figs.
Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.
1984-02-24
A semiconductor charge transport device and method for making same, characterized by providing a thin semiconductor wafer having rectifying functions on its opposing major surfaces and including a small capacitance ohmic contact, in combination with bias voltage means and associated circuit means for applying a predetermined voltage to effectively deplete the wafer in regions thereof between the rectifying junctions and the ohmic contact. A charge transport device of the invention is usable as a drift chamber, a low capacitance detector, or a charge coupled device each constructed according to the methods of the invention for making such devices. Detectors constructed according to the principles of the invention are characterized by having significantly higher particle position indicating resolution than is attainable with prior art detectors, while at the same time requiring substantially fewer readout channels to realize such high resolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Dong Keun; Hong, Sung Mok; Lee, Cheol Eui; Kim, B.-S.; Jin, J.-I.
2005-12-01
Using the time of flight (ToF) method, we investigated the bipolar charge transport for two glass-forming molecules containing carbazole and cyano-carbazole moiety. The enhanced electron mobility was observed in the cyano-carbazole compound. From the numerical method based the Laplace formalism, the distribution of hole trapping energy was obtained for the carbazole compound. This result was compared with the exponential distribution extracted from dispersion parameter for the cyano-carbazole material. Considering charge-dipole interactions as a reason for the disordered trapping mechanism, we discussed dispersive charge transport induced by a strong dipolar (i.e. cyano) group by comparing the distributions of hole trapping sites for two compounds.
On the vertical exchange of heat, mass and momentum over complex, mountainous terrain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rotach, Mathias; Gohm, Alexander; Lang, Moritz; Leukauf, Daniel; Stiperski, Ivana; Wagner, Johannes
2015-12-01
The role of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in the atmosphere-climate system is the exchange of heat, mass and momentum between 'the earth's surface' and the atmosphere. Traditionally, it is understood that turbulent transport is responsible for this exchange and hence the understanding and physical description of the turbulence structure of the boundary layer is key to assess the effectiveness of earth-atmosphere exchange. This understanding is rooted in the (implicit) assumption of a scale separation or spectral gap between turbulence and mean atmospheric motions, which in turn leads to the assumption of a horizontally homogeneous and flat (HHF) surface as a reference, for which both physical understanding and model parameterizations have successfully been developed over the years. Over mountainous terrain, however, the ABL is generically inhomogeneous due to both thermal (radiative) and dynamic forcing. This inhomogeneity leads to meso-scale and even sub-meso-scale flows such as slope and valley winds or wake effects. It is argued here that these (sub)meso-scale motions can significantly contribute to the vertical structure of the boundary layer and hence vertical exchange of heat and mass between the surface and the atmosphere. If model grid resolution is not high enough the latter will have to be parameterized (in a similar fashion as gravity wave drag parameterizations take into account the momentum transport due to gravity waves in large-scale models). In this contribution we summarize the available evidence of the contribution of (sub)meso-scale motions to vertical exchange in mountainous terrain from observational and numerical modeling studies. In particular, a number of recent simulation studies using idealized topography will be summarized and put into perspective - so as to identify possible limitations and areas of necessary future research.
Hidden momentum in a hydrogen atom and the Lorentz-force law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filho, J. S. Oliveira; Saldanha, Pablo L.
2015-11-01
By using perturbation theory, we show that a hydrogen atom with magnetic moment due to the orbital angular momentum of the electron has so-called hidden momentum in the presence of an external electric field. This means that the atomic electronic cloud has a nonzero linear momentum in its center-of-mass rest frame due to a relativistic effect. This is completely analogous to the hidden momentum that a classical current loop has in the presence of an external electric field. We discuss how this effect is essential for the validity of the Lorentz-force law in quantum systems. We also connect our results to the long-standing Abraham-Minkowski debate about the momentum of light in material media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vahid, Abbasi; Ahmad, Gholami; Kaveh, Niayesh
2013-06-01
In a gas circuit breaker, metal vapor resulting from electrode erosion is injected into the arc plasma. The arc then burns in a mixture of SF6 and electrode vapor, which has properties significantly different from those of pure SF6. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of thermal plasmas formed in SF6-copper vapor mixtures change as a function of temperature and pressure. The property that is mostly affected by the presence of copper is electrical conductivity, which is important in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis. In this study, the transport coefficients of SF6 in the presence of 10 percent copper are considered as the basis of MHD simulation. Comparisons are made between the results during arc formation for pure SF6 and SF6-Cu mixture in a medium voltage (MV) circuit breaker. According to the transport coefficients influenced by the SF6-Cu mixture, the distribution of the electric potential, temperature, electromagnetic force density and current density of the arc column are presented and discussed. Also, the arc stability and pinch effect near current zero with 3-D simulation are investigated, which is advantageous to improving the efficiency of arc plasma simulation.
CONFERENCE REPORT: 13th EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop on transport in fusion plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connor, J. W.; Fasoli, A.; Hidalgo, C.; Kirk, A.; Naulin, V.; Peeters, A. G.; Tala, T.
2009-04-01
This report summarizes the contributions presented at the 13th EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop on transport in fusion plasmas, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, 1-4 September 2008. There were sessions on core heat and particle transport; core and edge momentum transport; edge and scrape-off-layer transport and MHD and fast particle interaction with transport.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walterscheid, R. L.; Gelinas, L. J.; Mechoso, C. R.; Schubert, G.
2016-07-01
Gravity waves generated by flow over the steep topography of the Antarctic Peninsula transport significant amounts of zonal and meridional momentum into the stratosphere. Quantitative determination of this transport has been carried out for wave periods of 1 h or greater using data from a previous Antarctic superpressure balloon campaign in austral spring 2005 (VORCORE). The present study uses data from the later Concordiasi campaign (2010) to extend the momentum flux determination to shorter periods. Maps of the vertical fluxes of meridional and zonal momentum are presented for periods down to 12 min. We find that the momentum fluxes for periods below 1 h are comparable to those at longer periods, despite larger variances at longer periods. The momentum fluxes in the vicinity of the peninsula provide a significant zonal acceleration of the lower stratosphere, confirming a conclusion from the VORCORE data. The geographical distribution of fluxes around the peninsula has peaks both leeward and windward of the main terrain features. Numerical simulations suggest that the separate peaks may be related to wave transience caused by unsteady winds over the peninsula. Momentum fluxes comprise a main distribution maximizing at moderate flux values and a secondary distribution maximizing at high values exhibiting a high degree of intermittency. The high flux events account for the largest part of the average flux and suggest that drag parameterizations should take them into account. It is found that waves generated by the jet stream are also a significant source of momentum flux.
Coulomb wave functions in momentum space
Eremenko, V.; Upadhyay, N. J.; Thompson, I. J.; ...
2015-10-15
We present an algorithm to calculate non-relativistic partial-wave Coulomb functions in momentum space. The arguments are the Sommerfeld parameter η, the angular momentum l, the asymptotic momentum q and the 'running' momentum p, where both momenta are real. Since the partial-wave Coulomb functions exhibit singular behavior when p → q, different representations of the Legendre functions of the 2nd kind need to be implemented in computing the functions for the values of p close to the singularity and far away from it. The code for the momentum-space Coulomb wave functions is applicable for values of vertical bar eta vertical barmore » in the range of 10-1 to 10, and thus is particularly suited for momentum space calculations of nuclear reactions.« less
Coulomb wave functions in momentum space
Eremenko, V.; Upadhyay, N. J.; Thompson, I. J.; Elster, Ch.; Nunes, F. M.; Arbanas, G.; Escher, J. E.; Hlophe, L.
2015-10-15
We present an algorithm to calculate non-relativistic partial-wave Coulomb functions in momentum space. The arguments are the Sommerfeld parameter η, the angular momentum l, the asymptotic momentum q and the 'running' momentum p, where both momenta are real. Since the partial-wave Coulomb functions exhibit singular behavior when p → q, different representations of the Legendre functions of the 2nd kind need to be implemented in computing the functions for the values of p close to the singularity and far away from it. The code for the momentum-space Coulomb wave functions is applicable for values of vertical bar eta vertical bar in the range of 10^{-1} to 10, and thus is particularly suited for momentum space calculations of nuclear reactions.
Electromagnetic energy momentum in dispersive media
Philbin, T. G.
2011-01-15
The standard derivations of electromagnetic energy and momentum in media take Maxwell's equations as the starting point. It is well known that for dispersive media this approach does not directly yield exact expressions for the energy and momentum densities. Although Maxwell's equations fully describe electromagnetic fields, the general approach to conserved quantities in field theory is not based on the field equations, but rather on the action. Here an action principle for macroscopic electromagnetism in dispersive, lossless media is used to derive the exact conserved energy-momentum tensor. The time-averaged energy density reduces to Brillouin's simple formula when the fields are monochromatic. The time-averaged momentum density for monochromatic fields corresponds to the familiar Minkowski expression DxB, but for general fields in dispersive media the momentum density does not have the Minkowski value. The results are unaffected by the debate over momentum balance in light-matter interactions.
Momentum and Hamiltonian in Complex Action Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagao, Keiichi; Nielsen, Holger Bech
In the complex action theory (CAT) we explicitly examine how the momentum and Hamiltonian are defined from the Feynman path integral (FPI) point of view based on the complex coordinate formalism of our foregoing paper. After reviewing the formalism briefly, we describe in FPI with a Lagrangian the time development of a ξ-parametrized wave function, which is a solution to an eigenvalue problem of a momentum operator. Solving this eigenvalue problem, we derive the momentum and Hamiltonian. Oppositely, starting from the Hamiltonian we derive the Lagrangian in FPI, and we are led to the momentum relation again via the saddle point for p. This study confirms that the momentum and Hamiltonian in the CAT have the same forms as those in the real action theory. We also show the third derivation of the momentum relation via the saddle point for q.
Tavarez-Pagan, J.J.; Oliveira, C.M.; Banerjee, D.K. )
1990-02-26
Factor VIII:C (Antihemophilia Factor A) in capillary endothelial cells from bovine adrenal medulla found to contain M{sub r} 200,000 and M{sub r} 46,000 dalton protein species when analyzed by SDS-PAGE under reduced condition. But the secretory FVIII:C under non-reduced condition gave rise to a protein of M{sub r} 270,000 dalton indicating that the heavy and light chains are held together by S-S bridge. Upon stimulation of these cells with {beta}-agonist, isoproterenol (10{sup {minus}7} M), a 2-fold increase in the ratio of ({sup 3}H)-mannose to ({sup 35}S)-methionine incorporation in immunoprecipitated FVIII:C was observed. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of this increase, a detail study of sugar transport was carried out. The transport of 2-deoxy-D-({sup 3}H)-glucose in these cells was time and temperature dependent. Furthermore, inhibition of 2-deoxy-D-({sup 3}H)-glucose uptake by cytochalasin B strongly supported for a carrier mediated process. However, when the transport studies were conducted in the presence of isoproterenol at 10{sup {minus}5} M or 10{sup {minus}7} M or 8 Br-cAMP (2 mM) no increase was observed. The kinetic studies indicated that the K{sub m} and V{sub max} for 2 deoxy-D-({sup 3}H)-glucose were 0.24 mM and 0.88 nmol/mg protein/minute, respectively under normal conditions but these values were changed to 0.37 mM and 0.69 nmol/mg protein/minute when stimulated with isoproterenol (10{sup {minus}7}M).
Anderson, Joel G; Fordahl, Steven C; Cooney, Paula T; Weaver, Tara L; Colyer, Christa L; Erikson, Keith M
2009-07-24
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element, but overexposure is characterized by Parkinson's like symptoms in extreme cases. Previous studies have shown that Mn accumulation is exacerbated by dietary iron deficiency (ID) and disturbances in norepinephrine (NE) have been reported. Because behaviors associated with Mn neurotoxicity are complex, the goal of this study was to examine the effects of Mn exposure and ID-associated Mn accumulation on NE uptake in synaptosomes, extracellular NE concentrations, and expression of NE transport and receptor proteins. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four dietary groups: control (CN; 35 mg Fe/kg diet), iron-deficient (ID; 6 mg Fe/kg diet), CN with Mn exposure (via the drinking water; 1 g Mn/L) (CNMn), and ID with Mn (IDMn). (3)H-NE uptake decreased significantly (R=-0.753, p=0.001) with increased Mn concentration in the locus coeruleus, while decreased Fe was associated with decreased uptake of (3)H-NE in the caudate putamen (R=0.436, p=0.033) and locus coeruleus (R=0.86; p<0.001). Extracellular concentrations of NE in the caudate putamen were significantly decreased in response to Mn exposure and ID (p<0.001). A diverse response of Mn exposure and ID was observed on mRNA and protein expression of NE transporter (NET) and alpha(2) adrenergic receptor. For example, elevated brain Mn and decreased Fe caused an approximate 50% decrease in NET and alpha(2) adrenergic receptor protein expression in several brain regions, with reductions in mRNA expression also observed. These data suggest that Mn exposure results in a decrease in NE uptake and extracellular NE concentrations via altered expression of transport and receptor proteins.
Horizontal density-gradient effects on simulation of flow and transport in the Potomac Estuary
Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Baltzer, Robert A.; ,
1990-01-01
A two-dimensional, depth-integrated, hydrodynamic/transport model of the Potomac Estuary between Indian Head and Morgantown, Md., has been extended to include treatment of baroclinic forcing due to horizontal density gradients. The finite-difference model numerically integrates equations of mass and momentum conservation in conjunction with a transport equation for heat, salt, and constituent fluxes. Lateral and longitudinal density gradients are determined from salinity distributions computed from the convection-diffusion equation and an equation of state that expresses density as a function of temperature and salinity; thus, the hydrodynamic and transport computations are directly coupled. Horizontal density variations are shown to contribute significantly to momentum fluxes determined in the hydrodynamic computation. These fluxes lead to enchanced tidal pumping, and consequently greater dispersion, as is evidenced by numerical simulations. Density gradient effects on tidal propagation and transport behavior are discussed and demonstrated.
Mood as Representation of Momentum
Eldar, Eran; Rutledge, Robb B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Niv, Yael
2016-01-01
Experiences affect mood, which in turn affects subsequent experiences. Recent studies suggest two specific principles. First, mood depends on how recent reward outcomes differ from expectations. Second, mood biases the way we perceive outcomes (e.g., rewards), and this bias affects learning about those outcomes. We propose that this two-way interaction serves to mitigate inefficiencies in the application of reinforcement learning to real-world problems. Specifically, we propose that mood represents the overall momentum of recent outcomes, and its biasing influence on the perception of outcomes ‘corrects’ learning to account for environmental dependencies. We describe potential dysfunctions of this adaptive mechanism that might contribute to the symptoms of mood disorders. PMID:26545853
Novel Detection of Optical Orbital Angular Momentum
2014-11-16
AFRL-RD-PS- AFRL-RD-PS TR-2014-0045 TR-2014-0045 Novel Detection of Optical Orbital Angular Momentum David Voelz Klipsch...Orbital Angular Momentum FA9451-13-1-0261 GR0004113 David Voelz Klipsch School of ECE New Mexico State University MSC 3-O, PO Box 30001 Las Cruces, NM...1026 . Government Purpose Rights. A light beam carry Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) has typical wave front and singularity at the optical axis. The
Chirality and the angular momentum of light.
Cameron, Robert P; Götte, Jörg B; Barnett, Stephen M; Yao, Alison M
2017-02-28
Chirality is exhibited by objects that cannot be rotated into their mirror images. It is far from obvious that this has anything to do with the angular momentum of light, which owes its existence to rotational symmetries. There is nevertheless a subtle connection between chirality and the angular momentum of light. We demonstrate this connection and, in particular, its significance in the context of chiral light-matter interactions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
Orbital angular momentum in phase space
Rigas, I.; Sanchez-Soto, L.L.; Klimov, A.B.; Rehacek, J.; Hradil, Z.
2011-02-15
Research Highlights: > We propose a comprehensive Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum. > We present a simple and useful toolkit for the practitioner. > We derive simple evolution equations in terms of a star product in the semiclassical limit. - Abstract: A comprehensive theory of the Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum is presented. Special attention is paid to the problems linked to rotational periodicity and angular-momentum discreteness.
Chirality and the angular momentum of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cameron, Robert P.; Götte, Jörg B.; Barnett, Stephen M.; Yao, Alison M.
2017-02-01
Chirality is exhibited by objects that cannot be rotated into their mirror images. It is far from obvious that this has anything to do with the angular momentum of light, which owes its existence to rotational symmetries. There is nevertheless a subtle connection between chirality and the angular momentum of light. We demonstrate this connection and, in particular, its significance in the context of chiral light-matter interactions. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
Water transport with a carbon nanotube pump.
Duan, Wen Hui; Wang, Quan
2010-04-27
Transportation of water molecules in a carbon nanotube based on an energy pump concept is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. A small portion of the initially twisted wall of a carbon nanotube is employed to function as an energy pump for possible smooth transportation of water molecules. The momentum and resultant force on a water molecule and the corresponding displacement and velocity of the molecule are particularly studied to disclose the transportation process. The efficiency of the transportation is found to be dependent on the size of the energy pump. Once the process for the transportation of one molecule is elucidated, transportations of 20 water molecules are simulated to investigate the effect of the environmental temperature and fluctuations in the nanotube channel on the transportation. It is revealed that the accelerated period of multiple water molecules is longer than that in the transportation of a single water molecule. In addition, the fluctuations in the nanotube wall due to the buckling propagation and a higher environmental temperature will all lead to obvious decreases in the water velocity and hence retard the transportation process.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, Anne M.; Doddridge, Bruce G.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Hudson, Robert D.; Luke, Winston T.; Johnson, James E.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
On this first North American to southern African oceanographic cruise with ozonesonde launches (January and February 1999 on board the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H Brown between Norfolk, VA, and Cape Town, South Africa) we found: (1) high ozone, CO, and aerosols off northern equatorial Africa from biomass burning, but even higher ozone concentrations off southern Africa which was not burning - an "ozone paradox"; (2) TOMS satellite evidence that south Atlantic elevated ozone in January-February 1999 was a regional feature similar in extent to the well-known September-October ozone maximum. Several mechanisms are considered to explain the "ozone paradox." Convection transporting air from the lower troposphere rich in ozone and/or ozone precursors to the upper troposphere through the ITCZ (intertropical Convergence Zone) may lead to cross-hemisphere transport of pollution. This is supported by trajectory linkage of lower-tropospheric ozone maxima with smoke seen by the TOMS satellite. Lightning-generated NO (nitric oxide) leading to ozone peaks of > 100 ppbv observed at 7-10 km altitude is another explanation. The TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) Lightning Imaging Sounder shows many lightning flashes over southern Africa, which trajectories link to the high-ozone layers south of the ITCZ. The highest ozone peaks in the middle troposphere correspond to very low water vapor, which may point to photochemical destruction of ozone or subsidence from the upper troposphere which had interacted with stratospheric ozone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J.; Johnson, Matthew S.; Wang, Lihua; Burris, John; Pierce, Robert B.; Eloranta, Edwin W.; Pollack, Ilana B.; Graus, Martin; Gouw, Joost; Warneke, Carsten; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Markovic, Milos Z.; Holloway, John S.; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Huang, Guanyu; Liu, Xiong; Feng, Nan
2017-01-01
Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) and biomass burning (BB) are two important natural sources for tropospheric ozone that can result in elevated ozone and air-quality episode events. High-resolution observations of multiple related species are critical for complex ozone source attribution. In this article, we present an analysis of coinciding ground-based and airborne observations, including ozone lidar, ozonesonde, high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL), and multiple airborne in situ measurements, made on 28 and 29 June 2013 during the Southeast Nexus field campaign. The ozone lidar and HSRL reveal detailed ozone and aerosol structures as well as the temporal evolution associated with a cold front passage. The observations also captured two enhanced (+30 ppbv) ozone layers in the free troposphere (FT), which were determined from this study to be caused by a mixture of BB and stratospheric sources. The mechanism for this STT is tropopause folding associated with a cutoff upper level low-pressure system according to the analysis of its potential vorticity structure. The depth of the tropopause fold appears to be shallow for this case compared to events observed in other seasons; however, the impact on lower tropospheric ozone was clearly observed. This event suggests that strong STT may occur in the southeast United States during the summer and can potentially impact lower troposphere during these times. Statistical analysis of the airborne observations of trace gases suggests a coincident influence of BB transport in the FT impacting the vertical structure of ozone during this case study.
Momentum harvesting techniques for solar system travel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Willoughby, Alan J.
1990-01-01
Astronomers are lately estimating there are 400,000 Earth visiting asteroids larger than 100 meters in diameter. These asteroids are accessible sources of building materials, propellants, oxygen, water, and minerals which also constitute a huge momentum reserve, potentially usable for travel throughout the solar system. To use this momentum, these stealthy objects must be tracked and the extraction of the momentum wanted must be learned. Momentum harvesting by momentum transfer from asteroid to spacecraft, and by using the momentum of the extraterrestrial material to help deliver itself to the destination are discussed. A net and tether concept is the suggested means of asteroid capture, the basic momentum exchange process. The energy damping characteristics of the tether will determine the velocity mismatch that can be tolerated, and hence the amount of momentum that can be harvested per capture. As it plays out of its reel, drag on the tether steadily accelerates the spacecraft. A variety of concepts for riding and using the asteroid after capture are discussed. The hitchhiker uses momentum transfer only. The beachcomber, the caveman, the swinger, the prospector, and the rock wrecker also take advantage of raw asteroidal materials. The chemist and the hijacker go further, they process the asteroid into propellant. Or, an 'asteroid railway system' could evolve with each hijacked asteroid becoming a scheduled train. Travelers could board the space railway system assured that water, oxygen, and propellants await them.
Hollow ballistic pendulum for plasma momentum measurements
Goncharov, S.F.; Pashinin, P.P.; Perov, V.Y.; Serov, R.V.; Yanovsky, V.P.
1988-05-01
A novel pendulum design: hollow ballistic pendulum: is suggested for plasma momentum measurements. It has an advantage over the pendula used earlier in laser plasma experiments of being insensitive to a momentum of matter evaporated and scattered by the pendulum wall exposed to the plasma, which usually exceeds plasma momentum to be measured. Simple expressions describing pendulum performance are derived, and requirements of shape and size are established. Using this kind of pendulum in experiments on laser acceleration of thin foils made it possible to measure the momentum of accelerated foil with an accuracy of about 10%.
The Angular Momentum of the Solar System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cang, Rongquin; Guo, Jianpo; Hu, Juanxiu; He, Chaoquiong
2016-05-01
The angular momentum of the Solar System is a very important physical quantity to the formation and evolution of the Solar System. Previously, the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets were only taken into consideration, when researchers calculated the angular momentum of the Solar System. Nowadays, it seems narrow and conservative. Using Eggleton's code, we calculate the rotational inertia of the Sun. Furthermore, we obtain that the spin angular momentum of the Sun is 1.8838 x 10^41 kg m^2 s^-1. Besides the spin angular momentum of the Sun and the orbital angular momentum of the Eight Giant Planets, we also account for the orbital angular momentum of the Asteroid Belt, the Kuiper Belt, the Oort Cloud, the Ninth Giant Planet and the Solar Companion. We obtain that the angular momentum of the whole Solar System is 3.3212 x 10^45 kg m^2 s^-1.
Momentum Transfer in a Spinning Fuel Tank Filled with Xenon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peugeot, John W.; Dorney, Daniel J.
2006-01-01
Transient spin-up and spin-down flows inside of spacecraft fuel tanks need to be analyzed in order to properly design spacecraft control systems. Knowledge of the characteristics of angular momentum transfer to and from the fuel is used to size the de-spin mechanism that places the spacecraft in a controllable in-orbit state. In previous studies, several analytical models of the spin-up process were developed. However, none have accurately predicted all of the flow dynamics. Several studies have also been conducted using Navier-Stokes based methods. These approaches have been much more successful at simulating the dynamic processes in a cylindrical container, but have not addressed the issue of momentum transfer. In the current study, the spin-up and spin-down of a fuel tank filled with gaseous xenon has been investigated using a three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes code. Primary interests have been concentrated on the spin-up/spin-down time constants and the initial torque imparted on the system. Additional focus was given to the relationship between the dominant flow dynamics and the trends in momentum transfer. Through the simulation of both a cylindrical and a spherical tank, it was revealed that the transfer of angular momentum is nonlinear at early times and tends toward a linear pattern at later times. Further investigation suggests that the nonlinear spin up is controlled by the turbulent transport of momentum, while the linear phase is controlled by a Coriolis driven (Ekman) flow along the outer wall. These results indicate that the spinup and spin-down processes occur more quickly in tanks with curved surfaces than those with defined top, bottom, and side walls. The results also provide insights for the design of spacecraft de-spin mechanisms.
CMB anisotropies: Total angular momentum method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Wayne; White, Martin
1997-07-01
A total angular momentum representation simplifies the radiation transport problem for temperature and polarization anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Scattering terms couple only the quadrupole moments of the distributions and each moment corresponds directly to the observable angular pattern on the sky. We develop and employ these techniques to study the general properties of anisotropy generation from scalar, vector, and tensor perturbations to the metric and the matter, both in the cosmological fluids and from any seed perturbations (e.g., defects) that may be present. The simpler, more transparent form and derivation of the Boltzmann equations brings out the geometric and model-independent aspects of temperature and polarization anisotropy formation. Large angle scalar polarization provides a robust means to distinguish between isocurvature and adiabatic models for structure formation in principle. Vector modes have the unique property that the CMB polarization is dominated by magnetic-type parity at small angles (a factor of 6 in power compared with 0 for the scalars and 8/13 for the tensors) and hence potentially distinguishable independent of the model for the seed. The tensor modes produce a different sign from the scalars and vectors for the temperature-polarization correlations at large angles. We explore conditions under which one perturbation type may dominate over the others including a detailed treatment of the photon-baryon fluid before recombination.
Kato, Hidekazu; Miyake, Fuyu; Shimbo, Hiroko; Ohya, Makoto; Sugawara, Hidenori; Aida, Noriko; Anzai, Rie; Takagi, Mariko; Okuda, Mitsuko; Takano, Kyoko; Wada, Takahito; Iai, Mizue; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Osaka, Hitoshi
2014-08-01
Creatine transporter deficiency (CTD) is an example of X-linked intellectual disability syndromes, caused by mutations in SLC6A8 on Xq28. Although this is the second most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disabilities in Europe or America after Fragile X syndrome, information on the morbidity of this disease is limited in Japan. Using the HPLC screening method we have established recently, we examined samples of urine of 105 patients (73 males and 32 females) with developmental disabilities at our medical center. And we have found a family with three ID boys with a novel missense mutation in SLC6A8. This is the second report of a Japanese family case of CTD. A systematic diagnostic system of this syndrome should be established in Japan to enable us to estimate its frequency and treatment.
Momentum harvesting techniques for solar system travel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Willoughby, Alan J.
1991-01-01
Astronomers are lately estimating there are 400,000 earth visiting asteroids larger than 100 meters in diameter. These asteroids are uniquely accessible sources of building materials, propellants, oxygen, water, and minerals. They also constitute a huge momentum reserve, potentially usable for travel throughout the solar system. To use this momentum, these stealthy objects must be tracked and the ability to extract the desired momentum obtained. Momentum harvesting by momentum transfer from asteroid to spacecraft, and by using the momentum of the extraterrestrial material to help deliver itself to its destination is discussed. The purpose is neither to quantify nor justify the momentum exchange processes, but to stimulate collective imaginations with some intriguing possibilities which emerge when momentum as well as material is considered. A net and tether concept is the suggested means of asteroid capture, the basic momentum exchange process. The energy damping characteristics of the tether determines the velocity mismatch that can be tolerated, and hence the amount of momentum that can be harvested per capture. As the tether plays out of its reel, drag on the tether steadily accelerates the spacecraft and dilutes, in time, the would-be collision. A variety of concepts for riding and using asteroids after capture are introduced. The hitchhiker uses momentum transfer only. The beachcomber, the caveman, the swinger, the prospector, and the rock wrecker also take advantage of raw asteroid materials. The chemist and the hijacker go further, they process the asteroid into propellants. Or, an asteroid railway system could be constructed with each hijacked asteroid becoming a scheduled train. Travelers could board this space railway system assured that water, oxygen propellants, and shielding await them. Austere space travel could give way to comforts, with a speed and economy impossible without nature's gift of earth visiting asteroids.
Spin entanglement loss by local correlation transfer to the momentum
Lamata, Lucas; Leon, Juan; Salgado, David
2006-05-15
We show the decrease of spin-spin entanglement between two s=(1/2) fermions or two photons due to local transfer of correlations from the spin to the momentum degree of freedom of one of the two particles. We explicitly show how this phenomenon operates in the case where one of the two fermions (photons) passes through a local homogeneous magnetic field (optically active medium), losing its spin correlations with the other particle.
Influence of molecular vibrations on the valence electron momentum distributions of adamantane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morini, Filippo; Watanabe, Noboru; Kojima, Masataka; Deleuze, Michael Simon; Takahashi, Masahiko
2017-03-01
We report an electron momentum spectroscopy study of vibrational effects on the electron momentum distributions of the outer valence orbitals of adamantane (C10H16). The symmetric noncoplanar (e, 2e) experiment has been carried out at an incident electron energy of 1.2 keV. Furthermore, theoretical calculations of the electron momentum distributions with vibrational effects being involved have been performed using the harmonic analytical quantum mechanical and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics approaches. In spite of the complex nature of the vibrational structure of this large molecule, both approaches provide overall quantitative insights into the results of the experiment. Comparisons between experiment and theory have shown that ground state nuclear dynamics appreciably affects the momentum profiles of the 7t2, {2t1 + 3e}, and {5t2 + 5a1} orbitals. It has been demonstrated that changes in the momentum profiles are mainly due to the vibrational motions associated with the CH bonds.
Orbital angular momentum: a personal memoir.
Allen, L
2017-02-28
A definitive statement of the model used to describe orbital angular momentum is essentially now available. Its early history, and the interaction of those who played key roles in its development over 20 years ago in its development, is outlined in this Memoir.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
Orbital angular momentum: a personal memoir
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, L.
2017-02-01
A definitive statement of the model used to describe orbital angular momentum is essentially now available. Its early history, and the interaction of those who played key roles in its development over 20 years ago in its development, is outlined in this Memoir. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.
Variation of transverse momentum in hadronic collisions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saint Amand, J.; Uritam, R. A.
1975-01-01
The paper presents a detailed parameterization of the transverse momentum in hadronic collisions on multiplicity and on beam momentum. Hadronic collisions are considered at energies below the ultra-high energy domain, on the basis of an uncertainty relation and a naive eikonal model with an impact-parameter-dependent multiplicity.
Anomalous Fourier's Law and Long Range Correlations in a 1D Non-momentum Conserving Mechanical Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerschenfeld, A.; Derrida, B.; Lebowitz, J. L.
2010-12-01
We study by means of numerical simulations the velocity reversal model, a one-dimensional mechanical model of heat transport introduced in 1985 by Ianiro and Lebowitz. Our numerical results indicate that this model, which does not conserve momentum, exhibits nevertheless an anomalous Fourier's law similar to the ones previously observed in momentum-conserving models. This disagrees with what can be expected by solving the Boltzmann equation (BE) for this system. The pair correlation velocity field also looks very different from the correlations usually seen in diffusive systems, and shares some similarity with those of momentum-conserving heat transport models.
Muscle contributions to whole-body sagittal plane angular momentum during walking.
Neptune, R R; McGowan, C P
2011-01-04
Walking is a complex dynamic task that requires the regulation of whole-body angular momentum to maintain dynamic balance while performing walking subtasks such as propelling the body forward and accelerating the leg into swing. In human walking, the primary mechanism to regulate angular momentum is muscle force generation. Muscles accelerate body segments and generate ground reaction forces that alter angular momentum about the body's center-of-mass to restore and maintain dynamic stability. In addition, gravity contributes to whole-body angular momentum through its contribution to the ground reaction forces. The purpose of this study was to generate a muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulation of normal walking to quantify how individual muscles and gravity contribute to whole-body angular momentum in the sagittal plane. In early stance, the uniarticular hip and knee extensors (GMAX and VAS), biarticular hamstrings (HAM) and ankle dorsiflexors (TA) generated backward angular momentum while the ankle plantar flexors (SOL and GAS) generated forward momentum. In late stance, SOL and GAS were the primary contributors and generated angular momentum in opposite directions. SOL generated primarily forward angular momentum while GAS generated backward angular momentum. The difference between muscles was due to their relative contributions to the horizontal and vertical ground reaction forces. Gravity contributed to the body's angular momentum in early stance and to a lesser extent in late stance, which was counteracted primarily by the plantar flexors. These results may provide insight into balance and movement disorders and provide a basis for developing locomotor therapies that target specific muscle groups.
Population momentum across vertebrate life histories
Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.
2006-01-01
Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Extraordinary momentum and spin in evanescent waves.
Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Bekshaev, Aleksandr Y; Nori, Franco
2014-03-06
Momentum and spin represent fundamental dynamic properties of quantum particles and fields. In particular, propagating optical waves (photons) carry momentum and longitudinal spin determined by the wave vector and circular polarization, respectively. Here we show that exactly the opposite can be the case for evanescent optical waves. A single evanescent wave possesses a spin component, which is independent of the polarization and is orthogonal to the wave vector. Furthermore, such a wave carries a momentum component, which is determined by the circular polarization and is also orthogonal to the wave vector. We show that these extraordinary properties reveal a fundamental Belinfante's spin momentum, known in field theory and unobservable in propagating fields. We demonstrate that the transverse momentum and spin push and twist a probe Mie particle in an evanescent field. This allows the observation of 'impossible' properties of light and of a fundamental field-theory quantity, which was previously considered as 'virtual'.
Quantum gravity momentum representation and maximum energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moffat, J. W.
2016-11-01
We use the idea of the symmetry between the spacetime coordinates xμ and the energy-momentum pμ in quantum theory to construct a momentum space quantum gravity geometry with a metric sμν and a curvature tensor Pλ μνρ. For a closed maximally symmetric momentum space with a constant 3-curvature, the volume of the p-space admits a cutoff with an invariant maximum momentum a. A Wheeler-DeWitt-type wave equation is obtained in the momentum space representation. The vacuum energy density and the self-energy of a charged particle are shown to be finite, and modifications of the electromagnetic radiation density and the entropy density of a system of particles occur for high frequencies.
Momentum kill procedure can quickly control blowouts
Watson, W.D. ); Moore, P. )
1993-08-30
The momentum kill method can help in quickly regaining control of a blowing well, providing the blowing well rate and fluid properties can be estimated reasonably. The momentum of the kill fluid counteracts and overcomes the flowing momentum of formation fluids. In other words, sufficient mud density pumped at a sufficient rate is directed into the flow stream to force the escaping fluid column back into the well bore. Sufficient kill fluid hydrostatic pressure must be stacked'' in the hole so that the well remains dead after the operation. The momentum kill is not a panacea for all blowouts. An assessment must be made of the potential problems unique to this method, and certain requirements must be met if the technique is to be successful. The paper discusses some of the considerations for evaluating the use of the momentum kill method.
The angular momentum of the Oort cloud
Weissman, P.R. )
1991-01-01
An evaluation is made of the work of Marochnik et al. (1988), which estimated that the angular momentum of the Oort cloud is 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the planetary system's total angular momentum. It is noted that most of the angular momentum in the currently observed Oort cloud is the result of the effects of external perturbers over the solar system's history, and it is demonstrated that the total current angular momentum is probably in the 6.0 x 10 to the 50th to 1.1 x 10 to the 51st g sq cm/sec range; original angular momentum was probably a factor of 5 below such values. 21 refs.
The angular momentum of the Oort cloud
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weissman, Paul R.
1991-01-01
An evaluation is made of the work of Marochnik et al. (1988), which estimated that the angular momentum of the Oort cloud is 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the planetary system's total angular momentum. It is noted that most of the angular momentum in the currently observed Oort cloud is the result of the effects of external perturbers over the solar system's history, and it is demonstrated that the total current angular momentum is probably in the 6.0 x 10 to the 50th to 1.1 x 10 to the 51st g sq cm/sec range; original angular momentum was probably a factor of 5 below such values.
Forms of momentum across space: representational, operational, and attentional.
Hubbard, Timothy L
2014-12-01
Cognition can exhibit biases consistent with future expectations, and some of these biases result in momentum-like effects and have been linked with the idea of an internalization of the effects of momentum. These momentum-like effects include representational momentum, operational momentum, and attentional momentum. Similarities and differences between these different momentum-like effects are considered. Hubbard's (2005) review of representational momentum is updated to include studies published since that review appeared, and the first full reviews of operational momentum and attentional momentum are provided. It is suggested that (1) many variables that influence one of these momentum-like effects have a similar influence on another momentum-like effect, (2) representational momentum, operational momentum, and attentional momentum reflect similar or overlapping mechanisms, and operational momentum and attentional momentum are special cases of representational momentum, and (3) representational momentum, operational momentum, and attentional momentum reflect properties of a more general spatial representation in which change or transformation of a stimulus is mapped onto motion in a spatial coordinate system.
Energy-momentum squared gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roshan, Mahmood; Shojai, Fatimah
2016-08-01
A new covariant generalization of Einstein's general relativity is developed which allows the existence of a term proportional to Tα βTα β in the action functional of the theory (Tα β is the energy-momentum tensor). Consequently, the relevant field equations are different from general relativity only in the presence of matter sources. In the case of a charged black hole, we find exact solutions for the field equations. Applying this theory to a homogeneous and isotropic spacetime, we find that there is a maximum energy density ρmax , and correspondingly a minimum length amin , at the early Universe. This means that there is a bounce at early times, and this theory avoids the existence of an early-time singularity. Moreover, we show that this theory possesses a true sequence of cosmological eras. We also argue that, although in the context of the standard cosmological model the cosmological constant Λ does not play any important role in the early times and becomes important only after the matter-dominated era, in this theory the "repulsive" nature of the cosmological constant plays a crucial role at early times in resolving the singularity.
Angular Momentum of Dwarf Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butler, Kirsty M.; Obreschkow, Danail; Oh, Se-Heon
2017-01-01
We present measurements of baryonic mass {M}{{b}} and specific angular momentum (sAM) {j}{{b}} in 14 rotating dwarf Irregular (dIrr) galaxies from the LITTLE THINGS sample. These measurements, based on 21 cm kinematic data from the Very Large Array and stellar mass maps from the Spitzer Space Telescope, extend previous AM measurements by more than two orders of magnitude in {M}{{b}}. The dwarf galaxies show systematically higher {j}{{b}} values than expected from the {j}{{b}}\\propto {M}{{b}}2/3 scaling of spiral galaxies, representative of a scale-free galaxy formation scenario. This offset can be explained by decreasing baryon mass fractions {f}{{M}}={M}{{b}}/{M}{dyn} (where {M}{dyn} is the dynamical mass) with decreasing {M}{{b}} (for {M}{{b}}< {10}11 {M}ȯ ). We find that the sAM of neutral atomic hydrogen (H i) alone is about 2.5 times higher than that of the stars. The M–j relation of H i is significantly steeper than that of the stars, as a direct consequence of the systematic variation of the H i fraction with {M}{{b}}.
Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum.
Clark, Charles W; Barankov, Roman; Huber, Michael G; Arif, Muhammad; Cory, David G; Pushin, Dmitry A
2015-09-24
The quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons offers an additional degree of freedom and topological protection from noise. Photonic OAM states have therefore been exploited in various applications ranging from studies of quantum entanglement and quantum information science to imaging. The OAM states of electron beams have been shown to be similarly useful, for example in rotating nanoparticles and determining the chirality of crystals. However, although neutrons--as massive, penetrating and neutral particles--are important in materials characterization, quantum information and studies of the foundations of quantum mechanics, OAM control of neutrons has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate OAM control of neutrons using macroscopic spiral phase plates that apply a 'twist' to an input neutron beam. The twisted neutron beams are analysed with neutron interferometry. Our techniques, applied to spatially incoherent beams, demonstrate both the addition of quantum angular momenta along the direction of propagation, effected by multiple spiral phase plates, and the conservation of topological charge with respect to uniform phase fluctuations. Neutron-based studies of quantum information science, the foundations of quantum mechanics, and scattering and imaging of magnetic, superconducting and chiral materials have until now been limited to three degrees of freedom: spin, path and energy. The optimization of OAM control, leading to well defined values of OAM, would provide an additional quantized degree of freedom for such studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal
2017-03-01
The momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of iron-group transition metals from Sc to Cu have been investigated on the basis of the first-principles momentum dependent local ansatz wavefunction method. It is found that the MDF for d electrons show a strong momentum dependence and a large deviation from the Fermi-Dirac distribution function along high-symmetry lines of the first Brillouin zone, while the sp electrons behave as independent electrons. In particular, the deviation in bcc Fe (fcc Ni) is shown to be enhanced by the narrow eg (t2g) bands with flat dispersion in the vicinity of the Fermi level. Mass enhancement factors (MEF) calculated from the jump on the Fermi surface are also shown to be momentum dependent. Large mass enhancements of Mn and Fe are found to be caused by spin fluctuations due to d electrons, while that for Ni is mainly caused by charge fluctuations. Calculated MEF are consistent with electronic specific heat data as well as recent angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy data.
Energy- and momentum-conserving model of splash entrainment in sand and snow saltation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comola, Francesco; Lehning, Michael
2017-02-01
Despite being the main sediment entrainment mechanism in aeolian transport, granular splash is still poorly understood. We provide a deeper insight into the dynamics of sand and snow ejection with a stochastic model derived from the energy and momentum conservation laws. Our analysis highlights that the ejection regime of uniform sand is inherently different from that of heterogeneous sand. Moreover, we show that cohesive snow presents a mixed ejection regime, statistically controlled either by energy or momentum conservation depending on the impact velocity. The proposed formulation can provide a solid base for granular splash simulations in saltation models, leading to more reliable assessments of aeolian transport on Earth and Mars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergeron, Stephen
Le transport de particules massives par un champ turbulent est un vaste domaine de la mécanique des fluides. Il possède de nombreuses applications comme par exemple le transport de sable dans une turbine hydraulique. En raison de la dureté des grains de quartz et des grandes vitesses de collision avec les parois métalliques, un phénomène d'érosion intensif se produit. Les dommages résultants peuvent diminuer le rendement de la turbine au cours des quelques mois suivant la mise en opération. L'objectif de cette thèse est de mettre au point un outil permettant de prédire ces zones d'érosion. Ce projet de recherche en contexte industriel a été réalisé en collaboration avec la compagnie General Electric Hydro du Canada. Dans un régime hautement turbulent, il est possible d'obtenir une expression suffisamment générale en utilisant une formulation partiellement empirique: l'équation de Basset- Boussinesq-Oseen modifiée. Ce choix de modèle tient compte du niveau de précision recherché et de la méthode numérique employée afin de résoudre la phase fluide. Il permet aussi d'éliminer plusieurs ambiguïtés fréquemment rencontrées dans la littérature et implementées dans certains codes commerciaux courants. La formulation mathématique du problème est effectuée dans un espace mixte Euler-Lagrange. Les paramètres dynamiques sont relies au type de particules et à l'intensité de la turbulence. Le code numérique résultant est le plus performant développé à ce jour (août 1998). Les trajectoires de plusieurs centaines de milliers de particules peuvent être simulées et visualisées de manière interactive sur une station de travail (SGI R4K, R8K et R10K). L'utilisateur du logiciel est libre de se déplacer dans l'espace à l'aide d'un environnement similaire a un ``simulateur de vol''. Il peut ainsi analyser les détails du processus d'érosion de même que l'écoulement du fluide dans la turbine. Les zones d'érosion obtenues à l
Lee, M.; Domanski, J.
1999-07-01
The use of abrasive blasting techniques in the removal of lead paint from steel bridges is a subject of public health and environmental concerns. This process creates airborne dust that must be appropriately contained to prevent inhalation or ingestion exposure during the removal activity, since some of that dust contains lead and other metals. Lead particles, if not appropriately contained, can also settle in local soils or on and within buildings, and can ultimately be inhaled or ingested. Potential worst case release scenarios for the release of dust and pollutants from paint removal operations were developed as part of the analysis framework for the Environmental Impact Statement for Lead Paint Removal Operations on New York City Department of Transportation Bridges. A multi-step analytical framework was developed for the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), aimed at characterizing and quantifying a series of worst case scenarios for the release of contaminated material into the environment. The pollutants that the analysis focused on were lead, respirable particulates (PM10), Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) and other metals. Samples of existing paint obtained from various surfaces of representative bridges were analyzed to determine average paint dry film thickness and the concentration of metals in the paint for each of the representative bridges. Samples of expendable abrasives were analyzed to determine the concentration of metals within the abrasives. Six scenarios were developed to encompass the range of potential releases that can occur during blasting operations. Two subcategories of hypothetical release events were developed for each scenario-- reasonable worst case events and maximum worst case events. Air quality dispersion modeling with the Environmental Protection Agency's ISC3ST model was employed with the predicted release rates.
Physical approach to price momentum and its application to momentum strategy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Jaehyung
2014-12-01
We introduce various quantitative and mathematical definitions for price momentum of financial instruments. The price momentum is quantified with velocity and mass concepts originated from the momentum in physics. By using the physical momentum of price as a selection criterion, the weekly contrarian strategies are implemented in South Korea KOSPI 200 and US S&P 500 universes. The alternative strategies constructed by the physical momentum achieve the better expected returns and reward-risk measures than those of the traditional contrarian strategy in weekly scale. The portfolio performance is not understood by the Fama-French three-factor model.
Lee, Jong-Tae; Son, Ji-Young; Cho, Yong-Sung
2007-08-01
The objective of this study is to see whether there were any health benefits of mitigated air pollution concentration due to reduced traffic flow during a citywide intervention for the 2002 Summer Asian Games. Relative risks of hospitalization for childhood asthma during the post-Asian Game period compared with the baseline period were estimated using a time-series analysis of the generalized additive Poisson model. Fourteen consecutive days of traffic volume control in Busan during the Games reduced all regulated air pollutant levels by 1-25%. The estimated relative risk of hospitalization during the post-Games period over the baseline period was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49, 1.11). We observed that this reduced air pollution was unique in 2002 when the traffic volume reduction program was applied during the Games period. This empirical data provides epidemiologic evidence of the health benefits resulting from environmental interventions to reduce ambient air pollution.
Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Iacoangeli, Francesco; Nuccetelli, Massimo; Recchia, Luigi
2015-07-01
The necessity to use Photo Multipliers (PM) as light detector limited in the past the use of crystals in radiation handled device preferring the Geiger approach. The Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are very small and cheap, solid photon detectors with good dynamic range and single photon detection capability, they are usable to supersede cumbersome and difficult to use Photo Multipliers (PM). A SiPM can be coupled with a scintillator crystal to build efficient, small and solid radiation detector. A cost effective and easily replicable Hardware software module for SiPM detector readout is made using the ArduSiPM solution. The ArduSiPM is an easily battery operable handled device using an Arduino DUE (an open Software/Hardware board) as processor board and a piggy-back custom designed board (ArduSiPM Shield), the Shield contains all the blocks features to monitor, set and acquire the SiPM using internet network. (authors)
Calculations of the effects of angular momentum on the early evolution of Jupiter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bodenheimer, P.
1977-01-01
Early phases in the evolutionary development of a rotating cloud of gas and dust are investigated to determine whether physically reasonable initial conditions are likely to produce a planet-satellite system with the values of specific orbital angular momentum currently observed for Jupiter and its inner satellites. Spherically symmetric computations of Jupiter's evolutionary history are reviewed, and transport of angular momentum is considered along with evolutionary sequences of individual differentially rotating models with decreasing values of equatorial radius. The problem of accounting for the present specific orbital angular momenta of Jupiter and its regular satellites is examined qualitatively, and a range of possible angular-momentum distributions in an initially tidally unstable cloud is assessed. The results show that particular physically plausible angular-momentum distributions, which could either be established as initial conditions or be caused by angular-momentum transport, will lead to favorable situations for the formation of a central planet and a surrounding rotating cloud with specific angular momentum comparable to that of the regular satellites.
Classical and quantum chaotic angular-momentum pumps.
Dittrich, T; Dubeibe, F L
2015-03-06
We study directed transport of charge and intrinsic angular momentum by periodically driven scattering in the regime of fast and strong driving. A spin-orbit coupling through a kicked magnetic field confined to a compact region in space leads to irregular scattering and triggers spin flips in a spatially asymmetric manner which allows us to generate polarized currents. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the spin separation carry over to the quantum level and give rise to spin pumping. Our theory based on the Floquet formalism is confirmed by numerical solutions of the time-dependent inhomogeneous Schrödinger equation with a continuous source term.
Momentum and heat transport scalings in laminar vertical convection.
Shishkina, Olga
2016-05-01
We derive the dependence of the Reynolds number Re and the Nusselt number Nu on the Rayleigh number Ra and the Prandtl number Pr in laminar vertical convection (VC), where a fluid is confined between two differently heated isothermal vertical walls. The boundary layer equations in laminar VC yield two limiting scaling regimes: Nu∼Pr^{1/4}Ra^{1/4}, Re∼Pr^{-1/2}Ra^{1/2} for Pr≪1 and Nu∼Pr^{0}Ra^{1/4}, Re∼Pr^{-1}Ra^{1/2} for Pr≫1. These theoretical results are in excellent agreement with direct numerical simulations for Ra from 10^{5} to 10^{10} and Pr from 10^{-2} to 30. The transition between the regimes takes place for Pr around 10^{-1}.
Impurity Effects on Momentum Transport and Residual Stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Sehoon; Jhang, Hogun; Singh, R.
2015-11-01
Impurities are inevitable during tokamak plasma operation because of strong interaction of plasma and plasma facing component and helium ash as a byproduct of fusion process. They cause problems such as radiation power loss and fusion fuel dilution. On the other hands, they are used to diagnosis plasma parameters (CES, XICS etc) and to suppress edge-localized mode by wall-coating. In this research, we study the impact of impurities on turbulence driven intrinsic rotation (via residual stress) in the context of the quasi-linear theory. A two-fluid formulation for main and impurity ions is employed to study ion temperature gradient modes in sheared slab geometry modified by the presence of impurities. An effective form of the parallel Reynolds stress is derived in the center of mass frame of a coupled main ion-impurity system. Analyses show that the contents and the radial profile of impurities have a strong influence on the residual stress. In particular, an impurity profile aligned with that of main ions is shown to cause a considerable reduction of the residual stress, which may lead to the reduction of turbulence driven intrinsic rotation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bieger, K.; Schmalz, B.; Hörmann, G.; Fohrer, N.
2012-04-01
The construction of the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River induced a large-scale land use change in the Three Gorges Region in Central China. The relocation of towns, villages and agricultural areas is assumed to impact the water balance and increase erosion rates as well as sediment yields in the affected catchments. At the same time, an increasing risk of reservoir eutrophication can be expected because of higher inputs of nutrients, especially phosphorus, adsorbed to sediment and due to reduced flow velocities and prolonged residence times of water in the reservoir. As field experiments are often labor- and time-intensive and do not provide the possibility to analyze the effect of management decisions prior to their implementation, hydrologic and water quality models are frequently used to assess the impact of land use changes on water resources. In this study, the eco-hydrological model SWAT was applied to the Xiangxi Catchment in the Three Gorges Region in order to simulate stream flow and sediment loads at Xingshan gauging station under changing land use conditions. For the baseline scenario, a land use map for the year 1987 was used. The calibration of stream flow resulted in a good fit of simulated and observed data, which is indicated by NSE values of 0.69 and 0.67 for the calibration and validation periods, respectively. In contrast, the model was not able to simulate the monthly average sediment loads correctly as indicated by very low NSE values of 0.42 (calibration) and 0.07 (validation). This is mainly due to insufficient input data because of a very low density of rain gauges in the Xiangxi Catchment. Also, there is very high uncertainty in the observed sediment data. Nevertheless, the modeling results prove the general applicability of SWAT to the Xiangxi Catchment and provide a sufficient basis for the simulation of land use scenarios. Land use maps for the years 1999 and 2007 were used to quantify the changes in water balance and sediment
Millimetre Wave with Rotational Orbital Angular Momentum
Zhang, Chao; Ma, Lu
2016-01-01
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been widely studied in fibre and short-range communications. The implementation of millimetre waves with OAM is expected to increase the communication capacity. Most experiments demonstrate the distinction of OAM modes by receiving all of the energy in the surface vertical to the radiation axis in space. However, the reception of OAM is difficult in free space due to the non-zero beam angle and divergence of energy. The reception of OAM in the space domain in a manner similar to that in optical fibres (i.e., receiving all of the energy rings vertical to the radiation axis) is impractical, especially for long-distance transmission. Here, we fabricate a prototype of the antenna and demonstrate that rather than in the space domain, the OAM can be well received in the time domain via a single antenna by rotating the OAM wave at the transmitter, i.e., the radio wave with rotational OAM. The phase and frequency measured in the experiment reveal that for different OAM modes, the received signals act as a commonly used orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in the time domain. This phase rotation has promising prospects for use in the practical reception of different OAMs of millimetre waves in long-distance transmission. PMID:27596746
Momentum control in photoassociation of ultracold atoms
Kallush, S.; Kosloff, R.
2007-11-15
Ultracold photoassociation is a process in which two cold atoms combine to form a molecule. This process is crucially dependent on the atom pair density at close distance termed the photoassociation window. We explore the possibilities for increasing the pair density at the photoassociation window by using a prepulse to accelerate the pairs of atoms at large interatomic separation toward each other. We show that the signal of a subsequent photoassociation pulse could be enhanced by a factor of one to two orders of magnitude with respect to the conventional continuous wave experiment. For neutral encounters on the ground potential surface which scales as R{sup -6} the acceleration becomes negligible. The electronic excited state potentials scale for homonuclear S{yields}P transitions more favorably as R{sup -3}. A possible pump-dump mechanism for acceleration, excites a pair of atoms at large distance employing the natural acceleration on the excited state. Then a dump pulse moves the population back to the ground surface. By controlling the phase and the amplitude of the light field this scenario can be optimized. In addition the momentum partitioned between the ground and excited surfaces can also be controlled. The possibility for pure quantum light-induced acceleration due to a gradient of the transition dipole is analyzed. Significant acceleration can be obtained only for pulses with intensities above 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} and pulse duration of 10 ps.
Radiation force and balance of electromagnetic momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, I.; Jiménez, J. L.; Roa-Neri, J. A. E.
2016-07-01
Some force densities can be expressed as a divergence of a stress tensor, as is the case with the electromagnetic force density. We have shown elsewhere that from the Maxwell equations several balance equations of electromagnetic momentum can be derived, depending on the form these equations are expressed in terms of fields E, D, B, H, and polarisations P and M. These balance equations imply different force densities and different stress tensors, providing a great flexibility to solve particular problems. Among these force densities we have found some proposed in the past with plausibility arguments, like the Einstein-Laub force density, while other proposed force densities appear as particular or limit cases of these general force densities, like the Helmholtz force density. We calculate the radiation force of an electromagnetic wave incident on a semi-infinite negligibly absorbing material using these balance equations, corroborating in this way that the surface integration of the stress tensor gives the same result that the calculation made through a volume integration of the force density, as done by Bohren. As is usual in applications of Gauss’s theorem, the surface on which the surface integral is to be performed must be chosen judiciously, and due care of discontinuities on the boundary conditions must be taken. Advanced undergraduates and graduate students will find a different approach to new aspects of the interaction of radiation with matter.
Millimetre Wave with Rotational Orbital Angular Momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chao; Ma, Lu
2016-09-01
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) has been widely studied in fibre and short-range communications. The implementation of millimetre waves with OAM is expected to increase the communication capacity. Most experiments demonstrate the distinction of OAM modes by receiving all of the energy in the surface vertical to the radiation axis in space. However, the reception of OAM is difficult in free space due to the non-zero beam angle and divergence of energy. The reception of OAM in the space domain in a manner similar to that in optical fibres (i.e., receiving all of the energy rings vertical to the radiation axis) is impractical, especially for long-distance transmission. Here, we fabricate a prototype of the antenna and demonstrate that rather than in the space domain, the OAM can be well received in the time domain via a single antenna by rotating the OAM wave at the transmitter, i.e., the radio wave with rotational OAM. The phase and frequency measured in the experiment reveal that for different OAM modes, the received signals act as a commonly used orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in the time domain. This phase rotation has promising prospects for use in the practical reception of different OAMs of millimetre waves in long-distance transmission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, J. D.; Strait, E. J.; Nazikian, R.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Eldon, D.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Ferraro, N. M.; Hanson, J. M.; Haskey, S. R.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lazerson, S. A.; Logan, N. C.; Liu, Y. Q.; Okabayashi, M.; Park, J.-K.; Shiraki, D.; Turnbull, A. D.
2015-11-01
Experiments in the DIII-D tokamak show that the plasma responds to resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with toroidal mode numbers of n = 2 and n = 3 without field line reconnection, consistent with resistive magnetohydrodynamic predictions, while a strong nonlinear bifurcation is apparent when edge localized modes (ELMs) are suppressed. The magnetic response associated with this bifurcation is localized to the high field side of the machine and exhibits a dominant n = 1 component despite the application of a constant amplitude, slowly toroidally rotating, n = 2 applied field. The n = 1 mode is born locked to the vacuum vessel wall, while the n = 2 mode is entrained to the rotating field. Based on these magnetic response measurements and Thomson scattering measurements of flattening of the electron temperature profile, it is likely that these modes are magnetic island chains near the H-mode pedestal. The reduction in ∇Te occurs near the q = 4 and 5 rational surfaces, suggesting five unique islands are possible (m = 8, 9, or 10 for n = 2) and (m = 4 or 5 for n = 1). In all cases, the island width is estimated to be 2-3 cm. The Chang-Callen calculated confinement degradation due to the presence of an individual island of this size is 8%-12%, which is close to the 13%-14% measured between the ELMs and suppressed states. This suggests that edge tearing modes may alter the pedestal causing peeling-ballooning stability during RMP induced ELM suppression.
A new type of magnetic gimballed momentum wheel and its application to attitude control in space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, C.; Ohkami, Y.; Okamoto, O.; Nakajima, A.; Inoue, M.; Tsuchiya, J.; Yabu-uchi, K.; Akishita, S.; Kida, T.
A new type of magnetically suspended gimbal momentum wheel utilizing permanent magnets is described. The bearing was composed of four independent thrust actuators which control the rotor thrust position and gimbal angles cooperatively, so that the bearing comes to have a simple mechanism with high reliability and light weight. The high speed instability problem due to the internal damping was easily overcome by introducing anisotropic radial stiffness. A momentum flywheel with the 3-axis controlled magnetic bearing displays good performance for attitude control of satellite with biased momentum.
The Momentum 4-Vector Imparted by Gravitational Waves in Bianchi-Type Metrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Havare, Ali; Korunur, Murat; Salti, Mustafa
2006-01-01
Considering the Møller, Weinberg and Qadir-Sharif's definitions in general relativity, we find the momentum 4-vector of the closed universe based on the Bianchi-type metrics. The momentum 4-vector (due to matter plus fields) is found to be zero. This result supports the viewpoints of Albrow and Tryon and extends the previous works by Cooperstock Israelit, Rosen, Johri et al., Banerjee Sen and Vargas who investigated the problem of the energy in Friedmann Robertson Walker universe and Saltı-Havare who studied the problem of the energy-momentum of the viscous Kasner-type space-times.
Marqués, Manuel I; Saénz, Juan José
2012-07-01
We analyze the forces on a small dipolar particle and the electromagnetic momentum density in a configuration consisting in two perpendicular circularly polarized stationary waves. The field distribution shows regions in which the electric and magnetic fields are parallel corresponding to a null Poynting vector. Although the average value of the momentum density, proportional to the Poynting vector, is zero in these regions, there are scattering forces acting on small particles due to light's spin force. The total scattering force suggests a new definition of the average value of the momentum density for free propagating electromagnetic fields.
Marqués, Manuel I; Saénz, Juan José
2012-07-15
We analyze the forces on a small dipolar particle and the electromagnetic momentum density in a configuration consisting in two perpendicular circularly polarized stationary waves. The field distribution shows regions in which the electric and magnetic fields are parallel corresponding to a null Poynting vector. Although the average value of the momentum density, proportional to the Poynting vector, is zero in these regions, there are scattering forces acting on small particles due to light's spin force. The total scattering force suggests a new definition of the average value of the momentum density for free propagating electromagnetic fields.
80ℏk momentum separation with Bloch oscillations in an optically guided atom interferometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonald, G. D.; Kuhn, C. C. N.; Bennetts, S.; Debs, J. E.; Hardman, K. S.; Johnsson, M.; Close, J. D.; Robins, N. P.
2013-11-01
We demonstrate phase sensitivity in a horizontally guided, acceleration-sensitive atom interferometer with a momentum separation of 80ℏk between its arms. A fringe visibility of 7% is observed. Our coherent pulse sequence accelerates the cold cloud in an optical waveguide, an inherently scalable route to large momentum separation and high sensitivity. We maintain coherence at high momentum separation due to both the transverse confinement provided by the guide and our use of optical δ-kick cooling on our cold-atom cloud. We also construct a horizontal interferometric gradiometer to measure the longitudinal curvature of our optical waveguide.
Momentum broadening in unstable quark-gluon plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrington, M. E.; Mrówczyński, St.; Schenke, B.
2017-02-01
Quark-gluon plasma produced at the early stage of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions is unstable, if weakly coupled, due to the anisotropy of its momentum distribution. Chromomagnetic fields are spontaneously generated and can reach magnitudes much exceeding typical values of the fields in equilibrated plasma. We consider a high-energy test parton traversing an unstable plasma that is populated with strong fields. We study the momentum broadening parameter q ̂ which determines the radiative energy loss of the test parton. We develop a formalism which gives q ̂ as the solution of an initial value problem, and we focus on extremely oblate plasmas which are physically relevant for relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The parameter q ̂ is found to be strongly dependent on time. For short times it is of the order of the equilibrium value, but at later times q ̂ grows exponentially due to the interaction of the test parton with unstable modes and becomes much bigger than the value in equilibrium. The momentum broadening is also strongly directionally dependent and is largest when the test parton velocity is transverse to the beam axis. Consequences of our findings for the phenomenology of jet quenching in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are briefly discussed.
Angular and Linear Momentum of Excited Ferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Peng; Kamra, Akashdeep; Cao, Yunshan; Bauer, Gerrit
2014-03-01
The angular momentum vector of a Heisenberg ferromagnet with isotropic exchange interaction is conserved, while under uniaxial crystalline anisotropy the projection of the total spin along the easy axis is a constant of motion. Using Noether's theorem, we prove that these conservation laws persist in the presence of dipole-dipole interactions. However, spin and orbital angular momentum are not conserved separately anymore. We also define the linear momentum of ferromagnetic textures. We illustrate the general principles with special reference to spin transfer torques and identify the emergence of a non-adiabatic effective field acting on domain walls in ferromagnetic insulators
Autonomous momentum management for space station
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hahn, E.
1984-01-01
Momentum management for the CDG planar space platform is discussed. It is assumed that the external torques on the space station are gravity gradient and aerodynamic, both have bias and cyclic terms. The integrals of the cyclic torques are the cyclic momenti which will be stored in the momentum storage actuator. Techniques to counteract the bias torques and center the cyclic momentum and gravity gradient desaturation by adjusting vehicle attitude, aerodynamic desaturation using solar panels and radiators and the deployment of flat plates at the end of long booms generating aerodynamic torques are investigated.
Angular momentum in the Local Group
Dunn, A.; Laflamme, R.
1994-04-01
We briefly review models for the Local Group and the acquisition of its angular momentum. We describe early attempts to understand the origin of the spin of the galaxies discussing the hypothesis that the Local Group has little angular momentum. Finally we show that using Peebles` least action principle there should be a rather large amount of orbital angular momentum compared to the magnitude of the spin of its galaxies. Therefore the Local Group cannot be thought as tidally isolated. Using Peebles` trajectories we give a possible set of trajectories for Local Group galaxies which would predict their spin.
Nuclear Effects in Neutrino Interactions at Low Momentum Transfer
Miltenberger, Ethan Ryan
2015-05-01
This is a study to identify predicted effects of the carbon nucleus environment on neutrino - nucleus interactions with low momentum transfer. A large sample of neutrino interaction data collected by the MINERvA experiment is analyzed to show the distribution of charged hadron energy in a region with low momentum transfer. These distributions reveal a major discrepancy between the data and a popular interaction model with only the simplest Fermi gas nuclear effects. Detailed analysis of systematic uncertainties due to energy scale and resolution can account for only a little of the discrepancy. Two additional nuclear model effects, a suppression/screening effect (RPA), and the addition of a meson exchange current process (MEC), are shown to improve the description of the data.
A seasonal budget of the earth's axial angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naito, Isao; Kikuchi, Naokichi
1990-04-01
The seasonal variation of the earth's axial angular momentum budget is discussed with an error on the order of a few percent. The budget is based on the core-mantle decoupling (CMD) hypothesis. The atmospheric relative angular momentum changes due to zonal wind account for an additional 23 percent contribution over the annual budget. However, this is counterbalanced by the effects of the redistributions of air and water masses. About 16 percent is accounted for by the redistribution of air mass, and remained about 7 percent agrees with the contribution from surface water storage estimate on continents by Chao and O'Connor (1988). These facts demonstrate a confirmation of the CMD hypothesis on time scale of a year. At the semiannual period, however, there still is a shortage of about 6 percent in atmospheric and hydrospheric contributions to the budget.
Nuclear effects in neutrino interactions at low momentum transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miltenberger, Ethan
This is a study to identify predicted effects of the carbon nucleus environment on neutrino - nucleus interactions with low momentum transfer. A large sample of neutrino interaction data collected by the MINERvA experiment is analyzed to show the distribution of charged hadron energy in a region with low momentum transfer. These distributions reveal a major discrepancy between the data and a popular interaction model with only the simplest Fermi gas nuclear effects. Detailed analysis of systematic uncertainties due to energy scale and resolution can account for only a little of the discrepancy. Two additional nuclear model effects, a suppression/screening effect (RPA), and the addition of a meson exchange current process (MEC), are shown to improve the description of the data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, He-Lei; Yong, Gao-Chan; Wen, De-Hua
2015-02-01
Based on an isospin and momentum-dependent transport model, we studied the effect of the momentum-dependent symmetry potential on the free neutron-to-proton ratio of pre-equilibrium nucleon emission. It is found that, for the 132Sn+124Sn reaction at 400 MeV/nucleon incident beam energy, the free n /p ratio of pre-equilibrium nucleon emission mainly probes the momentum dependence of the symmetry potential at a nucleon momentum around 400-600 MeV/c , whereas for 200 MeV/nucleon incident beam energy this observable mainly probes the momentum dependence of the symmetry potential at a nucleon momentum around 200-400 MeV/c . To probe the symmetry energy/potential using free n /p ratio, not all the details of the momentum dependence of the symmetry potential are important: the values of symmetry potential in only a certain momentum range are crucial for an observable. It is important to input reasonable density and momentum dependence of the symmetry potential according to the magnitude of incident beam energy of heavy-ion collisions. The present experimental data on the symmetry potential are not enough for probing the density-dependent symmetry energy. More experimental data (such as nucleon and nuclei scattering experiments at different nucleonic momenta and densities) on the symmetry potential are therefore needed to pin down the density-dependent symmetry energy.
Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems
Hen, O.; Sargsian, M.; Weinstein, L. B.; ...
2014-10-16
The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions, protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron scattering measurements using 12C, 27Al, 56Fe and 208Pb targets show that, even in heavy neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few body systems to neutron starsmore » and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin state, ultra-cold atomic gas systems.« less
Momentum sharing in imbalanced Fermi systems
Hen, O.; Sargsian, M.; Weinstein, L. B.; Piasetzky, E.
2014-10-16
The atomic nucleus is composed of two different kinds of fermions, protons and neutrons. If the protons and neutrons did not interact, the Pauli exclusion principle would force the majority fermions (usually neutrons) to have a higher average momentum. Our high-energy electron scattering measurements using ^{12}C, ^{27}Al, ^{56}Fe and ^{208}Pb targets show that, even in heavy neutron-rich nuclei, short-range interactions between the fermions form correlated high-momentum neutron-proton pairs. Thus, in neutron-rich nuclei, protons have a greater probability than neutrons to have momentum greater than the Fermi momentum. This finding has implications ranging from nuclear few body systems to neutron stars and may also be observable experimentally in two-spin state, ultra-cold atomic gas systems.
Psychological momentum: intuitive physics and naive beliefs.
Markman, Keith D; Guenther, Corey L
2007-06-01
The present research examines psychological momentum (PM), a perceived force that lay intuition suggests influences performance. PM theory is proposed to account for how momentum perceptions arise, and four studies demonstrate the influence of lay intuitions about PM on expectations regarding performance outcomes. Study 1 establishes that individuals share intuitions about the types of events that precipitate PM, and Study 2 finds that defeating a rival increases momentum perceptions. Study 3 provides evidence for the lay belief that as more PM accumulates during a prior task, there should be more residual momentum left to carry over to a subsequent task, and Study 4 finds that an individual whose PM is interrupted is expected to have greater difficulty completing a task than is an individual whose steady progress is interrupted. Discussion focuses on linkages between PM and related constructs.
Momentum-space Harper-Hofstadter model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozawa, Tomoki; Price, Hannah M.; Carusotto, Iacopo
2015-08-01
We show how the weakly trapped Harper-Hofstadter model can be mapped onto a Harper-Hofstadter model in momentum space. In this momentum-space model, the band dispersion plays the role of the periodic potential, the Berry curvature plays the role of an effective magnetic field, the real-space harmonic trap provides the momentum-space kinetic energy responsible for the hopping, and the trap position sets the boundary conditions around the magnetic Brillouin zone. Spatially local interactions translate into nonlocal interactions in momentum space: within a mean-field approximation, we show that increasing interparticle interactions leads to a structural change of the ground state, from a single rotationally symmetric ground state to degenerate ground states that spontaneously break rotational symmetry.
Quantum Hall effect in momentum space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozawa, Tomoki; Price, Hannah M.; Carusotto, Iacopo
2016-05-01
We theoretically discuss a momentum-space analog of the quantum Hall effect, which could be observed in topologically nontrivial lattice models subject to an external harmonic trapping potential. In our proposal, the Niu-Thouless-Wu formulation of the quantum Hall effect on a torus is realized in the toroidally shaped Brillouin zone. In this analogy, the position of the trap center in real space controls the magnetic fluxes that are inserted through the holes of the torus in momentum space. We illustrate the momentum-space quantum Hall effect with the noninteracting trapped Harper-Hofstadter model, for which we numerically demonstrate how this effect manifests itself in experimental observables. Extension to the interacting trapped Harper-Hofstadter model is also briefly considered. We finally discuss possible experimental platforms where our proposal for the momentum-space quantum Hall effect could be realized.
Linear Momentum Conservation in a Nonconservative Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Finn, Edward J.
1974-01-01
Discusses an experiment on the conservation of momentum and Q-values for elastic and inelastic collisions with frictional energy dissipation taken into account. Indicates that the apparatus is readily fabricated from easily available materials. (CC)
Transverse-momentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs)
Bacchetta, Alessandro
2011-10-24
Transverse-momentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs) provide three-dimensional images of the partonic structure of the nucleon in momentum space. We made impressive progress in understanding TMDs, both from the theoretical and experimental point of view. This brief overview on TMDs is divided in two parts: in the first, an essential list of achievements is presented. In the second, a selection of open questions is discussed.
Momentum errors in an RF separated beam
T. Kobilarcik
2002-09-19
The purity of an RF separated beam is affected by the difference in mass of the particle types and the momentum bite of the beam. The resulting time-of-flight difference between different types allows separation to occur; the finite momentum bite results in chromatic aberration. Both these features also give rise to a particle type dependent velocity bite, which must also be taken into account. This memo demonstrates a generalizable method for calculating the effect.
Relativistic Electron Wave Packets Carrying Angular Momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia
2017-03-01
There are important differences between the nonrelativistic and relativistic description of electron beams. In the relativistic case the orbital angular momentum quantum number cannot be used to specify the wave functions and the structure of vortex lines in these two descriptions is completely different. We introduce analytic solutions of the Dirac equation in the form of exponential wave packets and we argue that they properly describe relativistic electron beams carrying angular momentum.
Total longitudinal momentum in a dispersive optical waveguide.
Yu, Jianhui; Chen, Chunyan; Zhai, Yanfang; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Lijun; Huang, Furong; Xiao, Yi
2011-12-05
Using the Lorentz force law, we derived simpler expressions for the total longitudinal (conserved) momentum and the mechanical momentums associated with an optical pulse propagating along a dispersive optical waveguide. These expressions can be applied to an arbitrary non-absorptive optical waveguide having continuous translational symmetry. Our simulation using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method verified that the total momentum formula is valid in a two-dimensional infinite waveguide. We studied the conservation of the total momentum and the transfer of the momentum to the waveguide for the case when an optical pulse travels from a finite waveguide to vacuum. We found that neither the Abraham nor the Minkowski momentum expression for an electromagnetic wave in a waveguide represents the complete total (conserved) momentum. Only the total momentum as we derived for a mode propagating in a dispersive optical waveguides is the 'true' conserved momentum. This total momentum can be expressed as PTot = -U Die/(vg) + neff (U/c). It has three contributions: (1) the Abraham momentum; (2) the momentum from the Abraham force, which equals to the difference between the Abraham momentum and the Minkowski momentum; and (3) the momentum from the dipole force which can be expressed as -UDie/vg. The last two contributions constitute the mechanical momentum. Compared with FDTD-Lorentz-force method, the presently derived total momentum formula provides a better method in terms of analyzing the permanent transfer of optical momentum to a waveguide.
Universal spin-momentum locked optical forces
Kalhor, Farid; Thundat, Thomas; Jacob, Zubin
2016-02-08
Evanescent electromagnetic waves possess spin-momentum locking, where the direction of propagation (momentum) is locked to the inherent polarization of the wave (transverse spin). We study the optical forces arising from this universal phenomenon and show that the fundamental origin of recently reported non-trivial optical chiral forces is spin-momentum locking. For evanescent waves, we show that the direction of energy flow, the direction of decay, and the direction of spin follow a right hand rule for three different cases of total internal reflection, surface plasmon polaritons, and HE{sub 11} mode of an optical fiber. Furthermore, we explain how the recently reported phenomena of lateral optical force on chiral and achiral particles are caused by the transverse spin of the evanescent field and the spin-momentum locking phenomenon. Finally, we propose an experiment to identify the unique lateral forces arising from the transverse spin in the optical fiber and point to fundamental differences of the spin density from the well-known orbital angular momentum of light. Our work presents a unified view on spin-momentum locking and how it affects optical forces on chiral and achiral particles.
Searching for momentum enhancement in hypervelocity impacts
Stradling, G.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Keaton, P.W.; Studebaker, J.K. ); Blossom, A.A.H. ); Collopy, M.T.; Curling, H.L. Jr. ); Bergeson, S.D. )
1990-01-01
In conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory hypervelocity microparticle impact (HMI) team effort to produce higher impact velocities and to understand the physics of crater formation and momentum transfer, the authors have implemented a low noise microphone as a momentum detector on both the 6 MV Van de Graaff and 85 KV test stand' particle accelerators. Calculations are presented showing that the impulse response of a circular membrane. When used as a momentum impulse detector, the microphone theoretically may detect impulses as small as 8.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}15} N s. Sensitivity of the microphone in this application is limited by the noise threshold of the electronic amplifiers and the ambient microphinic vibration of the system. Calculations lead the authors to anticipate detection of particles over the full range of the Van de Graaff acceleration capability and up to 7 km/s on the test stand. They present momentum enhancement data in the velocity range between 10 km/s and 20 km/s. Preliminary work is presented on momentum impulse calibration of the microphone using laser-pulse photon momentum as an impulse source.
Enhanced momentum feedback from clustered supernovae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gentry, Eric S.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Dekel, Avishai; Madau, Piero
2017-02-01
Young stars typically form in star clusters, so the supernovae (SNe) they produce are clustered in space and time. This clustering of SNe may alter the momentum per SN deposited in the interstellar medium (ISM) by affecting the local ISM density, which in turn affects the cooling rate. We study the effect of multiple SNe using idealized 1D hydrodynamic simulations which explore a large parameter space of the number of SNe, and the background gas density and metallicity. The results are provided as a table and an analytic fitting formula. We find that for clusters with up to ∼100 SNe, the asymptotic momentum scales superlinearly with the number of SNe, resulting in a momentum per SN which can be an order of magnitude larger than for a single SN, with a maximum efficiency for clusters with 10-100 SNe. We argue that additional physical processes not included in our simulations - self-gravity, breakout from a galactic disc, and galactic shear - can slightly reduce the momentum enhancement from clustering, but the average momentum per SN still remains a factor of 4 larger than the isolated SN value when averaged over a realistic cluster mass function for a star-forming galaxy. We conclude with a discussion of the possible role of mixing between hot and cold gas, induced by multidimensional instabilities or pre-existing density variations, as a limiting factor in the build-up of momentum by clustered SNe, and suggest future numerical experiments to explore these effects.
Averaged model for momentum and dispersion in hierarchical porous media.
Chabanon, Morgan; David, Bertrand; Goyeau, Benoît
2015-08-01
Hierarchical porous media are multiscale systems, where different characteristic pore sizes and structures are encountered at each scale. Focusing the analysis to three pore scales, an upscaling procedure based on the volume-averaging method is applied twice, in order to obtain a macroscopic model for momentum and diffusion-dispersion. The effective transport properties at the macroscopic scale (permeability and dispersion tensors) are found to be explicitly dependent on the mesoscopic ones. Closure problems associated to these averaged properties are numerically solved at the different scales for two types of bidisperse porous media. Results show a strong influence of the lower-scale porous structures and flow intensity on the macroscopic effective transport properties.
Direct Observation of Momentum Conservation at the Au/Si Interface Using BEEM (abstract)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, L. D.
1996-01-01
The verification of parallel momentum conservation at a metal/semiconductor interface is a fundamental issue in interface transport. Ballistic-electron-microscopy (BEEM) is a recently developed method for probing interfaces with nanometer resolution. In this talk, BEEM spectroscopy on Au/Si(111) structures as a function of Au thickness and temperature will be described.
Decomposition of the total momentum in a linear dielectric into field and matter components
Crenshaw, Michael E.
2013-11-15
The long-standing resolution of the Abraham–Minkowski electromagnetic momentum controversy is predicated on a decomposition of the total momentum of a closed continuum electrodynamic system into separate field and matter components. Using a microscopic model of a simple linear dielectric, we derive Lagrangian equations of motion for the electric dipoles and show that the dielectric can be treated as a collection of stationary simple harmonic oscillators that are driven by the electric field and produce a polarization field in response. The macroscopic energy and momentum are defined in terms of the electric, magnetic, and polarization fields that travel through the dielectric together as a pulse of electromagnetic radiation. We conclude that both the macroscopic total energy and the macroscopic total momentum are entirely electromagnetic in nature for a simple linear dielectric in the absence of significant reflections. -- Highlights: •The total momentum in a dielectric is identified by conservation principles. •The total momentum in a dielectric cannot be decomposed into field and matter parts. •A component of momentum in a dielectric is due to motion of the polarization field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kang, In-Sik; Lau, K.-M.
1990-01-01
Lag correlation statistics was used to study intraseasonal variations of upper and lower-level zonal winds, outgoing longwave radiation, and globally averaged angular momentum (GAM) for northern summers of 1977-1984. The temporal and spatial distribution of surface wind stress in the tropics and its relationship with zonal wind anomalies were studied to assess the impact of surface frictional drag on the atmospheric angular momentum. The 30-60 day GAM fluctuation is shown to be accompanied by zonal propagation of convection and 850 mb zonal wind anomalies in the tropical belt. The climatological zonal wind in the tropics affects the magnitude of wind stress anomalies. It is suggested that momentum exchange between the lower and upper troposphere may occur in regions of active convection via vertical momentum transport. The tropical central Pacific is considered to play a key role in linking the atmosphere and the earth through angular momentum exchange on intraseasonal time scales.
On the effect of neoclassical flows on intrinsic momentum in ASDEX Upgrade Ohmic L-mode plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hornsby, W. A.; Angioni, C.; Fable, E.; Manas, P.; McDermott, R.; Peeters, A. G.; Barnes, M.; Parra, F.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team
2017-04-01
A gyro-kinetic analysis of intrinsic rotation is presented for the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The gyro-kinetic turbulence code, GKW and the neoclassical transport code, NEO are coupled so that the neoclassical equilibrium distribution function is included in the background distribution function in the gyro-kinetic turbulence simulation. This implementation is benchmarked against a similar implementation in the gyro-kinetic code, GS2 (Dorland et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 5579) and against analytical predictions. A quasi-linear and non-linear gyro-kinetic turbulence analysis is performed on Ohmic L-mode ASDEX Upgrade plasmas showing that the symmetry breaking effects due to neoclassical background flows can produce significant toroidal momentum transport. While its magnitude is of the order of other symmetry breaking mechanisms, such as the Coriolis pinch, up–down asymmetry in the magnetic flux surfaces and E× B flow shear, the flow gradients it can sustain are appreciably smaller than the maximum gradients measured at the mid-radius of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak core, which can be up to an order of magnitude larger. It is found that the gradient of the diamagnetic flow, and therefore the second derivatives of the density and temperature gradients are critical to the production of residual toroidal momentum flux. A quasi-linear estimate indicated that the second derivatives required to match the experimental flow gradient are up to an order of magnitude higher than the measured second derivatives. This analysis suggests that turbulent transport driven by neoclassical flows is not sufficient to explain the maximum flow gradients observed in ASDEX Upgrade.
Momentum Distributions for 2H (e ,e' p)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeschonnek, Sabine; Ford, William P.; van Orden, J. W.
2015-10-01
A primary goal of deuteron electro-disintegration is the possibility of extracting the deuteron momentum distribution. This extraction is inherently fraught with difficulty, as the momentum distribution is not an observable and the extraction relies on theoretical models dependent on other models as input. We present a new method for extracting the momentum distribution which takes into account a wide variety of model inputs thus providing a theoretical uncertainty due to the various model constituents. To test the extraction, pseudo-data was generated, and the extracted ``experimental'' distribution, which has theoretical uncertainty accounted by this extraction method, can be compared to the theoretical distribution. The calculations presented here are using a Bethe-Salpeter like formalism with a wide variety of bound state wave functions, form factors, and final state interactions. Our method takes into account the theoretical uncertainty from the various model constituents entering the calculation. In the examples we compared, the original distribution was typically within the error band of the extracted distribution. The input wave functions do contain some outliers which are discussed in the talk. Supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY-1306250 and DOE Grants DE-AC05-06OR23177 and DE-AC05-84ER40150.
Do the standard expressions for the electromagnetic field momentum need any modifications?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singal, Ashok K.
2016-10-01
We investigate here the question raised in the literature about the correct expression for the electromagnetic field momentum, especially when static or stationary fields are involved. For this, we examine a couple of simple but intriguing cases. First, we consider a system configuration in which electromagnetic field momentum is present even though the system is stationary. We trace the electromagnetic momentum to be present in the form of a continuous transport of electromagnetic energy from one part of the system to another, without causing any net change in the energy of the system. In a second case, we show that the electromagnetic momentum is zero irrespective of whether the charged system is static or in motion, even though the electromagnetic energy is present throughout. We demonstrate that the conventional formulation of electromagnetic field momentum describes the systems consistently without any real contradictions. Here, we also make exposition of a curiosity where electromagnetic energy decreases when the charged system gains velocity. Then we discuss the more general question that has been raised: Are the conventional formulas for energy-momentum of electromagnetic fields valid for all cases? Specifically, in the case of so-called "bound fields," do we need to change to some modified definitions? We show that in all cases it is only the conventional formulas that lead to results consistent with the rest of physics, including the special theory of relativity, and that any proposed modifications are thus superfluous.
Force law in material media, hidden momentum and quantum phases
Kholmetskii, Alexander L.; Missevitch, Oleg V.; Yarman, T.
2016-06-15
We address to the force law in classical electrodynamics of material media, paying attention on the force term due to time variation of hidden momentum of magnetic dipoles. We highlight that the emergence of this force component is required by the general theorem, deriving zero total momentum for any static configuration of charges/currents. At the same time, we disclose the impossibility to add this force term covariantly to the Lorentz force law in material media. We further show that the adoption of the Einstein–Laub force law does not resolve the issue, because for a small electric/magnetic dipole, the density of Einstein–Laub force integrates exactly to the same equation, like the Lorentz force with the inclusion of hidden momentum contribution. Thus, none of the available expressions for the force on a moving dipole is compatible with the relativistic transformation of force, and we support this statement with a number of particular examples. In this respect, we suggest applying the Lagrangian approach to the derivation of the force law in a magnetized/polarized medium. In the framework of this approach we obtain the novel expression for the force on a small electric/magnetic dipole, with the novel expression for its generalized momentum. The latter expression implies two novel quantum effects with non-topological phases, when an electric dipole is moving in an electric field, and when a magnetic dipole is moving in a magnetic field. These phases, in general, are not related to dynamical effects, because they are not equal to zero, when the classical force on a dipole is vanishing. The implications of the obtained results are discussed.
Helicon modes in uniform plasmas. III. Angular momentum
Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.
2015-09-15
Helicons are electromagnetic waves with helical phase fronts propagating in the whistler mode in magnetized plasmas and solids. They have similar properties to electromagnetic waves with angular momentum in free space. Helicons are circularly polarized waves carrying spin angular momentum and orbital angular momentum due to their propagation around the ambient magnetic field B{sub 0}. These properties have not been considered in the community of researchers working on helicon plasma sources, but are the topic of the present work. The present work focuses on the field topology of helicons in unbounded plasmas, not on helicon source physics. Helicons are excited in a large uniform laboratory plasma with a magnetic loop antenna whose dipole axis is aligned along or across B{sub 0}. The wave fields are measured in orthogonal planes and extended to three dimensions (3D) by interpolation. Since density and B{sub 0} are uniform, small amplitude waves from loops at different locations can be superimposed to generate complex antenna patterns. With a circular array of phase shifted loops, whistler modes with angular and axial wave propagation, i.e., helicons, are generated. Without boundaries radial propagation also arises. The azimuthal mode number m can be positive or negative while the field polarization remains right-hand circular. The conservation of energy and momentum implies that these field quantities are transferred to matter which causes damping or reflection. Wave-particle interactions with fast electrons are possible by Doppler shifted resonances. The transverse Doppler shift is demonstrated. Wave-wave interactions are also shown by showing collisions between different helicons. Whistler turbulence does not always have to be created by nonlinear wave-interactions but can also be a linear superposition of waves from random sources. In helicon collisions, the linear and/or orbital angular momenta can be canceled, which results in a great variety of field
Force law in material media, hidden momentum and quantum phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kholmetskii, Alexander L.; Missevitch, Oleg V.; Yarman, T.
2016-06-01
We address to the force law in classical electrodynamics of material media, paying attention on the force term due to time variation of hidden momentum of magnetic dipoles. We highlight that the emergence of this force component is required by the general theorem, deriving zero total momentum for any static configuration of charges/currents. At the same time, we disclose the impossibility to add this force term covariantly to the Lorentz force law in material media. We further show that the adoption of the Einstein-Laub force law does not resolve the issue, because for a small electric/magnetic dipole, the density of Einstein-Laub force integrates exactly to the same equation, like the Lorentz force with the inclusion of hidden momentum contribution. Thus, none of the available expressions for the force on a moving dipole is compatible with the relativistic transformation of force, and we support this statement with a number of particular examples. In this respect, we suggest applying the Lagrangian approach to the derivation of the force law in a magnetized/polarized medium. In the framework of this approach we obtain the novel expression for the force on a small electric/magnetic dipole, with the novel expression for its generalized momentum. The latter expression implies two novel quantum effects with non-topological phases, when an electric dipole is moving in an electric field, and when a magnetic dipole is moving in a magnetic field. These phases, in general, are not related to dynamical effects, because they are not equal to zero, when the classical force on a dipole is vanishing. The implications of the obtained results are discussed.
Helicon modes in uniform plasmas. III. Angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.
2015-09-01
Helicons are electromagnetic waves with helical phase fronts propagating in the whistler mode in magnetized plasmas and solids. They have similar properties to electromagnetic waves with angular momentum in free space. Helicons are circularly polarized waves carrying spin angular momentum and orbital angular momentum due to their propagation around the ambient magnetic field B0. These properties have not been considered in the community of researchers working on helicon plasma sources, but are the topic of the present work. The present work focuses on the field topology of helicons in unbounded plasmas, not on helicon source physics. Helicons are excited in a large uniform laboratory plasma with a magnetic loop antenna whose dipole axis is aligned along or across B0. The wave fields are measured in orthogonal planes and extended to three dimensions (3D) by interpolation. Since density and B0 are uniform, small amplitude waves from loops at different locations can be superimposed to generate complex antenna patterns. With a circular array of phase shifted loops, whistler modes with angular and axial wave propagation, i.e., helicons, are generated. Without boundaries radial propagation also arises. The azimuthal mode number m can be positive or negative while the field polarization remains right-hand circular. The conservation of energy and momentum implies that these field quantities are transferred to matter which causes damping or reflection. Wave-particle interactions with fast electrons are possible by Doppler shifted resonances. The transverse Doppler shift is demonstrated. Wave-wave interactions are also shown by showing collisions between different helicons. Whistler turbulence does not always have to be created by nonlinear wave-interactions but can also be a linear superposition of waves from random sources. In helicon collisions, the linear and/or orbital angular momenta can be canceled, which results in a great variety of field topologies. The work will
Angular momentum role in the hypercritical accretion of binary-driven hypernovae
Becerra, L.; Cipolletta, F.; Fryer, Chris L.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo
2015-10-12
Here, the induced gravitational collapse paradigm explains a class of energetic, ${E}_{{\\rm{iso}}}\\gtrsim {10}^{52}$ erg, long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with Ic supernovae, recently named binary-driven hypernovae. The progenitor is a tight binary system formed of a carbon–oxygen (CO) core and a neutron star (NS) companion. The supernova ejecta of the exploding CO core trigger a hypercritical accretion process onto the NS, which reaches the critical mass in a few seconds, and gravitationally collapses to a black hole, emitting a GRB. In our previous simulations of this process, we adopted a spherically symmetric approximation to compute the features of the hypercritical accretion process. We here present the first estimates of the angular momentum transported by the supernova ejecta, ${L}_{{\\rm{acc}}},$ and perform numerical simulations of the angular momentum transfer to the NS during the hyperaccretion process in full general relativity. We show that the NS (1) reaches either the mass-shedding limit or the secular axisymmetric instability in a few seconds depending on its initial mass, (2) reaches a maximum dimensionless angular momentum value, ${[{cJ}/({{GM}}^{2})]}_{{\\rm{max}}}\\approx 0.7$, and (3) can support less angular momentum than the one transported by supernova ejecta, ${L}_{{\\rm{acc}}}\\gt {J}_{{\\rm{NS,max}}},$ hence there is an angular momentum excess that necessarily leads to jetted emission.
Angular momentum role in the hypercritical accretion of binary-driven hypernovae
Becerra, L.; Cipolletta, F.; Fryer, Chris L.; ...
2015-10-12
Here, the induced gravitational collapse paradigm explains a class of energetic,more » $${E}_{{\\rm{iso}}}\\gtrsim {10}^{52}$$ erg, long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with Ic supernovae, recently named binary-driven hypernovae. The progenitor is a tight binary system formed of a carbon–oxygen (CO) core and a neutron star (NS) companion. The supernova ejecta of the exploding CO core trigger a hypercritical accretion process onto the NS, which reaches the critical mass in a few seconds, and gravitationally collapses to a black hole, emitting a GRB. In our previous simulations of this process, we adopted a spherically symmetric approximation to compute the features of the hypercritical accretion process. We here present the first estimates of the angular momentum transported by the supernova ejecta, $${L}_{{\\rm{acc}}},$$ and perform numerical simulations of the angular momentum transfer to the NS during the hyperaccretion process in full general relativity. We show that the NS (1) reaches either the mass-shedding limit or the secular axisymmetric instability in a few seconds depending on its initial mass, (2) reaches a maximum dimensionless angular momentum value, $${[{cJ}/({{GM}}^{2})]}_{{\\rm{max}}}\\approx 0.7$$, and (3) can support less angular momentum than the one transported by supernova ejecta, $${L}_{{\\rm{acc}}}\\gt {J}_{{\\rm{NS,max}}},$$ hence there is an angular momentum excess that necessarily leads to jetted emission.« less
Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Ren, Y.; Solomon, W.; Bell, R. E.; Candy, J.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Yuh, H.
2016-05-11
This paper presents quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch for low aspect-ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) H-modes where previous experimental measurements were focused. Local, linear calculations predict that in the region of interest (just outside the mid-radius) of these relatively high-beta plasmas, profiles are most unstable to microtearing modes that are only effective in transporting electron energy. However, sub-dominant electromagnetic and electrostaticballooning modes are also unstable, which are effective at transporting energy, particles, and momentum. The quasi-linear prediction of transport from these weaker ballooning modes, assuming they contribute transport in addition to that from microtearing modes in a nonlinear turbulent state, leads to a very small or outward convection of momentum, inconsistent with the experimentally measured inward pinch, and opposite to predictions in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Additional predictions of a low beta L-mode plasma, unstable to more traditional electrostatic ion temperature gradient-trapped electron mode instability, show that the Coriolis pinch is inward but remains relatively weak and insensitive to many parameter variations. The weak or outward pinch predicted in NSTX plasmas appears to be at least partially correlated to changes in the parallel mode structure that occur at a finite beta and low aspect ratio, as discussed in previous theories. The only conditions identified where a stronger inward pinch is predicted occur either in the purely electrostatic limit or if the aspect ratio is increased. Lastly, as the Coriolis pinch cannot explain the measured momentum pinch, additional theoretical momentum transport mechanisms are discussed that may be potentially important.
Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Ren, Y.; ...
2016-05-11
This paper presents quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch for low aspect-ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) H-modes where previous experimental measurements were focused. Local, linear calculations predict that in the region of interest (just outside the mid-radius) of these relatively high-beta plasmas, profiles are most unstable to microtearing modes that are only effective in transporting electron energy. However, sub-dominant electromagnetic and electrostaticballooning modes are also unstable, which are effective at transporting energy, particles, and momentum. The quasi-linear prediction of transport from these weaker ballooning modes, assuming they contribute transport in addition to that from microtearing modes inmore » a nonlinear turbulent state, leads to a very small or outward convection of momentum, inconsistent with the experimentally measured inward pinch, and opposite to predictions in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Additional predictions of a low beta L-mode plasma, unstable to more traditional electrostatic ion temperature gradient-trapped electron mode instability, show that the Coriolis pinch is inward but remains relatively weak and insensitive to many parameter variations. The weak or outward pinch predicted in NSTX plasmas appears to be at least partially correlated to changes in the parallel mode structure that occur at a finite beta and low aspect ratio, as discussed in previous theories. The only conditions identified where a stronger inward pinch is predicted occur either in the purely electrostatic limit or if the aspect ratio is increased. Lastly, as the Coriolis pinch cannot explain the measured momentum pinch, additional theoretical momentum transport mechanisms are discussed that may be potentially important.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
English, Ian; Curet, Oscar
2016-11-01
Lighthill and Blake's 1990 momentum enhancement theory suggests there is a multiplicative propulsive effect linked to the ratio of body and fin heights in Gymnotiform and Balistiform swimmers, which propel themselves using multi-rayed undulating fins while keeping their bodies mostly rigid. Proof of such a momentum enhancement could have a profound effect on unmanned underwater vehicle design and shed light on the evolutionary advantage to body-fin ratios found in nature, shown as optimal for momentum enhancement in Lighthill and Blake's theory. A robotic ribbon fin with twelve independent fin rays, elastic fin membrane, and a body of adjustable height was developed specifically to experimentally test momentum enhancement. Thrust tests for various body heights were conducted in a recirculating flow tank at different flow speeds and fin flapping frequencies. When comparing thrust at different body heights, flow speeds, and frequencies to a 'no-body' thrust test case at each frequency and flow speed, data indicate there is no momentum enhancement factor due to the presence of a body on top of an undulating fin. This suggests that if there is a benefit to a specific ratio between body and fin height, it is not due to momentum enhancement.
Photon gas thermodynamics in dS and AdS momentum spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorji, M. A.; Hosseinzadeh, V.; Nozari, K.; Vakili, B.
2016-07-01
In this paper, we study thermostatistical properties of a photon gas in the framework of two deformed special relativity models defined by the cosmological coordinatizations of the de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) momentum spaces. The dS model is a doubly special relativity theory in which an ultraviolet length scale is invariant under the deformed Lorentz transformations. For the case of the AdS model, however, the Lorentz symmetry breaks at the high energy regime. We show that the existence of a maximal momentum in dS momentum space leads to maximal pressure and temperature at the thermodynamical level, while maximal internal energy and entropy arise for the case of the AdS momentum space due to the existence of a maximal kinematical energy. These results show that the thermodynamical duality of these models is very similar to their well-known kinematical duality.
Angular momentum transfer in low velocity oblique impacts - Implications for asteroids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yanagisawa, Masahisa; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Ahrens, Thomas J.
1991-01-01
An experimental study has been conducted for the low-velocity oblique impact efficiency of angular momentum transfer, which is defined as that fraction of incident angular momentum that is transferred to the rotation of a target. The results obtained suggest that more energetic impacts are able to transfer angular momentum more efficiently. In the cases of ricochetted projectiles, the fraction of angular momentum carried off by the ejecta was noted to be less than 30 percent. It is suggested that, if asteroid spin rates are due to mutual noncatastrophic collisions and the taxonomic classes are indicative of bulk properties, the differences between corresponding spin rates will be smaller than expected from a consideration of relative strength and density alone.
Proton momentum distributions in water: A path integral molecular dynamics study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivasan, Varadharajan; Morrone, Joseph A.; Sebastiani, Daniel; Car, Roberto
2007-03-01
Recent neutron Compton scattering experiments have detected the proton momentum distributions of water. This density in momentum space is a quantum mechanical property of the proton, due to the confining anharmonic potential from covalent and hydrogen bonds. The theoretical calculation of this property can be carried out via ``open'' path integral expressions. In this work, we present an extension of the staging path integral molecular dynamics method, which is then employed to calculate the proton momentum distributions of water in the solid, liquid, and supercritical phases. We utilize the SPC/F2 empirical force field to model the system's interactions. The calculated momentum distributions depict both agreement and discrepancies with experiment. The differences may be explained by the deviation of the force field from the true interactions. These distributions provide an abundance of information about the environment and interactions surrounding the proton.